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Full text of "History of the 27th regiment N.Y. vols. Being a record of its more than two years of service in the war for the union, from May 21st, 1861 to May 31st, 1863. With a complete roster, and short sketches of commanding officers. Also, a record of experience and suffering of some of the comrades in Libby and other Rebel prisons"

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lyth Regi ment N.Y.Vols. 

{BaJge of the Ffst Dhnsion, Sixth Corps.) 

Being a Record of its more than Two Years of 

Service in the War for the Union, from 

May 2 1 St, 1 86 1, to May 31st, 1863. 

VViiTi A Complete R(3ster, and Short Sketches of 
Commanding Officers. 

Also, a Record of Experience and Suffering of 

some of the Comrades in Libby and 

other Rebel Prisons. 

CcMpiled by 0. 3. FArpnmiD. of Com.pmy "D." 

P'lhUslicd under the direct un <^f the foUoiving Cotumittce : 

Carl Sr* Matthf-j<:, Prinfirs, B:r:rh-;ryiton, iV. V. 




F Fairchild, Charles Bryant, 1S4'2- coivf. 

8349 History of tlie 27th roirimoiit X. Y. vols ... Benij? a record 
.546 of its more than two rears of service in t /-* war for the union, 
from :^ray 21st, 18Gl,"to :May 31st, 18G3. *.Vith a complete ros- 
ter, and siiort sketches of commandinf .'fiicers. Also, a record 
of experience and sulTerinf; of some m tlie comrades in Libby 
and other Rebel prisons. C'jmpil'fi by C. B. Fairchild. of 
company "D"', ^ubli^lled under uVj direction of the follow- 
ing comAnittPC : Gen. If. W. Sk -nun. Capt. C. A. Wells. Bini:- 
hamton, X. Y., Carl & :\rattli.nvs. printers ,l.-*HSi 

ix, "03p., 1 1. incl. illii'^.. port."., ninps. tr.)i!t..-J fnld. iii:ii)s. pinii. 2.".™. 
1. U. S.—IIlst.— Civil \v;ir— Koj;iin."ital liistorifs— N. Y. inf.— 27tli. 
2.Xew Yorkinfanrry. 27tJ roKt.. l«Gl-3!?C;i. 3.1'. S.— 

Hist.— Civil war— Prison- ^,.-^ ciy and prisoii.s. 

iTA 2-ir)0G0 Revised 

Lilirary of Contrrc^is V J F..'"::.r.I>7th 


Copyright 18^8: 120li0 




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Entered according to Act of Congress, in the year tSSS, by 

in the Office of the Librarian. of Cone^ess,nt Washington. 




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Copyright, 1885, by The Centurv Co. 

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THE official accounts of battles arc all wonderfully alike, 
dealing with bodies and masses of men, and not with in- 
dividual hopes, aspirations and fears. We read about march- 
ing and flanking and enfilading; but when we go behind 
these terms, and ask what the individual soldier in the ranks 
is thinking or doing or suffering, the story is too light to be 
included in an official report, and too unimportant for the 
dignity of general history ; and yet, it is this unwritten his- 
tory of the war that gives any true estimate of the price 
that was paid to save our nation. This history is designed 
to give more of individual and personal experience; not 
claiming that this regiment acted the most important part 
in the late war, but to show th;i.t its members offered them- 
selves a willing sacrifice in the service of their country, and 
at no time did they withhold the best they had to give. 
Years have elapsed since we left the "lines and tented 
fields," but time cannot erase from memory recollections of 
those eventful days in which the Twenty-Seventh New 
York, by its heroism and zeal, helped to preserve the unity 
of the best and freest government ever established by man. 
The fact that they were actors in the great struggle, and a 
constituent element of the grandest army the world ever 
saw, engaged in the grand work (^f saving the Citadel of 
Freedom, makes them take a noteworthy pride in offering 
to history the following record, which is made up chiefly 
from private diaries, personal experience and general orders, 
as these tend to show the esteem in which the regiment was 
held by commanding officers. 

Our trust in the future of the country rests in the bravery, 
iniigrit}- and virtue <jf the men who fought for it. They 
hive brought back the old llag. "' its white as bright as 
angels' robes, and its stars Goh's stars, as truly as are the 
stars in the canop\' of heaven." 


For this, let not our people fail to recognize their duty 
to the returned soldiers, and to the families of those who 
can never return, lest they repudiate a part, and one of the 
most sacred parts of the national debt. 

Thanks are due for the information furnished for the fol- 

lowing record, to — 

H. W. Slocum, 
C. C. Gardiner, 
W. B. Westervelt, 
Jos. L. Ross, 

Joseph J. Bartlett, 
Charles A. Wells, 
Eri S. Watson, 
C. B. Fairchild. 


// .H 

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THE election of Abkahani Lincoln, in i860, was made 
the pretext and signal in the South for open defiance 
of the authority of the Federal Government. Mutterings, 
even threats of secession had been heard before, the elec- 
tion, and were generally treated as the grumblings incident 
to an anticipated defeat, especially as a majority of such 
expressions of discontent came from the State of South 
Carolina, which was proverbially hot-headed. Now, how- 
ever, meetings were held in that and other Cotton States, 
declaring for Southern independence, and "minute men" 
were being mustered. Startling events followed each other 
rapidly, until, on December 20th. i860, South Carolina 
passed "An ordinance to dissolve the union between the 
State of South Carolina and other states united with her, 
under the compact entitled the Constitution of the United 
States of America." This action was, soon after, followed 
by the seizure of the arsenal and other government prop- 
erty at Charleston. On the 12th of April, 1861, the North- 
ern States were astounded and shocked by the news which 
was flashed over the wires, that Fort Sumpter was being 
bombarded. The so-called secession of the State from the 
Union, followed by the same action on tiie part of other 
Southern States, had been regarded with indifference by 
many, and the public heart seemed almost insensible to the 
great peril which threatened to sunder the republic. But 
the news from Sumpter awoke unwonted echoes, and touched 
the patriotic chords in the great American heart. The 
loyalty, which had been doubted, sprang into instant life, 
an'd throughout the North, expressions of deep devotion 
and promise of unlimited aid were borne on the wings of 
lightning to the Nation's capital. The mighty heart of the 
people seemed to pulsate with patriotism and love of the 

viii I\TKOI)UCTK)X. 

government, which had been founded and maintained by 
the blood of our fathers. The world never witnessed an 
uprising as mighty, as spontaneous, and as glorious as that 
which now occurred. On April 15th, the following procla- 
mation was issued by President LINCOLN: 

By the President of the United States of America. 


Whkre.vs, The laws of the L'niteci States have been for some time past, 
and now are opposed, and the execution thereof obstructed, in the States 
of South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, Florida, Mississippi, Louisiana, 
and Texas, bv combinations too po-verful to be suppressed by the ordinary 
course of judicial proceedings, or the powers vested in the marshals by 
law : 

Now, therefore, I, Abraham Lincijln, President of the United States, 
by virtue of the power in me vested by the Constitution and the laws, 
have thought fit to call forth, and hereby do call forth the militia of the 
several States of the Union, to the aggregate of seventy-five thousand, in 
order to suppress said combinations, and to cause the laws to be duly 

The details of this object will be immediately communicated to the 
State authorities by the War Department. 

I appeal to all loyal citizens to favor, facilitate, and aid this effort to 
maintain the honor, the integrity, and the existence of our National 
Union, and the perpetuity of popular government, ami to redress wrongs 
already long enough endured. 

I deem it proper to say, that the first service assigned to the forces 
hereby called forth will probably be to repossess the forts, places and 
property which have been seized from the Union : and in every event the 
utmost care will be observed, consistently with the object aforesaid, to 
avoid any devastation of or interference with property, or any disturbance 
of peaceful citizens in any part of rlie country. 

And I hereby command the persons composing the combinations afore- 
said to disperse, and retire peaceably to their respective abodes, within 
twenty days of this date. 

Deeming ihe [uesent cmulitioii of public .itTairs pre-enl> an extraor- 
dinary 0( casion, I do hereby, in \irtiii m' tlie power in me vested by the 
Constitution, convene both Houses of Congress. Senators and Re[)re- 
sentativcs are, therefore, summoned to assemble at their respective cham- 

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bers, at twelve o'clock, noon, on Thursday, the 4th day of July next, then 
and there to consider and determine such measures as, in their wisdom 
the public safety and interest may seem to demand. 

In witness n-hereof, I have hereunto set my hand, and caused the seal 
of the United States to be affixed. 

Done at the Citv of Washinszton, this fifteenth day of April, in the year 
of our Lord one thousand eight hundred and sixty-one, and of the inde- 
pendence of the United States the eighty-fifth. 


By the President : 

William H. Seward, Secretary of State. 

Simultaneously with the above proclamation, calls for 
troops were made upon the States.— the Governor of New 
York. Edwin D. Morij^an. being requested to immediately 
furnish the quota designated for the State of New York, 
to wit, seventeen regiments. On April i6th. the two bodies 
of the Legislature, then in session at Albany, passed an Act 
" To authorize the embodying and equipment of a Volun- 
teer Militia, and to provide for the public defence." This 
bill provided for the enrollment of thirty thousand volunteer 
militia, to serve for two years ; and appropriated three mil- 
lions of dollars to meet the Governor Morgan 
issued a proclamation, on the i8th. citing the President's 
requisition, and calling for seventeen regiments, to consist 
of 649 officers, and 12,631 men; forming an aggregate of 
13,280; the rendezvous for the State being designated as 
New York, Albany and Elmira, with headc[uarters at Albany. 
Afterwards l^on April 25th) the .Governor issued his procla- 
mation for twenty-one other regiments of volunteers, which, 
with the first seventeen, made up the complement of volun- 
teers under the State act providing for 30,000. These first 
thirty-eight regiments were the only troo[)s from New York 
State mustered for the term of two years. 

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THE 27th Regiment (Infantry) N. Y. Volunteers was 
organized at Elmira. on the 2 1st of May, 1861. It was 
composed of companies, recruited and accepted as follows, 


Where Recruited. 

By Whom Recraited. 

Date of Acceptance. 

A. . 

White Plains. 

Capt. Jos. J. Chambers. 

April 30, 1S61. 



Capt. Alex. D. Adams. 

May 2, 1S61. 



Capt. Jos. J. Bartlett. 

May2, 1S61. 



Capt. Hiram C. Rogers. 

May 2, 1S61. 



Capt. Geo. G. Wanzer. 

May 7, 1S61. 



Capt. Peter Jay. 

May S, 1861. 



Capt. James Perkins. 

May 7, i36i. 


Mount Morris. 

Capt. Chas. E. Martin. 

May II, 1S61. 



Capt. Curtis C. Gardiner. 

May 13, 1S61. 



Capt. Henr>- L. Achilles, Jr. 

May 16, 1S61. 

The companies were organized into a regiment by Gen- 
eral VanValkenburgh, when the following field officers were 
elected, viz.: Henry W. Slocum, Colonel; Joseph J. Cham- 
bers, Lieutenant-Colonel; Joseph J. Bartlett, Major. The 
State Military- Board confirmed the election on the 21st of 
May, by General Order No. 208, and the regiment was ac- 
cepted, and numbered " 27 ;" and Colonel Slocum was di- 
rected to report for duty, and hold his regiment in readiness 
to be mustered into the service of the United States. 


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Col. 1Ik.\r\ W. Sloci'm. 


At one of the recent reunions, Gen. Slocum explained 
some of the incidents which led to his election as Colonel 
of the 27th. Being a West Point graduate, he offered his 
services to the Governor of the State, who asked him to 
remain and assist him in Albany. This he declined, and 
went to Elmira at the request of some officers, who talked 
of making him Colonel of their regiment ; but he found 
so much wire-pulling, and was requested to make certain 
pledges, that he left Elmira in disgust, and returned to his 
home in Syracuse. But he soon received a telegram from 
some other company officers, asking him to return to Elmira. 
He did so. and was unanimously elected Colonel of the 
27th, without any pledges, although he was a total stranger 
to every one of the ofificers. That he proved to be the 
right man for the place, was fully shown by the subsequent 
history of the regiment. • : ;•/,". ■ • •; ; ', ' • 

While in camp at Elmira, the regiment took the name of 
" Union Regiment," because the companies comprising it, 
having been recruited from seven different counties, were 
united in one regiment, by their own choice. 

Some of these companies had been in Elmira since the 
8th of May. and had been practicing in the school of the 
soldier, and in company drill. They had been quartered in 
vacant buildings at different places about the town, till about 
the time the regiment was organized, when the companies 
moved from their several headquarters into barracks, that 
had been built of rough boards, at Southport. across the 
river from Elmira. Here the duties of a soldier were for 
the first time fully assumed : such as guard duty, dress pa- 
rade, battalion drill. — \aried. between times, with a drill not 
laid down in Hardie's Tactics — picking stone from the rocky 
ridge, and grading the parade ground. This caused a great 
deal of grumbling; but a greater dissatisfaction existed 
over the rations furnished bv the government contractor. 
The men of C". " K "" w^re the rir-t to make de!non,-.trations 
to show their disgust with the f.u'e : and one day tlu'\- 
claimed it ua.^ necessary to imi)rison the beef, to kee[) it 
from walking off. So the\- conceiv ed the idea of holding- a 


■ ilJI 


funeral over it. They nailed a large piece strongly in a box, 
and, to the tune of " The Rogue's March," proceeded to inter 
it with the honors of war. A. W. Tourgee (since, the noted 
author), preached the funeral sermon ; and for this he was 
severely reprimanded by the Colonel. On June ist, the 
dinner was so bad that some of the companies, after being 
seated in long rows beside the rough board tables, led off 
by Companies " D " and " B," in answer to a pre-arranged 
signal, kicked over the tables, and sent the boards, tin plates, 
cups and steaming soup, flying through the air I " That 
same old soup never appeared again," and that night we 
had a good supper of mush and milk. 

This incident gave Colonel Slocum an opportunity to 
make his maiden speech to the regiment ; for, in about an 
hour, the " long roll " sounded, the line was formed on the 
parade ground, and the Colonel told the boys, "that, so long 
as he remained in command of the regiment, they should 
have what the government intended them to have, and it 
should be served in palatable style ; that no contractor 
should fill his pockets at the expense of the stomachs of 
his men." After this, the Colonel was frequently seen about 
the cook-house, giving directions as to the quality of food, 
and how the cooking should be done. From this time on, 
everything was in apple-pie order, and Col. Slocum was 
idolized. But after the bo\-s reached the front, occasions 
were frequent when they would gladly have accepted sim- 
ilar rations without " kicking." 

On the 3d of June, Daniel S. Dickinson, from Bingham- 
ton, rode into camp, and, about 7 o'clock, made a rousing 
speech to the regiment, which was received with hearty 

June 4th, after the regular drills, we had a good supper, 
with bread and butter and cake, which had been presented 
to the Colonel b)- the ladies of S\'racuse, — Mrs. Slocum and 
several of the ladies gracing the table wlih tluMr presence. 
The boys ga\e three cheers for the l.ulies. ami had a jolly 

June 7th, there was a fine regimental drill in the fore- 


noon, and the men were practiced in the manoeuvers of 
street fighting. 

The same routine of daily drill, of about eight hours a 
day, continued without incident till the 12th, on which date 
there were two memorable events. The first was, drum- 
ming a deserter out of camp ; and the second, the boys had 
a big row with the 33d Regiment, which was camped near by. 
It seems that one of our boys, Gibson Dunn, of Co. " B," 
while intoxicated, had shown some disrespect to Col. R. F. 
Taylor, of the 33d or " Ontario Regiment," for which he had 
been arrested and confined in the guard house of the 33d. 
This enraged the 27th boys, and in the evening they went 
in a body to make an attack on the guard house, and release 
their comrade. Their advance was resisted by the 33d, and 
soon the two regiments were in battle array, armed with 
cobble stones ; and began to entrench themselves behind 
windrows of stones. With great difficulty the few ot'ficers 
in camp prevented an attack till word could be sent to the 
Colonel, who was quartered in the city. He soon arrived 
on the ground ; the " long roll " was ordered ; and about 
ten o'clock the regiment was formed in hollow square, and, 
though it was pitch dark, the Colonel made one of his tell- 
ing speeches, and assured the men that their comrade should 
be released. This cooled the boys somewhat, and good feel- 
ing was restored. In the meantime Dunn had made his 
escape from the guard house, by removing a board from the 
roof. This same evening the first prayer-meeting was held 
in the camp, many of the comrades leaxing the meeting to 
take part in this their first fight. 

On the 15th, the regiment was moved from Southport to 
the barracks on the Fair Ground, These barracks after- 
wards became noted as the place of confinement for Con- 
federate prisoners. 

On the 25th, the men of the Union Regiment received 
their first pav, it being for twcnt>' (la}-s" ser\ice previous to 
the2istof May; in amount, $S. 60. 

On the 29th, we received our e(|uipments; and as we 
dressed <nirselves in blue, and took charge of our guns. 


knapsacks, haversacks and canteens, we realized more fully 
than ever that we were no longer citizens, but soldiers, 
ready to enter the service of the government. 

Sunday, June 30th, divine service was held in camp, when 
the Chaplain, D. D. Buck, preached his first sermon to the 
regiment. From this time till after the 4th of July, many 
of the men were allowed to go to their homes on furlough. 
On the 5th, the regiment was mustered into the U. S. 
service for two years from the 21st day of May, 1 861, by 
Capt. Sitgraves, U. S. A. Seven men refused to take the 
oath, and were discharged and sent home. About this time 
one of the Corporals in Co. " A," whu had been sent to 
arrest some men in one of the low dives of the city, was 
murdered. His body was recovered and sent to his home 
in White Plains, under an escort from his Company. 

The officers of the 27th. being gentlemen of manly and 
gallant bearing, were cordially received into the best society 
at Elmira ; a circumstance which led those of other regi- 
ments who had been less favored, to facetiously christen 
the " Twenty-seventh " officers as the " Mutual Admiration 

On the morning of July loth, we received orders to leave 
Elmira for Washington ; and, amid uproar and enthusiasm, 
commenced packing up. Almost every man was loaded 
with useless articles, and had yet to learn the hardest lesson 
of the soldier, — how many things to get along without. 

At 2 P. M. the regiment bid the barracks good-by, and 
marched into the city. After a short parade through the 
streets, the cars were boarded, and at 4 I'. M. moved out on 
the Northern Central road, amid the waving of handker- 
chiefs and the cheers of assembled thousands. It rained 
all the way to Williamsport, Pa., where we arrived about 
9 i'. M. Here the ladies had prepared a fine supper for us, 
and we left the cars to find a grand entertainment. Tables 
had been spread in the sciuare near the depot, and the pa- 
triotic ladies were out in force to give the boys one good 
meal, and bid them a hearty God-speed as they set their 
faces toward the South. entertainment was one of 


the bright spots in the history of the regiment : and there 
were many expressions of admiration for our fair hostesses. 
One comrade, at least, was so much impressed with the 
kindness of these ladies that he asked the privilege of writ- 
ing to one of them ; and, months afterw ard, he applied for 
a furlough, returned to Williamsport, and married his fair 

About lO o'clock we returned to the cars, and rode all 
night, getting but little sleep. In the morning we found 
ourselves opposite the City of Harrisburg, where we re- 
mained about an hour. It was a beautiful morning, and 
from our position, looking across the Susquehanna, we had 
a grand view of the city, and the dome of Pennsylvania's 
Capitol, towering above the structures of the city. Here 
the train was divided, and we ran slowly on through a 
splendid country, especially about York, Pa., where we 
passed immense fields of wheat, corn and rye. Here the 
farming lands are excellent; large and beautiful houses; 
with a degree of thrift that but few of the men had ever 
seen before. After crossing the Maryland line, we found 
soldiers quartered at every bridge on the road ; and as we 
approach Baltimore, the track is being guarded by the 12th 
Pennsylvania Regiment. The people do not welcome us 
in Maryland as they did in Pennsylvania, and there is not 
near as much enthusiasm. We roll into Baltimore in fine 
shape, where we left the cars, formed in line, and having 
fixed bayonets, marched through the city. Some of the 
officers proposed that the men should load their pieces, but 
Col. Slocum, thinking it a useless precaution, did not order it. 
The streets were crowded with people to see us. There 
were many who cheered for the Union, and some for Jeff. 
Davis. We were received very kindly at the depot where 
we took the train, and were soon underway for Washington. 
We halted some time at the Rellay House, where several 
regiments of Xew York troo|)s were stiitioned. S.x.n at'ler 
dark Washington was reached, and w i.: wcic niarched to our 
quarters, afterwards named Cam[) Ander.--on, on I'ranklin 
Square, a splendid place. 

J A 



Before leaving Elmira, Col. Slocum had taken the pre- 
caution to send Lieut.-Col. Chambers on to Washington, to 
provide rations for the men when we should arrive there. 
But, alas I when we reached camp, between 10 and 1 1 o'clock 
at night, we found nothing except two barrels of salt pork : 
so we had to go to bed supperless, filled with disgust at the 
officer who had given too much attention to refreshing his 
own inner man, to the neglect of his weary men. 

Sunday, July 14th, we had company drill before break- 
fast, and preaching service, by Chaplain Buck, at 10 o'clock. 
During the service several regiments, that had been ordered 
to Virginia, marched past our camp, on their way to the 
Long Bridge ; and the Chaplain, with more enthusiasm than 
piety, gave out a hymn ; and as we sang the chorus— 
" Our friends are passing over, 

And, just before, tlie shininL,^ shore ;. i':.',. ' 

We may almost discover," — 

He waved his hand in the direction of the passing troops. 

About 5 o'clock we had battalion drill and dress parade. 
There were a great many visitors in to see the parade. Pie 
peddlers prosecuted a lively trade, as the boys did not take 
kindly to .salt pork and hard tack ; but the' " rag pies," as 
the boys called them, did not agree with them as well as 
the government rations would have done. 

July 15th : Practiced target shooting all day, in a vacant 
lot, on the Georgetown road, about a mile from camp. 
Each man fired twenty rounds. This was the first and 
only target practice the regiment had before engaging in 
its first battle. 

We were armed with the smooth-bore, muzzle-loading, 
government gun, known as the Harper's Ferry Musket, of 
58 caliber, and using a paper cartridge, which the men had 
to tear open with their teeth before loading. The gun was 
fired with a large percussion cap, and would kick about as 
hard as a government mule. One man declared, after com- 
ing out of battle, -that his gun kicked him back over a rail 
fence, and kicked him seven times after he was down." 

Several companies received recruits after coming to 
Washington. These men had no uniforms, and had never 


been practiced in the manual of arms before going on the 
march to our first battle. 

On the 1 6th of July, the regiment was assigned to the 
First Brigade, commanded by Col. Andrew Porter, of the 
i6th U. S. Infantry; in the Second Division, commanded 
by Col. David Hunter, of the Third U. S. Cavalry; in the 
Army of Northern Virginia, commanded by Brigadier- 
General Irwin McDowell. 

Hunter's Division was composed of the following com- 
mands : 

Eighth New York Militia, Fourteenth New York Militia, 
Twenty-Seventh New York Volunteers, a Battalion of 
U. S. Infantry, Battalion U. S. Marines, Battalion U. S. 
Cavalry, and Battery D of the Fifth U. S. Artillery. 

About noon of the same date (the i6th). Hunter's Di- 
vision received orders to march. Destination : " On to 
Richmond I" We packed up and left about 3 o'clock. 
We crossed the Long Bridge, — and so found ourselves on 
the sacred soil of the Old Dominion. We passed through 
the fortifications on x\rlington Heights, and reached the 
Alexandria and Manasses R. R. about 6 o'clock. At Bail- 
.ey's Cross Roads we halted for supper. Each man had 
been supplied with two loaves of bread and a pound of 
salt pork. We could hear picket-firing in the front, — when 
the regiment was ordered to load their muskets, each man 
having 'oeen supplied with forty rounds of ammunition. 
The route continued along the Little River Turnpike, past 
the fertile plantations of the Lees, the Balls, Baileys, and 
Arlingtons, that had not yet felt the devastating hand of 
war, but were destined to be left a barren waste, — from 
which they have never recovered. We marched about 
twelve miles, and about 10 F. M. went into camp, on the 
Annandale hills, near the main army; and for the first time 
slept on the ground, with no covering except our blankets, 
not having been supplied with tenis. We rested well, and 
started on the march again at sunrise, the 17th. taking the 
road to Fairfax Court House. The march was a slow one, 
f'T the Rebels, in their retreat, had felled trees across the 


lO KFX(~>K1) OF 27TII Ri:(;i\[KXT N. V. VOLS. 

road, and wc were obliged to cut them out before we could 
pass. After a few hours' marching at " route step," wc 
were called to quick time, and mo\ed by platoons, closed 
to half distance. The day was very warm, and many were 
prostrated by the heat. 

Soon our mounted rities and cavalry were ordered to the 
front, and, as they moved forward at a gallop, we almost 
held our breath, in the excitement and expectation of hear- 
ing them open fire and commence an engagement ; but the 
enemy retreated on their approach, with but a few scatter- 
ing shots from our men. We then marched leisurely on ; 
and the fact that they had left their fires burning, and other 
evidences of a hasty retreat, made some of the men think 
that the Rebels had all turned back; and that night an 
otificer, passing through the camp, overheard two men talk- 
ing about the probability of their ever seeing a battle. One 
says to the other: "Now, this is Just exactly what I ex- 
pected. These fellows have all run off. and we are never 
going to see a fight. We will go home without seeing a 
fight, sure." 

Others were not so sanguine : for, from one of the diaries, 
we copy the following, under date of the 17th: " I think 
we shall have a fight soon, but I trust I am prepared for 
any emergency : and, if necessary, am ready to die for my 

We went into camp about 2 o'clock. The boys were 
allowed to "forage" about the country, and it is needless 
to say that they lived well. Some of the troops pillaged 
the houses, and burned a few barns, — acts of \andalism of 
which our regiment was heartily ashamed. 

We started on the march again early the next morning, 
tile 1 8th, but Wijre delayed till 3 o'clock, when we marched 
about fi\-e miles ; then halted and bi\ouacked. on the 
left of the Warrenton turn]oike, two miles east of Centre- 
ville, and remained there the two following (la)s. While in 
this camp, the regiment of regular^ who were camped near 
us were calletl in line, and formed a scjuare. when two of 
their number were whipi)ed, receixing thirty lashes each on 

J(i(K!;\ Cl'r., i ('jj. 




\ % 

"fj' I 


their bare backs, and were then branded, on the side of the 
hip, with the letter D. It was a sickening sight. This was 
the last case of flogging in the army, as this barbarous style 
of punishment was soon after abolished. 

On the afternoon of the 19th there was some sharp skir- 
mishing a few miles in front of us, and soon after some 
prisoners were brought in, who were the first rebels we had 
seen. They attracted a good deal of attention, and we dis- 
cussed the question among ourselves, whether we should 
shoot or hang them. Fortunately the question was not 
left to the private soldier to decide. At dark we went on 
picket, and remained all night. Were relieved from picket 
duty about 9 o'clock of the morning of the 20th, and re- 
turned to camp, where we remained quiet all day. 

While in this camp, a detail of eight corporals was made, 
from different companies, to act as Color 1 Guard, Sergeant 
Burton Freeman, of Co. " I," being Color Sergeant. 

Sunday morning, July 2 1st, at 2 o'clock, we were called 
and ordered to get ready to move. Soon after, we formed 
in line and moved out in light marching order, taking one 
cooked ration. Owing to the delay of the First Division 
getting out of its camp. Hunter's Division did not reach 
Centreville till 4 o'clock ; moving thence along the War- 
renton turnpike, over a bridge crossing Cub Run. ?Iere 
we put out one company as skirmishers, and continued to 
advance, turning to the right into a heavy timber. The 
day was intensely hot, and this being a portion of Virginia 
noted for a scarcity of water, we suffered both from heat 
and thirst. At 9 o'clock we passed Sudley's Church, when 
the firing in front of us became quite lively. We soon left 
the woods, and as we came out into the open field, one of 
Gen. Porter's aids met us, and ordered Col. Slocum to 
move forward, and, with a wave of his hand, exclaimed : 
"You will find the enemy down there somewhere I" 

We crossed rnill Run at Sudley's Ford, after a march 
occupying fully six hours; and, without coming to a halt, 
advanced at a double quick toward the enemy's position. 
We were soon under fire : the solid shot and shell began to 


pass over our heads, and made us do some involuntary 
dodging. I'he nrst man wounded, in the regimenf,--was 
Henry Whcclcr. of Co. " C." He was hit in the instep, by 
a musket ball, before \ve had come in sight of the enemy. 
It is suppo >c(l the ball was fired by a sharp-shooter from 
one of the t;il] trees on our left. We continued to advance, 
in column of tours, every step the shot coming thicker and 
faster. We passed the tSth N. Y. Militia, who, dressed in 
their gray State uniforms, were caring for some of their 
wounded ccmirades. 

We soon reached the crest of a hill, and, by a road lead- 
ing to the valley beneatli U:^, made a charge directly on the 
Stone Housj, from which we drove the enemy. The Colonel, 
having dismounted, then directed the color guard to take a 
position to ihc left and in rear of the Stone House, that he 
might form a line of battle on them. While getting into 
position, a rebel battery opened on us with canister shot, 
and several of our men were killed and wounded. Private 
Wesley Randall, of Binghamton, was the first man killed. 

The Colonel then ordered the line to form still further to 
the left, and the regiment moved a hundred rods in that 
direction, tlie colors taking the lead. Soon another stand 
was taken, and our ranks, which had been thrown into some 
disorder, were ordered to re-form ; but before the order 
could be executed, we saw two regiments coming, at double 
quick, over the crest of the hill from our rear and left. — a 
direction from which we did not expect the enemy. They 
were dressed in gray, and we mistook them for the 8th 
New York. As they moved around in our front, some of 
the men called out " that they were enemies," and began 
to fire. Others excitedly "declared them to be the 8th 
New York," and begged us not to fire on our own men. 
Just then a Confederate straggler between the lines, ran up 
to Col. Slocum, and declared that the " regiment yonder 
wanted U> surrender." Slocum threatened the man with 
drawn swoid. but he persisted; and, by the Colonel's order. 
Adjutant Jenkins started towards the enemy, waving a 
havelock as a tlac of truce. " What regiment are you ?"' he 

COL. SLOCUM \voundp:d. 13 

asked. He was answered by the unfurling of the Confed- 
erate colors and the firing of a volley. He rode back to 
our lines, exclaiming, " Give it to them, boys!" The 27th 
responded, firing at will, but many did not hear him, and 
still held their fire. Our mistake had given them time to 
form in line of battle, under cover of thick bushes, and they 
poured volley after volley into us, with deadly effect. Our 
men replied vigorously, but could not long stand under 
such a fire, and began to retire slowly over the crest of the* 
hill. The colors were the last to retire. A few of the men, 
having secured covered positions behind hay-cocks and un- 
der the banks of a small stream just in our front, remained 
and kept up a vigorous fire on their own hook, for some 
time after the regiment left. Some of these men fired so 
many rounds that their guns became hot, and they had to 
cool them off in the water of the brook. The enemy did 
not advance on this position. 

While making this movement over the crest of the hill, 
Col. Slocum fell, shot through the hip, and was sent to the 
surgeons in the rear. Major Bartlett now took command, 
and soon after withdrew the regiment to the woods in the 
rear, where we rested awhile, and refilled our cartridge- 

After this, we advanced again to the Stone House, 
where we took shelter under the banks of the roadside ; 
and again were moved from one point of the field to an- 
other, taking but little active part in the fight, yet contin- 
ually under fire, till 5 P. M., feeling sure that we had gained 
a decisive victory over the enemy. 

But the tables were soon after effectually turned, by the 
arrival of a heavy column of Confederate troops, which 
proved to be the rebel reserve of twelve thousand fresh 
men, under Gen. Johnston. 

A retreat was now ordered, and we marched off the field 
in good order, with Major Bartlett riding at the head of the 
regiment, and our colors flying. ( »ur ranks were kept closed 
up until passing Sudley"^> Church, when some of the panic- 
stricken cavalry rode through our line and scattered some 


; ^ 


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of our men amon*^ the fragments of other regiments, so that 
it was impossible to rally them all again. The retreat then 
became a stampede. A few miles from the field we came 
to the Stone Bridge across Cub Run. Here was a blockade 
of cannon and caissons, from which the dri\-ers had cut the 
traces, and rode off on the horsu^s, so that the troops had to 
turn to the right, and ford the stream just below the bridge. 
The panic was increased b\' the frantic rush of a large num- 
ber of civilians and Members of Congress, who had ridden 
out from Washington to witness the battle, — one of the 
latter, the Hon. Alfred Ely, of Rochester, X. Y., being 
taken prisoner, i.^. j ,^. 

Such a scene was never before witnessed : the highway 
was blocked with cavalry, infantry, artillery and civilians, 
in solid mass, shouting and yelling until it seemed as though 
the flood-gates of Pandemonium had been thrown open. 
Before inidnight we reached the camp we left in the morn- 
ing, near Centreville, where, aside from the losses in killed, 
wounded and missing, the 27th was wholly intact, ha\ing 
its colors and arms, and awaiting orders. 

Capt. Averill, of Col. Porter's staff, sent a verbal message 
requesting the regiment to form in column and march to 
Fairfax, a distance of eight miles. This order was exe- 
cuted, and from midnight we kept trudging along towards 
Washington, passing through Fairfax — this time without 
music, while the cr}', " On to Richmond I" seemed to have 
lost all its charm. About sunrise we reached Arlington, 
made a short halt at Fort Runyon, where coffee and hard 
tack were issued. Then we re-crossed the Long Bridge to 
Washington, and were, soon after, back to our former quar- 
ters on Franklin Square. ■ 

The wildest excitement existed in the city. Pennsylvania 
Avenue was gorged with panic-stricken citizens, dnd soldiers 
who were relating wonderful stories of their heroism on the 
field of battle. 

Thus ended the battle of Bull Run, where both armies 
were for the first tinie under fire: and for h aril fighting and 



stubborn resistance, they challenged the admiration of the 

The regiments which wc mistook for friends, proved to 
be the 4th Alabama and the 8th Georgia ; but they received 
severe punishment at our hands, — the 8th losing their 
Lieutenant-Colonel and Adjutant, killed, and many of its 
enlisted men killed and wounded. 

The casualties of the 2-th, in this battle, were : One 
officer and twenty-six enlisted men killed ; two officers and 
forty-two men wounded. 

Sixty men were reported missing, most of them wounded 
and taken prisoners, and many of them died from their 
wounds in the Southern prisons. Total, 131. (For a list 
of those taken prisoners, see the last chapter.] Among the 
prisoners were three of the color guard, all of them having 
been hit during the action. Corp. Fairchild was hit in the 
left breast by a canister shot, a spent ball, which lodged in 
his shirt pocket. Corp. Merrill was shot through the left 
breast. Corp. Wood had a ball through his hand. Lieut. 
Asa Park, of Co. " D," the only officer killed, was shot in 
the abdomen. As he was struck, he placed his hand over 
the wound, and s.iid to the Captain : " See what a big hole 
that is!" and immediately fell and expired. 

On the march from Washington and in this battle, many 
men in the regiment wore white linen " havelocks," with 
long capes over the back of the neck. These had been 
recommended to j)r(,tect the wearers from the effect of the 
sun. The only good purpose they served, however, was to 
furnish lint and bandages for the wounded, and were never 
much worn after this battle. 

The following is a cop\- of Afajor l^artlett's official report 
of the battle ot Hull Run : 


Headquarters 27TH Regiment N. Y. Vols. | 
Camp Anderson, Washington, D. C, July 23, 1S61. j 
StR : — Pursuant to order, I hereby submit for your consideration a 
report of the operations of the Twenty-Seventh Regiment New York 
State Volunteers, under command of Col. H. W. Slocum, in the battle 
of Bull Run, on July 21, 1S61. 

At precisely 2 o'clock a. >t. we formed for march, in rear of the Marine 
Corps, commanded by Major Reynolds. After an exhausting march of 
eight hours, the enemy was discovered to be in force on our front and left. 
Fifteen minutes after their appearance, we were hurried on at double-quick 
time for the distance of at least one mile, and formed in line of battle by 
the left flank on the brow of the hill, commanding a part of the enemy's 
position. Without coming to a halt, we were ordered to charge the enemy 
by a road leading to the valley beneath us, where they were in numbers 
strongly positioned in and about a large stone house, with a battery of six 
mounted howitzers commanding the approach. The men, though greaily 
fatigued and exhausted, gallantly attacked and drove the enemy from the 
house, who retired in disorder behind their battery, leaving a large num- 
ber of killed and wounded on the field. The batters- was next attacked, 
and after receiving eleven rounds hastily retired, taking up another posi- 
tion about one hundred and fifty vnrds on our left and front. We wt-re 
immediately attacked cm our right Hank by a large force, wh.j approachtd 
by a ravine, under cover of a thick growth of bushes, and in the front hr 
about i,5<X) others, who had been driven from their position on the hill 
commanding our left, and whom we mistook for the Sth New York Regi- 
ment coming to our support. By this mistake we lost many killed and 
wounded, besides the opportunity of capturing a large number of pris- 
oners. We were now engaged by more than twice our own numbers, and 
fired upon from concealed positions, and receiving the fire of the batterv 
from its new point of attack. Perceiving the necessity of support, I rallied 
about 2(X) of the Sth New York on the brow of the hill com- 
manding the enemy ; and the Colonel withdrew the regiment to the top of 
the hill in a perfectly exhausted condition, formed, and marched them into 
the woods for rest. During our retreat Colonel Slocum recei\ ed a wound 
from a musket ball, in the right thigh, which rendered it necessary for him 
to retire from the field, whioli lie diil. placing the command in my hands. 
After iialf an hour in this position I was commaiuled l)v C.\]A, 
Averill, Aid-de-Can;p 10 tiie Colonel commanding, to join a united charge 
to be made against the enemy's strongest position by all the regiments not 
actuallv eiig.iged at that moment. I marched in f(nn i.uiks, utuler fire of 

viii; t>f<.'. 

ji! h»irt 

■I. i/fO?i 

; *i)r.>di, 


bartlett's report. ^ v.w- 17 

the batter>- commanding the road, to the creek, and filed to the right, under 
protection of its banks, to await the general assault. Seeing our forces 
engage the enemy by small detachments, and not in the order in which the 
attack was commanded to be made — that they were repulsed and driven 
back in disorder, and believing that no assistance I could render would 
avail in restraining the troops or stay their flight, I withdrew mv command 
in perfect order to the heights above the stream, and formed in line of 
battle, facing the enemy, and remained in position until thousands of troops 
had passed to our rear, in flight and confusion. I then, at the urgent so- 
licitation of the line officers, marched to the rear in direction of the retreat, 
and again formed, by command of General McDowell, in line of battle, 
facing the enemy, that he might have a nucleus to form the Division upon 
once more. The attempt proving ineffectual, I again marched to the rear, 
and by his command formed in line a third time. It being impossible to 
form in any force upon our lines, I withdrew the regiment from the field, 
and after a short rest, joined the retreating column. In the retreat to 
Washington we lost two sergeants — believed to have been cut otf from the 
regim.ent at the bridge, which was fired upon by the enemy — and manv 
men from e.xhaustion. 

I am happy to report that, during the whole dnv, the men of the regi- 
ment behaved coolly and gallantly, promptly obeying every order ; and 
that they never once retreated (jr gave way before the enemv without a 
positive command. 

.,,; - : •;..,, ]• J- B.\RTLETT, 

Major, corninanding. 


Commanding Second Brigade. 

Extracts, Relating T(i the Muvkmkn rs ok the 27TH Rt-:t:iMENT, VroM 
Coi.. Andrew Porter's Oi iiciai, Rki'ort of the Battle. 
"The head of the First Briiradc was immediately turned slightlv to the 
right, in order to give time and looin for deplovmt-nt on the right of the 
Second Brigade. Grilfin's Battery finuul its way thiougli the timber to the 
fields beyond, followed jiromjuly l)\ the Marines, while the Twenty-Seventh 
took direction more to tin- let't. * * * The eiu-niv 

appeared diauu up in a long line, cxttiuling along the Wavrentou turn- 
pike. * * * Oil, ri;^d)t was rapidly developed by the Marines, 
Twenty-Sev. iitli, Fouiteciitli and I'-i-htli, with the Cavalry in rear uf the 

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right : the enemy retreated with more precipitation than order as (jiir line 
advanced. * * * Rebels soon came tiyintc throuirh the woods 

towards the right, and the Twenty-Seventh completed their rout by char^c- 
ing directly upon their center, in the face of a scorchinsj tire, while the 
Fourteenth and Eighth moved down the turnpike, to cut oil the retirinij 
foe, and to support the Twenty-Seventh, which had lost its yaliant (."olonel, 
but was standing the brunt of the action, with its ranks thinnino; in the 
dreadful fire. * * * Tyler's Division was engaged 

with the enemy's right. The Twenty-Seventh was resting in the edge of 
the woods in the center. * * * -j-he prestige of success 

had thus far, attended the etForts of our inexperienced but gallant troops. 

* * * A column, composed of the Twenty-Seven tli New 

York, Eleventh and Fifth Massachusetts, First Minnesota and Sixty-Ninth 
New York moved up towards the left flank of the batteries. * * 

Fire came from some infantry of the enemy, which had been mistaken for 
our own forces. * * * Soon the slopes behind us were 

swarming with our retreating and disorganiztd forces. * * * 

The Twenty-Seventh was the first to rally, under the command of Major 
Bartlett, and around it the other regiments engaged soon collected their 
scattered fragments. * * * -pi,j. commanding general 

then ordered a retreat to Centerville. * * * Among 

those who deserve special mention are : Col. H. W. Slocum, who was 
wounded while leading his gallant Twenty-Seventh New York to the 
charge ; and Maj. J. J. Kartlett, who subse(|uen'ly commanded it, and bv 
his enthusiasm and valor kept it in action and out of the panic. His con- 
duct was imitated by his subordinates, of whom two, Oapt. II. (\ Rogers 
and Lieut. H. C. Jackson, were wounded, and Ensign Asa Park was 
killed. * * * 

Col. i6th Infantry U. S. Army, commanding Brigade. 

To Oipt.J. B. Fry, A. A. G. 

Ail ti 

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AFTER our return from the battle of Bull Run, we occu- 
pied our quarters at Franklin Square, in Washington, 
until near the middle of August. That terrible disease, 
camp diarrhoea — more destructive than the enemy's bullets 
— broke out in the regiment, and for a few weeks made sad 
havoc with the men. Drilling was dispensed with, and all 
other duties not absolutely necessary. It was impossible 
to find enough capable of performing duty to make up a 
complete camp guard. 

On August 1st, we received our first pay from the United 
States, for one month and ten days' service, amounting to 
$15.03, in gold. This was a bonanza for the boys. 

Col. Slocum visited the camp on August 13th, still suffer- 
ing from his wound, and walking upon crutches. Every- 
body was glad to see him, but sorry that we must soon lose 
him, as he had been promoted to Brigadier-General. 

One day about this time, while a number of general offi- 
cers were together at Gen. 's headquarters, it was 

announced in the papers that Grant — who was operating in 
the West — had been made a Brigadier-General, on the 7th 
of August. Several of these officers, who had known hmi 
in the regular army, received the announcement with deri- 
sive laughter, and ridiculed the appointee as one wholly 
unfit for the position. In the light of subsequent events, 
they must have felt somewhat chagrined at their former 
estimate of our great captain. 

On August 14th several of the line officers were detailed 
on recruiting service, and went home on twenty days' lea\e 
of absence. 

The same date, Aug. I4tli. the regiment was assigned to 
Gen. Heint/leman's brigade, and ordered to rno\e. We 
then packed up, and again crossing the Long Bridge, marched 
to Camp Vernon, on Hunting Creek, near Alexandria, u here 

; I 

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n .<.; :t;.i 


we received our first tents, and commenced our life under 
canvas, and at the same time exchanged our smooth-bore 
muskets for U. S. Springfield ritles, which we carried during 
the entire term oi" service We here spent most of our time in 
driUing by battaHou or brigade, and the men began to show 
the effect of the drill in their improved soldierly appearance. 
On the i6th the regiment went on picket, and on the 17th 
moved the canip to near Fort Ellsworth. On Sunday, the 
1 8th, had preaching in the camp. In the afternoon a rain 
storm set in, continuing all night. The tents were not 
properly ditched, and before morning the boys found their 
"sleep" thoroughly water-soaked. After this they made 
up beds of cedar boughs to keep them off the damp 
On the follo\\ing Sunday, the 25th, there was a brigade 
review in the morning, by Gen. McClellan ; and preaching 
in the afternoon, by the Chaplain. 

August 26th there was a detail made from each company 
and sent out to cut away the woods, and clear the ground 
on which Fort Lyon was afterwards built. 

On the 27th news was received that the enemy w as ad- 
vancing, and that we should be attacked before morning. 
A fresh supply ijf ammunition was issued, knapsacks packed. 
and a sharp lookcnit was maintained all night. Nothing 
came of it, however. 

From this time to September 5th, the ordinary routine 
of camp and picket duty was kept up. The picket line 
was along Hunting Creek. The ''boys" seemed to like it, 
as it was gipsy-like, and preferable to remaining in camp, — 
on account of green corn, potatoes and fruit, which were 

On the 5th an election was held to fill the \-acancies 
caused by the promotion of Col. Slocum to be Brigadier- 
General, the resignation of Lieut.-Col. Chambers, and the 
deatli <>i Lieutenant Park, 'i'he result was the election of 
J. J. Hartlett, Colonel ; A. D. Adams, Lieutenant-Colonel: 
and C. C. Gardiner, Major. In place of Lieut. Park, Geo. 
Uicksijn was made Lieutenant. 

'ji; no 



Col. J. J. IiARTLElT 


On the same day the regiment was detached from Heint- 
zleman's brigade, and assigned to a new brigade, commanded 
by Gen. Slocum. which was composed of the i6th, 26th and 
27th New York, and the 5th Maine Volunteers ; and was a 
few days later (the 12th) ordered into camp on the site of 
Fort Lyon, and built that fort. The camp at this place was 
called Camp Dickinson, in honor of Hon. D. S. Dickinson, 
of Binghamton. X. Y. Here we put aside our drilling, and 
exchanged our guns for the pick and shovel. The monot- 
onous labor of building the fort was kept up for the next 
month, varied only by an occasional picket tour, or patrol 
after the cake, pie and whiskey peddlers, who came out from 
Alexandria and infested the camp. Rations of whiskey 
were occasionally issued, and although each man received 
only a half gill, yet by ways known only to a soldier, some 
would get drunk and find their way to the guard-house. 

Fort Lyon was the grandest camping ground the regi- 
ment ever occupied. Standing on the entrenchments, and 
looking to the right, across tiie Potomac, could be seen the 
City of Washington, with the dome of the Capitol rising 
proudly towards the sky. Vessels were plying to and fro 
in the river, while Alexandria lay beneath us, like a sullen 
child, — its Confederate sympathizers cowed into silence by 
the presence of troops and the frowning of cannon. In 
front stretched the green valley of Hunting Creek, and to 
the left the highlands in the direction of Ball's Cross Roads: 
an artistic view, worthy of a painter's skill. 

The picket lines were frequently posted on the Fairfa.x 
road and on the Stone road ; also on the plantation of Dr. 
Mason, who was in the Confederate lines. The ALason 
family were bitter towards the soldiers ; and the boys 
seemed to take a delight in milking their cows, — an occu- 
pation at which they were frequently aided by the slaves 
on the plantation. The Windsor plantation, further out, 
was at one time raided by order, and a fine herd of blooded 
stock was bnnight in, and some fine horses. These, how- 
ever, were afterwards restored to the owner, by orders from 

. • •■ ;,'. ^ij' no 
i - i'j.i^ ;. 7.ltK> 

'J II vlfflJfil 


October 3d a detachment, consisting; of Co. F of the 
27th, and companies from the 5th Maine and 26th New- 
York, was sent out, under command of Col. Christian, of 
the 26th. They took the Mount Vernon road, and marched 
out through the Village of Occoaquan, near Pohick church, 
in which Gen. Washington and his family formerly wor- 
shipped. The outposts of the enemy were met, but retired 
without firing a shot. On the return, a private in Co. F 
was accidentally shot and killed by one of his comrades. 

On date, Cos. K and C, commanded by Capts. 

Achilles and Wells, with a wagon train, made a raid upon 
the plantation of Col. John Washington, adjoining Mt. \'er- 
non, on the Potomac, some fourteen miles from our camp. 
They secured several hundred bushels of grain, thirty-six 
barrels of salted Potomac herring, besides flour, bacon, sev- 
eral head of cattle, etc. 

Some excitement was caused in camp during their ab- 
sence by a report from the outposts, that a heavy cloud of 
dust marked the movement of the enemy in the direction 
of the Washington estate ; and Gen. Slocum at once sent a 
force to their relief — which met the raiders returning with 
their plunder, unmolested. ... .,.,.. 

A few days after. Col. Washington, who was in the Con- 
federate army, was shot and killed by a Union sharp-shooter, 
while he was reconnoitering our lines. 

Gen.Slocum's brigade was transferred to another location 
on October 14th, about half a mile southeast of h'airfax Sem- 
inary. In the immediate vicinity were the brigades of Gen. 
Kearney and Gen. Newton, and the three brigades together 
formed a division, commanded by Gen. Franklin, — the nu- 
cleus of the grand army known in history as the Army of 
the Potomac. 

The camp of the 27th at this locality was named " Camj> 
Clara," in honor of Mrs. Slocum. the wife of our first Colonel. 
Here we built log foundations to our tcnt>. autl went into 
winter quarters, and once more resumed our Lirilling, which 
was kept up almost uninterruptedly until the mud became 

i Al'MliVli'' 




! * // 


SO deep on our drill ground, about mid-winter, that it had 
to be discontinued. 

While in camp here, runaway slaves would often come 
into the lines and engage themselves as ser\'ants to the 
officers. Gen. Slocum hired a bright boy as body servant, 
whom the boys named " Jeff," after the President of the 
Confederate States, and he soon became a general favorite. 
About this time, orders were issued to the army, that all 
slaves should be returned to their masters, if a demand were 
made for them. Jeff's master and some rebel neighbors 
came after him, but the boys in our regiment getting wind 
of it, soon planned an "underground railroad." and Jeff 
was spirited away from one tent to another, and so securely 
hidden that, although every tent in camp was searched, this 
little darky ne\er again gladdened the heart of his master. 
Gen. Slocum t<;)ok him with him to the Peninsula, and he 
followed the fortunes of the army till about the time of the 
retreat, when he succumbed to the swamp fe\er ; but was 
tenderly nursed by his fellow servants, in an attic room of 
a house where the General had his headquarters. One day, 
as a fellow-ser\ant entered his room, he exclaimed, in his 
delirium, " If urry up and black the General's boots I" These 
were his last words, and he soon passed away. 

Many of the officers, having fixed up their quarters in 
comfortable shape, sent for their wives: and the camp 
seemed like the homes of a countr\' \ illage. Th.e monotony 
of camp life was rcliex'eil by amusements of \arious kinds. 
Literary comrades became war correspondents, and in their 
diminuti\-e (|uarters penned articles which were printed in 
the Northern journals, and fired anew tlie enthusiasm of the 
loyal. SportiNc comrades (and there were manyi emploved 
their leisure mtiments in shuffling the "deceptix'e cards," 
and staking their '" (i()\ernment salary " on strong hands. 
Still others studied the army tactics, with a worthy ambition 
to ascend the ladder of military fame. 'Vhc 27th was maile 
up of <in aggregation of rare geniuses, and its reputation 
extended w herc\ er the drum-beat of the Army of the Po- 
tomac was hctird. 

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On November 8th, a brass band of twenty pieces was 
nuistered in as part of the regiment, with Alexander Scott, 
of Rochester, as leader. 

In November, the 26th New York was transferred to 
another brigade, and the 96th Pennsylvania took its place 
in Slocum's brigade. 



CAVALRY. ?^' '■'■'■ '^ '■■'' • ^^^ 
Col. McReynold's 1st New York Volunteers (Lincoln 


First Brigade.— Gen. PHILIP KEARNEY.— 1st, 2d, 3d and 
4th New Jersey Volunteers. 

Sixond Brigade.— Gen. H. \V. SlocUM.— 27th New York, 
1 6th New York, 5th Maine, 96th Pennsylvania. 

Third Brigade.— Gen. JoHN Newton.— i8th New York, 
31st New York, 32d New York, 95th Pennsylvania (Gosline 


Piatt's Battery- D, 2d United States— Six Napoleon guns. 

Porter's A. Massachusetts— Four lopound Parrott guns ; 
two 1 2-pound howitzers. 

Hexamer's A, New Jer-ey — Four lo-pound Parrott guns; 
two I 2-pound howitzers. 

Wilson's F, New York— Four 3-inch ordnance guns. 

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During the winter three events of special interest occurred. 
The first was the great review at Bailey's Cross Roads, No- 
vember 20th, when about 100.000 soldiers passed in review 
before President Lincoln and Gen. McClellan. The 27th 
received special praise for the splendid division lines main- 
tained, in spite of the muddy and slippery condition of the 
ground over which they passed. This review was one of 
extraordinar>' grandeur, and it seemed as if there were troops 
enough to move through the Confederacy without a repulse. 

The next event was the execution of a soldier, named 
Johnson, of the 1st New York Cavalry, on December 13th. 
He was taken while attempting to desert to the enemy, with 
the intention of having his company captured on the picket 
post. On his person were found drafts of the fortifications. 
It seems that he was from New Orleans, and had joined this 
command for the purpose of serving the Southern cause. 
He was speedily tried, and sentenced to be shot. The en- 
tire division was marched out to witness the execution, and 
formed on three sides of a square. The prisoner was placed 
in position, blindfolded, and while kneeling upon his coffin, 
ten members of his company marched to within a few paces, 
and fired their carbines into his breast. He fell forward on 
his face, and the troops marched past the body and back to 
their camp. This was the first execution after the opening 
of hostilities, by sentence of court martial. 

January i, 1862. — The new year was welcomed in by the 
firing of cannon and music by the bands. Volley after vol- 
ley of musketry was fired, until the whole army participated 
in the noisy demonstration. Citizens of Washington and 
Alexandria were alarmed, thinking that a battle was being 

But the "red-letter" day of the regiment, while in winter 
quarters, was the nth of January, '62, the occasion being 
the return of about thirty of the prisoners who had been 
captured at the Bull Run battle. Considerable picp.iration 
had been made in anticij)ation of the day set for tlieir re- 
ception. .V triumjjhal arch of evergreens was erected on 
the extreme left of the street between the officers' quarters 




and the companies' quarters. ,\t the centre of the arch, 
within a wreath, was tlie number '"2']^' and below, tiie fol- 



3 " '^'<^^i'' Wounds Bleed A^fresli ^ 3 
c^c^ in oi-ir Hefirts;." 




It was Saturday afternoon. The whole rei^iment turned 
out. and, headed by Scott's Band, and preceded by Gen. 
Slocum and btaff, marched down the Alexandria road about 
a mile, where they met the comrades, fresh from a Southern 
prison pen. under the command of Corp. Merrill, whom they 
had selected to direct their movements. They were a fan- 
tastic squad, — some dressed with government blankets over 
their shoulders, to protect theni from the wintr>- blast ; 
others, with rags hanging about tlieir emaciated frames. 
The regiment halted and formed in two ranks, open order, 
facing inward. Gen. Slocum and staff, with the field o^- 
cers, ad\'anced and saluted the prisoners, and escorted them 
between the open ranks, while Scott's Band pla\cd " Bold 
Soldier Ikiy," and the whole regiment set up a terrific 
cheering. The line was re-formed, and escorted the pris- 
oncr^ to Camp Clara, where the parade was dismissed, and 
ever}' one participated in a sort of do-as-\'ou-please enter- 
tainment until a late liour. The enthusiasm was conta- 
gious, and many officers and men from other regiments, 
cam[)ed in the \!cinit>-, c.uiie to hcijj wclconu' the returned 
comrades, and participate in the general hilarit}-. 

The ne.xt day the Richmond bo\'s, each with a furlough 
for twenty days, started for a visit to their several luuiies. 



From this time till Spring, is known as the " Season of 
inactivity." Some of the time picket duty was performed 
in the midst of severe rain and snow storms, the men 
suffering greatl)-. The camp was like a mortar-bed ; dress 
parades and drills' were impossible. Details were made to 
cut wood and bring it to camp. Roads had to be repaired. 
and it took si.x horses to draw a one-horse load. This work 
continued imtil .March 10th. when the wood details were 
discharged, and the regiment marched, in a pouring rain, to 
Fairfax C. H.. fourteen miles from our camp. This move- 
ment was made b\' the whole army, and called a " parade," 
because the enem>- was not found, ha\ing retreated to the 
Rappahannock, leax'ing strong fortifications, — from which, 
it would seem, they never could have been driven. The 
regiment, while at h^airfax, was camped near the village, 
and Col. liartlett named the location, " Camp Diven," in 
honor of Hon. A. S. Diven, of Elmira, N. Y. Here, for the 
first time, we camped under small shelter tents: there had 
been issued, to each man, two pieces of twilled cotton cloth, 
about four feet wide and ^i.x feet long ; when these were 
buttoned together, they formed what was termicd a '* shelter" 
tent ; but that was a misnomer, and the boys thought it 
must have been adopted because of the very imperfect 
shelter they afforded, — e.\'ce[:)t in dry and pleasant weather. 
As two comrades generally sle;;t together, the e.xtra two 
pieces formed the ends or gables of the shelter, and when 
these pieces were sloped out su.fficicntl)'. it was possible for 
a medium-sized man to crawl in on his hands and knees, 
and, by lying in the center, shelter himself from a light dew ; 
but when two were obliged to squeeze into this queer 
sort of .1 " dog-house," as we dubbed it, somebod\^'s feet 
generally protruded. When it rained, the water trickled 
through the ridge where tiie pieces were joined ; the rain 
also finding its way through the thin material, fell in 
fine spra\' upon our blankets. I>ut carrying our own 
tents reliexed the b iggage trams of a large p.irt of their 
load, and the nuiv.ber ot wagons was corres[-)(,)ndingl3- re- 
ciuced. liic men recognized the necessitv of this, and 

lifi I!!.' • 


after a little became reconciled to the change, and we had 
no other shelter during the remainder of our term of ser- 

The soldiers will all remember Camp Diven with iiUercst. 
One day while here, a long train of army wagons passed the 
camp, loaded with lager beer, going out to Blenker's Di- 
vision of Germans, camped more to the front. A very large 
number of men collected on each side of the road, gaping 
at the novel train, with their mouths just watering for the 
good stuff, that was "so near, and yet so far!" Rut, like 
all good soldiers, they were equal to the occasion and 
presently, as the train was ascending a little hill, some one 
managed to cut the strap.-, that held u[) the tail-gate, and 
the ropes with which the canvas ct)ver was tied over the end 
of the wagon, — when out rolled barrel after barrel ol t he- 
Germans' beer. These were quickly rolled to one side, the 
heads knocked in, and thousands of men, with tin cujjs and 
pails, could be seen running to the train, all an.xious to get 
a taste of the booty. Load after load was thus dumped on 
this hill, and finally it was found necessary to make a charge 
with a whole regiment of cavalry in order to drive off the 
raiders, and to protect the train over the balance of its 

We remained in Camp Diven two days. 

The nights were so cold many coukl not sleep ; 
but the foraging was very good, and many a porker was 
brought in. 

While at Fairfax a new organization of the Army of the 
Potomac was made. Slocum's brigade and i^Vanklin's di- 
vision were placed in McDowell's corps, and called 2d Brig- 
ade, 1st Division, ist Corps. 

On the 14th, the regiment marched back and bivouacked 
near Brenton's Tavern, and on the next day returned to 
"Camp Clara," where we remained till the morning of April 
4th, when Fred, l^cnder's bugle called the regiment into 
line, and we started on a m.irch to .Alex, uidria, and t(^ok 
the cars to Manassas Plains, and fn.mi there marched, via 
Bristol, to Catlett's Station, where we bivouacked for sev- 



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30 RKCDKI/ OF 27TH KKcW.MKNT N. V. V(>[.S. 

eral days, under our shelter tents. While here a terrible 
storm of rain and snow eame on, and the camp, beint^ on 
low ground, was almost flooded, so that the men had to 
abandon. the camp and seek slielter on hiL^iier c^round,. under 
sheds and in negro cabins, near a farm house. Mere we bmlt 
up rousing fires in those old \'irginia fireplaces, and around. 
them at niglit the men could be found in scpiads, singing, 
(while the pitiless storm raged without), "Do they miss me- 
at home?" and other songs, all tending to cheer them up^ 
in their forlorn condition : and could \ou have looked in' 
upon us, you would have found a hap})y, jolly crowd.- 
The calves, chickens and pigs that were brought in, were 
served up in sa\ory style, and the feasting and revelry that 
marked this camp will be long remembered b\- every com- 

Some of the officers will remember the unci\il manner 
in which Gen. Kearney drove them off w hen they sought 
shelter at a house where he had established his head- 

The weather having cleared, we returned to camp, 
and at daylight on the 12th boarded the cars, and returned 
to Alexandria, where we went into camp, near Fort Ells- 

Before leaving Catlett's Station, there was a dispute be- 
tween Gens. Slocum and Kearney as to which brigade 
should take the cars, as there was transportation for one 
brigade only. It was decided in favor of our brigade, and 
we boarded the platform cars and started, being drawn b)- 
two wheezy old engines. We mo\ed along very well on 
the level track and down-grades, but on the u[)-gradcs we 
had to dismount, and sometimes help the engines up with 
the empt\- train. The consequence was, that w heii we ar- 
rived at Alexandria, we found a [)art of Kearne}-'s men 
already in camp, — he having marched them o\'er the dis- 
tance in better time than our train made I 

■'. ' ;..h Jf. bM£ 


WE remained in this camp till the 17th. when the vey;u 
ment. accompanied b)- Gen. Slocum and staff, em- 
barked on the steamer S. R. Spaulding and sailed down the 
Potomac, passino- Mt. \'ernon and other points of interest 
on this historic stream. 

For a time the scenery alono the banks w as mai,niihcent, 
and the men. accustomed onl}- t<. ploddinu up and down 
the hills, through X'iroinia mud. enjoyed the new sensation 
of a sail very much: but at ni-ht a \-i()lent storm set in; 
many were sea-sick : and. w hile the wind whistled throuoh 
the shrouds, and the \esscl rolled. makin!4 but little head- 
way in the darkness, many a man was ready to exchano-e 
'• iiis life on the ocean w a\ e " for the red mud attain. 

We remained on the steamer for several da\s: were quar- 
tered on the upper deck, without -shelter fn.m the rain, and 
with no facilities forc<-okino- .,ur iond. We ate our salt 
pork raw. and sometimes (by payin-- the cook), u e could 
get enough hot water from the galle>- to make a cup of 

On the afternoon of the J3d we ran down past Fortress 
-Monroe, securing a hue \iew of the outside of the fort. 
At dafk we ran over to .Ship Point, and on the 24th landed 
near the m..uth of the \'(M-k Kivcv. an<! put up ,.ui- tents in 
a l)eautiful grove of pine tree- along the shore. Here oys- 
ters and clams were plentiful, and, u hile the main part of 
the .irmv- was b<->;ieging \orkto\\!i. we (pnetl\- lem.niied at 

vr:'T" i/.i I > 



this safe distance, and fairly reveled in the bivalves, fresh 
from the beds. On May 3d, Yorktown was evacuated, and 
the next day we bid a sorrowful L^ood-by to our camp and 
oyster-beds, and re-embarked on the S. R. Spaulding ; an- 
choretl in the bay for the nii;ht. and at daylii,dit (May 5th) 
ran up the ^'ork Ri\ er as far as Vorktow n. and anchored. 
While here we could distinctl}' hear the cannonading of the 
battle of Williamsburg. On the following day the fleet ran 
up the river to West Point, the S. R. Spaulding in the lead. 
The journey was one that never will be forgotten by the 
soldiers of that command. The banks and sloping hills 
were green with the heavy foliage of May. and the beauty 
of the scene far exceeded anything before witnessed by the 
men, on the soil of Virginia. It was a sun-burst of Ma\- 
glor\-. preceding the gloom of a tedious and blood}- cam- 
paign. A landing was effected at Brick House Point, on 
the left bank of the river, opposite West Point, the regi- 
ment going ashore in small boats. — Col. Bartlett, in a boat 
with Co. " C." being the first to land ; and, after searching 
the field with his glass, ordered the regiment ashore. Onl\- 
a few of the enemy's mounted \idettes and infantr\' scouts 
were discovered. The regiment was deployed as skirmishers 
upon the open j)lain. which extended back a mile or more 
to a dense forest. Across this plain the line advanced to a 
roadway running into the woods, along which the jiicket 
posts were established for the night, in scpiads of three or 
four, with inter\'als of four or fi\e rods between. In the 
rear of this line lay the reserve. About dark two prisoners 
from the 5th Texas were captured, on the left. One of 
these was a \ery tall man, and the other a little short man, 
who wore spectacles, — a coniical looking soldier. 

Darkness sc^on came on ; the night was \ery cold, and 
the men began their anxious watch thri>ugh the long, tlark 
hours. Ihe moon rose o\er the wo(k1s soon after i i o'clock, 
and exposed some of the po-;ts to the view of the enemy — 
wiio were lurking in the woiuls. All seemed ouiet in 
froiU til! IJ o'clock, when Lieut. Bailew of Co. 1). began 
his tour of inspection along the \ idette jxists. lie tarried 



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to chat with some of his men who were stationed in a clear- 
ing occupied by two or tliree " poor-white-tra>h cabins." 
with the gardens grown uj) to bushes. Through this clear- 
ing ran a wagon track, w hich terminated at the woods, with 
a set of bars. Hailey seated himself on the knapsack of 
Corp. Crocker, who was standing guard, and with whom he 
was conversing in a low tone, saying "he was anxious to 
meet the enemy in battle on the morrow," as he had never 
been in an engagement, on account of sickness. Crocker, 
hearing a rustling of the leaves in the direction of the 
woods, notified Bailey, who, seizing the gun of one of the 
comrades who was lying down, took his staml bv the side 
of Crocker, both peering into the darkness: soon they saw 
approaching, along the roadway, two men walking side by 
side, with guns at a trail, and not more than fifteen or 
twenty feet distant. " Halt ! Who cumes there 'f" de- 
manded Baile\-. The two men immediatel>- diew their 
pieces, Crocker and Bailey doing the same. Two 'of the 
four pieces were discharged, Bailey and one rebel falling 
with their guns cocked, neither having fired. Crocker, with 
his companions, retired towards the reserve, re-loading his 
piece as he did so. They then lay down in silence the bal- 
ance of the night. , i,, 

At daybreak, when the ad\ance was made, we found a 
body dressed in gray, a few feet in front of our fallen officer. 
Both the victims lay on their backs, outstretched at full 
length, with their heads in opposite directions. Baile>- was 
shot through the heart, and the rebel thn-u-h the left arm 
and neck. On search, the dead Confederate provetl to be 
Sergt. \Vm. Hartley, of the Fourth Alabama. ( )n his body 
was found an .)rder from Gen. Magruder. authorizing Hart- 
ley t(^ act as a scout ; also a revolver, and a gold watch of 
antique English [)attern. After the war, Lieut. C. X. Elliott 
forwarded the watch to Hartley's family, at Huntsville. 
Alabama, and received a kind acknowledgment of the c(-)ur- 
tesy. The watch pro\ cd to \,r :ui old laniil>- relic. 1 Lutlev 
was a \ ale graduate, and a X'ounLi man of proiiii-.e. .Xmon^- 

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lIic loiters found on his person were some from a young 
lad} friend in New Haven. 

Lieut. Bailey was from Binghamton. N. Y., and a young 
officer of great promise, and a favorite with the whole reg- 
iment. He had received his commission only a few days 
before, and this was his first tour of duty as an officer. 
The ball that killed him passed through the Compan}- Roll- 

RcLi, Bt»<)K (.)i- Co. " D," sunwiNc Bn.r.ET-HoLi-: and 
Blood Stains. 

Ri:\()1ai:r Foind o\ (tuf, Ri:r,i,i.) H.\R'ri,Kv"> Bodw 

l^ook. which he carried in his left >idc pocket, ami tItrovi:;h 
th, iiaiiu- of Cro.Lir. This ;.;h.i>tl\- tlUc is >ti!l i)rcscr\eil 
h\ OIK' of tlu- conii-iidcs of (_■ .. "D." Coi-i)onil Crocker 
.still o\vn> the rexoKer that was found on the bod\- of his 





victim ; and. by the way, has made New Haven his home 
since the war, and is now living in the same city as the lady 
whose lover he killed on that memorable field. The body 
of Lieut. Bailey was placed in a rough board box, and ten- 
derly buried by his comrades, at the side of the York River, 
beneath two weeping-willow trees, and marked by a board. 
The body of Hartley was interred where he fell. This 
tragic death of Lieut. Bailey, and the swift retribution that 
met the handsome, daring Rebel scout, was a marked inci- 
dent in the history of the regiment. 

At daylight On the morning of the 7th, we advanced our 
line of skirmishers into the woods, and soon had our picket 
line established in a half-circle, with the York River on the 
left, and the Pamunkey on the right. ^ ^CTQAn'^ 

About 9 o'clock Capt. Jay, of Co. F. with a detaif Tmm 
different companies, made an advance through the u oods. 
Seeing a few cavalrymen on a hill in advancJ, his force was 
so disposed as to capture them, if possible. As the little 
force advanced, the cavalrymen leisurely fell back over the 
brow of the hill, and the Captain bid his men go on.— say- 
ing he was a little lame, and would follow as fast as he could. 
When the advance reached the top of the hill, they found 
themselves within short range of a heavy line of battle. 
Our boys fired their pieces, and then retreated.— some to 
the cover of the woods on the right and left, and others 
straight down the field, in the direction from which they 
had advanced, followed by a shower of rebel bullets. 
Sergt. Ronk. of Co. " C."' sought shelter behind a clump 
ot bushes, where he remained till nearly every branch was 
sh(.t away by the enemy's balls. Then jumping up and 
running forhis life, he cleared a rail fence at a single bound, 
and came down in a deep ditch on the other side. He often 
afterwards declared that he was the worst frightened man in 
the Army of th.e Potomac. In this retreat Capt. jay led 
tile line. He was not lanie then: hatless. and with 'coat- 
t.iils Hying, he came through the wo..ds upon the reserves, 
shouting: out of these woods! Cet out of these 
woods !" 

I, J: 


When our men discharged their pieces, an officer seated 
on a gray horse fell to the ground ; and the next day, when 
the advance was made, we found a fresh gra\'e, and the 
headboard was marked. " Major , of the First Regi- 
ment of Texans." Two of our men were lost. 

The enemy followed up closely, and a general engage- 
ment came on. The plan of the Rebels was to drive our 
skirmishers from the dense woods, and endeavor to get a 
position in the open ground between the woods and the 
river, from which the_\- could reach our place of landing and 
our transports with their artillery fire. The open plain was 
covered with Union regiments, batteries of artillery and 
battalions of cavalry, the division having all landed. The 
battle now commenced in dead earnest. The forest was all 
ablaze with musketry. They succeeded in driving us away 
from the \\oods, but when the\- attempted to advance, our 
fire was too much for them, and they were driven back, 
with the aid of the artiller}- and the gunboats, which sent 
over the heads of our men, their ponderous messengers of 
death. The battle continued till 3 o'clock, when the enemy 

After being relieved, we had little to do except to watch 
the shells as they exploded between the contending' lines : 
and, aside from the danger connected with it, it is one of 
the grandest things, in the firev/orks line, one ever saw. 
We could not see the shell, but by aid of the sound its 
path could be traced. At first it rushes along high in air, 
at a rate that puzzles the e\-es and ears to follow it, 
when — presto I change ! and w here nothing had been seen 
before, a little cloudlet of whitish blue smoke appears, and 
the sharp report soon conies to <.>u\- ears. Tht- furious whistle 
or screech of the shell, its tremendous rapidity, its instant 
explosion and apparentl\- deail stop, make it wonderfully 
exciting and brilliant. 

The ca.-ualtics of the battle of West Point did not fall 
heavil)" on our regiment. 

The following extracts are from the rept)rts of the com- 
manding officers, in regard to the battle of West Point : 



I ',; .;j..v 

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Ji.i.. 1 

GEN. franklin's REPORTS. 37 

Hkadqi-arters Franklin's Division, ) 
At Brick Hoi sk, May 7, 1S62. 1^ : — I have the iionor to report that. thif. mornino;, about seven 
o'clock, our pickets were driven in on our left tlank ; and that, after skir- 
mishing for about two hours, the action became quite sharp at the riiiht 
extremitv of that tlank. Our reserves were driven in several times, but 
returned to their positions with ardor. Finally we held the position which 
we had taken in the morning, and at several points of the line ailvanced 
our positions. Wiierever we ad\'anced, the enemy was found in ritk-pits. 
The day has been a success, and but for the extreme want of forage and 
provisions, we might have follcnved it up. As it is, I congratulate myself 
that we have maintained our position. Gen. Newton's command was 
most severely engaged, and his conduct and that of Gen. Slocum, who 
have charge respectively of the right and left wings, was admirable. 

All of the officers and men behaved admirably, and with transportation 

and forage we could move on to-morruw. The killed and W(ninded and 

missing amount to 1S6. .; . 

Very respectfully, '' .' '• -■■■:■'£•'■''■'■ --.-i ■.vr-i 


Brigadier-General Commanding Di\ ision. 

' ■ Hkadqiartkrs of Division, ) 

White Hocsf, Va., >Lay 17, 1S62. j 

Genfrai, : — I have the honor t(j make the following report of the land- 
ing of my division on York River, near West Point, on the bth instant ; 
and of the action with the enemy, near the point of disembarkation, on 
the 7th instant. 

In obedience to the orders of the (ieneral-in-Ghief, the division let't 
(Tieesman's Treek during the night ot the 4ih. usiny for the inf;iiui\ and 
a portion (jf the cavalry the trans[iortati')n which brought them fmm 
.\lexandria; and for the artillerv. boats fastened together in p.iirs, 
decked over so as to serve as wharves for landiui.;- ; .ind a few buries and 
schooners. I arrived at the point desimiated for the landing at three !■. M. 
of the 6th. The liuidini: comnieiired :is so<m .is a reconnoissance of the 
shore was tinished. Mv iL-noiau. ,■ ,.t the i.;pomai)liy of the place of l.iud- 
ing, and the fat t that the enemy's cavalry and i'.ifantry were seen m the 
woods sunouiulinir the I'hiin i>n which we lahdeii, as soon as the landing 

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began, convinced me that something .as to be feared from the enenn- in 
^he m During the night one of our pickets and one of the enem Vs 

were k.lled, and two prisoners were taken by our pickets. From the.e 
we learned that the enemv .vas in large force in our front, and that we 
were to be attacked in the n.orning. Precautions .ere taken during the 
n.g t to prevent the success of an attack. The roads approaching the 
land.ngwere obstructed by felled trees; the vigilance of the sentinels 
was redoubled : the wood surrounding the plain upon which the landin. 
was made was thorou.hlv watched by pickets which were posted bv CoL 
Bartlett s Twenty-seventh New York Regiment, the Colonel bein. .enera. 
officer of the day, and to ti.eir watchfulness and ethciency our s'uc^ess of 
the next day is, to a great extent, due. 

Nothing was hear.l from the e„e„,v until about nine o'clock in the then firing between the pickets in the vicinitv of the road en- 
tenngthe plain from the interior commenced, and increased in violence 
unt.l the action became severe, between ten and eleven o'clock The 
Twent3.seventh Xew York Regiment, (-.,. Hartleu, was on picket during 
the n.ght of the 6th. Three companies helped to ,-ommence the contest 
on the next day. They behaved well ; and Cap,. ,av, of that regiment 
was dtst.nguished for his good conduct and good sense. The othe; 
seven companies of th.s regimen, supported Wdson's Batterv durino^ the 
day. I recommend to your favorable consideration (iens. Slocun, and 
Newton, who commanded the lef, and win..s ; both showed superior 
sk.ll m placing troops on the t.eld. I regret that our loss was so heavv 
but .t is no larger than might have been anticipated, considering th: 
severity of the attack and th.- nund,c,s engaged on both sides. 
\'ery rcspectfullv un:rs, 

' ' i.'i- h'.-(- • . Commanding Division. 

,. ^ . .. Hkaihu-akikk. Si-..-.,m. Bri.;adk, ) 

Nkak U'K.r F^.iNr, Va.. .May 7, 1.S62. \ 
S.K :-I have the honor to repo.t that, in .he en.agen.ent u-hich 
to-day. I was i,. comman.l of the centre and lef, win. of our forces It 

was apparent, vnon after the conii>au,vi,„-n, nil, 

"oiau, ■ nuin ..[ Ill,, eiiuauemcnt. ,liat the 

eliorts of ,1 

vuuesi i<( ( Imu \....>,f.... I .. 

him. consis 

"'■'^' '•' '- ^l">''-' "un.W. ,,.ain.r ou, ri.h,win. 

and at the ivc|uest ot (if n. Xrwion, I v,-,,, teiuton 

ing of the FiUh Maine, and ,he ,^Ur.,,U and Z^ZZZu^^vZ 



which arc attached to tlic britradc under my command. All of our troops, 
so far as my observation exteniled, behaved with i^rcat coolness and 
hravcri-. The First Massachusetts Hattery, under command of Capt. 
Porter, is entitled to <rrcat credit for the accuracy of its fire. 

I am yreatly indebted to ("apt. H. C. Rogers and other members of 
my staff", all of whom were actively entjaged durin<^ the entire day. 
I am, sir, very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, H. W. SL(J("U.M, 

Brigadier-General Volunteers. 

He.\D(iu.\rtkks TniKi> Bric.vdk. } 
' '■ ■' West Poi.nt, Va., May S, 1862.^ 

Sir : — I have the honor to report the result of the action with the enemy 
on the 7th instant. Early in the morning of that day, the division having 
landed at this place the night previous. I made, as far as time permitted, 
an examination of the ground upon which we had landed ; and aided by 
information obtained from Captain Jay, of the Twenty-seventh \ew York 
Volunteers — whose gallant conduct during the day deserves honorable 
mention — I became satisfied that the map of the locality furnished us was 
entireh' incorrect, in a military point of view; in consequence of which 
it became necessarj' to change the location of my brigade to the right of 
the position. 

A little before 9 .\. M. the pickets commenced firinii on the front of the 
right of our position, and I immediately directed Capt. Hexamer's battery 
to harness up and proceed to that point. Pickets then signaled the en- 
emy approaching in large force, xvith cavalry and artillery, upon the right, 
which was occupied by my brigade. Soon the firing of musketry in front 
became very quick and rapid, and in heavv volleys, indicitine the presence 
of a large force before us. After a gallant and olistinate resistance, our 
pickets and several reconnoitering parties which had been sent out. were 
driven in by overwhelming forces. The pickets fell bark in szood order, 
and, being reinforced by two rcLMnients, weie airain sent forward. Hy 
II A. M. the force of the enemy engaged had become so that my men 
were forced back to the edge of the woods, retirinu' sloulvand m excellent 
order. I then threw into the woods, in front of the riudit, four reuimenis, 
with directions to '•feel" tli-- i-neiuv, ,ind m.iii'taiii ilirii -r.Miiu! .it .ill 
lia/.irds. I am happv to sav ih.ii this was inVciu.d. .nid '.<<t ihrte 
hours — until 3 I'. M., when the a'-tinn terminated — my position was firmly 
hcld.jwhen the enemy slowly retired. 

.»(i jfri ,' ♦«. ri 

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! I' :," '•> '.i.'Ji ff^iciw 
1 /' :/;,) -i-i-i -.unh'iJ-i 

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G.^n. Slocuin, who commanded the left and centre ot the division, f^en- 
erouslr fi;rnii.hed mewitliall the assistance I required. Among the troops 
engaged on our side were three companies of the Twentv-seventh New 
York. All tie troop; eii^;aged behaved with great steadiness. 

Our loss in tiie action was over 200, in killed, wounded and missing. 
I regn I 10 add a long list of killed and wounded among the officers en- 

Capt. lless, of the Thirty-first New- York, with a single company in 
front ot r regiment of the eiiemy, was killed, and his two lieutenants were 
wounded — one mortnllv. and the other severely. Of this one companv all 
the non-cfjmiiiissioned officers, save one, were killed, and forty privates 
killed and wounded, — evincing a degree of heroism which is worthy of all 

All the troops engaged behaved with great steadiness, and there were 
many oilier instances of heroism among the officers and men brought to 
my notice, but thev are too numerous to be included in a report. 

The enemy committed inhuman barbarities upon some of the wounded. 
One was found with his throat cut, and another bore the marks of eight 
bayonet stabs in his body. 

I have no means of ascertaining correctly the force of the enemy. We 
know, however, that it was at least Gen. Whiting's division, including the 
Ham[it(iii Legion. ISesides this large body of the enemy, a reserve at 
least ::Ky.<vH) strong was sujjporting the attacking force. The attack which 
they made \s as evidenth" witli a view to prevent the division molestmg 
their line of retreat, and to drive us into the river, if they obtained the 
advantaL'f. The gunboats rendered elficieiU service by throwing shells 
into the enemy, at :i distance of two miles. At the end of the dav we 
occupied a position in advance of that held at the commencement of the 

I am, very res[>ectfullv, 

V , ,'• ^' V.t ,"'ll:. 

\ our olH'dient servant, 

JOHN NEWTON. '''■"-'' 

Commanding Right Wing tieneral Franklin's Division. 

'iJMf I'':?- JH>ii' 


In the Peninsular Campaign, 1862. 


Major-General H. W. SijjlUM, Commanding. 
First Brigade. — Col. A. T. A. T»jrbkut. — 1st, 2d, 3d and 
4th New Jersey Volunteers. 

Second Brigade. — Col. J. J. Bartlkit. — i6th and 27th 
New York, 5th Maine and 96th Pennsyh ania. 

Third Brigade. — Brigadier-Gen. JoiiN Nkwton. — i8th, 
31st and 32d New York Volunteers, and 95th Pennsylvania 
(Gosline Zouaves.) 


Piatt's Batterv' D, 2d United States — Six Napoleon guns. 

Porter's A, Massachusetts — Four lo-pound Parrott guns ; 
two 1 2-pound howitzers. 

Hexamer's A, New Jersey — Four lo-pound Parrott guns; 
two 12-pound howitzers. 

Wilson's F, New York — Four 3-inch Ordnance guns. 


Major-Gen. William F. Smith, Commanding. 

First Brigade. — Brigadicr-Cien. W. S. HANCOCK. — 5th 
Wisconsin, 49th Pennsylvania. 43d New York, 6th IMaine. 

Second Brigade. — Brigadier-Gen. W. H. Broijks. — 2d, 3d, 
4th, 5th and 6th Vermont Volunteers. 

Third Brigade. — Brigadier-Gen. Davioson. — 33d, 77th, 
49th New York Volunteers, and 7th Maine Volunteers. 


Ayres's F, 5th United States — Four lo-pound Parrotts 
and two Napoleons. 

Mott's 3d New York Battery — Four lO-pound Parrotts 
and two Na{)oleons. 

Wheeler's E, ist New York— I-'our vi'ich Ordnance guns. 

Kennedy's 1st New York Battery — bix 3-inch Ordnance 


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The next mornin- after the battle a detail from our regi- 
ment accompanied Gen. Slocum beyond our lines, to ascer- 
tam the position and numbers of the enemy. Marching 
through the woods, evidences of the conflict' of the prevf- 
ous day were noticeable on all sides. Large trees were 
sphntered by the gunboat shells, dead soldiers were strewn 
here and there, and the ambulance force was busy gathering 
the bodies for burial. As the escort was moving^'leisurely 
along, they met two colored men coming in from the en- 
emy's lines. They were carefully questioned bv the Gen- 
eral, as to the location and numbers of the enemv. One 
of the colored men replied : " Bar's heaps ob dem out in 
de field. Dis poor uneducated nigger can't count 'em. but 
day's like the locusts of Egypt, and dafs as near as I can 
cipher it, Massa." The escort did not advance further, but 
soon after returned to camp. Two days the regiment lay 
m camp three miles from the battle-field, at Brick House 
Point, and on the nth moved to Eltham. While here 
Gen. McClcllan rode through our camp, and the same day 
It was announced that the enemy had evacuated Norfolk. 
We then began to move up the peninsula, in the rear of 
the rebel army, which was gradually drawing closer to 


If! '■ ■■.; ".y. ,I»T» 


As we advanced, in a deserted rebel encampment we 
found numerous loyal secession songs, which their soldiers 
were encouraged to sing. The following is a sample : 

Come, all ye sons of freedom, and join our Southern hand ; ■, f 

We are going to fight the enemy, and drive them from our land. I 

Justice is our motto, and Providence our guide, ' ' i 

So jump into the wagon, and we'll* all take a ride. • ' ' 

Chorls — Wait for the wagon, ' .■■^' '- • ; . ■ 

The dissolution wagon ; f)'" . ' .1 ...;'; 

'■■1 ■ '. -y. The South is our wagon, ; ■ -..', ,1 ^• - ■■ • 

And we'll all take a ride. 

Secession is our password, and our rights we'll all demand, 

And to defend our firesides we pledge our hearts and hands ; ' "''■'- * 

Jeff. Davis is our President, with Stephens by his side, ' 

Brave Beauregard, our General, will join us in the ride. ■ i , v ' 

Chorus. ' ^ j 

Our wagon's plenty large enough, our running-gear is good. j 

It's stuffed with cotton around the sides, and made of Southern wood; \\ 

South Carolina is the driver, with Georgia by her side, '. % 

Virginia will hold our flag up, and we'll all take a ride. | 

Chorus. ' ' j 

There's Tennessee and Texas also in the ring ; ■ l 

They wouldn't have a government where Cotton isn't king ; 
.\labama, too. and Florida have long ago replied ; 
Mississippi is in the wagon, and anxious for a ride. '1 

Chorus. " ' 

■ ■' ■■■ • ■• ■, '■ .j 
Kentucky and Maryland are slow ; I 

They must join ere long, or where will they go? j 

The Missouri boys are ready to join our noble tide, , 

So come along, brave Jackson,, and join us in the ride. "' ; 

Chorus. 'r\ 

Our cause is just and holy, our men are brave and true ; 

To whip the Lincoln invaders, is all wu have to do. 

God bless our noble army, — in Him we all confule. 'nrv 

So jump into the wagon, and we'll all take a ride. 

CuoRl s — Wait for the wa-oii, 

The dissolution wai;on ; ^ 

The South is our wauon. 
And we'll all take a ride. 


On the 13th St; rrcJ at 3 A. .\r., and after a ten-mile march | 

in the scorching" sun, we reached the sandy plain of Cum- | 

berland. Here \vc formed a junction with our main army, i 

that had come up from Yorktown by way of Williamsburg. ; 

Soon after getting into camp, the enemy made a dash on | 

our wagon train, which created some alarm. We were f 

called into line, but the excitement was soon over. Cum- f 

berland was made a base of supplies for the Army of the \ 

Potomac ; and while here Gen. McClellan organized two 
additional army corps : the Fifth Corps to be commanded j 

by Fitz John Portci,and the Sixth Corps to be commanded | 

by Franklin. By this change, Franklin's division and 
W. F. Smith's division constituted the Sixth Corps, and 
Gen. Slocum assumed command of the First Division. 
Col. Bartlett was put in command of Slocum's brigade, and 
the 27th Regiment was commanded by Lieut.-Col. Adams. 

May 15th, broke camp at daylight, and marched to White 
House (about eight miles), on the Pamunky River, — a place 
where it is said Gen. Washington first met the widow Custis, 
who afterwards became his wife. Rained hard all day ; the 
roads muddy, and baggage delayed. All agreed that it was 
one of the most fatiguing marches the regiment had ever 
made. We were not allowed to take the fence rails for 
fires, and we passed a cheerless, tedious night. 

May 20th, marched to Tunstall's Station. Here the mile- 
posts on the railroad read: "To Richmond 18 miles." 
Towards evening, advanced three miles, and bivouacked 
after dark. The next day we moved on to Cold Harbor, 
on the Chickahominy River; and on the morning of the 
22d, in company with the i6th New York, a section of ar- 
tillery, and two companies of the First New York Ca\'alr}-. 
we were sent on a rcconnoissance towards Mechanicsville, 
under c<jmmand of Col. Bartlett, and advanced about six 
miles, — close up to the enemy's lines. After ascertaining 
the position of the enemy, we returned to camp, where we 
arrived about 11 V. M.. having lost only two cavalrymen — 
one of w horn was killed, and the other captureti. 

Col. Bartlett was complimented in flattering terms by his 


Col. a. D. Adam: 


superior officers for his skill, and the important information 
he had gained as to the position and numbers of the enemy. 
The next morning Stoneman was heard pounding away at 
Mechanicsville, which soon fell into our hands. 

On the 37th broke camp, at daylight, during a hard rain 
storm, and marched into Mechanicsville. Pitched our tents 
in a beautiful grove, in the centre of which was a large 
hotel, built on the crest of a high bank, which sloped back 
some distance from the Chickahominy. It was a lovely 
spot, five miles from Richmond, and, in ante-bellum days, 
a favorite resort for people riding out froni the capital, to 
spend a pleasant afternoon or evening. There were only a 
half dozen houses in the village, all of which showed the 
marks of the shelling they had received ; and a shot that 
passed over a wheat field near by, had cut a trough just 
below the heads, the size and shape of the under side of 
the shot, as clean as it could have been done with a sickle. 

To the left of our position the main army was encamped. 
Previous to our arrival, the bridges over the Chickahominy 
had been destroyed, and McClellan built eleven bridges, 
with logway approaches across the swampy bottom lands 
which border the stream. These were all soon swept away 
by a flood, and had to be rebuilt. From this camp we per- 
formed picket duty along the river, going as far north as 
Meadow Bridge, — the enemy saluting us with an occasional 
shell. One day a twelve-pound conical shell came whistling 
through the air, and buried itself in the ground near a re- 
serve party. As it did not explode, the men dug it up and 
took it to a gunner of Upton's battery, who inserted a new 
fuse, and sent it back, aiming at a supply train that was 
passing in the distance. It struck and blew up a wagon 
loaded with ammunition. — the gunner sustaining his repu- 
tation of being the best shot in the Army of the Potomac. 

A prominent object of interest to all the soldiers, since 
landing on the peninsula, has been Prof. Lowe's captive 
balloon, which is attached to headquarters, and in which 
some of the officers make an ascent ncarl\' every day, for 
the purpose of inspecting the rebel lines and watching their 

a"perilous balloon ascension. 47 

movements. Occasionally the rebels train a gun on it, and 
try to reach it with a shell. They do not succeed, however; 
but one of these shells, the other morning, came over our 
lines, and dropped down into the cook-house at Gen. Slo- 
cum's headquarters, scattering the camp kettles and demor- 
alizing the cooks, — who were just then preparing breakfast. 
Sometimes these ascents are quite perilous, — at least the 
one made by Gen. Fitz John Porter, in front of Yorktown, 
early in April, proved to be. The following account of it 
is taken partly from the New York Herald : 

Yorktown, Va., April ii, 1S62. 

The exciting event of the day has been a balloon reconnoissance, by 
Gen. Fitz John Porter, on a scale of rather larger magnitude than was 
intended. At 5 o'clock in the morning Gen. Porter took his place in 
Prof. Lowe's balloon. He supposed the usual number of ropes were 
attached to it, whereas there was only one ; and a place in this, as was 
afterwards ascertained, had been burned by vitriol used in generating gas. 
Taking his seat in the car, unaccompanied by any one, the rope was let 
out to nearly its full length — the length is about 900 yards — when, sud- 
denly, snap went the cord ! and up went the balloon ! This was an un- 
expected part of the programme. The men below looked up with aston- 
ishment, and the general looked down with equal bewilderment. 

" Open the valve !" shouted one of the men below. " I'll manage it," 
responded the general. L'p went the balloon ! higher 1 ! higher! ! ! It 
rose with great rapidity, and the wind was taking it directly over the en- 
emy's lines. Hv this time every stall" officer and hundreds of others were 
looking at the run-away monster. It was impossible to describe the anx- 
iety felt and expressed for the fate of him, the brave general, who was 
thus, apparently, being taken directly into the enemy's hands. In the 
meantime the, having no wish to drop in among the rebels, 
thought it best to let the valve take care of itself ; and, throwing out a 
little ballast, soon rose out of the reach of the rebel bullets, and employed 
his time in taking notes of the rebel objects below. Crowds of soldiers 
rushed from their tents, and he could hear their shouts distinctly. The 
map of the country was clearly discernible. He s;iw Yorktown and its 
works; York Ri\er and its windings. 

Fortunately a counter current of air struck the balloon, and its course 
^^'as reversed. Its retreat from rebeldom was rapid, and when safelv over 
our lines, he opened the valve, the gas escaped, and down he came. The 

I ' i<'|A ..c'' ;■•//( aA 

■ ■/', ill 

1 \tr< ..-.:) 


til . nU i' ,; qK jK .7ln->li 


car struck the top of a shelter tent, knocked the tent into " pi," and left 
him enveloped in a mass of collapsed oil silk. He crawled out, and 
found himself in the middle of a camp, not a hundred rods from Gen. 
McClellan's headquarters ; and was soon surrounded by the members of 
his staff and a squad of cavalry, who had ridden out in the direction of 
the descending balloon. 

" You are a suspicious character 1" remarked one of the officers. 

" How so ?■' asked the general. 

" In the space of half an hour, you have been taken up by a balloon, 
and arrested b\' a shelter tent." 

Gen. Porter made over one hundred ascents in the bal- 
loon while on the peninsula. 

While at Mechanicsville the battle of Hanover C. H. was 
fought. May 27th. Gen. Porter commanding; the F"ifth 
Corps engaging the enemy, who had fallen back from 
Fredericksburg towards Richmond. ()ur regiment was 
ordered to be prepared for action, and the reserve artillery 
in the grove was made ready for an attack. 

When we were ordered to prepare for action, a recruit in 

Co. notified his captain that he did not want to go 

to the front. He was taken over to headquarters and re- 
ported to Gen. Slocum, when he began to cry, and begged 
to be sent home. The general made game of him, and 
called him a big baby. " I wish I was a baby, and a girl 
baby, too I" whimpered the soldier. His tears, however, 
did not avail, and he was sent back to his company, where 
he soon learned- that he could not clear right out every 
time a fight was brew ing. 

The roar of Porter's conflict was distinctly heard, and 
all indications pointed to an engagement in which the 27th 
would again be numbered. Nothing came of it, however, 
as Porter soon routed the enemy. 

On the night of the 30th occurred one of those terrible 
thunder storms for which X'irginia is noted. The rain tle- 
scended in torrents, the tki^he-^ of lightning were \ivid and 
continuous, and the thunder at tniies seemed to fairly shake 
the earth, and at others soundeil like volleys of musketry. 
In the morning the low lands were deluged, the Chicka- 

i. I • V.-A--11'* (>riir. 

;. Jtoq 



hominy had overflowed its banks, the bridges were swept 
away, — and the army had been cut in two by the rapid and 
unlooked-for rise I The enemy, taking advantage of this 
condition of things, determined to fall upon, and if possible 
crush that portion south of the river. Accordingly, on the 
31st, the battle of Fair Oaks was fought; and June ist, 
that of Seven Pines. During the latter battle our regiment 
was called out, and made a feint upon the rebel videttes at 
the Mechanicsville bridge, but elicited no response. All 
day we could see their columns moving towards Fair Oaks, 
but we were cut off from crossing the river to the support 
of our troops. 

June 1st, the regiment went on picket, and received a 
good shelling from one of the enemy's batteries. A few 
rounds from one of our batteries soon silenced them. The 
paymaster arrived on June 2d. and we received two months' 

The same day Gen. IvIcClellan issued the following order: 
Headquarters Army of the Potomac, / 

Camp near New Bridge, Va., June 2, 1S62. C 
Soldiers of the Army of the Potomac : 

I have fulfilled at least a part of my promise to you. You are now 
face to face with the rebels, who are at bay in front of their capital. The 
final and decisive battle is at hand. Unless you belie your past history, 
the result cannot for a moment be doubtful. If the troops who labored 
so patiently and fought so gallantly at Vorktown, and who so bravely won 
the hard tights at Williamsburg, West Point, Hanover Court House, and 
Fair Oaks, now prove worthy of their antecedents, the victory is surelv 
ours. The events of ever>- day prove your superiority ; wherever you have 
met the enemy you have beaten him ; wherever you have used the bayo- 
net, he has given way in panic and disorder. I ask of you now one last 
crowning effort. The enemy has staked his all on the issue of the coming 
b.utle. Let us meet and ciush him here, in the vcr>- centre of the rebellion. 
Soldiers. I will be with you in this battle, and share its dangers with 
you. Our confideiue in each other is nuwf,nin<UJ ui'on the past. Let 
us strike the blow which is to restore peace an, I union to this distr.icted 
i.uiJ. Lp.m your valor, discijiline and mutual ccmtidcnce that result de- 
I'«^^'"Js. GEO, \^. M( ('LELLA.X, 

Major-Generul, ( 'onimanding. 

.>. b'Mltil •>!./; 



June 4th the regiment was again on picket, and on the 
6th, after returning from picket, received orders to move. 
We left Alechanicsville just before sunset, and made a de- 
tour of several miles to the right of the direct route, and 
reached our former camp at New Bridge just before mid- 
night. The next morning we were called in line at 3 A. >f., 
and stood under arms until daylight, expecting an attack. 

During the 8th the regiment was engaged in building 
corduroy roads across the Chickahominy swamp ; and on 
the 9th received another lively shelling from one of the 
enemy's batteries. 

Went on picket again on the 13th, and on this date the 
rebel Gen. Stuart, with about two hundred men, made the 
entire circuit of our army, capturing two companies of the 
5th U. S. Cavalry. 

June 15th again we were at work on the corduroy ap- 
proaches to the bridges across the Chickahominy, and con- 
tinued at this work till the i8th, when we moved across the 
river, to the south side. 

There were now eleven of these trestle-work bridges 
across the river. The one on w^hich we crossed is named 
Woodbury's Bridge, after Gen. Woodbury, of the Engineer 
Brigade, who constructed it : and it was regarded as a tri- 
umph of military engineering. The approach to the bridge 
on the north side, from the foot of the hill, was of earth, 
raised about three feet. Deep lateral ditches were made, 
and the earth from these was thrown upon a layer of brush. 
There were about twenty cribs built upon the swampy 
shore and into the stream, and be\ond these, six framed 
trestles. On the other side, there were twenty more cribs, 
or firm, compact log piers. Stringers extended from cribs 
to trestles, and from trestles to cribs upon the other side of 
the stream. Upon these were laid logs of nearly uniform 
size, for the floor of the bridge ; and these were ballasted 
on either hand by sticks of timber, wiiich extentled parallel 
with the stringers. 'I'he driveway, which was ele\eii feet 
between these timbers, was covered with earth. The ap- 
proach to the bridge from the south side was of raised cor- 

|»;-/^:) > ^i fit: 

',T^ ;" t>1 JfiT 


duroy. The length of the whole structure, including the 
approaches, was 4,200 feet. The length of the bridge 
proper was nearly 1,100 feet. 

Having crossed, we moved for\\'ard over the corduroy, 
through the wood, into the open country, and went into 
camp on Garnett's Farm, between the river and the battle- 
field of Fair Oaks. We were now so close to the enemy's 
lines that when on picket, in the still morning, we could 
hear roll-call in their camp. Here we constructed bough 
houses, as a protection from the scorching sun. 

While here we had more road-building, till the 23d, when 
we took a rest from this work, many of the men ha\ing be- 
come sick with malaria, which they had contracted while 
working in the swamps. 

June 2d, at 9 o'clock, we struck tents ; then policed the 
camp, and pitched tents in regular order, making a nice 
camp. There was heavy firing on our left most of the day. 
During the night there was a heavy thunder shower ; the 
lightning struck and killed two horses in the camp of the 
96th Pennsylvania. 

Again, at 2 a. M. of the 24th, we heard the bugler sound 
the notes of reveille, and, after roll-call, were ordered to 
stack arms, and have all equipments hanging on the stacks, 
canteens all filled with water, and to hold ourselves in read- 
iness to move at a moment's notice. All day long there 
was picket-firing on the right. 

The bugle routs us out again, at 3 o'clock on the 25th, 
and we lay on our arms all day ; heavy skirmishing by the 
pickets all day. till 12 at night. We were called in line 
three times after dark, but everything quieted down, and 
we slept the balance of the night. During the forenoon of 
the 26th all was quiet, and till 3 i'. M., when suddenly a per- 
fect storm of cannonading burst on our ears, from the direc- 
tion of Mechanicsville, and continued late into the night. 
It moved back in the direction of Gaines' Mill, and we infer 
that our troops are falling back. 

On this date, it will be remembered, Mrs. Ilowland. wife 
"f Col. Ilowland, of the i6th New York, at her own e.\. 

;i.T ('J: 

; ir :'ift JiiJ 


pense, furnished every man in the i6th with a neat, com- 
fortable straw hat. They looked so comfortable this hot 
morning, that our boys, wearing their fatigue-caps, almost 
envied them. 

Hark! At 3 o'clock a. m. of the 27th. the bugle sounds, 
and we are called out and marched down to protect a bridge 
across the Chickahominy. Here we lay quiet all the morn- 
ing, stretched under the comfortable shade of the trees. 
Some played cards ; others dozed away the time, under the 
soothing influence of the sound of cannon, on the north side 
of the river, where the Fifth Corps, under Gen. Fitz John 
Porter, was engaging the enemy. About 2 r. .\r. we saw 
one of Gen. McClellan's aids ride up to division headquar- 
ters, and after a few hurried words with Gen. Slocum, gal- 
lop away. Soon the entire division was ordered into line, 
and, turning to the left, took the road towards Alexander's 
Bridge, across the Chickahominy. After crossing, we m.oved 
a short distance towards the left of the line of battle, when 
we were halted, and our brigade was detached from the 
division, and marched rapidly to the right, behind the en- 
tire line of battle, to the extreme right flank. The shot 
and shell of the enemy's guns, passing over the line of bat- 
tle, fell in our ranks all along the march. This march, mid 
the din and confusion, the screaming of shot and shell, the 
" zip " of minie balls, was a good test of the metal of our 

Reaching the right, we were ordered to seek shelter in a 
small ravine in the rear and a little to the left of the crest 
on which Sykes* division of regulars and the 5th and loth 
New York Volunteers were stubbornly holding in check the 
overivhelming numbers of the advancing rebels. As we 1 
in line, the half-spent balls from the enemy's guns, passin^ 
oyer the crest, came pattering down all about us, like the 
big drops of rain on a dusty road, preceding a hard sh.,u er 
in the summer time,— their places marked b\- little puffs 
of dust, making our position very uncomfortable. Wc 
•saw that several regiments of the regulars were stag- 
gering under the terrible fire,-— when our bri-vad 



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dered up, and one regiment after another was moved for- 
ward, deployed to the right, and placed in position on 
the crest. First the i6th New York, led by Col. How- 
land; then the 96th Pennsylvania. Col. John Cake; the 
5th Maine, Col. Jackson; and then the 27th, led by Lieut.- 
Col. Adams, and Gen. Bartlett, in person, was ordered 
to fix bayonets, and, with three ringing cheers, charged- at 
double quick up the slope, driving the enemy from the left 
crest of the hill, on which there was a dwelling and numer- 
ous out-houses. No rebel troops, howev^er brave, could 
stand the unearthly yell that we had learned to give. A 
part of our line encountered a picket fence, along a garden 
near the McGee house. This they quickly battered down 
with the butt end of their muskets, and moved on and took 
possession of the dwelling and out-houses, from which the 
enemy had been driven, capturing several prisoners, and 
among them two officers. A large body of fresh troops 
soon appeared in our front, but every man held to his place 
and nobly maintained the fight, without giving an inch of 
ground to the enemy, until long after darkness came over 
us, and the position of the rebels could be known only by 
the flash of their guns. 

About dark it was reported to our Colonel that the i6th 
had moved partly into our front, and that we were firing 
on our own men. He gave the order to cease firing, but at 
that moment our supposed friends poured a \'olley into us, 
at close range, which our boys, not waiting for orders, re- 
turned with interest, and the rebel regiment turned and fled 
down the road w hence they came. We continued to fire, 
aiming at the flash of the enemy's guns, until near 9 o'clock, 
when Gen. Bartlett, riding up, gave the order to retire. We 
now disco\'ered that we were the last regiment to leave the 
field, all the regiments on the right having been withdrawn ; 
and the order did not come a minute too soon, for a brigade 
of rebels had alrcad)- ad\-anceci past our left, and were al- 
most in our rear. Tlu; regiment left the field in good ortler, 
marching as if o!i parade, and bringing oft' nearly all our 
woundetl, including Major Gardiner, who IkhI been disabled 

.- r* 

Maiok C. C. Gakdinkr. 

w ■-, . ■■^■,i> 

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early in the action by the concussion of a shell ; and Capt. 
White, of Co. B, who had been shot through the hip. and 
was lying on the ground in rear of his company. 

Again a line of battle was formed, near the ravine in 
which we took shelter in the afternoon, and w^e remained 
here till about 12:30, when we retired across the river, and 
returned to the camp that we had left in the morning. 

In this battle there were several incidents which many of 
the men will recall. In Company ** C," just as the charge 

was ordered, a certain man threw a cracker at private , 

who, previous to this battle, had been on detached service. 
The cracker hit him on the leg, when he fell as if shot, and 
left the field. The next day he was read off on parade as 
a coward. 

Two men in the same company, during the hottest of the 
firing, stood up and had a fierce fist fight. One, it seems, 
had stepped upon the other while he was lying down, and 
the other demanded satisfaction. The captain had to 
move to the left of the line and part them. 

In Company " B," two men were shot through the leg by 
the same ball, and aftenvards both of them died from the 
shock, after undergoing amputation. 

As we withdrew from the field and approached the river, 
numerous little fires were burning, at which soldiers were 
stationed to direct stragglers to their regiments. These 
men were calling out : '• This way to the 1st Jersey ! " " This 
way to the loth New York!"' etc.: and, a little further on, 
some wag had seated himself on a gate post, and was call- 
ing out, " This way for Broadway and Fifth Ave !" His 
grim humor put new life into many a weary limb, and woke 
up the irrepressibles all along the line. 

During the night, all the Fedora I forces were withdrawn 
to the south side of the Chickahominy ; the last of the rear- 
guard crossing after daylight, destroyed the bridge behind 

In this battle of Gaines' Mill the regiment lost heavily: 
12 men were killed. 10 officers and 106 men wounded, and 
-3 men missing. 

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Cai'T. H. R. WiiiTt, Co. "B." 



H .TMA > 


Ever>' man in the regiment has reason to feel proud of 
his record made in this engagement. The brilHant charge 
of the regiment up the slope, and the stubborn manner in 
which they held the ground from which the regulars had 
been driven, even in the face of the fresh troops that the 
enemy hurled against the position, and the steady manner 
and perfect order in which they made the retreat, were fully 
recognized in the general orders of commanding officers. 

All about us, in the gathering darkness, lay the bodies of 
the dead and wounded ; the blue and the gray were mixed. 
The gray, the .blue, and the artillerymen, in their red- 
trimmed uniforms, lay side by side, while the blood flowing 
from their wounds mingled together. So night closed upon 
the second of the " seven-days " f^ght in front of Richmond. 
The Fifth Corps had for hours alone withstood the as- 
saults of a rebel force aggregating, towards night, between 
sixty and seventy thousand men ; and. at the close, with 
the aid of the two fresh di\-isions — Slocum"s and P'rench's, 
with the Irish brigade— had caused the armies of Jackson 
and Lee to halt. 

Twenty-two cannon fell into the hands of tiic enemy, the 
horses having been killed or wounded. Includmg the'two 
supporting divisions, the troops under Porter numbered 
about thirty-three thousand men. 

At the battle of Gaines' Mill the Union loss was: 894 
Willed; 3107 wounded; 2836 missing; total, 6837, or one 
in four engaged. On the Confederate side the loss in killed 
and wounded was much greater than ours. 
^ The following statement from Comrade Wm. H. Lay. of 
Co. '■' D," will be of special interest to the friends of the 
l<illed and wounded in the battle of Gaines' Mill : 

"On the day of the battle, I made a mistake in not keep- 
ing with the regiment when it fell back to the second line. 
I remained to re-load my piece and give the rebs. one more 
_-Hot, before doing so. On going back to the line, which re-formed about ten rods to the rear, and while passing 
•^^negro cabin. I heard Col. Adams give the order: " The 
-7th this way." I turnedjin behind the cabin, and was 

,>h •», 

J aililf -jflT 


with two Others, ordered by the colonel to go inside and 

get Henry Frazer, of Co. " H," who was seriously wounded, | 

and carry him to the rear. t 

While doing so, our whole line fell back — the enemy ad- ? 

vanced, and we were caught ! This was soon after dark, i 

and we were placed in a garden near by, until morning, by | 

which time the number of prisoners had greatly increased. f 
Soon after daylight, ten or fifteen of us were paroled, and 
detailed as nurses to care for our wounded — about 250 in 
number — the most of whom were scattered over the field . f 
where they fell. We did not finish gathering them all in 
from the field until Sunday afternoon, the 29th, two days 

after the battle. All the prisoners, e.xcept the nurses and ' 
wounded, were sent to Richmond. 

The" suffering of the wounded was intense, as the pangs 
of hunger were added to the pain from their wounds and 

the torture of the amputation table. We were without / 

food of any consequence until the 4th day of July, when \ 

the enemy brought and issued to us flour, bacon, salt, etc. I 

The flour we made into dough, and baked it on flat stones, « 

placed around a fire built out in the field. This, though f 

as heavy as lead, the men eagerly devoured, and seemingly t 

could never get enough to satisfy the cravings of their j 

hunger. Death came to the relief of many of the boys, » 

whose remains we buried after sundown and before sunrise, < 

as we were too weak to dig graves under the hot sun. I 

The following is a partial list of the 27th boys who died \ 

there, and were buried by us: Corp. James H. Burlison. of | 

Co. " G ;" Eugene Rappel, of Co. " G ;" Henry M. Gould, | 

of Co. " G ;" Alexander Miles, of Co. " G." | 

I searched among the dead for the bodies of Irwin Burge 

and Ira Frederick, of Co. " D," who were killed during \. 
the charge, but did not succeed in finding them. Thev, no 

doubt, were covered, as were the bodies of others scattered ; 

all over the fiekl, by a burial part\- of the encm\', which I ' 
saw at work ihn'uing a little soil ovrr thcni. 

,-\t the end o\ eighteen days, all who were left there were 

transferred to the hospital at Savage Station, where we re- ;; 



Sylces' Di 

Biilterficld's Brigade. 



Warren's Brigade. 
I £. U. Chapm.m's •• 
'1 h\ /, r. Buchanan's " 
\PtoH. Bartlett's 

I K. Meade's Brigade. 

McCall's Division-!/^. Sevinoiir's " 

I M. Reynold's " 

A'. Cavalry. 

»., ,,„ u ) O. Robertson's Battel 

Artdlery Reserve -j ^, Tidball's 

A 1 


I I 

m'clellax's disfatcii, 59 

maincd about two weeks, when the wounded were all placed 
aboard cars and forwarded, via Richmond, to City Point, to 
be paroled. The nurses, after reaching Richmond, were 
confined in Libby Prison. Here two more w^eeks slowly 
melted away, at the end of which time the occupants of 
old Libby were transferred to Bell Isle, and fed on " fly 
soup," "beef-hair soup," and once a day a morsel of bread 
and meat. Sweeter bread, meat and soup, I never tasted 
before or since (?) 

On the 14th day of September, the seven thousand pris- 
oners, who had been packed in the small space of two acres, 
were released on parole, and escorted by rebel cavalry down 
the James River to Aiken's Landing; were placed on board 
of our transports that were there waiting for us, and were 
once more under the old flag. 

The following is an extract from Gen. McClellan"s dis- 
patch to the Secretary of War, dated Savage's Station, 
12:30 A. M., June 28th. 

" I now know the whole history of tlie day. On this side of the river, 
tile right bank, we repulsed several strontr attacks ; on the left bank, our 
men did all that soldiers could accomplish, but they were overwhelmed 
by vastly superior numbers, soon after I had brought my last reserves into 
action. The loss on both sides is terrible: I believe it will prove to be 
the most desperate battle of the war. The sad remnants of my men be- 
haved as men ; those battalions who fought most bravely, and suffered 
most, are still in the best order. My regulars were superb, and I count 
upon what are left to turn another battle, in company with their gallant 
comrades of the volunteers. Had I twenty thousand, or even ten thou- 
sand, fresh troops to use to-morrow, I could take Richmond I But I have 
not a man in reserve, and shall be glad to cover my retreat and save the 
material ami the personrel of the army. If we have lost the day, we have 
yet preserved our honor, and no one need blush for the .-Vrmy of the 

6o RECORD OF 27X11 RKGIMKXT N. \. VOLS. ..* J 

The following extracts are from the official reports : | 

Report of Brigadier-Gen. Henry W. Slocum, command- I 

ing First Division. | 

Cami' near Harrison's Landim;, Va., ) |' 

July S, 1S62. \ I 

Sir :-On the 271!, of Jime las., in cbediencc to orders rt-ccivcd from | 

Gen. Franklin. I ordered the briiradc ronunanded bv (ien. Neuton to f 

cross Alexanders Brid^^e. to the left bank of the Chickahon.inv, to the I 

support of (7en. Porter. The order uas received at 2 o'cbx-k v. m., and | 

the brigade immediately moved, in liirht marchin- order. At 2:-,o i-. m. 
I was ordered to cross at the point, uith the remainder of mv division. f 

The movement was executed at once, and (ien. Taylor's brigade crossed f 

at about 3 i>. M.. follou-ed by the bri-adc of Col. Bartlett. "* * 
Having received no specitic directions as to the disposition of the remain- 
ing brigade, under command of Col. Joseph J. Rartlett. of the 27th New 
York, I directed Col. Bartlett to take position on the extreme left of the . I 

line, near the neu- road leading through the valley, from [)r. (Jaines' house t 

to Alexander's Bridge. On approa. hing the point indicated. Col. Bartlett t 

found our troops engaged to the right of his position, and immediately I 

moved his brigade to their support. He was subsequentlv ordered to the I 

right of the line, to support Gen. Svkes, uhose troops, fati.r.ed by the f 

long contes. of tins and the previous dav. were nearlv overpowered bv the f 

overwhelming numl,ers of the enemy. Porter's batterv (A), of the First f 

Massachusetts Anillerv. was assigned ,0 the contmand of Col. fiutlett, 4 

and remained with his bri-ade rluripg the dav. * * * * ' | 

As to the conduct oi the othors and men of mv division, 1 have only I 

to say that the division entered the rield S,o,« st.ou^, and that the list of I 

kdled, wounded and missing amounts to 2,021. These lists attest the ^ 

devotion and heroism of olflcers and n.en. Notwithstanding this fearful ^ 

loss, all the regiments |,ft the held ,n uood order, and returned to their | 

camps m the same con,pact and ,.rder!v manner that marked their march to , 

the scene of conflict. The bri.,.de co:nmanders. tiens. Newton and Tavlor t 

-Hi Col. Bartlen, are each entiiUd to the greatest praise, no, o„,v fo^ t 

therr heroic conduct on the held, but for their untinng e.Torts after the f 

close of ,lH. act,on. in b, i„::in:, ,.|, ,h.- wound,.!, ..ud in maintaining order 
and steadiness ;nnid the pie.ah n, ,onf„Mou. ' 

•i'-l.-". p.„ticularlvseve,, onlvin ( 

numbers, bu, in the character of those killed and wounded. Col. Tucker ' 

/ / .^. 

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slocum's and bartlett's rhpokts. 6i 

and Major Ryerson, of the Second Nt-w K-rscy. and Lieut. -Col. Heaih, of 
the Fifth Maine, were killed while giilhintly discharging theirduty. Their 
loss is deeply felt in their regiments and through'uit the division, anil will 
be lamented by a wide circle of friends. Col. (^(jsline and Maj. lliibbs, 
of the Xinety-fifth Pennsylvania, and Lieut. -("ol. Marsh, of the Sixteenth 
New York, were mortally wounded, and have since died. Col. Howland, 
of the Sixteenth New York ; Col. Pratt, of the Thirty-First New York ; 
Col. Jackson, of the Fifth >Laine ; ^laj. (.iaruiner, of the Twentv-seventh 
New York ; and Maj. Hatfield, of the First New Jersey, were so seveiely 
wounded as to be rendered unfit for duty. * * * * 

Of the many other orlicers of less rank — the non-commissioned officers 
and soldiers — I cannot speak in detail. Like soldiers and like men, they 
performed their duty and met their fate, and a L-^rateful country will long 
bear them, and the thousand nameless heroes of this conflict, who have 
ofTered up their lives at the nation's shrine, in lasting and honored remem- 


(-'ommanding First Division Sixth Corps. 

Report of Col. Jos. J. Bartlett, Twenty-Seventh New- 
York Infantry, Commanding Second Brigade, 
of the Battle of Gaines' Mill. 

H'(jKS2i) Brii;.\dk, (ih.\. Si.ocim's i^i\.,(.rii Prow .Xi^mv Cuki'.-,, / 
H.\KRis(.N-s;, Va., July 7, ij02. \ 

Sir : — .At daylight on the 27th of June, I put my command under arms, 
in light marching ortler, in compliance with or^lers from Brigadier-Cen. 
]{. W. Slocum, commanding di\ision. and mo\-Ld at 5 30 a. m. to a posi- 
tion near Duane's Bridge. .\bou: lo o'clock \. \I. I was ordered to mo\-e 
back to camp. While on the march the enemA' opened a hea\y tire of 
artilleri- upon our lines, and I once nujre ordered l>ack '.o the bridiie, • 
to prevent any attempted passage by the em my, \vho were now threaten- 
ing (»en. Porter's forces on the left liank of the < "'uckahominy. 

-After paiti.dlv destroyin- the bridge, by order of Cen. \Y. B. Franklin, 
(Dmrnandirir Sixth Provisi,)nai .VrmyCoips, I wasreiie\ed by a piitii.n 
of (Jen. Blocks' briLMde, and marched about 2:}n o'clock, pursu.iiu to 
orders of Cieii. Slocum, to cro^s \Vo(idbu;y's Hiidge, .uul hasiLU to i!ie 
assistance of Cien. Porter's forces, who were at the time being severely 

'i I- : : 

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.! . ;•' -r:.',.., ■ll 

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pressed. I accordingl}' reported to Brigadier-Gen. Slocum, on the first .v 
hill rising above the river on its left bank, about 4 o'clock p. M.. and was ;■ 
ordered by him to proceed to the extreme left and engage an enemy, who : 
seemed at that distance to be turning our flank. Ncaring the position ;. 
indicated, it was found to be thoroughly protected by Acting Brigadier- 
Gen. Averell's cavalr>' and Rush's lancers, and that the enemy was being ,' 
driven by our infantry through the woods. I discovered, however, that * 
our troops were being repulsed in my immediate front, and hastened to i 
form line of battle to support our hard-pressed lines. The Sixteenth ^ 
New York, which led my brigade, was already formed and moving for- ^ 
ward, when I was ordered by an aid-de-camp of Gen. Porter, command- V 
ing, to report with my command on the extreme right of the field, to | 
Brigadier-Gen. Sykes, commanding the division of regular infantrv-, j: 
which I did at about 4:30 p. m., suffering a loss of fifteen killed and -j 
wounded, by round shot and shell, while making the flank march across | 
the whole length of the battle-field from left to right. | 

Immediately upon reporting to Gen. Sykes, 1 was permitted to cover j. 

my command in a ravine to his rear and right, and allow the men to rest, I. 

of which they were greatly in need. Capt. Porter's First M.TSsacluisetts i, 

battery reported to me at this juncture for orders, and sceins no chance *■ 

to engage the batter^", commanded as it was by an officer whose rare merits i 

and brilliant reputation were well known to me, 1 was obliged to shelter | 

it in the ravine in rear of my infantr\-, which position it kept until an I 

enfilading fire from a batten,- on the extreme left of the enemy's line was i 
poured upon it, to which it was impossible to reply from any position 

that could be taken up by him. I then ordered it to take position to the y 

rear in the second line. : 

At 5 o'clock p. M. I was ordered by Gen. Sykes to bring forward my £ 

men to support the troops on his left and a portion of his own command, | 

who were unable longer to withstand the fierce attacks and withering fire |' 

of the enemy, who were slowly but surely forcing back the riijht of the } 
entire line of battle. At tliis juncture I ordered forward the Sixteenth 

New York Volunteers, Col. Joseph Howland commanding. From the | 


position of the regiment it was necessarj' to change front forward on first | 

company under the most terrific fire of musketrj', with the shells and * 

round shot of two batteries raking over the level plain, making it seem- 

intrly impossible for a line to withstand tlu- tire a single iii>;tnnt. But 

with the calmness and precision of veteran soldiers the movement was ^ 

executed, and the line, giving three cheers, long and loud, rushed on to * 

relie\'c their now routed friends, led bv their noble colonel and mvself in 

bartlett's report. 63 

person. The position was gained, and I then ordered up the Ninety-sixth 
Pennsylvania, Col. Cake commanding, to continue my line to the left. 
The murderous tire across the plain rendered it almost impossible for 
their gallant colonel, aided by Lieutenant-Col. Frick and Major Martin, 
to form his line of battle ; and I am pained to state that their noble exer- 
tions were not in many instancts secondc d by some of the line officers, 
who lacked that impulsive enthusiasm and cool determination required of 
them under such trying circumstances, and I was forced to lead forv»'ard 
the third regiment in line, the 5th Maine V'olunteers, Col. N. J. Jackson. 
This regiment also changed its front in tiie most soldierly manner, and 
under the sweeping storm of iron and leaden hail, sent up their battle- 
shout and rushed upon the enem}-, forcing back his lines and holding the 
crest of the hill in our front, from which our troops had so recently been 

The Twenty-seventh New York Volunteers, Lieut. -Col. A. D, Adams 
commanding, was now ordered to the front, and after executing the same 
maneuver of changing front under the same scathing tire, charged bayo- 
nets, and giving three ringing cheers rushed at double quick upon the 
enemy, who occupied the left crest of the hill, on which was a dwelling 
and numerous outhouses; nor did they stand to meet the impetuosit)- of 
their charge, but retreated so precipitately that they left as prisoners in 
our hands two of their otficers, who were vainly endeavoring to make 
them stand their ground. Thus the left and right of my line of battle 
being retaken and established, and the Ninety-sixth Pennsylvania Volun- 
teers being in line and eager for the fight, I ordered them to the front, 
and most nobly now did they respond to the command. No officer or 
man faltered, and their solid and unwavering line pressed forward to 
their position, and completed the front. 

The enemy now hurled his fresh troops in double numbers against my 
line, directing his heaviest fire upon my left, and the Twenty-seventh New 
York Volunteers and Fifth Maine staggered back under the fearful fire ; 
but it was the recoil of the lion to gather new strength to support the un- 
daunted resolution of e^'ery breast, anrl once more ever\- man sprang to 
the front, where they nobly maintained the fight, without giving an inch 
of ground to the enemy, until long after darkness showed the flash of 
t'very musket, and revealed to the enemy how small a force wa'^ holding 
iliem in check. 

To meet the fire which came from our left. Col. Rowland, who held 
the right of my position, changed front forward on tenth compan}', and 
the- line thus establi^^hed held its position until all firing of musketry had 

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• (1 V#!l*f»' .»|(! 

64 RECORD OF 27711 REGIMENT X. V. VOLS. '* "" 'I 

ceased on tht- field, except that frtini my own hri.cade; and not until nearlv $. 

eveiy cartridge had been expended, was the order gi\en tr) retire hehintl g 

our batteries, which were posted about 6'» yards in the rear. fe' 

In retiring-, 1 first withdrew my right regiment in line of battle, then Iv 

the next from the right, holding the two left regiments to protect the i 

movements, as I was conipletcl\- flanked on the left bv a brigade of the f 

enemy, »vhich he had mo^ed up in the darkness from the woods, and had * 

just opened a galling cross-fire upon my left and rear. I 

The withdrawal of my brigade was done under my immediate com- 4 

mand, regiment by regiment, and in as good order as when they were | 

taken into the held. t 

From the moment my troops were engaged up to 8:30 o'clock p. m. (at f 

which hour it was too dark to distinguish an enemy at the distance of hftv | 

paces), thev nol)l\- held the position assigned to them, and regretted the |: 


necessity which compelled them to retire from the field. I formed a new | 

line of battle in front of the hospital on the second hill from the bridge f 

with the Twenty-seventh and Sixteenth New York, and a part of the Fifth i 

Maine, the Ninety-sixth Pennsylvania Volunteers having, by some unac- f 

crjuntably mistaken order, recros-^ed the bridge and returned to their camp. K 

At 12:30 A. >t. I was ordered to recross the Chickahominy, and repair to | 

the camp occupied by the brigade before the battle. 4; 

With many painful regrets I have to report the loss of five hundred |' 

otficers and men. It is with sorrow that 1 record the death of Lieutenant- | 

Col. \V. S. Ht-ath. Fifth Maine \'o!unteers, who was killed by a riHe-shot | 

through the forehead, wlule gallantlv leading his men to the charge. Col. \ 

N. I. Jackson being wtjunded in the arm in tiie first part of the engage- ^ 

ment, the command devol\-ed upiui tiiis able, accomplished and dev(jted i. 

otficer. whi> fell noblv <lischarging his duties to his regiment, his State, f- 

and his countr\-. Lieutenani-Onl. Samuel Marsh, Sixteenth New York « 

Volunteers, was mortally u-ounded in the neck b\- a minie ball whilst f 

riding in front of his regiment, waving his sword and cheering his men f- 
on to nobU- deeds. Th.- service has lost in Lieutenant-f/ol. .Marsh an alile 

oiTicer and a true pairid!, and his brother mhcers a genial companion and t 

a noble friend. Lieut. E. T Ellriidi. Ninetv-sixth Penns\l\ania \'ohin- i 

teers, and Lieut. .V. M. Hirnard. Sixteenth Xt w N'ork Volunteers, wi-re »; 

killed u-hile f.dthfidiv .ind fearb-sslx- dis.-lKirirlug duties. * 

Were I r.t direct vour .uteniiiiu !•> the in .iv.-rv arul etlici(nr\-. the '-ool- 4 

Mc-s .ir the :ntrepid:Ty d" ,inv individual oittrrr, I ic.w I sli,,iiM by impli- t 

cation wrong ihc majoritv of my commaml. In the repoits made to me l- 

\'\ the roinniaiuiing oilicers of rc-i'uents, nnue liavr been luui,' f.ivoraldv '• 

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harti.ett's ret'ort. . 65 

mentioned than others, wink- all a^^si'^n the same reason for the omission 
of a time-honored practice — that when all were hra\o, eneriretir and etfi- 
cient, no invidious distinction could be drawn. I: is left for me, therefore, 
to mention onlv those wiiose inotlesty restrained them from lecountinu 
their own valor antl efficiericy. . 

I would particularlv mention ''ol. Cake, Xinety-sixtli Pennsylvania , 

Volunteers, wlio exhibited rare traits of niilitarv e\cellen(e. ("ool, ener- l 

jretic, fearless and decided, with, the assistance of Lieutenant-Col. Frick 
and Major Martin, he has won an enviable name for his regiment, which . y 

will alwavs be sustained while the command rests in its present hands. j 

To Col. Ios(.'p!i [lowland I am indebted for niaintaininLT the extreme > 

right of my line ; for ntibly leading- his reLfiment to the char<re, and re- '. 

taking two guns from the enemy. Whatever of noble, moral, physical, ;' 

and manly courage has e\erbeen gi\"en \>\ (iod to man, has fallen to his lot. S 

Cheering his men on to victory, he earl}- receivetl a painful \\')und, but 
with a heroism worth\- oi the cause he lias sacrificed so nuicli to maintain, 
he kept his saddle untd the close of the battle, and not till then yielded 
to the painfid and exhausted condition to which he had l)ee!i reduced. 

Col. N. J. Jackson, Fifth .Maine X'oliinteers, was wounded while lead- 
ing his rei:iment to the charge on the extreme left of the line. His cool- 
ness and clear, decided tones, kept his regiment like one man nujvinti 
steadily to the front. In him 1 lose an able, ethiMtnit and mnnlv otficer. 

Lieut. -Col. A. D. .\dams, coic.manding die Twenty-seventh .New York 
Volunteers, led his reLrimeut in a brave, masterly manner, and maintained , 

one of the mi>st important positions of the line, with a full and com- 1 

prehensivciie«s of the (-ritica! position tiie whole army would be placed in 
were he to falter or ui\e waw He was everywhere, encouiaging and di- 
recting Ids men, and three times durinu; the terrible fiirlit we were niain- 
tainiui:. he closed up and dressed his thin and serried ranks, and tinallv 
led otTfrom the tield .1 weakened but udl-al i-uer] b.ittalion. It is enou<rh 
to s;iv th.U under his command the rwentv-se\ eiith has fuHv sustained its 
former re]nitation. lie was nobly .issisted b\ Major C. C. Clardlner. who 
was early woundc<l in the a. tiou b\ ;i shell. 

Major Seaver. Sixteenth N'ew York VolunteiTs. est;iblished a name on 
this occasion 01 which he m iv wrll In- i.roud. He fearless, enthusi- 
astic and efficient, and nobly fills the place ni.ide \a(aut bv Col. I lowland V 
.Old tbe l.niH-nied Lieuifnant -C. .i . Maish. 

1 ciuinot elose m\ repr.ri v.ithout meniionin- Lieut. Robert P. Wilson, 
my .iiiinu: assi-iaut adjutani-u'ener.d. .lud Lieut. .M. E. Richards, mv aid- 
de-rump. Both were .dl that couhi be expected of educated, btave and 


dashing young gentlemen. At no moment rjf riu- action were they screened 
from the leaden hail that was sliowered upon die ticld. Prompt and cor- 
rect in promulgating orders, they exposed thcnisehes along the whole 
front, and were unceasing in tluir endeavors to aid me in every way. 
I ask for them your consideration. 

I herewith annex an oiiiciai report of killed, wounded and missing, in 

my brigade. 

Very respectfully, 


Colonel 27th N. Y. Vols., Commanding 2d Brigade. 

Capt. H. C. RoGKRS, Act. Assist. xVdjutant-General. • 

Report of Lieutenant- Col. Alexander D. Adams, Twenty- 
seventh N. Y. Infant'-y, of the Battle of Gaines' Mill. 


In TiiF. FiEi.n, July 6, 1S62. \ 

Sir : — I have the honor to ;raii;^mit a report of the action of the Twenty- 
seventh Regiment of New York Volunteers, on Frid.ay, the 27th ultimo. 
Togetiier with tlie other reuimeats composing the hrigaile, the Twentv- 
seventh moved from camp at an caily hour towards Duane's Bridge, for 
the purpose of supporting the divisions of (Jen. Porter, then being en- 
gaged with the enemy. About 4 o'clock \\ M. th(' brigade was moved rap- 
idly down to \V(jodbury's (or .Viexander's) Bridge,* where it crossed, and 
turning to the left, was marched toward the left of the field of battle on 
Gaines' Hill. This regiment, iieing on the left, was first overtaken by an 
aid-de-camp of Gen. Portei. aIio desired that it miuht be halted while he 
overtook the head of the C(.'iunui, as Gen. Porter desired that ('ol. Bart- 
lett's britrade should go to the assistance of the right wing. The delay, 
however, was momentaiy. The head of the column filing almost immedi- 
ately toward the right, the retfinieut resumetl its jjosition and marched 
across in rear of the line of 1 .ml.-, under a he.ivy lire of artillervand mus- 
ketrj', to the p.iMtion assigned. Here Col. B.irtlett, commanding, placed 

*It will be noticed that th'-ie is a dis(ie| aii.-v in the ri-|>orts as to the 
name of the bi id^c ciossed. It seems that wlieii the ..rdevraute in the 
morning for thi- division t'< ■ loss tiie rivei, th'- line started ovei Wood- 
bury's brub.'e. but was recalled. The advance to the battle was made 
f>\ev Alexander'^ bridge. 


the brigade, formed in close column bv division, in a ravine, where the 
men were completely covered, and where they were ordered to lie down 
and rest until called into action. 

In about thirty minutes the retfiments were called up in succession, 
deployed into line of battle, changed front forward, and thrown across a 
slightly rising level field toward the enemy, under a severe hre. The right 
of the Twenty-seventh was directed upon a house surrounded by outbuild- '\ 

ings and an orchard, from which the enemy were firing. When within 
about fifty yards, and before delivering a shot, at the command, " For- V 

ward to the charge !" the line advanced at double-quick, crossed the fence 
in rear of the house, and came up to the front fence, where it encountered 
a destructive fire at close range. The enemy did not offer any resistance ' 

to the charge, and a rapid, steady fire was opened on him. evidently doing 
great e.xecution. At this point two officers were taken prisoners and sent 
to Col. Bartlett. 

A fresh force appearing on the right, the fire of the right wing was . ' 

directed obliquely against it. Soon after, it was represented we were 
firing on our own men, and not knowing how far the Sixteenth New York, 
whose constant volleys were heard on our right, might have advanced, the 
order given to cea.'^e firing, and re-form line of battle on the fence in \ 

rear before mentioned. X 

While this was being coolly executed, the smoke lifted partially, dis- 
closing an apparently fresh line of the enemy in front. The Twenty- 
seventh was at once advanced to its former position, and again opened an » 
effective fire. The small buildings offered a partial cover to a few of the v 
men, who were enaijJed to fire with the utmost precision at a rest. The ' 
fire of the enemy slackened about dusk for a little, and word was again 
brought that our own brigade advanced on the right so as to come | 
within range of the fire of the Twentv-seventh. These reports coming, as ' t 
before,, from officers, induced another order to cease firing, which, how- \ 
ever, was speedily revoked, as the flashes of the muskets revealed the ! 
position of the enemy. Again the line opened, though the rapidly gather- \ 
ing gloom rendered the aim somewhat uncertain. The cessation of the i 
firing on the right of the brigade having attracted attention, it was deemed \ 
advisable to re-form the line— by this time considerably thinned— on the \. 
fence in rear of the house (about three rods), which oflered the nearest ad- ' 
vantagiMnis position, owing tu tlie location of ttie various buililiiiiis. Ihe 
•ippearanre of a l:uge for.e (apparently a brigade) on the left, m:irrhing as 
if to dank this brigade, who responded irreuuiariv to the challenge of the 
color-bearer (and who were afterwards ascertained t.) be the enemvi de- 


cided the propriety of this iiianLnuer. While this was heiiia accomplished. 
Col. Bartlett in person yavc tlic order tor the rcLriment to retire in order. 
On reaching the ravine from which the t)riu;;ide had advanced, tlie regiment 
found itself in its proper position, on the left ot the column. 

Early in the action two companies or more of the Fifth Maine Volun- 
teers, with Capt. Edwards at the head, asked permission to join the line 
of the Twenty-seventh, statini,-^ that tliey had become separated fronr their 
regiment, their colonel and lieutenant-colonel havint; fallen, and there 
being no mounted othcer to direct them. The request was at once granted, 
and they continued with the reuinsent, doing most efficient service in gal- 
lant style. 

The conduct of officers and men was admirable, the former seeming to 
vie with each other in the performance of their duties, and the latter wait- 
ing only the word of command, which insured prompt obedience. The 
temporar>- confusion caused here and there during the engagement, by the 
nature of the position, the falling of comrades, and more particidarly by 
the fire of our own batterv directly in our rear, the shots from which passed 
close over, and in three instances caused trifling injuries to the men. was 
promptly corrected by the united efforts of the otTicers, non-commissioned 
officers and men. 

Instances of indisidual heroism are not wanting, though perhaps not 
suitable for this report. 

The list of casualties, heretofore sent to headcpiarters, comprises 12 
killed, iiS wounded, and 32 missing. 

I am, very res[)ectfully, 

ALEX. n. .\D.\MS. 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Cijmmanding. 
Lieutenant \Vii><)N, 
Acl. Assist. Adjutant-C.en. 2tl Hrigade, Slocum's [)i\isi(jn. 

Swinton's " Army of the Potomac," pai;c 151, says : 

"And thus it happened while on the north side of the (rhicka- 
hominv. thirty thousand Cnicui troops were tjeing assailed by seventv 
thou^.uitl Conf( delates. twent\-fivr thousand Confederates on the south 
side held in check sixtv t!ioii-^a;id Cnion troops! When theretore, Lee, 
with dl his di\isions in hand, in.ide a uimrd .idsanix', it \\:)> with an 
overwhelming weight and i-u-^-iire. Th.- li^ht held it< -nMind witii much 
slubbornm-s-;. repid-^ing e\ i r\ ;iit.iik. I' win^ lu !d uy Svkes' 
division of regidais. and Crillin's bii^^ade. and was snb'^eipiently rein- 
forced bv K.ullett's br!u.ide. oT Slocum's division." 


Gen. McClellan's entire army was now south of the 
Chickahominy, and all communication had been cut off 
w ith White liouse Landing. There were probably nearh', 
if not quite, ninety thousand men for duty in the anny 
after the battle of Gaines" Mill ; and with that body of 
troops united south of the river, and the main portion of 
the rebel army on the opposite side, with the bridges de- 
stroyed, the capture of Richmond would seem to have 
been an easy task, had McClellan seen fit to advance upon 
the enemy which remained in the works before Richmond. 

The Confederate Gen. Magruder, in his official report of 
his part in the " Seven-Days " struggle, says : 

" From the time at ^vhich tlie enemy \\ itluliew his forces to this side of 
the Chickuhominy, and destroyed the bridges, to the moment of his evac- 
uation — that is, from Friday niirht until Sunday morninij — I considered 
the situation of our army as extremely crit'cal and perihju';. The lartrer 
portion of it was on the opposite side of the Chickahominy, - * 

and there were .but twent\'-fi\'e thousand men lietween his (McClellan's) 
army of one hundred ttmu-^and and Richmond." 

While we were in camp at Mechanicsville, in the early 
part of June, some of the scouts of jNIcDowell's army 
reached our lines with the intelligence, that army was 
within a few days' march of us, and would soon join us. 
McDowell and Fremont were in the Shenandoah \'alley. 
holding Stonewall Jackson in check, and expecting to come 
to our support, and help take Richmond. But on the 25th 
it was learned, through a deserter, that Jackson had eluded 
McDowell and h'rcniont. and with fifteen brigades, under 
Whiting and F.well, w as on his \va\- to join Lee, and attack 
McClellan. It was Jackson, with these forces, who opened 
the fight on our right, at Gp.ines" .Mill. 

June 28ih. On chis date was inaugurated the famous 
"change of fri~int." or ri treat oi (uir army across the penin- 
sula to the James Ri\-er. The 27th Regiment was called 
out at 5 A. M.. ill lK-a\-y maixhing order, .ind mo\(;d towards 
the ri\er to supixut oiu' of our batteries. Abotit 9 o'clock 
we were shelled out Ij}" the Confederate batteries on the 
north side of the ri\er. in the \'icin!t>- of INu'ter's position 

;.i) fit Jjr.q rill 

'•' t<> rnrn: 

■jv>': -yu -y-.n /f 


of yesterday. We were ordered to fall back about a mile, 
out of range, where we remained till 2 o'clock, ^^•hen we 
moved down to the river, in the woods, and went on picket 
duty for the night. 

The next morning, the 29th, we joined in the general 
movement to the rear, and when we reached Savage's Sta- 
tion, the line was halted and line of battle was formed, 
facing to the rear. After remaining awhile, we moved on, 
and the scenes that met our eyes beggar description. It 
had been found necessary to destroy the Commissary stores 
and Quartermasters' supplies, to prevent their falling into 
the hands of the enem}'. There were many smoldering 
piles, and others still burning; and there were deafening 
and incessant reports from the explosion of shells and am- 
munition among the stores that were being destroyed. 
A train of cars loaded with ammunition, was set on fire, 
and then the engine was started, on a down grade, and it 
made a rapid run for the river; and, the bridge being de- 
stroyed, it plunged in, amid the roar of bursting shells I 

Here we found the hospitals filled with the wounded 
from the battle-field of Gaines' Mill. Scores of mangled 
men lay upon the ground around the hospital tents: tl;eir 
wearied, haggard and smoke-begrimed faces, which looked 
up to us, appealed not less strongly than their words, that 
they should not be left to fall into the hands of the enemy. 
Capt. Wells, of Co. " C," succeeded in getting control of 
three ambulances, and loaded into them all the wounded 
of his company, and some other wounded men of the regi- 
ment, and these were taken away before the enemy came up. 

Certainly these scenes were more trying to the spirit of 
the soldier than the combats that ensued. The narrow 
roads were choked with the endless trains of artiller\', arm\- 
wagons, and ambulances with their sad burdens. 

Trul\-, " This is a time that tries men's souls." What is 
ti) become of the wounded who cannot bear the jolting and 
swax'ing of the ambulances? Are the hospital tents, with 
their faithful nurses, to be abandoned to the enemy? It 
may be that the safety of the army demands it. Various 

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Capt. C. a. Wells, Co. "C." 

. ;a'J 



are the reflections of men of diverse temperaments. Now 
we hear from a dust-begrimed veteran, with sleepless eyes, 
an optimist to the core: - I have not the faintest doubt of 
the f^nal triumph of our cause, and I have the firmest faith 
in our commander-in-chief." Then one officer replies to 
another, who asks: -'Where are we going?" "To the 
James, to take transports to Fortress Monroe. The 
Southern Confederacy will be recognized within a week." 
^ We moved on from Sa\age Station, across White Oak 
Swamp. There was heavy hring in our rear, by the troops 
in and around Savage Station. .After crossing the swamp 
we went on picket, and remained all night. Earlv Monday 
morning, the 30th, we were ordered out to support one of 
our batteries on the right of Charles City road, in a posi- 
tion to prevent the enemy crossing or repairing the bridges, 
which had nou- been destroyed. A terrific cannonade was 
kept up all day, and we were under fire most of the time, 
but no one was hurt in our regiment, except the adjutant, 
who was knocked off from his horse. 

We held our ground till 2 o'clock A. M. of the 1st of July, 
when we moved on till 9 o'clock, at which tim.e we halted 
to breakfast, on our small allowance of rations; and again. 
at noon, to boil coffee, when we moved on to .Malvern Hill, 
and took up a position on the right of the armv. Here we 
went into the woods and threw up small breastworks, as we 
were ordered to hold this position, to prevent a flank move- 
ment of the enemy. We remained there till 2 o'clock on 
the morning of the 2d. 

Malvern Hill is an elevated plateau, about a mile and a 
half by three-fourths of a mile in area; generally cleared of 
tmiber. and converging :-(;ads running over it. It possesses 
great natural advantages. In front are defensible ravines, 
and the gnumd, sloping tcnvards the north and east, affords 
the aiLillery a clear range. Towards the northwest the pla- 
teau falls abruptly into a Hat. exten. ling to the Jame> River. 
The duelling which crowns the hill, is a quaint structure 
of the last comury. built of red bnck. and stands alx-ut a 
thou>and yard> from the river,- connnandiiiL: a beautiful 


view of the- river for many miles. It was immediately oc- 
cupied as headquarters of the \-arious corps and di\'isions; 
and the signal officers took possession of the roof, u here 
their parti-colored flasks were to be a guitle for the artillery 
of the gunboats stationed in Turkey Bend. 

It was an eventful period in the retreat to the James. 
Lee had determined to bag and capture the National army, 
or drive it into the James. The right of our line was made 
as secure as possible by barricading the roads and slashing 
the timber. On the left, it was feared the main attack 
would be made. Porter's corps held the left, with his ar- 
tillery advantageously posted ; while the reserve artillery 
Vv'as so disposed that the fire of sixty guns could be concen- 
trated on any point in front or to the left. Ten siege guns 
were planted on the crest of the hill, and all the batteries 
available were ready to deal out their missiles of death. 
Between 9 and 10 A. M. the enemy commenced feeling of 
the left wing. At 2 \\ ^L a column moved to the right, 
within the skirt of wood in front of Heintzleman, but be- 
yond artillery range, and soon disappeared. About 3 P. M. 
a heavy artillery fire opened on Kearney's left. The in- 
fantry lay upon the ground until the enemy was within 
short range — when they sprang to their feet, and gave 
them a deadly volley I which forced the rebels to retreat 
in disorder. Again all was quiet till 6 o'clock, when brigade 
after brigade, ha\-ing formed under co\'er of the woods in 
front of Couch and Porter, started on a run across the open 
plain, and attempted to charge on our batteries ; but the 
tire of the artillery and infantry sent them reeling back to 
the woods, leaving the ground covered with their dead and 
wounded. Then came the bayonet charge of ov\x lines, cap- 
turing many prisoners and colors. It would seem that, after 
these rei)ulscs, the>- would abandon the undertaking. Not 
so: again, at 7 V. .M., from the dark pine forest, at a double- 
quick, came their yelling border^ once niort'. dclermined. if 
possible, to take the position .-o >tern]_\- defendetl ; but they 
Were compelled to retire to the shelterof the ra\ines, woods 
and swamps, utterU' broken. 


Shortly after 9 o'clock the artillery ceased its fire, and 
the Army of the Potomac had again checked the advance 
of the Confederate Army. 

We had plainly won a battle, and still occupied a position 
on and around Malvern Hill, froni which, it would seem, 
offensive operations could ha\e been directed against a 
beaten enemy ; but the order came to fall back, and take 
position at Harrison's Landing, on the James River. 

Wednesday, July 2d, at 2 a.m., we started on the march, 
and, though it was short, it was unexampled for mud, slush, 
vexation and misery. Rain fell incessantly. The roads 
were mainly used by the artillery and wagons, and the sol- 
diers were compelled to take their way, generally, through 
the fields and woods. Mud was everywhere, and many lost 
their shoes, and e\'en stockings, in the cla)'e}', dark-brown 
mixture. Many fell out by the way, weakened, as they 
were, by a week's steady marching and maneuvering, and a 
very small allowance of sleep ; while hunger added its 
pangs, to help fill our cup of misery. And \'et we can all 
recall the laughter which rang out sometimes at an unlucky 
fall, accompanied by a curse from the victim. 

So we plodded along till after noon, when we went into 
camp in an immense wheat field — the stalks as high as the 
waist; but before night not a green spear or root was dis- 
cernible, as the whole field had become an area of gray 
paste, by the ceaseless tramp of soldiers and horses. We 
drew a scanty supply of rations, a half-gill of whiskey, and 
then lay down and slept soundly till the next morning. 

The familiar sound of cannonading awoke every one early 
on the 3d, and we were called out in heavy marching order. 
We stood along the road all day, as the mud was so deep 
that we could not find a place to sit down. We mov'ed 
about a mile, and went into camp, in a nice field, drew a 
full supply of rations, and felt quite recruited. 

Jul)- 4th we mo\-ed our camp again, about a miie, cleared 
off the ground, pitched our tents in good onler, and found 
ourselves in a [)leasant cam[), near a suppl}' of good water. 
We then turned in to help celebrate the Natal day. The 

A]rr.'yj'Mf ,\\iA 


L^unboats and batteries fired a National salute, just to let 
the enemy know that the " Yankees " were still alive. 

The week of battle was over: and, according to McClel- 
lan's reports. " The total loss of our army, in the engage- 
ments from the 26th of June to the 1st of July, inclusive, 
was 15,849;" that of the Confederate army. 19,749. The 
Confederate losses, in killed and wounded alone, were greater 
than the total losses of the Army of the Potomac, in killed, 
wounded and missin;^ McClellan says: "No praise can be 
too great for officers and men who passed through these 
seven days of. battle; enduring fatigue without a murmur; 
successfully meeting and repelling every attack made upon 
them: always in the right place at the right time: and 
emerging from the fiery ordeal, a com})act army of \x"t- 
erans, etjual to a.n\" task that braxe and disciplined men 
can be called upon to undertake I" 

Report of Brigadier-Gen. Wm. B. Franklin, commanding Sixth Corps, 

of Operations June 27-July 2, including the Actions at White 

Oak Swamp Bridge, and the Battle of Malvern Hill. 

Ill- \l;iw' ARTi:i;> Sixrn Pruv. A k\[V Ciiki'^, / 

CvMi' NK\K H\kki-m)n's Ea.nuim., \'a. , luiy 17. 1S02. \ 

Gi..\b,u.M, ; — I have the honor to make the follou-ing report of the action 
ot the corps under my command, between .lune 27th last and the time of 
its arrival at this place : 

On June 26th my command was stationed as follows, vi/.; Slocum's 
division was in reserve, encamped on the Courtney Clearing. * * 
On the morninu' of the 27th of June I wa^ ordered to scud (Jen. Slocum's 
tlivision to the east side of the <Miickahominy, to report to (ien. F. J. Porter. 
Afti rthe division was put in motion, and had partly crossed, tiie order was 
countermandeii. and the division returned to ramp. The order was reit- 
•• rated about 2 >)'clock. and the divisidii cro.-=ed the river hy .Mexaiuier's 
liridge, and very soon l)L'canie severely eiiirnged uiili the enem\-. •' * 

On the morning of tiie 2.Sth of June, finding the enemy in great force 

-VI 1,1 <iu^-^< 

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at Garnett's, a new battery in the valley of the river, and a battery of heavy 
guns at Gaines' Hill, I withdrew all the forces to the edge of the wood in- 
closing Golding's farm : Slocum's division on the right of the road, and 
Smith's on the left, connecting with Gen. Sumner's line. We were se- 
verely shelled from all of their batteries, just before the movement com- 
menced, and while it was going on. Just after the movement was com- 
pleted, two Georgia regiments made an attack upon the pickets. They 
were handsomely repulsed, with great loss, with the help of Capt. Mott's 
battery. A colonel, lieutenant-colonel, and about twenty privates were 
taken by our troops. In the morning of the 2i;th of June, I was ordered 
by the commanding general to move my command as follows, vi/.: Slo- 
cum's division to Savage Station, in reserve. * * * Gen. Slocum 
arrived at Savage Station at an early hour, and was directed by the com- 
manding general to cross the White Oak Swamp. * * * 
During the morning of June 30th I posted Gen. Slocum's division on the 
riglit of the Charles City road, by order of the commanding general. 

About noon I was directed to assume command at the position guard- 
ing the crossing of the swamp, and repaired there at once. I found that 
a terrific cannonade had been opened by the enemy upon the divisions 
stationed there. * * * 

The enemy kept up the firing during the whole day, and crossed some 
infantry below our position, but he made no very- serious attempt to cross 
during the day, and contented himself with the cannonading and the firing 
of his sharpshooters. 

Nightfall having arrived, and the wagons having all disappeared, I took 
the responsibility of moving my command to the James River, bv a road 
to the left, which had not been much used, and arrived at headquarters 
safely, about daylight. * * * 

On July rst, the two divisions of my command were posted toward the 
right of the position near Turkey Creek. They held this position during 
the day and part of the night ; and, in compliance with orders from the 
commanding general, moved to Harrison's Bar. * * * 

Too much praise cannot be given to the officers and men of mv com- 
mand, for the fortitude and courage shown by them in the fati^^uing and 
distressing marches made in the inter\'al between June 27th and Julv 2d. 

In Gen. Smith's division every march was made at night. In (ien. Slo- 
cum's it was nearly as sevcie. The nervous excitement of l.LJnL; under fire 
every d.iy for nearly ;i week— often w.tliout ilie oi^portimii) of leturiiinu 
tiie fire— has caused a i:irostration from wliii h, in main cases, the men 
have not vet recovered. 

, fICil .Ml IIJ 

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1 thiak that all of the gcneial officers of the two divisions deserve to 
be made major-generals, and I hope that they will be so made. 

Col. Pratt, Col. Bartlctt and Col. ^^latheson deserve to be made briga- 
dier-generals. ******** 
I have the honor to be. General, 

Your obedient servant, 


Report of Brigadier- General H. W. Slocum. 

Headc^uarters First Dnisiox, Sixth Prov. Army Corps, \ 
Camp near Harrison's Landing, Va., July lo, 1862. j 

Sir; — L have the honor to submit the following report of the move- 
ments of the division under my command, from the close of the battle of 
Gaines' Mill, on the 27th uit., until its arrival at its present position. 

The division returned from the battle-field at Gaines' Hill at about 
II P. M., leaving on the (ield, in killed, wounded and missing, one-half of 
its regimental commanders, about one-fourth of the non-commissioned 
officers and soldiers, who had so recently crossed the river to the support 
of Gen. Porter. The men, weary with the labors and e.xcitement of the 
day, were allowed but little rest. Early the following morning their camp 
at Courtney's was changed to a position where they could be better shel- 
tered from the tire of the enemy's batteries planted at Garnett's and 
Gaines' Hill. 

The same evening, the aSth, orders were received by me to move the 
division to Savage Station, there to await further orders. The movement 
commenced at 11 r. M.. but was delayed at Trent's Hill, by the passage of 
other troops, so tiiat the division did not arrive at Savage's until about 
5 A. M. on Sunday, the 29th. .Vt this place I received orders from Gen. 
McClellan, in person, to move the division across White Oak Swamp. 
We crossei.! at 2 p. M., and at 5 i'. .M. I was ordered to proceed to a point 
on the Long Bridge road, about one and a half miles beyond the swam[). 

* * * Tlii; division renclied this point at 7 P. M., and full\- 

■iia-liaif of the elVectivi- force was iininediafely sint out on picket dut)- for 
tile night. 

On the following morning I took position on the Charles City road, 
about one mile from its juncture with the Long Bridge road, and about an 

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equal distaiice from Brackett's Ford. In anticipation of an attack by a 
force said to be approaching on the Charles City road, this road was 
blockaded as thoroughly as possible. Soon after our arrival our line of 
battle was established, and Upton's Battery (D), Second Artillery, and 
Porter's and Hexanier's Volunteer Batteries placed in position. The in- 
fantry necessary to support the artillery was posted on the Hanks of the 
batteries, and the balance so disposed as to be entirely protected from the 
fire of the enemy's artillery. The bridge near Brackett's Ford was de- 
stroyed by our troops immediately after our arrival, and an infantry force, 
with one 12-pound howitzer of Hexamer's battery, placed to defend the 
position. At 10 o'clock the enemy appeared at this point, and attempted a 
reconstruction of the bridge, but were repulsed. At 11 A. M. our pickets 
on the Charles City road were driven in, and the enem}- immediately ap- 
peared in force in a large open field in our front, — their position being 
partially screened from our view by a narrow belt of woodland. They 
opened fire from two batteries, which was at once replied to by Porter's 
and Upton's batteries, and two pieces of He.xamer's battery. * .* 

The artillery- fire was continued by the enemy in our front until nearly 
dark, but our troops were so well covered that we suffered but few casu- 
alties, our total loss not exceeding twenty-five in killed and wounded. 

At 7 o'clock it was reported to me that the left of our line, held by 
Gen. Heintzelman, was severely pressed ; and the fire of the enemy in our 
front having ceased, I ordered the brigade of Col. Bartlett to mo\ e to the 
front and gain possession, if possible, of the field on which the enemy 
first appeared. As soon as his brigade moved down the road leading to 
this position, a strong force of the enemy's infantry appeared, drawn up 
in line a short distance beyond a creek separating our position from that 
held by the enemy. Upton's battery of liglit 12-pounders was at once 
moved to the front, anti a vcrv effective fire of canister opened upon tliem, 
which caused their well formeil lines to disappear. * * * ' 

The fire on our left was continued until a late hour in the evening, and 
at times tlie shells, and even musket balls from the enemy, fell in the road 
directly in rear of our position. 

.\t () p. M,, h.iving expended nearly all our arumuiiitioii, and being des- 
titute of rations, 1 sent a staff olficer to general headquarters to re[)ori our 
condition. .\t 11 i'. M., having obtained permission of Gen. Heini/elinan, 
I moved the division to Malvein Hill. We arrived at this point at dav- 
light : and at i) v. M., the 2d instant, ivioveii to .1 posiiidn on the riijht of 
our line. From the time of our, until the commencement of the 
engagement on this dav, the men were empbnetl in constructing abatis. 

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sr.oruM s report. •. y^ 

and otherwise stren^theninu'^ our position. Dnrin<T the engagement on 
our left, the division was under arms. 

At II p. M., orders were received to move to our present position, 
where we arrived at da}lii,dit on the 3d inst. Diirin;^ this entin- TiwX- the 
troops 7A're iiUo-M-d scurcc.'y an hour of undisturbed rest, either by nit::ht or day; 
yet the dii'ision //larehed into its present camp in good order, having I'erv fe-^v 
stragglers, and tjithout the toss 0/ any arms, ammunition, clothin-^ or Toavus: 
and 7c-ith a cheerfulness pre7'aili)ig among the soldiers, as tuell as officers, -.vhich 
to me 7C'as as astonishing as it icas gratifying. 

Great credit is due to the brigade commanders, Gens. Newton and 
Taylor, and Col. Bartlett, for their vigilance and untiring efTorts on the 
held, as well as on our niirht marches. 

They were constantly witli their commands, cheering them by noble 
example, as well as words. 

To the members of my stall, Capt. Rogers, Assistant Adjutant-General. 
* * * 'ind Surgeon Burr, I am greatly indebted. 

Tliey were with me during the entire week, and proved very elficient in 
the discharge of their respective duties. 

I am, sir, very respectfully, 
i^ , Your obedient seivant, 

; , - H. W. SLOCUM. 


A Soldier's Letter, and a Woman's Answer. 

Hospital, June, 1862 

I write with a great deal of pain, dear girl, 

I've not been able before, since the haht : 
And my brain is still so much in a whirl. 

That I can tell you but liitle to-night. 
I'm wounded — don't start I — 'tis not verv bad. 

Or, at least, it might be worse ; so I said. 
When I thought of ^-ou, " I'm sure she'll l)e glad 

To know that I'm only wounded — not dead I" 

I've lost my left arm ! there, now you know all ! 

A minie ball shattered it. and I fell I 
The last that I heard was our Captain's call. 

Until — the rest is too painful to tell I 
I've had throughout, the most excellent care, 

And am doing finely, the Surgeon savs ; 
So well, indeed, that the prospect is fair 

For a homeward trip, before many days. 

But I've something else, dear Mary, to say — 

And I'd say it if it cost me my life — 
I've thought of it well — there's no other wav ! 

You're released from your promise to be my wife 
You'll think me loolish at first : then you'll think 

Of the loose, armless coat-sleeve at my side ; 
And your proud and sensitive heart will s'lriuk 

From the thought of being a cripple's bride. 

'Tis a bitter struggle tc; give you up, — 

For I've loved you more than ever <if hue ! 
But down to its dregs I've drained the cup. 

And am calm, though ;uy heart is desolate. 
I'm coming home, and, of course, we must meet ; 

My darling, this once, one Ixjon I implore : 
Let us still be friends — for tii:it will be sweet. 

Since now, alas ! we can In' iioliiinu'- more. 


The Answer. 

Sweet Home, July, 1S62. 

My Robert ! how brave and noble you are ! 

Too brave and too nolilc, I know, for me ; 
But youVe too little faith in me by far, 

II" you believe I want to be free. ,1, ., 

I'm not released from my promise — no, no ! 

'Twas never so sacred to me before ; 
If you could but hear how I've longed to 20, 

And watch by your side, you'd doubt me no more. 

I read your name in the terrible list I :, . 

But the tears fro/e back that sprang to my eyes. 
And a fearful pain, that I could not resist, 

Crushed my heart till I only lonsjed to die. 
The blessed tears, by aiul by, came aLjain, 

And I felt, as you in your letter said, 
A fcelin<jr of gladness, 'mid all inv jiain, 

That RoBFRT was onlv wounded — not dead ! '.'■■' '" 

Oh, darling I to thitik you have suffered so, 

Arid I all these long, weary miles away ; 
You've needed me very often, I know ; 

While I could do nothing but hope and pray. 
But hardest of all is the bitter thought. 

That you have been sulhring so much for me ; 
Poor Robert I your nuudy letter has brou-jht 

A strange mixture oi joy and misery. 

But you are coming home to my arms and heart 

You're right — I AM proud and sensitive, too ! 
But I am only so when we are apart, 

Anrl now I shall only be proud of you ! 
You're coming home to be hapjiy and rest. 

And I wait the moment of blissful 
When I shall be held to a soldier's br.'ast, 

I'v a P.iiriol li( ros our strong aim I 


July 5th, we had to go out on picket a mile and a half 
from camp. Three companies were on the outposts, and 
the other seven in reserve. The men in reserve had a nice 
time, for blackberries were plentiful, and were a fine relish 
for the soldiers. We returned from picket at 10 A. M., anci we 
well remember it as the hottest ciay we had ever experienced. 
These sandy ridges along the James arc said to be the hot- 
test places in all Virginia. In the afternoon we left our 
guns, and took up the spades, picks and shovels, and com- 
menced our share of the work of throwing, up entrench- 
ments in front of our lines. This work resulted in a s\-stem 
of ponderou-s barriers, from the old church on Wcstover 
Heights, on the bank of Herring Run, along the position 
of our lines, to the James. It was dig, dig, dig, lift and 
throw, until the bank reached the height of the embrasures 
and platforms for the field pieces. 

July 8th we turned out to welcome the President of the 
United States, who rode, with the Commander-in-Chief and 
his staff, through the principal streets of the vast camp, 
amid the plaudits of the soldiers. We seem yet to see that 
rugged form towering above general and staff, and those 
massive, grand features of our War President, Ap.RAIIAM 

From this time till the 17th the regiment was kept busy 
at picket duty and working on the breastworks, when, on 
this date, w c mo\-ed camp about two miles, and put up our 
tents near the rifle-pits. Here we rem.ained a few days, and 
busied ourseKes fixing up camp, digging a well from which 
to sup[)ly the camp with water, working tm the forts, and 
the usual camp duties. l'"irst, at 3 A. .\L. the bugle notes 
are heard calling us out of our nests fi-ir roll-call. It again 
sounds for Surgeon's call ; then for breakfast. At noon it 
sounds for dinner, and at 4 I'. .\L to fall in for work on the 
fort. Sometimes it sounds at 1 1 A. ^r. for inspection, and 
again at I for police iluty.- -t<'r the c.unp is ke])t scrupu- 
lously clean. 

The 20th finds us again on })icket, and where ^c find 
ple-il\- of blackberries, — and the men are h.ippy. The 2 I st 


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we drew new clothing. From the 26th to 28th the weather 
was terribly hot and sultry. All quiet in camp ; no duty 
e.xcept picketing, as we are strongly intrenched for many 
miles. If Lee attempts to make an attack on us here, he 
will become an " angel," and \\ ith the angels stand ; but we 
do not think he will be so unwise as to trap himself. 

Each man received sixty rounds of cartridges on the 
29th, as there were indications of an attack. No enemy 
was in sight, however, but we were kept on the alert till 
the evening of the 31st, when tiie enemy, having placed a 
battery on the opposite side of the James River, shelled our 
camps. We could follow the course of the shells, as the 
burning fuse was discernible in the darkness. The gun- 
boats soon wheeled into line, and silenced the hostile guns. 
About twenty Union soldiers were killed, and forty wounded. 
A large number of horses were also killed. 

On the 3d of August the paymaster arrived, and the men 
were paid off. There was but little duty for the next week 
or more, and the men amused themselves with the games 
incident to pa\'-day. Weather exceedingh' hot. and many 
horses dying from the effects of the heat. 

August 8th, in pursuance of an .\ct of Congress, and a 
general order from headquarters, the musicians of the regi- 
mental bands assembled at headquarters, and were mustered 
out of service. One band only is hereafter to be allowed 
to a brigade. This order causes a great deal of dissatisfac- 
tion among the troops. 

August lotli we sent aw a\- our knapsacks and baggage 
on the transports, as orders had been gi\en to move. Did 
not get off. however, till the 14th, when the boys bid good- 
by to Harrison's Lantling, and marched about three miles, 
and were again stationed for picket duty, where we remained 
till 4 I'. M. of the 15th ; then marched to Charles City Court 

At sunrise on tlie i^^th we started on a twenty-mile march. 
The day was \ery b.ot, and the roads dusty. A p'^'tion of 
the country thrr)ugh which ue passed was very fine, with 
l.u-ge man<ions, surrounded 1)>- e\ten<i\'e plantations. 

ll)Oi JrM'lIuA 

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About sundown we crossed the Chickahominy, near where 
it widens out into a bay, at its junction with the James. 
The pontoon bridge on which we crossed was 2200 feet 
long, and said to be the longest and best ever constructed. 
The train of artillery moved in the centre, and two ranks 
of infantry marched on each side. We went into camp 
about a mile from the river. While crossing, a gunboat 
stood guard over the moving column. The next day made 
a very rapid march, at which the men grumbled a good deal, 
as melons and fruit were quite plentiful along the route : 
but there was no time to indulge, nor e\'en to sample them. 
During the day we passed the house which was the birth- 
place of ex-President T\-ler. It was under guard, to pre- 
vent defacement and pillage. x\t about 3 P. M. we passed 
through Williamsburg, a quaint, moss-co\ercd town, — once 
the centre of the aristocracy of the (31d Dominion. Here 
we saw the College of William and Mary, founded during 
the last century; and had a good view of the fortification 
that, in May, cc^st us so much to capture. Five miles from 
here we went into camp, having marched twenty-five miles. 
Only a few of the regiment stacked arms, as the day had 
been unusuall}- hot, and the march so rapid that many had 
fallen out by the way, and did not reach camp till after dark. 
Two months before, a conquering and exultant arni}- had 
passed through the historic town oi Williamsburg: but 
now we turn back from the city we had confidently ex- 
pected to hold. The ne.vt day we made another march of 
fifteen miles, and camped within the fortifications of York- 

It seems that McClellan wanted to make a stand at Wil- 
liamsburg, and there recruit his forces, and adxance again 
on the enemy. This plan was nc^t favored b\- the 
ington authorities, and, b\- their orders, on down the [)enin- 
sula was heard the tread of the receding columns. 

Reveille at daylight on ihc 19th, and fi>r the eigjit 
mile> of our march we passed line after line of the eneni}-'s 
works, vshich they evacuated at the time of our ath.uice u^) 
the peninsula. Our men rcali/ed, for the first time, the 


■j.M !■•<■ ■ ,v JU . ; jii 


<;reat strength of this fortified position, from which, the 
engineers said, the enemy could never have been dri\en, 
Fort Magruder being one of the most extensive and formi- 
dable works known in modern times. 

At 4 A. M., August 20th, we took up the line of march 
from Yorktown, and started for Newport News, and camped 
three miles below Warwick C. H. In this camp and along 
the route, Ave feasted on green corn, apples, plums and 

At 7 A. M., the 2ist, we started on our march, and moved 
nine miles, to Newport News, three companies — B, F, and 
G — acting as rear-guard to pick up stragglers ; and a hard 
day's work they had. From our position here we can see 
the masts of the frigate Cumberland, which was sunk by 
the Confederate ram. Merrimac. 

The next day, the 22d(?), we embarked on the steamer John 
Brooks, and started down the bay. Next morning we found 
ourselves anchored near Fortress Monroe. The movement 
of this large fleet down the bay at night, each vessel carr\'- 
ing its many-colored signal lights, made a scene of unusual 

Our next move was up the Potomac, to Aquia Creek, 
where we made a short stay, and then moved on to Alex- 
andria, and about noon of the 24th(?) disembarked and went 
into camp near Fort Ellsworth. August 27th we pushed 
out on picket duty near Avondale ; and, August 28th, 
marched to Fairfax, and then on to Centreville. 

We did not get into the second Bull Run fight in time to 
do any good, only to help check the retreat ; and, after that 
battle, we marched back to Alexandria; and, September ist, 
went into camp at Fort Lyon. 


The following letter from Dr. (ieor-e Burr, Medical Di- 
rector of our Division, to his wife, -ixes quite fully the part 
taken by our division in the second Hull Run campaign: 

Camp near Alexandria, Va., Septc-niher 4, 1S62. 
Mv Dear Wu-t. :-For the.M,.//. time ua- are back. Alexandria seems 
to be a hard place to keep away from. As I wrote you what we were about 
to do, we marched towards Manassas on Friday last. The division en- 
camped for the night about seven miles out. anrl next mornin<,^ pushed on. 
A he.avy cannonadincr ha<l commenced, indicating that a severe battle was 
in progress. I did not leave with the division. I had b.-en confined to 
my bed the d.iv before, and though feeling much better in the morning, I 
did not feel able to march, and so remained behind. Staid that night at 
Alexandria, with Dr. Griffin, of Great Hend. who is there emplo^^•d as 
physician for the railroad men. Saturdav morning I felt much better, 
though somewhat weak. The sound of the cannonading, however, with 
the division hastening towards it, made it impossible for me to remain 
behind, for on no account would I have it go into iKittle without mv goinu 
with it. So I started on foot, and walked seven miles : got into a smler's 
wagon and rode seven miles further, to Fairfax Court House ; there found 
that Gen. Slocum was pushing on as rapidly as possible ; so I started to- 
wards Centreville, again on foot; walked about six miles, when I over- 
look Gen. Slocnm. The baitle was still u^jing on, and the division pushed 
forward, past Centreville, on towards Hull Run. We arrived within a 
mile of the battle-tiebl about sundown, where the division was halted. 
It soon became evident our men were falling back. First, a few 
stragglers came along ; then iheir numbers increased, until the road was 
completely filled with a disorganized mass of men, teams and ambulances. 
There was nothing now to be done but to >;ave a complete rout of the army, 
and this duty devolved upon our division. It was kept in i^erlect onier, 
and the regiments were placed in good positions for defense, and our ar- 
tillery so posted as to command every point from whence the enemy could 
make a charge. 

Col. Bartlett had the post oi danger, as well as of honor, for he re- 
mained all nitrht in that position, until the entire army had fallen b.ick, 
.md was re-formed at Centreville. 

When I was tol.l we were to go back to Centreville. I retr.u e<! my steps, 
for I >iill on fool, — vve.iry enou-h, I assure v,ni, .md nn toel so blis- 
tered that every step caused me nmch pain. On reachinu Centreville, Ion- 
after dark, [ co.dd hear only in-puries, ".Vu- the.e no surgeoT..^' '.. ^."^ 

„ •'.! . ■>.!/;? 

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hospitals ?" 1 at Icnutli got a piece of candle, and opened the old stone 
church, tiiat was used at the other Bull Run battle, and the poor wounded 
fellows hciian to turn in at once. The church was soon filled with wounded 
men — some al)le to walk ; others brought In- their conuades. I attended 
to tlieni all niglit, witlujut ever sitting down, and all the next day likewise. 
In tlie course of the night other surgeons came in, and also the next day. 
The wounded also kept coming in, especially after daylight Sunday morn- 
ing. We, however, attended to them all, and by night, on Sunday, put 
them on board of ambulances, to be taken to hospitals. I performed one 
.unputation of the arm, and two or three lingers ; and cut out perhaps a 
/,■(■-(• of balls fr(jm difVerent parts. I assure you I was very willing to go 
to bed at night. I had eaten but very little for several days ; Saturdav 
morning, at Alexandria, I ate only a small piece of dry toast, and drank 
freely of tea. The sutler's wagon had ginger cakes, cheese and dried her- 
rings : of these I ate some. Mad nothing else until next day alonir to- 
wards noon. The Sanitary Commission men brought some bread, cold 
meat, and some kind of corduii, all of which answered a good purpose. 
I am somewhat surjjirised at my own endurance, for. after resting one 
niirht. I was .i< bright, and felt as well as ever the next day. with the ex- 
'Xption of my sore feet. 

Monday night we were ordered to fall back to Fairfax. So. at evening, 
we packed up, and this time I had a horse. We C(jmmenced the march 
about ') o'clock in the eveninir, but we were soon blocked by teams, and 
the greatest confusion that I ever saw \vas prevailing. It was rainy, also, 
and cervthiiiLT w,is ubu^my enough. The enemy, we knew, were on our 
left tlank, and really we were at their mercy, had they onl\' known our 
-ituation. Despairing of geltinic through under several hours. Gen. Slo- 
cum said we woidd ir\- and uet some rest. So we built a fire by the side 
'>f the road, spu..^! our india rubber lilankets and ponchos, and went to 
sleeij. At daylight we rode forward, the division havinti passed us. 

The next da\' we were ordend back to .\Iexandria, and a little before 
dark, reached the camj) we left a few days before. We are now in a new 
i.amp, on the hill, near the semin.iiy, on the o])[)Osite side from where we 
\vere last winter. 

Thi:s ends the campaii;,!. .^Ially will call it a failure. It is true we 
h.ive failed to take Richmond, but we have not been defeated : and after a 
ii!'>iou-li reoru.tni/.ition, we sh.ill !n- more [xuverfu! e\-er. (ieneral 
M'-rU-llan i- a-aiii in fidl coinni.ind, and he is the onl\- man w./ seem to as yet. Had it not been foi lii-N armv, Washington would now be in 
the li.mds of the rebels, and our cause [irobably ruined. 

/ ■ , I , ,- , , ■ , n 


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SOON after reaching Alexandria, from the peninsula. Gen. 
McClellan was relieved from the command of the Army 
of the Potomac, and Gen. John Pope was placed at its head. 
The latter was busy marshaling his forces for the disastrous 
battle of second Bull Run, which will be remembered in 
history for the frothy orders of Gen. Pope, that were pre- 
faced with—" Picks and shovels to the rear !" " No more 
lines of retreat I" " Honor is at the front! — Shame and 
disgrace are at the rear!" These orders, with the jealousy 
of the subordinate officers, of which Fitz John Porter was 
made the " scapegoat," have given this campaign a prom- 
inent place in the history of the rebellion. Pope blazed 
forth like a meteor, and disappeared as quickly. McClellan 
was once more placed in command, on September 2d, 
and the first part of September, orders were given to move 
through Mar\'land. to interce})! Lee's army, which, follow- 
ing up the victory at Bull Run, was now attempting to 
transfer the fighting ground from Virginia to the Northern 
States. We remained at Fort Lyon till the evening of the 
5th, when we broke camp and moved towards Washington, 
and crossing the Long Bridge, about midnight, we mo\-ed 
slow ly through the city, oti towards Georgetown; and about 
ilax'light. after a fifteen-mile march, camped on Georgetown 
Ileiglits. Thv fojlouing night we made another se\'en-mile 
inarch. After tin.-, we contiiuied to march e\ery da\-, j:)ass- 
ing Darns\ille, then Sugar Loaf Mountain on the I2th, 


fi'-v; I -■>•.. rl 
' ■. • . >■■ Ui '.jiiil 







wlicrc we saw some dead cavalrymen, who had been killed 
on the skirmish line : then througii Paducah, and near 
Frederic, and throug;h Jefferson; and, on Sunday morning, 
tlie 14th, arrived at Burketsville, on the east and under the 
shadow of South Mountain, and near to the enemy's lines. 
The 96th Pennsylvania had the lead to-day, and, advancing 
through the village, Col. Cake reported that he had not 
found the enemy. This report not suiting Gen. Slocum, 
he rode up to Gen. Bartlett and said : " General, I want 
you to order m\' old regiment to move out and find the 
enemy." Gen. Bartlett then rode up to Col. Adams, and 
pointing with his sword, said : " I want you to take your 
regiment and go to tne top of that mountain, unless you 
find the enemy !" We were soon ordered forward, and in 
heavy marching order, at double quick, deployed as skir- 
mishers on an open plain, facing the mountain, — the centre 
of the line following the road which crosses the mountain 
at this place, known as Crampton's Pass. As we advanced, 
the enemy opened on us with artillery, stationed half-way 
up the mountain, and with a heavy \ollev of musketry from 
behind trees and rocks, and a stone wall at the foot of the 
m<juntain. The skirmishers ad\'anced in splendid line till 
within thirty or fort\- rods of the wall, when we were or- 
dered to rally, and give place to the line of battle that was 
coming on close behind us. One squad of the pickets took 
shelter in a barn-yard, behind the sheds and outbuildings, 
where they kept up a lively and telling fire till the main line 
came up. Another xjuad of pickets, not hearing the order 
t(j rally, found themsehes between the two lines of battle, 
and were obliged to lie dcwn, — the bullets cutting up the 
ground all around them. Others joined the main line in 
the charge on the stone wall. As our men went over the 
wall, some of the lebels tried to retreat, and others threw 
d<nvn their arms and surrendered. Those on the retreat 
w ere exposed to our fire from behind, and very few of them 
made their escai'tc. On went our line, ii]) the side of the 
•^teep mountain. — so >tee[i in many i)lace^!. that the men had 
to pull themselves up by taking hold of the busiies. We 


soon had their second line on the retreat; and, after an ac- 
tion lasting three hv.ns, drove them over the mountain, 
capturing one piece (jf artillery, about three hundred pris- 
oners, and three stands of colors, one of which was taken 
by the i6th New Yc)rk. On this flag was inscribed the fol- 
lowing : "CoBij LEr.iux — In the Name of the Lord!" 
Our advance was so rapid that some of the sharp-shooters 
had not time to climb down from the trees. During the 
day we could hear Ijcavy cannonading on our right. This 
proved to be anotlier battle on South Mountain, where 
Gens. Burnside and Hooker drove the enemy out of Tur- 
ner's Gap, some six m'ies to the r.oith. Two braver "sol- 
diers' battles" were never fought than these of Crampton's 
Pass and Turner's Gap, on South INlountain. Our regiment 
lost in this fight, six men killed, two officers and twenty-five 
men wounded ; total, thirty-three. The total loss of the 
division in this baUle was 5 officers and 109 men killed, 
16 officers and 3S1 men wounded, and 2 men captured. 
Total, 513. 

The following interesting account of this battle is from 
the Century Magazine : 

Upon Franklin's arrival at the foot of the mountain, at 
Burkettsville, at noon of the 14th, he found the enemy 
posted behind a stone Avail, while the artillery were on the 
road, well yp the heights. About 3 P. M. Bartlett's brigade, 
supported by the brigades of Newton and Torbert, and all 
of Slocum's division, advanced upon the enemy, and a se- 
vere contest ensued. The enemy, overpowered, fell back 
up the hill, firing upon our men from behind rocks and the 
natural defensive positions presented by the ground, until 
they reached their art ilk ry, where they made a more de- 
cided stand. Thoii- liOeinen took advantage of every pos- 
sible cover of ledge and rock and tiee. ■""■ ^ " 

A Vermont soldier told me that, during this up-hill fight, 
while climbing over a k-dge, he slip[)ed and fell eighteen or 
twenty feet, between two rocks. Rapid as had been his 
tumble, u])e)n his arrival he fi5und himself [ireceded by a 
Conft.der ite :>oldier. iojr an in.->tant tliev glared an-Tilv at 

'bE luO 



1 .UiuH 


each other, when the " reb." burst out laughing, saying : 
" We're both in a fix ! You can't gobble me, and I can't 
gobble you, till we know which is going to lick. Let's wait 
till the shooting is over, and if your side wins, I'm your 
prisoner; and if we win, you're my prisoner!" The bar- 
gain was made. " But," said my informant, " didn't that 
reb. feel cheap when he found I'd won him I" 

After this fight we remained two days in camp, near the 
top of the mountain, where we buried the dead of both 
armies, and cared for the wounded. Water was scarce in 
this camp, as it had to be brought in canteens from the foot 
of the mountain, more than a mile away. 

Gen. McClellan, reporting on this battle, says : 

"Slocum's division was formed on the right of the road 
leading through the gap, and Smith's upon the left. A line 
formed of Bartlett's and Torbett's brigades, supported by 
Newton, whose activity was conspicuous, advanced steadily 
upon the enemy at a charge on the right. The enemy were 
driven froni their position at the foot of the mountain, 
where they were protected by a stone wall, and steadily 
forced back up the slope until they reached the position of 
their battery on the road, well up the mountain. There 
they made a stand, but were soon driven back, retiring their 
artillery in echelon, until, after an action of three hours, 
the crest was gained, and the enemy hastily fled down the 
mountain on the other side." 

September 17th. heavy cannonading commenced at day- 
light, and soon after, we formed our line and moved over 
the west side of the mountain. While descending, we had 
a view of the well cultivated valley lying beneath, with good 
farms and good buildings, the latter resembling more fully 
the farm buildings of the North, rather than those of the 
South. But little o[)portunity, however, was given us to 
take in the beauty spread before us, for we could hear, a 
few miles in front, a continuous ruar of cannonading and 
musketry, and \\c must hurr\' on to take our part. 

About noon we reached Kcedys\'ille. and found many of 
the houses i:i possession of our surgeons, and fast being 


Dr. \Vm. H. Stuart, Assistant-Surgeon. 

c^ .H V N 


filled with our wounded. The streets were almost blocked 
with ambulances, waiting to unload their mangled, suffering 
burdens, while the surgeons and assistants, with coats off 
and sleeves rolled up ; with hands and amputating instru- 
ments covered with blood, looked more like butchers in the 
shambles, than like professional men in hospitals. On we 
went, and, two miles further, we reached the battle-field of 
Antietam, and were placed in line of battle ; then, loading 
our pieces, we moved forward across fields, through bits of 
wood and o\er fences, continually passing the dead, in blue 
or gray, and meeting stretcher-carriers with wounded, on 
their way to the rear. 

Finally we took position in a cornfield, about the centre 
of our lines, where the heaviest fighting had taken place, 
some two hours before. The dead lay so thick that we had 
to pull them out of the way to make room for the troops 
to form their lines. This ground had been fought over 
twice before we reached it, each side holding it in turn. 
The corn was trampled to the ground, and some bushes 
that were left standing, were completely riddled with bul- 
lets. Here we formed our line, and remained all day, sup- 
porting some batteries, with one company out as skirmishers. 
We took but little part in the fighting, the most severe of 
which seemed to be on our left, by Burnside's corps, at 
Montjcacy Bridge. The bridge had been captured by our 
men durirtg the day, and Gen. Lee, seeing the importance 
of regaining it, hurled brigade after brigade of his best 
troops against it. But it was no use. Burnside, with his 
corps, had come there to stay ; and they met every charge 
of the enemy with a countercharge, and advanced till they 
occupied the heights beyond. 

Darkness now settled upon the field, and we unrolled our 
blankets and laid down, behind our stacks of guns, ready to 
"fall in." We were called in line several times during the 
night, by the pickets firing at each other. When, on each 
occasion, (juiet was restored, the w e.iried men woul'.l lie 
<k>wn among the dead and full asleep. Thus ep.ded the 
first and principal day of the Antiet.un battle; and although 


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we took but little part in the fighting, it was the hardest- 
fought battle of the war, up to this date. 

September i8th we were called in line at daylight, as an 
attack was expected. We remained standing under arms 
till sunrise, when Maj. H. C. Rogers, of Gen. Slocum's staff, 
and some other ofificers were sent out to meet a flag of truce 
from Gen. Lee, when, after a short parley, it was agreed to 
cease hostilities until 5 P. M., in order to bury the dead, and 
carry off the wounded that lay uncared for between the 
lines. The bodies of the dead, having lain so long exposed 
to the sun, were rapidly decomposing, and the stench was 
almost unendurable. IMany of the men could not eat, and 
became sick from breathing the tainted air. The day was 
spent with pick and shovel, digging long trenches, in which 
the dead were buried. In one space of less than half an 
acre, sixty-five members of a South Carolina regiment were 
picked up and buried. The work was not all completed 
when 5 o'clock, the hour for the expiration of the armistice, 
had arrived : and, without warning, the enemy fired on our 
stretcher-carriers, wounding five and taking seven prisoners. 
After this, Maj. Rogers was once more sent out with a white 
flag, and the time of the armistice was extended until morn- 
ing. The night was passed in comparative quiet, the men 
sleeping till daylight. 

i\t sunrise our skirmishers advanced, and found that the 
enemy had retreated during the night to the opposite side 
of the Potomac. In this, Lee had outwitted McClellan, 
taking advantage of the truce to retreat across the river, 
but leaving his wounded in our hands. 

About noon we received orders to move, and marched 
across the field, when the stench from the unburied dead 
again sickened some of the men. Guns and e(iuipments 
by the thousand lay scattered about the fields, showing 
with what haste the enemy had retreated. W'c sliortly 
came to the bank of the P.-lomae and camped, but Lcc's 
army had (lisapi)eared over the hills ..n the Virgim'a side. 
Thus ended the first atten\pt of Lee to carry the war into 
the Northern States. 


September 20th, about dark, we started and marched all 
night to W'illiamsport, Md., where we arrived about noon 
of the 2 1st. It was thought that the enemy would make 
an attempt to recross the river here ; so we were sent to 
receive them ; but, after two days, we marched back to 
Bakersville, near the field of Antietam, where we camped 
till November. Here the time was spent in camp and picket 
duty. Our picket line was along the Potomac, the regiment 
being on duty near Shaffer's Mill, eight miles above Dam 
No. 4. The rebel pickets were often in sight, on the oppo- 
site side of the river. 

VVednesda}-, September 24th. — The orders are that we lie 
in camp a day or two, so that the boys can wash up their 
clothing, and bathe in the creek. We are having good 
times ; can go out of camp and get anything we want to 
eat — soft bread, pies, and flour from which we make pan- 
cakes, which are a great luxury. 

September 25th. — Are still lying in camp at Bakersville. 
Nothing of interest is being done in camp. The boys all feel 
in good spirits, for all they have to do is to go out and get 
chickens, turkeys and flour, and then make pot-pies for 

Monday, September 29th. — Still in camp. Nothing of 
importance doing, only some of the officers are having a 

spree, and raising the generally throughout camp. 

Dress parade as usual, at 6 l'. M. 

October 4th. — The army was reviewed b}' Gen. McClellan 
and President Lincoln. The same day a squad of returned 
prisoners, who had been captured at the first Bull Run 
battle, returned to camp, and were given a warm reception. 
These men had been held as prisoners more than ten months, 
and liad been in parol camp at Annapolis, Md., for some 
months, waiting to be exchanged. All seemed glad to be 
back in camp, and said they were ready again to meet the 
enemy. (For a detailed account of the prison-life of these 
men, see the last chapter.) 

October 3lh, the Articles of War were read to the regi- 
ment, for the first time, by Col. .Adams; and about the 

^r;-,, .' : i„ .0/ 

>J 'f 


same time, the following general orders, relating to the 
battles of South Mountain and Antietam, were issued : 

General Orders No. 160. 

Headquarters Army of the Potomac, / 
Camp near Sharpsburg, Md., Oct. 3, 1862. ^ 

The commanding general extends his congratulations to the army un- 
der his command, for the victories achieved by their bravery at the passes 
of the South Mountain, and upon the Antietam Creek. 

The brilliant conduct of Reno's and Hooker's corps, under Burnside, 
at Turner's Gap ; and of Franklin's corps, at Crampton's Pass, in which, 
in the face of an enemy strong in position, and resisting with obstinacy, 
they carried the mountain, and prepared the way for the advance of the 
army, won for them the admiration of their brethren in arms. 

In the memorable battle of .Vntietam, we defeated a numerous and 
powerful army of the enemy, in an acti(in desperately fought, and remark- 
able for its duration, and for the destruction of life which attended it. 
The obstinate bravery of the troops of Hooker, Mansfield and Sumner ; 
the dashing gallantry of those of Franklin, on the right ; the sturdy valor 
of those of Burnside, on the left ; and the vigorous support of Porter and 
Pieasanton, present a brilliant s[jectacle to our countrymen, which will 
swell their hearts with pride and exultation. Fourteen guns, thirty-nine 
colors, 15,500 stand of arms, and nearly t),<X)0 prisoners taken from the 
enemy, are evidences of the completeness of our triumph. A grateful 
country will thank this noble army for achievements which have rescued 
the loyal States of the East from the ravages of the invader, and have 
driven him from their borders. 

While rejoicing at tlu victories which, under God's blessing, have 
crowned our exertions, let us cherish the memory of i>ur brave compan- 
ions who have laid down their lives ui)on the battle-field : -Martyrs in 
their country's cause, their names will e\er be enshrineil in the he.uts of 
the pe<3ple. 

By command of Major-General McClellan. 

Assistant Adjutant-General. 

!) •, - :,, ■. ■ I.: ,•'■■! ttil 
>:rl ti"ii« ic-ii /l:>vilJ> 


Report of Major-Gen. William B. Franklin, U. S. Army, 

Commanding 6th Army Corps, of the Battles 

of Crampton's Pass and Antietam. 

Headquarters Sixth Army Corps, ) 
Camp nkar Bakersville, Md., Sept. 3, 1862. ^ 

General : — I have the honor to submit the following report of opera- 
tions of the corps under my command, in the battle of the 14th instant, at 
Crampton's Pass. In compliance with instructions of the commanding 
general, the corps advanced, on the morning of the 14th instant, from a 
point three miles east of Jefferson, in the direction of the Blue Ridge. 
At Jefferson a halt was ordered, to afford Gen. Couch an opportunity of 
coming up. After a short delay, upon learning that this division was still 
some distance in the reai, I advanced to the vicinity of the village of Bur- 
kettsvilie. Cpon ascertaining that the pass over the mountains at this 
point — which I was directed to secure and hold — was occupied by the en- 
emy in force, I caused immediate preparations to be made for an attack. 
The enemy was strongly posted on both sides of the road, which makes a 
steep ascent through a narrow defile, wooded on both sides, and affording 
great advantages of cover and position. Their advance was posted near 
the base of the mountain, in the rear of a stone wall, stretching to the 
right of tlie at a point where the ascent is gradual, and for the most 
part over open fields. Eight guns had been stationed on the road, and at 
points on the sides and the summit of the mountain, to the left of the pass. 

It was evident that the position could be carried only by an infantry 
charge. Accordingly I directed Major-Gen. Slocum to advance his di- 
vision through the village of Burkettsville, and commence the attack upon 
the right. Woolcott's First Mar>land Battery was stationed on the left, 
and to the rear of the village, and maintained a steady fire on the positions 
of the enemy until they were assailed and carried by our troops. Smith's 
di\ ision was placed in reserve 011 the east side of the village, and held in 
readiness to co-operate with (Jen. Slocum, or support his attack, as occa- 
sion miglit retpiire. Capt. -\}res' luttery, of this division, was posted on 
a commanding ground to the left of the reserves, and kept up an uninter- 
rupted fire on the principal batter)- of the enemy until the latter was driven 
from its position. 

The advance of Gen. Shjcum was made with admirable steadiness, 
through a well-directed fire from the batteries on the mountain, the brig- 
ade of Col. Bartlett taking the lead, followed, at proper intervals, by the 

.«TJ 10 

•Hi! JfJi.Hi 
•i/.-l/iof )/. 

■J'' *■'■''' •"<'! 


brigades of Gen. Newton and Col. Torbert. Upon fully determining the 
enemy's position, the skirmishers were withdrawn, and Col. Bartlett's 
brigade became engaged along his entire line. He maintained his ground 
steadily under a severe fire,' for some time under a manifest disadvantage, 
until reinforced by two regiments of Gen. .Newton's brigade upon his 
right, and the brigade of Col. Torbert and the two remaining regiments 
of Newton's on his left. The line of battle thus formed, an immediate 
charge was ordered, and most gallantly executed. The men swept for- 
ward, with a cheer, over the stone wall, dislodging the enemy, and pursu- 
ing him up the mountain-side to the crest of th? hill, and down the oppo- 
site slope. This single charge, sustained as it was over a great distance, 
and on a rough ascent of unusual steepness, was decisive. The enemy 
was driven in the utmost confusion from a position of strength, and al- 
lowed no opportunity for even an attempt to rally, until the pass was 
cleared, and in the possession of our troops. * * * 

The victory was complete, and its achievement followed so rapidly 
upon the first attack, that the enemy's reserves, although pushed forward 
at the double-quick, arrived but in time to participate in the flight, and 
add confusion to the rout. 

Four hundred prisoners, from seventeen different organizations, seven 
hundred stand of arms, one piece of artillery, and three stand of colors 
were captured, while numberless articles of equipment, knapsacks, haver- 
sacks, blankets, etc., were abandoned by the enemy in their tlight. 

The gallantry of the otficers, and the spirit and dash displayed by the 
troops, are worthy of the highest praise ; and I respectfully call attention 
to the recommendations made in the accompanying reports of Major-Gen. 
Slocum and the commanders of brigades, and solicit for them the favor- 
able notice of the commanding general. I also respectfully refer to the 
reports in question for a uetailed account of the operations of the respec- 
tive brig.ades, and for the names of such officers as have won honorable 
mention for their gallant bearing in the field. Wiiile fullv concurrinLx in 
the recommendation offered in behalf of Cols. Bartlett, and Torbert, who 
have certainly earned promotion on this and other occasions, I resi>ect- 
fully and earnestly request that Brigadier-Gen. .\ewton may be promoted 
to the rank of major-general, for his conspicuous gallantry and important 
services during the entire engagement. 

The prompt and energetic action .)f Or. White, the medical director of 
the corps; of Dr. Bradley, his assistant ; ami of tlie medical stall" of the 
different organizations engaged in bringing otland caring for the wcjunded, 
is worthy of tiie highest praise. 


■1. p. ■■.,', .ii'JTi'»lD 


Our total loss, in killed and wounded, is 530. Of these, 16 are officers, 
5 of whom were killed. The total loss, killed, was no; wounded, 420. 

The losses of the enemy are not accurately known. We buried 150 of 
their dead, and took charge of more than 300 of their wounded, who were 
left upon the field. 

I am. General, ver}' respectfully. 

Your obedient servant, 

Major-General, Commanding Sixth Corps. 

Report of Major-Gen. Henry W. Slocum, U. S. Army, 
Commanding the First Division, of the , 

Battle of Crampton's Pass. 

Headqu.\rters First Division, Sixth Corps, ) 
Camp in ruE Field, Sept. 24, 1S62. j 

Sir : — I have the honor of submitting the following report of the action 
of this division in the engagement at Crampton's Pass, on the 14th inst. 
The division encamped, on the night of the 13th. about three miles east of 
Jefferson, on the road leading from Urbana to JefTerson. .At daylight on 
the 14th instant the division left camp, moved through JelTerson, and at 
12 M. met the pickets of the enemy, near Burkettsville. Col. Bartlett, 
commanding the leading brigade, at once deployed the Ninety-sixth Reg- 
iment Pennsylvania Volunteers as skirniishers, who drove in the enemy's 
pickets, and advanced to the village. The other regiments of the division 
were then advanced to a position about half a mile east of the village, 
where they were completely concealed from the view of the enemy, and 
covered from the tire of his artillery. Wolcott's First Maryland Battery 
was then advanced to a point to the left of the infantry, and replied to the 
enemy's artillery, until preparations for the attack of the infantry were 

.\t 3 P. M. the column of attack was formed in the following order: 
The Twenty-seventh Regiment New York X'oluntecis ileployed as skir- 
mishers, followed, at a distance of 2(K) yards, by the Fifth Maine and 
Si%leentii New Yolk \'olunteeis, in line of battle; the brigades of Gen. 
N'ewtf)n and C^ol. Torbtrt followed, each brigade being in two lines, the 

jm !c 

lli i{l4.T 

./ ■ 

••Uo^.: <f'-fffi-)«i> 


regiments in line of baltlc, and tlie lints 200 .vards from I'ach other llic 
Ninet\--sixth Pennsylvania Volunteers, of Bartlctt's hrijradc, which had 
advanced into the village, formed in rear, and joined the ccWiimn as it ad- 
vanced : the One Hundred and Twenty-first New York Volunteers was 
held as a reserve, at the point where the column was formed. As soon as 
the advance heyau, the enemy opened with a heavy ami well directed ar- 
tiller)' fire ; liut the troops adv:inced steadily, every line in the entire col- 
umn preserving- its alignment with as much accuracy as could have been 
expected at a drill ov review. The line of skirmishers soon drew the tire 
of the enemy's infantry, which appeared in strong position in rear of a 
stone wall, which afforded them an admirable cover. 

The position and strength of the enemy having been ascertained, the 
skirmishers were withdrawn, and Col. Bartlett led the first line to a point 
within 300 yards of the enemy's line. A severe engagement ensued, the 
enemy having greatly the advantage in position, and being aided bv at 
least eight pieces of artiller}', posted on the side (^f the mountain. The 
position of this pass and its approaches rendered it e\ ident that, in ttie 
attempt to carri- it, reliance was to be placed mainir upon the infnntrv. 
I had, therefore, left all the artillery of the division in rear; but, fearino- 
that the stone wall beliind which the enemy had taken cover, woidd prove 
an insurmountable obstacle to the advance of my lines, I at once used 
ever}- effort to bring forward a battery, with the view of driving the enemy 
from his position. But, before the battery was fairly in position this ob- 
stacle had been overcome by a most gallant charge of the infantry, and the 
enemy were fleein^^ in confusion up the mountain, closelv pursued by 
every regiment of the division, except the one in reserve, each wing with 
the other in the pursuit. 

The enemy made another stand at the crest of the mountain, but was 
speedily dispersed, and pursued through the pass and into the jilain below. 
The victory- was complete, and resulted not onlv in the utter rout and dis- 
persion of the forces opposed to us, but in the capture of over 300 pris- 
oners, 3 stand of colors, over yocj stanil oi arms of the most approved 
pattern i piece of artillery, and a very large number of knapsacks haver- 
sacks, blankets, etc. * "- * * * 

Of the gallantry of the otficers and men under my rdminand, I cannot 
speak too highly. Although greatly reduced in numbers b\ .o^ses on the 
peninsula, although f.itigued b\ Ioul,^ ni.irclies, .md ctm-^tant scivire -;incc 
the opening of the s[)ring c.imiiai'.'n. ( ach reuinuiu — iiidi ed, everv man 
did his whole dut\-. not reluctantly, but with that cigerne-^s and entliu- 
siasni which rendered success certain. 



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To attempt to designate any regiment, or any regimental or line officers, 
as heing entitled to particular notice, would be an act of injustice to all 
others. [ cannot, however, without great injustice omit to call attention 
to the conduct of the brigade commanders, Gen. Newton, Col. Bartlett, 
and Col. Torbert, all of whom led their brigades in the action, and gave 
renewed evidence of their skill and courage. Col. Bartlett, commanding 
the leading brigade, was on this, as on all former occasions, conspicuous 
for his gallantry, and the skill with which he liandled his troops under a 
most galling fire. I sincerely trust that both Col. Bartlett and Col. Torbert, 
commanding their respective brigades, hotli of whom have given abundant 
proofs of their qualitkations for the {.ositions which thev now occupy, as 
l)ric:ade commanders, may be rewarded by the promotion they have so well 

I append a list of casualties showing the number of officers killed, 5 ; 
wounded, 16: men killed. iO(); wounded, 3S1. Total killed, 114; wounded, 
3n7 : aggregate loss 511. This list embraces many of the bravest and 
most gallant officers and soldiers of the division, for a more particular 
leference to whom I respectfully refer to the reports of the brigade com- 
manders wiiich are herewith enclosed. 

I am .ureatly indebted to the members of my staff, Major Rogers. As- 
.-'ist.iht .\ (jLiieral ; IJeuteiiants duindon and Shannon, Aids-de- 
< a.u.. aiiJ t- C.i\n L",<|ii!iart of Col Hartleti's staff, for the zealous 
i> .i!i;icr 111 w. iL.i tJLir 1^ .pc-cli\e duties weie discharged. 

I am. sir, very respectfully, , - , ,. . . 

Vour obedient servant, , . , 

It: ^ '■■■■■ H. W. SLUCLM, ,,.. ,. 

Major-General Volunteers, Commanding. 

Report of Col. Joseph J. Bartlett, Twenty-Seventh N. Y. 

Infantry, Commanding Second Brigade, of 

the Battle of Crampton's Pass. 

Hdqrs. Sixond Bri(-..\i)e, First Div., Si.xrn Curps, ) 
. 1S62. \ 

M.vjok : — I liave the honor to •submit the following n-p.,rt of the 
taken by my brigade in the battle of Cramiiton's Pass, Sunday. September 
14th, 1S62 : 

,.i,.Mi; .; .:,iw . 


J III.) 

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: ;..J ;-.,;.,. 0/ 





My command, after a march of ten miles, arrived opposite the village 
of Burkettsvilleand Crampton's Pass about 12 o'clock m., with the Ninety- 
sixth Pennsylvania Volunteers, Col. Cake commanding, deployed as skir- 
mishers. Tlie enemy's pickets retired from the town, and opened an ar- 
tiller}' fire from two batteries upon the line of skirmishers. I was ordered 
by Major-Gen. Slocum to halt, until he could mass his troops and arrantje 
the plan of the assault, as the appearance of the mountain pass convinced 
all that artiller>' was of no avail asrainst it, and that nothin.,- but a com- 
bined and vigorous chary:e of infantry- would carry the mountain. 

It being decided that the attack should be made on the right and flank 
of the road leading over the mountain, I was ordered to lead the culuinn. 
under cover from artillery tire, and as secretly as possible, to a large field 
near its base, where the column of attack was to be formed, each brigade 
in two lines, at 200 paces in rear. 

About 4 o'clock p. M. I ordered forward the Twenty seventh New York 
Volunteers, Lieutenant-Col. A. D. Adams commanding, to deploy as skir- 
mishers; and upon their placing the interval ordered between the column 
of attack and their line. I advanced at quick time the Fifth Maine Volun- 
teers, Col. A. J. Jackson commanding ; and Sixteenth New York Volun- 
teers, Lieutenant-Col. J. J. Seaver commanding. Mv line of skirmishers 
found the enemy at the base of the mountain, safelv lodged behind a strong 
stonewall. Their entire line, being now developed, exhibited a large force. 
My first line advanced rapidly and steadily to the front, under a severe fire 
of artillery from the heights above, and musketry from liebind the wall and 
the trees on the slope above it. Halting behind a rail fence, about 3W 
yards from the enemy, the skirmi.shers were withdrawn, and the battle 

By some unexplained and unaccouiuaiile mistake, more than 1,000 
yards intervened between the head of the column of Gen. Newton's brig- 
ade and my otvn line ; and nothing but the most undaunted courage and 
steadiness on the part of the two regiments forming my line, maintained 
the fight until the arrival of the rest of the attacking column. On tlieir 
arrival, the Thirty-second New York Volunteers, Col. Matheson com- 
manding; and the Eighteenth New York \'oiunieers, Lieutenant-Col. 
Myers commanding, were sent to report to me. t,y order of Gen. Newton, 
commanding Third Brigade. The Fifth Maine an<l SiMeenth Ne\v Y.)rk 
Volunteers having expended their .inuuunitiun. I relieved them, and 
formed ihem twenty pares in rear. 

The New Jersey brigade. Col. Torbert con.mandin«. now arrive.l on 
tlie left of the line, an<l commen--<.d rtriti- by its lirst line : ;ind the Ninetv- 



sixth Pcnn>;vivania Volunteers having joined my command, and been 
positioned bv nie on the extreme right, it became apparent to all that 
nothing but a united charge wonid dislodge the enemy and win the battle. 
A moment's consultation with Col. Torbert decided us to make the charge 
immediately, at a double quick ; and the order was passed along the line, 
;o "cease tiring." and the command given to "charge!" and our whole 
line advanced with cheers, rushing over the intervening space, to the stone 
wall, and routing the enemy. The charge was maintained to the top of 
the mountain, up an almost perpendicular steep, over rocks and ledges, 
through the underbrush and timber, until the crest, overlooking the valley 
bevond. was gained. The victory was decisive and complete, the routed 
enemy leaving arms, ammunition, knapsacks, haversacks and blankets, 
in heaps by the roadside. 

The great natural strength of the enemy's position, supported by his 
well-served batteries, made it absolutely necessary that the first attempt 
should be successful, or great confusion and slaughter must ensue. The 
success was fully and clearly established by the masterly arrangement of 
the column of attack by Major-Gen. Slocum ; and circumstances seemed 
to have been controlled by some master hand, to enable us to carr>- out 
the clear instructions r^-ceived before the assault. All orders were carried 
out in detail. No more and no less was done than to execute the plan, 
during the fiercely contested assault, which was so clearly expressed in 
the bivouac. 

I have the honor of reporting the capture of one battle-tiag. by the Six- 
teenth New York Volunteers. 

The action of mv own regiments, and of the Thirtv-second and Eigh- 
teenth New York Volunteers, who were under my cominand, recommend 
them to the highest consideration of their general officers. There were 
no fjthcers, field or line, who did not distinguish themselves upon this 
occasion ; and the highest praise should be awarded the soldiers under 

It is with sorrow [ have to report the death of Major .Martin. Ninety- 
sixth Pcnnsvlvania Volunteers, who fell u^allantly leading: his wing of the 
regiment to the charge. 

My warmest thanks are due to the brave, able and Lrallaut assistance 
rendered me on this. a< on nil former occasions, bv Lieut. K. P. Wilson, 
.i.;tin>; As>isfani Adjutanllleneral, and Lieut. M. E. Richards, acting 

Among the suruef)ns of (he >;everal reiximents, Surg. N. S. Barnes, 
Twenty-seventh New York Volunteers, I wish particularly to mention for 

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io6 rp:cord of 27'in regiment n. y. vols. 

gallantry in foUowiny; his rtfxinicnt into battle, and establishing his field 
hospital close to the scene of action, thereby rendering immediate and 
valuable assistance to the wounded. 

Colonel, Commanding Brigade. 

Report of Lieutenant-Colonel Alexander D. Adams, 

Twenty-seventh New York Infantry, of the 

Battle of Crampton's Pass. 

Hdqrs. 27TH N. Y. Vols.— In the Field, near } 
\ViLLi.\Msi'ORT, Md., Sept. 23, 1SC2. ^ 

Lieutenant: — I have the honor to submit the following report of the 
part taken by this regiment in the ;iction of Crampton's Pass, September 
14th, 1862 : 

On leaving Jefferson, the Ninet\-si\th Pennsylvania was sent out in 
advance, as skirmishers; and, soon after, the Sixteenth New York was 
assigned to support a liaitery ; so that the Twenty-seventh had the advance 
on approaching the pass. The presence of the enemv having been dis- 
covered, the britiade was drawn iiiio a ravine, in ohimn hv battalion, to 
avoid his artilleiy, and to [>repaie for storming the gap. Shortly after, the 
Ninety-sixth PennsA Ivania having i)cen recalled and placed in the column, 
the brigade moved, under cover a^; far as practicable, tcnvard the pass, and 
at 3:30 the Twentv-seventli — still leading the column — was ordered by 
Col. Bartlett, commandinic brigade, to deploy as skirmishers, advance on 
the pass, and develop the enemy's position,— the center of the line, which 
was at least a mile long, being directed a little to the right of the pass. 
Almost as soon as the deployment was completed, and the Hank companies 
had been thrown forward a little, bringing the line into the form of an arc, 
the skirmishers became briskU eu;j;aged, simidtaneou^ily on the right and 
left, with a sii]jerior force of the enemv, posted at the base of the nuuin- 
lain, behind stone fences and housed. 

The tiring at once became general along the whole line, and was very 
rapid, and at close range. In ten or fiMeeii minuies (lie lirsi line of alt.ick 
of this bti:,^ule liad advanivd to the left of the center of the line of skir- 
mishers, and ii))ened a fieri e tire on the enemy in the woods in fmiu. 
After considerable inier\'al, the muskefrv C(jn;itiuing tiercelv, the Second 

lio ^oq»H 


Kriyadc, in column, Gen. Newton's, liaving been brouglit up to support 
tlie attack, and the skirmisliers, as well as the first line of Col. Bartlett's 
hriijade, having expended their aninuinition, the colonel commanding 
directed that the skirmishers should retire and rally on the center, for the 
purpose of re-forming the regiment. This was done in good order, though, 
owing to the extent of the line, it necessaril}- occupied some time, — the 
charge which carried the pass being made when but three or four compa- 
nies had formed. As soon as the tiank companies had come in, the regi- 
ment was placed in the position previously indicated by Gen. Bartlett, 
where it remained until the next morning. The action had terminated in 
the total rout of the enemy before this position was taken up. 

The conduct of this command, during the entire engagement, was must 
admirable. Though exposed to the fire of the enemy's artillery, while 
advancing over the open fields, there was no faltering or hesitation, and 
the severe musketr}" fire of the enemy was returned with the cool deliber- 
ation and steady aim of experienced marksmen. 

It is reported by prisoners, that the manner and steadiness of the ad- 
vance convinced the enemy that he had not raw troops to deal with. The 
great extent of the line rendered the transmission of orders difficult, and 
I am greatly indebted to Major Bodine and Adjutant Thompson, for the 
aid which maintained the proper disposition and unbroken continuity of 
the line. All the officers, save one, maintained and added to the reputa- 
tion they had won in the previous histor}' of the Twenty-seventh. 

It would not be proper to conclude this report without mentioning the 
efficient conduct of Surgeon Barnes, of this regiment, whose hospital was 
established nearest to the field, and who was the first surgeon to visit the 
wounded, collected in the houses at the foot of the mountain, and on the 
field after the action was over. 

The casualties are : 6 killeii, and 27 wounded ; among the latter are 
Lieuts. Seely and Christman. and Color-bearer Sergt. McMahon. 
I am, sir, very respectfully, 


Lieutenant-Colonel, Commanding. 

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Report of Major-Gen. Wm. B. Franklin, U. S. Army, 
Commanding Sixth Corps, of the Battle of Antietam. 

Hdqrs. Sixth Army Corps— Camp near Bakersville, Md., ) 
October 7, 1S62. ■. -. • i 

General:— I have tlic honor to make the followini; report of the ojjcr- 
ations of this corps, under my command, in the battle of Antietam. on 
the 17th ultimo : 

For the preceding two days I had been encamped in rear of Rohrers- 
vilie, in Pleasant Valley. Durin^r the night of the i6th I received orders 
to move towards Keedysville, in the morning, with two divisions, and to 
dispatch Gen. Couch's division to occupy Maryland Heights. 

I started at 5:30 a m. Gen. Smith's division led the column, and its 
head arrived at the field of battle about 11 o'clock. This division was 
ordered to take post in a wood on the left of the stone bridire across the 
Antietam ; and I was directed to place Slocum's division on the right of 
the same bridge. Before the arrival of Slocum's division. Gen. Smith was 
ordered to go to the assistance of (Jen. Sumner, forming on his left. He 
at once obeved this order, and arrived on the field at a most opportune 
moment. His first brigade (Hancock's) formed as the support of two of 
Gen. Sumner's batteries (then severely pressed by the enemv), drove away 
his skirmishers, who had already advanced close to the batteries, and oc- 
cupied some buildings and fences in front of his position. This brii^ade 
was the means of saving two batteries, and occupied a position during the 
remainder of the action, sometimes under very hea\y cannonading. 
* * * * * -^i ^ 

Slocum's division arrived on the field about 11 o'clock. Immediately 
after its arrival, two ot his brigades iNewton's and Torbert's) were formeil 
in column of attack, to carry the wood in the immediate vicinitv of the 
white church The other brigade (Bartlett's) had been ordered by General 
Sumner to keep near his right. As this brigade was to form the reserve 
for the column of attack, I waited until it came up. About the same time 
Gen. Sumner arrived on the spot, and directed the attack to be post[)oiKd: 
and the enemy at once proceeded to fill the woods with infantry, and 
planted a battery there, which opened a severe fire upon us. 

Shortly afterward- the runimandin- -:.-ncial canu- t.) tlie ;)o>iti<,n, and 
decided that it WMuM .u,t b,- ,.nidrnt to make thr atta, k. our position on 
the right being consider.iblv m .i.iv.mce of what it ha.l be,n in the m..rn- 
ing. This division therefore held i:s jnace until it wa. finallv removed 

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on the igth. On two occasions, during the afternoon of the 17th, the en- 
emy opened upon us from the wood with artillery fire. In each case their 
tire was soon silenced, and, it appeared from an examination of the ground 
afterward, with hea\y loss of artillery and men. 

In this position, suffering severe cannonading at intervals, which they 
bore like the veterans they are, my command remained without change 
until daylight on the 19th, when a general advance was made by the pick- 
ets, under orders from headquarters. This advance revealed the fact that 
the enemy had retreated during the niofht. 

The batteries of the corps, under comit.and of Capt. Ayres and Lieut. 
L'pton were splendidly served, and did excellent execution. 


My staff were very efficient, and behaved well. Without any previous 
knowledge cf the field, and with a lar^e extent of ground covered by my 
command, its duties were arduous in the extreme. •• * * 

I am. General, very respectfullv. 

Your obedient servant, 

.. ., • VV. B. FRANKLIN, 

^..^ ' ,f . Major-General, Commandi-iy. 

Report of Major-General Henry W. Slocum, U. S. Army. Command- 
ing First Division, of the Battle of Antietam. 

IId(.)Ks. FiK>r DnisioN Six in Corps, } 
C.VMP NEAR Bakers\ ii.LK, September 2(., 1862. \ 

Sir :— I have the honor to report that, early on the morning of the 17th 
instant, the division under my . oiiimand left Crampton's Pass to join the 
main army, then already engaged wiih the enemy, near Sharpsburg. We 
reached the battlefield ahout 12 .M., and immediately took position in front 
of the white church, on the H.agersti.wn and Sharpsburg turnpike, reliev- 
ing a part of Gen. Sumner's corps. Our infantry, though not actively en- 
uMged, were exposed to a heavy artillery fire from the enemy until sun- 
down, and are entitled lo great credit for their gallantry under a severe 
'ire. wlii.-h thev were unable to r.'turn. The ariiilerv of the division, un- 
der r,„nman.i of FirM Lieut. Linoiv Ipton, Fifth V. S. Artillery, was well 
served, an<l did .^ocd execution. Th.- batteries of Capt. Hexamer, First 
N'w Jersey Volunteer Artillery: Capt. Wolcott, First Maryland Volunticr 
Artillery; and Lieut. Wdli'^ton, Baitery D, Serond U. S. Artillery, were 


all engaged, and their fire proved very accurate and ettective, twice ■silenc- 
ing the enemy's guns, and holding in check a large force of his infantry. 
The officers and men of the division lay or rested upon tlieir arms in line 
of battle for over forty hours, without leaving their position, and deserve 
great credit for their fortitude displayed on that occasion. 

I append a list of casualties, showing a loss of 5 men killed, 2 othcers 
and 56 men wounded, and 2 men missing ; making a total loss of 65. 

I am, sir, ver^' respectfully, 
'>' '■ ' ■■• ' ■ ' Your obedient servant, 

'•' =*''^;- n. W. SLOCUM, 

; ■''''■'■" ■-->■'• '■ Major-General Volunteers, Commanding. 

On October 23d our knapsacks that were sent off at 
Harrison's Landing, on the nth of August, were returned 
to us, many of them having been pillaged of their valu- 

October 31st we were called at 3 A. M., and after making 
coffee, fell in line and started on the march, taking the 
road to the left of Antietam, through Keedysville, ami 
after a pleasant march of about ten miles, we camped near 
Crampton's Pass, on the opposite side of the mountain 
from where the fight took place. 

September 14th w^e crossed the mountain, passing o\-er 
the battle-field and to the right of Burketsville, where we 
halted a few minutes ; and while here several of our 
wounded that were left at the village on the day of the 
fight came to see us. We continued our march through 
Maryland two days more, then crossed the Potomac on a 
pontoon bridge at Berlin. This brought us into Loudon 
county, Va., and our m.arch is to continue up Loudon \'al- 
ley, which is a continuation of Plea.-^ant Valley in Mar)-- 
land. Evcr\' day there was more or less cannonading in 
front, as our troops came up with the rear guard of the 

November 4th the regiment was rear guard, and while 
waiting for the lines to pass us, a \-ote Avas talccn to see 
how the men stood for Guv-ernor of New York. \\'ael>- 
worth recei\-ed twenty-three majority in the regiment, 
Compan\' " D " giving only one vote against hiiii. 


Mat ,ooTio-j 


The 6tli and 7th we stayed in camp at White Plains, on 
account of a severe snow storm. The next day we came 
to Thoroughfare Gap, when the officers, seeing smoke on 
the opposite side of the mountain, thought it came from the 
camp of the enemy. A battery was hastily put in position, 
our lines of battle formed and skirmishers sent to the front, 
who soon returned and reported that Gen. Siegel was on 
the other'side with some twelve thousand men. We con- 
tinued our line of march and at night camped at New 
Baltimore. The next day, the loth. Gen. McClellan, hav- 
ing been removed from the command, rode through the 
camp, taking leave of the army. He was accompanied by 
General Burn.^ide, w ho assumes command. The men were 
wild with excitement. They threw their hats into the 
air and cheered their old commander as long as his es- 
cort was in sight. The rank and file are very much dis- 
satisfied with his removal, as the soldiers have always idol- 
ized him. The next day one soldier writes in his diary : 
" Here we are still in this miserable old camp. There is 
much excitement among the men. We are growing uneasy 
as dogs, and hardly know how to content ourselves, on 
account of the change in commanders. The troops are all 
discouragetl and don't care whether the Union is sa\ ed or 
not." The soldiers at this time did not realize what Gen. 
McClellan might have done after the battle of Antietam, b\- 
fc^llowing up the enemy more rapidly. 

The following is the order relieving Gen. McClellan : 

Washington, Nov. 5, 1S62. 

Hy direction of the President of tlie United States, it is ordered that 
Major-Gen. Mc;(."lelian l)e relieved from the command of ilie Army of tin; 
Potomac, ami that Major-Gen. Unrnside take command of that army. 
Hy (Jidirr of tlie Secretary of War. 


Assistant Adjutant-Geiiei.d . 

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McClellan's Farewell Address. 

Hdqrs. Armv ok ruE Potomac, | 

Camf near Rectortow.n, V;i., Nov. 7, 1S62. i 
Officers and SoLliers of the Army of the Potomac: 

An order of tlie President devolves upon Major-Gen. Burnside the 
command of this army, fn partiny; from you, I cannot express the love 
and gratitude I bear to you. As an army, you have grown up under 
m}' care, fn you I have never found doubt or coldness. The battles you 
have fought under my command, will proudly live in our nation's history. 
The glor}" you have achieved, our mutual perils and fatigues, the graves 
of our comrades fallen in battle and by disease, the broken forms of 
those whom wounds and sickness have disabled — the strongest associa- 
tions which can exist among men — unite us still by an indissoluble tie. 

We shall ever be comrades in supporting the constitution of our coun- 
tr)- and the nationality of its people. 


Major-General United States Army. 

Gen. Biirnside's order assuming command of the Army 
of the Potomac was now prepared, and read as follows : 

Headquarters Army of the Potomac, ) 
VVarrentown, Va., Nov. 9, 1862. I 
General Order No. I. 

In accordance with General Orders No. 1S2, i.ssued by the President of 
the United States, I hereby assume command of the .Armv 01 the P(itomac; 
and the exercise of my e\ ery energy in the direction of this army, aided 
by the full and hearty cooperation of its othcers and men, will, 1 hope, 
under the blessing of (iod, ensure its success. 

Having been a sharer of the privations, anti a witness of the braverv (jf 
the old Army of the Potomac in the Mar\land campaign, and \\\\\\ iden- 
tified in the feelingsof respect and esteem for Gen. Mi:Clellan. entertained 
through a long and most friendly association with hiiu, I fed that it is not 
as a stranger I assume this comnumd. To the Ninth ("orps, so long 
and intimately associated with me, 1 need sav nothing : our histories are 
identical. With ditfidence for nuself. but with a proud contidem e in tin.- 
unswerving loyalty and deteriniiKitton of the gallant arnu now cntru'^tcd 
to my care, I accept its control with liic steadfast assuraiue tluu the jii<t 
cause auisl prevail. 

Major-General, Gommanding. 


Burn^idc halted here several days around Warrenton, 
and reorganized the army upon a no\'el plan. The six 
army corps were consolidated into three grand divisions, 
tiie right, center, and left, respectively commanded by 
Gens. Sumner, Hooker, and Franklin. The Sixth Corps 
now formed a part of the left grand division, and was com- 
manded by Gen. \V. F. (*' Baldy'"; Smith. The first divis- 
ion, to which our regiment had alwa}-s been attached, was 
now commanded by Gen. Brooks, a stern disciplinarian and 
an able soldier. Gen. Slocum having succeeded to the com- 
mand of the Twelfth Corps. 

On this march the matter of supplies was a vita! one 
to us. The supply trains were often delayed, and yet the 
strictest rules had been issued that the country througii 
which the army passed should be " protected." Xo plun- 
dering was allowed. But it was a hard thing to restrain 
hungry men from occasionally helping themselves to any 

good thing they could find. One day Corp. , of Co. 

" C." walked into camp and directly past Gen. Brooks' 
headquarters, with a fine sheep swung o\'er his shoulders. 
The General halted him and in a peremptory voice de- 
manded his reasons for disobeying orders. " General," said 
the soldier, " Xo sheep must try to bite me. If it does, 1 
shall shoot it, orders or no orders," and in\mediately walked 
on to his tent. It is needless to say that the General that 
day had mutton chops for dinner. 

One day. Col. , of (^ur brigade, calling his orderly, 

asked: "What's that I smell cooking? Has any one 
killed the dog?" "Oh, no sir; it's . mutton broth!" 
"How's that? Have the men been robbing any of the 
farmers?" " Xo, sir; our men wouldn't do that." "Then, 
where did the mutton come from?" "Well, sir, this 
morning about daybreak, two men of the th regi- 
ment were seen carrying a sheep toward camp. They 
seemed, sir. to have bi^jught it .-^ome dista'.ice. Two or 
three of our boys slipped on their belts, and, t.iking their 
muskets, >tarted for the " fi)rgcrs," who suppi.Ksing, the\- 
were about to be arrested b}- a detail of the provost guard, 

t<. bixLat 

.1 iii 


droppetl the sheep and ran. Of course, sir, the boys 
couldn't think of leaving the carcass there, and — and — 
we're to have a mess of mutton broth for dinner." 

I ha\"e just finished my dinner, and as some of our men 
could not forage, I would like all to know what a good 
soldier's dinner is: Recipe — Take a quart cup and put in 
one spoonful of coffee, one spoonful of sugar, fill to the 
brim with water; put it over a fire of coals and boil; this 
is coffee. 2. Take a frying-pan, cut three slices of fat pork, 
fry to a crisp. 3. Take fi\ e " hard-tacks," soak them in 
cold water ten minutes, place them in the pan with your 
pork; fry ten minutes. Having done this, your dinner is 
read}-. Then sit down upon the ground ; take your knife 
(your fingers serve as a fork) and eat heartily. This is 
what may be called a good dinner, a cheap one, and the 
recipe should be carefully preserved. 

Sunday, November i6th, broke camp, and started on the 
march about 7 o'clock. Passed through New Baltimore 
and Green\ille. then turned south and marched through 
Catlett's Station, going into camp two miles beyond. The 
day's march was fifteen miles. Here the little gray rabbits 
were \'er\- numerous ; they seemed to start up from every 
bush. The men knocked them over with sticks and stones, 
and that night rabbit pot-pie was the favorite dish in camp. 
On this march I congratulated myself on having confis- 
cated a pillow-case full of flour. I carried it on my shoul- 
ders nearly two miles, when one of the battery bcn's offered 
to relie\e me by carrying it to camp on a gun carriage— antl 
he did relieve me most effectually, for 1 have never seen it 
since. After two day^ more of marching, we went int<-) 
camp near Staffc^rd Court House, where we remained for 
some time. The weather was cold and stormw and as we 
had only green pine for fires, the men were soon smoked up, 
and became the color of a sugar-cured ham. 

Noveiiiber 27th the regiment w.i-; ordered on ]Mcl<et. and 
after a ji.n- m.ircli ihv)- formed the line a few miles from 
Aquia Cree-k. i his iKJng Thanksgiving Day in the State 
of New \'ork, the ho\s are thinking much of home. This 


is the way one man gives his experience, in his diary, next 

" Four of us are on post near the forks of a road. We 
are not allowed to have any fires on the post at night, and 
the boys complain bitterly of the cold. We built us a 
shanty of brush and got some hay and made a comfortable 
bed. It was a bright moonlight night, and as I passed up 
and down my lonely beat, I had pleasant thoughts of 
home and often wished I could have a share of the good 
things from the home Thanksgiving table ; for our rations 
were very short and I had only a small piece of boiled 
beef, with coffee and crackers, and a lot of ripe persim- 
mons, which are very plentiful in this section. But war 
will have an end, and we will return and join our loved ones, 
and share of the good things there." 

The men on reserve, however, fared much better. They 
foraged about the country and had a good supply of chick- 
en, bread, eggs, milk and sweet potatoes. 

Returned from picket duty on the 29th. and remained in 
this camp until December 4th. WHiile in camp at Stafford 
Court House, one of the hospital tents took fire and one 
patient was suffocated. There was one case of small-pox 
while in this camp. The patient was quarantined in a small 
tent at some distance from the camp. 

We marched at daylight on the above date — a long 
march — and camped on the top of a hill, where the winel 
was piercingly cold. We gathered some dried grass and 
made as comfortable beds as possible. The next morn- 
ing we removed our tents and put them in a piece of woods 
where it was more sheltered, and made ourselves quite 
comfortable. It began to rain about 9 o'clock, and we did 
not expect to mo\-e : but about noon orders came to pack 
up, and we started back towards Hello Plain, a {)lace that 
we passed yesterda\-. We had a very hanl march r)f f(nir 
miles. The rain had turned ti> snow; it was \-er\- muddy 
and \er\- cold, and prox-ed to he the most disagreeable 
march we had e\ci- had. The}- led us out (ju the oj)eti 
plain near the ri\er, where we stacked .irnis, just at dark. 

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The snow and mud wore several inches deep. The cold 
wind swept over the phiin. There was n(^ wood for fires 
and no place to lie down. Beini; thorou^dily soaked, the 
men could not stand it ; so we left the plains and went 
into the woods on the heis^hts. about a mile back from the 
river. Here we built hu<^e fires and remained all ni^ht. 
drying our clothes and blankets, and getting but little 
sleep. The weather cleared about midnight, and there was 
an eclipse of the moon that attracted a great deal of atten- 

The next morning we returned to the plain, took our 
arms, and went into an old camp near the landing. It 
seems that our brigade had been detailed and sent here to 
guard the landing and unload boats. 

The following day, December 7th, was the coldest day 
we had ever experienced in Virginia. Ice formed in the 
Potomac so that the boats had great difficulty in landing, 
and some of the men crossed the river on the ice. Manv 
took to the woods again, and spent their Sunday around 
the fires, having suffered ver\- much from cold and hunger. 
To this day the men well remember their experience at 
Belle Plain. One soldier, writing to a comrade recentl}-, 
says: "Whenever I hear the wind blowing on some cold 
and snowy dav or night, I shudder and think of Belle 

On fatigue duty, unloading boats, during the 8th and 9th. 
The sutler arrived on the 9th, and put up a big tent, w ell 
stocked with goods, but refused to sell to the men except 
for cash, and at exorbitant prices. That night some of 
the men made a charge upon the establishment, tore down 
the tent, and seized the goods. Some had an armful of to- 
bacco ; others, fine-tooth combs : some, boxes of sardines, 
buckskin gloves, and ihe various articles usually kept on 
sale. It took half the night to swap roumi, and get things 
evenly di\ided. 

I ho next wc w ere made gi.ul by orders to march 
and join the division. We >tartcd ai S o'clnck, and while 
on the march, all along the line, men were shouting, " Who'll 

{?'' ;..' t':n [■.» •'•qn.; .• ru; 

I .'■/If ^IlliCf! fl ?" 




swap a riglit for a left ?" and vice versa. When they ob- 
tained these gloves from the sutler the night before, time 
was too pressing to notice whether all had mates or not. 
After marching fi\'e miles we went into camp, at White 
Oak Church. 

The roll of the drum summoned the men in line at 5 A.M., 
on the m.orningof December i ith, 1862. At about 8 o'clock 
we left our camp at White Oak Church, taking up the line 
of march towards the river. Cannonading commenced in 
the direction of Fredericksburg very early, and continued 
very rapidly all day. About noon we reached the Rappa- 
hannock, a short distance below Fredericksburg, and from 
our position on the bluffs, bordering the valley, we had a 
fine view of Fredericksburg and the fortified hills in rear. 
It was a beautiful day, — a warm sunshine and smoky atmo- 
sphere reminding one of a Northern Indian summer. Be- 
low, on the river, the engineers brigade w^as engaged laying 
the pontoon bridges, subject to the annoying fire of the 
enemy's sharp-shooters, who were plainly seen on the other 
side of the river. ,;.,: ,. . ., . . .v '., . .... 

We were marched down to a level plain near the bank of 
the river, when suddenly all the batteries, which had been 
stationed on high ground a little back from the river, opened 
fire and sent a continuous stream of shells over our heads, 
across the river, into the city, and over the plain below. 
Sixty shells a minute went whizzing through the air, and 
crashing through buildings, while the earth fairly shook be- 
neath the terrific cannonade. The scene was one of awful 
grandeur. A dark column of smoke rose heavenward from 
the doomed city, showing that the explosives were doing 
effective work. The bombardment continued about an 
hour, when the pontoon bridges in our front were com- 
pleted, and wc were ordered to advance. Above, opposite 
the city, the bridges could not be completed till the troops 
had crossed over in boats, antl driven the sharp-shooters out 
(jf the liou-cs. This was done in a most gallant manner b}' 
the 89th New \'ork. the Kjth and JOth Massachusetts, anil 
the /th Michigan, 

7! I' iW. ylPlfjn :■•:.••/ 

;!i ..:W ii) •>{)!< 


Just at dark the 27th cnxssed the v'wvv, following a Rhode 
Island regiment that ino\'ed off to the riglit, while our regi- 
ment moved obliquely to the left, and advanced with the 
steadiness of a dress parade, about a mile, when we found 
ourselves close up to the enemy's lines ; and we could see 
through the darkness the outlines of moving forms. The 
men all along the line wondered at the mysterious move- 
ment, sending a regiment squarely up to the rebel line, 
with no troops to support us, and a river between us and 
our army. A halt was made and the men lay down, but 
soon a retreat was ordered, in a whisper, and the regiment 
marched back to the river in good order, .recrossed the 
bridge and went into camp for the night. 

While all this was going on, the men of the 89th New 
York and other troops were holding high carni\al in the 
lower part of the cit}-. Houses u ere entered and aiticles of 
food seized. Bacon and eggs were plenty. The soldiers 
were determined to enjoy one square meal. The)' baked 
hot cakes in the kitchen and ate them with sugar and mo- 
lasses. Mattresses and beds were carried into the streets 
and laid upon the sidewalks for a place to rest. Some 
dressed themselves in the old-fashioned clothes found in 
the houses, and sang to the music of pianos that were also 
taken into the street. A citizen of Fredericksburg remarked 
after the war, that he belie\-ed "a Yankee could eat, drink, 
and lie down to sleep in the very jaws of death ; for," said he. 
"on that eventful night when the Confederates were still in 
the city, the Union soldiers acted as though there was no 
one to fight north of Richmond. Why," he added, "it 
was the biggest jamboree Fredericksburg e\er saw I" In- 
deed it was a first-class " jamboree." from the time lUirn- 
side opened on the tow n with his artillery. 

December 12th we were called at 4 a. .\[..andat S o'clock 
the troops began to cross the river. Soon after, our regi- 
ment fell in ;ind marched o\-er. taking position tli'st on the 
right, then on the left, anil tlnail}' nio\ing to the center of 
the line, advanced cdjout a mile. A tlen^e fog shielded our 
mo\emcnts from the eneni}', who were posted on a range 


' ! ;•-• c| i?v«o; 

rr: 1)' !<■ M. 


of hills in the form of a half circle, reaching from above 
Fredericksburg southeast, some four miles, while we were 
on a level plain, extending from the river some two miles, 
to the foot of the hills. About 9 o'clock the fog lifted, and 
the enemy opened on us with their batteries from the for- 
tified heights in our front. We were ordered to take shelter 
in a ravine, which protected us from their fire. They con- 
tinued to shell us for about an hour, many of the shells 
bursting right over us, and our batteries occasionally reply- 
ing. At last all became quiet, and as the ravine furnished 
us wood and water, we made ourselves comfortable, and 
leisurely cooked our dinner. 

At 3 P. M. the enemy opened on us again, and this time 
fired pieces of railroad iron, about two feet long, which 
went over our heads, burying themselves in the= opposite 
bank, doing us no harm, but making a horrible noise. 
Whenever the discharge of a cannon in the fort was seen, 
the men would cry out, " Lie down ! another blacksmith 
shop is coming I" 

Brisk firing now commenced on our right, — first cannon- 
ading, then musketry. It was our troops charging the 
heights back of hVedericksburg, and, although we could not 
see them, every comrade knew, from the noise, that it was 
desperate fighting. At dark all became quiet, and re- 
mained so all night, but it was so cold we could not sleep. 
The morning of the 13th, cold, foggy and dark, found us 
still in the ravine, and in line of battle before daylight ; 
and, as one soldier writes: •' We expect to try our hand to- 
day. God grant to gi\e us success, and take me to Him- 
self, if I am killed. I will trust in Him, and not fear what 
man can do unto me ; and w ill try and do my duty, and 
fight worthy the cause we are defending." But no orders 
to march were received, and after standing under arms for 
an hour, we were dismissed, and allowed to c<Jok our break- 
fast. About noon our battorics on the right began to shell 
the heights, which brouglit on an artillery duel, that Avas 
kept up at inter\als all daw There was also heavy mus- 
ketry firing at inlerv^als «in our left, and also on the right; 

!. /( :■ iA 

1 I )■.'" ;ri?7/ 


CU-I. H. SbiMOLK I'ibktL. O. -G. 



but the only engagement in our front was an advance just 
at dark by the First Jersey brigade, who carried two lines 
of the enem\''s works, but could not hold them, and were 
driven back with heavy loss. After this, all became quiet, 
and we stacked arm-; for the night. 

Sunday, December 14th, there was more or less picket 
firing all night, so we got but little rest. The enemy 
opened the ball a little to the left of our position, and soon 
after the firing became fast and furious on the right. Our 
men were making another desperate effort to carry the for- 
tified heights back of Fredericksburg. Twice they reached 
the outer works, but with numbers so reduced that they 
could not carry the works, and had to retreat. About 8 
o'clock we were sent to the front to relieve the 8th Jersey 
regiment on picket, and were ordered close up to the ene- 
my's works, where we lay down and were partially pro- 
tected by a slight rise in the ground, and further protected 
by our knapsack'^, which every man set up before him. 
Every head that came up above their line of works would 
receive a volley, and they would answer us with one in 
return. Picket firing was kept up most of the day and 
numbers were killed on both sides, but none of our regi- 
ment were hurt. The rebcU finally sent in a flag of truce, 
asking for time to bury their dead, and picket firing ceased. 
Some of our boy^ went over and shook hands with the 
rebels. One deserter gave himself up to our regiment. 
The weather was very fine and we passed a comfortable 
night, but were not allowed to sleep. Just before daylight 
on Monday, the 15th, we were relieved by the 96th Penn- 
sylvania, when we moved back to the ravine and cooked 
our breakfast. Here we remained quiet all day. There 
was but little firing an\'wherc along the lines, and at night 
we prepared for a good rest, but at midnight orders came 
to move, and we marched back and crossed the river. 

It was now evident that our army had been defeated 
iiigain. The \vh*)lc army was >^afely withdrawn across the 
river during th<r night. .\11 were much discouraged and 
disheartened. We had learned nuthincj definite of our loss. 




u '/ 

» ■' 'v.i.-jfiujf; 


but imagined that it was very great, and began to fear that 
we should never conquer the rebels. Our regiment went 
into camp on a side-hill a little back from the stream, and 
we lay down to rest. Soon it commenced raining hard 
and continued so till morning, when we arose, wet, hungry, 
and tired, but thankful that our lives were spared and that 
we were not wounded. 

Soon after daylight on the i6th, the enemy having got 
a battery in position, began to shell our camp, as a parting 
salute. This caused us to pack up lively and move back 
out of range, where we put up our tents and had a good 
day's rest. Thus ended the first battle of Fredericksburg, 
under Burnside, that for courage, bravery, and reckless sac- 
rifice of life had not been equaled in any battle of the war. 
After dark we were ordered to go on picket on the bank of 
the river, where we relieved the 2d Pennsylvania Reserves, 
who cautioned us not to ^4iow ourselves, as the enemy 
would pick off any one at whom they could get a shot. The 
night was very cold, and even the reserves could not sleep. 

At daylight we found the enemy's pickets on the other 
side of the river, and could see that they were carefully 
watching us After a while one of our men, without ex- 
posing himself, called out, " Hello. Johnnie!" The answer 
came back, " Hello. Vank I" "Say, Johnnie, we won't fire 
if you won't !" " All right ; we won"t fire unless the officer 
of the day comes and orders us to, and then we will fire 
high until you get under cover." 

Taking them at their word, we stepped from behind our 
shelter, when they did the .'-am j : and we all walked down 
close to the shore, where the ri\er was not more than four 
or five rods wide, and opened conversation with the "John- 
nies." W'e found some of them were the Te.xans, whom 
we had fought at West Point and Gaines' Mill ; and others 
of the 4th Alabama, whom we had already met four times 
in battle. W'e invited them to come across the river, and 
have a social time, with the promise that they should return 
without hindrance from us. Soon a boat was found, and 
pushed off from the other side, filled with Texans. On 

y..' Vi:;.' . OV/ JiVjin 

^;vfi) uii't-AsxT 

^^_ ._ CEN. LEE'S HD.QRS. o\ V'\'<' \ 'K V \0. '":'M/%^. 




.M\joR-GtN \V B FkWkiiN 

<l ti 



reaching our side of the river, we cordially shook them by 
the hand, and while some entertained them, others of our 
men took the boat and crossed over to the rebel side, where 
they met with just as friendly a reception. 

We could treat them to coffee, and they in turn gave us 
tobacco. The boat went back and forth all day. We had 
found them brave men in battle, and now found them to 
be more intelligent than the ordinary Southern soldier. 
The men traded knives, pipes, rings and other trinkets, and 
wrote down each other's names, with a promise that if 
either were taken prisoner, the other should do all he could 
for the captive's comfort ; and before the war closed, there 
were several instances where the promise made that day 
was faithfully carried out. Others said, that if we ever met 
in action again, to cry out our number, " 27th New York," 
and they would not fire on us. 

Just before dark we parted, after a general hand-shaking. 
and each one betook himself to his own side of the river, 
ready to shoot at the word of command. Soon after dark 
we were relieved from picket, and moved back to our camp 
in the woods, where we remained till the 19th, when wc 
broke camp, and marched back near White Oak Churcli, 
where we were very glad to take a rest, having been under 
fire for six days. 

The loss of the Army of the Potomac had been very 
severe. Official returns stated it to be as follows : Gen. 
Hooker, 3.548; Gen. Franklin, 4,679 (of which 1,531 were 
prisoners) ; Gen. Sumner, 5,494 ; Engineers, 50 ; the total 
amounting to 13.771. The enemy's loss was said to be onl\' 
half that number. The Confederate position was strongly 
intrenched from right to left and lavishly supplied with 
artillery, while our own field batteries were worked at a 
great disadvantage. 

Gen. Burnside in his official dispatch to Major-Gcn- Ifal- 
leck. said : " For the failure in the attack I am responsible, 
as the extreirie gallantr}-. courage and endurance shown by 
them (the officers and soldiers) were nc\cr exceeded and 
would ha\e carried the points had it been possible. To the 

■-;,.> -irlj 7f)l 

?'■•■■• 1 J •>i. rii 

./ l>tit fij 
;.. -J., 'Old 


families and- friends of tlie dead I can only ofTer my heart- 
felt sympatln- ; but for the wounded I can olTer my earnest 
prayers for their comfortable and final recovery." 



- DECEMBER 13, 1862. 

Right of the Left Grand /9/77j,7(V/. — Major-Gen. W. B. 
P^RANKLIN, commanding. 

SixtJi Corps. — Major-Gen. W. F. SMITH, commanding. 


Brigadier-Gen W. T. H. Brooks, commanding. 

First Brigade. — Col. .\. T. \. TORBERT, commanding 
1st, 2d, 3d, 4th, 15th and 23d New Jersey Volunteers. 

Secojid Brigade. — Brigadier-Gen. J. J. Bartlett, com- 
manding 27th, 16th, 121st. New York, 5th Maine and 9Gth 

Third Brigade. — Col. G. \V. ToWNE, commanding i8th, 
31st and 32d New York and 95th Pennsylvania. 


Williston's D, 2d United States; McCartney's A, 1st Mas- 
sachusetts; Hexamer's A, 1st New Jersey; Woolcott's A, 
1st Maryland. 


Brigadier-Gcn. .\. V. Hoai;, commanding. 


Brigadier-Gen. JOHX Newton. commaiiding. 

M i X 

7/ r- »M.;rcK 


i.'.r.c i\i^ni\-i'l 

/. r' "'•.ii''.(.X-;-// 

ir X ' 





'^:^:^-^' ' 

Capt. H. C. Roger<^, Co. " D." 

{Assistant Adjutant-General, on the Staff of Gen. Slocitin.) 



DECEMBER 20th the paymaster came, and the men 
received four months' pay, $52.00. This was followed 
by the usual amount of excesses on the part of some of 
the men ; but, we are glad to say, the 27th had as few men 
who indulged in the ordinary camp vices as any regiment 
in the depar^ment. 

Soon after camping at White Oak Church we received 
orders to make ourselves comfortable for the winter, as here 
would be our winter quarters. The weather continued quite 
cold, and there was little camp duty besides inspection, till 
the 25th, when we had a mild, pleasant Christmas, and 
cabin building became the great industry of our camp. A 
ration of whiskey was served to the men this morning, and 
some of them became " ga-loriously " happy. 

Christmas was a lively day in camp. Most of tlic men 
spent the day industriously working on their cabins, with 
little to eat, while others were casting about for materials 
for a Christmas dinner. Foraging was out of the question, 
for there were too many troops in the neighborhood, and 
the country had been thoroughly scoured. So we had to 
depend entirely upon the commissary and the sutler for 
the wherewithal. Some pooled their rations, and had a 
f.imily dinner in one of the tents. Happy was the squad 
whose culinary department could siiow a frying-pan. and a 
'|uart tin cup for boiling coffee. But it was a dark day that 
dill not show some iilcasure, and many a soldier can look 
back to that Christmas tiinner in camji and say that he had 

iTHrr? 'jti.t 

/ cT n i' '• r <- f /,._ jfi-j ^j 


■< TJlli. OOO'-. 


>3 lol 



more rollicking fun and a greater amount of hearty enjoy- 
ment with half a dozen companions curled up in the cor- 
ner of his little tent, than now, even when seated beside a 
well filled table and surrounded by friends. Then fancy 
free, with few ties to bind him to life, he was determined to 
extract all the pleasure possible out of existence as he went 
through it. 

So there was much sunshine even in a soldier's life. Our 
cabins were usually built large enough for two, and were 
partly in and partly above ground. The Virginia red clay 
was good ground on which to build. First we would dig a 
hole about two feet deep and six feet square ; then build 
walls of small pine logs, from four to six inches in diame- 
ter, laid up " cob-house •' fashion, two or three feet high 
and resting on the edge of the cellar already dug. The'^^e 
were covered with shelter tents that let in plenty of light, 
and the logs were banked and plastered with clay, which 
made them wind proof. A fire-place was made by digging 
a recess two feet square into the clay on one side.lind 
above this a chimney was made with split sticks that ex- 
tended above the top of the tent and were well plastered 
mside and out with the tough X'irginia clay, which was a 
good substitute for mortar. Our bed was just high enough 
from the ground to make a comfortable seat in front of the 
fire-place, as it took up about two-thirds of the cabin. It 
was made of poles or pieces split thin enough to make a 
good spring bottom. On these were placed cedar boughs ; 
or. when they could be had, gunny-bags, filled with stVaw.' 
made more comfortable beds. Knapsacks, overcoats or 
boots were used for pillows, and our two blankets made the 

Our cabins completed, the men turned in and built com- 
fortable log houses for the officers' quarters. 

We remained quietly in this camp several weeks, with 
nothin- to disturb the mon.;to!iy oi camp life. Tlu-.c was 
the u^uaj routine of drili. reviews and inspection, with an 
occasional tnur ..f two or three days of picket dutv. The 
weather was cold, and Miowy much of the time. We vis- 

ji fi^ucnrfl 



ited our friends in the different regiments within a radius of 
ten miles of our camp, read all the books and papers we 
could get, gave a good deal of thought to the culinary de- 
partment, and hav^ing got tired of government rations, 
we bought flour, sugar and lard of the commissary, made 
crullers, cakes and pies, and these, helped out with an occa- 
sional box from home, made a vicmi that home folks might 
envy. Some enterprising comrades turned their little tents 
into bakeries, made crullers and sold them to the men. 

The annoyances which the soldiers were sometimes sub- 
jected to in the way of bad biscuit or unwholesome meat 
were the means of developing much wit and linguistic 
sprightliness that otherwise would have remained dormant, 
and tended also to stimulate culinary ingenuity. Some 
wag would declare that B. C. on the cracker boxes at this 
time, denoted that the hard-tack was made before the 
Christian era, and kindred jokes abounded at the expense 
of salt junk and desiccated vegetables. The following va- 
riety of delectable dishes, all made from government 
rations, illustrate the culinary ingenuity. " army scouse." 
" lumgullion." "dingbats," "flippers," "succotash," etc. 

The story went the rounds of the camp one morning. 

that Captain n, late the night before, after ha\-ing 

imbibed too much "Commissary," blundered without cere- 
mony into the quarters of Captain s, in search, as 

he said, " of something sour— either vinegar or pickles— as 

he felt very sick !" Captain s answered from his 

bed, " that he had no pickles, but that there was a bottle 
of horseradish standing on the Company desk, that would 
answer every purpose." The bottle was found, the cork 
removed with some difficulty, and a large spoonful bolted 
down. It did not stay, however I and the victim expressed 
the opinion that it must have become spoiled ! " Oh, no !" 

replied Captain s, "you have just taken the top of 

the bottle; ilip lower down, and you will fintl it all right I" 
A second dose was self-administered, with the same nause- 
ating effect, — when, upon exatnination, the boozy captain 
found that he had swallowed about half the conteiTts 

i oj, 

tfo.Ilujjriiul '' 


of a bottle of " Hair Pomatum I" Captain n. now 

a temperance man, is always ready to say, " Smoke at mj- 
expense I" whenever the word horserac'ish is mentioned. 

The most enjoyable part of our time was that spent in 
writing letters to " the girls we left behind us." and our his- 
tory would not be complete without quoting some of 
these : 


Camp of the 27x11 Reg't N. V. Vols., ) 

Near White Oak Church, Va., Dec. 29, 1S62. I 

My Dear Friend : — I was made very glad this afternoon by receiving 
your welcome letter. Aimost the only comfort we have to cheer a sol- 
dier's life is receiving letters from our friends, and gladly do we spend 
our leisure time in answering them. 

And now let me begin just where your letter found me, and review the 
last few v.-eeks of our campaign. 

I was sitting in my little tent with my comrade, each of us doing some 
mending, when the letters came. Vou know our shelter-tents are verv 
small, and when we remain in camp an\' length of time thev are ver\- in- 
convenient. So to remedy this, we build up a pen of logs and pitch the 
tent on top, and b_v banking uf) the eaith around and building a tire-place 
in one side, make ourselves a comfortable home. In such an one, which 
we spent all day Christmas in building, aie we seated to-niiiht. Christ- 
mas was a pleasant but not a very merry day ; for the scenes through 
which we have passed durina: the last two weeks have so depressetl our 
spirits that the holidays brim: but little cheer to us. Our repulse at 
Fredericksburg, followed bv the e.Mtreme cold weather and the discom- 
forts attending, of course ga\ e rise to a great ileal of murmuring among 
the troops. They do not seem to blame Burnside so much, alihouLrh the 
attempt to cross at this point seemed a piece of the greatest follv, and had 
it not been for great stui)idity on tb.e part of our enemies. <jur vvho'e arm\ 
could have been driven into the river. But the blanu' rests farther back. 
upon those at home and the Washington aiuhorities, who have kept ui> 
the corisiaut cry, " Whv dou't the .irni\ move ." .ui'.l s,, h.ive foKed a caui- 
(>aii:n unweicume and impracilr;.|i|e. They could not be satisfied after 
removing our General. He was the only one that has realized the strenuth 
of his fi,<e and shaped his [dans accnrdiniily. and wlxj held tlie conhdeuce 


A soldier's LETtER. 131 

of his men. To-da\- the whole a:iriy is pra)in^ for his return, and ma}' 
God LTant that lie may come back to us. Not until this is dorle, and the 
cowards at home shall cease their cry, and. as you sa}', "shall on with thti 
u:arb and off to the wals themselves," may we look for success. 

Personally I am not at all discouraged at our late repulse. I feet that 
God had a purpose in thus humiliating our nation ; and I fear that we 
.Tiust have many such a lesson before peace is established. Something 
must be done to unite our people. When we become a unit, as the South 
is to-day, and the administration adopts a different policy, then shall I 
look for success to our arms. 

I am ver}- glad that you agree with us in regard to Gen. McClellan, and 
your letters came with much cheer for us ; for of all my correspondents, 
except mother, }ou are the only one who takes the same view of affairs 
as the soldiers do. Most of my fiiends seem to rejoice that he was 
removed, and seem to believe tlie absurd falsehoods that are circulated by 
his enemies, but they will }ct change and be as glad as we to see him 

Since Christmas the weather has been very mild and warm, and this, 
together with the short rest, has raised our spirits ; the gloom is fast dis- 
appearing, and b\ New Year's I think the army will be itself again. Many 
are hoping that we shall be allowed to rest the remainder of the winter, as 
they do not belie\e in a winter campaign. I hardly think we shall remain 
here long, and I am ready at anytime when orders come, to go where duty 
calls. I have firm confidence in Him who has ever sustained me, and my 
faith shall ne\er waver. It is not so hard as you seem to think for us to 
live on faith. Even in the darkest hours I find the greatest comfort. I 
thank you heartily for your kind sympathy, for it is this 

"That cheers the soldier's lonely way, 
And makes him to his lot resigned." 

It is getting late, and I must retire to rest on my couch made of cedar 

boughs s[)reaii upon the grountl, where I shall sleep as sweetly as if lying 

upon a bed of tlouh. So, bidding you good night ami wishing \ou a 

Hajjpy New Year, I remain 

Y(jur friend, * * * 

P. S. Dtreinber 30th. — This morning we have received orders to be 
ready to tnove in twelve hours, with three days' rations and si.xty rounds 
of .■arividL;'"-. Where we are lo l^o, we cannot tell, h is a dark time in 
i.iir countrv's hisiurv. (Jod i^iant the rlouds mav soon be raiseii. 



Jan. r, 1863. — To-day tlic army aiul tlic nation arc 
thrilled by the advent of the " Emaxcfi'VIIox Proclama- 
tion." Every contraband who might be waiting upon an 
officer's mess, or cleaning an officer's horse, e\'ery colored 
servant, every African mule-dri\er, on this ist of January. 
1863, becomes at once as completely a new object of inter- 
est to the average soldier as if the black man had just 
dropped from the clouds before his startled eyes. There 
are various shades of sentiment with which this immortal 
proclamation is received. There are some men in every 
company who perfectly comprehended the relation which 
slavery sustained to secession, and who had foreseen the 
necessity of an emancipation measure, when the first gun 
was fired. There are others who to-da\- look upon the 
measure as a dangerous expedient. 

Confirmatory Emancipation Proclamation. 

Whereas, Oii the 22d day of September, in the year of our Lord one 
thousand eight hundred and sixty-two, a proclamation was issued hy the 
President of the United States, containintj, among otlier things, the fol- 
lowing, to wit : 

" That on the first da\' of January, in the yt;ar of our Lord one thousand 
eight hundred and sixty-three, all persons held as slaves within any State 
or designated part of a State, the people whereof shall then be in rebellion 
against the United States, shall be then, thenceforward, and forever free ; 
and the Executive Government of the I'nited States, inchidinii the mili- 
tary and naval authority thereof, will recognize and maintain the freedom 
of such persons, and will do no act or acts to repress such persons, or any 
of them, in any efforts they may make^f<3r their actual freedom." 

"That the Executive will, on the tirst day of January aforesaid, by 
proclamation, designate the States and parts of States, if any, in which the 
people thereof respectivelv shall then be in rebellion a^rainst the United 
States ; and the fact that any State, or the people thereof, shall on that day 
be in good faith represented in the (/unuress of the L'nited States, by 
mirmbers chost n thereto at elections wherein a majoritv of the iiualified 
voters ol such States sh.dl have p.irticip.itni, sh.ill. in tlv- .liisence of 
strnnu^ ctnintervailinL!- testimony, lie deriued conclusive e\ ideii' c ti\at such 
Slate and the pe'ipK- thereof are uoi then in rebellion a-ainst the United 



Now, llicTcfore, I. Akkaham Lin(()1,n, President of the United 
States, by virtue of the power in nie vested as Commander-in-Chief of the 
Army and Navy of the United States in time of actual armed rebellion 
against the authority and Government of the United States, and as a tit 
and necessary war measure for suppressing said rebellion, do, on this 
first day of January, in the year of our Lord one thousand eight hundred 
and sixty-three, and in accordance with iny purpose so to do, publicly pro- 
claimed for the full period of one hundred days from the day first above 
mentioned, order and designate, as the States and parts of States wherein 
tiie people thereof, . respectively, are this day in rebellion against the 
United States, the following, lo wit : Arkansas, Texas, Louisiana (except 
the parishes of St. Barnard, Plaquimines, JetTerson, St. John, St. Charles, 
St. James, Ascension, Assumption, Terio Bonne, Lafourche, St. Mary, 
St. Martin, and Orleans, including the city of New Orleans), Mississippi, 
Alabama, Florida, Georgia, South Carolina, North Carolina, and Vir- 
ginia, (except the fort} -eight counties designated as West Virginia, and 
also the counties of Barkley, Accomac, Northamton, Elizabeth City, 
York, Princess Anne, and Norfolk, including the cities of Norfolk and 
Portsmoutli), and which excepted parts are for the present left precisely as 
if this proclamation were not issued. 

And by virtue of the power and for the purpose aforesaid, I do order 
and declare that all persons held as slaves within said designated States, 
are, and henceforward shall be free ; and that the Executive Government 
of the United States, includinu the militaiy and naval authorities thereof, 
will recognize and maintain the freedom of said persons. 

And I hereby enjoin upon the people so declared to be free, to ab- 
stain from all violence, unless in necessary self defense ; and I recom- 
mend to them that, in all cases when allowed, they labor faithfully for 
reasonable wages. 

And I furtlier declare and make known that such persons, of suitable 
condition, will be received into the armed service of the United States, to 
garrison forts, positions, stations and otlier places, and to man vessels 
of all sorts in said service. 

And upon this act. sincerely believed to be an act of justice, war- 
ranted l)y the Constitution, upon military nt 'essity, L invoke the consid- 
erate judgment of mankind, and the oracious favor of .\lmighty God. 

In testimony whereof I have hereunto set my name and caused the 
seal of the United States to be alTixeil. 

Done n the ('it\ of Wa-iiincioii, the fn-t .l.iv of lannary, in the year 


i)f our 1 


one th( 


• ui, . i-ht liundrei 

1 and -.ixty-three, and of the 1 



of the ' 


:ed St.ites the ei>:l' 



134 RECORD OF 27X11 RfXa.MKXT N. V. \'OT.S. 

Our quiet camp life at White Oak Church was not dis- 
turbed by any great amount of duty. y\11 sorts of rumors 
filled the air, of a raid here, or a flank movement in some 
other direction, but we continued to enjoy ourselves in our 
snug winter quarters until the night of January 19th, 1863. 
when orders came to move, the next morning. 

Tuesday, January 20th, as soon as our breakfast was 
over, we dismantled our cabins of their canvas roofs, as 
they had to serve us for tents on the march, and about 
noon bid a sorrowful adieu to our comfortable quarters and 
fell in line. Just before starting, an order from Gen. 
Burnside, was read to us by Gen. Bartlett, stating : -'That 
we were about to meet the enemy once more," and that 
" the auspicious moment had arrived to strike a great and 
mortal blow to the rebellion, and to give that decisive vic- 
tory which is due to the country." 

We had a long march of twelve miles. The weather 
was very cold, but pleasant. The pontoon train was along, 
and it was ordered that an attempt should be made to cross 
the river above Fredericksburg. 

The air had been so cold during the week, and the frost? 
so keen, that the roads seemed as firm as adamant, and the 
trains were moved with celerity. When we reached that 
portion of our line in the rear of Falmouth, wc found that 
the troops that were encamped in and around Falmouth — 
though none of those whose camps were in view of the 
Confederates — had changed their positions. The expedi- 
tion was evidently to be a surprise. 

It was a splendid day, and mounted and foot made good 
time over the firm roads. Au.>pices were favorable, and 
rank and file were h';peful of a successful result. We went 
into camp just at dark, in a dense pine forest ; Cduld not 
build any fires as the green pine would not burn. The 
ground was frozen so hard that we coultl hardl>- dri\-e the 
tent-pins. Scarcely had ni;^lu arrived, u hen a storm arose. 
a storm in c irncst. The wind blew a gale and rocked the 
trees spitefully. The night was very dark. I'he ram < 
dissolved the firm crust that had borne us up all day. The 

•i ib} 

>■_■ <Mi*v in; J,' 

.;:-3// . ninj 


tent-pins would not hold, and down came the tents. The 
wheels of the artillery and wagons settled into the ooz- 
ing mud, hours before an attempt was made to move them. 
Our blankets were wet through, and we found ourselves 
lying in a pool of ice-cold water. Morning dawmed upon a 
dank, wet body of men. No one got a wink of sleep, and 
all, in that cheerless wilderness of trees and mud, agreed 
that it was the most tedious night that we had ever passed. 

About 8 o'clock w^e packed up and marched on two or 
three miles. Our blankets were wet and very heavy ; the 
mud was deep, and we had a hard time. One soldier, in 
his diary, puts it in this way : " Marched at 8 o'clock. 
Every rag wet ; knapsack heavy as a mountain ; poor me 
nearly frozen to death ; expect to cross the river and have 
a fight." 

We went into camp in a piece of oak woods, about noon. 
Built up large fires, dried our blankets and clothes, pitched 
our tents and made ourselves quite comfortable. The rain 
continued to fall all day and night, and defeated our plans, 
for we soon heard that the move was given up — for which 
the rebs. may thank their stars. 

Friday, January 23d. — The men are in excellent health 
and fine spirits, after having had a good night's rest, and a 
gill of whiskey in lieu of rations, which are getting quite 
short. The clouds cleared away about three, and the sun 
shone out warm and bright,— when we were ordered to 
pack up, and made a short march up the river, very near 
the shore, where we are to guard one of the pontoon trains, 
which is stuck in the mud, and help draw it and the ar- 
tillery up from the plain to higher ground back from the river. 

Looking across the river, we could see a big tent fly, 
which the rebs. had put up early Wednesday morning, on 
which they had written with charcoal : 

The}- were greatly elated at the discomfiture of our army, 
and amused themselves by offering to come over and extri- 
cate our men from the mud ; to aid them in crossing, and 
to show them around on the other side. 


Saturday, the 24th, our entire division was set to work 
pulling the pontoon wagons out of the mud. Every wagon 
and gun was down to the axle in the mud, and it was \^ain 
to try to draw them with the mules. So a long rope was 
made fast to each side of a wagon, and from one to two 
hundred, and sometimes three hundred men would take 
hold of the ropes, and at a given signal would start and 
draw them up a hill To some high ground, where they were 
parked, and left for the mud to settle. This gave us a hard 
and dirty day's work, but at the same time lots of fun. 

At one time, when we were all tugging away at the ropes, 
a spruce young officer rode up, dressed in a bright uniform, 
with white gauntlets, and, in a peremptory tone, ordered 
some of the men to pull harder,— when a man who had 
hold of one of the ropes, and was dressed in an old blouse, 
with a slouch hat, looked around over his shoulder, and 
said, "Who are you, any way ?'" "I am Lieut. Hunter. 
in command of the engineers." " Well, I am Major-Gen. 
Brooks, in command of this division, and I order you to 
get down from that horse and take hold of the rope with 
these men." And down he had to come, saluted by a de- 
risive cheer from the men : and the boys soon had his new 
uniform well spattered with mud. 

After a few hours' work Sunday morning, the last boat 
was drawn out ; and we, looking as though we had been 
buried in the mud and dug out again, were ordered to 
march back to our old camp at White Oak Church. We 
reached our cabins about dark ; and. though the men had 
been allowed to march at will and pick their way, the mud 
being knee-deep, they were very tired. The officers had 
ordered that barrels of whiskey should be placed beside the 
street, with the heads removed, and every man was urged 
to take a big ration. We then wrapped 'ourselves in our 
damp blankets, and lay down on our old beds, without 
shelter, and awoke next morning with our garments steam- 
ing from the heat and moi>ture. Thus ended the march 
that has gone into history under the name oi - liurnside 
Stuck in the Mud !" 

■;.■! ' y>> biftinimoQ at 



It was the second unsuccessful attempt to take Fred- 
ericksburg, which still held out against us, w^hile the enemy's 
pickets would tauntingl\- call across the Rappahannock to 
our pickets, and ask, " When are you coming over again ?" 
" Have you got your mules out of the mud?" But we can 
quietly bide our time, for we know that eventually the 
place must fall into our hands, — not without hard fight- 
ing, however ; but this we are ready for when the weather 
will permit. 

In this last movement Gen. Rurnside had acted almost 
solely upon his own responsibility. The sentiment of his 
general ofificers was almost unanimously against it. and some 
of them freely expressed themselves in opposition. This 
was a powerful reason for abandoning the plan, aside from 
the inclemency of the weather. 

Gen. Burnside now expressed his intention to either 
partly re-ofificer and reorganize his army, or to resign his 
commission as major-general ; for he had become con- 
vinced not only that he did not have the co-operation of 
a large number of his subordinate officers of high rank, but 
that some of them were doing all in their power to thwart 
his plans. He accordingly prepared an order dismissing 
from the service Gens. Hooker, Brooks, Cochrane and New- 
ton ; and relieving from their commands Gens. Franklin, 
W. F". Smith, Sturgis, and Ferrero, and Col. Taylor. Pro- 
ceeding to Washington, he asked the President to approve 
of this order, or to accept his resignation. The President 
referred the order to his military advisers, who declined to 
recommend its approval. 

Accordingly, unwilling to accept his resignation, the 
President relieved Gen. Burnside of the command of the 
-Vrm)' of the Potomac, and not long after assigned him to 
the command of the Department of the Ohio. Gen. Hooker 
was made Gen. Burnside's successor. At the same time. 
Gens. Sumner and Franklin, at their own request, were also 
relieved, and ordered to rei)ort elsewhere. These changes 
Nvere announced to the army January 26th. 




In taking leave of the army, Gen. Burnside issued the 
follovvins order : 

Headquarters Army ok the Potomac, | 
Falmouth, Va., Jan. 26, 1S63. \ 

General Orders No. q. 

By direction of the President of the United States, the commandiui; 
general this day transfers the command of this army to Major-Gcncral 
Joseph Hooker. 

The short time that he has directed your movements has not been fruit- 
ful of victor}', or any considerable advancement of our lines ; but it has 
again demonstrated an amount of courage, patience, and endurance iliat, 
under more favorable circumstances, would have accomplished great re- 
sults. Continue to e.xercise these virtues : be true in your devotion to 
your countrj- and the principles you have sworn to maintain ; give to the 
brave and skillful general who has so long lieeii identified with vour or- 
ganization, and who is now to command you, your full and cordial sup- 
port and co-operation, and you will deserve success. 

In taking an affectionate leave of the entire army, from which he sep- 
arates with so much regret, he may be pardoned if he bids an especial 
farewell to his long-time associates of the Ninth Corps. 

His prayer is that God may be with you, and grant you continued suc- 
cess, until the rebellion is crushed. 

■ ' ■ Major-General. 

President Lincohi's letter to Gen. Hooker, upon his ap- 
pointment to the command of the Army of the Potomac, 
was a characteristic document from a remarkable man, and 
was as follows : 

E.KECUTiVE Mansion, ) 

Washingion, D. C, January 26, 1S63. \ 
Major-General Hooker : 

Gener.\l ; — I have placed you at the head of the Army of the Potomac. 
Of course I have d<-)ne this upon what appeared to me 10 be sutricient 
reasons, and yet I think it best for you to know that there are some thiiiL:'^ 
in regard to uhich I am not ipiite satisfied with \ou. 

I believe you to be a brave and skillful soldier, which, of course, 1 like. 
I also believe you do not nii.x politics with your profissiou. in wluch you 
are right. You have confidence in yourself, which is a valuable, if not 

.'VwO \'t-'\r.^^ 

.1. !-iiit .re'>. 


an iiidispctisalilc qiKility. You arc ambitious, u'liicli, witliin reasonable 
bounds, docs yood rather tliaii iiarni ; but I think diiiinu: Gen. Burnsidc's 
command of tlie arm\-, you liavc taken counsel of your ambition, and 
tliwarted liim as mmh as \i)ii could, in which you did a yreat wrony to the 
countr\- and to a most meritorious and lionorable brother otficer. I Itavc 
heard, in sucli a way as to believe it, of your recently sayiuij that l>olh the 
army and the go\erninent needed a Dictator. Of course it was not for 
this, but in spite of it, that 1 luue iri^en you the command. 

What I now ask of you is military success, and I will risk the dictator- 
ship. The government will support you to the utmost of its ability, wliich 
is neither more nor less than it has done, and will do for all commanders. 
I much fear that the spirit whii h you have aided to infuse into the army, 
of criticising their commander, and wiihlmldin^ confidence from him, will 
now turn upon }'ou. I shall assist voii, as far as 1 can, to put it down. 
Neither you nor Najioleon, if he wvvc alive again, could gel any gucjd out 
of an arm}' while such a spirit [uevails in it. 

And now beware of rashness, but with energy and sleepless vigilance, 
go forward and gi\e us victories. 

Yours, very truly, 


XotwithstandiiiL; some i;ra\o defects in his character and 
habits. Gen. Hooker, as a soldier, had enhsted the confi- 
dence and won the aft'ection of the men. The plucky qual- 
ities which had ;..;i\en to him the name of " Fii^htinj:^ Joe," 
seeined to be an assurance of the acti\'ity and energy that 
were so necessary to the successful endurance of the con- 
test ; while his kindly nature, and his genial, social temper- 
ament, w on the lo\e and good wishes of all who came in 
contact with him. 

In appearance, when in command, he represented the 
dashing, chivalrous soldier, of whom we have read in his- 
tt)ry and fiction, inspiring confidence anti awakening our 
enthu.siasm. As he rode along the line while reviewing a 
corps, niiiuiUed uj)on a snow-white steed, horse and rider 
seeming btit one ; erect in all the pride of command; his 
hair nearly white, coitira.sting strong!}- with his rudtl\- com- 
plexion, he looked the perfect ideal of a dashing, gallant, 
brave commantler. We .soon learned that his skill in organ- 
ization fully equalled his bravery upon the battle-field ; and 


the results were apparent in the improved diseipline and 
morale of tlie troops. 

And it must be recorded on every page that illustrates 
the splendid military achievements of Hooker, that he was 
the commander who knew how to inspire confidence in him- 
self, by considerately reposing confidence in others. 
^ Gen. Sumner, after being relieved, retired to his home in 
Syracuse, N. Y.; but his enforced idleness, and the absence 
of the military surroundings to which he had been accus- 
tomed during the best part of his life, chafed the veteran 
soldier, and probably hurried him to his end. ' He died on 
the 2fst of Afarch following. The words of a brilliant wri- 
ter, when afterwards speaking of him, were fully merited : 
" We have had better captains than Sumner, but no better 
soldiers~no braver patriots." 

The words which trembled upon the dying lips of the old 
general—" :\Iay God bless my country, the United States 
of America "—were the key-note of his life. Green be the 
turf above his grave. 

Gen. Hooker, upon assuming command, immediatelv be- 
gan improving the discipline and perfecting the organization 
of his troops, and with such success that he had,^some two 
months afterward, as he declared, " The finest army on the 
planet !" Pie broke up the " grand divisions," which many 
ofificers had considered useless formations; infused his own 
vitality into the staff and administrative service : and gave 
distinctive badges to the different corps. This latter idea 
was one of the best ever adopted, and the soldiers of the 
army took pride in the display of the badges of their respec- 
tue divisions and corps. 

The^e badges were made of flannel cloth, cut into the 
shape designated for each corps, an inch and a half loiv 
and were ordered to be worn on the top of the cap. or <m 
the left side of the hat. 

The i>t Cru-ps was tU-ignated hv a disk; the 2d by a 
trefoil : the i^\ by a lozenge ; tlic Uh. bv a Ataltesc cro'ss • 
the Oth. by a plain .or (ireek, cross ; the nth. bv a crescent • 
and the 12th, by a star. (See next page. > 

■,i>^' , ( .iflfriSK/. \.l'.l: 

),M -J if ■ 


n,;! Jill h< 



Each corps had three di\isions, and the badges, 
whose form determined the corps, also designa- " 
ted the divisions by colors. The badge of the 
first division of each corps was made of scarlet 
cloth; the second, of white: and the third, ,^ 
of blue. The headquarters flag of each division .— 
was decorated in the same wa\-. 

The idea of corps badges first originated with 
Gen. Kcarne\-, who had, some time before he oj 
was killed, directed that the men of his brigade ^ 
should wear a badge to indicate the command 
to which they belonged. 

By means of these badges, any uificer or man ZL 
could tell at a glance to what command any body 
of men belonged. The 27th, being in the first 
division, sixth corps, wore a red Greek cross, c^ 
When the order to wear badges \\as first issued, r^^^^pj; 
Gen. Ikirtlett conceived the idea of making a 
badge that would also indicate his brigade : so 
he ordered them to wear a cross, with the stand- - [# 1 
ard longer than the arms, or a regular '* crucifix ;" -"' ^*==^ 

but this gave rise to so much profane wit, and _ / 

made the brigade a '"butt" for so many irrev- :2.^^^t __ 
erent remarks from other commands, that it was ' ^^T" 
soon abandoned. - ,'.. 1 . 

The same day, the 26th, everybod}- was busy fixing over 
their cabins, .md getting comfortable quarters constructed. 
Gen. Slocum visited cmr camp, and we gave him three times 
three hearty cheers. We now settled down to the regular 
camp duties, and with the exception of a few individual 
misha[>s, camp life was cpiite endurable. Occasionally a 
tent woultl take fire and burn dou n over its luckless occu- 
[)arit. One man cut off his foot while chopping wood ; and 
one wrote in his di.\ry a^, follows: 

" \\\diiesda\-, 2S, I S('> :;.- Sn< i\\ ed all da}-; mud 
knee (k:ep ; my hre-i)!ace caved in; cold as (Greenland; 1 
am in a peck of trouble! Aly country I oh my country' 


;/j!) qifd/j 


would that my patriotism had been less I so that I had 
never fought for thee!" 

" January 29. — Snow ten inches deep ; made a new ' she- 
bang ;' snow all melted before night." 

We now had plenty of time to write letters, and scMiie of 
these, with their answers, will show better what a soldier 
was doing or thinking, than any other line of history : 

Cami" or 2-Tii Regiment N. Y. Vols., np:ak Wm ie / 
Oak Chikch, Va.. February, 1S63. [ 

Mv Kino Friend: — It is a bright, liLautiful day, and not uiilil<<.- the 
one you described in your letter, received two weeks ago. But what 
changes have wc experienced during these two weeks ; Told, rain, snow, 
and iTiud, have been the order with us ; and, I assure you, we know luny 
to appreciate pleasant weather now. As I apprehended, our regiment 
started on the march the day after my last was ^vIiUen. We had to leave 
our ijuartcrs only to experience a week of the most extreme 
cold and exposure that it has ever been our lot to endure. It being a 
" variety," the men bore it witliout a murmur, but were thankful enough 
to get back to our old camp, ^vhich we reached Sunday night. 

You have already read the particulars of the last mme, in the papers ; 
so I will not \vrite them, only to say that our di\ ision had it much harder 
than the rest of the arm}-, having been left behind to guard and drag the 
pontoon train out of the mud. Fiut it is all over, and for the pa-^t week 
we have been busy building up our huts .igain, and we are now even more 
comfortable than we were before ; and can enjoy it, without any fear of 
another move at present. For the last attempt has clearly demonstrated 
the fact that a winter campai^'n in \'irginia is out nf liu- ([uestion. 

Cien. McCleilan learned this long ago, but llie new generals and the 
people have only just found it rmt. Your litter came straight, as \(>ii 
charged it, and it met me when returning to camp, al just the right time 
to revive my s[,'irits ; ff)r I was very wean" with the fatiguing march. Tiutt 
was a Sabbath long to be remembered, but n<>w tlmt uc- are settled cdni- 
fortably in camp, we trv to foriiet by-gones, laui:h at our tliscour.igeiuent, 
and keep in liie best of spirits. 

There is Ihmuiv vwu in war, bi.t how hard foi us to sci- it. Vet (lod's will be accomplished. The day r.f ^i.od ni.iy be near al h.ind. 
or it mav be far awav, and we not live to -^ee it ; but what are our lives 

A soldier's letter. 143 

compared to the existence of the N:ition? At present our cause looks par- 
ticularly dark. There has been anotlier change of generals, but no more 
satisfactory. Still, " Fighting Joe" has v^one to work with a will, and he 
may yet prove to be " the man ;" but we look for nothing till the tried and 
worthy "Little Mac"' is returned. We grieve much at the loss of Sumner 
and Franklin. We know them to be gallant and brave, and hope that 
Franklin niav be returned. Our old Colonel — now General — Slocum is 
in a fair way to rise still higher, and will probably take Franklin's place. 
He came to visit his old brigade one day last week, and made us a nice 
little speech. He is a favorite with all who know him. Our division 
commander — Brooks — has never distinguished himself, but is liked quite 
well. He had some dithculty, during the late move, with Gen. Burnside 
and Gen. Smith, and is now in Washington, under arrest. And our fav- 
orite, Joe Bartlett, is now in command of the division. He, too, is bound 
to rise, and will soon get the other " star." The boys are now all looking 
anxiously forward to the time of our discharge : only three months more, 
and we shall be free. This is now all the talk in camp, and there are 
some rumors that we are to be discharged before. For if there is to be no 
move till spring, we <:an hardly see the obje(-t in keeping us ; but I do not 
look for a premature discharge. 

(Evening.) — I think if you were to lo<jk into our tent to-night, you 
would alnujst envy us our situation. We are seated beside a good warm 
tire. Our tent is much better than it was before we moved : we have dug 
down deeper in the ground, and built the logs up higher on the sides. 
We are each writing letters by the light of a tallow candle. We have just 
finished our supper, and have had an excellent nual of potatoes and pan- 
cakes, with butter to eat on them. Yes ; as good as you can get up at 
home. The butter, mother sent me in a box ; the flour and potatoes we 
buy of the commissary. 1 won't give in to any woman on getting up a 
meal. If you don't believe me, stej) in and take breakfast with us in the 
morning, and 1 will prove it. To-da\ there has been an inspection of our 
brigade, ail tlie men being called out : I, being on <luty, tlid not have to 
go, but I sh.iU have to be ui) a good part of the night. Discipline among 
llieold troops is about "' played uut." Excuse my si)li.lier phrase. 

Oh ! what a sick lot of men the new troops are. The\- do not seem to 
uiuler^tand how to make tiunis<.I\es comfortable : so that they suiter ver\' 
nuicli Iroui r\p(istiic, and just sit dnwn ;uul ((.jniphoii. < )ue ol our boys 

m.ide a \ i--it lo the regiment to-d i)-. I'liey .ire in laiup fifteen 

rinles fioui iieie. He says "they have not hxed up their (amp .it all, but 
havi- tlieir tents pitched on the ;;iound, the same as we do in summer. 

,1..' i- :r. 'jtn ul 

■ If '• M<tH.ii>tlli. 
■■■'• ',■ :). yit bay. 
. '' I'u HUM •<«»<>-• 


They are already very tired of ilie service. It isanuisinu to hear them talk. 
I reckon they will get enough of it before their time is out." 

I hear that my brother has entered tlie service. It must be quite ionelv 
at home, but mother, judging Ijy her letters, seems to keep quite cheerful. 
I hope you will do all you can to comfort her. 

Yesterday, Sunday, we had no service in camp. Our Chaplain does 
not seem to e.xert himself much in the line of his calling. Verv few of 
the men have any regard for religion, and Sunday is disregarded and pro- 
faned, to a great extent. 

Last evening we spent (piietly in our tent, hut were disturbed until 
midnight by a lot of men and ulficers of a regiment camped near us, who 
had collected in a tent near by, and spent the evenimr in drinking, and 
singing religious and profane .songs alternately. l-hcy held a mock 
prayer-meeting, some e.xhorting, and r,theis cursing in a most profane and 
vulgar manner: while, in our tent, we read one of F-!eecher's sermons, 
fn^m the " Iiuiependent." Awful good boys, aren't we? 

Colporters and exhorters :ire nuuterous through the camps, and 
there have been many conversions among the men of the Sixth Covps. 
I must relate another incident, to show the tone of some of the olFicers in 
relation to religious things: 

Zealous Col. , having been informed that seven men in a neigh- 
boring regiment had been b:inti/,ed, ordered his sergeant to detail Hfteen 
men to be baptized,— adding that he did not propose to be <nitd<jne in 

anything by Col. , uf the regiment ! 

I had a good joke piaved on nu- one day last week, by a comrade from 
nnother company. He was in inv tent a sh.ut time. :iml proposed (for 
sport) thai he .should wriie to some vouuy lady of his ac(|uaiutance whom 
1 did not kn.)w, and sign mv name; and I was to do the same, and -iuu 
his n;imc. Of course I ngie.-d. .\nvthimr f,,,- fun here in camp. Hut 
to-d.ty [ l.ain tluu he has uritt.n to an old acquaintance of mine, an.l h,,s 
got me into a bad box. So the fun is all on one -ide. It is iieiting Lite, 
and [ must retiie so as to be leady to -n up :,t tluee in the nn.rning. 

Orders have juM come for our re^uuent to uo on pi.ket to-morrow, 
to b.- -one four da\ s. ilow piovoknm ! but .tever min.l-all for v:iriels ! 
ALuiy thanks for your s\inpath\ :iiid kind remembi;iu<e. Please wiite 
Soon to your tiue friend. 

,i, , .. ■tl-.: ) 


A Woman's Answer. 

Home, Feb. 10, 1S63. 
My Dear Friem. :— Welcome was \-our little white-wiiioed messenger, 
as it dropped in on us last Friday evenin-, just when "the candles were 
lit in the parlor." We had a great many fears that, on account of your 
marching, our letters had failed to reach you, and had -one to swell 
" Uncle Sam's" already long list in the " Dead-letter P.jstollice." I some- 
times think your letters do us as much good as ours can you. In our 
lonely winter of watching over the sick— for sister E. is gradually wasting 
awa}- — it brings us much cheer to hear from our friends. 

Your invitation to breakfast with you I certainly would accept, if there 
were not s<' mariv i/s in the way. I would love to visit my old acquaint- 
ances in camp, and well imagine the good visit you and Major W. must 
have enjoyed. Rut now, just as you are nicely settled aga-n, the papers 
say the Army of the Potomac is to advance ! How provoking. X'ariety, 
to be sure, is the spice of life ; but u>o much spice is as i)ad as none at all. 
1 can appreciate j'our feelings on returning again to your old camp. You 
almost felt like singing "Home, Sweet Home," when you saw it again, 
didn't you?-(I had forgotten you never sing)— for it was your soldier 

I do think you have had a regidar splitting up time among vour sen- 
erals, and hardly know how to understand it. Those whom 1 have always 
supposed to be the best of all. are censured and dismissed. How strange ! 
Yet perhaps I do not know, being only a woman ! When liurnside took 
McC^lellan's place, I prophesied a short term of service for him,— that he 
would soon be dismissed, and McClellan eventually returned. Not that 
I disliked Burnside, for I have thought \vell of him, jud-iug from past 
events. And sure enough, he is relievetl ; and. stran-e as it max seem — 
I hope it is something more than rumor— yesterdav's papeissaid the Pres- 
ident wished to return McClellan, but, the cabiuel objecting, postponed 
it for the present. Yet the [Kipers added, that it was thought in (wo weeks 
he would be returned. Can you imagine that I said 1 would not go back, 
if I were he? 'Twas a ipiick thought that prompted it, but I hope if he 
does, his accusers will all own his blameUssness, and be convinced that 
he knows, more than they what ought to be done. Oh, when that time 
comes, and he rises pre-eminent ai.ovr his deti.ictors ,as I almost ivA con- 
lid, in !,-■ will), as hi-h as the talle>I trees are al)ove the lowest shinb> on 
the h'.liside. won't wc S''h'Ji! i:/c'ii,/ ,in,/ , /,:/> our uuHiU joi -ov .' 

Hut I am getting rather demonstrative, am I not? Nevermind; tlir 

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case calls for it. 1 am so — wicked, some would say, that I ask no tireater 
enjoyment than to see his accusers as deeply s(jrry and humbled for tlie 
injustice thev have done him, as they have been abusive aiiainst him. 
All the powers of earth combined can never convince me that he is wrong, 
as lon^- as his conduct is as Christian and u[>right as it ever lias lieen. 
He wron<i ? No 1 When the sun withtlraws its liudit, and the stars forget 
to shine, then it will do to talk of his faults ; but till then, let all be sat- 
isfied to talk no more ; and while time lasts, as there is nodangerof being 
deprived of these lights, so there will be no opportunity of talkin-^' against 
him.' But you must think my letter is a panegyric on McClellan, bui 
when I get to writing about him, I hardly know when to stop. 

You wrote that you were to start next day for a four days' picket ex- 
cursion (?i Did you have as extreme cold weather as we had, tliese days? 
You mu^t have had a tedious time, for it was the most severe i-olil here 
tiiat has been known in a long while. I always think of our S(jldiers at 
such time-^, particularly for fear they sulYer. I have been so little versed 
in the arrangements of the army, that I ha\e ne\-er known just how your 
letters are carried to you. Have you a postmaster connected with your 
regiment, who attends t(i such matters? Some have, I know. Also, are 
3'our tents arranged togethei'. with the h(.'ad<iuarters for a center guiding 
star? and are you in the " woods," or on a jdain ? I try to imagine your 
situation, but feel, when I ha\e linished my sketch, it is nothing but imag- 
ination after all. You must miss Sabbath privileges, but I cann(3t see 
why your chaplain does not hold regular services. Sabbath after Sabbath, 

as we gather in our chiirch and listen to Mr. H , our dear, good pastor, 

my thoughts involuntarily turn to those who once met with us, with the 
wish they could enjov his discdurses ton. Mut, tliouLdi awa\-, he always 
remembers them, and eravc^ heaveidy bles-.ings for them, and the protec- 
tion of llim who Liivcs His angels charge concerning them. 

Ami now good-niiiht. May swfct slundiers iind pleasant dreams be 
yours to-niiihl : and when thi' lnuni- fielin>: will crei'|i over you, and you 
sigh for the "leeks and onions..! K-viU." and won.ier if they think of 
you at h<une, just diaw the Ioiil; -iuh tli.U betokens homesickness, sit down 
in one I orner of your tent, and write to vour true friend, in her far-away 
Northern h., me. ***** ***** 


Marcli 2tl to 13th. — But little doin;^ in camp. Occasional 
details were made to build corduroy roads. These roads 
would sink so deep in the mud that others had to be built 
over them, and it was with the L^reatest difficulty that our 
supplies could be brought o\'er from Aquia Creek. "An- 
other mule lost in the mud," was a common phrase in 

March 15th, we started out on a four days' picket tour, 
with cooked rations. We were relieved by the 95th Pennsyl- 
vania, and when we returned to camp, orders were read in 
regard to more thorough police duty. For the next few 
days police duty was in full operation, and the camp put 
on its former cleanK' appearance. 

March 22d, there was brigade inspection by the Inspec- 
tor General, which is thus recorded in a comrade's diar}- : 
"General inspection — didn't get to our company until dark. 
We were just as well satisfied, whether the Inspector was 
or not. Our company shows to the best advantage in the 
tlark. In fact they loxe darkness rather than light, be- 
cause — their breeches are dirty I " 

It was a favorite pastime for some of the men to slip 
past the regimental guards and stroll out over the countr}- 
for the pur[)ose of hunting rabbits, which were very numer- 
ous about the old fields and swamps. As the country was 
thickh- studded \\ ith camps, it was rather dangerous sport, 
and an order was issued forbidding any soldier going out 
of camp with his musket, except on special dut}-. Bob 
Way, the " fcuuous jumper" of Co. " C," and "Pony 
Blair," his tent-m.ite and inseparable companion, had been 
out on an excursion of that kintl, aiul, returning, passed 
near iliv isiou headquarters. Unfortunately for them, they 
came i.q)on Gen. Brooks, who commands the division. 
The boys saluted and marchetl steadily on, but the General not so easily fooled. " Halt I" he roared. "What are 
>'ou nieii doing here with \-oiir muskets, and \\ith(.>ut an 
ofticer?" Tile boys -aw the\- were in for it, and knew the 
old (ieneral \\ell (.•iiough to ([uickl)' determine that they 
had better make a clean breast of it ; so they meekly 

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■ 1 
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AIajor^Gkxkiiai. \V. T. II. Bkook.^ 



replied. •' We were looking after a rabbit." " i\h ! " said the 
General, in his blandest tones, " so you were hunting rabbits, 
were \-ou ? Well, I can save you the trouble." Calling to a 
staff officer, he said : •' Mr. Parsons, these nien are looking for 
rabbits; just show them to the rabbit pen." Following the 
officer, they were conducted to the guard-house, where they 
were kept for a few hours, and then released. 

Confinement in the guard-house was a mild punishment 
compared with some of the methods adopted at head- 
(juarters. Passing the vicinity, one would observe several 
men higging rails upon their shoulders and marching 
around in a circle under guard, and near them others stand- 


ing upon barrels, ami still others were marching around 
with a barrel o\-ercoat. This was a favorite mode of pun- 
ishment with the old (icneral, but the rogues were usually 
disporting themsehes in their limited circles, not feeling- 
very kcenl\- the humiliation it was designed to produce. 

Still another mode of punishment was to make the cul- 
l)rits >it a■^tride a j)ole. ele\ated and supported upon f(.)rked 
jx.sts about ten feet high, each man wearing a placard stat- 
ing the nature of his offense. (See cut.) 

Sometimes the offender would be put on special log duty. 
Tun or three sticks of four-f(-iot hre-wo-Hl, not excessive!}- 
Urge, but fair >i/e, were pl.icetl at 'tne end of a line, and as 
man\- more at the other end. The tran.sgressors were re- 

:!_' t- 

V. . I ■■ '". I'i lnii.J';Mr. 

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quired to shoulder a billet at one post and carry it in " com- 
mon time" to the other, there to lay it down, and takin- 
up another, to return over his beat and depcjsit it at the 
place of departure, and so on tor several hours. The pun- 
ishment consisted nut in the laborious character of the 
occupation, but in the fact that it was useless labor, and 
known to be such by every one else as Avell as the offender. 

Another Soldier's Letter. 

Camp ok tiik ajrit Rj.:<."t N. Y. V.)I.>., ) 

N' WiniE Oak CniKcir, VA.,M;irch— , iS(')2. \ 

Dear Friend: — Your ever welcome letter of — date received. You 
ask me to describe the incidents of a reyiment on the nuircli. 

To the uninitiated, a tlay's 01 ni<,dit's nuuch of an army might seem 
easy to define — nothing more than the change of its location some ten or 
perhaps twenty miles, entailing a promenade interesting or tlie re\erse. 
according to the n.iture of the country. Hut this would be a very faint 
idea of the reality, especially when, often after tramping for hours under 
a hot sun, darkness brought no halt, and the marching extended far into 
and perhaps through the night. 

Orders ha%-e been received to prepare to move, and daylight is faintly 
glimmering when the first stir is nuide among tiie shelter-tents, in answer 
to the bugle notes of re\eille. Hreakfast is luirriedly cooked and eaten, 
if the boiling of a quart cup of collee and the frizzing of a [jiece of pork 
on a smoking log may be termed a culinar\ process. 

The laggarils and epicures are still enjoying the last niouthfids when 
the bugles again sound the "general," which means, 'Strike tents, pack 
u{j, and form regimental line." A large army has in it elements of a 
well regulated community, and it is as easy for fifty thou'^and soUliers to 
bestir themselves as a do/.en. So in a moment, acres of tents mi'lt away 
like spring snow, and the vvhite camp gi\en jilace to thou-^ands of 
armed black figures standing amid stin ouuding camii-hres and skeleton 
tent-poles. Now time drags, uidess \our reginiint is ne.u the van of the 
column, for it takes .in hour, perhaps moie. foi the dilVerent regiments, 
brigades, divisions, and coips to debouch fnun their places of bivouac 
and take tii<- road in ilieir ri_;lu order. 

At Ur,-lh tile Column :s faiily under w.i\, the ou n fie-.h and lithesome 
in the mornin- air, wIkii " IJalt : " s.nnuls tin- ImgU- Some other corps, 
or perhaps an ammunition train, comes in from .iiKilher road, and you lie 

li J'.] <'J n JittnA 


.1:1 !..» 


Iicrc for an hour. Tlien ilu' bus;lc aijain sounds " Forward !" and tlic line 
is off again. Two or thrfc miles are made at a brisk pace, wlien tlic gait 
becomes slower, and the column seems to move by inches. Old soldiers 
know wliat this foretells. A stream is being crossed, and the fording- 
[W.icc permits the passage of only a few men at a time. Over they go, 
iiowever, perhaps waist deep in water, and, as soon as the opposite bank 
is reached, the closing up process begins, and " Double-quick " is the 
word. The longer the column is. tlie slower by degrees becomes the 
inarch of those not yet over, and a long running march in wet clothing 
will be the lot of those who bring up the rear after crossing the stream. 

The men think it would have been just as well if they had been 
allowetl to straggle up leisurely and save their wind, for no sooner does 
the last straggler come puthng up to join his command, tlian " Halt I " is 
bU.'wn again, and down all sink on the ground for a rest. 

Now something seems to be in the way, for after a few minutes comes 
an order to turn out of tlie road, ami the line pushes througli the bushes 
ami brakes on each side, and [)ast a long ammunition train, disco\ering at 
length that one of its wagons has been ^talled. i. e., stuck in the mud. 
The drivers of tlie mules are pidling, liauling, striking and swearing, and 
the mules are kicking and plunging as only arniv mules can do and sur- 
vive. The line is at length past the obstruction, and again takes the road. 
Perhaps it is noon by this tiuie, and if there is no hurry, a halt may he 
made to boil the much-loved coftee ; but if, on the contrary, it be neces- 
sary to make u[) lost time, the column [iresses on, each man nibbling hard- 
tack as he goes, or biting into his piece of bacon if he is the lucky pos- 
sessor of such a morsel. There is no time for rest now, and the tired men 
sweep aiouL: with the steady swing indicative of the veteran. 

On tlu' morning start, the rt-giment was nois\- vith conversation and 
buid jokes were 'passed troiu one to .mother. One soldier would call 
out, " iley, Jim ; what are you here for, anyhow?" Jim would answer 
withyiim facetiousness : " Thirteen dollars a month and found — dead." 
.\ \-oice would follow with some other absurd iiuesiion that would receive 
:mi e(pially ludicrous replv, and then would burst forth the chorus. 
■•Jihn Brown's Hoih/'siniL: !;y everybody who had \oiee enough left, 
loUowed bv '• Raljv Roumi tiu' Flag," and under the inspii.uion of tlie air 
.Old words the leLiinKiit would jol: aionu as though unconscious of the 

Later in the d.o-, \\>iiti- -row fewer, and l.iuuditcr and <onu' more scarce; 
and mjw. late in the .cfiernoon, the soldiers have no stomach or spare wind 
lor words, and scarcely anuiniig is heard but the groan of some sulierer 

.! b-iV'..l!r. 

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from blistered feet, or the steady clink of the bayonet, swin-iiii,^ at the left 
side, against its neighbor, the canteen. An occasional straL;>;ler drujis 
from the column : he may be really sick, and will wait for an amhulaiuc ; 
ur he may be what army vernacular terms a " co<jler " or a " boiler,' and, 
if fortunate enougli to elude tlie lynx-eyed provost guard, will shirk nil' 
into a piece of woods, cook his pot of cotfee and drink it, take a ([uiei 
smoke, and come straiji^ling into camp a long time after the regiment lias 
reached it. 

For hours the troops have been travelling along a road which, at all 
points, was "a right smart distance." " two screams and a holler,", or "a 
right smart'git " from the haven aimetl at. Such, at least, have been tlie 
answers received from grinning contrabands and pipe-smoking d.imcs 
along the way. Up iiills, down into valleys and across brooks, the column 
moves, with the grim and silent woods often upon each side ; and, altlunrgh 
the sun sinks, still no indications of a halt have appeared. 

Sometimes during the last few hours of a march, eacli side of the rcjad 
will be lined with stragglers whom it is impossible to force along further, 
their powers of locomotion ha\ing completely given out. At times both 
men and horses seemed to plod along mechanically, asleep to cverytliin- 
but the fact that it was their business to walk and cover ground. The 
men would doze while jogging along, to be suddenly startled by a halt, or 
some obstruction in the road. 

Soon, however, stragLiling orderlies, and perhaps an aid, pass the 
column towards the rear, and eager questions are again ask«.cl as to the 
distance yet to be traversed, f'erhaps camp is only a mile away, but a 
long mile it appears to be. ere the first indications, in the shape of sonu- 
headquarter's tent, or the encampment of a battery, are seen, (iradually 
the column leaves the mad, briuMde after lirigade turnin<: to the riuht or 
left, and are marctieu straiulit ahead.— some into plouulicd fields, and 
others into thick woods, where they halt, stack arms, break r.mks and 
proceed to cook supper. Water and wood may lie directly at hand. <>' 
both maybe half a mile awav It is cert.on that everv re-imeiU cannot be 
in the same pro.\imity to these ne( es^ities ol' .i soldier'.s existence ; br.i 
even the Lirowlers are .it len^tli satisfieil. or a[)pear to be. and in an hour 
the bivouac of thousands is silent. 

.And this ex|UTience mav h.ip.pen day iiftcr dav upon a roniinuous 
nianh sometimes not so h.ird, and .it other times inrmiieK' more so, es- 
l)eciall\- uhen rain sets in to diei\(li everybody, convxMt the roads into 
heavy, sticky clay, and thoroughly r.poil every one's good n.ilure. 

Yours, trulv, 2** t^'% 

5: .jii/l./i 

,;; /ll.Ctr Ifii'i 

I 'J '1 •:■■■. '.r>v/ «-;,ri 
• :< -ir 1 /■ i.>r',. ■mmr 


March 2^d and 24th. — There \\ as company drill in the 
forenoon and afternoon. This caused a great deal of grum- 
bling. As our time is so soon to expire, the men think they 
ha\e had enough of such duty. 

On the 25th all cartridges were taken up, and fresh am- 
munition issued. From this time till after the first of April, 
•• base ball " .vas the popular amusement in camp, and a 
select nine from our regiment played many games and re- 
turn games with the 32d New York Regiment, the 27th 
winning a good share of the games. This sharp exercise 
put the men in good condition after the winter of idleness 
in their tents and cabins. 

April 14th.— This has been another "red letter" day 
with the regiment. For a week the camp has been in a 
ferment of excitement o\er the removal of Gen. Kartlett, 
our brigade commander. It seems that Congress, for polit- 
ical reasons, has failed to confirm his appointment as Brig- 
adier-General, and he has put off his uniform, and dresses 
in citizen's garb. Monday was the day on which he was 
to take leave of his old brigade, and we were, ordered to 
turn out at i o'clock to bid him farewell ; but we were hap- 
pily disapj)ointed. Farly in the day he was summoned to 
(len. Hooker's headquarters, where he received a dispatch 
from the President re-appointing him ; and at 4 o'clock the 
brigade was ordered out to welcome him back, on the same 
ground u here wc had supposed, only a few hours before, we 
were to see him take his leave. He appeared in full uni- 
form, and read the following telegram : — 

"Tell General Bartlett to put on his clothes again, and 
return to his command. A. LINCOLN." 

Gen. "Joe" then made a rousing speech, and said, ''he 
did not even ask for a confirmation. All he asked was the 
pri\ilcge of leading such noble and generous soldiers into 
!)altle once more I" 

He then rode <-)tf. followed by cheers of joy from his vet- 
eran followers. I{ad he not been returned, it is a question 
whether the two-years regiments would have followed any 

t fiO 

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I .1/ .;;:! '!■ i.'K :\'\L y 


other leader into another battle. They would have feared 
to risk theii- reputation in the hands of an untried man. 

April 3(1 th.e 6th Corps was reviewed by Gen. Mooker. 
The men were all in fine spirits and expected to move 
soon. There was another hard snow-storm on the 5th, and 
moie or less rain till the Sth, when there was a ij^rand re- 
view of the Army of the Potomac, by President Lincoln, 
which left the men in <^ood spirits and ready for a move. 
Under this date, one diary says: "Went to the review of 
tiie army.; s.iw l^^itlu-r .Abraham ; saw Gen. Sed<jwick, and 
several other L;"reat guns." 

The foUowinj^, from a diary, tells how another soldier 
spent April 13th : "A very beautiful da\-. My iiealth is 
excellent. Regimental inspection at nine; genera! orders 
were read to the men relative to re-enlistment, and also a 
part of the Articles of War. I attended service at White 
Oak Church at three, and he.ird a most excellent sermon 
by a missionary of the Christian Commissi(Mi. I also at- 
tended a prayer-meeting, on S.iturday evening, at the same 
place ; it was very interesting. Meetings are now held in 
the church e\ery evening, conducted by the Christian 
Commission, and are well attended. This is the haj)- 
piest Sabbath 1 h.ivc passed in a long time. There is but 
little prospect of mo\ing, \-et plent\- of rumors. During 
our stay in the arniv we have made the acquaintance of 
>e\eral Mr. Sa}'-So's. They are not \ery reliable. News 
from Charle>ton is \eiy encouragin;,';. This army is in gooci 
>pirits, and most of them read)' for a move." 

.\pril 13th.— This morning all the cavalry in the army 
h-i\e broken up their camps and are moving up the river, 
but we do not kno\'. their destinatirtn. With a comrade I 
went ()ver to see the captive balloon, which is now kept up 
every pleasant daw 'i'he station is located far enough 
back from the river to be out of range of the rebel cannon. 
Two men usually make the ascent, ecpiiiiped with large 
tuld-gla>ses anil telegraph instruments. l-'rom an elev.ition 
o( about two thousand feet they can overlook the rebel 
^\■orks and telegrapli their observatitms to lieadtpiarters. 


April 14th recci\ed orders to move, and drew sixty 
rounds of ainnumition and ten days' rations, but tliu 
weather continued stormy and the contem[)lated move was 
delayed several days. The time was taken up with reviews, 
inspection, picket, pay-day, and writing letters, another of 
which we quote :' 


; ,• -. Camp ok 27TFr Rf.giment N. Y. Viu.s., ) 

Near Wiurt; Oak Ciu'ri 11, V;i., — , 1S63. ) 

Dear Fkiem) ;— Your letter came Monday afternoon, and was read 
witli the same pleasure that .dl of your letters give me. To day we 
are having one of your cold March days. The ground is frozen ; a cold 
wind is blowing and a few Hakes of snow are tlying. It is time for spring, 
but winter set nis loth to leave us. We have had a few pleasant days, but 
none warmer than it was there the day you wrote. It is a mistaken idea 
that wc are far enough soutli to enjoy a warm climate. We have about the 
same changes and degree of temperature tliat you ha%e liad in York Stale. 
No signs of tlowers or vegetation yet. and besides, were it warm weather, 
I don't believe this country would produce a flower, the land is so barren 
and poor, except along the river. 

You wish to know something about the mail arrangements in the army. 
At Washington tlierc is a military postoffice where all the letters for the 
soldiers are sent. Here they are sorted, letters f<jr each division beim; 
put together. Then agents bring them to army lie.idquarters. where tliev 
are delivered to the letter-carrier^ of each division. These sort and give 
tliem to llie brigade carriers, and these in turn deliver them to the head- 
rjuartcrs of eacli reuMiuenl, anil then they are sent to the companies. We 
usually get a mail every day. 

As to the camp, it is a very interesting picture. Now that the men ha\ e 
built log huts, it is more like a city. The streets are regularl}' laid out. 
The head(iuarters are a little distance off", in a line with the main street, 
and the line ofricers" tents are on the left, fronting the company streets. 
This part of Virginia is n<n hilly, but very rolling. 

When we laid out tliis camp, on the 19th of Decendier, it was in a 
dcnsi' forest of pine and cedar, and not far off was plenty of oak timber : 
but now scarcely a tree is left si.uidmi,', and we have to go a mile and a 
half for wood, and '• tote " it in on our backs. In some [places where the 
trees had been cut high, we took tiie second cut oil" the stumps, and c-vcu 

'1-!i '>! jCH'IJ 

A soldier's letter. 157 

Jug out the stumps wlicri' it was easy diiiiiing. We iict but little at a 
time, as it is not safe to leave any out-doors at ni>ilit, for some find it easier 
to steal than to carry it from the woods. The land is now nicely cleared, 
and you can imasiine what a chau^e it has made in the appearance of the 
country. Citizens returninti would not know their own farms. 

The roads are rapidly improving here, and it is quite evident that 
Gen. Hooker contemplates another move as soon as practicable. He has 
issued orders to the different generals to procure all necessary supplies, 
dispose of all surplus baggage, and have tlieir commands in readiness 
to move at a day's notice. The rebels are still in strong force on the 
other side of the river. We can plainly see them at work on tlieir fortifi- 
cations. Whether " joe'" intends to attack them here again, it is h;ird to 
tell. If he does as well with his army in action as he has while we have 
been in camp, he will win for himself a noble name. He has wf)n the 
esteem of all the arniy, because he has been so prompt in sti[iplyiiig the 
wants of his men. Never has an army li\ed better than we have this 
winter. We have I'cen ccMitent, and in fact have enjoxed ourselves much 
of the time. 

The question now uppermost in our minds is, shall we return to the 
service after we are discliarged? Many say they will not I have not 
fully decided, but think thai after a short visit home I shall re-enlist, and 
may do so without returning home. The soldiers are much pleased with 
the Conscription Act, and think it will hasten the end of the war, but it 
must make a great many squirm, at home. Some, it seems, talk of resist- 
ance, and we hear that there are organized bands to resist the draft. We 
may have to come homi and [)Ut them down, and would like nothing liet- 
ter than to see the skulkers who are urging others, forced to go them- 
selves, also our Northern secessionists ; I think the Northern fault-tindcrs 
might reap some benefits from a soldiers' campaign. So let them come, 
we say, and tell their friends not to shed a tear. 

The pressed pansies you sent me were the first bright objects that have 
greeted our eyes in many a month. Nothing could be more acce[:table 
than such tokens in a time like this. There seems to be nothing beautiful 
on the face of tlie "Old Dominion" since war, with its devastating heel, 
has trampled upon its " sacred soil." 

[ long to return to m\- own home-land, with all the attractions and 
Mjciat pleasures that it nowallords, and foi the iiewor>cs that d will allord ; 
for a briL:hter dav will si.nn come, even tor the South, which was always 
attractive for its Minny skies, but uninviting because a dark, dark spot 
lias dimmed its brightness. This shall remove, and our whole counirv be 

'J. -tol. 

7/ •■• >.;.( . 


;l • . 171. 

ii r! I.ur. .-m;- 


held up to tlu- u-„rld, a picture biigl.t and beautiful with attractions lh,u 
we cannot now even name— a country- whose God is tiie Lord, shining as 
the sun and surpassin- ail others in brightness. This is not a dream, bm 
a fulfillment, to accomplish which we are ready to sacrifice our blood upon 
the altars of our country. And for this service we ask no better reward 
than (he sympathy and support of friends .it home. 
; • With best wishes, I remain, 

...; ,^ ,. • ,. A WOMAN'S ANSWER. 

' • ". "" '■ -'' ''■ "'^"v '•■■■ '■'■•• HuMK, April, 1S63. 

My Dear FKtF.NO :-[Iere I am again, and so full of good wishes ih ... 
if the envelope had not held me tightly ,n ,ts gn.sp, I should have scattered 
Ihcm all along the way. among the !;h,e coats I passed. Hut thou^d. that 
might have divided them among the many, it would not have been fullill- 
ing my errand, so as I am safely here, open me carefully and take nn 
greetings.-greetings that come from one who loves her native land ; whu 
thinks with gratitude of the soldiers who are striving to defend her in her 
liourof distraction; and whose most ardent wisii is, that " He who re- 
•uoveth kings, an.i seiteth them up," may so order in His infinite wis.lom, 
that the snmnnr's sun mav slune oera peaceful coun,rv,-a countrv where 
the cannon's roar and the din of arn.s have ce.ased, for brothers war m, 
more with brothers. 

The beautiful spring has con,e o„.e Its balmv breathin, air to- 
dav; Its warm sunshine see.ns ftdl of braulv to us. after the winter's r.,ld 
breath; vet is a sadness about ,t, for its ,entle bree/es murmur 
••Advance!" on .he Rappahannock, and I wonder if there is a s.iramon- 
the camps. (I^d protect them if .here is, and shield .hen, bv I lis nngh.y 
I)Ower. He is a r, fuge in the time of trouble ; and how sweet to be able 
to cast all our care on llin,, feeling that Jesus still lives to intercede f,.r 
lis, and that FJe will. For if lie died ,0 save us, w.ll He not plead for 
lis. now He is ascended on high. •' Blessed be the name of the Lord fur 
ever. For wisdom and mi-ht are His." 

•low rnvtlunijiis lollow lUv sold iers as .lu ^ march! I can iniau = ne 
■ hem plodding .,n ; eveiy footfall I s.^eni .0 notice. Ves. our sobliers g,, 
not alone. A thousand woma.dy hearts -o with Ihem, hearts full of grat- 
itude to our country's preservers. Theyjnote .heir privations and know 

3Wc'.HA -; >" --fyrOW 

!(. 11,1 »-, ,.•'■■ ■'!' ■! Hi •. iin» v/ •-)■ ; <i,!j 

111 Ml .;.' ,;■ ;. . 1, CI -.1 'i' 1 IV < lIlBlli^ 
./ • ,:-■ i-;.,H ,,...» '..■ '' r:n:..:i'K ' 

A woman's answer. 159 

their sacrifices, and are hourlj- dropping prayers arouiid their path. May 
our Heavenly Father heed those pra\ers ! 

As I sit down to my meals, I wonder if tiu-y are takiny theirs also, and 
if they partake of a comfortable one. As I enjoy the coni forts of a jjood 
home, and a warm room at niyht. I think of tliem in their tents. .\nd for 
what are they there? That I may enjoy the comforts of my quiet home, 
undisturbed by the ravatjes of foes. And this is why I ask Heaven t<j 
bless them for their patriotism and fidelity. 

Our country (any country in war) makes hard deniands of her 
sons. But let our soldiers ylory in the fact that they ha\e the best 
country to tii;hl for in tlie n-hole woild— the noblest I And how I wish 
all th<jse wh(j liavt- so nobly stood up for their country coubi see her 
emerge in all hei purity as the fruit of their tod and bbjod. Aiul will 
the\- not see it? In ttiat beautiful l,and wheie S(j many now rest, undis- 
turbed by the din of arms (jr the cannon's roai, tasting of that peace 
found only in Heaven above, thev will see. I'tuy will look down upon 
the victory of the right, and strike their harps anew to the praise of Him 
through whose grace they conquered, — through whose grace their ett'orl>; 
became a blessing. 

How sad the death of (ieneral Sumner, just at this time when we teel 
that we need all our generals. It seems to induce the thought that our 
Father seeks to draw our trust from tlien.i to Hin.. Generals Mitchell 
ami Sumner, who doubtle'^-i looked t<i a death on the battle-field with 
their troops, breathcrl (nit their lives in quiet, with fiiends (this was 
true of Gen. Sumner at least) to attend to their last wants, smooth their 
<lying pillows and close their eyes in death. Surely, God was kind to 
them, and a Nation now honors them, and will love them none the less 
though they died in peace. 

We are looking forward to the time wlien we can wi-lcome \-ou ag.iin in 

. Many changes some of the boys will tind .it honu — especially 

those who have not left the seivice .since they hrst enlisted. I'liev, too, 1 
presume, have changed while leading their wanderiny life. It seems to 
them, no doubt, a long time, in looking back to that afternoon when, 
amid the lin/./as of the multituile and the tears of friends, they left for 
the seat of wai. Ves, noble remnant of the Cjth, welconn- home again ! 
N'ou went out to ilefend our hcarthstimrs from tlu- luthl.-ss inv.ision of 
foc-s, .111,1 thotiLdi ihe rebellion is not yet ,piell<-,l, we that vou have 
done all that you could. Teai less and brave in battle, .onr.ineoiis amid 
your enemies, richly have you won, at the expense of voiir vei\ life- 
blood, uui est, em and lespeil. .Vyain 1 say. welcome' thiic- \\elc,,iue' 

.1 /.-... J »■". ir: J /I*' 

.-,1 •,,!/ 

■'• •• :■:■■>< r.i!/i ' 

• ' ii ..J 10 'Ji. . 

w, '^ /.■ .Ill-; 'knifh 

.,.<■ u •« >^. 'Il 


heroes of Bull Run, and West Point, and Gaines' Mill; wtdcome I vc 
prisoners from rebel pens : uelconie ! from hospital, where the fever's 
wild heat is no less a foe to be dreadeti than the eneni}'''; bullets. Come 
home to your hearthstones and \our sires. There's been a sorrowing 
here for the absent one ; anxiety that cannot he told, as the eager glance 
hastily scanned each account of battle, fearing your name would there 
mark the loved one fallen. Precious dust \-ou have left where you have 
been ; dust we trust guarded by angels — some by the water's side, some 
by the hill. Yes. welcome 1 truly, welc(3me I Gome one, come all, and 
we'll greet you kindly home. 
, •. . ' :, ,•• . Faithfidiv vours, * * * * 

The maid who hinds her warrior's sash. 

With smile that well her p.iin dissembles, 
The while beneath her drooping lash 

One starry tear-drop hangs and trembles. 
Though Heaven alone records the tear, 

.And Fame shall never know her storv. 
Her heart has sheii a drop as dear 

As e'er bedewed the t^ebl .,f Lib.rv ! 

The wife who girds her husband's sword, 

'Mid littb- ones who weej) and wonder 
And bravely sjieaks the chei'iing word. 

What thoui,di her heart be rent asunder 
r)oomed niiihtly in her theams lo hear 

The bolts ot death around him r.ittle. 
Has shed as sacicd i,lood as e'er 

Was poured up<m the field of battle 1 

The mother who conceals her grief 

While to her breast her son she presses, 
Then breathes a few l)rave wonls and Iniif, 

Kissing the patii.t brow slu- Idesscs ; 
With no one but lie- srcrct (;.)d 

To knovv the pain wi iudis upon her. 
Sheds hol> blood as ,••.) the sod 

Received on licedom's ti.ld of honor! 

TllO.MAS BlLllA.NAN Ri;\ii. 

I.OI .lU, ^iM. 

A soldier's letter. i6i 

Camp of the 27TH Regiment, N. V. Vols., ) 

Near White Oak CnuRCir, Va., April 24, 1S63. \ 

My Dear Friend : — Von see by my heading that the prophecy of the 
breezes is not yet fulfilled. The .\rniy of tht Potomac is still in cam]) and 
likely to be for some time to come, for the prayers of tiie soldiers seem to 
he more weighty than those of Gen. Hooker, and in answer to them the 
rain keeps falling, falling, falling. Many are rejoicing, and well they 
may, for it is the only prayer they have ever had answered. 

The most of the men who have any heart in their work arc tired of 
rain and mud, and would much rather Ije on the move and accom]jiish 
something looking to the end ; init every time "'Joe" gets ready to move, 
ilown comes the rain, and while I write, it is pattering on the canvas and 
'icems to whisper, "Our day ; no move ; no move." We have had a few 
tine (lavs, hut they are a scarce article with us. 

Last Sunday, the most beautiful day of the sea.son, we left camp early 
to go on picket. Had "grand-guard mounting" at headquarters, and did 
not reach the picket line, some three miles distant, till noon. It was a 
busy Sabbath for us, for the afternoon was spent in building brush huts 
for shelter. Early next morning, as usual, the rain comiuence<i failinu'. 
and continued all day, giving us a good soaking. Vou can iniauint- how 
pleasant it is sitting in a luusli hut bt-side a smoking fire, with the rain- 
drops scattering throuuh, iu)t an inch of -^pace that tlif\ do not (ill, .md so 
.innoy one with the constant driz/le, dri/./le, dri/./.le. Oh, I tell ycni it is 
romantic I "Who wouldn't be a soldier?" 

The remainder of our three days' picket dut\- passed pleasantlv, and 
we are now snugly quartered in cam[). While out on this tour, I went to 
the front to take a look at the " [ohnnies," our tpiondam friends on 
Ilie other side of the river. Our picket line is about a mile and a half 
back from the river, while near the river is a line of videtles or ca\alr\- 
pickets. So we have no op[)ortunity to converse with the enemy's |)ickets. 
and besides do not have to be very vigilant uhile on post. 

The scener)- of the valle>- of the Rappahannock from the point where 
1 viewed it (a high blufl'half a mile from the north hank of the river) was 
with one exception the most be.uitifid I ever beheld. Spread out liefore 
me vva'^ the liroad plain, its fields alre,id\- uri'in \viih •spring ve-etation, 
and dotted here and theie with be.iutiiul>;ion-.. surrounded bv the 
now deserted ne-ro quarter-^— the wealtln oc, u iiant-^ of the bir aei as uell 
a^ the chattels from the latter, lnviui.' lied .it the apjiroaeh of the iinadim: 
" Yankees"— but from this distance, these houses nestled .iiiioiiu the 

oi. {rilC'i oik; ntt;i 

7 ' viifif.jun 


peach-trees now in full-bloom, look cheerful ;uul invitinjT. Across tlu- 
river there is tlie same extent of hc-.uitiful plain and the same indication ot 
happy homes. But from its finthcr Imundaries lise the heiiihts spotitd 
tvith the rebel camps and smokinix with tlie rel)el hies, everv" ana:le f.iccd 
With frowninLj forts, fr(jm which the bri-^tliiiii cannon command t-vi r\ 
inch of the plain below. 

Oh ! War ! War 1 Wliy didst thfui set lliv dc-vastatino; foot in this beau- 
tiful valley? Why didst thou pollute tlu-sr lively plains with the blood of 
those who have dwelt here securely for many years? Whv didst thou not 
goto the wilderness and there sati-;ty tliv cruel lireed by the sacrifice upnn 
some barren soil, of the blood of the noble and brave? In vain do we 
question ; there is no answer. 

Yesterday, that e\ er welcome visitor lo our camp, the |jaymaster, came 
down on us, and the boys as usual are very h.ippy, and are sinuiny, '" Green- 
backs have come auain once more." Many of thi' two \ears' men are 
not anxious to see another tight, and the feeling is increasing t;\eiv da\. 
Some claim that their time is out on the jd day of May, but we are to be 
held until the 21st, as that is the ilate on whicii the regiment was mus- 
tered into the I'nited States' service. We luue been ordered lo be in l-.l- 
mira on the 2ist, ami shall prob.d>ly lea\e here on the 121I1 or 15th. The 
boys are now counting the minutes .intl srroiids we have \et to serxc, 
and estimating the number of hartl-tack they have yet to eat. This is an 
easy problem in midtipl ication and addition, foi ten of these tonyh teetli- 
• lestroyeis generally come to the [)ound, and a jjonml is a dailv ration. 

Gen. Hooker has lieen making some \er\- mysterious mo\ements of 
late, but what it all means it is h.ird lo tell. The nii^ht before we came in 
from picket, a train of i)onloons, mimbeiing lliiitv boats, was biouyht out 
near where we were, ,ipd sl.irled for llie livei. The men s;iid thev IkkI 
orders to lay them that niuht, ;ind .nuMher train had gone below. 
This loi>ked like a move, sure, and we e\[tecled the next da\ wuidd find 
us on the go; bul the tiuin is stdl tluie. Whether .1 rebel battery that 
they ftnind waiting for them, on the otliei side, deterred ihem from c<ini- 
pleting the |ilan ; or wluther it was onU ;i feint to decei\e the lebs., is j 
mystery to us. .\t anv rale, the enemy found out the tiain was comiim in 
time to get a b.itlery in position, iie:ii the river, before it had moved two 
miles; and it did uol Marl till .ilter d.nk. From this voii will see that 
tiiey kee|. well ;.osied as t.) .my niov emr m w. uiavm.ike. 'llie plan of 
crossing the livti heie a_aiii does not suit mam of ilie tioops. The\ 
piefer to tiank the rebs.. or sie>:e them out. The lie;d(h of the ii.iops is 
exeelUnt. ami lliev aie ehecred with ill.- lUUs floiil oiii iinii.s ni llie 

-i.'O'J ,v ./ 

.I'i ii\i U> ^i•^x T)HhK.i -^I'.i- 


u nil (iv/fiti 


A woman's answer. 163 

South and Southwest. The spirit of the majority of our men who have 

survived tht- arduous services of the past two years, is still unbroken, and 

their love of country uuiliniinished, but you cannot imagine what a desire 

they have to see home and friends once more. Notwithstanding this, I 

fancy most 'if them will be back in the service again in less than si\ 


Yours, truly, * * * 

Monday, April 27th. — Orders ha\'c come to be ready to 
march, early to-morrow morning, and the boy.s are busy 
getting their rations ready. Gen. Bartlett made a speech to 
our regiment and the i6th, in regard to re-enlisting, and also 
about our going into the next battle, saying that he " could 
not leave us behind, and had no fears of our fighting qual- 
ities." lie spoke well, but the boys " can't .see the re- 
enlist," at least till after we lia\e been home. 

Let it be noted here that the companies forming the reg- 
iment had all enlisted and been mustered into the state ser- 
\ ice during the month of April. 1861, and all had expected 
that their two years' term of service would expire during 
April, 1S63. but the Federal Go\"ernment claims to hold us 
for two years fnjm the 2ist of May, the date of muster 
into the L'nitcd States service. This decision has given 
rise to a good deal of discussion among the men as to 
whether the\- should be taken into another battle; but 
when the orders come to march we will not think of this, 
and are ready to fight as cheerfully as we have ever done. 
All arc in gond s[)irits, and expect to see fighting, soon. 

April 2Sth. — At 12 o'clock we got orders to be under wa\- 
at 3 P. M. Packed up and got off at that hour, in a light 
rain-storm. ( )ur division is to cross the river at the same 
l)lace where wc crossed before. Bi\ouacked about 8 o'clock, 
about a mile hack from the river. Were ordered into line 
about ten o'clock, and the [)lans of attack were read to us. 
Our di\i<ion is all that is to cross at this point at present. 
The poiiliuin boats arc to he unloaded ami carried down to 
the riwT h\- the nu:n. as it is feared the rattling of the 
wagon tiain would he heard bv the enemy. Russell's brig- 
ade i^ to cr.iss first in boats, ami we are to follow them in 


nt,.,' ".^Ti 

; ,, ,■■;.■ , VMlf)'.V 

■'■J :.^v,i-i; , : Ti'o 

■ ^ ■ Mr; ,' ■.,;... ' ,.,. ' ;■ .fly ) 

; ,' : ,' ■' ; . ■ • ■ <■ A 

■..■■'. ' ■ ^- ' ' :;' • COlii 

Vr:;_ ■ ^ i, ^i .Ft -? /bj-j-; mu. bni: 
.ij!i. ,-■ ;. li f ij''"i J ii: j\l. il/- 

.i ...I ,}.<.: , t 


U'- V.!.,. i. 

Caft. Burton Frekmax, Co. I. 

;a .TM.A .) 


boats and take possession of the first two lines of rifle-pits; 
then the bridge is to be built, and the balance of the divis- 
ion is to come as a support. There was great delay in get- 
ting the boats down, and v/e did not reach the river till 5 
o'clock, just at daybreak. 

Russell's men immediately embarked. A very heavy 
fog over the river concealed their movements until they 
reached the shore, when they recei\'ed a sharp volley frorq 
the rebel pickets. The balls came across and just over our 
lines as we stood on the shore, which made the boys lie 
down in a hurry. WV' were ordered to load our pieces, and 
the right wing of the i6th was ordered to fire a volley high 
enough to pass over the heads of our men. This drove 
the pickets aw ay. and a landing was effected. The boats 
returned ami were filled at once, about forty men in each 
boat. No sooner did we start than the enemy opened fire, 
but we were packed so closely in the boats that we could 
not return it. We were soon across, and the men scrambled 
up the steep bank and, engaging them sharply, were soon in 
possession oi their works, and had many of them prisoners. 
Two of (Hir men were killed, four or fi\e were wounded, and 
two fell overboard and were drow ned. 

The skirmish line achanced about a mile, and we lay 
down aUmg the rifle-pits. Several stand of arms were 
found, which the Johnnies had thrown awa}- in their haste. 
Two bridges were soon laid, and in about an hour the whole 
di\'ision was over and deployed in line of battle. 

The boys feel very thankful that they got over the river 
with so little loss, as we e.xpected to meet a strong force. 
The first corps, which crossed the river about a mile below 
this point, had a hard fight, for they found a battery wait- 
ing to welconie them. 

It is a warm and beautiful day. Both the balloons are 
up, and we can see large numbers of the enemy passing to 
the left (their right). We arc looking for hot work in that 
direction. All the plans seem to be working well, and our 
men are in e.xcelletit spirits. iVbout three it began to rain, 
and we moved out in advance of the rifle-pits and pitched 


our tents, where we remained till after dark. We then 
moved back to the captured rifle-pits again. Then with 
shovels, tin plates, and hands, about-faced the pits, antl lay 
down in the mud and took the full benefit of a rain-storm 
all night, 

April 30th. — A wet, dreary morning. We were drawn up 
in line, and mustered as quietly as though we had been in 
camp. About noon we were ordered into line, and an order 
from Gen. Hooker was read to us, praising the men for their 
feats, and stating "that certain results had been accomplished 
by the 5th, iith and 12th Army Corps, so that the rebels 
would be obliged to retreat, (»r come out and give us battle 
on our own ground, w hich would be certain destruction." 
This was very encouraging to the men. for tiiey hat! had 
some fears that they were to be pushed against the heights, 
but feel perfecth- able to defend themseK'es if the enem\- 
should attack them on the plain. 

About 4 o'clock the rebels commenced shelling our works 
on the left, and kept it up till dark, v/itlKnit doing much 
harm. About dark we were ordered on picket, and advanced 
a line of skirmishers near the ravine in which we lay at the 
first battle of Fredericksburg. The outposts had to he 
keenly alert all night, — so there was little sleef). The enem_\- 
were moving a great deal during the night, and many con- 
jectured that they were leaving; but at daylight they show ed 
a bold front, and we could see them moving about on the 
heights in front of us, where they were partly hidden b\- the 
bushes and trees. As they showed no disposition to fire on 
us, we showed them the same respect, and remained ver\- 
quiet all day. About dark we were rcliexed, and fell back 
toward the ri\-er, where we lay down and had a gootl 
night's rest. 

Saturday, May 2d. — The weather is very fine. The reb- 
els threw a few shells at us early in the morning, one striking 

the ground right iu front t.f Compan\- . uiulcinuning 

some of the nu.n, and making a big hole, into w hich tlie\- 
were dr()p[)eii and half covered uj) w ith dirt. No one was 
hurt. This made u> i).ick up Ii\el\' and m(i\e forwanl to a 

i.w:' i,. 

'i.\> III-, j'jiu{» 


more sheltered position. Soon the troops on our left re- 
crossed the river, and moved off to the right, up the river, 
to assist Gen. Hooker, who was now fighting the battle of 
Chancellorsville, some ten miles distant. We could plainly 
hear the continual roar of artillery, and sometimes, when 
the wind was favorable, the sound of musketry would reach 
us, and told us that hard fighting was going on. Towards 
night more troops came over to our support, and General 
Hooker sends word that he is pushing the enemy, and orders 
us to advance. We expect hard work to-morrow. 

May 3d, — The column commenced advancing at daylight, 
and the whole army is moving, and deploying well to the 
right, — our division holding the extreme left. The ball 
opened early, and they gave us a good shelling. Our regi- 
ment advanced to the same ravine we occupied during the 
first battle, on December 14th. The rebs. had a battery 
that now commanded the ravine, and they shelled us beau- 
tifully. Two of our men were killed, and about twenty 
wounded. The 96th l^ennsylvania, who were on picket, 
were soon driven in, and we were ordered forward to take 
their places. As soon as we were out from cover, a battery 
on the heights opened upon us, and the range was directly on 
the colors. Most of the shells went over, but one passed 
through the flag, and cut out a star, leaving it whole ; and 
it was picked up by the color-bearer, A. L. VanNess. We 
hugged the ground every time we saw the flash of the guns. 
None of our men were hurt here, and all kept very cool. 
VV\^ were ordered to deploy, and advanced near a hill, where 
we remained till afternoon. 

. Here Gens. Ikooks and Hartlett came up to the line, 
to reconnoitre the position. They stood with their field- 
glasses to their eyes, and though the shells were bursting al! 
around them, not a muscle was seen to move: while staff 
and line officers were hugging the ground or trying to dodge 
the shells. To the coolness of such leaders ni.iy be attrib- 
uted the braverv .md steadiness of many a regiment in the 

On this line, the left of the regiment was greatly annoyed 

\(. - ■ -i :MiJ 



^^ ^^ \,^ 


♦ V 

Lieut. Henry Hamn^iux, Co. " K, 



by a rebel sharp-shooter, who, posted in a tall tree to our 
left, kept up a ret^ular fire, killing one man — Charles A. 
Hosmer, of Co. " E " — and wounding several others. The 
men were more uneasy under the fire of this one man than 
all the rebel batteries on the heights. Finally a detail of a 
few men crept up in range of his position, and he was soon 
wounded and brought down from his lofty station. 

From our position we had a splendid view^ of the fighting 
on the right, where our men were advancing on the heights 
back of Fredericksburg. About 1 1 o'clock the cannonading 
was perfectly terrific. Our men advanced rapidly, and soon 
the first line of works was carried. Then on went the boys 
up the hill, regardless of the terrible shower of iron hail that 
welcomed them. Soon one of our shells blew up a caisson 
in one of their forts, and apparently used them up, — for 
they soon began to skedaddle ; and, presently, the old flag 
waved upon every fort. Their guns were turned upon them, 
and on pressed our lines, and kept them moving. Our men, 
going to the right and moving along the plank road, ad- 
vanced a mile or more. The troops on the plain were then 
ordered to withdraw, our regiment bringing up the rear, 
with one company deployed as skirmishers. We moved ui) 
the river into Fredericksburg, the rebels following us right 
in, — our men feeling all the time that it was a great mistake 
to take us all from the \'alle\', and allow the enemy to come 
in our rear. We passed through the city, and up the heights, 
by the plank road, which was strewn with the dead and the 
wounded, showing the bitter struggle that had taken place 
for the possession of Mary's Heights. We passed the for- 
tifications, and Gen. Bartlett rushed his brigade past all the 
other troops, and, about three miles from the city, came up 
with the enemy, near Salem Church, where he had a furious 
struggle with them, and was obliged to retire ; but another 
line coming up, the enemy was driven back. 

Wc did not get up in time to take [)art ; but the other 
regiments of the brigade lo.-t terribly. We were drawn up 
across the way to stoj) stragglers : and as the broken lines 
came back, thev were re-formed in front of us. 

!;nf. WilJiiJOfr 

ryti > 

rh ,(jiJ ). 


Night soon set in and tlic firing ceased, when we lay 
down and had a good night's rest. As the slaughter had 
been terrible, the stretcher bearers were busy all night car- 
ing for the wounded, and as we la\' there behind our stacks 
of guns we could hear thj gi-inding of the ambulance 
wheels, as they moved back and forth fiilcd with their 
bleeding and suffering burtlens. The dead were left on the 

The following extracts fr(Mn the official Confederate 
Reports relati\-e to this, battle at Salem Church, will illus- 
trate Gen. Bartlett's \igorous style of fighting: 

After shelling tlic woods lo the ri-lil .iiid left of the rojij a s.hoit time, 
the Union troo[)S advanced. A brisk skirmish ensued. The Confeder- 
ate skirmishers were juislied luiek to the wnods, and then upon the line of 
battle. The Federal line followed -iniekly. R.achin;; the edge of the 
woods they gave a cheer and rushed forwaid to the i InULre. (_)n, on thev 
came, to within eighty yards of the opimsinu line. Ikre they reri.ieed 
the Confederate Hre, which had heen reservetl. Well directetl and at 
close quarters, its effect is terrihle. A scene of carna^re presents itself. 
The line wavers under the ^vith(■ling hre, but it is only for a moment. 
Bartlctt dashes on. He surrounds the school-house and captures the L^.ir- 
rison. Then pushing forward to the line in the rear, he delivers all the 
impetus c>f his attack on the regiment stationetl there. It wa\ers, yields, 
breaks. .\ little further on, and the \ ietor\ had been won. Wilco.K has a 
regiment (gtli Alabama) in reserve just l)ehind this part of his line. In .1 
moment he hurls this upon the advancing troojjs. The .Alatjamians di-- 
liver a tleadl}- hre, at close (|iiart(.rs. and rush forward lo uain what had 
been lost. Gallantl\- does Hartleit suixc lo hold the adxantaue won al 
such a C(jst. A fierce sirugLdt , am^l in turn the Federal line i;i\e^ \v.iy. 
No time is allowed it to rally. Wilcox follows closel\'. increasiuL; al ea<:h 
step the carnage in the F'ederal ranks. The school-house is ri'a<lutl. 
The captured garrison is set free, ami some of their captors are in turn 
captives. On the other side of the wood, the .iliac k, uliich was not vig- 
orous, has also been repulsed. ^' * Wihox has lost in his biii^.tde 
between three and four hundred 1 len. Harlleil. wjiose Iniu.ule h,is lieen 
piincipally opposed lo him, has >rv(ii hundred men '/.v.* dii ioniiuil . 

Our regiment being on skirmish duty, bringing up the 
rear, (len. Bartlctt made the charijc alluded to. with his 

o\ orfT 

:,<iC J.'W»A 


three remaining regiments, numbering 1440 muskets, of 
which he lost 260. But he had broken two hnes of battle 
and penetrated the enemy's centre, and would have main- 
tained himself there, except for the reason given by the 
Confederate historian, in the following sentence : " On the 
other side of the wood, the attack, which zvas not vigorous, 
had already been repulsed." 

Monday, May 4th, at 4 A. M., we were called in line and 
stood until daylight. We then cooked breakfast, and soon 
after moved off to a ravine. During the night the enemy 
had moved around our left and into the rear, giving us a 
warm morning salute from the left. We were formed in 
line of battle, facing the left, and our regiment was de- 
ployed as skirmishers and advanced towards the enemy's 
lines. There was picket firing all day, ourb(n\s holding their 
ground till near night, when they were forced back a short 
distance. Soon on came the enemy, in line of battle, when 
the battery in our rear opened on them with several rounds 
of grape and canister, and their line broke in great disorder. 
They had now gotten so far to our rear, and were holding all 
the forts on the hill that we had taken from them, and were 
pressing us from three sides : it became evident that we 
would have to retire from the field. At dark we were 
ordered to fall back up the river in the direction of Banks' 
Ford. Our regiment still being on the skirmish line in 
rear of the corps, fell back lighting as we went. The front 
rank would fall back while the rear would load and fire, 
then the rear rank would pass to the rear of the front rank. 

While executing this movement. Corp. , of Co. D., 

loaded three or four charges into his gun. and when he had 
discovered his mistake, he was afraid to fire, but one of the 
sergeants ordered him to fall behind the line a little and fire 
his piece, which he did without harm to his musket. An- 
other man put the ball into his gun without powder. When 
he disco\'ered his mistake he sat down, took the screw out 
of the tuniblor, put in powder, blew out the ball, and 
though the balls ot the enemy were flying around him, de- 
liberatel\- loaded his gun. turned and fired on the advancing: 

■■:■■■. "lii bf:iio^;> 

(,o,j'y. .xinr.l-'.i'.' 

■«• ri! -y-iorjj'.d -vfii 




<>. /iir. DIM.// 

,(, ■: . .,.;,-, 





foe, then ran and overtook his company. In this way \vc 
fell back two or three miles, firing at the flash of the ene- 
my's guns. We then rallied and formed regimental line, 
having lost in the retreat one killed and one wounded. It 
being very warm and the men weak from continual duty, 
the rapid march soon began to tell, and some of them, to 
save themselves, were obliged to throw off their knapsacks 
and all of their load. Coming up to the rifle-pits near the 
ford, a line of battle was formed and we lay down, waiting 
for the balance of the corps to cross the river. The rebs. 
kept shelling us all night, trying to get their range on the 
pontoon bridge. We could trace the curve of the shells by 
the lighted fuse. Very little harm was done by these 
shells. We expected the enemy would advance on us 
every moment, and it was a night of anxious suspense. 
Still, if the shells did not burst too near, the men would 
fall asleep from sheer exhaustion. 

About three or four o'clock we again commenced to 
retire, and were safely across the river before the rebels 
came up. As we reached the shore, the first words we 
heard were: " 27th, where did you come from? I expected 
to hear from you at Richmond." "Ah, General, our legs 
were too long for them," we replied. It seems that we had 
been left far in the rear, to cover the retreat, with the ex- 
pectation that the whole regiment would be obliged to sur- 
render on the best terms it could. 

The conduct of the 27th in going into this fight, after 
its time was nominally out, is a record of which every 
man may well be proud ; and it will go down to later 
generations as a noble sacrifice. Whatever credit may 
be given this regiment for former services, everything 
dwarfs in the light of this crowning act of its history — 
"Obeying orders to move against the enemy, when, in jus- 
tice, they should ha\'e been on their way home." 

Wc marched back about a mile from the rivcr and went 
into camp — a thoroughly u^ed-up army. The men are 
very much chagrined at having to give up a position they 
had gained so gallantly. Again they feel that they have 


];. ,: 

M rfT"'- jf:i 1 r^uhnoj '^HT 


boon mado tho dupos of bad gcnoralship. Had Goii. Sodg- 
wick boon content to have stopped in the works on tho top 
of the hill, he could have held them against all their forces, 
and now been in possession of the heights and tho city(?) 
As it is, we have accomplished nothing ; or, rather, have 
lost all that we did accomplish. It seems to bo one of the 
most foolish blunders of tho war. All our wounded have 
fallen into tho hands of tho enemy. 

The above strictures on the generalship of our corps com- 
mander, Gen. Sedgwick, are from the diary of a private sol- 
dier. We did not then know that Gen. Sedgwick was acting 
under positive orders from Gen. Hooker, which w ore : " That 
he should carry the heights, and then immediately push on 
to join Hooker at Chancellorsvillo, and strike Lee in the 
rear." This Sedgwick attempted to do ; and had Hooker 
engaged Leo on the 4th, instead of being held by a strong 
skirmish line, and allowing Lee to bring the bulk of his 
army over and hurl it upon the 6th Corps, the result would 
have been far different. 

It is now thought that Gen. Hooker will be able to hold 
his ground on the right, and probably wo shall go to rein- 
force him, but are not able to march to-day. 

May 5th. — The rebels kept throwing shells at us all day, 
but we, having become quite used to them, don't mind them. 
\Vc are looking anxiously for news from the right. We 
have heard but Httle fighting there to-day, and still hope 
for success. God grant that we nia)- not be repulsed again. 
Our loss has been hea\'y — 622 in our brigade. 

May 6th. — \'ery stormy, cold and disagreeable. Hooker's 
army is now passing back, having re-crossed tho river last 
night. So we are again defeated, and lia\e left a lot of 
spoil in tho hands of tho enemy. Tho fighting at Chancel- 
lorsvillo has been terrible, but Gen. Hooker was not enough 
for them. Our cause looks dark, but we are not in tho 
least discouraged. There must be a different i)lan of oper- 
ations. Our forces should bo concentrated more, and should 
use the spade. Had we commenced a siege, after crossing 
the river, we could ha\e driven them off, and not have lost 

inoi oj 


' -Cr-- 




Major-Gen. John Sed(;\vu:k. 


5^0 many men. The troops are calling vehemently f(^r httle 
Mac, again, — and would that we had him back ! 

Most of the troops are moving back into their old camps, 
and we shall probably move soon. We are camped here in 
great confusion, and hardly know where we are. 

May 7th. — The men are getting \\ ell rested, and are ready 
for another mme. We have seen quite a number of Gen. 
Hooker's men, and they say they wer^.- repulsed and obliged 

to retreat. Dr. 11 , of- regiment. ga\-e us quite 

a description of. the battle. He says he is sick of fighting. 
The loss on both sides is heavy. It is dark ! dark I ! dark 1 1 1 
Still the men keep cheerful, and the army will soon be *n^ a 
good footing again. 

The enemy appears to be very quiet. We took a walk 
down to the river, and could plainly see them and their 
camps, on the other side. Many of them are dressed in 
blue clothes, and they feel very jubilant over their \ictory, 
and rejoice over the spoils they have taken. The}- say, 
" they have got a new quartermaster-general — Joe I hooker I" 
It is a good joke, and too true. 

May Sth. — Got the order to pack up early, and started 
back for our old camp, w here we arri\ed about 2 o'clock, 
taking possession of our old quarters. We found them 
about as we left them, except half full of water, — which 
we soon bailed out, put up our tents, and were "at home" 
once more. Some of us had to take in a comrade from the 
number of those who had thrown away their blankets antl 
tents, on the hurried retreat. For a few days we remained 
quietly in camp, performing the usual duties. On the rith^ 
the 1 6th New York started for home. That made us feel 
very lonesome, as we had always camped besiele each other, 
and had seemed m«jre like one regiment than two distinct 
commands; and were always ready to support each other 
in action. For the next four da\-s we made our farewell 
calls among the regiments where we had acciuaintances. 
Camp life seenied very dull, a-^ our minds were lully occu- 
pied with the thoughts of h.ome. 

.in. I -: 

■ ,:,..i'' ;.^M, .),,.■!• •\:^.K..J1 

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■J /'■ -r.' . ■ i-\ 1)11), 


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i m!j lo Tjdffiun 
T-!'! 'J- 'V.'! Jr.j-i.^j! lsvt:ij(i rf; no ,^1/ioJ 

'!: n' ' , ..■'.ij •>r(5 ;.ri!ii. ■• Vi- ; ■; n/: . ni yfj-jitjj) 

;>nu.»j i. 


On the 14th, at evcniiif; parade, the following special or- 
ders were read to us : 

Heai)(>i:arters Sixth Akmv Corps, ) 

'■ " ' ''■" ■'. May 13. i3f^>3. j 

Special Orders A'o. 120. 

The term of service of the 27th New York Volunteers having expired, 
thev will proceetl to Elniira, N. Y., the place of etirolliiient, where they 
will be mustered out of service. 

Upon arrival there, their arms, ei]uii)nieuts and public property will be 
turned' in to the proper officers. The (Hiartermaster's Department will 
furnish transportation from Falmoutii. 

The general command inij the cor[>s roniiratulateG t)ie ofhcers and men 
of the 27th New York Volunteers ujjon their honorable return to civil life. 
They have enjoyed the resi)ect and contidence of their companions and 
commanders. They have illustrated their term of service by jj^allant deeds, 
and have won for themselves a reputation )i«t sitr/'ussii/ in the Annv of tlu- 
Potomac, and have nobly earned the i,Matitude of the republic. 

Bv command of Major-Gen. Sedgwick. 

M. T. McMAIION, A. A. General. 

Hk.\iii_ii'arikK'^ Firm- Di\isu)N, Si.vni C'dki'S, \ 
May 14, 1S63. j 

Special Orders Xo ,". 

In taking leave of the 27tii Re<,niueiit of New York Volunteers, the 
Hrii;adier-Generai (-omniandiuLi th<- division is iiappy to be able to witness 
to tliiir soldierly qualifications and ueneial t;ood coiuJuct. Their action 
in the late campai>;n, on the south sith- of the Rappahannock, will be a 
proud record for every olhccr and nuui to carrvto his houie. Their record 
is saiil in a few wijrds — " You diii your <lut\ I" ami did it to tlie satisfac- 
tion of your commanders. 

Hy order of Hiigadier-Geucral Mrooks. 


A. A, A. General. 



Hdqrs. 2D Brigade, ist Division, 6th Army Corps, i 

Army of the Potomac — Near White Oak rnnRCH, \'a., - 

May 12, 1S63. ) 
Special Order No. 46. 

The term of enlistment of the 27th New York Volunteers having 
nearly expired, they are ordered to proceed to their rendezvous, at El» 
mira, N. V., to be mustered "out of service of the United States, on the 
2 1 St day of >Liy. 

This order severs other connections than those wliich bound the regi- 
ment to the military service. Two years of honorable and distinguished 
service have made you soldiers. 

After the fall of your gallant and distinguished colonel. I commanded 
you in the first battle of the Army of the Potomac. I have ltd you through 
all of its subsequent campaigns, and have |jarticipatL-d with )()u in a do/en 
battles. I now send you to the quiet haunts of peace, with the blood of 
the enemy upon your honored old Hag scarce yet dry. In separating from 
you, I can only give you my assurance that the honor of the regiment has 
ever been my care. Our connection has bet-n one of love, cemented by 
your braven'and noble deeds ; and in its sc\erance I believe the regret to 
be mutual. I have always relied upon you in every emergency, and you 
have responded with true heroism. You leave brave comrades behind 
you, stretched in death, upon all our battle-fields. You l>ear with you 
the grateful feeling that you have avenged them. In the historx- of the 
Army of the Potomac, no prouder record -.oill I'c inscril'cd tliaii your ovit. 

I hope to see the standard of your regiment once more raiseil. I hope 
again to command you : till then, farewell ! And may Cioil, in His infi- 
nite merc\ , bless each ami all of vou. 


Brigadier-General, rDuimanding. 

After the orders were read, Gens, Sloctini and Jiartlett 
made short addresses to the men ; and when the parade was 
dismissed, we gave them three cheers — the stoutest of the 
whole term of service. 

.^\t 3 A. ^f., on the 15th, the drums soiuKJed t)ie reveille, 
and at 5 we were packed up and on our ua\' to h'almoiith. 
The ilitlerent regiments of our brigade turned out to bid us 
good-by, and as we saiti adieu to these weather-bcraten \ et- 
erans, we heartily wished the war was (ner, and that A\e 
were all going home together. Arri\ ing at Falmouth, we 

■J II ; J. ri ; mu. 

•J V .11 ;iC »/l(jj. 

'-x, , "A "^'»&V.j \kvt.v\<! 

.|.>7 (fll// 

•.t1 ;•. ; '. 

,' ..I !i/ViW..:j -jdl 
i!- •) nil !o /imA. 



quickly boarded the cars, and a short run took us to Aquia 
Creek, where we were soon on board a steamer bound for 
Washington. About dark we reached the capital and Mere 
quartered in the Soldier's Retreat. The next day we spent 
in Washington, strolling about the city, until about 5 p. m., 
when we took the cars for Baltimore, where we unloaded to 
change cars, and remained the rest of the ni"-ht. 

Sunday, May 17th.— At daylight we started and ran very 
slowly; passed Harrisburg about noon ; reached Williams- 
port between 4 and 5 V. M.; made a short stop, and arrived 
at Elmira about midnight. Left the cars and slept until 
morning on the platform of the depot. 

The next morning we marched to the barracks, but find- 
ing them very dirty, most of the men took board in private 
families. The three companies from Binghamton were met 
at Elmira by a delegation of citizens and tendered an invi- 
tation to receive the hospitality of the city. The invita- 
tion was accepted. We remained in Elmira till fune 5th, 
when the regiment was mustered out, and we received our 
discharge, pay, and a bounty of Sioo, having been in the 
service two years and twenty-eight days. Thus the 27th 
disappeared fn^n the scene. 

VVe broke ranks forever, and our record passed into 
history. But few of our men, however, resumed their 
positions in civil life. Nearly every man was fit to com- 
mand a regiment, and felt that if his services as a recruit 
had been valuable to his government, as a veteran they 
would be doubly so now. and after a few weeks' rest, we 
find that nearlx- every man xvlnr was able-bodied had re- 
entered the service and was again found fighting the battles 
of his country. This regiment furnished a large number of 
the officers and many of the men of that fine regiment, the 
1st New \'ork \'eteran Cavalry. 

To write the subseciuent historv of all the 37th men 
we would have to follow tiuni into everv armv and on to 
nearly every battle-field of the war. Wlun wc say that 
these men. after the experience r\uy luul had, eiuUiriiig the 
li.ud>hip.. si.ff.iin;;. and dan;^c.. through uliich we "liave 

. ,11 >lJf1 1 

,i-, -Jo:...! :>7/ 

JVJ. V'f'.i b-JTjUl> 

GOOD-BY TO THE 27TH, 1 79 

followed them, RE-EXI,ISTE1), we have said enough for a 
lifetime in their praise. The 27th was indeed a noble bat- 
talion, one which won alike the compliments of its gener- 
als and the confidence of its associate regiments. During 
and since the war great esprit de corps has characterized its 
soldiers. Many of them ha\e attained to prominence in the 
walks of peaceful life, to the great rejoicing of their com- 
rades, and many have made their final march. God give 
them rest in peace ! 


The flag of the 27th Regiment of New York Volunteers 
was the arm>- regulation flag for infantry regiments, and was 
made of heavy silk, with bullion fringe, and handsomely 
mounted on a staff. The flag was first the property of 
Company " I," which was recruited by Capt. C. C. Gardiner, 
at Angelica ; and was presented to the company by Mrs. 
Church, widow of the late Hon. Philip Church, of Beh'i- 
dere, near Angelica, through her son, Mr. Richard Church, 
On the 27th of June, 1S61, Company " I " presented the 
flag to the regiment, at Elmira, and it was carried gallantly 
and without dishonor, through the two years* term of the 
regiment. The flag was many times struck by the enemy's 
shot, and large holes were made by fragments of shell. 
After the muster out, it was deposited, by the late Col. A. 
D. Adams, in the Bureau of Military Record, in the Capitol 
at Albany, and with it is the following record : — 

"The Regiment was organized at Elmira, ALay 21st, 1861 : 
from companies raised in Binghamton, Angelica. Lyons, 
Mt. Morris. White Plains, Lima, Albion and Rochester 
and entered the field commanded by Col. IL \V. Slocum, 
The Regiment rcccixed the flag from Co. " I." Capt. C. C. 
Gardiner. June 27th, iS6i. This Company had previously 
been presented with the fla'^ by Mrs. l'hi!i[) ( luirch. It ha>- 
been bonie in tiie battles o(" l-'ir-^t Hull Kun, West I'oiiit 
-Mechaniesville, (iaine.s' Mill, (ioNLborougirs 1'" irni, C'liarles 
City Cross Roads, White (.)ak Swamp. MaKern Hill, Sec 

..(/,.!•( .] '. : >>::;rA}').j.< 'Air] 

■ • (fv.>(\i 

.'. '.id' r.i.V 

.H.UiI^. U. 



Fr.AG OF THE 27T11 Re(;iment. 

oncl Bull Run, Crampton's Pass, Antictam, Fredericksburrr, 
and F"rcdcricksbur<4 Ilcij^hts. The first bearer was Seri;t. 
Burton Freeman, of Co. " I," who was afterwards promoted 
to be Captain of his Company. At j'^irst Bull Run two 
Corporals were sexerely wounded on either side of the 
Color-Bearer. At Gaines' Mill the Color-Bearer was se- 
verely wounded. At l*^-edericksbur;j; Heii^hts, the star 
now a})[)ended to the staff was literall\- shot out of the flag 
by a shell. The in that assault, A. L. \'an- 
Ness. of Co. " II," contributed it to the Bureau. Col. A. 
D.< transmitted the lla-. after ihc expiration of the 
ReLriment"-> term of ser\ ice, to thi> Bureau." 

^:^f;.'"i;>'5 M '. ■ : /ni ■ •)- > .:.m 1 

M :' ''. .01/ /I M.mH iHt<> 

.1^ '• ..: 


Battle-Hymn of the Republic. 

Mine eyes have seen the glory of the cominir of the Lord : 
He is tramplinir out the \ intatre where his t;rapes of wratli are stored 
He hath loosed the fateful lightnitii: of his terrihle, swift sword : 
{lis truth is marchinL,^ on. 

I have seen Him in the watch-tires of a huntlred rirclini: ramps ; 

They have buililed Him an altar in the eveniny- dews and damps 

I can read his rit;hteous sentence by the dim and tlariny- lamps: 

His da\' is marchint; on. 

I ha\'e. read a tiery irospel, writ in burnished rows of steel : 
As ve deal with iny rontemners, so with you m\- «irace shall deal 
Let tlie Hero, b(jrn of woman, crush the serpent with his luel, 
Since God is marchini;- on. 

He has sounded forth the trumpet that shall never call retreat ; 
He is siftinsj out the hearts of men before his juilnnieni-scat ; 
Oh ! be swift, my soul, to answer Him 1 be jubilant, mv feet ! 
Our Gt)d is marchiui: on. 

In the beauty of the lilies, Christ was born across the sea. 
Will) a jilory in his b(»som that traiisti-urcs xou and lue ; 
As He died to make men holy, let us die to make men free. 
While God is man hinu ..n. 

— Jij|.i.\ Waki. Howk. 

Cli 1 


Ten Months ix REBEr,DOM — Notes from the Diarv 
OF A Bull Run Prlsonkr, at Richmond, Va., New 
Orleans, La., and Sallsburv, N. C. 


r\ soldier of the Icf^Moii lay dyiny at Algiers ; 

There was lack of woman's nursing — there was dearth of woman's tears; 
But a comrade stood beside him, while the life-blood ebbed away. 
And benl, with pitying glance, to hear each word he had to say. 
The dying soldier faltered, as he took that comrade's hand, 
And said, I never more sliall see my own, my native land ; 
Take a message and a token to some distant friends of mine 
For I was born at Bingen, at Bingen on the Rhine." 

These few lines form a fitting prelude to the following 
record. This pathetic story of the dying boy, among stran- 
gers of an unknown tongue, has drawn tears to the eyes of 
many a reader ; but it was reserved for the direr shock of 
later years to bring them to us in fearful realization. The 
clash of arms came, and it was the duty of every man to 
take up the task assigned hiin. and help to save the Nation. 
But think what a sacrifice our soldiers made in leaving 
their pleasant homes, as most of thcin did. at an age when 
the desire to live is strongest in the human heart, and know- 
ing that there were included in the terms of their contract, 
all the incidents of war, — the danger, i>rivation. disease, 
wounds, imprisonment and death ; and that they must be 
prepared for any and all of these tilings. Vet voluntarily, 



a\'e, even cheerfully and joyfully, they accepted these con- 
ditions, took their lives in their hands, and baring their 
young breasts, made them a living rampart between their 
homes and the enemies of freedom. 

.\ few have returned, but many went down to death in 
the midst of the thunder and the wreck of battle, or in the 
prison pen, or in the hospital, far away from home and 
friends and help. In almost every household throughout 
the land, there are saddened memories of these dreadful 
prisons: and if the cause for which so many sacrifices were 
made — which so many died in prison to perpetuate — was 
worth suffering for, are not the scenes through which they 
passed worthy of commemoration and remembrance in the 
hearts of their fellow-countrymen? Justice to the living 
who suffered, impartial history, and the martyred dead, 
demand a full record by survivors of these horrors. For 
this purpose, this chapter is added to our history. 

The following is the list of the names of the Twenty- 
seventh men who were in the Richmond prisons, up to 
October, i86i, most of them having been captured at the 
first Bull Run battle: ...v.- ■ - i ■•• ■■"■: 

Co. •' A " — Eli Barrett, John Chamberlain, ^-^ Charles 
Demorest, Thomas Smith. 

Co. " B"— A. H. Crannell. 

Co. "C" — George W. F. Fanning, George W. Dunn, 
■^F. Durand. Eugene M. Davis, William \''analstine, '-John 
Boyden, ^C. F. Ycnncy, ■•+ G. M .Andrews, William Barnes, 
■^George Butler. 

Co. "D"— Charles W. Piatt, ■•'^ Cyrus Pardee, "+ James 
V. Snedaker, Wm. Trail, John H. Hogan, ^■" James Coon. • 
James McCaulcy, •• S. A. AIcKune, '^William Sampson, 
C. B. Fairchild. ' 

Co. "E"'—- William 11. Merrill. •MVilliam E. llanlon, 
Al. .McGetrick. •■•John T. Clague. 

'■' Indie. lies those who urrc woundctj. 
flndicaics those who died in prison. 


^un.a lu./i liiia mn 

-Iiiw) -' •• .1 

(■•'!< I 


Co. "F" — Edgar M. Warner, Reuben A. Wright, 
N. A. Corson, Wm. V'anValkenburg, Edwin Al. Watrous, 
T. H. Yates, John Kearn. 

Co. "G" — A.H.Hunt, +Armenius M. Hunt, Tyler J. 
Briggs, Wni Hall, "Gardner W. Agard, "Edwin E. liond, 
*J. Butler, "Solomon Wood, William Mileham, John 

Co. " H " — Harlan Boyd, Geo. Stout, Wm. W. Aplin, 
James Donahue. " + Joseph R. Johnson, * William Welch, 
C. H. Hunt, William Briggs. 

Co. "I" — Jeremiah K. Reading, F. D.Clark, John H. 
Crandall, '^ James G. Wellman, Judson S. Oliver, Lawrence 
Powers, * James O. Andrews. Charles W. Berry, f J. W. 

Co. " K " — Orsop T. Jewett, James Tucker, Henry S. 
Wells, J. L. Mudgc, Volney Mudge, + Charles W. Tibbitts, 
John C. Fowler. Charles Dwinnell, Henry L. Van Dresser. 

Having assisted several of my wounded comrades to 
seek shelter in the cellar of the stone house, and having 
stanched their wounds with lint and bandages made from 
some havelocks ; and, moved by their agonizing cries for 
*' Water! water I" and their entreaties for some one to re- 
main with them, I tarried till it was too late to make my 
own escape. No words can adequately depict the fears of 
these wounded men as to the treatment they would receive, 
if they should fall into the hands of the enemy. They 
expected to be bayoneted on the spot. They would not 
at first drink the water from a spring found in one corner 
of the cellar, because they feared the rebels had poisoned 
the water. And not until I had made two wounded rebel 
soldiers (who had also been taken into the cellar), drink 
some of the water, would they be convinced that it was 
safe for them to drink it. All the time the stone house was 
a target for the rebels, and the rattle of musket balls against 
the walls of the building was almost incessant, and some of 
them came through tiie windows, wounding three of the 
men the second time. 


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Several cannon shot also passed through the buildin^^ 
and one took off the top of the chimney, the bricks and 
mortar coming down inside, and nearly burying the two 
wounded rebels, who had crawled into the fireplace for 

At the distance of about two rods from the building, on 
the rebel side, was a well : and though the wounded were 
perishing with thirst, very fev-' dared to go out for water ; 
but one noble fellow (whose name I regret that I have for- 
gotten), took two canteens and went out to obtain water. 
While so doing, he received five or six musket balls, in dif- 
ferent portions of his body, from the rebel forces, yet was 
not fatally injured, and survived the battle — to become a 
prisoner in Richmond. He will ever be re nembered with 
gratitude by those who witnessed his noble conduct, and 
shared in the benefits of his exploit. About fifty men were 
killed in the immediate vicinity of the "old stone house." 
After our forces were on the retreat, a body of troops sur- 
rounded the stone building, entered with bayonets, and de- 
manded our surrender I No resistance was made, and no 
violence was offered to the prisoners. They demanded our 
arms, and ordered those of us not too severely wounded to 
form in a line. Some of us had taken the precaution to 
bend our muskets, and also to remove the chamber from 
our revolvers. We were, soon after, marched up the hill to 
a large white house, which was the headijuarters of Gen. 
Beauregard. We remained here a sliort time; and while 
lying on the ground. Gens. Beauregard and Johnson, and 
Jeff. Davis rode up and surveyed their captives, their faces 
illumined with joy and exultation. A few of our men be- 
gan to make inquirie> for a revolver, and could one have 
been found, some of those s.iddles would have been sud- 
denly emptied I 

We were marched five miles to Manassas Junction that 
night, where we reni.iiiu-d til! ; o'clock the next day. It 
rained all night, and we had no cover, and nothing of .my 
account to eat. We were kept standing in an open sj)ace— 
a solid mass of men ; and what little food was given us, 


was thrown into the pen, and most of it trampled into the 
mud before we could get it. We were put on board of box 
cars and taken to RichmcMid, w here we arrived at about 
8 o'clock on the evening of the 23d of July, 1861. 

We were marched through the streets, under a strong 
guard to protect us from the violence of the mob, who, 
flushed with their recent victory, were armed with clubs, 
bricks and stones, and followed us with scofTs and curses. 
The march brought us to Harwood's large tobacco factory, 
on Main street, near Twenty-fifth street, which with several 
other similar buildings, afterwards became famous (or 
rather infamous) under the name of Libby Prison. 

July 25th. — Have had a good night's rest. Slept on the 
bare floor, without any blankets. It is terribly tiresome 
being shut up here in this building, which is 108 feet long, 
40 feet wide, and three stories high. Water is very scarce 
and poor ; we cannot get enough to drink, and none to 
wash or to bathe in. From our prison windows we can 
look out on the James River, to the south. On the 
west _ we can look over the city, see the capitol building, 
and a secesh flag waving at each end. It makes us feel 
rather down-hearted to think we cannot get out and pull 
them down. The men kecj) up as good spirits as possible, 
but are all longing to return to their regiments. We hope 
to be let oft' soon. 

Sunday. — To-day we had service in our quarters, con- 
ducted by an Episcopal minister. A great many people 
came in to see us. We had three meals to-day, served at 
9, 3, and 10 o'clock — fashionable hours, we think. Food is 
very scarce in Richmond. The people are anxious to get 
rid of us, or make us earn our own li\-ing. The papers are 
full of plans for treating us badly. The\ t'.ircatcn to make 
us work on the fortifications or in the coal mines. All these 
schemes keep us worrying for ()ur safety. 

July 2(')th. — Slept well duiing the night ; am getting ac- 
customed to bunking on the bare floor. My health is 
good, but we are \'ery weak from having no exercise and 
very little food. A new quartermaster was appointed to- 

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day ; his name is Warner, a Northern man, from Ohio. He 
pretends to be a rebel, that he may collect some money due 
him in Richmond. He gives us more to eat. Our rations 
are : pork, bread and coffee for breakfast ; bread, pork and 
rice for dinner ; coffee with bread and pork for supper. 

July 27th. — Have formed a new arrangement in regard to 
giving out the rations. Till now, the food has been 
brought in in buckets and thrown in heaps on the floor. 
The men were so ravenous that they would dive in and get 
all they could, and trample much of it under foot, so that 
many would get none. We have formed into squads of 
fifty, and one man is chosen to draw and distribute the ra- 
tions for the fifty. All are made to sit down on the floor 
in their places, and every man is given an equal ration. 

Sunday, July 28th. — This is a beautiful day, but there is 
no regard for the Sabbath. Many of the men are playing 
cards and gambling, and other sports are going on the 
same as on a week day. W^e have no books to read. Gen. 
Winder, Provost Marshal of the city, says he will not allow 
any books except the Bible. I spend a good deal of my 
time reading my Testament, which is a great comfort to 
me. We are all very anxious to get out of this terrible 
place ; the confinement is almost beyond endurance. We 
are very weak, and our minds seem to be in a half-dormant 
state, so we cannot fully realize our condition. I find great 
comfort in prayer. I feel that God is very near to me, and 
that in His own good time He will bring me out of trouble. 
Many of the men are getting sick. W' ater is very scarce, 
none to wash in. The men are very filthy and are covered 
with vermin. It is with great difficulty we can get out to 
the sinks, which are situated in the yard. Only two are 
allowed to go from the building at a time, and it takes 
nearly all day to get out. Wc have been obliged to use 
one end of the first floor and it is covered several inches 
thick with filth. It is tedious being shut up here, but I do 
not complain, and am not sorry that I enlisted. I hope I 
shall ha\e a chance to try it over again. 

The quartermaster still feeds us pretty well, but many of 

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the guards arc cruel and harsii. Several times they have 
shot at the men who were standing near the windows. 
This morning a ball came through the floor not far from 
where I was sitting. It had been fired into the window of 
the room below. 

July 30th. — To-day I have formed the acquaintance of a 
young man by the name of Trowbridge, of the 2d Wiscon- 
sin regiment, and find that he is a cousin of a school-mate 
of mine. He looks so much like her that when I first saw 
him I asked him if he was a relative. He is sick to-day, and 
I am taking care of him. 

Many of the boys are writing letters home to-day. We 
do not know whether our letters go through the lines or 
not. If my parents knew what had become of me, I 
would be more contented. I hope they v.ill soon hear 
where I am. May God sustain them, and ma\- I be able to 
see them again. (After the battle my name was given in 
the list of killed, and it was several months before my pa- 
rents knew that I was alive.) 

The weather is very warm, and we are more and more 
afflicted with vermin. A great many of the men are sick. 
I fear we shall all die if we are left here much longer. 
Charley Piatt, a member of my company, was taken to the 
hospital to-day. It is terrible to be sick here. 

Wednesday, July jist. — The weather still continues very 
hot. ^[ore of the men are getting sick. I continually 
think of home and of what our folks are doing. Ha\'ing and 
harvesting are now over : the barns are full ; fruit must be 
abundant. But we are shut up here, our friends not know- 
ing whether we are dead or alive. If I could only hear 
from them, it would do my soul good. I wonder what 
they think has become of me, and if mother worries about 
me. If this trouble could only be settled ! Ciod grant 
that it may be, that we ma\- return to our homes and li\e 
in peace, and this nation bcconu- a great and happ_\- one. 
How is it possible that such a state of feelin- <is now exists 
could ha\e sprung up.-* Why did God i)crmitit'-' Wc 
cannot see now, but He has some wise end in view. May 


that end speedily come. I am willing to wait His time and 
not complain. I will not say aught against His dealings 
with me, for " He doeth all things well." He suffered His 
ancient people to go into slavery and trouble, and even His 
own Son to die. l^ut they vvere made soon to triumph 
over their enemies and dwell in peace. Will he not do so 
with us? We have the promise in His Word. And may 
the lesson which God would teach us by this reverse of 
fortune be understood by us, and we come out as silver 
from the furnace, refined and purified, more perfectly fitted 
to do our Master's will. I love Him more and more every 
day, and T will try to continue in His love as long as I live, 
that at the end I may not be found wanting, but ready to 
die and go to my heavenly home. 

Time passes away rather fast but drearily. We have 
succeeded in getting a few books, and I am now reading a 
volume of Anderson's Travels in South Africa. One of the 
men has been allowed to go into the city and has bought a 
quantity of apples, crackers and nicknacks to sell to the 
boys. These are purchased quickly by those who have 
money, and the edibles are eagerly devoured. 

August 1st. — Yesterday was the hottest day of the season 
since we came here; we could scarcely breathe, and it is 
very warm and muggy this morning. Rumor says that 
some of us are to be removed to another building to-day. 
I hope it will be done, for there are 332 men on this floor, 
which is 108 x40 ft., a floor space of 2x6 ft. to each man. 
We have to bring water a long distance in buckets, and 
suffer a great deal for lack of enough to drink and wash in. 
Another of our men was shot at this morning while sitting 
in the window. This makes the fifth time that shots have 
been fired into thi.'-. building, but no one has been hurt yet, 
although the balls came right among us. We hope to have 
revenge on these cowardly fellows some time, although we 
would gladly forgive them if it would do any good. 

.Arrangements having been made for another building. 
fifty of the prisoners were taken over this foremion to clean 
it, and another squad of fifty have been over this afternoon. 


I went with them and helped to sweep and remove rubbish 
from the room. This, too, is a tobacco factory, and wv 
found large quantities of good tobacco, of all kinds. I per- 
suaded the ofificers in charge to let the boys from our regi- 
ment move into this building, which is just across the street 
from our former quarters, where we occupy the second 
floor. Just at night we came over, together with the men 
of the 2d Wisconsin and 1st Massachusetts, in all about 
seventy men. These quarters are much cleaner and more 
pleasant than the old ones, and we are very lucky to get 
them. This room is well lighted with gas. so that our 
evenings are pleasant, and it has also twehe large win- 
dows, and is 40x60 ft. in size. On one side is a large tub, 
and a hydrant that brings river water, so that we can wash. 
and each man is cleaning himself up. This is the first time 
since the battle that we ha\'e had water enough to wash in. 

Quartermaster Warner has charge of all the cooking and 
feeding arrangements, but the cooking is done by eight or 
ten darkies. The coffee, meat and rice are boiled in large 
iron kettles, holding nine gallons each, and there are about 
thirty of these kettles. 

August 2d. — I have had a good night's rest in our new 
quarters. We had no supper last night, and there is no 
prospect of any breakfast this morning. We are getting 
very hungry. 1 am feeling well this morning, and I hope I 
may continue to enjoy good health, for it is discouraging to 
be sick here. We hope to go home soon, though there is 
no prospect of it now. The people here say that the)- are 
willing to exchange prisr)ners, if President Lincoln will. 
We hope he will, for we think it would be better for our 
cause than to leave us here, doing no good ; but we trust 
his policy is a good one. 

There appears to be but little business going on in the 
city now. All the tobacco factories are stopped, as there 
is no demand for the aiticle outride of the city, on account 
of the blockade. \v liich is injuring them \er)- much. 

Breakfast has fiuiilly come, about I i o'clock, consisting 
of bread ant! coffee. Many wounded prisoneis w ere brought 

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in during the night, and, having to be fed, occasioned the 
delay of our breakfast. VV'c are to have but two meals a 
day alter this. Our supper, of bread and meat, came about 
5 o'clock. 

To-day we have adopted a code of rules for our personal 
cleanliness, and a police force has been elected to enforce 
these rules. Every man is required to take off all his cloth- 
ing twice a day, and carefully search the seams, and kill all 
the body lice. So we hope to keep quite clean now. 

We can get the city papers at our quarters, for five cents 
apiece, but they are so rabid and lie so much, that we hate 
to read them. We do not know anything of what is going 
on in the country, or what is to be done with us. 

August 3d.— Several (;f our men are quite sick We had 
breakfast about 10 o'clock, of bread and coffee. We get 
half a loaf of bread apiece, and have to go rather hungry 
now-a-days, because there are so many here to feed. More 
are coming all the time. I think they will soon get tired 
of keeping us, for grub is very scarce. There is some talk 
that we are to be sent further south, but we hope it is not so. 
The rebel papers report that their prisoners at the North 
are treated very cruell)-, but ue do not believe it. More 
wounded were brought in last night, and placed in the 
building we first occupied, — so that about 130 more men 
were brought over from there to this building, making our 
quarters very crowded. How we wish we could get hold 
of some school books, or more books to read, that we might 
improve our time in studying, but we fear it will be impos- 
sible to do it. 

Sunday. Aug. 4th. — ^The most of the men are very quiet 
this morning, but man>' are regardless of the Sabbath. I 
had wished several times rhis morning that we might have 
preaching in the prison to-day, when about eleven o'clock a 
rough-looking man came in and said : " We will have divine 
service." .\t first I thought he was some stranger from the 
city, but he provt-d to be the Rf\'. Hiram Kdd\-, of Litch- 
field, Conn., Chajjlain of the 2(1 Connecticut Regiment. 
The services were opened with singing by the men. After. 

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this a prayer, and a more earnest one I never heard. The 
men were quite still during the prayer, which compre- 
hended all that our circumstances would suggest. After 
prayer, he read the 14th Chapter of St. John, with com- 
ments, and then took his text from the first of the 
same chapter. He spoke at some length, and held the un- 
divided attention of the men. It was the most interesting 
and delightful hour of worship I ever spent — the talk and 
the chapter applying so well to our circumstances, were 
very affecting. He urged all to accept Christ, read the 
Bible and be saved. Nearly all the men seemed affected, 
and must have profited by the sermon. It seemed like 
church at home, and made us more contented here, more 
willing to wait God's time to bring us out and return us to 
our friends, who must be very anxious about us. After 
service I had a very pleasant chat with the preacher. God 
grant that much good may be done here, and that all the 
men may learn to reverence their God. For since we feel 
God's presence, we can be happy. 

About 5 o'clock seventy more prisoners were brought in, 
increasing the number on our floor to one hundred, so that 
we are somewhat crowded, but we shall have to put up 
with it. 

At 6 o'clock I was requested to go to the hospital and 
help take care of Sergeant Wellman, of Co. " I," of our 
regiment. I found he was wounded in the leg, below the 
knee. I remained with him all night. I also found in the 
same building (the one we first occupied) S. A. McKune 
and Will. Sampson, of Co. " D." McKune was wounded in 
the abdomen, the ball passing in a slanting direction across 
his body. I think he will soon recover. Sampson was hit 
in the ankle, and has a dangerous wound. I also found 
four others there from our regiment, all badly wounded. 
As I had had nothing to eat for a day before coming into 
the hospital, the bad smell from the putrid wounds made 
me very sick, but I kept on with my work till morning. 

Monday, August 4th. — I returned from the hospital 
about 10 'clock, sick and hungry, nf)t having had anything 

.11 niit/ 


to eat. We did not get breakfast till nearly noon, then had 
some meat, rice and mush. Nothing more till 12 o'clock at 
night, when some meat and bread were brought in to us. It 
looks as though they want to starve us to death. They 
say that food is very scarce in the city. As prisoners of 
war we are treated very shamefully. We fast so much we 
are very weak, and it will take }ears for us to recover from 
the effects of prison life I have been quite ill all day, but 
hope soon to recover. 

August 6th. — I am a little better than I was yesterday. 
My comrade. Charley Trowbridge, takes good care of me. 
It is now nearly 12 o'clock, and nothing to eat yet. I am 
afraid we shall all starve to death. God forgive them for 
treating us so. Breakfast came about noon — some cofTee. 
rice and mush. We had supper about eight — a very small 
supply of ineat and rice. 

August 8th. — One of our men, by the name of Crandall, 
is sick with the measles, (^ur wounded are mostly doing 
well. Oh I how we long to go home ; we shall appreciate 
home if we ever return. The men are getting very dirty 
and lousy, some are completely co\'ered with vermin. It is 
with great difficulty that I can keep myself free from them. 
I am a good deal worse to-day than I have been ; the more 
I doctor the worse I seem to get. We have had enough to 
eat to-day, for a wonder. 

August 9th. — I rested (juite well during the night, and 
we have had a very good brcakfa.^t this morning, of meat, 
bread and coffee. Those who have money live first-rate, 
for they can send out by the guards and buy fruits or any- 
thing they wish. The men find all the tobacco they want 
in the uj^per rooms of the prison. Several bo.xes of plug 
and twist have been opened to-da\-. 

The weather is very warm, and the wounded are dying 
off fast. We had supper about S o'clock, and then all lay 
down for the night. It is a funny sight to see so many men 
stretched out on the lloor. There are so many of us that 
when we lie down the tloor is completely covered. One 
cannot cross the room without walking on the men. 

:i^o:J)^■\ Ql 

There are many rumors as to what may be done with us. 
One is that we are to be sent to work in the coal mines ; 
another, that we shall be taken further south in a day or 
two; and still another, that we are to be sent heme soon on 
a parole of honor. The time set for this happy event is 
Monday next. Of course we do not credit this, but let it 
go the way it came. 

August loth. — I arn quite well to-day, for which I am 
truly thankful. We hope that the government will soon 
see fit to e.\change prisoners, for we are doing no good 
here. ' But as we do not know the policy of our govern- 
ment, we will not complain, but bide our time. 

Orderly Davis, from Co. " C," came over to our quarters 
to-da}'. He says there are six or eight of our boys with 
him in another prison. So there must be fifty or sixty of 
our regiment prisoners, wounded and all. 

Sunday, August nth. — Three weeks have passed since 
the memorable battle, and we are still here in prison, pass- 
ing away our time to no purpose. Amid the noise and 
bustle of a hundred men, it is hard to keep the Sabbath. 
What a luxury it would be to be alone for a little while, but 
not for one moment can one escape from the crowd of noisy 

Mr. Eddy came in and preached to us to-day, and we had 
a delightful hour of worship. The men were very atten- 
tive, and all passed quietly. His text was, "God is Love." 
He spoke exceedingly well, and the service did us a great 
deal of good. We went back, in imagination, tn the okl 
church at, home, where we had so often heard the "Word 
of Life;" and where perhaps, at this x-ery time, our friends 
were worshiping, and earnestly praying for us: for we felt 
that God was very near, comforting us by his Hoi)- Spirit. 
I am room orderly to-day. and have had a great deal to do, 
cleaning the tloor and keeping it in order. Some of our 
doctors have been sent home tr. (.l.iy, on parole. Thc\- were 
granted this f.uor for an act of kindness to a wounded 
rebel colonel. It seems hard to tight against our brethren, 
but when we see their acts of treason, it is a great incentive 

ui : : f:n;^-.i iw. 

i.'H .-III 


to action. But I think this trouble could have been settled 
; . without blood-shed, and I hope there will be no more 
ing. But the right will triumph. Mav God prosper "Ihe 
right, and all be well. 

August 1 2th.-After breakfast I got the guards to pass me 
to No. I Hospital. Here I found three wounded men from 
our regiment—Corp. Wood, one of the color-guard who was 
• shot through the hand, and a man by the name of Bond, ■ 
• from Co. " I." I remained with them a short time and 
then went over to the other hospital, where McKune and 
Sampson are. I found them doing well. The doctors 
^ wanted more help in the hospital ; so I volunteered as a 
nurse. I went back to my quarters, got mv coat and things 
and returned to the hospital, where I am now, beside 
McKune's cot, writing by the gas light. There are one hun- 
dred wounded men on this floor. Most of them are doino- 
well. One man died this afternoon. He belonged to the 
2d Rhode Island Regiment. He has been c'eranged several 
days, and has suffered a great deal. He was a long time 
dying. It seemed sad to see him go. We have had preach- 
ing in the hospital to-day, by an Episcopal minister,-the 
same one who preached when we f^rst came here. One of 
the men died just as he finished talking. Twelve men were 
.sent home on parole to-day. I sent a letter by them. 

August I3th.-It is 9 p. M. I have had a hard day's work 
and have just finished. I have had enough to eat, and mv 
health IS excellent. Nearly all the wounded are doin- uell 
One man died last night. Besides nursing the wounded I 
have assisted in cleaning the floor of the third story where 
the nurses and sick are quartered. This hospital' is the 
buildmg where we were quartered when we came to the city 
A rebel soldier died to-day, in a hospital which is just across 
the street from ours. On the hearse that carried the body 
out for burial were four small secesh flags. This is goin*- 
it big. we think. Wonder if he will change hi. colors then 
he gets on the other side ! Mr. Eddy has been in to see the 
wounded. I had a pleasant chat with him. 1 am tired and 
must go to bed. Good-ni-ht. I sleep on the bare floor 

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with my boots for a pillow, beside McKune's cot. Most of 
the wounded are provided with cots and mattresses. 

August 15th. — One poor fellow died to-day, by the name 
of Jacob Sparahall, from the 4th Maine Regiment. 1 think 
another will die to-ni^ht, for he is but just alive. The rest 
seen, to be doing well. McKune and Sampson are gaining. 
Reports of another battle are prevalent, but we cannot get 
any particulars. The wounded soldier mentioned above 
died during the night. He was one of the 14th Brooklyn 
Regiment, by the name of Charles R. Prescott. He was a 
very intelligent and well educated man. His leg had been 
amputated twice, but the operation was badly performed : 
it was taken off near the hip, and the bone left several 
inches bare. He lived five days on nothing but whiske\% 
suffering a great deal. Death, forwhich he had long praj'ed, 
finally came and released him from his suffering. 

August i6th. — Several prisoners, that had escaped, have 
been recaptured and put in irons to-day. This is rather 
hard. We do not see why our government does not ex- 
change prisoners. We see nothing to hinder it. Many of 
the men are getting sick, and we are all very anxious to get 
back to our regiments. One of the wounded men received 
a letter from his brother to-day. Oh ! how I wish I could 
hear from my home. 

Sunda}', August iSth. — To-day I had a talk about religion 
with one of the wounded boys from our regiment, by the 
name of Johnson. He is badly wounded in the thigh, and 
I fear he will not live long. He seems to be serious, and 
tries to repent. His father is a Prcsbj'tcrian minister, lixing 
near Syracuse, N. V. 

August 20th. — Death, with his arrow, has again entered 
tiie hospital, and cut down two of our number. Two strong 
men ha\e survived their injuries four long weeks, but at last 
they have died. Joseph Campbell, of Co. " C." 14th I>rook- 
lyn, has gone to his lung homo. He t-rustecl in Christ, re- 
pented, and has gone to niect llim in hca\en. He lias suf- 
fered a great deal, and died hard ; but we ne\er heard him 
complain. His home is 142 Plymouth St., Brooklyn, N. i". 

iqS record of 2;th regiment n. v. vols. 

August 2 1 St. — Another man has died to-day. He was 
wounded in the thigh, — the whole fleshy part of his hip was 
carried away by a cannon ball. His leg was not broken, 
but the veins sloughed off, and he bled to death. 

August 22d. — I am doing all I can in the hospital for the 
wounded. Many of the prisoners are getting sick. I fear 
that some malady may break out among them. All the 
wounded from our regiment are doing well, except John- 
son. For a couple of days he has been out of his head, 
and he thinks he sees his mother, brother and sister near 
him, and tries to speak to them — often wishes me to call 
them to him. I think he will not live through the night. It 
seems hard to die now, aftet having lived so long since the 
battle. I sat down by his cot about 8 o'clock, and thought 
him dying then. His pulse had ceased, and the cold sweat 
stood in thick drops on his brow. He laj'in this state some 
time, breathing very short. I thought him dying, but we 
raised his head and gave him water. The water seemed to 
revive him, his pulse beat again and his limbs became 
warm. He seemed easier after this and slept a short time, 
but kept muttering broken sentences, only a few words of 
which I could understand. He repeatedly commenced the 
Lord's Prayer, but could only say a few words when his 
mind would wander, and he would seem to be speaking to 
his mother and his sister, but his meaning we could not 
make out. About 3 o'clock he passed away and his body 
was carried out. I think from what he told me before his 
mind wandered, and froin what he said afterward, that his 
heart had been changed and that he died happy. He suf- 
fered very much from his wound, but had as good care as 
we could give him here. His wound was so bad that we 
could not move him, and his clothes had not been taken off 
since he was woun(Jcd. The doctors fixed his leg in a 
sling suspended by cords from the ceiling, so that it could 
be dressed. Ho was not strong enough to undergo an am- 
putation. 1 ha\e the things that were found on his per- 
son, a prayer-book and >everai letters, v/hich I shall en- 
deavor to send to his friends, if I live to get out of prison- 




The book was a present from his mother. His name and 
date of receiving this parting gift are on the fly-leaf. May 
God comfort the mother I 

P. S. After reaching home, I sent the things to his 
mother. She came to see me, and has written me a letter 
every year since. 

August 23d. — I awoke this morning feeling very sick 
The steward directed me to take a drink of whiskey, which 
made me feel better. This is the first liquor I ever drank. 
I have had to work hard all day and am very tired to-night. 
My work consists in removing the bandages, cleansing the 
wounds, replacing the dressings, and feeding and nursing 
the helpless ones. I prefer this work to lying idle in the 

Some of the rebel reserve guard got to fighting among 
themselves last night, and killed one of their sergeants — his 
name was Hamilton. He had put one of his men in irons, 
for some breach of discipline, and when he went to lock 
him in the guard-room, the fellow seized a musket and let 
drive at him, the charge passing through his body. 

August 27th. — To-day I have had a falling out with the 
old sergeant who is acting steward of our ward, or rather he 
has with me. He is a very cross, crabbed old chick, and 
got jealous uf me because I took too good care of some 
of the men. He told me to leave the hospital, which I 
did. But when one of our doctors came in, the bo\'s all 
took my part and told him the circumstances. He sent for 
me and took me o\er to headquarters, and told the rebel 
doctor that he wanted him to appoint me superintendent 
of the hospital cook-house. This was done, and I am to go 
into the iiospital and carry things to the boys whenever I 
like, and also have a pass to visit an>' of the other prisons. 
The cooking is all done in the open yard without shelter. 
We ha\-e to make great quantities of beef tea for the 
wounded. The work is very hard, but we get plent}' to 
eat and enjo\' the lu.xurv ot being in the fresh air. 

Sunday. September i-^t. — Have worked the same as on a 



week day. Another man died to-day — Charles Durant, 
fiom Rochester. He was sick with fever. 

iSeptcmber 2d. — We have made but one kettle of beef 
tea to-day, and in the other we cooked a mess of b«;ef. cab- 
bage and potatoes, for the wounded — got them up a regu- 
lar farmers' dinner. The cooking is done in two large iron 
kettles, holding about ninety gallons each. This supplies 
all the hospitals. I get a little time each day to cook a 
beefsteak and roast a few potatoes for some of my friends 
in the hospital 

September 3d. — To-day some of our men who have been 
treated in the general hospital, which is further up town, 
have been brought down to our building. They have 
nearly all recovered from their wounds. Among them was 
George Coon, from Co. " D." He told me that Pardee and 
Snedaker, both from the same company, had diod of their 
wounds, in the general hospital. 

September loth. — The same routine of daily work in the 
cook house continues. To-day one hundred and fifty of 
the prisoners have been sent to Charleston, S. C, twenty- 
seven of them officers, and among them Col. Corcoran, of 
the 69th. It is rumored that others will go soon. 

September I ith. — One of the assistants in the cook-house 
was among the men sent off to the South yesterda)'. and I 
asked the quartermaster to detail my friend Charley Trow- 
bridge to assist in the work, and he is now with us. Soon 
after I left the piison and came to the hospital, Charley, 
with a number of others, was mo\ ed to another building, a 
factory in the lower part of the city. Here they suffered 
still more for the want of rations than before I left them ; 
and sometimes when he wmild come with others to head- 
quaiters to draw rations for his cotnrades, I would gi\'e him 
an extra loaf, some sugar, coffee, etc. After a little, he was 
not able to come, m) he .-oiiieluncs sent his haversack, ac- 
companied by a note. The following ib a copy of one ; 


Richmond, Sept. h — Friday Eve. 

Fkikm) ('iiAKLiK; — 1 write you these few lines, hoping thai you will 

do something for a poor body that is about lialf starved. I do not uphold 

a man in stealing. Still I do not think it would be laid up against him 

for stealing something to eat, — that is, if he were as hungry as I have been 

for the last three or four days ; consequently I am going to call on you. 

If you cannot get it without stealing it, I want you should /ai-c- it. I send 

you my haversack, which you can send back by the upper floor squad. 

I cannot get the chance to come after rations every time. When you see 

this haversack coming, please look at it, and think that 1. am hungry. 

Hunger compels me to write this. 

Your friend, 


P. S. — Can't you get me a chance to help you around the kettles? 
I want to get out into the open air. 

We loved each other like brothers, and of course I never 
let his haversack go back empty. 

September 13th. — Work the same as before. Another 
man died yesterday, by the name of Bailey; and another 
to-day, from our regiment, A. M. Hunt, of Co. " G." I went 
up to see him a short time before he died. I found him in 
a small attic room of the hospital, where it was close and 
hot. He was sick with fever. He had been out of his 
head for some time, but seemed to know me. He has had 
very poor care, and has been much neglected. I got water 
and washed him, and inoistened his parched lips, and gave 
him drink ; then combed his hair, and drove away the swarms 
of flies that were tormenting him. He seemed very grate- 
ful to me : reached his arms around my neck and drew 
me close to him, but he could not speak. I remained with 
hiin as long as I could, and then made some of the other 
boys j^romise to care for him. Poor fellow I he soon died, 
.mrl now sleeps in one of those unknown gra\'es. among 
the thousand^ that went down to death from those vile 
Southern prisons. 

One remark about these dying men : Tiiey retained their 
hope of life up to the hour of dying. They did not give up. 


There is another thing I wish to state : All the men, with- 
out any exception among the tho;isands that I have asso- 
'ciated with, have never in a single instance expressed regret 
that they entered their country's service. They have been 
the most loyal, devoted and earnest men ; even on the last 
days of their lives they have said, that all they hoped for, 
was just to live and enter the service again, and meet their 
foes. It is a most glorious record in reference to the devo- 
tion of our men to their country. I do not think their pat- 
riotism h; s ever been equaled in the history of the world. 
There was no time during our term of imprisonment that 
we could not have been free by taking an oath of allegiance 
to the Confederate States. Agents were constantly coming 
to the prison to induce mechanics to come out and work at 
their trades. Shoe manufacturers and other tradesmen 
were anxious to get more workmen, and promised good 
wages, plenty to eat, and constant employment. But none 
of the men were moved by such inducements. 

September 14th. — To-day I have had to move my sleep- 
ing quarter^ from the floor in the hospital, to No. i Prison, 
on the same floor with r3avis and Dunn, of Co. " C," 27th. 
On leaving, McKune gave me one of his blankets, a gift of 
which I am very proud, as a bare tloor is not the best bed 
in the world. 

September 19th. — Several of the men ran away last night, 
and the officers seem to suspect that f have had something 
to do with the escape of so man\' men of late, and will 
allow none of the cooks in the \-ard : but the cooking is 
hereafter to be done by the negro prisoners, who are 
allowed to go where they please. So I have to remain in 
No. I Prison. Up')n rjtlection. I think the suspicion of the 
officers was not entirely incorrect. Sometimes, when quite 
a squad of the prisoners would come tlou n to draw rations, 
one or more of them would slip into the storehouse and 
hide .unoiig the b.n-ieU and t)oxe>. At night I would lock 
them in, and after dark the\- would raise the b.ick window, 
which opened outside tlie guard-line, and make their 


While ill No. I Prison, I joined the " Richmond Prison 
Association," a club for fun and mutual improvement. Uf 
course such an association should have a seal, sign and 
motto; and what more natural than that we should select 
as a coat of arms for our seal, our constant companion, the 
" body louse." So, a skillful engraver was set to work, and 
on a piece of bone the size of half a dollar, two rows of 
body lice were carved around the margin, under which 
was, " Richmond Prison Association," and in the center the 
motto, " Bite and be damned." Then we had a sign, 
which was to scratch under the arm with vigor. We would 
often sing our prison song, only the last verse of which I 
will quote : 

" And wiicn \vc arrive in tlic land of ilie ficL', . , ,. , 

They will smile and welcome us joyfnlly ; 

.\nd when we think of the Rebel band, ' '• 

We'll repeat our motto, Hiitc, and he daniiud T • v . - 

Up to this time Gen. Winder has been Provost Marshal 
of Richmond, and under him is Lieut. Todd, a brother of 
Mrs. Lincoln, who has immediate charge of the prisoners. 
Me has two assistants, Lieut. Emac and Sergeant Wirtz 
(also spelled Wirz, Wurzi 

Lieut. Emac was a West Point graduate, and he and 
Wirtz were connected with the two companies of United 
States soldiers now guarding us. These two companies 
were stationed in Richmond at the breaking out of the war, 
and went over in a bt)dy to the Confederate States. 

^It will be remembered thai after the clo^e of the war 
W irtz was tried, condemned and executed by our govern- 
ment, it having been proved that l;e had killed some of the 
prisoners while in command at Andersonville.j 

•/ fi/ifi// 


\i.ii>'-\,Ar j^. 

f .i-.t ) jMiii ri..(t u; q' ] 


Lieut. Todd is vicious and brutal in his treatment of the 
prisoners, and seldom enters the prison without grossly in- 
sulting some of the men. He always comes in with a 
drawn sword in his hand, and his voice and manner indi- 
cate his desire to commit some cruel wrong. I have 
seen him strike a wounded prisoner who was l\'ing on tiie 
floor, and cut a heavy gash across hi-, thigh with his sword. 

After a time Todd was sent to the front, and w<is after- 
wards killed in battle. Two other brothers of Mrs Lin- 
coln were also killed while in the Confederate service- 
Whenever we go too near the window we are likcl}' to be 
fired at by the guard. The first man killed by the guard 
was private .\T. C. Beck, of the JQtii Regiment. He was 
instantly killed while he was hanging his blanket up by the 
window. The next was R. Gleason. of the New York Fire 
Zouaves, who was killed while hioking frou' the window. 
The guard is said to have remarked, as he leveled his mus- 
ket: " See me take that — Zouave in the eye I"' The 

ball entered his forehead and lie instantly fell — dead I Four 
others were seriously wounded in this manner, ;ind Charles 
\V. Tibbetts, of Co. " K," of our regiment, \\as instantly 
killed by a guard in a most cruel manner. The prisoners 
are permitted to visit in couples an out-house in the prison 
yard, and Tibbetts an3 companion were going thither inside 
the guard-line, when a sentinel on the opposite side of the 
street raised his piece and fired at them. The ball passed 
through the breast of Tibbett-^ and wounded his compan- 
ion in the arm. The indignation of the prisoners towards 
these skulking and cowardly assassins can fir.d no ade- 
quate expression. Yet as the bleeding forms of their mur- 
dered comrades are, one after another, borne from their 
presence to the " negro burying groimd," the\' feel that a 
day of retribution, however long deferred, will surely come. 
It is even said that the guards are promised promotion if 
they shoot a prisoner. 

No menagerie was ever regarded with more general inter- 
est and curiosity in a country village than are the Union 
prisoners in thejtobacco warehouses of Richmond. They 

:.' . - ,.0 .■ •■•..r-.X 

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To;-, fiin 

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harwood's todacco wareholse. 205 

arc the standard attractie.n of people of both sexes, all 
aL,res, and every variety of shade. On Sundays, more par- 
ticularly, the citizens turn out in squads, and from morn- 
ing till night the street is blockaded with eager spectators. 

X 1* 

Prison No. 1 is a lofty building, three stories in height, 
its interior dimensions being 70 feet in length by 26^ in 
width. The second and third .stories are^ occupied by 
private soldiers .caotured at Bull Run,, and the lower floor 
by the commissioned officers and a number of civilian- 
among whom is the Hop. Alfred EIv. It is the most 
crowded and rilthv prison of all; ihereare 1 ^o and often 
130 men on one floor. At ni-ln the prisoners stretch 
themselves upon the bare floor, uncovered : and at meal 
time they sit upon the floor, ranged against the walLs, and 
devour whatever tlievcan i^et. 

One cann'.t c nceivc a gloomy and revolting spec- 
tacle than a l-.^k mt<- tiie-,e hthy quarter... Imagine a 
hundred haggard faces and emaciated form.s-^some with 
hair and beard of three months" growth- so miserably 
clothed, in general, as to scarcely .ierve the purposes of 
decency, and many hmping from the pain of unhealed 
wounds, and some faint conception may be obtained of our 
wretched Condition. 

The •• stand, ird bill of fare,- u hich ha^ now been adopted, 
IS as follow.^ : About nine o'cl-K^k we receive our morning' 
ration of bread, beef and water, about half as much as a 

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well mail would n<Uuaill\- require. Our second and oiil>' 
other meal is received about 4 o'clock, and consists of bread, 
and soup made from the water in which the beef was 
boiled. The prisoners, sick or well, are compelled to accept 
it or go without. 

The question of •' exchange " is naturally uppermost in 
the mind of every prisoner, and is at intervals an untiring 
theme of discussion One has but to lisp the word and a 
crowd of his associates instantly gathers about hirn, can- 
vassing the subject with as much interest and energy as 
though it were newh' broached, and extracting fresh en- 
couragement from ever\' sage or emphatic prediction of a 
speedy release. 

It was our first impression that we would be detained but 
a few days ; that the Federal Government needed only 
to be apprised of our situation, and our numbers, to proffer 
the requisite exchange from the prisoners in its own cus- 
tody. This opinion at length yielded to the belief that 
another advance was contemplated, and that our destiny 
depended, in a great measure, upon the result of a second 
battle. A new apprehension here presented itself, for it 
Wcus openly threatened by the rebels that, in the event of 
their defeat at Manassas, the Union prisoners would be 
massacred by the confederate soldiers in Richmond. 

It must be borne in mind that the Richmond press was 
particularh- hostile to the prisoners, and recommended 
filling the navy yard at Pensacola with Union prisoners, 
arguing that our troops would then be compelled either to 
sacrifice our own men or to withhold an attack. 

Harrassed by such reports, we still remain in Richmond, 
and as the weary da}-s and weeks are added to our confine- 
ment, without affording the slightest prospect of release, 
many of the most hopeful become disheartened. The offi- 
cial indifference manifested at Washington towards us 
seems unaccountable. We cannot understand why the 
government is unwilling to exchange or e\en ameliorate 
the condition of men who have fought honorably in its de- 
fence, and are not only prisoners, but are known to be 


sufifering for want of food and clothing. Yet notwithstand^ 
ing these discouragements, at no time would our boys con- 
sent to receive their exchange at the sacrifice of a single 
principle involving the national honor. 

Notxvithstanding the inferior quality and quantit}- of our 
food, sometimes under the administration of Wirtz we go! 
nothing but bread and water. The escapes from the prison 
were numerous. About one hundred in all succeeded iiV 
getting away, but all except a very few were recaptured. 
Whenever an escape was d!sco\'ered, which was usually two 
or three days after the prisoner had gone, Wirtz would en- 
ter the prison in a towering passion and command the pris- 
oners to fall in- for roll-call. His jargon was excessively 
amusing, and whenever the prisoners affected to misunder- 
stand, he was thrown into a spasmodic rage. Some one" 
would usually respond for the fugitive, and Wirtz could sel- 
dom find out who it was that had escaped. He vnouUI then 
demand to know how they had made their escape, but the 
prisoners would refuse to answer an\- of his queries. " Tell, 
me," he would say, "or you shall never be so si^rr\- in }'our 
life. I shall keep you tree ta)-s on pred and wasser. " Oh, 
hoi" would shout a dozen \-oices. "Three cheers for 
Wirtz. He will feed us three da\s on bread and buttcil" 
" No, no I you tarn villians, I say pred and wasser — :,'(7SSi'?\ 
and not busser !" And he proved as good as his word. 

At one extremit}- of the prison, on the sccoml lloor. was a 
small room that had been used as an office, in which had 
been stored a quantity of tobacco, and a f)arrcl of sweetened 
rum, used in flavoring the same. Thetloor had been nailed 
up, but the boys, aided b\- a saw ni.ulc from a cast-knife, 
effected an entrance, and confiscated sufticient " Old \'ir- 
ginia Twist" to last for several months: and as to the 
sweetened rum. the boys were rapturous over this unex- 
pected disco\-er\-. .Sergeant Wirtz was not long in asci-r- 
taining that the." tarn Vaulsees," ,is he nu.uiaMy called iis. 
were in uiuisual ".s'/'/r/Av," and because he could nc^t find 
out how the boys obtained their " fire-water," he Hew into a 
paroxysm of rage, and delennined to punish the uImIc 


crowd, and the sentence was. as before. " Three days on 
bread and water.'" 

The " Poet " of Prison No. 2 could not resist the impulse 
to immortalize our Prison Bill of Fare, and his efforts 
resulted in the following production : 

First, at the sink, liavinpc performed ablution. 

This problem, " Wkafs for bn-ahfast r needs solution; 

Like others not in Euclid, oft 'tis found 

To ta\ researches that are most profound. 

At length 'tis solved, when, on his sapient head, 

A colored "geniman" brings a loaf of bread,— 

Not common loaves, as in the shop you'll tiiul. 

Such large affairs mus( suit the vulgar mind. 

Our friends take care our better tastes to meet. 

So send us loaves that are unique and neat : 

Our lonoring eyes upon the hatch ue tix. 

Then quickly eat our rations — ounces six ; 

So justly are our appetites defined. 

These loaves are not the largest of their kind ; 

To season them withal, our friends allow 

Three ounces of some lately Dutchered cow,— 

How long ago we say not, t)ut the smell 

Would indicate it rather hard to tell : 

The doubt, however, is not worth discussing. 

Such things create unnecessary fussing; 

Besides, it would be wronu to heed such stuff,— 

Rub it with salt, it then goes well enough. 

Thus, you perceive, all works have been at fault. 

To doubt the potency of Richmond salt , 

It sweetens and removes a doubtful flavor. 

We once, indeed, had coffee, Init we f;'ar 

Our friends have found the article too dear ; 

So now, we eat our sumptuous breakfast (lr\- ; 

For, even they userolfee made from rye. 

Some time we Yankees n)ay the secret steal. 

And make pure Java from bad Imlian meal ; 

At all their little failings we niiisr \viak. 

And so f^/ ///'////w, foul watir il rlii k. 

Such is our mornini.'- meal : now, " what's for dinner'" 

Asks some insatiate, half-siarv(d siuuei, 

As if the bounty of our Christian fri.nds 

Was not eimuudi to answ. r iiatun-s cuds. 

The fellow craves, till \>\n\ Imi nnmbi'i two 

Calls the att.'ution of :i Iniiiirrv enw. 



Like Cabinet ministers, un home protection. 

With hands, at lenulh, fheii paH'S ihry sci.itrh 



As if their brains a dinner there could hatch ; 

'T would seem thev had, with one consent, resolved 

To scratch until the problt-m had been solved. 

Others, again, beguile tht- weary hours 

With quiet game of cribbage, or all fours ; — 

Wrapt in a cloud of smoke from morn till noon, 

They don't expect a dinner from the moon. 

The sick lie on the tloor, as mute as mice, — 

Poor devils I thankful for a little rice ; 

While lame and lazy, seeming ill at ease, . • 

Are laying plans their hunger to appease. 

Some fellows who are lucky, having money — 

Though Yankees think the medium rather funnv — 

With bogus bills, of small denominations. , 

Contrive to add a little to their rations ; 

And eat at noon, without a guilty blush, 

A pint of Indian meal, made into mush ; 

Another brings to view his precious store, — 

A bone, that he had picked too well before ; 

This — (our pants inform us we arc thinner) — 

Makes the sum total of our prison dinner. 

I now shall place in order proper. 

The dainty items of our prison supper: 

At five o'clock, and sometimes half-past five, 

A humming sound is heard throughout the hive ; 

The boarders think their supper rather late, 

And beat the devil's tattoo upon each plate ; ■ ■ ■ 

Some get impatient, and the rest they choke, 

In stifling clouds of vile tobacco smoke ; 

For, be it known, a hogshead found up-stairs, : 

Affords the boys a chance to " put on airs," 

So those to whom the habit is (juite new. 

Can smoke a pipe, or take a luscious chew. '" ;■ r'y . 

But as the boarders throng around the door. 

Our colored "gemman " enters as before ; 

With graceful dignity his load removes. 

While some thin wretch his tardiness reproves. 

Meanwhile another of the sable rare. 

Whose comic grin c'ersjireads his ebon fare, 

Upon his neighbor's heels hail followed close. 

And in his hands a curious looking dose- : 

But something floating meets the boarders' v i(,-u-,— 

It must be — yes, it is an Irish stew. 

Just then the eyes of hungry sinners i;1imiu, 

Extended nostrils scent the fragrant stL-.m : 

The grinning darkey on his fingers blows, — 

His scalded hands to impatient boarder-^ shows. 

Then leaves his sienniinu biuket on tiic iliuir. 


And, with another grin, he shuts the door. 

Now. anxious to inspect the savorv mess, 

The hungry boarders round the bucket press ; 

But, short and tall, their open mouths tiiey droop,— 

Their Irish stew is re.irulation soup. 

Their happiness is chauired to speechless <rrief. 

The water, this, in which they boiled their beef ; .i 

Some friendly hand, to make it somewhat thicker. 

Had dropped a cracker in the tasteless liquor : 

Of this each boarder shares a standard trill ; 

It's quite enough, and warranted to kill. 

To test its strength on us is their intention,— 

All the ingredients I dare not mention. 

We crumble in our ounces, six, of bread, ' ■ 

Swallow the physic, and then go to bed. >; ' '. , ,: 

This, be it known, is on hard boards. 

The best the prison discipline artbrds. . " 

Shades of the epicures of ancient Rome. 

Whose deeds are writ m many an ancient tome : 

Ye mighty men, whose gastronomic feats 

Were sung in ballads, in Rome's ancient streets ; ■.. 

Whose wondrous deeds bv Pliitn ha\e been noted, 

And crests by modern epicures lieen (juoted. 

Hold fast your laurels, for in Richmond prison. 

E'en at this day, your rivals have arisen. 

Who, though they cannot boast a second course, 

Have called from morn until their throats were iioarse ; 

Insatiate men, whose inwards nought can fill. 

Not even tubs of stutl" railed wholesome swill ; 

Who crammed their stomachs with suspicious beef. 

Would taint the tinueis of a star\iiii; thiet, 

Whose hungry eyes, most startin- from tlieir sockets. 

Proclaiming they are starving men, witii emptv jjockets. 

Who eat with gusto the Oonfederate swill. 

That would a famished iackal surely kill ; 

.\ssembled 'round Secession's rtlthv tub. 

Hyena-like, their eyes (hn.nir their grub ; 

Sin can tliev have it in iheir hands too soon. 

Hut bolt it, dog-like, without fotk or spoon,— 

Then, with a rau, inousi uhes must they wipe. 

Such rare perfection, in thu nn stic art, 

Migli! cause tiie souls ol ri- men to st.irt. 

The famous sojer may safelv bood it, 

That he and all his nibe h.ivc i;ot to li.iod it, 

.\nd open sliops wlurc scicmc is unkiiowu. 

In some [)lare bordeiing on tlu frigid /.one, 

.\u.l tfll th.- epicur.-, he m.iv luid theic 

His fame lost bv this, our Hii :. n\- rvui; ' 


September 20th. — Our fears about being sent further 
south are to be realized, and a squad of 250 are to start for 
New Orleans to-morrow, to be followed in a day or two 
by 250 more. It is sad to think of being sent so far away 
from home, more than fifteen hundred miles, and no pros- 
pect of being released. The papers say they are to send 
us south so the fevers will kill us off more rapidly. 

September 2 1st. — Orders were, to be ready to start at 
3 o'clock this morning, and many of the men did not lie 
down at all, but sat up, sang songs, cheered for the Stars 
and Stripes, and made night ring. One would have thought 
we were the happiest lot of men that ever were together. 
The other prisoners hearing our shouts, took them up, and 
did all they could to disturb the rebel city. The officers 
threatened to fire on us, but could not make us keep still. 
We did not go, however, till 4 o'clock in the afternoon. 
One of the men was shot dead by the guard, while standing 
near the window. This makes the fifth man that has been 
killed by the sentries firing into the window. Before leav- 
ing I was allowed to go over to the hospital and bid good- 
bye to the men for whom I had cared so long. I passed 
from cot to cot, and received a kind farewell from all 

Harry Stewart, one of our men, had li\ed in Richmond, 
and left the city only a month before the battle. He has a 
sweetheart here by the name of Sarah Sowards. When we 
first came here, she was allowed to visit the prison and 
bring food and presents to Harry: but after a little time 
the officers would not allow this, and she had to content 
herself by walking past the prison every day, hoping to get 
a look at her friend through the grated window. To-day, 
having heard that we were to leave Richmond, she came 
down early in the morning, accompanied by a lady friend. 
to watch if perchance she might get a {parting word with 
Harry. I'ut H.irry was sick. The fever had attacked him. 
and he lay in a half stupor on the i1.->or. His comraiies 
raised him so that he could look out of the window. N„ 
word or sign could pass Ijctwcen them, as the officers were 



three days rat.ons of bread and bacon. A st™„g guard 
wa. dra«-n up on each .de of ,|,e ..rcet. to kc'n „. 
and escort us to the depot. \\e bade adieu to com ad 
who uere left beh.nd. and there uas n,anv a sad pTr't 
VVe left them messages to be taken ,„ our hon^. 
fr-ends. as ,t was e.xpected that those uho remained wot" d 
oonb ...hanged. .My friend IVowbridge was not to ^ 

he felt to° '"'T ": "" ""' ^"°""' "°' ''^ P-'-i- b"t 

he felt too weak to undertake the journev. .He thought he 

would soon go home, and promised to tell my friends'about 
me. And .so we parted, never to meet on earth ac^ain in 
two weeks after I left him. he starved to death. 

And now we are in the street and breathe fresh air o„ce 
more. From the windows of all the other prisons we e 
waved many a friendly salute and warn, good bve Bv a 
preconcerted plan, when the order can,e to march, ine 
cned. Three cheers for the Stars an<I Stripes," and al- 
though the guards charged bayonets and threatened to 
shoot, treeeart,er cheers never went up for the dear o d 
flag. Then the other prisons took it up. and cheer upon 
cheer from those brave hearts followed u, as we marched 
hrough the streets of th.u doon,ed cty. We soon reac ed 
he depot and went on board the car.. Harrv's friend h. d 
ollowed us, and stood near the cars, weep,ng bitterlv but 
the guard, w,th his bayonet before her, wouW not le 1 
speak nor come near. Many of the people who were stand 

her pass, I he cars started. She se,.e,l hold of the mus. 
ket, threw ,t asuie. rushed by the guard and se.zed her 
OS hand and s.aid good-bye. fi.ory was sick throu.d 
.'il the journey, but recovered and returned home Sar^h 
was unpnsoned by her ou n people as a Union svmpath Ur 
and suffered untold hardsliips through the war. ' 

H"t to go on with our Jourue^■. We rule on open pl.-.t- 
form cars and reach IVtersburg. the tlnrd station f. , 
K,chmond. i he country so far ,s very poor, the so,l bein 
sandy h,,,n,. i-ore-ts of yello„. pi„, ,,,, ,,,,„, ^„ „,^,- ' ^ 

.•iJOV .7 .V. 

1 <.j i-i.l 





<J vt 





''. .1 v.- !• 


Corn is the chief crop, and it is poor indeed. We changed 
cars at Petersburg, and now ride in passenger cars with 
plank seats. One of our men— John Stout, of Co. '" C " — 
while passing through the cars (it being dark) fell and broke 
his thigh. We took him out, and he was sent to the hospi- 
tal, but none of his comrades were allowed to remain with 
him. He recovered, and returned home before we did. 

Sunday, September 22d. — It has rained hard all night. 
As we approach Goldsboro, N. C, the crops look better 
than in the vicinity ot Petersburgh. We pass fields of cot- 
ton, sweet potatoes, and immense forests of yellow pine, 
which extend clear on to Wilmington, N. C, where we 
arrive about 5 o'clock. This is a pleasant city. A great 
number of people are out to see us, and deride us at a great 
rate. Here we left the cars, and crossed the Cape Fear river 
by ferry. Some of the boys proposed that we overpower 
the guards, seize the boat and run down the river to the 
blockade fleet, but there was so little time that the plan could 
not be perfected, and the rebel officers, suspecting the plot, 
strengthened the guard and made every plan to frustrate us. 

September 23d. — We pass on through a country with 
splendid scenery all the way to Sumter. S. C. where an im- 
mense number of people had gathered to seethe "A'ankees." 
At Kingsville we remained three hours, to cook bacon. 
Our food is bread and bacon. We reached Orangeburgh 
about sunset. This is a beautiful village and there is a 
large female seminary h^cated here. Many of the pupils, 
" pretty secesh girls," came down to see us. 

We reached Augusta. Ga., about 2 o'clock in the morn- 
ing. Here. e\'en at this unseasonable hour, we found a 
very large number of citizens assembled to see us. They 
hooted and yelled at us all the time, like so many fiends, 
but we were not allowed to retaliate with a word. hVom 
here we pass on to Atlanta, and on to .Montj^omer)'. Ala., 
and are now in the very heart of the Confederacy. Mont- 
gomery was tlic Confederate capital until the day before 
the battle of Hull Run. when it was moved to Richmond. 
Here we were treated more civilly b)- the peo[)lc. and there 


were not so many out to see us as in some of the smaller 
places through which we passed. 

. September 26th. — Breakfasted on hard bread and bacon, 
about 8 o'clock, when we went on board a steamer and 
started down the Alabama river, for Mobile. The ride 
is not very pleasant, as we are kept on the lower deck, 
and the banks of the river are so high that we cannot look 
out upon the country. We do not like sailing under the 
rebel flag ; but when we remember that the bunting from 
which it was made was stolen from us, and is good Union 
stuff, it is not so bad. 

September 27th. — I have not slept well during the night. 
The engines made a noise like thunder, and I had to lie 
close beside one. No sleep would come to my eyes, so I 
do not feel well this morning. We breakfasted on a small 
piece of corn cake and bacon. We do not get half enough 
to eat. 

At daylight, the 28th, we arrived in Mobile bay, and as 
we sailed down to the city we were favored with a gorgeous 
sunrise on the waters, which for a time took awa\- all 
thought of our forlorn condition. 

We were escorted through the city to the Jackson depot 
by two companies of home guards, in new uniforms, the 
finest dressed soldiers that we have seen at the South. We 
were put on board of box cars with plank seats, and arrived 
at Jackson, Miss., at i P. M., Sunday, the 29th. having luul 
nothing to eat since we left Mobile, 24 hours before. |ack- 
.son is a most beautiful city, built upon a sloping hill. The 
streets are wide, paved, and lined with a great many shade 
trees. The public buildings, on a hill to the right, are verv 
fme. The people turned out 01 masse, the churches closed, 
and all made a rush to see the " \'ankees." They were 
surprised to find that we looked like their own men. sup- 
posing that a " Yankee " was some kind of an animal. Wc 
liad a great de-al of sport chafing them. pla\in'>- upon 
their crediilit\- and turning jokes upon the guard that was 
with us, who. like ourselves, were jaded with their nine 
thus" ride. A gooti dinner was served to the guard b)- the 

WHAT DID V(ir t(mE DOWS UFA<E FOR." 21 5 

citizens, and the remnants of this dinner were given to the 
prisoners. I was liard sick and not able to eat an)-tliing. 

Soon after dark we left Jackson, and arrived in New 
Orleans in, the forenoon of the following day. Here we 
found a larger crowd than at any previous place, but the 
troops were not ready, and the officers in charge fearing 
that the mob would ill treat us, ordered the train to back 
out of the city several miles. About noon the train ran in 
again, and found them ready for us. The soldiers had driven 
the crowd back from the depot, and were drawn up in open 
ranks to receive us, making a fine display. All who wore 
able to walk were ordered out of the cars into the line, and, 
escorted by this large body of soldiers, were marched nearly 
all over the city. Everywhere there was an immense crowd 
of people. The housetops were covered, the windows and 
every available spot were thronged with curious gazers, all 
anxious to get a sight of the prisoners. The most of them 
looked on in silence, but many hooted and derided us 
shamefully. When we reached the city, I was ver>' sick 
too weak to stand, and was lying on the floor of the car 
That fiend, VVirtz, in whose charge we are traveling, came 
through the car after the others were out, and finding me 
still there, gave me a kick and told me to crawl out, which 
I did, and sank down helpless on the platform. Two other 
sick comrades were found, and we wei-e put in charge of a 
policeman. While we lay here, nearer dead than alive, a 
crowd of unfeeling men and boys gathered around us and 
commenced the same tune that we have heard at e\ery 
place through which we have passed : " What did you come 
down here for ? Think you can subjugate us? Come 
down here to destroy our homes and firesides ? You miser- 
able Yanks, you ought to die." Such was our welcome to 
New Orleans. The police soon drove off the crowds, and 
told them ihey were cowards for iu'^ulling unarmed j)ris- 
oners. After a little, the sick were put on a two- 
wheel tira_\- or "tluat," witliout spriuL^s, and, tlrawn 
by a coui)le of nuiles, we started on to bring up the 
rear of the column, loo sick to hold our heads uf) from 


>fi. •viirr. 


the platform, \vc were jolted for hours over the pavement. 
Occasionally there was a friendly face mid all that vast 
throng which was following us, and once, when the line 
halted, a man came near and asked if I was a prisoner. I 
told him I was, and he threw me a half dollar in silver, and 
another for the comrade who was with me. Soon after 
this, as we halted again, a young lady came near and in a 
kindly manner asked about our condition, and where we 
were from. She brought something for us to eat, and sev- 
eral times, as the line halted, brought us a refreshing drink 
of water, and kept near us through all the long march. 

We did not know our destination, but at last the line 
halted in front of Parish Prison, with its frowning, gra\' 
walls and grated windows. The sight sent a shudder 
through our weak frames. Surely, we thought, we are not 
to be incarcerated here, like thieves and murderers. But it 
was so. The men were thrust into the dirty cells and locked 
in ; prisoners of war in felons" cells. I was taken to the 
hospital, on the second floor, where 1 remained for se\-eral 
weeks, suffering from a severe attack of typhoid fever. In 
the hospital we had cots and moss mattresses to lie upon, 
but we received very little attention from the nurses, who 
were civil prisoners. After coming into the prison. I was 
left for two weeks before my hands or face were washed, or 
my clothes taken off, or once lifted from the bed. About 
this time one of my comrades, George Dunn, of Co. " C."' 
was allowed to come in and see me. He was kind enough 
to take my clothes to the yard and have them washed. 
and afterwards gave me a sponge bath. I'rom this time, I 
began to improve, and after seven weeks was able to leave 
the hospital. The doctor came in every morning, but hav- 
ing but little medicine, he could do us no good. .Morning- 
after morning, as he would pass my cot, I would hear him 
remark to the nurse, " l>n't he dead, }X't?". 

Gen. Paifre)- was in command at New Orleans, and often 
came in to see the prisoners, and many ot the citizens were 
allowed to \isit the hos})ital and prison. A feu Cliri>tian 
men often came in and brought us instructive books to 

j-.uii h> 


\1! , ll" i' 

- tirJi 

Exrtuinu uv Parish Prison, New Orleans, La. 


- • - - -1 — - . ^ "! 1 





Interior of PARi>ii Prison. 



read, and .allowed their kiiulncss in many ways. AnuuiL,^ 
those most attenti\e were A. D. Donovan, Rev. G. L. Moore, 
and — Bartlett : and our doctors. C. Beard. \V. L. Lips- 
comb, and — Smith, were as kind as they were allowed 
to be. 

October 31st. — I left the hospital and joined my com- 
rades in the prison proper. The prison is built in the form 
of a hollow square — a brick wall thirty feet high, on one 
side, and on the other the cells in three tiers, one above 
the other, and a balcon\- in front of each. Most of the 
cells are 10x12 feet, and sixteen men are confined in each 
cell. Our cell is 12x20, and twenty-four men in it. There 
is no light, and only a small hole less than a foot, in 
the middle of the door, for ventilation, and this space is 
covered with iron bars, as is also a small crescent-shaped 
opening near the top of the cell, conmiunicating with a cell 
in the other division of the prison. 

The men are kept locked in these cells from 4 o'clock in 
the afternoon till eight next morning. It is very warm, and 
the air is almost stifling. During the day, the doors are 
opened, and a part of the men at a time are allowed to 
take exercise in the yard, which is 90x40 feet. We have 
few blankets, and only the bare floor to sleep upon. Each 
man when lying down occupies a tloor space ot less than 
si.xteen inches wide. So we have to lie spoon-fashion, and 
if one wants to turn over, the word is given, *' Spoon I" 
and all must turn o\cr together. In one corner of the yard 
is a large square tank, in which the men are^alloued to 
bathe. In the opposite corner i> the cook-house, containing 
two large iron kettles, in which all the cooking is done. Water 
from the Mississippi river is u>ed for cooking and drinking, 
and is alway^> \ery roilly. ()ur food consists ot bread, 
fresh meat, and a kind oi tea made from the wild youpong. 
a i>lant that grows along the c<»a>t of the Gulf States. In 
the monn'ng we receiv'e a .-.mall \<>a\ i>f bread, weigh- 
ing about eight ounces, and ,1 [»int of the >oup')iig tea, 
witlu.ut >ugar. l-"resh meat, the rcfu>e from the cit>- mar- 
kets, is brought in about 8 o'clock, and taken to the cook- 

ir y, :(<l-, (I 


house b>- ci man detailed from each cell. Here it is boiled 
in the ri\er water unthoiit any salt. After the meat is cooked, 
a httle rice is put into the pot licjuor, and this is issued 
to us as soup. A pint of this soup with a small bit of the 
meat, makes our dinner. We had no supper during the 
four months we were in New Orleans, and no change in this 
diet, except at one time thirteen barrels of molasses were 
sent in by a man who was said to be the largest slave- 
holder in the state. At another time, a few Irish potatoes 
and some cabbage were issued to the men, to be eaten raw, 
and also a lot of wild sour oranges, as a cure for the scurvy, 
from which many of the men were suffering. 

There were various forms in which scurvy manifested 
itself. The most common was a soreness of the mouth and 
gums. The teeth would all become loose, and often drop 
out ; no solid food could be eaten. In another form, the 
hmbs of the patient would swell to an immoderate size and 
turn black. Still others wcnild break out in sores and erup- 
tions over the budy. The standard remedy, when it could 
be had, was raw potatoes or cabbage, with a little vinegar, 
or a supply of wild oranges, which are about three degrees 
sourer than a lemon. 

A large number o{ the men busy themselves making 
rings, little books, watch charms and trinkets from the 
pieces of bones found in the beef; and when we cannot get 
hones enough, the guards sometimes bring them to the 
door and sell them to the men. Many of these trinkets 
are nicely carved and inkaid u ith colored sealing-wax, and 
are readily sold to the (Officers and visitors who come in to 
see the prisoners. In this way many of the boys are able 
to buy extra rations for themselves and do not suffer so 
much from hunger. 

Xinember 9th. — U'e hear a rumor to-day that our forces 
have captured WnX. Royal, near Savannah. Our confine- 
ment is getting almost intolerable. Maiiy of the men think 
tlic\' cannot -tand it much longer. \\c \>xax that dud will 
keep disease from our midst, and that He will give us 
strength until the appointed time. One of the bovs, George 

d r'jf.i •>«!.' 


T. Childs, from Boston, has received several letters from 
home to-day, and a trunk containing clothing. 

Sunday, November loth. — The weather continues very 
warm. We had preaching this morning by an Episcopal 
minister. His text was from Luke xviii: 13. It was not a 
very interesting sermon. He angered the boys very much 
by praying for Jefferson Davis, President of the C. S. A. 
Most of the boys would not listen to him, and made a 
great deal of noise, so that he did not stay long. After- 
wards he apologized and said he was obliged by the rules 
of "The Church," to always remember their President in 
his prayer. But the boys " could not see it." Mr. Dono- 
van came in with more reading matter. There is a ru- 
mor, that there is to be an exchange of prisoners soon, 
but we dare not believe it. They probably say it to keep 
up our spirits. It causes a great deal of talk, and each 
asks the other if it can be so. Oh ! such a longing to be 
free ; no one not a prisoner can imagine it. We held a 
Bible-class in our cell at 3 o'clock. It was attended by 
twenty or more, and was very interesting. The lesson was 
from John iii. One of the men, a minister by the name of 
Alexander Parker, 7th Ohio, takes charge of the class. 

November iith. — From some of the papers that are 
smuggled in once in a while, we learn that provisions are 
very high in the city. Pork is not to be had. Salt beef is 
$32 per barrel; flour, Sio to $15; corn meal, $1.50 per 
bushel ; candles, 90 cts. per pound. Molasses and rice are 
the only things that are cheap. 

November 12th. — It is reported in the papers to-day, that 
our government, having sentenced the crew of the privateer 
Savannah to be hung, the rebels have selected fourteen of 
our officers, by lot, and confined them in a dungeon at 
Charleston, and threaten to retaliate by executing them, in 
case the above sentence is carried into effect. 

The following is from the diary of Cor[). Merrill, who 
was in Richmond at the time : 

"On the lOth of November, General Winder entered the 
prison, called the commissioned officers together, and read 
the following order, as addressed to himself: jr.ii.'l <\- 

II . .rlJ 


((;-■ UinJ/: .. 


C. S. A. War Depaktmkm. / 
Richmond, Nov., iS6i. \ 

SiK; — You art- licrchy iiistrucud to clioosc by lot, from amoa<r the 
prisoners of war of Iiighcst rank, one who is to be confined in a cell ap- 
propriated to convicted felons, and who is to be treated in all respects as 
if such convict, and to be held for execution in the same manner as may 
be adopted by tlie enemy for the execution of the prisoner of war Smith, 
recently condemned to death, in Philadelphia. 

You will also select thirteen other prisoners of war, the highest in rank 
of those captured by our forces, to be confined in cells reserved for pris- 
oners accused of infamous crimes, and shall treat them as such so long as 
the enemy shall continue to treat the like nutnber of prisoners of war cap- 
tured by them, in New York, as pirates. As these measures are intended 
to repress the infamous attempt now made by the enemv to cuniniit judi- 
cial murder on the prisoners of war, you will execute them stricth , a.> 
the best mode calculated to prevent the commission of so heinous a crime. 
Your obedient servant, 
r,, J. P. BENJAMIN, 

Acting Secretary of War. 
To Btv^adicr-Gcueml John Winder, Richmond I 'a. 

The reading of thi.s ofdcr was listened to in silence, but 
with deep sensation. At its conclusion, Gen. Winder re- 
marked that he regretted \ery much the unpleasant duty 
devolving upon him, but lie had no option in the matter. 
The names of six colonels were placed in a can. and Mr. 
Ely was required— much to his own reluctance— to draw 
from them. 

The first name drawn was that of Col. Corcoran. Txjth 
Regiment X. V. .S. M.. who was the hostage chosen to an- 
swer for Smith. Mr. Ely was ver\' much affected when the 
name of his friend and messmate was drawn by hi^ own 

In choosing thirteen from the highest rank, to be held to 
answer for a like number of i;risoner> of war, captured by 
the enemy at sea, there being on!_\- ten field officers, it was 
necessary to draw by lot three captains. 

During the drawing, the most profound silence prexailed. 

rit. •• 

rrv.-n /-(fi ■/<' i; bri'.i'T 


and great anxiety was exhibited on the part of the officers 
v/hose names were in the can. 

When completed, the Hst stood : Cols. Corcoran, Lee, 
Coggswell, Wilcox, Woodruff and Wood ; Lieutenant-Cols. 
Mowman and Xeff; Majors Petter, Revere and Vodges ; 
Capts. Rockwood, Bowman and Kaffer." 

November 20th.— One of the nurses having been dis- 
charged, I was asked to take his place in the hospital, and 
am now caring for the sick. There are four of us connected 
with the hospital : The Steward, W. BIydenburgh, of the 
14th Brooklyn ; A. F. Rowland, Clerk ; John Paxson, Cook. 
The doctors have entire charge of the hospital, and feed 
us better than the contractor feeds the men in the yard. 
There are now twelve sick in the hospital. 

I remained at this work the balance of the time that we 
stayed in New Orleans, and it fell to my lot to care for every 
man who died while we were in Parish Prison, and to com- 
fort them as much as possible in their last hours. It is a 
remarkable fact that, although many of the men had the 
fever, only nine died out of the five hundred who were sent 
here— as the papers said— to be killed off by the fever. 

The bodies of our dead comrades were never buried, but 
were carried out into the swamps, a prey for the buzzards 
and hyenas. 

December 12th.— The same routine of daily duties con- 
tmues. Time is passing rapidly. The winter is now upon 
us, with no prospect of our release : and unless our Congress 
does something to settle the question of exchange, we must 
expect to remain here a long time. It will seem like in- 
gratitude if they neglect to help us. I have read President 
Lincoln s message to-da}-. from one of the rebel papers. 
He does not mention the case of the prisoners, and seems 
regardless of our sufferings. To-day nine prisoners cap- 
tured from the blockading fleet were brought to the city 
and confined in the jiri-on with us. 

December Jsth, Chrisimas l)a>-. 1S61.— The weather is 
f^ne, and tiie boys, thinking that the day for their release is 
not far distant, arc feeling pretty well. They have or^ran- 

My first Letter FRo\t HOMEi 2:^;^ 

ized into companies, and to-day had a masquerade drill and 
march in the yard, which made a great deal of sport. After 
this we had a good time singing patriotic songs, cheering 
for the Flag and tiie Union, and made the old prison ring. 
It brought comfort to five hundred loyal hearts. Those of 
us in the hospital managed to get some red, ^\■hite and blue 
cloth from the female prisoners in the other department of 
the prison, and made a little flag, about two feet long. To- 
day I took it out into the long hall, and when the officers 
were not about, I wavctl it from a window o\'crlooking the 
yard. Such a shout as went up when the boys saw it, was 
never heard before in this city. The noise attracted so great a 
crowd about the prison that the oflicers came in, and tried to 
stop us. Then the\' locked us all up, but the boys kept up 
the singing until late into the night. So, after all, we had 
a " Merry Christmas."" 

We are not guarded by soldiers here, but are under the 
civil authorities, and the turnkeys are all ci\ il pris(Miers, 
whom the officers send in to lock us up. These men come 
into the yard jingling a bunch of ponderous ke}-s, ami 
shout : " Get to your holes, you Yankee s !"" 

Every Sunday we hold a Bible-class in one of the cells, 
and for some time a daily prayer-meeting has been hekl. 

December 27th. — C^ur prayer-meeting this afterntx^n was 
the most interesting that we have held, and was attended 
by about forty, all crowded into a single cell. One sick 
man was made a special subject of prayer. Another man 
expressed his determination to be a Christian. I'here was 
much feeling, and although in these [)eculiar ciicunistances, 
we were happy. 

December 28th. — Oh ! happy am I. I have received a 
letter from m\- father to-day- the first time I ha\ e heard 
from home since I was captured. My friends li.ue heard 
where I am, and all are well ; but tlie letter l)iiii!;s the ^ad 
news (^f the death of m_\- conirade. Charley I'row l)iiilge. in 

December 30th. — The Angel of Death hasag.iin come to 
us antl taken another comrade. I)\- tile name of Wing, lie 


.5 !'.;■'' •' : Ui'.tU 


died at three this morning, after an iUness of nine weeks. 
He was a nurse in the hospital when I was sick, and httlc 
did he tiiink he would go first. He had as good care as 1 
could gi\e him. and I think he died hap{)y. He was very 
wicked and profane during the first part of his sickness, but 
I have talked with him about dying, he has been prayed 
for in the meetings, God seemed to ha\e called him, and he 
is happy. He said he was willing to give up this world for 
a home above. 

Januan,- 1st, 1862.- — Another man, by the name of Beard, 
from the 7th Ohio, died last night. He had been sick 
about a week, with typhoid le\ er. He had a hemorrhage 
of the bowels about 8 o'clock, and died about I I. He did 
not know of his condition till I told him he could not li\-e 
till morning. Not being a Christian, he desired me to pra\- 
with him. which I did. and taught him to pray for himsel f 
He repented and implored forgi\eness of his Saviour, and 
told me that he thought his prayer was heard and that he 
would be happy in heaven. It was a solemn Xew Year 
night to us. and one long to be remembered. 

The boys are rejoicing greatly, having heard that the 
government has agreed to an exchange of prisoners. There 
is now some hope that \\e shall be released. We all ha\'e 
"exchange on the brain." 

January 4th. — M}- hirthda\- : twenty years old to-dav. 
We are not allowed the city pa[)ers. and can only get theni 
by stealing them out of tlu- puckets of the otficers or the 
doctors, or sometimes from the convicts on the other side 
of the prison. To-day -^'>mc ot the officers suspecting that 
the men in cell No. 4 liad got a paper, searched all the 
men in the cell. l lu>- touud no paper, but ditl fintl a diar\- 
belonging to one of the men. Tiiis man was taken out and 
put in irons, locked in the dun-eon. .md i<jd on l)read .md 
water for man\- d.iy-^. 

'i'he shackle- wliicii tlu\ -om. times put on the men. 
for [iunishment. wei-h ojie luimheil .md thirt\- iiounds, and 
consist ot two iron cle\ies. w hich encircle the ankle; then 
an iriui bar i- put thr. mi;;1i t he r\ r- of t he cle\ies, antl ke\ed 

i? -fr..-!! 

(i •.uiT 


in by a bolt, which is headed down with a heavy sledge 
hammer. These cannot be removed except b\' cutting the 
ke\' with a cold chisel. We were then told that thc\' would 
search every cell, and take away every diary they found: 
So I have to hide mine in a rat hole in the floor, and at 
night I take it out and write in it. 

January 15th. — To-day \\e have each recei\'ed a new suit 
of clothes from our government — a hat, coat, blouse, pants, 
shirt, two pairs drawers, shoes, stockings, -and o\ercoat. 
So we are comfortably clothed once more. Many of the 
men were almost naked, and all of us were without under- 
clothing. We are feeling \ery happy to-da\ . My health 
is good. Eleven in hospital. 

January 28th. — The Massachusetts men have each re- 
ceived two dollars, which was sent to them by friends at 

February 5th. — To-day the commanding ofificer. General 
Palfrey, came in and told us that we should leave to-morrow 
for the North. Many of the boys are very jubilant at the 
prospect of going home, but some of us dare not believe it. 
for our enemies are very treacherous. A brighter dav must 
dawn some time. None of the men have ever tried to tun- 
nel out or make their escape from this prison, as the\- often 
did in Richmond, for we are so far from the Union lines, it 
would be a hopeless task to attempt to reach them. 

February 6th. — We left Parish Prison, the whole five 
hundred, at 2 o'clock, having been told that we were going 
to North Carolina to be exchanged. We were marched to 
the depot through the same street by which we came to the 
{:)i-ison. It was a very hot and sultr\- daw and the niaich 
to the station almost o\ercame the men. So w c bid g(U)d-bv 
to New Orleans, glad to get out of that miserable priscMi, 
where we leave no pleasant associations. 

We started in passenger cars, and ukuIo tlie jounieN- o\er 
about the same route by w liiv h we came soiitli ; but will 
not weary the readc-r with the details ,){ tin- trip. We 
reached (^ur deslir.ation. w liich proved to l)e Salisbur\-. N.L".. 
at 2 o'clock A. M. of Fei)niary 14th, one of the darkest am! 

. Ti ,il .;i ;((; «> 


.!\lu./' 'iiii V.I 

!J.> /u.induH 



stormiest nights I ever sn 

\\'e were ordered out of 

he cars, and „,a,ch,„. through a hnoof bavonets, bnH,..|u 
up .n some bu.l.i,,,. an.l wcv l.f, i„ ,hc- .laVk to .rope o 
way about the- ,„om. W, soon iay d„„n, for^ I V . 
weaned by our long ride of „„,e days. We auoke- in ,^ 
morn,,,, to find ourselves n, another st,-„„; pZ, 'V l" 
d,d not look much like goiuK honte. and it ^els to be 1 e 
darkest day o our in,prison,neut, for «e can nol ': 
Signs of our release. 



E^-i4. i4 




O.N,.K„KKATK Mn.nAKV i'K,s, ,.N. SA,,,s,a;uV, N 
'■I'l Old L\,lUm Factory., 



rough board bunks. nU-our,u:sn,:;r;:.^^^^^'^ 
The«in,l,nvs luve s.ron,- u'on b .r- " '"^ '"■■'r'"-"- 

-I, a„dg,.,ssh..e,..e;^vn,o.:::r::/;:™J™'''- 

was quite -.hhI. on^isti 

--"- southern ,,,aei:i:; ;::;;::;:-, :::.-:-;;- 


the rations were very short, and instead of fresh meat, we 
were fed on bacon and salt junk. This was meat that had 
been cured from the carcasses of horses and mules which 
had been condemned in the service. We would never ha\'e 
complained had we been given even enough of this. 

Our prison is surrounded by a grove of fine trees. The 
guard line is in the shade of these trees, and our Richmond 
experience of being fired at through the windows, was re- 
peated here. I have seen the commanding officer, Lieut. 
Hradford, son of the Union Governor of Maryland, take a 
musket and go creeping around among the trees, trying to 
get a shot at some unsuspecting Yankee who might venture 
too near the window. 

One night, after the men were all asleep, the guard at 
the door of the third floor, without any warning, opened 
the door and fired his piece into the room. The charge 
(three buckshot and a ball), seriously wounded three men. 

Our drinking water is all supplied from a single well, 
near the door. We never get enough to wash or bathe in. 

Our time is passed in playing games, chess, cards, etc., or 
in reading our old letters, and telling stories that we have 
told more than a hundred times before, but always find at- 
tentive listeners. We have a dramatic association, which 
gives very creditable entertainments. Sometimes the offi- 
cers furnish lights and come in to witness the play. A 
stage was erected near the front door, and curtains were 
made of calico, which the rebel officers brought in. At 
one of these entertainments, an actor was costumed as a 
woman. How the dress was smuggled in, none of us ever 
knew. The make-up of the actor was so perfect that the 
officers were completely deceived, and when they saw the 
supposed woman come on the stage, they stopped the 
play, drew their swords, and demanded to know hoiv that 
woman came there. This was soon e.xplained, and the play 
uas allowed to go on. Hut when the curtain fell, a lot of 
the boys rushed on to the stage and hugged the poor fel- 
l«>u most to death — so rare to them was the sight of a 


'fl. .':>'vUt\ !i 

■'. -nil -^-yrii, J''^ii' '>r^' ' 

'v' -Jill 
.. r.. .:, o,i> 


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y ; J 

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;n» Jill .//•.jn>l 

!.. ImI ,, ,11'. 


March 5th. — We learn to-day from the papers that no 
more prisoners are to be exchan-ed at present, so we shall 
have to stay here for awhile yet. It is a great disappoint- 
ment to us. for we had hoped to be released soon. It has 
been represented to us that it is the fault of our govern- 
ment that there is no exchange, but we do not believe it ; 
yet we cannot see why we are not released. We are will- 
ing to wait, howe\'er. if any good can come from it. The 
long confinement is beginning to tell upon the men ; nearly 
all have a bad cough, and look pale and weak. We are 
afraid, if we remain here much longer, we shall contract 
diseases from w hich we can never recoxer. 

There has been a slight change in our food for a few 
days : Bread, and coffee made from burnt meal, for break- 
fast ; pork and bean soujj for dinner. Some of the men 
were allowed to go out in the yard to-day. 

March loth. — Quite a number of the men have made 
their escape lately ; they are usually gone tw(5 or three 
days before the officers find it out. Although they come 
in and have roll-call every day, we manage to fool them 
and keep our full number, even when three or four escape at 
a time. It is d<.-nc by transferring men from one floor to 
another through trap iloors which we ha\e cut through the 
floors just over the top bunk of some tier. Through these 
we also visit our comrades on the other floors, and the 
guards are none the wiser for it. Almost all who make 
their escape are caught and brought back, sometimes after 
being out a month or nn^re ; and such a pitiable sight as 
they present when thev return I Usually their clothes are 
nearly all torn off, and their hands ami faces cut and 
scratched by the briars and thoi-n<, for the\- ha\e had to 
tra\-el through the u oods and swamps and axoid the houses 
of white people. The negroes are aluaxs kind to escaped 
prisoners, but hunger ut)uld sometimes diixe thcin to ask 
food of the whiles, and thi^ would usu.iJh- lead to their 
capture and return. 

Hesiile'^ the prisoners of \\;ir in ."^aHshurx- tlu-re are man\- 
Union men, residi nts of W'e.-.t X'irt'inia, Western North 


Ml ! oj i<i;'ii yjif.,-i^ff Dii •■ // '-,»». 

Union southern men in prison. 229 

Carolina and East Tennessee, who haxe been arrested on 
account of their loyalty, torn from their families, thrown 
into prison, and are treated more shabbily than the soldier 
prisoners. One night the hospital steward sent for me to 
come to the hospital and watch with one of these citizen 
prisoners. I found him in an attic of one of the numerous 
little brick houses which surround the prison, and were 
formerly the homes of the operatives in the cotton factor}-. 
I watched with him till 2 o'clock, when he died. He had 
been entirely neglected, and w as in a horrible condition. 

Perhaps we can forgive our late enemies for their ill- 
treatment of our prisoners, regarding it as one of the results 
of the war, but the blood of these Union men will eternally 
cry to heaven for vengeance. 

I found on this visit to the hospital that no provision 
had been made for washing the clothing of the sick men. 
So I went to the commanding officers and asked permission 
to set up a laundry. This was granted, and a number of 
men were detailed to assist me. This work kept us out in 
the open air. We followed it for nine weeks. Then I 
went into the hospital as nurse agam, and remained until 
the time for our release drew on. 

We will not wear\- the reader with further details of life 
in Salisbury Prison, only to say that as the spring came on 
the men chafed more and more under the confinement, and 
\'ery man\' of those who had borne up so manfully in New- 
Orleans became discouraged, lost heart, lay down and tlied. 
By this time there were many thousand prisoners in Salis- 
i)ury. We fcnind some whom we parted with in Richmond, 
ami among them the comratlcs who were with my frientl 
Trowbridge when he died. The\- gave me his diary and 
the trinkets that were found in his pockets. These I brought 
home and gave tt) his friends. After the first of M.i\- the 
guard-line was enlarged, and the men w ere allowed to take 
exercise in tlic yai'd. where wuious outiloor spoics were in- 
ilulged in. and the health of the nien rapidly improxcti. 

May 23d. lSr,2.^'Tiie glad day has at last come I Two 
hmulred of MS are to start for home to-daw Uefore we left 


we were required to subscribe to the following oath or 
parole of honor : 

" We, the undersigned prisoners of war to the Confeder- 
ate States, swear that if released we will not take up arms 
during the existing war against the Confederate States, 
until we be regularly exchanged, and that we will not com- 
municate in any manner anything that may injure the 
cause of the Confederate States, which may have come to 
our knowledge, or which we may have heard since our cap- 
ture. Signed at Salisbury, N. C, May 22, 1862." 

Notwithstanding the above parole, and an order that 
every man should be searched. I determined to save m\- 
diary and that of my comrade Trowbridge. When we left 
New Orleans, I obtained a double canteen. In this I hid 
my own diary. After removing one spout, I ripped up the* 
cloth covering on one side ; cut through the tin with a knife; 
placed the papers inside ; turned down the tin, and sewed 
the cloth on as before. The canteen looked as good as 
new, and was filled with, water on the sound side. 

There was not room in the canteen for the other diary ; 
so I took a loaf of bread that I obtained at the hospital, 
and cut a piece out of one end ; removed all the soft part, 
to the crust ; rolled up the book, and put it in the loaf. 
The piece was then wet and put back, and the loaf placed 
in my haversack. Twice we were searched, and many of 
the men lost all their records, but mine came through safely. 
We left Salisbury by rail, and w ent to Tarboro, N. C, on 
the Tar River, where we were put on board an open scow, 
and towed down the river by a little stern wheel steamer, 
flying the Confeder.ite flag and a flag of truce, to Little 
Washington, N. C, where we were received by a vessel 
from the blockade sc[uadron. 

The ride down the river was very tedious, but the men 
will never forget how good the "<)ld Flag" looked when 
we came out into the oi)en baw and saw the colors waving 
from the masthead of the V . S. gunboat. We were soon 
disco\ercd, ami a boat, fl>'ing a beautiful new flag, and 
manned by oftlccrs ami men in !ui!!iant uniforms, put out 

1 jf.ii! ' 0< 

•,,-,,■( ^,i 


from the ship to hail us. We had arranged to give three 
cheers as soon as they should board our steamer. But 
when the word was given, not a cheer was heard — the. men 
were too happy to cheer. Such ecstasy comes only once in 
the life of any man. 

What a joyful moment ! Yet it seemed too good to be 
true. We who had been so used to being deceived, were 
incredulous to the last moment. But we were soon on 
board a transport, and sailed aw^ay for New York, — again 
under the dear old flag I How our tear-dimmed eyes gazed 
on its folds, and the men, with solemn, sobbing voices, said, 
" Thank God I thank God I" The link that bound us to 
the terrible past is broken. 

After three days we landed on Governor's Island, New 
York Harbor, and after a few days were allowed to return 
to our homes. 

Here we remained till July 12th, when by General Order 
No. 54, Adjutant-General's ofifice. State of New York, all 
paroled prisoners were ordered to report to the Camp of 
Instruction, near Annapolis, Md. 

Here we remained till the 25th of September, when we 
were notified that we had been exchanged, and ordered to 
report to our regiments. We were furnished transportation 
to Washington, and from there marched in search of our 
regiment, which was in camp near Bakersville, \Md., where 
we arrived October 4th, 1862. ha\ ing been absent from the 
command one year and nearly three months. 

Hard as our lot was, we now realize that it did not com- 
pare with the inhuman treatment our prisoners received 
later on in the war, at Belle Isle, Andersonville, and Salis- 
bury. The policy of our government in regard to an ex- 
change of prisoners has never been fully explained and is 
not now generally understood. It was doubtless thought 
to be a wise policy at the time ; but the twenty-nine thou- 
sand victims who went down to death from those vile, south- 
ern prisons, after months of suffering that baffles the pen 
to describe, was an awful sacrifice, that the survivors to this 
day cannot believe was necessary. And it seems to us that 

> no '., 

MVjuxyiiv iw u^ rtwipT 


God's everlasting curse must surch' rest u[)on the men of 
the South \vh<:) thus knowingl)- allowed the thousands of 
young lives to be blotted out of existence b\' cruelties un- 
heard of before in the annals ot civilized warfare. Those 
who abetted so great a crime against civilization and hu- 
manity, against Christianity and even decency, must in the 
future stand condemned by the public opinion of the 
world, until they shall have done " works meet for repent- 

About eighteen per cent, of the men captured died in 
prison ; and a larger per cent, of prisoners were killed and 
wounded by the rebel guards than would have been killed 
had the men remained with their respective regiments and 
engaged in every battle that was fought during their term 
of imprisonment. Our own government has never \-et 
fully recognized the heroic sacrifice that e\'en the survivors 
made in support of one of the most vital points of our war 
policy : " Refusing an even exchange of prisoners, lest, by 
so doing, they recognize the enemy as a bclligcroit /^ozi.'cr." 
and which was claimed to be necessary in order to prevent 
foreign nations from accepting the claims of the Confeder- 
ate States to a place in the galax\' of nations. 

Still another view of the matter is outlined in the follow- 
ing letter from Gen. Grant to (jen. Butler, in 1864: 

" h is liard on our moii licUi in Southern prisons not to cxclianL^u thciu, 
but it is humanity to tliosc left in the ranks to ti-lit our iiattles. Evcr\- 
man released, on j^arole or otlierwise. hee(Mnes in active soldier a^^ainst 
us at once, either directly or indirei.tlv. If we commence a system of ex- 
change wliich liberates all pris.jners taken, we will have to fight on until 
the whole South is extermin.Ued. If wc hold those caught, they amount 
to no more than dead men. At this ; time, to release all rehel 
prisoners North would insuri Sherm.m's defeat, and would compromise 
our safety here." 

Tile following letter from Gcii. liiitier lo C(«mmissioner 
Ould. in reply to ilu, pr^ 'iKi-iti. ui lo rounie exchange, i^ of 
interest as bearing <^n tlie s.une p^iint ; 


"One cannot help thinking, even at the risk of being deemed unchar- 
itable, that the benevolent sympathies of the Confederate authorities have 
been lately stirreil by the depleted condition of their armies, and a desire 
to get into the field, to aftett the present campaign, the hale, hearty, and 
well-fed prisoners held by the L'nited States,. in e>:change for the half- 
starved, sick, emaciated and miserable soldiers of the United States, now 
languishing in your prisons." 

The above outline help.s to explain the i)t)licy of our 
government, and is recorded with the hope that it may 
reach the eyes of some one in authority, who will be able 
to stir up our people to a sense of their obligation to this 
class of our soldiers; and that justice, though tardy, may 
yet be done to the men who patiently endured the ten-fold 
hardships of a soldier's life. 

"The National wealth that lies in the treasures of mines, or under the 
white wings of ships, or in the yellow tassels of wheat fields, is well ; but 
the richest land is one rich in patriots' graves." 

Their memory is a holy legacy. May the next genera- 
tion grow up with this sentiment wrought into every fibre 
of their chareicters — that there is no nobler fate than to die 
for one's country. And if another time of trial and trouble 
and woe should shadow the land, may they be ready to step 
forward and die, if need be, that the nation may live. 

" For gold the merchant ploughs the main, 
The fanner ploughs the manor. 
But glory is the soldier's prize. 
The soldier's wealth is honor. 

The brave, poor soldier ne'er despise. 

Nor count liini as a stranger ; 
Remember, he's h's country's stay. 

In dav and houi of danger. " 




The following interesting statement from 1). W. Boslcy. 
hospital steward of the 27th, will remind many of the 
evcry-day scene about the hospital tent, after the bugler 
had sounded surgeons' call : 

"The hospital department of a marching regiment, or 
rather the dispensary part, over which I had the honor to 
preside in the 27th regiment, i^ probably one of the most 
" onerous " in the service, and compels the hospital stew- 
ard to perform almost herculean duties. When the 
tents were pitched for the night and the soldiers retired t(j 
rest, his hardest task would just commence. The unpack- 
ing of medicine chests, filling prescriptions, extracting 
teeth, compounding medicines, attending sick, etc., etc., 
would give him but little time to rest. 

* * 4r # * t:- -X- TT w * 

I am pleased to say that I have always held the boys of 
the 27th in the highest esteem for their bravery and pluck, 
and endurance of sickness and wounds. Their cheerfulness 
while suffering was soitiething wonderful. 

The kindness of the soldiers to the officers of the med- 
ical department, was an exhibition of their gratitude to us, 
for we were never allowed to go hungry, nor to be in need 
of help." . • * 







1 /i^^^^T" J 

[ "• " \ 

i ?■ 


H^- x.v, 

Rr-rruMn rui-^N-fi^ 

hivuis of the ouiiiy.) 


>^> MA U 



Was born in Delphi, Onondaga county, N. Y., Sept. 24th, 
1827. His ancestors, for three generations, resided at New- 
port, R. I., where his father was born, and from whence he 
moved to Albany, N. Y., about the year 1812 ; and thence 
to Delphi, where he was engaged in mercantile pursuits un- 
til his death, in 1853. Gen. Slocum received his early edu- 
cation at the Cazenovia Seminary. 

He entered the U. S. Military Academy at West Point, 
in 1848, and took a high stand in his class. Upon gradu- 
ating, in 1852, he was assigned to duty in the regular army, 
as a Lieutenant in the I'irst Artillery. 

He served two years in the interior of Florida, and three 
years at Fort Moultrie, S. C. While at the latter post, he 
read law in the office of Hon. B. C. Presley, afterwards Jus- 
tice of the Supreme Court of South Carolina. He resigned 
his commission in the army in 1857, and commenced the 
practice of law, at Syracuse, N. Y. In 1858 he was elected 
to the Legislature from that city. Upon the breaking out 
of the war he re-entered the military service, and was made 
Colonel of the 27th Regiment, N. Y. Vols. 

His regiment suffered severely at the first battle of Bull 
Run, and he received a wound which confined him to the 
hospital nearly two months, during which time he was pro- 
moted to the rank of Brieadier-Cieneral, and. as soon as he 


was able to do duty, he was assigned to the commatid of a 
brigade under Gen. McClellan. During the campaign on 
the Peninsula he was assigned to the command of a Divis- 
ion in the Sixth Corps, under Gen. FrankHn, and after the 
seven days' battle in front of Richmond, upon the recom- 
mendations of Generals McClellan and Franklin, he was 
made Major-General. 

In the Maryland campaign under Gen. McClellan, he 
took part in the battles of South ^Mountain and Antietam, 
and at the close of the latter battle he was assigned to the 
command of the Tvvelfth Army Corps; Gen. Mansfield, the 
former commander, having been killed during the battle. 
He was at Chancellorsville under Gen. Hooker, and at Get- 
tysburg, under Meade, During the great struggle at Get- 
tysburg, he commanded the right of Meade's army, and 
was heavily engaged during the second and third days of 
the battle. The defeat of Rosencranz, at Chickamauga, 
late in the fall, necessitated sending immediate reinforce- 
ments to him: and the Eleventh and Twelfth Corps, 
commanded by Howard and Slocum, were rapidly trans- 
ferred thither by railroad. 

In the following spring, when Sherman reorganized his 
army for the Atlanta campaign, he consolidated the Elev- 
enth and Twelfth Corps, and the new corps (designated 
the Twentieth) was placed under the command of Gen. 
Hooker— Slocum being assigned to the command of the De- 
partment of the Mississipjji, with headquarters at Vicksburg. 
He was ordered to make frequent excursions into the 
country and keep the enemy actively engaged, with a view 
of preventing reinforcements from that quarter to the army 
in front of Sherman. When Hooker was relieved from the 
Twentieth Corps, Slocum was ordered by telegraph to sur- 
render his command at Vicksburg to the officer next in 
rank, and join Gen. Sherman. He was at once placed in 
command of the Twentieth Corps. 

When Sherman made his bold movement around Atlanta 
to the Macon road, he left Slocum on the bank of the 
Chattahooche, to guard the communication and take ad- 

filOGkAMlV OF GfeNfeRAt, SLOCUM; 230 

vantage of any opportunity which might be presented. 
Sherman forced tlie enemy to leave the entrenchments 
around Atlanta, to meet him in the field, and the Twen- 
tieth Corps marched into the city. Within an hour the 
telegraph line wws established, and the first message over it 
was a dispatch from Gen. Slocum, carrying the glad tidings 
to the North, " Atlanta has fallen." When Shermari 
planned his great campaign " from Atlanta to the sea," he 
gave Slocum command of the left wing of his army, com- 
posed of the Fourteenth and Twentieth Corps. The his- 
tory of Sherman's grand campaign from Atlanta to the sea, 
and from the sea through the swamps of the Carolinas to 
Raleigh, the capital of North Carolina, is well known to the 
world. On this campaign, at the urgent request of Gen. 
Sherman, President Lincoln constituted the Fourteenth and 
Twentieth Corps an army, to be designated as the " Army 
of Georgia," and assigned Gen. Slocum as its commander. 
He continued in this command to the close of the war, 
when he was again sent to command the Department of 
the Mississippi. 

In the fall of 1865 he resigned his commission, and in 
the spring of 1866 he took up his residence in Brooklyn, 
N. Y., where he now resides. He has twice been elected to 
Congress from a district in that city, and afterwards a rep- 
resentative at largfe for the state. 

; llil^^■:l.:,n j oj avrr ij 

) -id 

\ nl 



Joseph J. Bartlett was born in Binghamton, N. V., on the 
4th of November, 1834. His education was obtained in 
the public scliools of Binghamton, and he afterwards began 
the study of law in the office of the Hon. Eaton J. Rich- 
ardson, of Utica, N. Y. He was admitted to the bar in 
i860, and began the practice of his profession at Syracuse, 
N. Y., and next year returned to Binghamton. 

In April, 1861, he enlisted as a pri\-ate soldier, in Bing- 
hamton, N. Y., where he had just commenced the practice 
of law. Upon the organization of the company he was 
elected Captain. Upon the organization of the Twenty- 
seventh Regiment of Volunteers, at Elmira, he was elected 
Major of the Regiment. 

At the first battle of Bull Run, after Colonel Slocum was 
wounded, he was placed in command of the regiment, by 
the Colonel's order. A few weeks after the battle. Colonel 
Slocum was promoted to Brigadier-General, and Major 
Bartlett to Colonel of the Twenty-seventh. Immediately 
upon arriving at West Point, on the Peninsula, the provis- 
ional Sixth Army Corps was organized. Gen. Franklin com- 
manding. This gave Gen. Slocum command of Franklin's 
Division, and Colonel Bartlett the command of Slocum's 
Brigade. A reconnoissance made by Col. Bartlett at 
Mechanicsville was so successful that Gen. McClellan con- 
tinued him in command of his brigade, although general 
officers were sent from Washington to report to General 
McClellan for assignment to duty. 

At the battle of Gaines' Mill. Col. Bartlett's Brigade re- 
ported to Gen. Sykes for duty, and, with the regular 
troops, held the right of Gen. Porter's line successfully until 
the close of the battle, losing 504 men killed and wounded, 
including all but three of the field officers. 

For this battle he received the warm praise of Gens. 
I'rankiiii. Slocum, Syl^cs. I'l.rteraml MoLlcli.m, in thuir re- 
ports. He al>o recci\ed the same for services rendered 
during all the seven da\-s' fighting. 

At the SL-cond b.ittle of Bull Run. he covered the re- 

1 '^i\S b*jv>vii'j '^il 



treat of the army to Centreville. At the battle of South 
Mountain his brigade led the column of attack of the First 
Division, Sixth Corps, at " Crampton's Gap," breaking the 
enemy's line at the foot of the mountain, driving him be- 
yond the crest, and securing the road for the passage of 
our troops. 

At Antietam he engaged with the balance of the Corps. 
For his services up to this date, he was recommended by 
Gen. McClellan for promotion to Brigadier-General, which 
title he received about ten days alter. 

From this period to the close of the war he also engaged 
in every battle of the Army of the Potomac. At the bat- 
tle of Marye's Heights, Second Fredericksburg, and Chan- 
cellorsville. hewas with Sedgwick's Sixth Army Corps. 

At Gettysburg he was given by General Sedgwick the 
command of the Third Division of the Sixth Army Corps, 
retaining its command until the " Mine Run " campaign, 
when Gen.Sykes applied for him to command the First Di- 
vision of the Fifth Corps, which he retained until Gen. 
Grant took command and consolidated the six corps of the 
army into three. This legislated him out of a command, 
but the Corps Commander made up for him the equivalent 
of a division, by giving him nine regiments of veteran 
troops. With this command he served through the Wil 
derness campaign and in front of Petersburg. For dis- 
tinguished services in that campaign he was made Brevet 
Major-General. At the battle of " Five Forks " he was 
once more assigned to the command of the First Division 
of the Fifth Corps, which marched from there to .Vppo- 
mattox Court House with the cavalry. Being in advance 
of the corps the morning Sheridan struck Appomattox, he 
formed his division in two lines of battle with a cloud of 
skirmishers in front, and forced the enemy to retire behind 
the town, and received the surrender of a rebel brigade be- 
fore the surrender took place. 

The next da\' he was ap[)ointed to receive the surrender 
of the infantry arms of Gen. Lee's arni>-. Gen. Bartlett 
was struck six times, but never for a day gave up the com- 

i/'^t !<:> noii'it 

T)!u' y\ ij'' oil J ' /i 
ii-jl'ir.^i mm) . 


mand of his troops. After the close of the war he was 
appointed by President Johnson " Minister Resident " to 
Stockholm, where he remained three years. 
■ This record shows continuous service in the field from the 
f^rst Bull Run until after the surrender at Appomattox 
Court House. 

He is now Deputy Commissioner of Pensions, havin- 
been appointed to that position by President Cleveland. 


The fourth son of Gen. W.lliam H. Adams, was born at 
Lyons. N. \ ., on the 25th of December, 1832. He en- 
tered Hobart College, at Geneva, in 18^2. After leavin.^ 
college, he was engaged as Civil Engineer on the Erie 
Canal enlargement, for a few years, when he accepted an 
appomtment as teacher in the Lyon's Union School. He 
responded to the first call for volunteers, and raised the 
first company in Wayne county. He was promoted to 
L.eutenant-Colonel after the first battle of Bull Run. and to 
Colonel after the battle of Antietam. At the close of his 
terni of service he returned to Lyons, and became Principal 
of the Union School, which position he held for five years. 
Declmmg health prevented active employment after this. 
He died of consumption on the 28th of October, 187- 
leaving a widow and one dau<rhter. 

:^! >J 



Was born Dec. ist, 1822, in Eaton, Madison County. N. Y. 
At the age of fourteen he removed, with his father's family, 
to Angelica, N. Y. On the fall of Fort Sumter, he was 
practicing law, hut immediately relinquished his profession, 
and recruited a company of volunteers at Angelica, of which 
he was commissioned Captain ; and the company was ac- 
cepted into the State service May 13th, i86f ; and on May 
i6th the company departed from Angelica, and reported at 
the State Military Depot at Elmira ; and on May 2rst the 
company was assigned to a regiment, and designated as 
Company " I," in the 27th Regiment N. Y. Volunteers. 
On the 1st of September, 1861, Captain Gardiner was pro- 
moted, to fill a vacancy, to Major of the same regiment. 
The records of the regiment show his military services, 

In the battle of Gaines' Mill, Major Gardiner was injured 
by a shell, but remained with the army until its retreat to 
Harrison's Landing, where, on the 3d of July, 1862, he was 
ordered sent north on Surg, Barnes' certificate of disability. 
On his arrival at Washington, he was granted leave of ab- 
sence for thirty days, on Surgeon's certificate of disability, 
"on account of wounds," by S. O. No. 155, War Depart- 
ment, and G. O., Washington, July 7th. 1862, and returned 
to his home in Angelica; and in consequence of a continu- 
ance of his disability, he forwarded his resignation from the 
service, to the War Department, which was accepted b\' the 
Adjutant-General of the Army, July 24th, 1S62. 

Major Gardiner was subsequently brevetted Colonel of 
U. S. Volunteers, for "gallant and meritorious services dur- 
ing the war." In 1864 he was assigned to the U. S. Muster- 
ing and Disbursing Office at Elmira. In 1867 he was ap- 
pointed U. S. Assessor of Internal Rc\enuc of the 27th 
District of New York, at Elmira. In 1868, he was the 
Conservative candidate for Congress in the 27th District of 
New York. In 1873 h.e removed to the City of St. Louis, 
Mo., which is his present home. 


I .)ci t 




Dr. Normax S. Barnes. 

••Thf harp that once throuuh Taia's halls. 

Its soul of music slifcl ; , ^., .,, , . .. 

Now hangs as nuito on Tara's walls 
As if that soul were dead." 

When the last toll ot the funeral bell dies away upon the 
solemn air of death, and what was nicutal is laid to rest, wc 
instinctively turn to preserve in some form the biography 
of the dei)arted. 

"His life was gentle, .uui the t-loincnts 
So mixed in hini that Nature might stand up, 
.A.nd say to all the world, 'This was a man.'" 



On Saturday morning, April i8th, 1885, Dr. Norman S. 
Barnes, after a severe and protracted illness, in which the 
highest patience and courage were shown, died at his resi- 
dence, 365 Warren avenue, Chicago, 111. His life for ten 
years preceding death, was filled with physical pain, having 
suffered at the beginning of these years an attack of par- 
alysis of the optic nerves, terminating in the loss of sight, 
the result of a sunstroke received while engaged in the ser- 
vice of his country ; and though doomed to silent medita- 
tion over this most unhappy affliction, his genial disposition 
shed sunshine upon an otherwise rayless sky. Born to lead 
and command, he was, however, of a gentle and loving 
mold, whose sympathies were enlisted with every good 
cause, and whose charities to the needy, financially and 
professionally, were without stint. He possessed in full 
those traits of character which endeared him especially to 
the young, for whom in all worthy pursuits and aspirations 
he had words of cheer and encouragement. Scores of 
friends will not soon forget how pleasantly his conversation, 
sparkling with humor and brilliancy, would entertain them 
for hours : nor should they forget how tenderly his ear 
would be given to their tales of sorrow or disappointment. 

The Rev. Dr. Lawrence, of the Second Baptist Church 
of Chicago, assisted by representatives of the Grand Army, 
Post 28, conducted the last sad rites over the remains of 
the deceased, which were quietly and simply placed in the 
cemetery of Rose Hill. 

Dr. Barnes was born at Avon, N. Y., in 1830, and four 
years subsequently was taken by his parents to their new 
home in Lapeer county, Mich., where the lavish mental and 
physical gifts that nature had bestowed upon him were nur- 
tured to great strength through the (.[uiet, simple and thought- 
ful life he led until his seventeenth year, when his ambitious 
spirit naturally sought a wider field for cultivation and ac- 
([uaintance with the world, which was gratified by taking 
his departure for Rochester, N. Y., in the hope of fulfilling 

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a long cherished desire to enter upon the study of medicine 
Without influence and with but a h'mited supply of money 
he, however, soon found favor with Dr. Treat, of Rochester 
into whose office he entered : but, after the lapse of a few 
months, the dread disease, cholera, appeared in that city, 
and when Levi Ward, then Mayor of Rochester, issued a 
public appeal for nurses, this young man quickly responded, 
and throughout that anxious period, won, for valiant and 
heroic conduct, the best opinions in particular of the medi- 
cal fraternity, and their brightest predictions of his future 
usefulness. Following the cessation of this epidemic, he 
decided to enter Amherst College, Mass., that the founda- 
tion for his medical course might be made as broad as pos- 
sible ; but after passing two courses at Amherst, he became 
restless to begin the studies that would fit him for the pro- 
fession of which he so earnestly wished to become a member, 
and consequently, at the very earliest session of the Berkshire 
Medical College, at Berkshire, Mass., then one of the best 
medical schools in the United States, he was duly installed 
as a student. At the age of twenty-two he graduated from 
this institution with high honors ; and on the departure, in 
the same year, of its Demonstrator of Anatomy, Dr. Tim- 
othy Childs, for an extended trip in Europe, Dr. Barnes was 
selected to fill his post, — a position in which he continued 
for eight years, and was the tutor of many who are now em- 
inent in their profession. At the beginning of the civil war, 
though intending at that time to make a visit to Europe, 
the fervor of his patriotism led him to sacrifice a valuable 
practice in Rochester, N. V., to enter the 27th N. Y. Volun- 
teers as surgeon, which position he held until the regiment 
was mustered out, in 1863; but not content with this ser- 
vice, he applied for the position of surgeon in the regular 
army, and as there was no vacancy in that grade, after pass- 
ing the required examination at Washington, he willingly 
accepted the rank of Assistant Surgeon, from wiiich, after 
a service of tiirec montiis, he was prLimotcd as Surgeon, 
and in a brief time was made Medical Director successive!)- 
of the Sixth, Tenth, Eighteentli and Twenty-fourth Vol- 


unteer Army Corps, and later Medical Chief of the Depart- 
ment of Virginia and North Carolina, with headquarters at 
Norfolk, Va., positions which he filled with distinction. 
He retired from the army with an enviable record, in i868- 
For gallant and meritorious conduct at the battle of Fort 
Fisher, President Lincoln bestowed upon Dr. Barnes the 
rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. At the close of his army ser- 
vice he returned to Rochester, N. Y., but remained only a 
few months, going thence to Chicago, 111., and when on the 
high road to success, with the certainty of achieving a dis- 
tinguished professional standing in the region of his new 
home, the loss of sight overtook him. and doomed him in 
the flower of manhood, to inactivity and mournful reflection. 
Much may be attributed to the domestic association of Dr. 
Barnes, in its bearing upon his early manhood, and the 
source of consolation it was in his years of suffering and de- 
cline. He was united in 1856 to Miss Kitty Burbank Wil- 
liams, of Deerfield, Mass., a lady of the highest cultivation 
and literary ability, whose death occurred in 1873. He was 
again united in matrimony, to Miss M. Augusta McPherson, 
of Chicago, in 1874, i^ipon whom, through the long and try- 
ing sickness that followed, devolved the exacting duty of 
tenderly nursing and consoling her afflicted husband. 


unteer Army Corps, and later Medical Chief of the Depart- 
ment of Virginia and North Carolina, with headquarters at 
Norfolk, Va., positions which he filled with distinction. 
He retired from the army with an enviable record, in 1868 
For gallant and meritorious conduct at the battle of Fort 
Fisher, President Lincoln bestowed upon Dr. Barnes the 
rank of Lieutenant-Colonel. At the close of his army ser- 
vice he returned to Rochester, N. Y., but remained only a 
few months, going thence to Chicago, 111., and when on the 
high road to success, with the certainty of achieving a dis- 
tinguished professional standing in the region of his new 
home, the loss of sight overtook him. and doomed him in 
the flower of manhood, to inactivity and mournful reflection. 
Much may be attributed to the domestic association of Dr. 
Barnes, in its bearing upon his early manhood, and the 
source of consolation it was in his years of suffering and de- 
cline. He was united in 1856 to Miss Kitty Burbank Wil- 
liams, of Deerfield, Mass., a lady of the highest cultivation 
and literary ability, whose death occurred in 1873. He was 
again united in matrimony, to Miss M. Augusta McPherson, 
of Chicago, in 1874, upon whom, through the long and try- 
ing sickness that followed, devolved the exacting duty of 
tenderly nursing and consoling her afflicted husband. 

i!;(i v!t ibr;- 


A Soldier's Dream. 


I sometimes dream I'm once more on tlie battle-field, 

There, where wounds are given, and where wrongs are healed 

Once more I hear the stead}- tramp of marching men. 

The rushing figlit, the cannon roar, through bush and glen. 

Once again I hear the cannon's thundering sound : 

I see its belch of fire, and feel it jar the ground ; . 

See once more, the cavalry charge through Hame and smoke, 

With carbine fire, bayonet thrust, and saber stroke. 

High above clouds, on Lookout's crest, the old Mag waves. 
Carried by L'nion hands, held there by Union braves ; 
And all along that crimson battle front I hear, 
Ringing in the air, the glorious Union cheer. 

And so unlike that horrid, shameful Rebel yell. 
More like the shrieking cry from the demons of hell. 
I see the surging columns advance, break and reel, 
Ran3nng again, they meet the foemen. steel to steel. 

Thus rages the combat, till, with the curtain of night. 
Comes glorious victory for the Union and right ; 
Again, high in the heavens. Independence sun 
Looks down on a battle fought, and Gettysburg won. 

With the sword's slash, cannon's shot, and with ride lead, 
The ground is strewn with the wounded and with the dead ; 
I sometimes have wished, irreverent though it seem, 
That there among my comrades, still that wish I mean — 

That with victory won, at the close of a hard -fought d.ay, 
When all is hushed — battle shout and bloody fra\- ; 
I might have lain me down there upon a soldier's bed, 
A soldier's eternal rest, and a soldier dead. 

No, not dead, but only changed to other life, 
Wiiere warring ceases, and there is an end of strife : 
Where wc no longer hear the sentinel's wear)- tramp. 
.\ rainbow — siKer and gold, horizons the camp. 

Coiiir.ide>, sonicwiiere and ^oiulIida-, in tliat other sphere. 
We will i. Liter, then, know why wc ii;i\e tj.itth'd luie : 
And if tliere be nutk in the Lord's eternal plan, 
Tis moral worth, and not weahii, that will rank ilie nim. 



Was born in Cornwall, Ct., September 13, 181 3, and gradu- 
ated at West Point, July, 1837. In this year, as a junior 
Second Lieutenant of Artillery, he made a campaign 
against the Seminoles in Florida. Subsequently he served 
upon the Northern frontier, in the Canada border troubles. 
Young Sedgwick accompanied Scott's expedition to V^era 
Cruz, and participated in the battles that followed the sur- 
render of that post, winning for gallantry displayed at 
Cerro Gordo, Cherebusco, Molino del Rey and Chepultepec 
the brevets of Captain and Major. He was present during 
the assault upon the Mexican capital, and at its capture. 
He was made Lieutenant-Colonel of Cavalry in the Second 
United States : afterwards, in the same year, was commis- 
sioned Colonel of the First United States Cavalry. This 
was in August, and in the latter part of that month he was 
made Brigadier-General of Volunteers. 

During the fall and winter of 1861, Gen. Sedgwick com- 
manded a brigade of Heintzleman's Division. In the Pe- 
ninsula campaign, he was at the head of a division of Sum- 
ner's Corps, which participated in the seige of Yorktown, 
and the battle of P'air Oaks, where their arrival after a toil- 
some march largely contributed to the favorable ending of 
that engagement. His command distinguished itself at 
Savage's station. June 29th, and at Frazer's Farn:, June 
30th. where its General was wovmded, as he was also three 
times, severely, at Antictam. The wounds received at this 
place deprived the nation of his services until the following 

The changes of corps commanders which resulted from 
the change in the Chief Command of the Army of the Po- 
tomac, after the winter of 1862, found Gen. Sedgwick at 
the head of the Sixth Corps, as the Commander of which 
he is known to fame. 

In May, 1S63, he was (ordered by Gen. Hooker to carry 
the heights of Fredericksburg, and form a junction with the 
main army at Chanceliorsville. The town was occupied On 


Sunday morning, May, 3d, with but little opposition, but 
♦"he storming of the heights behind it cost the lives of sev- 
eral thousand men. The advance of the Sixth Corps was 
"checked at Salem Heights, about 4 o'clock in the afternoon, 
by a superior force detached by Gen. Lee from the main 
army confronting Hooker. The force opposing Gen. 
Sr;dgwick was further strengthened the next morning. May 
4th, and it was only by great skill and hard fighting that 
the General was able to hold his ground during the day, 
and to withdraw at night across the Rappahannock. 

On the morning of June 30th, 1863, the Sixth Corps, the 
right of the army following Gen. Lee, was at Manchester, 
northwest of Baltimore, thirty-five miles from Gettysburg. 
The events of the hour demanding the concentration of 
the army at the last place, the Sixth Corps made the march 
thither in twenty hours, arriving before 2 P. M., July 2d. 
The corps participated thenceforth in the action of the 2d 
and 3d of July. 

****** *** 

Gen. Sedgwick commanded the right of the Army of the 
Potomac, at Rappahannock Station, November 7th, also at 
Mine Run, November 26th to December 7th, 1863. 

* * * * * * * * * 

Gen. Sedgwick was conspicuous in the battles of the 
Wilderness, and those at Spottsylvania. On the loth of 
May, 1864, he was killed by the bullet 01 a sharpshooter. 
He was universally beloved. In the Sixth Corps he was 
known as "Uncle John." and his death cast a gloom u\er 
the command, which was never dispelled. A monument, 
wrought of cannon captured by the Sixth Corps, was 
erected to his memory at West Point. 


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Was. born in York, Pa., February 27th, 1823. Graduating at 
West Point, in June, [843, he uas assigned to the corps of 
topographical engineers. In the " Chihuahua Column," in 
the early part of Gen. Taylor's campaign in Northern Mex- 
ico, he ser\-ed upon the staff of Gen. Wool. He was on the 
staff of the Commander-in-Chief at Buena Vista, and for 
"gallant and meritorious services" in that battle, was bre- 
vetted First Lieutenant. 

For several years prior to [852, he was instructor in nat- 
ural and experimental philosophy, at West Point Military 
Academy. He subsecjuently filled the same chair in the 
College of New York. He was engineer in charge of the 
capitol in Washington, from November, 1859, ^o March, 
1 86 1. Naturally, the serxices of a loyal, trained soldier, so 
accomplished as was the subject of this sketch, were in 
eager demand in the spring of 1861. May 14th he was ap- 
pointed Col'jnel of the Twelfth United States Infantry, and 
three da\-s later was commissioned Brigadier-General U. S. 
Volunteers. Gen. Franklin commanded a brigade in 
Heint/.leman's Division al Hull Run. During the period of 
organization of the .\rmy oi the Potomac, and until its 
movement in the spring of 1862, he commanded a division 
which was assigned to McDowell's Corps. The divis- 
ion was detached in the spring of 1862, and joined Mc- 
Llellan before Vorktown. Gen. r>anklin commanded at 
West Point, near the mmith of the Pamunkey, May 6th, 
\^h2, and durmg this month organized the Sixth Army 
Corps, which he commanded till the following November. 
During this periotl he commanded in the affairs at Cjold- 
ing's h'arm and White ( )ak[), June 27th to 30th ; com- 
manded the left at .South .Mountain. September 14th, his 
troops ca[)turing Crampton's Gap : relic\'ed Sumner's com- 
mand in the atternoon of .^c-ptcmber 17th, at .\ntietam. 
In Novembei" he assumed command of the left di\'is- 
ion ( h'irst a!ul^Sixth t'orjisi. and in the battle of the 13th of 
December, c<jmmanded the left wing of the i\rm\- of the 


Potomac. In the following September he commanded the 
expedition against Sabine Pass, La. In 1863-64 he com- 
manded the troops occupying Northern Louisiana. He 
was with Gen. Banks at Sabine Cross Roads. In this battle 
Gen. Franklin was wounded, and had two horses shot under 
him. It was he who conducted the retreat to Alexandria, 
and directed Col. Bailey to make arrangements for the relief 
of Porter's fleet, by the Red River dam. Through the 
summer of 1864. on account of his wound, he was absent 
on sick-leave. During this period, Gen. Grant urged the 
appointment of Gen. Franklin to the command of the Mid- 
dle Military Division. He retired from the service in 1865. 



_„F- ";:;,:. J,,,. . , -,■ ■• 


■ •-■■•■■■ ■ ■ . . ■; I-.' , 

The following; is a copy of the Muster-out Rolls of each 
company. The numbers following the name denote the 
age of the soldier when he enlisted. Where no date or 
remarks occur after the soldier's name, it is to be under- 
stood that he was mustered into the service with the regi- 
ment, May 2ist, 1861, and discharged May 31st, 1863. The 
names of all recruits arc fi)Ilri\ved by the date of muster. 

The fact is not noted that the soldier may have been ab- 
sent from his company more or less of the time on account 
of sickness or wounds, and afterw ards returned to duty. 

The original Muster-in Rolls of the regiment, on legal-cap 
paper, are still in the possession of Major Gardiner, and 
show the check-marks in pencil made by the mustering ofifi- 
cer at the time. These show that Co. " I " was the only 
company with every officer and man present to answer to 
his nan^c. 

Co. ".\." numbering "^ officers and men," had II absent. 

The liital nunibir on the hrsl Mu>ter Roll, including 
field and staff, was 809. 

" "H," 


" -C," 


" "D." 


•• -'E." 


'• "F," 


" "G." 


- -n,- 


•' "I." 


" "K," 


:•<! men wt'n.- inrin 


* Nine !..„,,, U-, 

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1. Henry W. Slocum, promoted to Brigadier-General. Sept. r, r86i ; 
to Major-General. July 4, tS62. 

2. Joseph J. Bartlett, promoted from Major to C^lolonel, Sept. i tS6i ; 
to Brigadier-General, October 4, 1062. 

3. Alexander D. Adams, promoted from Captain of Co. " B " to 
Lieutenant-Colonel, Sept. i, 1861 ; to Colonel, October 4, 1S62. 


1. Joseph J. Chambers, resigned August g, iSfit. 

2. Alexander D. Adams, promoted to Colonel. 

3. Joseph H. Bodine, promoted from First Lieutenant to Captain 
of Co. " H." Februar>- 6, 1862 ; to Major, July 24, 1S62 ; to Lieutenant- 
Colonel, October 4, 1S62. 


1. Joseph J. Bartlett, promoted to Colonel. 

2. Curtiss C. Gardiner, promoted from Captain of Co. " I," September 
T, 1S61. Resigned, July 24, 1S62, on account of disability resulting from 
wounds received in the battle at Gaines' Mill. 

3. Joseph H. Bodine, promoted to Lieutenant-Colonel. 

4. George G. Wanzer, promoted from Captain of Co. "E" to >Laior. 
October 4, 1S62. 


; I. John P. Jenkins, resigned, November, 1S61. 

2. Melville W. Goodrich, promoted from First Sergeant of Co. "B" 
to .Adjutant, December i, 1S61. Dismissed, August 30, 1S62. 

3. Charles E. Thompson, promoted from Private of Co. " D ' to Ser- 
geant-Major, November i, 1S61 ; to Adjutant, August 30, 1S62. 


1. James A. Hamilton, resigned, October 7, 1S62. Captured by ihe 
rebel General Stewart, while on his way home. 

2. James P. Kirby, promoted to Corp<:)ral, NovLinl)er i, 1S61 ; to ."Ser- 
geant. February ?^, 1862 ; to Lieutenant and Ouartcrmaster. from Co. "D," 
October 7, 1S62. Discharged by General Orders. No. 2, Nov. 22, 1862. 

3. Texas Angel, promoted from Private to Commissary-Sergeant, from 
Co. " L" July I, i56i ; to Second Lieutenant, Febninry 6. 1862; to First 
Lieutenant. September 26, 1S62 ; to Lieutenant and Ouartcrmaster, No- 
vember 22. r8fi2. 


I. Norman S. Barnes, Surgeon from enrollment. 

suroeon's mate. 
I. Barnett W. Morse, resigned. July iq, 1862. 


I. Wi'.liani n. Stuart, .Assi^taiit-Suigeon from i nroiiment. Aug. 15, iSb2. 


1. D. D. Buck, mustered July r. iSOi. Resigned, Feb. 2'^, i?n2. 

2. John G. Webster, mustered Oct. i, 1S62. Resigned >Larch 18, 1S63. 

1.- !•- • ;i 

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1. Charles L. Gaul, promoted from Sergeant-Major to Second Lieu- 
tenant of Co. " B," September i, iS6r. Died of disease, August 20, 1862. 

2. William H. H. Brainard, promoted from Private of Co. " D," to 
Sergeaat-Major, September i, 1861 ; reduced to the ranks, Oct. 31, 1861. 

3. Claike E. Ellis, promoted from Private of Co. " B," to Sergeant- 
Major, August 30, 1S62. 

4. Charles E. Thompson, promoted to Adjutant. 


1. Lewis C Bartlett, discharged for disability, August, 1861. Re- 
enlisted in Co. "A." 

2. Benjamin S. Cothn, promoted lo Corporal of Co. " G," November 
I, 1S61 ; to Quartermaster Sergeant, March i, 1862. ,. .... 


1. Texas Angel, mustered July i, 1861 ; promoted from Private of 
Co. " I," to Sergeant, September i, 1861, to Commissar)' Sergeant, March 
I, 1862. 

2. Daniel P. Newell, mustered Aug. 2, 1S61; promoted from Co. "K." 


1. W. Fitch Cheeney, promoted from Private of Co. " E," to Hos- 
pital Steward, June i, rS6i. Discharged for disability, March i, 1S62. 

2. Daniel W. Bosley, promoted from Private of Co. " E," to Hospital 
Steward, March i, 1862. 


I. George H. Cook, mustered out of service, October 48, 1862. 


I. Fred Bender, promoted from Corporal of Co. " E," June 30, i36i. 
Mustered out of service, October 18, 1862. 



1. William M. Blakely, 25, First Lieutenant to June r, 1861. then Cap- 
tain to February 8, 1SA2, when he resigned. 

2. Edwin D. Coinstock, 21 transferred and promoted from Firs 
Lieutenant of Co. ' D," to Captain of Co. ".\," February 8, 1S62. 


1. Henry Foid, 29, Sscond Lieutenant to June i, 1862, then First 
Lieutenant to .Auunst I, 1862, when he resigne(J. 

2. Thomas W. Dick, 32, First Sergeant to June 1, 1801, then Second 
Lieutenant to August 20, 1861, then First Lieutenant to January 30, 1862, 
when he lesignvd. 

3. Benjamin kankin, 30, nuisteted February 18, i8ii2, appointed First 
Lieuttuant, February i^. i->02, icsigiit.'d July 27, 1802. 

4. Lewis C. Bartlett, 20. mustered August i, i8b2, appointed First 
Lieutenant August i, 1862, detailed on Gen. Bartlett's Staff. 

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1. James C. Ciuft, 25, Second Serg^eant to Iiiiie i, 1S61, then First 
Sergeant to August 20, 1S61, then Second Lieutenant to Iai!iiar\ 30, 1S62' 
when he resigned. 

2. Nicholas Christaian, ar. Third Sergeant trj |une i, 1S61, Second 
Sergeant to March 2, 1802, then Second Lieutenant to November 20, 1S62. 
when he resigned. 

3. Alexander McKay, 29, Private to September ly, 1861, then Corporal 
to January 1, 1862, then Sergeant to .\ovember 20, 1862, then Second 
Lieutenant to March 20, 1863, then mustered out. 

4. John C. Fairchild. 22, (Jorporal to March i, 1S62, then Sergeant to 
March 20, 1863, then Second Lieutenant. 


1. Joseph Fitzgerald, 22, Private to April i, 1862, then Sergeant. 

2. William Nicholson, .'j, Private to January i, 1802, then Corporal to 
November 20, 1862, then Sergeant. 

3. James Reed, 22, Private to January i, 1863, then Corporal to No- 
vember 20, 1S63, then Sergeant. 

4. Albert Blakely, Corporal to Nov. 2, i86r, then Sergeant. 


1. Thomas Riley, 20, [promoted to Corporal, Dec. i, 1862. 

2. William D. Gilleo. 23. 

3. Richard Champenois, 18, promoted Jidy r, 1862. 

4. Andrew J. Beisinger, ig, promoted lulv 2t, 1862. 

5. Henry Zorn, 28, promoted July 21, i8()2. 

6. Norman P. Brown, 24. mustered Feb. 25, 1862, promoted Julv2i. 1862. 

7. Samuel Murdock, 22, mustered December b, 1801, promoted March 
I. 1863. 

3. Alonzo E. Harding, 18, mustered March 17, 1862, promoted March 
I. 1S63. . , ,. 

Mt sl( 1AN>. 

1. John Horton, 25, niu tered June 25, i8tii. 

2. Charles Jessu[), musteied September i, 18M. 


1. Albaugh, Isaac, 21, mustered September i, i86[. 

2. Buckley, William, 34. 

3. Barnes, John, 33. 

4. Burns. Patrick, i8. ...f - ' , • - 

5. Burns, James, 19. 
f). Bunyea, Albert, 21. 

7. Oawford, James R. T., 30. 

S. Collard, Augustus, 2 <. 

y. Conklin, Abram G., 25. 

10. Craigin, (leorgt- \V.. 23. 

11. Cronan, Tiniotlu , 24. 

12. Dykeman. .\lbeit. 20. 

13. Delavan, Charles H., i.,, musteied Sepit-mber i, i80t. 

14. Dick, Charles VV.. 22. 

U'.'V ii 

I'lM ,1 II.) 


PRIVATES — Continued. 

15. Demarest, Charles, 18, musteied Jul\- 10, 1S61, wounded and taken 
prisontT at Bull Run, July 21, 1861. returned to regiment, April 30, 1S63. 

16. Felter, William H., 21, mustered March 4, 1861. 

17. Gale, George, 19. 

i3. Green, Lawrence, 23. ' ■ 

19. Harris, Samuel, iS. . , i , . 

20. Jones, William, iS. ". , , . '" 

21. Lavinus, Abram F., i3. 

22. Lavinus, George, 23, mustered July 10, iS6r. 

23. Martin, William, 22. 

24. McLean, Robert, 35, mustered July 10, i86r. 

25. McAinch, Daniel, 22. .' \ 

26. O'Brien, Andrew, 28. , 

27. Pattison, Henr}- D., iS, mustered July lo, 1861. 
28 Quinii, Christopher, 21. 

2g. Reynolds, Edward, 22. 

30. Shaughnessy, John, 22. 

31. Stokem, Alexander, 36. mustered Aug. 20, i86r. 

32. Smith, Willard, 25, mustered July 10. 1861. ■ ' 

33. Williamson, James 24. 

34. Whiston. Charles B., 28. -. S. . . 

35. Wright, Lewis, 25. 

3b. White, Martin, 39, mustered July 10,1861. ". 


1. Billings, George, 18, discharged February 10, 1863. 

2. Cole, John, 26, mustered Sept. r, i36i, discharged Feb. 10, 1863. 

3. Dibble. William, 26, discharged October 31, iSt>2. 

4. Dixon, John, 26, mustered Nov. iS, 1S61, discharged Feb. 5, 1863. 

5. Driscoll, Timothy, 40, mustered Sept. r, 1S61, disch. Xov. 20, 1862. 

6. Evans, John, 26, discharged May 15 1S63. 

7. Fisher, David G., 22, mustered July 10, 1S61, disch. July 14, 1863. 
S. Gray, Charles, 18, mustered July 10, 1S61, discharged Mar. 29, 1862. 
9. Johnson, John, 32, discharged September i, 1S61. 

10. Kane, John, 21, discharged October 25, 1861. 

11. Mason, Nathaniel, 45, mustered July 10, 1S61, discharged Decem- 
ber 24, 1862. 

12. Pride. Theodore, 21, mustered September 6, 1861, discharged 
Fcbruarv- lo, 1803. 

13. Purdy, Eugene, i3, discharued March 25, 1862. 

14. Riker, William H., 23, discharged August 20, 1862. 

15. Sweeney, James, 25, mustered July ro, rS6i, disch. Oct. 2;, 1S62. 
ifi. Travis,, iS, discharged March 25, 1S62. 

17. Thompson, Samuel .M., 2j. ii.ustered March 4, 1862, discharged 
December 12. i?(.2. 

18. Writrht. John, 23, discharged Julv 10. 1862. 

19. Wright, Nathaniel, mustered July 10, 1861, discharged May 25, 1862. 

r I? 

iobl /£ i»M 



1. Frazcr, Henry, 20, transtent'd to Co. " H," St-ptembcr 10. 1S61, by 
order of Col. Bartlett. 

2. Tucker, Jacob. 21, transtt-ned to Co. " K." Jiine, 20, 1861, by 
order of Col. Bartleit. 


1. Burke, Charles, 24, lU'istered Julv 9, t.S6r, died October 16, 1861. 

2. Cantlin, John, 26, mustered February 20. iSb2, killed in battle of 
Crampton's Pass, September 14, rS62. 

3. Hawkins, Thomas. 33, acridentaliv shot, November 27, 1S62, at 
Alexandria, Va. 

4. Hoyt, Jesse, 20, mustered Jul\ ro. iSfn, died in hospital. Hatrers- 
town, Md., October 29, 1862. 

5 Murden, Jerry. 22, mustered July 10, iri6i ; murdered in Elmira, 
N. Y., July 21, iS(.r. 

6. Newman, John, 36, died in hospital, Marrh nth, 1S62. 

7. Simmonton, John, 25, mustered July 10, 1S61, dit-d in hospital, 
Januar)- 12, 1S62. 

8. Walkei, Henry H., 20, died in hospital. Philadelphia, August 22, 
1862, from wounds received at tiaines' Mill. 


1. Boj'er, JohnG., 21, muster -J Feb. 2^, 1S62, deserted Mav 20, 1S62. 

2. Chamberlain, John, iq, taken prisoner at Bull Run, July 21, iSbi. 
deserted June rS, 1S62. 

3. Corney. George, 21, from battle-field of Antietam, Sept. 16, 1S62. 

4. De Noyelles. Levi L., 18, from battle-held of Gaines' Mill, June 
27, 1S62. 

5. Farrinoton, Daniel D., 25, niusterrd Julv 10, iShi, from .Alexan- 
dria, Va., Se[)t. i^, 1562. 

6. Huver, John. 28. uuislered |al\ 10, i8()i, from .Mexandria, \'a., 
.'\pril 20, 1S62. 

7. Lent, Cyrus, 22, from \Vashiu_'tun, I). ("., .\u-ust 22, 1S62. 
S. Nains, George W., 23, Llmiia, Junt- iS, i^Gi. 

q. Shafjer. Lewis, Sergt., 20. from .Mexandria. \'a., August 20, i6t,2. 

10. Shreaves, Charles, 23, fiom .Vlc.v.mdria, \':i., Oct, 22, iS(>i. 

11. Sloat, Jesse B., 19, from b.ittle-h< Id of Gaiias' .Mill, June 27, 1862. 

12. Washington, James F., 24, from .Antietam, St-ptt-mber 16, ia62. 


(/« acVi'rJa,Uc :.<irh G: i>>d,i .\\<. /Oj, Hqrs. I, my of tlie Foto»,uc.) 

1. Barret, Elias, 22, taken prisoner at battle Bull Run, [ulv 21, i-noi. 

2. Shenvoiid, .\.iioii, ii, 

3. Smith, ihoiuas. i„, taken pii^o.ur. b.ittl. Hull Run. Jul> 21, i-oi. 

4. Millet. S.unuel. 21, .Mu-^irjan. 

5. Bronson, James, 21. 

v^r.i ,-^w •.•Hin\y*r,/i . ( ;, yt.iii 'III 

•->:*>' I .Oil I ((■• i.' 1. 
: ie;.i, •. i^iii'ii-'-t.l'Cf'i. 

t'?'l .:-! |;i.l;,.J; 


A ) 




1. Alexander D. Adams, 2S, Captain from enrollment to Sept. r, 
1861, then Lieutenant-Colonel to Oct. 4, 1S62, then Colonel. 

2. Henr\' R. White, 27, First Lieutenant from enrollment to Sept. i, 
iSfii, then Captain. Wounded in battle of Gaines' Mill, June 27, iS(i2. 


1. William U. Swan, 44, Second Lieutenant from enrollment to 
Sept. I, 1S61, then First Lieutenant to July 24, 1862, then Captain Co. 
" H " until March, 1S63, then resigned. 

2. William C. Belden, 19, Corporal to Sept. i, 1S61, then Fifth Ser- 
i,^eant to Dec. r, iS6r, then Fourth Sergeant to Aug. 5, 1862, then Second 
Sergeant to July 25, 1S62, then First Lieutenant, to Jan. 4, 1363, then re- 
signed. Lost left arm in the battle of ("rampton's Pass, Scpi. 14, 1862. 

3. Crosby Hopkins, 30, Third Sergeant to August 20, 1862, then Sec- 
ond Lieutenant to Jan. 4, 1S63, then First Lit-utenant. 


1. Charles L. Gaul, 26, Sergeanl-Major to Sept. i, iS6r, then Second 
Lieutenant to .\ug. 20, iSt)2, then died of disease, at New York city. 

2. Charles bherman 22, Fourth Sergeant to Dec. i, 1861, then Third 
Sergeant to August 5, 1S62, then Fiist Sergeunt to Jan. 4, 1863 then Sec- 
ond Lieutenant. 


1. George M. Belden, 21, Private from enrollment to Sept. i, 1861, 
then Corp(jral to Dec. i, tS()l, then Fifth Sergeant to .Aug. 5, i8()2, then 
Third Sergeant to [an 4, 1863, then First Sergeant. 

2. William Shattmk, 22, promoted to C.orporai, Sept. r, 1861. to 
Third Sergeant, Sept. 1, 1S62, to Second Sergeant. Jan. 4, 1863. 

3. John C. Hooper, 26, promoted to Coriiural Dec. i, 1S61, to Fourth 
Sergeant Sept. i, 1862, to Third Sergeant Jan. 4, 1863, wounded at Fred- 
ericksburg, .NLiy 3, i^b2. 

4. James C. P.owen, 23, promoted to Corporal Sept. i, 1861, then to 
ranks Dec. I, 1801, then Fifth SfiLrcant to |an. 4, 1863, then Fourth beriit. 

5. William Rook«-r. 25, promoted from Corporal to hifth isergeant 
Jan. 4, i».(.j. 


1. John D. Mc\'iiar, 21, wounded in battle of Gaines' Mill. June 
27. 1862. 

2. -Alnu-ron Cianneli, 20. promoted to Corftoral .August I, 1862. 
Taktii prisomr at Hull Run, July 21, i>)()i. 

3. John Fosmirt-. 24, proniotcd to Coipoijl .\ui.;ust 1, 1862. 

4. James Lllison, 20, piomoicd to C,)ip.,i.\! .Sept. 1. 1.--02 

5. Joseph C. Sampson. 24, promo'.i-d to (oipoiai Sept. 1, 161,2. 
f>. Franklin Hi <o\. tc), piouioitd to (.'oiporal Scpi. 1. i>o2. 

7. George C. Rouker, 18, pronioifd to < oiporal Sept., I302. 

8. Wm. H. Mclntyre, 20, promoted to Corporal Jan. 4, 1863. 


.t nr.] cl Mi,.i'!.:i/1mJ tsfn 

l'ij;i::;>ll' <i-l .< 




1. Allen, Willard, 18. 

2. Althen, Charles, 19. 

3. Adams, Lewis, tg, dropped and restored. ' '"'■•■ "■ ' 

4. Braden, Joseph A., 21. 

5. Brett. William, iS. 

6. Brown, Henrj- VV., c6, wounded in battle of Fredericksburg, 
May 3d, 1863. 

7. Bulyea, Francis, 18. 

S. Buell, Dexter, 19, mustered July 5, iS6i. 
9. Cassidy, Andrew, 2S. 

10. Czerney, Godfred, 28, mustered July 5, 1861. 

11. Disbrow, Robert, iq, taken prisoner May 4. 1S63, battle of Fred- 

12. Durkee, Robert M., 20. > • ' 

13. Durkee. James, 27. ■'■ ':' ■ ' ' " ' 

14. Dwinnell, Roderick, 20. ' '.. ■ ■ 

15. Dwinnell, Myron H., 18. ' ' ' " ' t 

16. Dunn, Gibson, 20. : .: : 4 , 

17. Earaes, John C, 31. 

18. Ehret, Michael, mustered Nov. 28, 1861. ' ' ■•• - ■• • 

19. Foster, George, 34, mustered Nov. 2S, r86i. 

20. Hill, Sylvester C., 21. 

21. Hilliard, Thomas. 40, mustered Julv 5, 1S61. 

22. Jensee, Charles K.. 30, mustered Julv 5, 1861. 

23. Knoblock, John, iS. 

24. Klumpp, George, 18, mustered Nov. 27, 1861. 

25. Lehner, George, iS. 

2f>. Lawrence. Raymond D., iS, dropped from rolls, and restored 
May IX, 1863. 

27. Murpin. Cornelius W., 21. '■ '• ' ■ 

28. Murphy, Patrick, r8, mustered fuiy ;, i36i. 

29. MctJumber, Edwin, 18. mustered Now 2<>. 1861. 

30. Mahaney, James, 19, mustered July ?, 1801. -■ ^ 

31. Odell, Charles, 22. 

32. Puffer, Charles A., 18. 

33. Potter, Henry, 31, taken sick August 28, 1862, in hospital till 
Dec. 15. l^t:2. 

34. Pudney, Richard D., 19, dropped from tlit- r(jils, and restored, 
April 17, i8t)3. 

35. Reeling, William, I9. 
3tj. Riiokci, Henry, 20. 

37. Smith, William, 18. ^"^ 

3.^. Sinilh, |..!iii r., 20. 

39. Shiiuian, LaFayette, 19. taken prisoner. Dec. 12,1862, and parolled. 

4.J. b>uit/el, John li., 18. 

41. Snedakei, James W., 21. 

42. Tindall, George VV., 26. 

ii>Ja'»"i bin. .*ll* 

u ,pi .«] t' 


PRIVATES. — Contiuilr'ii. 

43. Tifling, Thomas H., 20. 

44. Thomas, William, 25. 

45. Walrath, George H., taken prisoner. May 4, 1S63, at FredericksbV. 

46. Westfall, David, 2.1. 

47. Williams. Georije \V., k). :? . , . , 

4S. Westfall. Martin, 21. .t • •, - , ,.., ,,- . 

49. Whitney, Myron H.. 22. 

50. Zimmerman, Augustus, i3. : • -•, • ;,,•; 


r. Bullock, Royal f., 44, dis<-harged Dec. 29, 1S62. 

2. Betts, Thomas S., 21, discharged Aug. 14, iS6r. , , .,,. ;• 

3. Cosart, John H., 17, discharged Aug. 26, 1S61. Minor. 

4. Carey, John E.. 18, discharged Feb. iS, 1863. 

5. Foster, Edward P., discharged Aug. 10, iS6x. 

6. Hill. Eben L., iS, discharged Aug. 14, iS6f. 

7. Jones David, 25, mustered July 5, 1S61, discharged April 14, iS(»2. 
S. Klumpp. Theodore, 19, mustered [uly 5, tS6i, discharged 

(line 19, 1S62. 

9. King, Thomas, 24, mustered Nov. 25, 1S61, wounded in battle of 
Gaines' Mill, discharged Dec. 31, 1S62. 

ID. Leonard, .\mbrose, 19, discharged .-Vpril 5, 1S62. 

11. Leuch, Edwin, iS, discharged Nov. 21, 1S62. 1 

12. .Miller, Otto. 32. discharged Dec. 29, 1:562. 

13. Rhodeuback, lacob, 22, discharged Oct. 25. 1S62. 

14. Snilliiig, William, 22, ilischarged Dec. 17, iS(')2. 

15. Smith, George N.. iS, mustered July 5, iS()i, disch'd [an. 7, 1S63. 

16. Vosburgh, William, 19, discharged April 29, 1662. 

17. Van Amburgh, .\lnam, 25, discharged August 3, i8ti2. 

iS. Vaughan, Janus, 33. wounded in b.uti<- of Gaines' Mill, dis- 
charged Sept. 13, i;f)2. 

IQ. Wiley, Jonathan G., 21, discharged Oct. i, 1861. 

20. Williams, Seneca, icj. mustered ful\ 5. iShi. disch'd |ulyi2, i362. 


1. Ellis, Clark C., 23. promot.-d to bergraat Major. Aug. 30, 1S62. 

2. Goodrich. Melvillt- W., 27, promoted to .Vdjutant Dec. 1, iSoi, 
dismissed Aug. 30, i?'j2. 

3. Holmes, Roliert E., 21, promoted to First Sergeant Dec. i, 1S61 ; 
Aug. 5. 15<)2, lo Second Lieutenant in lo^th New York, ami killed at 
Antietain. Sent. 17, iS()2. , , 


r. .Vli.-r. 21. won.ui.-d ami tikeii prisoner in the battle of 
(Jaims- .Mill, ex. li.uii^rd. .iiid die! jiiiv Jo. 1 -o.-. 

2. .\m.Ki-oi., Rowl.imI 1',., 23, July J, i-oj, dud ot uoumis received 
in battle ol Gaines' Mill. 

3. Brink. Chester, 3S, prisoner, died in Richmond, July 2, i362. 

>timjf. ■. .^r«< >1 .'/<,/ 

n..l ;. 

-.1. ,(li" 

: 1 ,•; ■ ru : ]< 



,,< -.Ijll 1 

•'" "■ -"■ 

I'-.^noj I - 



.V (U, 

'I .r- -'I 


DI ED — Contin tied. 

4. Dunn, Charles, 18, died of disease, Dec. 2, iSfii. 

5. Hennington, Edward, i3, died of disease, Nov. 20, iSf>2. 

6. Keesler, Alfred, 21, died of disease. Dec. 15, 1S61. 

7. Laper, Frederick, 35, died of disease, Oct. 13, 18^12. 

8. Mills, Joseph, 21, died of disease. Dec. 13, iSOi. 

9. Morey, George, 23, mustered Nov. 27, 1861, died of disease, 
April 3, 1S62, 

10. McElvain, William, rS, mustered July 5, iSfir, died July 2. iSf>2, 
of wounds received in battle of Gaines' Mills. 

11. Strickland, Lewis ('., 15, died July 2, iSri2, of wounds received in 
the battle of Gaines' .Mill. 

12. Seavey. Joseph, 23, promoted to Corporal Sept. i, iSfii, killed in 
battle of Gaines' Mill, June 27, 1S62. 


1. Blynn, Chauncey. — , mustered July 5. j86i, deserted .\ug. 13, tSoi. 

2. Fingleton, John 21, deserted Aug. 30, 1S62. 

3. Fossett, Samuel, — , mustered July 5, 1S61, deserted July 22, iSoi. 

4. Graves, Geo. C, 24, mustered Nov. 28, 1S61, deserted Aug. 30, iS()2. 

5. Martens, x\dolph, 30, deserted fuly 22, 1S61. 

6. Phillips, .\ndrew, — , mustered July 5, i86t, deserted July 26, 1S61. 

7. Richardson. David, — , mustered Julys. '^(". deserted Aug. 13, '61. 


1. Lake, Abram, mustered Nov. 2t), is(.i, whereabouts unknown. 

2. Metzker, Jacob, 44, Nov. 21), i8bi, supposed to have been killed in 
the battle of Gaines' .Mill. 

3. Thorn, Samuel, 2?, whereabouts unknown. 

4. Weaver, Spencer (.'., 2r, in iKjspital, Fort Srhu\ler. 

CO.MPANV ••(-.' 


1. Joseph J. B.utlttt. 2fj, Capt.iin from enrollment to May 21, 1861 ; 
then NLijoi until ^>ept. 1, i^tn: promoted to Hrigadier-General < )rt. 4. iSf)2. 

2. Edward L. i-ewis. ji. Fiist Lieutenant from enrollment to Mav2i. 
i8(ii ; then (,"aptain until .\ug. 2, ib()i ; then resigned. 

3. Charles A. Wells, k,, Second Lieutenant from euKjllnif-ut until 
.NLty 21, 1S61 ; then KirM Lit-utenant to Sept. i, i5()i ; then (/apt.iin. 
Assigned to duly .is Oidn.mci- (, i-.t [)iv , Mh Corps, .\pi. 20, 1803. 

Hk->I I.lKi Jl' N AN In. 

1. Geork;-- IL Muid. K.b. 23, iS(,2. b> Gen. .Mc- 

J. |..Mi,-s .M. \ JO, pinm..i>-d !i,,in Thinl S, i,,raul Feb. 15. 

I?<i2, in liiiamand «)i lb. ('miui-.iu> .iiui |ul\ J, i-(,.'. 

-V.i 'j\\> I in TKN \.N IS. 

!. J:iiiies King. -o. liuisti-iL-d htl>. 5, isoi, promoted irom Private 
Scyt. I, isfJ, ifcsigiied .\l-ii' !i 8, 1^02. 

i htWxi .i.^'-i I c-js^' kit lu.'-i 

r/ ,,( .,,.w.,n.. 

I/. ,:v.'- ;.tMO mI ■ ■■! ;•: '• • ' ' 

1 ..i-,-\ >,<> .>!■>'' 

: 1 ,i,,. 

im'U i> 

t l>-j(l'rf'R(tA 

(I . 1 i> <:,!• .' 

-.1 l/.ull 

H ->. 



2. lohn E. Ronk, i>, promoted from Fourth Sergeant May 7. 1S62. 
wounded at Gaines" Mill, resigned Nov. 13, 1S62. 

3. Eri S. Watson, 26, ptomoted from Corporal to First Sergeant May 
7, 1S62, to Second Lieutenant Nov. 13, 1S62. 


1. Joshua V. N. Williams, iS, promoted to First Sergeant Nov. 13, 62. 

2. Frederick L. (ilcason, 23, promoted from Corporal May 7, 1S62. 

3. Gilbert Mix, 22. promoted from F'rivate Dec. 3, 1S62. 

4. Robert Way, 20, mustered July 5, 1S61, promoted from Private 
Dec. 3. iSh2. 

5. Allen Banks, 20, mustered July 5, 1S61, promoted from Private 
Nov. 13. 1S62. 


1. Orlan Harmon, 36, promoted May 7, 1S62. 

2. George W. F. Fanning. 22, promoted May 7, 1S62. taken prisoner 
at Bull Run. 

3. Howard Evans, 21. mustered Oct. i3, 1S61, promoted May 7. 1862. 

4. Alvin (iibbs, 25, mustered Julys, 1S61, promoted Dec. 3, i3C)2. 

5. John Stowell, 20, mustered Sept. r, i56i, promoted Dec. 3, 1S62. 

6. Alexander Bailey, 23, promoted Jan. 24, 1S63. 

7. Charles F. Yennc, 20, taken prisoner at Bull Run, July 21, i36i, 
returned Dec. 10, 1S62, promoted Jan 24, 1S63. 

S. Alonzo C. Taft, 19, promoted Jan. 24, 1863. 


1. Lewis W. (Chichester, 30. 

2. Claude Dcaipscy. 20. 

rRU'.\rES. - - . 

1. Austin, William C, 25. 

2. Abell, Oramel D.. 23. 

3. Anson, John, 26, mustered July 5, i86t. 

4. Allard, Andrew H., 2u, mustered Oct. 12, 1S61. 

5. Adams, >Lirtin IL, 20. 
U. Baron. Orvilie. 20. 

7. Bowker, William H.. 25. 

S. Benson, Henry N.. iS. 

g. Benson, Isaac, 21, mustered Sept i, 1S61, absent (sick) from Sept. 
15, 1S62. to >Liy 5, I •^63. 

10. Brown, Daviil. 21. 

11. Brown. Simeon, ii). 

12. Bi.ick, Sherlock F.. 20. 

13. Burrow-^, Worcester S., 20, mustered luly 5, iStu. 

14. Mariow, .\)h1 J . 21. nm-«tereil Oct. I(), T>'ii. 

15. Burrows, (Je.irLre W., i-;, mustered ()ct. 17, iSOi. 
\(k Bixl.y, Calvin li..24. 

17. Boyden, Inlm, 19, taken [irisoner at Bull Run. 
iS. Case, S. (lirard, 24. 

nil i);»J's»Jij'.n(i .iOfl .,; /; 

>:■ , ; •'■•"ji! .it) ' , V.' .-.iv;'>.! ,i 

! .•-! JA^ i- 

q'j> im'm\ <ij\p. 

^-r-- I 'V 


PRIVATES — Contin tied. 

19. Clow, |ohn, 21. mustered Sept. 30, 1861. 

20. Dorn, John, 19. 

21. Driscoll, Michael, 21. 

22. Divine, Eber S., 22, imistercd Oct. f), 1S61. 

23. Fowler, Harvey C, 22, inusiercd Oct. 12, rS6i. 

24. French, Jonathan. 21. 

25. Gillick. Thomas. 21. , -_^. . ' > , , ., ., 

26. Groat, Simon, 28. ''' ' " "' ' 

27. Hokirk, Oliver, 21. , . . , . .. „ " 

28. Johnson, Levi R.. ly. ' '^ ' ' 

2c_). Jay, William S., iS, \^ i > ^ 

30. Lambert, Clark, 19. 

31. Lovejoy, George, 43, mustered Oct. 18, 1S61. 

32. Lovelace, fames F., 25, mustered Oct. 16, i><)i. , . , 

33. Leonard, Charles R., mustered Oct. 12, rS6i. '' ^^_^^ 

34. Lakin, James C, 24, mustered Scjit. 30, iSfii. 

35. Lull, Harrison, 19, mustered Feb. 5, iSbi. 

36. Milhnorc, Patrick, 22. 

37. Martin, Robert, rS. 

38. Pratt, Francis, 19, mustered Feb. 5, 1S61. - , 

39. Post, Leu-is f., 21. mustered Oct, 17, rSt'ji. ' 

40. Sterlinu, Melvin F., 27. 

41. Short, Joseph, 32. . 

42. Southwnrth, Charles, 27, mustereil July >, 1861. 

43. Stoutenburg, Lawrence N.. 20, mustered Sept. 23, iSCii. 

44. Tripp, William H., if), mus'd Oct. 2S. i8i>i, ilr(j|iped, and restureil. 

45. Vandervort, Jnlin. 23, uuistend Oct. 17. \>.U-[ . 

4f). Van .Mstitie, William H.. 35. Cikcn prisoner at Bull Run. 

47. Whitman, .Mbert (i., 23. 

48. Whitney, Franklin, K). ' .^ 

49. Walker, .Abram, 27, mustered Oct. 12, i8f)T. '|'' 


1. Blair, Morris P., 22, Coifior.d, discharged Jan. 5, 18(13. 

2. Ballard, Leu-is W., 2,1, discharged Aul:. 12, r:>r,T. 

3. Blanshau Everett, iS, mustered Oct. 12, l36i, discharged Feb. 
9. 1S63. 

4. Burrow;, .Avery W., 21, musK red Oct. 17, iSGi, discharged 
Feb. 9, 1863. 

5. Butler, John W., iq, disch.itged Jan. 28. i8')3. 

6. (Toe, Henry. 21, discharj^ed March 2*5, 1S62. 

7. Crumb, Samuel H., 19, musician, discharged Auu. r, r^f>i. 

'^. Coiu.iu-. J. •trill). 44, musicrc d Oct. I'l, iSdi , di.s' Ii:Ul;.-,| \m\_ j, iS()3. 

<). Callrrtv. IMuard M.. M. disciiar-e.l Aui:. 12, \>U\ . 

I.). Dura.ul,, 1^. taken iTisouer at Bull Run, July 21, 

l8fii, wounded in batlle of Cr.iuiplon's Pass, discluii-cd March 14 iSd;,. 

II. llokirk, (li'orge, 18, discb.irgid Se[U. 30, i-^tji. 


1 •Vd loi M.'li. 


DlsrHARf.Ei^ FOR DISABILITY — Continued. 

12. Huise. Hiram W., 44, mustered Oct. r6, rS6i, discharged Feb. 10, 
1S62, on account of injuries received while in line of duty. 

13. Hotchkiss, Horatio G.. 30. mustered Oct. 16, 1S61, discharged 
April 25. 1862. 

. 14. Hangi, Joseph, ^,0, discharged April 14, 1863. 

15. Lynch, Thomas, 44. mustered Oct. 23, 1861. discharged Dec. 3, 
1862 ; old age ; fifth enlistment. 

16. Lakin, Chester, 26, mustered July 5, 1S61, discharged Oct. 12, 
1S62, loss of finger by accident. 

17. Landphier, Deronda, iS, mustered July 5, 1S61, discharged 
.Aug. 6, 1.S61. 

18. McGuire, Michael, 20, mustered July 5, iS6t, discharged Jan. 
10, 1S62. 

19. Perry, Charles, iS, discharged Jan. to, 1862. 

20. Potter.Wm. H., 22, mustered Feb. 5, '61, discharged Aug. 12. 1862. 

21. Schramm, Charles B., 33, discharged Oct. 31, 1S62. 

22. Service, Charles W.. mustered Feb. 5, 1S61, discharged Aug. 
8. rSf.i. 

23. Tompkins, William H., 24, discharged Dec. 2?, r86i. 

24. Tompkins. Thomas W., 20, discharged Aug. 6, 1861. 

25. Wheeler, Henry O., 21, Sergeant, mustered Feb. ^5, 1S61, discharged 
Ian. 17, 1S62. 


1. Andrews, George M., 19, taken prisoner at battle of Bull Run, 
died in Richmond, Va., Aug. 15, 1S61. 

2. Butler, George, 19, taken prisoner at Bull Run, parollcd in May, 
1862, died .Aug. 21, i?62. 

3. Clark, Jason B., 20, died June 10, 1S61. at Elmira, N. Y. 

4. Green, Martin, 2S, died Dec. 11, 1S61. 

• 5. Maine, Cornelius W., 23, Sergeant, died Dec. 23, 1862 

(). Shaw, Jas. G.. 39, mustered October 24, 1S61, died March 2(), 1862. 
7. Ward, James B., 33, mustered Oct. 16, 1861, died July, 1S62, after 
having been parolled. 


1. Butler, John, H), at battle Bull Run, July 21, iSbi. 

2. Coe. lohn, 20, at battle Fredericksbug, Va., M.iy 4, 1863. 

3. Esterbrook, Samuel, 21, at battle Bull Run, July 21, 1861. 

4. Miller, Norman S., 25, at battle Bull Run, July 21, r'<6T. 

5. Parker. William H., 20, at battle Games" Mill, June 27, 1862. 


1. Bartholemew, James, 25, deserted Aug. 7, 1861. 

2. Davis, George, 21, deserted .\ul;. 14, i^*")!. 

3. Dalton, Gilberi, 3(), mustend Oct. 2^, I'^'n, de.-^crted Jan. 25. 181,2. 

4. Gafleny, John. i>5, mustL-red Oct. 7, iS6i, deserted Sept. 17. 1S62. 

5. Hill, John, 3S, deserted .\ug. 21. 1861. 

6. Larkin, Daniel W., 20, deserted April 15, 1862. 

.a vjiil 

i^i'-?)-. ■w'lh td' 


DESERTED — Ccnttimtcii. 
7. Leonard, Theodore NL, 20, Sergeant, deserted Oct. 2, 1S61. 
S. Richmond, F^Jwin S., k), deserted September, 1S61. 
9. Twitchell, Theodore, 22. deserted Ante. 11, 1S61. 
10. Warner, Samuel IL, 33, deserted \\\\\ 21, 1S61. 


1. Barnes, William, 25, taken prisoner at Bull Run. 

2. Barwise, James, 21, luirse in hospital at Fortress Monroe. 

3. Dunn, Geo. W., 21, Serjeant, taken prisoner at Bull Run. paroiled 
in May. 1S62, commissioned as Captain Togth New York Regiment. 

4. Davis, Eugene >L, 24, Sergeant, taken prisoner at Bull Run, pa- 
rolled in May, 1S62, commissioned as Captain iu<)tli New York Regiment. 


I. Carmcr, Charles E.. 22, transferred to the Second Regular Battery. 

COMI\ANY •• D." 


X. Hiram C. Rogers, 26, promoted to A.A.G. on Gen. Slocum"s staff, 
July 20, 1S62. 

2. Albert G. Northrop, 27, was Sergeant to July 21, 1S61, Second 
Lieutenant to July 2. 1S62, Captain to Nov. 27. r>52, when he resigned. 

3. .Albert ^L Tyler, 20, was private to July 20. 1S62, then Second 
Lieutenant till Nov. 27, I?^i2. then Captain, assigned to dutv as .Assistant 
Commissioner of Muster, Hdcirs. First Div., Sixth Corps, Ai)ril 20. 16O3. 

riRsl' I.IK.l'TE.NANTS. 

1. Henry C. Jackson, 26, resigned Xw^:. 7, 1^61. 

2. Edwin D. Comstock, 21, Sergeant to Xwx. 7, 1S61, then First 
Lieutenant. Feb. S promoted to (\aptain of Co. "A." 

3. (jeorge .\. Dickson, 24, promoted to Tirst Serge.itit Sept. r, i^M ; 
to First Lieut. Feb. ^. fv(.2. Dismissetl bv order {'resident. On. ri. i>'.2. 

4. William >L .Nimbs. 21, pronL.te.i Oct. 11, lihz. from Sergeant in 
Co. "H' to First Lieutenant of <^). " D." 

SKei'ND I IKI"ri:N AN IS. 

1. A>a Park, 35, killed in battle of Bull Run, [iilv 21, rS^.i. 

2. Charles .N. Elliott. iS. piomotrd to Sngeant Sept. i, i>ht ; to Sec- 
ond Lieutenant Nov. 27, 1S62. 

.-'F.Kr.E wi s. 
f. Oliver .\. Kilmer, 22. promoted to Corporal Nov. t, i.=;6i, then 
Serirr.uH NLiy 0, i-^t.2. 

2. Char.cey J. Durfee, 25, promoted from Private Sept. i, I'^oi. 

3. Edward Vl. Watson, 2;, promoted from C.) Sept. i. iSf.2. 

4. Frank Coleman, i^, prom.oted lu Corporal Sept. i, I'^di ; to Sci- 
gcant .^Iarch i. 1863. 


SERGEANTS — CoiltintieJ . 

5. Charles B. Fairchild, 19, taken prisoner at battle Bull Run, July 21, 
1S61; parolled May 22. i562; returned to regiment Oct. 4, iSti2 ; promoted 
from Corpora! March i, TS63. 


t. Lewis Walton. 34, [ironioled Sept. i, i3()2. 

2. Lewis H. Brown iS, musteied July 4, 1S61; promoted Sept. i, 1S61. 

3. Henry ^L Crocker, iS, promoted Nov. i, 1S61. 

4. fieo. O. Pratt, .S. mustered Aug. 22, 1S61; promoted Sept. 12, 1862. 

5. Wm. H. Sipie. 2u, mustered Aug. 26, 1861; promoted Sept. 12, 1662. 

6. Wm. K. Jolinson, 23, mustered Oct. 3, 1S61; promoted Mch. i, 1S63. 

7. Wm. IL (iray, 22, [>r(jmolcd March i, 1S63. 

S. Williams, Klijili P., i>, [aumoled to Corporal, Feb. S, 1S62. 


1. Charles Winter, 22. 

2. Charles Van Horn. Ky. 


1. .\ylswortli, William J.. — , mustered Aug. 30, iS6t. 

2. Burrows, John W., 24. 

3. Bentley, Francis, 3(1. 

4. Cole, Russell S., 21. 

5. Crawford, Ale.xander, 20, nmstered Sept. 30, 1S61. 

6. Case. John (i., 20, mustered Aug, 30, 1S61, dropped, and restored 
to roll, having been absent, sick in hospital. 

7. Dickinson, Alonzo, 23. mustered Aug. 30, 1S61. 
S. Dickinson, Reuben H., 25. 

9. Dyer, Pardee S.. 28, mustered Sept. i, 1S61, dropped, atjsent, sick 
in hospital, returned NLiy 20. 1803. 

10. Fagen, James P., 20. 

11. Fowler. Frederick, 22. . ; • 

12. Finch, Abicl. 2>. 

13. Forker, Richard. 2u, mustered Aug. 30, 1861. • ; , ' ,, 

14. <^age, Aaron W., 21. 

15. Gorman, >LTtthia>;. 22. 

16. Harding, Cluuk-s .\., 23. 

17. Hobbs, Jonas, 35. musieied .\u;:. 30, lS6l. 

iS. Hurlburt, GeoriieL.. 21, mustered .:\.ug. 30, 1S61. 

19. Johnson, William \\.. iS, mustered .\ug. 30, iSbr. 

20. Kilmer, George L,, 18, mustcnd March 20, i'^ri2. 

21. Lay, William H.. 24. 

22. McLauiihlin. Joliu 24. 

23. Minkler, fesse. 34. mustered .An-. 30, iSdr. 

24. Moote, J.ui\es 1;,. I--, inuslncd (),i. 12, I>mi. 

25. Paddleford, Xael. 24, mii-tn.d May 24, iv.r. 

26. Pratt. D.ivid, 24, musiited .\u-. 27, i^in. 

27. Piatt, Chailes W.. 2u, tnken prisoner at battle ol Hull Run. July 
21, iSOl, parolled Nhiy 3, tS62, dropped, and restored to roll, .NLir. 30, 1SO3. 


PRIVATES — Co II till tied. 

28. Reid, Edwin S., iS, dropped, and restored to roll. 

29. Spencer, Benjamin F., 24. 

30. Spencer, Nelson, 21. ' ' 

31. Spencer, William W., 27. 

32. Spendlej-, William I.. 20. 

33. Slater, Charles, 19, accidentally wounded, absent, sick in hospital 
since Jan. 10, 1S63. 

34. Scott. Arthur, 18, mustered Aug. 30, 1S61. 






. 43 




Se\-mour, Albert, 19, mustered Oct. 3, 1S61. 
Smith, Henrv M., 25, mustered Sept. 30, 1S62. 

Sampson, William P., 19, wounded and taken prisoner at battle of 
Tanner, Watson B., 23, mustered Oct 12, 1S61. 
Webber, Charles, 22. ....>>. 

Wilkins, John, 30. 

Williams, Daniel F., 19, mustered July 4, 1S61. _ ^.^ .■■ 

Whittlesey, L. Hibbard, 20, mustered July 4, iSbi. 
Wilson, Benton H., iS. 

White, .\ddison (i., 2S, mustered Aui:. 30, i36i. 
Whitehead. James, 23, mustered Oct. i, 1S61. 
Winchell, 21, Samuel, mustered Oct. 5, 1S61. 
47. Waldorff, Henrj', 31, mustered Oct. 12, iSi'.i. 


1. Bartram, William H., 22, First Sers^eant, discharged Auii. i, 1S61. 

2. Armstrong, .Albert D., 20. Corporal, discharged Sej't. i, i^6i. 

3. Bolls. William D., 19, discharged Nov. i, iS()2. 

4. Booth, Alva, 20, mustered Oct. 12, 1S61. discharged Mav i, 1S62. 

5. Burrows. Stewart A., 23. discharged .May S, iS()^. 

6. Canoll. Hebcr. i3, discharged May, i562. 

7. Crawford, Alexander H., 27, mustered Oct. i. i'-6i. discharged 
March i. iS'o. 

S. Crissnian. Philip, i>., mustered .-Vug. 12, iS6i, disch. Dec. 12. 1SG2. 
9. Cone. Clark J.. iS, (.'orporal, discharged Mav S, iSd;. 

10. Francisc(j, Frank, 2?, discharged Sept. i, 1S61. 

11. Fairchild. Charles H., 24, disch.uged Jan. S, i^fi::. 

12. dates, William H., ^,0. mustered [ulv 4, 1S61. dischar^a'd Oct. 
31. 1S62 

13. (irimcs. Frank, 25, mustered July 4, iSfii. disch. .Nov. ! = , iSGl. 

14. Howard. .\sa L.. 20. mustered July 4. iSoi, disch'd Aug. 2, i?6i. 

15. Hopkins. William H.. 2^.\. mustered .Vuc 12. t^(.i, discharged 
Mav :5, i-,2. 

\U. Hughes. .Mbert. 23. mustered .\i;u. 12, \^(m . diS'iiVl Dec. I. l-f>2. 

\-. Leonard, Giiheri. 13. mustered Oct. u, i -m.i. disch'd Feli. 18. is62. 

iS. Lester. James, 30. discharged Feb. i. i>02. 

ly. Monroe. Thaddias S., 22, dischatged Dec. 3, 1662. 

'<>•( IK *' >;<r JflxJj. !.' 'b.i.'i'.>Vf 

Y i :JI8At::(.; Ni--^ J^HA \HDeiG 

i .CI .u../ 


DISCHARiiLD 1-OR IHSAlMiA i\ — C\uinntieiL 

20. McKune, Sidney A., 20, wounded and taken prisoner at battle of 
Bull Run, Ju!\- 21, 1S61, discharged Feb. 16, 1S62. 

21. Newman, Melvin A.. 20, (rcrporal, discharged Aug. iS, 1862. 

22. Osbcrn, Joseph R., itj, discharged Aug. 2, 1861. 

23. Paddleford, Newell. 2.^, mustered July 4, r86i, disch, July 21, 1862. 

24. Payne, Deloss, 34. discharged Jan. 20, 1862. 

25. Randall, William J., 37, musician, discharged Jan 10, 1S63. 

26. Sturdevanl, Stephen .A.. 22, discharged Aug. 30, i86r. 

27. Smith, Charles W., 20, mustered Oct. 12, 1861, disch. July i, 1S62. 

28. Thompson, Charles, iS, discharged Aug. 3, 1S61. 
29 Tripp, Joseph F., 35, discharged Jan. i. 1S63. 

30. Vanaukin, Gideon, }J . discharged Jan. i, 1S63. ,.^ ^t ' •" -sti' 

31. Wilco.x, Cxeorgc L., 27. discharired Jan. i. 1S62. 

32. Williamson, Georg".-, 23, St-rLreant, discharged fan. i, 1863. 


1. Brainard, William H. H., 2cj, ;)romoted to Second Lieutenant and 
transferred to Co. " F," Dec. 14, 1S62. 

2. Kirby. James P , 2^, promoted to Corporal, Nov. i, iS6r, pro- 
moted and transferred to Reg. Staff, Oct. 15, 1862. 

3. McCauley, James N , kj, mustered July 4, i86r, taken prisoner at 
Bull Run, transferred to — Pennsylvania Vols. 

4. Thompson, Charles K.. 23, mustered July 4. 1S61, Corporal, pro- 
moted to Sergdnt-Mainr. Nov. i. 1S61. 


1. Bailey. John L.. 2f. promoted from Corporal to First Sertreant, 
hot b)- rebel scout, at West I'oint, Va., Ma}- ^1. 1S62. 

2. Burge. Irvin S., 2N, killetl in action at ('laines' Mill, lune 27, 1S62. 

3. Brackett, Samuel. 2t), mustered July 4, i-itu. died Jan. 14, iS(j2, at 
Ale.xandria, \'a. 

4. Dwight, Websttr, 22, mustered 30, iSdi, died Jan. 20, 1862, 
at New York. 

5. Dwight, [osejih H., 2();mustered .\ng 20, i.^6r, died Dec. 21, i36i, 
at .Vlexandria. Va. 

6. Frederick. Ira. 24, iniist»,red July 4. 1801, killed in action at 
(laines' Mill, Juno 27, iSb2. 

7. Goodrich, J. Lafayette, 20, mustered Oct. 5, 1S61, killed in action 
at Cramptons Pass, Sept 14, 1S62. 

S. Harding. Ilenrv .\., 20, wounded at ;he battle of Gaines' Mill, 
June 27, lSh2. died .\ui:. 15. i*')2, at Phil.idelphia. Pa. 

<;. Meecham, Calvin, 2(>, killed in .action at Bull Run, July 21, iS6i. 

10. Phelps, Oscar, 22, mustered July 4, 1^61, died Aug. 11. 1862, at 
Phil.idelphia. Pa. 

11. Pardee, Cyrus, 2'). woun(k-d and tiktn prisc)ner at Hull \\i.\n. died 
in Richmond, about .Vul;. i, i^'')!. 

12 Snedaker, James V., lo, woiiiuled and taken prisoner at Bull 
Run, died in Richmond, Va., Sept. 14, isoi. 


.1<'1^1 ,JC .:)-iG ' Til/ ( ; -I.tir '- M •4- 



r. Hogan, John H., 25, taken prisoner at Bull Run, Julv 21, t36i, 
released Jan 21, 1S62, deserted Feb. 14, 1862. 
. 2. Howard, Chester, 28, deserted April 4, 1862. 

3. Hoyt. David, 25, mustered Oct. 11, 1S61, deserted March 20, 1S62. 

4. Trail, William, 23, taken prisoner at Bull Run, Julv 21, 1S61, de- 
serted March 20, 1862. 

5. Tiffany, George, 22, mustered Oct. ri, rS6i, deserted Dec. 31, 1S61. 

6. Ransom, George, 21, mustered Sept. i, 1S61, deserted Aug. 26, '62. » 

I Coon, James, 20. wounded and taken prisoner at Bull Run, 
dropped by General Order \o. 162. August 14. 1S62. submuster out', 
Aug. 19, 1664. 

2. Hedding, George. 17, dropped Aug. 14, 1S62, bv General Order 
No. 1C2.. 



1. George G. Wanzer. 21, promoted to Major, Oct. 4, 1S62. 

2. Edward P. Gould, 26, promoted from Second Lieutenant to First 
Lieutenant Feb. 26, 1S62 ; to Captain Oct 4, 1S62. 


1. Chas. S. Baker, 23, resigned on account of disabilitv, Feb. 26, 1S62. 

2. Geo. H. Robertson, — , promoted from First Sergeant in Co. •(;," 
to Second Lieutenant July 22, 1S62 : to First Lieutenant Oct. 4, 1S62. 


1. Joseph Webster, 28, promoted from Sergeant to First Sergeant 
Dec. I, 1S61 : to Second Lieutenant Feb. 26. 1862 ; died Julv 22, 1862. at 
Portsmouth, V.a., while a prisoner, from wounds received at Gaines' .Mill. 

2. Clinton E. Hodgman, 22, promoted from Sergeant Co. '■ K," to 
Second Lieutenant, Oct 4, 1S62. 


1. William E. Hyatt, 24, promoted from Corporal to Sergeant Nov. i, 
1S61 ; to First Sergeant Sept. i, 1862. 

2. Morton H. Gould, 25, must'd Aug. 28, 1861; promoted Sept. 1, i86t. 

3. Chas.W. Peacock, 22, promoted from Corp. to Sergeant Sept. i. i36i. 

4. Newton Thompson, 25, promoted to Corporal Sept i, i36i ; to 
Sergeant Sept. i, 1S62. 

5. Duncan L. Brown. 32. promoted to Corporal Sept. i, i36i ; to 
St-rLM-anf Se!-.t, t. f'62. 


1. Frederick W. Cramptnn, -, mustered Julv 5, 18M ; nromot-d 
Sept. I. liui. 

2. James H. Price, 26, promoted Sept. i, 1S61. 

, 't .iHUl. 

:i • 7/:./MK<'^> 

O/. I' 

.201 .oK 

ini'.iq . I>f;i 


CORI'OR ALS — Continued. 

3. John P. rolbv, 36. mustered Aug. 28, 1S61: promoted Sept. i. i36i. 

4. John F. Cooper, 20, promoted Nov. i, 1S61. 

5. John T. Clague, 20, wounded and taken prisoner at Hull Run ; 
promoted Sept i, 1S62. 

6. Clark Sturdevant, 19, mustered .\\.\%. 28. iSf)! ; jiromoted Sri)t. i. 
1S62 : wounded at battle of Fredericksburtr. May 3, 1863. 

7. Thomas Carolan, 18, promoted Sept. i. i86r. ^, 


1. Bolton, Isaac, ig, mustered Aug. 28, 1S61. .. , : 

2. Brophy, James, "16, mustered Auc- 28, 1S61. . ; . , 

3. Brady, William H., 22. mustered Aug. 23, 1861. 

4. Baker, George, iS. . \^^.:' 

5. Bond, George A., ki. - i- , ;^; .; ; j. v. .». 

6. Bachman, Sigismund, 21. 

7. Bell, John L. Jr., 18. ■>..•■>•• f' ■.-. r^ ■■-.•.,■•,■) M; 

8. Bounds, John, iS. ;.,..,.: >i^ .' • 

9. Cooney, Patrick, 46, mustered July 5, 1861. 

10. Coppernall, .A.ndrew, iS, mustered July 5, 1S61. ... , . 

11. Cowles, Roswell B., i3, mustered Aug. 28. 1S61. ..' , 

12. Derx, Conrad, 20. 

13. Dumphy, Patrick, i<j. ... . ., 

14. Edson, John B., 23. :. •. , 

15. Gunther, Frank, ig. . . . : ; • 

16. Hall, John T., 20. ' ; .•.: .. 

17. Hibbard, Horace, 27. - ■ .. 

18. Hickman, Joseph H., i3. 

ig. Ilosmer, Henry, ig, mustered Aug. 2S, isf)f. . _ • , 

20. Harrington, Michael, 18, musician. 

• 21. Hilton, Pet<r, 21. , , 

22. Harper, Joseph, 18, mustered Aug. 2S, iS(')i. 

23. Kneale, William, 28. ■ , . , 

24. Kent, George W., ig. . . .\ 

25. Mason, John H., 21. , . . ^. . .»• 

26. Mack, John F., 22. ^ ■ ^- 

27. Mylacraine, Robert, iS. 

28. Nealis, Michael, 18. ,., ,; , , ■ 

29. O'Conner, ChrisKjpher, 19, mustered fuly 5, i>''>i. 

30. Page, John G., 19. 

31. Phalan, Thomas, cS. 

32. Pike, Robert R., 40, mustered .\n%. 28, iSrii. 

33. Richards, Joseph F., 25. 

34. Ross, David C., I.). 

35. Reynolds, William W., i-. mustered .Aug. 2?, i;(jI. 
3O. Schumann. Frederick. 21. 

37. Schroeder. Frederick, k;. 

38. Tracy, Samuel, 20. 

)^>^S "_ .'iJ i: 

*till !' :■.;->!;'<. <■] ,1 


PR I VAT ES — ( 'ontiinicuL 

39. Tiernay, Daniel, 24. 

40. Vunk, Joseph C, 22. 

41. Van Antwerp, John H., iS, mustered Julv 5, 1S61. 

42. Wilson, John, 25, mustered July 5, i86i. ''"■'' '''[ 

43. Wallis, Frederick. 18, mustered Aug. 28, 1S61. 

44. Weeks, James E , ly, musteied Au^ 28, i8()i. 


1. Andrews, James M., 23, discharged Aug. 28, 1861. 

2. Armstrong, Delos, — , mustered Aug. 2S, 1S61, dis. Feb. 10, 1S63. 

3. Bachelder, Milton D., 20, Corporal, discharged Oct. 4, 1862. 

4. Baker, Thomas F., 22, discharged Aug. 4, 1861. 

5. Booth, Cyrus M , mustered Aug 28. iS6r, disch'd March 6, 1862. 

6. Burbank, Jolin K., 20, dischaigeil Jan. ly, 1863, from wounds re- 
ceived at battle of Gaines' Mill. 

7. Butler, Edward, — , mustered July 5, 1861, discharged March 2?, 
1863, from wounds received at Gaines Mill. 

8. Cotrell, William O., 19, discharged Sept. <.), 1861. 

9. Ellerbeck, Robert E., 25, First Sergeant, discharged Oct. i, i36i. 

10. Freeland, Cliristopher, — , mustered Aug. 28. 1S61, discharged 
Sept. 15, 1S62. 

11. Goodwin, Frank, 18, disch.uged Sept 27, 1861, minor and for- 
eigner (request of Lord Lyons). 

12. Gibbs, Augustus, 18, mustered Aug. 28, 1861, dis. Jan. 27, 1862. 

13. Hafner, Paul, — , mustered July 5, iSt>i, discharged Sept. i, j86i. 

14. Hanlon, William, rg, wounded and taken prisoner at Bull Run ; 
leg amputated : discharged Xov. 2. 1861. 

15. Hopwood, John M., iS, discharged Oct. i, i86i. 

16. Jumph, Walter V.. 22, discharged July 6, 1861. 

17. Kelly, Mark H., 26, discharged Aug. 18, r86r, over e.xertion re- 
turning from Bull Run, July 21, 1S61. 

18. Lawrence, Henry C.. discharged Aug. 27, iS6t, being a minor. 

19. Merrill, Willium II., 20,, wounded and taken prisoner at 
Bull Run, July 21. i>(.i, exchanged [an 3, iSf.j. ,iisrhM March (>. 1862. 

20. Morrison, Thomas, i(), dist liari;eil Fel). 14. iS()2. 

21. Mills, Charles, 18. no date yiveu, 

22. Tallon, William, — , mustered .\ug. 28, i8oi, tiiscii'd Oct. — , i86i. 

23. Tourge6, .Vlbion W.. 23, Serjeant, discharged .Aug. 8. i86r. in- 
jury of spine receiveil at Bull Run, July 21, i8(.i. 

24. Wadsworth, Charles, 19. discharged Dec 31. 1862. 

25. Watson, John 19, discharged Feb. ^, 18^3. 


1. Hosley, Daniel W., 21. priMn.itr.i [n lH>-,pital steward of regiment. 

2. Cole, Dani.i I >.. — , inusicud .\ul;. 2-. i-^oi. transferred to 8f.ili 
Regiment N. Y. Voluntiers, June i-. i -fi2. 

3. Cheney, W. Fitch. 28, iiimuioi d to lio<:.ita! steward of regiment. 

(••.yt'li^ T 



1. Crawford. Walter. — , mustered Aug. 28, i3(')l, dieil Feb. 2?, iSfij, 
at Smoketown iMd.) hospital. 

2. ' Dee, T'^hn, died Jan. 29, 1562. 

3. Durkee, LaFayelte. — , mustered Aug. 23, 1861, killed at battle of 
(iaines' Mill, June 27, iS()2. 

4. Fuller. Gilbert \V., 2i), musician, killed June 5, 1S62, at Mechan- 
irsville, Va. 

5. Guiner, Jacob G., 21. died Mav 29, rS62, at Savai^-e Station. Va. 

6. Hosnier, Charles A.. iS, killed in battle of Fredericksinir!i, Va., 
May 3. 1S63. 

7. Lavis, Richard, — , mustered Aua:. 2i, 1S61, died Nov. i, 1S62. at 
IIay;erstinvn. Md. 

S. Richardson, William, — . mustered July 5, 1S61, died Nov. 7, 1S62, 
at Hairerstown, Md. 

<i. Stillson. Everard P.. 22, Corporal, promotetl to Sergeant, killed at 
Gaines' Mill. June 27. is62, 


1. Ambrose, Edward T., iS, deserted Aug. 13, i36i, from Washing- 
tun, I). C. 

2. Arnott, John T.. 21, "deserted Aug. 10. 1361. on furlough since 
Aug. I, i36i. 

3. Decroyft, Ahram W.. 24, deserted ]ulv 6, i36i. from Elmira, N.V. 

4. Goubleman. Edward. i3. deserted Feb. 4,i?()2, from Cam|) Frank- 
lin, \',i. 

5. Hislop, Ebenezer, deserted Feb. 4, 1862, from Camp Franklin. \'a, 

6. Malstead. James W, — . Corporal, mustered July 5. i36[. deserted 
AiiLT. I, i3f>2, from hospital. F^ortsmouth, Va. 

7. Jenks. Woodburn C, 21, deserted Aug. i3, 1862. on the march 
from Harrison's Landing. 

3. Mi')ore, James. 20. deserted August 5. i36i. 

>) Morton. Ilenrv. 22. promoted to Sergeant Oct. r. 1S61, deserted 
Any. ■", isf'>2. from Harrison's Landing. Va. 

10. O'Brien, Patrick, — , mustered July 5. iSCi, deserted .Vug. 21, 
iSbi. still on furlough of 7 days. 

ti. McGettrick. Michael, 21, taken prisoner at Hull Run, exchanged, 
but never leturned to C<im])any. 

12. Marshall. Charles. — , mustered Aug. 28. 1861, deserted April 3, 
1S1.2. from Catlett's Station, Va. 

13. Patnode, John, lo, deserted .Vug. t. i36r. 
14 Putnev. 21, deserted Inly. i3r.i. 
15. Wi)ite. l.unes. 18, deserted July, l-^6l. 

■\ \, 


ifl'.-;.'.' iiu-'i I'l") ; J ;,•::/ ! t.-,. i, -, _ \ 

(<■:;««: !t I .' r^<' :i>-', i-.j Ml / D 

.7, ...A .) 

g |.,.j/, },.,.. .,..|. J.,-; ,»t ^. /. 1. ,, v 




1. Peter Jay, 37, resigned Aut^. 14. 1862. 

. 2. William H. H. Brainaid, [^roiiioicd to Second Lieutenant from To. 

" D." Dec 14, 1861 ; to Captain, Auu. 14, i,S62 ; resigned Nov. 27, iS62. 

3. George H. Roman. 20, promoted from Corporal to Sergeant, Aug. 

I, 1861 ; to Second Lieutenant, Aug. 14, 1S62 ; to Captain, Nov. 27, 1S62. 


1. William S. Sheldon. 23, resigned Aug. r, iSd:, 

2. Lafayette Cross, 35, jiromoted fnjm Second Lieutenant to First 
Lieutenant, Aug. i, 1861. resii^ned F.-li. 22, 1S62. 

3. Andrew Patrullo. — , appointed First Lieutenant, Feb. 22, 1S62, 
resigned Jan. iS, 1863. 

4. John R. Briggs, 21. piomoted lioni Second Lieutenant Co. " G," 
Jan. iS, 1863. 


1. Frank E. Northrop, 20. promoted fiom Sergeant, Aug. i, 1861, re- 
signed Dec. 14, 1 36 1. 

2. Frederick Randall, 21, promoted from Corporal to Sergeant Sept. 
I, l86i, reduced to tanks fuly x, 1S62, promoted to Second Lieutenant 
Nov. 27, 1862. 


1. Joseph L. Ross, 2S, promoted to First Sergeant, Aug. i, 1862, from 

2. Luther N. Hubbard, 23. 

7 3. Daniel W. Wetherell, promoted to Corporal, .Aug. r. iS6r, to Ser- 
geant, July 27, 1SO2. 

4. William M. Robins(Mi, 22, mustered July 5, 1S61, i.romoted to 
Corporal, Sept. i, iSor. to Seigeaiu. Feb. 20. 1863. 

5. RoIIin B. Truesdell. 21, piomoted to Crpor.d. .\ov. r. i8b2 ; to 
Sergeant, Feb. 20. i-i(>3. 

<OKPiiK \l N. 

1. Edwin J. Wilbur, iS, pronmted Aug. i. 1^62. 

2. IhompSiMi P. llowland, 23, iiiiistrre.l [ul\ S, i8ft[ ; promoted 
Sept. I, 18^.1. 

3. Albert Ki.ithn, 2f>, uiusifi,.d |ul\ >, isri ; pi.Muoted bept. i. 1861. 

4. William B. Westervelt. 24, [irijinoted .Sept. 1, r8f,i. 

5. John X. Kennedy. 22. pr.)iuoted Au^. 1. I5b2. 
h. Solomon Darliny, 24. prom()ted Sept. i. i8t)2. 
7. Harrison Guiir<, 20, promuteil N-.v. i. 1862. 

S. Sanford , 21. pr.,m.ji.-d Irb. 20, 1 ■i03. - ■ ■ 

ML-li I \N. 

I. ' I". Smith, I-, nius[,u.l Jm1\ 5, isoi. 
i'Ri\Ai t;.-<. 

1. Bogart, James S.. 21, mustered Oct. 2i, 1861. 

2. Brown, Hiram, fr.. 19. 

51 .1 ./../ .ti. 


I'RIVATKS — Conlijiiir-J. 

3. Burnside, Gould. iS, nuistt-ied ( )ct. 3, iSfd. 

4. Howker, Charles A., ii). 

5. Corey, Henry, it). 

6. Cunimings, Benjaniin. 20. 

7. Conklin, Owen U., 21. 

d. Corby, Leonard, 21, mustered July 5, 1S61. 

9. Dunninif, James L., 24. 

10. Dunnintr, John, 2S. 

ti. Evans, Bailey, 20, mustered Jul)' 5, 1S61. 

12. Evans, James II., iS. , 

13. Finch, George \V'., 19. 

14. Gorman, \athaniel, 42. 

15. Handy, Charles ()., 27. 

16. Hayes, Timothy, iS. 

17. Holland. Harlan. 21. 

18. Houlihan, Patrick, ii). ,, ., , _ 

19. Hovvland, Warren, 35. 

20. Kearn, John. 24, taken prisoner at Bull Run. 

21. Keeler, David T., 21, mustered Oct. 21, rSdi ; wounded at battle 
of Crampton's Pass, Sept. 14; in hospital till May 17, 1SO3. 

22. Kelly, Thomas, 21. ' 

23. Lander, Oscar K., 19. 

24. Lester, David A., 19. •■ ' 

25. Miller, Charles, 36. : 

26. Monroe, Alexander, 23, mustered Oct. 21, 1861. 

27. Ostrander, J., Washington, 19. 

28. Perr)-, Albert, 23, mustered July S, 1S61. ; "..r..- ,- 

29. Redtield, Heniy, 23. 

30. Rood, Andrew. 21. 

31. Slater, Timothy S., K). 

32. \'anValkenburg, William S., 19, taken prisoner at Hull Run ; re- 
turned to regiment Feb. \o, 1863. ' . v 

33. Welrh, Albert. 25. 

34. Wright, Reuben A., iS. taken prisoner at Bull Run ; returned to 
regiment April 7, iSf)3. 

35. Walker. David. 24. 

36. Yates, Theodore H., 21, taken pris<jner at Bull Run, |u]\ 21. tSoi. 


1. Hene<li(l, Ira C. 20, .\ug. >, iS*.i. 

2. Bishop, George W., I.S, mustered 0<-|. 2, i-dl ; disrii. luiir 2;. '(i2. 

3. Henedirt, (ieorge II.. iS. June 24, l>(>2. 

4. Butts. Ch.ules W.. 22. wounu.dat CaiiHs'. Mill: di^, li. Sept. 24. '62. 

5. Barry, James, 34. w.muded .u Gaiiuv" Mill ; ijis.h. M.'v i, iSfi3, 

6. Cooper, George, 21, mu>ieu-d July 3, f-di ; disili. I.ui. i. i;()2. 

7. r'rary, Charles, iS, mustered Oct. 2, i"^Oi ; discli. M.ircli 21, 1SO2. 
3. Dawson, Lee T., iS, Aug. r, 1S62. Minor. 

't>T(MU|->l . :il)H lft)'-l Is. VjU'w ,«J £c.l)Jl 

•>>:i .I' /'i(J ,:.'.JfJ liuH I'; r«': ■•id /i>.;3. 

).<>! .11 > .i.' 1. 

,?:<) .,1 1 •Kiifi i< >i'u> , I 



9. Durfee, James, 40, Dec. 11, 1862. at Philadelphia. 

10. Davis, Joseph L., iS, disch. Sept. 24, 1S62, from wounds received 
at battle of Gaines' Mill. 

11. French. Franklin, 41, musician, dischar^red Dec. 12, 1S61. 

12. French, William H., 20, mustered Dec. 2, iS6i ; disch. March 3, 
1S63, from wounds received at Crainpton's Pass, Sept. 14, 1S62. 

13. June, John, 22, Corporal, discharged Aug. 16. 1S61. 

14. Kelsev, George E., 21, mustered Oct. 3. i86i ; discharged Dec. i;, 
1S62, from wounds received at Gaines' Mill, [une 27, 1862. 

15. Livermore, Edward, 18, mustered Aug. 30, 1861 ; disch. June 23, '62. 

16. Lobdell, Rosander, 27, discharged Nov. 20, 1862. 

17. Lade, Joseph, 23, discharged Dec. 31, 1862, from wounds received 
at Gaines' Mill, June 27, 1862. 

iS. Rose, Josiah H., 40, discharged >Larch 3, 1S63. 

rg. Spencer, James, 23, discharged Aug. S, iS6r. 

20. Shaw, Philander P.. 20, mustered Julys, :86i ; disch. fulv3, 1863. 

21. Troop, Lucius, i3, discharged Feb. 20, 1863. 

22. Van Dusen, Charles, 24, mustered July 5, i86j : disch. Apr. 16, Y.3. 

23. Williams, Henn>-, iS, discharged .\ov. 24, 1862. 

24. Whitney, Harvey D., ig. Sergeant; was Corporal til! Aug. 14, '62 ; 
discharged Feb. 20, 1863. 


1. Benedict, Davolson P., 24, Sergeant, fulv 27, 1862. 

2. Burgee, Charles, 20, Oct. 20, 1S62. 

3. Coon, Jesse P., 28, Dec. 25, 1S61. 

4. Cresson, Miles, 18, killed in battle of Gaines' Mill, June 27, r8f.2. 

5. Curren, William E.. 18, Feb. 2, 1862. 

6. Ferguson, John R., 26, Aug. 16, 1861. 

7. Hawkins, Daniel, 23, March 12, 1S62. 

8. Lockwood, Silas W., 26, mustered July ;, 1861 ; died Feb. g, 1863. 
g. R.jgers. Frank B., '9, killed at Crampton's Pass, Sept. 14. 1S62. 

10. Reynolds, James D., ig, Nov. 24, 1862. 

11. Randall. Wesley, 25, mustered [ulv 5. 1S61 : killed in the JKiitle 
of Bull Run. July 21. 1S61. 

12. Turner. David M., 23, Jan. 28, 1863. 

13. Waterman, lames Frederick, i.,, killed at Crampton's I'ass Sei)t 
14, l.''''2. ■ - I • 

14. Warner, Edgar H., 21, taken prisoner at h.tttle of Hull Run lulv 
21, iSf.i : died Aug. I, 1862. ' ' ■ 


1. Beckford, George W., 22, Aug. i, i,S6i. 

2. H.nrow, i;i„.n 1:.. 20, niu>urc-.l ( ».t. 2. iS(,r ; deserted Mch. 3r, '-.o. 

3. Harrows, Seth, 21. mustiTc.l Oct. 2. i-oi ; ijoseited Februarv, i8f.-,. 

4. l'.M.^d. lulward C.. 18, mustered Iidv 5. liCi ; (K serted (ul\ 7 t,- 
=;. Evans. Charles E.. iS, Nov. 0. 1861. 

6. CJerig. Harris.):), 20, April \-], 1S62. 

:^h'. .ji i..i) i 

rT ; /:i)/l Jl-Ii K, •r!»lK.<'il.( r>jU'J;i 

uil>i()iy»>i . iioH IImI Ji. ivno- 1 ,ii ii».^» 

<V .It •.:,., I .1... 



9. Durfee. James, 40, Dec. 11, 1S62, at Philadelphia. 

in. Davis, Joseph L., iS, disch. Sept. 24, 1862, from wounds received 
at battle of Gaines' Mill. 

ir. French, Franklin, 41, musician, discharged Dec. 12, 1S61. 

12. French, William H., 20, mustered Dec. 2, 1S61 ; disch. March 3, 
1S63, from wounds received at Crarnpton's Pass, Sept. 14, 1862. 

13- June, John, 22, Corporal, discharged Aug. r6, 1S61. 

14. Kelsev, George E., 21, mustered Oct. 3, 1861 ; discharged Dec. i;, 
1862, from wounds received at Gaines' Mill, June 27, 1862. 

15. Livermore, Edward, iS, mustered Aug. 30, 1861 ; disch. June 23, '62. 

16. Lobdell, Rosander, 27, discharged Nov. 20, 1862. 

17. Lade, Joseph, 23, discharged Dec. 31, 1S62, from wounds received 
at Gaines" Mill, June 27, 1862. 

iS. Rose, Josiah II.. 40, discharged March 3, 1863. 

19. Spencer, James, 23, discharged Aug. 8, 1861. 

20. Shaw, Philander P.. 20. mustered Julys, :86i ; disch. |u!v3, 1863. 

21. Troop, Lucius, 18, discharged Feb. 20, 1863. 

22. Van Dusen, Charles, 24, mustered July 5, i86j ; disrh. Apr. 16, Y.3. 

23. Williams, Henr^-, iS, discharged Nov. 24, 1S62. 

24. Whitney, Harvey D., 19. Sergeant; was Corporal till Aug. 14, '62 ; 
discharged Feb. 20, 1863. 


1. Benedict, Davulson P., 24, Sergeant. July 27, 1862. 

2. Burgee, Charles, 20, Oct. 20, 1S62. 

3. Coon. Jesse P., 28, Dec. 25. iS6r. 

4. Cresson. Miles, iS, killed in battle of Gaines' Mill, June 27. rSr.2. 

5. Curren, William F... iS, Feb. 2, 1S62. 

6. Ferguson, John R., 26, Aug. 16, i86r. 

7. Hart-kins, Daniel, 23, March 12. 1862. 

8. Lockwood, Silas W., 26, must'-red July ;. 1861 ; died Feb. 9, iSr.3. 

9. Rogers, Frank B., '9. killed at Cranipton's Pass, Sept. 14, iSr.2. 

10. Reynolds, janies D., 19, .\ov. 24, 1S62. 

11. Randall. Wesley, 25, mustered [ulv 5, iS6r ; killed in the battle 
of Bull Run, July 2i, iS()i. 

12. Turner, David M., 23. Jan. 28, iSf)3. 

13. Waterman, lames Frederick, U). killed at Crampton's }»ass Sept 
14. 1.^^.2. 

14. Warner. Edgar H., 21, taken prisoner :u battle of Hull Run, julv 
21, lS()i : died .-\ug. I. 1862. 


1. Beckford. George W.. 22, Aug. r, i86t. 

2. H.irn.Nv. ]:i.,n F.. 20. nu.Meir.l (), t. 2. iMn : deserted Mch. ^r, -''.2. 

3. Harrnvvs Seth. 21. mustered Oct. 2. r-.f.r ; deseitrd Februarv, i-:t.3. 

4. huvd. r.hvardC, irf, mustered lulv s, iSr.r; deserted iulv- t.- 

5. Evans, Charles E., i:^, .\„v.Q, IJ<6|. ■ . ■ • 

6. CJerig. Harrison, 20, April 17, 1S62. 


:;; H!.<\..:>,U ^-;., 

•1 .(. ilM-i>.-r;l. : I>V-I 

•<, . , I ,U.A : i..'J i 


DESERTfc-D — Conliiiiu-d. 
7. Holland, Charles, 19, AusJC. 3, 1S61. 
S. McAvoy, Joseph H., 19, April 17, \^Uz. 
9. Osborne, William L., 21, (.)ct. i, iSdi. 

ic. Pierce, Melvin J., Corporal ; proinotcd Sept. i, 1S61 ; deserted 
April 17, 1862. 

11. Sherwood, Charles C, mustered July 5, 1861 : from battlefield of 
Fredericksburg, May 2, 1363. Second desertion. 

12. Smith, William H., 24, mustered Oct. 10, '61 ; deserted .\pl. 17, '62. 

13. Snell, .\rchibald, 19, .-Vpril 17, 1S62. 

14. Taylor, Daniel II. , 35, mustered Oct. 2, 1S61; deserted Sept. i. '62. 


1. Corson, Nicholson .V.. 25, taken prisoner at Hull Ran, July 21, Y.r. 
Never reported. 

2. Hygard, John, ic), missing since battle of Bull Run. 

3. Lawson, Allen, 20, mustereil Oct. 3, 1S61 ; sent to liospital .Ma\' i, 
1862. Never since heard from. 

4. Watrous, Edwin M.. K), taken jirisoner at Hidl Run, |uly2i, 1861. 



1. James Perkins, 5S, resiarned Nov. 7, i3C)i. 

2. Philo D. Phillips, 29, promoted from First Lieutenant Nov. 7, 
1861, resigned April 26,1802. 

3. H. Seymour Hall. 24, promoted from Second Lieutenant April 24, 
1862; after Jan, 1S03, on detached service as Brigade Inspector on Stall' 
of Gen. J. J. Bartlett. 


1. Seymour Pierce, 27, promoted to First Lieutenant from First Ser- 
geant Nov. 7. iSfii, to Captain of Company 'K" June 9, 1862; after 
No\ . 7, iS^jI, on detached servi( e in Signal Corps. 

2. ("harles Rock, 24, promoted to Corporal Nov. 7, i3f)l, to Serucant 
S<-pt. I, 1862, to First Lieutenant Nov. 28, iSf)2. 


1. John R. Brigus, 21, promoted fiom Serircant to First Sergeant 
Nov. 7, i36i, to Sec.jud Lieutenant .Vpiil 2(>. 1802, to Fust Lieutenant of 
Co. " F" Jan. iS, i5'i3. 

2. Edward II. Bi.idy, zo. promoted from Sei^iMiit to Kirsi Sergeant, 
Sept. I, i8h2, to Second Lieutiiiant [an. iS, 18(13. 


1. J. llerixit !'• ikins. J4, musUred Sept. 21, 1 SM , p loted to Ser- 
ge. iiit No\. 7. 1-^01, to I'iisi Selge.iut I'd.. l8, 1803. 

2. .Arch. I,. VauN'-ss. 18. proiuoted to Corpor.d .Nov. 7, 1861. to Sti- 
geaat Sept. 1, l.'»o2. 

I- .♦! 

.■* .; t ''uf .iiu'A i »H u: 

'/. ntv.ui'J I 

- /'>/ ?,i ,ri-jiii 

,< J/r;-| r . a K 

•1 .•.u«tl 

.It"*!' io 

■nt / 

■-■■■ .« 

1 ■;' 

f^ I.-i. -u 

■1 •, ".K 

.;,■-'' W,\ 


SERCEANTS — Continued. 

3. Van R. Pratt, iS. promoted to Corporal [)er. i, i86i, to Sergeant 
Nov. I. 1862. 

. 4- George Banks, 22, promoted to Corporal April 24, 1S62, to Ser- 
geant Nov. I, 1S62. 

5. Silas A. Sylvester, promoted to Corporal Nov. 7, 1S61 to Sero-eant 
Feb. iS, 1863. 


1. George A. Spring, 21. promoted June 21, 1862. 

2. John A. Copeland, 18, promoted Sept. i, 1862. 

3. Solomon Wood. 29, wounded and taken prisoner at Bull Run, 
July 21, iSf)i ; exchanged Jan. 3, 1862, and returned Jan. 13, 1862. 

4. Charles F. Wells, 18, promoted Nov. i, 1862. 

5. Charles H. Mitchell, 23, promoted Nov. i, 1862. 

6. Myron C. Watkins, 24. promoted to Sergeant from Corporal April 
24, 1862; reduced to ranks till Nov. i, 1S62. then promoted to Corporal 

7. Tyler J. Briggs, 23, taken prisoner at Bull Run, promoted to Cor- 
poral Sept. I, 1862. 

8. Michael Cavanaugh, 2b. promoted Feb. 18, 1863. 


1. Agard, Gardner W., 22, taken prisoner at Bull Run, July 21. 1861, 
released June 3, 1862. 

2. Atchinson. Jonathan H.. 21. >■*•■ 

3. Baker, William N., 18. •: - ■■: '■' 

4. Brabon, Robert, 26. :- : 

5. Boyd, Alexander, 20. i . .: , ■ ," "t • 

6. Chappel, George H., 2-;. 

7. Clark, William H.. 
May 7, 1862. 

S. Emmons, Seymour, 
Savage Station. Jan. 2(), i8() 

g. Fra/.ee, Rohert S., : 
Frederick City, since Sept. 

10. Frazee, Charles W., 

11. Gardner, Perrv, 19. 

12. Grover, Charles A., 22. 

13. Haninjiton, Ovid G., 18. 

14. Hibbard, Henry, 24. 

15. Joiner. Andrew J., 20. mustered July 8, 1S61. 

16. Jenkins. 22. 

17. Lovcland, Norman P.. 47. . , _ . , 
iS. Markhani, Henry, 21. 

I.). Maiia. William. iS. 

2u. .Mahm.m. William, 25. 

21. Mil. 111. n, Willi.uii. 27, t.ikeu prisoner at Hull Run. fulv 21, i36i. 

22. Marhle, Allu rt H., — , mustered Dec. 14, iS6i. 




21, 1861 

; sent 







I, isr.i ; 



isoner at 


on detach 

ed ser- 

^ice, Gt 








<n i£ vj,i.„r . 

.V'l r ^i H l.'>!'JJ.M'.* 

SI .i: :\u\ ..i:.M 


PRIVATES — Continued. 

23. iMerritt, lohn, 19, mustered Jul)- 8, 1861, taken prisoner at Bull 
Run, July 21. 1S61. 

24. Peak, Stephen, 29. 

25. Preston, Atwood, 23, mustered July S, 1861. 

26. Rice, James H., 21, on detached service at First Div. General 
Hospital at Alexandria, V^a., since June 29, 1862. 

27. Stone, Francis M., 20. 

28. Stone, Henry H., 19. 

29. Stirling, Henry H., 20, deserted Aug. 30, 1862 ; returned April S, 
1863, under President's Proclamation. 

30. Speer, Jacob C., — , mustered Dec. 4, i36i. 

31. Taft, Myron L., 20. ■ , , ^ ,; 

32. Wells, Henr>-G., i3. 

33. Willys, David, 21, left in hospital at Alexandria, Va., Aug. 2S, "62. 

34. Willison, William, 28, absent without leave from Oct. 15, 1S62, to 
April 17, 1863 ; returned under President's Proclamation. ^ ^ , 

35. Westbrook, Xehcmiah, 28. 

36. Willoughby, Thomas, 27. 


1. Butler, Joseph B., 21, Nov. 8, i36i, on account of wounds received 
at battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1S61. 

2. Bartlett, Charles E., 21, mustered Dec. 14, 1861 ; disch. Feb. 4, '(13. 

3. Burr, Charles W., 21, Sept. ii. 1862, on account of wounds re- 
ceived at battle of Gaines' Mill. June 27, 1862. 

4. Bond, Edwin E., 23, wounded and taken prisoner at Bull Run ; 
discharged July 16. 1S62. 

5. Carter, John H., 22, Jan. 20, 1862. 

6. Coe, William H., 20, Nov. 22, 1S62. 

7. Dartt, RoUin P., i3, Aug. 12, 1S62, by reason of wounds received 
at Gaines' Mill. 

8. Davis. E. Amert'-o, — , mustered July S, 1S61; disch. July 31, iSM. 
(). Hunt, .Arthur H., 21, taken prisoner at Bull Run; disch. .\ug. 4. '62. 

to. Hamilton, Mills D., 18. Feb. ii, 1802. 

11. Hall, William, 23, May ir, 1S62. 

12. Johnson, William, F., — , niustered July 8, 1S61 ; disch. Aug. 3, '61. 

13. Keeney. Ennis A., — , mustered July 5, 1S61 ; disch. June 14,^1862. 

14. Loveland, John C, — , mustered Dec. 14, iSCii ; disch. .Apr. 13, '62. 

15. Laty, Henry, — , mustered July 12, 1861 : disch. July r2, 1S62. 

16. Paul. Samuel, — , mustered July 8, 1861 : disrii. .Aug. 8, 1861. 

17. Sewell, Thomas E., i3. Oct. 29, i86c. by reason of wounds re- 
ceived at Gaines' Mill. 

iS. Steele. Lawrence J., — . mustered July 3, 1S61 ; disch. July 31, '^i. 

19. John Smith, — , mustered July 8, ta'a ; disch, uged Sept. 10, iSoi. 

20. Stone. Theotlore, H). Dec. 2. 1^(12. 

21. Wells. G. Wilev, — . Jan. 12, i8f.2. 

iu;j 1!^;.' !.' ii ••-.!. 

;'ii ^; ,; -1.1 -.'; ,;::)/ " I , 'I idIk 



1. Bender, Frcdoricl>, — , Corp.. to Non-Coiimiiss'd Staff, May 29, Yu. 

2. Cook, (it'orLTc H., — , Musician, to Xon-Coinmissioncd Slafi. 
May 29, iS(>i. 

3 Cotfin, Beniamin S , 23, Corporal, to Staff, 
Ouaricrinaster's Sergeant, May i, 1S62. 

4. Flemincr, Benson S., — , mustered Aug. 30, 1S62 ; May 14, 1S63, 
to Si.xth Army Corps Hospital. 

5. Fladuny, (ieorge, — , mustered Sept. r, 1S62 ; May 31, 1863, sent 
back to Sixth .Army Corps, from Elmira, N. Y. 

6. Guinan, Martin, — , mustered Sept. 31, TS62. May 31, 1S63, sent 
back to Sixth Army Corps, from Elmira, N. Y. 

7. McMahon, William II., 22, promoted to Cori)oral, Nov. 7, 1861 ; 
to Second Lieutenant of Co. K, Sept. 11, iSf)2. 

S. Robertson, George II, — , promoted from Sergeant to First Ser- 
geant April 24, 1862 : to Second Lieutenant nf ('o. E, Sept. 14, 1S62. 

9. Smith, John B., — , mustered Sept. S, 1362, to Sixth Army Corps 
Hospital, May 14, 1863. 

10. Woodard, Pliiio B., — , mustered .\vi^^. 31, 1862. to Sixth Army 
Corps Hospital, May 14, 18(13. 

11. Young, Frank, — , mustered .\ug. 31. 1862, to Sixth .\.rmy Corps 
Hospital, May 31, 1S63. from Elmira, N. V. . 


1. Burlison. lames H., 24, Corporal, killed at (iaines' Mill, June 27, '62. 

2. Baxter, Wm. H., — , mustered July 8, tSOi ; killed at (iaines' Mill, 
June 27, i8()2. 

.3. Davis, Hiram, — , mustered July S, 1861 ; killed at Bidl Run, 
July 21, 1861. 

4. Dunn, James .\., — , uiusttred Dec. [4, iShi ; died Dec. 2i), iS()2. 

5. Dunn, John N., — , uiusnereil Dec. 14 iS()T ; died Aug. 27. i8()2. 

6. Darrow. .Vndiew J., 21, killed at battle of Crampton's Pass, Md., 
Sept. 14. iSf,2. 

7. lieorge, William. 32, l^vr. 20. iSbi. 

S. (iould, Henry M., 22. killed at Gaiius' .Mill, June 27. 1862. 

y. Headly, Oscar, — , mustered ['>vr. 14, isni ; died .\[)ril 15, i?'->2. 

10. Hunt, George S., — . mustered July 8, i^t,i ; lied July 23, 1862. 

11. Hunt, Armenius M., 21, taken prisoner at Bull Run; diid in 
Richmond, Sept. 13, i^oi. 

12. Lindsley. William I .. 21 Aiiij. 20, 1-^02. 

13. .Miles, .\lexander. — . mustered Sei)t. 21, iS(.i ; killed at (r. lines' 
Mill, June 27, 1862. 

14. Roberts, [ohu .N., — , mustered Sept. 21, i^^tn ; ilied Oct. 13, l8b2. 

15. Robins,, n, Cli.uiesW.. 21, Ser-I.. kil Ud at I JainL--' M ill. J ;ine 27. ■02. 
10. Kappel, Eutiene. 21, kdlr.l at (iaines' Mill, June 27, i>62. 

17. Wood. Nichf) K.. —, mustered Die. 14, iS6r; .lie.i F( h. 15. '02. 

IS. Webster Daniel, 21, died Dec. H). i8r>2. 

19. Wright, Frederick, — , mustered Se[)t. 21, iSOi ; died Dec. 27, 1S61. 

1 ., ■..,/ t :, 

, .■■ ., I.' .'.(•II 

. m:,;.,» ir .> .11, . 

•..ill I 

.1.!.^ . i. 

,^- •■ n t. -i. , I. 



1. Curry, Edward, i<), deserted June 30, 1S62. 

2. Chattis, Thomas, — , mustered Aug. 31, 1862, deserted Jan. i, '63. 

3. Dutclier, Jolin, 26, deserted Sept. 17, 1S62. 

4. Dutclier, Charles, 21, deserted Sept. 17, 1S62. 

5. Fairchild, Andrew,—, mustered Dec. 14, '61, deserted June 3u,'62. 

6. (iritTiths, Elias. 20. deserted Aug. 28. 1862. 

7. Lee, Abram, — , mustered July 8, 1S61, deserted Sept. 12, 1S61. 

S. Melrose, Orlando, — , mustered Aug. 31, 1862, desert. Jan. i, '63. 

(). Smith, laoob L., — , mustered July 8, 1S61, deserted .\ug. 3, 1S61. 

10. Sutherland, Oscar, — . mustered July S, '61, deserted Sept. 17, '62. 

11. Vosburg, Emory P..—, mustered Oct. 25, '61, desert. .\ug. 30, '62. 


1. Hanna, John N., — , mustered Xov. i, 1S61, left in hospital at .Al- 
exandria. Va., April 11, 1S62. 

2. Stamford, Harmon E., — , mustered July S. i36i, wounded at 
Gaines' Mill, June 27, 1S62 ; has not been heard from since. 



1. Charles E. >L-irtin, 41, resigned Feb. 10, 1S62. 

2. Joseph H. Bodine, 24, promoted from First Lieutenant to Cap- 
tain, Feb. 10, 1862, to Major July 24, 1S62. 

3. William H. S'.van, 44, promoted from First Lieutenant of Co. "B " 
July 24, 1862, resigned >Lirch q, 1863. 

4. Sherman M. Seely, 38, mustered May 6, 1S61, promoted from 
First Lieutenant March 9, 18(13. 


1. Joseph H. Bodine, 24, promoted to Captain Feb. 10, 1862. 

2. Sherman >L Seely, 3S, appointed First Lieutenant April 25, i >f.2. 
from a Private in Sturgess' Rifles. 

3. Edward C. Camp, 19, promoted March 9, i>(>3, from 2d Lieuienaiil. 


1. Oscar Phillips, 41. resigned .\ug. 14, iS^t. 

2. Edward Williams, 21. promoted from Sergeaiit, St-pt. I, iS(.i, re- 
signed Nov. 2^, i?'.2. 

3. Edward C. Cam[). i<,. promoted to from Private, S-pl. i, 
lS(,i, to Second Lieutenant N<jv. 2?, t802, to First Lieuli nam Mar. 9, 't.3. 

4. hhirvey R. Clark, 22. promoted to First Sergraiu from Private 
Nov. 28, 1S62. to Second Lieutenant March 9, 1S63. 

) nj ini--. ,.iKuU It-ii'l 



i JrT.'l 

■1 .l.-'.J . • i'^ 

1! /l.J-^,-V,l ,1 



1. John Kriihten. 22, promoted to Corporal Sept. i. i86r, to First 
Sergeant Nov. 2S, 1S62. 

2. David Sinnmy. iS. promotfd to Corporal Sept. i, 1861, to Ser- 
geant Nov. 28, rS62. 

3. Du-iglu, CrahaiM, iS. imiMercd Sept 21, 1S61, promoted to Cor- 
pora! Sept. 15, 1,-62, to .Ser>,aaiit Afarch .j, 1S63. 

4. Benjamin II. Tallman, 21, [.romoted to Corporal Sept. i, 1S61, lo 
Sergeant Marcli (), 1S63. 

5. Henry Phillips, 21, [iromoted to Corporal Nov. i, 1S61, to Ser- 
geant March 9. 1S63. 


1. James Roberts, 32. i)rom()ted Sept. i, 1861. 

2. William Briggs, 24, promoted Nov. 2S, rS62, taken prisoner at 
Bull Run July 21, iS6t. 

3. Daniel D. Stram. 24, promoted Nov. 2>, 1SO2. 

4. Adam Miller, 23, promoted Nov. 28, 1862. 

5. Albert Voung, 23, [uomoteel Nov. 28, 1862. ' ' ' 

0. Charles L. Seiflert, iS, mustered Aug. 2u, 1S61, i>romoted Nov 
28, 1862. 

7. George Stout, Jr., 20, promoted Match 9, 1863 ; taken prisoner at 
Bull Run ; leg broken while a prisoner. 

PRIVATES. .■'■■..■:■-■-,:'■.. 

1. Armstrong, Selma, iS. .; . :•■.:/ 

2. Ashton, William M., 24. 

3. Cady (ieorge, 19. 

4. Clancey Michael, i3. ;-. .- • •,.,.■. . . 

5- Coffrin, (Jeorge H., 20. ■• 

6. Clark, David N., 36. 

7. Donahue, [..mes, 23, taken prisoner at Bull Run, July 21, 1S61. 

5. Dunlava, Antliony, 18, mustered Aug. 16. iS6r. 

9. Flynn, Francis, 29. •. . .. ., , ,,.,■ . -, - . , 

10. Jones, fjiuc^ H., 26. 

11. Kemp, Walter. 24. 

12. Leddick, Samuel, 33. 

13- Martin. Charles A., 20, mustered .March i, 1862. 

14- Morgan, Franklin M., 23. 
15. Magee, Marvin, 20. 

rC. McCormick, Michael, k,, 

17. Miller, John, 18, mustered Aug. rf., isr.r. 

18. .Mc.NeiUy, Thomas, 21, must, red .\uu. 30, i8r.i 

19. McNeillv, Ruben, 18. 

20. .McCartiiy. Drnis, 21. must, -rid '.-i, i.-oi. 

21. Mc(;alpin. L., t,,, mu.t.nd March i, .S62 

22. McArthur, II.„ry, js. 

23. Rathburn, .\rtemas M., 40. 

24. Ryan, Thoina.s, 18. 

a ,.■:<>:] 

r,M r>:A\ 

^,, ..!.,;.' .,,r,.., .;..,,, A, , 


PRlVATKS—0«//« //<•(/. 

25. Rulapau^'h, John W., 22, mustered Sept. 21, 1S61. 

26. Skelly, John. iS, mustered Aug. 22. 1S61. 

27. Sheppard. Joseph A., iS, iiiu--tered Aug. 23, iSGi. 

2S. Talbert, Richard, 2S. . .^. . '" 

29. Wheelock, Charles B.. 1=!, mustered Aug. 30, 1S61. 

30. Willis, Lafayette C, 25. 

31. Welch, William, 44, taken prisoner at Bull Run. 

32. Williams, Henry, 22. 


1. .Aplin. William W., 44. taken prisoner at Bull Run, July 21, 1S61 ; 
disrharircd Feb. iS, 1S63. 

2. Bint:ham, George W., 20, Corporal, discharged June 15, iS62. 

3. Barnev. George W., iS, Musician, discharged Dec. i, i36i. 

4. Cathrell. .AbiatharV., 39, discharged June 2, 1S62. 

5. Dunn, lohn. 19, discharged June 5, 1862. 

6. Edsall. David A.. 19. discharged Aug. 10, i?r.i. 

7. Fraser, William H., transferred from Co. "A," Nov. i, 1S61; dis- 
charged Dec. 29. 1^62. 

S. Hcllikee, George, 35, discharged Feb. 7, 1363. 
9. Hosmer, Edu-ard, 24, discharged Oct. 16, iS6r. 

10. Howden, Alexander, 21, mustered March 26, i362 ; discharged 
Oct. r4, 1SO2. 

11. Hammond, Rf^uben. 23, mu'^tered April i, 1S62; disch. Dec. 17, '62. 

12. Hufit, Charles H., 20, taken prisoner at Bull Run; dis. Apr. 26, '62. 

13. Kelloug. John J., 39, Oct. 31. 1S62. 

14. Nichols, lohn M., 23, Oct. 14, 1S62. 

15. Parker, Ebene^cr R., 21, Sergeant, discharged from hospital on ac- 
count of wounds received in battle. 

16. Roy, Simon, 29, Corporal, discharged Feb. iS, 1S63. 

17. Scribiier, James J., 10. must- red Jan. 13. TS62; disch. Sept. 19, "62. 
iS. Wightman, Samuel, 43, July i, 1S62. 

19. White, Je-se D., [9. mustered March 3, 1S62 ; disch. Oct. 25, iS62. 

20. Wilson, lanicsW., 32, April 10, 1862. 

21. Willi, im B. Robertson. 


1. Beggs, lohn, 24, First Sergeant, killed in battle of Crampton's 
Pass, Sept. 14, i>'>2. 

2. Chils'"!!, William H., 21, mustered Ian. 13, 1S62 ; died June 29, 
I ''62. from vv'ninds received in battb of Gaines' .^Iill, June 27, iSt)2. 

3. Caugiiliii. leremiah, 20. mustered Sept. 2r, 1S61 ; died May 10. "62. 

4. Drisksciim, James, 21, died June 29, 1S62, from wounds received 
at' Mill. 

5. Gairelt, Wi', 42, J, in. 24, l>62. 

C. Grilhth. Willis. 21, Corporal, died Dec. 24, 1S02. 
7. lohnsoii, loseph R.. Ir., 20, wounded and taken prisoner at Bull 
Run : died in Richmond, Va., Aug. 22, 1S61. 


■A ... 

I xt 

ill'.lfK ■ 111 

// .<r. 


.an J iij-! at 

rtoiqrir. ) 

!iuH jc 


DIF.D, AND KILLED— Confinuc^/. 

8. Lockwood, Henry, 22, mustered March 2S, 1S62 ; killed in the 
battle of Gaines' Mill, June 27, 1S62. 

9. Shannon, Robert, 22, died March 6, 1S62. 

10. Sullivan, Florence, 22, killed at Bull Run, July 21, 1861. 


1. Abrams, William H., 19, deserted Aug. 7, 1861. 

2. Busk, Richard, 30, deserted July iS, i36i. 

3. Bush, Zimri, 23, deserted Aug. 8, iSbi. 

4. Boyd, Harlin, 19, taken prisoner at Bull Run, July 21. 1861 ; de- 
serted Feb. 12, 1862. 

5. Drue, Jerome, 28, deserted Aug. 14, 1S61. ; ;■ , , .,,_:,,■ : 

6. Fitch, William, 23, deserted Aug. S, r86i. 

7. Hanna, Joseph M., 19, Corporal, deserted Aug. 14, 1861. 

8. Havens, John R., 22, deserted August 3, 1861. 

9. Jones, Jonathan W., 21, mustered March 13, 1862 ; deserted Sept. 
13, 1862. 

10. Lockwood, Martin, 26, mustered April i, '62 ; deserted May i, '62. 

11. Magec, Philander, 21, deserted Nov. 5, 1861. 

12. Murdock, John, 31, deserted Aug, 29, 1862. 

13. Odell, Orrin, 22 ; discharged Aug. 11, 1861. 

14. Palmer, Charles, 28, deserted Aug. 11, 1861. 

15. Pendergrass, John, 23, deserted Aug. 7, 1861. 

16. Reynolds, Merriam J., 19, Aug. 14, 1861. 

17. Reynolds, Lyman, 24, deserted May 7. 1862. 
iS. Rodgers, Edmund D., deserted June iS, 1862. 


1. Robertson, William B., 19. Jan. r, iSC^. Gen. Order 162. A. of P. 
Was wounded and taken prisoner at tiattle of Gaines' Mill. June 27, 1S62 
Leg amputated. Repotted Jan. 28, 1S64, at Elmira, for muster out and 

2. Staples, Squire, 2i, mustered ALirch 10, 1S62 ; dropped Lan. i, '61, 
Gen. Order 162, A. of P. 


1. Horton, James D., 21, Corporal, mustered March 19, 1862; to Sixth 
.Army Corps, to finish term of enlistment. June, 1863. 

2. Lockwood, Josepli W., 22, mustered March 27. 1S62 ; to Si.vth 
.\rmy Corps, to finish term of enlistment, June, 1863. 

3. Ninibs, William >L, 20, Sergeant, promoted to First Lieutenant 
of Co. " D, " Oct. II, 1802. 

4. O'Regan, Timothy, i3, mustered ?>Lircli 4, 1SO2 ; to Si.\tli Armv 
Corps, to fini>^h i<t:u of cnlislmeiil, lunt. 1-^3. 

5. Tanmr, Allu-rt S., 22, mustered .NLin.h iv, 1.SO2, to Sixth Armv 
Corps, to finish term of enlistment, June, 1863. 

'II.]. Uyn<i'-^T.i 




1. Curtiss C. Gardiner, 3q, promoted to Major, Sept. i, r36t. 

2. Samuel M. Harmon, 29, promov^d from First Lieutenant to Cap- 
tain, Sept. I, 1861, resigned Sept. 26, 1562. 

3. Burton Freeman, 33, promoted from Sergeant to First Sergeant, 
July 21, 1S61, to Second Lieutenant Sept. i, i86r, to First Lieutenant, 
Feb. 6. 1S62, to Captain Sept. 26, 1862 ; was Color Sergeant in battle ot 
Bull Run. 


1. Samuel >L Harmon, 29. Promoted. 

2. Davis C. Hartshorn, 29, promoted from First Sergeant to Second 
Lieut. Aug. I, 1861, to First Lieut. Sept. i, i36i, resigned Feb. 6, 1862. 

3. Burton Freeman, 33. Promoted. 

4. Texas Angel, 21. promoted to Commissary Sergeant July I, 1861, 
to Second Lieutenant Feb. 6, 1862, to First Lieutenant Sept. 26, 1862 ; 
Regimental Quartermaster after Nov. 22, 1562. 

5. Darwin Maltby, 21, promoted to Corporal July 21, 1S61, to First 
Sergeant March i, 1S62, to Second Lieutenant Sept. 26, 1862, to First 
Lieutenant November 22, 1862. 


1. Charles D. Rice, 23, resigned Aug, i, 1861. 

2. Davis C. Hartshorn, 29. Promoted. , . • 

3. Burton Freeman, 33. Promoted. ,• ■, 

4. Te.xas Angel. 21. Promoted. 

5. Darwin Maltby, 21. Promoted. 

6. Willis J. Kendall, 20, promoted from Corporal to Sergeant Julv 21, 
1861, to Second Lieutenant Nov. 22, 1862. 


1. Delos W. Cornell, 30, promoted from Corporal to Sergeant July 
21, 1861, to First Sergeant April 16, 1S62. 

2. Romulus D. Dennison, 34, mustered July 5, 1S61, promoted to 
Corporal July 21, 1S61, to Sergeant Sept. i, iS6r. 

3. .Allan A. McDonald, 23, promoted to Corporal Sept. i, 1S61, to 
Sergeant Sept. 26 1S62. 

4. Philander Ellithorp, 20, promoted to Corporal March, 15, 1862, to 
Sergeant >L-rrch r, 1^63. 

5. William Scavcr, 21, promntLj to Corporal >Larch i, 1SA2, to Ser- 
geant March i, i?63. 


1. Hci\ry Heinneman, 26, promoted Sept. t, 1S61. 

2. Joseph H. flnwe. 21, mustered July 5, '61, promoted Sept. 26, '62. 

3. David W.ilkr, jr.. 20, promoK'd March i, 1S63. 

4. Frank IL Ciardiner, 22, mustered June 16, i36i, promoted March 
I. 1863. 

5. John W. Stanton. 22, mustered July 5, '61, promoted March i, '63. 

K /fli.l( Hj : .: 1- H. ..-^ '.<l .id«i 



CORPORALS. — Contuilicd. 

6. Christian lluriiljcr^, 19, promoted Marcli i, 1S63. 

7. Silas S. Sctloy, 19, mustcied Sept. 2u, '61, promoted March i, '63. 


1. Bullock. George I!., 25, nuistercd Julys, 1S61. 

2. Br\-ne, Edward A., 22. mustered July 5, i>6i. 

3. Burdick, Mehin A., 36, mustered Au<r. 31. r36i ; detailed on Sig- 
nal Service Dec. 26. i>bi ; date of discharge not known. 

4. Button, Louis D.. 22, reduced to ranks from Sergeant April 16, '62. 

5. Burnham, George C. 15. 

6. Burt, Charles >L. iS. 

7. Berry, Charles W.. 23, mustered Julys, 1 S(H ; .taken prisoner at 
Bull Run luly 21, i>t,i. 

S. Burlingame. Henrv, 21, taken iirisnnir at Battle of Gaines' Mill : 
dropped from the rolls ; returned .Nhiy 27, xib^. 
(). Charles, Timothy C. 23. 
to. (?arpcnter, Robert. 2S. 

11. Cilley, Henry D., 32. 

12. Coats, Alfred, iS. . " . ■ . - 

13. Coon, Sebeus B., 26. ; , " 

14. Cranston, Stilhnan, 21. 

15. Champlin, .\lbert H., mustereii July 5 iSC>i. ., . ■ 

16. Clark. Franklin D.. 21, mu^tered Julv 5. iSor ; taken pri.soner at 
Bull Run. Julv 21. iS()i ; re[)nrted to his Co. ^Larch 31, 1S63. 

17. Dake, Albert J.. 2r. 

iS. Dunn, James. 22. • , • 

19. Fox, Peter, 37, mustered Aui,'. 31, 1S61. 

2'j. Ileers, Christofilirr, 22. 

21. Heald. John R.. iS. 

22. Huh/. Raws.)u B., 20, mustered Jidv 5, iSOi. 

23. Huntlv. Eilwin, 2r, musured Julv 5, \>(>i. ' '<■. ^ 
2 1. Hall, Randall L.. i.-. mustered Scpi. 20. rSor. 

25. Hooper, Isaac >L, 21. reduced to ranks from Corporal. On de- 
tached service till ^Llv i-^. 1S03. 

26. Hurley, Dennis, 21. mustered Auir. 31, iSoi. 

27 Hurlbert, Alson. 22, mustered Si-pi. 20, I'^tii. Absent without 
leave from Sept. 6, 1S62. to April 27, iSb3 : retiuued to duty under Pres- 
ident's pr<jclamation. 

2.S. Lane. Lester, 21. , . . ^.•.■ 

• 29. Lewi-;, William H., 21, umstered Jidy 5, iSoi. . 

30. McDonald, John, 24. 

31. McDonald, William, 2('. 

32. McDonald, Patrick. 21. mustered Sept. 20. i^bt. 

33. McMaue. J.imes. 21, mu-tered Se[il. 20. iS()i. 

34. >Lipcs. Charles. 23. 

35. Mtckm. Valleii.i, 17, mustered .Vuj:. 31. r'^oi. 

36. Merrdl, Thomas R.. iS. mustered Jan. 16, 1-62. 

i.i/'i I fU,\ 

(H.--M>; /tj^f.i 

1/»<j)o'> wi 


rKi\"Aiii:s — Ci'iitiitiirJ. 
37. Powers, Lawrence, l(), taken prisoner at T^ull Run, July 21, iSf)!. 
3S. Oiiis,'ley, Wintield, 19, mustered July 5, iSoi. 
39.- Rot,rers, Oriii C, 20, mustered Aug. 31, iSoi. 

40. Reading, Jeremiah K., 24, mustered Jidy 5, iSOi ; taken prisoner 
at Bull Bun, Jul\- 21. i?(.i. 
-p. Smith, David, 21. 

42. Tufts, Wintield, iS. 

43. Utter, George L., 21. ' '- '^ ■'• 

44. Van Nostrand, Everett, 21. 
4=^. Van Gorder, Jolm, 2i. 

46. Weaver, Ja(-ob D., iS, returnt-d from absent, sick, April 16, 1S62. 

47. Wright, Aaron U., 28. 

45. )V'eymer, Daniel G., 22. 
49. Worthington, lra<"., i,). 


1. Ames, Ira, 24, Fth. 11, 1^^(13. 

2. Benjamin, Rumain, 20, Aug. 0, 1S62. 

3. Bingham, fustin. 4^. Marcli iS, 1S02. "Old Mexico." 

4. Baxter, Daniel B.,45, mustered Sept. 20, irf6i; disch. March, 1863. 

5. Carpenter, David D.. 26, Aug. 9, lSf)i. 

b. Orandall, John IL, ic|, mustered July 5, iStn ; taken prisoner at 
Bull Run, July 21, i^oi ; dischar^.d Srpt. 5, iSdi. 

7. <'liamberhun, Wilb.r S , iS, mustered Jid\ 5. iSoi; disch. Sept., '62. 

8. Estabrook, (Jenrm- 1... 21, Aug. t), iSm. 

9. Jaques, W.iiren W., jo, mustered Sept. 2(\ iSor; discli. Sept., 1S62. 
10. Jaqjies, Lalayttlt , u,, mustered Se|it. 2n. iS(/i ; disch. Se|)t., 1S62. 
ir. Lewis, ("linto.i R., 22, Sept. 5. iS(.i. 

12. Lewis, Amos ('., 22, mustered Sept. 20, iSdi ; disch. Feb., 1S63. 

13. Lewis, Heniy I)., lu, Fc-bru.iry, iSo;,. 

14. Met/cer, John, 32, wuunded and taken pi isuner at Bull Run, July 
21, 1S61 ; nevc|- leturncd to icgiment. 

15. Oliver. ludson S.. iS, taken piisonerat Bull Run, Jul> 21, i^)i; 
supposed to ha\-e Ijet 11 iliscliarged. No lecmd. 

16. Ogden, John. 24. suppo-^c-d 1,1 have been discharged. No record. 

17. Robinstjn, John, 40, S.-piendier, iS(i2. 

I3. Sn.jw. ILTrveyC, 22, «'oi|;oial, .Vuu. K.. iSoi. 

19. \'an Horn, IF, 21, Feb. ti. 151.3. 

20. Wellman, Jonas (',., j ;, wounded .ind taken [»risoner at Bull Run, 
July 21, iSoi ; leg amputated; disthar-eil l)e<-. 1?, I^02. 

21. Woodrutl, ("hitrles A.. 21. fnun vJent ral 1 F-siiitaF- no date given. 

22. White, Jose|.h B.. 21. Sept. 2<), tSOl. 

23. WiKon, Fharl.s J., 3,,, .\uu. '), l'"i. 

24. Waters. G<oi;4e, 24, .\ul;. 9, t-oi. 

la.^dJO •■iv> 

Yrt .H-ni.l'^ 

ivi-j -.r!. <.^i- i..:. I...M 



1. Bliss, William B., Sergeant, 23, died at Sav-.i^e Station, June 29. '62. 

2. Bishop, John W., 23, mustered July 5, rS6i : taken prisoner at 
Bull Run, July 21, 1861 : died in Richmond. 

3. Babbitt, Albert, 26. killed at Bull Run. July 21, 1861. 

4. Collier, Thomas, 21, died Oct. 28, 1S62. 

5. Ferrin, Eugene. 23, killed at battle of Bull Run, July 21. 1S61. 

6. Haver, Wilber, 21, Corporal, killed at battle of Fredericksburg, 
May 3, 1S63. 

7. Hobart, Stanley, 32, died Dec. 3, 1862. 

8. Hobart, Charles J., ig, mustered July 5, 1S61, died Nov. 2g, 1S62, 
of wounds received in battle of Crampton's Pass, Sept. 14, 1S62. 

9. Hibbard, Enoch, 34, died July r, 1862. 
10. Kidder, Henry D., 2(), died Julv 22, iS6r. 


1. Adams, Frank O., 22, mustered July 5. '6r, deserted Aug. 7, '6r. 

2. Engle, George W., 20, deserted Aug. 4, i36r. 

3. Franklin, Ashley L., 19, deserted April 17, 1862. 

4. Gillman, Calvin B., 22, deserted Aug. 7, i36i. 

5. Kidder, William B., 25, deserted Aug. 7, 1861. 

6. Rice. Robert. 24. deserted Aug. 4. i56i. 

7. Strong, Frank, 19, mustered Sept. 20, 1861, deserted Feb. 20, 1862. 

8. Spencer, Alfred W., 21, deserted Sept, 15, 1S62. 

I. Andrews, James O., 26, wounded and taken prisoner at Bull Run, 
July 21, 1861 ; never returned to regiment. 



1. Henry L. Achilles, 26, resigned June g, 1S62, on account of disa- 

2. SevTuour Pierce, 22, promoted to Captain June 9, 1S62 ; detached 
on Signal Service. 


1. William H. Coan, 22, died September 11, 1S62. 

2. George S. Gaskill, 20, promoted from Corporal to Sergeant Sept. r. 

1861, to Second Lieutenant July 10, 1S62, to First Lieutenant Sept. 6, 

1862, and assigned to the command of the Company. 

■itCOND LIKL I EN \M =. 

1. Henr\- H. Hanington, 22, resigned July 10, ii62, on account of 

2. William H. McMahon, 25, promoted to Second Lieutenant, from 
Co. "G." Sept. 6, 1S62. 



1. Bliss, William B., Sergeant, 23. died at Savape Station, June 29, "62. 

2. Bishop, John W., 23, mustered July 5, i36i : taken prisoner at 
Bull Run, July 21, 1861 : died in Richmond. 

3. Babbitt, Albert, 26, killed at Bull Run, July 21, 1861. 

4. Collier, Thomas, 21, died Oct. 28, 1S62. 

5. Ferrin, Eugene, 23, killed at battle of Bull Run, July 21, 1861. 

6. Haver, Wilber, 21, Corporal, killed at battle of Fredericksburg, 
May 3, 1S63. 

7. Hobart, Stanley, 32, died Dec. 3, 1862. 

8. Hobart, Charles J., 19, mustered July 5. 1861, died Nov. 29, 1862, 
of wounds received in battle of Crampton's Pass, Sept.- 14. 1862. 

9. Hibbard, Enoch, 34, died July r, 1862. 
10. Kidder, Henry D., 29, died Julv 22, iS6r. 


1. .-^dams, Frank O., 22, mustered July 5. '61, deserted Aug. 7, '6r. 

2. Engle, George W., 20, deserted Aug. 4, i36r. 

3. Franklin, Ashley L., 19, deserted April 17, 1S62. 

4. Gillman, Calvin B., 22, deserted Aug. 7, i36i. 

5. Kidder, William B., 25, deserted Aug. 7, 1861. 

6. Rice, Robert, 24. deserted Aug. 4, iS6r. 

7. Strong, Frank, 19, mustered Sept. 20, 1S61, deserted Feb. 20, 1862. 

8. Spencer, Alfred W., 21, deserted Sept, 15, 1S62. 

I. Andrews, James O., 26, wounded and taken prisoner at Bull Run, 
July 21, 1861 ; never returned to regiment. 



1. Henry L. Achilles, 26, resigned June 9, 1S62, on account of disa- 

2. Se>Tnour Pierce, 22, promoted to Captain June 9, 1S62 ; detached 
on Signal Service. 


1. William H. Coan, 22, died September 11, 1S62. 

2. George S. Gaskill,20, promoted from Corporal to Sergeant Sept. i, 

1861. to Second Lieutenant July to, 1S62, to First Lieutenant Sept. 6, 

1862, and assigned to the command of the Company. 

atCuND LltLlENAM-,. 

1. Henr\' H. Hanington, 22, resigned July 10, ii62, on account of 

2. William H. McMahon, 25, promoted to Second Lieutenant, from 
Co. "G." Sept. 6, 1S62. 

>1 b*•^- ■»! t 

"o jaiju'r,)! 

:);«l» . Vi>;i r. 

utfi'>i. no .r<if I 

}ui;a:>iuoiJ L-(iO09e! u; 



T. Henr\- B. Barnard, 23, promott-d from Sergeant to First Sergeant 
Sept. I, 1861. 

2. .James Kennelly, 23, promoted to Corporal Aiig. 15, iS6r, to Ser- 
geant Sept. I, i36i. 

3. Ami Whitney, 22, promoted to Corporal Sept. i, 1S61, to Sergeant 
Dec. I. 1862. 

4. John Ball, 21, promoted to Corporal March i, iS6r, to Sergeant 
Dec. I, 1S62. 

5. John F. Stewart, 23, promoted to Corporal Sept. r, 1S62, to Ser- 
geant Dec. I, 1S62. 


1. Frank S. Hayden, 20. ~. .•,>. 

2. Aretus H. Allen, 25. 

3. Charles W. Sickles. 21, (.ronioted Sept. i, tS6i. 

4. William White, 20, promoted Se;)t. i, 1861. 

5. John Bannister, 22, promoted Dec. T, 1S62. 

6. Martin G. Wood, 22, promoted Dec. i, 1S62. 

7. Orson T. Jewett, 20, taken prisoner at battle of Bull Run, July 
21, 1861 ; promoted Dec. i, 1S62. 

8. Henry T. Latimer, — , mustered fuly 15. '61 ; promoted Dec. i, '62. 


I. Lewis M. Cliflord, 20. 


1. Ashley, George A., i3. ' •• 

2. Atwell, Freeman J., 2b. i 

3. Ashby, Charles. 39, mustered Sept. 5, i36i. 

4. Barber, Charles, 22. 

5. Beach, Orrin D., 21, returned from absent sick. May 18, 1S63. 

6. Beard si ey, George, 19. 

7. Bishop, Jacob H., 2S. 

8. Blackwell, George W., 19, mustered Julv 15, 1S61, leturned from 
absent sick. May iS, 1S63. 

9. Bowman, William, iS, mustered July 5, i36i. 

10. Barnes, Parrish, iS, mustered Sept. 5. 1S61. 

11. Blanchard, Orrin D., 19. ;- f .,,. 1 ,. 

12. Brignall, John. 27. 

13. Chapman, Galusha, 24. 

14. Clement. Lewis, 32. ■':■:•; < • ., 

15. Cook, Joseph, 19. 

16. Dwinnell, Charles, 28, taken prisoner at battle of Bull Run, July 
21. 1861. 

17. Doane, Oscar, 21. 

i3. Dorrance, Joseph, 35. 
19. Egglestoa, Seneca. iS. 

S'l -I yrf/ 

moil i,->fji!ii 


PRIVATES. — r6j;///««f.,/. 

20. Fowler. John C, 22. taken prisoner at battle Kuli Run. [uly ^r '6, 

21. Gaylor. Frederick F., 25. • J ^ < > 
. 22. Harris, Isaac. 23. 

23. Hart, Charles, 2r. 

24. Hanson, William [. C., 23. 

25. Henr>'. Harrison. 22. 

26. Howard. Charles, i3. mustered Juiv i^ iSru 

27. Hunt, Alvin G., rS., mustered July i5ViS6r,' ' ' ' ' 
2S. Harris, James, iQ, mustered Sept. 5, i,S6r. 

29. Hobbs, Ira, 20, mustered Sept 5 r86i 

31. Harding. Horace J., 21. 

32. Johnson, Andrew H., 23. . ^ 

33- Johnson, William, 22. 

34- Jones, Edward D. C, 20. mustered July i^. 1S61 

35- Kingman, Albert E.. iS. 
36. Kincade, Eugene C, 22. 

37- King, Charles, 20, mustered July 15. 1S61. 

38. Lawrence, George, 22. 

39- Lake, William, 23, mustered Sept. 5, 1S61 ' ' 

40. MalIor\-, William H. H., 20 

41. JJ"dge, Volney, 19, take'n prisoner at Bull Run, July 21, r36r. 

42. Moore, Orra H., 20, mustered Sept 5 1S61 ' ■ • 

43- N'ash, Charles, 19. 

44- Paul, James, 21, mustered lulv 15, 1S61. 

45. Pinney, Edward F.. 22, mustered Sept. i, xS6r 

46. Simmons, John M., ju. -• • ^ 
47- Sackett, Hiiam. iS. 

48. Tucker. Hen. yC, 20, mustered fulv i:^ 1S61 

49. Tucker. Jacob. iS. taken prisoner' at" Bull Run. Julv' 2r ,S6i • 
transferred from Co. "A" June 20, 1861. 

50. Viele. Philip, 38. 

2,.''.%'.'" """""' """'■ ''•• ''• '^'^" P^'^""^^ ^' E^"" ^-- July 

52. Wilson, Nathan M., 23. 

53. Wells. Henry S., 23, mustered July i^ Ho, 
Bull Run. Julys,. rS6r. 


r. Allins. Albert, 25. August 7, iS(,j. 

2. Avery, Francis G., 22. .March 31 im,-. 

3. Aplin, Rri,.s, „, „u>.,..r,-,l sJpt. ., ,SM ; discharged , vt ,, .86'> 

4. (I'ft, Amos, Jr., 22. Muvh It. iSG- t. 9, ,s^,.. 

5. Doty, Walter, 22, July i, i>,6i.' 

6. Dalton, .Martin, 26, Oct. 3, isoi. 

prisoner at 


i\!r I , ir j't] r\,,'\ 

« l!,.M «r 

rr. Ji.l .1;^'; .^i ,!■.? ! 


7. Dorrance, William. 20, Jan. 15, 1S63. 
S. Diirkee. Oscar, 23. mustered Sept. 3, i36i; disch. April 4. 1S62. 

9. Eastman. Charles B.. 24, Aug. 7. 1S61. 

10. Howard, John D., 21, Dec. 2, 1S62. 

11. King. John E., 40, Dec. 12. i362. 

12. McElroy. Michael, 20, Aug. 14, 1S61. 

13. McPherson. John. 23. Aug. 14. iSf)i. 

14. Mudge, Jay L., iS, taken prisoner at Bull Run, July 21, 1S61 ; 
discharged Jan 9. '63. 

15. Peterson, Frederick H., iS. mustered July 15 ; disch. Nov. 6, 1S62. 

16. Towsley, Rathburn C., 2?, Corporal, mustered Sept. 5, 1S61; dis- 
charged Dec. 25, i36i. 

17. Wells, James E., 19, discharged Oct. 9, 1S62. 


1. Bowen, James, 22, Sergeant, Sept. 11, isoi. 

2. Cook, Dwight, 24, Corpoial. killed in battle of Bull Run, July 
21, 1S61. 

T. Curtis, Delos, 35. mustered July 15, 1S61, died of wounds received 
in battle of Bull Run, Julv 21, ii6i. 

4. Edwin, Eddv, 23, Sergeant, killed in the battle of Bull Run, July 
21, 1861. 

5. KellogiT, Albertus, 19, mustered Julv 15, 1S61, killed in battle of 
Bull Run, luly 21, i36i. 

6. King, Henry J.. 27, killed Aug. 20, 1S61, by being thrown from a 
horse, in Washington. 

7. Larwood, Andrew, iS, ninstereii Dec. 17, 1S61, killed in battle of 
Gaines' Mill, June 27, iSf>2. 

8. Murphy, Clinton, 26, Corporal, died April 12, 1S62. 

9. McKen/.ie Peter, 26, mustered July i?, 1S61. killed at battle of 
Bull Run, July 2T. iSf.i. 

10. Mason, George K., 2S, died Jan. 19, 1863. 

11. Nash. William H., 20. died in hospital at Washington, date not 

12. Rowley, Oliver G.. iS. died Mav 25. i3tj2. 

13. Squires, Edsun, 20, mustered Dec. 17, i3f)i ; run over by the cars, 
at Baltimore. Md., May i(., i?OJ. died from itjjuries May 17. 

14. ribbits. Charles W., 22, taken prisoner at the battle of Bull Run : 
Jwt .ind killed t>v a nb.-l inilry zchiU a priscHc, in Kidniuoid. Nov. 12. iSoi. 

15. Thornton, Hlia H.. iS. killed in the battle of Gaines' Mill. June 

"'■ '^^"' DESERTED. 

1. Humphrey. Carloss, 22. deserted Auu. 1, iS6r. 

2. William. 21, descried Au-. )• i^'"- 

5. Sawyer, Charles W.. 22, Sergeant, deseiied Aug. i, 1S62. 

vUi^ .n.iH )!j<B ' 

/.,.'. (-;(>» MiiK ■■■:■<};■.' :.•<■:•■: !:■:;> ■;,.•_!■»;: ,:;,^!)nj nrn'oA 
JO -jilli-r' 'nt b ■.;;■; ,1 !M ,.;■ '■'y,\ ! m; ■'•-;. ■! ,, : 

U) -.:•;. .! H J' -."', J (• 

'! .1! 



r. Hodgman, Clinton E., 22. Sergeant, Oct. 4, 1S61. bv promotion to 
Co. " E." 

- 2. Newell, Daniel P., 22, mustered Aug. 2. 1S61, discharged Dec. i, 
1862, by promotion to Commissary Sergeant. 

3. Steel, Lau-rence J., 20, Tidy ;th, iS6r, to Companv "G." 

4. Vickars, William, iS, mustered Sept. 5. i86r, transferred to B it- 
tery " D," Second U. S. Artillery, Regulars, Feb. 15, iSf.3 

.u>^l .r .yn/. 


Showing Whole Number of Officers and Enlisted Men of the 

Twenty-seventh Regiment, New York Volunteer Infantry, 

Mustered into tiie United States' Service during its 

Term of Service, from May 21, i36r, to May 31, 1863. 


Mustered into United States' Service with Regiment, May 21, 1861.. 37 

Appointed from civil life 7 

Appointed from enlisted men of regiment 51 


Promoted out of regiment — Slocum, Bartlett, Rodgers 3 

Resigned 36 

Discharged for disability 5 

Died of disease — Gaul, Coan 2 

Died of wounds — Webster i 

Killed in battle — Park I 

Discharged by order — Goodrich, Dickson, Kirby, .McKay 4 

Mustered out by general order — musicians 2 

Mustered out with regiment, May 31, 1S63 41 



:J ;,ldBi ;-■ /;.W ,!r/t).t; 

■<«;>! J/: .nh.,' 

'-J .!i 


The following t;>lated state.nent is made from the mwster-out rolb 
of the regiment : 


► < c 

'^ r. 


'\ Died. 

1 Disch'd. 


1 _ 


1 - 

3 !3 


3 ~. 

; H 


i ^ 7 

1 •"' c 



1 3 


~. 3 

y £ 
3 ~ 



1 ,^ 


j i 

1 • 
1 • 

\ c 






i I 















' ' 












1 5 











' 6 






























1 00 




I r 









i I 























23 1 



















Field and 



i j 







' 1 

Olhrers. . 


, : 












,of. ! 

42 1 

M ' 67 j 

3 1 

2? j 

Zf-K) 104! 



-^ 1 



I .1 


, , 


— . — 

aiistiT ;u)(l i.roiiiotion. 

TotalJMo. enrolLd. not inrhuliu- the |.;uul (co pieces.) 

* Other than those promoted from the Companies. 


I , — 


. ^ ft: 

t I 

v.- I |t r. i> 

I < 

I. .^i'.>HU> 

.1 , . 


Remarks.— The above table does not show all of the actual casualties 
to the enlisted men. For example, the column of " di.soi^Trtted " is known 
to include many who had been 7c»i(/i,/e<i ^.nd sent to hospitals; and like- 
wise many wiio had been prisoiu-is, and returned incapacitated for duiy. 
Again, the column of "died" is known to include some who had been 
u-oundcJ, -slwA sent to hospitals. Again, the column of "dropped" in- 
cludes some who were taken ."/ncz/cVM-, and never aflcrwards heard from. 
It is to be regretted that there is no record of those who lost a leg or an 
arm, or were otherwise permanently disabled. 

The above statement of officers and cidisted men does not include 
Alex. Scott's Cornet Band of twenty men, who were a part of the regi- 
ment for about one year, and who v,ill ever be remembered with soldierly 
regard by all comrades. 

In regard to the deserters, many served honoiably in other commands, 
afterwards. Not a few so marked lett the regiment to enlist with relatives 
or friends in other organizations, where associali.nis were more congenial 
or chances of promotion better ; and quite a number were men who liati 
been taken [irisontrs, and never leturned. 

111 lor tlir'i ,■ 

.1 i>i.<;.i 



The. following is the verylatest information from the War Department, 
relative to the death casualties in the 27th Regiment New York Infantry : 

Twenty-Skventh Regimen 

1 xN. Y 

. Voi.s. 




Killed in action, or died from 
Died of disease 











Accidental deaths 

Causes not stated . . 

1 1 


It will be noted that this t.iblc differs from the former, it having since 
been found that some who were reported on the roll as dropped, were 
either killed, or died of wounds or disease. Owing to the defective char- 
acter of the regimental records on file in the War Department, it is impos- 
sible to determine with absolute accuracy the losses sustained ; and the 
above computations must be regarded as only approximative. 

, :i t..,rr ■■■ f,.>.r,. r„ (,-,11, ;{ 

. , -r. ,. ■■ to .''^.(J 

• '■. >!' :»!:;:•:■(:. .A 

i'l MIO-Tl <'Vf. V 




The following table of figures, on casualties in action, is from the 
official publications of the War Department: 



Fifth Maine 

Sixteenth New York 

Twenty-Seventh New York. 
Ninetv-Sixth Pennsylvania. 








Fifth Maine I 

Sixteenth New York ; 

Twenty-Seventh New York | 

Ninety-Sixth Pennsylvania . i 

4 i 


31 . 



6 1 


20 j 



6x 1 


Total lossof thcarniyatCrampton's Pass 

113 1 

41S 1 


I, Ud. 

Fifth Maine. 

Sixteenth New York 

Twenty-Seventh New York. 
Ninety-Sixth Pennsylvania. 



Fifth Maine I " 

Sixteenth New York . . 33 

Twenlv-Scvenlh New York 1 3 

One Ilundrcd and Twcntv-Fir.-^l N. Y. .| 4^ 

Ninety-Sixth Pennsylvania. ... 

5S 27 

70 I 49 

13 3 

173 55 

54 I 9 



.jjiK i'dKu:* .•.ii.uj.i'vxj .y.:^..rrrf^\ •^y/.', //.m- 


l> i^'.ViiT/A 

:ij/i>ii it/( tv* 1. 

:,■.•( T 









Killed and 

Died of 




ease, accident, 




of Wounds. 

in prison 













•^ E, 



^ 7' 



'*. ^' 





; S- 

May 7. 1S61 

I, National Guards 







■' 21, " 

2, Troy RiHcs 







" 14. " 

3, Veterans 








" 9- " 

4. Scott's Life Giiaids.. . 








" 9. " 

5, Diiryea Zouaves . , . 


I S3 





" 25. '• 

6, Wilson Zouaves . ... 







Apr. 23. 1; 

7. Steuben Reunnunt . . . 









S, German Ritles 








May 4. " 

<), Hawkins Zouaves . . 








Apr. 20, '• 

It, Ellswortli Zouaves... 








May 13. •• 

12, Independence Guards 








" 14, " 

13, Rochester Re.uinient. . 







" 17. '• 

14, First Onondatra 







*' 15, " 

16, 'Straw Hats of lli>=tory' 


I ''7 





" 24, " 

17. Wcstrhe'^ler Chasseurs 







" 17. " 

IS. New York Ritles 








" 17. " 

19, First Cayuua 





54 i 


" 17. " 

20. German Turners. . . . 







'■ i6. •' 

21. Hutfalo rveLMuient. . . . 






42 ; 

t iS 

fimc 6. " 

22, 2d New York Re^'t.. 






32 j 


May 21. " 

27. Union RcuMnient. . . 






72 ; 


Of tlie thirty-eiuht "Two Years' Re-iiuei 
the heaviest losses were as follows : 

1st. The 5th Duryea Zouaves 

2<1. The i6tli New York "Straw Hals.".. 

3d. The 34th New York Regiment 

4th. The 7th Steuhen Rcjj;inient 

5tli. The 27th New York Vols., Union Re- 

ts" from New York State, 

. . . .(total deaths) 220 

. . . " " 197 

. ... " " 162 

. ... " " 149 

1. .. " " 146 



Of the 27T11 Ri-x.nrEXT New York Volunteers, and 
THE First Regiment N. Y. Veteran Cavalry. 
The above Association has been organized for many 
years and continues to hold its annual reunions. The ob- 
jects of the organization are: The promotion of fraternal 
feelin-s; the revival of old memories and associations; and 
the collection and preservation of records of the services 
rendered by these two regiments during the War of the 


Each honorably discharged survivor whose address is 
known, is regularly notified of the meetings ot the Associ- 
ation, and is invited to become a member: and to each is 
mailed a copy of the printed Proceedings of the Reunions. 

Our gatherings are notable for the enjoyment of friendly 
fellowship and conversation among comrades bound to- 
crether by memories of perils and privations, encountered 
when the majority were boys, or in the first years of man- 


The dues are nominally Si-oo, but any sum that the com- 
rade is able to pay is accepted ; and there is no accumula- 
tion of back dues. 

We desire to have the name of every survivor on the 
Roster of the Association, and any comrade who knows 
the address of a comrade not already on the list published 
in the Proceedings, should notify the Secretary. Every 
comrade of the 27th should also make an effort to notify 
the friends of deceased comrades that a History of the 
Regiment has been published. 

Doubtless the reading of the History will suggest to 
some of the comrailes nuuiv lutcrc^ting incidrnt^ thai 
would be valuable if a secc.ul edition <hould be publi>hed.. 
These should be noted, and sent to the Secretary ; also any 
corrections that should be made. 



It is to be regretted that more of the officers did not 
respond to the invitation of the Publication Committee, to 
furnish cuts for their portraits ; and also that it was impos- 
sible to get shoit biographies of the officers, and the local 
history of each company. 

It is hoped that this additional matter may yet be ob- 
tained, and kept in the records of the Association. 

Address C. B. FAIRCHILD, Secretary, 

545 East 84th Street, 

New York City. 

il,.' IK'! 

'-''!■ I ;vi. 


. \,:t:. 


1 . : 1 ! 'J : r t 

,:;i -ufn.;: 


5 ...■': ,i-j<!v/ 





{UJv o^.w. ; .'11.; ..; y J'', /fly 


It is to be regretted that more of the officers did not 
respond to the invitation of the Publication Committee, to 
furnish cuts for their portraits ; and also that it was impos- 
sible to get shoit biographies of the officers, and the local 
history of each company. 

It is hoped that this additional matter may yet be ob- 
tained, and kept in the records of the Association. 

Address C. B. FAIRCHILD, Secretary, 

545 East 84th Street, 

New York City. 




Portrait of Major-Gen. H. W. Slocum (steel) Frontispiece. 

Badge of the First Di%-ision, Sixth Corps Title page. 

Map of the Virginia Campaigns iv. 

Portrait of Col. H. W. Slocum 2 

Map of Washington and vicinity . lo 

Portrait of Brigadier-Gen. J. J. Bartlett 21 

Roll Book of Co. "D". 34 

Revolver 34 

Portrait of Col. Alexander D. Adams 45 

Portrait of Major C. C. Gardiner 54 

Portrait of Capt. H. R. White, Co. " B " 56 

Map of Gaines' Mill 5^ 

Portrait of Capt. Charles A. Wells, Co " C " 71 

Portrait of Lieutenant-Col. J. H. Bodine 90 

Portrait of Dr. William H. Stuart 94 

Portrait of Capt. H. Seymour Pierce, Co " G " 120 

Map of Fredericksburg 122 

Portrait of Major-Gen. W. B. Franklin 123 

Portrait of Capt. H. C. Rogers, Co " D." 126 

Corps Badges 141 

Portrait of Major-Gen. W. T. H. Brooks 14S 

Modes of Punishment '49 

Portrait of Capt. Samuel M. Harmon, Co. " { " 154 

Portrait of Captain Burton Freeman, Co. " I " 164 

Portrait of Lieut. Henry Hanington, Co. " K ". . , 16S 

Portrait of Major-Gen. John Sedgwick I74 

Flag of the 27th Regiment iSo 

Richmond Prison Association Seal — 203 

Richmond Tobacco Warehouse — Prison No. i 205 

Parish Prison, New Orleans, La ..• 2i3 

Salisbury Prison 226 

Returned Prisoners 234 

Portrait of Dr. Norman S. Barnes 244 


»J M 1 v; 

onuH y- 


Preface . . v. 

Introduction vii. 

Or<.>-unization of the Regiment — Moved to Southport — Kicking over the 
Tal/ies— Row witli the 33d— Mustered iu the U. S. Service— Off for 
Washington— First Night in Camp — Target Practice — On to Rich- 
mond — Bull Run Battle — Slocum Wounded — Casualties — Bartlett's 
Report of Bull Run— Porter's Report i-iS. 

Bark to Camp Franklin — To Alexandria — Slocum Promoted — Election of 
Officers — Fort Lyon — Camp Clara — Winter Quarters — Roster of 
Franklin's Division — (^jrand Review — Execution of Johnson — Pris- 
oners' Return — Cailett"s Station — Return to Alexandria 19-30 


To Peninsula — West .Point — Death of Lieut. Bailey — Franklin's Report 
of West Point— Slocum's and Newton's Reports — Roster of Sixth Corps- 
Secession Song — Col. Bartlett Promoted — Mechanicsville— Balloon As- 
cension — McClellan's Order — Corduroy Roads — Gaines' Mill— A Pris- 
oner's Account — Reports: Slocum's, Bartlett's, Adams' — Change of 
.fj;,<;e— Savage Station— Wliite Oak Swamp — Malvern Hill — Harrison's 
Landing — Reports : Franklin's, Slocum's— Wounded Soldier's Letter — 
Retreat — Leave the Peninsula — Dr. Burr's Letter — Second Bull 

Run 31-S7 


Ml Clellan Relieved bv Pope — Reinstated — >Liriland Campaign— Battle 
of Crampton's Pass — Aniietam — Reports: McClellan's, Franklin's, 
Slocum's,'s, .\.lam^' -McClellan's Farewell— Burnside Takes 
Command— Belle Plain-First BattL- of Fredericksburg— White Oak 
Chun h— Talk with Ret.<l Pickets— Roster Sixth Corps S<}-I2b 


Wi;itir Onarters — Soldiers' Letters — Emancipation Proclamation — Mud 
March— Hooker T.ikes (Jomiuand — .V W<>m:in's Letter— Second Fred- 
eri.k:l)urg— Star Shot out of the Flay— Retreat— Final Orders— Muster 
Out— The Old Fl.ig— H:iHle Hymn 127— i3i 


Prison Life— Ciiptuu — l^i- hinond. New Oilcans and Salisbury I'risons- 
List of Piisoneis— Nursing a Wounded L'oinr.ide — Huiiirer — Cruel 
Treatment— Bill of F.ue—Prisoneis Shot by the Cu;ud— ("lose Con- 
finement — Long Jouriiey — l^arole — Home 1S3-233 

/ 'AiT'U M > 

.M.»— j>.,I lU.R.lM 



Gen. Slocum 237 

Gen. Bartlett 240 

Col. Alexander D. Adams 342 

Major Curtiss C. Gardiner 243 

Dr. Norman S. Barnes 244 

Gen. John Sedgwick ,.» 249 

Gen. W. B. Franklin 251 

Roster 253 

Tabulated Statements .293-297 

Notes of Survivor^' Association 299 

E H. E. -A. T Jk. . 

Page 6 — for Sitgraves, read Sitgrcives. 
7 — for Reliay, read Relay. 

22 — for Dr. Mason, read Dr. George Mason. 

24— for Col. John Washington, read John A. Washington. 
" 29 — for Brenton's, read Benton's Tavern. . 

53 — for Col. John, read Col. Henry Cake. 
" 104 — for A. J., read N. J. Jackson. 
" no — for nth of August, read loth. 
" iig — for Mary's, read Marj^e's. 
" 150 — for 1S62, read 1S63. 
" 1S5 — for James, read Jonas G. \Vellinan. 
" 196 — for Co. "I," read Bond of Co. "G." 
" 243 — for G. O., read A. G. O. 

" 267 — for S, after the name of Geo. O. Pratt, read iS. 
• • 268 — for — , after the name of Samuel Winchell, read 21. 
" 269 — for "hot" by rebel scout, read shot by rebel scout. 

,:? ,r,^— ^ aji^q