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Full text of "History of the 77th Illinois Volunteer Infantry, Sept. 2, 1862-July 10, 1865 / c by Lieut. W. H. Bentley, with an introduction by General D. P. Grier"

T-I B R.ARY 

OF THE. 

U N I VLR.5ITY 
OF ILLINOIS 

973.74 
1*61 

77 



1UULNO1S HI8TOXLICAI, SURVEY 



HISTORY 

OF THE 

ILLINOIS VOLUNTEER INFANTRY, 

SEPT. 2, 1862, JULY 10, 1865, 

BY 

LIEUT. W. H. BENTLEY, 



WITH AN INTRODUCTION BY 



GENERAL D. P. GBIEB. 



PEORIA, ILLINOIS: 

EDWARD HINK, PRINTER, ADAMS ST., COR. HARRISON. 

1883. 



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TO 
MY COMRADES 

OF THE 

SEVENTY -SEVENTH, 

FROM THE 

COLONEL 
WHO SO ABLY COMMANDED US, 

TO THK 

DRUMMER BOY 

WHO CARRIED THE STRETCHER ON THE FIELD OF BATTLE, 
AS A TRIBUTE OF SINCERE AFFECTION 

FOR THE LIVING, 
AND OF PROFOUND SORROW 

FOR THE DEAD, 

THIS VOLUME IS RESPECTFULLY DEDICATED, 
BY THE AUTHOR. 



96 1 869 



PREFACE. 



KING SOLOMON made a centre shot when he said 
"of making many books there is no end," and 
yet there is always " a long felt want" for another. 
If it were not so the book trade would be un- 
profitable. Acting on the belief that there is a 
a gap somewhere to be filled, this book is writ- 
ten. It was first projected about twenty years 
ago soon after the fall of Vicksburg. The 
writer had been keeping a record of the events 
in which the Seventy-Seventh participated, 
while those events were transpiring, and while 
all the circumstances were fresh in the mind. 
But he did not rely alone upon his own sight- 
seeing or his own judgment. Other members 
of the regiment, from that day to this, have ren- 
. dered valuable assistance. Among these may 
be mentioned General D. P. Grier, Major J. M. 
McCulloch, Lieutenant Henry P. Ayres and 
J. H. Snyder, Musician of Co. " I." The latter 
kept a daily record from first to last, noting all 
the occurrences worth noting, with great care 
and accuracy. To him I am indebted for the 
use of his voluminous and interesting journals. 
Much of the matter contained in these pages was 



6 PREFACE. 



derived from that source. To all who have as- 
sisted in any way, I can only say, THANK YOU, 
while indulging the hope that this work may 
prove acceptable to the members of the regiment 
and their friends, and be treasured as a memo- 
rial of the trying scenes through which we were 
called to pass. 

It is not the intention to exalt the Seventy- 
Seventh at the expense of any other regiment. 
For pure, unselfish patriotism for devotion to 
principle for endurance on the march and for 
gallantry in the field, the Volunteer Army of the 
United States during the war of the rebellion, 
has no parallel in the history of nations. But 
while this is true, each regiment has a history 
peculiar to itself. And it is only right and 
proper that it should receive full credit for all it 
accomplished while in the service. 

As the years roll on, and as one after another 
takes up the line of march to that undiscovered 
country from whose bourne no traveler returns, 
may the ties of affection cemented by close com- 
panionship during those years of bloody strife, 
grow stronger as the sun lengthens the shadows 
on our pathway of life. And at last may we 
clasp glad hands and renew the friendships of 
this life in that " house not made with hands, 
eternal in the heavens." 

W. H. B. 

PEORIA, ILL., Sept. 2, 1883. 



CONTENTS. 



INTRODUCTION. 

PAGE. 

BY GENERAL D. P. GRIER, 9 

CHAPTER THE FIRST. 
"THE LONG ROLL," 

CHAPTER THE SECOND. 

"REVIELLE," . . 

CHAPTER THE THIRD. 
To THE FRONT, 

CHAPTER THE FOURTH. 
ARKANSAS POST, 

CHAPTER THE FIFTH. 

ON TO VlCKSBURG, 

CHAPTER THE SIXTH. 

VlCKSBURG, 145 

CHAPTER THE SEVENTH. 
SUCCESS, 163 

CHAPTER THE EIGHTH. 
JACKSON, 184 

CHAPTER THE NINTH. 
CARROLLTON, lltf> 

CHAPTER THE TENTH. 
BAYOU TKCHE, 205 



CONTENTS. 



CHAPTER THE ELEVENTH. i- A(1E . 

RECRUITS, 218 

CHAPTER THE TWELFTH. 
TEXAS, 234 

CHAPTER THE THIRTEENTH. 
RED RIVER, 244 

CHAPTER THE FOURTEENTH. 
A. J. SMITH, ^ 260 

CHAPTER THE FIFTEENTH. 
PRISON LIFE, .281 

CHAPTER THE SIXTEENTH. 
THE RETREAT, . 307 

CHAPTER THE SEVENTEENTH. 
GAINES AND MORGAN, 319 

CHAPTER THE EIGHTEENTH. 
"A SOFT THING," 327 

CHAPTER THE NINETEENTH. 
MOBILE, 336 

CHAPTER THE TWENTIETH. 
" ALL PRESENT OR ACCOUNTED FOR," . . 356 

CHAPTER THE TWENTY-FIRST. 
"TATTOO," 378 

CHAPTER THE TWENTY-SECOND. 

"TAPS," . . 385 



INTRODUCTION. 



ST. Louis, July 28, 1883. 

W. H. BENTLEY, Peoria, III. 

DEAR SIR: I have read your History 
of the Seventy-Seventh Regiment Illinois Vol- 
unteer Infantry, with a good deal of pleasure, 
and find it to be a very accurate and truthful 
history of the services rendered to the Govern- 
ment by that organization. 

I feel that the Regiment is entitled to have its 
history written. Its achievements during the 
War of the Rebellion were of so high a charac- 
ter, and it earned in so many hard fought bat- 
tles such distinction, that a truthful history pub- 
lished at this time, will be highly appreciated by 
all the members and their friends. The book 
will be highly prized by them, not only now, 
but by their decendants in the future. 

As the Commander of the Seventy-Seventh 
during the entire term of its service, I take great 
pride in its brilliant record. Our experience 



10 INTRODUCTION. 



during the whole war was a severe one. We 
were constantly at* the front. Our long and te- 
dious marches were trying. Our battles were 
among the hardest fought during the war. But 
our brave men went through all without mur- 
muring, and in the most trying positions in 
which they were placed, they never failed to 
acquit themselves honorably. In the estimation 
of their commanding generals, they stood second 
to hone. 

More than twenty years have passed since we 
became soldiers; and in looking back over what 
we passed through in those days, we naturally 
feel that it was a hard life, and perhaps we 
should not feel disposed, or should hesitate to 
give another three years of our lives in the same 
way. But I venture to say right here, that I do 
not believe there is a man living who served with 
us during those trying times, but is proud that 
he was there, and that he will, during his whole 
life, remember with a thrill of pleasure, that he 
was once a soldier of the Seventy-Seventh Illi- 
nois Regiment. 

I believe that one great cause of the success 
of the Regiment is due to the kind and charac- 
ter of the men who composed it. The great 
majority of them were young men who had been 
carefully trained at their own homes by good 
fathers and mothers, who had implanted in them 
true and manly principles. They were young 



INTRODUCTION. 11 



men of intelligence, honest and upright. They 
were men who scorned to commit a mean act. 
On all occasions they could be depended upon to 
go where you directed them, and to stay there as 
long as there was any ground under thei? feet 
to stand on. Such men as these were invincible, 
and could only be successful, and I believe that 
no force could resist an army like them, and 
that they could march triumphantly around the 
world. 

We were also favored with good officers. 
They all came from civil life knew nothing 
whatever of the life and duties of a soldier 
had never seen a battle in their lives, and in 
fact had everything to learn. They learned it 
in a very short time, and learned it well. They 
behaved as well in battle as the veteran officers 
of the regular army who had been in the service 
all their lives. When, at the close of the war, 
they were mustered out of service, most of them 
were competent to take any command. 

in conclusion, I wish here to congratulate you, 
my old comrades in arms, on your past achieve- 
ments. You served your country at a time 
when you were badly needed, and you served it 
well. 

Twenty years have passed away since those 
stirring events occurred, and the probabilities 
are that you will never be called upon to take 
part in another war. But you have the satis- 



12 INTRODUCTION. 



faction of leaving as a legacy to your descend- 
ants, the record of the brave deeds done by you, 
in the Great Rebellion of 1861-65. In the future 
this will be more highly prized by them than 
any other legacy you could leave them. 

Yours truly, 

D. P. GRIER.. 





CHAPTER THE FIRST. 

" THE LONG ROLL." 

)HE summer of 1862 was one of doubt and 
darkness to the people of the northern 
states. For long weary months we had 
been waging an unsuccessful war against the foes 
of constitutional liberty and popular rights. 
Thousands of our bravest and best had gone to 
the front to stem, if possible, the rushing tide of 
battle. Many had perished on the field, and more 
had fallen before a worse enemy disease. De- 
feat and victory were about equally balanced on 
the line dividing loyalty and treason. There 
was no silver lining to the dark cloud of war. 
Hope and fear alternately took possession of 
loyal hearts. The strongholds of the rebellion 
seemed to be impregnable to our attacks. In 
the east, Richmond, with bristling bayonets and 
frowning batteries, had hurled back the solid 
columns of the Army of the Potomac, with fear- 
ful loss of life. In the west, Vicksburg and Port 
Hudson closed the Mississippi against the com- 
merce of the great states depending on it and 
its tributaries for an outlet to the sea. The com- 



14 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

bined efforts of the army and navy could not si- 
lence the batteries or lower the flag of secession 
at Mobile, Charleston or Savannah. Doubt and 
uncertainty, almost amounting to despair, took 
possession of the people. Prayers to the God 
of battles had ascended from thousands of pul- 
pits and firesides, for the success of our arms, 
but no substantial success came in answer to 
those prayers. "The brave began to fear the 
power of man, and the pious to doubt the favor 
of God." 

Under these disheartening circumstances, on 
the 28th of June, the governors of the northern 
states addressed a memorial to the President, 
urging upon him the necessity of a more vigor- 
our prosecution of the war. They suggested 
the propriety of calling upon the different states 
for additional troops to fill up the vacancies al- 
ready existing in the field, and to organize such 
new forces as might be deemed necessary for the 
prompt suppression of the rebellion. They told 
him that the people were with the government 
that they were willing to sacrifice life, prop- 
erty, everything, for the restoration of the Un- 
ion and the perpetuity of our free institutions 
that they would respond to any demand made 
upon them, and that every available means 
should be brought to bear upon the one great 
object-in view the termination of the war. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 15 

To this urgent appeal the President replied as 
follows : 

EXECUTIVE MANSION, \ 
Washington, D. C., July 1. j. 

GENTLEMEN : Fully concurring in the wisdom 
of the views expressed to me in so patriotic a 
manner by you in the communication of the 28th 
day of June, I have decided to call into the ser- 
vice an additional force of 300,000 men. I sug- 
gest and recommend that the troops should be 
chiefly of infantry. 

The quota of your state would be . I 

trust they may be enrolled without delay, so as 
to bring this unnecessary and injurious civil war 
to a speedy and satisfactory conclusion. A# or- 
der fixing the quotas of the respective states will 
be issued by the War Department. 

ABRAHAM LINCOLN. 

The key-note was struck. Henceforth there 
was to be no temporizing. All the energies and 
resources of the government and the people 
were to be concentrated on a single object the 
successful termination of the war. The response 
to this proclamation was emphatic and prompt. 
From every pursuit and condition in life the peo- 
ple rushed with one accord to the defense of the 
glorious old flag of their fathers. Never before 
in the history of the world had such a grand 
uprising of the masses been witnessed. 



16 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 



The State of Illinois, true to her trust, was not 
behind the others in contributing men and 
means for the national defense. Recruiting 
weat forward vigorously in every city and town 
and hamlet in the state. The war was the all- 
absorbing topic of the times. Enthusiastic war 
meetings were held, and the people were alive to 
the importance of the issues presented. And 
when the work of enlistment was complete, 
when the regiments were all full, that grand 
army of stalwart men took up the line of march 
southward a living wall extending from the 
Atlantic to the Mississippi and as they 
marched they sang, 

" We are coining father Abraham, 
Three hundred thousand more." 

Among the regiments organized under the 
President's call of July 1, was the Seventy-Sev- 
enth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, at Peoria. 
While the organization of the Regiment was in 
progress, rival claims appeared for the colonelcy, 
which for a time seemed difficult of adjustment. 
Charles Ballance, Esq., a prominent citizen of 
.Peoria, had been authorized by the governor to 
raise a regiment of infantry. He had devoted 
his time and energies to this object, and he very 
naturally felt that he was the proper person to 
command the regiment after it was fully organ- 
ized. On the other hand, there was a strong 
feeling in the Regiment, both among the officers 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 17 

and men, in favor of David P. Grier, who was 
also well known in Peoria and surrounding 
country, and who was at that time the captain 
of Co. "G," 8th Missouri Volunteers. 

Mr. Ballance's friends urged his claims on 
the ground that as he had been chiefly instru- 
mental in organizing the Regiment, he had the 
best right to command it. Captain Grier's 
friends urged his military experience as a reason 
why the command should be given to him. And 
again, inasmuch as Mr. Ballance was an old 
man, and an influential citizen, it was thought 
that he could do more good for the country by 
remaining at home than by going into the field. 
But Captain Grier was a young man, and able 
to endure the hardships and privations of a soK 
dier's life, as he had already shown on the fields 
of Donelson and Shiloh. 

While arguments and negotiations upon the 
subject in dispute were pending between the 
parties interested, Gov. Yates commissioned Mr. 
Ballance as colonel of the Regiment on the 18th 
of August. By an arrangement subsequently 
entered into, the command was transferred to 
Captain Grier, and he was commissioned acord- 
ingly, as will be seen by the following dispatch : 

SPRINGFIELD, Sept. 4, 1862. 
To Col.D. P. GRIER: 

You will take command of the Seventy- 
Seventh Regiment as Colonel, Lysander R. 



18 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Webb as Lieutenant-Colonel, and M. V. Hotch- 

kiss as Major. 

By order of D. L. GOLD, A. A. G. 

Gov. YATES. 

On tbe third of September the Regiment was 
formed on the parade ground, and Colonel Bal- 
lance, in a neat and appropriate speech, took for- 
mal leave of his command, at the same time 
giving a detailed account of the difficulties 
which had been encountered and overcome in 
the formation of the Regiment. He then intro- 
duced Captain Grier as our future Colonel, who 
appeared upon the stand and remarked that 
speech-making was out of his line of business, 
and intimated that we might expect actions 
rather than words from him. How far this in- 
timation was realized, will be seen from the fol- 
lowing pages. Col. Grier was followed by 
Lieut. Col. Webb, who made a brief but elo- 
quent speech. He expressed his satisfaction 
that we had, at length, secured the organization 
of a regiment, which he trusted would never 
return dishonored from the field of battle. He 
was glad that, as Col. Ballance had resigned his 
commission, we would be led by an experienced 
officer one who had already seen active ser- 
vice, and who was fully competent to command 
us on the march r in the camp, or on the battle 
field. The proceedings were harmonious 
throughout, and at the close three cheers were 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 19 

given for Col. Ballance, three for Col. Grier, and 
three for an undivided Union. 

On the fourth of this month an election was 
held for chaplain. Several candidates were 
brought forward and warmly supported by their 
respective friends. The choice fell on the Rev. 
William G. Pierce, of Elmwood. 

Having been mustered into the service of the 
United States on the second day of September, 
we now considered ourselves full-fledged soldiers 
in every sense of the word. But we had much 
to learn, and more to endure. We were well 
uniformed in the regulation suit of blue, but the 
arms first put into our hands were nothing but 
the flint-lock muskets of ancient times some 
with locks and some without. With these we 
paced our "beat" with as much security as 
though we had been armed with the best rifles 
in the government arsenals. But we could not 
rely upon such weapons in conflict with an ene- 
my, and acordingly we were soon armed with 
Entield rifles. When we appeared on battallion 
drill or dress parade we fancied that we made an 
imposing display that we were soldiers, terri- 
ble as an army with banners. But we were sadly 
mistaken, as subsequent experience proved. 

Yet we were in the service of the United 
States OUR COUNTRY and we resolved to do 
the best we could. We looked forward with a 
good deal of interest to the day when we should 



20 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

be permitted to strike a blow in defense of the 
government of our fathers. It is true we had 
never witnessed " the pride and pomp and cir- 
cumstance of glorious war." We had never 
seen the death-dealing engines of destruction 
decimating the ranks of an army. Many of 
those who were now in the full vigor of life, and 
joyously looking forward to active service, would 
ere long, sleep their last long sleep beneath the 
shades of a southern clime. The rattle of 
musketry, the boom of artillery, and the din 
of battle, would be their funeral dirge, while 
their comrades in arms would drop the tear of 
sorrow and regret over their remains, and then 
pass on. The friends they left behind would 
never welcome their return to the joys of home. 
We thought of these things, yet felt none the 
less inclined to go. We had something dearer 
than life at stake, the perpetuation of our civil 
and religious liberties, and if the shedding of our 
blood would contribute to this end, we felt wil- 
ling to make the sacrifice. At all events it was 
our duty to go, and we went. 

Camp life was something new. Our first intro- 
duction to army rations was rather embarrass- 
ing. We had not been educated for cooks, and 
now we were brought face to face with the fact, 
that we must either cook or starve. Our female 
friends at home would have smiled if they could 
have seen the perplexity -of countenance which 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 21 

characterized us as we attempted to cook. 
Often had we to enjoy an indifferent dinner or no 
dinner at all, because we knew not how to pre- 
pare it. But time heals many wounds and cures 
many defects. It is not to be supposed, there- 
fore, that we remained in ignorance on a subject 
involving such vital interests. On the contrary 
we soon learned, not only to endure privation 
and hardships, but also to prepare an acceptable 
meal a meal which a king, in our circumstan- 
ces, might envy. 

There was an establishment in camp purport- 
ing to be a sutler's shop, but which was, in re- 
ality, a whisky shop. This was an eye-sore to the 
members of the regiment, and they resolved that 
the nuisance should be abated. Many of them 
were religious, and many of those who made no 
pretentious to a religious character, were tem- 
perate in their habits, and they were not willing 
that the Seventy-Seventh should become ad- 
dicted to the vice of intemperance at the outset. 
They notified the " sutler " that he must remove 
his stock in trade within a specified time, or suf- 
fer the consequences. With this order he prom- 
ised compliance, but failed to make his promise 
good. As mild measures had failed, other means 
were resorted to. On the night of September 
1st, the forces were formed in line of battle, com- 
pletely investing the enemy's works. After 
brief skirmishing an assault was ordered. The 



22 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

assailants moved forward in handsome style with 
unbroken lines, and after a faint resistance, the 
works were carried by storm. This was our first 
engagement and our first victory. It was com- 
plete, bloodless and decisive. It was a harbinger 
of good things to come, of greater victories to 
follow. 

The lady friends of the different companies 
made frequent visits to our camp at Peoria, 
bringing with them dainties which contrasted 
strangely with the rough fare to which we were 
becoming accustomed. Pies and cakes of all 
kinds, and in almost endless profusion fowls, 
the barn-yard treasures of home, boiled, baked 
and fricasseed, also contributed to satisfy our ap- 
petites, together with other dishes of taste and 
delicacy too numerous to mention. These were 
happy days, and transient in their happiness. 
But memory lingered long and pleasantly around 
those happy scenes, and we thought of the act- 
ors in them with feelings akin to veneration. 
When separated far from them by time and dis- 
tance, the beautiful language of the poet came 
to our minds : 

" Oh, still be my heart with such memories filled, 
Like the vase in which roses have once been distilled; 
You may break, you may ruin the vase if you will, 
But the scent, of the roses will hang round it still." 

As milk is an article not put down on the 
government bill of fare, the "boys" were 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 23 

obliged to run a dairy on their own account, .or 
do without the milk. Of the two evils they 
chose the least. This is the way it was done. 
Forty or fifty cows, belonging to people in the 
city, were in the habit of grazing in the vicinity 
of the camp, and beyond. As they returned to 
their homes in the evening the boys would head 
them oft' and drive them into a corral. Here 
they were at the mercy of their captors. While 
two of the boys held a cow, four others seated 
on their heels, would "draw" the daily rations 
for six. On one occasion as they were thus en- 
gaged, a funeral procession passed, wending its 
slow and solemn way to the city of the dead. 
The occupants of the first two carriages passed 
by without noticing the proceedings. In the next 
carnage a pleasant smile of recognition was no- 
ticed, while the ludicrous scene was too much 
for the afflicted friends who brought up the rear. 
With one accord they burst into a hearty peal of 
laughter, and acknowledged mentally, that what 
soldiers don't know about drawing rations, isn't 
worth knowing. 

On the 20th of September the regiment 
marched to the city for the purpose of receiving 
a beautiful national fiag a present from the 
ladies of Peoria. The presentation speech was 
made by Washington Cockle, Esq., and responded 
to by Col. Grier, on behalf of the regiment, 



24 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 



after which we listened to an eloquent and thrill- 
ing war speech by E. C. Ingersoll, Esq. 

Soon after this the ladies presented us with 
ten libraries of religious books one for each 
company. By this act of kindness they mani- 
fested a desire that our intellectual and religious 
wants should be supplied. They knew the temp- 
tations incident to a life in the army, arid in 
throwing these safeguards around us, they acted 
a noble part. In addition to this, religious exer- 
cises were held in camp almost every evening, 
conducted by Mr. William Reynolds and other 
Christian workers from the city. While these 
exercises varied the monotony of camp life, they 
were duly appreciated and long remembered 
with gratitude by those for whom they were 
intended. 

Our time while in camp at Peoria, was chiefly 
occupied with company and battallion drill, 
thereby fitting us for active service in the Held. 
It should be stated in this connection that we 
were not alone in our encampment. The 85th, 
86th, 102d, 103d, 108th and 112th Illinois Volun- 
teers were with us. On the 27th of September, 
in company with these regiments, we appeared 
on review before Col. John Bryner, command- 
ing the post. There were about 4,500 men, and 
as this was our first appearance on review, and 
the largest and most imposing military display 
ever witnessed at this place, a very large assem- 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 25 

blage of men, women and children were present 
to view the proceedings. Their presence inspired 
us with confidence as our dense columns marched 
past the officer reviewing the troops. We were 
not, as yet, thoroughly drilled, and it is hoped 
that those who witnessed our maneuvers on that 
occasion, were charitable enough to pardon the 
blunders of raw recruits. 

We were now enacting the closing scenes of 
our encampment at Peoria, as will be seen by the 
following order which was issued about this 
time : 

HEADQUARTERS, | 

77TH REGIMENT ILL. INFANTRY. / 

Regimental Orders, No. 5. 

Marching orders arrived for the regiment 
last evening. Therefore every absent man must 
report at headquarters immediately. If there 
are any confined to their beds by sickness, they 
must furnish a certificate from the physician in 
attendance, and join the regiment as soon as 
they are able to travel. 

D. P. GRIER, 

Col. Commanding 11th III. Infantry. 

This looked like business. Something more 
than playing soldier was in store for us. At last 
the long-looked-for-day arrived. The 4th of 
October came, and with it orders to pack knap- 
sacks, prepare two days' rations and take up the 
line of march. With these orders we yielded a 
2 



26 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH. 

cheerful compliance, as we were becoming weary 
of the monotonous routine of our duties in camp. 

The place of our destination was Cincinnati. 
It may be that we were too anxious to go, but 
perhaps it was natural. There is something in 
the excitement of a soldier's life that prompts 
him to seek new scenes and new adventures, and 
he never enjoys himself better than when mak- 
ing these changes. At 2 o'clock P. M., the regi- 
ment was formed, and soon after we were 
marching to the depot. The citizens gave us 
kindly greetings as we passed through the streets 
of the city, aud when we reached the depot we 
found a large assemblage of people who had 
come from the city and country to witness our 
departure. This was a trying time for the mem- 
bers of the Seventy-Seventh. Fathers and 
mothers, brothers and sisters were there, to bid, 
perhaps, a last farewell to their departing friends. 
But no doubt they cheerfully made the sacrifice 
in view of the necessities of their country. 

At 5 o'clock the signal was given the thrill- 
ing oh, how thrilling pressure of the hand 
was exchanged the farewell w r ords were spoken 
the farewell kiss enjoyed the engine whis- 
tled the wheels began to revolve, and that long 
line of cars, filled with soldiers, bound for 
"Dixie," moved off, leaving home and friends, 
with all their endearing joys, behind. 




CHAPTER THE SECOND. 

"REVIELLE." 

>HE Roll of the Seventy-Seventh Regi- 
ment Illinois Volunteer Infantry, as mus- 
tered into the service of the United States 
on the second of September, 1862, is herewith 
presented. While it is not claimed that this 
roll is absolutely correct, it is believed to be 
nearly so. In the hurry and confusion and ex- 
citement incident to the muster out of the Regi- 
ment, it would be very strange if no mistakes 
had occurred. But these mistakes are of minor 
importance. The main facts and incidents re- 
corded as pertaining to each individual member 
are substantially correct. And as such, they are 
respectfully submitted, with the hope that our 
surviving comrades, in looking over these famil- 
iar names, may call to mind the forms and fea- 
tures of those brave men who gave their lives 
for their country that they may recall many 
of the scenes and incidents, both serious and 
comic, which occurred- on the march, in the 
camp, and on the fatal field and that the ties 
of friendship and sincere affection, cemented by 



28 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

those long, weary months of common sufferings 
and common dangers, may grow stronger and 
stronger with the advancing years, until the Su- 
preme Grand Commander of armies and nations 
shall sound the last " Tattoo" for the last surviv- 
ing member of the Regiment. 



FIELD AND STAFF. 

COLONELS. 

Charles Ballance, Peona. 

Commissioned August 18, 1862, but not mustered. 

David P. Grier, Peoria. 

At the outbreak of the war, General Grier was engaged 
in business at Elmwood, Illinois. As soon as he heard of 
the fall of Fort Sumpter he expressed his determination to 
enter the service. He at once began recruiting a company, 
and the ranks were soon full, when he was elected captain. 
He tendered the services of himself and company to Gov. 
Yates, of Illinois, but as the state quota was already full, 
he was not accepted. He then took his company to St. 
Louis, where they were mustered into the service in June, 
1861, as Co. " G," 8th Missouri Volunteer Infantry. As Cap- 
tain of that company he was actively engaged for several 
months, participating in the battles of Fort Henry, Fort 
Donelson, Shiloh, and the siege and capture of Corinth, 
Miss., besides many skirmishes of minor importance. 

On the 25th day of August, 1862, Captain Grier was or- 
dered to report at Springfield, Illinois, for orders. On ar- 
riving there he was commissioned by Gov. Yates as colonel 
of the 77th Illinois Volunteer Infantry, Sept. 2d, and was 
mustered on the 12th of the same month. He was in com- 
mand of his regiment continuously from that time until 
the surrender of Vicksburg, July 4, 1863. During the siege 
of Jackson, Miss., and until the return to Vicksburg, he was 
in command of the Brigade to which the 77th belonged. 
At Franklin and New Iberia, La., Nov. 1863, he commanded 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 29 

the 2d Brigade, 4th Division, 13th Army Corps. In August, 
1864, he was placed in command of all the land forces on' 
Dauphine Island, Ala., under the orders of Major General 
Granger, who was in command of the expedition. After 
the capture of Fort Gaines, all the troops on the island, 
excepting the 77th and one other regiment, crossed over to 
the peninsula and laid siege to Fort Morgan. Colonel Grier 
was ordered over with them, and retained command of all 
the land forces there during the siege, and until the capture 
of the Fort. 

On the 26th of March, 1865, Colonel Grier was commis- 
sioned BREVET BRIGADIER GENERAL, a promotion well 
earned by four years of faithful service, and too long with- 
held. When General Canhy organized the expedition 
against Mobile, in the spring of 1865, General Grier was 
assigned to duty on his Brevet rank, and ordered to the 
command of the 1st Brigade, 3d Division, 13th Army Corps. 
He retained command of the Brigade during the entire 
campaign against Mobile, and the assaults on Spanish Fort 
and Blakely, and also after the capture of Mobile, on the 
march up the Tombigbee River. On the return from that 
march he was assigned to the command of the 3d Division, 
13th Army Corps, and remained in command of the Divi- 
sion until he and his regiment were mustered out, July 10, 
1865. 

During all this time, and in every position to which he 
was assigned, General Grier had the entire confidence of 
his own regiment, and of all the other troops under his com- 
mand. As he led the 77th to the front in 1862, so he had 
the satisfaction of bringing home what remained of that 
regiment at the close of the war. 

LIEUTENANT COLONELS. 

Lysander R. Webb, Peoria. 

Mustered Sept. 18, 1862; killed in battle at Mansfield, 
La., April 8, 1864. 

The following tribute to the memory of this gallant 
officer is furnished by Mrs. Virginia B. Bash, of San Anto- 
nia, Texas, formerly the wife of Col. Webb: 

* * * * AH mv p a p ers anc i letters connected with 
the war, were burned in the Chicago fire of 1871, and so 
far as I know, Col. Webb has no living relative. 

" Left an orphan early in life, he was adopted by Colonel 



30 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Shepherd, a man of large business connections, and, as was 
supposed, of immense wealth. With the expectation of 
inheriting this, he was reared in affluence, every imaginary 
wish gratified before it was expressed, and petted extrava- 
gantly by his doting foster-mother and her maiden sister. 

" Notwithstanding this, he exhibited a strong literary 
bias, and was, with many misgivings, sent to Yale. For 
three years he continued his studies most creditably, but 
near the close of that time was suddenly recalled home by 
the accidental death of his guardian, speedily followed by 
the death of his wife. 

" An examination of the property to which he believed 
himself heir, showed a lamentable state of affairs. Every- 
thing was confusion, and the result of the disentanglement 
swept away, not only his original patrimony, but every 
penny belonging to Col. Shepherd, as well. But Col. Webb 
was not one to sit down and cry over ill-fortune. 

" Although little more than a boy, as soon as he compre- 
hended the state of arTaiis, he started to Springfield, Mass., 
and made application for employment to the " Republican" 
which was even at that early day, the leading paper of 
Western New England. Something in the eager, boyish 
face, attracted ths attention of Mr. Bowles, and he give him 
a desk in the editorial room, as it chanced, bv the side of 
J. G. Holland, the afterwards famous "Timothy Titcomb." 

"For a year he worked night and day to learn his work, 
asking no greater praise than the smiles of his associates. 

" The next year, N. C. Geer, desiring to start a Republi- 
can paper in Waukegan, Illinois, wrote to Mr. Bowles for a 
" live editor" to take charge of it, and the result was that 
Mr. Webb was sent to fill the place. From the first, the 
success of the new enterprise was assured, and when, a 
couple of years later, it was found necessary to establish a 
new Republican daily paper in the stronghold of Democ- 
racy, as Peoria was then considered, Mr. N. C. Geer was 
induced to take it in hand, and Mr. Webb accompanied 
him as editor. The magnetism of the new editor was felt 
at once, and for the first time, Peorians had a paper of which 
they were proud. 

" In the course of the year Col. Webb was married to 
Virginia, eldest daughter of Charles Ballance, a leading 
lawyer of Central Illinois, and soon after, at the instigation 
of his father-in-law, gave up his connection with the Tran- 
srrifit, and began the study of law. Here his indomitable 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 31 



energy and industry came to his aid, and in less than a year 
he had accomplished what is considered a two year's course, 
and was admitted to the bar. His partner was Peter Da- 
vidson, afterwards Major of Artillery, and a brilliant future 
opened before him. But the war broke out and the first 
shot at the old flag sent the hot blood coursing through his 
veins with indignation. 

"The tears of his young wife kept him out of the first 
levies, but when the call came for more men to put down a 
rebellion whose strength no one guessed at, he could stand 
it no longer, and scarcely counting the cost to those he 
loved, enlisted as a private in the 77th. His subsequent 
career is a matter of history and I need not touch upon it. 
Repeated efforts were made to recover his remains that they 
might be interred in the family lot at Peoria, but all proved 
ineffectual. Like many another brave man, he sleeps in an 
unknown grave to wait the final summons. 

" Col. Webb was a singularly handsome man, with brown 
hair and eye.-', and an engaging manner that few could re- 
sist. As a soldier, he was brave and daring to a fault. It 
was his fortune to lead his regiment on many trying occa- 
sions, and in all he added fresh laurels to his reputation. 
The affection between the various officers of the 77th was 
unusually fraternal, and neither officers nor men would 
have shrunk from any danger when Col. Webb led the way. 

" Col. Webb was born in Berkshire County, Mass., sin- 
gularly alone in the world. His brothers died in childhood, 
his guardian was childless, and I never knew of but one 
cousin, the Hon. J. A. Harris, of Cleveland, Ohio, and he, 
too, has been dead for ten years." 

John A. Burdett, Knoxville. 

Mustered May 22, 1864; resigned January 3, 1865. 

MAJORS. 

Memoir V. Hotehkiss, Peoria. 

Mustered September 12, 1862; resigned February 2, 
1864. 

John A. Burdett, Knoxville. 

Mustered April 4, 1864; promoted Lieutenant-Colonel. 

Joseph M. McCulloch, Cazenovia. 

Commissioned April 8, 1864, but not mustered. In 
command of Union prisoners at Camp Ford, Texas, 
from October, 1864, to May, 1865; mustered out as 
Captain of Company " C," July 7, 1865. 



32 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 



ADJUTANTS. 

John Hough, Peoria. 

Mustered as First Lieutenant of Co. " B," 17th Illinois 
Volunteer Infantry, August 26, 1861; resigned April 
16, 1862; mustered as First Lieutenant and Adjutant 
of the 77th, September 12, 1862; promoted by the 
President Assistant Adjutant-General on the staff of 
Gen. A. J. Smith, May 15, 1863. 

Henry P. Ayres, Galesburg. 

Enlisted as Private August 5, 1862; mustered as Cor- 
poral Co. "A," September 2, 1862; promoted Ser- 
geant-Major January 14, 1863; mustered as First- 
Lieutenant and Adjutant May 15, 1863; on detached 
service as Acting Assistant Adjutant-General 2d 
Brigade, 4th Division, 13th Army Corps. November 
21, 1863; also in 1st Brigade of same Division, Janu- 
ary 28, 1864. He was also detached as A. A. A. G., 
on the staff of Col. W. J. Landram, commanding 4th 
Division, 13th Army Corps', March 15, 1864, and in that 
capacity participated in the battle of Mansfield, La., 
April 8, 1864, and was highly complimented for 
"gallantry and efficiency" on that occasion. Was 
again detached as A. A. A. G., 3d Brigade, 3d Division, 
19th Army Corps, July 13, 1864; mustered out July 
10, 1865. 

QUARTERMASTER. 

David McKinney, Peoria. 

Mustered September 12, 1862; on detached service as 
Acting Assistant -Quartermaster, 2d Brigade, 4th 
Division, 13th Army Corps; promoted Captain and 
Assistant-Quartermaster May 15, 1865; on duty as 
Post-Quartermaster at mouth of White River and at 
Duvall's Bluff, Ark.; mustered out at Duvall's Bluff 
January 15, 1866. 

SURdEON. 

Charles Winnie, Somonauk. 

Mustered Assistant Surgeon 55th Illinois Volunteer 
Infantry, November 25, 1861; promoted Surgeon of 
the 77th, and mustered December 20, 1862; mustered 
out July, 10, 1865. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 33 



ASSISTANT SURGEONS. 

Jesse M. Cowan, Magnolia. 

Mustered September 30, 1862; mustered out at consoli- 
dation. 

John Stoner, Minonk. 

Mustered September 30, 1862; mustered out July 10, 
1865. 

CHAPLAINS. 

William G. Pierce, Elmwood. 

Mustered September 12, 1862; resigned January 7, 1864. 
John S. McCulloch. 

Mustered April 5, 1864; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

NON - COMMISSIONED STAFF. 

SERGEANT MAJORS. 

Jehu Buckingham, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; transferred to Co. " C," June 21, 1863. 
Henry P. Ayres, Galesburg. 

August 5, 1862; promoted Adjutant May 15, 1863. 
Walter JB. Hotchkiss, Peoria. 

August 12, 1862; discharged for disability September 

22, 1864. 
Charles H. Arms, Knoxville. 

August 1, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

QUARTERMASTER SERGEANTS. 

Joe H. Stevison, Magnolia. 

August 5, 1862; promoted Second Lieutenant Co. "B." 
George W. Cone, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; promoted Second Lieutenant Co. "I." 
William Stiteler, Knoxville. 

August 7, 1862; transferred to Co. "A," January 26, 

1865. 
Leonidas H. Bradley. 

Transferred from 130th ID. Infantry; retransferred to 

130th 111. Infantry as revived. 



34 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 



COMMISSARY SERGEANTS. 

Nathaniel H. Wakefield, Peoria. 

August 9, 1862; transferred to Co. "C," December 21, 

1862. 
William H. Bennett, Peoria. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

HOSPITAL STEWARDS. 

Ambrose B. Niles, Eugene. 

August 5, 1862; discharged for disability June 20, 1864. 
Joel Allen, Minonk. 

August 8, 1862; commissioned Assistant Surgeon July 

24, 1865, but not mustered; mustered out July 10, 

1865. 

PRINCIPAL MUSICIANS. 

Daniel B. Allen, Elmwood. 

August 12, 1862; discharged for disability March 15, 

1863. 
John W. Carroll, Peoria. 

August 7, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Lemon H. Wiley, Elmwood. 

August 5, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 



ROLL OF COMPANY "A." 

CAPTAINS. 

John A. Burclett, Knoxville. 

Mustered September 2, 1862; promoted Major. 
Gardner G Stearns, Knoxville. 

Mustered April, 4, 1864; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

FIRST LIEUTENANTS. 

Gardner G. Stearns, Knoxville. 

Mustered September 2, 1862; promoted Captain. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 35 

Merritt M. Clark, Galesburg. 

Date of rank February 2, 1864; mustered out July 10, 
1865. 

SECOND LIEUTENANTS. 

Merritt M. Clark, Galesburg. 

Mustered September 2, 1862; promoted First Lieu- 
tenant. 

Charles H. Arms, Knoxville. 

Date of rank February 2, 1864; declined commission. 

William H. Wilcox, Galesburg. 

Commissioned February 2, 1864; not /mistered; mus- 
tered out as Sergeant July 10, 1865. 

SERGEANTS. 

W. H. Ilolcomb, Jr., Knoxville. 

August 1, 1862; discharged March 12, 1864, for promo- 
tion in U. S. Colored Troops. 

Walter B. Hotchkiss, Peoria. 

August 12, 1862; promoted Sergeant Major. 

William H. Wilcox, Galesburg. 

August 5, 1862; commissioned Second Lieutenant, but 
not mustered; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

John F. Campbell, Peoria. 

August 7, 1862; killed at Vicksburg May 22, 1863. 

Thomas Harrison, Galesburg. 

July 18, 1862; discharged May 7, 1864, for promotion 
in U. S. Colored Troops. 

CORPORALS. 

Arthur H. Rugg, Peoria. 

August 12, 1862; discharged as Sergeant, December 18, 
1863. 

John II. Sanburn, Knoxville. 

August 1, 1862; discharged March 12, 1864, for promo- 
tion in U. S. Colored Troops. 

Lyman West, Galesburg. 

July 17, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

W. D. Putnam, Peoria. 

August 14, 1862, discharged December 17, 1863, for pro- 
motion in U. S. Colored Troops. 



36 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Charles H. Arms, Knoxville. 

August 1, 1862; promoted Sergeant, then Sergeant 

Major. 
John A. Griffith, Galesburg. 

July 31, 1862; mustered out as Sergeant June 7, 1865. 
Henry P. Ayres, Galesburg. 

August 5, 1862; promoted Sergeant-Major. 
Charles G. Field, Galesburg. 

August 6, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

WAGONER. 

William Stiteler, Knoxville. 

August 7, 1862; promoted Q. M. Sergeant; returned to 
company; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

PRIVATES. 

Andrew J. Abraham, Elmwood. 

August 15, 1862; died a prisoner of war at Tyler, Texas, 

December 14, 1864. 
John Anderson, Knoxville. 

August 11, 1862; discharged for wounds received at 

Arkansas Post. 
Frank W. Ash, Peoria. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Robert H. Avery, Galesburg. 

August 15, 1862; discharged at Springfield, 111., July 

22, 1865. 
Horatio F. Bacon, Galesburg. 

August 5, 1862 ; killed at New Orleans December 25, 

1863. 
Henry A. Barber, Elba. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out as Sergeant June 17, 

1865. 
Samuel Bolt, Knoxville. 

August 15, 1862; died of wounds June 21, 1863. 
James H. Bull, Galesburg. 

August 9, 1862; discharged for disability April 6, 1863. 
William H. H. Burdett, Knoxville. 

August 1, 1862; discharged for disability April 7, 1863. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 37 

John C. Burlingame, Galesburg. 

July 17, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
George D. Butler, Galesburg. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out as Sergeant, July 10, '65. 
Wilberforce Churchill, Galesburg. 

August 1, 1862; died at Young's Point, La., February 

7, 1863. 
William 8. Coe, Knoxville. 

August 9, 1862; discharged as Sergeant for disability, 

June 2, 1865. 
James S. Coe, Knoxville. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out as Corporal June 17, 

1865. 
George Connell, Truro. 

August 12, 1862; transferred to V. E. C., July 7, 1864. 
Isaac Conner, Knoxville. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Milton Dippery, Knoxville. 

August 7, 1862; discharged for wounds November 17, 

1863. 
James Divert, Knoxville. 

August 6, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
James H. Divilbiss, Peoria. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Samuel S. Divilbiss, Peoria. 

August 7, 1862; killed at Mansfield, La., April 8, 1864. 
Ulysses Edwards, Kickapoo. 

August 12, 1862; died at Memphis, September 3, 1863. 
Benjamin Fry, Peoria. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out May 18, 1865. 
Horace F. Ferris, Galesburg. 

August 15, 1862; discharged February 6, 1864, for 

promotion in U. S. Colored Troops. 
Alexander R. Fisher, Knoxville. 

August 11, 1862; died in Knox County, Illinois, Octo- 
ber 10, 1863. 
Charles P. Foster, Truro. 

August 12, 1862; discharged for disability April 7, 

1863. 
Francis G. Fuller, Galesburg. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 



38 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Edward F. Green, Galesburg. 

August 5, 1862; mustered out as Corporal, June 17, 

1865. 
Ira R. Hall, Galesburg. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Henry D. Hester, Galesburg, 

August 7, 1862; discharged for disability April 7, 1863. 
Cornelius Hensey, Galesburg. 

August 9, 1862; discharged for disability April 7, 1863. 
Peter Holcomb, Knoxville. 

August 15, 1862; died at New Orleans, Nov. 10, 1863. 
Conrad J. Haller, Peoria. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Asahel E. Hnrd, Galesburg. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out July 8, 1865. 
Charles T. Kurd, Peoria. 

August 15, 1862; transferred to Signal Corps, October 1, 

1863. 

E. Winthrop Jenny, Galesburg. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

Cyrus A. Kroeson, Kickapoo. 

August 12, 1862; transferred to V. E. C., July 7, 1864. 

Washington Kroeson, Radnor, 

August 12, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 

Henry E. Losey, Galesburg. 

August 1, 1862; discharged January 23, 1864, for pro- 
motion as Major in the U. S. Colored Troops. 

W. W. Luddington, Knoxville. 

August 9, 1862; died at Cairo, 111., March 10, 1863. 

Daniel Lockbaum, Knoxville. 

August 8, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

Lewis Mather, Knoxville. 

August 9, 1862; died at St. Louis, Missouri, March 16, 
1863. 

S. Mather, Knoxville. 

August 1, 1862; died at St. Louis, Mo., February 14, 
1863. 

Henry H. Miller, Galesburg. 

August 1, 1862; discharged April 9, 1864, for promo- 
tion in U. S. Colored Troops. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 39 

James M. McGraw, Galesburg. 

August 18, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
John L). Moore, Knoxville. 

August 9, 1862; discharged for disability June 11, 

1863. 
J. R. Moss, Peoria. 

August 13, 1862; discharged for disability May 15, 

1863. 
John W. Ostrander, Knoxville. 

July 31, 1862; died at Milliken's Bend, La., April 6, 

1863; buried in National Cemetery at Vicksburg, 

Section F; number of grave, 119. 
William Ott, Knoxville. 

August 6, 1862; mustered out a prisoner of war, June 

17, 1865. 
Julius Rambo, Knoxville. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
John P. Randall, Knoxville. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
John Reynolds, Knoxville. 

August 15, 1862; discharged for disability June 3, 

1863. 
Alfred Russell, Knoxville. 

August 6, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Luther G. Russell, Elmwood. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out as Corporal June 17, 

1865. 
Charles W. Sanburn, Knoxville. 

August 1, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Fred. Summers, Peoria. 

August 11, 1862; discharged for disability, August 7, 

1864. 
Lester T. Stone, Peoria. 

August 15, 1862; transferred to Signal Corps, October 

1, 1863. 
William Sturgeon, Peoria. 

August 15, 1862; discharged for disability June 15, 

1863. 
Lewis J. Swan, Knoxville. 

August 7, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 



40 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

> 

James H. Tarleton, Knoxville. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
John Tompkins, Knoxville. 

August 7, 1862; died of wounds January 16, 1863. 
Daniel B. Trench, Peoria. 

August 11, 1862; died of wounds January 12, 1863. 
Henry Varley, Peoria. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out as Corporal July 10, 

1865. 
Charles H. Ward, Galesburg. 

August 11, 1862; discharged "March 22, 1864, to enlist 

as Hospital Steward, U. S. A. 
Mason M. White, Peoria. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
John Wilber, Knoxville. 

August 2, 1862; killed at Vicksburg May 22, 1863. 
Henry Wilson, Peoria. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out as Sergeant June 17, 

1865. 
John P. Wilson, Peoria. 

August 15, 1862; discharged for wounds Sept. 10, 1863. 
Samuel R. Wilson, Peoria. 

August 15, 1862; discharged May 12, 1864, for promo- 
tion in U. S. Colored Troops. 
A. D. Witherell, Knoxville. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865, 
George Woodmansee, Jr., Knoxville. 

August 5, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Joseph D. Woodruft', Galesburg. 

Ausrsst 11, 1862; died at Young's Point, La., June 9, 

1863. 
John L. Woolsey, Knoxville. 

August 1, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 41 

BOLL OF COMPANY " B." 

CAPTAINS. 

Robert Irwin, Magnolia. 

September 2. 1862; killed at Arkansas Post, January 

11, 1863. 
Joe H. Stevison, Peoria. 

March 1, 1863; mustered out June 13, 1865. 
Addison E. McCaleb, Robertson. 

January 16, 1863; not mustered; resigned as First 

Lieutenant, March 2, 1863. 

FIRST-LIEUTENANTS. 

Henry B. Kays, Putnam County. 

September 2, 1862; resigned December 6, 1862. 
Charles C. Tracy, Peoria. 

January 16, 1863; mustered out at consolidation. 

SECOND LIEUTENANTS. 

Addison E. McCaleb, Robertson. 
September 2, 1862; promoted. 

Joe H. Stevison, Peoria. 
January 16, 1863; promoted. 

Samuel W. Cook, Magnolia. 

May 29, 1863; resigned September 13, 1864. 

Orange Parrott, Magnolia. 

March 17, 1865; transferred as consolidated; commis- 
sioned Captain July 24, 1865, but not mustered; mus- 
tered out as 2d Lieutenant July 10, 1865. 

SERGEANTS. 

Isaac Sprague, Palatine. 

August 8, 1862; discharged Juue 15, 1863. 
Samuel W. Cook, Magnolia. 

August 4. 1862; promoted 2d Lieutenant. 
Henry Foster, Magnolia. 

August 6 1862; discharged December 20, 1862. 
3 



42 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

John Walcott, Magnolia. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out as Private July 10, 

1865. 
James Wier, Magnolia. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out as Private July 10, 1865. 

CORPORALS. 

Lyman S. Calkins, Magnolia. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out June 7, 1865. 

Hiram Compton, Magnolia. 

August 9, 1862; died at Magnolia, Illinois, September 
28, 1863. 

David Simpson, Magnolia. 

August 6, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 

Marion Kays, Magnolia. 

August 12, 1862; died at Memphis June 8, 1863. 

William Dugan, Magnolia. 

August 15, 1862; 'died at New Orleans, February 18, 
1865. 

Ervin O. Smith, Magnolia. 

August 12, 1862; discharged December 8, 1863. 

John W. Massie, Magnolia. 

August 12, 1862; discharged July 25, 1864. 

Thomas G. Harris, Magnolia. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865; commis- 
sioned 1st Lieutenant July 24, 1865, but not mus- 
tered. 

MUSICIANS. 

Silas Norris, Hennepin. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Rice Dunbar, Hennepin. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

PRIVATES. 

Anderson Alexander, Magnolia. 

August 15, 1862; died at Young's Point, La., February 

3, 1863. 
John Alexander, Magnolia. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865, 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 43 

John Brown, Magnolia. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Frank Bobbett, Magnolia. 

August 15, 1862; discharged December 21, 1862. 
William G. Boman, Magnolia. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
William W. Blakeslee, Peoria. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
George Chambers, Magnolia. 

August 11, 1862; died of wounds April 12, 1864. 
Stephen Compton, Magnolia. 

August 9, 1862; died at Milliken's Bend, La., March 

19, 1863; buried in National Cemetery at Vicksburg, 

Section F; number of grave, 121. 
Francis M. Cook, Magnolia. 

August 13, 1862; discharged April 16, 1863. 
Jonas Ellenburgh, Magnolia. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 7, 1865. 
Marion Ellenburgh, Magnolia. 

August 13, 1862; discharged May 13, 1865. 
Jacob Ely, Magnolia. 

August 22, 1862; killed at Mansfield, La., April 8, 

1864. 
Elias Fisher, Peoria. 

August 13, 1862; discharged February 18, 1863. 
William F. Fulsom, Hennepin. 

August 22, 1862; discharged April 16, 1863. 
Samuel Grable, Magnolia. 

August 10, 1862; killed at Arkansas Post January 11, 

1863. 
Aaron Grimes, Magnolia. 

August 22, 1862; discharged April 16, 1863. 
Hamilton Gurnea, Magnolia. 

August 9, 1862; died at Milliken's Bend, La., March 

28, ^63. 
William German, Magnolia. 

August 22, 1862; discharged at Memphis. 
Robert Hines, Magnolia. 

August 9, 1862; transferred to V. R. C., May 15, 1864, 



44 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Charles Henthorne, Magnolia. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
William W. Head, Magnolia. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John A. Hoessel, Magnolia. 

August 15, 1862; discharged at Mound City, Illinois. 
Isaac B. Head, Magnolia. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 1, 1865. 
George M. Holmes, Magnolia. 

August 15, 1862; discharged June 20, 1864. 
William P. Johnson, Magnolia. 

August 6, 1862; died near Vicksburg July 25, 1863. 
George W. Kays, Magnolia. 

August 15, 1862; discharged December 20, 1862. 
William King, Magnolia. 

August 9, 1862; discharged January 16, 1864. 
Hiram Kraft, Magnolia. 

August 9, 1862; discharged July 11, 1864. 
James King, Magnolia. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John E. McComber, Magnolia. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Henry S. McFarland, Peoria. 

- Died at Young's Point. La., March 4, 1863. 
James Malone, Magnolia. 

_ August 13, 1862: discharged March 12, 1863. 
Philip Nelling, Magnolia. 

August 10, 1862; killed at Mansfield, La., April 8, 1864. 
Roger Ong, Magnolia. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
William Oldham, Magnolia. 

August 22, 1862; discharged February 13, 1863. 
Orange Parrott, Magnolia. 

August 22, 1862; promoted First Sergeant; then Second 

Lieutenant. 
Abram L. Poyer, Magnolia. 

August 9, 1862; died near Cairo, 111., February 19, 1863. 
Jonathan Poyer, Magnolia. 

- Mustered out July 10, 1865. 
David Parkin, Magnolia. 

August 9, 1862; discharged August 25, 1864. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 45 

John Ruley, Magnolia. 

August, 15, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John A. Roberts, Lacon. 

August 6, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
James M. Roberts, Lacon. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Jesse Ray, Magnolia. 

August 22, 1862; discharged at Memphis. 
Lewis E. Simpson, Magnolia. 

August 22, 1862; discharged August 12, 1863. 
Augustus Schermeman, Magnolia. 

August 10, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Franklin Smith, Magnolia. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 22, 1865. 
Edward Sergeant, Magnolia. 

August 15, 1862; died at Memphis, Dec. 19, 1862. 
Jesse Studivan, Magnolia. 

August 22, 1862; discharged June 21, 1863. 
Joe H. Stevison, Peoria. 

August 5, 1862; promoted Quartermaster Sergeant. 
Edward Swargy, Magnolia. 

August 12, 1862; died of wounds January 16, 1863. 
Charles C. Tracy, Peoria. 

August 6, 1862; promoted 1st Lieutenant. 
Jacob Van Winkle, Magnolia. 

i August 22, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Samuel Vanhorn, Magnolia. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out as Corporal July 10, 

1865; commissioned 2d Lieutenant July 24, 1865, but 

not mustered. 
William A. West, Magnolia. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
George W. Welser, Magnolia. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out May 25, 1865. 
George N. Woodring, Magnolia. 

August 13, 1862; discharged May 13, 1865. 
Allen Woodring, Magnolia. 

August 10, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Daniel E. Winters, Magnolia. 

August 12, 1862; transferred to V. R. C., June 27, 1865. 
Eli T. Way, Magnolia. 

August 22, 1862; discharged April 8, 1863. 



46 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH. 

ROLL OF COMPANY " C." 
CAPTAIN. 

Joseph M. McCulloch, Cazenovia. 

September 1, 1862; mustered out July 7, 1865. 

FIRST LIEUTENANTS. 

William A. Woodruff, Peoria. 

September 2, 1862; resigned March 17, 1863. 
Philip Jenkins, Cazenovia. 

March 17, 1863; resigned February 12, 1864. 
Anderson Wright, Cazenovia. 

May 24, 1864; mustered out at consolidation. 

SECOND LIEUTENANTS. 

Philip Jenkins, Cazenovia. 

September 2, 1862; promoted First Lieutenant. 
Charles F. McCulloch, Cazenovia. 

March 17, 1863; commissioned First Lieutenant May 
11, 1865; transferred as consolidated; commissioned 
Captain April 8, 1864, but not mustered; mustered out 
as Second Lieutenant June 17, 1865. 

SERGEANTS. 

Charles F. McCulloch, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; promoted Second Lietenant. 
George A. Hart, Woodford County. 

August 14, 1862; died at Peoria, 111., October 2, 1862. 
Jehu Buckingham, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; promoted Sergeant Major; reduced at 

his own request; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

John S. Hornbaker, Peoria. 

August 9. 1862; discharged for wounds August 28, 1863. 
Anderson Wright, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; promoted First Sergeant; then First 

Lieutenant. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 47 



CORPORALS. 

Joseph A. Hutchinson, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865, as Sergeant; 
commissioned First Lieutenant July 24, 1865, but not 
mustered. 

Alfred G. Thorn, Linn. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 

John Sewell, Peoria. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865; commis- 
sioned Second Lieutenant July 24, 1865, but not mus- 
tered. 

Albert Shepherd, Logan. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

John C. Heron, Metamora. 

August 13, 1862; discharged for disability June 16, 1864. 

James P. Black, Richland. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

Thomas S. Patton, Logan. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

James H. Drennan, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; promoted Sergeant; died of wounds 
May 26, 1863; buried in National Cemetery at Vicks- 
burg; Section G; number of grave, 1011. 

MUSICIAN. 

Enoch Buckingham, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

WAGONER. 

Moses Carles, Peoria. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

PRIVATES. 

Samuel T. Acres, Linn. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
J. "William Avery, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out as Corporal July 10, 1865. 
William H. Bennett, Peoria. 

August 12, 1862; promoted Commissary Sergeant. 



48 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Alfred M. Blackman, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Joseph C. Burson, Shelby. 

August 13, 1862; died at Blackburn, 111., February 12, 

1864. 
Robert Bennett, Peoria. 

August 14, 1862; killed at Vicksburg, May 22, 1863. 
James Crow, Limestone. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Minor Calvert, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
O. A. Cotton, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; transferred to V. R. C. September 30, 

1864. 

W. F. Carson, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John B. Carson, Metamora. 

August 13, 1862; died at Memphis, April 12, 1863. 
James Drake, Panola. 

August 22, 1862; died of wounds June 6, 1863; buried 

in National Cemetery at Vicksburg; Section G; number 

of grave, 1034. 
John T. Davis, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Andrew Dorson, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; died at Memphis, December 25, 1862. 
John C. Dunbar, Logan. 

August 11, 1862; discharged for wounds Jan. 16, 1864. 
Dennis Duff, Logan. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Lewis Duchesne, Woodford County. 

August 13, 1862; discharged for disability Feb. 7, 1863. 
Henry C. Duchesne, Woodford County. 

August 21, 1862; discharged for disability Feb. 7, 1863. 
Alexander Debolt, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; discharged for disability Feb. 7, 1863. 
Charles C. Enslow, Linn. 

August_13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Joseph Fisher, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 49 

Isaiah Fisher, Woodford County. 

August 15, 18(32; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
August Farrer, Metamora. 

August 13, 1862; supposed killed at Vicksburg. 
Philo W. Gallop, Roanoake. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
William C. Gordon, Henry. 

August 13, 1862; discharged for disability April, 1863. 
Clinton L. Gennoway, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out a prisoner of war, June 

17, 1865. 
Edward Hall, Logan. 

August 11, 1862; died at Memphis December 23, 1862. 
Samuel M. Hart, Woodford County. 

August 5, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
A. Warren Howard, Selby. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
David W. Hilsabeck, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; discharged for disability March 20, 

1863. 
Frank N. Ireland, Richland. 

August 21, 1862; discharged for disability Jan. 20, 1863. 
Cephas H. John, Woodford County. 

August 13, 1862; transferred to V. R. C. April 28, 1864. 
Henry R. Kirby, Woodford County. 

August 13, 1862; discharged July 12, 1863. 
John Kennedy, Washburn. 

August 13,1862; mustered out a prisoner of war June 

17, 1865. 
William M. Kerrick, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; killed at Vicksburg May 22, 1863. 
James A. Lindsay, Peoria. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Samuel A. Lessly, Woodford County. 

August 14, 1862; discharged for disability October 20, 

1863. 
George M. Lay, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; died near Arkansas Post, January 10, 

1863. 
John M. McCormick, Woodford County. 

August 9; 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 



50 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Edwin R. Mann, Woodford County. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
James R. McCracken, Logan. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865 
Thomas H. McCulloch, Woodford County. 

August 14 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
William D. McCoy, Woodford County. 

August 14, 1862; detailed in Chicago Mercantile Bat- 
tery May 2, 1863; taken prisoner at Mansfield, La., 

April 8, 1864, exchanged May 27, 1865; mustered out 

June 17, 1865. 
Joshua W. McCoy, Woodford County. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Philip H. McCartney, Logan. 

August 9, 1862; discharged for disability April 3, 1863. 
William R. Moore, Low Point. 

August 13, 1862; discharged January 20, 1865. 
Daniel H. Norris, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Benjamin Pitcher, Peoria. 

August 19, 1862; discharged for disability April 3, 

1863. 
John A. Pinkerton, Logan. 

August 7, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
William M. Pinkerton, Logan. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Bonaparte Palmer, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Reuben Parnham, Woodford County. 

August 11, 1862; died at Memphis April 21, 1863. 
John G. Philips, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; discharged for disability March 25, 

1863. 
William Richards, Woodford County. 

August 13, 1862; died at St. Louis, Mo., April 9, 1863. 
Andrew Ruling, Metamora. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Martin V. Robbins, Woodford County. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Alma Rogers, Woodford County. 

August 13, 1862; discharged for disability Oct., 30, 1863. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 51 

Joseph T. Sims, Woodford County. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Joseph R. Sims, Woodford County. 

_ August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
William Sims, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
William Stevenson, Linn. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Alfred B. Bcrogin, Woodford County. 

August 13, 1862; discharged for disability November 

17, 1863. 
Anton Scher, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out June 20, 1865. 
William Stephenson, Cazenovia. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out July 10 : 1865. 
Isaac M. Thorn, Cazenovia. 

August 13, 1862; discharged for disability Feb. 27, 1863. 
Silas P. Thompson, Woodford County. 

August 13, 1862; discharged for disability March 9, 

1863. 
James W. Vanarsdale, Linn. 

August 11, 1862; died at Memphis Feb. 23, 1863. 
Merrick J. Wald, Woodford County. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Edward Wallace, Logan. 

August 11, 1862; died January 26, 1863. 
John P. Wiley, Limestone. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865, as 1st Ser- 
geant; commissioned Captain July 24, 1865, but not 

mustered. 
Nathaniel R. Waketield, Peoria. 

August 9, 1862; Reduced from Commissary Sergeant; 

deserted. 
William W. White, Woodford County. 

August 13, 1862; died at Jefferson Barracks June 22, 

1864. 
George M. Woodburn, Logan. 

August 21, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
William M. Wright, Peoria. 

August 9. 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 



52 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

James H. Wedley, Woodford County. 

Mustered out July 10, 1865. 
William Wiley, Peoria. 

August 5, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
James Yeldon, Cazenovia. 

August 18, 1862; died at Memphis Feb. 26, 1863. 



BOLL OF COMPANY "D." 

CAPTAIN. 

Robert H. Brock, Lacon. 

September 2, 1862; transferred as consolidated; mus- 
tered out July 10, 1865; commissioned Lieut. Colonel 
July 24, 1865, but not mustered. 

FIRST LIEUTENANTS. 

William J. Goodrich, Lacon. 

September 2, 1862; resigned June 9, 1864. 

John M. Shields, Lacon. 

November 27, 1864; transferred as consolidated; mus- 
tered out July 10, 1865. 

SECOND LIEUTENANT. 

John M. Shields, Lacon. 

September 2, 1862; promoted First Lieutenant. 

SERGEANTS. 

Benjamin F. Thomas, Lacon. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865; commis- 
sioned Second Lieutenant July 24, 1865, but not mus- 
tered. 

James T. Bender, Lacon. 

August 9, 1862; mustered July 10, 1865. 

Jacob C. Batrum, Lacon. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

Reuben Taylor, Lacon. 

August 9, 1862; discharged as private, for disability, 
February 20, 1863. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 53 

William Wilson, Lacon. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out as private June 17, 1865. 

CORPORALS. 

Moroni Owens, Rich land. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Frederick B. Jones, Richland. 

Aujjust 9, 1862; died of wounds May 20, 1863. 
James Scoon, Richland. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
James Laughlin, Richland. 

August 9, 1862; died at Young's Point, La., February 4, 

1863; buried in National Cemetery at Vicksburg; Sec- 
tion C; number of grave, 161. 
Nicholas S. Sharon, Lacon. 

August 11, 1862; discharged for disability June 26, 1863. 
Thomas Frail, Lacon. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
James M. Powers, Lacon. 

August 9, 1862, died January 18, 1863. 
William A. Fisher, Hopewell. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

MUSICIANS. 

John C. Barney, Belle Plain. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Charles Chambers, Richland. 

August 11, 1862, discharged for disability March 5, 1865. 

WAGONER. 

John McWhinney, Lacon. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

PRIVATES. 

Umphred Bickel, Belle Plain. 

August 9, 1862; died June 15, 1863. 
John Blackmore, Lacon. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 



54 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Jacob Buck, Lacon. 

August 11, 1862; died at Young's Point, La., February 

18, 1863. 
Ithamar Baker, Bennington. 

August 15, 1862; mustered ou' July 10, 1865. 
Thomas Burlingame, Lacon. 

August 9, 1862; discharged for disability July 21, 1863. 
Horace Burlingame, Lacon. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Lewis H. Burlingame, Lacon. 

August 9, 1862; deserted October 4, 1862 
George W. Brewer, Oxford. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out June 11, 1865. 

Andrew J. Brewer, Lacon. 

August 22, 1862; died of wounds at Vicksburg, May 23, 

1863. 
Alonzo J. Brewer, Belle Plain. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John H. Benson, Putnam. 

August 9, 1862, mustered out as Corporal July 10, 1865. 
Frank A. Bennett, Lacon. 

August 9, 1862; discharged for disability January 31, 

1863. 
Samuel H. Bender, Lacon. 

August 9, 1862; di-charged for disability December 26, 

1862. 
Rufus A. Chambers, Lacon. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Barnard Connolly, Lacon. 

August 11, 1862; killed at Vicksburg May 22, 1863. 
Daniel Chambers, Roberts. 

August 9, 1862; drowned at Young's Point. La., Jan- 
uary 31, 1863. 
Thompson Criseston, Lacon. 

August 9, 1862; dropped September 3, 1863; supposed 

to be dead. 
William H. Cassel, Whitefield. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
George W. DeLong, Roberts. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 55 

Albert DeLong, Roberts. 

August 11, 1862; died of wounds, May , 1864. 
Peter Degner, Lacon. 

August 11, 1862; died of wounds, May 22, 1863. 
John T. Durham, Lacon. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out as Corporal July 10, 1865. 
Andrew Dufty, Lacon. 

August 9, 1862; mustered July 10, 1865. 
George Echols, Steuben. 

August 6, 1862; died at Memphis, December 30, 1862. 
Martin V. Etheridge, Hopewell. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Henry Ebersold, Lacon. 

August 18, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
William P. Evans, Marshall County. 

August 12, 1862; deserted November 22, 1862. 
George Fairchilds, Richland. 

August 15, 1862; died at St. Louis, Mo., February 7, 

1863. 
Daniel Fowler, Lacon. 

August 12, 1862; transferred to V. R. C., September 30, 

1863. 
Alpheus Ford, Lacon. 

August 9, 1862; deserted November 1, 1863. 
Isaac Ford, Lacon. 

August 9, 1862; discharged for disability, August 14, 

1864. 
William P. Fenn, Lacon. 

August 22, 1862; died at Mobile, Ala., March 13, 1865. 
Charles O. Henthorn, Lacon. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out June 30, 1865. 
Samuel Hadlock, Lacon. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Frederick W. Hake, Brimfield. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Martin Hoagland, Lacon. 

August 11, 1862; died of wounds at Vicksburg, June 

18, 1863. 
Jason M Hunter. 

August 13, 1862; accidentally killed August 19, 1863. 



56 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

John Harigan, Lacon. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
James P. Isom, Richland. 

August 9, 1862; killed at Vicksburg May 22, 1863. 
Benjamin K. Jackson, Richland. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Frederick Kraft, Lacon. 

August 14, 1862; died at St. Louis, Mo., July 1, 1863. 
Daniel Kennedy, Richland. 

August 11, 1862; deserted January 21, 1863. 
Apollos Laughlin, Lacon. 

August 19, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
William Laidlon, Lacon. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John McGowan, Lacon. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Griffith Moyer, Lacon. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Ernestes J. Meyers, Hopewell. 

August 11, 1862; died of wounds at Vicksburg, May 

30, 1863 ; buried in National Cemetery at Vicksburg, 

Section G; number of grave, 1006. 
Martin V. Meyers, Hopewell. 

August 11, 1862; discharged for disability May 20, 

1864. 
Warren D. Meyers, Lacon. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
George C. Moore, Hopenell. 

August 9, 1862; died of wounds at St. Louis, Jan. 22, 

1863. 
John Martin, Lacon. 

August 15, 1862; died at Memphis, April 6, 1863. 
Peter Overmier, Hopewell. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
William R. Owens, Lacon. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
William Post, Lacon. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John N. Pratt, Belle Plain. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out June 29, 1865. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 57 

John W. Riggs, Lacon. 

August 13, 1862; discharged for disability March 20, 

1863. 
Samuel Sawyer, Hopewell. 

August 9, 1862; died at Springfield, 111., June 21, 1864. 
Richard Shaw, Lacon. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Jesse Sawyer, Hopewell. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John A. Stockton, Lacon. 

August 9, 1862; killed at Vicksburg May 22, 1863. 
David B. Stockton, Chillicothe. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John Scoon, Rutland. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Cornelius Twinam, Lacon. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Joseph Tronier, Lacon. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John Torrence, Lacon. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Jacob Vanderson, Lacon. 

August 9, 1862; transferred to V. R. C. Dec. 21, 1863. 
John D. Winters, Lacon. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Henry Wagoner, Lacon. 

August 13, 1862; discharged for disability Dec. 26, 

1862. 
Joseph Willis, Lacon. 

Amgust 11, 1862; died a prisoner of war at Tyler, 

Texas, June 17, 1864. 



ROLL OP COMPANY " E." 

CAPTAIN. 

Edwin Stevens, Princeville. 

September 2, 1862; transferred as consolidated; mus- 
tered out July 10, 1865; commissioned Major July 24, 
1865, but not mustered. 

4 



58 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 



FIRST LIEUTENANT. 

Samuel J. Smith, Hollis. 

September 2, 1862; transferred as consolidated; mus- 
tered out July 10, 1865. 

SECOND LIEUTENANTS. 

James H. Schnebly, Medina. 

Saptember 2, 1862; discharged March 28, 1863. 
Henry L. Bushuell, Peoria. 

July 15, 1863; transferred as consolidated; honorably 

discharged June 2, 1865. 

SERGEANTS. 

William Dawson, Rosefield. 

August 5, 1862; died at Memphis, December 21, 1862. 

George B. Stiles, Peoria. 

August 14, 1862; discharged for disability, April 10, 
1863. 

William I. Brooks, Elmwood. 

August 9, 1862; died at Quincy, 111., Januarys, 1864. 

Henry E. Slough, Kickapoo. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 

James Parr, Logan. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865; commis- 
sioned Second Lieutenant July 24, 1865, but not mus- 
tered. 

CORPORALS. 

Henry L. Bushnell, Peoria. 

August 9, 1862; promoted First Sergeant; then Second 

Lieutenant. 
Erasmus 1). Richardson, Peoria. 

August 14, 1862; discharged as private for disability, 

September 4, 1863. 
Wilson G. Morris, Radnor. 

August 5, 1862; deserted September 19,' 1862. 
Benjamin F. Robbins, Peoria. 

August 14, 1862; died a prisoner of war at Savannah, 

Georgia. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 59 

Ellis Hakes, Millbrook. 

August 7, 1862; discharged for disability, January 8, 
1863. 

Andrew J. Dunlap, Radnor. 

Angust 4, 1862; died at Jefferson Barracks, Mo., Feb- 
ruary 28, 1863. 

R. McKee Davis, Peoria. 

July 22, 1862; died of wounds, May 27, 1863; buried 
in National Cemetery at Vicksburg; Section G; num- 
ber of grave, 1012. 

Henry Patf, Kickapoo. 

August 14, 1862; committed suicide July 11, 1863. 

MUSICIANS. 

Daniel B. Allen, Elmwood. 

August 12, 1862; promoted Principal Musician. 
John W. Carroll, Peoria. 

August 7, 1862; promoted Principal Musician June 29, 

1864. 

WAGONER. 

Louis Z. Rench, Medina. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

PRIVATES. 

Henry Adams, Peoria. 

August 21, 1862; discharged for disability, April 5, 

1863. 
Joseph Adams, Peoria. 

August 21, 1862; discharged for disability, January 23, 

1863. 
Henry M. Brooks, Logan. 

August 8, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Samuel G. Bunting, Logan. 

August 12, 1862; died January 7, 1863. 
John Buttrick, Richwoods. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
James Barrigan, Radnor. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Simeon P. Bower, Rosefield. 

August 4, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 



60 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

John C. Bush, Jubilee. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Franklin R. Clark, Rosefield. 

August 16, 1862; discharged for disability, March 3, 

1863. 
John Collins, Radnor. 

August 15, 1862; died at Milliken's Bend, La., May 15, 

1863; buried in National Cemetery at Vicksburg; Sec- 
tion E; number of grave, 197. 
Daniel Cook, Radnor. 

August 14, 1862; died at Memphis, January , 1863. 
John Cook, Peoria. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
George F. Cord, Medina. 

Mustered out as Sergeant July 10, 1865. 
Lorenzo W. Cord, Peoria. 

August , 1862; died of wounds May 25, 1863; buried 

in National Cemetery at Vicksburg; Section G; num- 
ber of grave, 1036. 
Isaac S. Dawson, Rosefield. 

August 6, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Joseph JN". Dawson, Rosefield. 

August 4, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John Daily, Logan. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John Evans, Elruwood. 

August 15, 1862; died at Memphis, March 15, 1863. 
Franklin W, Eslow, Limestone. 

August 9, 1862; died January 8, 1863. 
Thomas Forbes, Logan. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
John S. French, Logan. 

August 8, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Silas W. Fisher, Radnor. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out as Corporal, July 10, 

1865. 
Joseph Fulton, Richwoods. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Frederick Gutting, Elmwood. , 

August 15, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 61 

Philip Goodman, Radnor. 

August 11, 1862; discharged for disability, February 

1863. 
Gustavus Huffman, Rich woods. 

August 14, 1862; killed at Vicksburg May 22, 1863. 
John 8. Hamerbacher, Rosefield. 

August 5, 1862; mustered June 17, 1865. 
James Hutchiusou, Rosetield. 

August 6, 1862; discharged for disability, June , 1863. 
Grauville James, Peoria. 

August 22, 1862; discharged for disability, May 30, 

1865. 
Alexander Kinder, Logan. 

August 9, 1862; died at Mobile, Ala., March 11, 1865; 

buried in National Cainetery at Vicksburg; Section F; 

number of grave, 25. 
Joseph Letterman, Jubilee. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John B. Loughman, Richwoods. 

August 12, 1862; died of wounds February 19, 1863. 
Edward W. Laugh lin, Richwoods. 

August 12, 1862; died of wounds February 19, 1863. ' 
James McStravick, Logan. 

August 13, 1862; died December 19, 1863. 
William H. Magee, Logan. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Albert H. Magee, Logan. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out as Sergeant, July 10, 

1865. 
Jacob Mankle, Peoria. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Joseph T. Mills, Timber. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Francis M. McDermott, Mill brook. 

August 6, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. * 
John H. Mclntyre, Logan. 

August 11, 1862; killed at Arkansas Post, January 11, 

1863. 
Thomas J. Nixon, Rosefield. 

August 7, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 



62 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Le Roy Nash, Elmwood. 

August 5, 1862; discharged for disability, January 29, 

1863. 
Harris Parr, Hollis. 

August 14, 1862; killed at Vicksburg May 19, 1863. 
Samuel Perry, Richwoods. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Samuel A. Rathbun, Rosetield. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Asa J3. Reeves, Smithville. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Richard W. Rateliff, Peoria County. 

August 13. 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Solomon Ruse, Peoria. 

August 11, 1862; deserted July 12, 1864. 
Thomas J. Randall, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; discharged for disability, January 16, 

1863. 
David Rogers, Peoria County. 

August 13, 1862; discharged for disability. 
Otis B. Smith, Elmwood. 

August 6, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John W. Smith, Rosefield. 

August 6, 1862; died of wounds June 19, 1863. 
Charles Stevens. 

- Killed at Vicksburg, May 22, 1863. 
Joseph A. Smith, Hollis. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out May 30, 1865. 
Cosmer A. Stevenson, Peoria. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Robert W. Summers, Peoria. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
James M. Sweet Rosetield. 

August 7, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Albert Sutton, Trivoli. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Smith E. Shepler, Richwoods. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Peter M. Shepler, 

Died at Paducah, Ky., Nov. , 1862. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 63 

Cheney W. Thurston, Richwoods. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Daniel R. Vinson, Rosefield. 

August 7, 1862; transferred to V. R. C. 
John W. Wood, Peoria. 

August 9, 1862; discharged for disability, October 1, 

1863. 
Thomas White, Logan. 

August 14, 1862; deserted January 1, 1864. 
Leonard T. White, Logan. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out as Sergeant, June 17, 

1865. 
David T. Wiggins, Medina. 

August 15, 1862; died at Louisville, Ky., November 1, 

1862. 
James Watson, Smithville. 

August 21, 1862; discharged for disability, January 28, 

1863. 



BOLL OP COMPANY "P." 

CAPTAINS. 

William W. Crandall, Elmwood. 

September 18, 1862; honorably discharged May 17, 

1864. 
James K. Secord, Yates City. 

July 9, 1864; transferred as consolidated ; mustered out 

July 10, 1865. 

FIRST LIEUTENANTS. 

Wiliam O. Hammers, Metamora. 

September 18, 1862; discharged March 28, 1863. 
James K. Secord, Yates City. 

July 2, 1863; promoted. 
George C. Keuyon, Knoxville. 

July 9, 1864; transferred as consolidated; mustered 

out August 15, 1865. 



64 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 



SECOND LIEUTENANTS. 

James K. Secord, Yates City. 

September 18; 1862; promoted. 
George C. Kenyon, Knoxville. 

July 3, 1863; promoted. 

SERGEANTS. 

George C. Kenyon, Knoxville. 

August 1, 1862; promoted 2d Lieutenant. 

James A. Hammers, Metamora. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865; commis- 
sioned 1st Lieutenant July 24, 1865, but not mustered. 

Oliver F. Woodcock, Elmwood. 

August 22, 1862; discharged March 12, 1864, for pro- 
motion in U. S. Colored Troops. 

Endress M. Conklin, Elmwood. 

August 22, 1862; discharged for disability July 29, 
1864. 

Ephraim S. Stoddard, Metamora. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out as Corporal, June 17, 
1865. 

CORPORALS. 

Joseph Irwin, Belle Plain. 

August 22, 1862; discharged for disability March 6, 

1864. 
James T. Martin, Low Point. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865, as Ser- 
geant; commissioned 2d Lieutenant July 24, 1865, but 

not mustered. 
Harmon McChesney, Minonk. 

August 22, 1862; discharged for disability Feb. 2, 1863. 
Lewis Hamrick, Peoria. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out as Sergeant, June 17, 

1865. 
Francis W. Fisher, Metamora. 

August 11, 1862; killed at Vicksburg May 22, 1863. 
James Sleeth, Roseiield. 

August 22, 1862; deserted January 18, 1863. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 65 

Henry Ferguson, Whitefield. 

August 22, 1862; discharged Sept. 9, 1862, being a de- 
serter from 3d Missouri Cavalry. 

George A. Farnsworth, Washburn. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out as Sergeant, July 22, 
1865. 

MUSICIANS. 

Mitchell T. Graham, Elmwood. 

August 22, 1862; discharged July 1, 1864. 
Charles Nixon, Gilson. 

August 22, 1862; killed at Vicksburg June 22, 1863. 

PRIVATES. 

Thomas Ashworth, Metamora. 

August 22, 1862; discharged for disability February 4, 

1863. 
William T. Arrowsmith, Metamora. 

August 22, 1862; discharged January 4, 1863. 
John Arrowsmith, Metamora. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
William Aid, Metamora. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Charles Aid, Metamora. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
George Attick, Metamora. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Thomas Beagle, Fairview. 

August 22, 1862; discharged for disabitity April 6, 

1863. 
Charles M. Baldwin, Lacon. 

August 22, 1862; discharged for disability April 6, 

1863. 
Frederick Bolander, Elmwood. 

August 22, 1862; died at Arkansas Post January 13, 

1863. 
Joseph Buckman, Elmwood. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Chester Brown, Elmwood. 

August 22, 1862; discharged September 30, 1862; mi- 
nor. 



66 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH. 

Hugh P. Beach, Peoria. 

August 15, 1861 ; discharged March 12, 1864, for pro- 
motion in U. S. Colored Troops; mustered out February 

22, 1867. 
Noah J. Crew, Minonk. 

August 22, 1862; discharged for disability December 

30, 1862. 
Jesse Croson, Timber. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Michael Carrigan, Kickapoo. 

August 15, 1862; deserted October 10, 1862. 
Charles W. Carter, Rosefield, 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
French Chamberlain, Peoria. 

August 15, 1862; deserted January 20, 1863. 
John Doran, Radnor. 

August 10, 1862; deserted October 10, 1862. 
Thomas J. Ewing, Princeville. 

August 22, 1862, discharged for disability April 6, 
< 1863. 
William Fowler, Gilson. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out as Corporal, June 17, 

1865. 
Francis Hatton, Belle Plain. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Casper Hummel, Yates City. 

July 28, 1862; deserted January 29, 1863. 
Thomas A. Irwin, Knoxville. 

August 7, 1862; discharged for disability, August 18, 

1864. 
Hosea Johnson, Whitefield. 

August 22, 1862; promoted Corporal; killed at Mans- 

field/La., April 8, 1864. 
John M. Johnson. 



-Deserted September 18, 1862. 



Nelson E. Johnson, Knoxville. 

August 22, 1862; discharged for disability May 30, 
, 1863. 
Peter Jury, Minonk. 

August 22, 1862; transferred to 130th Ill's Inf. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 67 

James F. Kent, Yates City. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

George E. Knox. 

Discharged lor disability April 6, 1863. 

Sylvester Kenyon, Low Point. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
George Lawrence, Knoxville. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out as Sergeaut, June 17, 

1865. 
Hamilton Lamson. 

August 22, 1862; no further record. 
John B. Murray, Lacon. 

August 22, 1862; died at Young's Point, La., March 3, 

1863. 
James Miner, Knoxville. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Moses A. Messenger, Belle Plain. 

August 22, 1862; transferred to V. E. C., May 81, 1864. 
David B. Macy, Yates City. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
A. McMullen, Peoria. 

August 22, 1862; deserted September 20, 1862. 
Allen F. Mitchell, Peoria. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Martin Mason, Miuonk. 

August 22, 1862 ; killed at Vicksburg May 22, 1863. 
John W. Miner, Knoxville. 

August 11, 1862; discharged for disability January 10, 

1863. 
George Norman, Peoria. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Peter 8. L. Newman, Knoxville. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out May 13, 1865. 
Charles W. Pierce, Peoria. 

August 9, 1862; discharged for disability March 10, 1863. 
Jacob Rediger, Metamora. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out as Corporal, July 10, 1865. 
Jonah Stone, Peoria. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 



68 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Marshall Smiley, Minonk. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Harmon Seifert, Metamora. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Monterville Stone, Peoria. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Andrew Sparks, Low Point. 

August 22, 1M62; deserted January 18, 1863. 
Alonzo D. Stoddard, Metamora. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
DeWitt C. Standiford, Knoxville. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out June 2, 1865. 
Samuel E. Thomas, Belle Plain. 

August 22, 1862; discharged for disability April 16, 1863. 
Thomas Thurman, Elba. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 

George W. Thomas, Elba. 

August 22, 1862; transferred to 130th Ill's Inf.; mus- 
tered out a prisoner of war, August 15, 1865. 
John Trump, Metamora. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
James M. West, Lacon. 

August 22, 1862; died at Vicksburg, August 10, 1863; 

buried in National Cemetery at Vicksburg; Section L; 

number of grave 549. 
William H. West, Lacon. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865, 
John Weaver, Low Point. 

August 22, 1862; deserted October 10, 1862. 
Henry Walters, Elmwood. 

August 22, 1862; died at Memphis, Jan. 6, 1863. 
Richard R. Wilkinson, Minonk. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865 
Henry White, Peoria. 

August 22, 1862; discharged February 1, 1863. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 69 



ROLL OP COMPANY " G." 

CAPTAIN. 

John D. Rouse, Peoria. 

September 2, 1862; transferred as consolidated; trans- 
ferred to Company " F," 130th 111. Vol. Infantry; mus- 
tered out August 15, 1865. 

FIRST LIEUTENANTS. 

Charles Ireland, Millbrook. 

September 2, 1862; resigned March 19, 1863. 
Henry J. Wyman, Brirafield. 

May 17, 1863; transferred as consolidated; mustered out 

June 17, 1865. 

SECOND LIEUTENANTS. 

Frederick H. Osgood, Henry. 

September 2, 1862; honorably discharged March 28, 1863. 
Hiram M. Barney, Brimfield. 

July 15, 1863; resigned September 23, 1863. 

SERGEANTS. 

Hiram M. Barney, Brimlield. 

July 22, 1862; promoted Second Lieutenant. 
John Toynbee, Brimlield. 

August 5, 1862; discharged at Quincy, 111., in 1864. 
Henry J. Wyman, Brimlield. 

August 5, 1862; promoted First Lieutenant. 
Edward E. Burt, Brimlield. 

August 9, 1862; discharged for disability, February 21, 

1863. 
William W. Miller, Millbrook. 

August 14, 1862; promoted First Sergeant; killed at 

Mansfield, La., April 8, 1864. 

CORPORALS. 

William G. Huey, Brimlield. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out as Sergeant July 10, 1865. 



70 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Hugh Smart, Brimfield. 

August 7, 1862; died of wounds at St. Louis, February 

20, 1863. 
Joseph 8. Nightingale, Millbrook. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out March 31, 1865. 

Timothy Martindale, Brimfield. 

August 5, 1862; died at East Pembroke, N. Y., August 

31, 1863. 
Stephen J. Cook, Brimfield. 

August 5, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
John B. Curran, Brimfield. 

August 8, 1862; discharged February, 1863. 
Thomas W. Beckett, Brimfield. 

August 7, 1862; promoted Sergeant; died February 28, 

1865. 
Hitz Boney Petrcs. Brimfield. 

August 13, 1862; killed at Vicksburg, May 22, 1863. 

MUSICIANS. 

Wesley R. Andrews, Brimfield. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Robert Cooper, Brimfield. 

August 27, 1862; died at St. Louis, February 26, 1863. 

WAGONER. 

Jacob Alderdice, Eugene. 

August 6, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

PRIVATES. 

Adrian R. Aten, Millbrook. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out as Sergeant July 10, 1865. 
Delos Aldrich, Brimfield. 

August 12, 1862; died of accidental wounds, August 22, 

1863. 
Joab Baily, Brimfield. 

August 6, 1862; killed at Vicksburg May 22, 1863. 
Franklin Beltbrd, Brimfield. 

August 7, 1862; mustered out as Corporal July 10, 1865; 
commissioned Second Lieutenant July 24, 1865, but not 
mustered. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 71 

Daniel Beck, Elmwood. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865 
Moses E. Burt, Rrimfield. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out as Sergeant July 10, 1865; 

commissioned Captain July 24, 1865, but not mustered 
Henry Barnes, Brimtield. 

. August 13, 1862; died at home. 
Eleazer Barnell, Millbrook. 

August 14, 1862; killed at Arkarsas Post, January 11, 

1863. 
Henry C. Brassfield, Kickapoo. 

August 15, 1862; killed at Vicksburg May 22, 1863. 
David Baronett, Brimfield. 

August 18, 1862; mustered out July 10,1865. 
William Baronett, Brimn'eld. 

August 20, 1862; discharged for disability, February 23, 

1863. 
William Curran, Brimfield. 

August 5, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
David G. Campbell, Millbrook. 

August 15 1862; died at home October 3, Ib62. 
Charles L. Campbell, Millbrook. 

August 8, 1862; discharged September , 1862, for disa- 
bility. 
Samuel W. Campbell, Millbrook. 

August 8, 1862; died at home October 2, 1862'. 
Joseph J. Camp, Millbrook. 

August 8, 1862; discharged for disability, March 7, 1863. 
Henry F. Cady, Brimfield. 

August 11, 1862; deserted January 12, 1863. 
Charles W. Cone, Brimfield. 

August 15, 1862; died at Young's Point, La., March 8, 

1863. 
William Collister, Eugene. 

August 14, 1862, mustered out June 17, 1863. 

Russell Darby, Brimfield. 

August 8, 1862; mustered out July 10, IcSii,"). 

Hiram B. Doty, Millbrook. 

August 13, 1862; discharged January 31, 1863. 
John Davidson, Kickapoo. 

August 15, 1862; died at St. Louis December 26, 1862. 



72 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Austin M. Dustin, Millbrook. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

Francis 0. Dimmick, Millbrook. 

August 22, 1862; killed at Mansfield, La, April 8, 1864. 
William Eaton, Brimtield. 

August 14, 1862; died at Young's Point, La., February 

4, 1863. 

Joseph D. Ensley, Truro. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Isaac Ensley, Truro. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Moses Fisher, Brimtield. 

August 7, 1862; discharged for disability, April 5. 1865. 
Joseph H. Fetters, Yates City. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
James Fleming, Millbrook. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Lafayette Flower, Peoria. 

August 14, 1862; deserted November 3, 1862. 
Littleton A. German, Truro. 

August 6, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Erastus L Gilbert, Brimfield. 

August 11, 1862; discharged September 26, 1863. se- 
verely wounded. 
James Gillins, Brimtield. 

August 14, 1862; died at Keokuk, Iowa. 
Francis W. Griswold, Brimtield. 

Mustered out as Corporal, July 10, 1865. 
William H. Hanna, Millbrook. 

August 13, 1862; discharged June 29, 1863. 
David Hart, Millbrook. 

August 12, 1862; died of wounds May 27, 1863. 
Jacob Hockenberg, Brimtield. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out June 5, 1865. 
Thomas Hatsel, Brimtield. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Henry Jacques, Truro. 

August 5, 1862; dropped as a deserter, Oct. 27, 1863. 
Romeo W. Jones, Brimtield. 

Augusts, 1862; deserted January 29, 1863. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 73 

Frederick R. Johnson, Brimfield. 

August 5, 18(52; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
William Lawson, Brimtield. 

August 5. 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
William M. Lambertson, Millbrook. 

August 12, 1862; died at Louisville, Ky., Dec. 2, 18(52. 
Heslip W. Laughlin, Brimtield. 

August 14, 1862; deserted in face of the enemy. 
John A. Mendall, Brimtield. 

August 8, 1862; died at Keokuk, Iowa, Jan. 31, 1864. 
Henry P. Moore, Brimfield. 

August 11, 1862; transferred to 2d Ill's Cav. Feb., 1865. 
Elias Martin, Eugene. 

August 12, 1862; reported died of wounds received at 

Mansfield, La., April 8. 1864. 
William McComb, Brimtield. 

August 10, 1862; mustered out July 10, 18(55. 
Calvin R. Ogden, Monmouth. 

August 2"), 1862; deserted February 21, 1863. 
David F. Ogden, Monmouth. 

August 25, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
William Onstott, Kickapoo. 

August 19, 1862; discharged for wounds December 21, 

1863. 
Jesse J. Purcell, Brimfield. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Gaylord Robinson, Trivoli. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 

Joseph Rogers, Millbrook. 

August 15, 1862; discharged for disability December 12, 

1862. 
John Swan, Brimtield. 

August 5, 1862; died at St. Louis. 
Daniel W. Shinmell, Millbrook. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Joseph Shull, Millbrook. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John Shull, Millbrook. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Joseph W. Slocum, Millbrook. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
5 



74 . THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Daniel Shade, Millbrook. 

August 12, 1862; died at Milliken's Bend, La., May 12, 

1863; buried in National Cemetery at Vicksburg, Sec- 
tion E; number of grave, 201. 
Franklin Stanton, Millbrook. 

August 13, 1862: mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Francis Smith, Kickapoo. 

August 22, 1862; dropped as a deserter Dec. 12, 1863. 
Cyrus H. Stockwell, Peoria. 

August 15, 1862; died of wounds, at New Orleans, 

June 1864. 
Samuel Tucker, Eugene. 

August 10, 1862; discharged February 18, 1863. 
Joseph Tanner, Millbrook. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out as Corporal, July 10, 

1865. 
John M. Ward, Brimfield. 

August 5, 1862; deserted October 27, 1863. 
Washington Wilson, Millbrook. 

August 12, 1862; discharged for disability, April 7, 

1863. 



ROLL OF COMPANY "H." 
CAPTAINS. 

Lewis G. Keedy, Minonk. 

September 2, 1862; died January 23, 1863. 
Milgrove B. Parmeter, Minonk. 

January 23, 1863; transferred as consolidated; mustered 

out July, 10, 1865. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT. 

Milgrove B. Parmeter, Minonk. 

September 2, 1862; promoted. 
George H. Jenkins, Minonk. 

January 23, 1863; resigned December 14, 1863. 
Sylvester S. Heath, Clayton. 

April 19, 1864; mustered out at consolidation. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. . t O 



SECOND LIEUTENANTS. 

John Filger, Minonk. 

September 2, 1862; dismissed March 1, 1863. 
Sylvester S. Heath, Clayton. 

Promoted. 
William C. McGowan, Minonk. 

March 16, 1865; transferred as consolidated; transferred 

to 130th 111. Vol. Inf.; promoted 1st Lieutenant Co. 

"D" 130th Illinois, August 12, 1865; mustered out 

August 15, 1865. 

SERGEANTS. 

George H. Jenkins, Minonk. 

August 11, 1862; promoted 1st Lieutenant. 
Stephen O. Pillsbury, Nebraska. 

August 12, 1862; discharged for disability June 18, 1863. 
Valentine P. Peabody, Linn. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out a prisoner of war, June 

17, 1865. 
Henry K. Ferrin, Minonk. 

August 9, 1862; discharged for disability August 9, 

1863. 
John M. Brown, Minonk. 

August 11, 1862; discharged for disability June 3, 1863. 

CORPORALS. 

William C. McGowan, Minonk. 

August 11, 1862; promoted Sergeant; then 2d Lieu- 
tenant. 
David Filger, Minonk. 

August 11, 1862 ; discharged for disability June 18, 1863. 
Cyrus K. Snyder, Green. 

August 11, 1862; discharged for disability June 6, 1864. 
Thomas II. Clark, Minonk. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out as Private July 10, 1865. 
David L. Murdock, Nebraska. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out as Sergeant July 10, 1865. 
Joel Allen, Nebraska. 

August 8, 1862; promoted Hospital Steward, 



76 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Ezra D. Davidson, Clayton. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Aaron Dean Addis, Minonk. 

August 11, 1862; discharged January 5, 1863. 

MUSICIANS. 

Reuben W. Davison, Linn. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Benjamin Wilson, Jr., Linn. 

August 9, 1862; discharged for disability June 10, 1865. 

PRIVATES. 

John Arnett, Nebraska. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
William H. Addis, Minonk. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out|July 10, 1865. 
William H. Bocock, Linn. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out as Sergeant, July 10, 

1865; commissioned 2d Lieutenant July 24, 1865, but 

not mustered. 
James P. Brooks, Secor. 

August 9, 1862; died at New Orleans February 16, 1863. 
William D. Blake, Long Point. 

August 5, 1862; discharged for disability February 21, 

1863. 
John Bennett, Waldo. 

August 10, 1862; discharged for disability March 17, 

1863. 
Alfred C. Bell, Belle Plain. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
James Clark, Minonk. 

August 5, 1862; discharged for disability March 24, 

1863. 
Joseph C. Clegg, Groveland. 

August 13, 1862; killed at Vicksburg, May 19, 1863; 

buried in National Cemetery at Vicksburg; Section G; 

number of grave, 1013. 
Charles E. Dunham, Miuonk. 

August 5, 1862; transferred to V. R. C., January 1, 

1864. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 77 

Charles L. Davis, Linn. 

August 6, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Asa L. Davison, Clayton. 

August 6, 1862; discharged April 22, 1865. 
Daniel W. Davison, Clayton. 

August 9, 1862; discharged January 17, 1863. 
Robert Deuby, Minonk. 

August 8, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Charles 8. Fuller, Groveland. 

August 8, 1862; discharged February 16, 1863. 
Benjamin F. Fisher, Green. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John Farrell, Nebraska. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Isaac Grove, Clayton. 

August 11, 1862; killed at Mansfield, La., April 8, 1864. 
Sylvester 8. Heath, Clayton. 

August 6, 1862; promoted 2d Lieutenant. 
Fred. W. Holmes, Minonk. 

August 9, 1862; discharged for disability, December 23, 

1863. 
Ira Hofnagle, Nebraska. 

August 11, 1862; died of wounds June 16, 1863. 
Gideon P. Holman, Belle Plain. 

August 9, 18(52; discharged March 12, 1863, to enlist in 

Mississippi Marine Brigade. 
John W. Holman, Belle Plain. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out May 23, 1865. 
Daniel Hollenback, Linn. 

August 13, 1862; discharged April 22, 1865. 
John W. Howell, Nebraska. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Richard Hnxtable, Green. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Flavius G. Her rick, Minonk. 

August 11, 1862; discharged January 10, 1863. 
William D. Irwiu, Linn. 

August 9, 1862; died at Young's Point, La., January 

27, 1863. 



78 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

William W. Jermau, Liim. 

August 9, 1862; discharged for disability, March 12, 

1863. 
William 1). Jones, Long Point. 

August 9, 1862; died at Nicholasville, Ky., Nov. 3, 

1862. 
George W. James, Belle Plain. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Casey B. James, Clayton. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out as Corporal, July 10, 

1865. 
Leo Julg, Minonk. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out a prisoner of war, June 

7, 1865. 
Joshua Ketchum, Minonk. 

August 10, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Conrad Kohl, Groveland. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Joseph L. Kuowles, Clayton. 

August 7, 1862; discharged for disability Feb. 7, 1863. 
Milton B. Linn, Clayton. 

August 2, 1862; died in Woodford County, 111., Dec. 

5, 1863. 
James H. Longfellow, Minonk., 

August 5, 1862; died at St. Louis, March 29, 1863. 
Hiram Livingston, Minonk. 

August 8, 1862; mustered out a prisoner of war, June 

17, 1865. 
Nathaniel Livingston, Clayton. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out May 23, 1865. 
Milton G. Marshall, Minonk. 

August, 5, 1862; killed at Vicksburg May 22, 1863. 
Stephen W. Maring, Linn. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Joseph Miller, Nebraska. 

August 10, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Frederick Mehlhorn, Minonk. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John P. McCoy, Minonk. 

Augusts, 1862; discharged March 10, 1865. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 79 

Joseph McSparren, Minonk. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out as 1st Sergeant, July 10, 

1865; commissioned 1st Lieutenant July 24, 1865, but 

not mustered. 
Enoch R. Nye, Clayton. 

August 6, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Lorenzo D. Philips, Clayton. 

August 6, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Alfred B. Poage, Groveland. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out a prisoner of war, June 

17, 1865. 
Fred. Presinger, Minonk. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Thomas P. Peabody, Linn. 

August 9, 1862; died January 11, 1863. 
James P. Ross, Grovelaud. 

August 7, 1862; died at Young's Point, La., March 3, 

1863. 
Thomas Ruff, Miuonk. 

August 7, 1862; mustered out May 29, 1865. 
Norman D. Richards, Metamora. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Edwin E. Sampson, Clayton. 

August 9, 1862; died at Milliken's Bend, La., March 

25, 1863. 
John M. Spandau, Peoria. 

August 6, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
William B. Self, Nebraska. 

August 9, 1862; died at St. Louis, May 16, 1863. 
David Smith, Nebraska. 

August 8, 1862; died at St. Louis, Feb. 18, 1863. 
Henry Smith, Nebraska. 

August 8, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
R. Milton Smilie, Belle Plain. 

August 9, 1862; committed suicide June 6, 1865. 
Welden R. Smilie, Clayton. 

Mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Robert S. Swift, Long Point. 

Augusts, 1862; discharged for disability July 1, 1863. 



80 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

John M. Smith, Long Point. 

Angust 9, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
William H. Stewart, Groveland. 

August 12, 1862; discharged for disability May 27, 

1863. 
Michael Stewart, Minonk. 

August 12, 1862; died of wounds July 3, 1863. 
William Swendeman, Clayton. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Edward L. Sutton, Minonk. 

August 6, 1862; died of wounds February 3, 1863. 
Joseph Standaker, Minonk. 

August 8, 1862; died of wounds January 16, 1863. 
Norman Smilie, Clayton. 

August 13, 1862; discharged November 6, 1863. 
Andrew Sampson, Minonk. 

August 13, 1862; died at Vicksburg, August 6, 1863; 

buried in National Cemetery at Vicksburg, Section L; 

number of grave, 550. 
James Talbot, Minonk. 

August 7, 1862; died at Jefferson Barracks, Mo., Feb- 
ruary 9, 1863. 
John Talbot, Minonk. 

August 9, 1862; discharged for disability, Jan. 9, 1863. 
Israeli). Trowbridge, Minonk. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John I). Vance, Minonk. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John W. Vanarsdale, 

August 11, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
William S. Worthington, Clayton. 

August 2, 1862; killed at Vicksburg, May 22, 1863. 
Freeman P. Wilson, Clayton. 

August 16, 1862; killed at Vicksburg, May 22, 1863. 
Leonidas M. Wilkes, Linn. 

August 9, 1862; died at Keokuk, Iowa, Feb. 2, 1863. 
John H. Williams Minonk. 

August 6, 1862; absent, sick at muster out of Regi- 
ment. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 81 

Collins P. Waterman, Minonk. 

August 6, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
William H. Young, Minonk. 

August 9, 1862; discharged for disability June 10,1863. 



ROLL OF COMPANY "I." 

CAPTAIN, 

Wayne O'Donald, Elmwood. 

Enlisted as Private, Co. G, 8th Missouri Vol. Inf., 
June 25, 1861; promoted Corporal, Sergeant and First 
Sergeant; participated in the battles of Fort Henry 
and Fort Donelson, and the siege and capture of Cor- 
inth; had the index finger of the right hand shot off 
at Donelson February 15, 1862; discharged at Mem- 
phis, Tenn., July 28, 1862; mustered Capain Co. "I," 
77th 111. Vol., September 2, 1862; in command of 2d Bat- 
tallion, Camp of Distribution at New Orleans, La., 
December 28, 1863, to January 26, 1865, at which time 
he was mustered out in consequence of the consolida- 
tion of the 77th and 130th Regiments. 

FIRST LIEUTENANTS. 

Silas J. Wagoner, Elmwood. 

September^, 1862; resigned March 17, 1863. 

John H. Eno, Elmwood. 

May 17, 1863; resigned June 22, 1863. 

Thomas C. Mathews, Salem. 

January 22, 1864; transferred as consolidated; trans- 
ferred to 130th 111. Vol. Inf.; promoted Captain Co. 
"D," 130th 111., August 12, 1865; mustered out Au- 
gust 15, 1865. 

SECOND LIEUTENANTS. 

John H. Eno, Elmwood. 

September 22, 1862; promoted. 
George W. Cone, Elmwood. 

March 17, 1863; commissioned 1st Lieutenant, but not 

mustered; honorably discharged November 20, 1863. 
Thomas G. Mathews, Salem. 

June 22, 1863; promoted. 



82 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 



SERGEANTS. 

Imle L. Eno, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; discharged for disability March 12, 
1863. 

George W. Cone, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; promoted Quartermaster Sergeant. 

Thomas C. Mathews, Salem. 

August 14, 1862; promoted 2d Lieutenant. 

George L. Lucas, Elmwood. 

August 11, 1862; died at Cape Girardeau, Mo., June 25, 
1863. 

Robert J. Biggs, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865; commis- 
sioned Captain July 24, 1865, but not mustered. 

CORPORALS. 

Edward F. Bartholomew, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; discharged for disability February 1, 

1863. 
Rufus Atherton, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Eli H. Plowman, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Joseph M. Lee, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out as Private July 10, 1865. 
John J. Rose, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; discharged for disability December 

24, 1862. 
John Wills, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; absent, sick at muster out of Regi- 
ment. 
John McMullen, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Alfred B. Reed, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862, mustered out July 10, 1865. 

MUSICIANS. 

Jasper S. Baker, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; discharged for disability January 11, 
1863. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 83 

Jacob H. Snyder, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 



WAGONER. 

Alonzo G. Ellsworth, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; discharged for disability February 21, 
1863. 

PRIVATES. 

Austin C. Aten, Millbrook. 

August 18, 1862; mustered outasCorporalJuly 10, 1865; 

commissioned 2d Lieutenant July 24, 1865, but not 

mustered. 
Lewis B. Anderson, Salem. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Lewis J. Bevans, Elmwood. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Frederick Beeny, Elmwood! 

August 24, 1862; discharged for disability May 15, 1863. 
William H. Bentley, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; promoted Corporal October 13, 1863; 

discharged March 17, 1864, for promotion in U. S. Col- 
ored Troops; mustered as 1st Lieutenant Co. " D," 77th 

U. S. Colored Infantry, May 24. 1864; transferred to Co. 

"H," 10th U. S. Colored Artillery (heavy), October 1, 

1865; resigned September 18, 1866. 
Isaac Brown, Elmwood. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
John T. Biggs, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out June 6, 1865. 
Robert Benton, Salem. 

August 22, 1862; deserted November 20, 1862. 
William M. Cox, Salem. 

August 15, 1862; died at Benton Barracks, Mo., Feb- 
ruary 2, 1863. 
John H. Clark, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; discharged for disability March 27, 1863. 
Asa A. Cook, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
James D. Caldwell, Elmwood. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 



*84 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Richard Cowley, Elmwood. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
George Darnell, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; died at Peoria, 111., September 28, 1862. 

George M. Dixon, Salem. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 

Enos Frisbie, Elmwood. 

August 15, 1862, died at Milliken's Bend, La., May 2, 
1863; buried in National Cemetery at Vicksburg; Sec- 
tion A ; number of grave, 90. 

Jacob Fisher, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; died at Memphis, December 20, 1863. 

Joel J. Fox, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; discharged for disability February 4, 
1863. 

Hiram B. Fox, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; discharged for disability Jan. 1, 1864. 

Willis H. Ferguson, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; absent, sick at muster out of Regiment. 

George T. Finch, Salem. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Ichabod O. Gibbs, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; discharged for disability October 2!), 
1862. 

Lemuel Hand, Elmwood. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John C. Hill, Salem. 

August 18, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John Hyne, Elmwood. 

^ August 14, 1862; killed at Vicksburg May 22, 1863. 
Eli Humphrey, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1*62; died at Milliken's Bend, La., April 27, 

1863; buried in National Cemetery at Vicksburg; Section 

E; number of grave, 150. 
Pleasant A. Hildebrandt, Elba. 

August 14, 1862; discharged for disability August 19, 

1863. 
Joseph Huffman, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; discharged for disability July 25, 1863. 
Homer H. Higbie, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 85 

Barney Hand, Elm wood. 

August 14, 1862; died June 18, 1863. 
Benedict M. S. Horner, Elmwood. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Anthony Hauler, Salem. 

August 20, 1862; died at Louisville, Ky., January 3, 1863. 
Abraham Hull, Salem. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out as Sergeant July 10, 1865; 

commissioned 1st Lieutenant July 24, 1865, but not mus- 
tered. 
Thomas F. Jacobs, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; dropped as a deserter, September 3, 

1864. 
William W. Jacobs, Elmwood. 

Mustered out July 10, 1865. 

Butler K. Jones, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; died at Memphis March 14, 1863. 
Theodore P. Jarman, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; discharged for disability January 18, 
1863. 

John M. Jordan, Salem. 

August 22, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Henry Keller, Salem. 

August 15, 1862; died at Covington, Kv., November 15, 

1862. 

James C. Moore, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; died at Young's Point, La., February 

15, 1863; buried in National Cemetery at Vicksburg"; 

Section C; number of grave, 162. 
George W. McCann, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John H. Mathews, Salem. 

August 14, 1862; tranferred to V. R. C., April 28, 1864; 

discharged at Concord, N. H., June 30, 1865. 
Micajah C. Macy, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; discharged for disability Jan. 7, 1863. 
Daniel D. Moore, Salem. 

August 14, 1862; died at Young's Point, La., February 

1, 1863. 
Richard Murphy, Elmwood. 

August 21, 1862; deserted September 14, 1862. 



86 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH. 

Milton Nunn, Elmwood. 

August 21, 1862; discharged for disability March 1 1863. 
John W. Poe, Elmwood. 

August 15, 1862; discharged for disability January 20, 

1863. 

Garret D. Pence, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

William H. Richardson, Elmwood. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Scott H. Rockeniield, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Cleves S. Rockenfield, Elmwood. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Frank A. Redtield, Brimneld. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John A. Randall, Elmwood. 

August 15, 1862; died at Milliken's Bend, La., May 28, 

1863; buried in National Cemetery at Vicksburg; Sec- 
tion H; number of grave, 92. 
Lyman H. Smith, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
George S. Smith, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; discharged for disability Feb. 21, 1863. 
Myron C. Smith, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Robert Scanlan, Elmwood. 

August 22, 1862; discharged for disability February 6, 

1863. 
William B. Toler, Elmwood. 

August 15, 1862; died at Memphis January 15, 1863. 
Alexander Thurman, Salem. 

August 18, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
John C. Widner, Elmwood. 

_ August 14, 1862; deserted October 29, 1862. 
William H. Warne, Elmwood. 

August 15, 1862; discharged for wounds, October 30, 

1863. 
Jacob D. Wasson, Elmwood. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 87 



Lemon H. Wiley, Elmwood. 

August 15, 1862; promoted Principal Musician, June 

2!>, 1864. 

Thomas Yerby, Salem. 

August 15, 1862; deserted December 20, 1862. 



ROLL OF COMPANY " K." 

CAPTAINS. 

Ephraim C. Ryuearson, Rosefield. 

September 2, 1862; resigned October 21, 1862. 

William H. White, Rosefield. 

October 21, 1862; mustered out at consolidation. 
FIRST LIEUTENANTS. 

William H. White, Rosefield. 

September 2, 1862; promoted. 
Sylvester S. Edwards. Rosefield. 

October 22, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

SECOND LIEUTENANTS. 

Sylvester S. Edwards, Rosetield. 

September 2, 1862; promoted. 
Marcus O. Harkness, Elmwood. 

October 21, 1862; transferred as consolidated; honora- 
bly discharged June 15, 1865. 

SERGEANTS. 

Marcus O. Harkness, Elmwood. 

August 13, 1862; promoted 2d Lieutenant. 

Servetus Holt, Rosefield. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 

John Yinger, Rosefield. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865; commis- 
sioned Captain July 24, 1865. but not mustered. 

George Edwards, Rosefield. 

August 7, 1862; mustered out as Private, July 10, 1865. 
Harvey R. Brockett, Rosefield. 

August 9, 1862; Private; died at Morganza, La., Octo- 
ber 4, 1864. 



THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 



CORPORALS. 

John White, Rosefield. 

August 8, 1882; mustered out March 19, ISlM. 

Francis Shorder, Kickapoo. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

John M. Harper, Roseiield. 

August 11, 1862; discharged for disability March 28, 

1863. 
George W. Awl, Roseiield. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out as Private July 10, 1865. 
Enlee E. Coulson, Rosefield. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out as Private July 10, isr,:, 
Andrew J. Vleet, Roseiield. 

August 8, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Oswall B. Green, Rosefield. 

August 14, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Richard M. Holt, Roseiield. 

August 9, 1862; promoted Sergeant; died at Peoria, 111., 

October 5, 1864. 

MUSICIANS. 

Daniel Slane, Rosefield. 

August 15, 1862; discharged for disability. 
Charles E. Lines, Rosefield. 

August 11, 1862; deserted October 28, 1863. 

WAGONER. 

Clement S. Padget, Rosefield. 

August 22, 1862; discharged for disability June 11, 1863. 

PRIVATES. 

William Beck, Rosefield. 

August 8, 1862; died of wounds, May 26, 1863. 
Eli Brown, Rosefield. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
J. Henry Brown, Rosefield. 

August 13, 1862; killed at Mansfield, La., April 8, 1864. 
Patrick Brown 

August 7, 1862; supposed to have deserted. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 89 

Henry Behrns, Rosefield. 

August 15, 1862; died at Milliken's Bend, La., July 12, 
1863; buried in National Cemetery at Vicksburg, Sec- 
tion B; number of grave, 89. 

John Camp, Rosefield. 

August 8, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

John Cronan, Rosefield. 

August 9, 1862; died of wounds July 8, 1863. 

Henry Coulson, Rosefield. 

Mustered out July 10, 1865. 

William Clayton, Rosefield. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Uriah Dunhaugh, Rosefield. 

August 9, 1862; discharged June 30, 1863. 
William Donelly, Rosefield. 

August 22, 1862; mustered but July 10, 1865. 
John A. Enders, Rosefield. 

August 8, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Jacob Frank, Peoria. 

August 16, 1862; died. 
John Greenhalch, Rosefield. 

August 12, 1862 ; mustered out a prisoner of war, June 

17, 1865. 

Frederick Gilson, Rosefield. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Roger Greenough, Rosefield. 

August 9, 1862; transferred to V. R. C., June 15, 1864. 
Auxilius Gurtern, Kickapoo. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John Haynes, Rosefield. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Edward Halstead, Rosefield. 

Mustered out a prisoner of war, June 17, 

1865. 
William S. Harper, Rosefield. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out May 27, 1865. 
Richard M. Holt, Rosefield. 

August 8, 1862; discharged for disability, February 16, 

1864. 
Adam Harding, Rosefield. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
6 



90 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Thomas J Holt, Rosefield. 

August 8, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Warner Hollinsworth, Rosefield. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Peter Hoffman, Kickapoo. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
John Ibeck, Rosen' eld. 

August 17, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Lawrence Ibeck, Rosefield. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Charles Kingsley, Kickapoo. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Joseph M. King, Rosefield. 

August 16, 1862; killed at Arkansas Post, June 11, 1863. 
John Kingsley, Rosefield. 

August 7, 1862; discharged for disability April 12, 1864. 
Samuel Kirkman, Kickapoo. 

August 13, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Levi H. King, Rosefield. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out May 22, 1865. 
William W. King, Rosefield. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out May 31, 1865. 
Alonzo Kingsley, Rosefield. 

August 7, 1862; discharged for disability April 3, 1863. 
John Lafollet, Rosefield. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Jacob Lafollet, Rosefield. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
George Lander, Rosefield. 

August 9, 1862; dropped as a deserter October 21, 1863. 
Henry Largent, Limestone. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Madison Largent, Limestone. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out June 17, 1865. 
James Miller, Rosefield. 

August 11, 1862; absent, in confinement at muster out 

of Regiment. 
Henry S. Morris, Rosefield. 

Mustered out as Corporal, July 10, 1865; 

commissioned 2d Lieutenant, but not mustered. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 91 

Richard Morris, Rosefield. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
James M. Moody, Rosefield. 

August 9, 1862 ; mustered out a prisoner of war, June 

17, 1865. 
John Merritt, Rosefield. 

August 9, 1862; died July 15, 1863. 
Andrew J. Meek, Rosefield. 

August 12, 1862; discharged for disability March 26, 

1863. 
William Mulvaney, Kickapoo. 

August 8, 1862; killed at Marksville, La., May 16, 1864. 
Peter Nelson, Elmwood. 

August 15, 1862; killed at Arkansas Post, January 11, 

1863. 
Charles Parnham, Rosefield. 

August 13, 1862; transferred to V. K. C., February 15, 

1864. 
Henry Perry, Rosefield. 

August 9, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Samuel B. Powell Rosefield. 

August 13, 1862; died at Oak Hill, 111., April 7, 1864. 
Joseph Potts, Rosefield. 

August 11, 1862; discharged for disability March 14, 

1863. 
John Pritchard, Kickapoo. 

August 16, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Francis Rynearson, Rosefield. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out July 6, 1865. 
Lyman T. Rench, Rosefield. 

August 11, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
William Race, Kickapoo. 

August 8, 1862; mustered out a prisoner of war, June 

17, 1865. 
John Roberts, Kickapoo. 

August 12, 1862; deserted December 15, 1862. 
William Stevenson, Rosefield. 

Discharged for disability November 1, 1862. 
Thomas Sleeth, Rosefield. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 



92 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH. 

George W. Smith, Rosetield. 

August 15, 1862; discharged for disability. 
Samuel J. Sherwood, Rosefield. 

August 8, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Ephraim R. Shepard, Rosefield. 

August 9, 1862; died of wounds at St. Louis, July 28, 

1864. 
Samuel Sharkey, Rosefield. 

August 22, 1862; killed at Vicksburg June 22, 1863; 
"buried in National Cemetery at Vicksburg; Section G; 

number of grave, 478. 
John Shordon, Rosefield. 

August 8, 1862; died at New Orleans, October 29, 1864. 
August Sheibling, Rosefield. 

August 15, 1862; discharged for disability March 26, 

1863. 
William Thorp, Limestone. 

August , 1862; discharged for disability March 29, 

1863. 
Robert Thompson, Rosefield. 

August 15, 1862; discharged for disability September 

14, 1863. 
Ed. E. White, Rosefield. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out a prisoner of war, June 

17, 1865. 
Austin E. Walker, Jubilee. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out as Corporal, July 10, 

1865; commissioned 1st Lieutenant, but not mustered. 
Perry S. Walker, Elm wood. 

August 13, 1862; died at Peoria, 111., October 5, 1864. 
John Wholstenholm, Rosefield. 

August 15, 1862; mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Joseph Yerby, Kickapoo. 

August 12, 1862; mustered out a prisoner of war, June 

17, 1865. 




CHAPTER THE THIRD. 

TO THE FRONT. 

;S the spires of the Central City were lost 
in the distance, and every revolution of 
the wheels carried us farther and farther 
from the sacred associations of the home circle, 
and the Sabbath and sanctuary privileges of other 
days, the breast was tilled with strange and con- 
flicting emotions. We had often sung, "I wish 
I were in Dixie," and now the full realization of 
that wish was coming upon us. But why had 
we thus cut loose, as it were, from the ties and 
tender associations of home and friendship ? 
"Were we actuated by an ambitious desire for 
conquest? Were we in search of laurels to 
grace the victor's brow? Far otherwise. God 
forbid that the welfare and happiness the 
blood and treasure of thirty millions of people 
should be made to subserve the ambitious designs 
of political tricksters or military despots, either 
north or south. We went in obedience to the 
promptings of patriotism. In defense of that 
glorious old flag under whose protecting folds 
we had so long lived and prospered. 



94 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

The day succeeding our departure was the 
Sabbath, but it did not look like it. It is a no- 
torious and painful truth that there is no Sab- 
bath in the army no seventh day of rest for 
the weary soldier. We traveled as rapidly as 
possible, and at ten o'clock A.M. arrived at Lo- 
gansport, Ind., and then, turning southward, 
reached Indianpolis at 5 P.M. We remained 
here two or three hours before proceeding on 
our way. At two o'clock in the morning the 
train stopped at a station by the way and re- 
mained until after daylight, not knowing but 
the rebel sympathizers in southern Indiana might 
destroy the railroad bridges, and thus insure our 
destruction, as they knew that troops were at 
that time passing over the road. In the morn- 
ing, however, we went on and found to our great 
relief that the fears of the previous night were 
unfounded. 

All along the line of travel the citizens made 
the most emphatic demonstrations of loyalty. 
Men, women and children, all united in giving 
us a hearty God-speed, as we passed along. At 
Lawrenceburg, on the Ohio River, the reception 
was particularly gratifying. In fact, our pro- 
gress through the State of Indiana represented a 
triumphal procession. And when we add that 
these patriotic expressions were not given in 
compliment to the Seventy-Seventh, but to the 
great enterprise in which we expected soon to 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 95 

be engaged the restoration and preservation of 
the UNION it will not seem strange that we felt 
some pride in our position as soldiers in the 
Grand Army of the Republic. At twelve 
o'clock M., on the 6th of October, we arrived at 
Cincinnati, and soon afterward crossed the Ohio 
River on a pontoon bridge, and went into camp 
in the suburbs of Covington, Kentucky. 

Our first night at this place we regarded as the 
most disagreeable we had yet experienced. We 
had no tents, and, as matter of course, had to 
sleep in the open air. This was not very pleas- 
ant; but we made a virtue of necessity, and en- 
joyed ourselves as well as we could under the 
circumstances. With one blanket for a bed and 
one blanket and the blue canopy of heaven for 
a covering, we managed to sleep with a little 
and it was a little comfort. The next day we 
received our tents, and that night slept more 
soundly and more sweetly than at any time since 
leaving Peoria. Having become settled again, 
the first thing in order was to, communicate with 
friends at home. Our camp looked like an army 
of war correspondents. Every one seemed to be 
writing. Of course we gave the full particulars 
of our journey to this place, together with a de- 
scription of the beautiful city of Covington, and 
other matters of interest. 

When we first came to Kentucky we felt that 
we were marching on the soil of rebellion; but 



96 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

subsequent experience proved this to be an erro- 
neous thought. Kentucky the home and the 
grave of Henry Clay would have been as thor- 
oughly loyal as any other state if she could have 
had a fair expression of the popular voice. But 
cursed as she was with a disloyal governor, and 
occupying a position midway between the con- 
tending forces, it was hardly to have been ex- 
pected that her sympathies and support would 
be wholly on the one side or the other. She suf- 
fered much, having been overrun time and again 
with the contending armies of the North and 
the South. She became emphatically, true to 
her traditions, the dark and bloody ground. She 
sent thousands of her sons into the Union army, 
and braver men never fought for the right. 

On the 15th of October, the 77th, 97th, 108th 
and 112th regiments of Illinois Volunteers were 
formed into a temporary brigade, with Colonel 
John Coburn, of the 33d Indiana Volunteers, 
acting Brigadier General, in command. Colonel 
Coburn received orders to be in readiness to 
march to the front on the 16th. Forty rounds 
of ammunition for each man was to be carried in 
the cartridge boxes, thirty more per man to be 
drawn by the regiments, and thirty rounds extra 
to be drawn and transported in the company 
wagons. Five days' rations were also drawn; 
three to be carried in the company wagons, and 
two in the haversacks of the men. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 97 

Our time was iiow fully occupied in making 
preparations for an advance into the interior 
of Kentucky. We were supplied with teams 
and wagons for transportation, consisting of one 
for each company, three for the headquarters of 
the regiment, and one for the hospital. We were 
furnished with great-coats and all the clothing 
necessary to make us comfortable during the 
cold days and nights which were then fast ap- 
proaching. In short, we were now prepared to 
take up the line of march and enter upon the 
duties of active service. 

At noon on the 17th we commenced the for- 
ward movement. We had to carry our blan- 
kets, clothing, etc., our haversack with two days.' 
rations, canteen, gun and cartridge-box, the lat- 
ter containing forty rounds of ammunition, and 
the whole weighing about sixty pounds. Thus 
armed and equipped we began our campaigns. 
Our march for a few miles was on the public 
highway leading to Lexington, but we soon 
turned to the left and marched through one of 
the roughest countries we had ever seen. Hills 
were piled upon hills, and the rocky surface of 
the ground indicated that all the stones in Ken- 
tucky had been gathered together and deposited 
along our line of march. So great were the dif- 
ficulties we had to contend with that it was fre- 
quently impossble for the teams to descend the 
hills without assistance from the men. We con- 



98 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

trasted the country through which we passed 
with the broad and fertile prairies of our own 
loved Illinois. And what a contrast ! It seemed 
like an exchange of Paradise for the drear do- 
minions of Pluto. But this was not a fair spec- 
imen of Kentucky. We found after emerging 
from the hills and hollows that the State was 
rich in all the elements of agricultural wealth, 
and required only the hand of industry and the 
spirit of enterprise to develop in her soil the 
most abundant resources. 

As we marched along, a decided Union senti- 
ment was manifested at several points, while at 
others the grim visage of the secession Moloch 
could be seen, showing that some of the people 
were not loyal to the government. Frequently, 
as we passed through the towns, the citizens 
would fling the starry banner to the breeze, as a 
token of their loyalty. Bat we were informed 
that most of the people had rebel flags, also, in 
their houses, to use as occasion required. Be 
this as it may, whenever the Flag of our Union 
made its appearance it was greeted with the 
most enthusiastic cheers by the men. 

Who ever heard or dreamed of a Kentucky 
snow storm in the month of October ? Yet, on 
the night of the 25th of this month, we experi- 
enced one which we can never forget. On the fol- 
lowing morning we had the pleasure of rolling 
up our tents in the snow. That night, after a 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS, 99 

march of twenty-five miles, we arrived at Paris. 
Footsore and weary, our first impulse was to 
throw ourselves on the ground and seek rest and 
refreshment in sleep; but knowing the danger 
of such an expedient, we kept in motion, pitched 
our tents, prepared supper, and after eating it, 
turned in with a hearty good will. It was amus- 
ing to see our predicament the next morning. 
Boots and shoes were frozen stiff, and many of 
us could not get them on. Groups of the boys 
would cluster around the camp-fires thawing 
their leather, to the no small annoyance of the 
cooks. If these worthy dignitaries did not ut- 
ter " curses, loud and deep," it was because they 
were endowed with more than ordinary patience 
and good nature. There was more truth than 
poetry in our situation; but it was all for the 
love of country, and, of course, necessary for 
the suppression of the rebellion. On the 29th 
we reached Lexington, a beautiful city, and for- 
merly the home of the notorious rebel cavalry 
chief, John Morgan. Here we remained one day 
only, and then continued the march, arriving at 
Richmond at 4 o'clock on the second of Novem- 
ber. 

A severe battle was fought at this place, Au- 
gust 30, 1862, between the rebel General Kirby 
Smith and General Nelson, in which the latter 
was defeated with great loss. In the cemetery 
adjoining the town were many graves of union 



100 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

and rebel soldiers. There they lie, from all parts 
of the country north and south, east and west 
and there they shall lie until the archangel's 
trump shall bid them come forth to judgment. 
Many beautiful and costly monuments in the 
cemetery were shattered and defaced by the 
missiles of the contending forces, thus bearing 
mournful witness of the fight. 

Our stay at this place was one of the bright 
spots in our soldier-life an oasis in the desert 
through which we were passing. We had a 
beautiful camping-ground, our duties were light, 
and the weather delightful. The Seventy-Sev- 
enth was the only regiment at the place. Cap- 
tain J. M. McCulloch, of Co. " C," was appointed 
Provost Marshal, and he filled the duties of his 
office with credit to himself, and to the entire' sat- 
isfaction of the citizens. While here we found 
large quantities of arms which had been lost in 
the battle of August 30th, and afterward col- 
lected together and secreted by the negroes. 
These arms were properly taken care of, and in 
due time turned over to the military authorities 
at Lexington. But our stay here was rendered 
pleasant from the fact that the people were so 
kind and considerate. Many of the boys were 
sick in the hospital, and the ladies God bless 
them like ministering angels, came arid sup- 
plied their wants with an abundance of provi- 
sions acceptable to the sick palate. But we need 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 101 

not pronounce encomiums upon them for their 
kindness. The consciousness of having nobly 
done their duty to the sick and suffering is their 
abundant reward. It becomes us, however, as 
members of the Seventy-Seventh, to remember 
Richmond, Kentucky, with gratitude. 

An amusing incident, as well as a good joke 
on some of the boys, occurred while in camp at 
this place. The ladies vied with each other in 
their attentions to the officers, and in order to 
return the compliment, some of our musical 
Peorians proposed a serenade. The suggestion 
was duly acted upon, and on a pleasant evening 
they sallied forth to carry out the programme. 
Selecting one of the finest mansions in the town 
as the object of their attentions, they soon 
poured forth such a gushing stream of melody 
that the hardest heart would have melted under 
its influence. The fair objects of their devotion 
within the mansion acknowledged the compli- 
ment by the waving of scarfs and handkerchiefs 
from the windows. These tokens inspired the mu- 
sicians with greater zeal, and they answered the 
encore a second and a third time, and in all prob- 
ability would have remained there all night, had 
uot the door opened followed by this pleasing 
salutation : " Much 'bliged gemman, for de mu- 
sic, and werry sorry de white ladies warn't at 
home to hear it." 

Let us, before leaving this beautiful town of 



102 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Richmond, snatch from cold oblivion an elegant 
specimen of southern literature. The scholmaster 
was evidently abroad in those regions, The fol- 
lowing lines were written in pencil on one of the 
monuments in the cemetery. The extract is 
given verbatim et literatim: 

" J. C. Dunn Esq, I live in South Western Ga 
on Flint River I were mustered into service 10 
Day of Ap 1861 and this Sep 15 1862 Come all 
soldiers a Warnin Take & shun the Bite of a 
Big Snake." 

When " J. C. Dunn Esq," placed his autograph 
on that monument it became public property 

" One of the few, the immortal names, 
That were not born to die." 

Hence it is transferred to these pages. 

Richmond was the southern terminus of our 
campaign in Kentucky; and having remained 
here a few days we took up the line of march 
again, turning our faces to the northwest des- 
tination, Louisville immediately, and Memphis 
ultimately. We struck tents on the eleventh of 
November, and on the fourteenth reached Frank- 
fort, the capital of the State. We remained here 
one day, and then continued the march, arriving 
at Louisville on the seventeenth a wet, gloomy 
day. We had now marched about two hundred 
and fifty miles in this State, and had learned 
something of the vicissitudes of a soldier's life; 
but what we had accomplished more than this, 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 103 

is one of those things that no fellow could ever 
find out. 

It is needless to give a detailed account of the 
return march through Kentucky, as it was but a 
repetition of our former experience. The same 
weary marches the same false alarms the 
same real or pretended loyalty of the people 
the same boisterous enthusiasm in the Regiment 
the same exodus of slaves from bondage. The 
latter part of the programme was one of the 
notable features of the march, and was some- 
times attended with serio-comical consequences. 
Whenever an " American citizen of African de- 
scent" made his appearance, he was ordered to 
" fall in," which was done in most instances with- 
out reluctance. In this manner he was enticed 
away from his legal owner legal according to 
the laws of the State, but not legal according to 
our notions. And, no doubt, visions of happiness 
in a land flowing with milk and honey, danced 
through his woolly head as he turned his back on 
his former home, and followed the fortunes of 
the Regiment. 

To such an extent was this slave enticing pro- 
pensity indulged, that Gen. Burbridge, a Ken- 
tuckian, was reported to have said that the 
Seventy-Seventh was an abolition regiment, and 
would steal all the niggers in Kentucky if they 
had a chance to do so. But of course we repel 
with scorn and indignation the idea that our 



104 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

mildly mannered Brigadier-General, would be 
guilty of casting any such reflections upon us. 
At all events we had quite a regiment of darkies 
following in our wake, like a troop of boys fol- 
lowing an organ grinder, with a monkey on his 
"tnasheen" 

As above remarked, we reached Louisville on 
the 17th, but did not remain long at that place. 
On the evening of the 20th we marched to Port- 
land, and embarked on the steamer "Starlight," 
bound for Memphis, Tenn. Early the next 
morning we started down the river. The boat 
was crowded to its utmost capacity. There was 
not a nook or corner, above or below, fore or aft, 
that was not occupied, either by soldiers or their 
baggage. The consequence was that we were 
almost suffocated. The boys would endeavor to 
while away the tedious hours of their imprison- 
ment by singing snatches of homely songs, of 
which the following is a specimen : 

" Oh give me the girl with the blue dress on, 

The white folks call Susanna; 
She stole my heart and away she's gone, 
'Way down to Louisiana." 

Little did the songsters imagine that they, 
themselves, would so soon be in Louisiana. 

In those days, the country bordering on the 
Ohio and Mississippi rivers, was infested with 
marauding bands of guerrillas and bushwhack- 
ers, rendering navigation somewhat uncertain, if 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 105 

not hazardous. In consequence of this we did 
not travel at night. At 3 o'clock P.M. of the 2d, 
we reached Evansville, Ind., and remained there 
until the next day at noon. On the 25th we 
landed for a few minutes at Cairo, 111., and soon 
after were floating on the bosom of the mighty 
Father of Waters. 

On our journey down this river we passed 
t Island No. 10, Belmont, Columbus and other 
spots of historic interest, where, a few months 
before, the thunders of artillery had waked the 
slumbering echoes of the valley. It was at these 
points that Grant and Foote had demonstrated 
the invincibility of the American Army and 
Navy. Here they had written a bloody page in 
the history of our country, which can never be 
obliterated. Here they began that series of bril- 
liant achievements which resulted in the final 
reopening of the Mississippi, and the restoration 
of our national authority on that stream from its 
source to its mouth. 

We landed at Memphis on the 27th, and went 
into camp near the city. Before our arrival, 
there had been large bodies of troops encamped 
in this vicinity, but they had moved off in the 
direction of Holly Springs, for the purpose of 
operating in Mississippi. The first thing in order 
with us, was to ransack the camps which they 
had deserted, to obtain building materials where- 
with to render our abodes comfortable. In this 
7 



106 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

we succeeded to our entire satisfaction. But in 
the present instance, as in many others, we had 
no sooner arranged our encampment to suit us 
than we received marching orders. 

Red tape regulations require the troops to ap- 
pear on review before the commanding general, 
previous to entering upon an active campaign, 
and as " coming events cast their shadows 
before," this was always regarded as a "shadow" 
indicating field operations in the near fu- 
ture. Perhaps this practice of reviewing 
the troops may be attributed to a pardonable 
curiosity on the part of the general in command. 
In accordance with this laudable custom we ap- 
peared on review before Major General W. T. 
Sherman, at Memphis. The review took place 
on a level plain near Fort Pickering. The pro- 
ceedings appeared to be satisfactory to the gen- 
eral and all concerned, and when they were 
ended, we returned to camp to seek rest and 
supper after the toils of the day. As we marched 
through the streets of the city, on our return, 
the boys made a noise and clatter as unearthly 
and unintelligible as was ever heard at the Tower 
of Babel. Some would sing and some would 
crow, some would cackle and some would squeal. 
Altogether the concert was neither musical nor 
entertaining. No doubt the citizens of Memphis 
thought the regiment was either drunk or crazy. 

On the 20th of December marching orders 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 107 

were received, and we proceeded to embark on 
the steamer "Duke of Argyle," lying a short 
distance below the city. The next day at 2 
o'clock P. M., we started down the Mississippi, 
hoping that, before long, we would be hailed as 
the victors of Vicksburg. Our fleet consisted of 
many transports and gunboats, carrying a large 
and well appointed army. . 

Gentle reader, if you have never carried arms 
in an active campaign if you have never fol- 
lowed in the wake of an advancing host if you 
have never crossed the track of an invading 
army, you know but little of the desolations of 
war. It matters not whether the army is friend 
or foe the result is the same. They leave the 
silence of the grave and the dreariness of the 
desert behind them. We saw this fact abun- 
dantly illustrated on our passage down the Mis- 
sissippi. All along the river from Memphis to 
Vicksburg, we could trace the footsteps of an 
advancing army, by the mouldering ruins of 
buildings, the former magnificent residences of 
the rich planters of the south. And we won- 
dered how long it would require the slow, con- 
servative enterprise of these people to regain 
their lost opulence. Perhaps a lifetime. 

At this time we formed a part of the 2d Bri- 
gade, 1st Division of the 13th Army Corps. 
The brigade was commanded by Col. W. J. Lan- 
drani of the 19th Kentucky, and consisted of the 



108 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

19th Kentucky, the 48th Ohio, and the 77th, 
97th, 108th and 131st Illinois, and the 17th Ohio 
battery. The division was commanded by Brig- 
adier General A. J. Smith. 

We moved leisurely down the river as though 
we were on a pleasure excursion, rather than en- 
gaged in a great arid important military expedi- 
tion. It is not our province to criticise or con- 
demn, but it seems very strange that it should 
require a whole week for the fleet to sail a dis- 
tance of four hundred miles. One thing is cer- 
tain our slow progress gave the rebels ample 
time to prepare for our reception. And the time 
was well improved, as we afterward found to our 
cost. However, on the 27th of December, we 
landed in the Yazoo River about ten miles 
from its mouth. Skirmishers were immediately 
thrown out, the lines formed, and an advance 
ordered. The enemy was met in force, and a 
terrible conflict ensued, lasting several hours. 
The rebels were driven beyond two bayous that 
girt the rear of Vicksburg, and from their en- 
trenchments on the Hill. At night the two ar- 
mies slept on their arms, with the two bayous 
intervening. At daylight on Sunday, the 28th, 
a concerted advance was made, and by sunrise 
the whole army was engaged, and up to ten 
o'clock the artillery and musketry firing was 
very heavy and destructive. 

The enemy in front of Gen. Morgan L. Smith's 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 109 

Division, were entrenched on high, rising ground. 
This position was, after a desperate and bloody 
conflict, taken by storm. On Monday the battle 
was renewed; our forces carried the rifle pits and 
principal battery, but were finally repulsed and 
lost their ground. Both armies rested during 
the night. Skirmishing continued for three or 
four days, but all to no purpose, so far as we 
were concerned. During those days and nights 
we could distinctly hear the rattle of the trains 
on the Vicksburg and Brandon railroad, carry- 
ing reinforcements and supplies to the besieged. 
In the mean time the rebels were busy strength- 
ening their .works by every available means. 
What could we do ? It was madness to attempt 
to carry the works by storm. And to remain in 
our present position would insure our defeat, if 
not destruction, as soon as the enemy should ob- 
tain additional troops to enable him to act on 
the offensive. In this emergency Gen. Sherman 
reluctantly decided to withdraw and reembark 
the troops. This was successfully accomplished 
on the morning of January 2d, 1863 r and our 
first attack on Vicksburg was a costly failure. 
The entire loss in our army during the six days' 
fighting, including killed, wounded and missing, 
was about twenty-five hundred. 

This was the first engagement in which the 
Seventy-Seventh was engaged. Until now we 
had never seen a gun tired in battle. We had 



110 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH. 

read glowing accounts of battles bravely fought 
and won; we had seen pictures representing bril- 
liant bayonet charges, and all that. But we had 
not been called upon to perform any deeds of 
daring, such as storming the enemy's works bris- 
tling with bayonets, or planted with batteries. 
Nothing of this kind. But we endeavored to 
the best of our ability to discharge the duties 
assigned to us, and if we did not earn a reputa- 
tion worthy of record on this occasion it is 
hoped that the subsequent achievements of the 
Regiment compensated to some extent for the 
deficiency. After " our masterly retreat from 
the Youza" as some of the boys called it, the 
army proceeded to Milliken's Bend, on the Lou- 
isiana shore about ten miles up the river, there 
to rest, or to make preparations for conquest in 
some other direction. 





CHAPTER THE FOURTH. 



ARKANSAS POST. 

I BOUT the time of our withdrawal from 
the attempt on Vicksburg, Major Gen- 
eral John A. McClernand appeared on 
the scene, having been appointed by the Presi- 
dent, to supercede General Sherman in command 
of the forces operating against Vicksburg. This 
transfer of authority was announed in the fol- 
lowing terms : 

HEADQUARTERS RIGHT WING ARMY OF TENNESSEE, ] 
STEAMER FOREST QUEEN, 

MILLIKEN'S BEND, January 4, 1863. ) 

General Orders No. 5. 

Pursuant to the terms of General or- 
ders, No. 1, made this day by General McCler- 
nand, the title of our army ceases to exist, and 
constitutes in the future the Army of the Mis- 
sissippi, composed of two army corps, one to be 
commanded by General G. W. Morgan, and the 
other by myself. In relinquishing the command 
of the Army of the Tennessee, and restricting 
my authority to my own corps, I desire to ex- 
press to all commanders, to soldiers and officers 



112 THE SEVENTY- SEVENTH 

recently operating before Vicksburg, my hearty 
thanks for their zeal, alacrity and courage mani- 
fested by them on all occasions. We failed in 
accomplishing one purpose of our movement, 
the capture of Vicksburg; but we were part of 
a whole. Ours was but part of a combined move- 
ment in which others were to assist. We were on 
time; unforeseen contingencies must have delayed 
the others. We have destroyed the Shreveport 
road, we have attacked the defenses of Vicks- 
burg, and pushed the attack as far as prudence 
would justify, and having found it too strong 
for our single column, we have drawn oft' in 
good order, ready for any new move. A new 
commander is -here to lead you. He is chosen by 
the President of the United States, who is 
charged by the Constitution to maintain and 
defend it, and he has the undoubted right to se- 
lect his own agents. I know that all good officers 
and soldiers will give him the same hearty support 
and cheerful obedience they have hitherto given me. 
There are honors enough for all, and work 
enough too. Let each do his appropriate part, 
and our nation must in the end emerge from this 
dire conflict purified and ennobled by the fires 
which now test its strength and purity. All offi- 
cers of the general staff now attached to my 
person, will hereafter report in person or by let- 
ter to Major General McClernand, commanding 
the Army of the Mississippi, on board the 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 113 

steamer Tigress at our rendezvous at Gains' 
Landing and at Montgomery Point. 
By order of 

Maj. Gen. W. T. SHERMAN. 
J. H. HAMMOND, A. A. Gr. 

The army as now organized, consisted of the 
13th and 15th Army corps, the former com- 
manded by Gen. Morgan, and the latter by Gen. 
Sherman. With this force, consisting of about 
twenty-five thousand men, at his command, Gen. 
McClernand cut loose from Milliken's Bend on 
the 5th of January and started up the river. 
We knew not our destination. But, as is usual 
on such occasions, each man had a destination to 
suit himself. Many conjectures were afloat 
with regard to the future objects of the expedi- 
tion, and the camp was full of rumors. Some 
said we were going into Arkansas to clean out a 
nest of rebels said to be in that state. Others, 
who had no stomach for fighting, contended 
with equal earnestness that we were going into 
camp at Memphis, to revel in ease and feast on 
army luxuries. While a good many of the 
more sanguine thought we were going home to 
be mustered out of the service; never doubting 
that our assaults on the ramparts of Vicksburg 
had totally annihilated the Southern Confeder- 
acy and all its hosts. It is needless to say that 
those who dreamed of ease, either at home or at 
Memphis, were sadly disappointed. 



114 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

We sailed up the Mississippi, and then up the 
White River until we reached a " cut off," lead- 
ing into the Arkansas. We proceeded up the 
latter stream until, on the 10th of January, we 
landed about three miles below the old French 
town of Arkansas Post, where the rebels had 
erected a strong earthwork, called Fort Hind- 
man. Our destination was now manifest to the 
most casual observer. We were in for a tight; 
that was very plain. We disembarked in the 
afternoon, formed our lines and proceeded to 
invest the rebel works. This was accomplished 
about 10 o'clock at night. We slept on our 
arms and waited for the dawn, expecting to 
wake the echoes of the morning with the roar 
of battle. 

Our military leaders were very economical of 
time, acting probably upon the supposition that 
time is money, or that lost time is never found 
again, and hence in reading the history of the 
war, and observing days and dates, we find that 
many of our most important military operations 
took place on iSunday. Bull Run, Shiloh, and 
many other bloody fields attest the truth of this 
remark. Those who have conscientious scruples 
about this method of remembering the Sabbath 
day to keep it holy, contend that the attacking 
party is always defeated; while Napoleon, and 
others of the same habit of thinking, have main- 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 115 

tained that providence favors the heaviest bat- 
tallions, without regard to the day of the week. 
The day succeeding the investment of Fort 
Hiudman was the Sabbath clear, calm and 
beautiful. It was a day made for rest and the 
worship of God, and not for human slaughter. 
Yet there were hostile hosts of armed men con- 
fronting each other, and only waiting for the 
command to begin the work of death. It was a 
fearful thought. How many widows and or- 
phans would weep over that field of conflict ! 
The morning wore away the sun rose high 
and passed the meridian at length the sacred 
stillness of the day was broken by the roar of 
artillery, the rattle of musketry and the din of 
battle. The artillery and the gunboats began 
the action at about half-past one o'clock p. M., 
and soon after the infantry was engaged around 
the whole line. At this time the Seventy-Sev- 
enth was in reserve about two hundred yards in 
rear of the Nineteenth Kentucky, with or- 
ders to maintain that distance between the two 
lines, governing our movements by the move- 
ments of those in front of us. But we had not 
long been in this position until we were ordered 
to move to the right, and take position one hun- 
dred yards behind the Eighty-Third Ohio. We 
marched by the right flank about three hundred 
rods, and then in line of battle in the direction 
of the fort. 



116 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

We now began to feel the effects of the rebel 
tire. But the Regiment moved steadily forward 
through the timber, and into the open field be- 
yond, until we reached the position assigned to 
us. We had been here but a short time when 
an order came from our brigade commander to 
" go in." And then we heard the well-known, 
clear, ringing voice of Col. Grier commanding, 
" SEVENTY-SEVENTH, forward, guide centre, march" 
Every man sprang to his feet, and with loud 
cheers and yells of defiance, rushed forward. 
The 83d refused to advance, and we were com- 
pelled to charge over them in the face of a ter- 
rible fire from the fort. As we passed over them 
we made it a matter of necessity to tramp on as 
many as possible, at which they threw a few old 
fashioned anathemas after us. This we consid- 
ered very uugentlemanly, and especially so as it 
was Sunday. We took position about eighty 
yards in advance of them. Here we fired about 
twenty rounds, when Col. Grier ordered another 
advance. We moved forward about fifty yards 
further, when we were considerably in advance 
of any other regiment in the division, and within 
easy pistol range of the works. It was here that 
we sustained our heaviest loss. It was here that 
our color bearer, John S. Hornbaker, of Co. 
" C," was wounded and left the field. As he fell, 
Lieut. Philip Jenkins, of the same company, 
seized the colors, arid carried them during the 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 117 

remainder of the action, and until the Regiment 
entered the fort, when MajorHotchkiss took the 
flag and proudly planted it on the parapet. These 
are the plain facts of history, and are suscepti- 
ble of proof. Without wishing to detract from 
the merits of any other troops who fought on. 
that sanguinary field, it is due to those who are 
entitled to this great honor that it should be ac- 
corded to them. And our Division commander, 
General A. J. Smith, could have conferred no 
greater compliment on the Seventy-Seventh than 
he did when 'he placed Colonel Grier and his 
Regiment in charge of the captured works. 

The following extract from Lieutenant Col- 
onel Webb's account of the battle is interesting: 

" My fellow officers and the men behaved 
splendidly, and I feel an immense amount of 
pride in both. Quite a number of bur officers 
were sick; among them Captains Rouse, White 
and Keedy, and regret the fact that they could 
not participate in the fight. Colonel Grier, by 
his coolness and courage, sustained and added to 
his previously well-earned reputation. Major 
Hotchkiss knew no fear of any kind, and Adju- 
tant Woodruff was at his post from the com- 
mencement to the close, as brave as the bravest. 
Our Captains and Lieutenants all behaved admir- 
ably. 

" When the white flag went up, the Seventy- 
Seventh went down the ditch and over into the 



118 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

fortifications with a rush. We claim to have 
been the first Regiment that entered the fort, 
and the first to raise our flag over the captured 
works. Gen. Smith, by order of Gen. Morgan, 
at once acknowledged our services by placing 
Colonel. Grier in command of the rebel works, 
and in charge of the prisoners. 

" The capture of Fort Hindman reflects much 
credit upon General McClernand. The plan of 
attack was made with skill and sense. In fact, 
from the the time Gen. McClernand took com- 
mand of the expedition, it has been managed 
with secresy and judgment. The rebels were 
wholly deceived in our strength, and I know 
from the dispatches of couriers, which I myself 
picked up in Gen. Churchill's headquarters, that 
they were bewildered by our movements and did 
not know our destination until we arrived below 
their works and commenced investing them. 
The investment was complete. There could 
have been no escape. Our loss will not exceed 
five hundred in killed and wounded, and the vic- 
tory is one of the greatest and most gratifying 
of the war." 

The fort surrendered at 5 o'clock p. M. The 
victory was complete. The entire loss in our 
Brigade consisting of six regiments was 
nine killed and seventy-six wounded. Of these, 
the Seventy-Seventh lost six killed and thirty- 
nine wounded, or more than one-half. The fol- 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 119 

lowing is a complete list of the killed and 
wounded in the Seventy-Seventh at the battle of 
Arkansas Post, January 11, 1863, as officially 
reported by companies : 

"A." Wounded Privates John Anderson, Henry D. Hes- 
ter, Cyrus A. Kroessen, Lester T. Stone, John Tomp- 
kins (mortally), Daniel B. Trench (mortally), A. D. 
Witherell. 

" B." Killed Captain Robert Irvvin. 

Wounded Privates James Malone, Lewis E. Simp- 
son, Edward Swargy (mortally). 

" C." Wounded Sergeant John S. Hornbaker, color bearer. 
Privates Samuel T. Acres, Joseph T. Sims. 

" D." Wounded Privates Thomas Davis, Daniel Fowler, 
Frederick Kraft. 

"E." Killed Private John H. Mclntyre. 

Wounded Corporal R. McKee Davis, Private Ed- 
ward H. Laughlin (mortally). 

"P." Wounded First Lieutenant William O. Hammers. 
Privates Thomas J. Ewing, Nelson E. Johnson, 
Hosea Johnson, James M. West. 

" G." Killed Private Eleazer Darnell. 

Wounded Corporal Hugh Smart (mortally). Pri- 
vates Francis O. Dimmick, Joseph D. Ensley. 

"H." Wounded Corporal David Filger. Privates Edward 
L. Sutton (mortally), Joseph Standaker (mortally). 

" I." Wounded Private William H. Bentley. 

"K." Killed Privates Joseph M. King, Peter Nelson. 

Wounded Privates Jacob Lafollett, William Thorp, 
John Ibeck, Samuel Kirkmau, Robert Thompson. 

On the day succeeding the battle Gen. McCler- 
nand issued the following congratulatory order 
to the troops. It sounds a good deal like Na- 
poleon : 



120 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

HEADQUARTERS, ARMY OF THE MISSISSIPPI, ) 
POST or ARKANSAS, January 12. j 

<i<-neral Field Orders, No. 7- 

SOLDIERS OF THE ARMY OF THE MISSISSIPPI: I 
congratulate you. Within seven days you have 
sailed two hundred and sixty miles from Vicks- 
burg to this Post, borne upon numerous trans- 
ports, from time to time furnished with fuel cut 
by' you from the forest. With ranks thinned by 
former battles and disease, you have waded and 
cut your way through miles of swamps and 
timber in advancing to the attack. You have 
stormed the defences of the enemy's position, 
which both nature and art had combined to 
render extraordinarily strong, capturing after 
three and a half hours hard fighting, the whole 
of the hostile force opposed to you, numbering 
seven thousand men, together with eight 
thousand stand of arms, twenty cannon, and a 
large amount of commissary, quartermaster and 
ordnance stores. 

A success so complete in itself has not hitherto 
been achieved during the war. It is an impor- 
tant step towards the restoration of our national 
jurisdiction and unity ever the territory on the 
right bank of the Mississippi. It reflects honor 
on your courage and patriotism. It will chal- 
lenge the grateful acclaims of your country. 
Your and my only regret is the loss of the brave 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 121 

men who have fallen or been wounded in defence 
of a sacred cause. All honor to them. Their 
names and memories will be cherished in the 
hearts of their countrymen. 

Soldiers ! Let this triumph be the precurser 
of still more important achievements. Win for 
the Army of the Mississippi imperishable re- 
nown. Surmount all obstacles, and relying on 
the God of battles, wrest from destiny and dan- 
ger, the still more expressive acknowledgements 
of your unconquerable constancy and valor. 

MAJ. GEN. JOHN A. MCCLERNAND, 

Commandiny Army of the Misxissijtjn. 
Official: J. H. HAMMOND. 

W. J. Landram, Colonel of the Nineteenth 
Kentucky, who commanded our brigade at this 
time, sent the following communication to Adju- 
tant General Fuller of the State of Illinois : 

HEADQUARTERS, 2o BRIGADE, IST DIVISION, 
IST ARMY CORPS, ARMY OF THE Miss., 

POST ARKANSAS, Jan. 14, 1863. 
COL. FULLER, 

Adjutant General of the State of Illinois, 

SIR : Having had the honor to com- 
mand, among others, four regiments of infantry 
from the State of Illinois during the recent en- 
gagements before Vicksburg and at Post Arkan- 
sas, I have deemed it proper, in addition to my 
official report, to forward directly to you a brief 



122 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

notice of the conduct of the troops representing 
your State in those actions. 

At Yicksburg, as well as during the engage- 
ment at this Post, the men behaved with the 
most commendable coolness and courage. 

Both officers and men deserve the highest 
praise for their conduct, and the States of Illinois, 
Ohio and Kentucky, have reason to be proud of 
their gallant sons who fought in those sanguinary 
conflicts. The capture of this Post, together 
with seven thousand prisoners, including General 
Churchill and staff, eight thousand stand of arms, 
twenty cannon, and a large amount of subsist- 
ance and ordnance stores, is a just cause of pride 
to the States furnishing the troops who won the 
victory, as well as to the nation at large. 

It is with pride that I mention the names of 
Col. John Warner of the 108th, Col. D. P. Grier 
of the 77th, Col. F. S. Rutherford of the 97th, 
and Col. R. A. Peters of the 131st Illinois Regi- 
ments, the three first named of which regiments 
participated in the action; the latter being de- 
tailed to repair the roads to the rear. 

When ordered to advance upon the enemy's 
works, it was done with a cheer, and none re- 
turned from the field, save the wounded, until 
victory perched upon their banners. 

I can especially commend for gallantry Colo- 
nels Grier, Warner and Rutherford, and Lieu- 
tenant Colonels Webb, Turner and Marty n, 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 123 

Majors Hotchkiss and Sidwell, and C. C. Tracy, 
temporary Assistant Adjutant General. 

The loss sustained by the 108th and 97th was 
not very great considering the destructive tire of 
the enemy's artillery and infantry. The chief 
loss was in that of the 77th (Col. Grier), the 
killed and wounded in that Regiment number- 
ing forty-five men, Captain Robert Irwin being 
dangerously wounded in the leg. 

The State of Illinois can boast of no braver or 
better men than these, and while their praises 
are going forth on the wings of the morning, let 
the remembrance of those who fell, nobly up- 
holding the banner of their country, cause bless- 
ings to descend, like the dews of heaven, upon 
the widows and orphans whose tears are soon to 
moisten the graves of the loved and lost. 

A list of the casualities accompanies my offi- 
cial report. Very re8p ectfully, etc., 

W. J. LANDRAM, 

Col. 19th Ken., commanding Brigade. 

Having fought and won the battle, the next 
thing in order was to secure the fruits of the 
victory. This was done by securing the arms 
and munitions of war which fell into our hands, 
by sending the prisoners north for safe-keeping, 
and destroying the works, so that they could be 
of no further use to the rebels. After this was 
done the army went back to their old quarters 



124 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

on the fleet, and turned their faces down the 
river. On the 22d of January we landed at 
Young's Point, in the State of Louisiana, a 
short distance above, and in full view of, the 
rebel stronghold Vicksburg. Our encamp- 
ment was in a beautiful mudhole just inside the 
levee, protected from the rising waters of the 
Mississippi by that expensive but necessary work 
of art. Companies " A " and " I " were detailed 
as provost guards, and in that capacity it was 
their duty to search all departing steamers to 
prevent their carrying away contraband articles, 
such as clothing, arms, cotton, etc. They per- 
formed their duties to their own satisfaction, if 
not to the satisfaction of all concerned. And it 
is said that many a suit of blue was worn by our 
boys without money and without price. 

Soon after we landed at Young's Point, Gen. 
Grant made his appearance among us and as- 
sumed command, bringing with him all the 
forces with which he had been operating in 
Northern Mississippi. With these forces at his 
command, Gen. Grant began his work for the 
reduction of Vicksburg. It will be remembered 
that Gen. Williams had, the previous year, com- 
menced the work of digging a canal across the 
peninsula opposite the city, for the purpose of 
turning the course of the river. The project, 
however, had been abandoned as impracticable. 
Gen. Grant now proposed to complete this canal, 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 125 

divert the channel of the river, and run the 
transports and gunboats below the rebel works, 
in order to turn their position. Day after day 
heavy details were made from the army to pros- 
ecute the work on the canal, and day after day 
the hope of final and complete success cheered 
the men in their labors. But these hopes were 
doomed to bitter disappointment. Notwith- 
standing all the efforts that were made, and all 
the labor expended, the heavy rains and the 
rapid rise of the river interfered to such an ex- 
tent, that the whole project was finally aban- 
doned. 

While encamped at Young's Point we endured 
a great deal of sickness, but perhaps by some, the 
mortality would not be considered very great for 
so large an army, considering the climate we 
were in and the wet weather we had to endure. 
But to those of us who had so recently left 
home, it was truly appalling. Almost every day 
one or more of our regimental companions was 
carried to his long home in the levee. And as 
we laid our comrade away, and rendered the last 
sad honors at his grave, we knew not whose turn 
would come next. Those were days of darkness 
and sorrow of gloom and despondency, and all 
who survived the horrors of that dismal camp 
can look back upon scenes of suffering such as 
they never witnessed before. 

This alarming sickness may be attributed to 



126 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

change of climate, exposure, impure water, etc. 
But whatever the cause, our effective strength 
was very much reduced. In illustration of this, 
a few facts and figures are here given. The 
morning reports of January 23d, 1863, showed a 
total in the Regiment of eight hundred and forty- 
two men. Of these, 352 were present for duty, 
23 on special duty, 18 on detached service, 2 
under arrest, 12 absent without leave, 195 present 
sick, and 240 absent sick. It will thus be seen 
that we had four hundred and thirty-fine on the 
sick list, or more than one-half the entire Regi- 
ment. There were only ten commissioned offi- 
cers fit for duty. Company " G," with a total 
strength of eighty-two men, had two corporals, 
one musician and sixteen privates for duty. 
Company " E," with seventy-eight men, had one 
lieutenant, two sergeants, four corporals, one 
wagoner and fifteen privates. This will serve 
to show something of the wear and tear of war. 
On the 24th of January the Regiment said " fare- 
well " to the " Duke of Argyle," which had been 
their home for more than a month, and then the 
general health began to improve. 

Let us now pay a visit to the hospital and see 
what is transpiring there. A regimental hos- 
pital is one of the institutions of the army, and 
the surgeon is an important character and enjoys 
a large practice. Every morning, say at 7 
o'clock, the surgeon's call is sounded, and pres- 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 127 

ently we see groups of men in charge of their 
respective sergeants, issuing from the different 
company quarters, and wending their way to the 
hospital to "draw" their daily rations of qui- 
nine. This is the great remedy the universal 
panacea for all the ills that flesh is heir to in the 
army, and consequently a good supply is kept 
constantly on hand. A scene something like 
this takes place every morning. Each man that 
comes, either for relief or to be excused from 
duty, puts on a face as long as a fence rail, and 
answers all questions put to him with an appro- 
priate whine, whether he is sick or not but 
hold, we must take that back, for it is not to be 
supposed that any one goes to the hospital unless 
he is sick, or, in other words, that he is guilty of 
what the docters call "playing off" 

Company "A" is called. Number one steps 
up with as much alacrity as his complicated dis- 
eases will admit of, and the following conversa- 
tion takes place : 

Doctor "Well, John, what's the matter with 
you, this morning?" 

John "Why, doctor, I've got the di-ar-w." 

Doc-tor "Steward, give John two pills take 

one now and the other before you go to bed. 

Who's next? Jake, what ails you 1 ?" 

Jake " Well, doctor, you'll have to tell that." 

Doctor " Steward, give Jake two pills take 



128 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

one now and the other before you go to bed. 
Next? Well, Dick, what's your disease?" 

Dick " Why, doctor, I was in the tight at the 
Post, and one of the Johnnies shot a hole through 
my sleeve, and my arm happened to be in it." 

Doctor Have you the diarrhoea?" 

Dick "No, sir." 

Doctor " Have you any headache or pains in 
the stomach ? " 

Dick "No, sir." 

Doctor "Steward, give Dick two pills take 
one now and the other before you go to bed, and 
you'll be all right in the morning." 

And so it goes. You might almost say that a 
sick man in the hospital has quinine for break- 
fast, dinner and supper, and the result is not 
always beneficial. 

On the 7th of March, the paymaster put in an 
appearance, and made our hearts glad and our 
pockets flush by the distribution of " greenbax/' 
This was the first payment we had received since 
leaving Peoria. We were paid up to October 81, 
1862. Each private soldier received about 
twenty dollars not much, to be sure, but very 
welcome. As Uncle Sam's liabilities were 
greater than his resources at that time, we put 
up with what we could get without grumbling. 

On the 9th, the regiment, or most of it, 
embarked on the steamer " Hiawatha " for Milli- 
ken's Bend, about twenty miles up the river, 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 129 

leaving Company " I " doing provost duty on 
the " Sunny South " at Young's Point, while 
Company "A" did duty in the Chief Quarter- 
master's Department, 13th Army Corps, at Milli- 
ken's Bend. Our encampment here was much 
better than the one we had just left. While at 
this place the army was variously occupied 
partly by digging canals, partly by seeking an 
outlet for the fleet by the way of Lake Provi- 
dence into Red River, and again by trying to find 
a passage through the Coldwater into the Yazoo 
above Haines' Bluft'. All of these attempts hav- 
ing proved abortive, Gen. Grant determined on 
the daring and dangerous expedient of running 
a part of the fleet past the batteries ,t Vicks- 
burg, and marching his army through Louisiana, 
to some point below, and there crossing, thus 
getting a foothold on the east side of the river, 
and operating from that direction. The great 
object in view, in all these movements, was the 
capture of Vicksburg. 

On the 5th of April Easter Sunday the 
paymaster made another visit to our camp, and 
made us glad with four months' pay fifty -two 
dollars. As Messrs. Hansel and Doup of Peoria, 
had just come down with a large supply of sani- 
tary stores for our sick comrades, we embraced 
the opportunity of sending the funds north for 
the benefit of our families. Those gentlemen 



130 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

took with them about forty thousand dollars 
from the Seventy-Seventh. 

On the 7th we began to see indications of a 
forward movement, for on that day our division 
was inspected by Gen. A. J. Smith, and on the 
next day the 13th Army Corps, by Gen. McCler- 
nand. On the 9th we had a grand review, 
Major General U. S. Grant, presiding. By this 
time we knew that these reviews meant active 
service, and we hailed the prospect of an advance 
as a harbinger of deliverance from our monot- 
onous camp inside the levee. We began to 
think that before long we would conquer, or be 
conquered, on the other side of Vicksburg. 

Before leaving Milliken's Bend, let us insert 
this flattering communication addressed to Com- 
pany " A," doing guard duty at the headquarters 
of the 13th Army Corps : 

HEADQUARTERS CHIEF Q. M. OFFICE, | 

13TH A. C., MILLIKEN'S BEND, LA., } 

March 21, 1863. j 

Officers and members of Co. " A," 77th 111. Vol. Inf. 

GENTLEMEN : It is with regret I am 
informed by your Commanding General that 
general orders prohibit your longer remaining 
on duty as our guard. It is our duty, therefore, 
to respectfully acquiesce, and we must part. In 
doing so, however, it affords me much pleasure 
to express to you my appreciation of the highly 
satisfactory manner in which you have dis- 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 131 

charged your duties, at times arduous. Not a 
single complaint has reached me during your ser- 
vice here, of excess or overt act committed, or re- 
laxation of vigilance and integrity in the care 
of public property committed to your charge; and 
in parting, gentlemen, I have only to say, con- 
tinue thus to discharge any and every duty 
devolving upon you and you will have won for 
yourselves a name that, having belonged to 
Company "A," Seventy-Seventh Illinois Volun- 
teer Infantry, will be a sufficient recommenda- 
tion to secure to you any position you may de- 
sire. I am also pleased to inform you that your 
Commanding General has been duly informed of 
your meritorious conduct, and fully appreciates, 
and will, in due time, I have no doubt, fully 
reward it. I have the honor to remain 
Very respectfully yours, 

JAMES DUNLAP, 

Lieut. Col. and A. Q. M., 13th Army Corps. 




CHAPTER THE FIFTH. 

ON TO VICKSBURG. 

length, after months of fruitless ditch- 
digging and dredging, the army was put 
in motion, the 13th Army Corps taking 
the advance, about the middle of April. The 
army, anxious for active operations to commence, 
hailed the order to advance with gladness. Some 
idea of the magnitude of that advance, may be 
gathered when it is stated that roads had to be 
constructed, bridges had to be built across the 
numerous bayous that crossed the line of march; 
commissary and ordnance stores for a large army 
had to be transported on wagons, and the army 
itself had to endure long and weary marches 
through mud and rain. It was a gigantic under- 
taking, but with sublime faith in the final result, 
the army pressed on without a murmur. 

As the troops marched across the peninsula, 
from Milliken's Bend to New Carthage, they 
could distinctly hear the thunder of the guns at 
Vicksburg, as Commodore Porter with his gun- 
boats and a number of transports, ran past the 
batteries. This daring enterprise was success- 
fully accomplished with comparatively small loss. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 133 

During this march the 13th Array Corps built 
about two thousand feet of bridges, besides con- 
structing a passable wagon road nearly the whole 
distance, thus making the transportation of sup- 
plies a possibility. Along the beautiful lake, 
St. Joseph, we passed many fine residences, one 
of the most prominent being that of Dr. JBowie. 
The grounds were beautiful, and the house was 
richly furnished. The walls were adorned with 
fine mirrors and engravings handsomely framed, 
while a costly piano and a large library of choice 
books, were seen in one of the rooms. But this 
magnificent home endured but a short time. The 
house was burned to the ground soon after we 
passed. It was amusing to see the darkies along 
the route. They seemed to think the "year of 
jubilee" had come, and one of them said, "Why 
Lor' bress you, massa, whar you all come from ? 
I didn't tink dar was so many folks in de norf. 
Why, here you been comin' dis two, tree weeks, 
and you haiut all got here yet. Massa said you 
had horns and tails, but I know'd better." 

After the glorious achievements of the navy 
in passing the batteries at Vicksburg, Geji. Grant 
extended his lines to a small place on the 
Louisiana shore, called Hard Times, making the 
distance from the base of supplies at Milliken's 
Bend, about seventy miles. It was the intention 
for the gunboats to engage the batteries at Grand 
Gulf, and silence them if possible, after which 



134 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

the infantry could carry the works by assault. 
It was found, however, that the works were 
more formidable than was anticipated, and after 
a heavy bombardment of several hours, the gun- 
boats withdrew, having failed to accomplish the 
object intended. It now became necessary to 
change the plan of operations. Accordingly at 
dark, on April 29th, Admiral Porter again en- 
gaged the enemy's works, and under cover of 
the tire and the darkness, the fleet of transports 
passed the batteries without material damage. 
On the next day the 13th Army Corps was trans- 
ported to the other side of the river*, at Bruins- 
burg, and immediately moved in the direction of 
Port Gibson. 

The troops began the march at three o'cock 
in the afternoon, and continued until two o'clock 
the next morning, when they met a body of the 
enemy, who disputed their further advance. In 
the morning Gen. McClernand reconnoitered the 
position. The rebel commander at Grand Gulf, 
watching our movements, had hurried forward 
with a large body of troops, and formed them in 
the ravins with heavy timber and canebrakes 
on the flanks. Gen. McClernand deployed his 
men and attacked the enemy. A battery placed 
upon a hill was annoying us, and two regiments 
were ordered to take it. They advanced across 
the hill without flinching, drove the enemy 
from their position and captured the guns. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 135 

The rebels had stationed a battery near Mag- 
nolia Church, and here a furious fight was main- 
tained for some time, and at this point many 
federal soldiers were killed or wounded. The 
rebels were driven from their position, and estab- 
lished a new line of battle on a circle of hills not 
far distant. The attack on this line was made 
by the artillery on the rebel centre, resting on 
the road leading to Port Gibson. Shortly after- 
wards, the skirmishers advanced and very soon 
the engagement became general. After heavy 
tiring the enemy was driven back, and he then 
massed his forces on our right, with the inten- 
tion of turning our flank. But our reserves 
were brought up in time to prevent this move- 
ment. His next move was to our left, where he 
made a determined stand, gaining several im- 
portant positions, from which it was some hours 
before we could dislodge him. On our left they 
held a position protected by an almost impene- 
trable canebrake, and protected on the flanks by 
deep ravines. 

For several hours we attempted to drive them 
from this position, but in vain. It was impossi- 
ble to penetrate that dense thicket of canes. The 
enemy's deadly missiles came into our ranks 
with fatal effect. At length reinforcements were 
called for, and a brigade of the 17th Army Corps 
advanced rapidly along the road leading to 
Grand Gulf. They were soon formed in line of 



136 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

battle, and with fixed bayonets they charged the 
enemy's position, working their way through 
the young cane on their hands and knees. In 
this brilliant charge many of the rebels were 
killed and wounded, and about one hundred and 
fifty taken prisoners. Our batteries finished the 
work, and the position and the guns were cap- 
tured. 

Beaten at every point, with a loss of over a 
thousand men, the enemy left the field and re- 
treated rapidly to Port Gibson, harrassed in his 
fiight by our victorious troops. When near the 
town they blew up a caisson filled with shot, 
shell and powder. As night came on, the order 
was given to cease pursuit, and we rested on the 
battle field. 

The day succeeding the battle, the 13th Army 
Corps entered Port Gibson in triumph, the en- 
emy having hastily fled, burning the bridge 
across the Bayou Pierre, in order if possible, to 
arrest our pursuit of the flying fugitives. It was 
therefore necessary for us to remain sometime in 
the village, until a pontoon bridge could be con- 
structed. This object having been accomplished, 
the army moved forward a few miles to a place 
called Willow Springs. ' Here a small body of 
rebels attempted to dispute our passage, but they 
were soon dispersed. 

Governor Yates, who was at that time with 
the army, and who participated in these victori- 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 137 

ous scenes, telegraphed to Springfield, Illinois, 
as follows : 

GRAND GULF, Miss., May 3, 1863. 

We gained a glorious victory at Port Gibson 
on the first instant. 

The enemy are in full retreat. Our forces are 
in close pursuit. The Illinois troops, as usual, 
behaved with the greatest gallantry. The loss 
on our side is one hundred and fifty killed and 
five hundred wounded. 

We have taken one thousand prisoners. The 
loss of the enemy in killed and wounded is much 

greater than ours. ^ 

RICHARD YATES. 

Owing to the fact that General Grant had 
completely flanked Grand Gulf by his operations 
in the neighborhood of Port Gibson, that posi- 
tion became untenable to the rebels, and was 
evacuated by them. As soon as this was ascer- 
tained, General Grant made arrangements for 
changing his base of supplies from Bruinsburg 
to Grand Gulf. 

Soldiers will have their fun under the most 
adverse circumstances. Even in the heat of 
battle, while their comrades are falling around 
them, they will sometimes enjoy their seasons of 
merriment. The battle of Port Gibson was no 
exception to this rule, and when the sound of 
the distant guns fell upon their ears you could 
hear such exclamations as these : " Lay down," 



138 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

"Here's your mule," "Grab a root," "All quiet 
on the Youza," etc. Well, let them enjoy them- 
selves. Their life is a hard one at the best. 

We had thus, after a brief campaign, eflected 
important results in the State of Mississippi, but 
in order to secure the fruit of these results, it 
was necessary that we should follow up rapidly, 
the advantages already gained. Accordingly we 
were not permitted to remain in camp, idling 
away our time in useless rejoicings. We were 
soon in motion again. 

We were now operating in a rough and rug- 
ged country. We had left the low, flat and 
swampy lands of Louisiana far behind us. New 
objects of interest presented themselves as we 
passed along. We saw the splendid mansions 
which, in other years, had sheltered the rich, 
aristocratic proprietors of the soil. Many of 
these residences were destined soon to be com- 
mitted to the flames. An advancing and victo- 
rious army is not very conscientious, and it is 
but reasonable to suppose that some depredations 
were committed, especially as we were on short 
rations. Sometimes when we were reduced to 
one cracker to the man, and nothing else in 
view, we were under the necessity of taking up 
the mournful refrain : 

" Lord, what a wretched land is this, 
That^yields us no supply," 

and would have gladly sold our precarious birth- 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 139 

right for a mess of pottage or a pot of mush, but 
as a general thing, we succeeded in securing the 
necessaries of life. 

Pursuing the march we passed Rocky Springs, 
Cuyahoga and Auburn, and on the night of May 
15th, at 10 o'clock, we found our camping ground 
near the ancient looking town of Raymond. As 
we passed along, the dark green foilage of the 
Magnolia waved in the breeze, as if to welcome 
our advent, and bid us God-speed in our labo- 
rious campaign. Although fatigue and hunger 
and thirst sometimes pressed heavily upon us, 
there were no complaints among the men com- 
posing that army. They could not find it in 
their hearts to complain when victory perched 
upon their banners at every step of their progress. 

The early dawn of May 16, 1863, aroused us 
from our slumbers. We started on the march at 
sunrise, and at 8 o'clock encountered the enemy 
at Champion Hills. The action began almost 
immediately, and before long the battle raged 
with destructive and relentless fury. Gen. A. J. 
Smith's division the one to which the 77th be- 
longed was on the left, and on the right of 
that was the division of Gen. Osterhaus. Gen. 
Hovey formed the centre, while Gen. McPher- 
son's corps the 17th occupied the right. In 
rear of these troops, those commanded by Gen- 
erals Blair, Carr and Crocker formed the reserve. 
The skirmishers became engaged early in the 



140 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

morning, and soon the contending forces met, 
and a desperate struggle ensued. For two hours 
the heavy tire of our batteries welcomed the 
rebel ranks in the depths of the forest. Having 
failed to turn our right, which was at first at- 
tempted, the enemy turned his attention to the 
centre, massing his forces against Hovey's divi- 
sion. But that invincible wall of brave men 
quailed not before the murderous fire. True as 
steel, it resisted successfully all the assaults 
hurled against it. After a desperate conflict of 
four hours' duration the enemy was compelled 
to retire. 

Our troops, without waiting to reform or to 
count the cost, fixed their bayonets and charged 
into the dense forest after the retreating foe. 
The rebels were seized with a panic, and sought 
safety in flight. In this charge men were slaugh- 
tered without mercy. The ground was covered 
with the dead and dying. The rebels scattered 
in every direction and hurried forward to join 
the main body retreating in the direction of 
Vicksburg. At three o'clock in the afternoon 
the battle was over and the victory won. In 
this battle Lieutenant Harkness, of Co. "K," 
was wounded by a fragment of a shell. 

Such was the sixteenth of May, and such was 
the battle of Champion Hills. Night closed 
over another field of blood. Many of our com- 
rades had fallen in death, or were enduring the 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 141 

most excruciating torture from the effects of 
their wounds. We had gained another step in 
the right direction the ultimate consummation 
of our hopes the capture of Vicksburg. Our 
entire loss on that day was 429 killed, 1842 
wounded and 189 missing. But we had no time 
to grieve over our losses, or to calculate the 
profits. 

That night we slept on our arms at Champion 
Hills, and the next morning the march was re- 
sumed in the direction of Vicksburg, in pursuit 
of the demoralized and flying foe. The retreat 
of the rebels was by the ford and bridge of 
Baker's Creek. It was here that General Tilgh- 
man, one of their ablest officers, was killed by a 
piece of a shell. 

Continuing the advance with great rapidity, 
we soon came in front of their works on the Big 
Black. The river at the railroad crossing forms 
a horse-shoe bend. Across the peninsula thus 
formed, at the narrowest part, the rebels had 
constructed a line of rifle pits, making a good 
cover for their infantry, while they had artillery 
planted at different points along the line. These 
rifle pits extended about a mile north and south, 
and were encircled by a bayou. In addition to 
this, they had batteries planted on the hill be- 
yond the river. 

Soon after the battle opened General Oster- 
haus was wounded. Who that heard his com- 
mand on that day can ever forget it? " Git em 



142 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

out mit de bayonet I'm mit you." While the 
battle was raging furiously in front, General 
Lawler, with his brigade, passed around to the 
right, and finding a narrow opening through the 
brush, his men threw away their blankets and 
haversacks, and thus unimpeded, rushed through 
the bayou in face of a murderous fire, and sud- 
denly appeared in rear of the enemy. At this 
unexpected movement the rebels were seized 
with a panic and started for the bridge across 
the river. The panic was infectious, the enemy 
on the bluffs sharing it and fleeing from their 
works. They burned the bridge behind them, 
thus preventing the escape of many of their own 
men, who were taken prisoners. From the man- 
ner in which they left their tents standing, and 
destroyed their provisions, they must have 
thought that Father Abraham was coming with 
three hundred thousand more. 

One of the incidents of this battle was the 
capture of a Tennessee regiment, many of whom 
were old friends and neighbors of one of our 
own men, Dudley Linville, who enlisted in Co. 
"C" at Richmond, Ky. Their greetings were 
not as cordial as they might have been under 
different circumstances. The trophies of the vic- 
tory were eighteen guns and seventeen hundred 
prisoners, besides small arms, etc. The rebels 
retreated rapidly to Vicksburg. It now became 
necessary to construct a bridge before we could 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 143 

cross. This was accomplished early on the morn- 
ing of the 18th, and the forward movement was 
resumed. Up to this time we had advanced rap- 
idly and victoriously through the heart of the 
enemy's country, penetrating the very vitals of 
the so-called " Southern Confederacy " in the 
southwest, meeting and routing the enemy on 
many battle fields, and compelling him to pursue 
an inglorious retreat. We were now approaching 
the prize for which we had so long contended. 
We were isolated, as it were, from the rest of the 
world. With our communications closed in the 
rear, and a formidable foe in front, to all human 
appearance victory or annihilation awaited the 
Army of the Tennessee. 

We marched steadily forward, exulting over 
the successes of the preceding days and looking 
forward to fresh victories. Such a thought as 
failure never crossed our minds. At every step 
we saw the relics of a panic-stricken army, in 
the shape of arms and accoutrements, camp and 
garrison equipage, which they had thrown away. 
They halted not in their disorganized flight un- 
til they found refuge behind their frowning 
works on the hills at Vicksburg. We now felt 
confident that the capture of their stronghold 
was only a question of time and cost. If they 
should evacuate their works, the prize was ours 
without a struggle. If they preferred to defend 
their position, we could probably carry the 



144 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH. 

works by storm. Failing in that, we could re- 
duce the place by the slow and gradual opera- 
tions of a siege. We encamped at night about 
four miles in rear of the rebel works, and waited 
with anxious impatience for the contest of the 
morrow. 



6) 

*%- 




CHAPTER THE SIXTH. 



V1CKSBURG. 

)HE dawn of the succeeding day brought 
with it the usual activity of the campaign, 
and early in the morning we were moving 
in line of battle against the huge fortifications 
in our front. Companies "A" and "I" were 
thrown forward as skirmishers, and soon encoun- 
tered those of the enemy, who fell back slowly, 
surely, and evidently with reluctance, before 
our victorious lines. At length we succeeded in 
driving them within their works, and then en- 
sued a scene of fearful grandeur and sublimity 
a scene which must be witnessed to be realized. 
As we reached the brow of a hill some six or 
eight hundred yards from the rebel works, a 
shower of shot and shell, of grape and cannister, 
greeted us, decimating our ranks and throwing 
our lines into momentary confusion. The men 
rushed with eager haste to the bottom of the 
ravine beyond, and after reforming the lines, 
advanced to the top of the succeeding hill. This 
position was maintained during the afternoon, 



146 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

and at night we fell back to the ravine and went 
into camp, sleeping on our arms. 

During the next two days nothing of import- 
ance occurred. The sharp rattle of musketry on 
the picket line, and the occasional boom of artil- 
lery, alone varied the monotony of camp-life. 
But this lull in the storm was only a prelude to 
a fiercer and deadlier strife. We could not, if 
we would, give up the contest at this stage of our 
operations. Vicksburg was before us Vicks- 
burg, with its ample fortifications and frowning 
guns with its thousands of glittering bayonets 
and its garrison, the fiower of the rebel army in 
the southwest. The prize was worth contending 
for. But more than this, the eyes of the world 
were upon us, the Government was looking on 
with intense interest and hopes of ultimate suc- 
cess. Each man felt himself a hero, upon whom 
depended more or less responsibility for the 
success or failure of the campaign. 

On the 21st of May, Gen. Grant sent the fol- 
lowing order to his corps commanders, and in 
order to insure its prompt execution, it was also 
communicated to the commanders of divisions 
and brigades : 

HEADQUARTERS IN THE FIELD, 1 
May 21, 1863. / 

GENERAL : A simultaneous attack will be 
made to-morrow, at 10 o'clock A.M., by all the 
army corps of this army. 

During this day army corps commanders will 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 147 

have examined all practical routes over which 
troops can possibly pass. They will get in posi- 
tion all the artillery possible, and gain all the 
ground they can with their infantry and skir- 
mishers. 

At an early hour in the morning a vigorous 
attack will be commenced by artillery and skir- 
mishers. The infantry, with the exception of 
reserves and skirmishers, will be placed in 
column of platoons, or by flank if the ground 
over which they may have to pass, will not admit 
of a greater front, ready to move forward at the 
hour designated. Promptly at the hour designated, 
all will start at quick time, with bayonets fixed, and 
march immediately upon the enemy, without firing a 
gun, until the outer works are carried. Skirmishers 
will advance as soon as possible after heads of 
column pass them, and scale the walls of such 
works as may confront them. 

By order of U-. S. GRANT, 

Major General Commanding. 

The stirring events of those days were so 
graphically described by our lamented Lieut. 
Col. Webb, in his correspondence to the Peoria 
Daily Transcript, that no apology is needed for 
its insertion here : 

BEFORE VICKSBURG, 

May 24, 1863. 

EDITOR OF THE TRANSCRIPT: It is with a sad 
and heavy heart that I sit down to write you, 



148 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

and through you to the friends of the 77th Regi- 
ment, once more. The enclosed list will tell, 
more eloquently than I can write it, the gloomy 
tale of terrible scenes through which we have 
been called upon to pass. Since our regiment 
crossed the Mississippi river twenty-five days ago, 
we have been in action five times; first at Mag- 
nolia Hills, near Port Gibson ; then at Champion 
Hills, between Raymond and Edwards Depot; 
then at Black River Bridge; then in advance 
upon Vicksburg six days ago, and lastly, in the 
grand assault of the 22d. Only in the last two 
affairs did we suffer any loss of consequence, and 
about these only do I propose to write you, 
although the other battles, in their importance 
to the country, are not less interesting, but I 
have not time to describe the part we took in 
them. 

After the battle of Black River Bridge, our 
divison took the advance, the 77th at the head 
of the 2d brigade. The enemy had been com- 
pletely routed, and had made a hasty retreat 
towards Vicksburg, either abandoning or de- 
stroying everything except their small arms. 
The prevailing opinion was, that they were so 
demoralized by successive defeats, that they 
would make no stand in Vicksburg, but would 
evacuate via Haines' Bluff' and the Yazoo River. 
At about one o'clock, on Monday afternoon last, 
our skirmishers came up with those of the 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 149 

enemy, about one mile and a half from their for- 
tifications in the rear of Vicksburg. None of us 
knew anything about these fortifications, except 
through the commonly accepted opinion that 
they were not formidable, and could be easily 
carried by assault. At two o'clock our lines had 
been formed. The order was to advance slowly 
until our artillery opened, and then move on the 
double quick into the enemy's works with fixed 
bayonets. These orders, and this movement, 
made before we had a single piece of artillery in 
position to do any execution, unless it were 
among our own ranks, demonstrate not only the 
confidence which our Generals had in their 
ability to walk almost unmolested into Vicks- 
burg, but their entire ignorance of the character 
of the enemy's fortifications and the nature of 
the approaches to them. 

At two o'clock then, the 77th Regiment 
already formed in a ravine, commenced moving 
over the hill in their front in line of battle. We 
had reached the brow of the hill when the rebels 
from their forts, opened upon our whole line with 
shell, shrapnell, grape and caunister. Hurrying 
down into the next ravine we escaped injury. 
Another high hill was now to be gone over. We 
went steadily forward up its steep side, in 
comparative security. When we had reached its 
brow in full view of the rebel line of works, 
there poured upon us a shower of shells which 



150 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

made the earth tremble with their terrific explo- 
sion. It was on this hill that the loss of our 
regiment on this day was sustained. On account 
of the deep gorges on the Vicksburg side of the 
hill, we were unable to keep our lines dressed, 
and the men anxious for the security afforded by 
the ravine at the bottom, broke down into it in 
lively confusion. An enormous shell, which 
exploded in uncomfortable proximity to my own 
person, sent me hurriedly down through a gorge 
of the hill, and has left its mark upon my knee, 
occasioning some stiffness, but not disabling me. 
Our loss upon the hill just alluded to, was four 
killed and twelve wounded. Their names will 
be found in the list enclosed. 

Having reached the ravine above referred to, 
there was only one more ridge or hill between us 
and the hill from which the rebel guns thun- 
dered, probably six hundred yards off. Finding 
the enemy strongly entrenched, a halt was 
ordered for the purpose of bringing forward our 
artillery to better positions. The idea of an 
immediate assault was abandoned. From Mon- 
day afternoon until Friday morning the army 
rested, at night sleeping upon their arms, our 
artillery in the meantime having been put in 
excellent positions. 

Friday morning the day broke clear and calm. 
At eight o'clock the artillery opened all around 
our lines, the gunboats and mortars in front, our 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 151 

numerous batteries in rear of Vicksburg. Not 
less, probably, than eight hundred of our cannon 
were, between the hours of eight and twelve, 
belching forth their iron missiles. At ten o'clock 
our whole line was ordered to charge the rebel 
works with bayonets fixed. Our Regiment was 
drawn up in line of battle just behind the brow 
of the hill over which our charge was to be 
made. On the next hill frowned the rebel fort, 
up into the face of which it was our duty to go. 
Between us was a deep ravine filled with fallen 
timber and thick undergrowth of brush, bram- 
bles and cane. Ten o'clock, the hour we had so 
anxiously waited for, finally came. "Forward 
the Seventy-Seventh," was the word, the men 
sprang to their arms, and moved up and over 
the brow of the hill. Ten or fifteen feet over 
the brow the storm opened upon us terribly from 
the right, left and front, making sad havoc in 
our ranks. Down into the abattis of fallen tim- 
ber and brush we went, and commenced the 
struggle of the ascent, our comrades falling 
thickly on all sides of us. Still up the hill we 
pressed, through the brambles and brush, over 
the dead and dying up, up we struggled, over 
logs, into ditches, clinging here to a bush to 
keep from falling backwards, and there to a 
thorny bramble oh! that was an half hour 
which may God grant we shall not bo called 
upon to experience its like again. Finally the 



152 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

fort is reached. Panting for breath, and with 
only a fragment of the regiment for their sup- 
port, a dauntless dash was made for the fort. A 
part of our men went over into the ditch sur- 
rounding the fort, a few got through a port-hole 
upon the inside. 

The fort was a double work. The rebels broke 
from the front portion to the rear and rallied. 
" Plant our colors upon the ramparts," Colonel 
Grier shouted; and they were planted amid the 
shouts of our men the first and only Union 
colors planted upon the enemy's ramparts along 
the whole line. Fifteen or twenty minutes after 
reaching the fort, the 48th Ohio and 130th Illi- 
nois of our brigade came to our support, but in 
the mean time the enemy had been reenforced 
at that point, and we were too weak to attempt 
to carry their inner work. Unsupported for ten 
hours we kept up the fight amid the enfilading 
fire of rebel cannon and musketry. I wish it 
were in my power to do justice to the immortal 
heroism of the noble men and officers of the 77th 
Regiment, upon whom fell the principal brunt of 
the fight, who, during those ten thrilling hours, 
defended the position which they had, after such 
a fearful struggle obtained. Comrade after com- 
rade fell around us; hotter and hotter grew the 
rebel fire as regiment after regiment came to 
their support, but we would not give back. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 153 

Reinforcements were promised us, and most 
anxiously, but in vain, we watched for them. 

Nearly half our men were either killed or 
wounded, and all of us nearly exhausted by the 
day's fight, when, at about six o'clock, the enemy 
rallied in force, made a rush with fixed bayonets, 
and for a few seconds we thought all was lost. 
Our men fell back in confusion, but only some 
twelve feet. I think the prompt action of the 
officers of the regiment saved it from rout and 
slaughter. We rallied the men, checked the ad- 
vance of the rebels and held our own. They cap- 
tured our regimental banner in the sortie, which 
had floated all day over their fort and had been 
shot to shreds. The staff of the regimental flag 
presented us by Mrs. Cockle, was shot off, the flag 
falling into the ditch, where it was buried in the 
earth by some of our wounded men, when they 
saw the rebel rush. We are in hopes to get it 
yet. This sortie also cost us a few prisoners 
men who were in the ditch and could not get out. 

We lay upon our arms about two hours after 
dark, holding the enemy in check in order to 
afford an opportunity to retire quietly and in or- 
der, and for the purpose of getting our wounded 
to the rear. Several of our dead we were un- 
able to bring away. 

The 77th Regiment crossed the Mississippi 
River with about 420 men. Company u B," 

Captain Stevison, was not in Friday's fight, it 
10 



154 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

having been detailed for guard duty. We made 
the assault with 275 men. Of this number we 
lost 114 in killed, wounded and prisoners. 

I would like to add more, but have not time 
to do so. Yours truly, L. R. W. 

In confirmation of what has been said about 
the operations on May 19th and 22d, we extract 
a few passages from the official report of Col. 
W. J. Landram, commanding the brigade of 
which the Seventy-Seventh formed a part. 

"The advance was conducted in fine style and 
the men fought bravely. The loss in killed and 
wounded on this day (May 19th) was sixty-three. 
On the 20th the 19th Kentucky relieved the 77th 
Illinois, and together with the 97th and 130th 
Illinois, skirmished with the enemy during that 
day. On the 21st the brigade was relieved, and 
on the 22d was ordered to act as a reserve for the 
Brigade of General Lawler, of General Carr's 
Division, which was ordered to storm the enemy's 
works at ten o'clock A.M. The 77th Illinois and 
48th Ohio were ordered to follow the two regi- 
ments of General Lawler's Brigade that ad- 
vanced on his right, and the 19th Kentucky to 
follow the 97th Illinois which was ordered to 
report to General Lawler on the left. This move- 
ment of the Reserve in columns closed upon the 
advance, was not in accordance with the plan I 
had proposed, but being ordered by General 
Lawler, who had the front, was obeyed. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 155 

" The Reserve in moving over rough and rug- 
ged ground closed upon the advance, was ex- 
posed to a constant tire which it could not 
return, whereas if it had been kept in reserve 
distance, in rifle range of the enemy's works, it 
could have covered the advance of General Law- 
ler by a well-directed fire which would have 
annoyed the enemy and saved the lives of many 
men, besides being in a position to go to the 
support of the Brigade in front in proper time. 

"As it was, all the men were rushed forward in 
haste, were much wearied, and compelled to 
stand for nine hours under the hottest fire I ever 
witnessed. All the troops of the Brigade, with 
the exception of a few skulkers, behaved with 
the greatest gallantry. The flag of the 77th 
Illinois (Col. D. P. Grier) was the first raised 
upon the large fort in our front, and the two 
flags of that Regiment, together with that of 
the 48th Ohio, were the only ones raised upon 
the fort. The flag of the 130th Illinois was 
planted in the ground within about ten feet of 
the fort. I am confident that no troops ever 
fought better or behaved more nobly than those 
of this Brigade. 

" Late in"' the afternoon the enemy massed 
their forces in our front and made a desperate 
effort to dislodge us from our position, which 
was close to the works, part of the men being 
inside of the fort. For a moment the men were 



156 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

surprised and wavered, but Col. Grier, Lieut. 
Col. Webb and Major Hotchkiss of the 77th, 
and Col. Niles, of the 130th Illinois, waved their 
swords and rallied their men who opened upon 
the enemy and by a brilliant charge drove them 
again from the fort, 

"The artillery in the rear at that moment ren- 
dered the most valuable assistance, in throwing 
a well-directed and vigorous tire into the enemy's 
works. I cannot speak too highly in praise of 
Colonel Grier and his noble Regiment. Their 
loss was 114 in killed and wounded in a single 
day. By this determined resistance we were 
enabled to hold the ground we occupied at the 
fort until ten o'clock at night, when we were 
ordered to withdraw." 

In order to give an impartial account of this 
day's work, and that both sides may be allowed 
to testifiy, we quote a passage from a southern 
source. E. A. Pollard, in his " Third Year of 
the War," gives a glowing account of the as- 
sault and repulse. But we must say that he 
draws largely on the imagination when he says 
that we " precipitately retreated." Here is what 
he says : 

"On the 22d, the tire from the enemy's artil- 
lery and sharpshooters in the rear was heavy and 
incessant until noon, when his gunboats opened 
upon the city, while a determined assault was 
made along Moore's, Hebert's and Lee's lines. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 157 

At about one o'clock P.M., a heavy force moved 
out to the assault on the lines of General Lee, 
making a gallant charge. They were allowed 
to approach unmolested to within good musket 
range, when every available gun was opened 
upon them with grape and cannister, and the 
men, rising in the trenches, poured into their 
ranks volley after volley, with so deadly an effect 
that, leaving the ground literally covered in 
some places with their dead and wounded, they 
precipitately retreated. The angle of one of our 
redoubts having been breached by their artillery 
previous to the assault, when the repulse oc- 
curred a party of about sixty of the enemy, under 
the command of a Lieutenant Colonel, made a 
rush, succeeded in effecting a lodgment in the 
ditch at the foot of the redoubt, and planted 
two colors on the parapet. 

" It was of vital importance to drive them out, 
and upon a call for volunteers for that purpose, 
two companies of Waul's Texas Legion, com- 
manded respectively by Captain Bradley and 
Lieutenant Hogue, accompanied by the gallant 
and chivalrous Colonel E. W. Pettus, of the 
Twentieth Alabama regiment, musket in hand 
promptly presented themselves for the hazard- 
ous service. The preparations were quietly and 
quickly made, but the enemy seemed at once to 
divine our purpose, and opened upon the angle 
a terrific fire of shot, shell and musketry. Un- 



158 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

daunted, this little band, its chivalrous com- 
mander at its head, rushed upon the work, and 
in less time than it requires to describe it, it and 
the flags were in our possession. Preparations 
were then quickly made for the use of our hand- 
grenades, when the enemy in the ditch, being 
informed of the purpose, immediately surren- 
dered." 

We failed to cary the formidable works of the 
enemy, not for any lack of courage, or want of 
discipline in the army. On the contrary this 
check for it was not a defeat only inspired 
the men to endure any hardships and suffer any 
losses for the accomplishment of their darling 
object the reduction of Vicksburg. Our losses 
were great, but not irreparable. Our failure was 
not so disheartening as might have been sup- 
posed. In fact, the prospect of final success was 
brighter than it was when we crossed the Mis- 
sissippi. At all events, there seemed to be a 
stronger determination than ever to succeed, and 
when night never more welcome to the weary 
soldier closed over the scene of the day's con- 
flict, we retired to our camps to sleep and dream 
of absent friends. 

The following is the list of killed, wounded 
and missing in the Seventy-Seventh Illinois Vol- 
unteers, in the engagements near Yicksburg, 
May 19th and 22d, 1863, as officially reported by 
Col. D. P. Grier: 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 169 



"A." Killed Sergeant John F. Campbell; Private John 
Wilber. 

Wounded Privates Samuel Bolt (mortally), George 
D. Butler, Milton Dippery, James H. Tarlton, John 
F. Wilson, John L. Woolsey. 

Missing Sergeants William H. Holcomb, Thomas 
Harrison ; Corporal John X. Griffith ; Privates John 
C. Burlingame, Luther G. Russell, Henry Wilson. 

"B." Wounded Corporal George M. Holmes; Privates 
James King, John Ruley, William A. West. 

" C." Killed Privates Robert Bennett, William M. Ker- 
rick. 

Wounded Captain J. M. McCulloch; Sergeants 
James H. Drennen (mortally), Joseph A. Hutchinson; 
Corporals John Sewell, Samuel M. Hart; Privates 
Alma Rogers, James Drake (mortally), Martin V. 
Robbins, James R. McCracken, William M. Pinker- 
ton, Andrew Rufing, Joseph Sims, John C. Dunbar, 
William Stevenson, Dudley Linville. 
Missing Corporal James P. Black; Privates W. F. 
Carson, August Farrer, Cephas H. John. 

" D." Killed Privates Barnard Connolly, James P. Isom, 
John A. Stockton. 

Wounded Lieutenant William I. Goodrich; Ser- 
geant Jacob C. Batrum; Corporal Frederick B. Jones 
(mortally); Privates Andrew J. Brewer (mortally), 
John Blackmore, Peter Degner (mortally), Martin 
Hoagland (mortally), Ernestes J. Meyers (mortally), 
Warren D. Meyers, Richard Shaw, Joseph Tronier, 
Joseph Wills. 

Missing Privates Apollos Laughlin, Peter Over- 
mier, Jesse Sawyer, Cornelius Twinam. 

"E." Killed Corporal Harris Parr; Privates Gustavus 
Huffman, Charles Stevens. 

Wounded Sergeant Henry L. Bushnell; Corporals 
R. McKee Davis (mortally), Benjamin F. Robbins; 
Privates William H. Magee, Robert W. Summers, 
Lorenzo W. Cord (mortally), Jacob Mankle, John S. 
Hammerbacher, John W. Smith (mortally). 
Missing Private James M. Sweet. 



160 [THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

" P." Killed Corporal Francis W. Fisher; Private Martin 
Mason. 

Wounded Corporal William Fowler; Privates 
Thomas Thurman, George Attick. 
Missing Corporal Lewis Hamrick; Privates Joseph 
Buckman, George Lawrence, Harmon Seifert. 

" G." Killed Corporals Hitz Boney Petres, Henry C. 
Brassfield; Private Joab Baily. 

Wounded Sergeant William G. Huey; Corporal 
Erastus Gilbert; Privates Littleton A. German, 
David Hart (mortally), Joseph Shull, Isaac Ensley. 

"H." Killed Corporal Joseph C. Clegg; Privates Milton 
G. Marshall, Freeman P. Wilson, William S. Worth- 
ington. 

Wounded Corporals John P. McCoy, Cyrus K. Sny- 
der; Privates Stephen W. Maring, William Swende- 
man; Ira Hofnagle (mortally), Michael Stewart (mor- 
tally), Nathaniel Livingston, William H. Bocock. 
Missing Sergeants Sylvester S. Heath, Valentine P. 
Peabody; Privates John Farrell, George W. James. 

"I." Killed Private John Hyne. 

Wounded Captain Wayne O'Donald; Lieutenant 
George W. Cone ; Corporal Rufus Atherton ; Privates 
John H. Mathews, William H. Richardson, Scott H. 
Rockenfield, William H. Warne, Willis H. Ferguson, 
Lewis J. Be vans, Isaac Brown. 
Missing Private John T. Biggs. 

" K." Wounded Lieutenant Marcus O. Harkness, at 
Champion Hills, May 16th; Sergeant Servetus Holt; 
Privates William Beck (mortally), Charles Parnham, 
Levi H. King, John Cronan (mortally), Roger 
Grenough, Samuel J. Sherwood, John A. Enders, 
Edward Halstead, Richard Morris, John Wholsten- 
holm, Auxilius Gurtern. 

N. B. We have reason to fear that many of those re- 
reported missing are dead, though we have been unable to 
secure their bodies. 

(Official.) D. P. GRIER, 

Col. Commanding 77th Reg't III. Volunteers. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 



161 



RECAPITULATION. 



Company A, 


2 Killed. 6 Wounded. 6 Missing. 




B, 





4 









c, 


2 


15 


4 






D 


3 


12 


4 






E, 


3 


9 


1 






F, 


2 


3 


4 








3 


6 









H; 


4 


8 


4 






I, 


1 


10 


1 






K, 





13 








Total, 20 86 24 

Before proceeding further with this narrative, 
let us look at our losses in these engagements. 
On the morning of May 16th, when the Regi- 
ment was drawn up in line of battle at Cham- 
pion Hills, Adjutant Henry P. Ayres walked 
along the line and counted the men in the Regi- 
ment at that time, and they numbered three hun- 
dred and forty -nine. If we deduct our losses up 
to the night of May 22d we have an aggregate 
strength of two hundred and nineteen at the close 
of that fatal day. It is true that many of the 
men reported lost were but slightly wounded, 
and soon returned to duty. But when we re- 
member that we left Feoria less than eight 
months before with nearly nine hundred men, 
the contrast is alarming, and shows something 
of the fearful ravages of war. 

It now became very evident that the works at 
Vicksburg could not be carried by storm. We 
had made two attempts and had failed in both. 



162 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH. 

It would be a criminal sacrifice of human life to 
try again. There was but one resource left, and 
that was to dig them out. Unpleasant as this 
conviction was, it was the only alternative, and 
we must cheerfully submit. Henceforth spades 
would be trumps. But many of our comrades had 
fallen between the lines and were now festering 
in the sun, threatening pestilence to the city and 
the camps. To prevent this it became our 
mournful duty to bury the dead. For this pur- 
pose a suspension of hostilities was agreed upon, 
and the men of the two armies met and mingled 
and conversed on friendly terms. But this 
social gathering, this friendly picnic, was of 
short duration. As soon as the work in hand 
was completed the besiegers and besieged re- 
tired within their respective lines, and the work 
of death was renewed. 

Our lines extended several miles. General 
Sherman, with his Corps, occupied the right, 
Gen. McPherson the centre, and Gen. McOler- 
nand the left, and each corps went to work vig- 
orously digging trenches and pushing their 
saps and covered ways in the direction of the 
works in front. In addition to this labor we 
had to build fortifications in the rear, as Gen. 
Joe Johnston was expected from that direction 
with a large army for the purpose of raising the 
siege. Gen. Grant, having taken these precau- 
tions, and having sent north for reinforcements, 
the work of digging went rapidly forward. 



CHAPTER THE SEVENTH. 




SUCCESS. 



-r General John A. McClernand 

was in command of the Thirteenth 



Army Corps from the time that Gen- 
eral Grant made his appearance at Young's 
Point, and assumed control of all the land forces 
operating in that vicinity. As the commander 
of that Corps he was uniformly successful until 
he effected a lodgment, along with the Fifteenth 
and Seventeenth Corps, on the hills and in the 
valleys of Vicksburg. His march from Milliken's 
Bend, through Louisiana and Mississippi, was 
marked by a constant succession of victories. 
How much of his success was due to the fight- 
ing qualities of his soldiers, is not for us to 
determine. How much of it was due to the 
ability of his Lieutenants, among whom we may 
mention our own Division Commander, General 
A. J. Smith, "the gallant hero of forty bat- 
tles," let the reader be the judge. Perhaps he 
felt a pardonable pride in the brilliant record 
made by his Corps in that remarkable campaign. 
It is thought best in this connection to allow 



164 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

him to tell the story of his marches and battles, 
and for this purpose we give his famous " General 
Orders, No. 72," congratulating the troops of his 

command. 

HEADQUARTERS 13TH ARMY CORPS, | 
BATTLE-FIELD IN REAR OF VICKSBURG, > 
May 30, 1863. j 

General Orders, No. 72. 

COMRADES : As your commander, I am 
proud to congratulate you upon your constancy, 
valor and success. History affords no more 
brilliant example of soldierly qualities. Your 
victories have followed in such rapid succession 
that their echoes have not yet reached the coun- 
try. They will challenge its grateful and enthu- 
siastic applause. Yourselves striking out a new 
path, your comrades of the Tennessee followed, 
and the way was thus opened for them to redeem 
previous disappointments. Your march through 
Louisiana from Milliken's Bend to New Car- 
thage and Perkins' Plantation, on the Missis- 
sippi River, is one of the most remarkable on 
record. Bayous and miry roads threatened with 
momentary inundations, obstructed your progress. 
All these were overcome by unceasing labor and 
unflagging energy. The two thousand feet of 
bridging which was .hastily improvised out of 
materials created on the spot, and over which 
you passed, must long be remembered as a mar- 
vel. Descending the Mississippi still lower, you 
were the first to cross the river at Bruin's Land- 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 165 

ing, and to plant our colors in the State of Mis- 
sissippi below Warrenton. Resuming the ad- 
vance the same day, you pushed on until you 
came up to the enemy near Port Gibson. Only 
restrained by the darkness of the night, you 
hastened to attack him on the morning of the 
first of May, and by vigorously pressing him at 
all points, drove him from his position, taking a 
large -number of prisoners and small arms, and 
five cannon. General Logan's Division came up 
in time to gallantly share in consummating the 
most valuable victory since the capture of Fort 
Donelson. 

Taking the lead on the morning of the second, 
you were the first to enter Port Gibson, and to 
hasten the retreat of the enemy from the vicin- 
ity of that place. During the ensuing night, as 
a consequence of the victory at Port Gibson, the 
enemy spiked his guns at Grand Gulf, and evac- 
uated that place, retiring upon Vicksburg and 
Edward's Station. The fall of Grand Gulf was 
solely the result of the victory by the land forces 
at Port Gibson. The armament and public 
stores captured there are the just trophies of 
that victory. 

Hastening to bridge the south branch of the 
Bayou Pierre at Port Gibson, you crossed on the 
morning of the third, and pushed on to Willow 
Springs, Big Sandy, and the main crossing of 
Fourteen-mile Creek, four miles from Edward's 



166 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Station. A detachment of the enemy was im- 
mediately driven away from the crossing, and you 
advanced, passed over, and rested during the 
night of the 12th, within three miles of the 
enemy in large force, at the Station. 

On the morning of the 13th, the objective 
points of the army's movements having been 
changed from Edward's Station to Jackson, in 
pursuance of an order from the Commander of 
the Department, you moved on the north of 
Fourteen-mile Creek toward Raymond. 

This delicate and hazardous movement was 
executed by a portion of your numbers under 
cover of Hovey's Division, which made a feint 
of attack in line of battle upon Edward's Station. 
Too late to harm you, the enemy attacked the 
rear of that Division, but was promptly and 
decisively repulsed. 

Resting near Raymond that night, on the 
morning of the 14th, you entered that place, one 
Division moving on to Mississippi Springs, near 
Jackson, in support of General Sherman, another 
to Clinton, in support of General McPherson, a 
third remaining at Raymond, and a fourth at Old 
Auburn, to bring up the army trains. 

On the 15th you again led the advance towards 
Edward's Station, which once more became the 
objective point. Expelling the enemy from Bol- 
ton, the same day, you seized and held that im- 
portant position. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 167 



On the 16th you led the advance in three 
columns upon three roads, against Edward's Sta- 
tion. Meeting the enemy on the way, in strong 
force, you heavily engaged him near Champion 
Hills, and after a sanguinary and obstinate battle, 
with the assistance of General McPherson's 
Corps, beat and routed him, taking many pris- 
oners and small arms, and several pieces of 
cannon. 

Continuing to lead the advance, you rapidly 
pursued the enemy to Edward's Station, captur- 
ing that place, a large quantity of public stores, 
and many prisoners and small arms. Night only 
stopped you. 

At day-dawn on the 17th, you resumed the 
advance, and early coming upon the enemy 
strongly entrenched in elaborate works, both 
before and behind Big Black River, immediately 
opened with artillery upon him, followed by a 
daring and heroic charge at the point of the 
bayonet, which put him to rout, leaving eighteen 
pieces of cannon, and more than a thousand 
prisoners in your hands. 

By an early hour on the morning of the 18th, 
you had constructed a bridge across the Big 
Black, and had commenced the advance upon 
Vicksburg. 

On the 19th, 20th and 21st, you continued the 
reconnoitre and skirmish, until you had gained 
a near approach to the enemy's works. 



168 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 



On the 22d, in pursuance of the order of the 
Commander of the Department, you assaulted 
the enemy's defences in front at 10 o'clock A. M., 
and within thirty minutes had made a lodgment 
and planted your colors upon two of his bastions. 
This partial success called into exercise the 
highest heroism, and was only gained by a bloody 
and protracted struggle. Yet it was gained, and 
was the first and largest success gained anywhere 
along the whole line of the army. 

For nearly eight hours, under a scorching sun 
and destructive fire, you firmly held your foot- 
ing, and only withdrew when the enemy had 
largely massed their forces, and concentrated 
their attack upon you. 

How and why the general assault failed, it 
would be needless now to explain. The 13th 
Army Corps, acknowledging the good intentions 
of all, would scorn indulgence in weak regrets 
and idle recriminations. According justice to 
all, it would only defend itself. If, while the 
enemy was massing to crush it, assistance was 
asked for by a Division at other points, or by 
reinforcements, it only asked what, in one case 
Major General Grant had specifically and per- 
emptorily ordered, namely, simultaneous and 
persistent attack all along our lines, until the 
enemy's outer-works should be carried; and what 
in the other by massing a strong force in time 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 169 

upon a weakened point, would have probably 
insured success. 

Comrades : You have done much ; yet some- 
thing more remains to be done. The enemy's 
odious defences still block your access to Vicks- 
burg. Treason still rules that rebellious city, 
and closes the Mississippi River against rightful 
use by the millions who inhabit its sources and 
the great Northwest. Shall not the flag float 
over Vicksburg ? Shall not the great " Father 
of Waters" be opened to lawful commerce? 
Methinks the emphatic response of one and all 
of you is, " It shall be so." Then let us rise to 
the level of a crowning trial ! Let our common 
sufferings and glories, while uniting us as a band 
of brothers, rouse us to new and surpassing 
efforts ! Let us resolve upon success, God help- 
ing us. 

I join with you, comrades, in your sympathy 
for the wounded, and sorrow for the dead. May 
we not trust nay, is it not so, that history will 
associate the martyrs of this sacred struggle for 
law and order, liberty and- justice, with the hon- 
ored martyrs of Monmouth and Bunker Hill ? 

JOHN A. McCLERNAND, 

Major General Commanding. 

So much for the Order. Now for the result. 
This order gave great offense to the other Corps 

commanders, because, according to their con- 
11 



170 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

struction, it cast reflections upon them. Be this 
as it may, a sharp correspondence between Gen. 
Grant and Gen. McClernand resulted from it. 
The war of words went on for several days, until 
finally, General Grant issued a special order, 
from which the following is an extract. 

HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE TENNESSEE, ) 
NEAR VICKSBURG, June 15, 1863. } 

Special Orders, No. 16%. 

Extract. 

Major General John A. McClernand is hereby 
relieved from the command of the Thirteenth 
Army Corps. He will proceed to any point he 
may select in the State of Illinois, and report by 
letter to headquarters of the army for orders. 

Major General E. O. C. Ord is hereby ap- 
pointed to the command of the Thirteenth 
Army Corps, subject to the approval of the 
President, and will immediately assume charge 
of the same. 

By order of Major General U..S. GRANT. 
JOHN A. RAWLINS, A. A. G. 

And who was Major General Ord ? He was a 
total stranger to us, both personally and by rep- 
utation. If he had ever distinguished himself 
as a commander, we were ignorant of the fact. 
But, presuming that Gen. Grant considered him 
an extra-Ord-inary man and worthy of all confi- 
dence, we went on with our digging as though 
nothing unusual had occurred. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 171 

While we were working in the trenches, firing 
on the picket line, or giving them an occasional 
salute from our batteries, the navy was not idle. 
That department of the service did a great deal 
of damage in the city, and the inhabitants must 
have lived in constant dread of the exploding 
shells. At night when the mortars were firing 
occasional shots we would mount the breast- 
works, and watch the shells in their flight. We 
could see the flash as the mortar was discharged, 
and. then by the aid of the faint, flickering fuse, 
could watch the ascent until the shell reached 
the highest point, and then turning in its down- 
ward course, it would descend, slowly at first, 
but with increasing velocity, until finally it 
burst with terrible fury over the devoted city. 

In order to prevent the possibility of General 
Johnston's coming in from the rear with troops 
to raise the siege, the Divisions of Generals 
Osterhaus and Blair were sent in that direction 
on the 27th of May, to reconnoitre the country ? 
ascertain the rebel strength, and repel any hos- 
tile demonstration. They encountered a small 
force of the enemy at Mechanicsburg, which 
they routed and then pushed rapidly forward. 
General Blair ascertained the fact that Johnston 
had, at his command, about forty thousand 
troops, composed for the most part of old men 
and boys the relics of the "cradle and the 
grave" conscripted for the occasion. About 



172 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

two-thirds of these troops were without arms. 
These facts having been made known, we felt 
no apprehension for the safety of our own army. 

While these events were transpiring in the 
rear, the sappers and miners were busily 
working at the front. The hills were under- 
mined, and large quantities of powder imbed- 
ded to blow up the rebel works at the proper 
time. The bombardment was also continued 
with but slight interruptions, while our sharp- 
shooters were constantly on the alert, and woe 
to the rebel head that appeared above the para- 
pet. 

During all this time, and notwithstanding the 
fact that we had established an impenetrable 
line of works around the city, the people of the 
south fondly cherished the delusion that Vicks- 
burg was safe beyond a perad venture that re- 
lief would be sent to the garrison that the siege 
would be raised, and that final disaster, if not 
annihilation, awaited the armies of Gen. Grant. 
The press and the telegraph daily informed them 
that Vicksburg was an impregnable fortress, and 
that no fears need be entertained for its safety. 
But the prospect of relief from Johnston or from 
any other source, became daily more and more 
remote, for, as the situation of the besieged 
became more desperate, our foothold in those 
hills and valleys became more secure. Yet the 
people of the south were taught to believe that 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 173 

the salvation of Vicksburg was a fixed fact at 
some indefinite period in the future. 

But our assurance was rendered doubly sure 
by the arrival of reinforcements from the north. 
About the middle of June Gen. Parke came to 
our assistance, with the Ninth Army Corps, and 
Gen. Washburn with a part of the Sixteenth. 
With these additional troops at his disposal, Gen. 
Grant was enabled to prosecute the enterprise 
with renewed energy. A sufficient force was 
sent to Black River to bid defiance to all *ap- 
pr"oaching forces. All hope of succor was thus 
cut off, and Gen. Pemberton found himself under 
the necessity of saving his strength, as well as 
his rations and ammunition, in order to prolong 
the desperate struggle which must eventually 
terminate in his surrender. 

The mining operations were carried on with 
steady perseverance and success, and so important 
was this part of the programme considered, that 
the utmost secrecy was observed concerning it. 
Guards were placed at the entrance leading to 
the mine, with instructions to allow no one to 
pass under the rank of a general, excepting the 
engineers and workmen carrying on the opera- 
tions. These workmen were miners of expe- 
rience, detailed from the different regiments for 
the express purpose of working in the mines. It 
is unnecessary to give a description of these 
mines. Suffice it to say, that they were com- 



174 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

pleted, the powder planted, and everything ready 
for the explosion on the 25th of June. 

On the afternoon of that day an unusual scene 
of commotion was witnessed in camp. Troops 
were concentrating in the most available posi- 
tions to be ready for an assault, after the mine 
under Fort Hill should be sprung. Sharp- 
shooters were stationed to annoy the enemy until 
the match should be applied. The Seventy- 
Seventh marched some distance to the right, not 
far from the mine. The forlorn hope was com- 
posed of one hundred men from the Forty-Fifth 
Illinois Infantry, and one hundred from the 
Twenty-Third Indiana. At last everything was 
ready, the troops were distributed along the line 
to do their appropriate share of the work to the 
best advantage. The forlorn hope stood in their 
places, boldly awaiting the uncertainties of their 
fate. They would soon hurl themselves into the 
breach, perhaps never to return. Thousands of 
glittering arms Hashed on the surrounding hills. 
A painful feeling of suspense oppressed every 
heart as the moments wore slowly away. At 
last the fearful grandeur of the explosion burst 
upon us, and an enormous column of earth, tim- 
bers and projectiles, was lifted high into the air. 

It was now a matter of life and death to the 
contending forces. The forlorn hope ran into 
the fort, when a lively musketry fight took place, 
without much advantage to either side. As 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 175 

soon as these detachments had become well en- 
gaged, the rest of their brigade went to their 
assistance. The fighting continued with varied 
success all the afternoon. The flag of the Forty- 
Fifth was planted on the works, while cheer 
after cheer was heard above the roar and confu- 
sion of battle. At six o'clock the Forty-Fifth 
was withdrawn, and another Illinois regiment 
took their place. With regard to the work of 
that day a correspondent wrote : 

" The explosion of the mine was the signal for 
the opening of the artillery of the entire line. 
The left Division of Gen. McPherson's Seven- 
teenth, or centre Corps, opened first, and dis- 
charges were repeated along the left through 
Gen. Ord's Thirteenth Corps and Herron's 
extreme 'left Division,' until the sound struck 
the ear like the mutterings of distant thunder. 
Gen. Sherman on the right, also opened his artil- 
lery about the same time, and occupied the 
enemy's attention along his front. Every shell 
struck the parapet, and bounding over, exploded 
in the midst of the enemy's forces beyond. The 
scene at this time was one of the utmost sub- 
limity. The roar of artillery, rattle of small 
arms, the cheers of the men, flashes of light, 
wreaths of pale blue smoke over different parts 
of the field, the bursting of shell, the fierce 
whistle of solid shot, the deep boom of the mor- 
tars, the broadsides of the ships of war, and 



176 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

added to all this, the vigorous replies of the 
enemy, set up a din which beggars all descrip- 
tion." 

Probably the heaviest artillery firing that was 
heard during the entire siege, succeeded the 
explosion of the mine, and the greatest activity 
prevailed from one end of our lines to the other. 
During the afternoon Gen. Grant sent the fol- 
lowing order : 

June 25, 1863. 

GENERAL ORD : McPherson occupies the 
crater made by the explosion. He will have 
guns in battery there by morning. He has been 
hard at work running rifle pits right, and thinks 
he will hold all gained. 

Keep Smith's Division sleeping under arms to- 
night, ready for an emergency. Their services may 
be required, particularly about daylight. There 
should be the greatest vigilance along the whole line. 
U. S. GRANT, Major General. 

As the Seventy-Seventh Illinois formed a part 
of Smith's Division, the foregoing order had 
reference, in part, to us, and that night our line 
of battle was formed. We slept on our arms, 
and, like Micawber, "waited for something 
to turn up." No demonstration, however, was 
made on the part of the enemy. The night 
passed away, the morning dawned, and the 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 177 

stereotyped phrase, " All quiet on the Potomac," 
applied to us. 

The rebels had one gun which made a peculiar 
whistling noise every time it was fired, and from 
this circumstance our boys called it " Whistling 
Dick." Whenever a shot from this gun passed 
over our heads with that familiar sound, the 
boys would exclaim, " Lay down," " Here goes 
your goose," etc. On the morning of June 28th, 
the rebels having, by some means, ascertained 
our position, commenced throwing solid shot in 
such a manner that they would strike the top of 
the hill above us, and bound over into our camp. 
For a time there was a lively scamper to get 
behind the trees or any other protection that 
offered. Samuel Sharkey, of Co. " K," was just 
getting out of bed when the tiring commenced. 
He was struck on the head by a conical shot and 
instantly killed. His funeral took place on the 
evening of the same day, our Chaplain, Rev. 
Wm. G. Pierce, preaching the funeral sermon. 

About this time there were rumors in camp 
that on the approaching Fourth of July the 
eighty-seventh anniversary of American Inde- 
pendence a grand, final and successful assault 
would be made on the rebel works. That these 
rumors were not altogether without foundation, 
is shown from the fact, that Gen. Grant in his 
official report, says he had made preparations for 
an assault on the 6th of July, and had already 



178 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

ordered Gen. Sherman to hold himself in readi- 
ness to move immediately, if the assault proved 
successful. 

General Pemberton, actuated perhaps as much 
by a desire to avoid a warm celebration of the 
Fourth of July, as to save the " effusion of 
blood," concluded to surrender the place at this 
time, in order, as he said, to gratify the vanity of 
the " Yankees" by giving them possession of the 
"heroic city" upon this, their National holiday, 
and also to secure better terms for himself and 
garrison. On the morning of July 3d, a flag of 
truce was seen approaching our lines in front of 
the Thirteenth Army Corps. The flag was borne 
by Gen. Bowen and Col. Montgomery, and was 
immediately conducted to the headquarters of 
Brigadier General A. J. Smith. Gen. Bowen 
carried an official document addressed to General 
Grant. A courier was hastily sent to depart- 
ment headquarters with the message. On break- 
ing the seal Gen. Grant found a proposition for 
the surrender of Vicksburg. 

Gen. Grant's terms in reply to this proposition 
were short and to the point, "an unconditional 
surrender of the city and garrison." And in con- 
cluding his letter he said, " I have no other terms 
than those indicated above." It was a bitter pill 
and swallowed with a wry face, but the heroic 
defenders of that city had reason to feel proud, 
even in their humiliation, for the manner in 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 179 

which they had defended their works in the 
fierce assaults which had been hurled against 
them. . 

General Bowen having sought and failed to 
obtain au interview with General Grant, an ar- 
rangement was made by which the commanding 
officers of the respective forces were to meet at 
some point on the neutral ground that afternoon 
at 3 o'clock. At the appointed hour a single gun 
from our batteries, and a reply from the rebel 
works, announced the conference about to-begin. 
Immediately afterwards General Pemberton 
emerged slowly from his lines, and General 
Grant rode through an opening in our trenches. 
The officers present at this interview were Gen- 
erals Grant, McPherson and A. J. Smith on the 
part of the United States; and Generals Pem- 
berton and Bowen and Col. Montgomery on the 
part of the rebels. The conference was not pro- 
ductive of definite results. 

After this the correspondence was renewed, 
and terms of capitulation finally agreed on, sub- 
stantially the same as those suggested by Gen. 
Grant at first, and the city, with its garrison and 
public stores, was ours. In compliance with the 
terms agreed upon, our troops took formal pos- 
session of the city at 10 o'clock A.M., July 4, 1863, 
and at twelve o'clock M., the Flag of our Union 
floated proudly and triumphantly from the 
dome of the court house, from which it had 



180 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

been torn by rebellious hands more than two 
years before. That Fourth of July was a gay 
and glorious Fourth for the Army of the Ten- 
nessee. At night, rockets, bonfires, illumina- 
tions and music enlivened the closing scenes of 
the great struggle, making us forget for the time 
being, the toils and perils and privations from 
which we .had just emerged. 

In the " Vicksburg Daily Citizen " of July 2d, 
printed on the plain side of a piece of wall-paper, 
appeared the following : 

"ON BIT that the great Ulysses the Yan- 
kee generalissimo surnamed Grant, has expressed 
his intention of dining in Vicksburg on Satur- 
day next, and celebrating the Fourth of July by 
a grand dinner, etc. When asked if he would 
invite General Jo Johnston to join him, he said, 
' No, for fear there will be a row at the table.' 
Ulysses must get into the city before he dines in 
it. The way to cook a rabbit is first to catch 
the rabbit, etc." 

On the same sheet appeared the following note 
under date of July 4th, evidently inserted by 
one of "Lincoln's hirelings:" 

"Two days bring great changes. The banner 
of the Union floats over Vicksburg. General 
Grant has " caught the rabbit," he has dined in 
Vicksburg, and he did bring his dinner with 
him. The " Citizen " lives to see it. For the 
last time it appears on wall-paper. No more 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 181 

will it eulogize the luxury of mule meat and 
fricasseed kitten urge southern warriors to 
such diet nevermore. This is the last wall-paper 
edition, and is, excepting this note, from the 
types as we found them. It will be valuable 
hereafter as a curiosity." 

It has been said that the garrison at Vicksburg 
were reduced to great straits for want of rations. 
In order to show that this impression was wrong, 
we insert the following bill of fare, which is sup- 
posed to have been picked up inside the rebel 
lines. It shows that they had an abundance of 
the necessaries of life, and some of the luxuries. 
And the charges were so moderate that any 
soldier could enjoy the dainties of the house at 
pleasure : 

HOTEL DE VICKSBURG. 



Bill of Fare for July, 1868. 

SOUP. 
Mule Tail. 

BOILED. 

Mule Bacon, with poke greens. 
Mule Ham, canvassed. 

BOAST. 

Mule Sirloin. 
Mule Bump, stuffed with rice. 

VEGETABLES. 

Peas and Rice. 



182 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 



ENTREES. 

Mule Head, stuffed a la mode. 

Mule Ears, fricasseed a la got'ch. 

Mule Side, stewed, new style, hair on. 

Mule Beef, jerked, a la Mexicana. 



Mule Spare Ribs, plain. 

Mule Salad. 
Mule Tongue, cold, a la Bray. 



Mule Liver, hashed. 
Mule Brains, a la omelette. 
Mule Hoof, soused. 



Mule Kidneys, stuffed with peas. 
Mule Tripe, fried in pea-meal batter. 

JELLIES. 
Mule Foot. 

PASTRY. 

Cottonwood Berry Pies. 
Chinaberry Tarts. 



DESSERT. 



White Oak Acorns. 



Blackberry Leaf Tea. 



Beech Nuts. 

Genuine Confederate Coffee. 



LIQUORS. 

Mississipps Water, vintage of 1492. Superior, $3 

Limestone Water, late importation. Very fine, $2.75. 

Spring Water, Vicksburg brand, $1.50. 

at all hours. 



Gentlemen to wait on themselves. Any inattention on 
the part of servants to be promptly reported at the office. 
JEFF. DAVIS & Co., Proprietors. 

CARD. The proprietors of the justly celebrated Hotel de 
Vicksburg, having enlarged and refitted the same, are now 
prepared to accommodate all who favor them with a call. 
Parties arriving by the Eiver or Grant's inland route, will 
find Grape, Cannister & Co.'s carriages at the landing, or at 
any depot on the line of entrenchments. Buck, Ball & Co., 
take charge of all baggage. No effort will be spared to 
make the visit of all as interesting as possible. 

J. D. & Co. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 183 

As we are now about to retire from active 
business at Vicksburg, let us take account of 
stock, as follows : 

UNITED STATES OF AMERICA, 

In Acc't with Major General U. S. Grant, DR. 

To 40,000 Rebel loss, from May 1 to May 18, 1863. 
31,220 Prisoners captured in Vicksburg. 
5,000 Citizen Prisoners. 
1,500 Women and Children. 
18,000 Prisoners fit for duty. 
13,220 Sick and wounded Prisoners. 
188 Siege Guns. 
150 Field Pieces. 

300 Rounds of ammunition per gun. 
35,000 Stands of small arms (good). 
30,000 Shot Guns, Squirrel Rifles, &c. 
4,000 Tents. 
1,500 Mules. 
1,000 Horses. 
200 Freight Cars. 
30 Locomotives. 

Total value of property captured, $12,000,0000. 





CHAPTER THE EIGHTH. 



JACKSON. 



)HUS terminated this memorable conflict 
for the possession of the rebel stronghold 
in the southwest, and thus the SIEGE or 
VICKSBURG passed into, and became a part of, the 
permanent history of the country. The glo- 
rious consummation was hailed with acclama- 
tions of joy throughout the north, while it fell 
like an unexpected thunder-clap upon the people 
of the south. But our joy at the success of our 
work was mingled with disappointment and 
vexation. For forty-seven long, weary days and 
nights we had either charged upon the works or 
stood upon the picket line or worked in the 
trenches. A bloody record had been written on 
those hills. And yet we, of the Thirteenth 
Army Corps, were not permitted to go inside 
and see the prize we had assisted in capturing. 

Scarcely had the sound of our artillery died 
away in the distance, before we were again un- 
der marching orders. At first we expected to 
move at six o'clock on the morning of the 4th, 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 185 

but from some cause unknown to us, the forward 
movement did not commence until Sunday 
morning, July 5th, at sunrise. The whole col- 
umn was in motion by eight o'clock A.M. The 
expedition was commanded by General Sher- 
man, and consisted of three Army Corps, the 
Ninth, Thirteenth and Fifteenth, commanded 
respectively by Generals Parke, Ord and McPher- 
son. We were now playing the last act in the 
bloody drama in which we had been engaged for 
the last six months. 

The weather was excessively hot, and not- 
withstanding the fact that we were in light 
marching order, many of the men fainted and 
fell by the way. And no wonder. We had 
done no marching for several weeks, and this 
laborious march was too much for us. Water 
was also very scarce, and a great deal of suffer- 
ing was experienced from thirst. But a soldier's 
life is a life of endurance, and the troops com- 
posing that army forgot, to some extent at least, 
their toils and their grievances, and trudged 
along as merrily as they could under the circum- 
stances. A part of the Seventy-Seventh reached 
the spot selected for the camp about the middle 
of the afternoon, and from that time until after 
midnight the stragglers kept coming in. The 
next day we rested. It was on this march that 
we received the nattering appellation of " Smith's 

greyhounds." 

12 



186 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

On the morning of July 7th, the march was 
resumed, and soon after we passed over the 
battle ground of Champion Hills. Here we saw 
evidences of the fight of May 16th, as we could 
not see them on the day of the conflict. " There 
was much here to interest the members of 
Hovey's Division. There nearly fourteen hun- 
dred of their comrades had fallen. Each one 
had friends and companions in arms, whose 
graves they sought out and paid their last tribute 
of respect. All was quiet. Each spoke and 
walked about, as if he moved on hallowed 
ground, and hallowed it was, if the noblest blood 
of the land can hallow any spot of creation, 
when ebbing from wounds received in defending 
liberty's banner and liberty's cause. It was an 
impressive sight to behold the bluff and har- 
dened soldier, wipe from his bronzed cheek the 
silent tear. They visited the spot where their 
comrades fell. All around were evidences of the 
fierce conflict. Each tree, log and bush was 
scarred and torn by the balls. The graves were 
arranged along the summit of the hill. In many 
instances officers were buried in the same grave 
with the common soldier. They died together, 
struggling for victory; it is meet that they should 
sleep in the same heroic graves. In future days, 
when the starry folds shall float over this united 
land, honored and respected by all, some memo- 
rial may be raised by their grateful countrymen 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 187 

to commemorate their deeds of valor in the 
greatest of the battles fought for the possession 
of Vicksburg." 

But we had no time to indulge in reminis- 
censes of the past, or to stand regretfully on the 
graves of our dead comrades at Champion Hills. 
Onward, was the word, and Jackson was the 
goal. At night the Thirteenth and Fifteenth 
Army Corps formed their lines of battle, expect- 
ing a general engagement in the morning, as the 
enemy was only a short distance in front of us. 
That part of the line occupied by the Seventy- 
Seventh, was in a cornfield, and the corn was in 
good roasting ear condition. We were not long 
in gathering the crop and appropriating it to our 
own use. We then cut up the corn by the roots, 
and laying the stalks lengthwise in the furrows 
behind our stacks of guns, made a bed which 
answered our purpose as well as the best woven 
wire mattrass could have done. That night we 
had a regular old-fashioned Mississippi rain- 
storm. And such a rain ! It beggars descrip- 
tion. It was a perfect deluge in miniature. 
During the night we awoke from our slumbers 
in the furrows, to find high water-mark about 
half-way up our sides. There were nights on 
this march when we found a scarcity of water, 
but this was not one of them. We pulled our 
bed and bedding out of the ditch and laid them 
on higher ground, and for the rest of the night 



188 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

we slept on the ridges. The next morning that 
army presented an appearance which would defy 
all the descriptive powers of the poet or painter. 
Mud and water were our boon companions. But 
we were disappointed in our expectations of a 
battle, and continued the advance, skirmishing 
with the enemy in front, until they were finally 
driven within their defences at Jackson. 

We were now ready for business again. The 
siege of Jackson began, properly on the 13th of 
July, our lines having been established the two 
preceding days. The Seventy-Seventh occupied 
a position supporting Gen. Lawler's Brigade. 
We were within easy range of the rebel guns, 
and the shells would crash through the trees and 
burst over our heads, and we would then hear 
the old familiar sounds, "lay down," "grab a 
root," etc. One day when a severe cannonading 
opened upon us, we saw Gen. A. J. Smith gallop- 
ing to the front as fast as his horse could carry 
him. He was always on hand when there was 
any work to do. His aids and orderlies found it 
impossible to keep pace with him. At another 
time when everything was comparatively quiet 
on both sides of the line, Gen. Osterhaus went to 
the front to see how the boys were getting along. 
Sitting down in the trenches facing the rebel 
works, he remarked, " I takes a front seat." 
Just then a shell came howling overhead and 
exploded behind the general. Quick as thought 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 189 

he whirled around and taking a seat on the other 
side of the trench, he said, " I takes a pack seat." 
The men hailed the movement and the remark 
with cheers and roars of laughter. 

The siege progressed satisfactorily, with now 
and then a sortie by the rebels, or a charge by 
some part of our lines. In one of these affairs 
Co. "K" had a sergeant wounded by a cannister 
shot, and a private in Co. "G" was severely 
wounded by a fragment of a shell. Our lines 
were drawing closer and closer around the rebel 
works, and we expected soon to have them sur- 
rounded on all sides. Gen. Johnston, fearing 
such a resultj took the precaution to evacuate 
during the night of the 16th, and crossing Pearl 
River on the east, made good his escape. As 
soon as this fact was ascertained, on the morning 
of the 17th, troops were marched in, and formal 
possession was taken of the city. Jackson was 
ours a second time. 

On Sunday, the 19th of July, the Seventy- 
Seventh Illinois and the Ninty-Sixth Ohio Regi- 
ments, were ordered to march a few miles south 
of Jackson for the purpose of tearing up and 
destroying a section of the New Orleans, Jack- 
son and Great Northern Railroad. When we 
reached the point designated, it was found that 
other troops had been there and accomplished 
the work we had been sent to do. We remained 
there that night, and in the morning proceeded 



190 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

to a place called By ram, about seven miles fur- 
ther south, where we arrived at 9 o'clock A. M. 
Going to work with a will, we succeeded during 
the day in destroying about two miles of track, 
burning the ties and bending the rails. Having 
accomplished our mission we retired, as we sup- 
posed, for a good night's rest after the toils of 
the day. But scarcely had we turned in, when 
an orderly came from Gen. Smith with orders to 
return to Jackson immediately, and be ready to 
march for Vicksburg at three o'clock the next 
morning. 

The first duty of a good soldier is obedience to 
orders, and accordingly all we had to do was to 
obey. We took up our line of march and re- 
traced our steps, arriving in camp about two 
o'clock in the morning. We pursued the march 
and made our advent into camp with the most 
unearthly howls and yells that ever waked the 
midnight slumbers of the Mississippi forests. So 
great was the noise and confusion that some of 
the troops, thinking a rebel host was about to 
pounce upon them, sprang half asleep from their 
beds and seized their arms, ready to repel the 
impending attack. Finding it to be a false alarm, 
they returned to their downy pillows, muttering 
something about " needless alarms," " fools in 
disguise," " rather a thin joke,"etc. Those of 
us who had created all this uproar sought con. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 191 

venieut places to lie down, and were soon in 
blissful ignorance of war's alarms. 

After sleeping two or three hours, we scratched 
out again and prepared for another march of 
fifty miles. On the return we again came to 
Champion Hills, and the Seventy-Seventh 
camped on the ground over which they marched 
on the 16th of May. At night we had orders to 
have our breakfast over by daylight in the morn- 
ing, in order to get an early start. This order 
was complied with by most of us, but there was 
one who did not comply with it. One of the 
boys in Co. "I" slept until all the others had 
their breakfast. As it would never do to start 
on a long march under a burning sun with an 
empty stomach, he proceeded to cook his break- 
fast, and having done so, very coolly sat down 
on a log, and laying his hat on one side of him, 
his tin cup of coffee on the other and his tin 
plate on his knees, went to work on his morning 
repast. By this time the Regiment was in line 
ready to march. Colonel Grier was sitting on his 
horse and was just on the point of giving the 
command "forward" when he saw our hero sit- 
ting on the log, and asked, "H , what are you 

doing?" He replied, " I'm eating my breakfast." 
u All right," said the colonel, " eat your break- 
fast ; we '11 wait for you." And we did wait, and 

it was many a day before H heard the last 

of it. 



192 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

On this march the boys made a business of 
confiscating " abandoned property," that is, they 
would pick up all the old plugs of mules and 
horses they could find in the country, and mount- 
ing them, they followed in the wake of the Regi- 
ment. It is probably safe to say that by the 
time we arrived at Black River one-half of our 
men were mounted. It looked as though we 
had a cavalry escort or guard of honor, conduct- 
ing us back to Vicksburg. 

At last, at about ten oclock on the night of 
July 23d we reached our old quarters in the 
ravine, footsore and weary. We now felt that 
our work, for the present, was done ; and we felt 
an honest pride^n believing it well done. Soon 
after our return we were removed to the river 
bank, about two miles below the city. We were 
now permitted to rest and recuperate for a time, 
after more than six months of almost incessant 
toil. The weather was very hot, and we built 
small sheds and other contrivances to protect us 
from the scorching sun. Our duties were light, 
compared with our past experience. We had 
company drill at seven o'clock in the morning, 
and dress parade at six o'clock P.M. The rest 
of the time we enjoyed life as best we could. 

On Sunday the second day of August, Chap- 
lain Pierce preached a good sermon to us, and 
we all enjoyed it very much. At the close of 
the services he administered the sacrament of 
the Lord's Supper, and many of those bronzed 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 193 

men partook of the elements representing the 
broken body and shed blood of Christ, for the 
first time since leaving home. It was good to 
be there. Many a fervent heart was raised in 
thankfulness to the God of battles for the vic- 
tories which had crowned our arms. We also 
attended church in the city as we had oportu- 
nity. Rev. Dr. Russell, of the U. S. Christian 
Commission, preached a thanksgiving sermon in 
the Walnut Street Presbyterian church, on the 
6th of August, from these appropriate words : 
" Thy right hand, Lord, is become glorious in 
power; thy right hand, Lord, hath dashed in 
pieces the enemy." Ex. 15 : 6. 

Soon after our return from Jackson, the army 
was partially reorganized, preparatory to new 
campaigns. The Thirteenth Arm}* Corps was still 
under the command of Major General E. O. C. 
Ord, and consisted of four Divisions the First, 
Second, Third and Fourth, commanded respect- 
ively by Generals Washburn, Herron, Hovey 
and Burbridge. The First Brigade of the Fourth 
Division consisted of the 23d Wisconsin, the 
16th, 60th and 67th Indiana, the 83d and 96th 
Ohio regiments and the 17th Ohio battery. The 
Second Brigade consisted of the 77th, 97th and 
130 Illinois, the 48th Ohio and the 19th Ken- 
tucky regiments and the Mercantile battery of 
Chicago. Our old Division Commander, Gen. 
A. J. Smith, went north to enter some other 
field of service. We had been with him ever 



194 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH. 

since we entered the State of Kentucky, and 
had learned to love him; notwithstanding the 
fact that under his leadership we had been called 
"nigger thieves" and " greyhounds." But that 
was not the last we heard of A. J. Smith. On 
other hard-fought fields he made his presence 
known; and the campaign on Red River, 
and the siege and capture of Mobile bear wit- 
ness to hjs abilities as an officer. 

While we were enjoying ourselves in camp on 
the banks of the great river, Col. Grier sent the 
following letter to the Soldier's Aid Society, at 
Peoria, which shows that the Seventy-Seventh 
was not idle at Jackson. 

VICKSBURG, July 25, 1863. 

PRESIDENT OF THE SOLDIERS' AID ) 
SOCIETY, PEORIA, ILLINOIS, j 

At the capture of the city of Jackson, 
Miss., by the United States forces on the 16th 
of July, 1863, the 77th Regiment was among 
the first regiments that entered the city, and 
succeeded in capturing from the enemy a stand 
of their national colors. Allow me, on behalf 
of the Regiment, to present your society with 
those colors as a slight token of our appreciation 
of the many great benefits you have conferred 
on the Regiment since our entering the service 
of our country. 

Very respectfully, your obedient serv't, 
D. P. GRIER, 

Col. 77th Ittinois. 




CHAPTER THE NINTH. 



CARROLLTON. 



?ICKSBURG! What thrilling recollec- 
tions cluster about the name ! The 
weary march the hunger, thirst and 
fatigue the rapid and resistless advance the 
successful investment of the rebel works by an 
impenetrable line of troops the bloody, hard- 
fought battles the daring but unsuccessful 
assault the high-noon and midnight labor in 
the trenches the watchfulness and weariness 
the laborious and long-continued siege the 
final capture of the place on the ever-memorable 
Fourth of July these, and similar events, will 
ever be remembered with patriotic pride by all 
who participated in them. 

But we were now about to bid adieu to those 
historic scenes. A new field was opening before 
us, and on the 25th of August, we struck tents 
and went aboard the steamer " Atlantic," bound 
for the Department of the Gulf. At 11 o'clock 
p. M., we cast loose from our moorings and started 
down the river. On the way we touched at PORT 
HUDSON, a name which has become historical. 



196 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

As we looked upon the forbidding battlements 
and frowning guns at this place, we were com- 
pelled" to admire the daring courage and endur- 
ance which had invested, stormed, besieged and 
finally captured this rebel stronghold. All honor 
to the sons of New England for their heroic 
achievements ! At Port Hudson and Vicksburg 
the armies of the East and the West, met and 
congratulated each other upon their successful 
operations. After long sieges and laborious 
campaigns, they had succeeded in opening the 
Mississippi to the wants of commerce. And 
they rejoiced at the thought that now, hence- 
forth and forever, the richly freighted argosies 
of the South and West, should be borne undis- 
turbed on its tranquil bosom. Let not the critic, 
then, charge with egotism those men, who, after 
having endured so much, felt an honest pride 
that they had contributed something to accom- 
plish these great results. 

After a pleasant trip of thirty-two hours, we 
landed at Carrol Iton, La., a suburb of New Or- 
leans. Our encampment at this place was on the 
Champ de Mars, near the New Orleans and Car- 
rollton Railroad, and seven miles from the city. 
This was a beautiful open plat of ground, and 
was known as " Camp Lewis " in confederate 
times. Here we expected to rest, recuperate and 
have a grand review, preparatory to future move- 
ments. Most of the troops previously in this 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 197 

vicinity, had been sent forward, so that the Thir- 
teenth Army Corps, might be said to have full 
possession. Soon after our arrival, we received 
orders to hold ourselves in readiness to march at 
twelve hours' notice. On the 29th we had a re- 
view on a small scale before Gen. Banks, and we 
confidently expected soon to take up the line of 
march, without the pleasure of becoming ac- 
quainted with the people in the city. In this, 
however, we were agreeably disappointed. 

As might be expected, we made frequent appli- 
cations for " passes " to visit the city and sur- 
rounding country. And it must be said that our 
officers were more indulgent than usual in grant- 
ing these privileges. We took in all the points 
of interest. The battle-ground, famous in 
American history, where the English forces met 
with such a crushing defeat in 1815 the beau- 
tiful cemeteries in and around the city Lake 
Pontchartrain, etc., all received a due share of 
attention. In short, we had a good time gener- 
ally, and enjoyed ourselves fully as well as we 
did on the march from Milliken's Bend. 

On the fourth of September, General Grant 
having arrived at New Orleans, reviewed the 
Thirteenth Army Corps, in company with Gen- 
eral Banks and Adjutant General Thomas. It 
was an imposing display, probably not less than 
fifteen thousand troops being on review, includ- 
ing infantry, cavalry and artillery. In speaking 



198 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

on this subject, we can do no better than copy 
the following account from the New Orleans Era : 

"According to the announcement in the city 
papers, the troops under the command of Major 
General Washburn, now stationed at Champ de 
Mars, near Carrollton, were reviewed by Generals 
Banks and Grant, at an early hour yesterday 
morning. The men under review were the war- 
scarred veterans, who left the pleasant scenes of 
their homes in every part of the Union, to hew 
their way to the Gulf with their swords. Every 
Division, Brigade and Regiment, as it filed past 
the generals surrounded by their staff's, showed 
the results of skillful training, while the ani- 
mation that gleamed from the bronzed faces of 
these veterans, gave evidence that they were 
conscious of the distinguished presence in which 
they were marching. 

"In the array of officers and men who met 
together on the Champ de Mars, the city of New 
Orleans could behold a portion of the deliverers 
of the Mississippi. The opening of the great 
inland sea required great men and stout soldiers; 
and to the credit of our country let it be said, 
the right men were found for the work. Upon 
the appearance of Generals Banks and Grant, 
accompanied by their respective staffs, they were 
greeted with three hearty cheers by the whole 
line of men under arms. The two generals were 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 199 

surrounded by their respective staffs, and pre- 
sented altogether a very brilliant appearance. 

" The review was what might be reasonably 
expected from the tried troops in the presence of 
two distinguished generals. The Division, 
Brigade and Regimental officers handled their 
men with more military precision than might 
have been witnessed on the same field two years 
ago, when an attempt was made by one or two 
Louisiana militia generals to review raw recruits, 
who had never seen even a skirmish, and many 
of whom are still innocent of the blood of the 
soldiers of the United States. 

" The heat of the day was so intense that 
many of the old citizens of New Orleans were 
glad to retire to some friendly shade; and yet 
the troops showed no signs of distress, nor even 
inconvenience. Such is the result of being 
inured to exposure. These men, coming from a 
northern climate, endured a heat whch even an 
acclimated person gladly avoids. A heartier or 
more robust set of men probably never passed 
in review under the critical eyes of generals who 
have performed great deeds, and who have more 
yet to do. It was apparent to the most superfi- 
cial observer that the parade was no training- 
day display. The two generals, their respective 
staffs, the general, field and regimental officers, 
the men themselves had the bearing of the true 
soldier, and the to at ensemble was suggestive of 



200 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

genius, discipline and backbone. Whatever du- 
ties may be required of Generals Banks and 
Grant to perform, the country can rest assured 
will be well performed. Whatever work it may 
have for that army to do, under either or both 
these, will be well done. It has been the fortune 
of the two generals to lead men through diffi- 
culties and dangers which might appal the man 
who obtains his ideas of human endurance 
from theory alone. They have demonstrated 
that there is no such word as fail, for those who 
are determined to succeed. It was a proud priv- 
ilege to stand on that animated field yesterday 
and say : ' These are American generals and 
American troops, whose deeds are about to be 
enrolled on the scroll of immortal fame, and 
America is my country.' The traitors to our 
flag, even, must have rejoiced that their pseudo 
friends had been overcome by men who have 
shown such bravery in arms and such mercy and 
moderation in victory." 

" Terrible as an army with banners if those 
banners are torn by the shot and shell of a score 
of battles. Belmont, Donelson, Shiloh, Arkan- 
sas Post, Port Gibson, Raymond, Jackson, Cham- 
pion Hills, Big Black, Vicksburg these names 
were written in bullet holes on those dear, seedy 
old rags. No bunting gay with new beauty 
could be so gorgeous as these to the thoughtful 
eye. It is not surprising that General Banks 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 201 

lifted his hat with real reverence when these 
historic colors dipped to him as he passed. A 
brave man himself, he knows the honor which 
is due to the emblems of courage." 

Soon after the review closed, our camp was 
thrown into a deep gloom, by a report that Gen. 
Grant had been thrown from his horse and 
killed. We soon learned, however, that although 
he had been injured by the accident, his injuries 
were not serious. We felt much relieved at this 
intelligence, and hoped that we might soon be 
led to victory again under his command. It 
must be confessed that we had but little faith in 
political generals, and the subsequent experience 
of the regiment proved this lack of faith well 
founded. 

In this connection let us introduce a character 
which has not hitherto figured in these pages to 
any great extent, but which, at the same time, 
deserves an immortality of fame. 

Brigadier General M. K. Lawler was an im- 
portant individual a man of some consequence 
in his own estimation, if not in ours. He was 
famous for his rotundity of stomach and his 
keen appreciation of good living. He*wore a 
blue checkered shirt, a pair of loosely-fitting, 
grey pantaloons, a blouse that hung about his 
shoulders without any definite object in view, 
and the who^e costume was surmounted by an 

old battered hat which had seen hard service 
13 



202 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

and rough usage. The glowing appearance of 
his countenance indicated an acquaintance with 
bacchanalian festivities, but of course we at- 
tributed the rosy tint of his frontispiece to natu- 
ral causes, not supposing for a moment that he 
would drink anything stronger than cold water. 
At the same time it was strongly intimated that 
he was as good a judge of "commissary" as any 
member of his personal staff. Such was the 
man, who, for a brief period commanded the 
Fourth Division of the Thirteenth Army Corps. 
And such was the man who will never be for- 
gotten by certain members of the Seventy- 
Seventh Regiment, who had the pleasure of his 
acquaintance. 

One day, as this famous general was riding 
through the camp in company with a captain 
a member of his military family he ap- 
proached a juvenile specimen of the African 
race, who was amusing himself in the following 
manner: He had procured a lot of damaged 
cartridges, and being naturally of a martial turn 
of mind, was studying the art of building 
and destroying fortifications. He would build 
these wSrks on a small scale, and having done 
so, would dig a mine and deposit a charge of 
powder. In the present instance the charge was 
planted, the train laid, the match applied, and 
just as the general was passing .the fire had 
reached its destination and up went the Afri- 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 203 

can's miniature Fort Hill. The general's horse, 
a restless animal, not being particularly fond 
of such exhibitions, sprang aside, almost un- 
horsing his rider. The commander's wrath rose 
to the boiling point, and he ordered the captain 
to dismount and give the hopeful youth a casti- 
gation, which was done with a hearty good will. 
The two officers then rode off, the general giving 
a parting broadside in this happy style : "There, 
you little black d I, take that." 

On the .morning of September 12th, some of 
our boys made a " charge " on the Provost Mar- 
shal's office, not knowing who occupied the 
building, and perhaps not caring very much. 
The "provo" was up stairs asleep at the time, 
but the boys were in blissful ignorance of this 
fact. As they were marching off with their 
plunder, consisting of office stationery, including 
official envelopes, legal cap, foolscap, letter 
paper, etc., spring-bottom chairs and other fur- 
niture of costly pattern, some of them were ar- 
rested by the provost guards, the others making 
their escape. The recaptured property was 
restored to the office, and the captured guilty 
ones were marched off to the headquarters of 
Brigadier General Lawler, to be disposed of as 
that officer might direct. The general ordered 
them to be armed with sticks of cordwood and 
marched through the Division at shouldered 
arms. This performance was more amusing to 



204 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH. 

the spectators than to the performers, although 
Lew and Jake, of Company " I," and one or 
two others, seemed to enjoy it very much. 

After having marched the boys all through 
the Division, the guards returned with their 
charge to headquarters. Here the general drilled 
them in the manual of arms, and the different 
commands "shoulder arms," "order arms," 
"ground arms," "raise arms," "shoulder arms," 
" right shoulder shift arms," " shoulder arms," 
" present arms," " shoulder arms," " order arms," 
" stack arms," " take arms," etc., were executed 
with a neatness and dispatch unequaled, consid- 
ering the kind of arms used on the occasion. 
The general expressed himself perfectly satisfied 
with their progress in the " school of the sol- 
dier," and having worked himself into a per- 
spiration, he gave the welcome command "break 
ranks, MARCH." As they were marching away, a 
lady secesh, perhaps called out from an ad- 
joining residence, " Steal again, will you ?" and 
" steal again, will you ? " was a by-word in the 
Regiment for a long time afterwards. 




CHAPTER THE TENTH. 



BAYOU TECHE. 



S WE had now been more than a month 
at Carrollton, had undergone two reviews 
and several inspections, had taken in the 
city and seen the sights, it became necessary 
to think about changing our base. Accordingly 
on the evening of October 3d, we went aboard 
the steamer "North America," and, after a 
pleasant sail, landed at the railroad station in 
Algiers on the opposite side of the river, and 
about ten miles below our encampment. At 
eleven o'clock p. M., we went aboard the cars, or 
rather, were piled in, as Col. Webb said, "like a 
lot of hogs." We had nothing but flat-cars, and 
a night ride of eighty miles in that shape, was 
neither pleasant nor entertaining. However, 
with our usual good luck, we reached Brashear 
City the next morning at sunrise. We crossed 
to the opposite side of Berwick Bay, on the 
steamer " St. Charles," and went into camp. 
And here we had the pleasure of serving up our 



206 TfiE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

oysters on the half-shell. There were many ru- 
mors in camp as usual, but we concluded to keep 
still and wait for developments. 

The developments came on the morning of the 
7th, in the shape of an order, which said, "for- 
ward" or words to that effect. That day we 
marched about eighteen miles, and camped at 
night on the battle-ground of Bisland, where 
the Army of the Gulf had defeated the rebel 
forces under Dick Taylor, on the 13th of April. 
We continued the march the next day, and until 
noon of the 9th, when we found ourselves within 
a mile of New Iberia, having marched fifty miles 
in two days and a half. Here we rested a short 
time, when an order came for the 77th Illinois, 
48th Ohio and 19th Kentucky, to take the back 
track a track we did not like to take and go 
into camp at Franklin, twenty-seven miles to the 
rear, where we arrived on the morning of the 
eleventh, somewhat jaded and a good deal out 
of humor. 

We found the country along the Bayou Teche, 
one of the richest and most beautiful portions of 
Louisiana we had yet seen. Large and fertile 
plantations reached back as far as the vision 
extended, while handsome residences, almost 
hidden behind the dark green foilage of trees 
peculiar to the south, fronted on the bayou, and 
long rows of orange trees, at that season of the 
year, almost bending under their loads of lus- 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 207 

cious fruit, lined the road along which we passed. 
Cattle and sheep, as well as the agricultural pro- 
ducts of the country abounded, and it must not 
be supposed that we had been so long in the 
service, without learning how to supply our 
temporal wants while passing through a rich 
country, with a failing commissary on our hands. 
General Grant had taught us a few lessons on 
that important subject, and we were very apt 
scholars. An extract from a letter written by 
one of the boys while in camp at Franklin, will 
show how we enjoyed ourselves : 

" I presume there is not a noisier regiment in 
the Thirteenth Army Corps than the Seventy- 
Seventh, especially on the march. When we 
first carne to this place, very strict orders were 
issued against pillaging, destroying buildings, etc. 
This did well enough so long as we had good 
weather. But last Friday we had a heavy rain, 
and as we had nothing but rail pens to live in, 
we got very wet. We thought this way of liv- 
ing would hardly pay, and the next day we went 
to a large barn about a mile from camp, and the 
way we made the lumber fly was a caution. We 
tore off all the siding, floors, etc., hauled the 
lumber to camp, and built tolerably comfort- 
able quarters. Just as we were leaving 
with the last load, the guards came to protect 
the property, but they were too late. They suc- 
ceeded, however, in arresting some of the 



208 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

offenders from the regiment. We have some 
gay times in the army, and I venture to say that 
whoever lives to see the Seventy-Seventh re- 
turn to Peoria, will see a high day." It may be 
said here in passing, that when guards were sent 
to protect property and arrest the offenders, they 
were almost always too late to accomplish those 
objects. And why not? They did not know 
how soon it would be their turn to be arrested. 
And one good turn deserves another. 

It will be remembered that the flags presented 
to the Regiment before leaving home, were lost 
in the unsuccessful charge at Vicksburg, May 
22d, 1863. The ladies of Peoria, not satisfied 
with their previous munificence, very generously 
replaced these flags by others more beautiful, 
more costly, and, under the circumstances, far 
more acceptable than the first. The flags were 
presented through Colonel Grier, who had just 
returned from leave of absence. The following 
letter which accompanied the gift, was read on 
dress parade on the evening of October 31st. 

COL. D. P. GRIER, 77th Ills. Vols. 

SIR : To you and your noble Regi- 
ment the women of the " National League " 
present for acceptance our beloved country's 
ensign. 

"When again you stand at the head of your 
brave column and unfurl it to their view, tell 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 209 

them it was sent by the "Woman's National 
League " of Peoria, an association of women 
upon whose record stand the names of many 
near and dear to them, and of others, who, 
though it may be, are personally unknown to 
them, have marked with gratitude and pride, 
their unremitting efforts in their country's ser- 
vice; an association calumniated and sneered at 
by the traitors of the North, among whom even 
women stand enrolled. Say to them that this 
association has adopted as its motto, " uncondi- 
tional loyalty to the powers that be," has pledged 
its members to bring their God-given influence 
to bear against treason in word or action, at 
home and abroad, and to give aid and encour- 
agement to our honored soldiers whenever and 
however it may be in their power. 

In replacing the Flag lost under circumstances 
of so much daring and peril, the members of the 
" Woman's National League " feel that they are 
in part fulfilling their pledge, and are making 
to you and your Regiment, the most acceptable 
expression of their sympathy with, and appreci- 
ation of your valor. 

Accept it, then, accompanied with the earnest 
prayer of the league to the God of battles, even 
He who ruleth supreme over all, that He will 
ever be with you, giving you in conflict the vic- 
tory over our country's enemies, protecting you 
in the hour of danger, assuaging suffering, if 



210 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

suffering there must be, and fitting each by His 
Spirit, through the merits of His crucified Son, 
for mansions in Heaven. 

MRS. A. G. CURTENIUS, 

President W. N. L. 

PEORIA, ILL., Sept. 7, 1863. 

The flags were received by the Regiment with 
long, loud and enthusiastic cheers, and, 

Pursuant to a call from the Colonel of the 
Regiment, a meeting of the officers of the 77th 
Reg't 111. Vols., was held at the Regimental Head- 
quarters at Franklin, La., on the 31st of October, 
1863. Col. D. P. Grier was called to the chair, 
and Lieut. H. P. Ay res, elected secretary. The 
chairman stated the object of the meeting to be 
the expression of the sentiments of the regiment 
on the occasion of receiving two beautiful flags 
from the " Woman's National League " and 
"Misses Aid Society" of Peoria, which had been 
presented on dress parade the same day, and re- 
ceived by the Regiment with three hearty cheers. 

On motion, a committee consisting of Messrs. 
Major Charles Winnie, Captain John A. Burdett 
and Lieut. Henry P. Ayres, were appointed to 
draft resolutions expressive of the sense of the 
meeting. 

The committee, after deliberation, submitted 
the following preamble and resolutions: 

WHEREAS, on the twenty-second of May, 1863, 
while engaged in that unfortunate charge on the 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 211 

rebel works at Vicksburg, our flag and colors, 
planted on the parapet, and defended for eight 
long hours against a murderous fire from the 
enemy, were in the darkness, and during a 
furious onslaught of massed numbers, borne oft' 
and insulted by a traitorous foe; and 

WHEREAS, our countrywomen, the loyal ladies 
of Peoria, have presented to our Regiment, 
through its brave and talented Colonel, D. P. 
Grier, new colors and a new flag, whose broad 
stripes and bright stars will ever cheer us, and 
to which we shall look in times of danger as the 
emblems of hope, the insignia of liberty, thus 
showing their devotion to our common cause, 
and that they are mindful of the brave boys who 
have gone at their country's call; therefore, 

Resolved, That to the women of the " National 
League " and the misses of the " Aid Society " 
the munificent donors, we tender our grateful 
thanks that we appreciate the gift and the 
spirit of patriotism and kindness that prompted 
it, and we promise as we hope for Heaven and as 
God is just, that never, by one cowardly act on 
our part, shall these banners be dishonored, but 
that we will ever be true to our country and our 
colors, and will do and suffer in their defence 
until "Old Glory" waves in triumph over every 
stronghold of treason and rebellion, and as we 
can only feel that the colors are entrusted as a 
memento of confidence and respect not given, 



212 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

so we promise that when our country shall be 
reunited and peace shall reign from ocean to 
ocean, from the Lakes to the Gulf, to bring back 
these banners, and then only will we accept them 
in full, when each star represents a loyal State. 
Then we can feel that these flags are fit to take 
the place of the old ones, which, though faded 
and worn by service on the well-fought fields of 
Post Arkansas, Port Gibson, Champion Hills, 
Black River Bridge and Vicksburg, nevertheless 
were dear to every one of us. 

Resolved, That we recognize the "National 
League" and "Aid Society" as auxiliaries to 
our cause, and powerful agencies for restoring 
peace and unity to the nation by sustaining and 
encouraging its defenders in the field that we 
endorse their motto and heartily approve their 
objects that we are proud of their patriotism 
and fidelity to our Institutions and the banner 
that represents them, and that we believe that 
they, and similar associations, in bringing the 
powerful influence of woman to bear for the 
cause of Liberty and Union, are golden links in 
the chain which binds the hearts of all loyal men 
to the government of our Fathers. They have 
placed us forever under obligations to defend, 
not only our Country against traitors from 
within and foes without, but to defend them 
from all harm, come from whatever source it 
may, and as our duty to our country is our duty 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 213 

to our God, so is the defence of our Constitution 
and Flag, the defence of our mothers and sisters 
at home. 

Resolved, That the memory of the noble 
women of the "League" and no less patriotic 
Misses of the "Aid Society" shall ever be hal- 
lowed in the Regiment as the memory of our 
mothers and sisters is sacred, that we ask their 
encouragement and prayers and those of loyal 
women everywhere to sustain us against our 
open enemies in front and concealed foes in the 
rear, that our best wishes shall ever be for their 
happiness and prosperity in this world, and that 
in another, angel hands may place upon the 
brow of each and every one of them a diadem 
of 'stars far more brilliant and more sacred than 
those which glitter in the azure of our National 
banner. 

Resolved, That copies of these Resolutions be 
sent to the Presidents of the " Woman's National 
League " and " Misses Aid Society " of Peoria, 
to the Peoria Transcript and the Chicago Tribune. 

On motion, the resolutions were adopted by a 
unanimous vote. On motion, adjourned sine die. 
COL. D. P. GRIER, Chairman. 

LIEUT. H. P. AYRES, Secretary. 

On the eleventh of November, at ten o'clock 
A.M., we received orders to march at two o'clock 
P.M. for New Iberia, to reenforce the troops at 



214 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH. 

that place, as General Burbridge was appre- 
hending an attack. Accordingly the 77th Illi- 
nois and 48th Ohio packed their traps, and at 
the hour designated, away we went on a dog 
trot, reaching our destination, after a forced 
march, to find that there was no immediate 
danger. But then, we had been long enough at 
Franklin, and we had to move to wear off the 
rust. 

We were now in a land of plenty a land of 
corn and wine, so to speak, and we were not 
slow to improve our opportunities. On the nine- 
teenth of November the Seventy-Seventh was 
ordered on a foraging expedition that is, to get 
something to feed the mules. But Gen. Frank- 
lin had issued strict orders against supplying oar 
own wants. As we passed through the town, 
Major Hotchkiss, who was in command of the 
Regiment, reported to General Burbridge for 
instructions. He told the Major about the 
orders of Gen. Franklin, and in conclusion he 
said, " Now Major, I hope you will observe these 
orders very strictly, and tell your men from me, 
that if they should unfortunately catch any 
chickens or geese, or anything else, they must 
be careful and not get bitten." The Major brought 
the report to the Regiment we knew what it 
meant three very emphatic cheers went up for 
General Burbridge, and we started. We crossed 
the bayou and marched about ten miles when 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 215 

we came to a plantation where we found an 
abundance of forage for the teams, and it is safe 
to say that when we came into camp that night 
we had at least forty bushels of sweet potatoes, 
ten dozen chickens and other things in propor- 
tion. 

On the evening of the 23d one of the boys 
received a package of papers from home, and 
among them was the Peoria Transcript, contain- 
ing a speech made by Col. R. G. Ingersoll, at 
Pekin, and one by his brother, E. C. Ingersoll, 
at Elmwood. The boys crowded into the tent 
and insisted on having those speeches read aloud 
for the benefit of all present. As the reader 
proceeded he was frequently interrupted by 
cheers for " Bob " and such exclamations as 
these: '"read that again," "hurrah for Elrn- 
wood," "bully for Bob Ingersoll," "his head is 
level," etc., and notwithstanding the drum 
tapped the hour for retirement, they would not 
be satisfied until both speeches were read. It 
was a rough and boisterous expression of patri- 
otism, but it came from warm and loyal hearts. 

Our National Thanksgiving was observed on 
the 26th of November, and on that day a large 
gathering of officers and soldiers took place at 
the headquarters of Gen. McGinnis, commander 
of the 3d Division, 13th Army Corps. It was 
one of the most cheering scenes we had seen for 
many a day. Speeches were made by General 



216 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Cameron, and by a great many Colonels. Majors, 
Captains, etc. The occasion was enlivened by 
music from the brass bands belonging to the llth 
and 34th Indiana Regiments. At the close, when 
the Doxology, 

"Praise God from whom all blessings flow," 

was sung by the choir and played by the band, 
every head in that vast assemblage was rever- 
ently uncovered, as in the presence of Him who 
rules among the nations. 

About this time another change was made in 
our Division. As now arranged the 1st Brigade 
was commanded by Col. "W. J. Landram, and 
consisted of the 19th Kentucky, the 83d and 
96th Ohio, and the 60th and 67th Indiana 
Regiments, and the 17th Ohio Battery. The 
2d Brigade, commanded by Colonel D. P. Grier, 
consisted of the 77th, 97th and 130th Illinois 
and the 48th Ohio Regiments, and the Mercantile 
Battery of Chicago. 

We remained at New Iberia until the 7th of 
December, when we turned our faces homeward 
that is in the direction of New Orleans. And 
here it may be well to state that General Banks 
pursued a very peculiar, but at the same time, 
salutary and welcome policy with the troops in 
his department a policy which was well calcu- 
lated to "make treason odious," and crush the 
rebellion. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 217 

He would collect a large army in the vicinity 
of New Orleans, and after having spent a month 
or more in the pleasant exercise of reviewing the 
troops, a la McClellau an exercise which was 
indispensable to the salvation of the country 
he would march his army to some point on the 
frontier, or " to the front," as it was called, when, 
having made the necessary observations and 
studied the geography of the country, he would 
retrace his steps, return to the city and repeat 
the programme, placing his " objective point " in 
a different direction. This policy was pursued 
probably from the fact that if the troops re- 
mained long in the field, they would become de- 
moralized and forget all about city life and polite 
etiquette. Moreover, they would become total 
strangers to the influences exerted by the high 
standard of morality, for which the Southern 
Metropolis has always been noted. These con- 
siderations indicate the necessity of our return- 
ing frequently to the base of operations at New 
Orleans. 

In accordance with the foregoing order of 
exercises, we made a retrogade movement in due 
time, leaving New Iberia on the 7th day of 
December, and arriving at Algiers on the 13th of 
the month, having marched fifty-six miles, and 
traveled eighty miles by railroad, in the brief 
period of ix days and a half. Verily, the world 
did move in those days. 
14 




CHAPTER THE ELEVENTH. 



RECRUITS. 



VIEW of the fact that the Regiment was 
now becoming very much reduced in num- 
bers, Colonel Grier asked for, and received 
permission to go home with a detachment of 
men for the purpose of recruiting. The follow- 
ing is the order granting that permission : 

HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE GULF, ) 
NEW ORLEANS, November 24, 1863. j 

Special Orders, No. 

Extract * 

The following-named officers and enlisted men 
will proceed without delay to their respective 
States, and there report to the Governors of the 
several States, for the purpose of recruiting for 
their respective regiments. 

These detachments will proceed without delay, 
under the charge of the senior officer of each 
Regiment. 

The Quartermaster's Department will furnish 
the necessary transportation : 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 219 

Colonel D. P. Grier, .... 77th III. 

Captain Edwin Stevens, Co. " E," " 

Corporal Charles H. Arms, " " A," " 

Sergeant James Wier, " " B," 

Joseph Hutchinson, " " C," 

James T. Bender, " "D," 

Benj. F. Kobbins, " " E," 

" James Hammers, " " F," " 

Corporal Moses E. Burt, " " G," " 

David L. Murdock, " "H," 

Austin C. Aten, " "I," 

Sergeant John Yinger, " " K," " 

By command of 

MAJ. GEN. BANKS. 
G. NORMAN LIBBER, A. A. A. G. 

The foregoing detail left New Iberia for the 
north soon after the order was issued, arriving in 
Feoria on the 18th of December, 1863. As the 
detail departed. General Burbridge sent the fol- 
lowing communication to Gov. Yates of Illinois: 

HEADQUARTERS, 4rn DIVISION 13TH A. C., ) 
NEW IBERIA, December 5, 1863. ) 

HON. RICHARD YATES. 

Dear Sir: I avail myself of the return 
home of recruiting details from the 77th, 97th 
and 180th Regiments Illinois Volunteers, and 
Chicago Mercantile Battery, as a fitting oppor- 
tunity to express my entire satisfaction and 



220 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

hearty approval of their conduct, discipline and 
soldierly bearing under their accomplished and 
efficient officers. 

Having been intimately associated with them 
long before I was called to assume command of 
them, I found them to the full what their past 
noble record had prepared me to expect, and I 
desire to join my pride and gratification at hav- 
ing such men in my command, to the just pride 
of the people at having sent such gallant soldiers 
to fight for our glorious cause. 

I heartily commend these Regiments to you 
and to the citizens of your State as very desir- 
able ones to enlist in, as they will be certain of a 
favorable position for a vigorous prosecution of 
the war. 

With assurances of high personal regard, I 
beg leave to subscribe myself, 

Your obedient servant, 

S. G. BURBRIDGE, 

Brigadier General. 

As soon as the recruiting detail reached home 
they commenced operations in Peoria and the 
surrounding towns, and were very successful, as 
the following muster-roll will show. It will be 
observed from the dates that some of these men 
enlisted before this recruiting party began their 
work, but as they are all recruits, that is, they 
enlisted after the original muster-in of the Regi- 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 221 

ment, it is thought proper to give them all in 
this place. Those who were transferred to the 
130th Illinois are followed to that Regiment until 
they finally left the service : 

RECRUITS FOR COMPANY "A." 

William C. C. Allison, Galesburg. 

February 11, 1864; transferred to Co. "B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Henry G. Arms, Knoxville. 

December 16, 1863; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Levi S. Bartlett, Galesburg. 

February 3, 1864; transferred to Co. "B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out June 24, 1865. 
Charles E. Bancroft, Galesburg. 

February 8, 1864; transferred to Co. "B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Daniel Boher, Galesburg. 

January 20, 1864; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Francis Bates, Galesburg. 

January 26, 1864; died at Galesburg, 111., Oct. 12, 1864. 
William H. Babcock, Peoria. 

December 30, 1863; discharged for disability, May 23, 

1864. 
Elisha A. Chadrich, Galesburg. 

February 11, 1864; transferred to Co. "B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
George W. Conero, Galesburg. 

February 12, 1864; transferred to Co. "A," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Henry Crow, Peoria. 

January 7, 1864; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Daniel B. Cutler, Peoria. 

December 26, 1863; transferred to Co. "B," 130th III.; 

mustered out June 17, 1865. 



222 



THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 



James H. Cutler, Peoria. 

December 26, 1863; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
James Crawford, Jreoria. 

December 30, 1863; discharged for disability, July 26, 

1864. 
Darius J. Cook, Peoria. 

February 13, 1865; transferred to Co. "D," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Charles H. Day, Wataga. 

February 29, 1864; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Benjamin F. Dounard, Peoria. 

January 4, 1864; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out July 10, 1865. 
Thomas W. Edson, La Salle. 

November 9, 1863; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Frank M. Evans, Galesburg. 

February 9, 1864; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

promoted Sergeant; mustered out August 15, 1865. 
James F. Heagy, Galesburg. 

February 9, 1864; died at Baton Rouge, La., July 18, 

1864. 
Oliver Howard, Galva. 

January 29, 1864; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Charles C. Hope, Galesburg. 

January 4, 1864; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Alfred M. Judson, Galesburg. 

January 4, 1864; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Robert Kay, Galesburg. 

February 11, 1864; transferred to Co. "B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Joseph Kunert, Peoria. 

January 4, 1864; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Andrew J. Lockbaum, Peoria. 

November 23, 1863; transferred to Co, " B," 130th 111.; 

absent, sick at muster-out of Regiment. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 223 

Thomas Lynch, Peoria. 

January 5, 1864; transferred to Co. " B," 130th III.; 

mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Charles H. Meadows, Galesburg. 

February 15, 1864; transferred to V. R. C., December 

23, 1864. 
Charles May, Galesburg. 

February 12, 1864; transferred to Co. "B," 130th 111.; 

musterred out August 15, 1865. 
John Martin, Peoria. 

December 29, 1863; mustered out a prisoner of war 

June 17, 1865. 
Frank M. Martin, Galesburg. 

February 18, 1864; transferred to 130th 111. 
James Mather, Knoxville. 

November 9, 1863; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Theodore H. Neander, Washburn. 

November 9, 1863; transferred to Co. "D," 130th 111.; 

mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Samuel Ott, Orange. 

November 18, 1863; transferred to Co "D," 130th 111. 
Theodore Perkins, Persifer. 

November 30, 1863; transferred to Co. "D," 130th 111.; 

mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Charles W. Price, Galesburg 

February 9, 1864; transferred to Co. " D," 130th 111.; 

discharged Sept. 9, 1864, to accept promotion in 107th 

U. S. C. T. 
John S. Rambo, Haw Creek. 

December 30, 1863; transferred to Co. "E," 130th 111.; 

mustered out a prisoner of war, June 17, 1865. 
Joseph Rambo, Haw Creek. 

December 30, 1863; discharged for wounds, July 1, 

1864. 
Charles W. Read, Galesburg. 

February 9, 1864; transferred to Co. "D." 130th Illi- 
nois; mustered out August 15, 1865. 
William Smith, Gilson. 

December 30, 1863; transferred to Co. " E," 130th Illi- 
nois; mustered out a prisoner of war, June 17, 1865. 



224 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Charles B. Smith, Galesburg. 

February 11, 1864; transferred to Co. " D," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
James Smith, Peoria. 

January 5, 1864; transferred to Co. " D," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
George W. Sutton, Peoria. 

January 11, 1864; transferred to Co. "D," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Alfred Spidle, Persifer. 

February 10, 1865; transferred to Co. " D," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
William S. Tree, Persifer. 

December 30, 1863 ; died at Tyler, Texas, while a pris- 
oner of war, July 22, 1864. 
Ethan A. Wallace, Galesburg. 

February 22, 1864; transferred to Co. " D," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Milton H. Wentworth, Galesburg. 

February 6, 1864; transferred to Co. " D," 130th 111.; 

promoted Corporal; mustered out August 15, 1865. 
George W. Witherell, Galesburg. 

February 11, 1864; transferred to Co. "D," 130th III.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Benjamin Wills, Persifer. 

December 30, 1863; transferred to Co. " E," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 9, 1865. 
Jacob Wallack, Persifer. 

February 10, 1865; transferred to Co. "E," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 

RECRUITS FOR COMPANY " B." 

Alfred F. Selling. 

Transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111. ; mustered out Aug. 

15, 1865. 
Alonzo F. Murden, Peoria. 

March 14, 1865; transferred to Co. "B," 130th Illinois; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 225 

Ellsworth Utterbach, Vermilliori. 

March 15, 1865; transferred to Co. "A," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Benjamin L. Weireman, Magnolia. 

September 13, 1864; mustered out July 10, 1865. 

RECRUITS FOR COMPANY " C." 

George J. Gordon, Smithfield. 

February 29, 1864; transferred to Co. "B," 130th 111.; 

promoted Corporal ; mustered out August 15, 1865. 
David W. Hanna, Cazenovia. 

January 19, 1865; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

Absent, sick at muster out of regiment. 
Fred. J. Han day sides, 

January 4, 1864; died at Baton Rouge, La., August 9, 

1864. 
Dudley Linville, Versailles, Ky. 

November, 1862; transferred to Co. "B," 130th Illinois; 

promoted Corporal; mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Samuel W. McCulloch, Washburn. 

February 29, 1864; transferred to Co. "B," 130th 111.; 

promoted Corporal ; mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Alfred Romine, Kingston. 

January 25, 1864; discharged for disability, December 

17, 1864. 
John E. Stephenson, Washburn. 

February 29, 1864; transferred to Co. "D," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
David B. Sattbrd, Metamora. 

February 28, 1864; deserted April 21, 1865. 
James M. Toy, Washburn. 

February 29, 1864; transferred to 130th Illinois. 

RECRUITS FOR COMPANY " D." 

Morgan Antrim, Henry. 

December 29, 1863; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 
mustered out August 15, 1865. 



226 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Thompkin C. Barney, Peoria. 

November 16, 1863; transferred to 130th 111. 
Sherebiah Bass. 

Transferred to 130th 111. 

James Bonde. 

Lawrence Creyton, Lacon. 

February 10, 1864; dropped Sept. 3, 1864; supposed to 

to be dead. 
Thomas Davis. 

October 1, 1862; transferred to Co. "B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out June 17, 1865. 
George W. Furrow, Lacon. 

December 23, 1863; transferred to Co. "B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
James Fowler. 

July 28, 1864; deserted October 10, 1864. 
Frank Maxwell. 

July 28, 1864; deserted October 12, 1864. 
James W. Twinam. 

October 1, 1864; transferred to Co. "D," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 

RECRUITS FOR COMPANY " E." 

George Albright, Westtield. 

March 14, 1865; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
James W. Babcock, Peoria. 

February 24, 1864; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
James T. Dawson, Haw Creek. 

January ,1865; transfered to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
William Donaldson, Logan. 

February 25, 1865; transferred to Co. "B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
George W. Hunt. 

December 14, 1863; transferred to Co. "B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 



227 



James W. Houghtalling, Logan. 

February 23, 1865; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Charles G. Holt, Marshall. 

March 31, 1864; transferred to Co. " B," 130th Illinois; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
William H. Hays, Hallock, 

January 30, 1865: transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Charles V. Johnson, Marshall. 

March 31, 1864; died at Henry, 111., Sept. ,1864. 
Newton Jenkins, Logan. 

February 23, 1865; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Charles McTaggart, Metamora. 

March 31, 1864; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Samuel H. Smith, Elmont. 

February 29, 1864; transferred to Co. "A," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 

William P. Souders. 

Transferred to Co. "A," 130th 111.; mus- 



tered out August 15, 1865. 
Henry Sargent, Peoria. 

February 24, 1865; transferred to Co. " A," 130th 111.; 
mustered out August 15, 1865. 

RECRUITS FOR COMPANY " P." 

John W. Adams, Yates City. 

December 29, 1863; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
William H. Barnes, Sparland. 

January 5, 1864; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
John D. Hamrick, Yates City. 

December 25, 1863; transferred to Co. " C," 130th 111.; 

mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Solomon Johnson, Sparland. 

January 5, 1864; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111. ; 

mustered out June 17, 1865. 



228 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Joseph Lutkieweiz, Persifer. 

February 10, 1865; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
David Nighswonger, Spar-land. 

January5, 1864; transferred to Co. " C," 130th 111.; 

mustered out June 17, 1865. 
William J. Phillips, Bruce. 

April 5, 1865; transferred to Co. "C," 130th 111.; 

mustered out June 14, 1865. 
Alfred Snell. 

August 22, 1863; transferred to Co. "E," 130th 111.; 

mustered out a prisoner of war, June 17, 1865. 

RECRUITS FOR COMPANY " G." 

Michael Bolen, Elmwood. 

February 20, 1864; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Cassius M. Clough Elmwood. 

January 27, 1864; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Caleb G. Clough, Elmwood. 

January 27, 1864; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Morris Grissom, Summit. 

November 11, 1863; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111. 
James A. Grissom, Summit. 

November 11, 1863; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Benjamin G. Hunter, Peoria. 

November 5, 1863; died at Baton Rouge, La., June, 

1864. 
Joseph Hunter, Peoria. 

November 11, 1864; died at home, Dec. 26, 1864. 
George W. Huffman, Elmwood. 

January 27, 1864; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
John S. Hirst, Summit. 

January 27, 1864; transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out June 17, 1865. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 229 

Charles B. Johnson. 



Transferred to 130th 111. 



Peter Morris, Troy. 

February 13, 1865; deserted April 5, 1865. 
Charles Patch, Minonk. 

January 5, 1865; transferred to Co. " C,', 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Robert H. Stewart, Elmwood. 

February 19, 1864; transferred to Co. " A," 130th 111.; 

discharged at New Orleans, La., August 81, 1865. 
Charles H. Smith. 

Transferred to Co. " A," 130th 111. ; dis- 
charged August 15, 1865. 
Benjamin F. Williams, Elmwood. 

January 18, 1864; transferred to Co. "A," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Christopher C. Williams, Springfield. 

March 28, 1864; transferred to Co. "A," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 

RECRUITS FOR COMPANY " H." 

William Allen, Minonk. 

March 24, 1864; transferred to Co. " B," 130th III.; 

discharged for disability, August 11, 1865. 
John Baker 

October 1, 1864; transferred to Co. "C," 130th 111.; 

mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Thomas Bassett, Chestnut. 

January 27, 1865; transferred to Co. " C," 130th 111.; 

mustered out June 19, 1865. 
Charles E. Hall, Minonk. 

December 26, 1863; transferred to Co. ",B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Joseph H. Knickerbocker, Peoria. 

January 25, 1864; mustered out May 23, 1865. 
David Moore 

Transferred from 2d Illinois Cavalry; 

transferred to Co. " B," 130th 111.; mustered out Aug. 

15, 1865. 
Frank W. Pillsbury, Lebreeshy. 

January 5, 1864; transferred to Co. "B," 130th 111.; 

promoted 1st Sergeant; mustered out August 15, 1865. 



230 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 



RECRUITS FOR COMPANY "I." 

Edward E. Bigelow, Elm wood. 

December 30, 1863; transferred to Co. "B," 130th 111.; 

promoted Corporal; mustered out August 15, 1865. 
William D. Cone, Elmwood. 

January 4, 1864; transferred to Co. "B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
John W. Dixon, rates City. 

December 23, 1863; discharged fo* disability, May 11, 

1864. 
Daniel L. Murphy, Elmwood. 

December 23, 1863; transferred to Co. "E," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 

Samuel McRill, Eugene. 

December 24, 1863; transferred to Co. "E," 130th 111.; 
mustered out August 15, 1865. 

Samuel C. Null, Salem. 

February 3, 1865; transferred to Co. " E," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
William W. Pratz, Elmwood. 

February 29, 1864; transferred to Co. "E," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Wesley J. Whitehead, Elmwood. 

January 25, 1864; transferred to Co. " E," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 

RECRUITS FOR COMPANY " K." 

George Archdale, Trivoli. 

December 24, 1863; transferred to Co. "B," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
John Haine$, Peoria. 

January 5, 1864; transferred to 130th III. 
John H. Hamilton, Peoria. 

December 3, 1863; mustered out January 3, 1865. 
Taylor McMohan, Somerville. 

January 12, 1864; transferred to Co. "C," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
William Nolan, Haw Creek. 

January , 1865; transferred to Co. "C," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 231 

Isaac Orr, Kickapoo. 

January 25, 1864; transferred to Co. " C," 130th 111.; 

mustered out June 14, 1865. 
Thomas Parker, Rosefield. 

April 7, 1864; died at Fort Gaines, Ala., September 4, 

1864. 
Lyman J. Powell, Edwards Station. 

January 20, 1864; transferred to Co. "C," 130th 111.; 

mustered out June 14, 1865. 
Samuel H. Race, Pekin. 

February 1, 1864; transferred to Co. "C," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
Robert J. Rynearson, Peoria. 

December 3, 1863; transferred to Co. " C," 130th 111.; 

mustered out June 17, 1865. 
Edwin R. Somers, Peoria. 

January 2, 1864; transferred to Co. "C," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
George Thurston, Peoria. 

February 29, 1864; transferred to Co. "C," 130th 111.; 

mustered out August 15, 1865. 
John D. Wholstenholm, Kickapoo. 

April 5, 1864; transferred to Co. " C," 130th 111.; mus- 
tered out August 15, 1865. 

UNASSIGNED RECRUITS. 

John Abel, Chicago. 
Richard Atkins, Peoria, March 1, 1865. 
Charles W. Brown, Troy, Feb. 13, 1865. 
Thomas Bun, Peoria, March 2, 1865. 
James Burnett, Peoria, March 1, 1865. 
James Boner, Lacou, l3ec. 22, 1863. 
William H. Brown, Peoria, Feb. 26, 1864. 
William Brown, Chicago, April 1, 1865. 

John M. Bremble. 

Alfred Burlingame, Lacon. 

James Conners, Peoria, March 2, 1865. 

Jacob M. Conner, Auburn, Feb. 14, 1865. 



232 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Franklin F. Denton, Galesburg. 

Patrick Flannagan, Peoria, Sept. 9, 1864. 

William Folz, Peoria. 

Chauncey W. Greenman, Peoria. 

James Haley, Peoria, Feb. 28, 1865. 

John Hubert, Peoria, Feb. 28, 1865. 

John Hays, Peoria, March 2, 1865. 

John Herbert. 

William Hays, Hallock, Jan. 30, 1865. 

Samuel J. Hutchinsou, Lacon. 

John Houck, Washington. 

Silas Kerr, Peoria, Feb. 24, 1865. 

Daniel Kelly, Peoria, March 2, 1865. 

Alfred Kahling, Peoria, Feb. 27, 1865. 

Charles King, Eugene. 

Henry M. Karmany, Peoria. 

James Linch, La Salle. 

Abraham Linscott, Lacou. 

Alonzo T. Marden, Westtield. 

John Miller, Peoria, Feb. 28, 1865. 

Hugh F. McElheny, Peoria, March 14, 1865. 

John McGree, Peoria, Jan. 13, 1864. 

James McElhany, Ohio, March 9, 1865. 

John Miller. 

Henry P. McManus, Peoria, Feb. 29, 1864. 

Wm. H. B. McCoy, Washburn, Nov. 18, 1863. 

Michael Morrisy, Galesburg. 

Walter Murray, Galesburg. 

Frank N. Martin, Wataga. 

Henry S. McAllister, Galesburg. 

George H. Percival, Peoria. 

David B. Pemble, Elmwood. 

Nathan W. Pourch, Lacon. 

Andrew Sorner, Peoria, Feb. 28, 1865. 

Andrew Simson. 

William Sowders Hallock, Jan. 30, 1865. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 233 

John Shurray, Peoria. 
John (jr. Stewart, Elmwood. 
Louis Sanford, Peoria. 
Samuel Stevens, Galesburg. 
John Wilson, Peoria. 
Samuel M. Wadsworth, Peoria. 




15 




TEXAS. 



THE evening of Dec. 17th, we went 
aboard the transport " De Molay," and that 
night cut loose and steamed down the 
river. The next morning, early, we crossed the 
dividing line between the turbid waters of the 
Mississippi and the clear blue waters of the Gulf. 
And now ensued a scene comical in the extreme^ 
comical to the spectators, but not to the perfor- 
mers. The vessel heaved and rolled from side to 
side as she bounded over the waves now lifting 
her prow high in the air, and then plunging for- 
ward as if the noble ship would be engulfed in the 
trough of the sea. Many of the boys were seized 
with that peculiar nauseous feeling known as 
sea-sickness, and they employed their leisure 
time in what they called " heaving up Jonah," 
that is they vomited most majestically. Some 
would lean over the railing and deposit their 
morning meal in the Gulf; others, more timid, 
would cling with the tenacity of life to a post, 
and perform their part of the comedy with due 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 235 

solemnity. As some unlucky officer appeared on 
deck to contribute something to the entertain- 
ment, the boys, without the fear of shoulder- 
straps before their eyes, would call out, " There 
goes your fifty cents." 

We reached our destination Pass Cavello, 
Texas and went into camp on a dreary, deso- 
late sand bank, known as DeCrow's Point. This 
is a peninsula lying between the waters of the 
Gulf and Matagorda Bay. While here we felt 
much inconvenience for want of rations. While 
vast stores of " hard-tack," and kindred luxuries 
were piled up at New Orleans, Gen. Banks, 
with a foresight for which his military adminis- 
tration was famous, failed to furnish his troops 
in Texas with the much-needed supplies. To 
add to the discomforts of the situation, the 
weather was exceedingly cold for a southern 
climate. At night the cold northwesters would 
howl across the sandy waste, and it was no un- 
common thing to see the whole encampment ly- 
ing prostrate on the sand. On one of. these 
occasions, after the wind had been performing 
wild antics through the night, the lamented Col. 
Webb awoke in the morning to find his tent 
covering him as a blanket. He crawled from 
the ruins and looked with mute surprise upon 
the wrecks around him. At length, unable 
longer to control his feelings, he exclaimed in 



236 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

accents of solemnity, " Behold the ruins of Pom- 
peii" 

For the most part, we had to depend for fuel 
on drift-wood gathered along the coast. This 
would not burn very well, especially when the 
wind was blowing, and that was nearly all the 
time. To obviate this difficulty, we dug holes in 
the ground, and in them built, fires to do our 
cooking. Of course the wind would very gen- 
erously sprinkle our rations with sand, which 
was gritty to the teeth and the taste. In fact 
we had " grit " enough and " sand in the craw " 
enough for any emergency. 

But these diversions were suddenly inter- 
rupted by the appearance of an enemy in the 
distance. We were now becoming too much 
attached to our new home to be driven from it 
without a struggle. We would " die in the last 
ditch " rather than surrender our firesides and 
our sand hills. No ruthless foe should ever in- 
vade the sacred precincts of our camp. With 
these thoughts animating our patriotic breasts, 
we marched out to meet the enemy. With 
colors flying, and burnished arms glistening in 
the sunlight, our lines advanced in splendid 
style. We met the enemy and they were ours. 
To parody the lines of the nursery rhyme, 

" We charged upon a flock of sheep, 
And put them all to flight," 

excepting what we killed and brought into 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 237 

camp. But in spite of these alarms, and in spite 
of all our surroundings on this inhospitable coast, 
we had one consolation left, and that was, our 
stay would be short. Gen. Banks, in the regu- 
lar order of things, would soon order us back to 
our " base " to take a fresh start. 

At this time a good deal of interest was felt 
about a new organization of troops which had 
been christened the "Corps d'Afrique," or as 
some of the baser sort among us called it, the 
" Corps de Nigger." Many were the aspirants 
for military honors in this new enterprise. 
Dreams of promotion, shoulder straps and in- 
creased pay floated through the imaginations of 
thousands. Many of the non-commissioned 
officers and privates in the different regiments, 
who had hitherto performed their duties credita- 
bly, became dissatisfied with their present con- 
dition, and applied for commissions. The 
epidemic swept through the Seventy-Seventh. 
About a dozen of our boys were successful in 
their aspirations for fame; but, as is always the 
case in a grand rush for office, there were a 
few appointments, and many ^appointments. 
Some of those however, who did succeed, put on 
more style than a Major General. It was a 
common thing in those days to see a brand new 
Second-Lieutenant strut the streets of New 
Orleans, with head erect, shoulders thrown back 



238 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

and stately tread, as much as to say, ' Clear the 
track, look out there, /' m coming." 

Before receiving a commission in the Corps 
d' Afrique, it was necessary for the applicant to 
pass an examination before a Board of Examin- 
ers, appointed to try the merits of the case. A 
gentleman who passed or rather failed to pass 
the examination, thus reports the results: 

Colonel. What is the position of a soldier ? 

Candidate. About the same as that of a deck 
hand on a steamboat. 

Col. How do you form company ? 

Can. Get out big handbills offering $13 a 
month, $100 bounty, $25 down, a month's pay in 
advance and $2 premium. Say something about 
our glorious country, free institutions and Fourth 
of July, and you will soon have your company 
formed. 

Col. "When you have formed your company, 
what do you do then ? 

Can. Wear shoulder straps and draw $129 a 
month. 

Col. How do you instruct your men to mark 
time ? 

Can. By cutting a notch in a stick for each 
day two notches for Sunday. 

Col. After marking time, what conies next? 

Can. March. 

Col. What next after march ? 

Can. April. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 239 

Col. How do you open ranks? 

Can. Fire a cannon ball into them. 

Col. Who are the highest military officers ? 

Can. Generals. 

Col. Why are they called generals? 

Can. Because they are nobody in particular. 

Col. Very well. What education have you 
had ? What branches are you familiar with ? 

Can. Beech branches mostly, as I lived in 
Indiana during my school days. 

Col. Do you consider yourself capable of in- 
structing a company of American citizens of 
African descent? 

Can. I think, sir, I can teach the young idea 
how to shoot. 

Col. What would be your principal aim and 
end be in such instructions? 

Can. My principal aim would be at the 
rebels my end, the end of the war. 

Here the examination closed, but as there was 
no vacancy just then, the applicant did not re- 
ceive a commission. 

As our highly esteemed Chaplain, the Rev. W. 
G. Pierce, had resigned and gone home, we now 
had to depend upon ourselves and the generosity 
of other regiments for religious instruction and 
entertainment. On the latter we depended not 
in vain. The Rev. Mr. Chittenden, of the 67th 
Indiana was, emphatically, the right man in the 
right place, and the boys of the 77th can never 



240 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

forget his kind services. He was faithful in 
season and out of season faithful all the time. 
But still we had no Chaplain that we could call 
our own, and we felt lost without one. We 
missed the Christian ministrations of Mr. Pierce, 
which we had so much enjoyed in other days. 
It is true that the Sunday and Wednesday even- 
ing prayer meetings were kept up and well 
attended. At one of these meetings, Captain 
McCulloeh proposed that it be made a matter of 
public and private prayer, that God, in his own 
good time, would send us a Chaplain to go in 
and out before us. And that prayer was an- 
swered in due time, by the arrival in the Regi- 
ment of the Rev. John S. McCulloeh, who was 
mustered as Chaplain on the 5th of April, 1864. 
It is a great mistake to suppose that soldiers, as 
a rule, have no respect for religion or religious 
teachers. On the contrary, a conscientious, God- 
fearing, faithful Chaplain, is regarded by saint 
and sinner alike, as a great acquisition to any 
Regiment. 

And such was Rev. L. S. Chittenden of the 
67th Indiana. His work was not confined to his 
own Regiment, but throughout the camp 
wherever a soldier, whether sick or well, or 
dying, needed his service, he was there at the 
post of duty. With a smile and cheerful greet- 
ing, "Well, boys, how do you do?" and a warm, 
fraternal grasp of the hand, he scattered sun- 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 241 

shine wherever he went. And his name will be 
held in grateful remembrance, while an inhab- 
itant of that desolate camp remains on the earth. 

Among other things, he procured a large tent, 
in which he held religious services, and here 
hundreds assembled for worship. The Chaplain 
conducted a series of revival meetings, which 
resulted in the conversion of about five hundred. 
And many of these converts were taken to' the 
quiet waters of the Matagorda Bay, and conse- 
crated in the ordinance of baptism. One scene 
was impressive and beautiful. Twenty-five of 
the new recruits had chosen immersion, as the 
mode of baptism which they preferred. Accord- 
ingly, one beautiful day, with the Chaplain at 
their head, the candidates joined hands and 
marched into the gently deepening water, per- 
haps a hundred yards from the shore, and there, 
while the thousands of spectators sang an old 
familiar hymn, the rite of baptism was per- 
formed, after which the company rejoined hands 
and came singing to the shore. 

The Chaplain also organized what he called an 
"Army Church," in which were associated the 
religous elements of the different Regiments, 
without doing violence to past affiliations or 
beliefs. He was also an earnest worker in the 
temperance cause. In these labors he was ably 
seconded by Prof. Mathews of the 19th Ken- 
tucky, and by other devoted Chaplains. As a 



242 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

result of their joint labors, hundreds were led to 
adopt lives of uprightness and sobriety. It is 
perhaps not saying too much to assert, that many 
a soldier can date the beginning of a new life, 
from his sojourn among the sand hills of Texas. 

"Because of his eminent services, Adj't Gen. 
Swain, of Chicago, then serving on the corps 
staff, made diligent effort to have created the 
office of Chaplain General an office having 
supervision of all the Chaplains of the army, 
and of having Chaplain Chittenden raised to that 
rank. It would have been a worthy act be- 
stowed upon a worthy man." 

While here Major General N. J. T. Dana 
issued his famous manifesto, saying, "This army 
shall tight on foot and not on wheels," and we 
did fight on foot to some purpose, as witness our 
successful assault on the sheep. The Fourth 
Division was now in command of Brig. Gen. T. 
E. G. Ransom, formerly Colonel of the Eleventh 
Illinois Infantry, a brave officer and one beloved 
by all the troops under him. The Brigade which 
had formerly been led to victory by that gallant 
Kentuckian, Bnrbridge, was now presided over 
by one who was no less qualified, no less daring, 
Col. Lamiram of the 19th Kentucky. 

Up to this time our experience in the Depart- 
ment of the Gulf, had not been very pleasant or 
agreeable. We had spent a month or more in 
camp at Carrollton. We had marched up the 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 243 

Bayou Teche, and then marched down again. 
And now, to cap the climax of our disquietude, 
we were banished to the dreary coast of Mata- 
gorda Bay. But it was not to be expected that 
we would be allowed to remain long in idleness, 
even on this desert shore. 

On the 22d of February, the Regiment em- 
barked on the steamer " St. Mary," and turned 
their faces in the direction of the Mississippi 
River. The 19th Kentucky and a part of the 
67th Indiana, were on the same vessel. This 
trip was but a repetition of the other. The same 
"heaving up of Jonah" on the part of the men ; 
the same " throwing up of commissions " on the 
part of the officers. At night, on the 24th, the 
Regiment reached the landing at Algiers, and 
the next day proceeded to Brashear City, and 
thence began the forward movement along the 
Bayou Teche. 





CHAPTER THE THIRTEENTH. 



RED RIVER. 



NOW becomes our painful duty to write 
a chapter full of disaster to the Seventy- 
Seventh and to the Thirteenth Army Corps 
a chapter which we would gladly blot from 
the pages of this history. But the events trans- 
pired, and the record must be made. 

Great activity prevailed in the department of 
the Gulf during the early spring of 1864. 
A large army, fully organized, thoroughly 
equipped, and well supplied with all the ma- 
terials for an active, energetic and successful 
campaign, was collected and sent to the front. 
Great results were anticipated, and, as the 
sequel will show, great results were accom- 
plished. 

The campaign opened about the first of 
March. General Franklin with the forces from 
New Orleans, took up the line of march along 
the Bayou Teche. General A. J. Smith em- 
barked at Vicksburg with the troops under his 
command and proceeded down the river, while 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 245 

General Steele was to cross the country from 
Little Rock, Ark., and join the expedition on 
Red River. Major General N. P. Banks, 
" The Bobbin boy of Waltham," was to com- 
mand the combined forces. Shreveport, in 
northwestern Louisiana, was the grand objective 
point, the occupation of which would give us 
control of that part of the State, and afford a 
base of operations against Texas. In addition 
to the forces named above, Admiral Porter com- 
manded a fleet of gunboats, the most formidable, 
perhaps, ever seen on the western waters. On 
the 14th of March, while General Franklin was 
moving across the country via Franklin, New 
Iberia, and Opelousas, General Smith, assisted 
by the gunboats, attacked and captured Fort De 
Russy on Red River. Immediately after this, 
the transports, with General Smith's troops on 
board and Admiral Porter's fleet of iron clads 
moved up the river and anchored in front of 
Alexandria on the 16th. It was the intention 
of Gen. Franklin t<5 effect a junction with Gen. 
Smith at this place, but failing to do so, he was 
obliged to move in the direction of Shreveport 
by land. It is needless to detail all the particu- 
lars of the march and the camp between 
Brashear City, and Alexandria. One or two 
incidents will suffice. 

On the 14th of March an event occurred which 
afforded some amusement. The boys were sup- 



246 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

plied with what they jocularly called" dog tents" 
Our first tents were the " Sibley," large enough 
to accommodate from twelve to sixteen persons. 
The next was the " wedge " tent, large enough 
for from four to six. The '' dog," or ; ' shelter " 
tent consisted of two parts, each about the size 
of an ordinary blanket, and they could be 
fastened together with buttons and eyelets. In 
this way the boys carried their tents with them, 
each one carrying one part, and by " bunking " 
together in couples, they were prepared to pitch 
tents in short order. Either with or without a 
ridge-pole, and with end stakes and pins to fasten 
down the sides, and by spreading a rubber 
blanket over the top and a rubber or other 
blanket over one end, they could be made quite 
comfortable. But they were so small the boys 
could only occupy a sitting posture. If they 
wanted to stand up or turn around, they had to 
go outside for that purpose. Two objects were 
accomplished by using this kind of tent. Every 
soldier carried his shelter with him, and it re- 
lieved the command of extra teams to carry 
camp equipage. In the course of time the boys 
managed to get at least two each of these tents, 
and then a heavy rain would not disturb them; 
and when they remained in camp for a few days 
at a time, by getting a few boards and elevating 
the tents, they did finely. 

The first night after the dog tents were issued, 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 247 

the boys hundreds of them it was midnight 
came to the entrance of their tents and barked, 
representing all the variations of dog music, 
from the gentle whine of the insignificant cur, 
to the hoarse voice of the majestic mastiff. This 
novel and amusing concert was kept up for an 
hour or more. Of course there could be no 
sleeping while it lasted. With such pastimes as 
these the boys varied the tedious monotony of 
the march, and prepared for the sterner duties 
of the battle field. 




' : DOG TENT " 

On the 2d of April, two of the boys from the 
48th Ohio, and one from the 24th Iowa, were out 
foraging. They were caught by the rebel bush- 
whackers, and one of them shot. Our boys felt 
very indignant, and especially so, as Gen. Frank- 
lin had thrown constant protection around those 
fellows all along the line of march. And yet 
the flanks and rear of our army were constantly 
annoyed by these' cowardly sneaks men who 
had not the courage to enlist and tight like sol- 
diers, but stood at their gates and bowed as the 
army passed, and then, seeking the cover of the 
brush, acted their mean, contemptible part in the 



248 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

capture or killing of our men. On some of the 
residences were placards bearing the inscription : 
"NEUTRALITY FRENCH PROTECTION 
HERE," and the French flag fluttered in the 
breeze. But the western boys had been too long 
in the service to show much respect for " French 
protection " or " neutrality," and even Franklin's 
" protection " availed them nothing, for the boys 
showed their contempt for all such claims, by 
acts of wholesale destruction as they passed 
along. 

On Sunday, April 3d, Captain Coulter of the 
48th Ohio, and others, preached to the boys. It 
was a quiet day for all those who appreciated a 
day of rest and worship. The text chosen by 
Capt. Coulter was from Heb. 12 : 23-24. The ser- 
mon was full of pathos and burning hope. Five 
days after this, the brave young captain fell mor- 
tally wounded and died in the hands of his 
captors. He had " come to Mount Zion, to the 
City of the living God," as he preached. 

At last, on the 7th of April, foot-sore and 
weary, the troops arrived at Pleasant Hill, having 
marched three hundred miles since leaving 
Brashear City. The boys of the 13th Corps felt a 
good deal exasperated at the treatment they had 
received from their Commanding General. From 
the time they left Berwick Bay until the after- 
noon of the 7th, the 19th Army Corps Banks' 
pets or as some of our boys called them, 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 249 

"Headquarters' Pimps" kept the front, hav- 
ing every advantage of forage, and of freedom 
from lagging men or teams. But as soon as the 
sound of battle was heard, the pets were halted, 
and the 13th Corps was sent to the front. 

However, as the first duty of a soldier is to 
obey orders without question, they had nothing 
to do but to face the music. At three o'clock 
A.M., on the 8th of April, the First Brigade of 
the Fourth Division, Thirteenth Army Corps, to 
which the 77th now belonged, after eating a 
hasty breakfast, was on the march to the front 
to relieve the cavalry of Gen. Lee. The march 
was slow and tedious, as the night was dark. 
At daylight the brigade came up with Gen. Lee, 
who had advanced about ten miles from Pleasant 
Hill, and was still advancing. The 23d Wis- 
consin and 67th Indiana were deployed and 
thrown forward, while the 19th Kentucky and 
77th Illinois, were held in reserve. After an 
advance of about two miles, the 77th relieved 
the 23d and 67th, which in turn was relieved by 
the 19th Kentucky. This advance was through 
a heavy pine country, quite undulating, and as 
the enemy which seemed to be only a force of 
cavalry were driven from one hill, they would 
take a position on the next. Our casualties in 
this running tight were small. The greatest loss 
sustained by the 77th, was in the death of Lieut. 

Col. Webb. He was in the act of asking Gen. 
16 



250 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Lee to have his Regiment relieved, as the boys 
were very much fatigued, when the fatal shot of 
a rebel sharpshooter struck 'him just below 
the right eye, and passing through the head, 
came out behind the left ear. A brave man, a 
good soldier, and a gentleman in every sense of 
the word, Col. Webb fell with his face to the foe, 
universally respected and regretted. 

About three o'clock in the afternoon, our ad- 
vance came to an open field to the left of the 
road, and at a distance of nearly a mile the bat- 
tle flags of the enemy could be seen. A battery 
was brought forward and fired a few shots, but 
elicited no reply. The Regiment then advanced 
into a field at the right of the road, crossed a 
little ravine and came to a house and a fence 
running at right angles with the line of inarch. 
Here the batteries were planted, but afterwards, 
when the hardest battle was fought, they were 
of no avail. Had the line of troops been formed 
at this point and consolidated, instead of being 
scattered as they were, the final result might 
have been different. The following is J. H. 
Snyder's account of the battle : 

" We advanced across another field; then en- 
tered a piece of timber. Here the line was 
formed for battle. But we waited nearly an 
hour before the engagement began. The Sev- 
enty-Seventh halted in a small field to the right 
of the road that had timber on three sides, and 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 251 

and while here tarrying, a cavalryman of the 
7th Illinois came riding up to us, knowing many 
of our boys, and informed us that the rebels were 
advancing in three columns, and would soon 
engage us. Just then Gen. Banks ordered the 
Division forward, the 77th moving to the right 
oblique. Gen. Ransom had protested against 
engaging the enemy with the troops scattered, 
and when ordered to move forward, he was re- 
ported as saying, ' That will finish me.' 

" When the engagement began the Third Divi- 
sion was in the rear some three miles, and the 
19th Corps seven miles. Gen. Smith was twenty 
miles away. The Fourth Division numbered 
2,400 effective men on that morning, and this 
little handful of men, with the cavalry, was 
brought face to face with the combined armies 
of Dick Taylor and Kirby Smith. 

" The line had advanced scarcely three hun- 
dred yards when the action began. The rebels 
threw their line upon our flanks, telescoping our 
line, and as the timber was densely studded with 
underbrush, our boys, in many instances, were 
entirely surrounded before they knew it. The 
line being flanked the movement striking our 
extreme right the Regiments fought by detail, 
and by detail were defeated. As the timber was 
dense with underbrush, and the line of the enemy 
constantly advancing, surging around farther 
and farther on our flank, our troops were placed 



252 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

in the dilemma of having the enemy in front and 
rear. The 77th had tired several rounds before 
the regiments on the left had tired a shot. 

"The column thrown into confusion, hundreds 
of the hoys captured, the enemy pressing us 
from all quarters, what men were able to get out 
of the tangle, fell back, forming a line on the 
batteries which had not, as yet, fired a shot. 

" When the second line was formed the boys 
acting without organization, for in falling back, 
each man was left to his chances the batteries 
did good execution. But it was only for a short 
time, as the enemy were flanking the guns and 
cutting off all retreat. 

" A third and last stand was made at the timber 
to the rear of the open field. But this was merely 
a feint, for the road being narrow and the timber 
dense, and impassable for horses and teams, the 
rush was to occupy the road, and consequently 
the road was blocked, cutting off all retreat, ex- 
cept in the most confused form. Gen. Banks 
moved his train forward, and on the preparation 
for engagement, had corralled several hundred 
wagons in the open field to the left of the road. 
In the confusion of retreat, the wagons blocked 
the road, cutting off our cavalry and artillery. 
The result was the loss of nearly three hundred 
wagons and the Chicago Mercantile and Nims' 
Batteries. This was a sad loss to the brave men 
who had so long handled these guns. The Ninas 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 253 

Battery had participated in thirty battles without 
losing a gun, and now to lose them all, filled the 
boys with the deepest regret. 

" We fell back some distance, perhaps a half- 
mile from the place of the last stand, before any 
relief came, when the Third Division met us and 
formed their line, advancing to the open field, 
only to be served as we had been. The Third 
Division was flanked and routed, and fell back 
to about the same place where they had relieved 
us, before the advance of the 19th Corps came 
up. The advance was a Regiment of Zouaves, 
who had double-quicked until they appeared 
exhausted and flushed. But forming their line, 
they checked for the time, the advancing enemy, 
and the shadows of night brought an end to the 
further disasters of the day. 

"No one will ever know the depth of shame 
our hearts experienced over this defeat. For it 
was a manifest display of the profoundest igno- 
rance of the proper management of a battle. It 
was and is our understanding, that at the time 
of the opening of the engagement, the Third 
Division was in our rear some three miles, and 
the 19th Corps some seven miles, encamped and 
drawing rations or receiving pay. A good cor- 
poral could have exhibited better military 
wisdom and skill. Gen. Ransom saw the fatal 
condition of the attack, when he remarked, as 



254 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

he pushed forward to meet the advancing rebel 
columns, l That will finish me.' 

" Man} 7 brave boys were killed and many were 
captured. The 77th lost one hundred and sev- 
enty-one men, the 19th Kentucky two hundred 
and fifty, and other regiments accordingly. One 
hundred and forty-three of the 77th boys, with 
all others captured, were taken to Mansfield and 
Shreveport and finally to Tyler, Texas, where 
they lingered in a rebel prison for nearly four- 
teen months, returning to the Regiment just at 
the hour of its discharge from the service, the 
cruel war being over. 

" The 77th lost Lieut. Col. Webb, a generous, 
impulsive, respected soldier. He seemed to feel 
a portent of the fate that awaited him, for his 
spirits wereTieavy; and yet he bravely led on in 
the line of duty. Col. Stone, of the 96th Ohio, 
commanding the Brigade, also fell. Also Adju- 
tant General Dickey, of Gen. Ransom's staif. 
Lieut. Col. Cowan, an intrepid officer, command- 
ing the 19th Kentucky, also fell, and many 
others. 

" It is said that when the zouaves came to the 
front and then fell back, a rebel was in pursuit, 
of a retreating zouave, and another rebel drew 
his gun to shoot when the first rebel said, 'Do n't 
shoot, I want to catch the thing alive.' ' : 

Captain John D. Rouse, of Company " G," 
who was at that time on staff duty, and who 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 255 

was well qualified to judge, wrote as follows of 
this disastrous battle : 

" Detachments of the 13th and 19th Army 
Corps arrived at Pleasant Hill on the 7th instant, 
numbering about 13,000 men. General Lee 
with a Brigade of Cavalry advanced three or 
four miles beyond, and after severe skirmishing, 
drove the enemy in the front five or six miles 
toward Mansfield. The 1st Brigade, 4th Divi- 
sion, 13th Army Corps, to which the 77th be- 
longs, moved forward at 3 o'clock A.M., on the 
6th, to the support of General Lee. We arrived 
at his camp about 6 o'clock, and immediately 
took the front. We found the enemy posted 
on a small creek, and commenced skirmishing 
with him. The rebels soon abandoned their 
position, and falling back, we skirmished with 
them as they retreated, about ten miles, until 
two o'clock P.M. We had now reached a road 
branching oft' to the right, leading directly to 
Mansfield. Here our Brigade halted and formed 
line of battle and awaited the arrival of the sup- 
porting column. The 2d Brigade soon arrived 
and extended the line to the right. Skirmishing 
went on briskly until about four o'clock, when 
the enemy attacked us in force. Our Division 
numbered about 2,400 men, and our line was 
formed in the edge of the timber with an 
open field in our rear. In the rear of the field 
there is heavy pine timber, which extends from 



256 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Pleasant Hill to this point, almost without inter- 
ruption. We had been skirmishing for ten 
miles, and having but forty rounds per man, our 
ammunition was getting scarce. The 3d Divi- 
sion and the 19th Corps encamped nine miles 
back. 

" Under these circumstances the rebels ad- 
vanced in force, and attacked our 2,400 infantry 
and a few cavalry with 20,000 men. This may 
seem exaggerated, but the prisoners we have, all 
affirm it, and so do the facts. The 77th advanced 
about thirty paces into the timber to meet the 
rebel advance, and found five to one within a 
few feet of them. A battle began along the 
whole line simultaneously; the combatants face 
to face, within a few feet of each other. Our 
men were soon out of ammunition, and without 
support opposed to overwhelming numbers. 
The rebels flanked us on the right and left, and 
we could not do otherwise than retreat across the 
field to prevent their capturing what few there 
were of us. In less than ten minutes the 77th 
Regiment came out of the woods, leaving at 
least a hundred whom we know not any more. 
The Division again formed a second line in the 
edge of the woods back of the field, and here 
began one of the most terrific fights yet re- 
corded. 

" Bravely and well did the old 4th Division 
stand up to the work here for more than one 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 257 

hour, baffling all the desperate efforts of the 
enemy until the 3d Division came to our relief. 
Our little force was fast dwindling. The soldiers 
of the east and of the west never before heard 
such musketry, and all admit that such fierce 
fighting ensued as has never before taken place 
during the war. Another hour we held them, 
but slowly retiring before the overwhelming 
force. To cap the climax of mismanagement, 
the train of the whole army, sixteen miles in 
length, was brought up to the front, and the 
road blocked up so that our artillery could not 
be gotten out. We could not always resist 
against such great odds. For two hours had we 
opposed five times our numbers. The slaughter 
of officers was immense, and the men having 
lost their officers, and being without support and 
utterly exhausted, gave way. The cavalry dash- 
ing through the woods to the rear, created a 
panic, and soon such a rout as would put Bull 
Run to shame, began. Opportunely at this time, 
General Emery's Division of the 19th Corps 
came up, 9,000 strong, and forming his line, the 
pursuing foe suddenly found himself opposed by 
fresh troops who hurled him back with a mur- 
derous fire, and night coming on closed the 
contest. 

" The slaughter on both sides was fearful. 
General Ransom was dangerously wounded. 
Colonels Emerson and Vance, commanding re- 



258 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

spectively the 1st and 2d Brigades of our Divi- 
sion, were wounded and captured. 

" The 77th Illinois lost ten officers out of 
sixteen engaged. Our Brigade lost thirty-two 
commissioned officers out of sixty-eight line and 
field. Under the head of missing are included 
nearly all our wounded and doubtless many 
dead. 

" If the whole force had been at the front and 
the train at the rear, we might report a glorious 
victory instead of this. Somebody (and the 
army knows who), is very much to blame for 
pushing one small Brigade nine miles ahead of 
the supporting column in the very face of ten 
times their number. This same Brigade was sent 
so once before in this Department at Carrion 
Crow. During the night we fell back to Pleas- 
ant Hill where General A. J. Smith had arrived 
with 7,000 fresh troops from Sherman's army. 
Here we chose our own ground, and our forces 
were attacked on the 9th; but the enemy were 
driven from the field with a loss of 10,000 killed 
and wounded. We did not participate in the 
battle. The 47th Illinois was engaged, but their 
loss was light. 

" Being temporarily on staff duty, I was on all 
parts of the field at Mansfield, and I never saw 
troops stand up so well under such a tremendous 
fire. Nothing at Vicksburg ever equaled it. 
How I ever escaped to tell the tale is wonderful. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 259 

Four balls passed through my clothing, and my 
sword was shot away, but my flesh is whole. 

" I cannot close without paying a tribute to 
the memory of our lamented Lieutenant Colonel 
L. R. Webb. He was shot through the head 
and killed instantly, during our skirmishing in 
the forenoon. An excellent officer, eminently 
courteous and social, he commanded the respect 
and esteem of all who came in contact with 
him, and his loss is deeply felt by his comrades 
in arms. 

" The fate of the other officers is uncertain, 
though I fear many of them are either wounded 
or have met a worse fate. Our little squad, 
which we gathered together the next morning, 
was a sad representation of our gallant Regi- 
ment, which went forth the day before, but we 
are thankful that even so many are left." 



CHAPTER THE FOURTEENTH. 




A. J. SMITH. 



>E MIGHT multiply these comments 
almost indefinitely. We might fill a 
volume with statements like the fore- 
going, all tending to the same result all going 
to show the criminal mismanagement of those 
having in charge the cotton -foraging expedi- 
tion on Red River. But it is unnecessary. It 
only remains to show upon whom depended the 
final salvation of the shattered remnants of that 
magnificent army. A correspondent who was on 
the field wrote as follows : 

u On the afternoon of the 9th, Gen. Smith had 
one of the severest engagements of the war, but 
he, being something of a General, succeeded in 
giving the enemy what they had given us 
that is a whipping. He recaptured sixteen pieces 
of artillery, but was not able to take them off 
the field, but destroyed them. He also captured 
some five hundred prisoners, and some of our 
wagons back, and as I write, fell back to this 
point, where he will prepare again to meet the 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 261 

enemy, if he should think of following, which I 
don't think he will; but while writing this, I hear 
cannonading, and who knows what may come? 
I will not predict, however. Now let me say, 1 
think, and we all think, we might just as well 
have had a victory as a defeat, and if I mistake 
not, some high official will get beheaded. I most 
sincerely hope so. I am opposed to inconipe- 
tency in any place, more particularly in the 
army. Gen. Smith fought his own men and won 
a victory, and had Gen. Ransom had the same 
privilege, we would not have been whipped. Of 
one thing I am certain, our few remaining boys 
will tight no more under such commanders. I 
for one do not blame them. I may be severe, 
but can you blame me when I see it is sacrifice 
after sacrifice? We were always victorious until 
we came here, and we would be so here if we 
had a Grant to lead us, yes, or a McClernand, 
who is buried at Pass Cavallo because he ranks 
Franklin, and the noble, brave and generous 
Ransom is sacrificed. May he ventilate this as 
he well knows how. * * * I could till sheets 
with incidents of the battle. Some would cause 
mirth, some tears; all would move the hearts of 
the brave to do battle for their brothers and their 
country. * * 

The following extract is from an eastern paper, 
published a few days after the battle : 

" A bearer of dispatches from Admiral Porter, 



262 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

who arrived in Washington on the 27th, makes 
statements calculated to greatly damage General 
Banks' military reputation. He says that on the 
second day, Gen. A. J. Smith whipped the rebels 
alone, driving them six miles. He was in hot 
pursuit, eager to reap all the fruits of victory, 
when an order came from Gen. Banks directing 
him to retreat with the rest of his army. Gen. 
Smith refused to obey. A second order to fall 
back, he also refused to obey. Finally Gen. Banks 
in person, brought a third order and insisted that 
Gen. Smith should fall back before daylight. 
He begged permission to stay long enough to 
bury his dead and care for his wounded and sick, 
if only till an hour after sunrise. But General 
Banks was inexorable, and General Smith was 
obliged, with tears in his eyes, to leave his men 
who had fallen on the battle-field, to the tender 
mercies of the rebels. He carried off two of the 
twenty-three cannon which the rebels abandoned, 
but was not allowed time to spike the remainder. 
While our forces were retreating in one direc- 
tion, the rebels were retreating in the opposite 
direction. 

" Some hours after Gen. Smith's departure the 
rebels sent a flag of truce to the battle-field, to 
ask permission to bury their dead, and sought 
vainly for a long time for somebody to receive 
it. A few miles out from Alexandria, General 
Banks found General McClernand with six 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 263 

thousand men on their way to reenforce him. 
He ordered him to fall back to Alexandria at 
once, after destroying his grain and supplies. 
McClernand refused twice to obey, but on receipt 
of the third order, set tire to a part of his oats. 

" Gen. Smith, with two thousand men, took the 
responsibility of marching to the spot, extin- 
guishing the flames, and after remaining there all 
night, marched back again with the residue, and 
all the other supplies.'.' 

GENERAL A. J. SMITH, AND HE ALONE, WITH HIS 

" GUERRILLAS," SAVED THE ARMY OF GENERAL BANKS 
FROM FURTHER DISASTER, IF NOT FROM TOTAL DE- 
STRUCTION. 

In order to give a full and official statement 
of some of the movements on that fatal day, the 
Report of Colonel W. J. Landram, commanding 
the^4th Division, is herewith appended. It will 
be observed that this gallant officer, while he 
obeys his instructions to the letter, indulges in 
no fault-finding, but where meritorious conduct 
calls for official commendation, it is cheerfully 
given. 

HEADQUARTERS 4xn DIVISION, 13TH ARMY CORPS. ) 
GRAND ECORE, LA., April 12, 1864. } 

CAPT. OSCAR MOHR. 

A. A. A. O. Detachment 13th Army Corps. 

Captain : On the 6th iust., this Divi- 
sion marched from Nachitoches, La., in the rear 



264 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

of the Cavalry of Brigadier General Lee, a 
distance of sixteen miles in the direction of 
Pleasant Hill and encamped in a dense wood 
near a bayou. 

On the 7th inst., the command marched nine- 
teen miles and encamped at Pleasant Hill. 

At eleven o'clock P.M. of the 7th, I received 
orders, of which the following are copies: 

HEADQUARTERS, U. S. FORCES, WEST LA., ) 
April 7, 1864. j 

General: The Commanding General directs 
that a Brigade of Infantry be sent to General 
Lee, to be with him by daylight to-morrow 
morning. You may use your discretion as to 
sending a Brigade or Division. The spirit of 
the order will doubtless be better carried out by 
sending a Division. 

Send therefore a Brigade or Division to- re- 
port to General Lee, at or before 5 A.M., on 
to-morrow, Friday, 8th inst. 

Respectfully, 
(Signed.) W. B. FRANKLIN, 

Major Qeneral. 

T. E. G. RANSOM, 

Brief. Gen. Com'd'y Detachment 13th Army Corps. 

[Official.'] (Signed.) C. E. DICKEY, 

Capt. and A. A. General. 

HEADQUARTERS, DETACHMENT 13TH ARMY CORPS, ) 
PLEASANT HILL, LA., April 7, 10:20 P.M. } 

Colonel: In obedience to the enclosed order, 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 265 

you will move at 3 A.M. to-morrow, with the 
First Brigade of your Division, and report to 
General Lee, 8 miles in front at daylight, or as 
soon thereafter as possible. 

By order of 

(Signed.) Brig. General T. E. G. RANSOM. 
C. E. Dickey, Capt. and A. A. General. 
COL. W. J. LANDRAM, 

Commanding 4th Division. 

In obedience to these orders, I moved with 
the First Brigade of my Division at the time 
specified and reported to Brig. General Lee very 
soon after daylight. 

By order of General Lee, I followed his ad- 
vance beyond the creek a short distance and 
was ordered to take the front and drive the 
enemy with which the Cavalry was then skir- 
mishing. The 16th Indiana dismounted, and 
probably some other Regiment of General Lee's 
command, assisted in skirmishing for several 
miles. 

General Lee then directed that I relieve all of 
his command with my Infantry and drive the 
enemy as rapidly as possible, at the same time 
ordering his Cavalry to the right and left of the 
road to protect my flanks, which was done. The 
timber on each side of the road was heavy and 
dense, which rendered it very difficult to move 
in line, and the marching was tedious and tire- 
17 



266 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

some to the men; the enemy contesting every 
foot of the ground as we advanced. All the 
houses near the road were abandoned, and we 
saw frequent evidence of large camps which had 
been recently deserted. 

The enemy were thus driven nine miles or 
more beyond the camp of General Lee, making 
an obstinate resistance the whole time. The 
credit of this advance is due the 23d Wisconsin, 
19th Kentucky, 77th Illinois and 67th Indiana 
Regiments, Vol. Infantry. Lieut. Col. L. R. 
Webb, of the 77th Illinois, an accomplished 
gentleman and gallant officer, was killed while 
commanding his Regiment in the advance. The 
number of casualities was not large, only a few 
being wounded. 

At a point said to be four miles from Mans- 
field, our advance came in sight of a wide open- 
ing in the timber, in front of a hill of consider- 
able height; on the right, left and top of which 
there was considerable timber, but not as thickly 
set as on the road over which we had advanced. 

I had made frequent requests before coming to 
this point, to have the Brigade relieved or 
allowed to rest, inasmuch as the men were ex- 
cessively fatigued by the loss of sleep and the 
difficulty experienced in advancing through the 
underbrush, which seemed to extend for miles 
to the right and left of the road, and was in- 
formed by Gen. Lee that he had sent for the 2d 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 267 

Brigade of my Division to relieve the first. Be- 
lieving that the position in my immediate front, 
was too strong to be abandoned by the enemy 
without stubborn resistance, I expressed the 
opinion to Gen. Lee that it would be dangerous 
to send the 19th Kentucky, which was then de- 
ployed as skirmishers, through the opening to 
the top of the hill, without a heavy support. By 
his direction, however, I ordered the Regiment, 
with the remainder of the Brigade in support, 
to advance, and covered their movements by a 
fire from two guns of a Battery, which had been 
ordered to report to me during the day. The 
enemy soon disappeared, and I formed line with 
the Brigade on the side and top of the hill. 

In the meantime Major General Banks and 
Brigadier General Ransom arrived, and upon 
consultation, I believe it was decided to halt at 
that point. About one and a half or two hours 
must have elapsed before my other Brigade 
arrived, during which time the enemy made 
scarcely any show in front. On our right, how- 
ever, there were frequent indications of a large 
force of the enemy moving by the left flank, 
endeavoring to get a position upon onr right, 
parallel with the road. This induced me to 
commence changing front, so as to face them if 
they came down the road from Mansfield, or ad- 
vanced in line from a road on our right parallel 
with the road upon which we had moved, and as 



268 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

fast as they extended their line, I extended mine, 
so as to effectually cover my front and right 
flank. At half-past three o'clock P. M., the enemy 
placed his line, said by prisoners to be eight 
thousand infantry, with a reserve of twelve 
thousand cavalry and infantry, in motion. 

My force consisted of the following troops: 

First Brigade. Colonel Frank Emerson, 67th 
Indiana, commanding. 

19th Regiment Kentucky Vol. Inf., Lieut. Col. 
John Cowan, commanding. 

23d Regiment Wisconsin Vol. Inf., Maj. J. E. 
Greene, commanding. 

77th Regiment Illinois Vol. Inf., Major John 

A. Burdett, commanding. 

67th Regiment Indiana Vol. Inf., Major F. A. 
Sears, commanding. 

Second Brigade. Colonel J. W. Vance, 96th 
Ohio, commanding. 

96th Regiment Ohio Vol. Inf., Lieut. Col. A. 
H. Brown, commanding. 

83d Regiment Ohio Vol. Inf., Lieut. Col. W. 
H. Baldwin, commanding. 

48th Regiment Ohio Vol. Inf., Lieut Col. J. W. 
Liudsey, commanding. 

130th Regiment Illinois Vol. Inf., Maj. John 

B. Reid, commanding. 

The entire force numbered 2,413 men. 

It would have been impossible at that time to 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 269 

have retired from the position we occupied, and 
by direction of Brigadier General Ransom, who 
had arrived upon the field and assisted in person 
in arranging the line, I assumed the offensive as 
soon as I saw their whole line advancing, so as 
to meet them upon better ground, and with a 
better effect. A general engagement ensued, 
lasting one hour and a half, which was by far 
the most desperate I ever witnessed. Some 
parts of the line were broken, after a short but 
terrific engagement, but in other parts it re- 
mained firm and unbroken until the enemy had 
flanked my whole force and began to attack in 
the rear. Seeing that the capture of the entire 
force was inevitable unless I withdrew, I ordered 
the remainder of the shattered Regiments to 
fall back, which they attempted, but were una- 
ble to do with entire success. 

The list of 'the killed and wounded of my 
command cannot be ascertained, inasmuch as 
the enemy retained possession of the field; 
but that we suffered severly there can be no 
doubt. Many brave men fell, but they fell with 
their faces to the foe. Honored be their memory ! 

That the enemy suffered immensely, is known 
by actual observation, and by statements of pris- 
oners captured the day following, who acknowl- 
edged that they had purchased a victory at a 
bloody price. 

Colonel J. W. Vance, commanding. Second 



270 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH * 

Brigade, fell mortally wounded while gallantly 
cheering his men. Colonel Frank Emerson, 
commanding First Brigade, also fell wounded 
while nobly performing his duty, and is a pris- 
oner in the hands of the enemy. Major Reid, 
of the 130th Illinois was badly wounded while 
rallying his men. Lieut. Col. Lindsey, of the 
48th Ohio, was captured, and Major Bering, of 
the same Regiment, wounded. 

Lieut. Col. Cowan, 19th Kentucky, was con- 
spicuous for the manner in which he managed 
his Regiment, directing the fire of his men and 
preserving up to the order of retreat an un- 
broken line, driving the rebels from his front in 
three distinct charges, and ordering the fire in 
which it is believed the rebel general Mouton 
was killed, while leading a charge carrying a 
regimental fiag. When ordered to withdraw, 
he remarked that he had driven the rebels from 
his front, and if the remainder of the line stood 
firm he could not be taken. In endeavoring to 
obey the order, he was wounded and captured. 
Major Mann, of the same Regiment, was cap- 
tured. 

To Major Greene, and the officers and men of 
the 23d Wisconsin, for the manly and noble 
manner in which they supported the battery and 
held the left of the line until further resistance 
was impossible, I desire to express my admira- 
tion and gratitude. Major Sears and the gallant 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 271 

67th Indiana, Major Burdett and the brave men 
of the 77th Illinois, deserve the highest praise 
for their conduct. The officers and men of the 
130th Illinois and 48th Ohio, deserve equal 
praise. Though the survivors mourn the loss of 
their gallant field officers, they have the conso- 
lation of knowing that they all did their duty. 
Lieut. Colonel Brown, of the 96th Ohio, and the 
men of his Regiment, as well as Lieut. Col. 
Baldwin, and the officers and men of the 83d 
Ohio, are entitled to my warmest thanks for 
their gallantry in holding the right of the line 
until overpowered by vastly superior numbers. 
The conduct of the 19th Kentucky was worthy 
of all praise, and I thank them for their gal- 
lantry upon this, as upon all other occasions. 

The Chicago Mercantile Battery, Lieut. Cone, 
commanding, and the First Indiana Battery, 
Capt. Klauss, commanding, came upon the field 
about 4 P.M., and delivered a very destructive 
fire upon the advancing line of the enemy. 

The officers and men of these two Batteries 
deserve great praise for their coolness and cour- 
age. Many of their horses were killed, but they 
succeeded in getting their pieces into the road, 
when ordered to fall back, and would have saved 
their guns but for the immense wagon-train of 
the Cavalry which blocked up the road in their 
front and rear. 

Capt. White and Lieut. Cone, Mercantile Bat- 



272 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

tery, were captured. Lieut. Throop and Lieut. 
Barr, of the same Battery, were wounded and 
captured. 

Lieut. Rogue, 2d New York Veteran Cavalry, 
with his company, was with me during the day, 
and behaved well. Two men of his company 
were wounded. 

Brig. General Ransom, commanding Detach- 
ment of the 13th Army Corps, rode the entire 
length of our line, cheering the troops, and 
assisting in rallying the men after the line had 
been broken. This gallant and able officer was 
severely wounded while assisting me in trying 
to reform the line, and after he fell from his 
horse, continued to give directions as to the dis- 
positions he desired to make. 

It is proper to say that Captain Ninas' Battery 
displayed during the whole fight, a noble exam- 
ple of coolness and true courage. They are 
entitled to the highest commendation, and 
although they lost their guns, it is due to them 
to say, that they could not have prevented it, 
and that the damage they inflicted upon the 
enemy was such as to entitle them to the thanks 
of the whole army. 

Major Generals Banks and Franklin, and 
Brigadier General Stone were active in assisting 
to rally the men amidst the hottest of the fire. 

Part of the men were rallied, and a second line 
formed near the line of Brig. Gen. Cameron, who 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 273 

had arrived with the 3d Division 13th Army 
Corps, but it was unable to resist the continued 
assaults of the enemy, who pressed upon us with 
overwhelming numbers. 

Brig. General Emery, with the First Division 
of the 19th Army Corps, having arrived about 
sunset, checked the further advance of the enemy, 
and after dark I caused h' res to be built a short dis- 
tance in rear of the line on both sides of the road, 
and gathered together the shattered remains of 
my Division, which, together with what came in 
at Pleasant Hill next day, amounted to one 
thousand six hundred and eighty-three men, who 
were immediately reorganized and placed on 
duty. 

I thank Lieut. Henry P. Ayres, 77th Illinois, 
A. A. A. G.; Lieut. John Landram, 19th Ken- 
tucky, Aid de Camp; Capt. J. W. Wilkin, 130th 
Illinois; Capt. D. C. Holdridge, 23d Wisconsin, 
Inspector General, and Capt. R. H. Brock, 77th 
Illinois, for their gallantry and efficiency. They 
were all prompt and faithful in the discharge of 
duty. 

It is impossible to tell who were killed, who 
were wounded and who were taken prisoners, 
but my total loss in killed, wounded and prison- 
ers, is seventy-three officers, and one thousand 
and sixty-three enlisted men, making an aggre- 
gate of one thousand one hundred and thirty-six. 

My thanks are due to Rev. James Mathews, 



274 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Chaplain of the 19th Kentucky, who gave me 
valuable information at a critical moment. 

Lieut. G. 11. McKinney, A. A. Q. M., is entitled 
to praise for care and attention to the Division 
Train, none of which was captured. 

Capt. Rouse, 77th Illinois, A. A. A. G.; Capt. 
Vilas, 23d Wisconsin, Aid de Camp; Capt. Hogg, 
19th Kentucky, Inspector First Brigade; Capt. 
Lynch, 48th Ohio, Inspector Second Brigade, 
were faithful in the discharge of their duties, and 
deserve praise for their conduct. In this report 
of the part taken by my Division in the battle 
of Mansfield, or Sabine Cross Roads, I have 
thought proper to be thus particular in specify- 
ing the conduct of Regiments and officers, inas- 
much as Commanders of Brigades, and most of 
the field officers of Regiments, were among the 
killed and wounded, and none left to make 
reports. Respectfully, 

"W". J. LANDRAM, 

Colonel 19th Kentucky, Commanding Division. 

Before proceeding further with the harrowing 
details, it becomes necessary to insert the list of 
the losses in the Seventy-Seventh Regiment, as 
given officially by Col. Grier, after the fate of the 
officers and men became known. In this list, 
the names of the prisoners numbering one 
hundred and forty-three are omitted, but will 
be inserted hereafter, when we come to write of 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 275 

"Prison Life. 5 ' It will be noticed that the list 
of killed was light compared with the wounded 
and prisoners. But it was heavy enough to 
cause heart-strings to snap, and hearthstones to 
remain forever desolate. 

Official list of officers arid men of the 77th 
Regiment, Illinois Volunteer Infantry, killed, 
wounded and missing in the action of the 8th 
of April, 1864, at Mansfield, La. : 

FIELD AND STAFF. 

Killed LYSANDER R. WEBB, Lieutenant Colonel. 

" A." filled Private Samuel S. Divilbiss. 

"B." Killed Privates Jacob Ely, Philip Nelling. 

Wounded Sergeant William Dugan; Privates Sam- 
uel Vanhorn, George Chambers (mortally), Roger 
Ong, Franklin Smith. 

" C." Wounded Corporal Samuel M. Hart. 

" D." Wounded Private Albert De Long (mortally). 
Missing Private William H. Cassel. 

" E." Wounded Private Otis B. Smith. 
" F." Killed Corporal Hosea Johnson. 

"G." Killed First Sergeant William W. Miller; Private 
Francis O. Dimmick. 

Wounded Sergeant Cyrus H. Stock well (mortally); 
Corporal Francis W. Griswold; Privates Daniel F. 
Ogden, Moses Fisher, James A. Grissom. 
Missing Private Franklin Stanton. 

" H." Killed Private Isaac Grove. 

Wounded Corporal William H. Addis; Private 
Stephen W. Maring. 

"K." Killed Private J. Henry Brown. 

Wounded Sergeant Richard M. Holt; Private 
Henry Largent. 



276 



THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 



RECAPITULATION. 



Killed. 


Wounded. 


Missing. 


Prisoners. 


Field and Staff, 1 








2 


Company 


'A,' 


4 








35 






'B,' 


2 


5 





10 






"C/ 





1 





8 






'IV 





1 


"1 


10 






'E,' 





1 





13 






<F,' 


1 








25 






'G,' 


2 


5 


1 


9 




'H,' 


-i 


2 





9 




"V 

UTf 1 




1 




9 



n 


7 

IK 



Totals, 



17 



143 



Here is a grand total loss including prisoners 
of nearly one-half of the entire Regiment. 
If the loss of brave soldiers is the standard of 
military glory, the Seventy-Seventh Illinois Vol- 
unteers achieved glory enough for one day in the 
battle of Mansfield, La. 

Such was the disastrous conclusion of this dis- 
astrous affair. Our losses were counted by hun- 
dreds of killed and wounded, thousands of 
prisoners, many pieces of artillery, and whole 
wagon-trains loaded heavily with ordnance and 
commissary stores. It is said that among the 
trophies captured by the rebels, was a wagon 
load of paper colars, which they, not needing at 
the time, very generously proposed to exchange 
with General Banks for "hard tack." Kirby 
Smith is also reported to have said that General 
Banks was the best Commissary Sergeant he had 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 277 

in his army. But our own boys were unwilling 
that he should wear such an exalted title, and 
they called him "Corporal Banks." On one 
occasion, the General hearing this epithet applied 
to him, remarked, "Never mind, boys, Corporal 
Banks will come out all right in the end." And 
he did come out all right when he came out 
of the Department of the Gulf, relieved of his 
command. Some of the boys, with an ear for 
music and with little reverence for the " Cor- 
poral," immortalized the grand fizzle by asso- 
ciating it with a popular song, in the following 
style : 

" In eighteen hundred and sixty-four, 
When Banks skedaddled from Grand Ecore, 

We'll all drink stone blind, 

Johnny fill up the bowl." 

The following is an extract from a letter writ- 
ten by Dr. Geo. L. Lucas, Surgeon in Chief of 
the First and Third Divisions, Sixteenth Army 
Corps, dated Grand Ecore, April 16, 1864 : 

"The 77th Illinois was terribly used on the 
8th. They were in front all day; fought with 
desperation, but were overwhelmed. Those of 
the Regiment who escaped (130) were in no con- 
dition to take part on the 9th. The gallant 
Lieut. Col. Webb was killed, being struck by two 
balls at the same time, one of which entered the 
brain. * * * It is impossible to measure the 
indignation of this army against Gen. Banks. 



278 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Everybody sits up to the "wee sma' hours" over 
the matter the profane to weave new curses 
about his head, and the moral few to chime in 
with hearty amens I " 

While the enemy was retreating from the field 
of blood and disaster, one of Gen. Banks' staff 
officers, in riding past the Seventy-Seventh, 
inquired, " What Regiment is that ? " Finch, of 
Company " I," replied in his peculiar drawling 
manner, " It's-the-second-relief - of- Gen.- Banks' 
slaughter-pen." 

And now to show the audacity and cringing 
subserving of the New Orleans press, one or two 
incidents may be mentioned. At the time of 
this campaign, the writer of these pages was in 
garrison at Fort St. Philip, near the mouth of the 
Mississippi. One day a steam transport came 
down the river bringing copies of the New Or- 
leans Era, and in looking over the paper, we saw 
at the head of one column the representation of 
a huge cannon, belching forth flame, smoke and 
the missiles of death, and just beneath the pic- 
ture, the gratifying announcement gratifying 
if it had been true in large capitals with 
exclamation points : 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 279 




GLORIOUS VICTORY!! 

And yet the vessel which brought this news was 
going to Pass Cavallo, with the wings of steam, 
for reinforcements to assist in extricating Gen. 
Banks from his perilous position. 

On another occasion, as the writer was going 
to New Orleans on the steamer " Suffolk," he 
formed a casual acquaintance with a gentleman 
who represented himself as one of the proprie- 
tors of the New Orleans Times. This gentleman 
was on Red River during the campaign, appar- 
ently as a newspaper correspondent in reality as 
a cotton speculator. Rewrote a glowing account 



280 



THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 



of the "glorious victory," and sent it to the 
Times. After having concluded his article, he 
wrote the following private postscript to the 
editor of the paper : 

" You can publish the foregoing account of the 
recent campaign if you see proper, but you un- 
derstand, confidentially, that it is all a dd lie" 




CHAPTER THE FIFTEENTH. 



PRISON LIFE. 



TIRING those terrible four years of civil 
hi] war there was much of suffering and pri- 
vation on the march disease and death 
were frequent visitors in the camp and the hos- 
pital there was danger on the battle field. But 
all these evils were fearfully intensified in the ex- 
perience of those of our comrades who were so 
unfortunate as to fall into rebel hands as pris- 
oners of war. We will now turn aside for a 
short time in order to follow the fortunes of our 
Seventy-Seventh boys who were captured at 
Mansfield, and who spent more than thirteen 
long weary months in a rebel stockade at Camp 
Ford, Tyler, Texas. Before doing so, however, 
we will give the list of prisoners, as officially 
reported by Colonel Grier. 

FIELD AND STAFF. 

Charles Winnie, Major and Surgeon. 
John S. McCulloch, Captain and Chaplain. 
18 



282 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

COMPANY " A." 

Captain. Gardner G. Stearns. 

Sergeants. 'William H. Wilcox, John X. Grif- 
fith, Henry Wilson. 

Corporal. Henry A. Barber. 

Privates. A. J. Abraham, Henry G. Arrns^ 
James S. Coe, Daniel B. Cutler, Isaac Conner, 
Henry Crow, Benjamin F. Downard, Thomas 
Edson, Edward F. Green, Conrad J. Haller, 
Charles C. Hope, W. H. Kroessen, Thomas 
Lynch, James M. McGraw, James Mather, T. 
W. Neander, William Ott, Theodore Perkins, 
Joseph Rarnbo (wounded), John S. Rambo, Julius 
Rambo, John P. Randall, Luther G. Russell, 
Alfred Russell, William Smith, James H. Tarlton. 
William S. Tree, Mason M. White, George 
Woodmansee, Benjamin T. Wills. 

COMPANY " B." 

Captain. Joe H. Stevison. 

Sergeant. Lyman S. Calkins. 

Corporal. Augustus Schermeman. 

Privates. John Alexander, Hiram Kroft, John 
A. Roberts (wounded), David Simpson, George 
N. Woodring (wounded), Allen Woodring, Wil- 
liam A. West. 

COMPANY " C." 

Captain. Joseph M. McCulloch. 

Second Lieutenant. Charles F. McCulloch. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 283 

Sergeant.' Alfred G. Thorn. 

Privates. Philo W. Gallup, C. L. Gen no way, 
John Kennedy, T. H. McCulloch, Joseph T. 
Sims. 

COMPANY " D." 

Corporals. James Scoon, Samuel Hadlock, 
Joseph Wills. 

Privates. George W. Brewer, George W. De 
Long, Thomas Davis, Frederick W. Hake, Ben- 
jamin J. Jackson, Apollos Laughlin, William 

Wilson. 

COMPANY "E." 

Second Lieutenant. Henry L. Bushnell. 

Sergeant Henry E. Slough. 

Corporals Leonard T. White, Robert W. 
Summers. 

Privates John Buttrick, John Cook, Joseph 
Fulton, Thomas Forbes, Frederick Gutting, John 
S. Hammerbacher, Joseph T. Mills, Jacob Mau- 
kle, Cheney W. Thurston. 

COMPANY " F." 

Sergeants. Lewis Hamrick, George Lawrence, 
Ephraim S. Stoddard. 

Corporals. William Fowler, Francis Hatton, 
William Aid. 

Privates. Charles Aid, John Arrowsmith, 
Joseph Buckman, Jesse Crossen, John D. Ham- 
rick, Solomon Johnson, David B. Macey, James 
Miner, Allen T. Mitchell, George W. Norman, 



284 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

David Nighswonger, Harmon Seifert, Alfred 
Snell, Alonzo D. Stoddard, Marshall Smiley 
(wounded), Thomas Thurman, John Trump, Wil- 
liam H. West, Richard R. Wilkinson. 

COMPANY " G." 

First Lieutenant. Henry J. Wyman. 

Corporal. Gaylord Robinson. 

Privates. Daniel Beck, William Collister, 
Stephen J. Cook, John S. Hirst, Elias Martin 
(wounded), Daniel W. Shinmell, Jesse J. Purcell 

(wounded). 

COMPANY " H." 

Sergeants. Valentine P. Peabody, Hiram Liv- 
ingston. 

Corporal. Henry Smith. 

Privates. Leo Julg, Alfred B. Poage, Nor- 
man D. Richards, John M. Spandeau, John M. 
Smith, William Swendeman. 

COMPANY " I." 

Sergeant. Rufus Atherton. 

Corporals. George M. Dixon, Eli H. Plow- 
man. 

Privates. Isaac Brown, Asa A. Cook, Rich- 
ard Cowley, Alexander A. Thurman. 

COMPANY " K." 

First Lieutenant. Sylvester S. Edwards. 
Second Lieutenant. Marcus 0. Harkuess. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 285 

Sergeants. Servetus Holt, Andrew J. Vleit 
{wounded.} 

Corporals. Ephraim R. Shepard (wounded), 
Lawrence Ibeck, William Race, James M. 
Moody. 

Privates. John Greenhalgh, John Haynes, 
John Ibeck, Madison Largent, Jacob Lafollett, 
Edward R. White, Joseph Yerbey. 

These men one hundred and forty-three in 
number were captured at different times during 
the progress of the battle. Those who were first 
taken were marched to the rebel rear, and placed 
under guard in an open field about a mile from 
Mansfield, where they remained during the 
night, while those who were taken later in the 
day were marched into the town and placed in 
the court-house and the yard surrounding it. 
While here, they had an opportunity of learning 
something about the rebel losses in that sanguin- 
ary battle. During the whole night, wagon 
loads of dead and wounded arrived in town, and 
great lamentation was heard among the friends 
of the fallen. A regiment of Louisiana troops, 
numbering twelve hundred men, and many of 
them citizens of the town and vicinity, was 
almost annihilated. It was evidently a dearly- 
bought victory. 

On the morning after the battle, the prisoners 
were ordered to fall in, and were started off in 



286 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

the direction of Shreveport. In all, they num- 
bered ahout eleven hundred men. After march- 
ing sixteen miles, they were halted and went into 
camp for the night, and for the first time since 
their capture, they had rations issued to them. 
These consisted of corn meal and salt beef, with 
no vessels of any kind to cook them in. The 
rations were bad enough, but the cooking ar- 
rangements were worse. 

After the second night, an arrangement was 
made by which a better state of things prevailed. 
The guards left a detail of their own number in 
camp every morning to do the cooking for them- 
selves, and then, overtaking the guards and 
prisoners before camping time in the evening, 
would give their cooking utensils to the pris- 
oners, who would cook by turns during the 
whole night t and thus they managed to prepare 
their scanty rations. 

A day or two after leaving Mansfield, a courier 
arrived with orders to change the line of march 
in the direction of Marshall, Texas, and they 
arrived at that place on the 13th. There was 
great curiosity among the people to see the cap- 
tured " Yankees," and the whole population of 
the city and surrounding country, seemed to be 
present to see the circus. As our boys marched 
through the streets of the city, they treated the 
citizens to the music of that stirring battle-song : 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 287 

" The Union forever, hurrah, boys, hurrah, 
Down with the traitors, up with the stars, 
While we rally round the flag, boys, rally once again, 
Shouting the battle cry of freedom." 

Some of the ladies protested loudly against 
what they considered a profanation of the atmos- 
phere surrounding their sacred persons, and 
called upon the officer of the guard to stop the 
music. But that worthy paid no attention to 
their demands, and the show continued, much to 
the satisfaction of the guard and the prisoners, 
and the vexation and annoyance of the spec- 
tators. 

While on this march the boys saw many of the 
planters of Louisiana with groups of slaves, hur- 
rying to the interior of Texas, in order to be at 
a safe distance from the Union army. As the 
Seventy-Seventh had no love for slavery or slave- 
holders, they would generally salute these task- 
masters as they passed on the road with this 
appropriate chorus : 

" De massa run, ha! ha! 

De darkey stay, ho ! ho ! 
It must be now de kingdom's comin', 
And de year ob jubilo." 

No matter in what situation the boys might be 
placed, they were always equal to the emergency. 

At length, after a laborious march of seven 
days, the prisoners reached Camp Ford, near 
Tyler, Smith County, Texas. This was a stock- 



288 '^~\ THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

ade, that is, an enclosure formed by heavy 
timbers split in halves and set firmly in the 
ground on end. Originally, it contained only 
three acres, but had recently been enlarged to 
six or seven, in order to accommodate fresh arri- 
vals. At this time it contained about six hun- 
dred prisoners. The new-comers were detained 
the first night and a part of the succeeding day, 
outside the stockade. Here they were turned 
over to the guard on duty at this place, and their 
escort returned to the front. 

"When the prisoners arrived in sight of the 
stockade, they were anxious to get a view of 
their new residence, and were not very favor- 
ably impressed by the surroundings. Inside 
the pen there were a few log cabins and "dug- 
outs," crowded closely together in one corner, 
while the balance of the enclosed space was but 
recently cleared of timber, full of stumps and 
brush heaps. This was to be the home of these 
brave men until some indefinite time in the 
future. 

The prisoners already in the stockade were 
anxious to see the army of General Banks, which 
the rebels had reported to them as having been 
captured. Dressed in all kinds of clothing, a 
motley crew, they mounted the roofs of the 
cabins and occupied the highest points of ground 
in order to get a good view. Perhaps they had 
formerly met with a similar reception. As soon 



tLLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 289 

as they had marched into the prison-pen, the 
prisoners were formed into parallel lines, to listen 
to an address by Colonel Allen, the commandant 
of the prison. That dignitary gave them a 
formal introduction to their new quarters. He 
stated that each Regiment would be allowed the 
length of ground it occupied, and fifteen or 
twenty feet in width, and in conclusion, he ex- 
tended a cordial invitation to them to feel 
perfectly at home, and make themselves as com- 
fortable as possible. Whether this invitation 
was given in sincerity or intended as a joke, was 
never ascertained. But in either case, the boys 
could see very little prospect of comfort with no 
shelter, with no bed but the bare ground, and no 
covering but the starry heavens. 

For some time after their arrival, a few guards 
were detailed each day to take out small parties 
to the timber to carry in poles and brush to make 
a shelter from the sun by day and the dew by 
night. But this was slow and tedious work, and 
only the most determined succeeded in the enter- 
prise, and for many months most of the men 
were without shelter of any kind, and during the 
cool nights they were compelled to keep in 
motion, or huddle closely together around their 
scanty fire to keep warm. 

The oflicers were allowed special privileges to 
go out in parties under guard, and they were 
not long in securing timber enough to build log 



290 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

cabins. It was a refreshing sight to see a line of 
shoulder straps the emblems of authority 
marching into the stockade with timbers on their 
shoulders, and surrounded by a guard of butter- 
nuts. And then they would gather around their 
mush-pots, and with pine paddies, stir the mush 
for their evening meal. 

Fresh arrivals of prisoners came in frequently 
during the summer. On the 9th of July, six 
hundred of those who had been longest in prison, 
were sent forward for exchange, and again on the 
first of October, about the same number. Major 
Mann, of the 19th Kentucky, was one of these. 
He had been in command of the prisoners and 
of the internal arrangements of the camp up to 
this time. After his departure, Captain J. M. 
McCulloch, of the 77th, was appointed to suc- 
ceed him. As chief executive of the inside of 
the stockade, he had limited power to regulate 
the domestic institutions of the camp, and to be 
a medium of communication between the pris- 
oners and the Commandant. For this purpose 
he was allowed, on parole of honor, to go outside 
the stockade to the headquarters of the com- 
mander, and to range at will within a circle of 
half a mile. 

Captain McCulloch went to work with charac- 
teristic energy and foresight. He made sugges- 
tions to the commanding officer in regard to the 
defective sanitary condition of the camp. Hav- 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 291 

ing obtained permission, he procured some 
implements, and under his direction the men 
cleaned up the prison, made a ball-alley, and 
more system was introduced into the internal 
arrangements of the camp. As the winter was 
then approaching, he appealed to the com- 
mander for better shelter for the men, stating 
that to pass the winter in that condition would 
insure the death of one-half of the prisoners. 

The commanding officer wrote to Kirby Smith, 
the Department Commander, setting forth the 
facts in the case, and asking for facilities for 
building additional quarters. Receiving no reply, 
he wrote again, but still no answer came. It 
seemed to be the deliberate purpose of the rebel 
authorities to murder the prisoners in their hands 
by the slow but sure process of starvation and 
exposure, and this is one of the dark spots on the 
bloody history of the " Lost Cause." 

Captain McCulloch then suggested that the 
men would do the work themselves if the com- 
mander would furnish guards for a sufficient 
number of working parties. This he consented 
to do, and allowed four parties of eight or ten 
men each to go out in the forenoon and after- 
noon, and these men cut and carried timbers on 
their shoulders more than half a mile to build 
their cabins. This laborious work continued for 
about two months, when all the men had tolera- 
bly good winter quarters, and the appearance of 



292 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

the inside of the stockade was very much im- 
proved. 

The mail facilities at Camp Ford were not 
first-class. The prisoners were not often per- 
mitted to communicate hy letter with the outside 
world. Only when a flag of truce passed between 
the lines could letters be sent or received. It 
was six mouths after their capture before they 
received any tidings from the loved ones at 
home. The letters were all examined by the 
officials to see that they contained nothing ob- 
jectionable. During the last six months of their 
imprisonment, however, the mail arrived and 
departed more frequently, on an average about 
once a month. The arrival of the mail was a 
notable event at the stockade. A man from an 
eminence would call out the names, and the let- 
ters would be passed over the heads of the crowd 
until they reached the parties to whom they 
were addressed. As Camp Ford was not a 
healthy place for the paymaster, that gentleman 
failed to make his half-yearly visits as formerly. 

The rations consisted for the most part of corn- 
meal, beef and salt. The ration for one man 
was a pint of corn-meal and from half a pound 
to a pound of beef, with nearly enough salt to 
season it. This was rather slim living, but slim 
as it was, they were sometimes put on " short 
rations."" Is it any wonder that men starved to 
death in the prison-pens of the South? When 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 293 

the supply of corn-meal failed, shelled corn was 
substituted. The rations were issued in bulk. 
The beef" was brought into the camp in quarters 
and thrown on the ground until Yankee ingenu- 
ity invented a platform made of puncheons. An 
officer was detailed from the prisoners to super- 
intend the distribution of the rations. This 
difficult position was tilled by Captain Joe H. 
Stevison, of Company " B," for the last six 
months of their imprisonment. But the rations 
were wholly insufficient, and day after day the 
pinchings of hunger were keenly felt. 

Human nature presented many different 
phases among the prisoners. Those who had a 
fancy for such things would indulge in gambling 
and cheating and stealing and fighting. These 
were almost daily occurrences. Others, who 
had a taste for business, would endeavor to turn 
an honest penny in the way of trade. Some 
would manufacture fancy combs and trinkets 
from the horns of the cattle which were slaugh- 
tered. One firm of four persons made and sold 
nearly six hundred dollars' worth of these arti- 
cles. The barber, the tailor and the shoemaker 
plied their avocations. The baker sold his bis- 
cuits at twenty-five cents each and his sweet- 
potato pies for a dollar apiece! War prices! 
The banker did a loan and exchange business. 
The editor published the " Camp Ford News " 
occasionally, which afforded a good deal of 



294 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

amusement. Then there was a band of minstrels 
with violins and banjos of their own construc- 
tion, and music and dancing was the order of 
the night. 

The men were not without religious instruc- 
tion. The social prayer meeting was held almost 
every evening when the weather was favorable. 
Captured Chaplains would preach on the Sab- 
bath, and these meetings were well attended. 
But as these officers were considered non-com- 
batants, they were sent forward to our lines at 
the tirst opportunity. There was one exception to 
this rule, the Rev. H. B. Lamb. He was Chap- 
lain of a colored regiment, and for that reason 
was held . a prisoner and treated with great 
indignity. 

Through the influence of Captain McCulloch, 
the Chaplain of the guard was permitted to 
preach to the prisoners on two different occa- 
sions. He was reverently listened to by an 
audience of a thousand men. He was much 
surprised at this, believing that the prisoners 
were no better than a horde of barbarians. But 
the Captain remarked to him that the men were 
at least partially civilized. 

With but few exceptions, the farmers in the 
vicinity were very bitter against the prisoners. 
And yet, if they could make money out of them, 
well and good. They would overcome their 
conscientious scruples for the time being. One 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 295 

of those fellows came to the gate on one occasion 
with a load of " truck " and demanded permis- 
sion to go inside and sell to the prisoners. After 
some discussion with the officers, he was allowed 
to enter. He was offered a guard for protection, 
but this he declined, as he " was not afraid of (he 
Yankees." He took his position on Main street 
and was soon surrounded by a large crowd. But 
his prices did not suit his customers, and but few 
sales were made. He asked forty dollars for a 
brace of chickens, from ten to twenty dollars for 
a melon, and other things in proportion. Con- 
federate money was worth twenty cents on the 
dollar as compared with greenbacks. The boys 
had not money enough to spare to pay these 
prices. It was not long, however, until they 
became quite familiar with the products of his 
farm. This conduct he resented by flourishing 
a large hickory cane. 

While this was transpiring, some of the boys 
took the harness off the horses, while others 
took the hind wheels off the axle, and the 
farmer tumbled into a crowd of hungry, demor- 
alized and unscrupulous prisoners. He showed 
tight, but it was no use. He was soon relieved 
of his merchandise, revolver, pocket-book and 
all his loose valuables. He finally emerged from 
the crowd with his coat tail partly torn off, and 
the rest of his garments in a sadly demoralized 
condition. 



296 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

A great many plans were devised, and some 
of them successfully carried out, for making 
their escape from the stockade. The hospital 
was outside and when the sick were taken out 
they had to procure passes from the commander. 
A great many passed out on forged passes, and 
thus gained their freedom. Sometimes bribery 
was resorted to, and the guard, for a considera- 
tion, would allow them to pass out. Digging 
out was another method employed, but this plan 
met with indifferent success. A far more suc- 
cessful plan than any of these was adopted. 
There was a dump-cart drawn by an old 
horse in charge of a young soldier. This 
was employed in carting out the dirt and 
rubbish from the camp. The driver of this rig 
was easily prevailed upon to remain in the 
vicinity of the gate and trade jack-knives, or 
anything else, with the " Yanks," while some of 
the prisoners would take the cart inside and load 
it. One or two of the boys would then climb in 
and lie down in the bottom of the cart, and the 
others would cover them over with rubbish. 
Thus loaded, the cart was returned to the driver, 
who, pretending to be ignorant of the whole 
transaction, went out and dumped the load over 
the brow of a hill not far distant. The boys 
would then conceal themselves until dark, when 
they would spread their sails for more congenial 
climes. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 297 



But it was one thing to get outside the stock- 
ade, and quite another to reach the Union lines, 
three hundred miles distant. Very few suc- 
ceeded in the undertaking. Every white man in 
that country, between the ages of eighteen and 
sixty, was a soldier. And besides this, blood- 
hounds were put on the trail of the fugitives. 
They were soon captured and brought back, and 
then severe punishments were inflicted. Some 
were tied up by the thumbs, standing on a barrel, 
bare-headed, in the hot, broiling sun, for eight 
hours a day. Others were compelled to stand on 
a stump, cut with a right and left slope, for two 
hours at a time, while a guard stood near by 
with instructions to shoot the prisoner if he 
moved a foot. And the guard was only too 
willing to comply with these prders, as he would 
be rewarded by a furlough for so doing. 

Sometimes the recaptured prisoners were 
treated to a roping-in process. One party in 
crossing the Sabine River, had ropes tied around 
their necks, while the other end was tied to the 
saddle of their escort. In this way they were 
compelled to cross the river as best they could, 
behind the swimming horses. This roping was 
a favorite resort of one Captain Montgomery, 
who deserves an immortality of infamy. He 
commanded an escort between Shreveport and 
the stockade. When his prisoners would show 

signs of giving out on the march, he would rope 
19 



298 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

them to the saddles of their escort, and in this 
way they were dragged along, until nature was 
completely exhausted, and the prisoners fell by 
the ' way. From such treatment as this large 
numbers were consigned to a premature grave. 

During the winter a Regiment of Texas 
Cavalry had been on guard at Camp Ford, but 
on the 14th. of March, they were relieved by a 
detachment of the Reserve Corps, who, either by 
way of derision or of compliment, were termed 
''lop -ears." They were commanded by Lieut. 
Col. Jamison, and while they were on duty the 
prisoners received better treatment than at any 
other time during their imprisonment. 

Scurvy had been making fearful ravages among 
the men, and it became worse as the spring 
advanced. The hospital was full to overflowing, 
and had to be enlarged. There were no sanitary 
supplies, and very little medicine. Under this 
state of things, Col. Jamison allowed large 
parties to go out each day, on parole of honor, 
to gather greens and secure vegetables. Permis- 
sion was also given to a party from the 77th, one 
from the 130th Illinois, and one from the 120th 
Ohio, to fence and cultivate a garden in a field 
near the stockade. These parties carried . rails 
and fenced about six acres of ground. The Com- 
mandant furnished the seed. But they had no 
team to plow the ground. As a substitute, about 
a dozen Yankees were hitched to the plow, and 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 299 

thus prepared the ground, independent of horses 
or mules. Gardening was good exercise and 
beneficial to the men. And besides that, they 
had the pleasure of eating "garden sass " of their 
own raising before they left the camp, and their 
health was very much improved. 

After waiting and watching anxiously for 
weeks in hopes of exchange, the men became 
restless, and thought it would be a good idea to 
exchange themselves. The guards on duty at 
that time were not very zealous in the perform- 
ance of their duties, and it was no trouble to 
make arrangements with them for the necessary 
" passes." And within a week one hundred or 
more had left very abruptly between two days. 
This gave great annoyance to the Commandant, 
as he knew that his own guards were active 
agents in the new system of exchange. After 
consultation with Col. Bradfute, the Post Com- 
mandant, the following order was issued and 
posted in a conspicuous place in the stockade : 

OFFICE POST COMMANDANT, ) 
TYLER TEXAS, April 30, 1865. j 

Special Orders. No. 

I. Hereafter no Federal prisoners at Camp 
Ford, neither officer nor soldier, will be paroled 
or allowed to leave the stockade for any purpose 
whatever, except by authority from this office. 
Wood parties will be sent out under strong 
guard. 



300 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

II. In the future, the Federal prisoners at 
Camp Ford, will be required to go into their 
houses or shanties, at sunset of each day, and 
remain within them until daylight the next 
morning. 

III. No lights will be allowed in the houses 
or shanties of the prisoners at Camp Ford, after 
eight o'clock of each night, and the patrol will 
tire at any prisoner violating the foregoing orders. 

(Signed.) W. P. BRADFUTE, 

Colonel Commanding Post. 

COL. J. C. JAMISON, Com'd'g Camp Ford. 
[Official.] 

JOHN C. MORRIS, Lieut, and Adft General. 

Shortly after this order was issued, one of the 
prisoners was shot for an alleged violation of it. 
The circumstances surrounding the case may be 
gathered from the following letter : 

CAMP FORD PRISON, { 
May 6, 1865. j 

COL. JAMISON. 

Sir: I deem it my duty to inform you of the 
circumstances of the tragedy perpetrated in the 
stockade last night, by the patrol guard, as re- 
lated by the victim and his mess-mates. Two 
guards .passed by the door of his shanty, from 
whom he asked permission to step outside to 
urinate. Their answer he understood to be per- 
mission to do so, and stepped out a few steps 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 301 

from the door, when a third came along and 
ordered him inside. This order he complied 
with, and while in the act of stepping over 
the door-sill, was shot in the back. Now, that a 
man be killed under such circumstances, is, in 
my opinion, downright murder. Fortunately, 
the man was not killed, but this does not detract 
anything from the act. Being prisoners, we 
must of course, endure such things if they are 
inflicted, but being in the position I am, I must 
clear my skirts by entering my solemn protest 
against such violence. 

Respectfully, 

J. M. McCULLOCH, 
Capt. 77th III. Vol. -Inf. U. S. A. 

But the end was now drawing near. About 
this time rumors reached the prisoners of the 
assassination of President Lincoln of the sur- 
render of Lee's army and the general collapse 
of the " Confederacy." The assurance was given 
that within a week they would all be liberated. 
Then ensued several days of intense anxiety and 
suspense. The papers containing the news of 
these important events were kept from them, so 
that they could obtain no reliable information 
from the outside, and the most extravagant 
rumors were afloat. In the mean time, about 
fifty of the prisoners who had recently escaped 
were captured and returned to the stockade, 



302 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

having been tracked and " treed " by the blood- 
hounds. 

On the 13th of May, Captain Birchett, the 
paroling officer, came to the camp with a large 
mail and late Northern papers, confirming all 
the wild rumors they had heard. He informed 
them that they were to proceed at once to the 
mouth of Red River. Then a scene of joyous 
excitement was witnessed at Camp Ford. The 
war was at an end, their sufferings and privations 
were about to terminate. On the night of the 
14th most of the men in the Reserve Corps dis- 
charged .themselves and started for home, and 
the next day the rest of them left leaving only 
a few men of the 15th Texas Cavalry to guard 
the prisoners. In fact they were not guarded at 
all. Liquor was sold freely to the men and they 
went where they pleased. It was feared by the 
officers that acts of violence would be commit- 
ted, but to the credit of the men it must be said, 
nothing of the kind occurred. 

In this unsettled state of affairs, it looked as 
if the prisoners would have to find their way 
out of " Dixie's Land " as best they could. But 
at length a train of nine wagons put in an ap- 
pearance, and the remnant of the 15th Texas 
was ordered to escort them to Marshall, and 
there report to General Churchill. On the 17th 
of May they started. Seven of the wagons 
were used for carrying the sick; the other two 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 303 

were sent to Tyler for rations, to be issued on 
the way. 

Although out of prison and in a measure free 
men, their troubles were not ended. They 
trudged along wearily for two or three days but 
the promised rations did not come. The men 
threatened to break ranks and make the best of 
their way to Shreveport on their own account; 
but this would have been dangerous in the un- 
settled state of the country at that time. The 
officers prevailed upon the men to remain 
together awhile longer, and that night Lieut. 
Naylor, who was in command of the Texans, 
sent a courier to Marshall to inform the authori- 
ties there of the situation. The next morning 
they started at three o'clock, and marched twen- 
ty-five miles in a very orderly manner. In the 
evening they camped by a pleasant stream 
within six miles of Marshall. At this point the 
courier, true to his trust, returned with the 
much-needed rations. Here they killed the last 
of the beeves, and the men had a very good 
supper, considering the situation. 

The next morning they reached Marshall, and 
the Texaus were relieved by a detachment of an 
Arkansas regiment of infantry in command 
of Major Stuart. This officer did all he could 
for the comfort of the men. He procured ra- 
tions for them and sent the sick by railroad to 
Greenwood, within fourteen miles of Shreveport. 



304 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

He held the wagon-train to carry the sick from 
the terminus of the railroad. On the second 
night out from Marshall, however, the wagon- 
train left them, fearing confiscation by the rebel 
soldiers, who were appropriating such property 
to their own use. Under these circumstances the 
sick were left behind for the time being. Soon 
after reaching Shreveport wagons were sent back 
for the sick, and they were brought forward in 
time to embark on the boat with the rest of the 
men. 

It was a difficult matter to find boats for trans- 
portation, unless they could be assured of their 
pay. This assurance was given in the shape of 
cotton belonging to the defunct Confederacy. 
About 950 men, including those belonging to 
the 77th, took passage on the " General Quit- 
man," a very large steamer, too large, in fact, 
for the crooks and turns of Red River. They 
broke their wheels and met with other mishaps 
on the way, until finally, on the 27th they 
caught sight of the Union gunboats at the 
mouth of the river. They greeted the Father 
of Waters with as much enthusiasm as De Soto 
had done centuries before. 

The greatest number of prisoners at Camp 
Ford at one time was about 4,700. This num- 
ber was reduced by exchanges from time to time, 
until only 1,700 remained, and these constituted 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 05 

the " rear guard " of Federal prisoners held by 
the Confederate authorities. 

Before leaving their prison-pen, a volunteer 
detail of twenty men in charge of Lieutenants 
II. J. Wyman and C. F. McCulloch, built a sub- 
stantial post and rail fence around the grave- 
yard containing the remains of their comrades. 
There was about an acre of ground in the 
enclosure and it contained two hundred and 
eighty-two graves. 

From the mouth of Red River the prisoners 
proceeded to New Orleans, where they were 
quartered in cotton presses, awaiting orders 
from the authorities. Clothing was issued to 
them, but they received no pay. There was not 
much sympathy in this, for the men who had 
fought so gallantly at Mansfield and suffered so 
much at Camp Ford. 

On the 5th of June an order came from Gen- 
eral Canby for the officers and men of certain 
Regiments paroled prisoners to proceed to 
Benton Barracks, at St. Louis, Mo., in charge of 
the senior officer of the detachments. There 
were eight hundred and twenty-two men and 
twenty-two officers, and they belonged to the 
following Regiments: 77th and 130th Illinois, 
120th Ohio, 162d, 165th and 173d New York, 
23d Wisconsin, 18th, 28th, 32d, 33d, and 36th 
Iowa. They arrived at St. Louis on the 12th of 
June, where they received pay as commutation 



306 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

for rations while prisoners. The members of 
the 77th were ordered to Springfield; and on the 
17th of June were mustered out of the service, 
and received pay in full from the date of the 
last payment up to the time of their discharge. 
Thus after an imprisonment of thirteen 
months and nineteen days they were again free 
men, living under the protecting folds of the 
starry flag. From Springfield they went to their 
homes, where they arrived on the 8th of July, 
about two weeks in advance of the balance pf 
the Regiment. 




CHAPTER THE SIXTEENTH. 



THE RETREAT. 



MIDNIGHT, after the close of the bat- 
tle, the retreat began. How different 
from the advance ! The 13th Army 
Corps was literally cut to pieces. The 4th Divi- 
sion was a mere shadow of its former self. The 
77th, and some other Regiments, were almost 
annihilated. With feeliuga of sadness, mingled 
with indignation, the shattered remains of that 
army, turned their faces from the scene of dis- 
aster, and began their toilsome march in the 
direction of the Mississippi. All available means 
were brought into requisition for the transporta- 
tion of the wounded. They were mounted on 
horses and mules, on artillery caissons, on carts 
and wagons in fact on any conveyance which 
could be pressed into the service. Major Bur- 
dett was in command of the Regiment, as he had 
taken that position on the death of Col. Webb. 
The boys lost their knapsacks and contents, for 
they had been unslung and left behind when 
they moved to the front. 



308 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

At 8 o'clock, on the morning of the 9th, the 
troops were at Pleasant Hill, about twenty miles 
from the battle field. Here the boys met their 
old Division Commander, Gen. A. J. Smith. As 
a handfull of the 77th passed him, he asked, 
"What Regiment is this?" Some one replied, 
"The 77th~ Illinois?" "The 77th Illinois?" 
exclaimed the old veteran. " I know the 77th. 
Brave boys, too bad, too bad. You would have 
gone anywhere if I had said so." 

It was evident at this point that another battle 
was impending. Gen. Banks, well knowing his 
own incompetency, or wishing to shift the re- 
sponsibility of further operations, allowed Gen. 
Smith to take full command of the troops. The 
Cavalry had been terribly cut up on the preced- 
ing day while protecting the flanks of the army. 
The horses were maimed and bleeding, but they 
were now sent to the front to hold in check the 
advancing columns of an enemy flushed with 
victory and Louisiana rum. Gen. Smith arranged 
his forces in three lines, intending to give the 
rebels a warm reception. The 19th Army Corps 
formed the first line in the edge of the timber, 
with an open field to the rear. Across the 
middle of this field was a second line of troops 
supporting two guns. The 77th occupied a posi- 
tion just in rear of these guns and near the bank 
of a small stream, which meandered diagonally 
across the field. The third line was in the timber 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 309 

south of the Held, supporting all the guns which 
were masked at this point and double shotted. 

With the forces thus disposed and feeling the 
utmost confidence in their new commander, the 
men calmly awaited the result. In the mean- 
time, the 13th Army Corps, on account of its 
enfeebled condition, was sent to guard the wagon- 
train, having Grand Ecore on Red River, as the 
objective point. 

About noon the sound of musketry was heard 
in front. Our Cavalry contested the ground man- 
fully, but fell back as the enemy advanced. It 
was not long until the battle raged furiously. 
The earth trembled with the constant discharges 
of artillery and musketry. The Cavalry was 
driven back on the 19th Corps, which, in accord- 
ance with preconcerted arrangements, fell back 
on the second line. Full of excitement and 
confident of success, the enemy emerged from 
the timber, and entered the open field, shout- 
ing and waving the captured flags of the day 
before. They came on in solid masses, as if 
determined to crush our columns by mere force 
of numbers. The second line then gave way in 
the centre, according to previous instructions, 
and fell upon their flanks, while the masked 
batteries in the front, sent such discharges 
of grape and cannister into their ranks, that they 
quailed before them. Utterly routed and demor- 
alized they fled from the field, leaving their 



310 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

wounded and artillery in our hands. It was a 
"Pleasant Hill" for General Smith and his 
troops, but a very unpleasant one for the victors 
of the previous day. 

That night the army slept on the field of bat- 
tle, and followed the line of retreat the next 
morning. The 13th Corps guarding the fugitive 
wagon-train, marched nearly all night, in the 
direction of Grand Ecore, thirty-five miles from 
Pleasant Hill, where they arrived on the 10th. 
Here they came under the friendly protection of 
the gunboats. Other troops arrived the next 
day. Fortifications were hastily constructed to 
prepare against another attack, for the enemy, 
although defeated, was still able to pursue. On 
the 12th of April there was heavy cannonading 
up the river. General Gordon, with 4,500 men, 
had gone in that direction, and the firing was 
occasioned by an attempt on the part of the 
rebels, to capture his transports. 

The troops remained at this point until the 
22d. At 2 o'clock A. M. of that day, the forward, 
or rather the backward, movement, was resumed. 
The 19th Corps was in front, the 13th in the 
centre, while the 16th and 17th brought up the 
rear. When they arrived at Kane River, they 
found the enemy entrenched on a bluff on the 
south bank of the river, prepared to dispute the 
passage of the retreating column. Preparations 
were at once made for dislodging him from his 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 311 

position, and for an hour or more, there was a 
lively shelling on the part of our batteries. 
There had formerly been a bridge at this place, 
but the rebels had destroyed it, and now it was 
necessary to build a pontoon for the troops to 
cross. This was an important point, as it was 
the nearest and best place at which the train 
could cross. 

While the shelling was in progress, the 13th 
Corps and a part of the 19th were ordered 
up the river about two miles, where they crossed 
by wading waist deep. After crossing, General 
Weitzel's Division of the 19th Corps, took the 
advance. After marching through the timber a 
mile or two they encountered the enemy's picket. 
A sharp engagement immediately ensued, during 
which WeitzePs column charged across an open 
field in the face of a galling fire. Several of our 
men fell, but the charge was successful. While 
this was going on, the rebels came down like an 
avalanche on General Smith; but he was not 
caught napping. With his usual intrepidity he 
hurled his column against the enemy, and the 
result was not long in doubt. Weitzel in front 
and Smith in the rear, both hard fighters and 
each doing his appropriate work, the rebels 
were defeated and the victory of Kane River 
was decisive and complete. The army then pur- 
sued the toilsome march, harrassed more or less 



312 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

every day until the 25th, when they reached 
their old camp at Alexandria. 

While here, General John A. McClernand 
came up the river. The 13th Army Corps, 
which he had so often led to victory, but which 
was now a mere wreck, was formed in line to 
welcome and salute him. The hoys were glad 
to see him again, and only wished that they 
could once more be transferred to his command. 

On the morning of the 28th the Division was 
inspected, after which they stacked arms and 
received forty rounds of ammunition. This 
looked like business again. In the afternoon 
the troops left their entrenchments and moved 
to the front. Fighting was heard in the dis- 
tance, the enemy having assailed our pickets. 
The line advanced about a mile, when, without 
bringing on a general engagement, it gradually 
retired and fell back into the trenches. General 
McClernand was in command at that time, and 
as he and General A. J. Smith passed along the 
line of the 13th Corps, they were loudly cheered. 

The army remained at Alexandria until near 
the middle of May. The detention was caused 
by the fact that the river had fallen so much 
since the boats passed above the rapids that they 
could not return. It was feared at one time 
they would have to be blown up and abandoned; 
but Colonel Baily, of Wisconsin, came to the 
rescue. By constructing a dam across the river, 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 313 

and confining the water within a narrow chan- 
nel, he succeeded in extricating the gunboats 
and transports, and bringing them safely over 
the rapids. 

Two or three days after leaving Alexandria 
they reached the village of Marksville. At this 
place an artillery duel was engaged in by the 
batteries of the contending forces. It was an 
almost constant boom of artillery until noon, 
when the firing ceased. After passing through 
the town our column turned to the south, pass- 
ing over a beautiful prairie. Skirting this 
prairie there was a piece of timber in which 
the rebels had planted their guns. As soon as 
the column came upon the prairie the rebel guns 
opened fire, killing two of our horses. Our bat- 
teries soon wheeled into line, firing and then 
limbering and circling over the prairie, the 
rebels making the same rapid movement. It 
was a beautiful sight, but the damage was not 
great on either side. 

As the army approached the Atchafalaya 
River, the enemy seemed disposed to dispute 
the passage of that stream. On the 18th of 
May they began to close in on our retreating 
forces. This brought on an engagement, in 
which the batteries and General Smith's infantry 
did most of the fighting. Our loss was consid- 
erable. About two hundred prisoners fell into 
our hands. On the 19th the 4th Division moved 
20 



314 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

down to the boats on the Atchafalaya, then 
down the river two miles, and returned to the 
boats in the evening. 'During the day a bridge 
was constructed across the bows of the boats, 
and the 19th Corps crossed the river. The next 
morning the wagon-train went over, and pushed 
ahead in charge of the 19th Corps. In the 
afternoon the other troops crossed, the bridge 
was taken up and the boats started for the Mis- 
sissippi. 

On the morning of the 21st the troops were 
gladdened by seeing the great river once more 
the river near which most of their army life 
had been spent. From the mouth of Red River 
they marched down the Mississippi, in the di- 
rection of Morgauza. After marching about 
four miles, the First Brigade, consisting of the 
77th Illinois, 19th Kentucky, 23d Wisconsin and 
83d Ohio, together with the 96th Ohio of the 
Second Brigade, and five hundred Cavalry, were 
ordered back to the mouth of Red River. In 
a day or two they started down the river again, 
and after marching eighteen miles went into 
camp at Morganza. 

Thus, after these long and weary marches, our 
troops were again in a place of comparative 
safety. And what an experience they had 
passed through ! From the opening of the 
battle of Mansfield on the 8th of April, until 
now, the rattle of musketry and the boom of 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 315 

artillery had been ringing in their ears almost 
constantly. They had been harrassed in front, 
rear and flank by a tireless foe. This was a new 
and strange experience for our boys. Hereto- 
fore, under better management, they had always 
been the aggressors and always victorious; but 
now, they were compelled to act on the defen- 
sive, and protect themselves in their retreat as 
best they could. Incompetency, thy name is 
General Banks ! 

On the evening of May 24th the 77th went on 
board the steamer " Col. Cowles," belonging to 
the Quartermaster's Department, and the next 
day they left Morganza and started for Baton 
Rouge, once the capital of Louisiana, at which 
place they landed on the morning of the 26th. 
Their camp was pitched on a grassy plat of 
ground in the eastern limits of the city. At this 
place the days came and went with more monot- 
ony and less excitement than the Red-River 
campaign had aiforded. As the boys were hun- 
gry for news, much of the time was spent in 
reading. The paymaster came and cheered 
them with two months' pay. Frequent mails 
came to gladden their hearts. They went fish- 
ing and bathing in the Father of Waters. Heavy 
rains visited them and the loud clap of thunder 
was substituted for the roar of artillery. Tem- 
perance and religious meetings were frequently 
held by the Chaplains of the different regiments, 



316 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Some of the boys received furloughs to visit 
their homes in Illinois. 

One of the sad results of the late campaign is 
embraced in the following " Order " from the 
War Department : 

WAR DEPARTMENT, 
ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE, 
WASHINGTON, June 11, 1864. 

General Orders, No. 210. 

By direction of the President, the 13th Army 
Corps is temporarily discontinued. The General 
Commanding Division of West Mississippi will 
assign the troops of this Corps. 

By order of the Secretary of War. 

E. D. TOWNSEND, 

Assistant Adjutant General. 

And so the "Old Thirteenth" ceased to exist, 
for the time being, at least. It was a sad day for 
the members of that organization when this 
intelligence was received. But their past his- 
tory could not be obliterated by a " General 
Order." When they remembered the palmy 
days of the 13th Army Corps when McCler- 
nand was chief, and Smith, Carr, Osterhaus and 
Hovey were his able Lieutenants when Lan- 
dram and Burbridge and others well known 
were his Brigade Commanders, they felt like 
exclaiming : " How are the mighty fallen and 
the weapons of war perished." 

On the 17th of June, before the foregoing 



ILLINOIS VoLUNTEEfcs. 317 



order of discontinuance was received, the 77th 
was transferred to the Second Brigade, Colonel 
Grier Commanding. But this arrangement did 
not continue long, for in a few days the Regi- 
ment was again transferred, this time to the 
Third Brigade, Third Division, 19th Army 
Corps, and the boys inquired ' k What next?" 

The 77th remained at Baton Rouge until the 
20th of July, when they embarked on the ocean 
steamer " Tamaulipas " and were soon on the 
way to their old base of operations at New 
Orleans. Other troops were concentrating at 
this point, having been relieved along the river 
by the " hundred-dazers." It was very evident 
that another "objective point" had been se- 
lected, and the boys expected soon to get an in- 
vitation to the picnic. 

On the 24th, Chaplain McCulloch, who had 
been captured at Mansfield, returned to the 
Regiment from Camp Ford. He looked as 
though he had been on short rations for some 
time. He reported that the boys in prison were 
doing as well as could be expected under the 
circumstances. 

At two o'clock on the morning of the 26th 
the Regiment received orders to embark on the 
steamer " Alice Vivian " at daylight, which they 
did. The Second Brigade had already em- 
barked and gone up the river, it was under- 
stood that the 77th Illinois, 83d and 96th Ohio, 



318 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH. 

of the Third Brigade, were to follow; but soon 
after going on board orders came for them to 
wait for further orders. The 77th and 96th re- 
turned to camp, the 83d remaining at the river. 
Colonel Moore, Commanding the Brigade, had 
probably misunderstood the order. When the 
boys returned to camp they found that the camp 
wreckers had been there. They had carried off 
boards, bedding and everything else, so that the 
place presented a sorry appearance. 

On the 28th the Regiment turned over their 
Enfield rifles which they had carried so long, 
and were armed with Springtields. The next 
day they were ordered to turn over all surplus 
baggage and prepare for the coming campaign. 
About this time a scene was enacted which was 
not on the regular programme. The 3d Mary- 
land Cavalry, which was composed partly of 
deserters from the rebel army, was dismounted 
and ordered to take guns as infantry. Four of 
the companies refused to comply with the order. 
The 67th Indiana was ordered out to quell the 
mutiny. The companies refusing to comply 
were put under arrest. A strong guard was 
also sent from the 77th with very stringent 
orders. There is a convincing logic in the argu- 
ment of bayonets. The mutinous Marylanders 
soon found this out and were glad to return to 
their duty. 



CHAPTER THE SEVENTEENTH. 



GAINES AND MORGAN. 



F IT be true and who can doubt it that 
there is no rest for the wicked, and it' we 
give this expression a literal meaning, we 
naturally come to the conclusion that the Seven- 
ty-Seventh was a very wicked Regiment, for 
most assuredly they enjoyed but few seasons of 
repose. 

On the evening of July 30th, the Regiment 
left their camp and went aboard the steamship 
"St. Charles," and the next morning found them 
once more in the vicinity of the Gulf. Owing to 
a storm the vessel could not cross to Ship Island, 
the point of immediate destination, until Mon- 
day, August 1. On that day, at 3 o'clock P.M.? 
they cast anchor off the dreary coast of the 
island, and waited for further orders. During 
the night of the second, the vessel left Ship 
Island, and the next day reached the blockading 
fleet off Mobile Bay. In the distance loomed up 
the frowning battlements of Fort Powell, at the 
junction of Mississippi Sound with the Bay, 



320 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

while in the immediate vicinity the rebel gun- 
boats watched vigilantly the movements of our 
land and naval forces. A crisis was evidently 
approaching, and all were anxiously awaiting the 
result of the impending trial of strength and 
skill. On the third of August the troops disem- 
barked, landing on Dauphine Island, Alabama. 
The army was commanded by Major General 
Gordon Granger, and the navy by the brave and 
successful hero of many battles, Rear Admiral 
D. G. Farragut, Commanding West Gulf Squad- 
ron. 

The troops landed on the west end of Dauphine 
Island. The water was so shallow near the shore 
that the vessels had to cast anchor some distance 
out, and skiffs were employed to land the troops. 
Before night they were safely on shore, and 
ready for future operations. On the east end of 
the island was Fort Gaines, probably the strongest 
work on the Gulf coast. The capture of that 
stronghold was the object of this expedition, as 
a preliminary to the reduction of Fort Morgan, 
across the channel, and the ultimate capture of 
Mobile. At that time General McGinnis was in 
command of the troops on Dauphine Island, 
while Colonel Grier, of the 77th, was second in 
command. Very soon, however, the General was 
relieved, and the. Colonel was ordered to take 
command, as will be seen by the following ex- 
tract from a letter written at the time : 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. i 1 

" Fort Gaines, Aug. 8, 1864. * * * After 
a day or two, however, Gen. McGinnis was re- 
lieved and Col. Grier of the 77th, was ordered to 
take command of all the land forces, which he 
did with characteristic energy, so far as I know, 
to the entire satisfaction of Gen. Granger and all 
the troops. So when you see Canby or Granger 
mentioned, just remember that our Colonel is 
often'the one who did the work. * * * " It 
may be well to mention, in this connection, that 
Col. Grier retained the immediate command of 
the troops until the capture of Fort Gaines, and 
was then ordered to the peninsula on which Fort 
Morgan stood, and was in command during the 
siege and capture of that Fort. 

After the troops had Janded on the island, they 
were pushed forward in the direction of Fort 
Gaines, so that by the evening of the 4th of 
August, they were within a mile and a half of 
the enemy's works. Skirmishing began imme- 
diately. Five companies of the 77th "C," 
"D," "F," "H" and "I" were sent to the front 
to strengthen the pickets, and to push the ad- 
vance sufficiently near to allow the planting of 
our batteries. 

In the meantime the navy was busy. The 
channel, between Fort Gaines and Fort Morgan, 
was about three miles wide, but the rebels had 
driven piles across, leaving only a narrow channel 
next to Fort Morgan, through which vessels 



322 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

could pass. About 8 o'clock on the morning of 
the 5th, the gunboats moved slowly forward in 
the direction of this narrow channel. The mon- 
itors led the way, followed by the flag-ship 
" Hartford," with Admiral Farragut on board. 
One of the monitors, in entering the bay, struck 
a torpedo, which exploded, and the brave Capt. 
Craven, and his crew of a hundred men, found a 
watery grave. When within range, the hteavy 
ordnance of the Fort opened tire on the daring 
fleet, while the latter replied with such vigor 
that the earth and the ocean trembled with the 
concussion. The conflict was short, for soon the 
fleet had passed the Fort and was safe inside 
the bay. 

But their work was not yet done. They soon 
encountered the rebel fleet in the bay, under the 
command of Admiral Buchanan. One of the 
vessels belonging to their fleet, was the celebrated 
ram " Tennessee." The engagement was short 
and severe. The Union fleet, as usual, was tri- 
umphant. Admiral Buchanan lost a leg during 
the action, while our loss was severe. The 
" Tennessee " was captured, the rebel ram Mor- 
gan, was run ashore and burned, while several 
of their vessels made their escape up the bay. 

After our fleet had entered Mobile Bay, Fort 
Powell, in the Mediterranean Pass, was evacu- 
ated, and the guns of Fort Gaines were turned 
upon our land forces. For a time there was 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 323 

some lively shelling. But our troo'ps were not 
idle. A lauding had been constructed on the 
coast about a mile and a half distant. Large siege 
guns were landed and brought forward for the 
reduction of the Fort. Earthworks were thrown 
up, and our skirmishers not only held their 
ground, but steadily advanced. There was no 
escape for the garrison, and our boys felt sure 
that the surrender of the Fort, with all that it 
contained, was only a question of a few days at 
most. 

On the morning of the 7th, a flag of truce was 
seen approaching the lines from Fort Gaines, and 
the tiring ceased. The next morning the Fort 
surrendered unconditionally to Admiral Far- 
ragut. The troops composing the garrison 
marched out in front of our lines and stacked 
their arms. They numbered 725, and were 
mostly boys about seventeen years of age, be- 
longing to the 21st Alabama Regiment. As soon 
as the surrender was made, the " Stars and Bars" 
the emblem of secession was hauled down, 
and the Flag of the United States floated proudly 
over the captured works. 

The next day the Regiment packed knapsacks 
and went on board a vessel intending to cross the 
bay, to operate against Fort Morgan, the next 
point of attack. In crossing, the vessel ran on a 
sand-bar, and stuck fast. Another came to their 
relief and shared the same fate. They were then 



324 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

transferred to the tin-clad " 42," and the next 
morning returned to Fort Gaines. 

Iii the meantime, Col. Grier, with all the land 
forces, excepting the 77th and one other Kegi- 
ment, crossed over to the peninsula, and laid siege 
to Fort Morgan. The bombardment went on 
day after day by the monitors and the land bat- 
teries, with heavy replies from the Fort. The 
22d, however, was the " big day" in the siege of 
Fort Morgan. At daybreak a heavy cannon- 
ading began by the batteries on land and sea, and 
was maintained, without interruption, all day 
and far into the night. The Fort was enveloped 
in a dense cloud of smoke, and twice, during 
this terrific firing, the buildings inside were set 
on fire by our shells. 

Such a conflict could not long continue. At 7 
o'clock on the morning of the 23d, a white flag 
was hoisted on the works, and one was seen ap- 
proaching our lines. The firing ceased and terms 
of capitulation were agreed upon. At 3 o'clock 
P.M., Fort Morgan was again the property of the 
United States. The Stars and Stripes, 

" Flag of the free heart's hope and home, 
By angel hands to valor given," 

floated proudly over the fortress, and the ram- 
parts were patroled by the " Boys in Blue" 

The Regiment remained on the island until 
the 25th, when they struck tents and went on the 
steamer " J. M. Burr," and crossed over to Fort 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 325 

Morgan. Here they took on board the 96th Ohio, 
and also a lot of spades, shovels, axes, wheel- 
barrows, etc., and then ran up to Cedar Point, 
above Fort Powell, and landed. They marched 
about a mile and then returned, as the point was 
so swampy they could find no place to encamp. 

The Brigade now consisted of five Regiments, 
the 23d Wisconsin, 67th Indiana, 77th Illinois, 
96th Ohio and 161st New York. But in less 
than a week another change was made, when the 
Brigade was reduced to three Regiments the 
34th Iowa, 67th Indiana and 77th Illinois and 
commanded by Col. Clark, of the 34th Iowa. 

Details went to work on the point, throwing 
up breastworks and bringing forward artillery 
from the boats. The boys enjoyed themselves 
feeding on fish and oysters, which were abun- 
dant, while the mosquitoes enjoyed themselves 
feeding on the boys. But as there was not room 
enough for so many troops, the Seventy-Seventh 
and two other Regiments crossed the Bay and 
landed at Pilot Town, four miles in rear of Fort 
Morgan. But they did not remain here long. 
On the 9th of September they went on the 
steamer "Thomas Sparks," and turned their 
prow in the direction of the Mississippi. Early 
on the morning of the llth they landed in front 
of the old familiar levee at New Orleans, but 
were immediately sent up the river to their 
former camping-ground at Morganza. 



326 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH. 

As this was the year of the presidential elec- 
tion, a vote was taken in the Regiment at this 
place, in order to feel the political pulse. The 
vote resulted as follows : 

For Abraham Lincoln, . - . . . 303 

" George B. McClellan, ... 25 

Neutral, 17 



Total, ... 345 

The result showed very conclusively that the 
boys did not consider " the war a failure" as 
some of the politicians of the North had de- 
clared it to be. 





CHAPTER THE EIGHTEENTH. 

" A SOFT THING." 



BOUT the only "soft thing" the boys 
enjoyed while in the service, was now 
before them. Captain Stevens had gone 
to New Orleans for the purpose of securing a 
place in the city for the Regiment during the 
winter He succeeded in his mission, and on the 
6th of October they received orders to pack 
their traps and proceed once more to the Crescent 
City. They obeyed the order with alacrity, and, 
taking passage on the steamer " Laurel Hill," 
bade farewell to their camp at Morganza with- 
out regret. 

While the boat was lying at Port Hudson, 
taking on wood, there was a detail of colored 
soldiers stationed on board and on the gang- 
plank, as was usually the case when a vessel 
landed, to prevent desertion, smuggling, or any 
contraband traffic. Captain Stevens, having just 
returned from New Orleans, met the Regiment 
at this place. As he was walking up the gang- 
plank to go on the boat he was baited by a 



328 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

colored soldier, who refused to let him pass until 
the officer of the guard was called. The joke 
was enjoyed by the boys a great deal more than 
it was by the Captain. 

At Baton Rouge they met their old friends of 
the 19th Kentucky, and were received by them 
with fraternal greetings. The Seventy-Seventh 
first met the 19th at Covington, Ky., when they 
came in from Cumberland Gap, and the acquaint- 
ance thus formed ripened into a friendship 
which lasted during the war, and has been 
remembered with pleasure ever since. They 
were a sorry-looking lot of soldiers "dirty, 
ragged and forlorn." But they were cheerful, 
even jolly in their misfortunes. They would 
sing " Happy Land of Canaan " or " We '11 hang 
Jeff Davis on a sour apple tree," with a great 
deal of enthusiasm. For nearly two years the 
two Regiments had marched and fought side by 
side in the same campaigns, and a truer body of 
soldiers than the 19th Kentucky was never or- 
ganized and led into the field. "Always cheer- 
ful, always ready, generous to a fault, loyal to 
the core; the kind of material that any army 
might well be proud of." 

As soon as the Regiment arrived at New Or- 
leans they took up their abode in Picayune Press 
No. 4. The 77th relieved the 48th Ohio, which 
was sent to Natchez, Miss. Our boys now had 
the pleasure if it could be called a pleasure 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 329 

of guarding the prisoners they had assisted in 
capturing at Fort Gaines. On the 10th of Oc- 
tober only two days after their arrival a 
detail was sent to Dry Tortugas in charge of a 
lot of prisoners. And such expeditious were 
frequent during the fall and winter months. On 
one occasion about two hundred prisoners were 
sent away to be placed in " durance vile " until 
the close of the war. And the scene was a sad 
one, although they were our foes. Fathers and 
mothers brothers and sisters sons and daugh- 
ters were there to give a parting grasp of the 
hand, and bid a tearful farewell to their friends, 
as they marched away under a strong guard of 
bristling bayonets. 

On the 24th, Captain Stearns, who was taken 
prisoner at Mansfield, returned to the Regiment 
from Tyler, Texas, after an an absence of more 
than six months. The boys were glad to see 
him at home again, and also to receive intelli- 
gence from their comrades, who were still lan- 
guishing in the prison-pen. 

The religious opportunities of the Regiment 
while in the city, were excellent. Besides their 
own services, they were allowed to attend any 
of the churches they preferred. The Rev. Dr. J. 
P. Newman, an eloquent speaker and an earnest 
worker, preached at the M. E. Church, on Caron- 
delet street. This church drew most of its 

attendance from the army. In fact, judging 
21 



330 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

by the blue coats present at all the services, it 
seemed to be almost exclusively, a soldier's 
church. 

Some of the boys received details and were 
detached from the Regiment for a time. On the 
10th of November, a General Court Martial for 
the Department of the Gulf, was ordered to con- 
vene at No. 38 Union Street. Of this Court, 
Captain J. D. Rouse, of Co. "G," was Judge 
Advocate; Musician J. H. Snyder, of Co. "I," 
was Clerk, and Private Joseph Tronier, of Co. 
" D," was Orderly. Other details were also made 
from different companies. 

In December, some important changes were 
made in the Department of West Mississippi. 
The troops composing the old 13th Army Corps, 
and such as remained of the 19th, were formed 
into a " Reserve Corps " of four Brigades, each 
to be commanded by a Brigadier General. The 
77th was assigned to this corps, and ordered to 
proceed at once to Brazos Santiago, at -the mouth 
of the Rio Grande. This order was issued by a 
new Adjutant General, at Gen. Hurlbut's Head- 
quarters, without the General's knowledge. 
Colonel Grier went to see about it, and General 
Hurlbut at once revoked the order. And so the 
Regiment secured a new lease of life on garrison 
duty. 

With light duties to perform, with plenty to 
eat and good clothes to wear, with the freedom 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 331 

of the city and access to places of instruction 
and amusement, the winter passed pleasantly 
away. The companies were stationed at different 
places. Some in Alabama Press, some in Pic- 
ayune Press, some on Levee Street, and else- 
where, so that any one wishing to visit the 
Regiment, had a long tramp before he could see 
them all. 

But it was not long until the first note of 
preparation for an approaching campaign was 
heard. Several of the Regiments had become 
reduced below the standard allowed by the War 
Department. Among these were the 77th and 
130th Illinois, and they were consolidated, the 
latter, for the time being, losing its identity, and 
the former retaining its original name and num- 
ber. This proceeding was distasteful to the men 
of both Regiments, as they preferred to retain 
their own separate existence until finally mus- 
tered out of the service. The following orders 
will explain how the consolidation was effected: 

HEADQUARTERS, DEPARTMENT OF THE GULF, ) 
NEW ORLEANS, January 14, 1865. j 

Special Orders, No. 14- 

Extract. 

**#*##*;(;# 

IX. The Seventy-Seventh and One Hundred 
and Thirtieth Illinois Volunteers will be consol- 
idated, and known as the Seventy - Seventh 



332 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Illinois Volunteers. Brigadier General T. W. 
Sherman, commanding Defences of New Orleans 
(who is charged with the execution of this order), 
will designate such commissioned officers as will 
be retained in the service, to command the new 
organization. All other officers will be at once 
mustered out of service. 

All supernumerary non-commissioned officers, 
who were appointed as such at the date of the 
original organization of their respective com- 
panies, will be mustered out of service. 

All other surplus non-commissioned officers, 
who have been appointed since the original 
organization, will be reduced. 

By command of 

MAJOR GENERAL HURLBUT. 
C. 8. SARGENT, 

Official: 1st Lieut. 2d La. Vols. and A. A. A. G. 

J. C. STONE, 

Captain and A. A. O. 

HEADQUARTERS, DEFENCES OF NEW ORLEANS, } 
NEW ORLEANS, January 21, 1865. j 

Special Orders, No. 18. 

Extract. 

I. In accordance with Special Orders, No. 14, current 
series, Department of the Gulf, the following-named officers 
of the Seventy-Seventh and One Hundred and Thirtieth 
Illinois Volunteers, are retained in the service; and all the 
rest will be mustered out by the Chief Mustering Officer, 
Defences of New Orleans: 



tLLItfOIS VOLUNTEERS. 333 

Colonel David P. Grier 77th 111. Vol. 

Lieutenant Colonel John B. Reid 130th 111. Vol. 

Surgeon Charles Winnie .. 77th 111. Vol. 

Assistant Surgeon John Stoner 77th 111. Vol. 

First Lieut, and Adj't, Henry P. Ayres 77th Ill.Vol- 

First Lieut, and Q.M., David McKinney 77th 111. Vol. 

Chaplain John S. McCulloch 77th Ill.Vol. 

Captain Joseph M. McCulloch.. 77th Ill.Vol. 

Captain Robert H. Brock 77th Ill.Vol. 

Captain Edwin Stevens 77th Ill.Vol. 

Captain John D. Rouse 77th Ill.Vol. 

Captain Jesse R. Johnson 130th Ill.Vol. 

Captain John W. Watts 130th Ill.Vol. 

Captain Jacob Wilken 130th Ill.Vol. 

Captain Milgrove B. Parmeter.. 77th Ill.Vol. 

Captain Gardner G. Stearns 77th Ill.Vol. 

Captain J. Kirby Secord 77th Ill.Vol. 

First Lieutenant Samuel J. Smith 77th Ill.Vol. 

First Lieutenant William Harned 130th Ill.Vol. 

First Lieutenant Henry J.Wyman 77th Ill.Vol. 

First Lieutenant Clark S. Crary 130th Ill.Vol. 

First Lieutenant Thomas C. Mathews... 77th Ill.Vol. 

First Lieutenant Edward S. Dewey 130th Ill.Vol. 

First Lieutenant John W. Paulson 130th Ill.Vol. 

First Lieutenant Joseph F. Parker 130th Ill.Vol. 

First Lieutenant John M. Shields 77th Ill.Vol- 

First Lieutenant George C. Kenyon 77th Ill.Vol. 

Second Lieutenant Marcus O. Harkness... 77th Ill.Vol. 

Second Lieutenant Wilson J. Neil 130th Ill.Vol. 

Second Lieutenant Andrew S. Martin 130th Ill.Vol. 

Second Lieutenant Charles W. Johnson. ..130th Ill.Vol. 

Second Lieutenant Charles F. McCulloch.. 77th Ill.Vol. 

Second Lieutenant Henry L. Bushnell 77th Ill.Vol. 

By command of 

BRIGADIER GENERAL SHERMAN. 
Official : FREDERICK SPEED, A. A. 6. 

J. E. MALLORY, 1st Lieut, and A. A. A. O. 



334 



THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 



On the 25th of January, the consolidation was 
completed by the union of the two Regiments in 
one. While the 130th ceased to exist as a 
separate organization, the strength of the 77th 
was materially increased, as will be seen by the 
following figures : 

Company ' E," 48 

Company ' F," 58 

Company 
Company 



Field and Staff. 1 

Non-commissioned Staff.. 1 

Line Officers 11 

Company "A," 17 

Company " B," 68 

Company " C," 41 

Company " D," 46 



Company 
Company 



G,". 
H,". 

I," 
K," 



88 
54 

41 



Making a total increase in the strength of the 
Regiment of 473 men. 

On the 10th of February the Regiment was 
inspected, and in the afternoon they left their 
quarters in Wood's Press and marched down 
Canal Street to Carondelet, thence down to 
Tivoli Circle, thence up St. Charles to Canal 
Street and back to their camp. On the line of 
march they passed the Headquarters of Brigadier 
General T. W. Sherman, Commanding Defences 
of New Orleans; of Major General S. A. Hurl- 
but, Commanding Department of the Gulf, and 
of Major General E. R. S. Canby, Commanding 
Department of West Mississippi. 

The annual Spring activity now began to 
prevail in military circles. Street parades, 
regimental inspections etc., were frequent oe- 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 335 

currences. The Seventy-Seventh received orders 
to be in readiness to march at a moment's notice. 
Everything seemed to indicate a forward move- 
ment in the near future. As a further evidence 
of this, the enlisted men of the Regiment on 
detached service were ordered to rejoin their 
companies, as the subjoined Special Order will 
show. 

HEADQUARTERS SOUTHERN DIST. OF LOUISIANA, ) 
NEW ORLEANS, February 18, 1865. j 

Special Orders, No. 55. 

Extract. 

IV. In obedience to General Orders, No. 37, 
series of 1864, from Headquarters, Military Divi- 
sion of West Mississippi, the following-named 
men of the 77th Illinois Volunteers are hereby 
relieved from their present duties and will at 
once rejoin their companies : 

Sergeant B. F. Rice, . . . Company "D." 
Sergeant William C. McGowan, Company "H." 
Corporal C. A. Stevenson, . Company " E." 
Wagoner L. Z. Rench, . . . Company " E." 
Private Joseph Tronier, . Company "D." 
Musician Jacob H. Snyder, . . Company " I." 

*^:^****** 

By command of 

BRIGADIER GENERAL SHERMAN. 

FREDERICK SPEED, A.A.G. 




CHAPTER THE NINETEENTH. 



MOBILE. 



>EVENTY-SEVENTH, forward ! Take 
off your paper collars. Leave your 
blacking-brushes and brass mountings 
behind. Git up and git" or words to that effect, 
was the order of February 20, 1865. 

In compliance with this order they left their 
camp at a little before noon, and marched to 
Bull's Head Landing, where they remained in 
the dock-yard all the afternoon, and at dark 
went aboard the steamer " St. Mary " the same 
"St. Mary" which had brought them from 
Texas a year before. Some of the boys still 
clung to their paper collars the last relic of 
garrison life. Homer H. Higbie and some of the 
others who thought these were unnecessary or- 
naments in an active campaign, went through 
the Regiment and despoiled the boys of their 
treasures. In doing so they acted on the princi- 
ple, " peacably if we can, forcibly if we must," 
and as a general thing the "must" had it by a 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 337 

large majority, to the amusement of all con- 
cerned. 

The next morning found them once more. on 
the blue waters of the Gulf. But the sea was 
rough and boisterous. Heavy winds, increasing 
to a gale, blew from the west. The storm in- 
creased in violence. The vessel rolled from side 
to side, or plunged madly forward over the bil- 
lows. The boys began to think they were on 
their last excursion. There were pale faces and 
anxious hearts on board that day. The old sea- 
sickness returned, and the old process of " heav- 
ing up Jonah " was resorted to by way of relief. 
Home, and Mother occupied many thoughts, 
while by many others the Patron Saints were 
invoked for deliverance. The horses and mules, 
as well as the men, were terribly bruised and 
battered by the storm. In order to escape the 
storm the vessel was finally run in under the 
shelter 'of Chandler's Island, about fifty miles 
from Fort Morgan. They remained here until 
the morning of the 23d, when they weighed 
anchor, proceeded on their way, although the 
sea was still rough, and landed at Fort Morgan 
in the afternoon. As one of them said, " they 
were glad to serve as dry-land sailors, rather 
than as soldiers on the sea." It was raining, 
and as soon as they stacked arms, they sought 
shelter under a pontoon train, and there they 
spent the night. 



338 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Soon after their arrival, the following order 
was issued by the War Department: 

WAR DEPARTMENT, } 

ADJUTANT GENERAL'S OFFICE, i- 

WASHINGTON, February 28, 1865. ) 

General Orders, No. J*. 

The Thirteenth and Sixteenth Army Corps hav- 
ing been reorganized by Major General Canby, by 
direction of the President, Major General Gor- 
don Granger is assigned to the command of the 
former, and Major General A. J. Smith to the 
latter; their assignment to date from February 
18th. By order of 

The Secretary of War. 
E. D. TOWNSEND, 

Assistant Adjutant General. 

As now constituted, the Third Division was 
organized as follows : 

3d Division, 13th Army Corps. 

Brigadier General W. P. Benton, Com- 
manding. 

1st Brigade. Colonel D. P. Grier, Commanding. 
28th and 77th Illinois, 96th Ohio and 35th 
Wisconsin. 

2d Brigade. Colonel Day, Commanding. 

7th Vermont, 91st Illinois, 29th Iowa and 
50th Indiana. 

3d Brigade. Colonel Krez, Commanding. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 339 

27th and 28th Wisconsin, 33d Iowa" and 
77th Ohio. 
Artillery. 21st and 26th New York Batteries. 

And now the "Old Thirteenth" is resurrected. 
Again it figures in history. But how changed ! 
Some of the old forces remain, but most of the 
material is new. We miss the old familiar faces 
of the 19th Kentucky the 67th Indiana the 
48th Ohio, and others. The Mercantile Battery, 
of our own State is not with us now. But no 
matter. They are doing their appropriate work, 
and will render a good account of themselves 
wherever they go. 

Good news reached the boys from other parts 
of the great field embraced in the rebellion. 
General Sherman had forced his way from " At- 
lanta to the Sea." Our Flag floated over the 
battered works of Fort Sumter. General Grant 
was hammering away at Richmond, with pros- 
pects of ultimate success. The coils were tight- 
ening around the " Confederacy." The end was 
drawing near, and visions of " Home, sweet 
Home," animated the men at Mobile, and in- 
spired them with new life. 

On the 17th of March the troops moved for- 
ward. All unnecessary baggage was left behind. 
The officers were ordered to take " dog-tents," 
instead of the commodious tents they had been 
using. The march began at daylight. The 



340 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTfi 

roads were sandy and swampy. The country 
was covered with a dense growth of pines and 
underbrush. Corduroy roads were built in order 
to render the passage of wagons and artillery 
possible. Slow progress was made, as they 
marched only twelve miles the first day, and 
ten the second. But the worst was yet to come. 
On the night of the 20th one of those southern 
rain storms, with which they had become so 
familiar, descended upon them. The next day 
they marched, or rather waded, only two miles, 
and this through water from two inches to two 
feet deep. The teams could not draw the 
wagons, and the men were detailed as brevet 
males. Covered with mud and full of fun, the 
boys pulled the wagons through the swamps, 
twenty men doing the work of a span of mules. 
What a scene for the poet or the painter ! 

Through all these discouragements the troops 
pressed on, and on the night of the 22d encamped 
on the East Branch of Fish River. All day they 
could hear heavy cannonading in advance, far 
up the bay. The next morning early, the march 
was resumed, and about the middle of the after- 
noon they went into camp. General A. J. 
Smith occupied the advance with the 16th Army 
Corps. He had been skirmishing with the 
enemy during the day, and now held a forti- 
fied position to be prepared for any attack 
that might be made. They remained in camp 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 341 

a couple of days and then moved forward. The 
timber was dense and dark, and the marching 
tedious and slow. On the morning of the 26th 
the troops took an early start. General Smith 
marched off on a road leading to the right, and 
General Bertram to the left. The 1st and 3d 
Divisions of the 13th Corps occupied the centre. 
As they were now in the vicinity of Spanish 
Fort, every precaution was taken to guurd 
against surprise. Works were thrown up in 
front every night, and the utmost vigilance 
maintained all along the line. 

At last, on the night of the 27th, the fort was 
invested. The line extended around the works 
in the form of a half circle, touching the bay on 
the right and left. The monitors in the bay 
occupied the enemy's attention in that direction. 
During the next three or four days heavy siege- 
guns were brought forward and placed in posi- 
tion, and all the necessary preparations com- 
pleted for an energetic prosecution of the siege. 

On the 4th of April, Garrett D. Pence, of 
Company "I," was shot in the right shoulder 
and very severely wounded. It was the custom 
of the boys to lay a piece of wood on the top of 
their breastworks and then to dig a hole under 
the wood through which to fire at the enemy. 
Garrett had been exchanging shots all night 
with a rebel picket, without inflicting any dam- 
age on either side. In the morning he saw a 



342 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

piece of wood lying just in front of the works, 
which he thought would be a good thing to 
afford protection for him. Just as he reached 
over to secure the prize, the rebel fired and Gar- 
rett received the .shot in his shoulder. The only 
complaint the brave boy made, as he came back 
to the Regiment, was that the rebel might have 
allowed him to get the piece of wood to fix up 
his port hole. 

On the 6th an official dispatch was received 
from General Canby, ordering a salute of one 
hundred shotted guns to be fired at twelve o'clock 
in honor of a great victory won by the Army of 
the Potomac at Petersburg, by the Army of the 
Mississippi in North Carolina, and by the Army 
of the Cumberland at Selma, Alabama. 

On the evening of the 8th our batteries and 
siege-guns opened with terrible effect on the 
rebel works, followed by incessant volleys of 
musketry. Then loud and prolonged cheers 
were heard, and all was quiet again. A dispatch 
from General Cauby announced that General 
Smith had charged the rebel line, had carried 
three hundred yards of rifle-pits, and captured 
two hundred prisoners. At midnight a rumor 
came that the rebels had evacuated and that our 
skirmishers had entered the works. And thus 
another victory was added to the long list already 
recorded. 

The next day the 13th Army Corps left Span- 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 343 

ish Fort and marched to Blakely, already in- 
vested by General Steele. Fearing 'the works 
would be evacuated that night, General Steele 
prepared for an immediate assault. At, five 
o'clock the batteries began the work. Then 
the infantry poured in destructive volleys of 
musketry. Soon after a loud cheer arose from 
the centre another from the left and then on 
the right, indicating the successive points at 
which the works had been successfully stormed. 
The conflict was short and the victory complete. 

The assault was made by the First arid Second 
Divisions of the 13th Army Corps, and by Gen. 
Hawkins' Division of colored troops. Some of 
the officers in this Division had formerly be- 
longed to the 77th, and they said that their men, 
when they made the charge, raised the battle- 
cry, " Remember Fort Pillow !" and rushing upon 
their foes, plunged their bayonets into some of 
them before they could be checked by the offi- 
cers. If General Forest and his cut-throats had 
been there, a terrible retribution would have 
been visited upon them. 

As all the works guarding the approaches to 
the city of Mobile were now in our possession, 
the further defence of that place was a needless 
waste of time, powder and life. Accordingly, 
soon after the fall of Fort Blakely the rebels 
began to evacuate the city. At dark on the llth 
our troops were again in motion, marching to 



344 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Stark's Landing, about three miles below the 
fort. Transports were in waiting. The troops 
began to embark immediately, and as soon as a 
vessel was loaded it pushed from the pier and 
anchored in the bay. The next morning all the 
vessels moved across to Cat Fish Point, five 
miles below Mobile, and landed. It was feared 
that in crossing the bay some torpedoes might 
be encountered, but no accident occurred. Soon 
after the landing was effected the following cor- 
respondence took place between our laud and 
naval commanders and the Mayor of the city : 

HEADQUARTERS, LAND AND NAVAL U. S. FORCES, ) 
MOBILE, ALABAMA, April 12, 1865. j 

MAYOR SLOUGH, Mobile, Ala. 

Sir : Your city is menaced by a large 
land and naval force. We deem it proper to de- 
mand its immediate and unconditional surrender. 
Very respectfully, your obedient servants, 

Major General GORDON GRANGER. 
Acting Rear Admiral H. K. THATCHER. 

MAYOR'S OFFICE, CITY OF MOBILE, 1 
April 12, 1865. J 

Gentlemen : I have the honor to acknowledge 
the receipt of your communication at the hands 
of Lieut. Col. R. G. Laughlin, staff of Major 
General Granger, Commanding 13th Army 
Corps, and Lieut. Commander S. R. Franklin, 
U. S. Navy, staff of Admiral Thatcher, demand- 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 345 

ing the immediate and unconditional surrender 
of this city. 

The city has been evacuated by the military 
authorities, and its municipal authority is now 
under my control. Your demand has been 
granted, and I trust, gentlemen, for the sake of 
humanity, all the safeguards which you can 
throw around our people will be secured to 
them. Very respectfully, 

Your obedient servant, 

R. H. SLOUGH, 

Mayor of the city of Mobile. 

To Major General Gordon Granger, Command- 
ing 13th Army Corps; Acting Rear Admiral 
H. K. Thatcher, Commanding West Gulf 
Sqadron. 

General Veatch, with a part of the 1st Divi- 
sion, 13th Army Corps, was at once placed in 
command of the city. The results of the cam- 
paign up to this time may be briefly stated in 
the language of General Canby : " The capture 
of the enemy's works at Spanish Fort and 
Blake ly; the surrender of Mobile; the capture 
of more than live thousand prisoners; twelve 
flags; nearly three hundred pieces of artillery; 
several thousand stands of small arms, and large 
stores of ammunition and other materials of 
war." 

On the day after the surrender the 3d Division 
22 



346 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

was ordered to march to Whistler Station, on 
the Mobile and Ohio railroad, about six miles 
from the city.' The 1st Brigade was in front, 
with the Seventy-Seventh band at the head of 
the column to furnish the music as they marched 
through the city. Crowds of people of all ages, 
colors and conditions appeared on the streets. 
Several National airs were played and many of 
the older people gave expression to their feel- 
ings by exclaiming " God bless you," " God be 
praised," etc. Two or three old ladies standing 
in a group, said, when the boys played Yankee 
Doodle " That's the good old tune, that's the 
good old tune!" 

After leaving the city and reaching the up- 
lands, General Benton allowed foraging parties 
to bring. in cattle for the troops. The boys were 
also allowed to pick up poultry along the way, 
provided they did not "straggle." By this ar- 
rangement geese, turkeys, chickens etc., were 
" taken in and done for." 

As General Benton was riding at the head of 
the column, a soldier caught a chicken just in 
front of him. He had an axe in his hand, and 
dropping on one knee whacked oft' the chicken's 
head exclaiming vehemently, " I'll show you how 
to bite me." The General laughed heartily and 
rode on. 

At about one o'clock in the afternoon they 
reached Whistler Station. Upon the arrival of 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 347 

our advance, they found some rebels here who 
had set tire to the buildings. They were driven 
beyond Eight-Mile Creek, where they joined a 
force of about five hundred cavalry. As the 
Brigades came up, they unslung knapsacks and 
started on the double-quick for the front. Quite 
a brisk tight ensued. Our troops tried to flank 
them, but the cavalry was too quick and made 
their escape. Three of our boys, belonging to 
the 91st Illinois, were wounded and four of the 
rebels killed. This was the last engagement in 
which the Seventy- Seventh participated. 

When General Benton ordered the boys for- 
ward that afternoon, some of them asked him : 
" What shall we do with our chickens, Gen- 
eral ?" " Leave them with your knapsacks until 
you come back," he replied. A detail of two or 
three men was made from each company to re- 
main and see that the chickens did not get away. 

On the 17th of April, the 21st and 26th New 
York Batteries each fired one hundred guns in 
honor of the great victories achieved by Grant 
and Sherman in the east. Rumors were also 
current that the Trans-Mississippi Army had 
surrendered. So much good news coming so 
soon after their own victories made the boys 
feel jubilant. 

They left their camp at Whistler Station on the 
morning of the 19th, leaving the 28th Illinois to 
garrison the place. Nothing occurred to break 



348 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

the monotony of th'e march or the camp, until 
Sunday, the 23d. On that day they received in- 
telligence of the assassination of their President, 
ABRAHAM LINCOLN ! Upon him, more than upon 
any other man, had they depended for the sal- 
vation of the country during the last four years. 
He had stood bravely at the helm through all 
the storms; and now to be stricken down by the 
cowardly assassin, instigated by southern trai- 
tors, just as he was bringing the old Ship of 
State safely into the harbor, seemed to be too 
much to endure. The rebels had been guilty of 
many atrocities, but this was the crowning act 
of their infamy. They could descend no lower 
than this. No wonder that our brave boys 
in Alabama felt indignant when the news 
reached them on that Sabbath day. If they 
had been free from official restraint they would 
gladly have marched all through rebeldom, car- 
rying tire and the sword of vengeance in their 
hands. They would have hung " Jeff Davis on 
a sour apple tree," without compunction and 
without remorse. 

On the 25th, the 2d and 3d Brigades left 
Nannahubba Bluff, and the 1st Brigade followed 
the next morning, marching to Mclntosh Bluff, 
ten miles further up the Tombigbee River. At 
this place the boys erected a flag-staff eighty feet 
high, and the starry banner was run up and 
floated in triumph over the headquarters of 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 349 

General Benton. Many of the citizens from the 
surrounding country came in and took the oath 
of allegiance. On the 2d of May the 2d Brigade 
was sent out on a foraging expedition. When 
about four miles from camp they met a flag of 
truce. A letter was handed to Colonel Day, 
which proved to be an official document from 
General Dick Taylor to his forces at Citronville, 
stating that an armistice had been agreed upon 
between himself and General Canby. The Bri- 
gade immediately returned to camp, and an 
officer was sent to Mobile on the gunboat " Oc- 
torora," with the news. 

As a result of this armistice, the armies of the 
Rebellion in the south-west surrendered to Gen- 
eral Canby. All the personal effects of the late 
" Confederacy," including gunboats, transports, 
etc., became the property of the United States. 
The rebel fleet at that time was at Demopolis, 
some distance up the river. It was not long, 
however, until they put in an appearance at 
Mclntosh Bluff, and then the work of loading 
the troops and stores was begun. On the 9th of 
May "all aboard" the transports started 
down the river in the following order : 

Flagship, ..... { Cherokee. 

First Brigade, . . . 



( Reindeer, 

Second Brigade, . . . < Admiral, 

Dorrance. 



350 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

26th New York Battery, { Jefi' Davis. 

f Marengo, 

mu- j T> j Sumter, 

Third Brigade, Waverly, 

(_ Watson. 
21st New York Battery, { Magnolia. 

Pioneers, <( Duke. 

Transports without troops. 

They reached Mobile in the evening, and at 
ten o'clock at night went into camp about three 
miles out in the direction of Whistler. Here 
they remained, reposing on their laurels, until 
the 15th, when they received orders to be ready 
to move at an hour's notice all surplus bag- 
gage to be stored at Mobile rations for five 
days fifty rounds of ammunition caissons to 
be well filled. " What next?" No one could 
answer the question. 

The next day the calm was broken by long, 
loud and boisterous cheering. The word came 
that Jeff Davis the head and front of the re- 
bellion was a prisoner, and there was good 
reason for cheering. 

On the 3d of June all the troops in the city of 
Mobile and vicinity were reviewed by General 
Granger; partly as a preparation for future oper- 
ations, and partly in honor of Salmon P. Chase, 
Chief Justice of the United States, who was 
then on a visit to Mobile. The following ex- 
tracts are from the New Orleans Times : 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 351 

"* * * The soldiers formed on Government 
Street, and marched up Royal Street, past the 
Battle House, when General Granger and staff, 
and Chief Justice Chase, mounted on horseback, 
reviewed the gallant men as they marched on 
with the steady tramp of veterans. * * * 
On Saturday, as we marched through the place 
to the position assigned us on Government Street, 
the streets were alive with people. Men, women 
and children, clad in the gayest attire, were out 
to behold one of the grandest military pageants 
ever witnessed by the people of Alabama. 
Royal Street, in the region of the Battle House 
and the Custom House, was a perfect jam. I 
saw quite a number of Confederate officers be- 
holding the march of our boys, and all seemed 
in the best of humor. 

" * * * The troops remaining were of the 
Third Divison, and were marched into the city 
under the command of Brevet Brig. Gen. Grier, 
Colonel of the 77th Illinois Volunteers. The 
General is a tine officer; has done his duty in this 
war. His Regiment under his command have 
made for themselves a glorious record. On 
many a well fought tield have they carried their 
colors through 'shot and shell,' 'until a tri- 
umphant victory has crowned their efforts. 
Peoria may well feel proud of Brevet Brig. Gen. 
Grier and his gallant 77th. They have done 
honor to the City and State. Their time of 



352 THB SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

enlistment will soon expire, and it will not be 
long before they are on their way to their homes. 
May they receive the hero's welcome they have 
so nobly earned." 

And this from the Mobile Daily News : 

" The 77th Illinois also had their band out, and 
it is to them that our citizens are under obliga- 
tions for the musical treat given on different 
occasions during the past ten days in Bienville 
Square. The members of this band are musi- 
cians in every sense of the word, and evince a 
correct knowledge of the science in the pieces 
performed by them." 

The boys were now looking forward to the* 
time when they would be permitted to leave the 
service and return to their homes. An extract 
from a letter written by one of the boys about 
this time, will show the spirit which animated 
them: 

" Well, , I could tell you a volume of 

things were we together, but paper would con- 
sume too much time. Since leaving New Orleans, 
we have gone through l thick and thin,' 
through mud and storm, and heat and battle 
have won laurels and given antidotes have 
marched and have sailed have walked dry 
shod, and have gone into the tender 'element' 
just 'knee deep' have 'seen sights' and 'phelt 
phunny,' and now here we are, 'fat, ragged and 
saucy,' waiting, like Micawber, 'for something 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 353 

to turn up.' There is a big breeze a stiff' gale 
just now coming this way, full of little elfs, tell- 
ing us that we are just on the eve of being mus- 
tered out, and we begin to consider ourselves the 
'bully boys with glass eyes.' The Mustering 
Officer has ordered the Regiment to proceed to 
work to complete its rolls, etc. Our Colonel, 
now Brevet Brigadier General, D. P. Grier, went 
to New Orleans the other day, saw Gen. P. H. 
Sheridan, and succeeded in having a Special 
Order issued to muster out the 77th. There was 
an order to muster out all troops whose term of 
service expires prior to the first of September, 
and through this Special Order the 77th will go 
out. There are only two Regiments in this Divi- 
sion that go out now, the 96th Ohio and the 77th 
Illinois. The 96th will be mustered out by Mon- 
day evening, and the 77th immediately after. 
Is n't this glorious ? The old 77th is all that goes 
out. The 130th Illinois, per Special Order, will 
be reorganized, and the recruits will all be trans- 
ferred, probably to the 130th Battallion. The 
130th feel vexed under this order. They had 
hoped to go out, but are now destined, perhaps, 
for the sandy, barren, homeless, houseless, de- 
serted, uncongenial, uncompromising, arid coast 
of Texas. Been there, haven't we? Well, I 
don't want any Texas in mine." 

It may not be out of place, in this connection, 
to show what the Government at Washington 



354 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

thought of the operations at Mobile, and how 
the services of the army in the southwest were 
appreciated. For this purpose, the following 
from the War Department, is inserted : 

WAR DEPARTMENT, ) 

WASHINGTON CITY, May 16, 1865. j 

ORDERED : That the thanks of the President 
and the War Department be, and they are here- 
with, presented to Major General Canby, and the 
officers and soldiers of his command, for their 
gallantry, energy and successful military skill, 
in the siege and reduction of the strongly for- 
tified City of Mobile, and for the achievements 
that have rendered their campaign one of the 
most brilliant and important of the war. 

By order of the President: 

EDWIN M. STANTON, 

Secretary of War. 

Before the Regiment is mustered out of the 
service, it may be well to bring together, in one 
group, all the principal battles and sieges in 
which they were engaged. Many skirmishes of 
minor importance are not included : 

Chickasaw Bluffs, Miss., Dec. 27, 1862, to Jan. 
1, 1863. 

Arkansas Post, Ark., Jan. 11, 1863. 
Magnolia Hills, Miss., May 1, 1863. 
Champion, Hills, Miss, May 16, 1863. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 355 

Black River Bridge, Miss., May 17, 1863. 

Vicksburg, Miss., May 19 and 22, 1863. 

Siege of Vicksburg, Miss., May 19 to July 4, '63. 

Siege of Jackson, Miss., July 13-17, 1863. 

Mansfield, La., April 8, 1864. 

Kane River La., April 23, 1864. 

Marksville, La., May 16, 1864. 

Yellow Bayou, La., May 18, 1864. 

Fort Gaines, Ala., Aug. 4-8, 1864. 

Fort Morgan, Ala., Aug. 8-23, 1864. 

Spanish Fort, Ala., March 27 to April 9, 1865. 

Blakely, Ala., April 9, 1865. 

Whistler Station, Ala., April 13, 1865. 




CHAPTER THE TWENTIETH. 



" ALL PRESENT OR ACCOUNTED FOR.' 



)S A preliminary step to the muster-out of 
the Seventy-Seventh Regiment, the fol- 
lowing orders were issued from Corps and 
Division Headquarters : 

HEADQUABTERS, THIRTEENTH ARMY CORPS, ) 
GALVESTON TEXAS, June 23, 1865. j 

Special Orders, No. 77. 

Extract. 

I. The organization formerly known as the 
One Hundred and Thirtieth Illinois Volunteer 
Infantry, discontinued January 23, 1865, by 
Special Orders, No. 18, Headquarters, Defences 
of New Orleans, is hereby, subject to the ap- 
proval of the War Department, revived. 

All men of the Seventy-Seventh Illinois Vol- 
unteer Infantry whose term of service will not 
expire on or before September 1, 1865, and all 
officers and men now with said Regiment who 
were transferred from the One Hundred and 
Thirtieth Illinois Volunteer Infantry, will be 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 357 

formed into a battallion composed of companies 
of maximum strength. The officers and men 
will be transferred on the rolls required by Cir- 
cular No. 64, War Department, A. G. O., August 
18, 1864. 

Brigadier General Benton, Commanding Third 
Division, is charged with the execution of this 
order. 

$$$$#$$$$ 
By order of 

MAJOR GENERAL GRANGER. 
F. W. EMERY, 

Major and A. A. G. 

HEADQUARTERS, 3D DIVISION, 13TH ARMY CORPS, 1 
NEAR MOBILE, ALABAMA, July 7, 1865. J 

Special Orders, No. 79. 

Extract. 

III. By authority from superior headquarters, 
all enlisted men now belonging to the Seventy- 
Seventh Illinois Volunteers, whose term of ser- 
vice does not expire on or before the 30th day of 
September next, and all officers of that Regiment, 
who formerly belonged to the One Hundred and 
Thirtieth Illinois Volunteers, are transferred to 
the One Hundred and Thirtieth Illinois Volun- 
teers, revived, Special Orders, No. 77, dated 
Headquarters, Thirteenth Army Corps, June 23, 
1865. 

The organization of the One Hundred and 



358 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Thirtieth Illinois Volunteers will be composed of 
the officers and men mentioned in the preceding 
paragraph, and such officers of the Seventy- 
Seventh Illinois Volunteers, as are transferred by 
Major General Sheridan, by Special Orders, No. 
25, Extract V, dated Headquarters Military 
Division of the Southwest, July 3, 1865, and will 
be organized as set forth in the schedule hereto 
annexed, and made a part of this order. 

By order of 

BRIG. GEN. W. P. BENTON. 
J. D. ROUSE, 

Captain and A. A. A. G. 

Schedule of assignment of officers transferred 
from the Seventy-Seventh Illinois Volunteer In- 
fantry, to the One Hundred and Thirtieth Illinois 
Volunteer Infantry : 

FIELD AND STAFF. 

LIEUTENANT COLONEL. 
John B. Eeid. Original 130th Illinois Volunteers. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT AND ADJUTANT. 
Edmund S. Dewey. Original 130th Illinois Volunteers. 

ASSISTANT SURGEON. 
William F. Sigler. Original 130th Illinois Volunteers. 

COMPANY OFFICERS. 

Jesse R. Johnson, Captain Co. " A." OriginaJ 130th Illi- 
nois Volunteers. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 359 

Wilson J. Neil, Second Lieut. Co. " A." Original 130th 
Illinois Volunteers. 

George C. Kenyon, First Lieut. Co. " B." Transferred by 
General Sheridan from 77th Illinois Volunteers. 

Jacob W. Wilkin, Captain Co. " C." Original 130th Illi- 
nois Volunteers. 

Joseph F. Parker, First Lieut. Co. "C." Original 130th 
Illinois Volunteers. 

Andrew S. Martin, Second Lieut. Co. "C." Original 130th 
Illinois Volunteers. 

Thomas C. Mathews, First Lieut. Co. "D." Transferred 
by General Sheridan from 77th 111. Vol. 

William C. McGowan, Second Lieut. Co. " D." Transferred 
by General Sheridan from 77th 111. Vol. 

John W. Watts, Captain Co. " E." Original 130th Illi- 
nois Volunteers. 

John W. Paulson, First Lieut. Co. " E." Original 130th 
Illinois Volunteers. 

John D. House, Captain Co. " F." Transferred by Gen- 
eral Sheridan from 77th 111, Vol. 

William C. Harned, First Lieut. Co. " F." Original 130th 
Illinois Volunteers. 

Charles W. Johnson, Second Lieut. *Co. " F." Original 
130th Illinois Volunteers. 

immediately after the foregoing orders were 
issued, the necessary steps were taken to effect 
the transfers indicated. The 130th Illinois, .as 
reorganized, was composed of six companies of 
maximum strength. All of the men remaining 
of the original 130th, and the recruits belonging 
to the 77th, constituted the material of which 
these companies were composed. They remained 
in the service until the 15th of August, 1865, 
when they were mustered out. 

The following statement will show the aggre- 



360 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

gate strength of the 77th from first to last. As 
originally mustered into the service it stood thus : 



Field and Staff. 9 

Company "A," 89 

Company " B," 77 

Company " C," 95 

Company " D," 88 

Company " E," 86 



Company " F," 79 

Company " G," 87 

Company "H," 99 

Company "I," 83 

Company "K," 90 

Total... ...882 



Charles Bal lance was commissioned Colonel, but not 

mustered 1 

John S. McCulloch was mustered as Chaplain while 

the Eegiment was in the service 1 

There were recruits to the number of. 138 

Also unassigned recruits 54 

Field and Staff from the 130th 1 

Non-commissioned Staff from the 130th 1 

Line officers from the 130th 11 

Enlisted men from the 130th.... . 460 



Making a grand total of. 1549 

Perhaps a word of explanation may be neces- 
sary in regard to the original companies. It will 
be remembered by the members of the Regiment, 
and the officers especially, that on the first of 
October, 1862, several of the enlisted men were 
transferred from one company to another, and 
the muster-rolls given in this book, as well as the 
foregoing figures, show the condition of the com- 
panies after those transfers were made. This 
statement is deemed necessary to account for any 
discrepancies that may appear between the 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 



361 



figures here given, and the original muster-rolls 
of the companies. 

For the sake of comparison the following table 
is given, showing the condition of the Regiment 
wjien it was mustered out at Mobile, Ala., July 
10, 1865 : 





*te. 
f 

SQ 

<fc 

1 


Non-com. Staff 






















TOTALS. 


^ 


sq 





q 


N 


% 


Cb 


fel 


S 


< 






















a 


a 


a 


JS 




JS 

o 


a 


a 


a 


<s 
O 


a 


M.O. Julv 10, 1865 
" June 17, 1865 


4 


5 


20 
16 
3 
3 

"4 
8 


19 
6 

7 
4 
3 
2 


43 
7 
3 
3 
2 
2 


36 
8 
3 
3 
1 
2 


29 
11 
1 
4 

"i 


11 

22 
3 
3 

"4 
8 


27 
6 
2 
6 
2 
2 


33 
8 
4 
5 
1 
2 


26 
7 
2 
1 
2 
2 
1 


32 
13 
6 
5 
1 
2 


285 
104 
35 
38 
15 
25 
11 
189 
110 
30 
6 
34 


" at different dates 
Killed in battle 
Officers resigned 
Transf d to other Reg'ts 
Promoted in U. S. C. T. 
Discharged 


1 
1 

3 

2 






3 


17 
10 
3 
1 


24 
10 
2 


19 
12 
2 

"i 


10 
12 
7 
2 
4 


16 
13 
5 
1 
3 


21 
4 

"9 


15 
13 
4 
1 
8 


26 
14 
4 
1 


22 
14 

5 


16 
8 
3 

4 


Died of Disease 




" " Wounds 






" " Casualties 
Deserted 


... 


... 












TOTALS 


11 


8 


85 


77 


94 


88 


84 


79 


86 


98 


82 


90 


882 



Perhaps it will be interesting to the members 
of the Seventy-Seventh to know how many men 
were furnished by the different towns represented 
in the Regiment. For this purpose the following 
table is prepared, showing at a glance the credit 
due to each locality. From this list it appears 
that Elmwood is the " Banner Town," while Rose- 
field, Peoria, Magnolia, Lacon, Knoxville, Brim- 
field and Cazenovia, furnish large delegations : 
23 



362 



THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 



Belle Plain 13 

Bennington 1 

Brimfield 42 

Cazenovia 31 

Chillicothe 1 

Clayton 18 

Elba 4 

Elmwood 88 

Eugene... 4 

Fairview 1 

Galesburg 26 

Gilson 2 

Green 3 

Groveland 6 

Hennepin 3 

Henry 2 

Hollis 3 

Hopewell 8 

Jubilee 3 

Kickapoo 19 

Knoxville 43 

Lacon 60 

Limestone 6 

Linn 15 

Logan 25 

Long Point 4 

Low Point 5 

Magnolia*. 65 

Marshall County 1 

Medina 3 

Metamora 19 

Millbrook 28 

Minonk .. ,44 



Monmouth 2 

Nebraska 12 

Oxford 1 

Palatine 1 

Panola 1 

Peoria 70 

Peoria County 2 

Princeville 2 

Putnam 1 

Putnam County 1 

Radnor 9 

Richland 11 

Richwoods 8 

Roanoke 1 

Roberts 3 

Robertson 1 

Rosefield 85 

Rutland 1 

Salem .*. 15 

Secor 1 

Selby 2 

Sinithville 2 

Somonauk 1 

Steuben 1 

Timber , 2 

Trivoli 2 

Truro 6 

Unknown 8 

Washburn 2 

Waldo 1 

Whitefield 3 

Woodford County 24 

Yates City 4 

Total... .. 882 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 



363 





2n 




304 



THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 



Sacrtb 
|n IPtmorg of 

||L KJMfo, 

Jifoutmant Colonel 
of tht 



in ^trks^i dLowiig, Pl 
ilkb at ansfielb, fa., 
l 8, 1864. 



& 




ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 



365 



DEATH ROLL OF THE SEVENTY -SEVENTH. 



KILLED IN BATTLE. 



FIELD AND STAFF. 
LYSANDEE E. WEBB, . . LIEUTENANT COLONEL. 



COMPANY "A." 

JOHN F. CAMPBELL. 
SAMUEL S. DIVILBISS. 
JOHN WILBEE. 

COMPANY "B." 

EOBEET IEWIN. 
JACOB ELY. 
SAMUEL GEABLE. 
PHILIP NELLING. 

COMPANY " C." 

EOBEET BENNETT. 
AUGUST FAEVEE. 
WILLIAM M. KEEEICK. 

COMPANY "D." 

BAENAED CONNOLLY. 
JAMES P. ISOM. 
JOHN A. STOCKTON. 

COMPANY "E." 

GUSTAVUS HUFFMAN. 
JOHN H. McINTYEE. 
HAEEIS PAEE. 
CHAELES STEVENS. 



COMPANY "F." 
FEANCIS W. FISHEE. 
CHAELES NIXON. 
MAETIN MASON. 

COMPANY " G." 

WILLIAM W. MILLEE. 
HITZ BONEY PETEES. 
JOAB BAILY. 
ELEAZEE BAENELL. 
HENEY C. BEASSFIELD. 
FEANCIS O. DIMMICK. 

COMPANY "H." 
JOSEPH C. CLEGG. 
ISAAC GEOVE. 
MILTON G. MAESHALL. 
WM. S. WOETHINGTON. 
FEEEMAN P. WILSON. 

COMPANY "I." 
JOHN HYNE. 

COMPANY "K." 
J. HENEY BEOWN. 
JOSEPH M. KING. 
WILLIAM MULVANY. 
PETEE NELSON. 
SAMUEL SHAEKEY. 



366 



THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 



DIED OF WOUNDS. 



COMPANY "A." 

SAMUEL BOLT. 
JOHN TOMPKINS. 
DANIEL B. TRENCH. 

COMPANY "B." 

GEORGE CHAMBERS. 
EDWARD SWARGY. 

COMPANY "C." 

JAMES H. DRENNEN. 
JAMES DRAKE. 

COMPANY "D." 

FREDERICK B. JONES. 
ANDREW J. BREWER. 
ALBERT DE LONG. 
PETER DEGNER. 
MARTIN HOAGLAND. 
ENESTES J. MEYERS. 
GEORGE C. MOORE. 



COMPANY "E." 
R. McKEE DAVIS. 
LORENZO W. CORD. 
JOHN B. LOUGHMAN. 
EDW'D. W. LAUGHLIN. 
JOHN W. SMITH. 

COMPANY "G." 
HUGH SMART. 
DAVID HART. 
ELIAS MARTIN. 
CYRUS H. STOCKWELL. 

COMPANY " H." 

IRA HOFNAGLE. 
MICHAEL STEWART. 
EDWARD L. SUTTON. 
JOSEPH STANDAKER. 

COMPANY "K." 
WILLIAM BECK. 
JOHN CRONAN. 
EPHRAIM R. SHEPARD. 



DIED OF DISEASE. 



COMPANY "A." 

ANDREW J. ABRAHAM. 
WILBER F. CHURCHILL 
ULYSSES EDWARDS. 
ALEX. R. FISHER. 



PETER HOLCOMB. 

W. W. LUDDINGTON. 

LEWIS MATHER. 

S. MATHER. 

JOHN W. OSTRANDER. 

JOSEPH D. WOODRUFF. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 



367 



COMPANY "B." 

HIRAM COMPTON. 
MARION KAYES. 
WILLIAM DUGAN. 
A. ALEXANDER. 
STEPHEN COMPTON. 
HAMILTON GURNEA. 
WILLIAM P. JOHNSON. 
HENRY S. McFARLAND. 
ABRAM L. POYER. 
EDWARD SERGEANT. 

COMPANY "C." 

GEORGE A. HART. 
JOSEPH C. BURSON. 
JOHN B. CARSON. 
ANDREW DORSON. 
EDWARD HALL. 
GEORGE M. LAY. 
REUBEN PARNHAM. 
WILLIAM RICHARDS. 
JAS. W. VANARSDALE. 
EDWARD WALLACE. 
WILLIAM W. WHITE. 
JAMES YELDON. 

COMPANY "D." 

JAMES LAUGHLIN. 
JAMES M. POWERS. 
UMPHRED BICKEL. 
JACOB BUCK. 
THOMP'N CHRISESTON. 
GEORGE ECHOLS. 
GEORGE FAIRCHILDS. 
WILLIAM P. FEXN. 



FREDERICK KRAFT. 
JOHN MARTIN. 
SAMUEL SAWYER. 
JOSEPH WILLS. 

COMPANY "E." 

WILLIAM DAWSON. 
WILLIAM I. BROOKS. 
BENJAMIN F. ROBBINS. 
ANDREW J. DUNLAP. 
SAMUEL G. BUNTING. 
JOHN COLLINS. 
DANIEL COOK. 
JOHN EVANS. 
FRANKLIN W. ESLOW. 
ALEXANDER KINDER. 
JAMES McSTRAVICK. 
PETER M. SHEPLER. 
DAVID T. WIGGINS. 

COMPANY "P." 

FREDER'K BOLANDER. 
JOHN B. MURRAY. 
JAMES M. WEST. 
HENRY WALTON. 

COMPANY "G." 

T. MARTINDALE. 
ROBERT COOPER. 
HENRY BARNES. 
DAVID G. CAMPBELL. 
SAMUEL W. CAMPBELL. 
CHARLES W. CONE. 
JOHN DAVISON. 
WILLIAM EATON. 



368 



THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 



JAMES GILLENS. 
WM. M. LAMBERTSON. 
JOHN A. MENDALL. 
JOHN SWAN. 
DANIEL SHADE. 

COMPANY " H." 

LEWIS G. KEEDY. 
JAMES P. BROOKS. 
WILLIAM D. IRWIN. 
WILLIAM D. JONES. 
MILTON B. LINN. 
JAS. H. LONGFELLOW. 
THOMAS P. PEABODY. 
JAMES P. ROSS. 
EDWIN E. SAMPSON. 
WILLIAM B. SELF. 
DAVID SMITH. 
ANDREW SAMPSON. 
JAMES TALBOT. 
LEONIDAS M. WILKES. 

COMPANY " I." 
GEORGE L. LUCAS. 



WILLIAM M. COX. 
GEORGE DARNELL. 
ENOS FRISBIE. 
JACOB FISHER. 
ELI HUMPHREY. 
BARNEY HAND. 
ANTHONY HAULER. 
BUTLER K. JONES. 
HENRY KELLER. 
JAMES C. MOORE. 
DANIEL D. MOORE. 
JOHN A. RANDALL. 
WILLIAM B. TOLER. 

COMPANY " K." 

HARVEY R. BROCKET. 
RICHARD M. HOLT. 
HENRY BEHRNS. 
JACOB FRANK. 
JOHN MERRITT. 
SAMUEL B. POWELL. 
JOHN SHORDON. 
PERRY S. WALKER. 



DIED OF CASUALTIES. 



COMPANY "A." 
HORATIO F. BACON. 

COMPANY "D." 

DANIEL CHAMBERS. 
JASON M. HUNTER. 



COMPANY "E." 
HENRY PAFF. 

COMPANY "G." 
DELOS ALDRICH. 

COMPANY " H." 
R. MILTON SMILEY. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 



369 



If the doctrine of "the survival of the fittest" 
be true, those members of the Regiment who 
survived all the hardships and perils of the 
camp and the field, and the tortures of the 
prison-pen, will certainly rank among the "fit- 
test," and they are entitled to a special record 
in these pages. The following is a list of the 
prisoners from Camp Ford, who were mustered 
out June 17, 1865 : 



COMPANY "A." 

SERGEANTS. 

Henry A. Barber. 
Henry Wilson. 

CORPORALS. 

Edward F. Green. 
Luther G. Russell. 
James S. Coe. 

PRIVATES. 

Isaac Connor. 
Conrad J. Haller. 
Washington Kroesen. 
James M. McGraw. 
William Ott. 
Julius Rambo. 
John P. Randall. 
Alfred Russell. 
James H. Tarlton. 
Mason M. White. 
George Woodmansee, Jr. 



COMPANY " B." 

CORPORAL. 
David Simpson. 

PRIVATES. 
John Alexander. 
John A. Roberts. 
Augustus Schermeman. 
William A. West. 
Allen Woodring. 

COMPANY " C." 

SECOND LIEUTENANT. 
Charles F. McCulloch. 

CORPORAL. 
Alfred G. Thorn. 

PRIVATES. 
Philo W. Gallop. 
Clinton L. Gennoway. 
William D. McCoy. 
John Kennedy. 
Joseph T. Sims. 



370 



THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 



COMPANY"D." 

CORPORAL. 
James Scoon. 

PRIVATES. 

William H. Cassell. 
George W. De Long. 
Samuel Hadlock. 
Frederick W. Hake. 
Benjamin K. Jackson. 
Apollos Laughlin. 
William Wilson. 

COMPANY " E." 

SERGEANTS. 

Henry E. Slough. 
Leonard T. White. 

PRIVATES. 
John Cook. 
Thomas Forbes. 
Joseph Fulton. 
Frederick Gutting. 
John S. Hammerbacher. 
Jacob Mankle. 
Joseph T. Mills. 
Robert W. Summers. 
Cheny W. Thurston. 

COMPANY"F." 

SERGEANTS. 
Lewis Hamrick. 
George Lawrence. 

CORPORALS. 

Ephraim S. Stoddard. 
William Fowler. 



PRIVATES. 

John Arrowsmith. 
William Aid. 
Charles Aid. 
Joseph Buckman. 
Jesse Crossen. 
Francis Hatton. 
George Lawrence. 
James Miner. 
David B. Macey. 
Allen F. Mitchell. 
George Norman. 
Marshall Smiley. 
Herman Seifert. 
Alonzo D. Stoddard. 
Thomas Thurinan. 
John Trump. 
William H. West. 
Richard R. Wilkinson. 

COMPANY " G." 

FIRST LIEUTENANT. 
Henry J. Wyman. 

CORPORAL. 
Stephen J. Cook. 

PRIVATES. 

Daniel Beck. 
William Collister. 
Gaylord Robinson. 

COMPANY"H." 

SERGEANT. 
Valentine P. Peabody. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 



371 



PRIVATES. 

Leo Julg. 
Hiram Livingston. 
Alfred B. Poage. 
John M. Spandeau. 
Henry Smith. 
John M. Smith. 
William Swendeman. 

COMPANY"!.' 
CORPORALS. 

Rufus Atherton. 
Eli H. Plowman. 

PRIVATES. 

Isaac Brown. 
Asa A. Cook. 
Richard Cowley. 



George M. Dixon. 
Alexander A. Thurman. 

COMPANY"K." 

SERGEANT. 
Servetus Holt. 

PRIVATES. 

John Greenhalch. 
John Haynes. 
John Ibeck. 
Lawrence Ibeck. 
Jacob Lafollet. 
Madison Largent. 
James M. Moody. 
William Race. 
Edward E. White. 
Joseph Yerby. 



The following is the Roll of the Regiment as 
mustered out July 10, 1865. The officers and 
non-commissioned officers marked with a star (*) 
held the original appointment. The others were 
promoted at different times while in the service. 
The Rev. J. S. McCulloch is included in this roll, 
as Chaplain, although not a member of the Regi- 
ment at first : 



*Colonel and Brevet Brigadier General, DAVID P. GBIER. 

ADJUTANT. 
Henry P. Ay res. 

SURGEON. 



*Charles Winnie. 



ASSISTANT SURGEON. 
*John Stoner. 



CHAPLAIN. 
John S. McCulloch. 



372 



THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 



NON-COM'D STAFF. 

SERGEANT MAJOR. 
Charles H. Arms. 
COMMISSARY SERGEANT. 
William H. Bennett. 

HOSPITAL STEWART. 

Joel Allen. 

PRINCIPAL MUSICIANS. 
John W. Carroll. 
Lemon H. Wiley. 

COMPANY "A." 

CAPTAIN. 
Gardner G. Stearns. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT. 
Merritt M. Clark. 

SERGEANTS. 

*William H. Wilcox. 
George D. Butler. 

CORPORALS. 

*Lyman West. 
*Charles G. Field. 
Henry Varley. 

WAGONER. 
*William Stiteler. 

PRIVATES. 

Frank W. Ash. 
John C. Burlingame. 
James Divert. 



James H. Divilbiss. 
Francis G. Fuller. 
Ira K. Hall. 
E. Winthrop Jenny. 
Daniel Lockbaum. 
Charles W. Sanburn. 
Lewis J. Swan. 
A. D. Witherell. 
John L. Woolsey. 

COMPANY "B." 

SECOND LIEUTENANT. 
Orange Parrott. 

CORPORALS. 

*Thomas G. Harris. 
Samuel Vanhorn. 

MUSICIANS. 
*Silas Norris. 
*Rice Dunbar. 

PRIVATES. 

John Brown. 
William G. Bowman. 
William W. Blakeslee. 
Charles Henthorne. 
William W. Head. 
James King. 
John E. McComber. 
Roger Ong. 
Jonathan Poyer. 
John Ruley. 
James M. Roberts. 
Jacob Van Winkle. 
John Walcott. 
James Weir. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 



373 



COMPANY " C." 

SERGEANTS. 

John P. Wiley. 
*Jehu Buckingham. 
Joseph A. Hutchinson. 

CORPORALS. 

*John Sewell. 
* Albert Shepherd. 
*James P. Black. 
*Thomas S. Patton. 
J. William Avery. 

MUSICIAN. 
*Enoch Buckingham. 

WAGONER. 
*Moses Carles. 

PRIVATES. 
Samuel T. Acres. 
Alfred M. Blackman. 
James Crow. 
Minor Calvert. 
W. F. Carson. 
John T. Davis. 
Dennis Duff. 
Charles C. Enslow. 
Joseph Fisher. 
Isaiah Fisher. 
Samuel M. Hart. 
A. Warren Howard. 
James A. Lindsay. 
John M. McCormick. 
Edwin R. Mann. 
James R. McCracken. 
Thomas H. McCulloch. 



Joshua W. McCoy. 
Daniel H. Norris. 
John A. Pinkerton. 
William M. Pinkerton. 
Bonaparte Palmer. 
Andrew Rufing. 
Martin V. Robbins. 
Joseph R. Sims. 
William Sims. 
William Stevenson. 
William Stephenson. 
Merrick J. Wald. 
George M. Woodburn. 
William M. Wright. 
William Wiley. 
James H. Wedley. 

COMPANY "D." 

CAPTAIN. 
*Robert H. Brock. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT. 
John M. Shields. 

SERGEANTS. 
*Benjamin F. Thomas. 
* James T. Bender. 
* Jacob C. Batrum. 

CORPORALS. 
*Moroni Owens. 
*Thomas Frail. 
*William A. Fisher. 
John H. Benson. 
John T. Durham. 

MUSICIAN. 
*John H. Barney. 



874 



THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 



WAGONER. 

*John McWhinney. 

PRIVATES. 

John Blackmore. 
Ithamar Baker. 
Horace Burlingame. 
Alonzo J. Brewer. 
Rufus A. Chambers. 
Andrew Duffey. 
Martin V. Etheridge. 
Henry Ebersold. 
John Harigan. 
William Laidlon. 
John McGowan. 
Griffith Moyer. 
Warren D. Meyers. 
Peter Overmier. 
Wm. R. Owens. 
William Post. 
Richard Shaw. 
Jesse Sawyer. 
David B. Stockton. 
John Scoon. 
Cornelius Twinam. 
Joseph Tronier. 
John Torrence. 
John D. Winters. 

COMPANY " E." 

CAPTAIN. 
*Edwin Stevens. 

FIRST LIEUTENANT. 
*Samuel J. Smith. 



SERGEANTS. 

* James Parr. 
George F. Cord. 
Ashford H. Magee. 

CORPORAL. 
Silas W. Fisher. 

WAGONER. 
*Lewis Z. Rench. 

PRIVATES. 

Henry M. Brooks. 
John Buttrick. 
James Barrigan. 
Simeon P. Bower. 
John C. Bush. 
Isaac S. Dawson. 
Joseph N. Dawson. 
John Daily. 
John S. French. 
Joseph Letterman. 
William H. Magee. 
Francis M. McDermott. 
Thomas J. Nixon. 
Samuel Perry. 
Samuel A. Rathbun. 
Asa B. Reeves. 
Richard W. Ratcliff. 
Otis B. Smith. 
Cosmer A. Stevenson. 
James M. Sweet. 
Albert Sutton. 
Smith E. Shepler. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 



375 



COMPANY " P." 

CAPTAIN. 
Jatnes K. Secord. 

SERGEANTS. 

*James A. Hammers. 
James T. Martin. 

CORPORAL. 
Jacob Rediger. 

PRIVATES. 

George Attick. 
Charles W. Carter. 
James F. Kent. 
Sylvester Kenyon. 
Hamilton Lamson. 
Jonah Stone. 
Monterville Stone. 

COMPANY"G." 

SERGEANTS. 

William G. Huey. 
Adrian R. Aten. 
Moses E. Burt. 

CORPORALS. 

Franklin Belford. 
Joseph Tanner. 
Francis W. Griswold. 

MUSICIAN. 
*Wesley R. Andrews. 

WAGONER. 
*Jacob Alderdice. 



PRIVATES. 

David Baronett. 
William Curran. 
Russell Darby. 
Austin M. Dustin. 
Joseph D. Ensley. 
Isaac Ensley. 
Joseph H. Fetters. 
James Fleming. 
Littleton A. German. 
Thomas Hatsell. 
Frederick R. Johnson. 
William Lawson. 
William McComb. 
David F. Ogden. 
Jesse J. Purcell. 
David W. Shinmell. 
Joseph Shull. 
John Shull. 
Joseph W. Slocum. 

COMPANY " H." 

CAPTAIN. 
Milgrove B. Parmeter. 

SERGEANTS. 

Joseph McSparren. 
David L. Murdock. 
William H. Bocock. 

CORPORALS. 

*Ezra D. Davidson. 
Casey B. James. 

MUSICIAN. 
*Reuben W. Davison. 



376 



THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 



PRIVATES. 


MUSICIAN. 


John Arnett. 


* Jacob H. Snyder. 


William H. Addis. 




Alfred C. Bell. 


PRIVATES. 


Thomas R. Clark. 


Lewis D. Anderson. 


Charles L. Davis. 


Lewis J. Bevans. 


Robert Denby. 


James D. Caldwell. 


Benjamin F. Fisher. 


George T. Finch. 


John Farrell. 


Lemuel Hand. 


John W. Howell. 


John C. Hill. 


Richard Huxtable. 


Homer H. Higbie. 


George W. James. 


Benedict M. S. Homer. 


Joshua Ketchum. 


William W. Jacobs. 


Conrad Kohl. 


John M. Jordan. 


Stephen W. Maring. 


Joseph M. Lee. 


Joseph Miller. 


George W. McCann. 


Frederick Mehlhorn. 


Garrett D. Pence. 


John P. McCoy. 


William H. Richardson. 


Enoch R. Nye. 


Scott H. Rockenfield. 


Lorenzo D. Philips. 


Cleves S. Rockenfield. 


Fred Presinger. 


Frank A. Redfield. 


Norman D. Richards. 


Lyman H. Smith. 


Weldon R. Smiley. 


Myron C. Smith. 


Israel D. Trowbridge. 


Jacob D. Wasson. 


John D. Vance. 


COMPANY " K." 


John W. Vanarsdale. 




Collins P. Waterman. 


FIRST LIEUTENANT. 




Sylvester S. Edwards. 


COMPANY " I." 


SERGEANT. 


SERGEANTS. 


*John Yinger. 


*Robert J. Biggs. 


CORPORALS. 


Abraham Hull. 


*Francis Shorder. 


CORPORALS. 


*Andrew J. Vleet. 


*John McMullen. 


*Oswall B. Green. 


*Alfred B. Reed. 


Henry S. Morris. 


Austin C. Aten. Austin E. Walker. 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 



377 



PRIVATES. 
George W. Awl. 
Eli Brown. 
John Camp. 
William Clayton. 
Henry Coulson. 
Enlee E. Coulson. 
William Donnelly. 
John A. Enders. 
George Edwards. 
Frederick Gilson. 
Auxilius Gurtern. 
Adam Harding. 



Warner Hollinsworth. 
Peter Hoffman. 
Charles Kingsley. 
Samuel Kirkman. 
John Lafollett. 
Henry Largent. 
Richard Morris. 
Henry Perry. 
John Pritchard. 
Lyman T. Rench. 
Thomas Sleeth. 
Samuel J. Sherwood. 
John Wholstenholm. 




^ x ii J 



24 




CHAPTER THE TWENTY- FIRST. 



" TATTOO.' 



THREE o'clock P.M., July 10, 1865, the 
Seventy-Seventh was mustered out, and 
the boys were promoted to the rank of 
" Brevet citizens," as they termed it. The dis- 
charge papers were all made out and signed, and 
placed in charge of Captain J. K. Secord until 
the final muster out and payment at Springfield, 
Illinois. At sunrise on the morning of the 12th, 
the Regiment left camp and marched to the 
city. They went on board the " White Cloud," 
a steamer plying between Mobile and New Or- 
leans, via Lake Pontchartrain. There w T ere 
about 1,300 soldiers on the vessel, belonging to 
the 77th Illinois, 91st Illinois and 19th Iowa. 
An effort was made to ship 500 horses and mules 
along with the troops. The 19th Iowa boys 
some of whom were partially intoxicated at 
once objected to this proceeding, and the mules 
were forced oft' the boat. There were some in 
the 77th and 91st who stood by the Iowa boys. 
The officers endeavored to maintain order, but 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 379 

in vain. They went to see Gen. Kilby Smith, 
the Commandant of the Post, but he could effect 
nothing. They were ordered to allow the mules 
on board. Still the boys opposed, and a com- 
pany of provost guards was sent with arms to 
quell the mutiny. The regiments then made 
common cause, flew to arms and compelled the 
guards to withdraw. The officer who undertook 
to put the mules on board was driven off the 
boat, and twice the mules were thrown oft'. As 
a last resort, Colonel Bruce marched his Regi- 
ment the 19th Iowa ashore and returned to 
camp to await another vessel. The mules and 
horses were then loaded, the bell rang, the band 
played " Get out of the Wilderness," and soon 
the city of Mobile was left behind as they 
pushed for the open sea. Their next " objective 
point" was Springfield, Illinois, and then PEORIA. 
That night the storm came down upon them 
with relentless fury. The vessel rolled and tossed 
on the foaming billows. The " hog chains " con- 
necting the vessel fore and aft to prevent the 
ends from dipping, broke, and the vessel opened 
just in front of the cabin " wide enough for a 
man to crawl through." In the light of present 
events, the mutiny of the day before seemed 
like a providential occurrence. Had the five 
hundred men of the 19th Iowa been on board, 
the probability is that the additional weight 
would have insured the destruction of all. As 



380 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

it was, the danger was great. Like Paul, they 
" cast anchor and prayed for the day." About 
two o'clock in the morning the storm abated, 
the sea became calm, they weighed anchor and 
proceeded on their way. They crossed Lake 
Pontchartrain and at four o'clock P.M. were on 
the levee at New Orleans, and immediately went 
on board the steamer " Lady Franklin," bound 
for up the river. 

Before leaving the Crescent City for the last 
time the boys supplied themselves with reading 
matter to while away the tedious days that must 
elapse before their arrival at Cairo, 111. They 
also purchased a liberal supply of Southern 
keepsakes to carry home with them, such as 
guinea-pigs, mocking-birds, etc. At twelve 
o'clock M., July 14th, they left the landing, and 
soon after, the city of New Orleans disappeared 
in the distance. The " Nick Longworth " passed 
them, having the 91st Illinois on board. Col. 
Day invited the Seventy-Seventh to accompany 
his Regiment on their boat. Captain Brock, 
who was in command of the Seventy-Seventh, 
politely declined the invitation, believing the 
boys could enjoy their homeward picnic better 
by themselves. 

The days came and went with monotonous 
regularity. Baton Rouge, Port Hudson, Grand 
Gulf and other points of historic interest were 
passed in succession. On the morning of July 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 381 

17th they reached Vicksburg. Here they landed 
and took on a thousand bushels of coal. The 
boys of the Regiment vountarily assisted in this 
work in order to hasten their departure. In the 
afternoon they passed Young's Point, the burial 
ground of so many of their comrades. 

On either bank of the river as they passed 
along, they saw the ruin and desolation caused 
by the war. The thunders of artillery had 
ceased, but the ruins remained. Homes, which, 
in the ante-bellum days had sheltered prosperous 
and happy families, were now deserted and des- 
olate. Here and there they could see a solitary 
wanderer among the ruins some one who had 
just returned from the army of the "Lost 
Cause." 

On the 22d of July they landed at Cairo, 111., 
and once more after an absence of nearly three 
years they set foot on the soil of their own State 
the State which had sent them forth to battle, 
and now waited to welcome their return. They 
felt that they were again in "God's country" 
that they had left the dark lagoons and malarial 
swamps of the South far behind, and that now 
the healthy breezes of the Prairie State would 
infuse new life and vigor into their wasted con- 
stitutions. They had gone to the front with 
nearly .nine hundred men. They returned with 
less than three hundred. They had buried their 
comrades all along the line of march, from Cov- 



382 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

ington, Ky., to Mobile, Ala., and from New Or- 
leans to Camp Ford. The remnant of the Regi- 
ment marched ashore at Cairo with feelings of 
thankfulness and of sorrow thankfulness that 
they were permitted to return, and sorrow for 
the loss of so many brave men. 

While at Memphis, Captain Brock had tele- 
graphed to Cairo for transportation from that 
point to Springfield, so that no delay was occa- 
sioned. Soon after landing they boarded the 
cars and were rapidly carried northward to their 
destination. They arrived in Springfield on the 
23d. Captain Brock at once reported to head- 
quarters and was ordered to Camp Butler, five 
miles from the city. Here the Regiment went 
into camp to await final muster out and pay- 
ment. 

" They were sent to Camp Butler, and in an open 
field, without food or camp, they passed, in the 
capital city of their native State, as uncomfortable a 
night as they had known during the service." 

But, thanks to the foresight of General Grier, 
who had gone home in advance of the Regiment 
to prepare the way for their prompt payment 
and discharge, their stay at Camp Butler was 
brief. On the morning of the 24th the General 
made his appearance at the camp and made a 
speech to the boys, in which he asked them if 
they were willing to go to Peoria, as the ladies 
of that city were anxious to give them an appro- 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 383 

priate reception. It was almost unanimously 
agreed to go. Most of companies " B " and 
" H," however, declined the invitation, as it was 
too much out of their line of travel to their 
homes. 

On the evening of July 27th the boys had a 
sort of farewell jollification. They procured an 
abundance of candles and put them on poles, in 
the trees, etc., and thus illuminated the camp. 
Then speeches were in demand. Sergeant 
David L. Murdock, of Company "H," and 
Jacob H. Snyder, Musician of Company " I," were 
loudly called for, and responded in " thoughts 
that breathe and words that burn." 

This was their last night in camp the last 
time they would all be together, and they made 
good use of it. On the morrow separations 
would take place some final, some only tem- 
porary. They had stood shoulder to shoulder 
for many months, and now they were about to 
separate, each to pursue some useful avocation 
in civil life. 

The next morning they boarded the cars and 
went to the city. They marched at once to the 
Paymaster's office, and that gentleman counted 
out the cash as rapidly as possible. The dis- 
charge papers were distributed, and the boys 
passed from "Brevet citizens" to citizens of full 
rank. Their next movement was to the clothing 



384 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

stores, and here they doffed the regimental blue 
and donned the citizen's suit. 

As they were now ready for the last act in 
their military history, the following dispatch was 
sent to Peoria : 

MRS. A. G. CURTENIUS, 

President Woman's National League : 

The Seventy-Seventh Illinois Volun- 
teers, two hundred strong, will arrive in Peoria 
on Saturday morning. D. P. GRIER, 

Brig. Gen. Commanding. 





CHAPTER THE TWENTY- SECOND. 



"TAPS.' 



EORIA ! October 4, 1862. July 29, 1865. 

Uml 

Departure and return. At 7 o'clock in 
the morning they reached the Central 
City, and at once marched to Rouse's Hall, where 
the " Woman's National League " had prepared 
a good breakfast, a right royal greeting to 
stomachs so long inured to " hard tack and salt 
pork." An appropriate reception speech was 
made, and the boys partook of that bountiful 
repast. In doing so, they remembered the many 
kindnesses they had received from the devoted 
women who waited upon them that morning. 
"The glory of their deeds, while not written, 
like ours, upon the bunting that floats above us, 
are more surely written in the hearts and memo- 
ries of the boys, who, far away from kith and 
kin, strangers in a strange land, enjoyed their 
ministrations." 

Let the public prints of July 31, 1865, tell the 
story of their welcome home : 

" The reception of this Regiment (the 77th) on 



386 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

Saturday last, given by the Ladies' League to the 
returning heroes, was one of the best conducted 
affairs our people ever saw. The history of the 
Regiment will be found in another column. It 
was understood that the boys would arrive on 
the morning train at 4 o'clock. The ladies re- 
paired to the Hall and were ready to receive 
them at that hour. But owing to the road being 
out of repair, caused by the heavy rains, they 
did not arrive until 8 o'clock. Notwithstanding 
this delay, to . their honor be it said, not one of 
the ladies left her post. The ringing of the 
bell of the Congregational Church, announced 
their, arrival to the citizens, who flocked to 
Rouse's Hall to receive them. 

" From the cars, the boys, two hundred and 
sixty strong, marched to the Hall preceded by 
the regimental band, and were welcomed in 
behalf of the League, by the Hon. W. Cockle in 
a brief address. Three cheers for the soldiers 
were given by the audience, which was responded 
to by the soldiers at the instance of Gen. Grier. 
After invoking the Divine blessing by the Chap- 
lain, the boys sat down to breakfast. The tables 
were appropriately and beautifully decked with 
flowers, and loaded with the choicest viands. 
The cellars and markets of the city had been 
ransacked for dainties, and the table waited on 
by beauty, and served up as only the Ladies' 
Union League can serve a meal, was one that 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 387 

only a volunteer was worthy to sit down at. 
The boys showed their appreciation of its deli- 
cacies by a prolonged assault worthy of veterans. 

" At the close of the repast the crowd ad- 
journed to the Court House yard to witness the 
closing exercises. The old Hag that the ladies 
had given to the Regiment three years ago, that, 
shot riddled and blood-stained, had been carried 
through all the battles in which they had been 
engaged, was now to be given back to its donors 
as the only ones fit to keep it in custody. Gen. 
Grier introduced Major Stevens, who made the 
presentation speech. He alluded to the different 
condition of the country now, and when the flag 
was given to them. He paid an eloquent tribute 
to the fallen Col. Webb and the brave men who 
perished with him. Now that the boys had 
accomplished that which they were sent to do, 
he in behalf of the Regiment, would return them 
the flag, stained and torn, it was true, but not a 
thread tarnished or sullied by dishonor. 

" He was followed by Hon. Alex. McCoy, who 
paid a well received compliment to the Ladies' 
League, saying that not to the old men or to the 
young men of Peoria was the honor due, but to 
the members of this noble organization, who had 
worked early and late for four long, weary years 
to sustain our soldiers in the field. At the close of 
the honorable gentleman's remarks, the band of 
the 77th played several patriotic airs and were 



388 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

applauded by the audience. Chaplain McCulloch 
then followed in a speech in which he advised 
the boys to have an eye on the men at home who 
had declared the war to be a failure, and who 
had kept up 'a tire in the rear' at home. No 
man who had advocated such sentiments as these 
ought to be tolerated in office, and he hoped that 
the boys present would never vote for such a man. 

" He was followed by Mr. Thos. McCulloch in 
an eloquent speech, and the exercises closed. 

" The reception reflects the greatest credit upon 
the getters-up of the affair. The appearance of 
the soldiers was exceedingly fine. One could 
not help contrasting their open, manly, intellect- 
ual countenances and modest bearing, with the 
vacant, listless faces which Confederate soldiers 
present, and thinking how great the difference 
between such a reception as this, and the one that 
the Southern rebel meets on his return. 

"Too much praise cannot be given to the band 
of the regiment. It was the universally ex- 
pressed opinion of all present that it is the best 
band in the State. It seems a pity that it should 
disband after attaining such proficiency. An 
effort, we understand, is making to retain them 
in the city. We hope it will be successful. To 
show that we are not alone in our opinien, we 
subjoin the following remarks from the Spring- 
field Journal of Saturday : 

"' It is but just to say, in this connection, that 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 389 

the band of the Seventy-Seventh Regiment has 
the reputation of being one of the best in the 
service; and from their fine performances yester- 
day, we have no doubt they are entitled to the 
honorable distinction. The band consists of 
fourteen performers, under the leadership of Mr. 
Wiley, and what is remarkable, none of them, 
except the leader, having any musical experi- 
ence until they entered the service. Their in- 
struments are of the finest description, and cost 
over one thousand dollars. We congratulate 
the leader on his successful efforts in forming so 
fine a military band.' 

" The boys were furnished with dinner at the 
Central House. Most of them went out on the 
afternoon train. Generally the utmost good 
order prevailed. A few, rejoicing in the pros- 
pect of getting home, indulged in too deep pota- 
tions; but these were exceptions, and not by any 
means the rule." 

Many of the prisoners of war who had re- 
turned home only a few days before the main 
body of the Regiment, were present to enjoy the 
hospitality of Peoria, and formed a part of the 
happy throng on that occasion. 

Another allusion to the Regimental Band, 
in the Transcript, will not be out of place. 

" The serenades last evening were worthy of 
the Seventy-Seventh Band. It was fitting that 
their last act should be a tribute of respect to 



390 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

the widow of their fallen Colonel, an acknowl- 
edgement of grateful thanks to the Woman's 
National League, through its President, and a 
good-bye to their General. At Mrs. Webb's the 
party were received with welcome. Refresh- 
ments were handed them. They played exceed- 
ingly well. A large crowd gathered and saluted 
them with cheers. At Mrs. Curtenius's, the 
house, yard and sidewalk were filled by expect- 
ants long before the band made its appearance. 

" They were enthusiastically received. After 
playing an hour they were treated to a splendid 
collation. It was one of the pleasantest re- 
unions we ever attended; the shower* in the 
distance cooled the air; the crowd, animated by 
the music, were sociable and quiet. Some five 
hundred people were present. Everything passed 
off very pleasantly. The band then marched to 
General Grier's, where they again played. They 
were received in a very pleasant and happy 
manner. The whole thing was a success. To- 
day the boys go to Elmwood to attend a recep- 
tion. They there finally disband. Success to 
them in every walk of life." 

As the boys separated at Peoria, one of them 
wrote as follows : 

"After the morning speeches the boys dis- 
banded; and the old Seventy-Seventh, except as 
a factor of the past in the history of our coun- 
try's struggle, ceased to exist. For the deeds of 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 391 

her history, the war records must tell the story. 
We have written the last page, for our battles 
are all fought and our marches are all ended. As 
the years come apace, and in our declining 
years, if we should meet again in some bright day 
of reunion, though the furrows may mark our 
brows, and the hair be grey, and the eyes lose 
some of their lustre, yet the recalling of these 
eventful -years will quicken the blood in its con- 
duits and make us feel the spirit of youth's 
ambition again. We now go to our homes and to 
our industries, once more settling down as good 
citizens of a country we feel proud to call our 
own; a country purchased with sacrifices that 
are colored with the purple of noble lives. And 
may God grant that from henceforth, from the 
Lakes to the Gulf, and from Ocean to Ocean, it 
may be OUR COUNTRY, one and indivisible, now and 
forerer." 

There is an unwritten record in the life of 
every soldier a record all the more interesting 
because unwritten a record of heroic deeds, of 
patient suffering, of toil and privation, of watch- 
fulness and weariness, of exposure and danger, 
which, if fully known and realized, would com- 
mand the enthusiastic plaudits of the world. It 
is not alone the gilded trappings of official place, 
nor the honored blade which flashes in the sun- 
light, that gains our battles and adorns with glo- 
rious achievements, our historic page. Military 



392 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

discipline and authority, it is true, repose in the 
bullion of shoulder-straps, but VICTORY perches 
on the bayonet and glitters along the barrel of 
the trusty rifle in the ranks. The private soldier 
who plods wearily along the dusty road, and 
cheerfully bears the burdens of the most arduous 
and exacting campaigns, is the true personifica- 
tion of heroism. Without a murmur and with- 
out complaint; leading a life of constant inse- 
security; with no personal consideration; actuated 
only by a patriotic love of country, he flings his 
apparently worthless life away, those hallowed 
words, GOD and MOTHER, lingering on his dying 
lips. 

And the sacrifice is not in vain. It has cost 
much of treasure and of blood, to maintain the 
integrity of our civil and religious institutions, 
but the Government is worth all, and more than 
all this lavish expenditure. Better, far better, 
that the whole population of the United States, 
both North and South, should be swept from the 
face of the earth, that the Mayflower might land 
another cargo of refugees on Plymouth Rock, 
and that the trackless forests of Massachusetts 



should be opened to the spread of civilization by 
another band of devoted Christian men, than that 
the sun should he turned back on the dial of the 
world's progress hy the success of Secession or 
Rebellion. A voice comes from the silent graves 
of Manassas, of Donelson, of Shiloh, of the 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 393 

Malvern Hills, and of other hard contested 
fields, admonishing us to secure at all hazards, 
and to maintain inviolate the perpetuity of the 
Union of all the States. 

Oh, the ravages of war ! The blighted hopes, 
the bleeding hearts, the desolated hearth-stones 
at home ! The tented field, the bloody strife, the 
nameless graves abroad ! How many of our 
comrades, buoyant with hope and glowing an- 
ticipations of the future, have left their bones 
bleaching on a Southern soil, while the Father 
of Waters sings their sad requiem as he flows 
to the Gulf. They being dead, yet speak; and 
their memories are as fresh in our hearts to-day 
as when we buried them on the battle-field, or 
in the levee at Young's Point and Milliken's 
Bend. And it is gratifying to know that a gen- 
erous government has gathered up their mortal 
remains wherever they could be found, and has 
laid them away tenderly in our National Ceme- 
teries. Twenty of our comrades of the Seventy- 
Seventh, whose remains could be identified, now 
repose quietly in the National Cemetery at 
Vicksburg. They were gathered up here and 
there; some on the battle-field, and some in the 
levee across the river. 

Mother, yours was a noble sacrifice. That son, 

your pride and the hope of your declining years, 

was placed upon the altar of his country, with 

your parting benediction upon his head. While 

25 



394 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH 

your heartstrings were snapping and your tem- 
ples throbbing at the separation, you conjured 
him with more than Spartan fortitude, by all his 
hopes of immortality, by all the sacred associa- 
tions of the home circle, by all the treasured 
objects of affection he was leaving behind him, 
to fall manfully on the field of strife, with his 
face to the foe, rather than return to your em- 
brace with the brand of dishonor resting upon 
him. Your self-sacrificing injunctions were re- 
ligiously observed. 

Wife, the partner of your joys and sorrows, 
to whom in youth you plighted your affec- 
tions, and on whom you leaned for support and 
protection, died in a sacred cause, at the cannon's 
mouth, and in a blaze of imperishable glory. 
Although your loss was irreparable, well may 
you rejoice at the record of his daring. Tie left 
a name untarnished by any imputation of cow- 
ardice or disloyalty an honored name which 
you are proud to bear. 

Sister, your idolized brother was another 
martyr in behalf of man's inalienable birthright 
"Life, liberty and the pursuit of happiness." 
Your heart, perhaps, was desolate, yon missed 
him in the social gathering, there was a vacant 
chair at the fireside, the sacred shrine of home 
lost one of its ornaments, and that ornament 
reposes in an unknown grave in a distant State. 

Daughter, your father left you a legacy of 



ILLINOIS VOLUNTEERS. 395 

honor more enduring than the victor's laurel 
crown, or the diadem of princes. He wrote his 
name in living characters, high on the scroll of 
immortal fame, and there it shall remain in- 
scribed forever, the admiration of posterity, and 
an example worthy of imitation. 

Mother, wife, sister, daughter, go and garland 
the graves of the slain patriots. Embalm their 
memories in your hearts, and rehearse the story 
of their noble deeds to the generations follow- 
ing. Let the prattling lips of infancy learn to 
lisp their praises, and the aspiring youth to em- 
ulate their virtues and rival their patriotic devo- 
tion. 

Comrades, it was not on the field of battle 
that your greatest losses were sustained. Disease 
was a greater scourge than shot and shell. And 
how many oh, how many fell by the way- 
side, and were buried in Kentucky, in Tennes- 
see, in Missouri, Arkansas, Mississippi, Alabama, 
Texas, and by the dark lagoons of Louisiana. 
At Arkansas Post, at Vicksburg, at Mansfield, at 
Mobile, and all along the line of march, you 
dug your graves, interred your noble dead and 
planted your tombstones, the sad memorials of 
your march. The chaplets of fame and the 
homage of a nation's gratitude cluster thickly 
in those consecrated burial grounds. 

As the years come and go, we are falling by 
the way. One by one onr places are becoming 



396 THE SEVENTY-SEVENTH. 

vacant. Here and there along the line of march, 
the little mounds of earth, covering the soldiers' 
clay, are multiplying in our burial grounds. But 
while we live, let us not forget the past. Let us 
cling to the sacred memories of the war, and 
preserve inviolate the friendships " welded in the 
fire of battle." And let us cherish ever fondly 
cherish the memory of our patriotic dead. On 
the annual return of each memorial day, let us 
gather our garlands of flowers, and strew them, 
an offering of sweet incense, on their graves. 
And there, kneeling at those hallowed shrines, 
renew our allegiance to the principles for which 
they died. And above all, let us be true to our 
Country and our Flag. " With malice toward 
none, and with charity for all," let us never, 
NEVER, NEVER, clasp fraternal hands across the 
"bloody chasm," on any other terms than uncon- 
ditional loyalty to the powers that be. So shall we 
best exemplify our devotion to the principles 
inculcated by the three cardinal virtues of the 
soldier's creed : 



IJOYALTY. 



THE END. 



UNIVERSITY OF ILLINOIS-URBANA 



HISTORY OF THE 77TH ILLINOIS VOLUNTEER I