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Lawyer, Founder and Director Alabama State Department of Archives 

and History, and author of numerous historical and 

bibliographical publications 






Copyrighted, 1921, 




:>;^ 1175391 






aaiiUiam iWarmabukc 0\xitn, 




3roi)n iloUtS Panfeteab, 

Unfailing and sympathetic friends in all my efforts 

Little, little, can I give thee, 

Alabama, mother mine; 

But that little — hand, brain, spi7-it, 

All I have and am are thine. 

Take, take the gift and giver. 

Take and serve thyself with me. 

Alabama, Alabama, 

I will aye be true to thee! 

From "Alabama," by Julia S. Tutwiler. 


Within these pages is to be found, under specific topics and biographical sketches, 
the history of a people mainly British by descent, conservatively progressive by tradi- 
tion and habit, deeply rooted in love of country, and with a genius for politics and 
government. With as fine a record of achievement as characterizes any of our sister 
States, we have shown with them an equal indifference to preserving our annals for 
the enlightenment and inspiration of posterity. Dr. Owen hoped to repair this omis- 
sion for Alabama. 

The work is especially rich in aboriginal, pioneer, local, political, and military 
history and in biographies of men who have been leaders in their several professions 
and walks of lite in the State. Every important event and period of our history has 
been treated, from the advent of DeSoto and his Spanish adventurers in 1540, to the 
welcome home accorded the returned soldiers of the World War, in 1919. A few 
persons worthy to appear in a book of this character are not included here owing to 
their failure to furnish data which they were asked by the author to supply. 

We are, as a people, proud of our history. As individuals and families we boast 
of our good blood. But we have been careless about putting our claims into such form 
as will substantiate them to the satisfaction of future historians and critics. This 
work is an effort to overcome that failure, and to implant in the minds and hearts of 
Alabamians a consciousness of merit and of greatness, not that we may be boastful, 
but that we may realize our responsibility to those men and women who bore the 
brunt of pioneering, to those who staked all their hard earned gains upon the hazard 
of battle for honor's sake, who overthrew Invasion, and who with dauntless courage 
preserved a civilization and brought a commonwealth to the forefront of a nation in 
science, material development, and civic aspirations. 

Col. Albert J. Pickett collected much interesting pioneer history and left it in 
published form, but his work stopped at the period marking the very beginning of our 
Statehood. Lives of some of our public men have been preserved in brief form by 
chroniclers such as Smith, Garrett, and Brewer. A few local histories have been 
written, and school histories by DuBose, Brown, and others, but not until Dr. Owen 
conceived this "History of Alabama and Dictionary of Alabama Biography," had any 
ambitious attempt been made to write the whole story and present it in one set of books 
available to all. To the preparation of his history as here given, he devoted his mature 
life. He had for his field of research the great library of the Alabama State 
Department of Archives and History into which he had gathered all available and 
extant records, both in manuscript and printed form, including old newspaper files 
and rare prints, pamphlets, bulletins, official reports, and the like. 

When Dr. Owen died, so prematurely, his friends who had looked forward to the 
publication of his "History of Alabama and Dictionary of Alabama Biography," won- 
dered if the book would now be finished and given to the world. 

He had often expressed confidence in my ability to help on the work, so how 
could I fail him, now that his matchless brain and energjetic hands were powerless! 
How could I fail to complete the task he had so set his heart upon, fail to give to the 
people he so loved, and who so loved him, the heritage he had left them? It was out 
of this sense of pity for him in his failure to reach the goal he had set himself, with 
the added sense, too, of duty to the people of Alabama who looked to him to write their 


history, that I dared, with my humble talents and the limited equipment of one who 
had caught the enthusiasm but was without the technique, to attempt the task. 

In the interest of truth I must say frankly that I could not have completed the 
work with any measure of satisfaction to myself or to the public, without the sympa- 
thetic and tireless aid of the staff in the Department of Archives and History whose 
members had been trained by Dr. Owen. Grateful acknowledgment is due to Peter A. 
Brannon, Curator, and to Miss Mary R. Mullen, Librarian, both of whom have rendered 
invaluable assistance, not only in research, but also in the work of composition. Ac- 
knowledgment is also made to Miss Toccoa Cozart, for a number of years a collector 
for the Department, and to Mr. H. F. Thompson, Prof. Henry S. Halbert, ethnologist 
and antiquarian, now deceased. Rev. Peyton Saffold, Miss Gertrude Ryan, Miss Dolly 
Owen, now Mrs. Harvey G. Geer, and to Thomas M. Owen, Jr. I also wish to make 
acknowledgment to the three young women assistants who have aided me with their 
faithful and efficient services. Misses Voncile Baxter, Mary Loughran and Isabel 

And lastly, I desire especially to express my gratitude to Governor Thomas E. 
Kilby, Chairman of the Board of Trustees of the Alabama State Department of Archives 
and History. 


ain ^prectation 



It is but fitting that the first pages of this book should be devoted to an expres- 
sion of appreciation of its author. Dr. Owen, who had proposed writing the history 
of his State from his early youth and who through the years that followed devoted 
much of his time and talents to gathering material for historical purposes, was not 
privileged to live to see the fulfillment of his aspirations. With the manuscript of the 
"History of Alabama and Dictionary of Alabama Biography" well towards completion, 
he died suddenly, from the effects of overwork, on the night of March 25, 1920. 

A sketch of Dr. Owen setting forth his ancestral line, his scholastic preparation, 
his literary and other achievements, with a list of the organizations to which he 
belonged and whose aims his fine constructive powers assisted in furthering, with 
other details of a personal and public character, may be found in the biographical 
section of this work. It will, however, be of interest to the people of Alabama whose 
traditions were so dear to his heart and whose annals he gathered, preserved, and 
placed in this form for dissemination amongst the people, to have a few further facts 
concerning his life in relation to this particular work. 

It seems that no man, not even Thomas Carlyle, whose first manuscript of the 
"History of The French Revolution" was destroyed by fire, had greater obstacles 
to overcome than did Thomas M. Owen in his task of writing this book. He was privi- 
leged to be born of parents who had a full appreciation of the value of education 
and who quickly realized the extraordinary talents of their first born. Although his 
years in school and college came within that period of 'poverty and privation which 
was the common experience of the people of his State following the War of Secession, 
every necessary sacrifice was made by his parents in order that he might have train- 
ing necessary to fit him for the life of a professional man. He was glad to contribute 
diligent work on his own part to the efforts being made by those who loved him to 
give him his chance. Soon after his death his uncle. Prof. I. W. McAdory, in writing 
to his aged mother in reference to that period of his life, said: "Dear Sister: Your 
letter with the clippings came today. I have read all I have seen published about Tom. 
I knew him as very few men living knew him, from his boyhood until his death. His 
life written out in full would be an inspiration to the young people of our country. 
You and I know how anxious he was to go to school, how he worked his way through 
the preparatory school and through college. The leading teachers of the State a few 
days ago paid high tribute to his memory. He was, no doubt, the best known man in 
Alabama. I am glad I had some part in helping to educate him." 

Dr. Owen went through the University of Alabama, leaving a record for scholar- 
ship and for number of subjects covered in the shortest space of time unsurpassed by 
any other student. During his senior year he also covered the law course, graduating 
with distinction in both departments. This combined course included so many sub- 
jects that it was impossible for him to appear in the class room for all recitations and 


lectures, but when examination days came he made his usual high averages, and this 
in addition to the fact that he commanded one of the military companies, and took an 
active part in debating clubs and other college activities. Through his long career, 
his power to grasp and retain knowledge was amazing to his associates, but despite 
this gift he was peculiarly social minded, and made his contribution of service to all 
the forward going activities of his times. By the time Thomas Owen had completed 
his course at the University, his school-boy determination to write the history of his 
State had become a fixed purpose in his mind and heart. But the necessary materials 
for such an undertaking were not at hand. The books extant at that time which 
could have been of use to him, were not available as there was no public library in 
Bessemer or Birmingham. Being without funds with which to buy those books, he 
borrowed a small sum of money from a member of his family for the purpose. But 
before he could invest in his coveted helps, the money had to be paid to a bank at 
which he had gone security for a friend. In no way discouraged, for he never was 
discouraged, he opened a law office and bided his time for fees with which to finish 
paying for his college education and to buy books for his historical work. 

His first desire was to write a history of Jefferson County, and to do this he began 
interviewing old citizens and accumulating old newspapers, pamphlets, letters, and 
every other possible source of first-hand information. Through this writing from orig- 
inal source material, he came to realize that a monumental history of the State should 
be written after the same method. Therefore he widened his sphere of inquiry and 
addressed himself to interviewing men and women in all walks of life. 

Soon after his marriage. Dr. Owen removed to Washington City, where he resided 
for three years. There he came in touch with the scholars resident in the national 
capital, including such figures as Thomas Nelson Page, Ainsworth Rand Spofford, the 
great old scholar and head of the Library of Congress at that time, Dr. John Franklin 
Jameson, now head of the Carnegie Institution in Washington, Dr. Stephen Beauregard 
Weeks, the North Carolina historian. General John T. Morgan, and scores of other 
men ripe in scholarship, all of whom were sympathetic with his ambitions, and help- 
ful and inspiring. When he returned to Alabama he had already published his two 
books, "A Bibliography of Alabama" and "A Bibliography of Mississippi," and had 
helped to organize, in Washington, the Southern Historical Association. 

For a while he resumed the practice of law, locating in Carrollton, Alabama. His 
new place of residence was at that time forty miles from a railroad, and his library, 
which had grown to large proportions, was carried in wagons that distance over the 
country roads. While living in Carrollton the death of Dr. Benjamin F. Meek, Pro- 
fessor of History at the University, occurred, and he applied for the position, but the 
Trustees selected another candidate. It was Dr. Owen's intention, if made Professor 
of History, to develop a great historical department and library at his Alma Mater, 
but being disappointed in his hopes there, he removed to Birmingham, where he opened 
a law ofiice. But all the while his love for history and his desire to promote an interest 
in history in his State possessed him. He had by now evolved the idea of creating a 
Department of Archives and History that would be officially connected with the adminis- 
trative Department of the State. "Owen's Edition of Pickett's History of Alabama" 
had Just been issued, in which he had brought the annals of the State up from the 
time where Colonel Pickett had left off his work, 1819, to 1890. The Alabama History 
Commission, of which he was Secretary and whose publications he edited, had Just 
issued two interesting volumes of its proceedings, and these volumes, added to his own 
works already published, were a fine introduction for him as an historical scholar. 
With a genius for making friends and keeping them, he came to the Legislature of 
Alabama during its session of 1901 and laid before his friends in that body his plan 
for an Alabama State Department of Archives and History. These friends were 
thoroughly convinced of the practicability of such a Department of State, but refused 
to support the bill unless he would consent to take the directorship of the new depart- 
ment. His pledge given, the bill was introduced by Hon. Richard H. Clarke, of 
Mobile, and was passed by both houses with large majorities. This adventure into 


new fields of political science — for Dr. Owen's plan was the first of its kind in tlie United 
States, though since copied by a number ol States — was a tribute to the far-sightedness 
and patriotism of the legislators who supported it. Governor W. J. Samford was in 
the executive office and was, from the time when Dr. Owen called upon him in his 
sick chamber and laid his plans before him, a friend to the movement. Hte approved 
the bill on February 27, 1901, when it became a law. 

Now having a small appropriation from the State for maintenance of the de- 
partment. Dr. Owen removed to Montgomery and began the administration of the 
new department in the cloakroom of the Senate, where tor ten years he carried on 
his work, having for his devoted secretary his sister. Miss Dolly Owen, now Mrs. 
Harvey G. Geer, of Palm Beach, Fla. For fifteen years this sister aided him in his 
work, and this tribute to him would not be complete without here giving acknowledg- 
ment to her encouragement and loyalty to him personally, and to his dreams not only 
for a great department but for the completion of the History of Alabama, which was 
to be the crowning effort of his life's work. While all the collections that Dr. Owen 
made for the Department of Archives and History were gradually filling up the small 
quarters and overflowing into adjoining rooms in the Capitol, his private library in 
his home was also growing, having now expanded into thousands of volumes. His 
working hours were devoted to his office duties, but his evenings at home were given 
to writing, often keeping him at his desk until three o'clock in the morning. He had 
now finished his History of Jefferson County and histories of many other counties 
in the State, as well as many papers of a genealogical and historical character, and 
had them in manuscript form. He spent the evening of March 6, 1906, reorganizing 
certain of his reference books, going through some early Alabama correspondtence 
which had been given to him personally, and getting his library in order to complete 
his History of Alabama, then well under way. When he finished his task, he remarked 
that he was now ready for doing the final work upon his history of the State. The 
next morning he left his Cloverdale home for his duties. Before noon of that day his 
house with its entire contents, including all of his twenty years' labor as an author 
was in ashes! 

This loss was a blow that would have discouraged most men. It was one of the two 
great sorrows that came into his life from which he never recovered, the other being 
the loss of a young son a few years previous. But despite the destruction of all of 
his books of reference, of the irreparable loss of the source materials he had gathered 
from every quarter of the State, and of the manuscript which was the result of his 
years of labor. Dr. Owen began anew the collecting of such books as could be bought, 
and started again to write the History of Alabama. He had at one time intended to 
make of the work a consecutive narrative, but later he realized that the material 
afforded such a wealth of information that the purposes of history would be better 
served by an encyclopedia. In keeping with the other tragedies that had thwarted 
his efforts to complete his book, the last and overwhelming tragedy. Death, overtook him. 

Though Dr. Owen was pre-eminently the scholar and student, he had no "scholastic 
pose," and he was as much at home in the company of the humblest man, woman or 
child as among the learned with whom he associated. He was never guilty of that 
aloofness from mankind that has characterized many students and scholars, but on the 
other hand was conspicuously active in the various associations and organizations of 
his city and State. While money making was never an object with him, he had a fine 
practical sense which was recognized by the business men of his city. On several 
occasions he was offered salaries, far above that paid him by his official position, to 
take charge of large business enterprises, but this he never considered for a moment, 
saying that he had an objective in life which he considered of more importance than 
money making. Dr. Owen was a born organizer and executive, and this without any 
of that vanity or arrogance that so often accompany powers of leadership. In council, 
his characteristic was to speak last, listening to the opinions of his associates and 
carefully analyzing the facts brought forward. Then when he rose to speak his ideas 
were constructive, and usually his suggestions prevailed. 


He was a man of deep faith and piety. He never retired after the day's work 
without kneeling in prayer. From the time when he was a university student and 
the blue temperance ribbon was pinned upon his grey cadet uniform by Mrs. Ellen 
Peter Bryce, until the night of his death, he was a "blue ribbon" man. His last public 
utterance was made a few hours before his death at a meeting of "The Thirteen," a 
club of professional and business men, of which he was a charter member, when he 
spoke most earnestly in behalf of the Federal Prohibition Amendment. 

Dr. Owen was a good speaker, and was constantly called upon to make addresses 
or informal talks on patriotic and historical subjects. He was a deep student of the 
Confederate period, and of the lives of the civil and military leaders of that heroic 
time. He developed that period with greatest emphasis in the reference books of the 
Department of Archives and History and in his museum collection, where are to be 
found rosters of Alabama troops, old battle torn flags and records of every available 

He had a strong military strain In his blood and grieved because he was beyond 
the age and strength for participation in the World War. He believed that training and 
discipline were good schooling for every man, and attributed his own orderliness, 
respect tor temporal authority, and unquestioning religious faith to the discipline that 
he received in home and school. 

When Governor Kilby was advised of Dr. Owen's death he ordered the State flag 
on the Capitol and the United States flag that floats from its pole on the Capitol green 
to be lowered at half mast, and gave officially the following tribute: "Alabama has 
suffered an irreparable loss in the death of Dr. Owen. As Director and Founder of the 
Department of Archives and History he rendered service of immeasurable benefit to 
the State. His department, through its phenomenal efficiency, contributed materially 
to every branch of our government. His patriotic services in all causes for the up- 
building and advancement of his State endeared him to all our people. The death of 
Dr. Owen has deeply grieved me. (Signed) 'Thomas E. Kilby, Governor.'" 

But lest posterity may think that the brief appreciation of Dr. Owen's work and 
character which I have set forth here is the statement of a biased witness, I take the 
liberty of quoting extracts from a few of the hundreds of telegrams and letters which 
came to me after his death: 


From Thomas C. McCorveii. Dean of the Department of Historp at the Vniversity of Alatama, 
under whom Dr. Owen received his instructions in that branch of learning while a student. "Tbe 
loss to the State is irreparable. There is none other whb can bend the bow of Ulysses." 

From L. W. Josselun, Director Birmingham Public Library. "Staff of Birmingham public 

library has been working with Dr. Owen for many years in the development of library service. 

We had grown to both love and respect him as our great leader. The loss to the State and the 
country is irreparable." 

From Ex-Oorernor Charles Henderson, to Thomas M. Owen, Jr. "It was with profound sor- 
row that I learned of your father's death. He did his work well and has left his impress upon 
the affairs of Alabama." 

"Dr. Owen was truly 

From Dr. Oeorge Petrie, Prof, of History at Alabama Polytechnic Institute. "In Dr. Owen's 
death an irreparable loss is sustained by the State and all history workers. No one can fill his 

From Robert C. Alston, of Tuscaloosa, 
guished husband pains me deeply. No man 
deeply mourns him." 

From Dr. Eugene A. Smith. State geologist, Vniversity. "I am grieved beyond expression to 
hear of tbe death of your distinguished husband, my friend of many years. Your loss in his death 
will be also a loss to the whole State of Alabama because there Is no one living who can even 
partially fill his place." 



From U. 8. Senator Oscar TV. Underwood, for whose campaign for the Democratic nomination 
for the presidency of the United States Dr. Owen was secretary in 1912. "We had been friends 
since boyhood and fought our battles together. His high character and sterling ability will sur- 
vive him as a shining light. His death leaves a vacant place in the lives of all his friends." 

From Dr. George H. Denny. President of the Universitti of Alabama. "I want you to know 
that we always thought of Dr. Owen as standing in the forefront of our alumni, not merely in 
the distinguished service he rendered his state and his time, but also in the distinguished affection 
and loyalty he so freely gave to his alma mater. I linow of no man who has lived and wrought 
in this generation who has meant more to the higher life of the commonwealth than did Dr. Owen. 
I was particularly touched by the tribute paid by Hon. John H. Wallace. He spoke the truth when 
he advanced the idea that no one could correctly estimate the value of the 'refining' influence 
of Dr. Owen's life. That was a splendid tribute and it represents the truth." 

From Robert C. Alston, TuscaJoosa. "I have had such admiration for Dr. Owen's work ! I sup- 
pose it will be very unpopular to say that he was teaching a people to know and appreciate their 
traditions : yet. that was Just what he was doing. I believe he did his work better than any other 
man in the whole country. No one else seems to have so completely perceived what the people 
needed, and no one could have gone about it more tactfully." 

From T. W. Palmer, president Alabama Technical Institute and College for Women. "His 

departure is the greatest loss imaginable to our State. He stood in a class to himself in bis 

chosen field of labor. The Department of Archives and History ranks foremost in the United 
States and probably in the world." 

From Dr. George Lang, head of the Department of Philosophy, University of Alabama. "Not 
many men are held in such univer.sal esteem for such suflicient reasons, as Dr. Owen was esteemed. 
It was my fortunate privilege to know him in several relations, and it was always with increased 
satisfaction and admiration." 

From Ralph Barrow, State Superintendent of the Alabama Children's Aid Society. "To 
many of the younger men of the State he was more than an official and more than a personal 
friend. He was to us a kind of god-father, and as you know, many of us were called, 'my boy.' 
His memory to us will always be warm and immortal." 

From Ethel Jackson Williamson, Pine Apple, Ala., a former student at Woman's College. 
"May I add my tribute to the thousands already placed at the feet of your splendid husband. 
During my early college years in your city, it was my great pleasure and privilege to know him 
and to enjoy the rich storehouse his energy and genius had created. His advice was often inval- 
uable to me and his knowledge was a perfect mine of wisdom. You can never know, Mrs. Owen, 
and I fancy he never knew, how many, many lives he touched for but a little while, as mine, and 
left an imprint thereon jealously to be guarded and treasured." 

From Dr. J. H. Phillips, Birmingham. He refers to mil father. Senator J. <H. Bankhead, who 
preceded my husband to the grave by only three weeks. "The loss of father and husband within 
so short a space of time is a heavy trial. But your exceptional consolation lies in the fact that 
in point of service, no two men in Alabama have ever contributed so much to the welfare of the 
State as Senator Bankhead and Dr. Owen, in their respective lines of work, and no two men in 
the history of Alabama have been more beloved," 

From R. M. Archibald. State Supervisor Interchurch World Movement. "I loved and admired 
Dr. Owen. He was a great man. As you will see from my stationery, he was a member of our 
State Survey Council in the Rural Survey which I am conducting and I found his counsel of much 
value on different occasions." 

From Mrs. Janie McTj 
bama, written from Sullins _ „ , 
we held Dr. Owen, both as a friend and 
gomery, he seems to loom up above all t 
which he occupied in the community." 

From Ross C. Speir, Birmingham. 
days strengthened my admiration and r . 
He was always ready to serve. That is why 

lost a chief citizen, the State 

From. Dr. Robert H. McCaslin, Presbyterian minister and fellow Rotarian who pronounced 
Dr. Owen's funeral eulogy in the Court Street Methodist Church, written to acknowledge a pho- 
tograph. "I shall keep his likeness on my desk, and think reverently and often of that precious 
"St as I look upon it, and thank God that He gave us that matchless and knightly man, Thomas 

written from the Capital Citti Club, Atlanta, Qa. 
o an extent I have never seen in any one, and his 
desire to serve, and the wish to be recognized as ohe 
)wn gain." 

From Dr. W. A. Blake, for twenty years member of the Board of Trustees of the Department 
of Archives and Hi.story. "Let me say to you what I have many times said to others. The worth 
to Alabama of the work done by Thomas M. Owen during the past twenty years Is of greater 
value than that of any other citizen during this period." 

From Mrs. Charles Henderson. Troy. Ala., wife of the former governor of the State. "I know 
of no one who was more gifted with high intellectual ability, integrity, sweetness of character and 
above all, Christian in life than was your beloved husband. Simple In his ideals of life, a loyal 



churchman and statesman, thoughtful, modest and generous in giving of self to public and patriotic 
calls. He has a place in the memory of all Alabama that will be indelible. It is hard indeed to 
thinls that we shall never see him again and I know of no figure that will be so missed as he." 

"Dr. Owen's 

From Miss Mary E. Ahern, editor "Fublic Libraries." "I am very sorry that in this life 1 
shall not meet Dr. Owen again, but I am inclined to think that the sweet, Joyous spirit that was 
so happy in dealing with the things of the mind and soul on this earth, will have a greater oppor- 
tunity in the great beyond, and there will be much to show us of which we have not known, when 
we see him again." 

From Dr. 'Hastings H. Hart, White Plains, N. T. " 
his assistance and sympathy in my own Alabama work, 
monument in the Department of Archives and History." 

From Miss Alice Wyman, Vniversitu. "His great courage, his unswerving loyalty to our 
State his superior ability hidden under his plain, unassuming demeanor, his gentleness of char- 
acter' and sweetness of disposition were sources of inspiration to all of us. Our State^has lost 
one of her greatest sons." 

From F. W. Gist, V. 
things — first, his individui 
character was formed at a period of his State's development when by virtue of her necessities 
the unselfish side of her citizenship had become predominant. I am positive that no man ever 
lived in our day who had reached a higher point in the development of unselfish devotion to his 
people, his community, his State, and his church." 

From A. F. Oicens, colored, dean of Selma University. "Dr. Owen helped me much in my 
efforts of 1911 to induce the Legislature to make the Boys Reformatory at Mt. Meigs a State 
institution. Ever since that good day Dr. Owen has been my kind and sympathetic friend. I have 
always felt that I had in him a safe counselor. In his death I sustain a personal loss." 

From Ed. C. Betts, lawyer, Huntsville. "As a public servant he was gifted with initiative 
and a breadth of vision not possessed by many men. He had imagination, foresight, indefatigable 
energy, and a determination to work good to the commonwealth he served." 

From Rev. Henry M. Edmonds, Presbyterian minister, Birmingham. "Dr. Owen was one of 
the finest, most lovable men I ever knew and though I grieve at what we call his loss, yet I refuse 
to say that I have lost him. His honesty, his courage, his enthusiasm, his unselfishness cannot 
be lost." 

Concluding paragraph in a column-long Editorial in "The Montgomery Advertiser," entitled, 
"The Builder," and written by its editor, Capt. W. T. Sheehan, following Dr. Owen's death. After 
reviewing the dead historian's successful efforts to realize his dreams, and deploring his premature 
passing, he said: "He died Thursday night, died as the old chroniclers said of their warriors, 
'with his harness on his back.' But he had seen his vision realized. A good man and true, a dis- 
tinguished scholar, a civic leader who inspired, a man devoted to the hig-hest Ideals of moral con- 
duct and religious faith, the State of Alabama is poorer in true manhood because of his death. 
The city of Montgomery is poorer in the death of an adopted son, who loved her well and served 
her faithfully." 

From A. B. Moore, professor of History, the Iowa State College of Agriculture and Mechanic 
Arts, Ames, Iowa, but a native of Alabama. "1 cannot imagine that my State, my profession, and 
I have lost so much. I have lost a collaborator and patron in my efforts at historical research. 
I have received from him, while doing research work in the Department of Achives and History, 
not only the thoughtful and delicate courtesies, of which he was a master, but also kind fatherly 
advice concerning the problems in my field of endeavor. Dr. Owen's distinguished service is so 
well known throughout the nation that it needs no advertisement, but the unique methods and 
results of his work, and the intense human side of him so beautifully manifested in his social 
relations in his home, and in his civic activities in Montgomery, are best known to Alabamians. 
The Alabama State Department of Archives and History, which he nurtured into existence and 
made famous, represents the most unique accomplishment in the field of history in recent times 
and one of the most distinguished accomplishments of all times. It represents a passionate, heroic, 
and conscientious service ; and it reveals the toils, methods, and organization of a real genius. As 
a repository of the sources of Alabama history it unquestionably is one of the State's greatest 
assets ■ it not only contains the sources upon which all students of Alabama and Southern history 
must draw, l)ut the magnitude and splendor of it will infuse into the investigator the spirit of Its 
builder which is the spirit that is producing and will produce the annals of scientific and authentic 
history' How great will his hospitality, his enthusiasm, his 'spontaneous courtesies, and his pro- 
digious knowledge be missed by his fellow Alabamians and by the mapy persons from all parts 
of the nation who have called upon him and worked in his department." 

ind State Senator. "Al 
tizens. He had no eq 
transmitted into floral wreaths he would sleep 

The following poem was written by Oustave Frederick Merlins, lawyer and author of Mont- 
gomery, after caliing at our home and seeing him in his last sleep upon his bier: 


He called : "Good Morning !" and a cheery note 
Rang in his voice as on his way he went. 
I cried : "Good Morning ! 
His smile, his hand-wave 


Friendship and service, sympathy and hope, 
A courtly kindness, an engaging smile — 
With these he builded, came it rain or shine. 
To malse the lives of others seem worth while. 

I used to like to think : "There goes a friend 
Who knows no troubles," and I wished it so : 
But I have seen him breast them with a smil 
His voice all cheer, his sparkling eyes aglow. 

I went to see him where he smiling lay. 
Seeing the Dawning while we saw the End. 
My sorrow left me and I smiled with him 
In old exchange : "Good-bye, good friend !" 

History of Alabama 

ABBEVILLE. Post office and county seat 
of Henry County, in the central part of tlie 
county, 28 miles south of Eufaula, 14 miles 
west of the Chattahoochee River, and the 
terminus of the Abbeville Southern Railway, 
a branch of the Atlantic Coast Line. It is 
situated on the high red hills of the pine 
region of the county, at the junction of two 
historic stagecoach roads — the Eufaula and 
Columbia road and the road to Ft. Gaines, Ga. 

The name of the town is taken from Abbey 
Creek (Indian name, Yatta Abba), which Is 
not far distant. It is one of the oldest settle- 
ments in southeastern Alabama. It became 
the county seat in 1833, but was a fairly popu- 
lous community long before that date. Part 
of the town is located on land formerly be- 
longing to Henry A. Young, who donated 
several streets through his property on the 
north side of the public square. Population: 
1888—600; 1890—465; 1900—889; 1910— 
1,141. Altitude: 499 feet. The town has an 
electric lighting plant; and artesian water 
supply. There are Methodist and Baptist 
churches. The Third District Agricultural 
School, with its equipment of substantial, 
modern brick buildings, is located near the 
town, on 40 acres of good, arable land. The 
Bank of Henry (State), and the First Na- 
tional Bank are located there. The Abbeville 
News, a Democratic weekly newspaper, estab- 
lished in 1900, Is published at Abbeville, and 
there are also several sawmills, gristmills, 
cotton ginneries, and cottonseed mills. 

Among the early settlers or residents were 
Alexander C. Gordon, merchant and planter, 
who served his State and county in the 
militia, in the Creek Indian disturbances of 
1836, and as a captain in the Sixth Alabama 
Infantry Regiment; James Ward, State sen- 
ator and representative; George W. Williams, 
lawyer and legislator; James N, Lightfoot; 
and Gov. William C. Gates. 

Refekences. — Brewer, Alahama (1872), p. 
279; Northern Alabama (1888), p. 236; Polio's 
Alabama gazetteer. 1888-9, p. 65; Alabama Offi- 
cial and Statistical Register, 1915. 

COMPANY. See Atlantic Coast Line Rail- 
road Company. 

ABESHAI. A creek mentioned by Bernard 
Romans. A careful reading of his narrative 
Identifies this stream with the modern Kinta- 
t)ish, a tributary of the Tombigbee River in 
Sumter County. In Choctaw, in place of 

"oka," water, "bok," creek, and "bokushi," 
branch, a general term "oka abvchaya," 
meaning watercourse, can be used. The word 
"oka" can be dropped, and "abvchaya" alone 
used. The word "Abvchaya" is undoubtedly 
"Abeshai" of Romans. 

References. — Bernard Romans, Florida 
(1776), p. 327; Prof. Henry S. Halbert, "Manu- 
scripts," in Ala. State Dept. of Archives and 

ABIHK.\. One of the oldest of the Upper 
Creek towns. While there is some uncer- 
tainty, it Is believed that the site of the town 
was in Talladega County, near the Coosa 
River, and just South of Tallassehatchee 
Creek on the S. Va of the S. % of sec. 17, T. 
20, R. 5 E. of the Huntsville meridian. At this 
point a village site, not otherwise identified, 
but corresponding with the indications of map 
locations of Abihka, extends along the creek 
same distance down the river. Lewis thus 
describes this site: "The remains — village 
debris — are of about the same general char- 
for over one-half mile, and for nearly the 
acter and quantity as those found on the site 
of Old Coosa." The first record of the town 
is found on Delisle's map of 1704, where they 
are "les Abeikas," and are noted on the east 
side of the Coosa River, apparently just 
above the influx of the Pakantalahassi. — 
Winsor. Belen's map of 1733, also places 
the "Abeccas" on the east side of the Coosa, 
but at some distance from it. — Shea. Coxe 
says that "the Becaes or Abecars have thir- 
teen towns, and the Ewemalos, between the 
Becaes and the Chattas, can raise five hun- 
dred fighting men." The people of the town 
were closely related to the Kusas and other 
towns of the Upper Creeks, and indeed, 
Bartram identifies them as the Coussas. The 
people of the town are called Apixkanagi. 
Gatschet says: "The Creek term abi'hka sig- 
nifies 'pile at the base, heap at the root' (abi, 
stem, pole), and was imparted to this tribe, 
'because in the contest for supremacy its 
warriors heaped up a pile of scalps, covering 
the base of the war-pole only. Before thia 
achievement the tribe was called sak'hutga 
door, shutter, or Simat'hutga italua, shutter, 
door of towns or tribes.' " Situated on the 
northern limits of the Creek country this 
town was a buffer or defense against hostile 
inroads, which fact gave the appellation just 
noted. As indicating its antiquity, it is re- 
corded that the oldest chiefs were in the habit 
of naming the Creek Nation after the town. 
A French census of 1760 divided the Upper 
Creeks into Alybamous, Talapouches and 


Abikas. To this town some of the most 
ancient Creel? customs are traced, as, the laws 
punishing adultery, and for the regulation of 

References. — Gatschet, Migration Legend 
(1884), vol. 1, p. 125, and also "Towns and Vil- 
lages of the Creek Confederacy," in Alabama 
History Commission, Report (Miscellaneous Col- 
lections of the Alabama Historical Society, 
1901), vol. 1, p. 390; Lewis, in American 
Antiquarian, vol. 17, p. 173; Winsor, Narrative 
and Critical History of America, vol. 2, pp. 294, 
295; Shea, Charlevoix Neiv France, vol. 6, p. 11; 
Coxe, Carolana (1741), p. 25; Bartram, Travels 
(French ed. 1799); Hamilton, Colonial Mobile 
(2d ed., 1910); and Handbook of American In- 
dians (1907), vol. 1, p. 1, where will be found a 
full review of references to the various aborig- 
inal narratives and chronicles. 

ABlkUDSHI. An Upper Creek town, situ- 
ated on a plain, about a mile wide, mainly 
on the right bank of Natche (now Tallahatchi) 
Creek, 5 miles east of Coosa River in Tal- 
ladega County. Portions of the town lay also 
on the left bank of the creek. The name sig- 
nifies "Little Abihka." The town was settled 
from Abihka, and by some Natchez Indians. 
The first reference to it is on De Crenay's map 
of 1733, where the name is Abicouchys. A 
French census of 1760 gives Abekouches 130 
warriors, and locates them 25 French leagues 
from Fort Toulouse. At a council held at 
Savannah, Ga., July 3, 1761, to regulate 
Indian trade, this town with its 50 hunters, 
was assigned to the Indian trader, J. McGil- 
livray. Bartram states of them in 1775 that 
the inhabitants spoke a dialect of Chicasaw, 
but Gatschet observes that this "can be true 
of a part of the inhabitants only." Of the 
town ip 1799, Hawkins says: "They have no 
fences, and but few hogs, horses and cattle; 
they are attentive to white people, who live 
among them, and particularly so to white 

See Abihka. 

References. — Gatschet, in Alabama History 
Commission, Report (1901), vol. 1, p. 391; 
Hawkins, Sketch of the Creek Country (1848), 
p. 42; Hamilton, Colonial Mobile (1910), p. 190; 
Mississippi Provincial Archives (1911), vol. 1, 
p. 95; Georgia, Colonial Records, vol. 13, p. 523; 
Pickett, Alabama (Owen's ed., 1900), p. 85i 
and Handbook of American Indians (1907), vol. 
1, p. 2, for detailed references. 

ABINGDON MILLS, Huntsville. See Cot- 
ton Manufacturing. 


ACADEMIES. A popular type of school or- 
ganization and instruction, holding a very im- 
portant place in ante bellum days, and during 
the twenty-five years immediately following 
the close of the War. They were also known 
as private academies or seminaries. Organ- 
ization for instruction in the early years of 
statehood took four forms, the State univer- 
sity for higher education, denominational col- 

leges of high grade, academies, and common 
schools, sometimes called sixteenth section 
schools. The university and the common 
schools were the only two receiving State sup- 
port. The various denominations early recog- 
nized their duty in the matter of educational 
effort, and Howard College, Judson College, 
at Summerfield, Southern University, and 
other institutions were organized by them, 
many of which are still active and vigorous, 
after many years of honorable existence. 

Perhaps the most general form of school in- 
stitution, however, was the academy. Among 
the first acts of the legislature are many 
charters granted to such institutions and dur- 
ing the history of the State, more than 100 
of such acts are to be found. The State, 
while giving no support in a financial way, 
through these charters recognized the practi- 
cal service of such schools, and, in a way, the 
regulations prescribing their powers and du- 
ties gave general tone and direction to the 
type. One of these schools* was the Green 
Academy, founded at Huntsville, the site of 
which is still pointed out. One was St. 
Stephen's Academy. 

In 1847 Dr. Henry Tutwiler, who had been 
one of the first teachers in the University of 
Alabama, opened Greene Springs School, near 
the village of Havana, in Greene (now Hale) 
County. The school had a wonderful record, 
and it was known far and wide as the "Rugby 
of the South." 

Refebences. — Clark, History of Education in 
Alabama (1889); Owens, Secondary Agricul- 
tural Education in Alabama (1909); Weeks, 
History of Public School Education in Alabama 
(1915); Pickett, Alabama (Owen ed., 1900); 
Brewer, Alabama (1872); Blandin, History of 
Higher Education of Women in the South 

ADAMSVILLE. A town in Jefferson County, 
on the "Frisco" Railroad, about 10 miles 
northwest of Birmingham, and in the mineral 
district. Population: 1910 — 649. It was in- 
corporated by the legislature on February 5, 
1901. By act of August 31, 1915, the charter 
was annulled and the corporation dissolved. 

References. — Local Acts, 1900-01, pp. 735-753, 
1245-1247; Ibid, 1915, p. 198; Alabama Official 
and Statistical Register, 1915. 

AD.JITTANT GENERAL. A State executive 
officer, and, under the governor as com- 
mander-in-chief, the head of the military 
department. He is appointed by the gov- 
ernor, with the advice and consent of the 
senate, and must have served at least two 
years in the Alabama National Guard, or in 
the Spanish-American War, or in the United 
States Army. He has the rank of brigadier 
general, is chief of the governor's staff, and 
ex officio chief of all staff departments. All 
current military records and accounts are 
kept in his office, and he is required to super- 
vise "the receipt, preservation, repair, distri- 
bution, issue and collection" of all military 


property, and the organization, armament, 
discipline, training, recruiting, inspecting, 
instructing, pay, and subsistence of all 
branches of the service. He keeps a roster of 
all the officers and men of the Alabama 
National Guard; distributes the State mili- 
tary laws and rules, and blank books, forms, 
and stationery to the troops; prepares such 
reports as may be required for the State or 
for the United States Government; makes a 
report to the governor 10 days before each 
session of the legislature; and performs such 
other duties as may be required of him by 
the commander-in-chief. 

His salary is $2,000 a year. He has a chief 
clerk and assistant with the rank of major, at 
a salary of $1,800, who, in the absence of his 
superior, performs the duties of the office; 
two other assistants, at salaries of $1,080 and 
$900, who are members of the National 
Guard, and who perform the duties of prop- 
erty clerk and military store keeper; and a 
stenographer at $900 a year. The adjutant 
general furnishes a surety bond of $5,000; 
the chief clerk, $3,000; the other assistants, 
$2,000 each. 

Early History. — The first constitution of 
the State, 1819, required that the legislature 
should' provide by law for organizing the 
militia, but should not make any elections or 
appointments of officers therein except ad- 
jutants general and quartermasters general. 
Accordingly, the laws organizing the State's 
military establishment specified that the 
adjutant general should be elected by joint 
vote of both houses, and hold his office for 
the term of four years, but authorized the 
governor to fill vacancies during a recess. The 
adjutant general was also inspector gen- 
eral and had the rank of colonel. His 
rank was raised in 1831 to that of brigadier 
general, and his compensation put upon the 
basis of $4 for every day he was engaged in 
the actual discharge of his oflacial duties, and 
7 cents for every mile travelled while so 
engaged, but not to exceed $200 in any one 

Under the military code, prepared by 
Generals George W. Crabb and J. T. Brad- 
ford, and adopted in 1837, the office of ad- 
jutant general was continued with slightly 
amplified powers and a few additional duties, 
the same as before. The code of 1852 first 
imposed the duty of reporting to the governor 
10 days before each regular session of the 
legislature the number and condition of the 
arms and accoutrements of the State. An 
act of February 24, 1860, "to provide 
for an efficient Military organization of the 
State of Alabama," constituted the governor, 
the adjutant and inspector general, and the 
quartermaster general a "Military Commis- 
sion," with power to make rules and regula- 
tions for the purpose of carrying out the 
objects of the act; also to adopt a State flag 
and prescribe a uniform for the volunteer 

Confederate Period. — When Alabama with- 
drew from the Union, the military establish- 
ment was reorganized to meet the new 
conditions. The secession convention held in 

January, 1861, passed an ordinance on the 
9th, "to provide for the military defense of 
the State," which made the adjutant and in- 
spector general appointive by the governor. 
His rank, pay, and allowances were the same 
as those of a brigadier general. An assistant 
adjutant general, with the rank, pay and al- 
lowance of a colonel of Dragoons, was author- 

The ordinance assigned no specific duties, 
but the convention adopted the United States 
Army regulations of January 1, 1857, "so far 
as they consist with the provisions of this 
ordinance, and of other ordinances which 
have been or may be adopted" by the con- 
vention. On January 23 another ordinance 
was adopted annulling the old organization 
of the State militia in order to clear the 
ground for a new establishment which should 
be wholly separate from, and subordinate to, 
the regular and volunteer service provided by 
the ordinance of the 9th. The result of the 
two ordinances was the creation of two ad- 
jutants and inspectors general — one appointed 
by the governor for service with the volun- 
teer forces in the event of war with the United 
States; the other elected by the legislature, 
and a continuation of that office in the old 
militia, whose services were limited to the 
defense of the State alone. The former almost 
immediately became a part of the military 
organization of the Confederacy. 

Reorganization. — During the decade follow- 
ing the close of the War, national influences 
so dominated the State military situation that 
little or nothing in the way of improvement 
or reorganization was attempted until 1877, 
after the close of the Reconstruction period. 
In that year a law "for the more efficient 
organization of the volunteer militia of Ala- 
bama" was passed, which reorganized the 
East Alabama Male College, Central Institute 
military arm of the State government in many 
respects, but made no change in the status or 
duties of the adjutant and inspector general. 
In 1881 a law was enacted for "the organiza- 
tion and discipline of the volunteer forces of 
Alabama," which repealed the act of 1877, 
and separated the duties of adjutant general 
from those of inspector general, establishing 
two distinct offices, each with the rank of 
colonel of Cavalry and both a part of the 
governor's staff. The oflice continued separate 
and with specific duties for each until 1915, 
when the duties of inspector general were 
consolidated into the general duties of the 
adjutant general and his assistants. 

There were no assistants authorized by law 
for the adjutant general of the militia until 
the adoption of the code of 1886. The code 
committee of the legislature added a clause 
authorizing the appointmen't of an assista'nt 
adjutant general with the rank of lieutenant 
colonel. A clerk in the office was authorized 
at the same time. The adjutant general was allowed a salary of $100 a year, which 
was changed in 1831 to a per diem as above 
noted. In 1899 a salary of $125 a month 
was allowed. It was increased to $2,000 a 
year in 1911. 

Adjutants General — John Collins, 1865; 


Hugh' P. Watson, 1865-1866; George E. 
Brewer, 1866- (no records discovered); Wil- 
liam W. Allen, 1870-1872; Marshall G. Can- 
dee, 1872-1874; Thomas N. Macartney, 1874- 
1878; John F. White, 1878-1881; Henry C. 
Tompkins, 1881-1883; James N. Gilmer, 
1883-1886; John D. Roquemore, 1886-1887; 
Alexander B. Garland, 1887-1888; Charles P. 
Jones, 1888-1894; Harvey E. Jones, 1894- 
1896; Robert F. Ligon, jr, 1896-1899; Wil- 
liam W. Brandon, 1899-1907; Bibb Graves, 
1907-1911; Joseph B. Sculley, 1911-1915; 
Graph J. Hubbard, 1915- 

VvBLicATio^^s.— Reports, 1871-1910, published 
at irregular intervals. They contain statistics 
of militia and details of riots, or disturbances 
in which the military was called to interfere. 
The report for 1892-94 has a full account of the 
military records then to be found in that office. 
These records are now for the most part in the 
custody of the State department archives and 
history, where a full set of the reports is also 

See Inspector General; Quartermaster Gen- 
eral; State Military Forces. 

References. — Toulmin, Digest, 1823, pp. 591- 
622; Aikin, Digest, 2d ed., 1836, p. 314, and 
Digest Supplement, 1841, pp. 123-174; Code, 
1907, sees. 930-931; Acts, 1859-60, p. 41; General 
Acts 1915, pp. 745-766; Ordinances and Consti- 
tution of Alabama (1861), pp. 13-15; Adjutant 
General, Reports, 1871-1910; Owen, "Bibliog- 
raphy of Alabama," in American Historical 
Association, Report, 1907, p. 782. 

ligious body, formed in Boston, Mass., June 5, 
1S55, by the followers of Jonathan Cummings, 
one of the associates of William Miller in the 
earlier years of the Advent movement. The 
followers of Mr. Cummings differed with the 
main body in holding to the doctrine that man 
is by nature wholly mortal and is unconscious 
in death, and that immortality is not inherent 
in mankind, but is the gift of God to be be- 
stowed in the resurrection on those only who 
have been true followers of Christ. On 
November 6, 1861, a general association was 
formed in Worcester, Mass. 

It is congregational in church government; 
the congregations are under the care of pas- 
tors; and the local management is in charge 
of elders and deacons, elected annually. The 
churches are formed into local conferences; 
and a general conference is held biennially, 
made up of delegates from the local confer- 

In 19 06 there were In Alabama 10 organiza- 
tions, with 413 members; 9 church edifices; 
no parsonages reported; and 2 Sunday schools, 
with 14 officers and teachers, and 65 pupils. 
The North Alabama Conference (boundaries 
not indicated) reported 13 organizations, with 
476 members; 11 church edifices; value of 
church property of 10 organizations, $3,575; 
no parsonages reported; and 2 Sunday 
schools, with 14 officers and teachers, and 65 

Refere.nce. — U. S. Bureau of the Census, Re- 
ligious Bodies, 1906 (1910), pp. 16-21. 

AEQUITE. A liOwer Creek town, noted 
on an old French map of about 1738. 

Refereaces. — Manuscript data in the Ala- 
bama Department of Archives and History. 

institution for the education of negroes. Its 
chief aim "is (1) to train industrial workers, 
and (2) to prepare teachers who are qualified 
to give practical instruction in some form of 
handwork." — Catalogue, 1915. It was estab- 
lished by the State board of education, Decem- 
ber 9, 1873, as "a normal school for the edu- 
cation of colored teachers," largely through 
the efforts of Wm. H. Councill, a former 
slave, but it was not until May, 1875, that it 
was actually opened for students. It had 
an humble beginning, with a poorly equipped 
building, two teachers and 61 pupils. The 
original act carried an appropriation of 
$1,000; and this the legislature, February 17, 
1885, increased to $4,000. By the same act 
the name was changed to "The Huntsville 
State Colored Normal and Industrial School". 
It was changed to its present designation by 
act of December 9, 1896. 

In 1882, through the self-denial of the 
principal and other teachers, by the aid of 
the Peabody and the Slater Funds, and by 
private contributions, a lot in Huntsville was 
purchased and suitable school buildings 
erected. This was deeded to the State. 
About the same time industrial training was 
introduced. The legislature, February 13, 
1891, designated the school as one of the 
beneficiaries of the fund granted by act of 
Congress of August 30, 1890, "to the more 
complete endowment and support of the Col- 
leges for the benefit of agriculture and me- 
chanic arts." The growth demanded "more 
and better opportunities to develop the in- 
dustries of the school," and In order to meet 
these conditions the legislature, February 18, 
1891, authorized the sale of its property. 
This was done and the proceeds reinvested 
in a new location, 4 miles north of Hunts- 
ville on the Flora branch of the N. C. & 
St. L. R. R. It was called Normal. Here the 
school has prospered. It has about 200 acres 
of land, and 16 principal buildings. Among 
these is a separate library building, erected 
at a cost of $12,000, through a gift from 
Andrew Carnegie. The school of industries 
provides courses in agriculture, mechanic arts, 
household economics, nurse training and busi- 
ness. A course of instrumental and vocal 
music is offered. The academic courses in- 
clude kindergarten, primary, grammar, high 
school, normal school and teachers' college. 
The act of December 9, 1896, conferred the 
"power and authority to grant diplomas and 
certificates of proficiency." A Sunday School, 
Young Men's Christian Association, Young 
Women's Christian Association, and four lit- 
erary societies are organized among the 
students. On September 30, 1916, its report 
to the State education department showed 
building and site, valued at $172,300; equip- 
ment, $31,800; 30 teachers; and 407 pupils. 
The total expenditure from the State treas- 


ury for the fiscal year ending September 30, 
1916, was $26,100, of which $22,100 was 
from the Morrill fund, and $4,000 by direct 
State appropriation. 

Principals. — Wm. Hooper Council!, 1875- 
1909; and Walter S. Buchanan, 1909. 

References. — "Acts of the Board of Educa- 
tion," in Acts. 1S73, pp. 179-180; Acts of the 
Board. 1874, pp. 51-52; Acts. 1884-85, p. 162; 
1890-91, pp. 433-434, 771; 1896-97, pp. 154-155; 
Catalogues. 1876-1915; Normal Index. 1910-15, 
Tols. 1-7; Bulletins, folders, circular letters, and 
announcements of various dates; and many 
speeches and addresses of Wm. H. Councill 
(q. v.). 

technic Institute, Alabama; and names of 
the several agricultural schools. 

AGRICrijTURAL SCHOOLS. Agricultural 
education or instruction in agriculture and 
kindred subjects, in organized form through- 
out the United States, dates from the act of 
Congress of July 2, 1862, known as the Mor- 
rill Act. The legislature of Alabama, Febru- 
ary 26, 1872, established the Agricultural and 
Mechanical College (now the Alabama Poly- 
technic Institute), located at Auburn; and, 
February 13, 1891. reorganized the Agricul- 
tural and Mechanical College for Negroes, at 
HuntsviUe, and to these two institutions the 
Morrill fund is given in the proportion of 56.6 
per cent, to the former, and 43.4 per cent, to 
the latter. 

The character of the work done at Auburn, 
and a desire to create local centers of agri- 
cultural, industrial and vocational training, 
led to the establishment of a system of con- 
gressional district agricultural schools. Ala- 
bama was a pioneer in this particular type of 
educational organization, and its efforts ante- 
date similar efforts elsewhere by more than a 
decade and a half. The act establishing the 
two first schools of the kind (soon thereafter 
located at Abbeville, Henry County, and at 
Athens, Limestone County), bears date Feb- 
ruary 28, 1889. The institutions provided by 
the act in question were specifically designated 
as branch agricultural experiment stations, to 
be closely articulated with the office of the 
commissioner of agriculture and industries, 
and with the agricultural experiment station 
at Auburn. Later, similar schools were estab- 
lished in other districts. 

These schools are supported from the tag- 
tax fund. This brought out' opposition from 
time to time, but the schools have succeeded 
in demonstrating their value, and are now be- 
lieved to be firmly entrenched as a part of the 
general educational system of the State. Of 
these schools Gov. Comer, in his inaugural 
address, 1907, said: "The tag-tax fund was 
established years ago. While many may ques- 
tion the wisdom of the tax, no one can ques- 
tion the wisdom of the application of the tax. 
With it you have built up nine great agricul- 
tural schools in the nine congressional dis- 
tricts, and the polytechnic institute, and they 
stand a living monument to the wisdom of the 

See Agricultural and Mechanical College for 
Negroes; Polytechnic Institute. Alabama; 
Schools; and names of the several district 
agricultural schools, entered under the names 
of the district, as First District Agricultural 
School, etc. 

References. — Code. 1907, sees. 59 et srq.; 
Clark, History of Education in Alabama 
(1889); Dr. Clarence J. Owens, Secondary 
Agriiultural Education in Alabama (1909); 
Weeks. History of Public School Education in 
Alabama (1915). 

BAMA STATE. (New) A voluntary agri- 
cultural organization having tor its objects, 
"the collection and diffusion of information 
pertaining to the productive industries of the 
State, the promotion of progressive, profitable 
agriculture, and organization tor the advance- 
ment of these objects." It was the third 
association of the kind in Alabama. (See 
Farmers' Organizations.) The society was 
organized at a convention held in the United 
States Court room at Montgomery, August 
28 and 29. 1884. upon the call of E. C. Betts. 
commissioner of agriculture, who presided as 
temporary president, with W. W. String- 
fellow secretary pro tern. There were 121 
delegates present, and a permanent organiza- 
tion was effected at the afternoon session of 
the first day by the election of Prof. J. S. 
Newman, of Auburn, as president, and 
Thomas J. Key, of Montgomery, as secretary. 
Committees were appointed by the president 
pro tem on Constitution; State Department 
of Agriculture; Agricultural Experiment 
Station; Agricultural and Mechanical Col- 
lege; Stock Breeding and Grass Culture; 
Labor; Truck Farming; Improved Imple- 
ments and Machinery; Fruit Culture; In- 
tensive Farming; and Diversified Farming. 
Addresses were made by Dr. J. B. Gaston, of 
Montgomery, Col. Sam'l Will. John, of Selma, 
and Col. L. F. Livingston, president of the 
Georgia State Agricultural Society. A con- 
stitution was not adopted at this convention, 
and adjournment was taken until the first 
Wednesday of the following February. 

The first semiannual meeting, was held in 
the city hall of Mont.£;omery. February 4, 
1885. For several years the society held 
regular annual meetings, in the summer, and 
usually semiannual meetings in the winter, 
in which addresses were made and papers 
read on practically all topics connected with 
agricultural pursuits. One subject to which 
particular attention was devoted was techni- 
cal education tor the vocation of farming, 
and in that connection the administration, 
the curriculum, and the faculty of the Agri- 
cultural and Mechanical College at Auburn 
often came in for full discussion. At the 
semiannual session, February 2 and 3, 1887, 
most of the discussion dealt with the subject 
of immigration and centered about the ad- 
visability of a State department, or bureau 
of immigration. One or more state fairs 
were held under the auspices of the society, 
but particulars are not available. 


Presidents. — J. S. Newman, 1884-1887; 1. 
F. Culver, 1887-1888. 

Secretary. — Thomas J. Key, 1884-1888. 
Meetings. — Annual meetings were held on 
the dates and at the places named: 

1st, Organization convention, Montgom- 
ery, Aug. 28-29, 1884, pp. 20. 

2d, Auburn, Aug. 5-7, 1885, pp. 168. 
3d, Talladega, Aug. 18-19, 1886, pp. 74. 
4th, Troy, Aug. 3-5, 1887, pp. 32. 
5th, Huntsville, Aug. 8-10, 1888, pp. 96. 
Semiannual meetings also were held: 
1st, Montgomery, Feb. 4, 1885, pp. 32, 
2d, Montgomery, Feb. 2-3, 1887, pp. 62. 
3d, Selma, Feb. 1-2, 1888, pp. 115. 
PunLicATioNS. — Proceedings, annual sessions, 
1884-1888, 5 vols; semiannual sessions, 1885, 
1887, 1888, 3 vols. 

References. — Publications noted above; Ala, 
State Agricultural Society, Constitution and by- 

BAMA STATE. (Old) A voluntary asso- 
ciation of persons engaged or interested in 
agricultural pursuits, organized at Montgom- 
ery. January 10, 1855, for the purpose of 
Improving the condition of agriculture, horti- 
culture, mechanic and domestic arts, and 
manufactures. It was among the first of 
such organizations in the South. Judge B. S. 
Bibb presided, and Dr. N. B. Cloud was the 
Becretary. The chairman appointed as a 
committee to draft a constitution, E. A. Holt, 
Col. Charles. T. Pollard, Dr. N. B. Powell, J. 
M. Cheney, Col. Isaac Groom, and Dr. Cloud. 
After the adoption of the constitution. Col. 
Croom, of Greene County, was elected presi- 
dent. Dr. Cloud secretary, and Col. Pollard 
treasurer. An executive committee consisting 
of Mr. Holt, Robert F. Ligon, Dr. Carnot Bel- 
linger, J. M. Cheney, R. H. Powell, E. F. 
Montague, Col. Lewis Owen, M. A. Baldwin, 
and P. T. Graves was elected. The following, 
most of them prominent in their communi- 
ties, participated in the organization meet- 
ing: Col. Croom, Col. Pollard, Dr. Bellinger, 
Judge Bibb, Mr. Holt, William Frazier, Mr. 
Montague, B. F. Tarver, Mr. Graves, James 
H. Smith, Dr. Powell, F. L. Ashley, P. S. 
Gerald, William O. Baldwin, Mr. Cheney, 
William M. Marks, W. R. Cunningham, Flem- 
ing Freman, Col. Owen, Charles Crommelln, 
Dr. Cloud. Shortly after perfecting the organ- 
ization, application was made to the State 
legislature for a charter, which was granted 
February 14, 1856, Incorporating Isaac 
Croom, president; Noah B. Cloud, secretary; 
Charles T. Pollard, treasurer; William H. 
Rives, chairman; E. F. Montague; John M. 
Cheney; William O. Baldwin; B. F. Ashley; 
E. L. Els worth; J. DuBose Bibb; Daniel 
Pratt; and Richard H. Powell as the Alabama 
State Agricultural Society, which was author- 
ized to own real and personal property to the 
value of $50,000. For the purpose of carry- 
ing out the objects for which the society was 
established, an appropriation of $5,000, pay- 
able in two annual installments of $2,500 
each, was made. 

In the following April, the executive com- 

mittee of the society decided to hold a state 
agricultural fair in Montgomery during the 
following October. Early in the summer, an 
elaborate list of premiums for field crops, 
livestock, horticultural products, manufac- 
tured articles, domestic manufactures, needle, 
shell and fancy work, poultry, etc., was pub- 
lished. The exhibition occurred October 23- 
2 6. At the same time, the first regular meet- 
ing of the society was held. Its membership 
at this time was only 21. 

In the early summer of 1856, a member- 
ship campaign was instituted, special efforts 
being made to obtain life members. In the 
fall, another state fair was held at Mont- 
gomery, which was as successful as the first, 
continuing four days, November 11-14. On 
the 13th, the second annual meeting of the 
society was held in Central Hall. The officers 
were reelected, but with a view to the en- 
largement of the society's usefulness, provi- 
sion was made for the election of a vice- 
president in each county of the State. Its 
activities appear to have been restricted 
mainly to the promotion of agricultural fairs, 
which it continued to hold until the outbreak 
of the War in 1861, all of them at Mont- 
gomery. The attitude of this pioneer agri- 
cultural society toward the farmer's calling 
and the plane upon which its work was con- 
ducted are indicated by the character and 
attainments, not only of its members, but 
also of the men who were invited to make 
addresses at its annual meetings. Among 
these were Dr. Landon C. Garland and Prof. 
Richard T. Brumby of the State University, 
Hon. Alexander Bowie of Talladega, and 
Hon. Henry W. Hilliard of Montgomery. 
These were men of high attainments in the 
scientific and literary fields, and their ad- 
dresses usually dealt with the science of 
agriculture in its philosophical and historical 
aspects as well as in its economic and pro- 
fessional phases. During the War, the 
society was inactive, and was not thereafter 
revived. Col. Isaac Croom and Dr. N. B. 
Cloud served as president and secretary, re- 
spectively, during the society's entire exist- 

Annual Meetings. — Regular meetings were 
held at Montgomery every year, 1855-1860. 

References.— Acis, 1855-56, pp. 342-343; U. S. 
Commissioner of Patents, Report, 1858; Ameri- 
can Cotton Planter, Jan. 1855-Dec. 1859. 

AGRICULTURE. Alabama ranks twenty- 
seventh in land area among the United States. 
Its soils are varied, ranging from dark 
mucky loams in the lower part of the Coastal 
Plain to sandy loams in other sections. With 
respect to the character of the soils, the State 
is divided into two parts, approximately co- 
extensive with the mineral district and the 
agricultural district, respectively. The soils 
of the latter — the Coastal Plain — are pe- 
culiarly adapted to the culture of cotton, and 
from the first, cotton has been the principal 
agricultural product, although considerable 
quantities of corn and other grains have 
been grown, both In the "Black Belt" and in 
the lighter soils of the plateau region. 


Early Statistics. — While there are no com- 
parable statistics with reference to the ratio 
of cotton acreage to the total cultivated 
acreage of the State previous to 1861, a view 
of the relative importance of each of several 
crops may be obtained from statistical de- 
tails given below. 

In 1840 the farms of the State produced 
1,406,353 bushels of oats, 20,947,004 bushels 
of corn, 1,708,356 bushels of Irish and sweet 
potatoes, 828,052 bushels of wheat, 51,008 
bushels of rye, 7,692 bushels of barley, 12,718 
tons of hay, and 117,138,823 pounds of cot- 
ton. Besides these, there were raised 149,019 
pounds of rice, 273,302 pounds of tobacco, 
and 220,353 pounds of wool. In addition to 
the diversification of agricultural products 
shown by the foregoing figures, large num- 
bers of livestock were raised on the farms — 
143,147 head of horses and mules, 668,018 
head of cattle, and 163,243 sheep. 

In 1849-50 there were 41,964 farms and 
plantations in the State, containing 4,435,614 
acres of improved and 7,702,067 acres of un- 
improved land, a total of 12,137,681 acres. 
The average number of acres to the farm was 
289, and the average value of the farms, 
$1,533, slightly more than $5 per acre. The 
total estimated cash value of the farms of the 
State was $64,323,224. The production of 
oats had increased to 2,965,696 bushels; of 
corn, 28,754,048; potatoes, both varieties, 
5,721,205; hay, 32,685 tons; cotton, 564,429 
bales of 400 pounds each, or 225,771,600 
pounds. The production of barley decreased 
to 3,958 bushels, and of wheat to 294,044 
bushels. Of the 41,964 farms and planta- 
tions in the State, 16,100 raised five bales or 
more of cotton. The production of wool in- 
creased to 657,118 pounds, and of rice to 
2,312,252 pounds, but the production of 
tobacco decreased to 164,990 pounds. There 
were raised 187,896 head of horses and mules, 
433,263 head of cattle, 371,880 sheep, and 
1,904,540 head of swine, whose aggregate 
value was $21,690,112. 

Agricultural Organization. — The spirit actu- 
ating the more progressive agriculturists of 
Alabama during the fifties, and the character 
of the farming methods used and advocated 
by them, are indicated by the following ex- 
tract from the report of the United States 
Commissioner of Patents for 1858, with 
reference to the Alabama- State Agricultural 

"The most important benefit resulting from 
our Society is the spirit of land improvement, 
by 'horizontalizing' and fertilizing, which is 
prevalent among our planters. Stock is also 
better, horses, mules, milch cows, and superior 
breeds of swine. We are giving much atten- 
tion to diversifying our crops, combining to a 
proper extent farming, grazing and stock 
purposes, with planting. An evident and 
large increase has been exhibited in all our 
agricultural products for the last few years. 
There is no estimating the quantity we could 
produce, had we sufficient information to 
enable us to counteract the ravages of various 
insects that prey upon our crops, unmolested, 
by day and night. In the manufacture of 

'domestics', and in the 'Ladies Department' 
generally, such has been the advance that we 
are amply compensated for all our trouble 
and expense." 

The total farm-land acreage had increased 
in 1860 to 19,104,545, of which 6,385,724 
acres were improved and 12,718,821 unim- 
proved. The cash value of these lands was 
$175,824,622. On these farms, implements 
and machinery to the value of $7,433,178 
were in use. The production of oats was 
682,179 bushels; corn, 33,226,282 bushels; 
wheat, 1,218,444 bushels; potatoes, both 
varieties, 5,931,563 bushels; hay, 62,211 
tons; barley, 15,135 bushels; cotton, 989,955 
bales, or 395,982,000 pounds; rice, 493,465 
pounds; tobacco, 232,914 pounds; and wool 
775,117 pounds. The livestock (q. v.) pro- 
duced during that year was valued at 

The majority of the people of Alabama 
before 1860 lived on farms and plantations. 
While a considerable portion of the manu- 
factured articles consumed in the State, par- 
ticularly among the smaller farmers and 
wage earners were produced by artisans in 
the different communities, yet the people had 
depended on the North for all the finer and 
many of the commoner manufactured 
articles. During the War period, it became 
necessary to restrict farming to the produc- 
tion of food crops, and as a result, cotton 
production decreased from year to year. At 
the close of the War, agricultural conditions 
were demoralized. The negro laborers upon 
whom the ante bellum planters had depended, 
left the farms in large numbers and devoted 
themselves to politics. Many of the farm 
buildings had been burned, the implements 
destroyed, the livestock driven off by the 
armies, and little was left with which to 
undertake the cultivation of crops. Capital 
was scarce and Interest rates high. Most of 
the capital in the State was in the form of 
Confederate securities, and at the close of 
the War was a total loss. The agricultural 
interests of Alabama did not recover from 
the effects of these conditions for many years; 
in fact, in some respects, the prosperous con- 
ditions obtaining before the War were not 
restored until well along in the eighties. 

Post Belluni Development. — The first avail- 
able figures regarding agriculture in Alabama 
after the War are contained in the United 
States census reports for 1870, which show a 
total of 14,961,178 acres of farm lands, of 
which 5,062,204 were improved and 9,898,- 
974 unimproved. The value of these farms 
was $67,739,036, and the value of their 
equipment of implements and machinery, 
$3,286,924. For the first time data with 
reference to wages of farm laborers are shown 
in these reports. On Alabama farms $11,- 
851,870, including the value of board, was 
paid during the year 1870. The estimated 
value of all farm products for that year was 
$67,522,335. The livestock produced during 
the year was worth $26,690,095. Grains and 
other similar crops were raised as follows: 
wheat, 1,055,068 bushels; rye, 18,977; corn, 
16,977,948; oats, 770,866; barley, 5,174; 


potatoes, 2, ass, 872. The production of rice 
was 222,945 pounds; tobacco, 152,742, and 
wool, 381,253 pounds; cotton, 429,482 bales; 
hay, 10,613 tons. 

The number of farms in Alabama as shown 
by the census reports of 1880 was 135,865, 
containing 18,855,334 acres, of which 6,375,- 
706 were improved and 12,479,628 unim- 
proved. These farms were valued at $7 8,- 
954,648, and the implements and machinery 
used thereon at $3,788,978. The estimated 
value of all the farm products, sold, con- 
sumed, or on hand, for 1879 was $56,872,994. 
The relative importance of the various crops 
produced is indicated by the following figures: 
511 acres in barley produced 5,281 bushels; 
2,055,929 acres in corn, 25,451,278 bushels; 
324,628 acres in oats, 3,039,639 bushels; 
5,764 acres in rye, 28,402 bushels; 264,971 
acres in wheat, 1,529,657 bushels. There 
were 2,330,086 acres planted in cotton, on 
which 699,654 bales were produced. On 
12.916 acres, 10,544 tons of hay were pro- 
duced; on 1.579 acres, 810,889 pounds of 
rice; on 2,197 acres, 452,426 pounds of 
tobacco; on 43,256 acres, 3,448,819 bushels 
of sweet potatoes. The production of wool 
in the State was 762,207 pounds. Until the 
seventies, little or no commercial fertilizer 
was used. For the year 1879, the value of 
such fertilizers consumed was $1,200,956. 

The census reports of 1880 show 157,772 
farms in the State, averaging 126 acres each. 
The total agricultural acreage was 19,85 3,- 
000, of which 7,698,343 was improved and 
12,154,657 unimproved. The valuation of 
these farms was $111,051,390, and of their 
equipment of implements and machinery, 
$4,511,645. The livestock on hand June 1, 
1890, was valed at $30,776,730, the cost of 
fertilizers used during the year 1889, $2,421,- 
648, and the estimated value of all products 
for the same year, $66,240,190. The acreage 
and production of the various grains for 1890 
were: barley, 200 acres, 1,196 bushels; corn. 
2,127,302 acres, 30,072,161 bushels; oats, 
344,788 acres, 3,230,455 bushels; rye, 2,190 
acres, 14,618 bushels; wheat, 39,641 acres, 
208,591 bushels. The total area devoted to 
cotton in 1889 was 2,761,165 acres, on which 
915,210 bales, or 436,555,170 pounds, were 
produced, an increase over 1879 of 18.5 per 
cent in area, and 37.74 per cent in production. 

There were 223,220 farms in Alabama on 
June 1, 1900. whose total acreage was 20,- 
685,427, of which 8,654,991 acres were im- 
proved, and 12,030,436 unimpoved. The 
value of these farms with their buildings and 
other equipment was $179,399,882. The rel- 
ative importance of the various crops is indi- 
cated by the percentage of farms deriving 
their principal income from each, as follows: 
from hay and grain, 4.8 per cent; vegetables, 
1.1 per cent; fruits, 0.2; livestock, 5.8; dairy 
produce, 3.4; cotton, 63.6; from miscellan- 
eous sources, 21 per cent. The average num- 
ber of acres per farm was 92.7. The total 
expenditure for labor on Alabama farms dur- 
ing the year 1899 was $4,314,460, for fertil- 
izers, $2,599,290. The total cultivated acre- 
age was 6,792,368, and the value of all the 

crops produced thereon, $70,696,268. The 
value of animal products for the same year 
was $18,196,689. The acreage and produc- 
tion of the principal crops were as follows: 
corn, 2,743,360 acres, 35,053,047 bushels; 
wheat, 123,897 acres, 628,775 bushels; oats, 
216,873 acres, 1,882,060 bushels; barley, 273 
acres, 2,400 bushels; rye, 1,708 acres, 11,123 
bushels; rice, 2,329 acres, 926,946 pounds; 
hay, 85,353 acres, 172.908 tons; cotton, 
3,202,135 acres, 1,093,697 bales of 500 
pounds. The value of the livestock for that 
year was $34,408,932; of which $9,793,566 
represents cattle; $7,906,121, horses; $13,- 
104,642, mules; $488,299, sheep; and $2,887,- 
230, swine. 

The total number of farms in the State on 
April 15, 1910, was 262,901, an increase, as 
compared with the year 1900, of 39,681, 17.8 
per cent. The total number of acres in farms 
was 20,732,312, of which 9,693,581 were im- 
proved; average number of acres per farm, 
78.9. The total value of farm lands was 
$216,944,175; buildings, $71,309,416; imple- 
ments and machinery, $16,290,004. During 
the ten years, 1900-1910, the average value 
per acre of farm lands in the State increased 
from $4.84 to $10.46, 116.1 per cent. The 
number of acres devoted to the culture of 
cereals was 2,844,824; other grains and seeds, 
190,884; hay and forage, 238,656; cotton, 
3,730,482. The expenditure for labor on 
farms for the same year was $7,454,748; for 
feed, $4,041,486; for fertilizers, $7,630,952. 
The percentage of increase in labor expendi- 
tures, was, as compared with 1899, 72.8, and 
in the amount spent for fertilizers, 193.6 per 
cent. The acreage and production of various 
crops for 1909 were as follows: corn, 2,572,- 
968 acres, 30,695,737 bushels; oats, 257,276 
acres, 3,251,146 bushels; wheat, 13,665 acres, 
113,953 bushels; rye, 437 acres, 3,736 bush- 
els; rice, 279 acres. 5,170 bushels; peanuts, 
100,609 acres, 1,573,796 bushels; hay, 238,- 
656 acres, 251,403 tons; cotton, 3,730,482 
acres, 1,129,527 bales. The total value of 
livestock, April 15, 1910, was $63,574,674; 
of which $13,469,626 represents cattle; $13,- 
651,284, horses; $31,577,217, mules; $299,- 
919. sheep; and $4,356,520. swine. 

The approximate land area of Alabama 
is 32,818,560 acres. Of this area, 20,732,312 
acres, or 63.2 per cent, are included in farms. 
The increase in improved land from 1900 to 
1910 was 1,038,590 acres, or 12 per cent. The 
average size of farms decreased from 289.2 
acres in 1850 to 78.9 acres in 1910. In 1910, 
6 4.1 per cent of the land was in farms oper- 
ated by their owners, and 34.2 per cent in 
farms operated by tenants. 

See Cotton; Livestock; Cereals; Agricul- 
ture and Industries, Department of; Agricul- 
tural Experiment Station; Farmers' Organiza- 
tions; Agricultural Society, The Alabama; 
Farmers' Alliance. The Alabama State; 
Grange of the Patrons of Husbandry; Agri- 
cultural Wheel, The Alabama; Farmers Edu- 
cational and Co-operative Union. 

Refeeexce.s. — DeBow, Statistical view of the 
United Statrs (1854); U. S. Bureau of the Cen- 
sus, Reports. 1850-1910; Ibid. Abstract of the 


IStn Census. 1910, with Supplement for Ala- 
bama (1913); Fleming, Civil War and Recon- 
struction in Alabama (1905), pp. 232, 710-734. 

AGRICrLTl RE. BOARD OF. A State ex- 
ecutive board created February 11, 1911, "to 
have supervision of funds appropriated by this 
act for Farm Demonstration Work in the 
State of Alabama." The board consists of 
the commissioner of agriculture and indus- 
tries, who is ex officio chairman, the director 
of the Alabama Experiment Station, the pro- 
fessor of school agriculture at the Alabama 
Polytechnic Institute, and two practical, suc- 
cessful farmers selected by the other three 
members of the board. All serve without 
pay, but their expenses in attending meetings 
of the board are paid from the funds appro- 
priated. Regular meetings are held twice a 
year in the office of the commissioner of agri- 
culture and industries, and special meetings 
when necessary. The board has supervision 
of farm demonstration work in the different 
counties, and its recommendation of an appli- 
cant for the position of rural demonstration 
agent to work in cooperation with the United 
States Department of Agriculture is a pre- 
requisite of appointment. The sum of $25,- 
000 a year, from the proceeds of the sale of 
fertilizer tags, is appropriated to carry on 
demonstration work, and is expended under 
the supervision of the board, which is re- 
quired to make a full and complete report 
to the governor at the close of each fiscal 

Provision was made September 28, 1915, 
for organizing the boys and girls of Alabama 
into corn club«. pig clubs, canning clubs, and 
other forms of farm life clubs for the pur- 
pose of encouraging, interesting, and instruct- 
ing them in better methods of agriculture, 
homemaking. cooking, sewing, and gardening. 
To carry out the provisions of the act, the 
sum of $100 annually for the years, 1915. 
1916. 1917 and 1918 was appropriated from 
the State treasury to each county which 
raises a like sum annually in the years named 
for the same purpose. The disbursement of 
these funds and the supervision of the organ- 
ization of the clubs are handled jointly by the 
State board of agriculture and the county 
board of revenue, or county commissioners, or 
other body having similar jurisdiction In the 
respective counties. 

The creation of this board was an effori 
on the part of the legislature to prevent 
the agricultural and business demoralization 
that it believed must ensue as a result of 
the rapid encroachment of the cotton-boll 
weevil in the State, unless the cotton grow- 
ers were instructed in the best methods of 
controlling the pest. It was believed that the 
farm demonstration work had been demon- 
strated to be the most effective means of dis- 
seminating the necessary information, and 
as a means of stimulating and more fully 
systematizing the conduct of that work, the 
board of agriculture was established. 

See Agriculture and Industries, Commis- 
sioner of; Farm Demonstration and Rural 
Extension Work; Farm Life Clubs. 

Refebences. — General Acts, 1911, pp. 14-17; 
1915, pp. 943-944. 

PARTMENT OP. One of the constitutional 
offices of the executive department of the 
State government, originally created by act 
of February 23, 1883, for the promotion of 
agriculture and industry. It is under the 
management and control of a commissioner, 
who must be a practical and experienced agri- 
culturist. He is elected by the people for a 
term of 4 years; no person not 25 years 
of age, a citizen of the United States 7 years, 
and of the State 5 years next preceding his 
election is eligible to the office; he is prohib- 
ited from receiving any fees, costs or perqui- 
sites other than his prescribed salary; he 
may be removed only by impeachment before 
the State senate, for wilful neglect of duty, 
corruption in office, incompetency, intemper- 
ance, or an offense involving moral turpitude 
while in office, on charges preferred by the 
house of representatives; he is ineligible to 
succeed himself; must reside at the capital 
during his continuance in office; and must 
keep his office in the State capitol. 

His duty, broadly speaking, is to encour- 
age, "by every means within his power," the 
proper development of agriculture, horticul- 
ture and kindred industries in the State; to 
encourage the organization of neighborhood 
and county agricultural clubs and associa- 
tions and out of them a State agricultural 
association; to collect and publish statistics 
and other information in regard to the indus- 
tries of this and of other States: to distrib- 
ute seeds and plants; to investigate diseases 
of grains, fruits and other crops and their 
remedies, and the habits and propagation of 
injurious insects with the best modes of de- 
stroying them; to encourage immigration by 
means of published statements of the State's 
resources, available lands, and other induce- 
m.ents for settlement; to investigate and pub- 
lish reports on the subjects of grasses, 
livestock, poultry, fish, bees, wool and sheep, 
silk and its manufacture, and also upon the 
subjects of economical fencing, subsoil drain- 
age, and irrigation. 

Fertilizer Supervision. — One of the most 
important of his duties is the supervision of 
the manufacture and sale of commercial fer- 
tilizers, including the issuance of licenses to 
manufacturers and dealers. He is required 
by law to publish each year a list of brands 
and analyses with the relative and actual 
value of each. Manufacturers are required 
to file full information regarding their fer- 
tilizers with the commissioner before obtain- 
ing license to transact business in the State. 
A tax on fertilizers is levied by means of the 
sale of tags, under the supervision of the 
commissioner, and from the proceeds the ex- 
penses of the department are defrayed. These 
tags guarantee the composition and quality 
of fertilizers according to analyses of sam- 
ples made by the State chemist. 

The commissioner also has supervision of 
farmers' institutes and state soil surveys, and 
is required to encourage the holding of agri- 



cultural fairs and exhibitions. The records 
of the former bureau of cotton statistics 
were turned over to the department pursuant 
to two legislative acts of February 9, 1915, 
but that work has not been further devel- 

Ex Officio Duties. — The commissioner has 
a number of ex officio duties. In 1885 he 
was designated as a member of the board of 
control of the Canebrake Agricultural and 
Experiment Station, in 1903, chairman of the 
State board of horticulture, in 1903, a mem- 
ber of the board of control of the branch agri- 
cultural experiment stations, in 1903, one of 
the State board of registrars, in 1907, chair- 
man of the livestock sanitary board, in 1907, 
a member of the State forestry commission, 
in 1911, chairman of the State board of agri- 
culture, and as a member of the board of 
agriculture, in 1915, he was charged with 
sundry duties in the organization of farm-life 

Establishment. — The department was first 
established by legislative act passed Febru- 
ary 23, but not to take effect until September 
1, 1883. Until 1886 its headquarters was 
at the Agricultural and Mechanical College 
at Auburn (now Alabama Polytechnic Insti- 
tute). It was then removed to the capitol. 
The constitution of 1901 changed the title 
of the department, and also of the commis- 
sioner, by adding the words "and industries" 
to each. 

When the department was first established 
the commissioner was appoiined by the gov- 
ernor for a term of two years. In 1891 he 
was by legislative act made elective by popu- 
lar vote. The constitution of 1901 fixes the 
term at four years. 

The salary of the first commissioner was 
$2,100 a year, which was increased to $3,000 
in 1907. At the beginning only one clerk 
in the office was authorized, and at a salary 
of $1,200 a year. In 1886 a chief clerk at 
$1,500, and an assistant at $1,200, were au- 
thorized. The present office force is a chief 
clerk at $1,800, an assistant at $1,500, a ste- 
nographer at $900, a chief of the immigration 
and markets bureau at $1,800, a stenographer 
for that bureau at $750, and a chief of the 
food, drug and feed bureau at $1,800 a year. 
The commissioner and all his office assistants, 
except the stenographers, are bonded. 

In his message of November 16, 1892, Gov. 
Thomas G. Jones called attention to the pos- 
sibility of the abuse of the "Farmers' Insti- 
tutes," authorized by law to be held for the 
purpose of "diffusing among the farmers of 
the State useful and practical knowledge rela- 
tive to agriculture," and recommended legis- 
lation forbidding payment of the expenses of 
holding institutes unless accompanied by the 
affidavit of the conductor that the addresses 
and lectures were confined to the subjects 
to which the statutes limited them, and mak- 
ing the violation of the statutes in that par- 
ticular an Impeachable offense in the case 
of the commissioner, and a misdemeanor on 
the part of lecturers. He also recommended 
additional safeguards for the issuance of fer- 
tilizer tags and the destruction of those 

remaining on hand at the end of the season, 
and a change in the provisions of the law 
with respect to the filling of vacancies in the 
oflice of commissioner which, under the su- 
preme court's interpretation of existing laws, 
could not be done except by holding a special 
election. His suggestions with reference to 
the handling of tags and filling of vacancies 
were subsequently adopted, but nothing was 
done by the legislature in reference to farm- 
ers' institutes. 

Food, Drug and Feed Bureau. — In 1911 the 
regulation of the sale of commercial feed 
stuffs was placed under the commissioner, 
and for the administration of the details of 
the work, a special clerk, at an annual sal- 
ary of $1,800, was authorized. In 1915 two 
pure food and drug inspectors, at salaries of 
$100 and traveling expenses, not exceeding 
$100 per month for each, were authorized. 
Feed stuffs are regulated by the use of tax 
tags in very much the same way as fer- 

Imnii.£;ration and Markets Bureau. — The 
legislature of 1915, by act of March 5, im- 
posed upon the commissioner the duty of 
supervising and regulating the business of 
dealers in farm produce, and provided for 
the assessment of a license tax upon all such 
dealers. The same legislature passed a later 
law, approved September 29, repealing the 
first and providing for the organization of a 
special bureau in the department of agricul- 
ture and industries, to be In charge of a 
special clerk, or chief, with a stenographer, to 
look after the business of dealers in farm 
produce. When the bureau was established 
the work and records of the former immigra- 
tion commissioner, whose office was abolished 
February 11, were turned over to it, as was 
the registration of farm lands, and the whole 
grouped under the above title. 

Immigration. — The act establishing the de- 
partment required the commissioner "to aid 
immigration by publishing each year such 
information as to the agricultural, mineral 
and other industries and resources of this 
State as shall be of interest to those seeking 
homes in the State of Alabama." This duty 
still remains in force, with the addition of a 
requirement that the commissioner shall aid 
those "seeking investments" as well as home- 
seekers. In addition, the act abolishing the 
Immigration commissioner, February 11, 
1915, imposed his activities in large part 
upon the department of agriculture and in- 
dustries, and at the same time projected 
enlarged plans for encouraging immigration. 
In the execution of these duties, the commis- 
sioner has published a number of handbooks 
and other literature of a descriptive nature. 
He has also advertised the advantages and 
resources of the State by participating in 
State, sectional and national fairs and expo- 
sitions, and by occasional advertisements in 
leading farm and industrial journals. 

The authority and jurisdiction of the de- 
partment have several times been brought 
into question. In 1884 the constitutionality 
of the act of establishment was itself attacked, 
but the supreme court held that the regula- 


tion of the quality of feed stuffs, fertilizers, 
etc., was within the police powers of the 
State, and, as such regulation was a function 
of the department, its creation was not viola- 
tive of the constitution. 

Commissioners. — Edward C. Betts, 1883- 
1887; Reuben F. Kolh, 1887-1891; Hector D. 
Lane, 1891-1896; Isaac F. Culver, 1896-1900; 
Robert R. Poole, 1900-1907; James A. Wil- 
kinson, 1907-1911; Reuben P. Kolb, 1911- 
1915; James A. Wade, 1915-. 

Publications. — Reports, 1833-1914, 9 vols.; 
Bulletins, 1S89-1916, Nos. 1-75; Handbooks, 1887- 
1907, 7 vols.; Addresses, circulars, folders, leaf- 
lets, maps, etc., various editions and dates. 

See Agricultural Society, the Alabama 
State; Agriculture; Agriculture, Board of; 
Cotton; Farmers' Institutes; Fertilizers; Hor- 
ticulture, State Board of; Immigration Com- 
missioner; Soils and Soil Surveys. 

References. — Code. 1907, sees. 14-79; Acts, 
1882-83, pp. 190-197; 1884-85, p. 168; 1888-89, pp. 
119, 729; 1890-91, p. 1213; 1892-93, p. 1091; 1896- 
97, p. 1307; 1903, pp. 65, 78; 1907, p. 744; 1911, p. 
14; 1915, pp. 76, 81, 239, 646, 767, 777, 944; 
Gov. Thomas G. Jones, "Message," Nov. 16, 
1892, in Senate Journal, 1892-93, pp. 29-30; 
Steiner d- Sons v. Rai/ et al, 84 Ala., p. 93; 
Campbell v. Segars. 81 Ala., p. 259; Clark's Cove 
Guano Co. v. DotvHng. 85 Ala., p. 142; Johnson v. 
Hanover National Bank, 88 Ala., p. 271; Han- 
over National Bank v. Johnson, 90 Ala., p. 549; 
Lane v. Kolb, 92 Ala., p. 636; Merriman v. Knox. 
99 Ala., p. 93; Broicn v. Adair, 104 Ala., p. 652; 
Kirby v. Huntsville Fertilizer d Milling Co., 
105 Ala., p. 529; Phillips v. Americus Co., 110 
Ala., p. 521; Edisto Phosphate Co. v. Sandford, 
112 Ala., p. 493; Furman Co. v. Long, 113 Ala., 
p. 203; Brown v. Raisin Fertilizer Co., 124 Ala., 
p. 221; Troy Co. v. State, 134 Ala., p. 333; Ala- 
bama National Bank v. Parker, 153 Ala., p. 597. 

AHIKI CREEK. One of the western trib- 
utaries of Chattahooche River. The name is 
Hitchiti, and was given by the people of that 
town. It is the Ouhe-gee of Hawkins. It is 
probably the present Ihagee Creek of Russell 
County. The meaning of the word is "sweet 
potato-mother," the seed sweet potatoes, 
"ahi," remaining in the ground until the new 
crop is grown to maturity. 

References. — Gatschet, in Alabama History 
Commission, Report (1901), vol. i, p. 391; 
Hawkins, Sketch of the Creek Country 
(1848), p. 60. 


the states of the American Union; 22nd 
In the order of creation; formed under an 
enabling act of Congress, dated March 3. 
1819, and admitted by resolution, December 
14, 1819; seceded January 11, 1861; re- 
turned to the union in 1865. and restored 
to full rights as a State, February, 1868. 

The state lies in the east south central 
division of the United States, between lines 
30° 10' and 35° north latitude, and be- 
tween 84° 53' and 88° 36' W. longitude, is 
bounded on the north by Tennessee, on the 
east by Georgia, on the west by Mississippi, 
and on the south by Florida and the Gulf of 

Mexico, its highest altitude is 2,407 feet, at 
Cheawha, Talladega County, and its lowest is 
7 feet, at Nenemoosha, Mobile County. 

Its political and judicial divisions are 67 
counties, 35 senatorial districts, 10 congres- 
sional districts, and 21 circuits. The coun- 
ties are divided, for local convenience and 
administration business into commissioners 
districts, election precincts or beats, road dis- 
tricts, and school districts. Cities, towns 
and villages, as local municipal governmental 
areas are authorized. It has a grand total 
of 51,998 square miles, of which 51,279 
square miles or 32,818,560 square acres, is 
land, and 719 square miles, water surface. 
The water power development of one concern 
only (Alabama Power Co., at Lock 12, Coosa 
River), is 110,000 horsepower. In 1908 its 
swamp and overflow land area was 1,12 0,000 

The coal production in 1918 was 19,184,- 
962 short tons. 

In 1918, the iron ore production was 
5,574,624 long tons. 

Only 35.220 acres of vacant public lands 
are now unappropriated. 

In 1819 it ranked 19 in population, and 
in 1910 its rank was IS. 

Its population density had grown steadily 
for each census from 1820, with 2.5 per 
square miles to 1910, with 41.7 per square 
mile. Its population is agricultural largely. 
In 1920, 1,647,621 of its people lived in the 
country, or were classed as rural, while 698,- 
095 lived in cities or were classed as urban. 
In 1900 its native born population was 1,814,- 
105, and its foreign born was 14,592. 

For further and full details on the various 
topics and subjects connected with the history 
and progress of the State, see the title de- 
sired in its alphabetical place in this work. 

Sc« also Altitude; Areas; Boundaries; 
Capitols; Counties; Departments of the State 
Government; Lands; Population; Rivers and 

References. — Census Reports, U. S. Geolog- 
ical Survey Reports; Mss. data in Alabama 
Department Archives and History. 


A vessel, to which the State name was given, 
and commanded during its whole history by 
Capt. Raphael Semmes, Confederate States 
Navy. Capt. Semmes had withdrawn from the 
Federal Navy, in which he held the rank of 
lieutenant, February 15, 1861, and had at 
once reported for duty to the Confederate au- 
thorities at Montgomery. He was commis- 
sioned with like rank, sent to New York to 
purchase stores of war, and, on returning, was 
placed in charge of the lighthouse bureau. 
He sought active service, however, and was 
ordered to New Orleans where he fitted up a 
merchant vessel, which was called the "Sum- 
ter" by Secretary Mallory. In 1862 he sold 
his ship, after an honorable service of several 
months. He was then promoted to the rank 
of captain, and was ordered to the command 
of a new vessel, called the "Alabama," which 
had been built at Liverpool for the Confed- 
eracy. Capt. Semmes reached the Azores, to 



which the ship had been sent by a ruse, 
August 24, 1862. The description of the ves- 
sel as given by Semmes, "Service Afloat," is 
as follows: 

"She was of about 900 tons burden, 230 
feet in length, 3 2 feet in breadth, 20 feet in 
depth, and drew, when provisioned and coaled 
for a cruise, 15 feet of water. Her model was 
of the most perfect symmetry, and she sat 
upon the water with the lightness and grace 
of a swan. She was barkentine rigged, with 
long lower masts, which enabled her to carry 
large fore-and-aft sails, as jibs and try-sails, 
which are of so much importance to a steamer, 
in so many emergencies. Her sticks were of 
the best yellow pine, that would bend in a 
gale, like a willow wand, without breaking, 
and her rigging was of the best of Swedish 
iron wire. The scantling of the vessel was 
light, compared with vessels of her class in 
the Federal Navy, but this was scarcely a dis- 
advantage, as she was designed as a scourge 
of the enemy's commerce, rather than for bat- 
tle. She was to defend herself, simply, if de- 
fense should become necessary. Her engine 
was of three hundred horse-power, and she 
had attached an apparatus for condensing, 
from the vapor of sea-water, all the fresh 
water that her crew might require. She was 
a perfect steamer and a perfect sailing-ship, 
at the same time, neither of her two modes 
of locomotion being at all dependent upon the 
other. . . . The Alabama was so con- 
structed, that in fifteen minutes, her propeller 
could be detached from the shaft, and lifted 
in a well contrived for the purpose, sufficiently 
high out of the water, not to be an impedi- 
ment to her speed. When this was done, and 
her sails spread, she was, to all intents and 
purposes, a sailing-ship. On the other hand, 
when I desired to use her as a steamer, I had 
only to start the fires, lower the propeller, and 
if the wind was adverse, brace her yards to 
the wind, and the conversion was complete. 
The speed of the Alabama was always greatly 
over-rated by the enemy. She was ordinarily 
about a ten-knot ship. She was said to have 
made eleven knots and a half, on her trial 
trip, but we never afterward got it out of her. 
Under steam and sail both, we logged on one 
occasion, thirteen knots and a quarter, which 
was her utmost speed. 

"Her armament consisted of eight guns; six 
32-pounders, in broadside, and two pivot-guns 
amidships; one on the forecastle, and the 
other abaft the main-mast — the former a 100- 
pounder rifled Blakeley, and the latter, a 
smooth-bore eight-inch. The Blakeley gun 
was so deficient in metal, compared with the 
weight of shot it threw, that, after the first 
few discharges, when it became a little heated, 
it was of comparatively small use to us, to 
such an extent were we obliged to reduce the 
charge of powder, on account of the recoil. 
The average crew of the Alabama, before the 
mast, was about 120 men; and she carried 
twenty-tour officers, as follows: A Captain, 
four lieutenants, surgeon, paymaster, master, 
marine officer, four engineers, two midship- 
men, and four master's mates, a Captain's 
clerk, boatswain, gunner, sailmaker, and car- 

penter. The cost of the ship, with everything 
complete, was two hundred and fifty thousand 

The history of the activity of this vessel is 
as thrilling as a chapter from the literature of 
romance. Reed, in "The South in the Build- 
ing of the Nation," vol. 12, p. 377, says of 
Semmes that, "with this single small vessel, 
roving as cock of the ocean for twenty-two 
months, he maintained on the high seas an 
effective blockade of the enemy's commerce 
all over the globe, so terrifying the great ship- 
ping interests that, in 1871, they made the 
Treaty of Washington to amend the law of 
nations by barring any future Semmes a start 
from a neutral port." During her career 
about fifty-seven ships were burned, while 
many others were released on ransom bond. 
Since no ports were open for condemnation, 
Semmes burned his captures as permitted by 
international law. After almost circum- 
navigating the globe, he started on his return 
trip and found himself in the port of Cher- 
bourg, France. He was almost immediately 
blockaded by the Kearsarge. In response to 
the challenge of Semmes, Capt. John A. Win- 
slow, commanding the Kearsarge, gave battle, 
June 19, 1864. The latter vessel was superior 
in tonnage, and carried almost an equal arma- 
ment. Concealed chain armor rendered the 
Kearsarge in a measure ironclad. About noon 
the Alabama struck her colors, and Capt. 
Semmes and his men plunged into the sea. 
An English yacht owned by Mr. John Lan- 
caster, who had been a spectator, rescued 
about forty of them, including Capt. Semmes, 
and carried them to England. Nine of the 
crew of the Alabama were killed, ten drowned 
and twenty-one wounded. The latter were 
rescued by the enemy ship. 

The celebrated Alabama claims grew out 
of the complaints of the United States against 
Great Britain, in part charging delay in seiz- 
ing Confederate vessels under construction in 
British ports. After negotiations extending 
from 1865 to 1869, there was a final agree- 
ment to submit all claims to five arbitrators. 
This body was known as the Geneva Tribunal. 
The arbitration convention contained a formal 
apology for the escape of the Alabama and 
other Confederate cruisers from British ports. 
The result of the arbitration was an award of 
$15,500,000 against Great Britain. John A. 
Bolles, solicitor of the U. S. Navy Department, 
thus wrote of Semmes and his activities: 

"Not only did Sempes' official conduct con- 
form to the well-known policy of the Ameri- 
can navy, but it was directed by similar in- 
structions from the secretary of the Confed- 
erate navy. 'Do the enemy's commerce the 
greatest injury in the shortest time,' was 
Mr. Mallory's significant order to Semmes, in 
June, 1861, and never in naval history has 
such an order been so signally obeyed; never 
has there occurred so striking an example of 
the tremendous power of mischief possessed 
by a single cruiser acting upon this 'de- 
structive plan' as that furnished by the 'Sum- 
ter' and her successor, the 'Alabama,' under 
the command of Semmes, whose untiring 
activity, restless energy and fiery zeal found 


no voyage too long, no movtment too rapid 
or too prompt, no danger too great, no labor 
too wearisome in the accomplishment of the 
Confederate purpose to ruin our commerce by 
destroying our ships." 

References. — Semmes, Cruise of the Ala- 
bama and Sumter (1864); Ibid, Memoirs of 
service afloat during the War between the 
States (1869); Dr. Colyer Meriwether, Raphael 
Sennnes (Crisis Biographies, 1913); Brewer, 
Alabama (1872), p. 413; Raphael S. Payne, in 
Library of Southern Literature (1909), vol. 11; 
Col. John C. Reed, in The South in the building 
of the Nation (1909), vol. 12; Lamb, Bio- 
graphical Dictionary of the United States 
(1903), vol. 7; and McLaughlin and Hart, 
Cyclopedia of Am,erican government (1914), 
vol. 1, p. 23, vol. 2, p. 73. 

bama history, from the time of the invasion 
of De Soto in 1540 until the present time, 
covers a long period of over 300 years. Dur- 
ing this time the Spanish, the French, the 
British, again the Spanish, the United States 
government, and the state of Georgia suc- 
cessively laid claim to its soil, either as a 
whole or in part, Alabama being a portion 
of that immense territory over which the 
mighty powers of Europe so long contended, 
in their vast schemes of conquest and lust 
of dominion. This long period of historic 
time, on careful examination, resolves itself 
into certain clear and well defined periods, 
each of which is singularly complete in itself, 
and easily susceptible of distinct and separate 
treatment. These periods are eight in num- 

1. De Soto has been called the discoverer 
of Alabama soil, and the history of his 
famous, though ill-fated expedition, which in- 
cludes his march through Alabama, has been 
made by all local historians the first period 
of Alabama history, but this is manifestly 
incorrect. It is now generally agreed by the 
best historians that Alvar Nunez Cabeca de 
Vaca (See his Relacion Valladolid 1555, 
Paris, 1837), with his three or four compan- 
ions, the survivors of the expedition of Pani- 
filo de Narvaez in 1528, in their efforts to 
reach Mexico overland, passed from north 
Florida (See Fairbank's Florida) through 
Alabama and Mississippi, discovered the Mis- 
sissippi River, and passing through other 
states finally reached Mexico; and it is fur- 
ther, now generally regarded that the expedi- 
tion of De Soto and its full treatment legiti- 
mately belongs to the history of early voyages 
of conquest and discovery in America, of 
which it forms a very interesting chapter. 
This expedition certainly has no chrono- 
logical or other connection with the history 
of Alabama, as such, save that the events 
transpired in part on what is now its soil. 
So far as its narration is demanded of the 
Alabama historian, it should be regarded prin- 
cipally as an incident in treating of the early 
Indian inhabitants of the state; and, as it 
is the first and the last time the white man, 
in any numbers, is found here until the com- 
ing of the French in the year 1697, the his- 

tory of the country and its inhabitants with 
an incidental notice of this expedition con- 
stitute the first period under the name, "The 
Country and Its Inhabitants Prior to the 
Coming of the French, 1538-1697." 

2. After this "isolated chapter" over a cen- 
tury and a half pass before Alabama is again 
known in history. The French, a tew years 
before the close of the seventeenth century, 
began the establishment of a system of colo- 
nies in the valley of the Mississippi and other 
parts of the then southwest, and during about 
sixty-five years fostered them with a solici- 
tious care, when in 1763, through the tor- 
tunes of war. they lost all of their possessions 
in the new world. The causes that led to 
the spirit of colonization, the history and 
growth of those planted in Alabama, the war 
that brought about their acquisition by the 
British empire and the readjustment of the 
claims of the other European powers con- 
stitute the second period, under the name, 
"The French Period o£ Colonization, 1697- 

3. At the close of the second period the 
British held all the land east of the Missis- 
sippi River, and continued to claim them until 
the close of the Revolutionary War in 1783, 
when the territory was ceded to the United 
States, with a southern boundary of line 31 
degrees, north latitude; while the south of 
line 31 degrees, comprising East and West 
Florida, was ceded to Spain at the same time. 
That part of the ceded territory including Ala- 
bama was claimed in part by Georgia and in 
part by Spain, their claims conflicting and over- 
lapping, the former claiming under a colo- 
nial charter, and the latter by virtue of a 
cession made to it of the Floridas in 1783. 
T^is holding of the British, the cession to 
the United States, and the conflicting claims 
of the United States, Spain, Georgia and the 
Indians, together with an account of the 
growth of the country in settlement, popula- 
tion and its government during the time con- 
stitute the third period, under the name 
"British Occupation and Final Cession to the 
United States, 1763-1798." 

4. The history of the Mississippi territory 
created in 1798, its subsequent enlargement 
embracing all of the present states of Ala- 
bama and Mississippi, the reclaiming of Mo- 
bile from the Spanish, the Indian wars, the 
creation of the state of Mississippi, the crea- 
tion of the remaining portions into the Ala- 
bama territory, the progress, growth and gov- 
ernment of both territories until the admis- 
sion of Alabama into the union constitute 
the fourth period, under the name, "The 
Territorial Era, 1798-1819." 

5. In 1819, the 4th day of December, Ala- 
bama became a member of the federal union, 
and remained so during a long and eventful 
number of years until, in 1861, she withdrew 
to become one of the Confederate states. The 
development and growth of the state in all 
of its departments for over forty years, its 
progress as compared with its sister states, 
its public men, its institutions, laws, tradi- 
tions and thought, ending in a severance of 
the state relation with the federal govern- 


ment and the formation of a new gov- 
ernmental relation constitute the fifth period, 
under the name "The State of Alabama, 1819- 

6. Alabama became a member of the Con- 
federate States government and remained so 
until after its downfall. The four years of 
life as one of the confederate states con- 
stitute the sixth period, under the name: 
"One of the Confederate States, 1861-1865." 

7. After the close of hostilities and for 
nine long and bitter years the people of the 
state struggled with poverty, ruined fortunes, 
pernicious reconstruction laws and an element 
in political power foreign to them and their 
institutions. Finally the dawn came in the 
rescue of the state and in the election of 
George S. Houston to the chief magistracy. 
The struggle during the reconstruction period 
constitute the seventh period, under the 
name: "The Days of Reconstruction, 1865- 

8. From the election of Houston to the 
present its growth has been upward. Its his- 
tory during all the happy years since that 
time constitute the eighth and last period, 
under the name: "Our Own Times, 1874." 

The foregoing analysis is believed to be es- 
sentially correct and sustained by the events 
themselves. Undoubtedly it is open to some 
objections, but such objections, if examined, 
will be found to depend upon the point of 
view, for after all an analysis of events de- 
pends upon the theory drawn by the historian 
or writer from the events themselves. To 
illustrate, suppose that one writer considered 
the most essential feature of the state's 
history to be the character of pursuits en- 
gaged in by the people, then he would say 
that it should be divided into several periods, 
the one before the War of Secession when 
the state was essentially agricultural, and 
the other comprising the present period of 
high industrial development. And still an- 
other might consider the proper division to 
be threefold: The provincial, the territorial 
and the state periods, a division adopted by 
Mr. Claiborne in his valuable history of Mis- 
sissippi. It would seem obvious that, in 
these two examples at least, an analysis on 
such a basis would be far from perfect; and 
that they are based on entirely irrational 
principles. The true principle of the analysis 
of historic time into periods is found in the 
stages of the growth of the particular state, 
with due and proper regard to influencing 
causes. Omitting reference to the first period, 
which is essentially prefatory and introdutory 
to the second period, which concerns itself 
with the first occupation of the white men, 
it is found that each of the foregoing periods 
Is influenced and its entire course shaped by 
the particular governing power and, so dis- 
tinctly so, that with each period the whole 
face of the country undergoes a complete 
change. From 1697 to 1763 the French were 
possessed of the soil; the people were French, 
with possibly a few exceptions; all towns 
and other places bore French names; man- 
ners, customs, habits and the civilization 

were essentially and wholly French; and 
during all those years there was building on 
the Gulf a splendid new France, an honor 
to mother state. In 1763, after the seven 
years' war, France lost all her possessions in 
the western world. The British in this year, 
by treaty, came into the ownership of the 
then southwest, with other territory, and on 
taking possession began at once the work of 
adjusting things after the English model. 
Names were changed; the French in large 
numbers moved away, and numbers of Anglo- 
Saxon colonists and traders began to flow into 
the newly acquired territory. With all o£ 
this, the period of French colonist domination 
in Alabama was ended forever; and the Brit- 
ish colonial system set in. The British gave 
comparatively little encouragement to immi- 
gration, still settlers came in slowly from over 
the sea and from the States, and gradually the 
British influence became supreme. During 
the American War of the Revolution this in- 
fluence was not broken down; with the growth 
of population It showed no abatement, and It 
was long after the war of 1783 that the people 
became distinctively enough American to de- 
mand the attention of the Federal congress 
in the matter of its government. With the 
creation of the Mississippi territory in 1798 
is witnessed the last hour of the period of 
British influence and domination. The Mis- 
sissippi territory during the years of its ex- 
istence represents the distinct growth of a 
people from the conditions of border life and 
civilization to the higher levels of constitu- 
tional government by the people. The state 
of Mississippi is formed; two years afterward 
Alabama entered the union, and the period 
of border life with its wild incidents, its rude 
justice and its imperfect government is at an 
end. Alabama is a sovereign state. From 
this time on there are no high dividing lines 
between the events of the years as they pass 
by, although everything is valuable and im- 
portant until tne war between the states. 
Here a period of forty years of government 
under the federal union ends; then comes the 
period of awful conflict and its end; then the 
years of dire struggle and supreme effort; and 
after the dawn, the time that now is. 

This statement is an attempt to show the 
method adopted by the writer in resolving 
Alabama history into his natural and essen- 
tial periods. It is not, therefore, a perfect 
analysis; in fact, the attainment of the perfect 
in the matter of the analysis of a series of 
events, such as run over the 3 00 and more 
years of Alabama history, is well nigh impos- 
sible. But after all, this writer is one that 
does not believe in the infallibility of the 
taste or the judgment in such a matter, and is 
happy in the recognition of the wide diversity 
both of taste and effort in the whole range of 
intellectual acquirement. What has been said 
by Augustine Birrell should ever be remem- 
bered: "Methods will differ, styles will differ. 
Nobody does anything like anybody else; but 
the end in view is generally the same, and the 
historian's end is truthful narration. Maxims 
he will have, if he is wise, never a one; and 



as for a moral, if he tells his story well, it will 
need none; if he tell it ill, it will deserve 

ogy of this place name has evoked much dis- 
cussion among American philological students. 
,It was the aboriginal name of a Muskhogean 
tribe of the Creek confederacy, whose habitat, 
when first known to European explorers, was 
in central Alabama. The principal river of 
the State received its name from the tribe, 
and the State in turn was named for the river. 

Varied Name Forms. — The tribal name is 
spelled in various ways by the early explorers, 
traders, and chroniclers, and by the later 
writers. Spanish, French, English and Amer- 
ican. The name is first found in three of the 
narratives of DeSoto's expedition of 1540, 
but it is proper to observe, that the particu- 
lar use of the name, as so recorded, had ref^ 
erence to a subdivision of the Chickasaws, 
and not the historic Alibamu towns first 
above referred to. The names are, however, 
identical. In the list of references given 
below it will be noted that in some cases the 
initial vowel is dropped, and that the letter 
"m" is used for "b," an interchange of these 
consonants being common in Indian languages. 
Through the courtesy of Dr. Frederick W. 
Hodge, editor, the principal references to this 
name in the literature referred to, as given in 
the Handbook of A7nerican Indians (1907), vol. 

1, p. 44, are here reproduced: 

Aiftawios. — Barcia, Ensayo (1723), p. 313. Ala. 
— H. R. Ex. Doc. 276, 24th Cong. (1836), p. 310, 
(probably an abbreviation.) Alabama. — Bar- 
tram, Travels (1791), p. 463. Ala Earner.— 
Weatherford (1793) in American State Papers, 
Indian Affairs (1832), vol. 1, pp. 385. Albamas.— 
North Carolina (1721) Colonial Records (1886), 
vol. 2, pp. 422. Alebamah. — Charlevoix, Neio 
France (1872), vol. 6, p. 25. Alebamons.—Bon- 
dinot. Star in West (1816), p. 125. Alibam.— 
McKenney and Hall, Indian Tribes (1854), vol. 
3, p. 80. AHftamas.— Nuttall, Journal (1821), p. 
287. Alibamies. — Schermerhorn (1812), in Mass. 
Hist. Coll., 2d series (1814), p. 152. Alibamo.— 
French, Historical Collections of Louisiana 
(1850), vol. 2, p. 104. Alibamons. — Dumont, 
Louisiana (1753), vol. 1, p. 134. Alibamous.— 
Smyth, Tour in United States (1784), vol. 1, p. 
348. Alibamus. — Brackenridge, YieiM of Louis- 
iana (1814), p. 82. Alibanio.— Smith, Coll. Docs. 
Hist. Florida (1857), vol. 1, p. 56. Alibanons.— 
N. Y. Doc. Col. Hist. (1858), vol. 10, p. 156. 
Alimamu. — Gentlemen of Elvas (1539) in Ha- 
kluyt Society Publications (1851), vol. 9, p. 87. 
Allibama. — Drake, Book of Indians (1848). 
AZiibamis.— Sibley, Historical Sketches (1806), 
p. 81. AUibamons. — Bossu (1758), Travels in. 
Louisiana (1771), vol. 1, p. 219. Allibamous.— 
Coxe, Carolana (1741), p. 24. Atilamas.—GAt- 
schet. Creek Migration Legend (1888), vol. 2, p. 
13 (Creek name). Aybamos. — Barcia, Ensayo 
(1723), p. 333. Eivemalas. — Coxe, Carolana 
(1741), p. 25. Habbamalas. — Spotswood (1720) 
in North Carolina Colonial Records (1886), vol. 

2, p. 383. Halbama. — Vaugondy, map of Amer- 
ica, Nancy (1778). Holbamas. — Rivers, Early 

History South Carolina (1874), p. 97. Limanu. 
— Ranjel (1541) in Bourne, Narratives of De 
Soto (1904), vol. 2, p. 136. Ma'-mo an-ya-di.— 
Dorsey, Biloxi MS. Diet., B. A. E., 1892 (Biloxl 
name). Ma'-mo hanya. — Ibid (another Biloxl 
name). Ma'-mo hay audi'. — Ibid (another Bi- 
loxi name). Oke-choy-atte. — Schoolcraft, Indian 
Tribes (1851), vol. 1, p. 266. Olibahalies.— 
Coxe, Carolana (1741), p. 24. 

Genesis. — According to recent investiga- 
tions of Indianologists, the tribal name, "Ala- 
bama," must be sought in the Choctaw tongue, 
as it was not uncommon for tribes to accept, 
as a national or tribal name, an appellation 
bestowed upon them by some contiguous 
tribe. The late Rev. Allen Wright, a highly 
educated Choctaw, translates the name as 
"Thicket-clearers," compounded of "Alba," a 
thicket or mass of vegetation, and "amo," to 
clear, to collect, to gather up. 

Prof. Henry Sale Halbert, by independent 
study, about the same time, arrived at the 
same conclusion as that given by Mr. Wright, 
and he translates the name as "Vegetation- 
gatherers," that is, gatherers of vegetation in 
clearing land for agricultural purposes. The 
word "alba" means such small vegetation as 
herbs, plants, shrubs and bushes, which were 
gathered in clearing land, and the word can 
be applied collectively to a thicket. Hence 
the translation as given by the Rev. Mr. 
Wright and that of Prof. Halbert practically 
agree. The passive voice of "amo" is "almo." 
In elaborating his views in defense of his 
position. Prof. Halbert gives two examples of 
Choctaw local names, "Kantak almo" and 
"Oski almo," meaning respectively, China 
brier there gathered, and Cane there "gath- 
ered. If the tribes or clans living at these 
localities had received special names from 
their avocations, they would have been known 
as Kantakamo and Oskamo, just as the noted 
Indian tribe in the prehistoric past could 
well have received the name "Alba amo," by 
fusion of vowels "Albamo," from some neigh- 
boring Choctaw-speaking tribe, not yet 
emerged from the hunting into the agricul- 
tural state. 

Confirmatory of the position of Rev. Mr. 
Wright and the independent conclusions of 
Mr. Halbert, the definitions of "alba" and 
"amo" in Rev. Cyrus Byington's Dictionary 
of the Choctaw Language are given below. 
The manuscript of this work, prepared prior 
to 1856, has been published by the Bureau of 
American Ethnology, under the editorial di- 
rection of Dr. John R. Swanton and Mr. Hal- 
bert. The words and their definitions are as 

"alba, n., vegetation; herbs; plants; 


"amo, V. t. pi., to pick; to pull; to trim; 

to mow; to reap. Matt. 6:26; to cut; to 

clip; to gather, Luke 6:44; to cut off; 

to crop; to rid; to shear; to slip; pankl 

an aianio, gather grapes of. Matt. 7:16; 

shumati akon aiamo, gather of thistles; 

tabli, sing. 

"amo, n., a gatherer; a picker; a 




It Is an interesting fact that the late Dr. 
Albert S. Gatschet, in Creek Migration Leg- 
end, vol. 1, p. 85, accepts the etymology of 
Rev. Mr. Wright as above set forth. Other 
experts in that dialect confess their inability 
to offer a solution. 

Dr. Wm. S. Wyman, of Tuscaloosa, one of 
the best known students of the State, inclines 
to the belief that the word means Mulberry 
people. He says that on the oldest French 
maps the Alabama River is called "Coussa," 
from which he conjectures that the name 
Alabama was first given to it by the French, 
after they built Fort Toulouse in 1714. He 
says further that in Tristan de Luna's time 
(1559) the river was sometimes called "Oli- 
bahali," or "Ullibali," which is pretty close 
to the French form, "Alibamon," or "Alaba- 
mo." In the language of the Alabama tribe 
he says that "Ullebehalli" means Murberry 

Inquiry among the early Indians them- 
selves appears to have been without results 
as to the meaning of the word. Gen. Thomas 
S. Woodward in his fascinating book. Rem- 
iniscences of the Creek, or Muscogee Indians 
(1859), p. 12, says: "I had heard Col. Haw- 
kins say in his time, that he had made every 
inquiry in his power to ascertain if Alabama 
had any other meaning than the mere name 
of an Indian town, but never could, unless 
the name — as it was possible — might be the 
Indian corruption of the Spanish words for 
good water, though he doubted that." 

"Here We Rest." — The popular belief, 
which is incorporated in many current his- 
tories and geographies, is that "Alabama" 
signifies "Here We Rest." This very pleasing 
etymology obtained wide currency through 
the writings of Judge Alexander Beaufort 
Meek. But the very first suggestion of this 
meaning of the name, as far as is now known, 
is to be found in an issue of the Jacksonville 
Republican, Jacksonville, Ala., July 27, 1842. 
The real author of the suggestion has not 
been discovered. In 1868 the phrase found 
its way on the State seal, and in consequence 
it has been popularly accepted as the State 
motto. However, no philologist has found, 
in any Indian dialect, any word or phrase sim- 
ilar or akin to the word "Alabama," having 
such a meaning. While it must therefore, 
be discarded as philologically untenable, it 
may be retained in the realm of poetry and 
romance. The phrase has sometimes been 
referred to contemptuously as indicating a 
static, contented, or indolent condition, but 
the interpretation which would so restrict the 
word "rest" is wholly unwarranted. Its true 
meaning emphasizes intelligent choice, as if 
written, "Here we linger," or "Here we will 
abide," or "Here we will set up our House- 
hold Gods." This interpretation in very 
truth reflects the determination, or decision, 
of the Indian chieftain and his tribe, of whom 
the legend is preserved. When reaching the 
lordly Alabama River, having traveled many 
leagues, passed through many lands, and over 
many waters, he proudly exclaimed, "We will 
go no farther. Our wanderings are ended. 

This is a goodly land. We haye not found 
better. Here we rest." 

True Signiflcance. — Until supplanted by 
something upon which no doubt rests, for the 
present may be accepted the definition, "Veg- 
etation-gatherers," since, in their aboriginal 
field-making, they were necessarily "Thicket- 
clearers." The suggested etymology may be 
thought a trifle prosaic as compared with the 
romantic expression, heretofore associated 
with the Indian anabasis from the west, but 
in truth it is quite as poetic, and besides, it 
far more nearly represents the character of 
Alabamians, both in the past and also in the 
present era of growth, when with uplifted 
aspiration and clear vision they are opening 
the way to newer ideals, and the development 
of the best in life and human endeavor. 

See Alabama River; Alibamu. 

Reference,?.— Alabama Official and Statistical 
Register, 1915, pp. 7-9; and citations in text. 

ALABAMA — STATE SONG. The patriotic 
poem given below has, by popular acclaim, 
come to be regarded as the "State Song," and, 
although without official sanction, it has 
found a lasting place in the hearts and affec- 
tion of the people of Alabama. 

The poem was written about 1868 or 1869. 
The author. Miss Julia Strudwick Tutwiler, 
had returned from her first trip to Europe, 
where she had been for study. She found 
Alabama, her native State, in the throes of 
"Reconstruction," and its people greatly con- 
cerned for the future. Never for one moment 
doubting the outcome of the struggle, if main- 
tained with courage and devotion to principle, 
in noble verse she embodied the prophecy of 
the better day. 

Facts connected with early publication are 
not available, but the oldest known copy is 
found in the Montgomery Advertiser, Sunday, 
April 24, 1881, accompanied by this note, pre- 
pared by Maj. W. W. Screws, editor: 

"The following song first found its way 
into print without the knowledge of the 
writer; consequently, although widely copied 
and circulated, it has never been printed 
correctly. We give below, for the first time, 
a correct and full copy of it." 

It is sung to the air "Harwell." 

1 Alabama, Alabama, 

We will aye be true to thee, 

From thy Southern shore 

By the sea thine orange tree 

To thy Northern vale where floweth. 

Deep and blue thy Tennessee, 

Alabama, Alabama, 

We will aye be true to thee! 

2 Broad the Stream whose name thou 

Grand thy Bigbee rolls along; 
Fair thy Coosa — Tallapoosa; 
Bold thy Warrior, dark and strong; 
Goodlier than the land that Moses 
Climbed lone Nebo's Mount to see, 
Alabama, Alabama, 
We will aye be true to thee! 



3 From thy prairies broad and fertile, 
Where thy snow-white cotton shines, 
To the hills where coal and iron 
Hide in thine exhaustless mines. 
Strong-armed miners — sturdy farmers; 
Loyal hearts whate'er we be, 
Alabama, Alabama, 

We will aye be true to thee! 

4 Prom thy quarries where the marble 
White as that of Paros gleams 
Waiting till thy sculptor's chisel. 
Wake to life thy poet's dreams; 

For not only wealth of nature. 
Wealth of mind hast thou to fee, 
Alabama, Alabama, 
We will aye be true to thee! 

5 Where the perfumed south-wind whispers. 
Thy magnolia groves among. 

Softer than a mother's kisses. 
Sweeter than a mother's song; 
Where the golden jasmine trailing. 
Wooes the treasure-laden bee, 
Alabama, Alabama, 
We will aye be true to thee! 

6 Brave and pure thy men and women. 
Better this than corn and wine. 
Make us worthy, God in heaven. 

Of this goodly land of Thine; 
Hearts as open as our doorways. 
Liberal lands and spirits free, 
Alabama, Alabama, 
We will aye be true to thee! 

7 Little, little, can I give thee, 
Alabama, mother mine; 

But that little — hand, brain, spirit. 
All I have and am are thine. 
Take, O take the gift and giver. 
Take and serve thyself with me, 
Alabama, Alabama, 
I will aye be true to thee! 

References. — Alabama Official and Statistical 
Register, 1915, p. 15; DuBose, Alabama History 
(1915); and Montgomery Advertiser, cited 

ALABAMA, TERRITORY. By the Enabling 
Act of March 1, 1817, Congress declared that the 
Mississippi Territory, should be divided by a 
line commencing at Bear Creek, on the Tennes- 
see River, thence to the northwestern corner of 
Washington County, and thence due south with 
the western limits of that county to the sea. 
That part of the Old Mississippi territory, east 
of this line, became the Alabama territory, so 
called from the name of its great river. Seven 
counties as then formed, were within this 
territory, and they enjoyed the same legisla- 
tive and judicial powers which they possessed 
before the division, and the officers all retained 
their positions. The seat of government was 
temporarily fixed at St. Stephens, at which 
place the first territorial legislature convened 
January 19, 1818. 

President Monroe appointed William Wyatt 
Bibb, a senator from Georgia, as governor of 
the new territory. The House of Representa- 

tives was composed of thirteen members, with 
Gabriel Moore of Madison County, as speaker, 
but with only one member of the senate, that 
being James Titus, who however sat alone and 
passed upon, with all due formality, all Acts 
of the Lower House. The first legislature 
created new counties as Cotaco, Lawrence, 
Franklin, Limestone, Lauderdale, Blount, Tusca- 
loosa, Marengo, Shelby, Cahawba, Dallas, Ma- 
rion, and Conecuh. The boundaries' of Wash- 
ington, Baldwin, Mobile, Marengo and Madison 
were altered. 

Clement C. Clay, Samuel Taylor, Samuel 
Dale, James Titus, William L. Adams, were 
elected commissioners, to select an eligible 
site for the territorial legislature. 

The second session of the Legislature of the 
territory, which met at St. Stephens, in the 
fall of 1818, named Governor Bibb, as a sole 
commissioner to lay off the seat of government, 
at the confluence of the Cahawba and Alabama 
Rivers. He was directed to have the town 
surveyed, expose maps of the same at public 
places, and give ninety days notice of sale, 
out of the proceeds of which he was to con- 
tract for the building of a temporary capitol. 

St. Stephens was never again used as an 
official meeting place. Late in November, the 
legislature adjourned, next to meet in Hunts- 
ville, and there hold a State convention, to 
draw up a constitution. Congress having au- 
thorized the people to adopt a constitution 
preparatory to the admission of the State 
into the Union. The members of the conven- 
tion, forty-four in number, with John W. Wal- 
ker, as president, met at Huntsville, on the 
5th of July, 1819, adopted a constitution, and 
during that summer, an election for governor, 
and other State officials was held, anticipating 
the admission of the State into the Union. 

Governors of Alabajiia Ten-itoi-j-. — William 
W. Bibb, of Georgia; temporary commission, 
September 25, 1817; permanent commissioa, 
December 16, 1817. 

Rekerenoes. — Pickett, History of Alabama 
(Owen Edition), (1900); Mss. data in the 
Alabama Department of Archives and History. 

sel of the second line. United States Navy, 
constructed under Act of June 10, 1896. It 
was built at the Cramp's Shipyard; had its 
official trial August 20, 1900, making 17.013 
knots; and went into commission October 16, 
1900. It has a length between perpendiculars 
of 368 ft.; breadth on load water line of 72 
ft. and 2% in.; mean draft 23 ft., 6 in.; 
12,150 tons full load displacement; 11,366 
horsepower, with twin screws; and 18 guns. 

In 1901 a silver service was presented to 
the battleship by the citizens of Alabama. 
The service consisted of 1 centerpiece with 
German silver mesh, 1 38-pint punch bowl, 1 
punch tray, 1 punch ladle, 24 punch cups, 2 
5-light candelabra, and 1 flower receptacle. 
The larger pieces are of flower and scroll pat- 
tern. The bowl, ladle and cups are gold lined. 
In the ornamentation are the State and Navy 
seals, with etched Inscription. The designer 



was Charles Osborne of New York. They 
were manufactured by the Whiting Mfg. Com- 
pany, at the order of E. O. Zadek Jewelry 
Company of Mobile. All pieces bear the num- 
ber 6780. Total weight 953.30 ounces. Cost 

References. — U. S. Statutes at large, vol. 29, 
pp. 378-380; U. S. Navy Dept., Report of Secre- 
tary. 1901, pt. 1, pp. 449, 477i 531; pt. 2, pp. 773, 
896-901; Ibid, Ships data, V. 8. naval vessels, 
Jan. 1, 1916, pp. 14-23; Ibid, Navy and marine 
corps register, Jan. 1, 1916, pp. 277, 318; and 
manuscript data in the Alabama Department of 
Archives and History. 

ROAD COMPANY. See Alabama Great 
Southern Railroad Company. 

RAILROAD COMPANY. See East Tennessee, 
Virginia and Georgia Railway Company. 

COMPANY. See East Tennessee, Virginia 
and Georgia Railway Company. 

COMPANY. Organized March 10, 1902, 
under general laws of Alabama; line extends 
from Vinegar Bend, Ala., to Leaksville, Miss.; 
mileage operated June 30, 1915 — main track, 
16.5, side tracks, 0.5, total, 17; mileage 
operated in Alabama — main track, 8.5, side 
tracks, 0.5, total, 9; capital stock authorized 
and outstanding — common, $10,000; shares, 
$100, voting power, one vote a share; and 
funded debt, $185,000. The road operated 
by this company is leased from the Vinegar 
Bend Lumber Co. for $5,000 a year. 

References. — Anriual report of Company to 
Ala. Public Service Commission, 1915. 

RAIL ROAD COMPANY. See East Tennesee, 
Virginia and Georgia Railway Company. 

PORTATION COMPANY. An industrial cor- 
poration, incorporated July 2, 1912, in New 
Jersey; capital stock authorized — $587,500 
preferred, $500,000 common, total, $1,087,- 
500; outstanding — $390,000 preferred, $500,- 
000 common, total, $890,000; shares — pre- 
ferred, $100, common. $20; funded debt, 
$1,560,000; property owned in Alabama — 
coal loading station at Tuscaloosa, and a fleet 
of 16 self-propelling steel barges, each of 
1.000 tons displacement, under construction; 
offices: New Orleans, La. 

This company controls, through ownership 
of its capital stock, the Alabama & New Or- 
leans Canal Co.. which owns the Lake Borgne 
Canal, connecting Mississippi Sound with the 
Mississippi River about 12 miles below New 
Orleans, thus forming a direct, inside water 
route from the Warrior coal fields to the city 
of New Orleans, by way of the Warrior, Tom- 
bigbee. and Mobile Rivers, Mobile Bay, and 
Mississippi Sound. Three thousand acres of 
coal lands on the Black Warrior River, lu 

miles above Tuscaloosa, are owned and are 
being developed by interests allied with this 
company. The Lake Borgne Coal Co. was 
organized to market the entire output of these 

References. — Poor's manual of industrials, 
1916, pp. 2340-2341. 

RAIL ROAD COMPANY. See East Tennessee, 
Virginia and Georgia Railway Company. 


State institution for the care and control of 
delinquent white boys, located at East Lake. 
It was established by act of Feb. 23, 1899, 
entitled "To establish a reformatory and in- 
dustrial school under the name and style of 
the Alabama Industrial School, for the benefit 
of orphan helpless and wayward children; 
to provide for its government; to prescribe 
what children shall be admitted thereto; and 
to further provide that certain children shall 
be sent to, and kept therein, and to provide 
mode of ascertaining whether any given child 
should be committed thereto." The first 
board of control of the school consisted of 
Mrs. R. D. Johnston, president; Mrs. George 
B. Eager, vice-president; Mrs. T. G. Bush, 
treasurer; Mrs. S. D. Cole, recording secre- 
tary; Mrs. Evelyn P. Munger, corresponding 
secretary; and Mrs. Erwin Craighead and 
Mrs. J. G. Converse, with Gov. Joseph F. 
Johnston, Attorney General W. C. Fltts, and 
Commissioner of Agriculture I. P. Culver, as 
ex officio members. An appropriation of 
$3,000 was made for necessary structures, 
and for maintenance. 

After the organization of the board in May, 
1899, advertisements were made at once for 
bids for a suitable location. The Commercial 
Club of Birmingham offered three thousand 
dollars toward the project, if the school was 
located near that city. This was the most 
advantageous offer made, and was accepted, 
"and a tract of about one hundred and thir- 
ty-six acres of land about one mile from East 
Lake was selected." Buildings were erected, 
and the school opened in a modest way. It 
has had the generous and sympathetic sup- 
port of the people, and has maintained a 
steady and wholesome growth. The record 
of the institution has aroused the pride of 
the entire State. 

High school course is maintained, and spe- 
cial emphasis is laid on training the boys In 
manual and useful industrial pursuits. The 
legislature has been very liberal in its ap- 
propriations, wiiich are as follows: 18,98-99, 
$3,000; 1900-01, $15,000; 1903, $8,000 a 
vear for 4 years, 1903 to 1906; 1907, $20,- 
000 a year for years 1907, 1908, 1909 and 
1910; 1911, change to per captia of $150.00 
tor each inmate for 1911, 1912, 1913 and 
1914; and 1915 an appropriation of $150.00 
annually "for every boy" in the school; by act 
of Oct. 2, 1903, $10,000, "for the erection of 
an additional building"; by act of March 2, 
1907, $50,000, "to pay for buildings, ma- 
chinery and other improvements needed"; by 
act of April 18, 1911, $7,500, "to pay an in- 



debtedness of said school existing on Dec. 31, 
1910"; by another act of same date, April 
18, 1911, $30,000, "to pay for buildings, 
machinery, equipments and other necessary 

Student organizations include athletic 
teams, debating societies, Y. M. C. A., and a 
school band. 

Superintendents. — C. D. Griffin, 1900-05; 
W. M. Connelly, acting, 1905; D. M. Weak- 
ley, 1906 — . 

Pi-e.sidents. — Board of Control; Mrs. R. D. 
Johnston, 1899. 

PuBLicATioKS. — Board of Control, Annual re- 
ports, 1900-1916; The. Boys Banner, 1906-1916. 

References. — Board of Control, Annual re- 
ports, 1900-1915; Acts. 1898-99, pp. 158-163; 1900- 
01, p. 105; 1903, pp. 147, 306; 1907, pp. 245, 
364; 1911, pp. 483, 486; 1915, p. 158; The Boys 
Banner, 1906 to 1916; Circular letters, folders 
and information, etc. 


A high grade school for young ladies, located 
at Tuscaloosa; opened tor students, 1856; in- 
corporated, December 19, 1857. The trustees 
named in the legislative charter were Rev. 
Dr. Basil Manty, Sr., Rev. Dr. A. J. Battle, 
Rev. Dr. J; H. Foster, Ed. Prince, Jr., Dr. S. J. 
Eddins, T. A. Burgin, Dr. James Guild, Sr., 
C. A. Hester, P. H. Eddins, Leonard B. Neal, 
Washington Moody and N. L. Whitfield, all 
prominent Baptist ministers, educators and 
laymen. The school opened auspiciously un- 
der the presidency of Rev. Dr. J. S. Bacon. 
The first graduate, 1859, was Harriet A. Dun- 
lap of Pickens County. 

The central or main structure is the old 
capitol building, originally erected by the 
State at a cost of over $150,000. It is a 
beautiful example of architecture. After the 
removal of the capital to Montgomery in 1846, 
the building and grounds were turned over to 
the University of Alabama, and by that in- 
stitution leased to the trustees of the Ala- 
bama Central Female College for 99 years. 
The legislature on January 26, 1858, con- 
firmed this lease. An additional brick build- 
ing was erected in 1861 for a dormitory, 
recitation rooms and other school uses. De- 
partments of instruction in the liberal arts, 
music, drawing and painting and ornamental 
work were maintained from the beginning; 
and in recent years courses in elocution, edu- 
cation and business have been added. It has 
two literary societies — the Castalian and the 
Cornelian; and an Alumnae Association Is or- 
ganized to bring together students for mutual 
Interest and to the good of the College. 

The College was founded by leading Bap- 
tists of the Tuscaloosa Association. They 
looked to the Baptists of the State as a field 
for support and encouragement. From the 
first, the committee of education of the Ala- 
bama Baptist State Convention commended it, 
in 1859, saying: "Although not under the 
direct control of the Convention, these in- 
stitutions [this and others of like character in 
the State] have been erected and specially 
patronized by Baptists, and deserve here a 
favorable mention." In 1873 the Convention 

requested the trustees to submit an 
report of its condition. From time to time 
these reports have been made, as will appear 
from the annual Minutes of the Convention. 

With the growth of State and other educa- 
tional institutions, although the College has 
maintained a high standard, it has had many 
difficulties to encounter. On June 1, 1916, 
President B. F. Giles, who had served as presi- 
dent for 16 years, resigned, and Prof. W. D. 
Fouville was selected as his successor ir. Sep- 
tember following. Later he openec the 
school, but with local patronage only. 

Presidents. — Rev. Dr. Joel Smith Bacon, 
1856-1860; Rev. Dr. A. J. Battle, 1860; Rev. 
George Y. Browne, 1865; Rev. Dr. Charles 
Mandy; Rev, Dr. J. H. Foster; Capt. John F. 
Lanneau, 1873-1879; Mr. A. K. Yaucey, Jr.,. 
1879-1885; Prof. Sumner B. Foster and Prof. 
George W. Thomas, co-principals, 1885-1886;. 
Prof. Sumner B. Foster and Prof. Gayron G.. 
Glower, co-principals, 1886-1887; Prof. Sum- 
ner B. Foster, 1887; Prof. Carleton B. Gibson, 
1893; Dr. E. H. Murfee; Dr. Benj. F. Giles, 
1900-1916; Prof. W. D. Fouville, 1916. 

References. — Catalogues. 1874-1914; Acts, 
1857-58, pp. 99-101, 271; Cathcart, Baptist En- 
cyclopedia (1881), pp. 54-55. 

PANY. Incorporated under the general laws 
of the State, May 19, 1906; line extends from 
Jasper to Manchester; mileage operated June 
30, 1915 — main track, 6.70, side tracks, 0.36 
total, 7.06; capital stock authorized — com- 
mon, $100,000, no preferred stock; stock 
actually issued, $65,000; shares, $100; voting 
power, one vote a share; no funded debt. 
Reference. — Annual Report of Company to 
Ala. Public Service Commission, 1915. 

PANY. Organized December 11, 1903, under 
general laws; line extends from Autauga villo 
to Booth, where it connects with the Mobile 
& Ohio Railroad; mileage — main track, 8.75, 
side tracks, 0.25, total, 9; capital stock au- 
thorized — common, $100,000, no preferred 
stock; stock actually issued, $96,000; shares, 
$100, voting power, one vote a share; no 
funded debt. 

Reference. — Annual Report of Company to 
Ala. Public Service Commission, 1915. 

ALABAMA CITY. Post ofiSce and manu- 
facturing town in the central part of Etowah 
County, sec. 6, T. 12, R. 6, 21/2 miles west of 
the Coosa River, and on the Louisville & 
Nashville, Alabama Great Southern, Southern 
Railway, and Nashville, Chattanooga & St. 
Louis Railroads. It is equidistant from Gads- 
den on the east and Attalla on the west. Pop- 
ulation; 1910—4,313; 1916 — 6,000. Alti- 
tude: 500 feet. The locality was first settled 
by the Cowan, Peters, and Watters families. 
About the year 1890, Col. R. B. Kyle, T. S. 
Kyle and J. M. Elliott selected it as the site 
for a manufacturing town, and shortly after- 
ward the Dwight Cotton Mills were located 
there. It was incorporated February 16,. 



Alabama City has a three-company fire de- 
partment, waterworks with standpipe of 
2,000,000 gallons capacity, sewerage system, 
electric lights, a recreation park and lake, 
numerous churches, modern school buildings, 
a public auditorium, a Y. W. C. A., and a pub- 
lic library, known as the Howard Gardner 
Nichols Memorial Library, in honor of a 
young engineer, who lost his life in the erec- 
tion of the Dwight Mills. This was the first 
public library building erected in Alabama. 
About halfway between Alabama City aud 
Gadsden was the home of Emma Sansom, a 
young girl of heroic and devoted courage, 
whose presence of mind in directing Gen. 
Nathan Bedford Forrest to a nearby ford, 
enabled him to capture Gen. A. D. Streight, 
thus saving the Confederate stores and rail- 
road connections at Rome, Ga. 

References.— A cfs, 1890-91, pp. 816-838; Age- 
Herald, Birmingham, Ala., Oct. 10, 1915; and 
Alabama City, its location and the advantages 
it offers to workingmen (n. d.), an illustrated 

IjA railway. A public utility corporation, 
chartered for 50 years, with right of renewal, 
by act of the legislature, December 7, 1900; 
capital stock — authorized, $500,000, out- 
standing, $330,000; shares, $100; funded 
debt, $125,000; property in Alabama — rail- 
way lines, Gadsden to Alabama City, 3 miles, 
Alabama City to Attalla, 3.5 miles. Walnut 
Street line, 1.2 miles, total 7.7 miles; and 
operates under lease from the Gadsden Rail- 
way Co., branch to steel plant, 2 miles, branch 
to North Gadsden, 1.3 miles, total, 3.3 miles. 
It furnishes power for lighting, and owns a 
coal yard and an ice plant at Gadsden. On 
March 20, 1901, it purchased the property 
and franchises of the Gadsden & Attalla 
Union Railway Co., at foreclosure sale. Offi- 

References.— LocaZ Acts, 1900-1901, pp. 93- 
101; Poor's manual of public utilities, 1916, 
p. 4. 

COMPANY. See Northern Alabama Coal, 
Iron and Railway Company. 

trial corporation, incorporated April 3, 1913, 
in Delaware, as successor to the Alabama 
Consolidated Coal & Iron Co., all of whose 
property it purchased under court decree, 
April 3, 1913; capital stock, authorized and 
outstanding — $2,000,000 common, $600,000 
first preferred, $1,500,000 second preferred, 
total, $4,100,000; shares, $100; funded debt, 
$2,939,000; property owned in Alabama — 
two furnaces at Ironaton and two at Gadsden, 
with an aggregate capacity of 300,000 tons 
of iron per annum; three coal mines of total 
capacity of 750,000 tons per annum, one 
each at Brookwood, Searles, and Lewisburg; 
915 coke ovens with capacity of 340,000 tons 
per annum; 10,164 acres of ore lands in 
Etowah, Talladega, and Jefferson Counties, 
Ala and Polk County, Ga.; 36,185 acres 

coal lands in Tuscaloosa and Jefferson Coun- 
ties, Ala.; 14,577 acres timber and farm 
lands; 320 acres limestone quarry at Rock 
Springs; 8,833 acres mineral rights in Coosa 
County; branch railroad from East Birming- 
ham to its Lewisburg coal mines; offices: 

The Alabama Consolidated Coal & Iron 
Co. was organized on July 19, 1899, in New 
Jersey, with an authorized capital stock of 
$5,000,000, one-half common and one-half 
preferred. It was a consolidation of the Stan- 
dard, Clifton, Gadsden, and Gate City prop- 
erties with the Mary Pratt Furnace Co., pro- 
moted by two native Alabamians of large 
.purpose and vision, Thomas G. Bush and Fred 
M. Jackson, and certain eastern capitalists. 
The company acquired large holdings of coal 
and iron lands and rapidly assumed an influ- 
ential position among Alabama industrial 
enterprises. In 1913 its property was sold 
under decree of the courts as above, and was 
purchased by the newly organized "Alabama 

References. — Armes, Story of coal and iron 
in Alabayna (1910), pp. 473-487; Poor's manual 
of industrials, 1916, p. 16-17. 

LEGE. See Woman's College of Alabama. 

SOCIETY. A voluntary patriotic and educa- 
tional organization, formed December 8, 1905, 
during the session in Dothan of the Alabama 
Conference, Methodist Episcopal Church 
South. The objects and purposes of the so- 
ciety are the collection and preservation of 
the materials for the history of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church. Membership is active and 
honorary. Its officers are a president, an 
active vice-president, a secretary and curator, 
treasurer, and an executive committee, con- 
sisting of the four officers named. Annual 
meetings are held on the evening of the day 
preceding, and in the same city in which the 
annual conference holds its session. Its col- 
lections are deposited in the Alabama Depart- 
ment of Archives and History at Montgomery. 

The organization was due directly to the 
joint efforts of Rev. Dr. John A. Rice, the 
pastor of Court Street Methodist Church, 
Montgomery, and Dr. Thomas M. Owen, 
Director of the Alabama Department of Ar- 
chives and History. Immediately following 
the formation of the Society, an active cam- 
paign was inaugurated for the collection of 
materials, and during its existence a valuable 
lot of books, pamphlets, manuscripts and 
miscellaneous data, all bearing upon Metho- 
dist church history, have been assembled. 

Centenary of Methodism. — The centenary 
of the planting of Methodism within the limits 
of Alabama, 1808, was fittingly and appro- 
priately observed throughout the Alabama 
Conference and the North Alabama Confer- 
ence in 19 08. The exercises in the former 
were under the direction of the Alabama 
Conference Historical Society. A committee 
consisting of the following was immediately 
in charge: Dr. Thomas M. Owen, Chairman; 


Rev. J. M. Dannelly, Hon. J. A. Wilkinson, 
Rev. E. L. Crawford, Rev. Franli Seay, Judge 
Wm. H. Thomas, and Rev. Charles H. Motley, 
president of the Society. 

The centenary observance was arranged and 
organized so as to provide (1) a series of 
commemorative or anniversary exercises in 
every department of the Church, including 
the Annual Conference, the Conference Board 
of Missions, the several District Conferences, 
the educational and benevolent institutions 
under the control of the Conference, the sev- 
eral pastoral charges, the Sunday Schools and 
Ep worth Leagues in the Conference; (2) 
plans for the appropriate marking or monu- 
menting of such historic spots or places 
associated with Alabama Methodism as ought 
to be commemorated by a tablet, memorial 
stone, or otherwise; (3) the collection and 
organization of materials for the history of 
the Church and its several auxiliary bodies, 
including relics of Alabama Methodism and 
Methodists, and the actual compilation of 
histories of all Conferences, Churches, Sunday 
Schools, mission effort, etc., etc., as far as 
may be possible; and (4) the taking of free- 
will thank-offerings in behalf of Christian 
education at all of the commemorative cel- 
ebrations held in the Conference. 

As a result of the centennial effort, there 
was not only a wide-spread increase of interest 
in the history of the noble denomination dur- 
ing its one hundred years of existence in the 
State, but it also served to quicken a deeper 
and more appreciative sense of spiritual ob- 
ligation on the part of the membership. 

Annual Meetings. — Meetings of the society 
are held every year, in accordance with its 
rules. They have been well attended, and the 
annual addresses have been attractive 
features. Details of the several meetings are 
as follows: 

1905, Dec. 8. First or organization meet- 
ing; held at Dothan. 

1906, Dec. 4. Second annual meeting; held 
at Eufaula. Address by Thomas M. Owen, 
LL. D., Director of the Alabama State De- 
partment of Archives and History, Mont- 
gomery. Subject: "State supported his- 
torical work." 

1907, Dec. 3. Third annual meeting; held 
at Enterprise. Address by Judge Wm. H. 
Thomas, Montgomery. Subject: "Some 
educational history of Alabama Methodism." 

1908, Dec. 8. Fourth annual meeting; 
held in Greensboro. Address by Rev. Dr. J. 
M. Mason, then of Eufaula, but now deceased. 
Subject: "Centennial address on Methodist 
history in Alabama." 

1909, Dec. 7. Fifth annual meeting; held 
at Opelika. Address by Rev. Dr. A. J. Lamar, 
of Nashville, Tenn. Subject: "Methodist ex- 
tension in Alabama, with special reference to 
Montgomery and Mobile." 

Publications. — Handbook, 1910; Circulars, 
Nos. 1-4; Thomas, Judge Wm. H., Some educa- 
tional history of Alabama Methodism (1908); 
Owen, Dr. Thorns M., Methodist churches of 
Montgomery (1908); Seay, Rev. Frank, Meth- 
odist Churches of Mobile (1908); Greensboro 
District, Centennial memorial (1908); Dent, 

Capt. S. H., History of the M. E. Church, South, 
in Eufaula (1908); Carmichael, Judge J. M., 
History of the Methodist Church iri Dale 
County (1908); Pickett, Mrs. A. H., Methodist 
Church of Union Springs (1908); Hamer, Rev. 
Noel R., Methodism, centennial sermon (1908); 
Court Street Epworth League, Program and 
observance of the 100th anniversary of the 
Methodist Episcopal Church in Alabama 

References. — Alabama Conference, Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, South, Minutes of the 
annual sessions, 1905-1917; and Publications, 


See Methodist Episcopal Church South. 


Cotton Manufacturing. 

ALABAMA DAY. A special day unofficially 
observed by schools, women's clubs, and pa- 
triotic societies on December 14, commemora- 
tive of the day on which Alabama was for- 
mally admitted into the Federal Union. The 
honor of first suggesting the celebration an- 
nually, to be known as Alabama Day, is due 
Mrs. William E. Sorsby, nee Idyl King, of 
Birmingham. At the meeting of the Alabama 
Federation of Women's Clubs in Selma, May, 
1898, Mrs. Sorsby called attention to this 
anniversary, and urged its recognition gener- 
ally. The Pierian Club at East Lake (now a 
part of Birmingham) had been organized 
through the efforts of Mrs. Sorsby on Decem- 
ber 14, 1897. Following the Selma conven- 
tion, arrangements were made for exercises 
on December 14, 1899, under the auspices of 
the history department of the Birmingham 
Woman's Club, of which department Mrs. 
Sorsby was director. From that date in 1899 
to the present time, under her direction, Ala- 
bama Day has been celebrated in Birmingham. 
At her suggestion the Alabama Educational 
Association, June 18, 1903, unanimously 
adopted Alabama Day for observance in the 
schools, and on December 14, 1903, exercises 
were held very generally throughout the 
State. A program and selections, the joint 
work of the association, the education depart- 
ment and the archives ;ind history depart- 
ment, was printed and circulated in aid of 
the movement. The celebration of this anni- 
versary is believed to encourage interest in 
the history of the State, and to stimulate to 
higher patriotic ideals. This date is the day 
fixed by the Alabama Society of New York 
City for its annual meetings. 

References. — Alabama Day Program, 1903; 
Trans. Ala. Hist. Society, 1899-1903, vol. 4, pp. 
613-619; Birmingham Ledger, Nov. 18, Dec. 9, 


the earliest educational institutions for 
women organized in the State. It was located 
at Tuscaloosa, and was opened in the fall of 
1830, as the Tuscaloosa Female Academy. 
The next year Mrs. Mary I. Kinner became 
principal, a position she held for some years. 



The legislature of 1830-31 incorporated the 
academy, exempted its property from taxa- 
tion, and authorized it to raise $50,000 hy 
lottery. In 183 3 the name was changed to 
the Alabama Female Institute; and a new 
charter was granted by the legislature, Jan- 
uary 9, 1835, with John F. Wallis, James H. 
Bearing, Peter Martin, John O. Cummins, 
William H. Williams, John J. Webster, Wiley 
J. Dearing and H. C. Kidder as trustees. A 
literary society was organized in 18 31; and In 
1832 the school had a library of 400 volumes. 
In November, 1833, with a change of name. 
Rev. Wm. H. Williams became principal. 
Courses of study were offered in English, his- 
tory, geography, philosophy, mathematics, 
cheraistry and music, and diplomas were 
awarded on the completion of the prescribed 
work. A boarding department was main- 
tained. Among other ideals the institution 
sought to develop the moral and physical, as 
well as the intellectual life of the students. 

One of the successors of Mr. Williams was 
Miss M. B. Brooks, "a woman of great ver- 
satility of talent and engaging manners," a 
native of New Hampshire and a graduate of 
Mount Holyoke. After teaching some years, 
she married Prof. S. R. Stafford, of the Uni- 
versity of Alabama. The school attained a 
high degree of excellence under her direction. 
It enjoyed the rare advantage of having the 
professors of the University as lecturers. 
Early in the beginning of the War the school 
was suspended, and was never again opened 
under Mrs. Stafford's direction. 

References.— Ca^oZoffMes, 1832, 1836, 1837, 
1838, 4 vols.; Clark, History of education in 
Alabama (1889), p. 213; Acts, 1830-31, p. 44; 
1834-35, p. 98. 


An industrial corporation, incorporated April 
15, 1908, under general laws of Alabama as 
a reorganization of the Alabama Fuel & 
Steel Co.; capital stock — authorized ?3,500,- 
000, outstanding, $3,496,300; shares, $100; 
property in Alabama — coal and iron lands in 
Jefferson, St. Clair, Shelby, Tuscaloosa, Bibb 
and DeKalb Counties; 2,500 acres brown ore 
lands, and a plant in Franklin County. Of- 
fices: Birmingham. 

References.— Poor's manual of inOustrials. 
1916, pp. 17-18. 


See Alabama Fuel and Iron Company. 


See Tennessee Coal, Iron and Railroad Com- 

TUTE. See Girls Technical Institute, Ala- 


See Syrup Manufacturing. 

ROAD COMPANY. Successor to the Ala- 
bama & Chattanooga Railroad Co.. itself a 

consolidation of the North-East & South-West 
Alabama Rail Road Co., and the Wills Valley 
Railroad Co. The charter dates from an act 
of January 18, 1877, authorizing the reorgani- 
zation of the Alabama & Chattanooga Rail- 
road Co. (whose property had been sold to 
satisfy the claims of the State of Alabama), 
under the title of the Alabama Great Southern 
Railroad Co.; mileage operated, June 30, 
1915 — main track and branches, 332.31, side 
tracks, 195.18; mileage operated in Alabama, 
main track and branches, 262.95; side tracks, 
118.52; total mileage in Alabama, 381.47; 
grand total, 527.49; capital stock, authorized 
— common, $7,830,000, all issued and out- 
standing, preferred, $3,380,350, all issued 
and outstanding, total, $11,210,350; shares, 
$50, voting power one vote a share; and 
funded debt, $8,186,600. This company is 
controlled by the Southern Railway Co., 
through ownership of 5 6 per cent of the cap- 
ital stock. — Annual Report of the Company to 
the Ala. Public Service Commission, 1915. 

Wills Valley Railroad. — The oldest of the 
constituent companies was the Wills Valley 
Railroad Co., chartered February 3, 1852, 
and which authorized Messrs. Humphrey Mc- 
Brayer, William P. Scott, Lewis Rea, Thomas 
G. A. Cox, Richard Ramsey, Charles Stowers, 
A. J. Chaney, Thomas A. Patrick, Samuel M. 
Nicholson, Obediah W. Ward, M. C. Newman, 
Alfred Collins, Charles D. George, Stephen 
McBroom, A. J. Ward, Reuben Estes, John G. 
Winston, John M. Bruce, John M. Lankford, 
Jesse G. Beeson, Joseph Davenport, Hiram 
Allen, V. C. Larmore, William O. Winston, 
Jacob Beene, B. F. Porter, John J. Hum- 
phries, George W. White, Gaines Blevlns, 
Daniel B. Buckhalter and Jacob Putnam, of 
DeKalb County, to form a company to build 
a railroad from a point on the Alabama & 
Tennessee River Railroad, at or near the farm 
of James Hampton, thence the most practi- 
cable route through the county of DeKalb to 
the Georgia line, to Intersect the Georgia & 
Tennessee Railroad at some convenient point 
in Lookout Valley; capital stock, $300,000 
in shares of $5 each, materials, labor, and 
supplies needed in the construction of a rail- 
road to be receivable in payment of stock sub- 
scriptions; but the exercise of banking powers, 
and "the issue of any description of paper 
or any evidences of debt intended as circula- 
tion," were expressly prohibited. 

The charter was amended February 2, 
1856, so as to permit the consolidation of the 
company with any other company; and by 
an act of February 6. 1858, the company was 
authorized to consolidate with, or sell its fran- 
chise and property to the North-East & South- 
West Alabama Railroad Co. No part of the 
road so chartered was built prior to the War, 
and there is nothing to show that any part 
of it was surveyed or graded. 

North-East & South-West Alabama Rail- 
road. — During the early part of 185 3, some of 
the more enterprising citizens of the western 
counties began to advocate the construction 
of a railroad through those counties to con- 
nect the Mobile & Ohio Railroad (q. v.), then 
under construction, with some road then pro- 



jected from the eastern boundary of the State 
to Knoxville, Tenn,, which connecting road 
should pass through Sumter, Greene, Tusca- 
loosa and Jefferson Counties, and thence in 
a northeasterly direction to the State line. 
During the summer, conventions, mass meet- 
ings and barbecues were held at various 
places with the object of stimulating public 
interest in the project. Meetings were held 
at Livingston, Sumter County, August 20; at 
Elyton, then the county seat of Jefferson 
County, now a part of the city of Birming- 
ham, August 24; at Sumterville, Sumter 
County, September 1; at Livingston, Septem- 
ber 15; at Tuscaloosa, September 22, attended 
by delegates from Autauga, Bibb, Marshall, 
Jefferson, Tuscaloosa, Pickens, Greene, and 
Sumter Counties, Alabama, and Lowndes and 
Noxubee Counties, Mississippi, and presided 
over by Prof. Garland of the University of 
Alabama. These conventions stimulated in- 
terest in the proposed railroad enterprises, 
and when in October stock subscriptions were 
solicited in the towns along the projected 
route, a large part of the required funds was 
obtained within a few days. 

The legislature, December 12, 1853, grant- 
ed a charter to the North-East & South-West 
Alabama Rail Road Co., which eonstituted 
James Hair, W. Waldo Shearer, Stephen M. 
Potts, Samuel M. Gowdy, Samuel L. Creswell, 
Frederick Merriweather, Alfred Battle, James 
H. Dearing, Thomas Maxwell, William S. 
Mudd, James McAdory, James Hendrix, John 
W. McRae, Thomas C. Barclay, Arthur C. 
Beard, John I. Thomason and Robert Murphy 
a company with authority to construct "a 
rail road from some point on the line between 
the States of Alabama and Mississippi, in the 
direction of Marion, Lauderdale county, Mis- 
sissippi, or the point of intersection of the 
Southern Rail Road with the Mobile and Ohio 
Rail Road; thence through the corporate lim- 
its of Livingston, Sumter county, to cross the 
Tombeckbee river at or near Bluff Port, and 
through the corporate limift of Eutaw, In 
Greene county, the corporate limits of the city 
of Tuscaloosa, and the town of Elyton, in 
Jefferson county; and thence in a northeast- 
erly direction to connect with some one or 
more of the rail roads leading to Knoxville, 
in the State of Tennessee, or as near the 
points and course here designated as is con- 
sistent with the general route here indicated: 
Provided, That the route of the said road 
shall not extend to the south or east of the 
Coosa river;" capital stock, $7,000,000 in 
shares of $100 each, to be increased to 
$8,000,000 if necessary. 

At a meeting of stockholders in Eutaw, 
January 18, 1854, an agreement between the 
company and E. R. Sanford, chief engineer, 
was approved. Upon the suggestion of Dr. 
Landon C. Garland, the stockholders resolved, 
"That this company will neither hazard its 
credit nor put its enterprise in jeopardy by 
beginning the construction of the Road be- 
fore they have secured the means to secure 
its prosecution to a successful issue and the 
ground of such assurance shall not be less 
than subscriptions in work adequate to grade 

and prepare the road for the rails its entire 
length, including its connections, and also 
subscriptions in money to the amount of 
$500,000 — for the erection of the iron works; 
and that until these conditions are complied 
with the directory shall have no power to 
call in any part of the stock save for the 
purpose of completing the necessary surveys 
and paying the officers and agents of the 
company." In the meantime, misunderstand- 
ing had arisen amongst the subscribers to 
the stock regarding the relative value of cash 
and labor contributions to the capital stock, 
and to settle the controversy, the directors 
appealed to the legislature to pass a law 
upon the subject. An amendment to the 
charter was passed at the same session, Feb- 
ruary 17, 1854, which conferred upon the 
board of directors the power to equalize the 
cash and labor subscriptions by any necessary 

Consolidation of the North-East and South- 
west and the Wills Valley Railroads. — The 
grading of the North-East & South-West Ala- 
bama Railroad was done by slave labor, con- 
tributed in lieu of cash subscriptions to the 
capital stock, by the planters and wealthy 
citizens along the route. On February 6, 
1858, an act was passed by the legislature 
to authorize the consolidation of this company 
with the Wills Valley Railroad Co., but the 
merger was not effected before 1861. A con- 
siderable portion of the roadbed had been 
made ready for the superstructure before war 
began, but practically all work on the con- 
struction of the road was then given over in 
favor of more pressing duties on the planta- 
tions and in the army. At the close of the 
War the grading which had been done prior 
to its outbreak had so deteriorated as to be 
virtually useless. The North-East & South- 
West Alabama Railroad really existed only on 
paper, and the Wills Valley Railroad had 
never had any other sort of existence. 

In 1865 the owners of the franchises 
applied to the legislature for authority to sell 
their holdings. Permission was given by act 
of December 9. 

Soon after the War agitation was begun 
anew for State aid to railroad building, and 
in 1867 the legislature passed an act "To 
establish a system of internal improvement in 
the State of Alabama." The act provided 
that the governor should endorse on behalf 
of the State at the rate of $12,000 per mile 
the first mortgage bonds of any railroad com- 
pany which should complete and equip 20 
continuous miles of road, and so on for each 
block of 20 miles completed, provided that no 
bonds so endorsed should be sold for less than 
90 cents on the dollar. 

In 1867 or 1868 possession of the fran- 
chises of the Wills Valley Railroad Co. and 
of the franchises and property of the North- 
East and South-West Alabama Railroad Co., 
was obtained by capitalists headed by John 
C. Stanton, of Boston, who obtained from the 
legislature an act increasing the charter 
rights of the former company to cover the 
construction of a line to Elyton. and to 
permit the consolidation of the Wills Valley 


with any other company. Another act of the 
same legislature amended the internal im- 
provement law so as to reduce the mileage 
requirement from 20 to 5. At the next ses- 
sion another amendment increased the rate 
of endorsement to $16,000 a mile, and made 
the lines of Alabama companies in other 
States eligible to endorsement. An act of 
October 6, 1868, authorized the consolidation 
of the above-mentioned companies as the Ala- 
bama & Chattanooga Railroad Co. Subse- 
quent acts amending details of the charters 
of one or both of these companies were passed 
November 17 and 28, 1868. An act of Feb- 
ruary 11, 1870, authorized the loan of 
$2,000,000 in State bonds to the Alabama 
& Chattanooga Railroad Co. The road 
defaulted in interest on its bonds in January, 
1871. Upon recommendation of the governor, 
acts were passed, February 25 and March 8, 
1871, authorizing the payment of interest 
on $400,000 of the bonds from the State 
treasury. The governor borrowed $545,000 
tor the purpose. The acts referred to em- 
powered the governor to proceed against the 
road to recover the amount of the interest 
paid by the State. In July, 1871, John H. 
Gindrat was commissioned to seize the entire 
road, which had not been operated for two 
weeks previous. 

State Control. — The seizure did not meet 
with the approval of all parties in the 
State. Many opposed it on the score that 
the State would thereby admit its liability 
on the bonds. Some advocated repudiation 
of the entire amount of bonds authorized by 
the "reconstruction legislatures," upon the 
ground that they had been fraudulently is- 
sued, and did not constitute an honest obliga- 
tion of the people of the State. However, 
regardless of the question of the legality of 
the bonds, the State was admitted to have ac- 
knowledged its obligation by the seizure of 
the road. 

The total valuation of the road within the 
State, with its rolling stock and other equip- 
ment, as fixed by the state board of equaliza- 
tion, was $2,366,040. The message of Gov. 
Smith to the legislature, with which the 
auditor's report was submitted, stated that 
he had endorsed the road's bonds for 250 
miles at $16,000 per mile, $4,000,000, and 
that he had also delivered the $2,000,000 in 
bonds loaned by the State. 

The original State-aid law required that 
a company which received the endorsement of 
the State should deposit with the State comp- 
troller, "at least fifteen days before the inter- 
est on such bonds became due," an amount 
sufficient to pay the interest, including ex- 
change and necessary commissions, or "sat- 
isfactory evidence that such interest had been 
paid or provided for." In January, 1871, de- 
fault was made in the payment of the semi- 
annual interest due at that time. The gov- 
ernor promptly announced his intention to 
protect the credit of the State, the decision 
meeting popular approval. 

On February 24 the house passed the first 
of a series of acts on the subject, which 
directed the governor to investigate the 

validity of the bonds, and authorized him to 
pay the interest on those found to have been 
held by bona fide innocent purchasers on Jan- 
uary 1, 1871. In March, Gov. Lindsay went 
to New York to conduct the investigation and 
to arrange for funds to make interest pay- 
ments. Upon his return he reported that he 
had agreed to pay the interest on the first 
four thousand of the endorsed bonds and the 
two thousand State bonds, all others being 
rejected as fraudulent. 

About this time it was given out by the 
Stantons that, "on account of annual expenses 
in dressing up the track," the company would 
issue bonds for the next year's interest 
charges instead of paying them in cash. 
Shortly after this information was vouchsafed 
the public. Col. W. A. C. Jones, of Sumter 
County, a creditor of the road for $16,000, 
petitioned the United States District Court at 
Montgomery to declare the company an in- 
voluntary bankrupt; and before the news of 
the pending proceedings had reached the pub- 
lic, Judge Richard Busteed had issued the 
decree, appointed receivers, and placed the 
road in the hands of the United States mar- 

At this time the Indebtedness of the com- 
pany aggregated $13,528,720; its estimated 
annual interest charges, $1,190,417. The 
actual cost of the road could not be ascer- 
tained, but it was believed to have been con- 
siderably less than its bonded indebtedness. 

On June 18, Gov. Lindsay made another 
visit to New York, to protect the interests of 
the State and to arrange for funds with which 
to pay the second instalment of interest on 
the Alabama & Chattanooga bonds, due July 
1. Upon his return to Montgomery, he com- 
missioned John H. Gindrat, his secretary, to 
take charge of the road and its property, and 
act as receiver for the benefit of the State. 
In the meantime. Gov. R. B. Bullock, of 
Georgia, had seized the portion of the road 
within that State, and advertised that on and 
after July 1, the interest due on that day on 
the bonds of the company endorsed by the 
State of Georgia, would be paid by the State. 

In Mississippi the employees of the com- 
pany had seized the road and rolling stock 
in the State to satisfy their claims for wages 
long in arrears, and it was necessary to insti- 
tute suits for possession of those portions 
of the road in Tennessee, Georgia and Mis- 
sissippi. The desired permission was readily 
granted by Tennessee and Mississippi, but 
Gov. Bullock refused to yield and also refused 
to cooperate with Alabama in carrying on the 
business of the road. 

Practically all the rolling stock had been 
collected in Chattanooga before Col. Gindrat 
demanded possession of the road and every 
possible obstacle and hindrance was placed 
in the way of the execution of his commis- 

About the first of November J. C. Stanton 
was indicted in the city court of Montgomery 
for obtaining money from the State under 
false pretenses, but the indictment contained 
no specifications. Gov. Lindsay issued a requi- 
sition upon the governor of Tennessee for 



Stanton and sent special officers to find and 
arrest him. He was brought to Montgomery, 
arraigned and released under a bail bond o{ 

The management of the road while in pos- 
session of the State's agents was not cred- 
itable to their ability nor satisfactory to Dem- 
ocrats or Radicals. Trains were not run with 
any semblance of regularity, and the road 
and equipment were allowed to deteriorate 
almost to the point of worthlessness. 

From September, 1871, when a decree of 
bankruptcy was issued, the affairs of the road 
were in litigation, and on April 22, 1872. at 
Montgomery, its property was sold at auction, 
subject to prior liens of the United States, 
and of the States of Georgia and Alabama. 
The State of Alabama bought it in for $312,- 
000. In May, 1872, the road was placed in 
charge of receivers for the first-mortgage 
bondholders, who put it in condition for 
operation between Chattanooga and Mer- 

By an act approved December 21, 1872, the 
legislature authorized the governor to trans- 
fer to purchasers from the State, all prop- 
erty and franchises of the Alabama & Chat- 
tanooga Railroad Co., which were sold on 
April 22, 1872, under order of United States 
District Court for the middle district of Ala- 
bama, and bought for the State at that sale. 
This act did not cover the transfer of the 
company's lands, telegraph lines, etc., which 
had not been included in the bankrupt sale. 

On February 3, Gov. Lewis sent a special 
message to the legislature with which he sub- 
mitted for approval a provisional contract 
for the sale of the road, lands, equipment, 
telegraph line, and other appurtenances, to 
Mr. George Ingraham, president of the New 
Orleans & Northeastern Railroad Co. for the 
sum of $4,000,995, of which $235,000 was to 
be paid in cash, and the remainder by as- 
sumption of the bonds and interest on which 
the State was then obligated; also of the 
amount paid out by the State on receiver's 
certificates while in possession of the road; 
and in further consideration of an agreement 
upon the part of the purchaser to indemnify 
the State against the lien of the State of 
Georgia upon the road. Purchase of the 
lands belonging to the company was provided 
for in consideration of the assumption of 
bonds numbers 1 to 1,500 inclusive of the 
$2,000,000 State bonds loaned to the Ala- 
bama & Chattanooga Railroad. The sale was 
to be made subject to the liens of the State 
on the road and the lands. On the same day 
a joint resolution was adopted authorizing 
the governor to borrow money to pay the bal- 
ance due on the purchase of the road at 
bankrupt sale. 

On the 18th, a joint resolution was adopted 
to appoint a joint committee of six members, 
three from each house, to inquire into the 
condition of the Alabama & Chattanooga 
Railroad Co. 

The contract between Gov. Lewis and 
George Ingraham, president of the New Or- 
leans & Northeastern Railroad Co., for the 

sale of the Alabama & Chattanooga Railroad, 
was approved by act of April 14, 1873. 

Reoraranization. — On August 24, 1874, the 
Federal Court again took charge of the road 
and placed it in the hands of trustees for the 
first-mortgage bondholders. It was again 
sold at auction on January 22, 1877, and 
purchased by the agent of Erlanger & Co., 
of London, representing the holders of 
$3,300,000 bonds. The property was con- 
trolled by the English syndicate, known as 
the Alabama Great Southern Railway Co., 
Ltd., through its American subsidiary com- 
pany, the Alabama Great Southern Railroad 
Co., until February 1, 1906. 

During the time the English corporation 
controlled its affairs, the Alabama Great 
Southern Railroad Co. acquired the Gadsden 
& Attalla Railroad, by the purchase of its 
entire stock and bonds on April 22, 1892, 
but it was sold again to the Southern Rail- 
way Co. in 1905, part of the consideration 
being that the Alabama Great Southern 
should forever have the right to use the 
property jointly with the Southern Railway. 

On April 30, 1902, a controlling interest in 
the Alabama Great Southern Railway Co., 
Ltd., was purchased by the East Tennessee, 
Virginia & Georgia Railway Co. (q. v.) and 
the Richmond & Danville Railroad Co.; and 
when the Southern Railway Co. was organ- 
ized to take over the property of the East 
Tennessee, Virginia &. Georgia in 1894, it 
acquired this controlling interest in the Ala- 
bama Great Southern Railway Co., and now 
owns an equal interest in the succeeding com- 
pany, the Alabama Great Southern Rail- 
road Co. 

In 1915 the Alabama Great Southern Rail- 
road Co. was interested in other active trans- 
portation companies, as follows: the Belt 
Railway Co. of Chattanooga, sole owner; 
Woodstock & Blocton Railway Co., 50 per 
cent; Meridian Terminal Co., 20 per cent; 
Birmingham Terminal Co., 16 2/3 per cent; 
Chattanooga Station Co., 25 per cent. The 
company also owns $833,300 of the capital 
stock of the Southwestern Construction Co., 
which is the controlling company of the Cin- 
cinnati, New Orleans & Texas Pacific Railway 
Co. An extension is projected from Wau- 
hatchie, Tenn., to a connection with the 
Southern Railway Co.'s. Lookout Mountain 
line, 2.97 miles. 

References.— 4 c<s, 1851-52, p. 178; 1853-54, 
pp. 270, 405; 1855-56, p. 323; 1857-58, p. 168; 
1865-66, p. 146; 1866-67, p. 686; 1868, pp. 5, 17, 
198, 207, 345, 354; 1869-70, p. 89; 1872-73, pp. 52, 
534; Alabama Senate and House of Representa- 
tives, Journals, 1868, 1869-70, 1870-71, 1871-72, 
1872-73, 1873, 1874-75, 1875-76; State Auditor, 
Annual Reports, 1869, 1870, 1871, 1872; Gov. 
Wm. H. Smith, Messages. Nov. 15, 1869. Jan. 10, 
1870. Nov. 21, 1870; Gov. Robert B. Lindsay, Nov. 
29, 1870, Nov. 21, 1871; Gov. David P. Lewis, 
Nov. 17 and 26, 1873, Nov., 1874; John H. 
Gindrat, Report to the Governor, 1871; Far- 
rand and Thorn, Railroad Commissioners, Re- 
port to the Governor, 1871; Lehman, Durr Co., 
Report to the Governor, 1871; Special Senate 
Committee, Report on the management of the 



Alabama & Chattanooga Railroad, 1872 ; Special 
House Committee to Investigate Railroad Mat- 
ters, Report, 1872; Wm. H. Moore, Commis- 
sioner, Report, 1873; James L. Tait, Receiver 
of Lands, of the Alabama and Chattanooga R. R., 
Report to the Governor, 1873; Report on the 
Ku Klux Conspiracy (H. Doc. serial No. 1529, 
42d Cong., 2d sess.), "Report of the Commit- 
tee," pp. 169-178; Ihid, "Alabama Testimony," 
vol. 1, pp. 193-199, 218, vol. 2, pp. 1057-1058; 
Alabama v. Btirr, 115 U. S. Reports, pp. 413-429; 
American Annual Cyclopedia, 1870, vol. 10, pp. 
9-10; 1871, vol. 11, pp. 7-8; 1872, vol. 12, pp. 8-9; 
1872, vol. 13, pp. 17-19; 1874, vol. 14, pp. 17-18; 
vol. 15, pp. 15-18; Poor's manual of railroads; 
Railroad Commission of Ala., Annual Reports, 
1889 et seq.; Clark, "Railroads and navigation," 
in Memorial Record of Alabama (1893), vol. 1, 
p. 323; Jefferson County and Birmingham 
(1877), pp. 123-130; Martin, "Internal improve- 
ments in Alabama," in Johns Hopkins Universi- 
ty, Studies in historical and political science 
(1902), pp. 72-87; Fleming, Civil War and Re- 
construction in Alabama (1905), pp. 586-600; 
Armes, Story of coal and iron in Alabama 
(1910); Hilary Herbert, editor, Why the Solid 
South? (1890), pp. 51-53; Ala. Great Southern 
Ry. Co., The hill country of Alabama, U. S. A., 
or the Land of Rest (London, 1878) ; Sumter 
County Whig, Livingston, Ala., Jan. 25, 1854; 
Independent Monitor, Tuscaloosa, Ala., 1868- 
1871; Southern Argus, Selma, Ala., 1867-1875; 
Laws, Abstract, etc., relating to the lands owned 
by the Alabama State Land Co. (1899) ; Peti- 
tion of the Alabama State Land Company to the 
Governor and Legislature of Alabama, with 
Governor's deed to Swann and Billups, Trus- 
tees. — Exhibit C, Deed No. 1 from Swann and 
Billups, Trustees to the Alabama State Land 
Company and Deed No. 2 from same to the 
same. (Senate Bill, No. 196, 1911.) 

voluntary patriotic and educational organiza- 
tion, founded on July 8, 1850, in the city 
of Tuscaloosa. Dr. Basil Manly, then presi- 
dent of the University of Alabama, prepared 
the constitution and was largely instrumental 
in bringing about organization. As declared 
in its constitution, 

"The object of the society is to discover, 
procure, and preserve, and diffuse whatever 
may relate to the natural, civil, literary, and 
ecclesiastical history of the State of Alabama, 
and of the States in connection with her." 

As further indicative of the plans and scope 
of the society the following extract from the 
executive committee report of 1851 is given: 
"The plan of our operations is one of vast 
magnitude and the materials to be collected 
of almost endless variety. No one department 
of human research confines our system. It 
covers every subject of the natural history 
of the State in the animal, vegetable, and 
mineral kingdoms. It spreads its wide em- 
brace to receive the record of every Important 
event, either past, or now transpiring, in our 
civil, religious, social, and individual his- 
tory," etc. 

References. — Owen, "Bibliography of Ala- 
bama," in American Historical Assdciation, 
Report, 1897; and Publications, supra. 

ALABAMA INDIANS. See Indians in 


view of the fact that practically every phase 
of the subject, "Alabama in the European 
or World War" has been treated under par- 
ticular topical phases, it has not been deemed 
wise to give other than the following refer- 
ences in this book: Adjutant General, Ala- 
bama National Guard Brigade, Auxiliary Re- 
mount Depot No. 312, Aviation Repair Depot, 
Camp McClellan, Camp McClellan Library, 
Camp Sheridan, Council of Defense, Fort Mor- 
gan. Fourth Alabama Infantry Regiment, 
167th Infantry, Fourth Alabama State-wide 
Welcome Home Committee, Knights of Co- 
lumbus, Jewish Welfare Board, 116th Field 
Artillery, 117th Field Artillery, Red Cross, 
Students Army Training Corps, Taylor Field, 
War Camp Community Service, Y. M. C. A., 
and Y. W. C. A., Girls* Patriotic League, and 
Motor Corps, Montgomery. 

dustrial corporation, incorporated August 6, 
1908, in New York, as the Alabama Marble 
Co. of New York; capital stock authorized, 
$1,000,000 cumulative preferred, $2,000,000 
common, total, $3,000,000; outstanding, 
$948,400 preferred, $1,300,000 common, 
total, $2,248,400; shares, $100; no funded 
debt; property owned in Alabama — quarry 
and finishing plant at Gantts Quarry, Tal- 
ladega County, with a present capacity of 
100,000 cubic feet of finished marble per 
annum, to be increased to 1,000,000 cubic 
feet; oflSces: Gantts Quarry, Ala., and New 
York, N. Y. 

References. — Poor's manual of industrials, 
1916, p. 2789. 


See Memorial Commission, Alabama. 

PANY. See Atlantic Coast Line Railroad 


private school for the education of boys and 
young men, located at Tuskegee. It was 
originally founded in 1857, by Prof. James 
F. Park, and for twenty-five years it was 
known as Park High School. It trained many 
young men, who later became prominent in 
all walks of life. In 1883 Prof. Park retired, 
and disposed of the school property to Prof. 
W. D. Fonville. On February 18, 1891, it 
was incorporated as the Alabama Military In- 
stitute, with power to confer degrees. For 
many years it maintained a high standard, 
but in 1900 the buildings were destroyed by 
fire. Prof. Fonville did not reopen the 
school, but removed to Mexico, Missouri, 
where he opened a school of the same general 

References.— A e^s, 1900-01, p. 1354; Cata- 
logue, 1891-92. 



■were called into Federal Service by the order 
of President Woodrow Wilson on the 18th day 
of June. 1916. and mobolized at Vandiver 
Park, Montgomery, Ala. 

The 1st Alabama Infantry under the com- 
mand of Col. F. M. Maddox, the 2nd Alabama 
Infantry under the command of Col. Allen H. 
Crenshaw, and the 4th Alabama Infantry 
(q. V.) under the command of Col. E. H. 
Graves were sent in August to Nogales, Ariz., 
and remained at that place until the 22nd 
of March, 1917, when they returned to Mont- 

The Alabama Brigade was drafted into 
Federal service on the 5th day of August, 
1917, and with the exception of the 4th Ala- 
bama Infantry (q. v.) which became the 
167th Infantry, Rainbow Division, were in 
September ordered to Camp Wheeler, Macon, 
Ga.. where they became a part of the Dixie 

The Dixie Division was trained at Camp 
"Wheeler and many of the Alabamiaus who 
served in this command were transferred to 
overseas organizations, and had been in 
France many months before the 31st Division 
arrived in the latter part of October, 1918. 

For further reference see sketches of the 
Adjutant General of Alabama, 116th and 
117th Field Artilleries, and 4th Alabama 
Infantry Regiment. 

PANY. See Atlanta, Birmingham and At- 
lantic Railroad Company. 


A high class educational institution, the agri- 
cultural and mechanical college of the State, 
and one of the so-called Land Grant Colleges, 
established by an act of Congress known as 
the Morrill Act, approved July 2. 1862, which 
donated lands to the several States "for the 
endowment, support and maintenance of at 
least one college, where the leading object 
shall be. without excluding other scientific 
and classical studies, and including Military 
Tactics, to teach such branches of learning 
as are related to Agriculture and the 
Mechanic Arts ... in order to promote the 
liberal and practical education of the in- 
dustrial classes in the several pursuits and 
professions of life." 

On December 31, 1868, Alabama accepted 
this donation, and appointed a commission 
to sell the land script received from the 
United States and invest the proceeds. 
After a delay of over three years, the sale 
was completed and the investment was made 
by the purchase of Alabama State bonds to 
the amount of two hundred and fifty-two 
thousand dollars. This investment consti- 
tuted the original endowment fund of the 

The East Alabama Male College (q. v.) 
having been offered by the Alabama Con- 
ference of the Methodist Episcopal Church. 
South, the legislature, by an act approved 
February 26, 1872, accepted the offer and 
located the new Agricultural and Mechanical 
College at Auburn. 

The Agricultural and Mechanical College 
was organized March 22, 1872, by the elec- 
tion of a faculty consisting of the same fac- 
ulty of the old college, two new professors, 
and a commandant. By this action of the 
Board of Trustees of the A. and M. College, 
there was no interruption of college exer- 
cises. It was provided that these exercises 
should continiie through the summer and that 
the session should close and the commence- 
ment exercises occur October 30. It was fur- 
ther provided that the senior class of the 
East Alabama College should graduate in 
June and the Alumni of that College should 
be recognized as Alumni of the Agricultural 
and Mechanical College. 

At a meeting of the Board of Trustees held 
in Montgomery in November, 1872, there was 
a partial reorganization of the faculty, a re- 
arrangement of the course of study, and the 
establishment of the present college session. 
As a result of this dction, -the first college 
commencement proper of the Agricultural and 
Mechanical College was held July 20, 1873. 

At first there was much prejudice against 
the new education, so called, and much ad- 
verse criticism of its aims and methods. Yet 
under the wise and conservative administra- 
tion of its first president, Dr. I. T. Tichenor, 
the College made substantial advancement 
along the line of work indicated by the act 
of Congress establishing it. Four courses of 
study leading to a degree were established, 
as follows: agriculture, science, engineering, 
and literature. Notwithstanding the embar- 
rassment and difficulties incident to inade- 
quate resources, and a new departure in edu- 
cation, the College made substantial prog- 
ress in its development and popular favor. 
Some of the graduates of that period have 
achieved distinguished success in technical 
and scientific pursuits and professions. 

The second period, from 1882 to 1892, 
may be called the era of growth and develop- 
ment. The State extended its first aid to 
the College by an act approved February 28, 
1883, appropriating $30,000, which was ex- 
pended in the improvement of the main build- 
ing, the erection of Langdon Hall, the pur- 
chase of the experiment farm, enlarging the 
library, and the purchase of apparatus and 
equipment. At the same session of the legis- 
lature an act was passed appropriating 
one-third of the net proceeds of the tax on 
fertilizers to establish and maintain an experi- 
ment station and a State Chemical Depart- 
ment. This law provided that the Professor 
of Chemistry sl-ould be the State Chemist. 

During the session of 1884-85. a second 
appropriation of $12,500 was made by the 
legislature to establish a department of 
mechanic arts. In June, 1885, an instructor 
was appointed for this department, and a shop 
for instruction in woodwork was equipped. 
At the opening of the following session, 
a course in manual training was inaugurated, 
which has developed into a complete course 
in mechanical engineering. 

The main building, with all its contents, 
was burned June 24, 1887. This seeming 



disaster proved a blessing in disguise. For, 
with the insurance and a liberal appropria- 
tion of $50,009 made by the legislature, the 
present main building and the large and well 
equipped chemical laboratory were erected. 
By act of Congress approved March 2, 1887, 
Known as the Hatch Act, an appropriation 
of $15,000 per annum was made to estab-' 
lish and maintain an agricultural experiment 
station in connection with each of the land 
grant colleges. Under the provisions of this 
act, the experiment station was reorganized 
and the scope of its work much enlarged, 
and the facilities for instruction and investi- 
gation in scientific agriculture were greatly 
increased. The administration of Dr. Wil- 
liam LeRoy Broun began with this period. 
The college became a distinctive school of 
applied science or a polytechnic institute. 
The course of study was reorganized. Ancient 
and modern languages were made optional 
studies in all the courses except the general 
course. From the latter course Greek was 
eliminated and French and German were 
substituted. Thereafter but one degree, 
bachelor of science, was conferred on grad- 

During this period the facilities for instruc- 
tion in mechanic arts were increased by the 
erection of a separate building for forge and 
foundry work, the addition of an annex to, 
Langdon Hall for a machine shop, and the 
complete equipment of these shops. Nine 
new laboratories were established, and lab- 
oratory instruction became an important fea- 
ture in the courses of education provided 
for the students of the college. 

In 1890, the department of biology was 
added, and in all lines of scientific work 
there was a marked development and ad- 
vancement. In 1892, the act known as the 
second Morrill Act was passed by the United 
States Congress, appropriating $15,000 per 
annum for the further endowment of land 
grant colleges. But this appropriation was 
divided between the negro and white races 
in the same ratio as the number of children 
of each race of school age. The Alabama 
Polytechnic Institute receives B6% ef this 

None of the funds derived from Congres- 
sional appropriation can be used for build- 
ing, repairs or improvements. The State 
had furnished up to 1906, only $50,000 
toward the erection of the present college 
buildings, then valued at over $100,000. 

Between 18 92 and 1906, there were es- 
tablished the departments of mechanical en- 
gineering, electrical engineering, mining engi- 
neering, veterinary science, pharmacy, and 
horticulture, and a full professor placed in 
charge of each. An annex to the chemical 
laboratory was built to house the departments 
of pharmacy and the mechanical engineering 
laboratory. Much other enlargement was 
done in the veterinary department, and the 
shops and boiler houses. A gymnasium was 
erected and equipped. 

By an act of the legislature, approved 
January 27, 1899, the name of the College 

was changed to the Alabama Polytechnic In- 
stitute. This change was justified by the 
fact stated in the act, that "The College has 
developed as originally designed into an in- 
stitution where are taught, not only the 
branches that relate to agriculture and the 
mechanic arts, but also the sciences and arts 
in general that relate to the industrial de- 
velopment of modern civilization." 

The work of the Institute is now, to a 
great measure, devoted to the study of the 
natural sciences and their application to 
practical life. This scientific and practical 
education is based upon a sound and thorough 
education in history, languages, and mathe- 
matics. The proportion of these two elements 
in education has been the constant study of 
the institution since its foundation. 

The instruction offered is arranged as fol- 
lows: (1) College of engineering, mines and 
architecture, (2) College of agricultural sci- 
ences, (3) Academic departments, (4) Col- 
lege of veterinary medicine, (5) Department 
of pharmacy, (6) School of agricultural edu- 
cation. Students in the different divisions 
of the college receive instruction in other de- 
partments as shown in the courses of study 
prescribed tor degrees. 

I. The College of engineering, mines, and 
architecture, includes the following depart- 
ments: (1) Civil engineering, (2) Electrical 
engineering, (3) Mechanical engineering, (4) 
Mining engineering, (5) Chemical engineer- 
ing, (6) Chemistry and metallurgy, (7) Arch-, 
itecture, (8) Architectural engineering, (9) 
Mechanical drawing and machine design, (10) 
Manual training. 

II. The work of the Agricultural College 
is divided into the following groups: (1) 
Agronomy (field crops, cottoa, corn, etc.), 
(2) Animal husbandry, (3) Horticulture, (4) 
Veterinary science, (5) Botany, (6) Entomol- 
ogy, (7) Agricultural chemistry, (8) Plant 

III. A degree course is offered in the 
following subjects: Education, political econ- 
omy, English, history and Latin, modern lan- 
guages, mathematics, physics, military science 
and tactics. 

IV. The College of Veterinary Medicine 
comprises the following departments: Vet- 
erinary medicine, physiology, surgery, anat- 
omy, therapeutics, pathology, histology, bac- 
teriology, obstetrics, infectious diseases, meat 
inspection, milk inspection, and an.mal par- 

V. The Department of Pharmacy offers 
three degree courses as follows: four-year 
course (B. S.); three-year course (Ph. C); 
two-year course (Ph. G.). 

VI. The School of Agricultural Educa- 
tion offers courses which lead to the degree, 
Bachelor of Science in Agricultural Education. 

The requirements for admission are that 
all applicants must present testimonials of 
good character, must be 15 years of age, and 
for admission in full standing to the Fresh- 
man class, must have 14 units. Special or 
irregular students have courses as prescribed 
by the Institute, when they can pass the r&- 


quired examination for admission. Women 
are admitted on the same footing with men. 

Laboratory work is given in the following 
departments: 1. Civil engineering, field work, 
surveying, etc.; 2. Electrical engineering, tel- 
ephone engineering; 3. Mechanical engineer- 
ing; 4. Mechanic arts; 5. Mining engineering, 
mineralogy; 6. Ore dressing; 7. Architecture, 
architectural engineering; 8. Technical draw- 
ing, machine design; 9. Chemistry, metallurgy; 
10. Agronomy; 11. Botany; 12. Pharmacy, 
pharmaceutical chemistry; 13. Horticulture; 
14. Entomology, zoology; 15. Animal hus- 
bandry; 16. History, Latin; 17. Physics. 
18. Military tactics; 19. Veterinary science, 
bacteriology, physiology; 20. Wireless teleg- 
raphy; 21. Auto mechanics. 

The Alabama experiment station, cooper- 
ating with the U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture, is located at Auburn, and is the 
means through which the research and exten- 
sion work of the Institute is conducted. The 
director of the Station is a professor of agri- 
culture in the Institute, and the president 
of the Institute is the general head of the 
Experiment Station. 
Pi-esidents. — 

1872-82—1. T. Tichenor, D. D. 

1883-4 — David F. Boyd. 

1884-1902 — William LeRoy Broun, M. A., 
Ph. D. 

1902-20 — Charles Coleman Thach, M. A., 
LL. D. 

1919-20 — Bennett B. Ross, M. S., Ph. D. 
(Acting president). 

1920-21 — Spright Dowell, M. A., LL. D. 
(Acting president). 

1921- Spright Dowell, M. A., LL. D. 

During the summer of 1919, on account of 
the illness of Dr. Thach, Dr. B. B. Ross, 
State chemist, and head of the agricultural 
chemical department since 1893, was named 
as acting president, and at the meeting of 
the board of trustees in June, 1920, Spright 
Dowell, Superintendent of Education, was 
named president. He was formally inaugu- 
rated February 22, 1921. 

The present buildings of the Institute are: 
Main, Langdon Hall, Power house and shops, 
Broun Engineering Hall, Chemical laboratory. 
Pharmacy building. Smith Hall, Carnegie 
Library, Agricultural building, and Alumni 
Gymnasium, presented to the Institute by 
the Alumni and dedicated February 22, 1916. 

During the past year it has been necessary 
on account of the large increase of students 
to convert the R. O. T. C. barracks into liv- 
ing quarters for the students. This has in 
a measure helped to solve the housing ques- 
tion of the Institute. 

Pi-esidents of Board of Ti-ustees, 1872- 
1920, with Period of Service. — 

1872-4 — William H. Barnes. 

1874-8 — Gov. George S. Houston, Ex-officio. 

1878-82 — Gov. Rufus W. Cobb, Ex-offieio. 

1882-6 — Gov. E. A. O'Neal, Ex-officio. 

1886-90 — Gov. Thomas Seay, Ex-officio. 

1890-4 — Gov. Thomas G. Jones, Ex-officio. 

1894-6 — Gov. William C. Oates, Ex-officio. 

1896-1900 — Gov. Joseph F. Johnston, Ex- 

1900-02 — Gov. William J. Samford, Ex- 

1902-06 — Gov. William D. Jelks, Ex-of- 

1906-11 — Gov. Braxton Bragg Comer, Ex- 

1911-15 — Gov. Emmet O'Neal, Ex-officio. 

1915-19 — Gov. Charles Henderson, Ex-of- 

1919 Got. Thomas E. Kilby, Ex-of- 

Slenibers of Boai-d of Trustees, 1872-1920, 
with Periotl of Sei-A'ice. — 

John W. Abercrombie, Ex-officio as Su- 
perintendent of Education, 1899 to 1902; 
also 1920 . 

H. Clay Armstrong, Ex-officio as Super- 
intendent of Education, 1880 to 1884; also 
as regular appointee, 1891-9; also December 
1, 1900, to death, December 17, 1900. 

1907-15 — R. B. Barnes. 

1872-87 — William H. Barnes. 

1907-19 — A. W. Bell. 

1877-9— T. B. Bethea. 

1897-1911 — Tancred Betts. 

1875-7 — B. S. Bibb. 

1893-1907— J. A. Bilbro. 

1881-93 — John W. Bishop. 

1876-80 — Leroy F. Box, Ex-officio as Su- 
perintendent of Education. 

1890-91— T. G. Bush. 

1900-07 — J. M. Carmichael. 

1881-8- H. D. Clayton. 

1893-9—1. F. Culver. 

1892-1911 — William C. Davis. 

1903-19 — N. D. Denson. 

1872-81 — W. C. Dowdell. 

1920 — Spright Dowell, Ex-officio as Su- 
perintendent of Education. 

1893-9— R. H. Duggar. 

1913-18 — W. F. Feagin, Ex-officio as Su- 
perintendent of Education; also as regular 
appointee, 1907-23. 

1907-15 — J. S. Frazer. 

1897-1907— T. H. Frazer. 

1885-1900— J. G. Gilchrist. 

1906-11 — Harry C. Gunnels, Ex-officio as 
Superintendent of Education. 

19 27 — Paul S. Haley, term expires. 

1875-1907 — Jonathan Haralson. 

1879-85— J. W. Hardy. 

1889-97— C. C. Harris. 

1890-94 — J. G. Harris, Ex-officio as Super- 
intendent of Education. 

1915-31 — Harry Herzfeld. 

1902-06 — Isaac W. Hill, Ex-officio as Su- 
perintendent of Education. 

1915-31 — Oliver R. Hood. 

1887-93, 1911 R. F. Kolb. 

1872-90 — C. C. Langdon. 

1875-81 — L. W. Lawler. 

1879-95— R. F. Ligon. 

1900-11 — R. F. Ligon, Jr. 

1891-3— C. H. Lindsay. 

1872-88— J. N. Malone. 

1907-15— H. L. Martin. 

1915-27— C. S. McDowGll. 

1874-76 — John M. McKleroy, Ex-officio as 


Superintendent of Education. 

1919-31—11. D. Merrill. 

1881-9— J. B. Mitchell. 

1875-9 — E. H. Moren. 

1899-1900 — F. M. Moseley. 

1915-27— W. H. Gates. 

1872-5— T. D. Osborne. 

1884-90 — Solomon Palmer, Ex-officio as 
Superintendent of Education. 

1900-02 — I. F. Purser. 

1899-1900— N. P. Reufro. 

1893-7— J. C. Rich. 

1911-23 — John A. Rogers. 

1902-07, 1915-27 — T. D. Samford. 

1872-5 — J. B. Scott. 

1911-23— C. M. Sherrod. 

1893-7 — William Smaw. 

1872-93 — M. L. Stansel. 

1889-1927— W. K. Terry. 

1894-1898— J. O. Turner, Ex-offlcio as Su- 
perintendent of Education. 

1911-13 — H. J. Willingham, Ex-officio as 
Superintendent of Education. 

References. — Catalogs of the Institute; Bul- 
letins; Circulars; Quarterly Institute Bulletin, 
vol. 1, no. 2, September, 1906, Alabama Poly- 
technic Institute. 1872-1906; Manuscript data 
in Alabama Department of Archives and His- 

LIBRARY. See Polytechnic Institute, Ala- 

utility corporation, incorporated under gen- 
eral laws of Alabama, December 4, 1906; de- 
velops and sells hydroelectric power and 
light; capital stock authorized — $40,000,000 
common, and $10,000,000 preferred, out- 
standing May 1, 1916, $18,751,000 common; 
all stock, except directors' qualifying shares, 
owned by the Alabama Traction, Light & 
Power Co. (Ltd.); value of each share $100; 
funded debt outstanding, $4,000,000; office: 
Birmingham. The company owns by merger 
or purchase the property of the Alabama Elec- 
tric Co.; Wetumpka Power Co.; Alabama 
Power & Electric Co.; Alabama Power De- 
velopment Co.; Anniston Electric & Gag Co.; 
Huntsville Railway, Light & Power Co.; De- 
catur Light, Power & Fuel Co.; Etowah 
Light & Power Co.; Leeds Light & Power Co.; 
Little River Power Co.; Lincoln Light & 
Power Co.; Alabama Power & Light Co.; 
and Pell City Light Power Co. 

The promoters of the organization of the 
Alabama Power Co. were for the most part 
citizens of Gadsden, Ala., who were interested 
primarily in the development of water power 
at the supposed Government navigation dama 
on the Coosa River. Several years passed 
before sufficient capital could be enlisted to 
undertake any construction work. Local 
capital was not equal to the task and north- 
ern capitalists looked askance on the scheme 
because of the large investments required 
and the great risk involved. Finally foreign 
capital was secured, and the construction of 
plants for developing hydroelectric power 
was started. A dam and power plant were 

erected at Lock No. 12 on the Coosa River, 
having a possible capacity of about 100,000 
horsepower. The plant has been in opera- 
tion for two or three years, and electric 
power from it is distributed to numerous 
towns and industries in northeastern Ala- 
bama. In addition to this plant, the com- 
pany owns the following water-power sites 
and power plants in Alabama: Coosa River — 
Lock No. 7, 45,000 horsepower; Lock No. 14, 
100,000; Lock No. 15, 80,000; Lock No. 18, 
100,000; Tallapoosa River — Cherokee Bluffs, 
115,000 horsepower; Tennessee River — Mus- 
cle Shoals, 400,000 horsepower; Sautty Creek, 
6.000 horsepower; Town Creek, 7,000; Little 
River, 52,000; and Choccolocco Creek, 2,000 
horsepower. Of these, only the plant at 
Jackson Shoals, on Choccolocco Creek is in 
operation. The company has a supple- 
mentary steam plant at Gadsden for the pro- 
duction of electricity. From the plants now 
in operation the company transmits, by means 
of its system of 67 5 miles of steel-tower 
transmission lines, electric power for light- 
ing and industrial purposes to Anniston, 
Attalla, Talladega, Huntsville, Decatur, and 
New Decatur, besides several smaller places. 
Moreover, it supplies electric power for the 
street railways in Anniston and Huntsville, 
and does all the gas business in Anniston, 
Decatur, and New Decatur (Albany). It also 
furnishes under contract all the electric cur- 
rent used by the Birmingham Railway, Light 
and Power Co. in Greater Birmingham and 
Bessemer, and by the public service com- 
panies in Gadsden, Tuscaloosa, and Alex- 
ander City. In addition to the foregoing, it 
serves a number of large industrial power 
consumers. Altogether the population of the 
territory served by this company, directly or 
indirectly, probably exceeds 325,000 persons. 
References. — Poor's manual of puilic util- 
ities, 1916, p. 825; Alabama Traction, Light 
& Power Co., Ltd., Report of ivork in progress 
(Feb., 1913); Memorandum relating to water 
power developments of Alabama Power Co., 
(n. d.) ; Yeto message relating to the building of 
a dam across the Coosa River, Ala. (in S. Doc. 
No. 949, 62d Cong. 2d sess.) ; The water poiver 
bill, speech of Hon. Oscar W. Underwood, in the 
U. S. House of Representatives, July 18, 1914; 
Leon W. Friedman, in Birmingham News Maga- 
zine Section, Aug. 2, 1914. 

ALABAMA RIVER. One of the two main 

streams of the Alabama-Tombigbee drainage 
basin, which converges into Mobile Bay. The 
Alabama is 315 1,4 miles long; from 400 to 
700 feet wide; and has a minimum depth at 
extreme low water of 2 feet. It is formed 
by the junction of the Coosa (q. v.) and the 
Tallapoosa (q. v.), 22% miles above Mont- 
gomery, and flows southwestwardly to its 
confluence with the Tombigbee (q. v.), 45 
miles north of Mobile Bay, to form the Mobile 
River (q. v.). 

The river is wholly within the Alabama 
Coastal Plain, and there are no falls nor 
rapids on its course; neither is there an exces- 
sive current at any of the sand bars and 
shoals. This is due to the slight fall of the 



Both the Spanish breech-block and the French cannon are in the museum of the Alabama 
State Department of Archives and History 



river, which averages, above Montgomery, 
slightly over 5 % inches per mile, and below 
Montgomery, 4 inches per mile. The follow- 
ing counties are traversed by or contiguous 
to the river: Elmore, Montgomery, Autauga, 
Lowndes, Dallas, Wilcox, Monroe. Clarke, and 
Baldwin, though Elmore, Montgomery, and 
Baldwin border on the river only tor very 
short distances. 

The Alabama River has always been 
navigable for boats of light draft throughout 
its entire length, but navigation for larger 
boats has been obstructed by sunken logs, 
snags, and gravel shoals. Over many of 
these obstructions the maximum depth of 
water at low stages of the river was, before 
improvement, less than 2 feet. The actual 
head of navigation is Wetumpka, on the 
Coosa River, though boats seldom go above 
Montgomery, and frequently, even now, 
navigation above Selma, especially by night, 
is retarded by low water on the shoals and 

The original project for the improvement 
of the Alabama was adopted by the Govern- 
ment in 1878. It provided for securing a 
channel 4 feet deep and 200 feet wide during 
low water by snagging and dredging opera- 
tions, the construction of jetties to control 
the channel, and cutting overhanging trees. 
A total of $185,000 was spent, with marked 
improvement in the condition of the channel. 
A low-water depth of 4 % to 5 feet was se- 
cured. In 1891 the plan was altered so as 
to provide for a low-water channel 6 feet 
deep, at an estimated cost of $386,251. How- 
ever, the annual appropriations were small 
and the existing condition of the channel was 
not maintained. In the summer of 1906, the 
maximum draft that could be carried to Mont- 
gomery was about 3% feet. The total 
amount spent under these projects, both for 
new work and maintenance, was $419,445.69. 
In 1905 the present project was adopted. It 
calls for the securing by open channel work 
and the maintenance of a channel 4 feet deep 
at extreme low water and 200 feet wide be- 
tween Wetumpka and the mouth of the 
Alabama, at an estimated original cost of 
$650,000 and $50,000 a year for maintenance. 
Up to June 30, 1915. there had been spent 
under this project. $403,590.44 for improve- 
ment, and $375,559.83 for maintenance. The 
aggregate expenditure by the Government 
upon the Alabama River up to the date men- 
tioned was thus $1,198,595.96. As a result, 
the river is navigable from its mouth to Mont- 
gomery during the entire year for boats of 4 
feet draft except at times of unusually low 

From the earliest period of discovery this 
stream has played an interesting part in the 
history of the Gulf region. It has been the 
scene of Indian. Spanish. French, English 
and American exploits, and has given the 
name to the State whose territory it drains. 
See Pickett's "Alabama," Monette's "Valley 
of the Mississippi." Hamilton's "Colonial Mo- 
bile," and "Transactions of the Alabama His- 
torical Society," for many details. 

Appropiiation.s. — The dates, amounts, and 
the aggregate of appropriations by the Fed- 
eral Government for improvement of this 
stream, as compiled to March 4. 1915, in Ap- 
propriations for Rivers and Harbors (House 
Doc. 1491. 63d Cong., 3d sess., 1916), are. 
shown in the appended table: 

June 18, 1878 ..$ 25,000.00 

Mar. 3, 1879 30,000.00 

June 14, 1880 25,000.00 

Mar. 3, 1881 20,000.00 

Aug. 2, 1882 20.000.00 

July 5, 1884 10,000.00 

Aug. 5, 1886 15,000.00 

Aug. 11. 1888 20,000.00 

Sept. 19, 1890 20,000.00 

July 13, 1892 70,000.00 

Aug. 18, 1894 50,000.00 

June 3, 1896 40,000.00 

Mar. 3, 1899 50,000.00 

June 13, 1902 20,000.00 

June 13, 1902 (allotment).... 4,000.00 

Mar. 3, 1905 100,000.00 

Mar. 2, 1907 200,000.00 

Mar. 3, 1909 (allotment) 110,000.00 

June 25, 1910 85,000.00 

Feb. 27, 1911 75,000.00 

July 25, 1912 75,000.00 

Mar. 4, 1913 100,000.00 

Oct. 2, 1914 50,000.00 

Mar. 4, 1915 75,000.00 

$ 1,289,000.00 
From the nature of the river bed and the 
topography of the country through which It 
flows, the question of water power does not 
enter into the problem of improving the 
Alabama River. 

References. — U. S. Chief of Engineers, Xn- 
niial report. 1876, App. I, pp. 14-23: 1896, App. 
0, pp. 1396-1407; 1906, App. Q, pp. 349-350, 1259- 
1261; 1909, App. Q, pp. 404-406, 1401-1403; 1915, 
pp. 743-746; U. S. Chief of Engineers, Report on 
examination of Alabama River betwren Mont- 
gomery and Selma (H. Doc. 1115, 62d. Cong., 3d 

CITY. A voluntary social and patriotic 
organization, formed "to conserve interest 
and pride in Alabama history, to celebrate 
the anniversaries of important events in the 
State, and to cultivate social and friendly 
relations among the members of the associa- 
tion." It was founded in 1906. It has three 
classes of membership — regular, associate 
and honorary. "Every regular member shall 
be a male and either (a) be an Alabamian, 
by birth or descent, or (b) have lived in Ala- 
bama sufficiently long to become identified 
with the interests and traditions of that state. 
Every associate member shall be either a 
female possessing one of the foregoing quali- 
fications (a) and (b), or a person who shall 
have married one eligible to election under 
such qualifications. Honorary members shall 
be those who shall be elected as such by the 
executive council." 

Its officers are a president, vice-president, 
secretary and treasurer, "elected from and 
by the vote of the regular members in 190p 



and thereafter at the annual meetings." The 
government of the association is vested in an 
executive council of nine regular members. 
Annual meetings are held on December 14, 
the anniversary of the admission of Alabama 
Into the Union. The annual meetings usually 
combine a business session with a public re- 
ception, or other social function. Among the 
distinguished Alabamians resident in New 
York, who have served as president, are Dr. 
John A. Wyeth and Judge Henderson M. 

REVERENCES.— Constitution and by-laws (1906, 
1910); Roster of Membership (1911, 1913). 

COMPANY. See Tennessee Coal, Iron and 
Railroad Company. 

one of the more important constituent com- 
panies of the Southern Iron & Steel Co. (now 
Gulf States Steel Co.) and was organized under 
charter of the legislature of December 12, 
1898. Its capital stock was soon afterward 
acquired by the Alabama Steel & Wire Cor- 
poration of Hartford, Conn. This was the 
first company in Alabama to manufacture 
wire rods, wire fencing and wire nails. The 
name of the company was changed in 1906 
to the Southern Steel Co. A complete re- 
organization of the company was effected in 
New York in September, 1906, when the 
capital stock was increased to about $25,- 
000,000. In the reorganization, the Lacey- 
Buek Iron Co., among others was absorbed. 
In October, 190V, the Southern Steel Co. was 
placed in the hands of receivers — T. G. Bush, 
Edgar Adler, J. O. Thompson, and E. G. 
Chandler. The receivers discontinued the 
operation of all plants. A reorganization 
committee, formed by the bondholders, ar- 
ranged to refund the company's securities and 
to provide working capital. This plan took 
effect February 15, 1908. The properties of 
the old company, sold at bankrupt sale in 
1909. were bid in by the reorganization com- 
mittee. The new company, known as the 
Southern Steel Co., was incorporated under 
the laws of New Jersey. On January 31, 
1913, the property of the company was taken 
over by the Standard Steel Co., and by it 
transferred to the Gulf States Steel Co., as 
shown above. 

References.— Poor's manual of industrials, 
1916, pp. 552-555; Armes' Story of coal and iron 
in Alabama (1910), passim. 

tion, on May 1, 1913, of the Tombigbee Val- 
ley Railroad Co., organized March 1, 1904; 
the Alabama, Tennessee & Northern Railroad 
Co., organized September, 190 6; and the 
Mobile Terminal & Railway Co., organized 
September 1, 1910. The consolidated line ex- 
tends from Nannahubba to Reform, with 
trackage rights over the Southern Railway 
from Mobile to Calvert, 34 miles; mileage 
operated June 30, 1915 — main track and 
branches, 2 22, side tracks, 9.06, total 231.06; 

capital stock authorized — common, $25,000,- 
000, no preferred; actually issued, $6,198,- 
500; shares, $100; voting power, one vote a 
share; and funded debt, $4,436,087.05. — 
Annual Report of Company to Alabama Pub- 
lic Service Commission, 1915. 

The Tombigbee Valley Railroad Co. was 
the successor of the Tombigbee & Northern 
Railway Co., itself the successor of the Sea- 
board Railroad of Alabama. The latter com- 
pany was chartered under the general Haws 
of the State, January 20, 1890; and its road 
constructed from Nannahubba to Turners, 33 
miles, the following year. It went into the 
hands of a receiver, July 6, 1896, was sold 
under foreclosure May 10, 1897, and pur- 
chased for the bondholders. The receiver was 
discharged June 7, but continued for some 
time to operate the road as the agent of the 
purchasers. On January 17, 1900, the Tom- 
bigbee & Northern Railway Co. was chartered 
as the successor of the Seaboard Railroad. 
On March 5, 19 04, the company was reorgan- 
ized as the Tombigbee Valley Railroad Co. At 
the time of the reorganization the line ex- 
tended from Nannahubba to Penny Mill, 50 
miles. During 1908 and 1909 it was ex- 
tended 2 miles to Silas; and in 1912 it was 
further extended to a connection with the 
Alabama, Tennessee & Northern Railway. 
On May 1, 1913, these two companies were 
consolidated as the Alabama, Tennessee & 
Northern Railway Co. 

The old Alabama, Tennessee & Northern 
Railroad Co. was chartered as the Carrollton 
Short Line Railroad Co. in July, 1897, under 
the general laws of the State. On September 
29, 1906, the name of the company was 
changed to the Alabama, Tennesee & North- 
ern Railroad Co., which company completed 
the line between Reform and York, 75 miles, 
in December, 1910. The company was in- 
cluded in the merger of May 1, 1913, and 
became a part of the Alabama, Tennessee & 
Northern Railway Co. 

The Mobile Terminal & Railway Co. was 
incorporated under the general laws, Sep- 
tember 1, 1910, in the interest of the Tom- 
bigbee Valley, and the Alabama, Tennessee 
& Northern railroad companies. The termi- 
nal facilities for these two companies were 
constructed under the charter and it was also 
included in the merger of May 1, 1913, as 
shown above, and became a part of the pres- 
ent Alabama, Tennessee & Northern Rail- 
way Co. 

Retebences. — Poor's manual of railroads, 1905 
et seq. 


Atlanta, Birmingham and Atlantic Railroad 

CIETY. An organization of former graduates 
and students of the University of Alabama, 
with headquarters at Tuscaloosa, the 1921 
offi^cers are: President, Cecil H. '.Young, 
1902, Anniston; First Vice President, Edgar 
L. Clarkson, 1904, Tuscaloosa; Second Vice 
President, C. H. Van de Graaf, 1914, Tusca- 


loosa; Third Vice President, Mrs. Washington 
Moody, 1906, Tuscaloosa; Secretary, Tom 
Garner, 1888, Tuscaloosa; Treasurer, Shaler 
C. Houser, 1898, Tuscaloosa. 

The Society meets annually at commence- 
ment, is addressed by an orator chosen for 
that occasion, and its main object is the 
promotion of interest in, and work for the 
University of Alabama. 

Tom Garner, the secretary, is editor of 
the official publication, University of Alabama 
Alumni News. 

Refesences. — Alabama University bulletins; 
Alumni News. 

untary commercial association whose object 
was "the bringing together of the manufac- 
turers of the State, to the end that they may 
know each other better, and have an oppor- 
tunity of discussing at regular intervals mat- 
ters of interest to those engaged in the man- 
ufacture of yellow pine lumber, and thus be 
enabled to act intelligently on any questions 
affecting the industry." Membership was 
open to any yellow pine manufacturer in the 
States of Alabama or West Florida. Not- 
withstanding its very praiseworthy objects 
and fair beginning, it had only a short lived 

References. — Alabama-West Florida Lumber 
Manufacturers' Association, Constitution and 
by-laws (n. p., n. d., pp. 9) ; Manufacturers' 
Convention, Proceedings, May 5, 1899, pp. 8. 

ALBERTVILLE. Post office and incor- 
porated town in the southeastern part of 
Marshall County, on the Nashville, Chatta- 
nooga & St. Louis Ry. It is situated in T. 9, 
Mountains, 10 miles south of Guntersville. 
Altitude: 1,054 feet. Population: 1880 — 
S., R. 4, E., on the plateau of the Raccoon 
165; 1910 — 1,544. 

Banks: The Bank of Albertville; and J. 
F. Hooper, Banker. Newspaper: The Albert- 
ville Banner, W. Dem., established 1897. In- 
dustries: A ginnery, oil mill, cottonseed 
meal plant, and grist mill. 

The Seventh District Agricultural School, 
a handsome brick structure, with steam heat 
and other modern equipment, is located at 
Albertville, and it also has city public schools. 
Churches: Baptist; Presbyterian; Episco- 
pal; and Methodist. The Methodist was the 
first established, its building known as Jones 
Chapel, being erected in 1856. The church 
was organized by the missionary "circuit- 
rider," W. D. Nicholson. 

The locality was settled while the Indians 
still held the lands. Among the earliest 
settlers were Thomas Albert and his brother. 
Dr. W. T. Albert, Gran Hall, James King, 
Samuel Garard, Agrippa Scott, L. S. Emmett, 
Cicero Miller — the first merchant, and post- 
master in 1858. The log cabin in which the 
first store was opened is still standing. The 
first mayor of the town was W. M. Coleman. 
Cicero Miller, the first merchant and post- 
master, was killed in the Seven Days Battle, 
Richmond, Va., 1862; his son, E. A. Miller, 

is an educator, now in Government service at 

Albertville is surrounded by a prosperous 
agricultural country, and its merchants do a 
large business in farm products, and in im- 
plements and supplies. 

References. — Berney, Handbook (1892); 
Brewer, Alabama (1872), p. 383; Northern Ala- 
bama (1888), p. 58; Polk's Alabama gazetteer, 
1887-8, p. 69; Alabama Official and Statistical 
Register, 1915. 

ALEXANDER CITY. Post office and in- 
corporated town in the northwestern part of 
Tallapoosa County, on the Central of Georgia 
Railroad, about 17 miles northwest of Dade- 
ville, and about 25 miles southeast of Syla- 
cauga. Altitude: 747 feet. Population: 
1888—750; 1890 — 679; 1900—1,061; 1910 
— 1,710. The town was incorporated, March 
19, 1873, and the name changed from Young- 
ville to the present name. The corporate 
limits embrace "the SW. Vi of sec. 34; the 
NE. 1/4 of sec. 33; the SE. V* of sec. 28; the 
W. 1/2 of SE. 14 and S. % of SW. M of that 
sec, T. 23, R. 21." 

Its financial institutions are the Asheville 
Savings Bank (State), and the First Na- 
tional Bank. The Alexander City News, 
established in 1892, and the Alexander City 
Outlook, established in 1914, both Democratic 
weekly newspapers, are published there; and 
the town has several cotton ginneries, cotton 
warehouses, a cottonseed oil mill, a gristmill, 
a planing mill, a wagon factory, and other 

References.— A c<s, 1872-73, pp. 416-422; 
Northern Alabama (1888), p. 169; Polk's Ala- 
bama gazetteer. 1887-8, p. 70; Alabama Official 
and Statistical Register, 1915. 


Alexander City. See Cotton Manufacturing. 

ALEX.'VNDRIA. Post office and station, in 
the central part of Calhoun County, sees. 34 
and 35. T. 14, R. 7, E., on the Louisville & 
Nashville Railroad, 10 miles northwest of 
Anniston, and 25 miles southeast of Gadsden. 
It was first called Coffeeville, in honor of 
Gen. Coffee, who fought a battle with the 
Indians in 1813, 21/2 miles west of Alex- 
andria. Later it was changed to the present 
name. Altitude: 565 feet. Population: 
Alexandria Precinct, 1870 — 1,689; 1880— 
121; 1888 — 100; 1910 — 90; Alexandria Pre- 
cinct, including the town, 1910 — 2,219. 

The locality was settled about 1834, or 
earlier. Among its prominent settlers and 
citizens have been Dr. Atkinson Pelham, Dr. 
John H. Vandiver, Col. John M. Crook, S. D. 
McClelen, Elisha McClelen, Robert A. Mc- 
Millan, Daniel Crow, Jacob R. Green, Lewis 
D. Jones, Seaborn Whatley, Floyd Bush, 
Daniel Bush, Rev. J. J. D. Renfroe, and Frank 
Woodruff. "The Gallant Pelham," son of 
Dr. Pelham, was born and reared near 

References. — Brewer, Alabama (1872); 
Northern Alabama (1888), p. 112; Polk's Ala- 
bama gazetteer, 1888-9, p. 71; Alabama Official 
and Statistical Register, 1915. 


AliEXANDRIA VAIiiEY. A small, fertile 
valley, extending from a point 2 miles north 
of Alexandria for 7 miles southwestwardly to 
Martin's Crossroads, in Calhoun County. Its 
average width is about 2 miles, making its 
area between 10 and 15 square miles. Prac- 
tically the entire valley is in a high state of 

Reference. — McCalley, Valley regions of Ala- 
bama. Pt. 2, Coosa Valley (Geol. Survey of Ala., 
Special report 9, 1897), p. 23. 

ALFALFA. See Grasses and Forage. 


An industrial corporation. Incorporated June. 
1900, in Alabama; capital stock — authorized, 
$1,000,000, outstanding, $975,000; shares, 
$100; funded debt, $940,000; property in 
Alabama — lumber mills and timber lands at 
and near Foshee, and private line of railroad 
connecting them with the main plant at Cen- 
tury, Fla; offices; Century, Fla. 

This company was organized by Gen. R. A. 
Alger, of Detroit, Mich., and associates, who 
purchased the extensive tracts of Alabama 
timberlands owned by Martin H. Sullivan, of 
Pensacola, Fla., and later acquired other 
large bodies of timberlands in the State, all 
heavily forested with long-leaf yellow pine. 
The lumber mill at Century, Fla., was com- 
pleted in February, 1902, and has since been 
in continuous operation except from May 16, 
1910, to January 16, 1911, while it was being 
rebuilt after a disastrous fire. The new plant 
is modern and commodious, having a capacity 
of 150,000 feet per day of 10 hours. An 
auxiliary plant is maintained at Foshee, Ala., 
under the same management, and served by 
the company's industrial railroad, known as 
the Escambia Railway, extending from Cen- 
tury, Fla., to Fowler, Conecuh County, Ala., 
with numerous branches connecting the log- 
ging operations with the mills. In addition to 
log trains, local freight and passenger trains 
are handled on the railroad, which is equipped 
with 10 locomotives, 200 modern logging cars, 
passenger, box, and flat cars, steam shovel 
and wrecker. The company conducts well- 
stocked commissaries in connection with both 

Reference.s. — Poor's manual of industrials. 
1916, p. 2342. 

ALICEVILLE. Post office and station on 
the Alabama, Tennessee & Northern Railroad, 
in the southern part of Pickens County, 
about 12 miles south of CarroUton, in Fran- 
conia Precinct. Population; 1910 — 640. 
The town was incorporated in 1907. Its 
financial institutions are the Aliceville Bank 
& Trust Co. (State), and the Merchants & 
Farmers Bank (State). The Aliceville News, 
a Democratic weekly, established in 1910, is 
published there. 

References. — Nelson F. Smith, Pickens Coun- 
ty (1856), pp. 181-184; Alabama Official and 
Statistical Register, 1915. 

ALIENS. The status of aliens, whether 
temporary or permanent residents of Ala- 

bama, is fixed by international law, by the 
statutes of the United States, and by local 
regulations. The policy of the State from the 
very beginning has been one of extreme lib- 
erality, and the stranger has always had a 
welcome place within her gates. So far from 
having a restrictive or exclusive policy, the 
people have eagerly invited desirable visitors, 
and many agencies have been systematically 
fostered for securing immigration. The only 
exceptions to this policy existed during the 
period of sectional agitation prior to 1861, 
when public opinion protested the presence 
of abolitionists and anti-slavery agitators; 
and during the Knownothing campaigns of 
1854, 1855 and 1856. The constitution of 
1875 contains a provision which is section 
31 of the constitution of 1901, 

"That immigration shall be encouraged; 
emigration shall not be prohibited, and no 
citizen shall be exiled." 

The constitution of 1819 is silent on the 
subject of aliens. However, "the right of 
suffrage and the capacity to hold office" are 
denied them by the qualifications prescribed 
for the exercise of these privileges. Of an 
alien aspiring for public office, Judge R. C. 
Buckell, Scott v. Strobach, 49 Ala., p. 487, 

"He would not be a qualified elector. He 
would not be entitled to any of the rights and 
privileges, and not subject to many of the 
duties of citizenship. He would be incapable 
of holding, or transmitting by descent, real 
estate. He would be entitled to nothing from 
the government but personal protection, so 
long as he yielded obedience to the general 
laws for the maintenance of peace and the 
preservation of order. It would be at war 
with the spirit and theory of our institutions, 
to recognize as eligible to any public office 
one who is not a qualified voter. The right 
of suffrage and the capacity to hold office, un- 
less otherwise expressly declared, must co- 

In Alabama an alien is entitled to the pro- 
tection of his person and property; he may 
maintain an action for slander, or for the re- 
covery of property; and on the death of an 
alien who dies in the state and without heirs, 
his estate reverts to the State, but, under the 
statute, 'An alien is not entitled to a jury 
composed, in part or wholly, of aliens or 
strangers;" and until the enlargement of the 
laws of escheat by the Code of 1852, the wife 
of an alien, though herself an American citi- 
zen, was not entitled to dower in his lands. 
In Luke v. Calhoun County, 52 Ala., p. 115, 
it was held that an action would lie to recover 
the statutory penalty for the murder of a 
person though such person be an alien. In 
this case the court admirably states the re- 
ciprocal nature of protection and allegiance: 

"Aliens resident, or sojourning here, do not 
owe the full measure of allegiance exacted 
from the citizen, nor can they enjoy all the 
rights, privileges, and immunities of citizen- 
ship. Yet they owe a qualified, local, tem- 
porary allegiance. They are bound to obedi- 
ence to all general laws for the maintenance 
of peace and the preservation of order. If 



guilty of any illegal act, or involved in any 
dispute with our citizens, or with each other, 
they are amenable to the ordinary tribunals 
of the country. In return for the qualified 
allegiance demanded of them, a correspond- 
ing protection to life, liberty and property is 
extended to them." 

The absence of limitation left the law- 
makers untrammeled, but the history of the 
times reveales little record of any harsh or 
oppressive legislation seriously attempted or 
enacted. Indeed it was not until an act of 
February 25, 1875, that there was any effort 
to define by statute the precise position and 
property rights of aliens. This act is now 
section 2831 of the Code of 1917, viz.: 

"An alien, resident or nonresident, may 
take and hold property, real and personal, in 
this state, either by purchase, descent, or de- 
vise, and may dispose of, and transmit the 
same by sale, descent, or devise, as a native 

The constitution of 1875, adopted a few 
months later, contained this provision, viz.: 

"Sec. 36. Foreigners, who are, or may here- 
after become, bona fide residents of this 
state, shall enjoy the same rights in respect 
to the possession, enjoyment, and inheritance 
of property, as native born citizens;" and the 
supreme court in Nicrosi v. Phillipi, 91 
Ala. Reports, p. 307, declared that this "was a 
limitation merely on the otherwise boundless 
power of the legislature in the premises, and 
not a grant of power in any sense. It forbade 
the legislature to make any discrimination 
against resident foreigners; but it leaves the 
competency of the law-making power quite 
^mple to conferring on nonresident aliens 
the same property rights as may be enjoyed 
by such resident foreigners, or by native or 
naturalized citizens." 

The laws of tlie State governing marriage 
and divorce do not discriminate against 

There has been no alien labor legislation. 

See Corporations — Foreign Corporations; 
Immigration Commissioner. 

References. — Constitution, 1819, Art. Ill, 
sees. 3 and 4, and Art. IV, sec. 4; Constitution, 
1901, sees. 31 and 34; Code. 1907, sees. 2831, 
7281; Smith, Debates. 1861, pp. 223-227; Jink- 
im V. Noel, 3 Stewart, p. 60; Partlett v. Morris. 
9 Porter, p. 270; Smith v. Zaner. 4 Ala., p. 99; 
Congregational Church v. Morris. 8 Ala., p. 
182; Sidgreeves v. Myatt, 22 Ala., p. 617; Har- 
ley V. State, 40 Ala., p. 689; Scott v. Strohach, 
49 Ala., p. 477; Ltike v. Calhoun County, 52 
Ala., p. 115; Acklen v. Hickman, 60 Ala., p. 
568, and 63 Ala., p. 494; and Nicrosi v. Phillipi, 
91 Ala., p. 397. Foreign corporations: Code. 
1907, 2401-2412, 3638-3661; and "Constitution" 
sec. 232 in Code. 1907, vol. 3, p. 175, with cita- 

AliKEHATCHI. An Upper Creek town in 
Tallapoosa County, on Alkohatchi Creek, or 
"Alko stream," which flows into the Talla- 
poosa River from the west. It is four miles 
above Okfuski. In the British trade regula- 
tions of July 3, 17'61, this town and Okfuski 

were assigned to the traders Rae and Mack- 

References. — Georgia, Colonial Records, Tol. 
8, p. 523; Handbook of American Indians (1907), 
vol. 1, p. 44; Gatschet, in Alabama History 
Commission, Report (1901), p. 391. 

AliPHA DELTA PHL College fraternity; 
founded at Hamilton College, Clinton, N. Y., 
1832; entered the Univ. of Ala. in 1850; in 
1857 killed by antifraternity laws; and has 
not since been revived. The chapter had 52 

References. — Balrd, Manual (1915), p. 50 et 
seq.; and Semi-Centennial Catalogue (1882 and 

AL,PH.\ DELTA PI. Women's college fra- 
ternity; founded at Wesleyan College, Macon, 
Ga., May 15, 1851, as the Adelphean Society; 
and entered Alabama with Eta chapter at the 
State University in 1907. Chapters: Eta, 
1907, Univ. of Ala., withdrew in 1909, 18 
members; Kappa, March 21, 1910, Judson 
College, 56 members; and Mu, 1910, Woman's 
College of Ala., 3 2 members, driven out by 
antifraternity laws. 1913. An alumnae asso- 
ciation is maintained in Birmingham. Peri- 
odical: "The Adelphean." Colors: Pale 
blue and white. Flower: Single purple 

References. — Baird, Manual (1915), pp. 398- 

ALPHA PSI. Medical-Veterinary college 
fraternity; founded at the College of Veteri- 
nary Medicine, Ohio State University, on Jan. 
18, 1907. It entered the Ala. Pol. Inst, with 
Theta chapter, April 4, 1912; and has a total 
membership of 60. The purposes are — "To 
promote a stronger bond between the veteri- 
nary colleges of the United States and Canada, 
to create a better feeling among the students 
of all veterinary colleges, and to infuse a 
deeper interest in the study of veterinary 
science." Periodical: "Alpha Psi Quarterly." 
Colors: Dark blue and bright gold. Flower: 
Red carnation. 

References. — Baird, Manual (1915), pp. 519- 


ALPHA TAU OMEGA. College fraternity; 
founded at Richmond, Va., Sept. 11, 1865. 
"It was the first fraternity to be established 
after the Civil War and was projected as a 
national organization. The Alpha or 'Mother 
Society' was placed at the Virginia Military 
Institute at Lexington, Virginia, and the Beta 
at Washington and Lee University in the same 
town. The first twenty chapters were in the 
South. In 1881 the first northern chapter was 
chartered." — Baird. It entered Alabama with 
the institution of Alpha Epsilon chapter at 
the Ala. Pol. Inst., 1879. Chapters: Ala. 
Alpha Epsilon, 1879, Ala. Pol. Inst., 350 mem- 
bers; Ala. Beta Beta, 1885, Southern Univ., 
340; Ala. Beta Delta, 1885, Univ. of Ala., 220. 
Periodical: "The Palm." Colors: Sky blue 


and old gold. Flower: White tea rose. 
Flag: Three equal horizontal stripes of gold, 
blue and gold, respectively, and a blue field 
extending the width of the hoist and bearing 
three golden stars, the field and middle stripe 
taken together forming the letter Tau In blue. 
References. — Baird, Manual (1915), pp. 65- 
78; Claude T. Reno, Manual of the Fraternity 

ALPINE MOUNTAIN. One of the more 
prominent mountains composing the group 
called the Talladega Mountains, and a part of 
the southwestern extension of the Appa- 
lachian system. It is the highest peak of the 
group, having a maximum elevation of 1,551 
feet above sea level. It is situated in the 
central part of Talladega County, near the 
line of the Southern Railway. 

See Talladega Mountains. 

Refere.vces. — McCalley, Valley rcqions of 
Alabama, Pt. 2, Coosa Valley (Geol. Survey of 
Ala., Special report 9, 1897), pp. 19, 569-570. 

ALTITUDES. Popular term, descriptive 
of elevations, or linear height of points and 
places of the surface of the State above sea 
level. In the list which follows the lowest 
recorded points are: Nenemocsha 7 feet, 
Venetia 7 feet, Choctaw 8 feet. Mobile 8 feet. 
Magazine 8 feet. Hurricane 12 feet, Cleveland 
15 feet, and Sunflower 28 feet. The highest 
point is Pulpit Rock in Jackson County, with 
an elevation of 2,018 feet. Other striking 
elevations are: Horn Mountain 1919 feet, 
Weisner in Cherokee County 1900 feet. 
Mount Oak 1790 feet, Mount Chimney 1778 
feet, Scraper Mountain 1744 feet, Coldwater 
Peak in Calhoun County 1727 feet. Rock City 
1724 feet, Mount Brandon 1607 feet, Bald- 
rock 1601 feet. Laurel Mountain 1576 feet, 
Mount Chandler 1560 feet, Cahaba Mountain 
1551 feet, and Blue Mountain in Calhoun 
County 1500 feet. Seventy-one points are 
noted with an elevation of 1000 feet and over. 

The several elevations are determined by 
actual observations or measurements by offi- 
cial, or other competent agencies. The princi- 
pal official agencies are the U. S. Geological 
Survey, U. S. Coast and Geodetic Survey, U. 
S. Engineer Office, U. S. Department of Agri- 
culture — Bureau of Soils, and U. S. Weather 
Bureau. The Geological Survey of Alabama 
cooperated with the U. S. Geological Survey 
in the spirit leveling conducted in the State 
by the latter. Of the unofficial agencies the 
various railroads have made available to the 
Government and to the public such data as 
they had accumulated in their surveys. 

Elevations are classified as precise as pri- 
mary, according to the methods employed in 
their determination. In the lists which follow 
the results are accurate determinations by 
one or the other method. Determined points 
are indicated by what are known as bench 
marks. Such marks as are established under 
cooperation with a State are stamped with 
the State name. Bench marks are of three 
general forms: 

"First, a circular bronze or aluminum tab- 
let 3% inches in diameter and one-fourth 

inch thick, appropriately lettered, having a 
3-inch stem cemented in a drill hole, generally 
in the vertical wall of a public building, a 
bridge abutment, or other substantial masonry 
structure. The second form, employed where 
masonry or rock is not accessible, consists of 
a hollow wrought-iron post 3% inches in 
outer diameter and 4 feet in length, split at 
the bottom and expanded to 10 inches at 
base, so as to prevent both the easy sub- 
sidence of the post and the malicious pulling 
of it out of the ground. These posts are gen- 
erally sunk three feet in the ground; the iron 
is heavily coated with asphalt, and over the 
top of the post is riveted a bronze tablet sim- 
ilar to that described above. The third form 
consists of a copper bolt 1 inch In diameter 
and 4 Inches long, which is split at one end 
and expanded by driving on a brass wedge in 
a drill hole in masonry. But few bench 
marks of the third class have been used in 
these States, but their use has now been dis- 

"The numbers stamped on the bench marks 
represent the elevations to the nearest foot 
above mean sea level, as deterinined by un- 
adjusted levels in the field. The notes have 
since been subjected to changes resulting 
from the adjustments necessary to close cir- 
cuits and to reduce to mean sea level through 
connection with or readjustment of the .pre- 
cise-level net of the United States." 

List of Alabama Altitudes. 

Name. Height. 

Abbeville 499 

Abbeville Junction 378 

Abernathy 1,025 

Able 976 

Adamsville 582 

Akron 130 

Alaga 105 

Alberta 170 

Albertville 1,054 

Aldrich 428 

Alexander City 709 

Alexandria 563 

AIlsups 670 

Alpine 460 

Alpine Mountain 1,551 

Andeluvia Mountain 1,134 

Anniston 808 

Argo 801 

Arisoto 466 

Arkadelphia 398 

Arrington 95 

Ashby 440 

Ashland 1,080 

Ashville 680 

Athens 707 

Atkinson 212 

Atmore 281 

Attalla 530 

Auburn 698 

Aurora Mountain 1,404 

Avondale 618 

Bainbridge 439 

Bald Rock 1,601 

Baldwin 336 

Ball Flat 619 

Bangor 468 


Name. Height. 

Banks 599 

Barclay 514 

Barton 481 

Bass 616 

Batesville 280 

Battles 143 

Bay Mlnette 278 

Bear Creek 791 

Beasons Mill 888 

Beaver Meadow 136 

Beaverton 359 

Belle Mina 600 

Bellevue 164 

Bell Factory 703 

Benton 129 

Bergen 371 

Bessemer 512 

Big Bear River 398 

Birmingham 610 

Birmingham Junction 382 

Blackburn Mountain 1,200 

Blount Springs 426 

Blue Mountain 1,500 

Bluffton 840 

Boaz 1,071 

Bogue Chitto 142 

Boiling 307 

Boligee 114 

Bolivar 623 

Bomar 558 

Borden 827 

Boyles 584 

Bozeman 484 

Brandon 886 

Brandon, Mount 1,607 

Brewton 84 

Bridgeport 675 

Brierfleld 384 

Brock, Mount 1,053 

Brompton 704 

Broomtown 679 

Browns 171 

Brownsboro 633 

Brown's Ferry 545 

Brundidge 515 

Burkesville 143 

Burnesville ' 177 

Buzzard Rock 1,445 

Bynum 642 

Cahaba 637 

Cahaba Mountain 1,551 

Calera 502 

Calhoun 315 

Calvert 57 

Camp Hill 738 

Canoe 274 

Carbon Hill 422 

Cardiff 351 

Carlisle 1,068 

Carpenter 91 

Carson 54 

Carthage 167 

Castleberry 174 

Catherine 189 

Catoma 180 

Cedar Bluff 593 

Cedar Mountain 1,309 

Center 665 

Central 636 

Chandler, Mount 1,560 

Name. Height. 

Chapman 268 

Chastang 43 

Chavies 1,160 

Chehaw 24 4 

Cherokee 514 

Chepultepec 795 

Chickasaw 466 

Childersburg 412 

Chilton 282 

Chimney, Mount 1,778 

Choccolocco 670 

Choctaw 8 

Chulafinnee 871 

Chunchula 78 

Citronelle 331 

Clanton 571 

Clarke 496 

Clay 177 

Clayton 589 

Clement 410 

Cleveland 15 

Cliff 614 

Clio 534 

Cloughs 231 

Coalburg 418 

Coatapa 120 

Coldwater 597 

Coldwater Peak 1,727 

Collinsville 707 

Coloma 584 

Coloma Mountain 1,250 

Columbiana 532 

Columbiana Mountain 995 

Cooks Springs 640 

Cooper 455 

Coosa 592 

Coosaw Mountain 1,132 

Coosaw Mountain Tunnel 583 

Cordova 312 

Cottondale 264 

Courtland 566 

Craig 533 

Craig Mountain 1,424 

Crawford 452 

Creola 23 

Crews 335 

Cross Plains 693 

Crow Creek 604 

Cuba 210 

Cullman 801 

Cunningham 437 

Curl 160 

Curry 529 

Cusseta 717 

Dadeville 735 

Dailey 714 

Dallas Mill 665 

Darlington 680 

Davis 798 

Dawson 1,160 

De Armanville 696 

Deatsville 306 

Decatur 590 

Decatur Junction 562 

Deer Park 148 

Deer Range 259 

Delmar 881 

Delta 1,065 

Demopolis 127 

Denman Bridge 819 



Name. Height. 

Deposit 755 

Dickson 509 

Dillard 306 

Dixie 275 

Dolceta 549 

Dora 366 

Dossett 720 

Dothan 355 

Dunham 230 

Dyas 144 

East Alabama Junction 801 

East Florence 469 

Eden 540 

Edwardsville 945 

Elba 204 

Eldridge 589 

Eleanor 153 

Elmore 191 

Elyton 564 

Empire 406 

Emuckfaw 646 

Englewood 138 

Ensley 556 

Epes 140 

Equality 745 

Escatawpa 175 

Ethel 169 

Eufaula 255 

Eulaton 650 

Eureka 969 

Eutaw 216 

Evergreen 258 

Ewell 400 

Fackler 610 

Palakto 501 

Falkville 602 

Farm 623 

Farley 585 

Faunsdale 202 

Fearns 793 

Finley 775 

Fltzpatrick 262 

Flatrock 785 

Flint 570 

Flomaton 100 

Flora 530 

Florala 214 

Florence 551 

Forrest 382 

Fort Deposit 445 

Fort Mitchell 316 

Fort Payne 873 

Franklin 217 

Predonla 685 

Frog Mountain 1,230 

Fruithurst 1,076 

Fulton ■ 243 

Gadsden 553 

Gallion 185 

Garden City 489 

Gastonburg 223 

Gaylesville 587 

Georgiana 264 

Girard 263 

Glen Allen 561 

Glencoe 552 

Gold Hill 770 

Goodwater 872 

Goodwyns 195 

Gordon 160 

Name. Height. 

Graham 1,099 

Grand Bay 80 

Greenbriar 613 

Green Hill 766 

Greenpond 482 

Greensboro 220 

Greenville 423 

Greenwood 681 

Guerryton 358 

Guest 1,149 

Guin 432 

Gunter Landing 543 

Gantersville 592 

Gurley 647 

Hackneyville 708 

Haleyville 915 

Hammac 126 

Hana 565 

Hanoeville 541 

Hardwick 746 

Hardy 443 

Harpville 177 

Harrell 199 

Harris 560 

Hartselles 672 

Hatchechubbee 311 

Havs Mill 745 

Heflin 984 

Helena 430 

Henry-Ellen 653 

Hickory Flats 764 

Hicks 647 

Highland 438 

Hillman 512 

Hillsboro 601 

Hobbs Island 579 

HoUiman 927 

Hollywood 637 

Holmes Gap 915 

Hornady 209 

Horn Mountain 1,919 

Howell 580 

Hughes Siding 606 

Hull 132 

Huntsville 638 

Hurricane 12 

Hurtsboro 3'46 

Incline 537 

Indian Creek 414 

Inverness 413 

Iron City 558 

Irondale 762 

Jacksbns Gap 695 

Jacksonville 719 

Jasper 307 

Jeff 807 

Jefferson 446 

Jemison 710 

Jemison Mountain 835 

Jenifer 577 

Jenkins 790 

Johnson 650 

Jones 201 

Jonesboro 508 

Kahatchee Mountain 1,301 

Keego 80 

Keener 675 

Kelley Gap 1,317 

Kellyton 805 

Kidd Hill 1,204 


Name. Height. 

Klllen 622 

Kimbrell 491 

Kimberly 446 

Kings 364 

Kirkland 137 

Kushla 34 

Kymulga 427 

Lacon 602 

Ladiga 659 

Lafayette 843 

Lal^e Lanier 122 

Lamison 125 

Lane 954 

Lanette 694 

Larkinsville 622 

Laurel Mountain 1,576 

Lawrence 589 

Lax 650 

Lebanon 812 

Lee 108 

Leeds 624 

Leesburg 590 

Leesdale 610 

Legrande 280 

Leighton 572 

Letohatchie 298 

Lily Flagg 595 

Lim Rock 616 

Lincoln 503 

Llneville 1,007 

Linwood 357 

Littleton 615 

Llttlevllle 681 

Livingston 160 

Loachapoka 676 

Lock 491 

Locust Mountain 1,250 

Logan 139 

Lomax 623 

Longview 563 

Louina 617 

Lowndesboro 198 

Lugo 363 

Lydia 1,229 

Lynn 710 

McAdlng 697 

McCalla 487 

McDowell 93 

McPall 594 

McGehee 241 

Mcintosh 50 

Mack 609 

Mackey 576 

Madison 673 

Madison Crossroads 808 

Magazine 8 

Manack 191 

Maplesville 338 

Margerum 434 

Marion 263 

Marion Junction 204 

Massillon 177 

Matthews 262 

Maysville 688 

Maxwell 167 

Mellow Valley 826 

Mercury 760 

Midland 367 

Midway 506 

Miles 168 

Name. Height. 

Milhous 159 

Millerville 815 

Milltown 639 

Milstead .• . 205 

Milton's Bluff 537 

Minooka 565 

Mitchell 252 

Mobile 8 

Mobile (Custom House) 12 

Mobile (Bienville Square) 15 

Montevallo 418 

Montgomery 160 

Moore Hill 1,152 

Morris 413 

Morrisville 556 

Moshat 663 

Mosteller 421 

Moundville 164 

Mountainboro 1,100 

Mount Jefferson 837 

Mount Meigs 174 

Mount Vernon 49 

Munford 613 

Muscadine 945 

Mynard 1,256 

Narvo 538 

Natural Bridge 751 

Nenemoosha 7 

Neshota 22 

Newcastle 516 

New Decatur 570 

New Market 719 

New Orleans Junction 117 

New Site 856 

Newton 216 

Nicholson Gap 1,221 

Nixburg 731 

Normal 722 

Notasulga 495 

Nottingham 453 

Oakey. Mount 1,945 

Oak Grove 226 

Oak, Mount 1,790 

Oak Mountain 950 

Oak Mountain Tunnel 777 

Obars Gap 686 

Ocampo 548 

Old Davisville 724 

Oleander 1,010 

Olga 385 

Olmstead 279 

Opelika 820 

Orchard 165 

Owassa 393 

Oxanna 666 

Oxanna Junction 680 

Oxford 647 

Oxmoor 645 

Ozark 400 

Paint Rock 599 

Paint Rock Ridge 611 

Palos 334 

Parker 267 

Parkwood 562 

Pegram 415 

Pelham 440 

Pell City 567 

Perry Gap 552 

Petit Gap 1,123 

Phelan 740 



Name. Height. 

Phil Campbell 1,010 

Piedmont 7 04 

Pike Road 295 

Pinchona 209 

Pinchard 374 

Pine Hill 110 

Pinkneyville 732 

Pinson 611 

Plantersville 234 

Plateau 35 

Pleasant Gap 687 

Plevna 847 

Pochontas 450 

Pollard 73 

Powderly 516 

Powers 137 

Pratt City 533 

Prattville Junction 162 

Prides 432 

Pulpit Rock ' .' 2,018 

Rabbittown Gap 899 

Ramer 500 

Randolph 541 

Ray burn 617 

Reads Mill 540 

Red Oak Church 1,202 

Reese 589 

Reids 593 

Reinlap 669 

Repton 379 

Republic 401 

Rileys 295 

Riverside 485 

Riverton Junction 418 

Roanoke 845 

Robinson Springs 369 

Rock City 1,724 

Rock Pile 887 

Rock Run 75 

Rockford ". 734 

Roper 793 

Ross Mountain 1,070 

Round Mountain 570 

Rowe Mountain 1,402 

Rural 310 

Russellville 742 

Safford 219 

Saint Elmo 130 

Salem ■.■.'. 685 

Sand Fort 504 

Sand Mountain 838 

Sand Mountain Gap 980 

Saragossa 538 

Saunders Mountain 1,370 

Sayreton 632 

Scottsboro 652 

Scraper Mountain 1 744 

Seale '; '357 

Searcy 457 

Seddon 502 

Selma 127 

Sewell ['/, 1,254 

Sheffield 481 

Shelby Springs 512 

Shepard Gap 1,070 

Shorters I95 

Siluria 479 

Silver Run 622 

Simmes 245 

Six Mile 333 

Name. Height. 

Slackland 605 

Slades 53 

Smallwood 420 

Smithers Mountain 1,488 

Smith's Station 519 

Snowdoun 325 

Somerville 718 

Sparta 186 

Speigner 288 

Spring Garden 695 

Spring Hill 312 

Spring Junction 558 

Spring Valley 468 

Springville 717 

Spruce Pine 1,024 

Standitord 565 

Stanton 292 

Steele 600 

Sterrett Siding 501 

Stevenson 622 

Stewart 150 

Stone Hill 1,126 

Stones 156 

Strasburg 679 

Stroud 852 

Sturdevant 502 

Suggsville 124 

Sulligent 323 

Sulphur Springs Mountain 1,036 

Summit Mountain 1,171 

Sunflower 28 

Sunny South 166 

Suspension 431 

Swanson 606 

Swearengin 1,358 

Sycamore 546 

Sylacanga 547 

Tacoa 408 

Talladega 553 

Tallossee 202 

Tannehill 475 

Tayloe 173 

Tecumseh 858 

Tennille 345 

Terrapin Hill 1,341 

Theodore 50 

Thomasville 285 

Thompson 289 

Three Notch 492 

Town Creek 545 

Townley 342 

Tredegar 612 

Trinity 632 

Troy 581 

Trussville 692 

Turkey Heaven Mountain 1,618 

Tuscaloosa 222 

Tuscumbia 480 

Tyler . 167 

Tyson 227 

Tysonville 199 

Union Springs 485 

Uniontown 284 

Valley Head 1,021 

Vance 505 

Van Dorn Ill 

Venetia 7 

Verbena 450 

Veto 154 

Vienna 590 



Name. Height. 

Village Springs 685 

Vincent 411 

Vine Hill 212 

Wadsworth 412 

Wager 36 

Waldrep 1.311 

Walker Springs 72 

Wallace 169 

Walnut Grove 862 

Warner Mountain 1,468 

Warnock Knob 1,459 

Warrior 551 

Waterloo 421 

Waverly 810 

Wawbeck 274 

Weaver 727 

Wedowee 854 

Weems 818 

■ Wehadkee 972 

Weisner 1,900 

Wellington 542 

Welshs Mill 246 

Weogufka 600 

West End 544 

Western Junction 118 

Wetumpka 177 

Wharten 569 

Whatley 118 

Wheeler 592 

Whistler 41 

White Plains 721 

Whitehall 165 

Whitney 603 

Wilhite 610 

Wilson Mountain 1,180 

Williams Crossroads 504 

Wilmer 200 

Wilsons Ridge 714 

Wilsonville 433 

Winfield 469 

Winston Gap 1,229 

Woodlawn 653 

Woods Ferry 373 

Woodstock 510 

Woodville 616 

Woodward 481 

York 150 

Youngblood 390 

Zion, Mount 804 

See Areas, State and County. 

References. — Gannett, A dictionary of alt 
tudes in the United States, 4th ed. (U. S 
Geol. Survey, Bulletin, No. 274, 1906), pp. 21 
35; Results of spirit leveling in Alabama, etc. 
1896 to 1909 (Ibid, Bulletin No. 441, 1911), pp 
7-31; Results of spirit leveling in Alabama 
1911 (Ibid, Bulletin, No. 517, 1912). 

AXTOONA. Post office and modern min- 
ing town in the southwest corner of Etowah 
County, on the Louisville & Nashville Rail- 
road, 5 miles south of Walnut Grove and 2 2 
miles west of Gadsden. Population: 1912 — 
1,071; 1916 — 2,000. The town is situated in 
a valley in the centre of the coal-mining 
country. The first mine in the locality was 
opened by the Underwood Coal Co., but is 
now operated by the Gulf States Coal Co. The 
valley also comprises rich farm lands. The 

town has cotton warehouses, and a ginnery, 
two sawmills, a gristmill, and planing mill. 
It has no indebtedness, and has never issued 
a bond. 

Reference.— Manuscript data in the Ala- 
bama Department of Archives and History. 

ALTRURIAN COLLEGE. A former private 
school for young men and women, located at 
Cullman; established by The Altrurian Order 
of Mystics, 1899; and now closed. 

Reference. — Catalogue, 1899. 

ALUM. See Copperas. 


Constitutional Amendments, the State; Con- 
stitutional Amendments, U. S. 

COMPANY. An industrial corporation, 
organized in January, 1893, in Connecticut, 
incorporated June 30, 1893, as the Agawa 
Co., and name changed to the present title, 
April 10, 1899; capital stock authorized — 
$50,000,000 preferred, 150,000,000 common, 
total, $100,000,000, outstanding, $27,558,200 
preferred, $18,430,900, total, $45,989,100; 
shares, $100; both classes of stock listed on 
New York and Boston stock exchanges; 
funded debt, $17,569,000; property in Ala- 
bama — a fertilizer plant at Montgomery; 
engages in the manufacture and sale of fer- 
tilizers, glue, gelatine, bone-black, and other 
by-products; owns and operates 55 other 
plants located in the agricultural sections 
throughout the United States, and extensive 
tracts of phosphate lands in Florida; offices- 
New York. 

References.— Poor's manual of industrials. 
1916, pp. 1416-1419. 


An industrial corporation, incorporated 
October 10, 1905, in Georgia; capital stock — 
$1,000,000 authorized, $500,000 outstanding; 
shares, $100; no funded debt; property 
owned in Alabama — real estate, plant and 
equipment at Birmingham; offices: Birming- 

References. — Poor's manual of industrials. 
1916, p. 1425. 

ALABAMA DIVISION. An association of 
planters, business men, and other interested 
parties in the raising of cotton. The Ala- 
bama Division includes a large number in 
this State. William Howard Smith, Autauga 
County, is President, with W. R. Green, Sec- 
retary. Joseph O. Thompson is general man- 
ager for the State. Headquarters are at 
Montgomery. Local chapters are scattered 
throughout the cotton raising sections of the 

Referenxes.- Mss. data in the Alabama De- 
partment of Archives and History. 

PANY OP NEW JERSEY. A public utility 
corporation, chartered in the State of New 


Jersey in November, 1901, as a holding com- 
pany to control about 100 district messenger 
companies operated in the towns and cities 
of the United States; capital stock. — author- 
ized $10,000,000, outstanding $9,965,351; 
shares, $100; funded debt $291,000. The 
company has a 25-year contract with the 
Western Union Telegraph Co. for the handling 
of the latter's messenger business, but on 
January 1, 1911, it leased the messenger 
business back to the Western Union Tele- 
graph Co. for an annual rental. Since the 
lease took effect the American District Tele- 
graph Co. has operated no property nor 
transacted any active business in the State. 
Offices — Jersey City, N. J. 

References. — Poor's manual of public utili- 
ties. 1916, pp. 16-22. 

ton. See Cotton Manufacturing. 


In July, 1881, in accordance with the re- 
quirements of the International Conference 
of Geneva in 1863, an organization was 
formed in the City of Washington, D. C, 
under the name of the American National 
Association of the Red Cross. This associa- 
tion was reincorporated in 1893, under the 
laws of the District of Columbia, and rein- 
corporated by Act of Congress, reaching its 
present form in 19 05. 

Prior to the World War, the American 
Red Cross directed its energies to disasters 
and epidemics, or to alleviate suffering wher- 
ever it was called. 

In 1916, when the great preparedness 
movement swept the country, the association 
laid plans for active war work, and Red Cross 
chapters sprang up everywhere. Alabama 
was one of the first in the matter of organi- 
zation, and when America entered the World 
War in 1917, it rallied in numbers to the 
call of the "Greatest Mother" and did some 
of the best work of the war. Chapters were 
organized all over the state, and men, women, 
and children gave their time, their money, 
and the labor of their hands to do their part 
in the struggle. The absolute devotion of 
Alabama women to the cause, and the high 
standards of the bandages, dressings, and hos- 
pital garments turned out were difficult to 
match anywhere. 

In the war drives tor funds, in every case, 
the state went over the top. As an example 
of their loyalty, $450,000 was the quota for 
the drive in 1918, and $1,500,000 was raised 
without difficulty. Walker County alone ex- 
ceeding its quota 1.100 per cent. From the 
Tennessee line down to the Gulf, there was 
not a community, however remote it might 
be, that did not respond to the call tor 
labor, money or membership, and when the 
Armistice was signed in 1918, nearly 150,000 
Alabamians wore the emblem of the Red 

Two big camps, Sheridan and McClellan, 
sheltered about 50,000 men. Taylor Field 
was crowded with aviators, while Wright 

Field, supposed to be devoted to repair work, 
also gave instruction to recruits. Camp serv- 
ice was given to these men and to the marines 
at Fort Morgan. This service involved the 
distribution of comfort articles, the render- 
ing of service to men in hospitals, the opera- 
tion of communication service between men 
and their families, and work of similar na- 
ture. The Cantonment Zone work in Annis- 
ton was in charge of Alabama nurses. When 
influenza broke out in the camps in 1918, a 
call for nurses and nurses' aids was sent 
out and answered by more than 5 nurses 
and 25 aids. Some went to the cantonment, 
and others did work under Red Cross chap- 
ters all over the state. 

When the movement of troops to camps and 
ports of embarkation began in 1917, it be- 
came evident that a vast opportunity for 
service had been opened to the Red Cross, 
and Canteen Service was established to meet 
these emergencies, thousands of volunteer 
workers offering full-time service. Coffee, 
cigarettes, sandwiches or meals were served 
to men en route, and those taken sick or suf- 
fering from injuries were given medical aid 
or else transferred from trains to hospitals. 

The Bureau of Motor Corps Service was 
established at National headquarters in Feb- 
ruary, 1918, but in Alabama. Motor Corps 
service was already in operation as a branch 
of the League for Woman's Service. This 
service was also rendered by full-time volun- 
teer workers; automobiles and operating ex- 
penses, except ambulances, being provided by 
the members without cost. 

An important phase of the work given by 
Alabama women was Home Service. This 
was literally service at home to the families 
of soldiers and sailors, to prevent, as far as 
possible, trouble and sorrow to the families 
of the men overseas or in camps. During the 
period of the war, thousands of difficult cases 
were handled, and much misery and privation 
was avoided. 

During the fall of 1917, the Junior first 
commenced to enroll as members, and the 
work done by them involved many kinds of 
war activities, including the production of 
relief articles, the operation of war gardens, 
the conservation of second-hand articles, and 
assistance to the Red Cross in many other 
lines of work. 

Since the adoption of the peacetime pro- 
gram of the organization, carefully planned 
to meet every social problem of communi- 
ties, Alabama has continued its activities un- 
ceasingly. There are 7 7 active chapters in 
the state; in 4 5 of these. Home Service exten- 
sion has been granted, which enables them to 
broaden the scope of their work to the homes 
of those in the community. 

There are more than a dozen Public Health 
nurses, teaching health in the public schools, 
giving instruction in nursing, and looking 
after the general health of the community. 
Two nurses are working out from the Ala- 
bama State Board of Health, making examina- 
tion of children in schools and institutions 
and doing supervisory work; and 224 Red 
Cross nurses, most of whom did war work. 



are enrolled throughout the state, doing priv- 
ate or community work. 

The enormous mortality during the flu epi- 
demic, partly caused by lack of nurses and 
doctors or ignorance of those forced to nurse 
the sick at home, showed the absolute need 
of instruction to meet such conditions. As 
a result. Red Cross classes in Home Hygiene 
and Care of the Sick have been the result in 
about a dozen communities, while plans have 
been approved to include the course in many 
High Schools in the state. 

Sixteen chapters have Disaster Relief de- 
partments, ready for instant work. This 
means that, in case of flood. Are. or other 
community trouble, the Red Cross stands 
ready to send out immediate aid, doctors, 
nurses, relief workers, tents, food, cloth- 
ing and medical supplies. Within 12 hours, a 
complete working organization hospital, food 
supply depot, and other necessities can be in 
working order. Since 1909, there have been 
disasters of peace to meet in Alabama — mine 
explosions, floods, boll weevil, tornadoes; in 
each case the Red Cross was called upon to 
minister relief. 

Junior Re<I Ci-oss. — Because the children of 
the Red Cross devoted much of their energy 
to wartime activities, such as the making of 
simple garments for the children of Europe, 
the knitting of socks and sweaters, the sell- 
ing and buying of thrift stamps, the idea be- 
came prevalent that the Junior Red Cross 
was purely a wartime organization, and im- 
mediately after the Armistice, school enroll- 
ment in Alabama fell off considerably. 
Gradually this opinion is being eradicated, 
and at present the Junior Red Cross is be- 
coming more and more known as a Service 
Organization. During 1919-20, Alabama en- 
rolled 31,635 children in 102 schools. These 
schools contributed $1,693.63 to the National 
Children's fund, a fund that makes possible 
relief and education for destitute boys and 
girls in other countries, particularly those 
devastated by war. 

The activities of the Alabama Juniors are 
many and varied. Last year, playgrounds 
were installed in seven counties. Two coun- 
ties financed hot lunches in their schools, 
while one county furnished clothes the year 
round for local poor. One splendid phase of 
Junior work that is planned for Alabama is 
the furnishing of scholarships to needy chil- 
dren who would be forced otherwise to stop 
school and go to work. 

First aid occupies an important part of 
Junior work, and classes are constantly being 
formed along the same lines laid down by 
Red Cross First Aid instructors in industrial 
life. Water First Aid particularly has* been 
stressed, and since its installation by the 
Red Cross, figures on drowning have been re- 
duced one-half. 

Up to date, the enrollment for Alabama in 
the Junior Red Cross is 37,164 children. 
The schools of Birmingham alone have con- 
tributed $1,664.82 to the National Children's 

Alabama has been one of the pioneer South- 
ern states to commence Red Cross community 

and social work. At present there are three 
community centers, with rest rooms and 
trained workers in charge; one chapter open- 
ing a recreational center for children, with a 
playground in connection, as part of its com- 
munity work. 

Important among Alabama's present peace- 
time activities is its after-war work, 75 chap- 
ters being engaged in attending to the wants 
of the ex-service men and their families. The 
Red Cross acts as a connecting link between 
the man and the Federal Board for Vocational 
Education, the Bureau of War Risk Insur- 
ance, and various other departments of the 
government, which are attending to the wants 
of the ex-service man. 

Refere.nce,s.— Statistics supplied by Ameri- 
can Red Cross, Gulf Division, New Orleans 
through letters from Mrs. A. B. Gihon, assistant 
director of publicity, in Alabama State De- 
partment of Archives and History. 

GRAPH COMPANY. A public utility cor- 
poration, incorporated February 28 1885 in 
New York; capital stock authorized, $500,- 
000,000, outstanding, $380,477,100; shares 
$100; funded debt, $120,182,700. This is 
the parent company of the "Bell System," 
which operates telephone and telegraph lines 
throughout the United States and Canada It 
controls among others, the Southern Bell 
Telephone & Telegraph Co., which in turn 
owns a large amount of the capital stock of 
the Cumberland Telephone & Telegraph Co. 
The company carries on its operations in Ala- 
bama through its subsidiaries, the Southern 
Bell Telephone & Telegraph Co., and the 
Cumberland Telephone & Telegraph Co • 
ofl^ces: New York and Boston. 

Reference.— Poor's manual of puilic utili- 
ties. 1916, p. 899. 

ance, Fraternal. 

AMPHIBIANS. Two of the three orders 
and eight of the nine families of amphibians 
are represented in Alabama. The greater 
number is found in the more temperate sec- 
tions of the south and central parts of the 
State. They are as follows: 

Bull, Rana catesbiana. 
Common, Rana clamata. 
Tree, Hyla versicolor. 
Wood, Rana sylvatica. 
Hellbender, Cnjptohranchus (menopoma) 

Congo "Snake," Amphiuma means. 
Newt, Triton viridescens. 
Spotted Salamander, Amblystoma punctatum. 
American, Bufo lentiginosus. 
Spade foot, Scaphiopus. holbrooki. 
Mud puppy, Necturus maculatus. 
Mud "Eel," Siren lacertina. 

ANATITCHAPKO. A Hillabi village on a 
northern tributary of the creek of that name 
It IS 10 miles above Hillabi town. The name 



sTefo account ofthe engagement between 
the imerfcans and the Indians here on Janu- 
^"'IvU'r^^^eI'— Handbook of the American In- 
.ia™907)!vol. 1. P. 53; Gatschet in Alabama 
History Commission, Re-port (1901), p. 39^. 

ANDALUSIA. County seat of Covington 
Count? in the central part of the county on 

"it was incorporated by the IfSi^^ ^j;;^. ''' 
1901 Churches: Baptist and Methodist^ 

I w S°m„ .stablLtad 1896. ..« The And.- 
;„,1. Standard. «-. ^.m.. •■'•'■■*",'>,5» Vn 


"iTu" ?M ~m. o< ,hl. coo»..ltr wa. 

town the permanent establishment of the 
county seat In 1878 the courthouse and all 
the county records were f f royed by fire^ A 
new building was completed In 1916. at a 
•^°lmong''the 'early settlers of this section 
wete Jeremiah Jones, W. T. Acree Lorenzo 
Idlms Alford HoUey, Ephraim LilfS/"^ 
GeorTe Snowden. In the establishment of the 
fown' a lot for a union church was set aside^ 
Tt i« Tinw the property of the Baptists, uu 
the Conecuh Rfver^ near Andalusia, there are 
several large Indian mounds^ 

REFERENCES.-Brewer, , '^''l^'""'^, <^^^^^' ^■ 
202; Northern Alabama (1H88), P- ^a^- 


hieh conical peak just west of Sycamore, in 
TaUadega county- and actually a bent-around 
Ind of the Kahalchee Mountains (q^vO from 
which it is separated by a narrow gap. The 
r»=,k is very rugged, its strata being much 
CL'and 'faulted. Limonite -curs on the 
mountain, in the top strata and in ^h^ Willis 
and ridges surrounding its base. There are 
a^so some small occurrences of scales and 
nieces of black and gray magnetic pre. 
^ REFEBENCE.-McCalley, Talley regions of Ala- 
hama Pt 2, Coosa Valley (Geol. Survey of 
Airspe«a7 report 9, 1897). pp. 20, 558. 

ANMALS. See Cruelty to Animals; Live 
Stock and Products; Mammals. 

ANNISTON. County seat of Calhoun 
County; on the main lines of the Southern 
Railway, the Seaboard Air Line Railway, and 
the Louisville & Nashville Railroad. It U 
situated in an amphitheatre of the Blue Ridga 
Mountains, in the southern part of the coun- 
try, in sees. 5 and 6, and 7 and 8. T. 16, R. 8. 
63 miles northeast of Birmingham, 148 miles 
north of Montgomery, 104 miles west of 
Atlanta and 14 2 miles south of Chattanooga, 
Tenn. Altitude: 800 feet. Average tem- 
iiprature- 80° in summer and 40 in winter. 
Population: 1880-942; 1890-V98; 1900 
—9 695; 1910—12,794; 1915—20,000. 

The town was first known as Woodstock. 
It was incorporated as Anniston in 1873, 
under the general laws, and by the legisla- 
ture, February 4, 1879. The town was cre- 
ated as a separate school district by act of 
February 3. 1883. The charter was amended 
and greatly amplified by act of February 23, 
188 9 The Woodstock company threw the 
town open to outsiders in 1883, and its 
erowth to 189 was phenomenal. The cor- 
porate limits comprise a 3-mile circle, whose 
center is at the crossing of Noble Avenue and 
17th Street. It has waterworks, built in 
1881- fire department, consisting of i sta- 
tions, each with a motor truck; privately 
owned electric light and power plant, and gas 
plant; city hall; jail; 30 miles of sanitary 
sewerage; 2 miles of bithulitic and 35 miles 
of macadamized streets; cement sidewalks; 
and 15 miles of electric street railway. 

Banks: Anniston City National; First Na- 
tional; City Bank & Trust Co. 

Newspapers: The Evening Star and Daily 
Hot Blast, d. eve. & Sun. morn., Dem.. estab- 
Ushed, Hot Blast, 1873. Star, 1896. consoli- 
dated Oct. 1912; The Pred., m.. Student, 
established November, 1914 

Industries: 7 pipe plants— one of them 
the largest in the world; 3 foundries; 1 boiler 
factory; 2 tile plants; 2 pig-iron furnaces; 1 
ammunition plant— using hydroelectric power 
to produce 6" shells for the British Govern- 
ment; 1 electric steel plant; 1 ornamental- 
iron foundry; 2 knitting mills; 7 cotton mills, 
2 wagon factories; 1 cotton gin; 1 cotton- 
seed oil mill; 1 fertilizer plant; 1 gra'n miH; 
1 gas plant; 1 electric plant; 1 ice factory, i 
lumber mills; 1 sawmill; 1 harness factory; 
several iron-ore mines; 3 cotton warehouses. 
There are two hospitals, and modern hotels. 

Schools: 6 graded public schools; county 
high school; Noble Institute for Girls; Ala- 
bama Presbyterian College; S . Michael 
Parochial School; Barber Memorial College 
for colored girls. . 

Churches: Anniston has been called the 
Brooklyn of the South." or "the City of 
Churches." In 1881 the Episcopalians estab- 
lished a mission under Rev. W Carnahan, 
and soon afterward erected a $35,000 build- 
ing They now have two churches — Grace 
Church, and St. Michael and All Angels. In 
1883, the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, 
under Rev. T. H. Davenport, established the 
First Methodist Church. Later the McCoy 
Memorial, Oxanna, St. Pauls, and Wesley 
Chapel were built. In the same year the 


irst Governor of Louisiana Province and 

founder of Fort Louis de la Mobile 


Second Governor of the Province and 

founder of the present Mobile 

Monument marking site of Fort Louis 
de la Mobile, erected at 27 Mile Bluff, Ala- 
bama River, by the people of Mobile, ded- 
icated January 23, 1902, to commemorate 
the original site founded in 1702. 

Monument marking site of French Fort 
Toulouse, on Coosa River, 4 miles south 
of Wetumpka, erected by Alabama Colonial 




Baptists built the Parker Memorial, The First 
Baptist Church, Blue Mountain, Glen Addie 
and West End churches. In 1884, the Pres- 
byterians established their first church organ- 
• ization in the town. They now have the 
First, Second, and Glen Addie Churches. 
Besides these, there are Northern Methodist, 
Congregational, Cumberland Presbyterian, 
Church of Christ, Catholic, Jewish, 7 negro 
Baptist, 8 negro Methodist, and 2 negro Pres- 
byterian Churches. Anniston has 18 small 
parks and playgrounds distributed over the 
city; Oxford Lake park; the country club 
and golf links. 

In 1862, the land on which Anniston now 
stands was owned by D. P. Gunnells of Ox- 
ford, who sold it to the Oxford Furnace Com- 
pany. In 1872, Samuel Noble and Daniel 
Tyler bought the ruins of old Oxford Fur- 
nace, and rebuilt it, and organized the Wood- 
stock Furnace Co., which was one of the few 
southern industries that survived the finan- 
cial panic of 1873. Its fires were never 
banked, and its product always found a 
market. Samuel Noble, to whom Anniston 
has erected a fitting memorial, laid out its 
broad streets, conserving the parks, provid- 
ing sewerage and waterworks, planting its 
splendid avenues of trees and making a model 
city. In 1883, the demand from outside was 
so insistent, that the manufacturing city was 
formally opened to the public. Henry W. 
Grady the gifted Georgia editor, of Atlanta, 
presided for the company. The county seat 
was removed to Anniston in 1895. 

The earliest settlers of this region were 
the Gunnells and Edmondson families. The 
most notable residents were Samuel, James, 
John and William Noble, and Daniel, Alfred 
L. and E. L. Tyler. General Daniel Tyler died 
in New York City, 1882, but his body was 
brought to Hillside Cemetery, Anniston. He 
was the grandfather of Mrs. Theodore Roose- 
velt, sr. (Edith Carew). 

References. — Acts. 1878-79, pp. 353-359; 1882- 
83, pp. 335-337, 461; 1888-89, pp. 601-624; Armes, 
Story of coal and iron in Alabama (1910), pp. 
179, 180-185, 310 et seq.; Northern Alabama 
(1888), pp. 470-477; Anniston Chamber of Com- 
merce, Folders and pamphlets. 


Commercial Education. 

LADIES. A former private institution for the 
education of young women, located at Annis- 
ton. The Southern Female University at 
Birmingham was destroyed by fire In 1892. 
Its president, Mr. Henry G. Lamar, then se- 
cured the Anniston Inn, where the school was 
reopened and its name changed to Anniston 
College for Young Ladies. A preparatory de- 
partment, as well as conservatories of music 
and art were added. It closed its doors in 
1906. Among others associated in the ad- 
ministration of the college were E. W. and 
C. Janes, Rev. Dr. A. J. Battle, Rev. Hiram 
G. Davis and Dr. Clarence J. Owens. The last 
named is at present the managing director of 
the Southern Commercial Congress. 

References. — CffiiofoffMfis 1894-1906; An- 
nouncements, etc. 




Cotton Manufacturing. 


Cotton Manufacturing. 


ANNIVERSARIES. See Special Days. 

BAMA. A scientific organization, for the pro- 
motion of the study of anthropology in its 
broadest sense, as it applies to the Alabama 
field, with general references to Gulf States 
connection therewith. Organized May 13, 
1909, 129 meetings have been held to date 
(March 1, 1921), in eight different counties 
in the State, the route of DeSoto from Chero- 
kee County through to Marengo County, has 
been mapped, nearly all of the aboriginal 
towns to which there is a historical refer- 
ence, have been geographically located, an 
archaeological survey of the State is under 
way, and thousands of objects suggestive of 
primitive culture in the State have been 
brought together. 

The Society is actively co-operative with 
the Alabama Department of Archives and His- 
tory, makes reports to the Department, from 
time to time, and the Department issues its 

The Archaeological Collections are de- 
posited in the State Museum at Montgomery 
and several individual collections are being 
now formed by its members. 


The organization of the society grew out 
of several conferences in the spring of 1909 
between Dr. Thomas M. Owen, Director of 
the Alabama State Department of Archives 
and History, Mr. Peter A. Brannon, long an 
interested student and collector, and Prof. 
Henry S. Halbert. an authority on the Ab- 
original history of the lower South. The need 
of some agency, broadly projected, through 
which students might be brought together for 
study and research, in an orderly and syste- 
matic way, seemed so urgent, that a plan 
of organization was outlined. Later confer- 
ences were held with others interested, not- 
ably those subsequently enrolled. 

A preliminary meeting for organization was 
held at the residence of Dr. Owen, No. 1, 
North Jackson street, Montgomery, May 13, 
1909. There were present Dr, Herbert B. 
Battle, Prof. Henry S. Halbert, Peter A. 
Brannon, Buckner Beasley, Edgar C. Horton 
and Dr. Owen. Although not present, four 
others, J. T. Letcher, Will T. Sheehan, J. H. 
Paterson and Sidney Shulein, having signified 
their desire for participation, were enrolled. 
Dr. Owen presided, and Mr. Brannon acted 
as secretary. 



After a full discussion, the formation of 
a society was formally agreed upon; and 
officers were elected: President. Dr. Thomas 
M. Owen; vice-president, Dr. Herbert B. Bat- 
tle; secretary, Peter A. Brannon; and treas- 
urer, Buckner Beasley. The officers were 
named as a committee to submit a constitu- 
tion and plan of work. 

At a subsequent meeting. May 27, held with 
Dr. Owen, at which the original members 
and also J. T. Letcher, were present, a con- 
stitution was adopted. The name "Alabama 
Anthropological Society" was agreed upon 
unanimously. The selection of the name, 
rather than one restricting work to narrower 
limits, indicates the feeling and aspiration 
of the members. 

The plan of organization involves monthly 
and annual meetings. The monthly meetings 
are for the presentation of papers, the discus- 
sion of topics of interest to the Society, the 
exhibition of specimens, etc, etc. At the an- 
nual meetings to be held in December each 
year, officers are to be elected, a course of 
study and work for the ensuing year adopted, 
and reports are to be made by officers and 

The executive committee consists of the four 
officers of the Society. Five standing com- 
mittees are to be appointed annually by the 
president, to consist of four members, each, 
namely. Field exploration. Collections and 
relics, Publicity, Promotion of Anthropological 
study in Alabama schools and colleges, and 

Membership is active, non-resident active, 
associate, and honorary. The sole control 
of the affairs of the Society is in the active 

The present membership is thirteen Honor- 
ary members, twelve Associate members, three 
Non-resident Active, and thirty-three Active 
members. The Active membership has always 
been limited, first to twelve residents of 
Montgomery, and by subsequent amendments 
to the Constitution, to twenty-four, and at 
present to thirty-six. Oher classes are not 

The officers elected on organization in 1909, 
were re-elected for 1910, and each succeed- 
ing year through 1915. Dr. J. Porter Bibb 
was elected treasurer to succeed Mr. Beasley, 
on the latter's removal to Honduras, on De- 
cember 22, 1915. These officers were re- 
elected each year, serving until the death 
of Dr. Thomas M. Owen, on March 25, 1920, 
when Mr. Brannon was made president, and 
Robert B. Burnham. secretary, at an election 
held on April 15, 1920. The 1920 officers 
were re-elected for 1921. 

Handbook 1910; 1920. 
Bulletins (occasional). 

Miscellaneous Papers, No. 1. Aboriginal 
Remains in the Middle Chattahooche Valley 

of Alabama and Georgia, by Peter A. Bran- 
non; No. 2 (Not yet published); No. 3. The 
route of DeSoto from Cofltachequi in Geor- 
gia to Cosa in Alabama, by D. M. Andrews. 

Arrow Points (Monthly Bulletin) Vol 1. 
July to December, 1920. Vol. 2. January 
to June, 1921. 

References. — Handbook 1910, 1920; Arrow 
Points, vols. 1 and 2, 1920, 1921; Mss. minutes 
deposited in Alabama Department Archives and 
History, and in hands of the secretary. 

APALACHEE. A native tribe of Florida, 
originally seated in the region north of the 
bay of that name, extending from Pensacola 
east to Ocilla River. They belonged to the 
great Muskhogean stock, and their language 
shows a close relationship to the Choctaw. 

They are first referred to in Cabeza de Vaca 
in 1628, when their chief town in the vicinity 
of the present Tallahassee, Fla., was visited 
by Panpilo de Narvaez. Here DeSoto later 
passed the winter of 1539-1540. Both De 
Narvaez and DeSoto found in them valiant 
fighters. In the 17th century these Indians 
were brought under Spanish domination, and, 
by means of missions established here and 
there, many became Catholics. The Apalachee 
language was deduced to writing, texts of 
which are still extant. In 1702 the Spaniards 
incited them to war against the Carolinians, 
but through the aid of the Creeks they were 
badly defeated and large numbers killed. In 
1704 they were in turn attacked by a force 
of Carolinians, and the tribe largely de- 
stroyed. Under two chiefs a band sought the 
protection of the French at Mobile, and they 
were, by Bienville, assigned lands between 
the Mobilians and the Tohomes. Here they 
remained for years, but after the treaty of 
1763 they followed the French to Louisiana. 

References. — Lowery, Spanish Explorers in 
the Southern United States (1907), pp. 28-31; 
Fairbanks, FJorifJo (1871); Gatschet, Migration 
Legend of the Creek Indians (1884), vol. 1, p. 
76; Margry, Decouvertes, vol. 5, pp. 461, 485- 
487, Ship, DeSoto and Florida (1881), pp. 306, 
308, 338-340; Desoto, Narratives (Trailmakers 
series), vol. 1, p. 47, vol. 2. pp. 7, 18; Handbook 
of American Indians (1907), vol. 1, pp. 67-68; 
American Antiquarian, 1891, vol. 13, p. 173; 
McCrady, History of South Carolina (1901), 
vol. 1, pp. 392-394; Carroll, Historical Collec- 
tions of South Carolina (1836), vol. 2, p. 348; 
Hamilton, Colonial Mobile (1910). 

Drainage Systems. 

APALATCHITKL.'V. A Lower Creek town 
in the extreme eastern section of Russell 
County, on the west bank of the Chatta- 
hoochee River and one and a half miles from 
Chiaha on the north. At one time it was 
the principal community among the Lower 
Creek scrttlements. and was called Talua 'lako, 
"large town." The name was abbreviated 
to Palatchukla, and the Chattahoochee River 
preserves the name as Apalachicola, below its 
confluence with the Flint. It was a "white" 
town, sacred to peace, and no human blood 
was supposed to be spilt there, although about 



1725 the white traders of the original town 
had been killed. One and a half miles below 
the place lay the old town which was aban-' 
doned about 1750 on account of its unhealthy 
location. When visited by Bartram in 1777 
the remains of the "terraces on which for- 
merly stood their town house or rotunda and 
square or areopagus" were plainly visible. It 
was told to him that these were the "ruins 
of an ancient Indian town and fortress." 

Bartram says the town was esteemed as 
the mother town of the Creek confederacy. 
The ancient and correct form of the name is 
Apalaxtchukla. By the French census of 
1760 the Apalatchikolis had 60 warriors and 
was reckoned 36 leagues from Port Toulouse. 

De Craney's map of 1733 placed the site 
on the east side of Flint River and it is 
thought that the people were in reality rem- 
nants of the Apalaxtchi of the Florida coast, 
who were carried, by a large war party of 
Creek headed by some whites, to South Caro- 
lina in 1707-1708, and who in 1715 at the 
outbreak of the Yamasi War, moved back to 
the Chattahoochee. 

At a council held in Savannah, Ga., July 3, 
1761, this town is reported as having 20 
hunters. It was at this time assigned to 
Macartan and Campbell, Indian traders. The 
town was located twelve miles below Coweta, 
the political capital of the nation, and just 
above Uchee, where one road from Savannah 
and Autauga crossed the Chattahoochee into 
the Creek Nation. Remains of the town still 
exist, and objects reminiscent of the white 
traders are being ploughed up from time t(» 
time. The location is on the present Ben 
Hatcher estate, and is known as Hatcher's 

References. — Gatschet, Migration Legend of 
the Creek Indians (1884), vol. 1, pp. 85-89; 
Ibid. "Towns and Villages of the Creek Con- 
federacy," in Alabama History Commission, 
Report (1901), p. 391; Handbook of American 
Indians (1907), vol. 1, p. 43; Dr. Wm. S. Wyman, 
"Early times in the vicinity of tlie present city 
of Montgomery," in Alabama Historical Socie- 
ty, Transactions. 1897-98, vol. 2, pp. 28-33; Haw- 
kins, Sketch of the Creek Country (1848), pp. 
122-127; Brewer, Alabama (1872), p. 447; Pick- 
ett, Alabama (Owen's ed., 1900). 

APPALACHEE RIVER. See Mobile River. 


narrow area extending from the Georgia line 
Eouthwestward along the southeastern edge 
of the mineral region, and including the 
Coosa Valley (q. v.) and its several smaller 
outlying valleys. The soils of its valleys are 
extremely fertile, and vary in their nature 
from the black prairie, or rotten limestone, 
to the light, sandy loams of the more elevated 
areas. There are several thousand acres of 
the well-known red lands similar to those of 
the Tennessee Valley. These lands probably 
are the most productive and most valuable 
embraced in the Appalachian Valley in this 
State. The region includes all or the major 
portion of Cherokee, Cleburne, Etowah, Cal- 
houn, St. Clair, Talladega and Coosa Counties. 

See Geology; Agriculture; Coosa Valley; 
Soils and Soil Surveys. 

Reference.s.— Smith, Agricultural features of 
the State (Monograph 1, 1884), passim; McCal- 
ley. Valley regions of Alabama. Pt. 2, Coosa 
Valley; (Geol. Survey of Ala., Special report 
8, 1896); Alabama's new era (Dept. of Agri- 
culture and Industries, Bulletin, 1913), pp. 26- 
27; Bailey, Cyclopedia of American agriculture 
(1909), vol. 1, pp. 56-57. 

APPEALS, COURT OF. See Court of Ap- 

APPLES. See Fruits. 

APPROPRIATIONS. Legislative authoriza- 
tions for the payment of money from the 
State treasury. Under the constitution of 
1901, section 72, "no money shall be paid out 
of the treasury except upon appropriations 
made by law, and on warrant drawn by the 
proper officer in pursuance thereof." 

Legislative Authority. — While apropria- 
tions are to be made only for official pur- 
poses, or for purposes germane to the sup- 
port or ongoing of the government, or its 
several departments, or institutions, or other 
interests, the legislature has unlimited au- 
thority to determine the extent and character 
of the appropriation of funds from the State 
treasury, or to be raised by taxation, or which 
shall otherwise come into the custody of the 
State, subject to the limitations imposed by 
the constitution. 

The following are the limitations, namely: 
(1) No standing army can be maintained 
"without the consent of the legislature, and, 
in that case, no appropriation for its support 
shall be made for a longer term than one 
year." — Sec. 27; (2) "No appropriation shall 
be made to any charitable or educational in- 
stitution not under the absolute control of 
the State, other than normal schools estab- 
lished by law for the professional training of 
teachers for the public schools of the State 
except by vote of two-thirds of all the mem- 
bers elected to each house." — Sec. 73- (3) 
"The principal of all funds arising from the 
sale or other disposition of lands or other 
property, which has been or may hereafter 
be faithfully applied to the specific object of 
by the United States for educational purposes 
shall be preserved inviolate and undimin- 
ished; and the income arising therefrom shall 
be faithfully applied to the specific object of 

the original grants or appropriations." Sec. 

25 7; (4) "AH lands or other property given 
by individuals, or appropriated by the State 
for educational purposes, and all estates of 
deceased persons who die without leaving a 
will or heir, shall be faithfully applied to the 

maintenance of the public schools." Sec 

258; (5) "A)l poll taxes collected in this 
State shall be applied to the support of the 
public schools in the respective counties where 
collected."— Sec. 259; (6) "The income aris- 
ing from the sixteenth section trust fund the 



surplus revenue fund, until it is called for by 
the United States Government, and tlie funds 
enumerated in sections 257 and 258 of this 
constitution, together with a special annual 
tax of thirty cents on each one hundred dol- 
lars of taxable property in this State, which 
the legislature shall levy, shall be applied to 
the support and maintenance of the public 
schools." — Sec, 260; (7) "Not more than four 
per cent, of all moneys raised or which may 
hereafter be appropriated for the support of 
public schools, shall be used or expended 
otherwise than for the payment of teachers em- 
ployed in such schools; provided, that the 
legislature may, by a vote or two-thirds of 
each house, suspend the operation of this sec- 
tion." — Sec. 261; and (8) "No money raised 
for the support of the public schools shall be 
appropriated to or used for the support of 
any sectarian or denominational school." — 
Sec. 263. 

General Appiopiiation BUI. — The constitu- 
tion safeguards, with much care, both appro- 
priations and disbursements or expenditures. 
The usual form of making appropriations is 
by a general appropriation bill, which is ex- 
pressly excepted from the rule that "each law 
shall contain but one subject, which shall be 
clearly expressed in its title. The scope and 
content of the general appropriation bill and 
the authorization of appropriations for spe- 
cific subjects Is clearly defined in the con- 
stitution, section 71, as follows: 

"The general appropriation bill shall em- 
brace nothing but appropriations for the ordi- 
nary expenses of the executive, legislative, 
and judicial departments of the State, for in- 
terest on the public debt, and for the public 
schools. The salary of no officer or employee 
shall be increased in such bill, nor shall any 
appropriation be made therein for any officer 
or employee unless his employment and the 
amount of his salary have already been pro- 
vided for by law. All other appropriations 
shall be made by separate bills, each embrac- 
ing but one subject." 

Governor's Veto Power. — The constitution, 
section 126, confers upon the governor the 
power of veto, which includes generally the 
right to disapprove the general appropriation 
bill, or any bill carrying a specific appropria- 
tion. Under section 126, he is given the 
"power to approve or disapprove any item or 
items of any appropriation bill embracing dis- 
tinct items, and the part or the parts of the 
bill approved shall be the law, and the item 
or items disapproved shall be void, unless re- 
passed according to the rules and limitations 
prescribed for the passage of bills over the 
executive veto; and he shall in writing state 
specifically the item or items he disapproves, 
setting the same out in full in his message, 
but in such case the enrolled bill shall not be 
returned with the governor's objection." The 
several governors have not been slow to exer- 
cise the privilege accorded under this section, 
and many appropriations, for various reasons, 
have not consequently been made. 

Forms of Appropriations. — Appropriations 
are annual, permanent annual, or permanent 
specific. The second class is sometimes re- 

ferred to as "continuing annual" apropria- 
tions. Annual appropriations are usually car- 
ried by the general appropriation bill, while 
permanent annual appropriations are found in 
specific acts, which are usually carried into 
the codes. Appropriations for definite pur- 
poses, as for the construction of buildings, are 
classed as permanent specific appropriations, 
and they do not lapse, but are kept in open 
account by the office of the state auditor until 
fully expended. 

In appropriations made for specific periods, 
the amounts must be expended during the 
period specified. The cumulation or lapping 
of appropriations is not allowed, unless spe- 
cifically so directed by statute. There are two 
conspicuous examples of specially authorized 
cumulations in the recent legislation of the 
State. One is found in the act of April 13, 
1911, providing for the establishment of rural 
school libraries, and in which it is declared 
that "all unexpended balances on the first 
day of October each year shall be reappor- 
tioned annually among all the counties of the 
State." Another is the act of September 25, 
1915, providing for extension work in agri- 
culture and home economics, and in which it 
is declared that "any balance remaining un- 
expended on June 30 of any year shall be 
added to the amount available for the next 
ensuing year; any revenue incidentally de- 
rived from the sale of equipment or other 
articles shall be further applied to the pur- 
poses of this act." 

The determination of the extent and 
amount of appropriations by implication is 
not authorized. It has been held in two cases, 
Riggs V. Brewer, 64 Ala., p. 282, and Owen 
V. Beale, 145 Ala., p. 108, that where an ap- 
propriation exists by law for a specific object, 
and a subsequent appropriation is made, 
whether for a smaller or a larger amount 
than that originally provided, the latter act 
must govern. 

Many questions have arisen in connection 
with the making of appropriations, the forms 
of appropriation bills, and the extent and 
power of the legislature. In the case of State 
V. Street, 117 Ala., p. 203, it was held that 
sec. 32, article 4, of the constitution of 1875, 
embodied in and forming a part of sec. 71 
of the constitution of 1901, applied only to 
appropriations from the State treasury, and 
not to the appropriation of county funds. 

liCgislative Appropriations of 1915 as Illus- 
trations. — The general appropriation bill of 
1915 is given as an excellent illustration of 
the form and requirements of such a bill 
under sections 45 and 71 of the constitution. 
It sets forth in orderly detail and in a series 
of numbered paragraphs the various subjects 
to which appropriations are made. These are 
arranged or grouped under the subdivisions 
of executive, judiciary, and legislative de- 
partments, miscellaneous, and emergency. 
The first section declares the a^ppropriations 
"for the fiscal years ending respectively on 
the 30th day of September. 1916, 1917 and 
1918." All of the requirements of the three 
great departments of the State government 
are covered by the appropriations made by 



this bill, with sundry exceptions provided by 
special appropriations, either in the code of 
19 07 or to be found in the session laws sub- 
sequent to its adoption. 

The miscellaneous appropriations cover 
various items necessary to the support of the 
State government, including items common 
to, or for the use or benefit of all of the de- 
partments. They include insurance, arrest- 
ing of absconding felons, removal of prisoners, 
distributing public documents, interest on the 
Alabama Polytechnic Institute bonds, interest 
on the bonded debt of the State, office sup- 
plies, stationery and typewriters, fuel, light 
and water, repairing and refurnishing the 
capitol building and grounds, interest on the 
funds arising from the sale of lands of the 
Alabama Girls' Technical Institute, postage 
and postoffice box rent, feeding prisoners, in- 
terest on the sixteenth section fund, valueless 
sixteenth section fund, surplus revenue fund 
and the school indemnity land fund, tempo- 
rary loans of the State government, printing 
and binding, preparing acts for the pubiic 
printer, preparing and making indexes to the 
journals of the senate and house of 1915, re- 
pair and upkeep and new furnishings of the 
governor's mansion. 

To provide for the payment of all obliga- 
tions of the State not specifically enumerated 
in the act, such annual sum as may be neces- 
sary is appropriated; and wherever any office 
has been created, or whenever the salary of 
any existing officer has been increased and the 
money had not been expressly appropriated 
to pay such salary, such sum or sums as may 
be necessary are appropriated. 

Since the fiscal year ends on September 30, 
and as the last year tor the full appropriation 
period ends on September 30, 1818, imme- 
diately preceding the regular session of 1919, 
and since it is necessary to carry on the af- 
fairs of the State government pending new 
appropriations by the legislature of 1919, it is 
expressly declared that one-half of the ap- 
propriations made for the fiscal year ending 
In 1918 are declared to be in force and pay- 
able up to and including march 31, 1919. 

As illustrative of the extent and subject 
matter of appropriations which may be made 
by specific acts at a given session of the legis- 
lature, reference is made to the index entry 
"Appropriations," pp. 955-957, of the General 
Acts of that session. A careful study of these 
acts will illustrate more fully than any gen- 
eral discussion, the power of the legislature, 
and at the same time it will indicate the wide 
range of demands made upon the State 

Expenditures. — As hereinabove indicated, 
the State treasurer is not authorized to honor 
drafts made upon "the treasury except upon 
appropriations made by law, and on warrant 
drawn by the proper officer in pursuance 
thereof." — Sec. 7 2. Upon the presentation of 
a request for the issuance of a warrant, the 
state auditor, through a warrant clerk, care- 
fully scrutinizes the application, which usually 
shows on its fare the authority upon which 
based, as well as the source or fund from 
which payment should be made. Under the 

code, section 612, the account upon which the 
application is predicated "must be accurately 
and fully itemized," and accompanied by an 
affidavit of some person, stating the correct- 
ness of the claim, and that no portion of such 
account has been paid. If found correct, a 
warrant on the State treasury is issued for the 
sum requested, and the proper account 
charged with the amount thereof. 

In the event there is any doubt on the part 
of the auditor or of the warrant clerk, the 
attorney general is called upon for an opinion 
in the particular case. Upon the advice of the 
attorney general in writing, the auditor either 
honors the requisition, or declines. In the 
latter event, the procedure is by a writ of 
mandamus directed to the auditor, requiring 
him to honor the requisition. The question 
is then determined in the courts. 

Publication of Receipts and Disbursements. 
— The constitution further requires that "a 
regular statement and account of receipts and 
expenditures of all public moneys shall be 
published annually." The requirement of 
this section of the constitution is met by the 
annual reports of the State auditor, and the 
State treasurer. In the former is to be found 
not only a detailed statement of all receipts 
into the State treasury through taxation and 
other sources, but also all disbursements 
whatsoever for the fiscal year. As illustrative 
of the details which appear in the report, 
reference is made to the itemized statement 
of the governor's contingent fund, pp. 396- 
404, and the educational contingent fund, 
pp. 505-508 of the report of 1916. 

RErE,REycEs.~Co»stitution. 1901, sees. 45, 71 
72, 73, 257-263; Code, 1907, sees. 599, 612; Gen- 
eral Acts. 1911, p. 394; 1915, pp. 625, 929-938; 
State auditor, Annual Report. 1915, and passim, 
pp. 396-404, 505-508; Riggs v. Brewer. 64 Ala., 
p. 282; Woolf v. Taylor, 98 Ala., p. 254; State 
ex rel Smith, treasurer v. White, auditor. 116 
Ala., p. 202; Owen v. Beale, 145 Ala., p. 108. 

APRICOTS. See Fruits. 

appended shows the report up to this time, 
to the Alabama Department of Archives and 
History, of those collections in Museums, and 
public institutions, as well as in the hands 
of private collectors, with the approximate 
number of objects in the several collections. 
These collections are being added to continu- 
ously, especially in the case of those members 
of the Alabama Anthropological Society, who 
are actively collecting. The State Museum 
collection, now contains several of those listed 
below, and in each case, an individual state- 
ment is therewith shown. The list includes: 

Emile Abbott, Columbus, Ga., 100, burned, 

Academy of Natural Sciences, Philadelphia, 
about 3,000. 

Alabama Anthropological Society, Mont- 
gomery, 2,000. 

Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn, 
Ala., 750. 



Alabama State Department of Archives 
and History, Montgomery, 75,000. 

American Museum of Natural History, New 
York City, 100. 

Mrs Adeline V. Andrews, Montgomery, 
1,500 (presented to the Alabama Anthropo- 
logical Society, August 20, 1920). 

Thomas Ballard, Troy, 100. 

Buckner Beasley, Tela Honduras, 25,500 
(now in State Museum). 

Birmingham High School, Birmingham, 
several hundred. 

J. L. Bishop, Selma, 2,500. 

Dr. R. P. Burke, Montgomery, 2,500 (now 
in State Museum). 

J. Y. Brame, Montgomery, 500. 

Peter A. Brannon, Montgomery, 8,000. 

R. B. Burnham, Montgomery, 500. 

W. J. Chambers, Montgomery, 200. 

Frank C. Cheney, Allgood, Ala., several 

Davenport Academy of Natural Sciences, 
Davenport, la., about 100. 

Miss Florence Dubose, Haleyville, 25 0. 

Samuel M. Englehardt, Shorter, 500. 

E. S. Ginnane, Allgood, 5,000. 

Grand Lodge A. F. & A. M., Montgomery, 

E. M. Graves, Montgomery, 13,500. 
William H. Gray, jr., Phoenix City, 5,000. 
Frank S. Holt, Montgomery, 200. 

Edgar C. Horton, Birmingham, 500. 

Young Jackson, Coosada, 2,000 (now in 
State Museum). 

C. R. Jones, Montgomery, 2.000. 

Richard Lindsey estate, Pittsview, Ala., 

L. J. Lewis, Seale, Ala., 200. 

Carr McCormack, Quinton, Ala., 100. 

Mrs. Lillian Letcher, Gadsden, 500. 

Allen M. McNeel, Montgomery, 200. 

John H. McEwen, Rockford, 65,000. 

Dr. Paul S. Mertins, Montgomery, 2,000. 

F. W. Miller, E. Orange, N. J., 2,000. 
Henry Miner, Chelsea, 25. 
Mitchell-Glass Collection, Sycamore, 250. 
Mobile Young Men's Christian Association, 


Dr. R. C. Moorefield, Birmingham (sev- 
eral hundred). 

Dr. F. L. Myers, Columbus, Ga., 1,000. 

Joseph C. Oswalt, Shorter, 100. 

Thomas M. Owen, jr., Montgomery, 50. 

Phillips Academy, Department of American 
Archaeology. Andover, Mass., 100. 

John E. Scott, Louisville, Ky., 100. 

Robert D. Sturdivant, Dallas County, 1,000. 

Rev. Francis Tappey, Shelbyville, Tenn., 

General Gates P. Thruston, Nashville, 
Tenn., (now in Vanderbilt University, sev- 
eral hundred Alabama items). 

H. P. Tresslar, Montgomery, 200. 

United States National Museum, Wash- 
ington, D. C., several hundred Alabama items. 

University of Alabama, 5,000. 

Dr. Hamilton M. Weedon, Troy, Ala., 250. 

Dr. H. M. Whelpley, St. Louis, Mo., 1,000 
Alabama items. 

John C. Williams, Talladega, Ala., 1,000. 

Wynn Collection, Alpine, Ala., 1.000. 

ARCHITECTURE. The science and art of 
designing or planning buildings and the 
supervision of construction in accordance 
therewith. It has developed as a profession 
in Alabama during the period since 1875. At 
present all important cities and towns have 
one or more architects or firms of architects, 
whose time is devoted exclusively to the pro- 
fession. Some of these are men self-trained, 
or receiving their preparation in the office of 
some other architect, while others are grad- 
uates of schools of architecture. 

For the first few years after settlement, the 
log cabin and the hewn log dwelling consti- 
tuted all of the buildings in use, either for 
dwellings or for business houses. These were 
rapidly supplanted, however, by more preten- 
tious structures as economic conditions im- 
proved. The settlers brought plans or de- 
signs with them from their old homes. Among 
the settlers were carpenters, joiners, cabinet 
makers, painters, bricklayers, stone masons, 
•vorkers in iron, and other artisans. The de- 
mand for employment, coupled with the as- 
piration of the people, naturally improved 
buildings for all uses. 

In the absence of architects, or men em- 
ployed directly in planning and designing con- 
struction, carpenters and builders at that pe- 
riod combined with their business of con- 
struction the further business of planning, de- 
signing, and estimating. Some of these had 
their inspiration in communities in which the 
classic model was developed, while with 
others, the designs with which they were most 
familiar, as Gothic, Renaissance, and others, 
were embodied in their work. This fact will 
explain the variation of type of construction 
or design in the older towns of the State, such 
variation always striking the observant trav- 
eler with both astonishment and interest. 

As conditions further improved and de- 
veloped, not only generally in the growth of 
wealth and aspiration on the part of the 
people, but also in the matter of transporta- 
tion, the development of new forms of build- 
ing materials, and the better utilization of 
timber products, still further advances were 
made. The crude log church gave way to a 
stone, brick, or wooden structure, modelled 
after some conventional design, taken either 
from illustrations in available books, or re- 
producing buildings with which the con- 
tractors were familiar. 

In a way almost all of the early buildings 
may be said to have their prototype in some 
older community. For the church the paral- 
lellogram with the belfry, or bell tower, and 
steeple, gallery for slaves, high-back pews, 
and the pulpit "high and lifted up," all con- 
form to types in use in the Atlantic States, or 
in Europe, whence the settlers had cdtne. 

The business house, or store, or mercantile 
establishment, or shop usually a small struc- 
ture, sometimes made of brick, but more often 
of wood, with doors at each end and windows 
on either side of the doors, with an occasional 
window on the side of the building proper. 
In many cases, the front elevation was pro- 
vided with a broad facade, upon which the 
name of the owner and words descriptive of 
the business conducted were painted. Iron 



bars and gratings covered the windows, and 
heavy bolts and bars protected the doors. 

The first court houses were temporary 
wooden structures. In many cases the loca- 
tion of the county seat was not permanent. 
After more or less definite location, and 
county affairs had taken a normal course, 
brick buildings were erected, but they were 
usually small and provided accommodations 
merely for a half dozen offices, together with 
the court room, which usually occupied the 
second floor. These buildings presented 
various types, but usually there was a small 
cupola or bell tower, with varying degrees of 
ornateness. The roof was usually of tin, if 
flat, but of shingles if of the conventional 

In the towns of the State, as Mobile, Mont- 
gomery, Huntsville, Tuscaloosa, Selma, Eu- 
faula, Florence, Demopolis, with the still 
greater growth of wealth and culture, the 
introduction of new and happy forms of con- 
struction becomes apparent to the student, in 
the quarter of a century immediately preced- 
ing the war. Dr. Thomas C. McCorvey, pro- 
fessor of history in the University of Alabama, 
finds the classic model in use in Tuscaloosa, 
and also extending throughout the State from 
that city as a center, as the result of the 
influence of Thomas Jefferson, introduced 
through Dr. Henry Tutwiler, one of the 
earliest professors at the University. Even 
casual observers had noted that the original 
University buildings bore the suggestive in- 
fluence of the construction employed at the 
University of Virginia. Col. McCorvey says, 
among other things, that: 

"It was to be expected that the wealthy 
planters and professional men who, in the 
third and fourth decades of the past century, 
were attracted to Tuscaloosa, then the politi- 
cal as well as the educational center of the 
State, should have been impressed with the 
classic elegance of the University buildings; 
and that there should have appeared in the 
homes which they built what Goldwin Smith, 
in another connection, somewhat sneeringly 
calls 'that domestic architecture which pre- 
sents the front of a Doric temple with family 
and culinary developments in the rear.' Here 
is unquestionably the main historical influ- 
ence which accounts for the several handsome 
homes with Greek temple porticoes to be 
found to-day in Tuscaloosa. While the for- 
tunes of war, in 1865, destroyed the original 
University buildings, and others not of the 
same orders of architecture have taken their 
places, the classic influence of Thomas Jef- 
ferson and of the University of Virginia is 
still manifest in the domestic architecture of 

It would be of interest to trace, if materials 
were available, the individual development of 
the various styles of architecture employed in 
different communities of the State, includ- 
ing the simple rural dwellings, the homes of 
the small farmer, and the manor house, or 
plantation home, of the great land owner, who 
lived in lordly splendor on his broad estate. 

It would also be interesting to note the 
further development in recent periods, in 

which the modern steel skyscrapers, spacious 
department stores, luxurious apartment 
houses, well appointed hotels, and great 
churches, college buildings, and other public 
structures have been erected. The later de- 
velopment is to be attributed to the skill and 
ability of the professional architect, who com- 
bines not only the imagination and taste of 
the artist, but the mechanical and technical 
ability of the engineer, and the practical 
mastery of the art and practice of his pro- 

Refekences. — Sturgis, A dictionary of archi- 
tecture and building (1902), 3 vols.; McCorvey, 
"Henry Tutwiler, and the Influence of the Uni- 
versity of Virginia on education in Alabama," 
in Ala. Hist. Society, Transactions. 1904, vol. 
5, pp. 83-106; Armes, Story of coal and iron in 
Alabama (1910); Dubose, Life of Yancey 
(1892); Marie (Bankhead) Owen, "Montgom- 
ery's classic and beautiful homes," in The 
Montgomery Advertiser, Dec. 11, 1910, pp. 17- 
20; Hutchisson & Chester, Architects, A quar- 
terly review. Mobile, Ala., 1911-12, Vol. 1, Nos. 
1-4 (no more issued), illustrated; and Cata- 
logue of the Seventh annual exhibition of the 
Birmingham Art Club, and the First annual 
exhibition of the Atelier of the Birmingham 
Society of Architects, 1914, illustrated. For 
laws providing for the erection of early court- 
houses see Toulmin, Digest. 1823; and for build- 
ing codes see books of ordinances of Birming- 
ham, Mobile, and Montgomery. In the present 
work the illustrations indicate many archi- 
tectural forms, as the State capitol, the Uni- 
versity, other public buildings, etc. 

MENT OP. A state executive department, 
established by Act of the legislature, approved 
February 27, and organized March 2, 1901. 
The department is under the control of a 
board of trustees, one from each congres- 
sional district. The board is self perpetuat- 
ing, new members having to be confirmed 
by the Senate, and selects the Director of 
the Department, who is the administrative 

The Act of creation prescribed the objects 
and purposes as "the care and custody of 
official archives, and the collection of mate- 
rials bearing upon the history of the state, 
and of the territory included therein, from 
the earliest times, the completion and publi- 
cation of the state's official records and other 
historical materials, the diffusion of knowl- 
edge in reference to the history and resources 
of the state, and the encouragement of his- 
torical work and research." The objects of 
the department were enlarged by later legis- 
lation to include library extension, legislative 
reference work, workmen's compensation, 
and a number of other special duties. It 
fills a hitherto undeveloped fleld of important 
state activities. 

Archives. — The Department is the State 
hall of records. The archives are the State 
manuscript public records. The records of 
Alabama proper date from 1818, and all that 
survive, not in current use in the several 
offices, departments, bureaus, commissions 



and boards of the State, are in the custody 
of the Department, systematically classed 
and indexed. 

Reference Library. — A reference library of 
historical books and pamphlets has been 
brought together, unrivaled in richness for 
the Southern field. It contains practically 
everything printed about Alabama, or by Ala- 
bamians, or in the State. It contains also 
substantially full collections of State official 
documents, and denominational, educational 
and institutional publications for the State. 

Gallei-y- — The gallery and the museum 
have the same object, namely, the preserva- 
tion of illustrative historical materials. In 
the gallery and corridors of the Capitol are 
exhibited more than a hundred portraits, 
many photographs (single and in groups), 
prints, views, etc. These are on display in 
the gallery and museum room. 

Jluseum. — The museum is projected to 
embrace a complete array of materials illus- 
trative of life in the limits of the State, not 
only during its existence as such, but long 
prior. Hundreds of rare and priceless items 
have been gathered, including the largest col- 
lection of aboriginal stone objects in the 
Southern states. A large collection of birds, 
animals and natural history specimens are 
mounted and placed in suitable display cases. 
More than forty Confederate flags and ban- 
ners, together with a representative group of 
Confederate items are in the collection. 
Relics of the Spanish American and World 
War, as well as items from the Phillipines, 
Honolulu, and other Colonial possessions, 
where Alabamians have served are included. 

Jliscellaneous Collections. — Its collections 
of a miscellaneous character embrace news- 
paper flies, unofficial manuscripts, maps, 
charts, coins, stamps, old currency, surplus 
State documents, autographs, etc. These are 
already numerous in every department. They 
are of much practical utility, and are con- 
stantly drawn upon. 

Library Extension. — In 1907 the Legisla- 
ture added library extension to its other du- 
ties. This new duty has been broadly met. 
The establishment of public and school 
libraries has been encouraged and assisted, 
and a Summer course in library instruction 
has been offered. The Department also main- 
tains a system of Traveling Libraries. 

These libraries are intended to meet an 
immediate local need, both in rural communi- 
ties and in the rural schools. They consist 
of small well-selected collections of books, 
usually twenty-five to thirty-flve volumes. 
There Is no charge for their use, except ship- 
ping and transportation charges in full. The 
books may be retained four months and no 

Reseaich, Extension and Reference Service. 
— For the use of the members of the Legis- 
lature, State officers and others, a reference 
collection of current data and material on 
subjects deemed of public interest and im- 
portance to the people of the State, has been 
brought together and arranged for ready 

Special Activities. — Its special activities are 
numerous and daily multiplying. They in- 
clude (1) the diffusion of knowledge in ref- 
erence to the history and resources of the 
State, (2) encouragement of historical work 
and research, (3) location and marking of 
historic spots or places, (4) archaeological 
exploration, (5) cooperation with literary and 
learned societies, and (6) the Director has 
been appointed by law either as a member 
or as secretary of a number of important 
history and monument commissions. By Act 
of the legislature, approved August 23, 1919, 
the Director was made ex-officio Workmen's 
Compensation Commissioner, being required 
to furnish prepared blanks to all employers 
or employees, or their agents, and to prepare 
a report which he must present to the legis- 
lature at its next regular session in 1923. 

Several important series of historical 
publications are in process of compilation. 

The Department has come to be universally 
regarded as a bureau of information on all 
historical, and statistical subjects for the 
State. Prompt and full response, as far as. 
possible, is made to all inquiries. 

The Department is in every sense one of 
service and help. It aspires to be an 
uplifting, refining and stimulating force in 
State life, and in a high degree it is meeting 
these ideals. 

Upon the death of Dr. Thomas M. Owen, 
founder and Director from 1901 to 1920, the 
Trustees of the Department elected his wife 
Mrs. Marie B. Owen, to succeed him as 

The maintenance of the Department is 
provided for by law, the Director receiving 
a salary of $3,000 and the chief clerk $2,000, 
and the sum of $13,000 provided for salaries 
of employees, and miscellaneous expenses. 

Refkre.vces.— Ac^s o/ Alabama 1900-01-1920 
(special session); Alabama Official and Statis- 
tical Register. 1903-1919, 6 vols.; Code of Ala- 
hama, 1907; Manuscript records in office of 

tent of the land and water surface, and other 
surface details, within the boundaries or 
limits of the State and of its 67 counties, 
usually stated in terms of square miles and 
square acres. The figures hereinafter given 
embody the results of the latest computations 
and estimates of the Government. In some 
details they slightly vary figures previously 
accepted, but it Is believed that they are alto- 
gether reliable and accurate. 

In recent years the State has been surveyed 
and platted in large part by the U. S. Geologi- 
cal Survey, in connection with its investiga- 
tion of mineral statistics and in the compila- 
tion of topographic area maps; the Depart- 
ment of Agriculture, in its soils and soil sur- 
veys; the Engineer Office in the work of river 
and harbor improvement; and the Coast 
and Geodetic Survey, in charting its coast, 
bays and inlets. The reports and other pub- 
lications of these departments and bureaus 
contain details of these operations. Brief 
sketches will be found herein under the titles 



Mineral Statistics, River and Harbor Im- 
provement, Soils and Soil Surveys, and Topo- 
graphic Surveys (q. v.). 

The subject matter of the statistics here 

given consists of the more permanent features 
of area, as land, water, farm land — improved 
and unimproved, swamp and overflowed land, 
mineral and oil land. 

State Areas, 191C. — 

Square miles Acres 

Total area 51.998 33,278,720 

Total land area 51,279 32,818,560 

Total water area 719 460,160 

Total farm land 32,394 20,732,312 

Improved farm land 15,146 9,693,581 

Unimproved farm land 17,248 11,038,731 

Wooded farm land 14,757 9,444,764 

Swamp and overflowed land ( 1908) 2,312 1,479,200 

Permanent swamp land 1,406 900.000 

Wet grazing land 93 59,200 

Periodically overflowed land 813 520,000 

Mineral and oil land 11909) 1,072 686,350 

County Areas.- 


Total Total 

area area 

(sq. mi.) (acres) 

Autauga 584 

Baldwin 1,595 

Barbour 912 

Bibb 634 

Blount 649 

Bullock 610 

Butler 763 

Calhoun 630 

Chambers 588 

Cherokee 577 

Chilton 729 

Choctaw 932 

Clarke 1,216 

Clay 614 

Cleburne 568 

Coffee 678 

Colbert 618 

Conecuh 849 

Coosa 655 

Covington 1,042 

Crenshaw 618 

Cullman 763 

Dale 563 

Dallas 957 

DeKalb 786 

Elmore 622 

Escambia 957 

Etowah 542 

Fayette 643 

Franklin 647 

Geneva 578 

Greene 635 

Hale 646 

Henry 560 

Houston 579 

Jackson 1,140 

Jefferson 1,135 

Lamar 601 

Lauderdale 694 

Lawrence 700 

Lee 632 

Limestone 596 

Lowndes 739 

Macon 614 

Madison 811 

Marengo 966 




























Counties (sq. ml.) 

Marlon 74 3 

Marshall 602 

Mobile 1,226 

Monroe 1,012 

Montgomery 801 

Morgan 587 

Perry 737 

Pickens 875 

Pike 671 

Randolph 590 

Rnssell 65 5 

St. Clair 645 

Shelby 808 

Sumter 908 

Talladega 755 

Tallapoosa 7 63 

Tuscaloosa 1,346 

Walker 777 

Washington 1,087 

Wilcox 896 

Winston 630 





























































































































See Appalachian Valley Region; Black 
Belt; Canebrake; Chunnennuggee Ridge; 
Coosa Valley; Forestry; Hill Country; Min- 
eral District; Piedmont Region; Tennessee 
Valley; Timber Belt; Valley Regions. 

References.— U. S. Dept. of Commerce, Sta- 
tistical abstract, 1914, p. 9; U. S. Bureau of 
the Census, 13th census. Vol. 6, pp. 32-38; Ibid, 
Abstract, 1910, with "Supplement for Alabama," 
passim; "Swamp lands of the United States" 
(S. Doc. 443, 60th Cong., 1st sess., 1908, ser. 
No. 5265). 

ARITON. An incorporated town in the 
northeastern corner of Dale County, on the 
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad between Ozark 
and Troy. Population: 1910—431. It has 
the Ariton Banking Co. (State), and is situ- 
ated in a good agricultural section whose 
chief products are cotton, corn, and orchard 

References.— Alabama Official and Statistical 
Register, 1915; U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Sot! 
survey of Dale County (1911). 

ARKADEliPHIA. Postoffice and interior 
village in the S. part of Cullman County, on 
the E. slopes of Sand Mountain, 10 miles W. 
of Blount Springs, and 2 5 miles S. W. of 
Cullman. Population: 1818, 130; 1912, 220. 
It is one of the oldest settlements of that 
section of the State, and was originally in 
Blount County. 

References.— R. E. Ryan's letter, Aug. 1916; 
Polk's Ala. Gaz. (1888), p. 92. 

ASBESTOS. See Corundum, Asbestos and 

ASBURY MISSION. An Indian school au- 
thorized by the South Carolina Conference of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, held at 
Augusta, Ga., Saturday, February 23, 1822. 

The mission or school was built, as near as 
can be determined on the section line between 
the southeast quarter and southwest quarter 
of section 22, township 16 north, range 30 
east. It was near to and a few hundred yards 
west of the Central of Georgia, 1 Vi miles 
north northeast, of Fort Mitchell, and less 
than % mile southwest of the present Tick- 
faw. This point is less than % mile from 
the site of Kawita (Coweta), and was there- 
fore apparently just outside the limits of this 
town. Kawita, it will be remembered, was 
the capital of the Creek Nation and the es- 
tablishment of the school in the proximity of 
the town, indicates the desire to exert that 
much more influence. The agent for Indian 
Affairs had his headquarters at Fort Mitchell, 
then a U. S. Post, and garrisoned with troops. 

Reverend William Capers, afterwards 
Bishop, was the first Methodist missionary to 
the Indians, and in 1822, when the appoint- 
ments were made by the conference, he as 
superintendent, with Isaac Smith, and An- 
drew Hammill were assigned to this work. 
It appears from West's History of Methodism 
in Alabama, that the Rev. Mr. Smith was 
given charge of Asbury Mission, while the 
Rev. Mr. Hammill was given charge of Mc- 
Kendree Mission, which was to have been 
established at Tukabatchi, in the Upper 
Creek Nation, but which never materialized. 
Mr. Smith was sixty-three years old, when 
appointed, Mr. Hammill, was twenty-four, 
and Superintendent Capers, was thirty-one. 

A small farm of twenty-five acres with a 
stock of cattle not exceeding thirty-five head, 
was maintained with the school, and man- 
aged by a man hired for that purpose. In 
1825, the preachers obtained permission of 
Little Prince, the head-chief, at that time, 
to teach the native children to work. The 
school opened in 1822 with an enrollment of 
twelve Indian children, adding twelve n»ore 
during the first week. 


The well known controversy between the 
missionaries, Colonel Crowell, the Indian 
Agent, and the Georgia Commissioners, had 
a detrimental effect on the work of the 
school, but in the end, the missionaries suc- 
ceeded eventually in getting the good will of 
Little Prince, Colonel Crowell, and others 
who had first been opposed to its establish- 
ment, and it appears that its influence was 
far reaching, extending to the new town of 
Columbus, Ga. On Sunday, September 21, 
1823, Mr. Martin, the man hired to manage 
the farm in connection with the school, was 
baptized by Mr. Capers, and he seems to be 
first convert to be taken into the church by 
the work of the school. In December, 1825, 
eleven United States soldiers, from the gar- 
rison at Port Mitchell, and eleven Indian 
children, were members of the Society. 

Joseph Marshall, the celebrated half- 
breed, and from reputation, an ungodly man, 
one time owner of and possibly the first set- 
tler in the present Girard, was baptized into 
the church here. Thomas Carr, brother of 
Paddy Carr, a half-breed Irish-Indian, was 
another convert. Henry Perryman, a half- 
breed and Samuel Mcintosh, a kinsman of 
William Mcintosh the chief, were among 
other converts. 

The Mission was discontinued by a reso- 
lution passed February 2. 1830, during the 
session of the Conference (South Carolina 
Conference) held at Columbia. Rev. Capers 
who inaugurated the work at Asbury, died 
January 29, 1855, at Columbia, and is there 

Mrs. M. E. Bellamy, a neice of Colonel 
John Crowell, the Indian Agent during the 
life of the Mission, now owns the property 
on which the school was located. 

See Cotton Manufacturing. 

ASHFORD. Post office and station in the 
center of Houston County, on the Atlantic 
Coast Line Railroad, 10 miles southeast of 
Dothan. Population: 1900 — 286; 1910 — 479. 

ASHLAND. County seat of Clay County, 
situated practically in the center of the 
county, on the Pyriton branch of the Atlanta, 
Birmingham & Atlantic R. R., 25 miles south- 
east of Talladega, 18 miles southeast of Iron- 
aton, and about 30 miles north of Alexander 
City. Altitude: 1080 feet. Population: 1880 
— 300; 1890—635; 1900—422; 1910— 
1,062; 1916—1,800. 

It is an incorporated town. Banks: First 
National, Farmers' State Bank. Newspapers: 
The Ashland Progress, W.. Dem., established 
1909. Industries: S graphite factories with a 
daily output valued at $1,500, gristmills, oil 
mill, fertilizer plant, cotton ginneries, cotton 
warehouse. There are several graphite mines 
in the vicinity. 

Schools: Clay County High School; city 
public schools. Churches: Baptist; Methodist 
Episcopal, South. 

The early settlers of the community were 
not owners of slaves, and the farms have 

always been worked by white labor. Diversi- 
fication of crops has long been practiced, as 
well as fruit culture and stockraising. 

References. — Berney, Handbook (1892), p. 
279; Brewer, Alabama (1872), p. 183; 'Northern 
Alabama (1888), p. 127; Polk's Alabama gazet- 
teer. 1887-8. p. 93; Alabama Official and Statis- 
tical Register, 1915. 

ASHLAND COLLEGE. A former prlrat* 
school for boys and girls, located at Ashland; 
succeeded a school conducted by the Ashland 
Educational Company; incorporated. Feb- 
ruary 18. 1891; and opened for students in 
the same year. 

References.— (7a(aIo(7Mes, 1892, 1898. 

ASHVILLE. County seat of St. Clair 
County, on Big Canon Creek, in the north- 
central part of the county, Z\i miles south- 
east of Whitney, the nearest railroad station, 
about 20 miles southwest of Gadsden, and 
120 miles north of Montgomery. Altitude: 
680 feet. Population: 1870 — 922; 1888 — 
200; 1900—362; 1910—278; 1916—650. It 
was made the county seat in 1822, and was 
incorporated by act of December 12, 1822, 
with its corporate limits including "30 acres, 
agreeably to the plan of the town." 

The town has Methodist Episcopal, South, 
Cumberland Presbyterian, and Baptist 
churches; the Ashville Savings Bank (State); 
the Southern Aegis, a Democratic weekly, 
established in 1873; and also a cotton gin- 
nery, cotton warehouse, gristmill, sawmill, 
wagon-repair shop, and woodworking fnctory. 

The locality was first settled in 1818, by 
John Ashe, who established a plantation, 
where he lived until his death in 1873. He 
was a senator in the first legislature of the 
State. The town was named in his honor. 
In 1821. John Ashe, John Massey, John Cun- 
ningham. Joel Chandler, and George Short- 
well were appointed a commission to erect 
the courthouse and jail. Log buildings were 
put up and used for several years. Later 
brick structures were erected which were 
used until 1844. when the present courthouse 
was built. The complete records of the 
county as far back as 1821, are stored in the 
building. They include many valuable In- 
dian records, early deeds, wills, etc. 

Among the distinguished men of Ashville 
are Oran M. Roberts, a native of the town 
and one of the first graduates of the Univer- 
sity of Alabama, who later moved to Texas, 
becoming chief justice and, later, governor; 
Pufus W. Cobb, governor of Alabama; Judg« 
Burwell T. Pope; and Col. John W. Inzer. 

References.— Toulmin, Digest, 1823, p. 846; 
Brewer, Alabama (1872), p. 522; Alabama Offi- 
cial and Statistical Register, 1915; Polk's Ala- 
bama gazetteer, 1888-9; Northern Alabama 
(1888), p. 1564; St. Clair County News, 1914; 
Southern Aegis, 1897. 

LEUM. Nonmetal substances usually found 
in the lower Carboniferous rocks, particu- 
larly in Russellville and Moulton Valley and 
on the southern slopes of Little Mountain. 



They occur in the highly fossiliferous crinoi- 
dal limestone and the coarse-grained sand- 
stones of this formation, which are often so 
saturated with them as to ignite when thrown 
into the fire. Sometimes petroleum may be 
seen in yellow drops on the surfaces of these 
rocks, but more often they are black from 
the maltha or tar, which on exposure hardens 
and oxidizes into asphaltum. Petroleum can 
be obtained from the same bituminous sand- 
stones and limestones, and also from the black 
shale of the Devonian formation. Natural gas 
is quite common in many parts of the State, 
usually being found along with salt water. 
Sometimes petroleum in small quantities also 
accompanies it. Tar and asphaltum have 
been extracted in considerable quantities 
from the black bituminous sandstone from 
the top of the Little Mountain. They have 
also been extracted by boiling from the 
crinoidal limestones. 

Petroleum Wells. — In the effort to obtain 
petroleum many wells, some of them quite 
deep, have been bored in different parts of 
the State, but the oil has not been obtained 
in commercial quantities. Many of these 
borings were made in Clarke, Washington, 
and Mobile Counties, where there are 
numerous salt wells and seeps, but petroleum 
in paying quantities has not been found, 
though salt water and natural gas have been 
obtained from many of them. A well in the 
Moulton Valley, known as Goyer Well No. 1, 
which was bored to a depth of 2,120 feet, is 
said to have had at one time a yield of 20,000 
cubic feet of gas and 2 5 barrels of oil a day. 
However, the oil flow was lost and never 
recovered. At CuUom Springs, in Choctaw 
County, a deep well bored about 1886 yielded 
a considerable quantity of natural gas. Many 
of the borings in the salt region made during 
the War yielded, along with brine, large 
quantities of gas. In places the gas and salt 
water rise to the surface in natural seeps. 

Perhaps the most abundant supply of nat- 
ural gas along with salt water comes from 
the wells near the Bascomb race track at 
Mobile. The yield of each well at one time 
was 35,000 cubic feet per day. 

See Oil and Natural Gas; and Salt Springs, 
Salt Lands and Salt Works. 

References. — Smith and McCalley, Index to 
mineral resources of Alahama (Geol. Survey of 
Ala., Bulletin 9, 1904), pp. 70-72; U. S. Geol. 
Survey, Mineral resources of the United States, 
1914, pt. 2, pp. 347-362, with bibliography. 

ERTY. STATE BOARD OF. An ex officio 
executive board: established February 9, 
1877; and abolished September 14, 1915. It 
was made up of the governor, as presi- 
dent, the secretary of state, the auditor and 
treasurer, a majority of whom were a quorum, 
and which was required to meet at the office 
of the auditor annually, on the first Wednes- 
day in February. The attorney general was 
required to be present at every meeting of 
the board to represent the interests of the 
State, and to assist with his advice, or other- 
wise, and where the members were equally 

divided upon any question, he cast the decid- 
ing vote. 

It was made the duty of the board "to ex- 
amine the returns made by railroad com- 
panies, and the reports of the State auditor, 
when no such returns have been made, and 
determine the valuation of the different items 
of property required to be returned to the 
State auditor, and to assess such property for 
taxation; and in case no return has been 
made by or on behalf of any such railroad 
companies, the board may add to the assess- 
ment which it may make against such com- 
pany, a penalty of not exceeding fifty per 
cent thereon." The jurisdiction of the board, 
however, extends only to the road and roll- 
ing stock of railroad companies, all of their 
other property, returns of which were not 
required to be made to the State audttor, 
being assessed in the county in which it is 
taxable. The law also imposed upon the 
board the duty of assessing the valuation for 
taxation of long distance telephone and tele- 
graph companies. 

Railroads were at first assessed as any 
other corporate property. However, it early 
became apparent, because of conflicts and 
inequalities as to assessments by county offi- 
cials, that some central authority should be 
provided. Therefore, the duty of regulating 
such assessments was placed upon the comp- 
troller of public accounts, later the State 
auditor. By act of March 6, 1876, he was 
relieved of this duty, and a board of equaliza- 
tion of railroad companies was created, to 
consist of the auditor, the treasurer, and the 
secretary of state. The next session of the 
legislature, February 9, 1877, still further 
changed the system by providing that the 
governor, as president, the secretary of state, 
the auditor and the treasurer should con- 
stitute a board "for the assessment of prop- 
erty of railroad companies." This board 
remained in effect until abolished in 1915, as 
noted herein. 

Very soon after the creation of the board, 
that portion of the law which prescribed the 
method to. be pursued in determining the 
valuation of railroads was declared uncon- 
stitutional, the supreme court holding "that 
the general assembly cannot declare an arti- 
ficial value of property." To meet the objec- 
tions, in 1885 the phraseology of the law 
was so altered as to conform to the decision 
of the court. 

With the creation of the railroad commis- 
sion in 1881, it was made a part of its duty, 
on notice by the governor, to attend the 
meetings of the board of assessment, and if 
required, to give all the information it could 
in making railroad assessments. In 1885 an 
amendment of the law increased the jurisdic- 
tion of the board so as to include telegraph, 
sleeping car and express companies, and later 
on long distance telephones were included. 

In 1915, a State board of equalization was 
created, and it took over all the duties prev- 
iously performed by the board of assessment 
and the State tax commission, both of which 
were at the same time abolished. 

See Equalization Board; Public Service 


Commission; Railroads; Taxation and 'Rev- 

References.— CofJes, 1876, sec. 383; 1886, sec. 
602; 1896, sec. 3967; 1907, sees. 2133-2145; Acts, 
1875-76, p. 53; 1876-77, p. 6; 1884-85, p. 21; 1890- 
91, p. 493; 1900-01, p. 219; General Acts, 1907, p. 
349; State Board of Assessment v. Alabama 
Central R. R. Co.. 59 Ala., p. 551; State Auditor 
V. Jackson County, 65 Ala., p. 143, and Perry 
County V. Selma. Marion & Memphis R. R. Co., 
p. 391; Purifoy v. Lamar, 112 Ala., p. 123; y. <i 
D. R. R. Co. V. State, 129 Ala., p. 142. 

ASSILANAPI. An Upper Creek town, 
probably located on Yellow Leaf Creek in 
Shelby County. This creek flows into the 
Coosa River from the west, eight miles below 
the mouth of Talladega Creek. The name 
means "yellow, or green leaf tree," "lani," 
meaning both yellow and green at the same 
time. There is a township in the Creek Na- 
tion, Okla., known as Green Leaf Town. Dr. 
John R. Swanton says that he has been told 
that the "assi" used in this name really re- 
fers to the holly used in making the black 
drink. The town is supposed to have been 
built up by persons who had settled there 
because it was easy to secure these leaves 
for the black drink. 

References.— Gatschet, in Alabama History 
Commission, Report (1901), p. 393; Handbook 
of American Indians (1907), vol. 1, p. 103. 


A professional organization, formed "to en- 
courage the growth of high schools by rais- 
ing college entrance requirements and fear- 
lessly enforcing them, to elevate college 
standards, and to bring about a unity of edu- 
cational endeavor among the colleges them- 
selves." The association was organized at 
Montgomery, April 13, 1908, "by the presi- 
dents of ten of the degree-granting institu- 
tions of the State." Its constitution was 
adopted at a called meeting, June 24, 1908. 
At its third annual meeting, 1910. a body of 
standards and definitions was agreed upon, 
and a list of accredited schools prepared. 
Later a schedule of entrance requirements 
was adopted. 

A rule was adopted in 1911 that "for full 
affiliation a high school must have a four- 
year course of study based on seven years of 
elementary work, with at least three teachers 
giving all their time to high school in- 
struction, with recitation periods forty min- 
utes each; for partial affiliation three years 
of high school work based on seven years of 
elementary work, with at least two teachers 
giving all their time to high school in- 
struction, with recitation periods forty min- 
utes each." 

In 1912 it was ordered that a bulletin be 
printed annually, giving the names, addresses 
and entrance units of students admitted to 
the various colleges belonging to the associa- 
tion. Institutions members of the association 
are Athens College; Birmingham College; 
Howard College; Judson College; Southern 
University; University of Alabama: (1) Col- 
lege of arts and sciences, (2) College of en- 

gineering, (3) School of law; Woman's Col- 
lege of Alabama. 

Publications. — Bulletins, 1911-1916, 5 vols. 

References. — Bulletins, supra. 

ATAGI. An Indian town on west side of 
Alabama River in Autauga County, also writ- 
ten At-tau-gee, Autaugee, Autobi. Col. Haw- 
kins gives the following description of the 
town and vicinity in 1798: "A small village 
four miles below Pau-woc-te, spread out for 
two miles on the right bank of the river; they 
have fields on both sides, but their chief de- 
pendence is on the left side; the land on the 
left side is rich; on the right side the pine 
forest extends down to At-tau-gee Creek; 
below this creek the land is rich. 

"These people have very little intercourse 
with white people; although they are hospit- 
able, and offer freely anything they have, to 
those who visit them. They have this singu- 
lar custom, as soon as any white person has 
eaten of any dish and left it, the remains are 
thrown away, and every thing used by the 
guest immediately washed. They have some 
hogs, horses and cattle, in a very fine range, 
perhaps the best on the river; the land to the 
east as far as Ko-e-ne-cuh, and except the 
plains (Hi-yuc-pul-gee), is well watered, with 
much canebrake, a very desirable country. 
On the west or right side, the good land 
extends about five miles, and on all the creeks 
below At-tau-gee, it is good; some of the trees 
are large poplar, red oak and hickory, walnut 
on the margins of the creeks, and pea-vine in 
the valleys." Schoolcraft states that it con- 
tained 54 families in 1832. Gen. Thomas S. 
Woodward calls it "Dumplin town." 

See Alibamu. 

References.— Hawkins, Sketch of the Creek 
Country (1848), pp. 36, 37. 

ATASI, OR AUTOSSEE. An ancient Up- 
per Creek town in Macon County, about 20 
miles above the mouth of the Coosa River, 
on the south side of Tallapoosa River, below 
and adjoining Calibee Creek. It lies in sec. 
21, T. 17 S., R. 21, E. The site was low 
and unhealthy. The name is derived from 
the Creek a'tassa, a 'war club.' A town, 
Atasi, perpetuates the name in the Creek 
Nation, Okla. De Crenay's map of 1733 con- 
tains the earliest notice of Atasi, but is 
spelled Atoches. It has the approximate loca- 
tion of later times. Some Creek towns were 
once situated far to the east and southeast, 
whence by successive removals they were at 
last established where they are first known 
to the whites. Atasi presents a case in point, 
for on Belen's map of 1744 there are three 
towns of the name. One of these is on the 
right bank of the Tallapoosa River. Prof. 
Henry S. Halbert was of the belief that these 
represented successive removals of the town, 
the first removal being to its historic site. 
A French census of 1760 gives the town 80 
warriors, and locates it 7 French leagues from 
old Fort Toulouse. Atasi, with 50 hunters, 
Talasi and Tukabatchi, by the trade regula- 
tions of July 3, 1761, were assigned to the 
traders, James McQueen and T. Perriman. 



Bartram spent the last week of the year 1777 
in Atasi. Here he attended an Indian council, 
"where were assembled the greatest number 
of ancient venerable chiefs and warriors that 
I had ever beheld." Hawkins is authority for 
the statement that in 1766 the town had 43 
gun men, and that about 1798, the number 
was estimated at about 80. Hawkins pays a 
fine tribute to an Indian woman of this town, 
Mrs. Richard Baily, mother of Captain Dixon 
Baily, whose family is still represented in 
Alabama and Florida. Hawkins calls the 
town "a poor, miserable looking place," but 
by 1813 it had probably improved. It was 
one of the red stick towns, and assisted in 
the destruction of Fort Mims. On November 
29, 1813, the town was attacked and totally 
destroyed by Gen. John Floyd in the battle 
of Autossee (q. v.). Its discomfitted people 
sought refuge elsewhere, and never attempted 
to rebuild. 

A prehistoric mound, which still survives, 
stood, according to Bartram, in the limits of 
the town. He also found in the square a 
forty foot pillar. No one could tell him any- 
thing of its history. Dr. John R. Swanton 
hazards the conjecture that it "was un- 
doubtedly put up for the women's ball game." 
Bartram is authority further for the state- 
ment that the Atasis were "of the snake fam- 
ily or tribe," but Dr. Swanton observes that 
the things Bartram saw indicated that the 
snake was the town mark, and that they did 
not refer to the Snake clan. 

See Autossee, Battle of. 

References. — Bartram, Travels (1791), pp. 
450-457; Gatschet, in Alabama History Commis- 
sion, Report (1901), p. 393; Pickett, Alabama 
(Owen's ed., 1900), pp. 558-559; Handbook of 
American Indians (1907), vol. 1, p. 107; Haw- 
kins, Sketch of the Creek country (1848), p. 
31; Shea, Charlevoix's Neiv France, vol. 6, p. 
11; American gazetteer, 1762, vol. 1; Georgia, 
Colonial records, vol. 8, p. 52; Mississippi pro- 
vincial archives, vol. 1, p. 9. 

ATCHINA-ALGI. A small Upper Creek 
town, on one of the numerous tributaries of 
the Tallapoosa River from the west, near the 
Hillabee-Etowah trail, 40 miles above Niuy- 
axa, and probably in Randolph County. "This 
settlement is the farthest north of all the 
Creek; the land is very broken in the neigh- 
borhood." — Hawkins. It was settled from 
Lutchapoga (q. v.). The name signifies 
"cedar grove people" — atchina, cedar, and 
algi, people; and is sometimes spelled 
"Genalga." This town and Little Okfuski 
were destroyed, November 13, 1813, by Gen. 
James White in command of Tennessee 

References. — Gatschet, in Alabama Historj 
Commission, Report (1901), p. 393; Hawkins, 
Sketch of the Creek Country (1848), p. 47; 
Pickett, Alabama (Owen's ed., 1900), p. 557; 
and Handbook of the American Indians (1907), 
vol. 1, p. 107. 

ATCHINA-HATCHI. A small Upper Creek 
village, settled from Kailaidshi (Kialige) 
town and dependent upon or tributary to the 

latter. It is situated on the headwaters of 
Cedar Creek, and its site was east of Central. 
The name signifies "cedar creek" — atchina, 
cedar, and hatchi, creek. 
See Kailaidshi. 

References. — Gatschet, In Alabama History 
Commission, Report (1901), vol. 1, p. 394; 
Hawkins, Sketch of the Creek country (1848), 
p. 49; and Handbook of the American Indians 
(1907), vol. 1, p. 107. 

ATHAHATCHEE. An Indian town in Perry 
County, located in T. 20, R. 8, sec. 26, % mile 
from the bridge crossing Cahaba River, on 
the highway from Marion to the eastern sec- 
tion of the county. It is two miles from 
Sprott, and on the old Ford plantation. The 
first reference to the site is found in the 
Chronicles of DeSoto, 1540, as the place where 
Tuskalusa received the expedition. It was 
one of the homes of this chief, although not 
the head town. It was tributary to Mauvilla. 
No town of historic times can be associated 
with this village, but Cahaba Old Town, shown 
on old maps, at a point about three miles to 
the north, may be in a sense its successor. The 
site covers nearly a mile square, and is some 
distance from the river. It is out of the over- 
flow district. A small clear stream flows 
southeastward by the town, and into the river 
a half mile below. On the western side of the 
locality, over which aboriginal evidences are 
yet to be found, is a flat top mound, more 
than fifty feet in diameter, and originally 
about ten feet high. It has been nearly 
leveled by cultivation. East of the site is a 
lake. On the south is a large spring. Num- 
bers of stone objects have been picked up, and 
large earthen vessels have been plowed up 
from graves in the aboriginal cemetery, which 
borders the lake on the east. 

Refeeence. — Narratives of DeSoto. (Trail 
makers series, 1904), vol. 2, p. 120. 

ATHENS. County seat of Limestone 
County, located near the center of the 
county, about 10 miles north of the Ten- 
nessee River, 1 mile west of Swan or Big 
Creek, and on the main line of the Louis- 
ville & Nashville Railroad, 12 miles north of 
Decatur. 18 miles northwest of Huntsville, 
and 14 miles south of the Tennessee State 
line. Its incorporated area includes the NE. 
14 of sec. 8, T. 3, R. 4, W. Altitude: 695 
feet. Population: 1870 — 887; 1880 — 1,500; 
1890—940; 1900 — 1,010; 1910 — 1,715. It 
was incorporated by act of the Territorial 
Legislature, December 19, 1818. Its first 
corporate limits included 160 acres. It has 
electric lights, waterworks, and modern fire 
department. Its financial institutions are the 
First National Bank, Citizens Bank (State), 
and the Farmers & Merchants Bank (State). 
The Alabama Courier, established in 1880, 
and the Limestone Democrat, established in 
1891, Democratic weeklies, and the Athens 
Hustler, a semimonthly newspaper of inde- 
pendent politics, established in 1914, are 
published in Athens. It also has a gristmill, 
sawmill, cotton ginneries, compress, and 
warehouses, woodworking factory, planing 




1;. ^ 

Building in which La p'ayertc uas entertained in MoiitiJuinei-y during his visi' 
Alabama, 1S25, now demolished 



^KUP^ APRIL 4, 1825 -APRIL 4, 1905 

Tablet placed by Sons of the Revolution on the modern business house erected on former 
site of La Fayette house 




mill, brick kiln, and general stores. Its edu- 
cational institutions consist of the city public 
schools, including a high school; Athens Col- 
lege, maintained by the North Alabama Con- 
ference; and the Eighth District Agricultural 
School. There are church organizations and 
buildings of the Baptist, organized 1820; 
Methodist Episcopal, South, 1836; Cumber- 
land Presbyterian, 1850; Episcopal, 1887. 
There is also a Masonic Hall whose corner- 
stone was laid in 1826. 

The first settler on the lands now com- 
prised within the town was John Craig, who 
established his home near the Big Spring, but 
was later driven away by the Indians. In 
1808. Samuel Robertson brought his family 
and built three cabins on or near the present 
site of the town. He traded with the Indians 
until dispossessed by order of Col. Meigs, 
United States Indian Agent, who appointed 
William Wilder as sutler and storekeeper for 
the troops at Fort Hampton, and established 
him in Robertson's stead. Joseph Bell and 
William J. Gamble, with their families, 
arrived in 1817 and settled near Wilder. Soon 
afterward the Settlers opened a trail to the 
Tennessee River. 

In 1818, John Coffee, Robert Beatty, John 
D. Carroll and John Read bought, at public 
sale at Huntsville, for $60 an acre, the 160 
acres of land on which Athens was founded. 

In 1819, Athens was chosen the county 
seat, and R. Tillman, Thomas Redus, J. 
Tucker, R. Pollock and Samuel Hundley were 
appointed a committee to superintend the 
construction of public buildings for the 
county. Four acres of land was set aside on 
which to erect "Court House, jail, stocks and 
pillory." The buildings were constructed of 
hewn logs, and finished in 1820. A brick 
courthouse was built in 1825, which became 
unsafe and was taken down in 1831. It was 
replaced by another, the walls of which were 
retained when it was again rebuilt in 1865. 
During the War it had been burned, together 
with the city buildings and other buildings 
in the center of the town. The county and 
city records were destroyed. In the court- 
house there is a clock, made about 18 24 by 
Samuel Crenshaw, who had a bell foundry 
at the mouth of Big Creek, on Tennessee 

The first taverns in the town were kept by 
W. Wilder and C. Wilbourne. The first 
bricks were made in 1818 by Richard Hale; 
the first cabinet shop opened in the same year 
by R. Langham; the first saddle factory in 
1819 by J. and R. .McDaniel; the first wagon 
shop in 1820 by McGowan & Somers; the 
first jeweler's shop in 1821 by D. H. Friend. 
J. W. Exum was the first postmaster. The 
first newspaper was the Alabama Republican, 
established in 1819. The first school was 
built in 1821, on a lot donated by John Mc- 
Kinley. Rev. D. P. Bestor was the first 
teacher. Other early settlers were Capt. 
Nicholas Davis. Judge Daniel Coleman, 
Joshua L. Martin. Luke Pryor, Judge English, 
Thomas McClellan, Richard Brickell, the 
Houston, Tanner, Vasser, Sanders, Sloss, 

Jones, Hobbs, Richardson, Keyes, and Walker 

Athens has been the residence of many dis- 
tinguished men, among them. Gov. Joshua L. 
Martin; Gov. George S. Houston; Judge W. 
H. English, chief justice of Arkansas; Chief 
Justice R. C. Brickell; Chief Justice Thomas 
N. McClellan and nephew. Associate Justice 
Thomas C. McClellan; Judge Daniel Coleman; 
President C. C. Thach of the Alabama Poly- 
technic Institute; James W. Sloss, organizer 
of the Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron Co.; Luke 
Pryor, lawyer and statesman; Judge Benton 
Sanders; Dr. Theophilus Westmoreland, 
philanthropist; Thomas H. Hobbs, one of the 
most prominent promoters of the old South 
& North Railroad. 

References.— Ar?s. 1818, 2d sess., p. 12; Ber- 
ney. Handbook (1892), p. 307; Brewer, Ala- 
bama (1872), p. 317; Northern Alabama (1888), 
pp. 71-72; Pairs Alabama aazetteer. 1888-9, p. 
96; Alabama Official and Statistical Register, 


An educational institution for the training of 
girls and young women, located at Athens, 
and owned and controlled by the North 
Alabama Conference, Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South. "The aim of Athens College 
is to give broad general culture. She seeks 
to develop her students into strong, broad- 
minded Christian women that they may be 
capable of serving humanity in all fields now 
open to women. She aims to train both 
mind and soul. It is her ambition to make 
this training so thorough that every young 
woman who leaves the college will be imbued 
with a high and noble purpose in life." — Cata- 
logue, 1916-17. 

The grounds contain a campus of about 20 
acres. The buildings include founders' hall, 
Florence Brown memorial dormitory. Music 
hall, and central heating plant. To founders' 
hall, erected in 1843, has been added three 
wings. The style of architecture is Ionic. Its 
library is building a special room, is classed 
by the Dewey system, and is catalogued. A 
gynasium, tennis courts, basket ball equip- 
ment, and swimming pool are provided. 
Courses are offered in philosophy and social 
science in the Bible, religious education and 
missions, in English, Latin, Greek, French, 
Spanish, mathematics, history, biology, 
physics, chemistry, geology and astronomy! 
and home economics; and departments of 
music and art are open' to students. Chapters 
of the Epworth League and of the Young 
Women's Christian Association are organized. 
There are two literary societies — The George 
Elliot, and the Jane Hamilton Childs. 
Twenty-three scholarships are awarded an- 
nually. Various medals stimulate effort. 
An infirmary in charge of a graduate nurse 
is maintained. The alumnae are organized, 
and a chapter exists in Birmingham. This 
chapter has established the Annie (Bradley) 
McCoy scholarship, valued at $250, as a me- 
morial to the wife of Bishop James H. Mc- 
Coy. The college ranks as an "A" grade in- 
stitution. To accommodate students not pre- 



pared for college work, a separate school Is 
provided, known as Athens College Academy. 
The report of the college to the State super- 
intendent of education, September 30, 1917, 
shows buildings and site, valued at $225,000; 
a library of 6,000 volumes; 21 teachers; 163 
pupils; and a total support or $35,248. 

History. — The institution was first pro- 
jected by the Tennessee Annual Conference 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South, at 
a session held at Athens in 1842. It was 
chartered by the Legislature of Alabama, 
January 9, 1843, as the "Female Institute of 
the Tennessee Annual Conference," with Alex- 
ander L. P. Green, Thomas Madden, Ambrose 
F. Driskill, Joshua Boucher, Frederick G. 
Ferguson, Daniel Coleman, Ira B. Hobbs, 
Benjamin W. Maclin, Thomas Bass, James F. 
Sowell, Thomas Stith Malone, James C. Ma- 
lone, William Richardson, George S. Houston, 
Richard W. Vasser, Jonathan McDonald and 
James Craig as trustees. It remained the 
property of the Tennessee Conference until 
187 0, when it passed under the control of the 
North Alabama Conference, organized in that 
year. The name was changed in 187 2 to 
Athens Female Institute; and in 1889, to 
Athens Female College. The present name 
was adopted in 1915. The original charter 
limited the property which the institution 
could hold to $60,000; but, by an amend- 
ment of 1915, the amount was increased to 

The school opened in the fall of 184 3 in 
the two story academy building above re- 
ferred to. The first president. Rev. Dr. Rich- 
ard Henderson Rivers, was a gifted educator 
and divine. He served acceptably for six 
years, and gave happy tone and direction to 
the ideals of Christian culture and education 
for which the institution stood. The first 
class, consisting of two graduates, received 
their diplomas in 1846. Rev. .F. G. Ferguson 
and wife were members of the first faculty. 
From 1849 to 1858 the school had four presi- 
dents. From 1858 through the entire War 
period and for two years afterward, its head 
was the accomplished Mrs. Jane Hamilton 
Childs. During the four years of war and 
while Athens was often occupied by Federal 
soldiers, its property was never damaged, nor 
its privacy intruded upon. Classes were reg- 
ularly graduated every year. 

Buildings. — The lots on which the main 
building was erected were acquired from 
Thomas Maclin, Ben W. Maclin, Thomas H. 
Hobbs and Rebecca Hofcbs as a practical gift, 
although the deed, dated February 8, 1843, 
recites a nominal consideration of $100. An- 
other tract, known as the north campus, was 
given by Robert Beaty. Since 1822, on the 
latter tract an institution, known as Athens 
Female Academy, had been in operation, 
housed in a large two-story frame building. 
On the incorporation of the institute the 
academy was discontinued. 

The first building was erected in 1843 and 
1844. It was built by popular subscriptions, 
at a probable cost of about $40,000. The plans 
were drawn by Gen. Hiram H. Higgins, the 
woodwork was done under the superintend- 

ence of Ira E. Hobbs, and brick work, under 
James i\I. Brundidge. The historian of the 
college. Miss Mary N. Moore, says: 

"One indisputable evidence of the char- 
acter of all of these individuals shines forth 
in the splendid old building now known as 
Founders' Hall, which still graces the college 
campus. The beautiful classic outline of this 
building, unmarred as it originally was by 
any touch of incongruous architecture, fur- 
nishes evidence of the integrity to architec- 
tural ideals of the one who drew the plans, 
while the massive brick walls, twenty-four 
inches thick, with all partition walls of solid 
brick, are additional evidence of the sturdy 
integrity of the builder." 

Finances. — Until 1893 practically the sole 
support of the school was the tuition, dormi- 
tory and other fees received from pupils. The 
original buildings had been erected by private 
donations, and kept in repair, partly from 
similar sources, and from the fees. The 
salaries of the president and faculty were 
met from fees, the former assuming responsi- 
bility for payment. The furniture and equip- 
ment was regarded as the property of the 
presidents for the time being, and which they 
usually removed or disposed of on the con- 
clusion of this service. A plan existed from 
the beginning whereby the presidents paid 
to the trustees 6 per cent or the total re- 
ceipts from tuition fees. Tins was expended 
for repairs and general upkeep. Such a sys- 
tem or rather lack of system could not in 
the nature of the case, ever succeed in build- 
ing a permanent institution. 

In 1893 the North Alabama Conference 
made its first annual assessment of $500 for 
the college. From time to time larger plans 
have been projected, until at the session of 
the Conference in 1914 an endowment cam- 
paign for $100,000, and for $25,000 to meet 
certain outstanding obligations, was author- 
ized. Financial agents, whose names twe 
accessible, with the first year only of their 
service, are Rev. Fielding H. Harris, 1845; 
Rev. Dr. M. G. Williams, 1888; Rev. Dr. John 
B. Gregory, 1891; Rev. John W. Norton, 
1894; Rev. R. A. Thompson, 1902. 

Presidents, Board of Trustees. — Judge 
Daniel Coleman, 1843-1857; William Rich- 
ardson, 1857-1867; George S. Houston, 1867- 
187 — ; John Tanner, 1879-1892; Benton 
Sanders, 1892-1896; W. T. Sanders, 1896 . 

Presidents. — Rev. Dr. Richard H. Rivers, 
1843-1849; Rev. Dr. Benjamin Hubbard, 
1849-1852; Rev. Smith W. Moore, 1852-1853; 
Rev. Isham Finley, 1853-1855; Prof. George 
E. Naff, 1855-1858; Mrs. Jane Hamilton 
Childs, 1858-1867; Rev. James M. Wright, 
1867-1873; Rev. James K. Armstrong, 1873- 
1877; Prof. C. Lozo Smith, 1877-1883; Dr. 
Wm. A. Rogers, 1883-1884; Mrs. Lila Thoch, 
protem, 1884; Rev. Dr. Marcus G. Williams, 
1884-1892; Dr. Howard Key, 1892-1893; 
Rev. Dr. Virgil O. Hawkins, 1893-1895; Rev. 
Dr. Zach A. Parker, 1895-1898; Dr. H. W. 
Browder, 1898-1900; Rev. Hiram G. Davis, 
1900-1902; Rev. Dr. E. M. Glenn, 1902-1904; 
Miss Mary Norman Moore (now wife of 


Bishop James H. McCoy), 1904-1916; Rev. 
B. B. Glasgow, 1916 — . 

Refekences. — Miss Mary N. Moore, History 
of Athens College (1916); Acts, 1S42-43, p. 86; 
West, History of Methodism in Alabama 
(1893), pp. 631-633; Catalogues, 1887-1917; 
Calendar. 1912; The Oracle (annual) 1908-1914, 
ill.; The Athenian (periodical) 1904-1910; 
Maid of Athens, ill., 1914-1915. 

ATHLETICS. Systematized play or sport, 
so planned as to bring about improved physi- 
cal development, as well as the encourage- 
ment of contests through organized games. 
In pioneer times the physical exercise de- 
manded in exploration, tne clearing of 
forests, the planting, tilling and harvesting 
of crops, and other labors of the field and 
farm, and in the chose, practically absorbed 
all of the energies of both young and old. 
And yet throughout the colonial and pioneer 
periods, contests of physical strength and 
prowess very generally obtained among all 
classes. Among the Indians the "ball play" 
and the "chunkee game," elsewhere described, 
were the favorites, and indeed practically 
the only forms of vigorous physical exercise 
among the aborigines, in which the element 
of play entered. Among the early settlers, 
there were such games as running, jumping, 
wrestling, climbing, and lifting. Among boys 
town ball, hide and seek, chasing the fox, 
jumping the rope and bull pen obtained. 
At times the physical strength of the men, 
and indeed whole communities, were put to 
the test through brawls and free-for-all fights. 
On election days, court days, sales days, and 
sometimes at camp meetings and other re- 
ligious gatherings, such fights would take 
place. The wealthier young men engaged in 
such sports as riding, horse racing and fox 
hunting. The Confederate war period found 
a vigorous and healthy manhood ready to en- 
list in the ranks for the defense of the con- 
tentions of the south and southern leaders, 
and their endurance, under conditions of the 
most trying and discouraging character, for 
4 weary years, in which they were often half 
fed and half clad, indicates their physical 
preparation and equipment. 

However, the employment of physical ex- 
ercise tor the purpose of keeping the body 
fit and in health was of later development; 
and it was not until within the last 4 years 
that athletics, as at present commonly under- 
stood, found a place in the life of the state. 
The dates are uncertain, since the growth of 
interst in the subject was so gradual as to 
practically leave no trace of beginnings. Base- 
ball in its new form found a ready place in 
all the schools, and was the first of the so- 
called professional and intercollegiate games 
introduced. Just when league games came 
to be regularly played in Alabama has not 
been ascertained, but Birmingham, Mobile 
and Montgomery have been league towns for 
at least a quarter of a century. 

Athletics at the University. — In its present 
f.orm athletics at the University of Alabama 
has had its development since 1887. Prior 
to that time students received their physical 

training from service in the corps of cadets. 
All students not physically disabled were en- 
rolled in one of the other of the cadet corps, 
and were required to do regular military duty, 
including daily drill. Dr. Eugene A. Smith 
is authority for the statement, however, that 
very soon after the reorganization of the Uni- 
versity in 1871, baseball aroused the interest 
of the students, who early caught the con- 
tagion of the great national game. Dr. James 
K. Powers, later president of the University, 
was captain of a baseball team during the 
first session after reorganization. During the 
period from 1872 to 1884 several clubs were 
organized. In 1878 a record is preserved of 
the Hiawatha, the Pastimes, and the Cal- 
hounians. Games were played under the 
Spalding rules. It appears that match games 
about this time were played in Tuscaloosa, 
Livingston, Selma and probably other points. 
The "curved ball" was brought to the Uni- 
versity by the present Judge Adrian S. Vande- 
graaff from Yale. In 18 84 on commencement 
day the Varsity nine played the Pastimes on 
the campus, winning by a score of 28 to 2. 
The following day Varsity went to Birming- 
ham and played the local team there, with a 
score of 15 to after five innings, during 
which not a Birmingham player reached first 
base. In the fall of 1889 Hugh Morrow be- 
came pitcher of the University team, and in 
that capacity he served until 1894. Dr. 
Smith, above quoted, states that he was the 
greatest pitcher the University ever had. 

Modern football at the University was in- 
troduced in 1893, with the organization of 
a team by William G. Little of Livingston, of 
which he was captain, and F. T. Bush man- 
ager. Of the old form of play Dr. Smith says: 
"Previous to that time the students played a 
game of football amongst themselves very 
differently constituted, for they chose sides 
and kicked the ball about over the campus. 
The ball was not touched by hand, and the 
side won which could force the ball perma- 
nently into the opponents' territory. Natur- 
ally there were many casualties resulting from 
this style of play, but they were never serious, 
being only in the form of barked shins." 
During the sea&ons of 1893 and 1894 no 
games were won by the University from other 
college teams. 

Track athletics dates from 1888. In that 
year a third of a mile cinder track was built. 
The first track contest in an annual field day 
exercise was with Tulane University, in which 
that institution won all events. Basketball 
was first played in 1903. About that time, 
or a little later, the first co-ed basketball 
team was organized. Details of tennis are not 
available, but a list of tennis players are to 
be found in the Corolla for 1892. Consider- 
able interest has been shown In cross-country 
running, in which the University has had 
many successes. 

Other Institutionsi. — In Howard College, 
Southern University, Birmingham College, 
Spring Hill College, Marion Institute and 
many other state, denominational and private 
institutions, well equipped gymnasiums are 
provided. These aids to physical development 



are not, however, confined to higher institu- 
tions, but numbers of high schools and 
smaller private institutions notably in the 
larger cities are so provided. Similar equip- 
ment will be found at the Alabama Girls' 
Technical School, Athens College, Woman's 
College of Alabama, and aiso in numerous 
other institutions devoted to the education of 
women. In many cases swimming pools have 
been opened, as at Athens College and 
Woman's College. Many inter-collegiate state 
games are played during the season, including 
baseball, football and basketball. From the 
smaller institutions the larger are recruited, 
and many stars on varsity teams first had 
their inspiration and preliminary preparation 
in old field schools, in high schools and 

Y. M. C. A. Athletics. — With the establish- 
ment of Young Men's Christian Association 
headquarters or rooms, one of the first of 
the many activities engaging these organiza- 
tions was the equipment of gymnasiums. Of 
course the character and extent of such equip- 
ment were dependent upon the strength of the 
several organizations. However, even in 
rented quarters, Y. M. C. A. boards have al- 
ways provided some form of physical exer- 
cise, and have otherwise emphasized the 
importance of physical development. In the 
associations at Birmingham, Mobile and 
Montgomery physical directors are provided. 
Athletic Clubs. — In the larger cities and 
towns athletic clubs, with more or less pre- 
tentious quarters, and in some cases in hand- 
some separate buildings, clubs are organized, 
having as their purpose the encouragement 
of organized sport, and the control of con- 
tests in their localities. The Birmingham 
Athletic Club is an admirable example of a 
well planned and well conducted club of this 
character. In some localities there are 
privately maintained athletic quarters, whose 
promotors not only afford the opportunity for 
physical training for young men, professional 
and non-professional athletes, but who con- 
duct contests in their localities in the absence 
of regularly organized clubs. 

Southern Inter-collesiate Athletic Associa- 
tion. — This associaton was formed in Atlanta, 
December 22, 1894. Some of the valuable 
results from organization were the definition 
of professionalism, provision for a tribunal 
to determine contests, the trial of players, 
the organization of games, etc. Its individual 
members are scattered throughout the south. 
The Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Howard 
College and the University of Alabama are 
members of the association. 

RAUjWAY COMPANY. Chartered under the 
general laws of Alabama, February 14, 1906; 
and also under the laws of Florida. The 
road extends from Dothan, Ala., to Panama 
City, Fla.; mileage operated June 30, 1915 — 
main track and branches, 84.38, side tracks, 
6.00, total, 90.38; mileage operated in Ala- 
bama — main track, 16; capital stock author- 
ized — common, $1,000,000, no preferred 
stock; actually issued, $300,000; shares, 

$100, voting power, one vote a share; and 
funded debt, $850,000. Practically the en- 
tire stock of this company is owned by the 
Enterprise Lumber Co. The company has 
trackage rights over the road of the St. 
Andrews Bay Railroad & Terminal Co. from 
Panama City to St. Andrews, Fla., a distance 
of 2.38 miles. It connects at Dothan with 
the Central of Georgia, and the Atlantic 
Coast Line railroads, and with the L. & N. 
Railroad at Cottondale, Fla. 

Reference. — Annual report to Ala. Public 
Service Commission, 1915. 

August 10, 1914, under the general laws of 
the State of Georgia, and represents the 
consolidation of several other railroad com- 
panies as noted below; mileage operated June 
30. 1915 — main track and branches, 642.22, 
side tracks, 177.56, total, 819.78; mileage 
operated in Alabama — main track and 
branches, 154.03; capital stock authorized 
and outstanding — $30,000,000; shares $100; 
voting power, one vote a share. — Annual Re- 
ports of Company to Ala. Public Service Com- 
mission, 1915 and 1916. 

The Atlanta, Birmingham & Atlantic Rail- 
road Co. was chartered April 20, 1905, in 
Georgia, for the purpose of building an ex- 
tension of the Atlantic & Birmingham Rail- 
way from Montezuma, Ga., to Birmingham, 
Ala., about 261 miles. The road was com- 
pleted as far as Talladega by October 1, 1907, 
and to Pelham, September 6, 1908, and on the 
same date trackage, passenger and freight 
terminal rights were leased from the Louis- 
ville & Nashville Railroad Co. (q. v.) between 
Pelham and Birmingham. 

On April 12, 1906. the Atlanta, Birming- 
ham & Atlantic Railroad Co. consolidated, 
without change of name, with the Atlantic & 
Birmingham Railway Co., a Georgia corpora- 
tion, and about the same time it acquired 
control of the Alabama Terminal Co. whose 
terminal facilities in the city of Birmingham 
it still uses. On July 1, the Eastern Rail- 
way of Alabama, extending from Stockdale 
to Pyriton, 19.8 miles, was conveyed by deed 
to this company from the Louisville & Nash- 
ville Railroad Co. With this road, the A. B. 
& A. acquired the lease held by the Eastern 
Railway of Alabama on the Alabama North- 
ern Railway, between Pyriton and Ashland, 
7.15 miles. On July 1, 1907, the Alabama 
Northern Railway was purchased by the A. 
B. & A., payment being made in stock and 
bonds of the latter. On July 1, 1909, default 
was made on interest payments on the com- 
pany's bonds, and H. M. Atkinson and P. S. 
Arkwright were appointed receivers on Jan- 
uary 2, 1910. On March 19, S. F. Parrott 
was appointed coreceiver to succeed P. S. 
Arkwright, resigned. Because of Mr. Par- 
rott's death, H. M. Atkinson was appointed 
sole receiver on September 28. Later S. L. 
Schoonmaker was appointed coreceiver. In 
1913 E. T. Lamb was made sole receivey. 
The extension of the road from Pelham to 
Birmingham was completed and opened for 



traffic May 22, 1910. This completed the line 
from Brunswick, Ga., to the Birmingham dis- 
trict as originally planned, and the contract 
with the L. & N. Railroad Co. for trackage 
rights between Pelham and Birmingham and 
the use of its terminal facilities in Birming- 
ham was thereupon terminated. 

On July 5, 1913, Judge Don Pardee, of the 
Federal Court in Atlanta, Ga., upon petition 
of the Old Colony Trust Co., Boston. Mass., 
trustee of the first-mortgage bondholders, 
ordered foreclosure and sale of the property 
of the A. B. & A. Railroad Co., Georgia Termi- 
nal Co., and the Alabama Terminal Co. The 
sale was made on June 5 and 6, 1914, and 
the property of the three companies was bid 
in by Martin D. Wylly and Frederick Beltz — 
$4,641,000 for the A. B. & A. Railroad, $123,- 
500 for the Georgia Terminal, and $715,000 
for the Alabama Terminal, the sale subject to 
all existing charges and obligations. The 
court reserved the right to resume possession 
of and resell the property if the terms of the 
sale were not complied with. The purchasers 
reorganized the company under the name of 
the Birmingham & Atlantic Railway Co. in 
August, 1914, but later notified the court 
that, on account of financial conditions, they 
were unable to complete the purchase. Ac- 
cordingly, on December 1, Judge Pardee, 
again placed the property in the receivers' 
hands who operated it for the bondholders 
until December 30, 1915, when the purchasers 
finally complied with the terms of the sale, 
and the court ordered the delivery of all the 
properties of the three companies to the At- 
lanta, Birmingham & Atlantic Railway Co. at 
midnight, December 31, 1915. The combined 
properties have been operated by the reorgan- 
ized company since the last-mentioned date. 

Reference. — Poor's manual of railroads; 1905, 
et seq. 


Chartered in Virginia, March 14. 1836; 
mileage operated June 30, 1915 — main track 
and branches, 5,029.37, side tracks, 1,145.07, 
total, 6,174.44; mileage operated in Alabama 
- — main track and branches, 247.61, side 
tracks, 48.65, total 296.26; capital stock 
authorized — common, $100,000,000, no pre- 
ferred stock; actually issued, $68,754,700; 
shares, $100; voting power, one vote a share; 
and funded debt, $136,493,135. — Annual Re- 
port of the Company to Alabama Railroad 
Commission, 1915. 

The history of this company in Alabama 
began with its absorption of the Savannah, 
Florida & Western Railway Co., (known as 
the Plant System,) on July 1, 1902. The 
latter was organized on November 26, 1879, 
by the purchasers of the old Atlantic & Gulf 
Railroad Co., of Georgia, which had been 
sold under foreclosure on November 4, 1879. 

In July, 1890, the Plant Investment Co., 
which controlled the Savannah, Florida & 
Western, acquired a controlling interest in 
the Alabama Midland Railroad Co. The last- 
named company was chartered under the 
Alabama general laws in March, 1887, and 
in Georgia in October. The two companies 

were consolidated October 22, 1888, and the 
entire line from Bainbrldge, Ga., to Mont- 
gomery, Ala., 175 miles, and a branch from 
Sprague Junction to Luverne, 33.5 miles, 
were completed. Upon its purchase by the 
"Plant System," the Alabama Midland was 
merged with the Savannah, Florida & West- 
ern Railway. 

On September 2, 1901, the latter company 
purchased and consolidated into its system, 
the Southwestern Alabama Railway Co., 
chartered in 1897 for the purpose of building 
a railroad between Newton and Elba, 37.22 
miles. The road was opened throughout in 
October, 1898. The company was a subsidiary 
of the "Plant System" from the first and 
never owned any rolling stock. 

The Savannah, Florida & Western Railway 
Co. was merged with the Atlantic Coast Line 
Railroad Co. on July 1, 1902, as shown above. 
In October of the same year the new com- 
pany arranged to obtain the control of the 
Louisville & Nashville Railroad Co. (q. v.), 
by the purchase of $30,600,000 of its capital 
stock for the sum of $50,000,000. The pur- 
chase was completed February 14, 1903, pay- 
ment being made, $10,000,000 in cash, 
$5,000,000 in Atlantic Coast Line common 
stock, and $35,000,000 in Atlantic Coast Line 
4 per cent 50-year gold bonds. 

With the Savannah, Florida & Western, the 
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Co. acquired the 
old Abbeville Southern Railway, between 
Grimes and Abbeville, 26.9 miles. This com- 
pany was chartered under general laws of 
Alabama, September 27, 1892, and opened its 
road, December 1, 1893. On September 2, 
1901, the road was merged into the Savan- 
nah, Florida & Western, as shown above. 

The Atlantic Coast Line Railroad Co. and 
the Louisville & Nashville Railroad Co. are 
joint lessees of the Georgia Railroad (q. v.). 

References. — Poor's mnyuial of rniVroads: 
Atlantic Coast Line R. R. Co., Annual reports, 

ATMOBE. Post office and incorporated 
town, in the southwestern corner of Escambia 
County, on the main line of the Louisville 
& Nashville Railroad. Altitude: 281 feet. 
Population: 1910 — 1,060. It was settled in 
1870, and incorporated in 1907, under the 
general municipal code. The corporate lim- 
its extend 1 % miles north and south and 
1 V4 miles east and west. 

The town has electric lights, sewerage sys- 
tem, and waterworks. The First National 
Bank, and the Bank of Atmore (State), take 
care of the financial interests of the com- 
munity. The Atmore Record, a Democratic 
weekly newspaper, established in 1903, is 
published there. Its industries consist of an 
Ice plant, electric-light plant of the Carney 
mills, and the Carney lumber plant, capacity 
75,000 feet daily. More than 100 car loads 
of strawberries and peaches are shipped an- 
nually from Atmore. Besides the city public 
schools, It has the Escambia County High 
School. Its churches are the Methodist 
Episcopal, South; Baptist; and Episcopal. 

Previous to the coming of the railroad, the 



locality was settled by William L. Williams, 
whose establishment was situated at the 
crossing of the Monroeville and Pensacola, 
and the Brewton and Bay Minette public 
roads. Upon the completion of the railroad, 
the station was called Williams Station in 
honor of the first settler. In 1895, the name 
was changed to Atmore, for C. P. Atmore, 
general passenger agent of the Louisville & 
Nashville Railroad. 

Although of comparatively recent develop- 
ment, the town of Atmore is in historic 
country. Nearby is a small Indian reserva- 
tion on which there are still about 45 Indians. 
The former home and the grave of the 
famous Indian chief, William Weatherford, 
are on Little River across the line in the 
northern part of Baldwin County. 

Refeeences. — Northern Alabama (1888), p. 
235; Alabama Official and Statistical Register, 

ATTAIiLA. Post office and incorporated 
town in the central part of Etowah County, 
sec. 3, T. 12, R. 5, E., on the main lines of 
the Louisville & Nashville, Alabama Great 
Southern, and Nashville, Chattanooga & St. 
Louis railroads. 214 miles west of Alabama 
City, 5 miles west of Gadsden, 195 miles west 
of Atlanta, Ga., 55 miles southwest of Rome, 
Ga., 92 miles south of Chattanooga, Tenn., 
and 6 9 miles north of Birmingham. It is on 
the Huntsville and Tuscaloosa public road; 
and is situated on the plateau of Lookout 
Mountain, at its southern extremity, and 
within 5 miles of the Coosa River. Altitude: 
530 feet. Population: 1872 — 300; 1888 — 
400; 1912 — 2,513; 1916 — 4.000. The Mer- 
chants' & Farmers' Bank (State), and the 
Attalla Bank (State) are located in the town. 
and the Attalla Herald, a Democratic semi- 
weekly newspaper, established in 1888, is 
published there. Its industries are a pipe 
plant; hosiery mills; 50 coke ovens; 2 cotton 
ginneries; 2 cotton compresses, one operated 
by electricity; 2 marble yards; a foundry; 2 
stave and heading mills; 1 cottonseed oil 
mill; 1 grain and mixed-feed mill; ore and 
coal mines; marble and sandstone quarries; 
ice plant; waterworks; and electric light and 
power plants owned by the city, but leased 
to and operated by the Alabama Power Co., 
at Gadsden. 

The town was founded in 1870, on land 
donated by W. C. Hammond, and was incor- 
porated February 5, 1872. It has a city hall; 
i?oncrete jail; fire department, partly volun- 
teer, partly paid; a water system equipped 
with standpipe on the mountain-side, develop- 
ing by gravity a pressure of 60 pounds or 
more in the mains; 7 miles of sanitary 
sewerage; gas and electric light plants; 
cherted streets; 5 miles of paved sidewalks; 
and electric street railway connecting it with 
Alabama City and Gadsden. 

Attalla has Methodist Episcopal, South, 
Baptist, Presbyterian, Cumberland Presby- 
terian, Christian, and Seventh Day Adventist 
churches. The site for the first church was 
given for that purpose by Judge Henry Per- 
kins in 1870. The Etowah County High 

School is located there, and it also has good 
public schools, as well as public playgrounds 
and parks in the heart of the city. 

The town occupies the site of an Indian 
village which was of considerable importance 
during the Creek War. It was the home of 
Capt. John. Brown, a famous Indian, whose 
daughters, Catherine and Anna, established 
the Creek-Path Town Mission School in 1820, 
with the assistance of Mr. and Mrs. Potter 
and D. S. Butterick of the Tennessee Mission. 
The first white settler among the Indians was 
John Radcliff, 1800. The settlement was first 
known as "Atale," meaning "the farming 
Indians." It was here that David Brown, an 
Indian, assisted Rev. D. S. Butterick in the 
preparation of the "Cherokee Spelling Book." 
In 1859, John S. Moragne bought mineral 
lands at Attalla and sunk what was probably 
the first mine shaft in northeast Alabama. In 
1871, he shipped the first ore out of the 
State to Wheeling, W. Va. Other early 
settlers were W. C. Hammond, Henry Per- 
kins, Dr. Thomas Edwards. Rev. James Scales, 
John Latham, E. J. Holcomb, and A. Gray, 
the first postmaster. 

The first post office was established 1 mile 
from the present site, and was known as Ben- 
nettsville. In addition to its industrial 
interests, Attalla is noted as a cotton market, 
not only for Etowah County, but for the con- 
tiguous counties. More than 75,000 bales 
were warehoused and shipped in 1915. 

The Indian relics of the vicinity are "Kusa- 
nunchi," or Creek-Path; and "Tsu-sanya- 
sah," Ruins-of-a-Great-City; and the site of 
the home of Capt. John Brown. 

References. — Acts. 1871, pp. 261-264; Brewer, 
Alabama (1872); Armes, Story of coal and iron 
in Alabama (1910); Northern Alabama (1888), 
rp. 350, 354, 500; Pollc's Alabama gazetteer, 
1SS8-9; and Age-Herald, Birmingham, Ala., 
Oct. 10, 1915. 


.\TTOKNEY GEXERAL. One of the con- 
stitutional officers of the executive depart- 
ment of the State government. The supreme 
court can recognize no other representative, 
in proceedings before that tribunal in the 
name of the State. The attorney general is 
elected by the people for a term of four 
years; no person not 25 years of age, a citi- 
zen of the United States 7 years, and of the 
State 5 years next preceding his election is 
eligible to the office; he is prohibited from 
receiving any fees, costs or perquisites other 
than his prescribed salary; he may be re- 
moved only by impeachment before the State 
senate, for wilful neglect of duty, corruption 
in office, incompetency, intemperance, or an 
offense involving moral turpitude while in 
office, on charges preferred by the house of 
representatives; he is ineligible to succeed 
himself; and he must keep his oflace at the 
State capitol. 

His duties are to advise the executive offi- 
cers "in writing, or otherwise on any question 
of law connected with the interests of the 



State, or with the duties of any of the de- 
partments;" to "give his opinion to the chair- 
man of the judiciary committee of either 
house, when required, upon any matter under 
the consideration of the committee;" to pre- 
pare "all contracts and writings in relation to 
any matter in which the State is interested;" 
to represent the State in civil and criminal 
cases in the supreme court, and also in all 
causes "other than criminal" in the courts of 
Montgomery County, and "when required to 
do so by the governor, in writing, shall ap- 
pear in the courts of other states, or of the 
United States, in any cause in which the State 
may he interested in the result;" to superin- 
tend the collection of notes for school lands; 
to make a biennial report to the governor in 
every even-numbered year; to preserve copies 
of his opinions and correspondence; to keep 
dockets of civil suits and claims in his hands; 
to have charge of proceedings for the im- 
peachment of officers under section 174 of the 
constitution; and to represent the public 
service commission in proceedings instituted 
by or against it. The authority of the at- 
torney general, in the name of the State, to 
enjoin an unlawful rate affecting the public 
generally, was upheld by the supreme court 
in the case of State ex rel. Martin. Attorney 
General v. Louisville & Nashville R. R. Co., 
finally decided June 30, 1916. 

The powers and duties of the office were 
greatly enlarged in 1915. An act of Sep- 
tember 22 confers authority upon him in per- 
son or by an assistant to appear before any 
grand jury in the State, and to present- any 
matter or charge to them for investigation, 
and to prepare and present indictments to 
the grand jury for any violation of the laws 
of the State; and to superintend and direct, 
either in person or by assistant, either before 
or after indictment, the prosecution of any 
criminal cause in any of the courjs of the 
State. He is required to give circuit solicitors 
any opinion, instruction or advice necessary 
or proper to aid them in the discharge of 
their duties, either by circular or personal 
letter; and may direct any solicitor to assist 
in the investigation or prosecution of any 
cause in which the State is interested. He 
is authorized, whenever in his opinion the 
public interest requires it, to retain and 
employ, with the approval of the governor, 
such attorneys and counselors at law as he 
thinks necessary to the proper conduct of the 
public business; to incur such expenses as 
may be necessary in the investigation of viola- 
tions of the criminal law, in the prosecution 
of crime, and in the conduct, investigation 
and prosecution of any civil cause in which 
the State is interested or its revenues in- 
volved, and for the traveling expenses of 
himself, his assistants, and solicitors when 
traveling in obedience to the direction of the 
attorney general, in the performance of their 
duties, and such other incidental expenses of 
the office as may be necessary. Section 4 of 
this act is modeled on the Federal statute, 
under the terms of which the Attorney Gen- 
eral of the United States makes similar em- 

Ex Officio Duties. — In addition to his regu- 
lar duties, the attorney general is required to 
perform many ex officio services. In 1879, 
the governor, attorney general, and auditor, 
were constituted a board of compromise, 
which was authorized "to adjust, compromise 
and settle," claims of the State against any 
person or public officer, or his sureties, etc. 
In 1881, it became his duty to be present, 
with the governor and secretary of state, 
when the returns of all elections required by 
law to be sent to the latter were counted. 
Until the creation of the State board of 
equalization in 1915, supplanting the old 
State board of assessment of railroad prop- 
erty, he was required to attend every meet- 
ing of the latter, and assist with his advice, 
and, in cases where the board was equally 
divided on any question, to cast the deciding 

In 1893, the legislature required his pres- 
ence, with the treasurer and the secretary of 
state, at the destruction of all fertilizer tags 
remaining on hand in the ofRce of the com- 
missioner of agriculture at the end of the 
year, and it is his duty to proceed against 
the commissioner and his bondsmen for the 
value of such tags as are not accounted for 
within 60 days after the expiration of the 
year. Under the constitution of 1901 he is 
required to serve as a member of the State 
board of pardons; in 1903, he was appointed 
a member of the capitol building commission 
(q. V.) and in 1911, he received a similar 
appointment; in 1907, the governor, the 
superintendent of education, and the attor- 
ney general were named as a board for the 
compromise of State school lands; in 1911 he 
was made a member of the board of manag- 
ers of the State training school for girls; in 
1915, he was placed on the board of Confed- 
erate pension commissioners (q. v.), and a 
law reform commission (q. v.) to consider 
sundry subjects of legislation to be submitted 
to the next session of the legislature; and in 
1915, he was further required to examine the 
titles of sixteenth section lands, certified by 
the State superintendent of education and 
auditor as claimed adversely for more than 
20 years prior to May 1, 1908, and to advise 
the State whether or not a patent should 

Early History. — The office dates from 1807, 
when the territorial legislature provided for 
the appointment of an attorney general for 
certain specified portions of Mississippi Ter- 
ritory, one of which included the country now 
embraced within the State of Alabama. In 
1818, an act was passed, laying off Alabama 
Territory into three districts, and providing 
an attorney general in each, the compensa- 
tion of each to be $450 a year. The office 
was carried into the constitution of the State 
in 1819, the attorney general to be elected 
by joint vote of the legislature, and to hold 
office four years. Since 1876 he has been 
elected by the people. The constitution of 
1868 made the attorney general one of the 
executive officers of the State, the office prior 
to that date being classed with the judiciary. 
Soon after the formation of the State, the 



attorney general, in addition to other duties, 
was required to perform the duties of solici- 
tor in the judicial circuit which embraced the 
seat of the State government. The code of 
1852 required him to give bond in the sum 
of $10,000, or more when in the opinion of 
the governor the public interest demanded it. 
In 1866 the office was reorganized, and the 
powers and duties enlarged. 

Official Report.s. — Until the code of 18 67, 
section 108, subdivision 5. there was no re- 
quirement that the attorney general should 
make reports. The law referred to provided 
that he must in November annually make to 
the governor a report, in which among other 
things he should make such suggestions, tend- 
ing to the suppression of crime as he may 
deem proper. The present statutory require- 
ment is that he shall accompany his report 
"with such suggestions tending to the sup- 
pression of crime and the improvement of the 
criminal administration as he may deem 
proper." In 1884, the first printed report 
was issued, covering the period from October, 
1882, to October, 1884. These have appeared 
every two years regularly from that date 
through 1916. However, there was no pro- 
vision for printing the report until the adop- 
tion of an act of February 21, 1893, amend- 
ing the subdivision referred to, which also 
materially enlarged the scope of the contents 
of the report. This also prescribed that the 
report "also contain such opinions of the 
attorney general as may be deemed of public 
interest." The biennial report for 1894-1896 
was the first to contain copies of such opin- 
ions. These have appeared regularly, with 
one or two exceptions, in subsequent reports 
and constitute an interesting body of litera- 
ture, particularly in the field of official ad- 
ministration. State and county. The reports 
include statements of the number of criminal 
cases disposed of in the entire year, as shown 
by reports of solicitors, the number of convic- 
tions, the number of acquittals, number of 
nolle prosequies, number of cases appealed or 
otherwise disposed of, number of sentences to 
death, number of sentences to the peniten- 
tiary, number of other sentences, including 
fines, with totals. 

Salaries, Terms and Assistants. — The sal- 
ary of the first attorney general of Mississippi 
Territory was $450 a year; in 1819 he was 
allowed $6 25 a year, with fees for prosecu- 
tions in circuit courts and in the supreme 
court which were allowed solicitors for like 
services; in 183 3 the salary was again re- 
duced to $425, with fees; in 1866, it was in- 
creased to $2,000; in 1876, it was again 
reduced to $1,500; in 1890, it was increased 
to $2,500, with no fees or commissions; and 
In 1907, it was increased to $3,000, which he 
now receives. 

The term of ofliice from the first was four 
years, but the constitution of 1868 reduced 
this to two years. It was fixed at four years 
in 1901, and has not since been changed. 

He was allowed no clerical assistance until 
189 6, when the code authorized the employ- 
ment of a clerk at a salary of $600. In 1903, 
the clerk's salary was increased to $1,000 a 

year; in 1907 an assistant attorney general, 
at $1,500 a year, was authorized; also the 
employment of a stenographer, at $750, which 
in 1909 was increased to $900. In 1911 an 
additional assistant attorney general was 
authorized at a salary of $1,800 per annum. 
In 1915, authority was given to employ such 
clerical assistance in his office as he consid- 
ered necessary and to fix their compensation, 
with the approval of the governor. In 1915 
the assistants were required to execute a bond 
in a surety company for $3,000 each. 

In the same year appropriations were made 
for salaries of himself, his assistants and 
clerical force, as follows: attorney general, 
$3,000; first assistant. $1,800; second assist- 
ant, $1,500; stenographer, $900. 

Attorneys General. — Henry Hitchcock, 
1819-1823; Thomas White. 1823-1825; Con- 
stantine Perkins. 1825-1832; Peter Martin, 
1832-1836; Alexander B. Meek, 1836; John 
D. Phelan, 1836-1838; Lincoln Clark, 1838- 
1839; Matthew W. Lindsay, 1839-1843; 
Thomas D. Clarke, 1843-1847; William H. 
Martin. 1847; Marion A. Baldwin, 1847-1865; 
John W. A. Sanford, 1865-1868; Joshua 
Morse, 1868-1870; John W. A. Sanford, 
1870-1872; Benjamin Gardner, 1872-1874; 
John W. A. Sanford, 1874-1878; Henry C. 
Tompkins, 1878-1884; Thomas N. McClellan, 
1884-1889; William L. Martin, 1889-1894; 
William C. Fitts, 1894-1898; Charles G. 
Brown, 1898-1903; Massey Wilson, 1903- 
1907; Alexander M. Garber, 1907-1911; Rob- 
ert C. Brickell, 1911-1915; William L. Mar- 
tin, 1915- 

PtTHLiCATioNS. — Bietittial Reports. 1882-1916, 
16 vols.; Wm. C. Fitts, Attorney General, Title 
to real estate of Alabama Girls' Industrial 
School (1895); and numerous Briefs in cases 
in the Court of Appeals and in the Supreme 
Court of Alabama, and in the United States 
Supreme Court. 

T?F.FERENCES. — Constitution, 1901, sees. 124, 
174; Toulmin, Digest. 1823, pp. 24, 25, 681; 
Aikin, Digest. 1833, p. 368; Codes. 1852, sec. 71; 
1867, sees. 108, 109; 1876, sees. 110, 243; 1886, 
sees. 70, 500, 501; 1896, sec. 2031; 1907, sees. 
422, 634-640, 1593, 5723, 7125; General Acts. 
1915, pp. 719-721; Ex parte State. 113 Ala. p. 
85. See Supreme Court Reports for various 
impeachment cases, passim. In the three cases 
of the State ex rel. Daly. State ex rel. Turner. 
pnd State ex rel. Martin v. Henderson. 74 
Southern Reporter, p. 344, the supreme court 
passed upon the act of September 22, 1915, and 
defined the respective powers of the governor 
and attorney general. The briefs In these cases 
are imoortant contributions to the history of 
the office, and of the many interesting and 
important points raised. The authority of the 
attorney general to enjoin rates is reported in 
the case of the State ex rel. Martin. Attorney 
General, v. Louisvillr d- Xashville R. R. Co.. 
72 Southern Reporter, p. 496; and for a review 
of the case involving the authority of the at- 
torney general see Briefs for Appellant. 
The daily newspapers for 1916 carry full pro- 
ceedings incident to the Girard liquor raids and 
the Madison County prosecutions, conducted 




AUBURN. Post office, educational center 
and incorporated town, in the central part of 
Lee County, on the Western Railway of Ala- 
bama, 7 miles west of Opelika, about 30 miles 
southwest of West Point, 5 9 miles northeast 
of Montgomery, and 3 2 miles northwest of 
Columbus, Ga. Altitude: 698 feet. Popula- 
tion: 1870—1,018; 1880—1,000; 1890— 
1,440; 1900 — 1,447; 1910 — 1,408. The lo- 
cality was settled at an early date. When the 
town was incorporated, it was a part of 
Macon County. It has electric lights, water- 
works, well drained streets, and sidewalks. 

Among the early settlers were the Mitchel. 
Frazer, Moore, Nunn, Harris, Hurst, Hurt, 
Wright, Samford, Gay, Cobb, Cooper, Cullars, 
Holifield, McElhaney, Grout, Gachet, Lamp- 
kin, Drake, Bedell, Bostick, Reese, Riley, Dil- 
lard and Glenn families, who came from 1835 
to 1850. The Wimberly, Dowdell and Har- 
rison families came later. 

In 1858, the Alabama Conference Methodist 
Episcopal. South, established a college at 
Auburn, called the East Alabama Male Col- 
lege (q. v.). It had a fine record, but had 
hardly entered upon its career, when the 
exigencies of war closed its doors. In 1872. 
the institution was presented to the State of 
Alabama as a nucleus for the Agricultural 
and Mechanical College, now Alabama Poly- 
technic Institute. 

References. — Brewer, Alabama (1872), p. 
316; northern Alabama (1888), pp. 143 et seq.; 
Polk's Alabayna gazetteer. 1888-9; Alabama Offi- 
cial and Statistical Register. 1915. 

ciety of former graduates and students of the 
Alabama Polytechnic Institute. 

The headquarters of the Association are at 
Auburn, with Leslie L. Gilbert. Executive 
Secretary. John V Denson, Opelika is Presi- 
dent. Moses F. Kahn. Montgomery. Vice Presi- 
dent, Jerry Gwin, Birmingham, Second Vice- 
President, are the officers, and W. H. 
Blake, Sheffield, Elery Edwards, New York, 
A. C. Crowder, Birmingham, Thomas Bragg, 
Birmingham. Haygood Paterson, Montgomery, 
J. Oliver Sims, Pensacola, John P. lllges, Co- 
lumbus, Ga., and Walker Reynolds, Anniston, 
form the Executive committee or Council. 

Local Chapters of the Association are lo- 
cated at: Auburn, Birmingham, Montgom- 
ery, Dothan, Columbus, Ga., New York City, 
Pittsburgh, Pa. 

The Association publishes the Auburn 
Alumnus, established in 1913. James R. Rut- 
land was editor-in-chief 1913-1920. L. L. 
Gilbert, Secretary of the Association, is now 

References. — The Auburn Alumnus, flies In 
Alabama Department of Archives and History. 

PANY. See Mobile and Girard Railroad 

AUCHEUCAULA. A Creek Indian town 
in Talladega County, on the north side of 
Ochuecola Creek, a short distance above its 
influx into the Coosa River. A part of the 
town may have been in Coosa County. On 
modern maps the alternative name is Peck- 
erwood Creek. 

Refefe.nce. — Bureau of American Ethnology, 
Eighteenth Annual Report (1899), pt. 2, map 
1; LaTourrette, Map of Alabama (1838). 

AUDITOR, THE STATE. One of the con- 
stitutional offices of the executive department 
of the State government. He is elected by 
the people for a term of four years; no per- 
son not 2 5 years of age, a citizen of the 
United States 7 years, and of the State 5 years 
next preceding his election is eligible to the 
office; he is prohibited from receiving any 
fees, costs or perquisites other than his pre- 
scribed salary; he may be removed only by 
impeachment before the State senate, for 
wilful neglect of duty, corruption in office, 
incompetency, intemperance, or an offense in- 
volving moral turpitude while in office, on 
charges preferred by the house of representa- 
tives; he is ineligible to succeed himself; 
and he must keep his office at the State 

He is required by section 137 of the consti- 
tution to make a full and complete report to 
the governor, at a time fixed by the legisla- 
ture, showing "the receipts and disbursements 
of every character, all claims audited and paid 
out, by items, and all taxes and revenues col- 
lected and paid into the treasury, and the 
sources thereof." He has full supervision over 
all phases of the State's fiscal affairs; receipts 
and disbursements are made upon his certifi- 
cation or warrant, and in his office are kept 
detailed accounts of the financial operations 
of all the State departments together with all 
State revenues and taxes, and of school funds, 
trust funds, special funds, and funds arising 
from the sale of public lands; of the State 
bonds issued and redeemed and all interest 
payments. He is required to audit and ad- 
just the accounts of all public officers; keep a 
regular account with every person in each 
county who is by law authorized to collect 
and receive any part of the State revenue; 
to ad.iust all claims against the State; to 
prescribe the forms to be used by all public 
officers in collecting, keeping account of and 
making returns of all State revenues; to have 
printed immediately after each session of the 
legislature, all revenue laws passed at such 
sessions; to proceed against all defaulters as 
provided by law. In the report required by 
the constitution to be made to the governor, 
he must include a detailed statement of all 
payments made from the contingent fund, and 
must "perform such other duties in relation 
to the fiscal affairs of the state as are, or may 
be required of him by law." It is further 
provided that, "the enforcement of the reve- 
nue laws of the State shall be under the gen- 
eral supervision and direction of the state 


auditor, who shall, by general rules, and, if 
need be, by special instructions, direct the 
tax assessors and tax collectors in the dis- 
charge of their duties." 

To carry on the work and duties imposed 
clerical help is authorized, namely, a chief 
clerk, a warrant clerk, a general bookkeeper, 
a land clerk, a filing clerk, a pension clerk 
and a stenographer. 

Coniptioller of Public Accounts. — The office 
was created as the comptroller of public 
accounts by the first State constitution, elec- 
tions being made annually by joint vote of 
both houses of the legislature. It was a sur- 
vival under the State organization of the 
Territorial auditor of public accounts, first 
provided for in the government of Mississippi 
Territory by an act of the legislative council 
and house of representatives, March 1, 1806, 
which authorized the governor to appoint, 
"for the time being," an auditor of public 
accounts. The office, under the same title 
and with the same duties and powers, was 
carried into the organization of the govern- 
ment of Alabama Territory by act of Con- 
gress, approved March 3, 1817. 

The constitution of 1819 provided that 
"the comptroller of public accounts shall per- 
form the duties and be subject to the re- 
sponsibilities heretofore appertaining to the 
office of auditor of public accounts." The 
office under the same title was retained in the 
constitution of 1861, but provision was made 
for biennial elections by joint vote of both 
houses of the legislature. The constitution 
of 1865 made no change in the office nor In 
the mode of election, but that of 1868 
changed the title to that of auditor, and pro- 
vided for his choosing by the electors of the 
State "at the time and places at which they 
shall vote for representatives." In the con- 
stitution of 1875 the title was changed to 
"State Auditor," and the term of office from 
four to two years, but the mode of election 
remained the same. That of 1901 changed 
only the term of office, again making it four 
instead of two years. 

Duties as to Lands. — The auditor has from 
the beginning had control of the lands in the 
possession of the State from tax sales. On 
June 19, 1915, the legislature placed him in 
charge of all lands under State jurisdiction, 
and authorized the appointment of a land 
clerk In his office, who superseded the former 
state land agent (q. v.) appointed by the 
governor. Section 1 of the act provides, 
"that the State auditor shall have charge of 
all lands which have been sold to the State 
for taxes unpaid; all '16th section' lands; 
all school indemnity lands; the salt springs 
reservation; and all swamp and overflowed 
lands, and of all papers, documents and 
records relating thereto, except those which 
are required by law to be kept in the office 
of the secretary of State." 

Confederate Pensions. — The beginning of 
the auditor's connection with Confederate 
pensions was the passage of the law of Feb- 
ruary 19, 1867, providing for furnishing, 
upon the comptroller's order, of artificial 
limbs to maimed soldiers, or in lieu thereof, 

the payment of the sum of $100 to soldiers 
who were too badly maimed to be benemed 
by an artificial limb. By an act of March 4, 
1901, all applications, records of decisions of 
county and State pension boards and other 
records pertaining to Alabama pensions, were 
required to be handled through the auditor's 
office, and warrants for pensions Issued by 
him. He was also required to keep an alpha- 
betical register, according to counties, of the 
names of all pensioners and their post offices. 
To assist in handling this work, he was 
authorized to employ a combination stenog- 
rapher and pension clerk at a salary of $900 
a year. In 1915 the legislature authorized 
the appointment of a pension clerk, at an 
annual salary of $1,500, who is also the sec- 
retary of the Alabama Pension Commission. 

Insurance Supervision. — Under act of Feb- 
ruary 24, 1860, it was made the duty of the 
comptroller to issue certificates authorizing 
insurance companies chartered by other 
States to transact business in this State. The 
auditor's office continued the supervision of 
insurance until 1897, when this duty was 
transferred to the office of the secretary of 

Ex Officio Duties. — The state auditor's ex 
officio duties, at different times, have been: 
In 1875, membership in the board for the 
assessment of railroad property, which in 
1885 became the State board ot assessment, 
of which he was also a member; in 1879, the 
governor, attorney general and auditor were 
authorized to compromise and settle claims 
of the State against any person or any public 
officer, or his sureties; in 1889, he was made 
a member of a committee, with the governor, 
and the treasurer, to approve the contract 
made by the secretary of state for newspaper 
publication of all laws passed by the legisla- 
ture at each session; in 19 3, he was made 
a member of the capltol building commission; 
in 1915, he became a member of the State 
board of purchase, the board of Confederate 
pension commissioners, and was continued on 
the State board of registrars. 

Term of Office. — The term of office of the 
auditor of public accounts of Mississippi Ter- 
ritory, as of Alabama Territory, was inde- 
terminate, the governor being authorized to 
make the appointment "for the time being." 
No clerical assistance was provided. Under 
the constitution of 1819 he was to be elected 
annually, and by an act of February 10, 1852, 
was authorized to employ a clerk whose 
official acts should be presumed to be by 
authority of the comptroller, but who was 
held responsible therefor. The constitution 
of 1861 made the term of office two years, 
and that of 1868 increased it to four years, 
but in 18 75 it was changed to two years, and 
finally in 1901, it was fixed at four years. 

Auditors. — (Comptrollers) Samuel Pick- 
ens, 1819-1829; George W. Crabb, 1829- 
1836; Jefferson C. VanDyke, 1836-1848; Joel 
Riggs, 1848-1855; William J. Greene, 1855- 
1865; Malcolm A. Chisholm, 1865-1868; 
(Auditors) Robert M. Reynolds, 1868-1872; 
Robert T. Smith, 1872-1876; Willis Brewer, 
1876-1880; J. Malcolm Carmichael, 1880- 



1884; Malcolm C. Burke, 1884-1888; Cyrus 
D. Hogue, 1888-1892; John Purifoy, 1892- 
1896; Walter S. White, 1896-1900; Thomas 
L. Sowell, 1900-1905; J. Malcolm Carmichael, 
1905-1907; William W. Brandon, 1907-1911; 
C. Brooks Smith, 1911-1915; Miles C. All- 
good, 1915-. 

PuBLicATios. — Reports, 1819-1915. 

See Executive Department; Insurance; In- 
surance, Department of. 

References. — Constitution, 1901, sees. 70, 
137; Code. 1907, sees. 597-615; General Acts, 
1915, pp. 36, 217, 239, 479, 719, 891; Reports, 

AUSTIXVILLE. A village in Morgan 
County, about one half mile west of Al- 
bany, (formerly New Decatur), with a popu- 
lation of about 800. mostly employees in the 
Louisville and Nashville Railroad shops who 
own their own homes. It was incorporated 
in 1907 under the statute and named tor 
V. L. Austin, who formerly owned the land. 
It has a drug store, several mercantile stores, 
a good school building and several churches. 
Population: 1910 — 1,058; 1920—1,670. 

References. — Official and Statistical Register, 
1920, Mss. in Department of Archives and 

AVTAUG.A COUNTY. Created by the leg- 
islature. November 30, 1818. It was formed 
from Montgomery County; by act of Decem- 
ber 13, 1820, the boundaries in the north 
and northwest, were enlarged; and January 
12. 1827, the line between Autauga and 
Shelby Counties was more definitely fixed. 
In 1868 part of its territory was taken to 
establish the new counties of Chilton (first 
Baker) and Elmore on the north and east. 
It was named for Autauga Creek, a bold 
stream running through the county. The 
creek received its designation from the In- 
dian village of that name, situated below the 
point where the creek runs into the Alabama 
River. (See Atagi.) Its area is 584 square 
miles, or 373,760 acres. 

The act creating the county provided that 
for the time being court should be held "at 
Jackson's mill, on the Autauga Creek," but, 
for the want of necessary buildings, might 
"adjourn to such other place contiguous 
thereto as may seem most proper." The leg- 
islature, November 22, 1819, named Robert 
Gaston, Zachariah Pope, Alsey Pollard. Alex- 
ander R. Hutchinson, and Zaccheus Powell, 
as commissioners to "fix on a site for the 
public buildings" in the county, and to con- 
tract for and superintend the building of "a 
suitable courthouse, jail, and pillory." They 
were paid the modest sum of $15 each for 
their services. The town of Washington was 
chosen. It was located on the Alabama River 
at the mouth of Autauga Creek, and on the 
site of the Indian village of Atagi. It was 
one of the first settled portions of the county. 
The first houses were erected in 1817. For 
about 15 years it held a position of import- 
ance in the political, social and business life 
of the county. 

Because of the location of Washington in 

the extreme southern part of the county, 
there was much dissatisfaction, and the leg- 
islature, December 28, 1827, authorized a 
vote to be taken at the general election in 
August, 1828, "for the purpose of ascertain- 
ing the wishes of the citizens of said county, 
with regard to the removal of the seat of 
justice from its present location, to. or near 
the center of said county." The sheriff was 
directed to certify the result to each of the 
members of the legislature from the county, 
but what the vote was is not available. Pos- 
sibly it was in favor of retaining Washington 
as the county seat. However, on December 2, 
1830, the legislature appointed John Essel, 
John Hunt, Francis Baker, Enoch Islands and 
Henley Brown as commissioners to select a 
seat of justice, having due regard "to cen- 
trality, population, health and general con- 

The commissioners selected a site near the 
center of the county, which was called Kings- 
ton. The place was without other advantages 
than its central location, and a Wetumpka 
editor denominated it the "Great Sahara." 
During its existence as the county seat it had 
only a limited population. 

The legislature removed the county seat to 
Prattville, December 12, 1868, and Kingston 
became a deserted village. It is no longer a 
post oflice, and maps designate the site as Old 
Kingston. About two miles away the name 
is preserved as a station on the Mobile & 
Ohio Railroad. 

Location and Phy.sical Description. — It lies 
in the central part of the State, wholly within 
the Coastal Plain, or agricultural district, 
and is bounded on the north by Chilton, south 
by Lowndes, east by Elmore and Montgomery, 
and west by Dallas County. Its surface is 
undulating with a general trend south and 
east to the Alabama River. Geologically it 
lies upon a great pebble bed, which covers 
the line of contact of the metamorphic rocks 
and the Cretaceous formation. The northern 
part, more than two-thirds of its area, is hilly 
with a sandy and often gravelly soil. In the 
southern part the lands are sandy loam, with 
clay subsoil and are very productive. The 
central and western sections comprise red 
loam table lands, all highly productive. The 
lands of the southern section are calcareous. 
There are two outcroppings of rotten lime- 
stone in the county, one in township 17, the 
other below Dutch Bend on the Alabama 
River. Yellow ochre has been mined and 
marketed in limited quantities, but the supply 
is not commercially important. There is a 
bed of phosphatic greensand, a formation 
which is more extensively shown in Greene 
County. The entire area of the county is 
wooded, with long-leaf pine as its principal 
forest growth. Other trees are the various 
species of oak, hickory, short-leaf pine, mag- 
nolia, gum, walnut, beech and poplar. The 
Alabama River forms the southern boundary 
and Big Mulberry Creek, a part of its west- 
ern boundary. Aside from these, its water- 
courses are Autauga, Bear, Beaver, Bridge, 
Buck, Ivy, Little Mulberry, Mortar, Nowlands, 



Piney Woods, Swift, Whitewater and Yellow 
territory of the county inhabited by the All- 

LrJ? Z7JS irthe^^p ^A^ 

county. Altogether, the county has no im- 
portant aboriginal history. 

Along the Alabama River are found sonae 
evidencis of aboriginal occupancy but they 
are not numerous. Autauga (Atagi), an 
Alibamo town was situated below the mouth 
of Autauga Creek, which enters the river just 
above the present Washington ferry on the 
Montgomery and PrattviUe public road Op 1 
'T ako an Upper Creek town, possib y Ali- 
bamo was located in the county, but its site 
has never been determined. Arrow and 
spearpoints of flint are found in several sec 
tions but at no place in sufficient quantities 
to suggest the existence of workshop sites, as 
on thl^pposite side of the Alabama and on 
the Tallapoosa River, some nnl^s to the east. 
During the Creek War, 1813-14. Dutch 
Bend became a place of refuge tor the Creeks 
after their defeat at the Holy Ground. Here 
Weatherford-s wife, Sapoth Thlanie d;ed two 
days after the battle. Weatherford had a 
Jfantaton on the west bank of the river 
about a mile and a half below the mouth of 

'''sett'leme^t'' and Lat^r History. -SetUers 
entered its borders from the stream of migra- 
tion through old Fort Jackson in 1814 imme- 
diatelv following the close of the Cree^k War 
Its permanent settlers date from 1816, 1817 
and 1818, the number in the latter year 
being sufficient to call for the setting up of 
a 4arate county. Within the first fifteen 
years of its history, almost all of its best 
lands had been occupied, its population had 
become stable, and migration had set in from 
among its people to other parts of the Old 

^"Amonfthe early residents of the county 
were. Gov. Wm. W. Bibb, John A. Elmore 
Sr., Boiling Hall, Sr., James Jackson, Robert 
Gaston, Jacob P. House, Francis Lewis, Bent 
Pierce, Philips and Byrd Fitzpatrick, Nicholas 
Zeigler, Edmund Gholson, Isaac Funderburg 
Levi Kellv. William Hester, Jesse Gay, Josiah 
Rice, Thomas Harris. James Goss, Thomas 
Tatum, George Jones, Edmund Foreman, 
Joseph Riley, Mackey Johnson, Archibald Gra- 
ham Richard Bibb, Job Calloway, Wil lam 
Lewis Joshua Marcus, William Futch, 
Isaiah Thacker, Aaron Moore, Hiram Bishop, 
Abram Chancellor, Lewis C. Davis, Thomas C. 
Smith, William R. Pickett, Mark Howard, 
Seaborn Mims, Lewis Tyus, Richard Mouton 
Wm. Hightower, Jeremiah Jackson, Robert 
Motley Robert Broadnax, Edmund Shackle- 
ford, John G. Stoudenmire, William N. 
Thompson, John Mathews, James Mathews, 
William Peebles. Benjamin Averett, James 
rnd Nehemiah Howard Eli Ely, Lazarus 
Parker, William Nunn, Thomas Hogg^ Dr N. 
S. Jones. Benjamin Davis, Dr. A. R. Hutchin- 
son Organ Tatum, Berry Tatum, S. McGraw, 

B. Mason, John Lamar, L. Houser, S. Stouden- 
mire, John McNeel. ^. ,-. , „ „r. 
The county has been the birthplace or 
home of several persons of distinction. Gov. 
Wm W Bibb, first governor of Alabama, 
made his home in the vicinity of the present 
Coosada, there he died, and his remains lie 
in a private cemetery on his old home place. 
In the same community resided John A El- 
more Sr., a soldier of the Revolution, Boiling 
Hall Sr , a former Representative in Congress 
from' Georgia, James Jackson who repre- 
sented Autauga County in the first constitu- 
tional convention of the State in 1819, and 
Capt Albert T. Goodwyn, representative in 
congress. Daniel Pratt founded PrattvU le 
and the great gin manufacturing interests 
which have rendered his name and county 
famous. In the county also resided for a 
time Gen. Thomas Woodward, noted Indian 
fighter; also William R. Pickett father of 
Col A J. Pickett, the historian; Gen. E. Y. 
Fair, minister to Brussels, Elder Lewis C. 
Davis, popularly known as "Club Axe Davis 
The county was the birthplace of Rev. Ur 
Samuel S Harris, Protestant Episcopa 
Kp of the Diocese of Michigan; and of 
his niece. Miss May Harris, prominent as an 

^^The"^' county is properly classed as agricul- 
tural, although it has important manufac- 
tures. Its agricultural statistics appear in 
full below. One of the earliest manufactur- 
ing plants, the Pratt Gin Co., was estab- 
lished long before the War. It was one of 
the very first of the purely distinctive manu- 
facturing plants using water as power, al- 
though there were many gristmills and saw- 
mills supplying local demands, erected on the 
streams of the State. ^ ,- . <„ thn 

There are three railroad lines in the 
county: Louisville & Nashville, main line 8 
miLs main track, and 1.85 miles ^'de track 
Montgomery & PrattviUe branch, 4.82 miles 
main track, and .74 mile side track; Mobile 
& Ohio, 29.68 miles main track, and 3_01 
miles side track; and Alabama Central Ry., 
8 75 miles main track. 

Agricultural Statistics.— From 
sus, 1910: 



Farms and Farmers. 
Number of all farms, 3,116. 
Color and nativity of farmers: 
Native white, 1,000. 
Foreign-born white, 5. 
Negro and other nonwhite, .2,111. 
Number of farms, classified by size: 
Under 3 acres, — 
3 to 9 acres, 666. 
10 to 19 acres, 219. 
20 to 49 acres, 1,141. 
50 to 99 acres, 533. 
100 to 174 acres, 291. 
175 to 259 acres, 104. 
260 to 499 acres. 104. 
500 to 999 acres. 38. 
1,000 acres and over, 20. 

Land and Farm Area. 
Approximate land area, 373,760 acres. 
Land in farms, 245,668 acres 
Improved land in farms, 114,851 acres. 


Woodland in farms, 121,669 acres. 
Other unimproved land in farms, 9,148 

Value of Farm Property. 
All farm property, $3,882,789. 

Land, $2,247,184. 

Buildings, $824,554. 

Implements and machinery, $156,463. 

Domestic animals, poultry, and bees, 
Average values: 

All property per farm, $1,246. 

Land and buildings per farm, $986. 

Land per acre, $9.15. 

Domestic Animals (Farms and Ranges). 
Farms reporting domestic animals, 2,576. 
Domestic animals, $634,571. 
Cattle: total, 9,987; value, $138,294. 

Dairy cows only, 4,187. 
Horses: total, 1,237; value, $130,198. 
Mules: total, 2.427; value, $310,455. 
Asses and burros: total, 4; value, $765. 
Swine: total, 17,486; value, $50,945. 
Sheep: total, 481; value, $1,624. 
Goats: total, 2,360; value, $2,290. 

Poultry and Bees. 
All poultry, 50,503; value, $17,860. 
Bee colonies, 1,227; value, $2,157. 

Farms Operated hy Owners. 
Number of farms, 924. 

Per cent of all farms, 29.7. 
Land in farms, 147,552 acres. 
Improved land In farms, 51,042 acres. 
Land and buildings, $1,584,374. 
Farms of owned land only, 826. 
Farms of owned and hired land, 98. 
Native white owners, 617. 
Foreign-born white, 3. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 304. 

Farms Operated iy Tenants. 
Number of farms, 2,176. 

Per cent of all farms, 69.8. 
Land in farms, 77,956 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 60,176 acres. 
Land and buildings, $1,246,101. 
Share tenants, 255. 
Share-cash tenants, 11. 
Cash tenants, 1,886. 
Tenure not specified, 24. 
Native white tenants, 368. 
Foreign-born white, 2. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 1,806. 

Farms Operated by Managers. 
Number of farms, 16. 
Land in farms, 20,160 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 3,633 acres. 
Value of land and buildings, $241,263, 

Live Stock Products. 


Produced, 620,298; sold, 24,919 


Cream sold, gallons. 
Butter fat sold, pounds. 

Butter: Produced, 260,183; sold, 27,192 

Cheese: Produced, 0; sold pounds. 

Dairy products, excluding home use of milk 
and cream. $59,912. 

Sale of dairy products, $9,144. 


Poultry: Number raised, 107,944; sold. 

Eggs: Produced, 173,683; sold, 52,289 

Poultry and eggs produced, $59,858. 

Sale of poultry and eggs, $15,026, 


Honey produced, 8,000 pounds. 

Wax produced, 972 pounds. 

Value of honey and wax produced, $1,062. 


Wool, fleeces shorn, 139. 

Mohair and goat hair, fleeces shorn, 5. 

Wool and mohair produced, $110. 


Calves — Sold or slaughtered, 170. 
Other cattle — Sold or slaughtered, 1,984. 
Horses, mules, and asses and burros — Soid, 

Swine — Sold or slaughtered, 7,036. 
Sheep and goats — Sold or slaughtered. 

Sale of animals, $38,072. 

Value of animals slaughtered, $66,047. 

Value of All Crops. 
Total, $1,724,394. 
Cereals, $312,240. 
Other grains and seeds, $30,928. 
Hay and forage, $28,626. 
Vegetables, $100,749. 
Fruits and nuts, $19,318. 
All other crops, $1,232,533. 


Cereals: 32,122 acres; 334,354 bushels 

Corn, 28,277 acres; 278,362 bushels 

Oats, 3,836 acres; 55,929 bushels. 

Wheat, 3 acres; 23 bushels. 

Rye. 6 acres; 40 bushels. 

Kafir corn and milo maize, acres- 

Rice, acres; bushels. 
Other grains: 

Dry peas, 2,078 acres; 10,221 bushels. 

Dry edible beans, 1 acre; 20 bushels. 

Peanuts, 1,452 acres; 15,412 bushels. 
Hay and forage: total, 1,433 acres: 1,821 

All tame or cultivated grasses, 535 acres; 
769 tons. 

Wild, salt, or prairie grasses, 30 acres; 
34 tons. 

Grains cut green, 590 acres; 725 tons. 

Coarse forage, 278 acres; 297 tons. 
Special crops: 

Potatoes, 28 acres; 1,706 bushels. 

Sweet potatoes and yams, 1,001 acres; 
56,229 bushels. 

All other vegetables, 820 acres. 

Tobacco, acres; 200 pounds. 

Cotton, 50,757 acres; 14,545 bales. 
Cane — sugar, 262 acres; 2,208 tons. 

Sirup made, 25,891 gallons. 



Cane — sorghum. 129 acres; 489 tons. 
Sirup made, 4.059 gallons. 


Orchard fruits: total. 28,565 trees; 17,962 

Apples. 6,427 trees; 2,776 bushels. 

Peaches and nectarines, 19,382 trees; 
13,098 bushels. 

Pears, 1,118 trees; 1,463 bushels. 

Plums and prunes, 1,179 trees; 52ig 

Cherries, 4 21 trees; 7 2 bushels. 

Quinces, 18 trees; 11 bushels. 
Grapes, 2,558 vines; 15,324 pounds. 
Tropical fruits: total, 555 trees. 

Figs, 507 trees; 24,302 pounds. 

Oranges, trees; boxes. 
Small fruits: total, 3 acres; 3,481 quarts. 

Strawberries, 3 acres; 2,981 quarts. 
Nuts: total., 1,333 trees; 6,724 pounds. 

Pecans, 681 trees; 4,992 pounds. 

Labor, Fertilizer and Feed. 
Labor — Farms reporting, 1,069. 

Cash expended, $149,110. 

Rent and board furnished, $26,023. 
Fertilizer — Farms reporting, 1,956. 

Amount expended. $129,275. 
Feed — Farms reporting 983. 

Amount expended, $54,669. 
Receipts from sale of feedable crops, 

Domestic Animals not on Farms. 
Inclosures reporting domestic animals, 184. 
Value of domestic animals, $29,645. 
Cattle: total, 518; value, $14,353. 

Number of dairy cows, 153. 
Horses: total, 86; value, $10,173. 
Mules and asses and burros: total, 28; 

value, $4,600. 
Swine: total, 133; value, $513. 
Sheep and goats: total, 1; value, $6. 

Population. — Statistics from decennial 

publications of the U. S. Bureau of the Cen- 

White Negro Total 

1820 2203 1650 3853 

1830 5867 6007 11874 

1840 6217 8125 14342 

1850 6274 8749 15023 

1860 7105 9621 16739 

1870 4329 7292 11623 

1880 4397 8710 13107 

1890 4796 8418 13330 

1900 6742 11173 17915 

1910 8320 11717 20038 

Post Offices and Towns. — ^Revised to De- 
cember 31, 1916, from U. S. Ofiicial Postal 
Guide. Figures indicate the number of rural 
routes from that office. 

Autaugaville Marbury 

Billingsley — 2 Mulberry 

Booth Prattville (ch)— 3 

Fremont Statesville 

Haynes Vida — 1 

Jones — 1 Wadsworth 

Kalmia Winslow 

Delegates to Constitutional Conventions. — 

1819 — James Jackson. 

1861 — George Rives, Sr. 

1865 — Benjamin Fitzpatrick. 

1867 — J. L. Alexander. 

1875 — H. J. Livingston, D. B. Booth. 

1901 — Morgan M. Smith, Mac A. Smith. 

Senators. — 

1819-20 — Howell Rose. 
182 2-3— Dunklin Sullivan. 
1825-6 — James Jackson 
1828-9 — William R. Pickett. 
1831-2— William R. Pickett. 
1834-5 — Robert Broadnax. 
1837-8 — Samuel S. Simmons. 
1840-1— Dixon Hall. 
1843-4 — William L. Yancey. 
1844-5 — Sampson W. Harris. 
1847-8 — Seth P. Storrs 
1849-50 — Seth P. Storrs. 
1853-4 — Thomas H. Watts. 
1855-6— Adam C. Felder. 
1857-8 — Adam C. Felder. 
1861-2 — Samuel F. Rice. 
1865-6 — Adam C. Felder. 
1868 — J. A. Farden. 
1871-2— J. A. Farden. 
1872-3— C. S. G. 'Doster. 
1873 — C. S. G. Doster. 
1874-5— W. G. M. Golson. 
1875-6— W. G. M. Golson. 
1876-7 — P. H. Owen. 
1878-9— W. D. McCurdy. 
1880-1 — W. D. McCurdy. 
1882-3 — Willis Brewer. 
1884-5 — Willis Brewer. 

18 86-7 — Willis Brewer. 
1888-9 — Willis Brewer. 
1890-1 — Mac. A. Smith. 
1892-3— Mac. A. Smith. 
1894-5 — Willis Brewer. 
1896-7 — Willis Brewer. 
1898-9 — A. E. Caffee. 

1899 (Spec.) — A. E. Caffee. 
1900-01 — C. P. Rogers, Sr. 

19 3 — Walter Robert Oliver. 
1907— H. S. Doster. 

19 07 (Spec.)— H. S. Doster. 
1909 (Spec.) — H. S. Doster. 
1911 — T. A. Curry. 
1915 — W. W. Wallace. 
1919 — J. C. Harper. 

Representative.s. — 

1819-20 — Phillips Fitzpatrick; C. A. Den- 

1820-1 — Phillips Fitzpatrick; J. Jackson. 

1821 (called) — Phillips Fitzpatrick; J. 

1821-2 — W. R. Pickett; John A. Elmore. 

1822-3 — Phillips Fitzpatrick. 

1823-4 — William R. Pickett. 

1824-5 — William R. Pickett. 

1825-6 — Robert Broadnax; John McNeill. 

1826-7 — Robert Broadnax; Eli Terry. 

1827-8 — Robert Broadnax; Eli Terry. 

1828-9 — Robert Broadnax; Rogers. 

1829-30 — Robert Broadnax; William Hes- 


-1 — Robert Broadnax; Dixon Hall, Sr. 

Sequoyah or George Guess 

Inventor of the Cherokee alphabet, native 

of Will's Valley, North Alabama 

Choctaw chief, who fought with Andrew 
Jackson's forces in Alabama in the Creek 
War of 1813. 



1831-2 — Robert Broadnax; Dixon Hall. 

1832 (called) — Robert Broadnax; S. S, 

1832-3— Robert Broadnax; S. S. Simmons, 

1833-4 — Dixon Hall, Jr.; S. S. Simmons. 

1834-5 — Wm. Burt; S. S. Simmons; J. B, 

1835-6 — Dixon Hall, Jr.; S. S. Simmons; 
Benjamin Davis. 

1836-7 — John P. Dejarnette; S. S. Sim 
mons; Benjamin Davis. 

1837 (called) — John P. Dejarnette; S. S 
Simmons, Benjamin Davis. 

183 7-8 — John P. Dejarnette; William Burt 
T. W. Brevard. 

1838-9 — Dixon Hall, Jr.; J. W. Withers 
Thomas Hogg. 

1839-40 — Dixon Hall; John Withers. 

1840-1 — Benjamin Davis; Absalom Doster, 

1841 (called) — Benjamin Davis; Absalom 

1841-2 — John Steele; William L. Morgan 

184 2-3 — John Mitchell; William L. Mor- 

1843-4 — John Steele; Crawford M. Jack 

1844-5 — John Steele; Crawford M. Jack 

1845-6 — John Steele; Crawford M. Jack- 

1847-8 — John Wood; Crawfoi'd M. Jackson 

1849-50 — John Wood; Boiling Hall. 

1851-2 — C. C. Howard; Boiling Hall. 

1853-4— Boiling Hall. 

1855-6 — Crawford M. Jackson. 

1857-8 — Crawford M. Jackson. 

1859-60 — A. C. Taylor; Daniel Pratt 
(1860), to succeed Mr. Taylor. 

1861 (1st called) — Daniel Pratt. 

1861 (2d called) — Daniel Pratt. 
1861-2 — Daniel Pratt. 

1862 (called) — Daniel Pratt. 
1862-3 — Daniel Pratt. 

1863 (called) — L. Howard. 
1863-4 — L. Howard. 

1864 (called) — L. Howard. 
1864-5— L. Howard. 

1865-6 — Charles S. CJ. Doster. 
1866-7 — Charles S. G. Doster. 
1868 — Alfred Baker. 
1869-70— Alfred Baker. 
1870-1 — Charles S. G. Doster. 
1871-2— C. S. G. Doster. 
1872-3 — S. J. Patterson. 
1873 — S. J. Patterson. 
1874-5 — J. E. Bozeman. 
1875-6 — J. E. Bozeman. 
1876-7— S. S. Booth. 
1878-9 — W. J. Smith. 
1880-1 — J. L. Johnson. 
1882-3— Mac. A. Smith. 
1884-5— T. D. Cory. 
1886-7 — Philip A. Wood. 
1888-9 — Merrill E. Pratt. 
1890-1 — P. A. Wood. 
1892-3 — M. White. 
1894-5 — Mac. A. Smith. 
189 6-7 — T. B. Love. 
1898-9— H. S. Doster. 
1899 (Spec.) — H. S. Doster. 
1900-01 — H. S. Doster. 

1903 — Joseph A. Wilkinson. 

1907 — Eugene Ballard. 

1907 (Spec.) — Eugene Ballard. 

1909 (Spec.) — Eugene Ballard. 

1911— J. B. Bell. 

1915 — McQueen Smith. 

1919— M. A. Graham. 

See Alibamu; Autaugaville; Coosada; 
Daniel Pratt Gin Company; Prattville. 

References. — Toulmin, Digest, 1823; Acts, 
1818, p. 60; 1820-21, p. 72; 1826-27, p. 36; 1827- 
28, p. 40; 1830-31, p. 419; 1868, p. 115; Brewer, 
Alabama, p. 107; Berney, Handbook (1892), p. 
287; Riley, Alabama as it is (1893), p, 165; 
Northern Alabama (1888), p. 180; Alabam.a, 
1909 (Ala. Dept. of Ag. and Ind., Bulletiiv 27), 
p. 71; U. S. Soil Survey (1910), with map; Ala- 
bama land book (1916), p. 26; Ala. Official and 
Statistical Register, 1903-1915, 5 vols.; Ala. An- 
thropological Society, Handbook (1910); Geol. 
Survey of Ala., Agricultural features of the 
State (1883); The valley regions of Alabama. 
parts 1 and 2 (1896, 1897), and Underground 
water resources of Alabama (1907); John 
Hardy, "History of Autauga County," In Daily 
State Sentinel, Montgomery, Aug. 10, 1867. 

AUTAUGAVILLE. Post office and termi- 
nus of the Alabama Central Railroad, in the 
southern part of Autauga County, 11 miles 
southwest of Prattville, 2 miles from the 
Alabama River, and 22 miles west of Mont- 
gomery. Population: 1870 — whites 541, 
colored, 1,846, total 2,387; 1880, Autauga- 
ville Precinct — 2,385; 1890 — Autaugaville 
Precinct— 2,025: 1900, Precinct No. 3— 
2,273; 1910 — Precinct No. 3 — 2,257; 1910, 
Autaugaville — 313. The first settler was 
William N. Thompson, Sr., who came in 1820, 
built a small gristmill, opened the first store, 
and afterward erected a flour mill. The 
families of John McNeel, Nehemiah and 
James Howard, were among the early settlers. 
Descendants of these families still reside in 
the county. A cotton factory was established 
at Autaugaville in 1849 by William and 
Theodore Nunn. It has one of the old 
Methodist communities and one of the old 
Sunday schools in the State. 

AUTHORS. See Literature. 

ALABAMA. A voluntary social and business 
organization, formed at the Exchange Hotel, 
Montgomery, January 24, 1916, and having 
as its objects the bringing together of dealers 
for cooperation and mutual advantage in se- 
curing better roads and in improving busi- 
ness. It holds an annual meeting in January 
every year. Its officers are a president, two 
vice presidents, a secretary and a treasurer. 

Reference. — Manuscript data in the Ala- 
bama Department of Archives and History. 

AUTOSSEE, BATTLE OF. An engagement 
of the Creek Indian War of 1813-14, be- 
tween the American forces under Gen. John 
Floyd in command of the Georgia Militia, 
and the Creeks, fortified in the Indian town 
of Autossee, south of the Tallapoosa River, 



near the mouth of Calebee Creek, in Macone 
County. (SeeAtasia.) It was fought Novem- 
ber 29, 1813, and represents the principal 
contribution of Georgia to the defense of the 
Mississippi Territory in the Creek War. 

In obedience to a call from the Federal 
Government. Gov. David B. Mitchell of 
Georgia assembled a large force of militia. 
These were placed under Brig. Gen. John 
Floyd. After much delay they reached the 
Chattahoochee, where they built Fort Mit- 
chell. Here they were reinforced by 4 00 
friendly Indians, under Gen. Wm. Mcintosh 
and Mad Dog's Son (not Mad Dragon's Son). 
The successes of Gen. Jackson In the Coosa 
Valley had driven numbers of Indians from 
that quarter. Many of these had joined other 
hostiles at Autossee. 

Gen. Flovd left Fort Mitchell on November 
23, 1813, for an attack. He had 950 white 
troops and 400 Indians. Reaching the vicinity 
on the morning of November 29th, he as- 
saulted the place, and routed the enemy in an 
engagement lasting about three hours. The 
Indians fought fiercely, but lost about 200 
killed. The town was set on fire, and about 
400 houses, many of excellent Indian archi- 
tecture and filled with articles of value, were 
burned. The losses of the Georgians were 11 
killed and 54 wounded. Several friendly 
Indians were killed and wounded. After 
burying his dead. Gen. Floyd began the return 
March to Fort Mitchell. He had hardly 
started, however, before the Indians fell upon 
his rear, but they were soon dispersed. 

References. — Pickett, History of Alabama 
(Owen's ed., 1900), pp. 557-559; "Wliite, Histori- 
cal Collections of Georgia (1854), pp. 290-291; 
Brackenridge, Histonj of the Late War (1844), 
p. 191; Brewer, Alabama (1872), p. 338. 

ERY. Government post and military reserva- 
tion for the repairing and manufacture of parts 
for airships. The United States government 
in the Spring of 1918 through the War Depart- 
ment selected Montgomery as "the Ideal spot" 
for the location of a repair depot for what was 
at that time known as the Southeastern de- 
partment. The government agents selected the 
same site, with additional land that was used 
by the Wright brothers in making experiments 
at Montgomery, with "gliders" when aviation 
was in its infancy. 

The James Alexander Construction Com- 
pany in 45 working days erected a complete 
repair depot with everything in readiness for 
the installation of machinery. 

The War Department sent Major Stiles M. 
Decker to take command of the Depot, which 
was turned over to the U. S. government on 
July 4. On July 21, the 882nd and 883rd 
repair squadrons from Kelly Field, San An- 
tonio, Texas, arrived and found a general 
plan of what was to be done awaiting them. 
Two additional squadrons arrived on July 
26th, namely, the 879th and 880th squadrons 
from Camp Greene, Charlotte, N. C. Al- 
though the last two squadrons were not ex- 
perts, they were taken in hand by the first 
two arrivals and in a short time their work 

equaled in excellence that of their teachers. 
On August 7, 100 expert mechanics were re- 
ceived from the school for enlisted men at 
St. Paul, Minn. These men had been espe- 
cially trained as motor mechanics, ignition 
and tire experts. 

The first ships to be repaired came to the 
Depot from Gerstner Field, Lake Charles, 
La., and arrived while the machinery was 
being set up. Shortly after this time the 
Field was visited by a cyclone which attained 
a wind velocity of 96 miles an hour and did 
much damage to the buildings. However, 
under the direction of Major Decker the nec- 
essary repairs were made and the Depot was 
soon working with the usual rapidity that 
would be found in any great American in- 

Major Decker was relieved from duty on 
November 27, 1918, and ordered to Middle- 
ton, Pa., where he was to assume new duties 
at the Aviation General Supply Depot. Capt. 
Louis G. Hawley, commander of the 879th 
squadron, the ranking officer on the Field, 
assumed command, remaining in such capac- 
ity until December 14, when he was relieved 
by Major Louis R. Knight. Major Knight 
came to the Depot from the Armorers School 
at Wilbur Wright Field, Dayton, Ohio. 

A number of civic and patriotic organiza- 
tions cooperated with the officers at the 
Aviation Repair Depot in making the life of 
the officers and enlisted men as pleasant as 
possible. Among those most prominent may 
be mentioned the Chamber of Commerce, 
War Camp, Community Service, the Girls' 
Patriotic League, Rotary Club, and Amer- 
ican Red Cross. The Y. M. C. A., through 
its members and staff, together with the 
ladies who operated the Hostess House, made 
for the men life as near homelike as they 

During the time that Major Knight was 
in command of the Field, a number of ships 
making cross country flights from the Pacific 
to the Atlantic stopped at the Field, and au- 
thorities there were informed that photo- 
graphs were being taken along the routes 
and that from these aerial mall routes would 
be chosen. 

Major Knight was succeeded by Major 
Frank E. Lackland, who pursued the same 
lines that had been inaugurated by Major 
Knight, and his work at the Field was very 

Upon his transfer Major W. J. Pitzmaurice 
took command of the Depot and Is In charge 
of its affairs at this time. 

Upon the cessation of hostilities between 
the United States and the Central powers 
the work of demobilization was handled with 
rapidity by the officers of the Depot. Ex- 
service men were given the places of soldiers 
that had been discharged and now there is 
only one repair squadron at the Field, and 
several hundred civilian employees. 

References. — Letters and manuscript rec- 
ords in the Alabama State Department of Ar- 
chives and History. 




AVONDALE MILLS, Birmingham. 

Cottou Manufacturing. 

BACHCHA CHITKKA. A temporary Choc- 
taw settlement or camp, the site of Tusca- 
homa on the Tombigbee River, after the com- 
ing of the English. The name signifies Ridge 
Houses, because the houses, "Chukka," were 
situated on a ridge, "bachcha." In the text 
of Romans' Florida, p. 328, the name is 
spelled Batcha-Chooka, and on his map 
Batcha Chuka. 

Refekexce. — Manuscript data in the Ala- 
bama Department of Archives and History. 

B.\CHOHL\ ILLI. This place name sig- 
nifies Dead Ridge, "Bachcha," Ridge, "Illi," 
Dead. It is written Bachele on De Crenay's 
map. It is now known as Gullette's Bluff, 
situated on the east side of Alabama River, 
a short distance below the mouth of Pursley 
Creek in Wilcox County. 

Refebences. — Ms. records in Alabama De- 
partment Archives and History. 


Health, State Board of. 

BAH.\IS. A religious body, founded by AH 
Mohammed, a Persian, as forerunner, and 
brought to completed organization by Baha 
Ullah, as the one whom All had foretold — 
"Him whom God would manifest." Its mis- 
sion is the spiritual unity of mankind; Its 
teachings are for all men; and its extension 
is accomplished through assemblies. It has 
no houses of worship, but halls are used for 
service. In 1890 it was not represented in 
the United States. The census of 1910 re- 
ported, for Alabama, 1 hall located in Bir- 
mingham, and 29 members, of whom 14 were 
males and 15 females. 

Refekence. — U. S. Bureau of the Census, 
Religious Bodies, 1906 (1910), pp. 41-42. 

B,\INE COUNTY. See Etowah County. 

BAKER COUNTY. See Chilton County. 

B.\LD\VIN COUNTY. Created by the Mis- 
sissippi Territorial Legislature, December 21, 
1809. It was the third county formed in the 
State, and its territory was taken from Wash- 
ington County. As originally constituted, it 
lay wholly west of the Tombigbee River, east 
of the Mississippi line, north of the 31st 
parallel, and south of the fifth township line, 
including all the country south of that line 
in the present Clarke County. The Alabama 
Territorial Legislature, February 7, 1818, en- 
larged its boundaries by adding to it so much 
of Greene County, Mississippi, as was thrown 
into the Alabama Territory by the location 
of the boundary line. The first State legisla- 
ture, December 13, 1819, still further en- 
larged it by adding all the country south of 
Little River as far east as the line between 
ranges seven and eight, and north of the 
31st parallel. On December 16, 1820, all that 

part of the county lying south of Washington 
County and west of the Tombigbee and Mobile 
Rivers was added to Mobile County; that part 
lying in the Fork of the Alabama and Tom- 
bigbee Rivers was added to Monroe, and that 
part of Mobile County east of Mobile Bay 
was added to Baldwin. By act of December 
21, 1832, the northern boundary was more 
definitely fixed. In 18 68, the northeastern 
part of the county was cut out for the forma- 
tion of Escambia County. Its area is 1,595 
square miles, or 1,020,800 acres. 

The county was named for Abraham Bald- 
win, a distinguished citizen of Georgia, so 
given in deference to the wishes of the early 
settlers of the county, many of whom were 
from that State. 

On the organization of the county, the seat 
of justice was established at Mcintosh Bluff, 
on the Tombigbee. Here it remained until 
December 16, 1820, when it was transferred 
to Blakeley. The same act directed the 
county court of Mobile to sell the court house 
at Mcintosh Bluff, and the proceeds to divide 
equally between that county and the coun- 
ties of Baldwin and Monroe. The act named 
Cyrus Sibley, James W. Peters, Francis B. 
Stockton, Benjamin J. Randall, and Samuel 
Hall as commissioners to purchase a site and 
to erect a court house in Blakeley, at not 
exceeding ?2,000. 

In 1868, August 11, the county commis- 
sioners were directed to select a new loca- 
tion for the county seat on the eastern shore 
of Mobile Bay, within two miles of Mon- 
trose. Daphne was chosen, but probably not 
until after 1870. The legislature, February 
5, 19 01, named Bay Minette as the seat of 

Location and Physical Description. — It lies 
in the southwestern part ot the State. It is 
bounded on the north by Clarke and Monroe 
Counties, on the east by Escambia County, 
Ala., and Escambia County, Fla., on the west 
by Clarke, Washington, and Mobile Counties, 
and Mobile £ay, and on the south by the Gulf 
of Mexico. The county is practically sur- 
rounded by water, being separated from the 
adjacent counties on the north by Little 
River; on the west by Alabama River and 
Mobile Bay; on the east, for most of its 
length, by Perdido River and Bay. Its length 
from north to south is about 72 miles, and 
its extreme width nearly 3 2 miles, making its 
area approximately 1,585 square miles, or 
1,014,400 acres. Most of this area is an ele- 
vated plain, with a gentle slope toward the 
south. In the northwestern part of the county 
the slope to the Alabama River Valley is 
abrupt, amounting to an escarpment. This 
valley includes approximately 222 square 
miles of the county's area, and about 4 7 
square miles of this consist of second bottoms 
lying from 10 to 20 feet above the overflow, 
or swamp lands. The soil Is mostly sandy 
loam, of average fertility, and especially 
adapted to truck farming. It has fine graz- 
ing lands. The county has no important 
mineral deposits. There are numerous 
streams draining its surface into the Gulf 
of Mexico. The most important are Tensas, 


Pish, Blackwater, Styx and Little Rivers, and 
White House, Horseneck, Bay Minette, Tur- 
key, Majors, Pine Log, and Hollinger Creeks. 
Away from the river and creek bottoms, long- 
leaf pine is the principal timber. There are 
some Cuban pines in the southern part of 
the county. In the river and creek bottoms, 
white oak, ash, cottonwood, sweet gum and 
hickory are the prevailing trees. 

Aboriginal History. — At the advent o£ the 
French, Mobilian Indians were found settled 
on the east side of Mobile River in the 
northern part of the county, and the name 
Tawasha Creek may evidence a transient set- 
tlement of the Touacha Indians at that place, 
during some period of the French dominion. 
About 1715 Bienville settled the Taensa 
Indians on Tensaw River, where they re- 
mained until 1764, when they followed the 
French across the Mississippi River. Apart 
from these settlements the county seems to 
have been without Indian Inhabitants, and 
to have been used as a common hunting 
ground by the contiguous tribes. But the 
moOnds and numerous shell banks found 
along the Gulf coast. Mobile Bay, and the 
river banks, are sufTicient witnesses of occu- 
pancy by a prehistoric population. Remains 
are to be found on Mobile. Perdido and Bon 
Secour Bays, on Tensaw, Battle, Bon Secour 
and Fish Rivers, and on the islands and 
bayous along the gulf coast, as well as on 
some of the large creeks flowing through the 
inland plantations. Mounds have been lo- 
cated at the following points: burial mound 
near Josephine on Perdido Bay; a burial 
mound on extremity of Bear Point in Per- 
dido Bay; burial mounds and sites on Tensaw 
River; burial mound one mile from mouth 
of Perdido Bay, and half mile inland; large 
mound, 40 feet high, near a creek, on the 
McMillan place, 8 miles from Stockton; 
mounds at and above Stockton on Tensaw 
River on the plantation of Maj. Robert 
Farmer, British commandant; a mound 50 
feet high, the largest in this section, on island 
at Battle Creek; mounds on Simpson Island, 
also near Starke's Wharf, near Fish River 
and on Seymours Bluff. Shell-banks and 
shell-heaps, containing aboriginal remains are 
found on Simpson Island at mouth of Mobile 
River; on the eastern shore of Mobile Bay, 
one mile from Point Clear; on east bank of 
Tensaw River near old Blakeley in T. 3, 
S., R. 1, E,; extensive banks near Gasque on 
Bon Secour Bay; deposits at Blakeley; on 
Bon Secour River and at Strong's Bayou. 
These shell heaps are in the nature of kitchen 
middens and in most cases contain pottery 
and broken artifacts. 

Settlement and Later History. — The his- 
tory of Baldwin County is inseparably asso- 
ciated with two great Indian tribes, the 
Alibamos and Creeks, with three great Euro- 
pean nations, France, Spain and England, and 
at different times and under peculiar circum- 
stances, with the Americans, as friends or 
enemies. The first American settlements in 
the county were made on Lake Tensaw and on 
Tensaw River, mostly by Tory families which 
migrated from Georgia and South Carolina 

during the American Revolution, although 
some came after that struggle, leaving their 
homes in consequence of Whig intolerance. 
Intermingled with these Tensaw settlers, how- 
ever, were Whig families. Some of the family 
names of the settlers have been preserved — 
Byrne, Easley, Hall, Kilcrease, Linder, Mims, 
Pierce, Sibley, Steadham, Stockton and 
Holmes. Of these. Captain John Linder was 
the most prominent. He was a native of 
Switzerland, and was in the British service 
for several years as engineer and surveyor. 
During the Revolution, Gen. Alexander Mc- 
Gillivray assisted him in removing his family 
and numerous negro slaves, and in settling 
them on Lake Tensaw. The settlers were 
later reinforced by the arrival into their 
midst of several Indian countrymen, with 
their Indian wives and halfbreed children. 
Benjamin Durant was a type of these new- 
comers. He was a Carolinian who had mar- 
ried Sophia, a sister of Gen. McGillivray. 

The first saw mills in the county were 
owned by Byrne and by Joshua Kennedy. 
They were in existence in 1813, but no doubt 
had been erected several years previously. 
The first cotton gin was established in 1803 
by John and William Pierce at the Boat Yard 
on Lake Tensaw. Another cotton gin was 
built at Mcintosh's Bluff on the Tombigbee, 
but the year of its erection is not known. 

Baldwin County has been the theatre of 
some of the most striking events in Alabama 
history. Across its northern border in 1560 
marched the Tristan de Luna expedition (q. 
V.) from Mobile Bay on its way to found the 
short-lived colony of Nanipacna, located most 
probably on Boykins' Ridge in Wilcox County. 
About a century and a half later the soldiers 
of Bienville passed through it in their cam- 
paigns against the Alibamos. In August, 
1813, near Tensaw Lake the Fort Mims mas- 
sacre (q. v.) took place, the most fearful 
tragedy in Alabama history. The next year, 
in September, 1844, occurred the investment 
and bombardment of Fort Bowyer by Col. 
Nichols in the extreme southwest part of the 
county, in which Col. Nichols was driven off 
with great loss by the American garrison, 
commanded by Major William Lawrence, of 
the U. S. Army. Fort Bowyer was occupied 
later by Gen. Packenham's army an(f fleet, 
after their defeat at New Orleans, followed 
by its surrender February 12, 1815. But it 
was held but a few days, as news came of 
the declaration of peace. The site of Fort 
Bowyer was subsequently used in the erection 
of Fort Morgan, noted for its heroic defense 
by the Confederates against a powerful Fed- 
eral force and fleet in April, 1864, contempo- 
rary with and paralleled by the equally heroic 
defense of Blakeley. 

Farms and Farmers. 
Number of all farms, 1.818. 
Color and nativity of farmers: 

Native white, 1,111. 

Foreign-born white, 382. 

Negro and other nonwhite, 325. 
Number of farms, classified by size: 

Under 3 acres, . 



3 to 9 acres, 138. 
10 to 19 acres, 227. 
20 to 49 acres, 815. 
80 to 99 acres, 274. 
100 to 174 acres, 264. 
175 to 259 acres, 38. 
260 to 499 acres, 38, 
500 to 999 acres, 10. 
1,000 acres and over, 14. 

Land and Farm Area. 
Approximate land area, 1,020,800 acres. 
Land in farms, 152,938 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 32,863 acres. 
Woodland in farms, 92,115 acres. 
Other unimproved land in farms, 27,960 

Yalue of Farm Property. 
All farm property, $4,113,374. 

Land, $2,458,740. 

Buildings, $915,401. 

Implements and machinery, $143,718. 

Domestic animals, poultry, and bees, 
Average values: 

All property per farm, $2,263. 

Land and buildings per farm, $1,856. 

Land per acre, $16.08. 

Domestic Animals (Farms and Ranges). 
Farms reporting domestic animals, $1,730. 
Domestic animals, $572,354. 
Cattle: total. 18,810; value, $244,932. 

Dairy cows only, 4,869. 
Horses: total, 2,192; value, $189,507. 
Mules: total, 431; value, $57,720. 
Asses and burros: total, 9; value, $625. 
Swine: total, 14,963; value, $39,219. 
Sheep: total, 16,581; value, $38,307. 
Goats: total, 3,361; value, $2,044. 

Poultry and Bees. 
All poultry, 45,127; value, $20,339. 
Bee colonies, 1,076; value, $2,822. 

Farms Operated iy Owners. 
Number of farms, 1,546. 

Per cent of all farms, 85. 
Land in farms, 132,948 acres. 
Improved land iu farms, 27,472 acres. 
Land and buildings, $2,721,844. 
Farms of owned land only, 1,388. 
Farms of owned and hired land, 158. 
Native white owners, 9 5 3. 
Foreign-born white, 358. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 235. 

Farms Operated by Tenants. 
Number of farms, 267. 

Per cent of all farms, 14.7. 
Land in farms, 11.319 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 4,598 acres. 
Land and Buildings, $348,797. 
Share tenants, 52. 
Share-cash tenants, 5. 
Cash tenants, 198. 
Tenure not specified, 12. 
Native white tenants, 153. 
Foreign-born white, 24. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 90. 

Farms Operated hy Managers. 
Number of farms, 5. 
Land in farms, 8,671 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 793 acres. 
Value of land and buildings, $303,500. 

Live Stock Products. 


Milk: Produced, 502,230; sold, 17,198 

Cream sold, 368 gallons. 
Butter fat sold, 9,898 pounds. 
Blotter: Produced, 118,546; sold 18,854 

Cheese: Produced, 1,955; sold, 650 pounds. 
Dairy products, excluding home use of 

milk and cream, $42,266. 
Sale of dairy products, $14,734. 


Poultry: Number raised, 81,503; sold, 

Eggs: Produced, 172,179; sold, 54,711 

Poultry and eggs produced, $63,062. 
Sale of poultry and eggs, $19,401. 


Honey produced, 5,744 pounds. 

Wax produced, 143 pounds. 

Value of honey and wax produced, $782. 


Wool, fleeces shorn, 13,475. 

Mohair and goat hair, fleeces shorn, 0. 

Wool and mohair produced, $12,007. 

Domestic Animals Sold or Slaughtered. 
Calves — Sold or slaughtered, 248. 
Other cattle — Sold or slaughtered, 2,559. 
Horses, mules, and asses and burros — 

Sold, 86. 
Swine — Sold or slaughtered, 4,751. 
Sheep and goats — Sold or slaughtered, 893. 
Sale of animals, $36,974. 
Value of animals slaughtered, $40,412. 

Value of All Crops. 
Total, $688,913. 
Cereals, $136,519. 
Other grains and seeds, $5,200. 
Hay and forage, $60,504. 
Vegetables, $199,965. 
Fruits and nuts, $16,532. 
All other crops, $270,193. 

Selected Crops (Acres and Quantity). 
Cereals: total, 9,015 acres; 146,236 

Corn, 8,563 acres; 138,145 bushels. 

Oats, 233 acres; 4,081 bushels. 

Wheat, acres; bushels. 

Rye, acres; bushels. 

Kafir corn and milo maize, 21 acres, 385 

Rice, 190 acres; 3,544 bushels. 
Other grains: 

Dry peas, 177 acres; 1,038 bushels. 

Dry edible beans, 15 acres: 137 bushels. 

Peanuts. 126 acres; 1.962 bushels. 
Hay and forage: total, 3,506 acres; 3,982 


All tame or cultivated grasses, 1,995 

acres; 2,086 tons. 
Wild, salt, and prairie grasses, 323 

acres; 324 tons. 
Grains cut green, 1,117 acres; 1,504 

Coarse forage, 71 acres; 68 tons. 
Special crops: 

Potatoes, 735 acres; 63,430 bushels. 
Sweet potatoes and yams, 1,62 7 acres; 

173,020 bushels. 
Tobacco, 4 acres; 3,715 pounds. 
Cotton, 6,243 acres; 2,187 bales. 
Cane— sugar, 264 acres; 3,206 tons. 

Sirup made, 49,626 gallons. 
Cane— sorghum, 61 acres; 17,425 tons. 
Sirup made, 230 gallons. 

Fniits and Nuts. 
Orchard fruits: total, 25,991 trees; 5,012 

Apples, 494 trees; 69 bushels. 

Peaches and nectarines, 17,421 trees; 

1,814 bushels. 
Pears, 2,519 trees; 2,874 bushels. 
Plums and prunes, 5,195 trees; 255 

Cherries, 21 trees; bushels. 
Quinces, 319 trees; bushels. 
Grapes, 10,315 vines; 22,550 pounds. 
Tropical fruits: total, 5,987 trees. 
Figs, 3,623 trees; 82,435 pounds. 
Oranges, 1,120 trees; 735 boxes. 
Small fruits: total, 9 acres, 24,061 quarts. 

Strawberries, 8 acres; 2 3,0 86 quarts. 

Nuts: total, 4,478 trees; 20,371 pounds. 

Pecans, 4,158 trees; 17,094 pounds. 

Labor, Fertilizer and Feed. 

Labor Farms reporting, 609. 

Cash expended, $59,752. 
Rent and board furnished, $6,699. 
Fertilizer — Farms reporting, 1,325. 

Amount expended, $82,868. 
Feed — Farms reporting, 1,023. 

Amount expended, $69,752. 
Receipts from sale of feedable crops, 

Domestic Animals Not on Farms. 
Inclosures reporting domestic animals, 

Value of domestic animals, $79,113. 
Cattle: total, 1,936; value, $30,590. 

Number of dairy cows, 672. 
Horses: total, 419; value, $36,650. 
Mules and asses and burros: total, 50; 
value, $6,275. 

Swine: total, 1,470; value, $3,946. 

Sheep and goats: total, 989; value, $1,652. 

Population. — Statistics from decennial pub- 
lications of the U. S. Bureau of the Census: 
White. Negro. Total. 

1820 651 1062 1713 

1830 965 1359 2324 

1840 1161 1790 2951 

1850 2100 2314 4414 

1860 3585 3854 7530 

1870 3159 2845 6004 

1880 4890 3675 8565 

1890 5678 3263 8941 

1900 9015 4179 13194 

1910 13064 5110 18178 

Post Offices and Towns. — Revised to De- 
cember 31, 1916, from U. S. OfHcial Postal 
Guide. Figures indicate the number of rural 
routes from that office. 

Barnwell Lottie 

Battles Wharf Loxley — 1 
Bay Minette (ch) — 1 Magnolia Springs — 1 

Blacksher Miflin 

Bon Secour Montrose 

Bromley Oak 

Carney Orange Beach 

Caswell Palmetto Beach 

Daphne — 1 Perdido Beach 

Davies Perdido Station 

Dyas Point Clear 

Elberta Robertsdale — 1 

Fairhope — 1 Roscoe 

Foley — 1 Scranage 

Port Morgan Seacliff 

Gasque Seminole 

Gateswood Silverhill 

Hurricane Stapleton 

Josephine Stockton 

Latham Summerdale — 2 

Lillian Tensaw 
Little River 

Delegates to Constitutional Conventions, — 

1819 — Harry Toulmin. 
1861 — Joseph Silver. 
1865— J. H. Hastie. 
1867 — Stephen Moore. 

1875 Henry C. Juea. 

1901- -B. F. McMillan. 

Senators. — 

1819-20 — Robert R. Harwell. 
1821-2 — Julius Haines. 
lg22-3 — Francis W. Armstrong. 
1824-5 — James Taggert. 
1825-6 — William Crawford. 
1826-7 — Willougby Barton. 
1828-9 — Jack F. Ross. 
1831-2 — John B. Hogan. 
1835-6 — James F. Roberts. 
1838-9 — Theophilus L. Toulmin. 
1839-40 — Girard W. Creagh. 
1842-3 — Girard W. Creagh. 
1845-6 — B. L. Turner. 
1847-8 — Girard W. Creagh. 
1849-50 — Cade M. Godbold. 
1851-2 — Lorenzo James. 

1853-4 James S. Dickinson. 

1855-6 — James S. Jenkins. 
1857-8 — Ncah A. Agee. 
185-9-60 — Stephen B. Cleveland. 
1861-2 — Origin S. Jewett. 
1862-3 — Robert Broadnax. 
1865-6 — John Y. Kilpatrick. 
1868 — R. N. Barr. 
1871-2 — R. N. Barr. 
1872-3 — J. D. Driesbach. 
1873 — J. D. Driesbach. 
1874-5 — J. D. Driesbach. 
1875-6 — J. D. Driesbach. 
1876-7 — R. C. Torrey. 
1878-9 — R. C. Torrey. 
1880-1 — W. Y. Titcomb. 


1882-3 — W. Y. Titcomb. 
1884-5 — J. M. Davison. 
1886-7 — J. M. Davison. 

1888-9 Daniel Williams. 

1890-1 — Daniel Williams. 
1892-3 — W. B. Kemp. 
1894-5 — W. B. Kemp. 
1896-7— C. S. Lee. 
1898-9 — C. S. Lee. 
1899 (Spec.) — C. S. Lee. 
1900-01— D. D. Hall. 
1903— Daniel Dillon Hall. 
1907 — O. O. Bayles. 
1907 (Spec.)— O. O. Bayles. 
1909 (Spec.) — O. O. Bayles, deceased; and 
district not represented. 
1911 — E. M. Lovelace. 
1915 — H. H. Holmes. 
1919— Riley Kelly. 

Representatives. — 

1819-20 — Thomas Carson. 
1820-1 — Joseph Mims. 
1821 (Called) — Joseph Mims. 
1821-2 — Elijah Montgomery. 

1822-3 Lud Harris. 

1823-4 — Samuel Haines. 
1824-5 — Silas Dinsmore. 
1825-6 — Edward J. Lambert. 
182 6-7 — James F. Roberts. 
1827-8 — Origen Sibley. 
1828-9 — David Mims. 
1829-3 — David Mims. 
1830-1 — James F. Roberts. 
1831-2— Joseph Hall. 
1832 (Called) — Joseph Hall. 
1832-3— Joseph Hall. 
1833-4 — Joseph Hall. 
1834-5 — James L. Seaberry. 
1835-6— Joseph Hall. 
1836-7 — Lee Slaughter. 
1837 (Called) — Lee Slaughter. 
1837-8— Cade M. Godbold. 
1838-9 — Cade M. Godbold. 

1839-40 David Mims. 

1840-1— Gerald B. Hall. 

1841 (Called) — Gerald B. Hall. 

1841-2 — Richard Singleton Moore. 

1842-3 — William H. Gasque. 

1843-4 — Richard Singleton Moore. 

1844-5— Gerald B. Hall. 

1845-6— J. H. Hastie. 

1847-8 — Reuben McDonald. 

1849-50 — Reuben McDonald. 

1851-2— William Booth. 

1853-4 — William Wilkins. 

1855-6— P. C. Byrne. 

1857-8 — Joseph Nelson. 

1859-60 — T. C. Barlow. 

1861 (1st called) — T. C. Barlow. 

1861 (2d called) — Reuben McDonald. 
1861-2 — Reuben McDonald. 

1862 (Called) — Reuben McDonald. 
1862-3 Reuben McDonald. 

1863 (Called)— R. B. Bryers. 
1863-4 — R. B. Bryers. 

1864 (Called) — R. B. Bryers. 
1864-5 — R. B. Bryers. 
1865-6 — G. W. Robinson. 
1866-7 — G. W. Robinson. 
1868 — A. L. Holman. 

1869-70 — A. L. Holman. 

1870-1 — O. S. Holmes. 

1871-2 — O. S. Holmes. 

1872-3 — James M. Vaughn. 

1873— James M. Vaughn. 

1874-5 — Joseph Nelson. 

1875-6 — Joseph Nelson. 

1876-7 — W. H. H. McDavid. 

1878-9 — Louis Dolive. 

1880-1 — J. H. H. Smith. 

1882-3— H. A. Tatum. 

1884-5 — James M. Vaughn. 

1886-7 — Dan Williams. 

1888-9— H. A. Tatum. 

1890-1 — Richard A. Moore. 

1892-3— H. P. Hanson. 

1894-5 — R. H. Moore. 

1896-7 — C. W. Joseph. 

1898-9— J. H. H. Smith. 

1899 (Spec.) — J. H. H. Smith. 

1900-01 — George H. Hoyle. 

1903 — David Crawford Byrne 

1907 — S. C. Jenkins. 

19 07 (Spec.)— S. C. Jenkins. 

1909 (Spec.) — S. C. Jenkins. 

1911 — S. C. Jenkins. 

1915 — I. B. Thompson. 

1919— Sibley Holmes. 

See Bay Minette; Blakely; Bowyer; Fort- 
Daphne; Daphne State Normal School; Fort 
Mims Massacre; Little River; Mcintosh 
Bluff; Mobilians; Montgomery Hill; Mont-; Morgan Fort; Spanish Fort; Stockton- 
Tensas; Tensaw River. 

References,— Toulmin, Digest (1823), In- 
dex; Brewer, Alabama, p. 114; Berney, Hand- 
book (1892), p. 268; Riley, Alabama as it is 
(1893), p. 205; Northern Alabama (1888), p 
230; Alabama, 1909 (Ala. Dept. of Ag. and Ind. 
Bulletin 27), p. 73; U. S. Soil Survey (1911), 
with map; Alabama layid book (1916), p. 28; 
Ala. Official and Statistical Register, 1903-1915, 
5 vols.; Ala. Anthropological Society, Hand- 
book (1910); Geol. Survey of Ala., Agricultural 
features of the State (1883); The Valley re- 
gions of Alabama, parts 1 and 2 (1896, 1897) 
and Underground Water resources of Alabama 

BAXLAST. See Road and Ballast Mate- 


See State Bank and Branches. 

BAMA. A voluntary association of banking 
institutions of the State "to promote the gen- 
eral welfare and condition of banks and bank- 
ing institutions, and to secure uniformity of 
action, together with the practical benefits 
to be derived from personal acquaintance, 
and from the discussion of subjects of im- 
portance to the banking and commercial 
forces of the State of Alabama, and especially 
in order to secure the proper consideration of 
questions regarding the financial and com- 
mercial usages, customs and laws which affect 
the banking interests of the entire State, and 
for protection against loss by crime." Any 
bank, banker, or trust company of the State 
of Alabama may become a member of the 



association upon payment of the annual dues 
prescribed by the by-laws; also the officers of 
the various clearing-houses in the State. 
Member-banks may send delegates to the 
meetings of the association, who are required 
to be officers or directors of the institutions 
they represent. The present constitution and 
by-laws, adopted when the association was 
reorganized in 1902, provide an organization 
consisting of president, vice-president, secre- 
tary-treasurer, and eight second vice-presi- 
dents, each a chairman of a group of mem- 
bers from a district composed of from 10 to 
15 counties. The administration of the 
affairs of the association is vested in a coun- 
cil known as the "Council of Administration," 
composed of the chairmen of the eight groups, 
together with the president, vice-president, 
and secretary-treasurer as ex officio members. 
Standing committees upon various subjects of 
interest to bankers are maintained. At the 
annual meetings of the association, the dele- 
gates who are also members of the American 
Bankers' Association, elect the vice-president 
of that organization for the State of Alabama. 

The association was iirst organized in 1890, 
but became somewhat inactive and was reor- 
ganized at a meeting held in Blount Springs 
August 11. 1902, at which time the present 
constitution was adopted. In addition to the 
regular order of business, addresses, speeches 
and discussions of the various professional and 
general questions of conduct and management, 
both national and state, are given special 
consideration. It was due to the activity of 
the Alabama Bankers' Association that the 
present State banking law, by which the bank- 
ing department was created, was enacted. 
The association has taken an advanced posi- 
tion in regard to practically all business ques- 
tions, giving especial encouragement and 
assistance to the development of the State's 
agricultural interests. An example of active 
assistance given the farmers was the conven- 
tion of bankers, called by the superintendent 
of banks, at Montgomery, October 31, 1914, 
to devise plans for the temporary or perma- 
nent relief of the cotton situation as it then 
existed. A large attendance and a hearty re- 
sponse were given by the bankers, and as a 
result of their deliberations, measures for 
the relief of the serious conditions confront- 
ing the cotton planters on account of the 
European War were put under way. 

Publications. — Proceedi»!3S, 1900-1914, 7 
vols.; Convention of Alabama Bankers, Pro- 
ceedings. Nov. 17, 1914. 

See Banks and Banking; Banking Depart- 
ment; State Bank and Branches. 

References. — Publications listed above. 

BANKHEAD HIGHWAY. A transconti- 
nental highway, starting at the "Zero Mile- 
stone" in Washington, D. C, and ending in 
San Diego. California, passing through the 
states of Virginia, North Carolina and South 
Carolina, Georgia. Alabama. Mississippi, Ten- 
nessee, Arkansas, Texas. Oklahoma, New 
Mexico. Arizona, and California. The prac- 
ticability of such a route is due to climatic 
conditions prevailing the year around, and 

the low grade that could be maintained, free- 
dom from snow blockade and steep mountain 
climbs, open to travel every day in the year. 
The Highway was inaugurated and named at 
a meeting of leading good roads advocates 
assembled in Birmingham, October 6, 1916, to 
formulate plans tor the establishment of a 
Southern transcontinental highway from 
Washington to the Pacific Coast. The High- 
way was named as a tribute and later as a 
memorial to John Hollis Bankhead, "father 
of good roads in the U. S. Senate," the man 
who secured the first Federal aid in building 
good roads in every state in the Union. In 
the fall of 1917 the pathfinders appointed to 
locate the route made their selection from 
Washington, D. C, to Memphis, Tenn., and 
reported to the United States Good Roads 
Association, at the convention held at Little 
Rock, Ark., April, 1918, when the recommen- 
dations were approved. The route from Mem- 
phis to El Paso, Texas, was reported and 
adopted at the convention held at Mineral 
Weils, Texas, April, 1919. At the convention 
held at Hot Springs, Ark., April, 1920, rec- 
ommendations of the pathfinders and the 
board of directors, fixing the route from El 
Paso to San Diego were ratified. 

The Bankhead Highway was at first largely 
a series of connecting county roads, but has 
gradually become through official action of the 
legislatures and highway commissions of the 
States through which the route lies, an inte- 
gral part of the several state highway systems. 
In the majority of States, federal aid is 
provided by the Bankhead road measure. 
By 1920 more than three fourths of the high- 
way was being improved under the direct 
inspection of the government. More than a 
thousand miles at that date was improved 
with either permanent paving or hard sur- 
face, and more than $40,000,000 was avail- 
able or in prospect for construction of perma- 
nent links in the Highway. More than a 
thousand miles of the Highway runs through 
the State of Texas, and the Highway Commis- 
sion of Texas, and counties which the road 
traverses, liave appropriated and voted bonds 
to the amount of $27,405,000 to build their 
respective links, which are to be permanent 
and hard surface roads. California has voted 
bonds to the amount of over $40,000,00(7 to 
build a paved link of the Bankhead Highway 
from the Arizona line to San Diego, a distance 
of over 200 miles. 

The Bankhead Highway is not only a prac- 
tical route for touring, but also for hauling 
of freight. It connects the principal cities of 
North Carolina with Washington: it links 
Atlanta, Birmingham and Memphis, and it 
also serves the principal cities of the west 
all the way to San Diego and the Pacific 

Army Convoy. — The War Department sent 
a U. S. Army Convoy over the route during 
1920 thus giving government recognition to 
the Bankhead Highway, definitely establish- 
ing it as the most important Southern trans- 
continental route. The Convoy, following an 
impressive ceremony at Zero Milestone on 
June 14th, left Washington, D. C. with Col. 



John F. Franklin, U. S. Army, as expedition- 
ary commander, and J. A. Rountree. Secre- 
tary of the Bankhead National Highway As- 
sociation as field director, under appointment 
of the War Department and by the Associa- 
tion as representative and spokesman. The 
convoy was composed of forty-four trucks, 
four of which were 10 ton size, seven auto- 
mobiles and four motorcycles. The personnel 
consisted of twenty officers and one hundred 
and sixty enlisted men. The convoy landed 
in Los Angeles October 6th, after traveling 
4,000 miles. 

The convoy, received an ovation from the 
start to the finish. In every city, town and 
village through which it passed receptions 
with banquets, barbecues and chicken dinners 
were served. Public meetings were held and 
the people addressed by members of the con- 
voy during which a half million people heard 
the gospel of good roads. It is the present 
expectation of the promoters of the route that 
the Bankhead Highway will be one of the first 
highways to be taken over by the Federal 
Government as one of its transcontinental 
post and military roads. 

The Bankhead Highway is recognized as 
one of the great routes for tourists from the 
north and east to the south and west, and is 
prominently shown on the map of the Ameri- 
can Automobile Association and other tour- 
ists' maps. It is estimated that the total 
cost of the Highway, when completed will 
be above $100,000,000. 

Road of Ktniembi-anco. — It is the inten- 
tion of the Bankhead Highway Association 
to make of the highway a road of remem- 
brance. Fruit and nut trees, flowers and 
shrubs will line the route, planted as memo- 
rials to heroes of the States and localities 
through which the highway passes. Monu- 
ments and markers will also mark the route. 

Woman's Auxiliaiy Board. — A woman's 
auxiliary board was authorized by the board 
of directors at Birmingham, February 5, 
1920, "to have charge of beautifying the 
Bankhead National Highway." 

Featui'e.'* of Interest on Route. — The Capi- 
tol and public buildings at Washington. D. C.; 
battlefields and historic points in Virginia; 
tobacco fields and King's Mountain in North 
Carolina: cotton mills in South Carolina; 
Stone Mountain in Georgia, Camp McPher- 
son. Atlanta; iron and steel plants and coal 
fields at Birmingham; cotton plantations in 
Mississippi; crossing the Mississippi River at 
Memphis; Hot Springs, in Arkansas; oil fields 
of Texas; copper mines in New Mexico; 
Roosevelt Dam in Arizona; Indian and game 
reservations in Oklahoma; orange groves and 
orchards in California and on the Pacific 
Coast. See Zero Milestone, and sketch of 
Senator John H. Bankhead. 

References. — Archives of the United States 
Good Roads Association, and the Association's 
bulletin; letters from J. A. Rountree and S. M. 
Johnson, in the Alabama State Department of 
Archives and History. 

utive department, originally created March 2, 

1911, and reorganized under act of February 
15, 1915. It is "charged with the execution 
of all laws relating to corporations and indi- 
viduals doing or carrying on a banking busi- 
ness in the State of Alabama." The title 
of the act declares the legislative purpose to 
be "through this department to regulate, ex- 
amine and supervise banks and banking, to 
punish certain prohibited acts relating there- 
to, to provide for the seizure and liquidation 
of banks, to provide for the levy of an assess- 
ment upon State banks for the support of the 
banking department [so] created." 

The chief officer of the department is the 
superintendent of banks, appointed by the 
governor, with the approval of the State sen- 
ate, for a term of four years. He must be 
a man of good character, familiar with bank- 
ing transactions, and neither directly nor in- 
directly interested in any banking business. 
His salary is $3,600 a year. He takes an oath 
of office, gives a surety bond of $25,000, and 
may be impeached for "neglect of duty, mal- 
feasance, misfeasance, extortion or corruption 
in office, incompetency, or intemperance in 
the use of intoxicating liquors or narcotics 
.... or for any offense involving moral 
turpitude." He is authorized to employ four 
persons as examiners, at monthly salaries of 
$150 each, one office assistant at $83.33. and 
a stenographer at $75 a month. The neces- 
sary traveling expenses of the superintend- 
ent, examiners and office assistant are paid 
by the State. The department maintains an 
office in the capitol. 

The jurisdiction of the department extends 
to every bank in the State, other than na- 
tional banks; and it is the duty of the super- 
intendent, either personally or by competent 
examiner appointed by him, to visit and ex- 
amine, under oath if need be, every state 
bank at least twice in each year in order to 
ascertain its condition and resources, and 
whether the requirements of its charter and 
of the law have been complied with. He is 
authorized, with the concurrence of the bank- 
ing board, to take charge of and close any 
bank found to be insolvent or improperly 
managed, and retain possession until it can 
resume business or shall have been finally 
liquidated as provided by law. In case of 
liquidation, he may appoint an agent, at a 
salary not exceeding $200 a month, payable 
from the assets of the bank, to assist him in 
closing its affairs. He must require of all 
state banks at least two reports each year 
showing the details of their condition and 
business in the manner prescribed by him, 
and himself make an annual report to the 
governor covering the business of the depart- 
ment, which is published as other State docu- 
ments. He may withhold a certificate of 
incorporation for a proposed bank until the 
proper assurances and documents are filed 
with him. 

The department is supported by an annual 
license tax based upon the aggregate capital, 
surplus, and undivided profits of every bank 
doing business in the State, graduated from 
$25 on a total of $25,000 or less, to $200 on 
a total of $500,000 or more. A penalty of 



$5 for each day the tax remains in default 
after the time fixed by law for its payment 
is prescribed, and it is the duty of the super- 
intendent to enforce collection. The consti- 
tutionality of the tax was attacked in the case 
of Lovejoy v. City of Montgomery, but the 
supreme court upheld the law. 

The constitution of 187 5 declared that no 
banks should be established otherwise than 
under a general banking law, but no such 
general law was enacted until 1903. This 
omission is explained mainly by the fact that 
for many years the United States Govern- 
ment, in order to assist the development of 
the national banking system, exacted a tax of 
10 per cent upon the Issues of state banks, 
making the profit of such enterprises too 
small to be attractive. In 1894, Gov. William 
C. Oates recommended a banking law, in the 
belief that the Federal tax would be repealed. 
The legislature at that session sent a joint 
resolution to Congress, asking its immediate 
repeal, but passed no banking law. The mat- 
ter seems to have rested thus until October 
10, 1903, when a law "providing for the exam- 
ination and regulation of the business of 
banking in the State of Alabama" was ap- 
proved. This law required reports in detail 
of resources and liabilities; contained provi- 
sions for the regulation of capitalization, cash 
reserve, character of loans and discounts, 
and methods of procedure in cases of impair- 
ment of capital; and authorized the governor 
to appoint a bank examiner, at $2,000 a year 
and necessary traveling expenses. On Au- 
gust 26, 1909, the appointment of a state 
bank examiner and two assistant examiners 
was authorized, so that at least two examina- 
tions of every bank might be made every year. 
In 1911, Gov. Emmet O'Neal recommended 
to the legislature the establishment of a sep- 
arate State banking department, to be under 
the control of an officer with ample authority 
backed by adequate penalties. He said, 
"The growth of the banks of Alabama, both 
In numbers and in deposits, has more than 
kept pace with the expansion of the State in 
population and industrial development. Un- 
fortunately this growth has been marred in 
the recent past by some failures of a most 
inexcusable and disgraceful description, and 
through the shameless violation of the com- 
monest rules of sound banking. I am per- 
suaded that these failures and all the harm 
to many hundreds of depositors, could have, 
and would have been prevented by a depart- 
ment of banking properly equipped and 
clothed with authority and charged with re- 

Acting upon this suggestion, the legislature 
created a banking department, March 2, 1911. 
The governor appointed Alexander E. Walker, 
of Florence, superintendent, and he was com- 
missioned to succeed himself in 1915. The 
policy of the department has been construc- 
tive, yet conservative, calculated to place the 
business of banking in the State upon a firmer 
basis, and to enhance its standing and influ- 
ence in the financial circles of the country. 
Special efforts have been made to bring about 
a better understanding and a more effectual 

cooperation between the banking and the agri- 
cultural interests of the State. An example 
of the work done in that direction was the 
calling by the superintendent of a convention 
of all the bankers of the State at Montgom- 
ery on November 17, 1914, for the purpose 
of devising means to relieve the trying situa- 
tion of the cotton planters brought about by 
the European War and the abundant crop 
of that year. 

Examiner (old law). — Thomas J. Rutledge, 

Assistant Examiners (old law). — Ralph W. 
Garner, 1909-1911; L. P. Hosmer, 1910-1911. 

Superintendent (new law). — Alexander E. 
Walker, 1911- 

Members of Board (new law). — Edward J. 
Buck, 1911-1915; George A. Searcy, 1911- 
1915; W. W. Crawford, 1916-; J. W. Little, 

PruLicATioxs. — Annual revprts, 1911-1916, 6 
vols. These contain full statistics of the bank- 
ing business of the State during the period cov- 
ered. Reports compiled by the examiner under 
the laws of 1903 and 1909 were not separately 
published, but appear in the Annual reports of 
the State treasurer. 

See Banks and Banking. 

References. — Constitution, 1875, 1901; Code, 
1907, sees. 3538-3561; General Acts, 1903, pp. 
483-487; 1909, special sess., pp. 232-233; 1911, pp. 
50-89; 1915, pp. 88-103; Lovejoy v. City of Mont- 
gomery, 180 Ala., p. 473; Gov. William C. Oates, 
"Message," in Senate Journal, 1894-95, pp. 231- 
232; Gov. Emmet O'Neal, "Message," in Senate 
Journal, 1911, p. 142; Convention of Alabama 
Bankers, Proceedings, 1914. 

BANKS. Corporations, firms, or individ- 
uals engaged primarily in making loans and 
caring for deposits, and secondarily in vari- 
ous other activities, such as dealing in domes- 
tic and foreign exchange, the investment of 
funds, the buying and selling of securities, 
and the issue of notes for circulation as 
money. Incorporated banking institutions 
have been provided for in the laws of Alabama 
since the organization of the State. A law was 
passed by the legislature of Mississippi Ter- 
ritory, December 11, 1816, incorporating the 
Planters' and Mechanics' Bank of Huntsville. 
The legislature of Alabama Territory passed 
an act February 13, 1818, to establish the 
Tombeckbe Bank in the town of St. Stephens, 
and another, November 20, 1818, establishing 
the Bank of Mobile. When the State consti- 
tution was adopted in 1819, provision was 
made for the establishment of one State bank 
with such number of branches as the legisla- 
ture might from time to time deem expedient. 
Regulative provisions were included in the 
act establishing the State bank, but most of 
the details of organization were left to the 
discretion of the legislature. Among other 
provisions of the constitution, was one to the 
effect that after the establishment of the 
State bank, the private banks in existence 
might be admitted as branches thereof, but 
banking institutions other than the State bank 
were not permitted. In accordance with the 
constitution, the legislature, December 21, 


1820, passed an act establishing the State 
bank, the details of whose history are given 
under the title State Bank and Branches. 

So long as The Bank of the State of Ala- 
bama existed there were no other banking 
institutions chartered; but after its suspen- 
sion several other private banks were incor- 
porated. Data concerning such institutions 
previous to 1865 will also be found under the 
title State Bank and Branches. Banks and 
banking since 1865 are discussed under that 

For discussions of national banks, Federal 
reserve board, farm loan board, etc., see the 
titles listed below. 

See Banking Department; Bankers' Asso- 
ciation, The Alabama; Banks and Banking; 
Farm Loan Board; Federal Reserve Board; 
National Banks; State Bank and Branches. 

BANKS. Post office and station on the At- 
lantic Coast Line Railroad, in the central part 
of Pike County, about 8 miles southeast of 
Troy. Altitude: 599 feet. Population: 1900 
— 198; 1910—307. 

BANKS AND BANKING. The organiza- 
tion and operation of banks in Alabama are 
under the supervision of the State banking 
department, which has wide regulative pow- 
ers. The present banking system was inau- 
gurated by the act of October 10, 1903, 
"providing for the examination and regula- 
tion of business of banking in the State of 
Alabama." There are, however, certain fun- 
damental principles with respect to banking 
laid down in the present constitution. Sim- 
ilar provisions, not quite so broad in their 
scope, nor comprehending so many adminis- 
trative details, were incorporated in the con- 
stitution of 1875. 

The banking law of 1911, enlarged and 
elaborated the existing laws, and superseded 
all previous enactments on the subject. In 
addition to creating the banking department, 
described under that title, this act, with its 
amendments, provides that banks organized 
under State laws shall pay, through the bank- 
ing department, stipulated fees proportioned 
to the amount of their capitalization. It reg- 
ulates by specific provisions all matters of 
capitalization; cash reserve; maximum allow- 
able loans to one person, firm or corporation; 
and the increase or reduction of capital 
stock. It also provides penalties for banking 
officers who receive deposits when a bank is 
known to be insolvent; declare unearned divi- 
dends; make changes in capital stock without 
authority from the superintendent of banks; 
conceal loans from the board of directors; 
permit overdrafts by officers or employees, 
etc. In many respects the provisions of the 
law are similar to and quite as stringent as 
those of the national banking laws. 

Before the establishment of the present 
system, provision was made for the incorpo- 
ration of banks, designated as free banking 
institutions, the same as other commercial 
or industrial corporations; and certain fea- 
tures of their organization and business 
transactions were regulated by law. Such de- 

tails of these regulations as were not to be 
applied by legal proceedings, were adminis- 
tered by the comptroller of public accounts. 
Up to 1837 the outstanding feature of the 
banking system was the Alabama State Bank 
and its branches. During the existence of 
this institution, provision was made in law 
for the organization and conduct of private 
banks; but there seems actually to have been 
little competition with the State bank. The 
code of 1852 continued in effect all acts or 
joint resolutions incorporating companies for 
banking purposes. The provisions of this 
kind in effect at the time the code was adopt- 
ed regulated the capital stock of banks, which 
might not be less than $100,000 nor more 
than $500,000; required reports to be made 
to the comptroller of public accounts at least 
as often as once a year on the condition of a 
bank and the business transacted since its 
last report; required the currency or notes 
issued for circulation by a bank to be counter- 
signed by the comptroller; provided for put- 
ting the affairs of a bank which failed to 
redeem a stipulated percentage of its out- 
standing notes in charge of a commission for 
liquidation; and regulated various other de- 
tails of banking business. Between 1840 and 
1861, there were several "free banking insti- 
tutions" organized in the State. Some of the 
larger and best-known were those at Mobile, 
Montgomery, Selma, and Huntsville. Their 
reports, some of them indicating a consid- 
erable volume of business transacted, were 
published in the regular annual reports of 
the comptroller. The outbreak of the War 
had a fatal effect upon banking interests, 
as upon practically all other industrial, eco- 
nomic, and financial institutions of the State; 
and few If any of these free banks seem to 
have been operated until its close. The period 
of 10 years Immediately following the close 
of the War was characterized by wildcat 
schemes of many kinds, and no permanent 
financial institutions seem to have originated 
during that decade. 

In 1875, provisions were included in the 
new constitution which were intended to form 
a foundation for a general State banking 
system. No legislation in accordance with 
the constitutional provisions was enacted, 
however, until 1903. The delay is explained 
by the fact that the United States Govern- 
ment, during the time referred to, exacted a 
tax of 10 per cent upon the issues (circula- 
tion) of State banks. This was done for 
the purpose of stimulating the development 
of the national banking system at the expense 
of all other banking systems. It had pre- 
cisely the result intended. While it was in 
effect, the profits of a bank organized under 
State laws were too small to be attractive to 
capitalists. The passage of a banking law, 
based upon the provisions of the constitu- 
tion, was recommended by Gov. William C. 
Gates in his message of December 5, 1894, in 
which he expressed the belief that the Fed- 
eral tax law would soon be repealed. The 
legislature, however, contented itself with 
addressing a memorial to Congress asking the 
immediate repeal of the tax. Nothing further 


was done until October 10, 1903, when the 
law which in many of its provisions forms 
the basis of the present banking system was 

The law of 1903 provided for bank exam- 
iners, but established no State department for 
the administration of its provisions. In his 
message of January 16, 1911, Gov. Emmet 
O'Neal recommended the establishment of a 
banking department, in charge of an officer 
clothed with ample authority and backed by 
adequate penalties for failure to comply with 
the law or with the regulations established 
by the department. The establishment of 
such a department was made the more neces- 
sary, in the governor's opinion, by the fact 
that during the past few years, several fail- 
ures "of a most inexcusable and disgraceful 
description," had been caused by "the shame- 
less violation of the commonest rules of 
sound banking." These failures, he thought, 
would be prevented by a banking depart- 
ment clothed with appropriate authority and 
charged with responsibility. In pursuance of 
this suggestion, the legislature passed an act 
on March 2, 1911, by which a State depart- 
ment with ample power and authority was 
established, and in which an effectual system 
of regulations for the conduct of banking in 
this State was included. 

The act of February 8, 1915, authorized 
the conversion of state banks Into national 
banks, under stipulated regulations. The 
Federal Reserve Bank act, December 23, 
1913, was the occasion for the passage of the 
act of September 25, 1915, by the Alabama 
Legislature, authorizing state banks, savings 
banks, and trust companies organized under 
the laws of Alabama to subscribe for stock 
and become members of the Federal Reserve 

See Banking Department; Federal Reserve 
Bank; National Banks; State Bank. 

References. — Constitution, 1875, sees. 14-20; 
Constitution, 1901, sees. 247-255; Codes, 1852, 
sees. 10, 937-941; 1886, sees. 1193-1198; 1896, 
sees. 1085-1098; 1907, sees. 3518-3527; Acts. 1903, 
pp. 483487; 1909, pp. 262-263; 1911, pp. 50-89; 
1915, pp. 77, 88-103, 883; Supt. of Banks, An- 
nual reports. 1911-1915. 

at Danville, Morgan County). See North 
Alabama Baptist Collegiate Institute. 


denominational educational institution for 
young men, young women, boys and girls, 
located at Newton, Dale County. It was 
founded by the Baptist Church at Newton in 
189 8, at which time the site was chosen, a 
building erected and trustees appointed. The 
church and property were taken over in 1908 
by the Alabama Baptist State Convention. 

While under the auspices of that denomina- 
tion, "the school is in no way sectarian, and 
the children of all denominations may enter 
upon exactly the same basis." The grounds 
include 12 acres, and the school building is 
modern and substantial. The work is organ- 
ized into literary, business and domestic sci- 

ence departments. Diplomas are awarded for 
the completion of the prescribed courses. Its 
report to the State education department, 
September 30, 1916, showed buildings and 
site valued at $20,000; equipment, $20,000; 
6 teachers; 220 pupils; and totSl support, 
$3,000. Prof. A. W. Tate has been principal 
of the institute from the beginning. 

References.— Cafn,/o,(7!trs, 1898-1916: Alabama 
State Convention, Minutes, 1915, p. 34. 

BAMA. A denominational school tor the edu- 
cation of negroes, located at Selma, and under 
the control of the Alabama Baptist State 
Convention. The first movement looking to 
the founding of the Institution was made at 
the meeting of the Colored Baptist Conven- 
tion held in Tuscaloosa in November, 1873. 
They had some opposition in developing their 
plans, but were not to be turned from their 
purpose. At the convention which met at 
Eufaula In 1877, it was definitely decided to 
locate the school at Selma, and the formal 
opening took place In January, 1878, at the 
St. Phillip Street Baptist Church, with Rev. 
H. Woodsman as president, and W. R. Petti- 
ford as assistant. The school now has, with 
other property, 36 acres of land, on which 
are two large four-story brick buildings, and 
three small frame ones. The courses offered 
include theological, normal, college, prepara- 
tory, grammar and primary departments. In- 
struction is also given in sewing and milli- 
nery, and in domestic science. Literary and 
religious societies are maintained. In 1885 
the name of the school was changed from 
"The Alabama Normal and Theological 
School," to "Selma University." In Novem- 
ber, 1895, it was changed to "Alabama Bap- 
tist Colored University." On September 30, 
1916, its report to the state superintendent 
of education showed buildings and site valued 
at $75,000; equipment, $1,000; 18 teachers; 
281 pupils; and a total support of $17,100. 

Presidents. — Rev. H. Woodsmall, 1878- 
1881; W. H. McAlplne, 1881-1883; E. M. 
Brawley, 1883-1886; C. L. Bruce, 1886-1893; 
C. S. Dinkins, 1893-1901; C. O. Booths, 1901- 
1902; R. T. Pollard, 1902-. 

References. — Catalogues. 1884-1916. In the 
issues for 1905-06 and 1907-08 are detailed 
sketches of the institution. Acts. 1880-81, p. 



See Baptists, various branches of. 

BAPTISTS. A religious denomination, of 
various branches, tracing its American origin 
from the coming of Roger Williams in 1839, 
as the apostle of religious liberty," and to 
whom must be ascribed the honor of found- 
ing first Baptist church society in the United 
States. Even at that early day. among be- 
lievers there developed differences, some- 
holding to the Particular, or Calvinistic doc- 
trines, as distinguished from the General, 



or Arminian branch. The Calvinistic view 
came to be generally accepted, but later, in 
the bodies known as Free and Free Will 
Baptists, the Arminian doctrines again found 

Differences had so far developed that in 
1906 the U. S. Bureau of the Census found 
it necessary to distinguish 14 Baptist bodies 
in the presentation of their statistics. Be- 
fore sectional and doctrinal differences had 
differentiated Baptists into these groups, 
there was more or less general unity. In 
1814 was formed the General Convention of 
the Baptist Denomination in the United 
States of America for Foreign Missions. In 
the development of that body, however, for- 
eign missionary work was but a small part 
of its activities. It undertook some home 
missions also, besides other work, including 
the tract society, which in 184 was reorgan- 
ized as the American Baptist Publishing So- 

The Baptists in Virginia, the Carolinas, 
Kentucky and Tennessee, from whom those 
in Alabama have been largely drawn, took a 
leading part in early Baptist extension and 
growth, as well as in the work of the gen- 
eral convention. To that body in its early 
history Alabama Baptists generally held al- 
legiance individually, through their churches, 
associations and conventions. The further 
history of the denomination in the State, 
since the divisions early came about, is given 
under separate branches. 

See Baptist (Southern Convention); Bap- 
tists, Church of Christ; Baptists, Free; Bap- 
tists, Free Will; Baptist, Primitive; Baptists, 
Seventh-Day; Baptists, Two-Seed-in-the-Spi- 
rit Predestinarian. 

References. — U. S. Bureau of the Census, 
Religious bodies, 1906 (1910), passim; and the 
several citations in the seven following titles. 


branch of the general religious body of Bap- 
tists, made up of a membership located in 
Tennessee, Alabama and Mississippi, and 
grouped in seven associations in 1906. This 
Baptist sect holds essentially the same gen- 
eral doctrines as the Separate Baptists, but 
local conditions appear to have prevented 
union. They are Calvinistic, though liberal; 
and they hold that baptism of believers by 
immersion, the Lord's Supper, and foot- 
washing are gospel institutions. In polity 
they accord in practice with other Baptists. 
The churches are organized into associations, 
which "are purely for purposes of fellow- 
ship." They have no distinctive missionary 
societies or benevolent organizations, but 
they are not closed as "antimissionary." 
"Since they occupy mountainous sections 
chiefly, and represent the less wealthy com- 
munities, their missionary spirit finds ex- 
pression in local evangelistic work. As they 
have come in contact more and more with 
other churches, their sense of fellowship has 
broadened, and with this has been apparent 
a desire to share in the wider work of the 
general church." 

In 1906 there were 28 church organiza- 

tions in Alabama, with 1,947 members; 25 
of these reported this membership as 741 
males, and 1,065 females; 24 church edifices, 
with a seating capacity of 8,845, and valued 
at $11,525; no parsonages reported; and 1 
Sunday school, with 3 teachers and 50 pupils. 
References. — U. S. Bureau of the Census, 
Religious bodies, 1906 (1910), pp. 136-138. 

BAPTISTS, FREE. A branch of the gen- 
eral body of Baptists, having its origin in. 
New England in the latter part of the 
eighteenth century. It grew out of a dis- 
satisfaction on the part of numbers of Bap- 
tists in that section, which declined to accept 
the Calvinistic theology in its most rigid 
form. They were sometimes called "New 
Lights," or "Randallites," so named because 
the first congregation was organized by Ben- 
jamin Randall. They are sometimes called 
Free Will Baptists, but the particular branch 
immediately under review is not to be con- 
fused with the Baptists of that name, which 
is also represented in Alabama. 

The term Free Baptists has been finally 
adopted as more nearly descriptive of their 
adherence, not only to the doctrine of free 
will, but also to free grace and free com- 
munion. In polity they are congregational, 
but for purposes of fellowship, associations 
are formed, ordinarily called quarterly con- 
ferences. The quarterly conferences are rep- 
resented in yearly conferences, and these in 
turn in a triennial general conference. The 
claim is made by the Free Baptists that they 
were the first religious body to pronounce 
against slavery, their general conferenfte of 
1835 making a vigorous declaration on the 

The statistics of 1906 show in Alabama 
21 organizations; 1,200 members; 13 church 
edifices, valued at |4,750; no parsonages re- 
ported; and 12 Sunday schools, with 39 offi- 
cers and teachers and 273 pupils. 

See Baptists, Free Will. 

References. — U. S. Bureau of th^ Census. 
Religious bodies, 1906 (1910), pp. 117-123, 157; 
Cathcart, Baptist encyclopmdia (1881), pp. 416- 

the general body of Baptists, sometimes con- 
fused with Free Baptists, but more properly 
known as Free Will Baptists. They accept 
the five points of Arminianism as opposed to 
the five points of Calvinism. Immersion is 
considered the only correct form of baptism, 
but no distinction is made in the invitation 
to the Lord's Supper, and they uniformly 
practice open communion. They further be- 
lieve in foot-washing and anointing the sick 
with oil. 

While in doctrine and polity they are sim- 
ilar to the Free Baptists, they have a differ- 
ent origin, and are traced trf local Baptist 
differences in Pennsylvania about the middle 
of the eighteenih century. In the South 
their position on slavery was at variance 
with the position of the Free Baptists of the 
North. The Free Will Baptists are congre- 
gational in government, hold quarterly con- 
ferences, state conferences or associations. 


and an annual conference representing the 
entire denomination. 

In 19 06 tlie Free Will Baptists had 4 2 
churches; 2,213 members; 40 church edi- 
fices, with a seating capacity of 10,800, and 
valued at $15,150; no parsonages reported; 
and 11 Sunday schools, with 53 officers and 
teachers and 502 pupils. These were organ- 
ized into 3 associations, viz.: Cahaba, 11 
churches, and 5 84 members; North River, 
8 churches, and 336 members; and State 
Line, 23 churches, and 1,337 members, lo- 
cated in south central and west Alabama. 

See Baptists, Free. 

Reference. — U. S. Bureau of the Census, Re- 
ligious hodies, 1906 (1910), pp. 124-127; Cath- 
cart, Baptist Encyclopwdia (1881) ; pp. 416-417. 

(Southern Convention). 

BAPTISTS, PRIMITIVE. A branch of the 
general religious body of Baptists, dating 
from differences developed early in the nine- 
teenth century in reference to missionary so- 
cieties, Sunday schools, education of preach- 
ers, and similar liberal ideas and practices. 
They are also known as "Old School," "Reg- 
ulars," "Anti-mission," and "Hard Shell." 
With the growth of population and complexity 
in social organization, the religious leaders 
among the Baptists began the development 
of plans looking to the unification of their 
forces for extension, internal development, 
etc. These liberal ideas aroused opposition 
on the part of many churches, and in the 
first quarter century of the history of the 
Baptists in Alabama, there was a fierce con- 
flict. The denomination was divided into 
two camps known as missionary and anti- 
missionary, resulting finally in a permanent 
division in 1836, in many cases reaching to 
both churches and associations. 

The story of this period is dramatically 
told in the usual church histories, and the 
official literature of the respective organiza- 
tions. The Primitive branch is strongest in 
North Alabama, in Chambers County in East 
Alabama, and in Pike, Henry, Butler and 
Covington counties in South Alabama. Its 
churches are organized into associations, but 
they have never formed a central state body, 
and have never had any state conventions or 
general bodies of any kind. In the annual 
minutes of the associations are to be found 
statements of articles of faith, constitutions 
and rules of order. 

In doctrine the denomination is Calvin- 
istic. Usually their abstracts of principles, 
or articles of faith are eleven in number. 
The full verbal inspiration of the Old and 
New Testament scriptures, immersion of be- 
lievers as the only form of baptism, and as a 
prerequisite to the taking of the Lord's Sup- 
per, and the practice of foot-washing are ad- 
hered to rigidly. As a church they stand for 
honesty in public and private dealing, the 
prompt payment of debts, and the perfect in- 
dependence of individual action within the 
law. While not opposing an educated min- 
istry, they are opposed to the maintenance 

of educational institutions by the church. 
They are without Sunday schools, but are not 
opposed to the religious training and in- 
struction of their children. They have no 
organized missionary activities, but at the 
same time do not oppose evangelistic effort 
on the part of their preachers. 

A number of Alabama Primitive Baptist 
churches and some of the associations date 
from the early settlement of the State, and 
prior to the division. The details of their 
history are poorly preserved, and their origi- 
nal manuscript records are meager. Few 
files of minutes of the associations in pub- 
lished form are available, and in consequence 
denominational growth cannot possibly be 
stated with any degree of accuracy. Their 
rules do not require the organization and 
preservation of statistical data. 

The U. S. Census Report of 1906 gives the 
total number of organizations in the State as 
306; total number of members 9,772; 221 
church edifices, with a seating capacity of 
77,031; and church property valued at 
$123,123. There has doubtless been growth 
and enlargement in many churches, and some 
new churches have been organized, with a 
falling off in others, but information is not 
at hand to enable a definite statement. 

Associations. — The association is the only 
form of church union among Primitive Bap- 
tists. They meet once a year, and preserve 
only a loose form of organization. They are 
composed of messengers from the different 
churches, usually three in number. The otti- 
cers are a moderator and clerk. In the con- 
stitution of the Beulah Association, which 
may be taken as typical, it is declared that it 
will not correspond "with any association 
the churches of which hold or are in any 
wise connected with any missionary society, 
Sunday school union society, or advocate 
state or national conventions held for the 
purpose of furthering the missionary cause, 
theological schools, nor any other society 
that has been, or may hereafter be, formed 
under a pretense of circulating the Gospel 
of Christ, nor any secret society that now 
exists, or may hereafter exist." As illustrat- 
ing the unwillingness of associations to in- 
terfere with absolute independence on the 
part of the churches, they expressly hold 
that no act of the associations shall be in 
any way binding on the churches. 

In the Report of 1906 above referred to 
28 organizations are reported in Alabama. 
Twelve churches in the State are reported as 
"unassociated." The following Is a list of 
the associations with total number of 
churches and members: 
Associations. Churches. Members 

Antioch 17 519 

Beulah 21 933 

Buttahatchie 6 107 

Cane Creek 8 204 

Choctawatchee 11 321 

Clay Bank 23 776 

Conecuh River No. 1 8 266 

Conecuh River No. 2 16 656 

Ebenezer 10 424 

Fellowship 24 540 

If //^v1lV%%^' 



Associations. Churches. Members 

Five Mile 3 64 

Flint River 12 248 

Hillabee 20 699 

Hopewell 11 221 

Liberty 8 474 

Little Hope 4 87 

Little Vine 10 308 

Lost Creek 9 186 

Mount Zion 15 482 

Mud Creek 12 362 

Muscle Shoals 4 37 

Patsaliga 18 503 

Pilgrims Rest No. 1 16 535 

Pilgrims Rest No. 2 3 9 3 

River Fork 3 44 

Second Creek 7 212 

Wetumpka 14 579 

Unassociated 12 354 

References. — U. S. Bureau of the Census. 
Religious bodies, 1906 (1910), pp. 138-150: 
Cathcort, Baptist Encyclopedia (1881); Hol- 
combe, History of the rise and progress of the 
Baptists in Alabama (1840); Riley, History of 
the Baptists of Alabama (1895); and Minutes 
of the several associations. Partial flies of 
some of the latter are preserved in the Ala- 
bama Decartment of Archives and History. 

the general religious body of Baptists, evan- 
gelical in doctrine, and distinguished from the 
regular Calvinistic group only by their ob- 
servance of the seventh day instead of the 
first day as the sabbath. It is said of them 
that "They are in no sense 'Judaizers' or 
'Legulizers,' but believe in salvation through 
faith alone, and insist upon the observance 
of the Sabbath, not as a basis of salvation, 
but as evidence of obedience and conformity 
to the teachings of Christ." They were orig- 
inally "restricted communionists," but now 
no limitations are imposed. Immersion is a 
necessary condition to church membership. 
In church government they are independent 
congregationalists. The churches are organ- 
ized into associations and a general confer- 
ence, but these bodies have advisory juris- 
diction only. The denomination has always 
been characterized by a missionary spirit; 
and woman's boards, sabbath schools, and 
Christian endeavor societies are supported. 
In Alabama, in 19 06, there was 1 Congre- 
gation of 9 males and 15 females; 1 church 
edifice, valued at $2,000; 1 parsonage, val- 
ued at $1,000; and 1 Sunday school, with 9 
officers and teachers and 45 pupils. 

Reference. — U. S. Bureau of the Census, Re- 
ligious bodies, 1906 (1910), pp. 113-116; Cath- 
cart. Baptist encyclopaedia (1881), pp. 1042- 

BAPTISTS. (Southern Convention.) The 
principal branch of the great religious body 
of Baptists in Alabamd. The denomination 
traces its history through confiicting strug- 
gles to the original founding of the church 
of that name. In America It has its begin- 
ning with Roger Williams at Providence, 
Rhode Island, in 1639, and Dr. John Clarke 
at Newport a year or two later. With de- 

nominational growth came denominational 
differences, and the breaking up into general 
branches, known by varying names, but by 
far the larger part are still known merely as 
Baptists. In 1844 a division came about due 
chiefly to sectional controversies, which re- 
sulted in 1845 in the formation of the 
Southern Baptist Convention, the northern 
body remaining as formerly, until within 
the last few years, when its various general 
societies came together as the Northern Bap- 
tist Convention. The term "Missionary" 
sometimes employed in reference to this 
branch is descriptive merely, and its adop- 
tion is illustrative of the long struggle over 
doctrinal differences, particularly in mission 
activity, education of ministers, general 
education, Sunday schools and other forms 
of church work. 

The Missionary Baptists in Alabama are iu 
harmony with all Baptists on the fundamen- 
tals of doctrine, more or less Calvinistic in 
terms, as will appear from the statement 
hereinafter; and in many features of polity 
they are in general accord with them, notably 
in the local autonomy or independence of the 
churches. There are no doctrinal or prac- 
tical differences between them, organized as 
the Southern Baptist Convention, and the 
churches of the Northern Baptist Convention. 
They are not different denominations, but 
simply one denomination, working through 
different agencies, and generally in different 
parts of the world. However, it may be said 
that generally they are more strictly Cal- 
vinistic, and the Philadelphia or New Hamp- 
shire confession of faith is more firmly held 
than in the Northern churches. The car- 
dinal principle of Alabama Baptists is im- 
plicit obedience to the plain teachings of the 
Word. Briefly summarized, they hold that 
the churches are independent in their local 
affairs; that there should be an entire sepa- 
ration of church and State; that religious 
liberty of freedom in matters of religion is 
an inherent right of the human soul; that a 
church is a body of regenerated people who 
have been baptized on profession of personal 
faith in Christ, and who have associated 
themselves in the fellowship of the Gospel; 
that infant baptism is not only not taught in 
the Scriptures, but is fatal to the spirituality 
of the church; that from the meaning of the 
words used in the Greek text of the Scrip- 
ture, the symbolism of the ordinance, and 
the practice of the early church, immersion in 
water is the only proper mode of baptism; 
that the scriptural officers of the church are 
pastors and deacons; and that the Lord's 
Supper is an ordinance of the church ob- 
served in commemoration of the sufferings 
and death of Christ. 

Early History. — Baptists came with the 
first pioneers into the territory now included 
in the State of Alabama. Their names are 
unknown but their number included many of 
the best men and women who sought homes 
in the new land. While the names of in- 
dividual Baptists who located here after the 
territory was thrown open for settlement are 
unknown, the names of the early church or- 



ganizations are preserved. The first church 
of the Baptist faith and order in the State 
was founded, October 2, 1808, on Flint River, 
a few miles northeast of the city of Hunts- 
vlUe, and was given the name of the stream 
on which it was located. It was constituted 
in the private home of James Deaton, and 
numbered twelve persons. To Rev. John 
Nicholson is to be given the honor of con- 
stituting this, the earliest known Baptist 
church in the limits of the State. Among 
his associates were Rev. John Canterbury and 
Rev. Zadock Baker, both preachers. This 
church Is the lineal predecessor of the first 
Baptist church of Huntsville. The second 
was Bassett's Creek church, near the pres- 
ent Choctaw Corner in Clarke County, and 
dates from March 31, 1810. It was con- 
stituted by Elder James Courtney. The 
third was organized in the same year, but a 
little later within the present limits of Sum- 
ter County near the Mississippi line, and 
was called Oaktuppa. With the increase of 
population others were rapidly formed, and 
by 1820 there were at least 50 Baptist 
churches in the State. By the end of 1821 
there were 70 churches, and 2,500 members; 
in 1825, there were 6 associations, 128 
churches, 70 ministers, and about 5,0 00 
members. Elder Hosea Holcombe, the fine 
old Alabama Baptist historian, declares that 
"this increase is without a parallel in the 
United States, and perhaps in the known 
world, especially in modern times." 

The Flint River Association was consti- 
tuted on September 26, 1814, the first in the 
State. It had 17 churches, with 1,021 mem- 
bers, but some of the churches were located 
In Tennessee. With the passing years other 
associations were constituted as follows: 
Bethlehem, formerly Beckbee, 1816; Cahaba, 
October 3, 1818; Alabama, December 13, 
1819; Bethel, formed from Bethlehem, 1820; 
Muscle Shoals, July 15, 1820; Mount Zion, 
from Cahaba, 1823; Shoal Creek, formed 
from Muscle Shoals, 1825; and Buttahatcha, 
October 6, 1826. 

In 18 23 the state convention was consti- 
tuted, missionaries were placed in the field, 
and aggressive steps towards extension were 
projected. Within ten years the wise and 
consecrated leaders of the denomination had 
laid the foundation for the superstructure of 
christian activities, which have so success- 
fully engaged the church in Alabama during 
its whole history. These included missions, 
ministerial education, general education, 
benevolences, Sunday schools, the support of 
Bible and tract societies, and education and 
religious training of slaves and many others. 

Southern Baptist Convention. — On the or- 
ganization of the Southern Baptist Conven- 
tion at Augusta, Georgia, May 8, 1845, the 
Baptists of Alabama were represented by a 
number of messengers. They entered with 
enthusiasm in the plans for reorganization, 
and throughout the entire history of the con- 
vention have earnestly and liberally sup- 
ported its policies. Judge Jonathan Haral- 
son of Alabama served as president of the 
Convention from 1889 to 1898 inclusive. 

One of Its first secretaries was Jesse Hart- 
well of Alabama who served for 1845 and 
1846. Other secretaries serving from Ala- 
bama have been Rev. Dr. Basil Manly, Jr., 
1849; Rev. James M. Watts, 1855; Rev. Tru- 
man S. Sumner, 1871 and 1872; Rev. Dr. O. 
F. Gregory, 1877 (while In Alabama). An- 
nual sermons were delivered before the Con- 
vention by the following Alabamians: Rev. 
William H. Mcintosh, 1861; Rev. Dr. E. T. 
Winkler, 1869; Rev. Dr. J. L. M. Curry, 1885; 
Rev. Dr. George B. Eager, 1895; Rev. Dr. 
Charles A. Stakely, 1896; and Rev. Dr. A. J. 
Dickenson, 19 07. Sessions of the Conven- 
tion have been held in the following Alabama 
cities: Montgomery 1855, 1886; Mobile 
1873; Birmingham 1891. 

The missionary activities of the Conven- 
tion were committed to a foreign board at 
Richmond, Virginia, and a domestic cr home 
mission board in Marion, Alabama, but now 
maintained at Atlanta, Georgia. The first 
president of the domestic board was Rev. Dr. 
Basil Manly, Sr. While located at Marion 
the corresponding secretaries were Rev. J. L. 
Reynolds, Rev. Russell Holman, Rev. Thomas 
F. Curtis, Rev. Joseph Walker, Rev. Russell 
Holman (second period), Rev. M. T. Sumner 
and Rev. Dr. William H. Mcintosh. After 
the location of the domestic board at Marion 
the state convention discontinued evangeliza- 
tion within its bounds, and gave its support 
loyally to the larger body in all if its great 

An item of interest here is the fact that, 
while it was in Alabama that the movement 
started which led to the withdrawal of 
Southern Baptists from their Northern Breth- 
ren in 1844 and the formation of the South- 
ern Baptist Convention in the following 
year, it was a delegate from Alabama, Dr. 
Charles A. Stakely, that wrote out and offered 
the resolution at the Kansas City Convention 
which committed Southern Baptists to a part 
with their Northern Brethren in the forma- 
tion of The General Convention of the Bap- 
tists of North America, a triennial body 
which represents the unity of all American 

State Convention. — This body known as 
"The Alabama Baptist State Convention," is 
made up of a fixed number of messengers 
from associations and churches. Its officers 
are a president, first and second vice-presi- 
dent, recording and statistical secretary, 
treasurer, and board of directors. Its objects 
are as follows: 

"Article VIII. — The design of this Conven- 
tion shall be to elicit, combine and direct the 
energies of the Baptists of Alabama in one 
sacred effort to encourage and promote (1) 
the propagation of the gospel in this State, 
and, through the Southern Baptist Conven- 
tion, in the destitute parts of the world; 
(2) the education of those It believes called 
of God to the ministry; (3) the education of 
the youth of our country; (4) the publication 
and distribution of the word of God and 
other literature; (5) the organization and 
usefulness of Sunday schools and other re- 
ligious and educational movements it may 


deem promotive of the interests of the King- 
dom of Christ and sanctioned by the Word 
of God." 

The Convention operates through its offi- 
cers, and separate boards, commissions, com- 
mittees and other agencies as may be re- 
quired. It is represented in the Southern 
Baptist Convention by messengers, and has 
the power to send messengers "to any other 
assembly with which in its wisdom it may 
wish to communicate." It holds an annual 
session. Its funds "consist of voluntary con- 
tributions or donations and not otherwise." 
As indicating a principle, fundamental in 
Baptist polity. Article XV declares that 

"The convention disclaims all right of ex- 
ercising authority over any church or asso- 
ciation, hereby acknowledging that every 
church is independent, and, within its own 
sphere, is accountable to no body of men on 

The history of the Convention is of great 
interest. With the growth of the State, the 
necessity of a central body to bring together 
representatives of churches for purposes of 
mutual helpfulness, became more and more 
apparent, although varying doctrinal views 
held by churches and leaders made progress 
difficult. One of the leaders of the move- 
ment for organization was Rev. J. A. Ranald- 
son, then of Louisiana, but later of Alabama. 
Through the medium of correspondence, he 
requested a meeting at Salem Church near 
Greensboro, of those favoring a State Con- 
vention. The delegates met in October, 1823, 
representing "seven Missionary Societies." 
Other delegates were appointed, but they 
failed to attend. The volume of business 
was not large, and yet it was far reaching. 
Missionaries were appointed, ministerial 
education projected, and plans adopted for 
closer union. An excellent summary of the 
early years and struggles of the Convention, 
representing the organized efforts of Mis- 
sionary Baptists in the State, is given by 
Cathcart, "Baptist Encyclopedia," p. 15. 

"For ten years the Convention devoted its 
energies to the cause of missionary work 
within the State, with occasional contribu- 
tions of money to other objects. State mis- 
sions and ministerial education were the first 
objects of this Convention. For the first fif- 
teen years it was not very successful, and had 
to contend against the most serious hin- 
drances that an extensive and fierce anti- 
missionary spirit could engender; a number 
of the strongest of our early ministers taking 
that side of the great questions then 
in controversy, they hindered the cause very 
much; the great majority of the ministers 
who claimed to be missionary Baptists were 
entirely neutral on these matters. But there 
were giants in those days, — noble spirits who 
were every way worthy of their high calling; 
men who confronted the enemies of missions 
and every other enemy, and laid the founda- 
tions of our State enterprises deep down on 
solid rock. Such were Hosea Holcombe, 
Alexander Travis, J. McLemore, D. Win- 
bourne, S. Blythe, C. Crow, A. G. McGraw, 
J. Ryan, and a number of others who might 

be gracefully mentioned here. It Is worthy 
of remark that in those early times in Ala- 
bama, both in our associations and in the 
convention, decided union and sympathy of 
feeling were manifested toward 'the Baptist 
General Convention of the United States,' 
and handsome sums were contributed for for- 
eign missions, and especially for Dr. Judson's 
Burmese Bible. The benevolent operations 
of the Convention were then largely carried 
forward by efficient agents who were ap- 
pointed by the body." 

The Association holds an annual session. 
Its proceedings, with official reports of 
boards, institutions, etc., and associational 
and church statistics, are regularly published. 
In practical operation its activities are numer- 
ous. The list which follows gives the place, 
the date and the pagination of the minutes 
of the several sessions in order, viz.: 
Organization, Greensboro, Ala., Oct. 28-29, 
1823. p. 20. 

Marion, Nov. 5-6, 1824. p. 6. 

Tuscaloosa, 1825. pp. — 

Greensboro, 1826. pp. — 

Bethany, Monroe County, July 13-14, 1827. 
p. 13. 

Marion, 1828. 

Canaan Church, Jefferson County, Aug. 15- 
16, 1829. p. 8. 

Near Canton, Wilcox County, 1830. 

Salem Church, Near Greensboro, 1831. 


Grant's Creek Church, Near Tuscaloosa, 
Aug. 16, 1833. 

Salem Church, Near Greensboro, Nov. 8- 
10, 1834. p. 13. 

Oakmulgee Church, Perry County, Nov. 7 
9, 1835. p. 16. 

Fellowship Church, Wilcox County, Nov 
12-14, 1836. p. 16. 

Enon Church, Madison County, Nov. 11-14 
1837. p. 16. 

Grant's Creek Church, Nov. 10-13, 1838 
p. 16. 

Oakmulgee Church, Perry County, Nov. 9 
12, 1839. p. 16. 

Salem Church, Greene County, Nov. 7-9 
1840. p. 8. 

Talladega, Nov. 13-16, 1841. p. 15. 

Montgomery, Nov. 12-15, 1842. p. 24. 

Marion, Nov. 11-14, 1843. pp. 28, 11. 

Marion, Nov. 16-19, 1844. p. 16. 

Marion, Nov. 22-25, 1845. p. 24. 

Marion, Nov. 14-17, 1846. p. 24. 

Greensboro, Nov. 20-23, 1847. p. 29. 

Marion, Nov. 18-20, 1848. p. 36. 

Carlowville, Dallas County, Nov. 3-5, 1849 
p. 24. 

Marion, Nov. 2-5, 1850. p. 32. 

Tuskegee, Nov. 1-4, 1851. p. 47. 

Marion, Nov. 6-9, 1852. p. 40. 

Selma, Dec. 3-6, 1853. p. 37. 

Marion, Dec. 3-11, 1854. p. 34. 

Montgomery, May 9-10, 1855. p. 30. 

Lafayette, April 11-14, 1856. p. 36. 

Marion, April 10-13, 1857. p. 29. 

Talladega, Nov. 6-9, 1857. p. 36. 

Gainesville, Nov. 12-16, 1858. p. 38. 

Marion. Nov. 11-16, 1859. p. 40. 

Tuskegee, Nov. 9-13, 1860. p. 32. 


Marion, Nov. 8-12, 1861. p. 24. 
Selma, Nov. 7-10, 1862. p. 24. 
Marion, Nov. 6-9, 1863. p. 22. 
Montgomery, Nov. 11-14, 1864. (In Min- 
utes, 1865.) 
Marion, Nov. 10-14, 1865. p. 23. 
Selma, Nov. 9-12, 1866. p. 28. 
Mobile, Dec. 6-9, 1867. p. 16. 
Marion, Nov. 6-9, 1868. p. 23. 
Oxford, Nov. 12-15, 1869. p. 30. . 
Opelika, Nov. 11-15, 1870. pp. 28, 11. 
Montgomery, Nov. 10-13, 1871. p. 28. 
Eufaula, Nov. 8-11, 1872. (In Minutes, 

Tuscaloosa, Nov. 7-10, 1873. p. 24. 
Marion, Nov. 13-16, 1874. p. 28. 
Huntsville, July 15-18, 1875. p. 32. 
Montgomery, July 13-16, 1876. p. 33. 
Gadsden, July 12-15, 1877. p. 28. 
Talladega, July 18-21, 1878. p. 23. 
Birmingham, July 17-19, 1879. p. 40. 
Greenville, July 14-17, 1880. p. 43. 
Troy, July 13-17, 1881. p. 41. 
Huntsville, July 12-16, 1882. pp. 47, 11. 
Marion, July 11-15, 1883. pp. 40, viii, 311. 
Tuscaloosa, July 18-22, 1884. pp. 40, ix, 

Tuskegee, July 17-21, 1885. pp. 46, ix, 31. 
Birmingham, July 16-20, 1886. pp. 51, 11. 
Union Springs, July 14-18, 1887. pp. 53, 

Talladega, July 13-16, 1888. pp. 69, 11. 
Selma, Nov. 8-11, 1889. p. 38. 
Mobile, Nov. 7-10, 1890. pp. 41, 21. 
Eufaula, Nov. 5-9, 1891. p. 66. 
Anniston, Nov. 22-24, 1892. p. 75. 
Greenville, Nov. 7-9, 1893. p. 72. 
Marion, July 4-6, 1894. pp. 46, vii. 
Selma, Nov. 13-16, 1895. p. 54. 
Huntsville, Nov. 6-9, 1896. pp. 50, x. 
East Lake, Dec. 15-17, 1897. p. 64. 
Opelika, Nov. 9-11, 1898. pp. 46. xi. 
Gadsden, Nov. 8-10, 1899. pp. 59, xii. 
Tuscaloosa, Nov. 13-15, 1900. pp. 50, xvi, 

Brewton, Nov. 13-15, 1901. pp. 51, vii, 

New Decatur, June 24-26, 1902. pp. 54, 

xi, 11. 
Troy, July 22-24, 1903. pp. 59, xii, 21. 
Anniston, July 20-22, 1904. pp. 60, xv, 

Sheffield, July 21-24, 1905. pp. 72, xi. 
Talladega, July 18-20, 1906. p. 65. 
Dothan, July 24-26, 1907. pp. 89, xiv. 
Roanoke, July 22-24, 1908. p. 34. 
Andalusia, July 20-22, 1909, pp. 36, 21. 
Albertville, July 19-21, 1910. pp. 94, 21. 
Greenville, July 19-21, 1911. pp. 106, 21. 
Jasper, July 24-26, 1912. p. 127. 
Enterprise, Nov. 18-20, 1913. pp. 82, 14, 

Selma, Nov. 17-19, 1914. p. 122. 
Huntsville, Nov. 14-16, 1915. p. 118. 
Mobile, Nov. 14-16, 1916. p. 123. 
Sylaeauga, Nov. 13-16, 1917. p. 107. 

Executive Board As stated the organized 

activities of Alabama Baptists are conducted 
through the officers and boards of the state 
convention. The present organization con- 
sists of the central headquarters in Mont- 

gomery, under an executive board (formerly 
the executive committee). The executive 
committee was the successor of the state 
board of missions, and was organized Decem- 
ber 6, 1915, and Rev. Dr. W. P. Tarbrough, 
then of Anniston, was elected secretary-treas- 
urer, and assumed the duties of his office 
January 1, 1916. The name was changed 
to executive board at the session of 1916. 
The new program of the Baptists of the State, 
on the reorganized basis, involves the follow- 
ing three- fold subdivision of activities: 

1. Missions, including evangelism, Sunday 
schools, young people's unions, enlistment and 
church aid. 

2. Benevolence, including ministerial edu- 
cation at Newton, Howard and the Seminary 
at Louisville, and the denominational colleges. 

The secretary-treasurer has general super- 
vision of all departments. The functions of 
the board coordinate and include all of the old 
boards and committees, with power to employ 
agents and to devise plans for the execution 
of its several duties. 

In 1871, at the convention held in Mont- 
gomery, a Sunday school board was organized, 
with headquarters at Talladega. This marks 
the beginning of state mission work. Rev. 
T. C. Boykin was made secretary. In 1874 
its scope was enlarged and its name changed 
to the state mission board. Rev. T. M. Bailey 
became the first corresponding secretary, with 
headquarters at Marion. The second corre- 
sponding secretary was Rev. Dr. W. B. Crump- 
ton, who continued the office in Marion until 
after the session of the convention in Novem- 
ber, 1892, at which time the mission board 
was consolidated with the bible and colportage 
board of Opelika, and moved to Montgomery, 
1893. Dr. Crumpton held the position from 
1886 to January, 1896. He was succeeded 
by Rev. Dr. W. C. Bledsoe who served until 
April, 1899. At that time Dr. Crumpton was 
called back from Kentucky to take his old 
place, which he filled until January 1, 1916, 
when he retired as secretary emeritus. 

Missions. — Contributions to the support of 
foreign missions and home missions are made 
to the foreign mission board and to the 
home mission board of the Southern Baptist 
Convention. These general agencies conduct 
the missionary activities of all churches in 
affiliation with the State Convention. The 
foreign field includes work in Africa, Ar- 
gentina, Brazil, China, Italy, Japan and 
Mexico. The home mission field includes the 
work of church extension, evangelism, moun- 
tain schools, enlistment, work among for- 
eigners, Indians and negroes, cooperation with 
home mission work in state conventions, and 
work in Cuba and Panama. Statistics of 
missionary contributions will be found under 
the sub-title "Associations." 

Until 1845 mission work was conducted 
under the State Convention and the General 
Convention. In that year the organization 
of the Southern Baptist Convention gave a 
new impetus to missions. The home mission 
board was located at Marion, Ala., a choice 
which challenged the denominational pride of 
the church in the State. 



Support of missions, foreign and home are 
fundamental in the thinking and practices of 
Missionary Baptists. In behalf of mission 
activities they have been aggressive and mili- 
tant. It was largely because of their de- 
termination to aid in carrying the Gospel 
standard to the heathen and to the waste 
places of the State that many of their 
brethren parted company with them, and 
fierce and uncompromising controversies had 
sprung up to the embarrassment of the faith- 
ful. In no single field have their courage 
and consecration been more signally dis- 
played. They have contributed thousands of 
dollars, they have sent devoted missionaries 
to the field, and they have grown in spiritual 
grace and power as a people because of their 
vision and sacrifice. 

The early Baptists of Alabama were 
strongly missionary. This was refiected in 
the organization meeting of their State Con- 
vention in 1823. That body had as its officers 
leaders of the missionary movement. Its con- 
stitution declared for the support of foreign 
and home missions. The State was divided 
into three missionary districts, and five 
preachers each were appointed to do six weeks 
active missionary labor during the year at 
"one dollar a day (exclusive of traveling 
expenses)." The entrance of these men in 
the field, while contributing to the extension 
of the church, served to arouse into bitter 
opposition the hitherto latent anti-missionary 

In 1836 after continuous and uncompromis- 
ing conflict for more than 15 years a division 
took place, the missionary element continuing 
its work under the State Convention, and the 
non-progressive becoming what is now known 
as the Primitive or Old School Baptists. Of 
the division Riley, "History of Alabama Bap- 
tists." p. 110, says: 

"The scenes attendant upon this severance 
were, in many instances, most exciting. The 
movement involved the separation of parents 
and children, brothers and sisters, in their 
church relations. Every part of the State 
in which these colliding elements in the Bap- 
tist ranks existed, there came this final divi- 
sion. It is known throughout the State today 
proverbially as 'the big split.' " 

A special phase or episode in the mission 
and anti-mission struggle should here be 
noticed. The conflict took various forms. In 
the Alabama Association, Rev. William Jones 
espoused the anti-mission side. He was a 
gifted preacher and an aggressive leader. Mr. 
Jones took the position of the Kehukle Asso- 
ciation of North Carolina, which in 1827 had 
made the first public announcement of oppo- 
sition to the "anti-mission movement." Under 
the appeals of Mr. Jones about 40 members of 
different churches Joined him in organizing 
what they called "The Apostolic Baptist 
Church." This church had only a fitful 
existence of a few years. 

But the Baptist Churches were troubled 
by other differences than those over mis- 
sions. From 1826 to 1830 Rev. William Mc- 
Kee of the Cahaba Association propounded 
the doctrine that "the body of Christ ex- 

isted anterior to the creation of man, and 
was not, at all, a human body, but a spiritual 
one." The doctrine was known locally as 
McKeeism, and many ministers and churches 
became adherents to the new sect. Rev. 
James H. Wells of the Bethel Association 
wrote a book in defense of the doctrine. But 
the movement gradually lost strength, its 
author renounced it, and it finally died away. 
About the same time Campbellism, so-called 
in the Baptist literature of the day, made its 
appearance in the Churches of Muscle Shoals 
Association, but its inroads were aggressively 

Education. — The educational enterprises of 
the Baptists of Alabama, supported under the 
direction of the State convention, are Howard 
College (q. v.), Judson College (q. v.), Ala- 
bama Central Female College (q. v.), and the 
Baptist Collegiate Institute (q. v.). These 
institutions are locally managed by boards 
of trustees, appointed by the convention, with 
the exception of the Alabama Central Female 
College, the trustees of which are selfper- 
petuating. Reports are made to the conven- 
tion annually. The convention control is 
administered by an educational secretary 
under the direction of the executive board. 
The office of the secretary is located in Bir- 
mingham. At the session of 1916 a resolu- 
tion was adopted declaring that "all teach- 
ing and training activities in our Baptist 
Church are properly, a part of one whole 
educational program," and "that there should 
be a thorough correlation of the instruction 
and expresslonal (sic) activities through 
which Southern Baptists are projecting cul- 
tural work in their churches." The same 
body directed a campaign to raise $100,000 
"for denominational education." and "a cur- 
rent fund of $20,000 additional." 

No chapter in the history of Alabama Bap- 
tists is more creditable than that devoted 
to the support of education in all forms. At 
this first convention in 1823 they declared 
in favor of "the education of pious and 
intelligent young men called to the ministry." 
Collections were taken toward the endow- 
ment of "the Alabama scholarship in the 
theological seminary," and "a professorship 
of mathematics and natural philosophy in 
Columbia College, Washington, D. C. Ten 
years later, at the convention of 1833, the 
larger foundations for denominational edu- 
cational activity were projected, in the adop- 
tion of a report providing for "a seminary 
of learning, on the manual labor plan." This 
institution was located within a mile of 
Greensboro, and entered upon an auspicious 
career in 1835, but the financial crash of 
1837, coupled with inefficiency on the part 
of some of the teachers, abruptly defeated 
the enterprise, much to the sorrow of the 

However, the failure did not retard further 
and immediate effort. In 1836 the Alabama 
Athenaeum was founded at Tuscaloosa by 
Baptist influences, and Dr. John L. Dagg 
called to the presidency. In 1836 the Marion 
Female Seminary was opened, largely through 
local Baptist cooperation, but from which they 



later withdrew. This was followed by the 
establishment of the Judson Female Institute 
opened In 1839, and tendered to the conven- 
tion in 1842. Dr. Milo P. Jewett was the 
first president. The failure of the Manual 
Labor Institute did not at all discourage the 
leaders, and in January, 1842, Howard Col- 
lege was opened in Marion, with Rev. Samuel 
S. Sherman in charge. The story of Howard 
and the Judson are to be found separately 
narrated elsewhere herein. As illustrating 
the wide interest in the subject a resolution 
was adopted in 1845 by the convention, ap- 
proving "the efforts now making by benevo- 
lent individuals, to establish a school for the 
instruction of the blind, in this State," and 
the project was commended both to the Bap- 
tists of the Alabama and to the State Legis- 

The educational horizon in 1850 had 
widened, and the convention that year en- 
dorsed the efforts of the Liberty Association 
to establish a girls' school of high grade at 
Lafayette, and the Tuskegee Association at 
Tuskegee. Other experiences are found in 
the official records from him, and in 1892 
an unsuccessful effort was made to embark 
the convention upon the support of a system 
of denominational high schools. 

At different periods the following educa- 
tional institutions have been under the con- 
trol of the Baptists of the State, viz.: Tal- 
ladega Baptist Male High School; East 
Alabama Female College at Tuskegee; Moul- 
ton College; Lafayette Baptist High School; 
South Alabama Female Institute, and also the 
Male High School, both at Greenville; the 
Southeast Alabama High School; the Scotts- 
boro Baptist Institute; and Healing Springs 
Industrial Academy. With the exception of 
the one last named, these schools are now 
closed, or their buildings and equipment have 
passed into other hands. 

The Mountain School Department of the 
Southern Baptist Convention maintains four 
schools in the State, viz.: Beeson Academy, 
property valued $4,000; Bridgeport Academy. 
$35,000; Eldridge Academy, $10,000; and 
Gaylesville Academy, $17,500. 

The centennial year, 1876, was observed 
by Baptists in Alabama by an effort toward 
the endowment of Howard College, although 
the plans were far from successful. But 
through the endowment campaign denomina- 
tional work in other departments greatly 

Ministerial Education. — The education of 
pious and worthy young men for the ministry 
was one of the avowed objects for the founda- 
tion of the state convention. Without local 
Institutions for such training, for many years 
effort in this direction consisted in the crea- 
tion of opinion demanding preparation for 
the sacred work of the ministry, and in small 
contributions to the general theological sem- 
inary of the church. A proposition was made 
at the first session of the convention to endow 
an Alabama scholarship in such institution, 
and a collection was taken for that purpose. 
On this subject Dr. Riley says, "History of 
Alabama Baptists," p. 99: 

"Since the earliest days of the convention 
until the present, there has been an unbroken 
effort to procure for the Baptist Churches of 
Alabama, a thoroughly equipped ministry. 
We are no more pronounced and emphatic 
than were the fathers of the convention of 
sixty years ago. Notwithstanding the in- 
creased facilities of instruction, there has 
been such rapid progress of the denomination 
in the state, and such a corresponding de- 
mand for ministers, that the relative pro- 
portion of intelligent and unlettered preachers 
today, is about the same as that of the early 
period about which we now write." 

Plans for the Manual Labor Institute in- 
volved ministerial training; and a theological 
department was provided at the very incep- 
tion of Howard College. A professor of 
theology was provided, and at the conven- 
tion of 1844, it was reported that he had 
reached Marion and on January 1st of that 
year had entered upon his duties, with a 
class of four young men. At the same con- 
vention a State Baptist Education Society, 
with auxiliaries in the churches and associa- 
tions, was formed "to furnish means of sup- 
port to indigent young men of the Baptist 
Denomination, who are studying for the min- 
istry, under the patronage of the Baptist 
State Convention." Details of the operations 
of the society are not available. The first 
graduates from the theological department 
of Howard College were J. S. Abbott and 
Washington Wilkes, 1851. 

Ministerial education is now fostered by 
the convention through the theological de- 
partments of the Southern Baptist Theological 
Seminary, Howard College, and Newton Bap- 
tist Collegiate Institute. At the Pelham 
Heights Encampment a summer school for 
ministerial training is provided. In January 
of every year ten winter schools of theology 
and methods are offered, of one week each in 
different parts of the State. The general 
direction of these activities is in charge of an 
educational secretary, under the executive 
board, as are the general educational interests 
of the church. Prior to this method of or- 
ganization, supervision was in the hands of 
a board of ministerial education. 

The struggle for growth in the ministry has 
been persistent. With limited opportunity 
for preparation, the pioneer preachers thor- 
oughly mastered the Bible and a few of the 
better known religious works, and bravely 
went forth to do battle with the forces of evil. 
With the increase of facilities for education, 
a better condition of preparation for en- 
trance upon ministerial work obtained. The 
preachers themselves realized their limita- 
tions, and the more progressive lost no op- 
portunity to avail themselves of everything 
which might better equip them for their holy 
office. The young ministers sat at the feet 
of the tried veterans, and all united in fre- 
quent conferences for mutual benefit. 

In later years a regular ministers' meeting 
has been held in connection with the annual 
sessions of the state convention. At these 
meetings papers are read, and the problems 
of church work as related to ministerial 



leadership are discussed. At the meeting of 
the ministers held Just preceding the con- 
vention in July, 1894, resolutions were 
adopted expressive of the value of such con- 
ferences, and declaring the belief that through 
them a more thorough sympathy and fellow- 
ship were possible. The same resolutions 
called for the appointment of a committee 
to arrange for ministers' meetings throughout 
the state. These conferences have been reg- 
ularly held for many years. 

Sunday Schools. — The administration of 
Sunday School work is under the executive 
board as a department of State missions. In 
its practical operation^it is closely interlinked 
with the Southern Baptist Convention, operat- 
ing through the Baptist Sunday School Board. 
The use of the periodical and other litera- 
ture, conformity to its ideals and standards, 
and cooperation with its field and other 
workers are urged. As far as possible all 
uptodate methods are in operation, including 
teacher training, the organized class move- 
ment, the utilization of special days, and the 
holding of institutes. The denominational 
A-1 Standard, with its 10 points is held 
before the schools as one which meets the 
needs of denominational life, and as one which 
will increase the efficiency of any school which 
succeeds in attaining it. State workers are 
appointed to carry forward all Sunday School 

A State Sunday School Convention is held 
annually at Pelham Heights. The first con- 
vened July 28-31, 1913, and one has been 
held every year since. At the same place 
every year is given a week of training for 
Sunday School leadership. In 1913 the scope 
of the department was enlarged, and its 
name changed to department of Sunday 
schools and enlistments, and it was later still 
further enlarged to include B. Y. P. U. super- 
vision. While there is no formal affiliation, 
and the Baptist program is complete in itself, 
the work of the Alabama Sunday School Asso- 
ciation is looked upon with favor and is 

The earliest record of an official utterance 
of the state convention on the subject was in 
a resolution at the session of 1829 wherein It 
was declared "that Bible societies, tract socle- 
ties. Sabbath schools, and all such institutions 
are eminently suited" to advance the Re- 
deemer's kingdom among men. Ten years 
later, at the session of 1839, the following 
strong statement was adopted: 

"Resolved, That we regard the Sabbath 
school as one of the most important institu- 
tions of the day. 

"Resolved, That we recommend to every 
minister in Alabama, to use his influence in 
the establishment of a Sabbath school in his 
congregation, and in convenient neighbor- 

In 1845 the convention found an increasing 
interest in such schools. It was further fonud 
that "recent precious revivals of Religion in 
many parts of the State have demonstrated 
the importance and utility of Sabbath schools 
— in the fact that a majority of those who 
have professed a change of heart, and been 

added to the churches, were from among the 
young — and many of them had enjoyed the 
advantages of Sabbath school instruction." 

In 184 7 Rev. A. W. Chamblers published a 
"Catechetical Instructor," for use in Sunday 
schools and this the convention in 1865 for- 
mally requested him to revise, enlarge and 

In May, 1853, the Baptists of Alabama were 
represented at a Sunday school convention 
held in Richmond, Va., at which measures 
were adopted which gave an added impulse 
to this work throughout the State. 

The growth of Sunday schools during the 
whole of the early and much of the later his- 
tory of the church in Alabama was left to the 
individual pastor and to the consecrated men 
and women to whom the vision of their large 
usefulness had come. The state convention 
encouraged by formal declarations of approval 
similar to the above, and at each session a 
report was made. lu 1871 as noted else- 
where herein, it became apparent that the 
work could be greatly advanced by a central 
supervising and promotion agency, and the 
State Sunday School Board was created, with 
headquarters at Talladega. Through organ- 
ized supervision thus begun the work has 
greatly prospered. With a reorganization of 
the scope and activities of the board and 
change of the name to the State Board of 
Missions, Sunday schools have been super- 
vised as a department of the board. 

County Sunday school conventions are or- 
ganized and successfully conducted in many 

Temperance. — No denomination has been 
more active, in an organized way than the 
Baptists, in the support of all temperance 
reform movements. Their attitude Is set 
forth in the report of the temperance com- 
mittee at the convention of 1916, unani- 
mously adopted: 

"The work of eradicating the saloon from 
civic life and its influence from political life 
has commanded the attention of Christian 
people for more than a generation, and no 
denomination has been more zealous for such 
reform than the Baptists. As a denomination 
all have been in the forefront of the battle 
and many of our leaders have been leaders in 
prohibition reform. We thank God that He 
has been able to use so many of our people 
in eradicating this great curse from our fair 

Their position in the matter of law enforce- 
ment in connection with the whisky traffic is 
thus stated in the same report: 

"The illegal sale of liquor must be eradi- 
cated from every nook and corner of the 
State, and every 'blind tiger' and 'speak 
easy' must be closed, and every criminal in- 
dulging In violation of the law punished or 
driven from the State before our efforts shall 

The recommendations pledge the support 
of Baptists to the Alabama Anti-Saloon 
League, and "hail with joy the return to 
Alabama of the incomparable Brooks 
Lawrence"; protest against the use of the 
mails "to flood prohibition territory with 



liquor advertisements"; urge Congress to 
submit an amendment for "nation-wide pro- 
hibition"; and urge legislation by Congress 
for proliibition in the District of Columbia. 

From the beginning of their work in the 
State the Convention has given its support 
to the Woman's Christian Temperance Union 
and to the Alabama Anti-Saloon League; and 
representatives of these organizations have 
been accorded a warm welcome at the ses- 
sions. For many years Rev. Dr. W. B. Crump- 
ton, corresponding secretary of the State 
Board of Missions, was president of the 
League. The convention of 1904 sent five 
fraternal messengers to the meeting of the 
American Anti-Saloon League in Columbus, 
Ohio, in November of that year. On more 
than one occasion the declaration has been 
made that prohibition was "the most im- 
portant political question of the day," and 
candidates for office have been called upon 
to declare themselves on the subject. 

The historic position of the Baptists of Ala- 
bama is in accord with the foregoing. Strong 
declarations are to be found in the sermons 
of preachers, in the minutes of associations, 
and in the proceedings of early conventions. 
Then as now the active temperance move- 
ments in the State had the support of this 
denomination. At a session of the convention 
in 1839 resolutions were adopted appointing 
delegates to a temperance convention in 
Tuscaloosa in December of that year, and 
urging delegates to "use all prudent means to 
induce their respective churches to become 
auxiliary." The convention of 1853 directed 
the appointment of delegates to a temper- 
ance convention held that year in Mont- 
gomery; and at the same time petitioned the 
legislature then in session "to enact a law- 
giving precincts or counties the right of de- 
ciding by popular vote or otherwise, whether 
licenses shall be granted in their respective 

Ministerial Relief. — Centralized relief ac- 
tivities in support of aged and infirm 
ministers date from the session of the con- 
vention held in 1878, but it was several years 
before funds had been collected and the work 
advanced sufficiently to afford assistance. The 
fund is now administered by a board, with 
a president and a treasurer. The report for 
1917 showed relief extended to 20 ministers: 
disbursements to beneficiaries $2,320 for 
1916-17: receipts from the same period, 
$2,519.48; and outstanding investments of 
$4,329.85. It is planned by the Southern 
Baptist Convention to consolidate and unify 
all relief funds, and it is not improbable that 
the work of the State board will be merged 
in the larger central plans. 

At the convention of 1903 a Ministerial 
Benefit Society was organized, with insur- 
ance and benefit features on an assessment 
plan. At its 15th annual meeting, November 
14. 1917, a membership of 289 was reported. 
Its oroceedings regularly appear in Conven- 
tibn "Minutes." 

■Woman's Work. — Organized work among 
women is the special province of the Woman's 
Missionary Union. Its operations are a part 

of the work in the state mission field, under 
the direction of the executive board. The 
union is referred to in the Report of the 
Board. 1917. as "a most highly valued aux- 
iliary," and that "as an educational and 
collecting agency this organization of our 
sisters stands unexcelled among all our 
forces." The specific functions of the union 
are declared in its constitution to be the 
stimulation of "the missionary spirit and the 
grace of giving among the women and young 
people of the churches, and aiding in collect- 
ing funds for missionary purposes, to be dis- 
bursed by the State Mission Board and the 
Boards of the Souther^) Baptist Convention." 
In the development of the activities of the 
unions, various local or subsidiary organiza- 
tions have been projected, including young 
women's auxiliaries, missionary circles, inter- 
mediate girls' and boys' societies, and sun- 
beam bands. A special "Manual of methods" 
has been compiled as a reference book for 
missionary organizations. The union has 
regularly held an annual session every year 
since organization. A corresponding secre- 
tary directs the work from the headquarters 
of the board in Montgomery. A young peo- 
ple's leader and field worker is regularly 
engaged. At Pelham Heights during the 
year, programs are offered in mission training 
and study. 

Women's societies had existed In the 
churches from their first entrance into the 
State. At first they were called missionary 
societies, through which collections were 
taken and contributions to the cause of mis- 
sions, fostered by the General Convention. 
Later they came to be called ladies aid socie- 
ties, an honored name through all the years 
of Baptist church history in the State. These 
societies were the faithful coadjutors of the 
pastors, and they had more t'nan their share 
in every good work. The influence of women 
in the growth of the Baptist church in Ala- 
bama runs like a powerful stream through its 
entire history. 

At the organization of the Baptist State 
Convention in 1823. of the twenty delegates, 
one half were sent as representatives of seven 
missionary societies founded and operated by 
Baptist Christian women. These societies 
were at Bethel, Jonesboro, Salem, Claiborne, 
Elyton, Roupe's Valley and Greensboro. An 
extract is preserved of the letter sent by the 
ladies aid society of Jonesboro to the Con- 
vention. Among other things, it appeals to 
be allowed "some humble part in so glorious 
a work." During the same year one zealous 
member gave her watch and chain to the mis- 
sionary cause, and the member of another 
contributed two pairs of socks, knit with her 
own hands. During the years of dissention 
and indifference and spiritual hardship, the 
Baptist women never lost heart, but were the 
courageous and sympathetic ministers to their 
faithful pastors. 

In recognition of the Indebtedness of the 
churches to the women, at the organization 
of the Baptist church in Mobile, 1835, their 
by-laws contained this provision: "In the 
choice of pastor, or of ministerial supply, or 



of deacons, the reception of members, and all 
cases of discipline or fellowship, the sisters 
are entitled to vote." 

At the Convention of 1877, Rev. O. F. Gre- 
gory presented the first of a series of reso- 
lutions urging the formation of societies "to 
aid, not only in the work of foreign missions, 
but also in that of home missions and educa- 
tion, for none can do this so well as women." 

Until 1893 the forms of organization 
varied. Delegates had for some years been 
regularly in attendance upon the sessions of 
the state convention, and conferences had 
naturally followed. A central committee on 
woman's work appears as one of the im- 
portant committees of the convention, created 
at the session of 1889. Without chart other 
than was implied in the title and the fact 
of appointment, the committee brought about 
the cooperation of pastors, local church 
workers, and mission and aid societies and 
sunbeam bands, and at the same time its 
extension activities resulted in organizing sev- 
eral new societies. The committee had a 
corresponding secretary, whose first report 
appears in the convention minutes in 1890. 
In 1892 the Woman's Missionary Union was 
formed, and its first annual meeting was held 
October 8, 1893. For several years the pro- 
ceedings of the union were published as a 
part of the minutes of the state convention, 
but they are now published separately, and 
they contain a mass of interesting details 
concerning many well-directed religious ac- 

Baptist Young People's Union. — Organized 
work among the young people of the ado- 
lescent period is carried on through local 
unions in the several churches, and are one of 
the state mission activities of the executive 
board. These come together in a state con- 
vention annually for conference and fraternal 
Intercourse. In the progress of the spirit of 
training for efficiency the unions have taken 
a permanent place in church life, both in 
town and country. The executive board says 
of their position in church economy that their 
functions are "mainly to develop the devo- 
tional, the practical, the doctrinal and the 
missionary life of our young people, all in 
loyalty to the church life." A training week 
at Pelham Heights is provided for the special 
preparation of young people for their religious 
activities. A superintendent and a field secre- 
tary of young people's work are regularly 
engaged in promoting the unions. The union 
held its first session in Montgomery, 1894. 
At the state convention of 1894 resolutions 
were adopted noting "with hearty interest 
and satisfaction that the young people's move- 
ment in connection with our churches in this 
state has grown up in loyal relation to the 
pastors and churches, and as a helper to exist- 
ing denominational institutions and activ- 

Louise Short Baptist Widows' and Orphans' 
Home. — This institution represents the or- 
ganized effort of the denomination in the 
State for the relief of widows and orphans. 
Prior to its establishment, individual Bap- 
tists, local churches, Sunday schools and 

women's societies had met the call for this 
form of benevolence. The Home dates its 
beginning to a series of resolutions sent to 
the State Convention by the Fort Deposit 
Church, and favorably acted upon by the 
former at its session in Mobile, November 10, 
1890. A charter was granted by the legisla- 
ture February 14, 1891, with Joseph Nor- 
wood, J. W. Stewart, Dayton Plaster, R. 
Meadows, Mrs. M. L. B. Woodson, Mrs. P. L. 
Brooks, George W. Ellis, C. W. Hare, Mrs. D. 
I. Purser, Miss Annie Grace Taitley, N. D. 
Denson and W. G. Robertson as trustees. 
After agitation and discussion through 1891, 
1892 and 1893, acting under instructions of 
the convention in 1892, the trustees selected 
Evergreen as the location of the home. It 
was formally opened March 8, 189 3. On Feb- 
ruary 8, 1895, the legislature amended the 
charter, and, among other things, restated 
the purposes of the home, viz.: 

That the object of this corporation shall be 
to procure the control of orphans, destitute 
widows and such other children as the board 
of trustees may think proper to receive for 
the purpose of supporting and educating them 
in the home established for that purpose in 
Evergreen, Conecut County, or to secure a 
suitable home for any such children outside 
of said institution when practicable." 

The institution bears the maiden name of 
Mrs. Marie L. B. Woodson, of Selma. 
Through her generous donation of property 
valued at $20,000 she was accorded the honor 
of the name. Mrs. Woodson in 1909 became 
an inmate of the home she was partly instru- 
mental in founding, and after enjoying its 
sheltering care for about two years, on May 
2 6. 1911, she passed away aged 84 years. 

The properties consist of 8 acres of land, 
and 5 commodious buildings, including a 
modern barn and laundry. Two of the build- 
ings are memorial gifts by J. C. Bush, of 
Mobile and Thomas J. Scott, Sr., of Mont- 
gomery. Its 23rd report, November 1, 1916, 
showed receipts from all sources of $26,- 
643.27, while the disbursements were ap- 
proximately the same. The officers of the 
home are financial agents, superintendent, 
matron, physician and teachers. Since 1912 
it has published a small periodical called 
"Our Children," circulated to keep its news 
before the denomination and to give them in- 
formation as to its achievements. 

Colportage. — The dissemination of reli- 
gious literature has in various form engaged 
the attention of both the state convention 
and the association. About 1880 definite 
steps were taken for the organization of the 
work as one of the regular activities of the 
convention. In 1881 five colporters were in 
the field, but the difficulties were many, and 
funds were lacking. A plan for "Permanent 
Funds," of one hundred dollars each was 
adopted, in order to furnish working capital. 
The first of these funds was given by the 
Sunday school of the First Baptist Church at 
Montgomery. In 1883 fifteen funds were re- 
ported as subscribed. In 1884 about 9,000 
books were reported as sold. In 189 7 it 
appears that the colportage funds had been 



lost. However, in 1900 the work was revived, 
and at present it is being conducted under the 
state mission activities of the executive board, 
with a field secretary. In the "minutes" for 
1915, p. 12, will be found a brief sketch of 
eolportage in the State. 

The Alabama Bible Society was formed No- 
vember 13, 1836, auxiliary to the American 
and Foreign Bible society. Local societies 
were organized in many of the churches. An- 
nual meetings were held during the sessions 
of the convention. In 1853, depositories were 
established in Montgomery, Selma and 
Gainesville. On February 8, 185S, the legis- 
lature incorporated "The Alabama Baptist 
Bible and Colporteur Society," whose purpose 
was to sell or gratuitously distribute Bibles, 
religious books and tracts. The officers were 
Rev. Dr. I. T. Tichenor, President, F. M. 
Lau, Corresponding Secretary. Jonathan 
Haralson, Recording Secretary, Dent Lamar, 
Treasurer, with the following board of di- 
rectors: Rev. A. G. McCraw, President, W. B. 
Haralson, C. H. Cleveland, Sr., James H. 
Barnes, F. L. Johnson. A. Andrews, G. C. 
Johnson. J. E. Prestridge, Jere Johnson, and 
William M. Ford. The society was given the 
right to locate a depository in Selma. Its 
capital was not to exceed ?50,000. The so- 
ciety entered vigorously upon its work, but 
in 1861, December 6, the legislature author- 
ized the transfer of all of its properties to 
the convention. At the sessions of that body 
during the war the Bible board reported that 
their efforts were largely taken up in send- 
ing the Bible and good books to soldiers in 
camp. For many years, and long prior to 
present methods, through agents and col- 
porters large numbers of Bibles. Testaments, 
tracts and other religious books were scat- 
tered over the State. Many of these are to 
be met with today in the more retired and 
unchanged sections. 

At the Convention of 1844 resolutions were 
adopted expressing approval of the "design 
and claims" of the American Tract Society 
for Alabama, and recommended its publica- 
tions to both ministers and laity. 

■tt'ork for Xegroes. — While there is no pro- 
hibition in the constitution of the convention 
or in the local regulations of churches, ne- 
groes are not now carried on the rolls of 
the churches. The position of the Southern 
Baptist convention, which controls the de- 
nomination in this state is one of sympathy 
and cooperatibn with the National Baptist 
convention and other Baptist organizations 
among negroes. Messengers from these are 
received by that convention, as well as by 
the state convention. Both conventions have 
earnestly encouraged educational institutions 
for the training of negro preachers. How- 
ever, according to the 1917 report of the 
executive boad of the state convention, the 
present activities of the church in reference 
to work among the negroes, while of tremen- 
dous responsibility, "is wholly unorganized 
and cannot be counted." Attention is called 
to the cooperation of the Baptists of Alabama 
with the work of the home mission board of 
the Southern Baptist convention. The state 

convention pays two hundred dollars annually 
toward the support of the teacher of the 
Bible in Selma University. 

The record of the Baptists of Alabama in 
relation to the negro, whether as a slave or 
as a citizen is altogether creditable. On the 
rolls of the churches the names of slaves 
are to be found from their earliest organiza- 
tion in the state. Slaves in Baptist homes 
received religious instruction, and masters 
were enjoined generally to sympathetic treat- 
ment. The position of the early Baptists may 
be inferred from resolutions adopted at a 
meeting oi the state convention in November, 
1844, at which it was declared that the Bap- 
tists recognized the "duty of using all prac- 
ticable and legal methods for communicating 
religious instruction, so far as may be in their 
power." With the consent of masters, 
preachers were urged to "assemble the col- 
ored people, in no very great numbers at one 
time or place, on the plantations or at the 
churches, as may be convenient, and adapt 
discourses especially to them; that they pray 
and sing with them, and endeavor to guide 
them into the waj- of Heaven." Members of 
churches were urged to erect suitable houses 
of worship on the plantations or in con- 
venient situations, with the proviso, "not to 
produce annoyance to the neighbors, or lead 
into temptation by the assemblage of large 
numbers of them together, or far from their 
homes." The opinion was expressed that 
masters would find that sound religious in- 
struction would be the truest economy as well 
as the most efficient police, facts which would 
lead them to cooperate in meeting the ex- 
penses incident to the maintenance of 
churches and ministers for the slaves. This 
friendly attitude continued, but because of 
sectional agitation, not only the Baptists, but 
all of the churches and other institutional 
agencies acted with caution in their attitude 
toward the slaves. Alabama Baptists were 
unwavering in their support of Southern in- 
stitutions, and at no time did they falter in • 
their allegiance to the State and to the Con- 
federacy in the great struggle beginning in 
1861. Nevertheless, they maintained the 
same lofty and wholesome attitude toward 
the religious instruction of "colored people," 
a subject which they characterized as of 
"paramount importance to our churches, and 
of vital interest to our country." At the 
session of the convention in November, 1863, 
they again declared themselves earnestly in 
favor of religious instruction. The end to 
be sought the leaders conceived to be the 
development of Christian character, through 
which the slaves would be happy and con- 
tented. Masters were again urged to co- 
operate, and they were charged with being 
just and equable in their treatment. 

Pelham Heights. — At Pelham. located 20 
miles south of Birmingham at the intersec- 
tion of the Louisville and Nashville and the 
Atlanta, Birmingham and Atlantic railways, 
is the site of the summer assembly grounds, 
popularly known as Pelham Heights, or Pel- 
ham encampment, where, every year, a series 
of meetings is held for mutual conference 



and fellowship. The assembly is usually held 
in July or August. It brings together minis- 
ters, women workers, young people, and many 
of the distinguished leaders of the denomina- 
tion. The first encampment was at Shelby 
Springs. 1910, the second at Shocco Springs, 
1911, and the third at Pelham Heights. 1912, 
the first to convene there. Originally the 
management of the encampment was in the 
hands of a commission of seven, incorporated 
under the general laws of Alabama, but in 
1917 the state convention took over the prop- 
erties of the commission. Meetings have been 
held every year with increasing interest. 

Centennial, 1908. — In 19 08 the centennial 
of the planting of the first Baptist church in 
Alabama was appropriately observed in Mont- 
gomery at an adjourned session of the state 
convention, November 27-29, 1908. A cen- 
tennial committee was named In 1905. In 
1906 it was enlarged and Dr. Charles A. 
Stakely was appointed chairman. It was 
subdivided into historical, missionary, press 
and campaign committees. The historical 
committee appointed county representatives 
to collect materials for the history of the 
Baptist churches in their counties. The cen- 
tennial program, carefully worked out 
through the intelligent zeal and enthusiasm 
of the chairman and his associates, covered, 
in the language of the committee's report, 
"every phase of our history, our life and our 
work, and the great, good hand of the Lord 
be recognized in the leadership and blessing 
of our people in these hundred years of 
grace.'' The exercises were held in the audi- 
torium at Montgomery. A souvenir program 
of 20 pages was provided, and brief official 
record of the proceedings appears in the 
minutes of the state convention for 1909. 

Miscellaneous. — The Baptists have always 
held the Sabbath in high reverence. Their 
work in the Sunday Schools, as illustrating 
one of the proper means of employing the 
sacred day, is discussed elsewhere. At the 
convention in July, 1880, strong resolutions 
were adopted, deploring the desecration of 
the Sabbath, protesting against the running 
of passenger, freight and excursion trains on 
that day, and providing for the appointment 
of a committee to memorialize the legislation 
to pass laws prohibiting Sunday trains. 

The utilization of laymen for larger church 
activities, which had taken shape as the lay- 
men's missionary movement in 1908. found 
a ready response on the part of the state 
convention, and a strong committee was 
named, with Hon. H. S. D. Mallory as chair- 
man. Vigorous reports and resolutions were 
adopted, and, apart from the spiritual value 
to the workers, much material help was given 
to the various departments of denominational 
work. In March, 1915, a laymen's convention 
was held in Birmingham, which was well at- 
tended. Laymen's day was appointed at Pel- 
ham Heights. Groups of emergency men have 
been enlisted. The movement is under the 
direction of a committee of the convention. 

The presence in Alabama of Dr. Booker T. 
Washington was in part due to George W. 
Campbell, a member of the Tuskegee Baptist 

Church; and for a number of years W. W. 
Campbell and C. W. Hare, of Tuskegee (both 
Baptists), have been members of the board 
of trustees of Tuskegee Institute, of which 
Dr. Washington was the virtual founder and 
long the head. On the death of the latter the 
state convention in November, 1915, adopted 
appropriate resolutions. 

Suniniarj-. — Dr. Charles A. Stakely, pastor 
of the First Baptist Church of Montgomery, 
thus summarizes the work of the denomina- 
tion in the State: 

"In Alabama as every where else the Bap- 
tists have stood openly for the rights of the 
individual conscience and the equality of all 
consciences before God. Practicing a pure 
democracy in the government of their own 
churches, they have been ardent supporters 
of the principles of the same in the political 
and civil order of the State. Fighting the 
battle for education and christian missions 
with non-progressive elements in their own 
ranks they have come out victorious and taken 
a conspicuous hand in forwarding these great 
interests at home and abroad. And in these 
lines they have produced their share of the 
State's most distinguished men and most bril- 
liant women. In addition to a persistent 
evangelism, the Baptists have been leaders in 
everything that has made for the good of the 
family and the community, everything in the 
line of private and public morality and happi- 
ness, more particularly of late in the move- 
ments for temperance reform and the growing 
rights of women. And they have grown from 
strong to stronger with the years." 

Associations. — There are 7 8 active Mis- 
sionary Baptist Associations within the 
bounds of the Alabama Baptist State Conven- 
tion. All of these are affiliated with the 
central body, with the exception of the South- 
eastern and the Weogufka Associations. The 
list which follows contains the name, with 
changes if any, number of churches, number 
of ordained ministers, total membership of 
churches in the Association, total Sunday 
School pupils, total value of church property, 
total contributions for missions, and grand 
total of expenditures for all purposes. The 
statistics are given for the year 1916, and 
are taken from the "American Baptist Year- 
Book," 1917. 

Alabama Association: Churches, 11; or- 
dained ministers, 6; total membership, 913; 
Sunday School pupils, 398; church property, 
$7,200; contributed for missions, $83; total 
contributions. $682. 

Antioch: Churches, 11; ordained min- 
isters, 6; total membership, 834; Sunday 
School pupils. 495; church property, $9,600; 
contributed for missions, $150; total con- 
tributions, $2,367. 

Baldwin County: Churches, 21; ordained 
ministers, 9; total membership, 1,214; Sun- 
day School pupils. 877; church property, 
$25,300; contributed for missions, $389; total 
contributions, $13,306. 

Bethel: Churches, 30; ordained ministers, 
12; total membership, 2,917; Sunday School 
pupils, 1,837; church property, $37,000; con- 



tributed for missions, $917; total contribu- 
tions, $7,428. 

Bethlehem: Churches, 29; ordained min- 
isters, 7; total membership, 2,618; Sunday 
School pupils, 819; church property, ?23,300; 
contributed tor missions, $810; total contribu- 
tions, $5,127. 

Bibb County: Churches, 33; ordained 
ministers, 24; total membership, 3,404; Sun- 
day School pupils, 2,311; church property, 
$33,200; contributed for missions, $775; total 
contributions, $7,431. 

Big Bear Creek: Churches, 34; ordained 
ministers, 22; total membership, 2,589; Sun- 
day School pupils, 1,640; church property, 
$13,100; contributed for missions, $149; total 
contributions, $2,149. 

Bigbee: Churches, 22; ordained ministers, 
13; total membership, 1,436; Sunday School 
pupils, 1,093; church property, $42,000; con- 
tributed for missions, $1,255; total contribu- 
tions, $8,563. 

Birmingham (originally Canaan Associa- 
tion): Churches, 75; ordained ministers, 58; 
total membership, 13,268; Sunday School 
pupils, 10,895; church property, $556,200; 
contributed for missions, $12,935; total con- 
tributions, $102,282. 

Blount County (originally Warrior River 
Association): Churches, 39; ordained min- 
isters, 34; total membership, 3,253; Sunday 
School pupils, 2,198; church property, 
$32,000; contributed for missions, $131; total 
contributions, $5,408. 

Butler County: Churches, 31; ordained 
ministers, 15; total membership, 2,960; Sun- 
day School pupils, 1,529; church property, 
$45,400; contributed for missions, $1,371; 
total contributions, $9,330. 

Cahaba: Churches, 29; ordained ministers, 
13; total membership, 2,699; Sunday School 
pupils, 1,328; church property, $63,800; con- 
tributed for missions, $1,914; total contribu- 
tions, $9,757. 

Calhoun County: Churches, 53; ordained 
ministers, 46; total membership, 6,822; Sun- 
day School pupils 4,101; church property, 
$145,500; contributed tor missions, $6,225; 
total contributions, $24,470. 

Carey: Churches, 32; ordained ministers, 
37; total membership, 3,352; Sunday School 
pupils, 1,983; church property, $49,700; con- 
tributed for missions, $806; total contribu- 
tions, $19,228. 

Cedar Bluff: Churches, 17; ordained min- 
isters, 12; total membership, 1,160; Sunday 
School pupils, 840; church property, $8,200; 
contributed for missions,, $84; total contribu- 
tions, $2,201. 

Centennial: Churhes, 17; ordained min- 
isters, 4; total membership, 1,116; Sunday 
School pupils, 665; church property, $28,600; 
contributed for missions, $815; toal contribu- 
tions, $5,123. 

Central: Churches, 18; ordained ministers, 
26; total membership, 1,659; Sunday School 
pupils, 831; church property, $24,100; con- 
tributed for missions, $322; total contribu- 
tions, $3,377. 

Cherokee County (originally Tallassee- 
hatchie and Ten Island Association) : 

Churches, 26; ordained ministers, 17; total 
membership, 2,054; Sunday School pupils, 
1,227; church property, $18,400; contributed 
for missions, $266; total contributions, 

Chilton County (originally Mulberry Asso- 
ciation): Churches, 22; ordained ministers, 
25; total membership, 1,946; Sunday School 
pupils, 1,115; church property, 21,300; 
contributed for missions, — ; total contribu- 
tions, — . 

Clarke County (originally South Bethel As- 
sociation): Churches, 48; ordained ministers, 
17; total membership, 5,184; Sunday School 
pupils, 2,164; church property, $56,400; con- 
tributed for missions, $1,060; total contribu- 
tions, $9,643. 

Clay County: Churches, 23; ordained 
ministers, 13; total membership, 2,189; Sun- 
day School pupils, 1,366; church property, 
$13,600; contributed for missions, $107; 
total contributions, $3,897. 

Clear Creek: Churches, 38; ordained min- 
isters, 23; total membership, 2,878; Sunday 
School pupils, 1,181; church property, 
$18,000; contributed for missions, $93; total 
contributions, $7,173. 

Cleburne County: Churches, 28; ordained 
ministers, 14; total membership, 2,455; Sun- 
day School pupils, 1,176; church property, 
$21,000; contributed for missions, $76; total 
contributions, $2,443. 

Coffee County (originaly Haw Ridge, and 
then Pea River Association): Churches, 28; 
ordained ministers, 19; total membership, 
3,644; Sunday School pupils, 1,919; church 
property, $63,200; contributed for missions, 
— ; total contributions, — . 

Colbert County: Churches, 14; ordained 
ministers, 13; total membership, 2,151; Sun- 
day School pupils, 1,048; church property, 
$42,000; contributed for missions, $658; total 
contributions, $7,606. 

Columbia: Churches, 44; ordained min- 
isters. 31; total membership, 5,847; Sunday 
School pupils, 3,030; church property, 
$84,100; contributed for missions, $906; total 
contributions, $11,118. 

Conecuh County: Churches, 25; ordained 
ministers, 11; total membership, 2,366; Sun- 
day School pupils, 1,399; church property, 
$50,800; contributed for missions, $1,299; 
total contributions, $6,568. 

Coosa River: Churches, 42; ordained min- 
isters, 26; total membership, 5,124; Sunday 
School pupils, 2,376; church property, $111,- 
100; contributed for missions, $2,753; total 
contributions, $22,011. 

Coosa Valley: Churches, 14; ordained min- 
isters, 5; total membership, 1,556; Sunday 
School pupils, 885; church property, $12,600; 
contributed for missions, $330; total con- 
tributions, $2,304. 

Crenshaw County: Churches, 18; ordained 
ministers, 7; total membership, 1,626; Sun- 
day School pupils, 777; church property, 
$13,400; contributed for missions, $444; total 
contributions, $2,982. 

Cullman: Churches, 48; ordained min- 
isters, 42; total membership, 4,424; Sunday 
School pupils, 2,469; church property. 


153,400; contributed for missions, $677; total 
contributions, $9,767. 

Dale County (originally Newton Associa- 
tion): Churches, 31; ordained ministers, 11; 
total membership, 4,068; Sunday School 
pupils, 2,318; church property, $39,500; con- 
tributed for missions, $760; total contribu- 
tions, $7,412. 

DeKalb County (originally Cherokee Asso- 
ciation): Churches, 51; ordained ministers, 
38; total membership, 4,379; Sunday School 
pupils, 3,141; church property, $30,100; con- 
tributed for missions, $59 8; total contribu- 
tions, $7,830. 

East Liberty (originally Liberty Associa- 
tion): Churches, 24; ordained ministers, 9; 
total membership, 3,223; Sunday School 
pupils, 1,739; church property, $52,700; con- 
tributed for missions, $1,952; total contribu- 
tions, $10,587. 

Elmore County: Churches, 26; ordained 

ministers, ; total membership, 2,998; 

Sunday School pupils, 1,707; church property, 
$35,200; contributed for missions, $885; total 
contributions, $7,667. 

Escambia County: Churches, 24; ordained 
ministers, 11; total membership, 2,361; Sun- 
day School pupils, 1,218; church property, 

$47,300; contributed for missions ; total 

contributions, . 

Etowah County: Churches, 34; ordained 
ministers, 27; total membership, 4,439; Sun- 
day School pupils, 3,594; church property, 
$76,200; contributed for missions, $1,199; 
total contributions, $13,011. 

Eufaula: Churches, 19; ordained min- 
isters, 6; total membership, 2,055; Sunday 
School pupils, 913; church property, $55,300; 
contributed for missions, $1,632; total con- 
tributions, $7,764. 

Geneva County (originally Sandy Creek As- 
sociation): Churches, 25; ordained min- 
isters, 17; total membership, 2,762; Sunday 
School pupils, 2,032; church property, 
$21,100; contributed for missions, $578; total 
contributions, $7,048. 

Gilliam Springs: Churches, 24; ordained 
ministers, 14: total membership, 2,204; Sun- 
day School pupils, 1,499; church property, 
$10,900; contributed for missions, $70; total 
contributions, $1,707. 

Harmony Grove: Churches, 14; ordained 
ministers, 10; total membership, 1,090; Sun- 
day School pupils, 708; church property, 
$4,800; contributed for missions, $108; total 
contributions, $1,714. 

Judson: Churches, 22; ordained ministers, 
11; total membership, 2,547; Sunday School 
pupils, 1,327; church property, $3,100; con- 
tributed for missions, $395; total contribu- 
tions, $4,455. 

Lamar County: Churches, 13; ordained 
ministers, 6; total membership, 830; Sunday 
School pupils, 407; church property, $7,000; 
contributed for missions, $208; total con- 
tributions, $1,669. 

Lauderdale County (originally Florence As- 
sociation) : Churches, 15; ordained min- 
isters, 9; total membership, 1,170; Sunday 
School pupils, 644; church property, $30,200; 

contributed for missions, $576; total contribu- 
tions, $5,686. 

Limestone County: Churches, 15; or- 
dained ministers, 12; total membership, 
1,373; Sunday School pupils, 918; church 
property, $19,200; contributed for missions, 
$544; total contributions, $4,961. 

Macedonia: Churches, 15; ordained min- 
isters, 8; total membership, 834; Sunday 
School pupils, 419; church property, $4,000; 
contributed for missions, $90; total contribu- 
tions, $1,502. 

Madison County (originally North Liberty 
Association): Churches, 19; ordained min- 
isters, 15; total membership, 1,912; Sunday 
School pupils, 1,214; church property, 
$43,900; contributed for missions, $973; 
total contributions, $12,802. 

Marshall: Churches, 35; ordained min- 
isters, 31; total membership, 4,573; Sunday 
School pupils, 2,969; church property, 
$38,500; contributed for missions, $966; total 
contributions, $9,070. 

Mineral Springs: Churches, 13; ordained 
ministers, 14; total membership, 890; Sunday 
School pupils, 690; church property, $7,600; 
contributed for missions, $78; total contribu- 
tions, $1,372. 

Mobile: Churches, 27; ordained ministers, 
19; total membership, 3,561; Sunday School 
pupils, 2,883; church property, $243,000; 
contributed for missions, $4,056; total con- 
tributions, $32,328. 

Montgomery: Churches, 25; ordained min- 
isters, 18; total membership, 4,054; Sunday 
School pupils, 2,885; church property, $202- 
300; contributed for missions, $4,409; total 
contributions, $28,904. 

Mount Carmel: Churches, 11; ordained 
ministers, 9; total membership. 571; Sunday 

School pupils, 70; church property, ; 

contributed for missions, ; total contri- 
butions, . 

Mud Creek: Churches, 8; ordained min- 
isters, 20; total membership, 674; Sunday 
School pupils, 287; church property, $3,700; 
contributed for missions, $26; total contribu- 
tions, $311. 

Muscle Shoals: Churches, 47; ordained 
ministers, 21; total membership, 5,606; Sun- 
day School pupils, 3,361; church property, 
$110,600; contributed for missions, $2,755; 
total contributions, $22,237. 

New River: Churches, 20; ordained min- 
isters, 13; total membership, 1,694; Sunday 
School pupils, 750; church property, $12,500; 
contributed for missions, $192; total con- 
tributions, $2,151. 

North River: Churches, 36; ordained min- 
isters, 28; total membership, 3,506; Sunday 
School pupils. 2,512; church property, 
$39,900; contributed for missions, $963; total 
contributions, $10,477. 

North St. Clair (originally Cahaba Valley 
and then St. Clair Association): Churches, 
24; ordained ministers, 19; total membership, 
1,902; Sunday School pupils, 1,393; church 
property, $17,200; contributed for missions, 
$131; total contributions, $3,793. 

Pine Barren: Churches, 21; ordained min- 
isters, 9; total membership, 1,452; Sunday 



School pupils, 821; church property, $25,200; 
contributed for missions, — ; total contribu- 
tions, — . 

Pleasant Grove (originally Blue Creek As- 
sociation) : Churches, 15; ordained min- 
isters, ; total membership, 1,040; Sun- 
day School pupils, 439; church property, 
$5,500; contributed tor missions, $27; total 
contributions, $1,033. 

Randolph County: Churches, 29; ordained 
ministers, 25; total membership, 3,203; Sun- 
day School pupils, 2,059; church property, 
$53,900; contributed for missions, $1,212; 
total contributions, $6,494. 

Russell County (originally Harris Asso- 
ciation): Churches, 17; ordained ministers, 
4; total membership, 1,639; Sunday School 
pupils, 1,182; church property, $37,100; con- 
tributed for missions, $777; total contribu- 
tions, $10,438. 

Salem-Troy (originally Salem and Troy As- 
sociations); Churches, 27; ordained min- 
isters, 15; total membership, ^^939; Sunday 
School pupils, 1.665; church property, 
$81,000; contributed for missions, $2,355; 
total contributions, $10,468. 

Sardis: Churches, 15; ordained ministers, 
5; total membership, 1,368; Sunday School 
pupils, 802; church property, $6,700; con- 
tributed for missions, $24; total contribu- 
tions, $509. 

Selma: Churches, 19; ordained ministers, 
11; total membership, 2,014; Sunday School 
pupils, 1,113; church property, $113,600; con- 
tributed for missions, $3,522; total contribu- 
tions, $17,774. 

Shady Grove: Churches, 22; ordained min- 
isters, 18; total membership, 1,707; Sunday 
School pupils, 976; church property, $9,800; 
contributed for missions, $7 6; total contribu- 
tions, $2,052. 

Shelby County (originally Shelby Associa- 
tion): Churches, 29; ordained ministers, 17; 
total membership, 2,711; Sunday School 
pupils, $2,074; church property, $41,200; 
contributed for missions, $758; total contri- 
butions, $8,682. 

Sipsey: Churches, 16; ordained ministers, 
6; total membership, 1,435; Sunday School 
pupils, 458; church property, $9,600; con- 
tributed for missions, $28; total contribu- 
tions, $763. 

Sulphur Springs: Churches, 16; ordained 
ministers, 19; total membership, 1,194; Sun- 
day School pupils, 843; church property, 
$8,800; contributed for missions, $231; total 
contributions, $2,244. 

Tallapoosa County: Churches, 22; or- 
dained ministers, ; total membership, 

2,734; Sunday School pupils, 1,265; church 
property. $44,000; contributed for missions, 
$2,010; total contributions. $10,644. 

Tennessee River: Churches, 33; ordained 
ministers, 34; total membership, 3,017; Sun- 
day School pupils, 2,090; church property, 
$29,000; contributed for missions, $557; 
total contributions, $6,402. 

Tuscaloosa County (originally Tuscaloosa 
Association): Churches, 37; ordained min- 
isters, 23; total membership, 4.887; Sunday 
School pupils, 3,609; church property, $106,- 

000; contributed for missions, $2,833; total 
contributions, $20,240. 

Tuskegee: Churches, 29; ordained min- 
isters, 16; total membership, 2,774; Sunday 
School pupils, 1,924; church property, 
$94,700; contributed for missions, $2,085; 
total contributions, $15,555. 

Union: Churches, 38; ordained ministers, 
13; total membership, 3,447; Sunday School 
pupils, 2,206; church property, $42,900; con- 
tributed for missions, $1,233; total contribu- 
tions, $9,101. 

Unity: Churches, 32; ordained ministers, 
20; total membership, 3,445; Sunday School 
pupils, 2,312; church property, $32,200; con- 
tributed for missions, $714; total contribu- 
tions, $8,997. 

Washington County: Churches, 19; or- 
dained ministers, — ; total membership, 
1,465; Sunday School pupils, 423; church 
property, $19,200; contributed for missions, 
$380; total contributions, $4,478. 

Weogufka: Churches, 18; ordained 
ministers, 13; total membership, 1,140; Sun- 
day School pupils, 125; church property, — ; 
contributed for missions, — ; total contribu- 
tions, — . 

Zion (originally Zion Association, name 
changed to Covington Association in 1903, 
and back to Zion October 15, 1904): 
Churches, 39; ordained ministers, 30; total 
membership, 4,378; Sunday school pupils, 
2,186; church property, $74,500; contributed 
for missions, $1,023; total contributions, 

Literature. — The miscellaneous literature 
of the Baptist church in Alabama is not ex- 
tensive. The first book of importance to be 
noted is the "History of the rise and progress 
of the Baptists in Alabama," by Rev. Hosea 
Holcombe, published in Philadelphia in 1840. 
Is is a well made book, and in editorial care, 
typographical excellence, and mechanical de- 
tails, it is far better than the books of today. 
It is not only the first distinctively historical 
work published in the State, it is also of the 
very highest value as source material. De- 
tails concerning later historical works will 
be found under "References" below. Mere 
mention of some others by title only can be 
made: Rev. G. S. Anderson, "The sermon 
builder" (1892), "Sermon science" (1900), 
and "Bible student's primer" (1906), Rev. A. 
W. Chambliss, "Catechetical instructor" 
(1847); Rev. Dr. W. J. E. Cox, "Errors of 
Romanism" (1907); Rev. Dr. J. L. M. Curry, 
"Sufficiency on the duty of Baptists in refer- 
ence to the Bible" (1871), "A Baptist 
church radically different from Pedobaptist 
churches" (n. d.), "Struggles and triumphs 
of Virginia Baptists" (1873), "The alliance 
of State and Church" (1873), "Establish- 
ment and disestablishment" (n. d.), "Present 
condition of religious liberty throughout the 
world" (1893); Dr. H. J. and Rev. W. B. 
Crumpton, "The adventures of two Alabama 
boys" (1912); Rev. Thomas P. Curtis, 
"Dangers and advantages of unusual religious 
efforts" (1846). "Communion" (1850), "The 
Christian preacher" (1853), and "Progress 
of Baptist principles in the last hundred 

Shell Gorget (ornament), showing human form, found In 
aboriginal cemetery, Montgomery County 

Bone fish hook from 
Toasi, one of the few 
found east of the Rocky 

Native copper pendant 
from Toasi, near Mont- 
gomery, showing figure of 
a dragon fly. 


Stone pipe in collection 
of W. H. Seymour, Mont- 



years" (1885); Rev. Dr. John L. Dagg, "Es- 
say in defense of strict communion" (1845), 
"Manual of tlieology" (1857), "Treatise on 
church order" (1858), "Elements of moral 
science" (1859), and "Evidences of Chris- 
tianity" (1868); Rev. Dr. Noah K. Davis, 
"Theory of thought, a Treatise on deductive 
logic" (1880), "Life of the Nazarene," "Ju- 
dah's jewels," and "Progress and prospects 
of Alabama" (1854); Rev. A. C. Dayton, 
"Theodosia Ernest," and "Baptist facts 
against Methodist fictions" (1859): Rev. E. 
J. Hamill and Rev. Dr. Samuel Henderson, 
"A discussion on Methodist episcopacy" 
(1856); Rev. Dr. J. B. Hawthorne, "Paul 
and the women, and other discourses" (1891), 
"The cloud of witnesses and other sermons" 
(1908); Rev. William Howard, "The origin, 
aims, and principles of the American Bible 
Union" (1857); Rev. Dr. Milo P. Jewett, 
"The mode and subjects of baptism" (1840); 
Rev. Thomas G. Keen. "Characteristics of the 
times" (1850); Rev. Dr. Basil Manly, "Grief 
for departed worth, a Sermon in commem- 
oration of Rev. Prof. Horace S. Pratt" 
(1841), "Division efficiency consistent with 
human activity" (1849), and in collabora- 
tion with his son, Basil Manly, Jr., "The 
Baptist psalmody" (1850); Rev. Dr. Basil 
Manly, Jr., "The Bible doctrine of inspira- 
tion" (1888); Rev. Dr. J. N. Prestridge, 
"Modern Baptist heroes and martyrs" 
(1911); Rev. Dr. J. J. D. Renfro, "The 
Kingdom of Christ not of this world" 
(1857), "Sketch of Rev. N. D. Renfro" (n. 
d.); Rev. Dr. S. S. Sherman "The Bible a 
classic" (1850); Rev. Dr. J. J. Taylor, "The 
Gospel according to Mark" (1912); Rev. 
Henry H. Tucker, "The dignity of the min- 
isterial office" (1853); Rev. Dr. M. B. 
Wharton, "Gospel talks" (1886), "Famous 
women of the New Testament" (1890), 
"Famous men of the Old Testament" (1903), 
"White blood, a story of the South" (1906), 
"Stories short and sweet" (1910); Rev. W. 

A. Whittle, "A Baptist abroad" (1890). 

See Alabama Central Female College; 
Child Welfare; Howard College; Judson 
College; Newton Baptist Collegiate Institute; 
Old Age Relief. 

Publications. — Baptist official publications 
consist of State Convention Minutes; Associa- 
tion Minutes; Woman's Missionary Union, Re- 
ports; Pelham Heights, Programs; Associa- 
tional Sunday School Conventions, Minutes; 

B. Y. P. U. Convention, Proceedings ; and mis- 
cellaneous booklets, leaflets, announcements, 
programs, etc. Individual churches in many 
cases issue calendars, containing announce- 
ments and notices, weekly program, and mis- 
cellaneous items of general and local interest. 

References. — U. S. Bureau of the Census, 
Religious bodies. 1906 (1910), pp. 66-91; Rev. 
Hosea Holcombe, A History of the rise and 
progress of the Baptists in Alabama (1840), 
Rev. Dr. B. F. Riley, History of the Baptists 
of Alabama (1895), ill., a work, admirably pre- 
senting the denominational record from 1808 
to 1894, History of Conecuh County (1881), 
and History of the Baptists in the Southern 
States east of the Mississippi (1898); Rev. 

George E. Brewer, History of the Central As- 
sociation (1895); Rev. Dr. W. C. Bledsoe, HU- 
tory of Liberty (East) Baptist Association 
(1886), ill.; Rev. Dr. Josephus Shackelford, 
History of the Muscle Shoals Baptist Associa- 
tion (1891), and "The pioneer Baptist preach- 
ers of North Alabama," in The Moulton (Ala.) 
Advertiser, May 17-July 5, 1910; Cathcart, Bap- 
tist encyclopwdia (1881), passim, for much 
historical and biographical data; Blue, 
Churches of Montgomery (1878); Hardy, 
Selma (1879); Townes, History of Marion 
(1844); Ball, Clarice County (1882); Little, 
History of Butler County, (1885); Hamilton, 
Mobile of the Five Flags (1913); Yerby, His- 
tory of Greensboro, (1908); Revs. W. B. and 
A. D. Gillette, Memoir of Rev. Daniel H. Gil- 
lette (1846); Alderman and Gordon, J. L. M. 
Curry, a Biography (1911); Rev. Dr. John L. 
Dagg, Autobiography (1886); Rev. Dr. Samuel 
S. Sherman, Autobiography (1910); Rev. Dr. 
J. J. Taylor, Daniel G. Taylor, a Country 
preacher (1893); Rev. Dr. Boardman H. 
Crumpton, In Mem.oriam (1910); Memorial 
Record of Alabama (1893), Vol. 2, pp. 236-244; 
Miss Louise Manly, History of Judson College 
(1913), ill.; Mrs. Blandin, History of Higher 
education of uyomcn in the South (1909); 
Clark, History of education in Alabama (in U. 
S. Bureau of Education, Contributions to 
American Educational History. 1889); State 
Convention — Acts. 1859-60, pp. 396-397; 1886-87, 
pp. 621-623; Howard College — Acts, 1841, pp. 
64-65; 1844-45, p. 105; 1859-60, p. 336; 1890-91, 
p. 1265; Alabama Baptist Biblo and Colporteur 
Society— Arts, 1857-58, pp. 142-143; 1861, p. 70; 
Louise Short Home — Acts, 1890-91, pp. 683-687, 
1894-95, pp. 432-434; The Weekly Mercury, 
Huntsville, Ala., June 9, 1909; Morgan County 
Times. Decatur, Ala., Aug. 14, 1908; The princi- 
pal original sources are the Alabama Baptist 
State Convention, Minutes. 1823-1917; South- 
ern Baptist Convention, Proceedings, 1845-1917; 
and Associational Minutes. In the State Con- 
vention, Minutes, 1892, pp. 62-66, will be found 
copies of the legislative acts relating to that 
body and also to Howard College. Files of 
these with comparative fulness are to be found 
in the custody of the recording and statistical 
secretary of the State Convention, the library 
of Colgate University, Hamilton, N. Y., and the 
Alabama Department of Archives and History. 

PREDE,STINARIAN. A branch of the gen- 
eral religious body of Baptists, organized 
early in the nineteenth century as a protest 
of the more rigid Calvinist teachings against 
a general laxity of doctrine and looseness of 
church discipline, consequent upon the al- 
leged prevalence of Armenian doctrines of 
Methodists. Its churches are to be found in 
Kentucky, Tennessee, Alabama, Arkansas 
and Texas. They resemble the Primitive 
Baptists in some respects and are sometimes 
popularly confused with that body, but they 
are far more extreme in their intensely Cal- 
vinistic doctrines and equally independent 
polity. The title phrase, "Two Seed," indi- 
cates one seed of good and one of evil, oper- 
ating on the generations of mankind. Asso- 


ciations of churches are formed, "but for 
spirit and fellowship rather than for church 
management." Sunday schools and church 
societies are not recognized. 

The state of this denomination in 1890 as 
compared with its condition in 1906 shows 
a notable decrease. In Alabama in 19 06 
there were 2 congregations with a total of 
32 members, 16 men and 16 women; and 2 
churches, valued at $450. 

Reference. — U. S. Bureau of the Census, Re- 
ligious bodies, 1906 (1910), pp. 155-157. 

STATE. A voluntary professional organiza- 
tion, whose objects are "to advance the sci- 
ence of jurisprudence, promote the adminis- 
tration of Justice throughout the State, uphold 
the honor of the profession of the law, and 
establish cordial intercourse among the mem- 
bers of the Bar of Alabama." The organiza- 
tion of the association was perfected, Jan- 
uary 15, 1879, at a preliminary conference 
held in the hall of the house of representa- 
tives. Gov. Thomas H. Watts presided, and 
the secretary of the meeting was Alexander 
Troy, both of the Montgomery Bar. The 
meeting showed the presence of many of the 
leading lawyers throughout the State. Among 
these were Gen. Edmund W. Pettus, Gen. 
LeRoy Pope Walker, Col. Daniel S. Troy, 
Capt. Walter L. Bragg, Gen. Joseph Wheeler, 
W. G. Little, Jr., William M. Brooks, J. J. 
Robinson, G. W. Taylor, Peter Hamilton, Hen- 
derson M. Somerville, H. A. Woolf, James L. 
Pugh, J. Little Smith and G. B. Clark. After 
resolving to form an association, a constitu- 
tion and by-laws were adopted, and officers 
elected: President, W. L. Bragg; Vice Pres- 
idents, Peter Hamilton, E. W. Pettus, L. P. 
Walker, H. M. Somerville and James L. Pugh; 
Secretary and Treasurer, Alexander Troy. It 
is an interesting fact that Mr. Troy, then 
elected, has been successively retained, serv- 
ing 38 years continuously. 

The association was chartered by the legis- 
lature, February 12, 1879. It was given gen- 
eral corporate powers, and its purpose and 
objects were the same as those declared in 
the constitution. In furtherance of its ob- 
jects regular annual meetings have been held. 
The association has more often convened in 
Montgomery than at any other point, but 
many of its sessions have been elsewhere, as 
will be noted in the list below. 

Prom the beginning, through committees, 
and by means of papers and discussions at 
the meetings, the association has done much 
"to advance the science of jurisprudence, and 
to promote the administration of justice 
throughout the State." At every annual 
meeting some distinguished jurist or member 
of the bar of another state has delivered an 
address. Copies of their addresses appear in 
the Proceedings. At the meetings, in accord- 
ance with the constitution, the president 
always communicates "the most noteworthy 
changes in statute law on points of general 
interest made in the several States and by 
Congress during the preceding year." These 
addresses therefore constitute a valuable re- 

view of legislation in the United States from 
1879 to date. 

The adoption of many of the most impor- 
tant statutory reforms since 1879 is to be 
traced to the influence of the association, 
either directly or indirectly put forth. The 
membership has not hesitated to go on record 
on any measures involving needed change. 
Some of these are the married woman's law, 
negotiable instruments, the mode of attesting 
conveyances of property, the execution of 
wills, marriage and divorce, the right of oral 
examination of witnesses in equity cases, and 
the complete reorganization of judicial pro- 
cedure in Alabama. The committees on juris- 
prudence and law reform, judicial adminis- 
tration and procedure, and legislation have 
been the most potent factors in the accom- 
plishment of the larger results referred to. 
Particular mention should be made of the 
work of the committee on correspondence, 
largely developed through the efforts of its 
long-time chairman, Frederick G. Bromberg, 
Esq., which has served the wholesome and 
practical purpose of advising the members, 
and through them, others in the profession 
in the State, not only in the matter of judi- 
cial progress, but on all law questions of 
national importance. 

The honor of the profession of the law, 
and the maintenance of cordial intercourse 
among the members of the bar have been con- 
stantly emphasized by the membership of the 
association. What is believed to be the first 
code of ethics ever adopted by a similar 
organization, was adopted by the association 
on December 14, 1887. It has become a 
model throughout the entire country. In the 
report of the committee on code of profes- 
sional ethics of the American Bar Associa- 
tion, made in August, 1908, full credit is given 
the Alabama code as being the foundation 
of the code adopted by that association, and 
by several of the State associations. The 
committee said in part: "The foundation of 
the draft for canons of ethics, herewith sub- 
mitted, is the code adopted by the Alabama 
State Bar Association in 1887, and which, 
with but slight modifications, has been 
adopted in eleven other states." The Ala- 
bama code has been printed on stiff card- 
board, framed, and a copy hung in each court 
room in the State. The preliminary para- 
graph is here quoted because of the noble 
sentiment inculcated: 

"The purity, and efficiency of judicial ad- 
ministration which under our system is 
largely governmental itself, depends as much 
upon the character, conduct and demeanor 
of attorneys in this great trust, as upon the 
fidelity and learning of courts, or the honesty, 
and intelligence of juries." 

The standards of the profession in the 
State have been raised through the efforts of 
the organization. The particular agencies 
appointed to this task have been the commit- 
tee on legal education and admission to the 
bar, and the central council. These, through 
the association, have brought about the en- 
largement of the law course at the University 
of Alabama from one to two years, and the 



creation by statute oi a board of examiners 
on admission to the bar, to consist of three 
members to be appointed by the chief justice 
for a period of four years (q. v.). The most 
recent recommendation (1916) of the com- 
mittee has been a three-year law course at 
the University of Alabama, and the require- 
ment that all applicants for admission to the 
bar shall have completed "a course of study 
substantially equivalent for that prescribed 
for the county high schools." The council 
at the same time suggested "as a preliminary 
training to appearing as a barrister in court, 
three years study in an approved law school, 
followed by two or three years as the clerk 
of a barrister in his office; and then follow 
the whole five or six years training by a strict 
examination under the supervision of the bar 

Early in the history of the association, by 
act of January 22, 1885, now sec. 2995, et 
seq., of the code, 1907, in amended form by 
act of October 3, 1903, the authority was con- 
ferred "to institute and prosecute, or cause to 
be instituted and prosecuted, in the name of 
the State of Alabama, the proceedings herein 
prescribed for the suspension or removal of 
an attorney." In order to malte this law 
more effective, the legislature, August 25, 
1915, provided that the association should not 
be liable for costs in the proceedings if insti- 
tuted, or if not sustained. However, compara- 
tively few prosecutions have been instituted 
for the disbarment of attorneys by the asso- 
ciation. Most of those against whom pro- 
ceedings have been instituted, have availed 
themselves of that provision of the statute 
permitting them to surrender their licenses 
to practice and to thus end the prosecution. 
With only one or two exceptions, the prosecu- 
tions instituted by the association, or by its 
central council, which have been litigated, 
have resulted in the disbarment of the offend- 
ing attorney. The publicity attending these 
prosecutions has had a deterrent and whole- 
some effect. 

Local bar associations are encouraged and 
fostered, and provisions made for their affili- 
ation with the state association. A standing 
committee on local bar associations is an- 
nually appointed to care for this duty. A list 
of those organized and afl^liated (Proceed- 
ings, 1915, p. 54): 

Birmingham Bar Association; 

Colbert County Bar Association; 

Crenshaw County Bar Association; 

Florence Bar Association; 

Huntsville Bar Association; 

Jasper Bar Association; 

Mobile Bar Association; 

Monroeville Bar Association; 

Montgomery Bar Association; 

Prattville Bar Association; 

Scottsboro Bar Association; 

Selma Bar Association; 

Talladega Bar Association; 

Tuscaloosa Bar Association; 

Tuskegee Bar Association; 

Presidents. — Walter L. Bragg, 1879; Ed- 
mund W. Pettus, 1879-80; John Little Smith, 
1880-81; Edward A. O'Neal, 1881-82; M. L. 

Stansel, 1882-83; Henry C. Semple, 1883-84 
(to Aug. 7. 1884); N. H. R. Dawson, 1884 
(Aug. 7 to Dec. 3, 1884) ; W. H. Barnes, 1884- 
85; William M. Brooks, 1885-86; H. C. Tomp- 
kins, 1886-87; W. F. Foster, 1887-88; Milton 
Humes, 1888-89; Thomas H. Watts, Sr., 1889- 
90; Hannis Taylor, 1890-91; A. B. McEachin, 
1891-92; A. C. Hargrove, 1892-93; J. R. 
Dowdell, 1893-94; James E. Webb, 1894-95; 
Daniel S. Troy, 1895-9 6; Richard H. Clarke, 
1896-97; John P. Tillman, 1897-98; John D. 
Roquemore, 1898-99; Jos. J. Willett, 1899- 
1900; Thomas G. Jones, 1900-01; Edward L. 
Russell, 1901-02; Lawrence Cooper, 1902-03; 
Edward de Graffenreid, 1903-04; Thomas R. 
Roulhac. 1904-05; George P. Harrison, 1905- 
06: Fred. G. Bromberg, 1906-07; H. S. D. 
Mallory, 1907-08; William S. Thorington, 
1908-09; Emmet O'Neal, 1909-10; John Lon- 
don, 1910-11; John Pelham, 1911-12; Prank 
S. White, 1912-13; Thomas M. Stevens, 
1913-14; Ray Rushton, 1914-15; Charles S. 
McDowell, 1915-16; Joseph H. Nathan, 1916-. 

Secretary. — Alexander Troy, 1879-. 

Annual Meetings. — 1879-1916: The list 
which follows gives the number of session, 
place of meeting, inclusive dates, and bibli- 
ography of Proceedings, viz: 

Organization meeting, Montgomery, Jan. 
15. 1879. 

1st annual meeting, Montgomery, Dec. 4, 

2d, Montgomery, Dec. 2, 1880. 

3d, Mobile, Dec. 28-30, 1881. 

Proceedings [organization to 4th meet- 
ings] 8vo. pp. 276. 

4th annual meeting, Montgomery, Nov. 20 
21, 1882. pp. 144, 1 1. 

5th, Blount Springs, Aug. 1-2, 1883. pp 
130, 1 1. 

6th, Birmingham, Aug. 6-7, 1884. pp. 154 

7th, Montgomery, Dec. 3, 1884. pp. 84, 1 1 

8th, Montgomery, Dec. 2-3, 1885. pp. 96. 

9th, Montgomery, Dec. 1-2, 1886. pp. 169 

10th, Montgomery, Dec. 14-15, 1887. pp 
173, 1 1. xvi. 

11th, Montgomery, Dec. 19-20, 1888. pp 
161 [2]. 

12th, Huntsville, July 31-Aug. 1, 1889. pp 

13th, Anniston, Aug. 6-7, 1890. pp. 190. 

14th, Mobile, July 8-9, 1891. pp. 132. 

15th, Montgomery, July 6-7, 1892. pp. 255. 

16th, Montgomery, July 5-6, 1893. pp. 188. 

17th, Montgomery, July 10-11, 1894. pp. 

18th, Montgomery, July 10-11, 1895. pp. 
32. cxxxviii. 

19th, Birmingham, Aug. 5-6, 1896. pp. 23, 

20th, Montgomery, June 30-July 1, 1897. 
pp. 108. 

21st, Montgomery, June 17-18, 1898. pp. 

22d, Montgomery, June 16-17, 1899. pp. 
132, xl. 

23d, Montgomery, June 15-16, 1900. pp. 
167, xlvi. 

24th, Montgomery, June 28-29, 1901. dd. 
220, XXXV. 


25th, Huntsville, July 4-5, 1902. pp. 160, 

26th, Montgomery, June 19-20, 1903. pp. 

27th, Montgomery, July 8-9, 1904. pp. 275. 

28th, Montgomery, June 30-JuIy 1, 1905. 
pp. 279. 

29th, Anniston, July 6-7, 1906. pp. 271. 

30th, Montgomery, June 28-29, 1907. pp. 

31st, Montgomery, July 1-2, 1908. pp. 272. 

32d, Birmingham, July 8-9, 1909. pp. 331 

33d, Mobile, July 13-14, 1910. pp. 296 [2]. 

34th, Montgomery, July 7-8, 1911. pp. 270 

35th, Montgomery, July 12-13, 1912. pp. 
341 [3]. 

36th, Mobile, July 11-12, 1913. pp. 198 

37th, Montgomery, July 10-11, 1914. pp. 
291 [3]. 

38th, Montgomery, July 9-10, 1915. pp. 

39th, New Decatur, July 14-15, 1916. pp. 
299 [3]. 

Publications. — Reports or Proceedings, 1879- 
1916, 37 vols. 

The issue for the 39th annual meeting, 
1916, is an octavo volume of 302 pages, and 
contains likenesses of all of the 38 presidents, 
1879-1916. The volume also contains a full list 
of the annual addresses and papers read, with 
authors, titles and dates. The plates from 
which these pictures were made have been de- 
posited with the department of archives and 
history, for permanent preservation. 

References.— Acts, 1878-79; Ibid. 1903, p. 346; 
Ibid, 1915, pp. 313, 928; Code, 1907, sec. 2995 
et seq.; American Bar Association, Proceedings, 
1908, p. 567; 92 Ala., p. 113; Walter B. 
Jones, "The first code of legal ethics," in Case 
and Comment. 1916, vol. 23, p. 188; and Reports, 
or Proceedings of the association, passim. 

BAB EXAMINERS. An official board of 
three members whose duties are to examine 
and pass upon applications for admission to 
the bar. The members are appointed by the 
chief justice, the first appointments dating 
from March, 19 08. The members of the 
board are required to be attorneys actually 
practicing in the supreme and inferior courts 
of the State, possessed of the necessary qual- 
ifications for the performance of such duties, 
and their appointments are for four years. 
Meetings are held at the capitol twice a year, 
on the second Tuesdays in February and July, 
and continue in session four days. Members 
of the board are paid $10 a day for every 
day actually engaged in the performance of 
their duties as such, which Include the four 
days of holding the examinations, and the 
four days for passing upon the examination 
papers, together with one day going to and 
one day returning from the capitol. They 
also receive five cents a mile in going to and 
from the capitol for the performance of their 

They are required to examine applicants 
for admission to the bar on 10 subjects, and 

by a sufficient number of questions to thor- 
oughly test their learning thereon. After 
the examinations are completed, the members 
of the board meet at the capitol on the sec- 
ond Tuesdays in March and August, follow- 
ing the examinations, for the purpose of pass- 
ing upon the papers. Their "judgment ana 
conclusion as to the sufficiency or insuffi- 
ciency of the legal learning of the appli- 
cants" must be endorsed upon the respective 
papers, after which they are filed with the 
clerk of the supreme court. Two members 
of the board may hold the examinations, and 
may pass upon the qualifications of appli- 

The creation of the board provides a 
method for admission to the bar, supplanting 
the old system of oral examinations, and is 
exclusive except as to graduates of the law 
school of the University of Alabama. 

See Lawyers. 

Members. — Thomas E. Knight, W. L. Parks 
and W. R. Walker, appointed 1908. Mr. 
Walker resigned In 1909, and was succeeded 
by Carson C. Whitson. On the death of Mr. 
Whitson, 1912, J. Winter Thorington was 
appointed. In 1912 Messrs. Knight, Thoring- 
ton and Dickinson were appointed; and in 
1916 were reappointed. Mr. Thorington re- 
signed on being elected judge of the Mont- 
gomery Court of Common Pleas, and Henry 
F. Reese was named as his successor. The 
terms of Messrs. Dickinson, Knight and Reese 
expire in March, 1920. 

References. — Code, 1907, sec. 2972, et seq.; 
Acts, 1911, p. 91; Alabama Official and Statis- 
tical Register, 1911, p. 39; 1915, p. 35. 

BARBOUR COUNTY. Created by the 
legislature, December 18, 1832. Its territory 
was made up of portions of Pike County and 
of the Creek Indian cession of 1832. A por- 
tion was set apart to form Bullock County, 
December 5, 1866; and December 31, 1868, 
its northern section was cut off to Russell 
County. It has an area of 912 square miles, 
or 583,680 acres. 

The county bears the name of James Bar- 
bour, governor of Virginia. 

The same session of the legislature, Jan- 
uary 11, 18 33, provided for the organization 
of the county. All civil and military officers 
of Pike County, which by the division were 
thrown into Barbour, were continued in their 
respective offices until the expiration of their 
terms. The sheriff was required to hold an 
election in February, 1833, for additional 
officers. Jacob Utery, Daniel McKenzie. Wil- 
liam Cadenhead, James A. Head, William 
Norton, William Bush, Green Beauchamp, 
Samuel G. B. Adams, Noah Cole, Robert 
Richards and T. W. Pugh were appointed 
commissioners to select a seat of justice, 
"which site shall be called and known by the 
name of Clayton." Until the location of the 
county site and until "a suitable house in 
which to hold said courts" was provided, the 
circuit and county courts were required to be 
held at the town of Louisville. The new 
county seat was named in honor of Judge 
Augustine S. Clayton of Georgia. 



The first circuit court for Barbour county 
was held at Louisville March 25, 1833, Judge 
Anderson Crenshaw presiding. The next ses- 
sion convened Sept. 23, 1833, and adjourned 
to meet the next day at Clayton, the new seat 
of justice having been definitely located by 
the commissioners. The judge did not appear, 
however, and it was not until March, 1834, 
that another term was held. Judge Crenshaw 
again on the bench. 

The county seat has remained continuously 
at Clayton, but terms of the circuit court 
have been held at Eufaula since. 

Location and Physical Description. — It lies 
in the southeastern section of the state, and 
about 50 miles north from the Florida line. 
Its eastern boundary is the Chattahoochee 
River, also the state boundary. It is sep- 
arated on the west from Pike and Bullock 
counties by Pea River. On the north lies 
Russell County and a part of Bullock, and on 
the south Henry and Dale counties. Its high- 
est elevation is 665 feet above sea level, on 
the plateau about 6 miles north of Clayton. 
Other important altitudes are Clayton 589 
feet, Clio 534 feet, Lugo 363 feet, and Eufaula 
255 feet. About one-third of the county is 
above the 400-foot level. The topography 
ranges from hilly and broken to nearly level. 
The county lies on the remnants of a south- 
ward sloping plain. Erosion in the northern 
part has gone so far that the ancient plain 
surface has completely vanished, a rolling 
and hilly surface taking its place on a lower 
level, but with occasional hilltops. South of 
this area is an extended belt of rough country 
running southeastward. An outlying portion 
of this belt is locally called "The Mountains," 
and comprises the rough lands. West and 
south of this rough belt is a triangular area, 
not yet eroded, and which constitutes the 
highest levels. The county is drained by a 
number of beautiful streams, which flow into 
the Chattahoochee and Pea rivers, through 
narrow valleys. Some of these are Barbour, 
Chewalla, Cowikee, with its several tribu- 
taries, Okenee, White Oak, Oketee Okenee, 
Hurricane, Campbell, Lindsey, Clear, Ufala, 
Pea Creek and the head waters of the Choc- 
tawhatchie River. An Important physio- 
graphic feature of the Chattahoochee Valley 
are the terraces formed as bottom lands, 
when several hundred years ago the river 
flowed at a much higher level. The highest 
of these terraces lies 140 feet above the 
river. Eufaula is situated on one of these. 
As many as four different series of terraces 
are represented. The county lies wholly in 
the Coastal Plain. Its soils are rich, and 
admirably adapted to all forms of agri- 
culture. About one-half of its area is in cul- 
tivation, detailed statistics of which appear 
hereinafter. The lands are popularly de- 
scribed as "oak-and-hickory," "sandy ham- 
mocks," and "piney-woods." These soils ac- 
cording to origin fall into uplands, derived 
from decomposition, stream-terrace, consist- 
ing of old alluvium, and first-bottom soils, 
overflowed frequently and still in process of 
formation and change. There are 13 series, 
embracing 24 types and several phases, in 

addition to Meadow. Longleaf Pine, short- 
leaf pine, hickory, white oak, Spanish oak, 
sweet gum and sour wood are the principal 
forest growth. The climate is equable, with 
few extremes. The mean annual temperature 
is 64.7° F.; and the mean annual precipitation 
52.25 inches. The dryest record year had 42 
inches, and the wettest, 70 inches. 

Aboriginal History. — Remains are found in 
the county along the Chattahoochee River and 
its larger tributaries. The county was 
peopled from the earliest times by the Lower 
Creeks and many mound and village sites 
survive. The Lower Creek towns of Ka- 
waiki, Oki-tiyakni, Ocheese, Sawokli or 
Chewakala, Tamali and Yufala were located 
in the county, on or near the Chattahoochee 
River; and unidentified village sites are met 
with in other sections. The following mound 
locations are noted: Domiciliary mound of 
red clay two miles above Eufaula, on prop- 
erty of H. Lampley; mound on north side o£ 
Williams' Lake, about one half mile from 
Upper Francis Landing, Chattahoochee River; 
two mounds 4 miles south of Clayton, on 
property of John Bell; and two mounds near 
Eufaula. Remains of a large town are found 
three miles northeast of Eufaula at St. 
Francis Bend. 

Settlement and Later History. — The county 
received its earliest settlers about 1817. 
Some of those who came prior to 1820 were 
Rev. Joseph Harley, Methodist, the first 
preacher in the county, John Harley, the first 
teacher, Samuel Walden, John and Pillitier 
Whitehurst, brothers, John Purifoy, Luke 
Bennet, Allen V. Robinson, Noah A. Tyson 
and Peleg Brown. In 1820 came William 
Williams, Jnred Williams, William Bush, 
John Danner, a German and the first black- 
smith, and a Mr. Copeland. These families 
settled Williamston. In the early years, but 
later, came Col. Robert Irvin, Moses Weems, 
Pius Chambers, Edward Cox, Levi B. Smith, 
William Hardridge and a Mr. Nail. In 1822, 
Judge Alexander McCall, John McDaniel, Rev. 
Jesse Burch, Micajah Ward, Blake Jernigan 
and Joel Willis settled near Louisville, named 
for Daniel Louis. The same year saw the 
advent of John McNeil. John Mclnnis and 
Miles Mclnnis. John McNeil died soon after 
arrival, and was the first person buried in 
the county. In the same year, 1822, oc- 
curred the first marriage — Daniel McCall to 
Mary McDaniel. About this time, but per- 
haps earlier, a settlement was made two 
miles east of the present Clayton. Meanwhile 
the first wagon road was made in the county, 
extending from Franklin on the Chatta- 
hoochee in Henry County, through Wil- 
liamston to Louisville. William Williams 
established the first cotton gin in the county, 
but the year is not known. The nearest 
physician to this whole region was Dr. Al- 
exander M. Watson, who lived at Fort Gaines. 

Some of the early settlers came to the 
county for Indian trade. For this purpose, 
in 1826 they concluded to make a road from 
the vicinity of Clayton to Eufaula. It was a 
popular measure, and a working force of 
about three hundred men, whites and negroes. 



were organized, with John Purifoy as over- 
seer. The workmen proceeded with the en- 
terprise, finally reached Barbour Creek, and 
began to make a crossing place, or tord by 
cutting down its banks. Some of the men 
now crossed over to the eastern side, when 
all at once their ears were greeted with the 
yells of Indians, lurking in the woods. The 
party retreated rapidly to the mam body. 
Upon this the leaders concluded to go over 
and learn the intention of the Indians. The 
latter were armed with guns and tomahawks, 
yelling leaping over logs and acting in every 
way to intimidate the settlers. After a short 
interval, a chief spoke some words of com- 
mand, and in an instance every Indian stood 
in perfect silence. The Indian interpreters 
then came forward and stated that John 
Winslet, an Indian countryman living among 
them near Euchee creek, had told them that 
the whites were cuting a road to Eufaula 
town, that they did not approve it, and that 
the work must not be done, unless they could 
show an order from the Great Father at 
Washington. As the road makers could show 
no such authority, they concluded to with- 
draw. They gathered up their tools, and 
went home in deep disgust. But the affair 
finally had a happy termination. An officer 
at Fort Mitchell, hearing of it, came down 
and had a talk with the Indians at Eufaula 
town. He told them that the road would 
benefit instead of injuring them, as it would 
bring all kinds of goods and produce into 
their town. The Indians thereupon became 
reconciled. The settlers were informed of the 
change, and the working party was reorgan- 
ized, the Indians joining them in their work, 
and helping to complete, the ford at Barbour 
Creek, as well as the road to Eufaula. Pleas- 
ant trading relations were established. 

All of the early settlements of the county 
were on the lands lying south of the Indian 
boundary, which ran southeast from Line 
Creek to Fort Gaines. Williamston, the 
oldest town of the county, and Louisville and 
Clayton were all in this section. The town 
of Eufaula was in the northern section of the 
countv and in the Indian Territory, and was 
not settled until 1833. 

The county experienced its share of 
trouble in the Creek disturbances of 1836. 
Soon after they began a white citizen of the 
county, named Williamson, was wounded by 
the Indians and one or two negroes were 
killed. In consequence of these outrages, and 
the threatening aspect of affairs in general, 
three forts were erected in the county — Fort 
Browder, one near White Oak, and one at 

The citizens in the southern part of the 
county, who were especially exposed to the 
Indians, kept scouting parties out on Dry 
Creek which empties into Pea River, and on 
Cawokee Creek which empties into the Chat- 
tahoochee. Citizens of the county were en- 
gaged in action at Martin's Field in Bullock 
County in January, 1837, in the fight at 
Hodby's Bridge in Barbour County in Feb- 
ruary, 1837, and at the battle of Pea River 
In March, 1837. 

-From U. S. Gen- 

Agricultural Statistics.- 

sus, litiu: 

Farms and Farmers. 
Number of all farms, 4,606. 
Color and nativity of farmers: 

Native white, 1,799. 

Foreign-born white, 2. 

Negro and other nonwhite, 2,805. 
Number of farms, classified by size: 

Under 3 acres, — . 

3 to 9 acres, 102. 

10 to 19 acres, 123. 

20 to 49 acres, 1,958. 

50 to 99 acres, 1,200. 

100 to 174 acres, 745. 

175 to 259 acres, 231. 

260 to 499 acres, 169. 

500 to 999 acres, 57. 

1,000 acres and over, 21. 

Land and Farm Area. 
Approximate land area. 583,680 acres. 
Land in farms, 423,587 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 243,978 acres. 
Woodland in farms, 124,893 acres. 
Other unimproved land in farms, 54,716 

Value of Farm Property. 
All farm property, $5,889,213. 

Land, $3,492,102. 

Buildings, $1,104,873. 

Implements and machinery, $206,566. 

Domestic animals, poultry, and bees, 

Average values: 

All property per farm, $1,279. 

Land and buildings per farm, $998. 

Land per acre, $8.24. 

Domestic Animals {Farms and Ranges). 
Farms reporting domestic animals, 4,462. 
Domestic animals, $1,005,513. 
Cattle: total, 13,607; value, $183,440. 

Dairy cows only, 5,211. 
Horses: total, 925; value, $101,542. 
Mules: total, 4,612; value, $632,190. 
Asses and burros: total, 3; value, $470. 
Swine: total, 27,747; value, $86,748. 
Sheep: total, 243; value, $463. 
Goats: total, 483; value, $660. 

Poultry and Bees. 
All poultry, 75,276; value, $23,929. 
Bee colonies, 2,041; value, $2,230. 

Farms Operated by Owners. 
Numbor of Farms, 1,281. 

Per cent of all farms, 27.8. 
Land in farms, 195,384 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 90,367 acres. 
Land and buildings, $2,126,984. 
Farms of owned land only, 1,141. 
Farms of owned and hired land, 140. 
Native white owners, 9 79. 
Foreign-born white, 2. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 300. 

Farms Operated by Tenants. 
Number of farms, 3,309. 

Per cent of all farms, 71.8. 



,755 gal- 


Land in farms, 215,445 acres. 

Improved land in farms, 147,111 acres. 

Land and buildings, $2,331,441. 

Share tenants, 1,316. 

Share-cash tenants, 22. 

Cash tenants, 1,918. 

Tenure not specified, 53. 

Native white tenants, 804. 

Foreign-born white, 0. 

Negro and other nonwhite, 2,5 05. 

Farms Operated by Managers. 
Number of farms, 16. 
Land in farms, 12,758 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 6,500 acres. 
Value of land and buildings, $138,550. 

Live Stock Products. 


Milk: Produced, 885,055; sold. 

Cream sold, gallons. 

Butter fat sold, 10 pounds. 

Butter: Produced, 318,337; so 

Cheese: Produced, 50; sold, 

Dairy products, excluding home use of 
milk and cream, $65,796. 

Sale of dairy products, $3,755. 


Poultry: Number raised, 163,252; sold, 

Eggs: Produced, 208,021; sold, 32,411 

Poultry and eggs produced, $80,393. 

Sale of poultry and eggs, $13,738. 


Honey produced, 8,264 pounds. 

Wax produced, 486 pounds. 

Value of honey and wax produced, $875. 


Wool, fleeces shorn, 137. 

Mohair and goat hair, fleeces shorn, 7 3. 

Wool and mohair produced, $126. 

Domestic Animals Sold or Slaughtered. 
Calves — Sold or slaughtered, 216. 
Other cattle — Sold or slaughtered, 1,914. 
Horses, mules, and asses and burros — 
Sold, 95. 

Swine — Sold or slaughtered, 13,356. 
Sheep and goats — Sold or slaughtered, 131. 
Sale of animals, $36,545. 
Value of animals slaughtered, $143,603. 

Value of All Crops. 
Total. $3,084,586. 
Cereals, $633,287. 
Other grains and seeds. $57,061. 
Hay and forage, $10,525. 
Vegetables, $145,092. 
Fruits and nuts, $9,269. 
All other crops, $2,229,302. 

Selected Crops (Acres and Quantity). 
Cereals: total, 74,993 acres; 654,045 

Corn, 71.798 acres; 612,794 bushels. 
Oats, 3,250 acres; 40,951 bushels. 

Wheat, 10 acres; 100 bushels. 

Rye, 15 acres; 200 bushels. 

Kafir corn and milo maize, acres. 

Rice, acres. 
Other grains: 

Dry peas, 1,383 acres; 7,496 bushels. 

Dry edible beans, acres. 

Peanuts, 2,853 acres; 50,139 bushels. 
Hay and forage: total, 1,425 acres; 678 

All tame or cultivated grasses, 238 
acres; 28 4 tons. 

Wild, salt, or prairie grasses, 144 acres; 
145 tons. 

Grains cut green, 165 acres; 147 tons. 

Coarse forage, 878 acres; 103 tons. 
Special crops: 

Potatoes, 125 acres; 13,592 bushels. 
Sweet potatoes and yams, 1,184 acres; 
86,722 bushels. 

All other vegetables, 1,196 acres. 

Tobacco, acres; 20 pounds. 

Cotton, 99,170 acres; 28,453 bales. 
Cane — sugar, 953 acres; 7,815 tons. 

Sirup made, 112,775 gallons. 
Cane — sorghum, 10 acres; 50 tons. 

Sirup made, 473 gallons. 

Fruits and Nuts. 
Orchard fruits: total, 38,434 trees; 4,990 

Apples, 5,794 trees; 1,065 bushels. 
Peaches and nectarines, 30,195 trees- 

2,501 bushels. 
Pears, 1,755 trees; 1,084 bushels. 
Plums and prunes, 437 trees; 

Cherries, 14 trees; 1 bushel. 
Quinces, 1 tree; bushels. 
Grapes, 76 vines; 1,222 pounds. 
Tropical fruits: total, 1,683 trees. 
Figs, 1,562 trees; 35,358 pounds. 
Oranges, 6 trees; boxes. 
Small fruits: total, 2 acres; 751 quarts. 

Strawberries, 2 acres; 751 quarts. 
Nuts: total, 4,137 trees; 14,832 pounds. 
Pecans, 4,025 trees; 12,687 


Labor, Fertilizer and Feed. 
Labor — Farms reporting, 1,905. 

Cash expended, $157,304. 

Rent and board furnished, $21,889. 
Fertilizer — Farms reporting, 3,614. 

Amount expended. $220,715. 
Feed — Farms reporting. 1,163. 

Amount expended, $43,874. 
Receipts from sale of teedable crops. 

Domestic Animals Not on Farms. 
Inclosures reporting domestic animals, 444. 
Value of domestic animals, $78,284. 
Cattle: total, 625; value, $14,851. 

Number of dairy cows, 392. 
Horses: total, 322; value, $46,228. 
Mules and asses and burros: total, 92- 
value, $15,005. 

Swine: total, 461; value, $2,172. 
Sheep and goats: total, 13; value, $28. 

Population — Statistics from decennial pub- 
lications of the U. S. Bureau of the Census. 


Negro WMte^ Total^ \l\l-ZTrZT'''°'- 

1830 . 1919 — c. S. McDowell, Jr. 

1820 12024 Kepresentatlves. — 

1840 6469 5555 1^0.| i8^4.5_osborn J. Williams. 

1850 12842 107B0 ^^o^ 1835-6— Osborn J. Williams. 

I860 1«2/ f.fel ^9^09 1836-7-Green Beauchamp. 

IfO I-3J9I 20884 33975 1837 (Called) -Green Beauchamp. 

1880 13091 ^u»» 1837-8— Green Beauchamp. 

1890 13454 ^144^ 1838-9— John P. Booth. 

1900 12781 22371 351bZ i839.4o_j. w. Mann; J. W. A. Petit 

1910 12272 ^045b A^iio ;^g4o.i_j w Mann; William T. Shanks. 

Post Offices and To«-ns.-Revised to De- 1841 (Called)-J. W. Mann; William T. 

cemre* ^^916. from ^^^^^Omi^ljo.^^ '""if^U-^. L. Hunter; H. N. Crawford. 

Guide. Figures indicate the number of rural i«*^.3_j„i,^ Jackson; J. W. A. Petit, 

routes from that ofhce. 1843-4— John Jackson. 

Bakerhill — 1 Doster 1844-5 — P. H. Mitchell; B. F. Treadwell. 

Batesville — 1 Elamville 1845-6— Adolphus M. Sanford; William T. 

Blue Springs Eutaula— 3 shanks. 

Clayton (ch)— 5 Louisville— 3 1847-8— Hugh N. Crawford; R. S. Smith. 

Clio— 2 ^^"^""^ i^ , o'''^ „„„ 1 1849-50— Benjamin Gardner; Paul Mc- 

Comer— 1 White Oak Springs-1 ^^|j» 

Cotton Hill — 1 . 1851-2 — John G. Shorter; John W. W. 

Delegates to Constitutional Conventions.— '^^I'^gX^- John Cochran; Paul McCall; J. F. 

1861— John Cochran, Alpheus Baker, J. W. ^^^^^ 

Daniel, (succeeded by) Jefferson Buford. 1855-6— John Cochran; M. A. Browder; 

1865— Green Beauchamp, M. M. Glenn, U. ^ ^ Grubbs. 

B. McKenzie. r„==p11 1857-8— Henry D. Clayton; M. A. Browder; 

1867— David Lore, Henry C. Russell, j^^^pj^ ^ McRae. 

Thomas Diggs (negro). . ^^ +,.. 1859-60— Henry D. Clayton; William H. 

1875— James L. Pugh, John A Foster chambers; W. B. Bowen. 

1901 — J. N. Williams, A. H. Merrill, J. J. ^gg^ ^^^^ called) — Henry D. Clayton; 

Winn, S. H. Dent, Sr. William H. Chambers; W. B. Bowen. 

18 61 (2d called) — E. S. Ott; C. A. Parker; 

Senators. — Edward N. Herron. 

1834-5 — Lawson J. Keener. 1861-2 — E. S. Ott; C. A. Parker; Edward 

1837-8 — William Wellborn. j^ Herron. 

1840-1— Jefferson Buford. I862 (Called) — E. S. Ott; C. A. Parker; 

184 3-4— Robert S. Hardaway of Russell. g^^^rd N. Herron. 

1845-6 — John Gill Shorter. 1862-3 — E. S. Ott; C. A. Parker; Edward 

1847-8 — Jefferson Buford. j^ Herron. 

1851-2 — B. R. Flewellin. Iggs (Called) — William H. Chambers; C. 

1853-4 — Batt Peterson. ^ Parker; C. W. Jones. 

1857-8 — Edward C. Bullock. 1863-4 — William H. Chambers; C. A. Par- 

1861-2 — Lewis L. Cato. jjgi-. q w. Jones. 

1865-6 — Augustus C. Mitchell. 1354 (Called) — William H. Chambers, C. 

1868 — J. W. Mabry. A. Parker; C. W. Jones. 

1871-2 — J. W. Mabry. 1864-5 — William H. Chambers; C. A. Par- 

1872-3 — Jacob Black. ker; C. W. Jones. 

187 3 Jacob Black. 1865-6— Henry Faulk; H. Pipkin; G. H. 

1874-5 — Jacob Black. Davis. 

187 5-6 — Jacob Black. 1866-7 — Henry Faulk; H. Pipkin; G. H. 

1876-7— J. W. Comer. Davis. 

1878-9 — John D. Roquemore. ^^ggg — Thomas Diggs (negro); D. Lore; O. 

1880-1 — John D. Roquemore. (. poster. 

1882-3 — A. H. Thomas. 1869-70 — Thomas Diggs; D. Lore; O. C. 

1884-5 — A. H. Thomas. Doster. 

1886-7 — James Lang. 1870-1 — Jacob Black; Thomas Diggs 

1888-9 — James Lang. (negro); Thomas J. Clark. 

1890-1 — Judson Davie. 1871-2 — T. J. Clarke; T. H. Diggs; Jacob 

189 2-3 — Judson Davie. Black. 

1894-5 — Hiram Hawkins. 1872-3 — T. J. Clarke; Samuel Fantroy; A. 

1896-7 — Hiram Hawkins. 5; Williams. 

1898-9 — W. D. Jelks. 1873 — x. J. Clarke; Samuel Fantroy; A. E. 

1899 (Spec.)— WD. Jelks. Williams. 

1900-1 — W. D. Jelks. 1874-5_W Andrews; J. E. Crews; J. S. 

1903— Elias Perry Thomas. 

1907— Elias Perry Thomas. is7=;-6— W Andrews" J E. Crews; J. S. 

1907 (Spec.)— Elias Perry Thomas. 1875-b— w. Anarews, 

1909 (Spec.) — Elias Perry Thomas. Espy. 



1876-7 — J. E. Crews; John M. McKleroy. 

1878-9 — J. A. Foster; Charles Massey. 

1880-1— M. B. Wellborn; J. M. White. 

1882-3 — James Lang; H. Hawkins; C. C. 

1884-5 — H. Hawkins; James Lang; C. C. 

1886-7— C. C. Shorter; R. E. Wright; J. E. 

1888-9 — Judson Davie; C. C. Shorter; A. 

B. Bush. 

1890-1 — Henry D. Clayton; A. E. Crews; 

C. C. Lee. 

1892-3 — A. A. McDonald; J. W. T. Gibson. 

1894-5 — Eugene L. Graves; Jno. W. T. 

1896-7 — E. L. Graves: A. H. Merrill. 

1898-9 — L. H. Lee; T. M. Patterson. 

1899 (Spec.) — L. H. Lee; T. M. Patterson. 

1900-01 — E. L. Graves; H. J. Stringfellow. 

1903 — Alexander Addison McDonald; John 
Fuller McTyer. 

1907— J. S. Williams; R. M. Lee. 

1907 (Spec.) — J. S. Williams; R. M. Lee. 

1909 (Spec.) — J. S. Williams; R. M. Lee. 

1911— A. K. Merrill; J. S. Williams. 

1915 — A. A. McDonald; H. J. Stringfellow. 

1919 — J. D. Clayton, Chauncey Sparks. 

See Blue Springs; Breneau College; Bul- 
lock County; Clayton; Clio; Cotton Manu- 
facturing; Creek Indian Troubles, 183 6; 
Eufaula; Louisville; Okitiyakin; Yufala. 

References.— A c«s, 1832-33, pp. 9-11, 116-117; 
Brewer, Alabama, p. 124; Barney, Handbook 
(1892), p. 269; Riley, Alabama as it is (1893), 
p. 190; Northern Alabama (1888), p. 182; Ala- 
bama. 1909 (Ala. Dept. of Ag. and Ind., Bulle- 
tin 27), p. 75; U. S. Soil Survey (1916), with 
map; Alabama land book (1916), p. 42; Ala. 
Official and Statistical Register. 1903-1915, 5 
vols.; Ala. Anthropological Society, Handbook 
(1910); Geol. Survey of Ala., Agricultural fea- 
tures of the State (1883), The Valley regions of 
Alabama, parts 1 and 2 (1896, 1897), and 
Underground water resources of Alabama 
(1907); U. S. Bureau of the Census, Abstract 
of the 13th Census, with supplement for Ala- 
bama (1913); J. A. B. Besson, History of 
Eufaula. Ala. (1875); and Green Beauchamp, 
"Chronicles of Barbour County," in Eufaula 
Times, Circa 1873. 

BARITE. A nonmetal substance found most 
frequently in boulders or irregular masses 
imbedded in the residual clays derived from 
the Trenton limestone, and in loose pieces 
on the surface. It is most plentiful where 
the Trenton limestone comes in contact with 
the Knox dolomite; near Tampa, in Calhoun 
County; near Greensport in St. Clair: near 
Maguire Shoals on Little Cahaba River; at 
the "Sinks" on Six Mile Creek; near Pratt's 
Ferry in Bibb; and near Leeds in Jefferson. 
The Alabama barite or heavy spar, is of 
white, grayish, and bluish colors, sometimes 
stained with iron on the surfaces. 

References. — Smith and McCalley, Index to 
mineral resources of Alabama (Geol. Survey of 
Ala., Bulletin 9, 1904), pp. 62-63; U. S. Geol. 
Survey, Mineral resources of the V. S., 1914, pt. 
2, pp. 61-66, with bibliography. 


Cotton Manufacturing. 

BARLEY. See Cereals. 

BARNES SCHOOL. A private school for 
the education of young men and boys, located 
in Montgomery. Although only 17 years Ih 
existence under its present name, the school 
has a record of over half a century. On Sep- 
tember 8, 1856, Prof. J. M. Barnes opened a 
private school at Strata, Montgomery County. 
With short interruption during the War and 
another during the panic year of 1873, and 
with only one change of base, a school under 
his control or oversight in that section existed 
until his death in 1914. In 1881 the Strata 
High School became the Highland Home Insti- 
tute, later Highland Home College (q. v.). 
In 1898, Prof. Barnes removed to Montgom- 
ery, and opened a school in the basement 
of the Christian Church building. Prof. E. R. 
Barnes, a son of the founder, who had taught 
in Highland Home College from 1891 to 

1898, became associated with his father in 

1899. Later the founder retired. In 1907, 
the old Pickett residence, Clayton and Moul- 
ton Streets, was purchased, and thoroughly 
equipped for up-to-date secondary school use. 
In October, 1907, the first issue of The Black 
and Gold, the name indicating the school 
colors, made its appearance. Junior and 
senior debating societies, a glee club and an 
athletic association are maintained. Pound- 
er's Day is observed on February 10, in each 
year. The report to the State superintendent 
of education, September 30, 1916, showed 
building and site, valued at $20,000; 6 
teachers; and 120 pupils. 

Principals. — J. M. Barnes, 1856-1912; E. 
R. Barnes, 1912-. 

References. — Catalogues. 1899-1915; Black 
and Gold, 1907-1916, 8 vols; Announcements, 
Circulars, Folders, etc. 

BARTON. Postoffice and station on the 
Southern Railway in the north central part 
of Colbert County, 12 miles west of Tus- 
cumbia. It is located on the west bank of 
Caney Creek, about one mile from its con- 
fluence with the Tennessee River. Popu- 
lation: 1888 — 60; 1912 — 150. Altitude: 
481 feet. It was named for the Barton 
family, early settlers of the vicinity. Its 
industries are a cotton mill, gin, grist mill 
and sawmill. Among the first settlers were 
the Pride, Thompson. Palmer and Barton 
families. A bloody engagement took place 
in 1862 at Barton, between Gen. P. D. 
Roddy's troops and the invaders, who were 
plundering the inhabitants. 

Reference.?. — Brewer, Alabama (1872), p. 
188; Northern Alabama illustrated (1888). pp. 

OF ALABAMA. A voluntary scientific organ- 
ization, formed for the "encouragement and 
promotion of interest in the study of natural 
history, to bring together students for con- 
ference and discussion, to make collections 


of specimens, and to publish results of re- 
search." Montgomery is headquarters for 
the society; but membership is open to all 
Interested in Its objects. The organization 
of the society was brought about by Dr. 
Thomas M. Owen, director, and Peter A. 
Brannon, chief clerk of the department of 
archives and history. 

Temporary organization was effected In the 
office of the department, in the State capltol, 
March 19, 1914, with the following members: 
Dr. Thomas M. Owen, Dr. H. B. Mohr, Prof. 
Henry S. Halbert, H. P. Tresslar, Sr., H. P. 
Tresslar, Jr.. Peter A. Brannon, S. R. Arml- 
stead, Mac Billing, John Davles, Jr., Lamar 
LeBron, Van Courtland Andrews, Marshall 
Andrews, S. L. Stern, Reese Martin, Jr., and 
Edwin Patton, all of Montgomery. Dr. Owen 
and Mr. Davles, were chairman and secretary 
respectively. A committee composed of 
Messrs. Mohr, Davles, Brannon, Tresslar and 
Dr. Owen, submitted a report at a meeting 
held March 21, and the society was perma- 
nently organized with the following officers: 
Peter A. Brannon, president; Dr. W. B. Hinds 
and Truman H. Aldrich, vice-presidents; 
John Davies, Jr., secretary, and H. P. Tress- 
lar, Sr., treasurer; and an executive council, 
to which is committed general administrative 
control of the society: Dr. Thomas M. Owen, 
Dr. H. B. Mohr, Mr. W. S. Keller, Mr. John 
H. Wallace, Jr., and Mr. A. W. LeBron, with 
the president and secretary, ex officio. 

The society was named in honor of Wil- 
liam Bartram, the celebrated botanist of Phil- 
adelphia, who made a journey through the 
State in 17 7 7, and whose Travels forms the 
first important contribution to the literature 
of the natural history of the region now 
embraced in Alabama. 

The society holds annual and monthly 
meetings; descriptive and scientific papers 
are prepared by members; exploration and 
collection parties are conducted in season; 
and systematic surveys of the natural history 
of the State are in progress. Eighteen regu- 
lar meetings have been held; and 110 names 
were on the rolls at the close of 1916. 

REFEasENCE. — Manuscript minutes and other 
records In hands of the secretary. 


Huntsville Female College. 


BASHI. A creek in Clarke County. The 
fact that the last syllable of the name is 
pronounced exactly as our English word shy 
makes it certain that the creek name is not 
the Choctaw "Cvshshi." meaning dry, with- 
ered, as has been erroneously conjectured by 
some investigators. The same fact induces 
the belief that the name is slightly corrupted 
from the Choctaw "bachaiya," which means a 
row, range, a course, a line. This would indi- 
cate that during some prehistoric period this 
creek was the boundary line between two 
tribes, or two clans or divisions of the same 
tribe. As is well known, rivers and creeks 
often formed the boundary line between In- 
dian communities. 

Reference. — Ball, Clarice County (1882), p. 

BASHI SKIBJIISH. An ambush, by Creek 
Indians, on Bashi Creek, Clarke County, in 
October, 1813. Col. William McGrew and 
about 25 mounted men had set out from the 
vicinity of Fort Easley and Turner's Fort to 
protect the exposed frontier from depreda- 
tions, in the absence of the owners, who with 
their families had fled to the hastily con- 
structed defenses. As they reached a spot 
about five miles east of Wood's Blug, near 
the present Linden and Coffeeville road, about 
a half mile southwest of the Bashi bridge, 
they were surprised by a party of concealed 
Creek warriors. While they fought desper- 
ately, the attack was fatal to Col. McGrew, 
Edmund Miles, and Jesse and David Griffin, 
brothers. On the morning following, the 
Colonel's horse reached St. Stephens, 30 
miles distant, his saddle bloody, and one 
pistol missing from the holster. 

Some days later Gen. F. L. Claiborne en- 
tered the region, and finding the bodies of 
all except David Griffin, he gave them bu- 
rial with military honors. Although several 
days were spent in search of Indians, little 
was accomplished, and he retired to Pine 
Level, the present town of Jackson. In one 
of Col. Claiborne's skirmishes Capt. Wm. 
Bradbury was killed. This officer, as also 
Col. McGrew, had participated in the Burnt 
Corn Fight. 

Reeerences. — Pickett, Alabama (Owen's ed., 
1900), p. 560; Ball, Clarke County (1882), pp. 
162-163; and Halbert and Ball, Creek War 
(1895), pp. 219-222. 

BASSI liAWA. Bashailawau, as printed 
in Romans, and Basheelawa, as noted on his 
manuscript map, was the name of a creek In 
Choctaw County, evidently the present Tuck- 
abum. The map form of the name shows 
that it is the Choctaw "Bassi lawa," Sedge 
grass plenty. Romans writes: "at the last 
Occhoy field, by a creek called Bashailawau." 
From this statement, it may be assumed as a 
positive fact that this abandoned Occhoy field 
was overgrown with sedge grass, whence the 
creek and locality were called by the Choc- 
taws "Bassi lawa." Romans writes of having 
traveled all the previous day "through the 
remains of the Coosada and Occhoy settle- 

References. — Romans, Florida (1775), p. 327. 

BATESVILLE. Post office and station on 
the Central of Georgia Railroad, in the north- 
central part of Barbour County, on Cowickee 
Creek, and about 15 miles northeast of 
Clayton. Population: 1900 — 137; 1912 — 
143. Altitude: 280 feet. 

BATTLES. See Creek Indian War, 1813- 
14; Creek Indian Troubles, 18 36; Mexican 
War. See also names of battles occurring in 

BAUXITE. A metal ore, hydrate of alum- 
ina, used as a source of the metal aluminum 


and of some of its compounds, mainly alum. 
Deposits in this State are in Cherokee, Cle- 
burne, Calhoun, and DeKalb Counties. It 
occurs mainly in the Knox dolomite and in 
the Weisner quartzite formations. The ore 
is commonly concretionary or pisolitic though 
sometimes compact, homogeneous and fine 
grained. The best of it is of gray to white 
colors, but much of it has iron oxide replac- 
ing part of the alumina which gives a reddish 
and mottled appearance to the ore. Asso- 
ciated with the bauxite are mixtures of clay 
and bauxite in varying proportions, and in 
places irregular streaks or bands of pure 
halloysite occur in the midst of the bauxite. 
These bauxitic clays are exceedingly refrac- 
tory and might be used for the manufacture 
of fire brick. White china clays, lignite, man- 
ganese, and limonite also occur in association 
with bauxite. In the limonite banks at Rock 
Run, in Cherokee County, the iron ore appar- 
ently grades into the bauxite, both ores hav- 
ing been obtained from the same digging. 
The bauxite is mined or quarried from open 
cuts and pits which sometimes are 60 to 70 
feet deep. It is easily mined, being rather 
soft below the surface. Only the very best 
grade of the ore is sold at present, but prob- 
ably it all will later be used in the manufac- 
ture of fire brick, as well as of various 
aluminum compounds. The best grade of 
bauxite has been shipped to the eastern mar- 
kets, and to Germany. 

References. — Publications of Geol. Survey of 
Ala., viz: Smith and McCalley, Index to min- 
eral resources of Alaliama (Bulletin 9, 1904), 
pp. 19-20; McCalley, Valley regions of Alabama, 
pts. 1 and 2 (Special Reports, 8 and 9), passim; 
Phillips, Iron making in Alabama. 3d ed. (Mon- 
ograph 7, 1912), passim; Gibson, Report on geo- 
logical structure of Murphree's Valley (Special 
Report 4, 1893); U. S. Geol. Survey, Mineral 
resources of the United States. 1914, pt. 1, pp. 
183-209, with bibliography; and Ibid. 1915, pt. 
1, pp. 159-174. 

BAY MINETTE. County seat of Baldwin 
County, in the central part of the county, on 
the main line of the Louisville & Nashville 
Railroad, and the northern terminus of the 
Foley branch of that road, at the headwaters 
of Bay Minette and White House Creeks, 31 
miles northeast of Mobile. 50 miles north- 
west of Pensacola and 35 miles north of 
Foley. Altitude: 278 feet. Population: 1888 
— 250; 1910 — 749. It is incorporated under 
the municipal code of 1907. The corporate 
limits are circular, extending three-fourths of 
a mile in all directions from the courthouse. 
It has a city hall, jail, waterworks, 4 miles 
of paved sidewalks, 5 miles sanitary sewers, 
electric lights, and volunteer fire department. 
The Baldwin County Bank (State) is located 
there, and the Baldwin Times, a Democratic 
weekly newspaper established in 1890, is 
published in the town. Its principal indus- 
tries are 10 turpentine and rosin plants, 2 
sawmills, 2 gristmills, 2 feed mills, 1 fertil- 
izer plant, hamper and crate factory, ice and 
power plant, city electric plant installed in 
1915 at a cost of $10,000, city waterworks 

installed in same year at a cost of $20,000, 
and equipped with an elevated tank of 80,000 
gallons capacity. Its public school building 
is valued at $15,000. It has Methodist, Bap- 
tist, Presbyterian, Christian, Episcopal, and 
Latter Day Saints Churches. 

It is the third county seat the county has 
had since 1809. Blakely was the first, and 
Daphne the second. Bay Minette was chosen 
by the legislature, February 5, 1901. By 
act approved March 4, 1903, the proceedings 
in the erection of public buildings and in 
removing the records of the county from 
Daphne were legalized and approved. The 
town is on the old road from Stockton to 
Daphne. It is the center of extensive ship- 
ping activities, as the products of the truck- 
ing district along the Foley branch converge 

Bay Minette was first settled by the French. 
It took its name from a French woman, who 
lived on a bayou at the mouth of Bay Min- 
ette Creek. The town was established in its 
present location in 1861 when the railroad 
was constructed. The first settler was Wil- 
liam Wright; the first physician, Dr. J. D. 
Trammell; first preacher. Rev. Mitchell, Bap- 
tist; the first school teacher and postmaster. 
Miss Annie Byrne. Among the early settlers 
were the Stanmeyer, Thompson, Hastie, Silva, 
Byrne, Dolive and Carney families. 

References. — Acts. 1900-01, p. 754; Local 
Acts, 1903, p. 168; Brewer, Alabama (1872), p. 
114; Berney, Handbook (1892), p. 268; Riley, 
Conecuh County (1881), pp. 184, 205; Northern 
Alabama (1888). p. 230; Polk's Alabama gazet- 
teer, 1888-9, p. 107. 

BEANS. See Leguminous plants; Veg- 

BEAR CREEK. See Big Bear Creek. 

BE.'VR CREEK. Post oflice and station on 
the Alabama Northern Railroad, in the north- 
east corner of Marion County, sec. 16 T. 9, 
R. 11; on the headwaters of Big Bear Creek, 
about 20 miles from Hamilton, the county 
seat. Population: 1910 — 214. Altitude: 791 
feet. Before 18 61, it was known as Allen's 
Factory, for the first settlers of that name 
who built a cotton factory which was burned 
during the War but afterwards rebuilt. One 
of the owners of the factory, Langdon C. 
Allen, represented Marion County in the 
Secession Convention of 1861. 

References. — Ofl5cial and Statistical Register, 

ress Lake. 

several Indian towns and villages on Big 
Bear Creek, in the western part of the pres- 
ent Colbert County, as early as the first part 
of the eighteenth century, and, though be- 
lieved by some to have been Cherokees, their 
tribal relation is not known with certainty. 
Details as to number and extent are not 
available. See Colbert County. 



References.— O. D. Street, in Alabama His- 
tory Commission, Report (1901), vol. 1, p. 416. 

ROAD COrPANY. See South and North Ala- 
bama Railroad Company. 


A social, fraternal and insurance order, orig- 
inating in Birmingham. The lodge is called 
a "dam," and the members are referred to 
as "builders." The principles of the order 
are claimed to be a combination of the best 
in all other fraternal orders. The first sub- 
ordinate dam, "Birmingham Dam No. 1," was 
organized by H. W. English, March 9, 1904, 
with 300 members, and Col. J. M. Caldwell 
was elected president. The trustees were 
Gen. R. N. Rhodes, James Kelso and Hon. 
John L. Parker. The order consists of a 
Supreme Dam, which is located at Birming- 
ham, and 97 subordinate dams in Alabama, 
Georgia, Tennessee, Kentucky, Louisiana, 
Mississippi, Missouri, New Mexico, Arizona, 
Texas, Florida and South Carolina. The pres- 
ident of the Supreme Dam in 1917 was R. S. 
English. The total membership was 9,000. 
References. — Official literature and a letter 
from H. W. English, in the Alabama Depart- 
ment of Archives and History. 

BEELOSA. One of the three branches of 
a lagoon on the Tombigbee, mentioned by 
Romans. It is the Choctaw "Bihi lusa," 
which means black mulberry. "Bihi," mul- 
berry, "lusa," black. 

Reference. — Manuscript data in the Ala- 
bama Department of Archives and History. 

BEES. Bee-keeping is an important indus- 
try, although only indifferently developed in 
Alabama. However, the economic value of 
bee culture, wholly apart from the production 
of honey, is coming to be more and more 
recognized as of great importance in connec- 
tion with fruit growing. The earliest record- 
ed notice of the appearance of the honey bee 
in the southern country is preserved in the 
DeSoto Chronicles. At Chiaha, on the Coosa 
River, in the northeastern section of Ala- 
bama, it is noted that pots of honey were seen 
for the first time on the entire journey. Pick- 
ett says that he had often been informed by 
old bee-hunters and Indian countrymen that 
after the territory of Alabama became par- 
tially settled by an American population, 
wild bees were much more abundant than 
formerly. It appears that they were intro- 
duced from Georgia and the Carollnas, and 
became wild after escaping from their hives 
to the woods. 

William Bartram, who journeyed through 
Alabama in 1777, relates a conversation with 
Dr. Grant, a physician of the garrison ol 
Mobile, in which he says: "In the course of 
conversation with the doctor, I remarked that 
during my travels since leaving the Creek 
nation, and when there, I had not seen any 
honey bees; he replied that there were few 
or none West of the isthmus of Florida, and 

but one hive in Mobile, which was lately 
brought there from Europe; the English sup- 
posing that there were none in the country, 
not finding any when they took possession 
of it after the Spanish and French. I had 
been assured by the traders that there were 
none in West Florida, which to me seemed 
extraordinary and almost incredible, since 
they are so numerous all along the Eastern 
continent from Nova Scotia to East Florida, 
even in the wild forests, as to be thought, by 
the generality of the inhabitants, aborigines 
of this continent." 

A very interesting account is given by the 
great naturalist, Philip H. Gosse, of what he 
calls "a very interesting operation, — the tak- 
ing of a wild bee's nest." The discovery 
of the "bee-tree," the cutting of the tree, the 
capture of the swarm, the taking of the 
honey are all described. This incident could 
be duplicated hundreds of times over through- 
out the entire State, since many of the local 
colonies were recruited in this way. 

Records are wholly wanting of early bee 
culture in the State, although it is known 
that wild swarms were domesticated and that 
others were imported, so that within compar- 
atively few years, almost every family had 
one or more hives. Among the pleasant and 
reminiscent pictures of the older people are 
the hives, sometimes called "bee gums," 
usually placed in groups in the vegetable gar- 
den, the flower garden, or the orchard. 

Statistics gathered by the United States 
Bureau of the Census show 205,369 colonies, 
valued at ,$287,598, in 1900, and 135,140 col- 
onies, valued at $212,921, in 1910. The only 
other available statistics are as follows: 

Honey Wax of honey 

produced. produced. and wax. 

1909 891,954 50,043 $ 99,977 

1899 1,930,410 162,020 197,232 

1880 841,535 66,876 

1870 320,674 22,767 

1860 47,233 100,987 

References. — Bartram, Travels (1791), p. 
413; Gosse, Letters from Alabama (1859), pp. 
142, 178; Pickett, History o/ Alabama (Owen's 
ed., 1900), p. 24; Hamilton, Colonial Mobile 
(1910), pp. 290, 300. 

BELLEFONTE. See Hollywood. 

BELLE MINA. Post office and station on 
the Southern Railway between Decatur and 
Huntsville, in the southeastern corner of 
Limestone County, about 10 miles northeast 
of Decatur, about 15 miles southwest of 
Huntsville, and 14 miles southeast of Athens. 
Altitude: 600 feet. Population: 1910 — 150. 
The Belle Mina Bank (State) is the only 
banking institution. The community is 
formed mainly of the families of the original 
planters, many of them holding their homes 
under the original grants from the Govern- 
ment. It was the home of Thomas Bibb, the 
second governor of Alabama, who removed 
there from Madison County about 1818. The 
town takes its name from the plantation, on 
which the railroad station is located. 


References. — Berney, Handbook (1892), p. 
307; Brewer, Alabama (1872), p. 320; North- 
ern Alabama (1888), p. 71. 

BELLWOOD. Post office and station on 
the Central of Georgia Railway, in the north- 
ern part of Geneva County, 1 mile west of 
the Choctawhatchee River, and about 12 miles 
north of Geneva. Population: 1910 — 201. It 
was incorporated in 1907. 

BEX-HVR, TRIBE OF. A fraternal and 
benevolent society, organized at Crawfords- 
ville, Ind.. 1894, the home town of Gen. Lew- 
Wallace, author of the novel by that name, 
and on which book the ritualistic work of the 
lodge is based. The order entered Alabama 
in 1908. Total number of Courts in the State 
in 1918 was 2 3, with a membership of 959. 
There are no State bodies. The supreme or 
governing body meets in the home town of 
the order, Crawfordsville. Ind., biennially. 

Refeke.nce. — Letter from John C. Snyder, Su- 
preme scribe, in the Department of Archives and 

BENCH AXD BAR. See Courts; Lawyers. 

ity Organizations; Child Welfare: Institu- 
tions, State; Pensions; Salvation Army; Vol- 
unteers of America. 

BERRIES. See Fruits. 

BERRY. An Incorporated town in the 
southeastern part of Payette County, on the 
Southern Railway, about 15 miles east of 
Fayette, the county seat. Population: 1900 
— 245; 1910 — 372. It has the Bank of 
Berry (State). 

Refere.vce. — Alabama Official and Statistical 
Register, 1915. 

BESSEMER. An important industrial cen- 
ter, popularly known as the "Marvel City." 
It is the sixth city of the State in point of 
population. It is in the lower section of 
Jones Valley, in the southern part of Jeffer- 
son County, and is 13 miles southwest of 
Birmingham. Altitude: 503 feet. Popula- 
tion: 1888 — 2,500; 1890 — 4,544; 1900 — 
6,358; 1910—10,864. 

It had been selected in July, 1886, as the 
site for two iron furnaces. At the same time 
plans were projected for the building of a 
great manufacturing city. Bessemer was 
founded in the spring of 1887. Lands were 
secured, cleaned up, and on April 12, 1887, 
the first sale of lots was held. The develop- 
ment was the work of the Bessemer Land 
Improvement Co., which had been incorpo- 
rated for that express purpose. 

The growth of Bessemer was and is phe- 
nomenal. Its various industries would make 
a long list, all testifying to the progress of 
a city scarcely thirty years old. Apart from 
the solid foundation of these industries upon 
which the life and prosperity of the city 
mainly depend, Bessemer has well paved 
streets, excellent waterworks, a good system 

of sewerage, fine banks, well edited news- 
papers, excellent schools, and churches of all 
denominations. To all these it must be added 
that it has an exceptionally industrious, law- 
abiding people. 



BETA ALPH.l BETA. Local legal college 
fraternity; founded in 1912 among students 
of the law department of the University of 
Alabama, as Alpha Sigma Delta; and in the 
early part of the session of 1915-16 reorgan- 
ized under its present name. 

Reference. — Baird, Manual (1915), p. 658. 

lege fraternity; founded at Christian College, 
Columbia. Mo., December 12, 1888; entered 
Womans' College of Alabama in 1911 with 
Delta chapter, but, with other organizations, 
killed in 1915 by antifraternity laws. Its 
membership numbered 27. It has an alumni 
chapter in Birmingham. Colors: Ruby and 
pink. Flower: Red carnation. 

Referexce. — Baird, Manual (1915), pp. 465- 

BETA THETA PI. College fraternity; 
founded at Miami University, Oxford, O., 
August 8, 1839; was the first fraternity 
which originated west of the Alleghanles; 
entered Alabama in 1872 when Alpha Mu 
chapter was instituted at Howard College. 
The chapter only survived until 1879, with 
a total membership of 4 3. It has an alumni 
chapter in Birmingham. Periodical: "The 
Beta Theta Pi." Colors: Light pink and blue. 
Flower: Rose. 

References. — Baird, Manual (1915), pp. 79- 
98; and the following official publications: 
Cataloaue (1855), and many later editions; 
FrnternUij studies (1894); Handbook (1907); 
and Baird, Betas of achievement (1912). 

ander City. See Cotton Manufacturing. 

BIBB COUNTY. Originally created as Ca- 
hawba, February 7, 1818, by the Legislature 
of the Alabama Territory. It was formed 
from the extensive territory of Monroe 
County as originally laid out. By act of No- 
vember 20, 1818. the boundaries were altered 
and more definitely established. Tlie legis- 
lature, on December 13, 1819, made an addi- 
tion on the southeast; on December 20, 1820, 
the southern boundaries were enlarged; and 
on December 17, 1821, an exchange of a half 
township each was made between Bibb and 
Perry Counties. As originally constituted 
it included much of the southern part of the 
present Shelby County. In 1868 part of its 
eastern section was cut off to form Baker 
(now Chilton) County fq. v.). Its area is 
634 square miles, or 405,760 acres. 

It was named for the Cahawba River 
(q. v.). which traverses the county from 
north to south. It was changed to Bibb, 
however, by the legislature, at its session of 



1820, December 4, iu honor of the first gov- 
ernor, William Wyatt Bibb, who had died 
during the preceding summer. 

The "Falls of the Cahawba" (Centreville) 
was designated as the seat of justice, by act 
of December 17, 1819. The same act pro- 
vided for the election, on the first Monday 
in March, 1820, of five commissioners, 
charged with the duty of fixing on a suitable 
place for the seat of justice, to be as near 
the centre as an eligible situation could be 
found and procured. Until they should agree 
upon a permanent location, they were author- 
ized to fix a temporary seat, within four 
miles of the centre of the county. The selec- 
tion of the Falls wai to provide for an im- 
mediate contingency, before the election and 
action of the commissioners, but the courts 
were to continue there only until either a 
temporary or permanent seat should be se- 
lected. The commissioners were apparently 
slow in acting, since an act of December 20, 
1820, required the sheriff to hold an election 
for new commissioners, in the event the old 
commissioners should fail to make a selec- 
tion prior to December 25, 1821. Before the 
date fixed, an act of November 27, 1821, 
named Henry W. Stephens, Agrippa Atkinson, 
and Ansel Sawyer as commissioners to "fix 
the temporary seat of justice at the centre of 
said county, or at the nearest eligible place 
within two miles thereof," on or before 
April 1, 1822. 

By act of December 15, 1824, John Hunt, 
James Moore and William White were ap- 
pointed agents to select a quarter section of 
land for the use of the county, to be pre- 
empted by them. The lands were to be sold, 
and the proceeds, after paying the purchase 
price, were to be applied to the erection of 
public buildings. On December 22, 1827, the 
legislature authorized the people of the 
county "to fix a permanent seat of justice" 
for the county, the election to take place on 
the first Monday in February, 1828. The 
choice was limited to "Bibb Court House," 
the site selected under previous acts, and the 
"Falls of Cahaba." Commissioners Moon and 
White appointed under act of December 15, 
1824, to select a quarter section of land for 
the county, having failed to perfect the pre- 
emption, the commissioners under the present 
act were to make the selection and sell the 
lands. Details as to the delays which oc- 
casioned so much legislative attention, as 
well as the result of the election are not at 
hand. The design of all of the acts appears 
to be the selection of a point near the centre 
of the county, and since the town located at 
the Falls of the Cahaba was named Centre- 
ville, it might be inferred that it was success- 
ful. However, such is not the case. Old 
maps show the designation of Bibb Old Court 
House, which continued for many years to be 
the county seat. It was located in sec. 29, 
T. 23 N.. R. 11 E., on the public road about 
midway between Centreville and Randolph. 
The date of Its removal to Centreville is not 
now available. 

The early legislation reveals some inter- 
esting general facts. Apparently the very 

first election held In the county was that pro- 
vided under the act of December 17, 1819, 
in which five commissioners were chosen to 
select a county seat. Only two voting places 
were authorized, at the falls of the Cahawba 
and at the house of Noah B. Coker, points 
named in an act of December 16, 1819. A 
year later, December 20, 1820, two other 
voting places were fixed at the houses of 
Henry W. Stephens and John Allen. Two 
years later, December 26, 1822, a fifth "elec- 
tion precinct" was established at the house 
of Daniel Williams on Mulberry Creek. The 
next legislature, December 22, 1823, discon- 
tinued the voting place at Coker's house, and 
established it at the house of Matthew Cox, 
evidently in the same neighborhood, and at 
the same time located a sixth place of voting 
at the home of Ezekiel Miller. On Decem- 
ber 24, 1824, the house of Capt. James Moore 
was made "an additional election precinct." 
The commissioners elected in 1819 were 
given power to contract for a court house and 
jail but only after posting notices in three 
public places, and after a thirty day adver- 
tisement in the Cahawba Press, published at 
the State capital. 

Location and Physical Description. — The 
county lies near the center of the State, and 
is bounded on the north by Jefferson, on the 
northeast by Shelby, on the northwest by 
Tuscaloosa, on the west by Hale, and on tne 
south by Perry and Chilton Counties. The 
county as a whole is an elevated plain into 
which the rivers and creeks composing ita 
Even the valleys of the streams are narrow 
drainage system have been cut to a maximum 
depth of 200 feet. The process has left the 
general surface very hilly and often steep, 
and gorge-like, cut into the limestone, dolo- 
mite and sandstone that are predominantly 
characteristic of the locality, and having al- 
most no bottom lands within them. The char- 
acter of the highland soils varies with the 
nature of the material of which the hills are 
remnants. As a rule the upland areas are 
available for agriculture; but, the county 
being situated in the mineral region, its lands 
are of less importance agriculturally than 
industrially, though their value from either 
standpoint is more potential than actual since 
it is as yet largely undeveloped. The average 
elevation is 500 feet. There are large coal 
fields in the upper part of the county, be- 
sides deposits of dolomite, limestone, ma- 
terials suitable for Portland cement, and 
barite. There are also several mineral 
springs. The county is drained by Cahaba 
River and its tributaries. Blue Guttee, Af- 
fonee, Haysoppe, Copperas, Shades, Schultz, 
Cane, Little Cahaba, Sixmile, Cowpens, Mahan 
and Sandy Creeks. The forest growth con- 
sists of long and short leaf pine, white oak, 
black oak, post oak. hickory, walnut, mul- 
berry, dogwood, with some black gum and 

Aboriginal History. — The territory of the 
county lay in both Creek and Choctaw ter- 
ritory, the western part falling within the 
eastern boundary line claimed by the Choc- 
taws under the treaty of Hopewell, January 




3, 1786. So far as is known, no Choctaws 
ever built villages in the region. There were 
two Creek towns, Penootaw village, situated 
on the east side of Cahaba, about three 
miles above Centerville, and Old Osoonee 
Town, also on the east side of Cahaba River, 
and about one mile and a halt above the 
influx of Shade's Creek. Penootaw, in correct 
Muscogee orthography, Pin'-hotl, means Tur- 
key Home, from "Plnus," turkey, "hotl," 
home. The Creek claim, much the larger 
part, was ceded by the treaty of Fort Jack- 
son, August 9, 1814; and the Choctaw part, 
bv the treaty of the Trading House, October 
21, 1816. 

Settlement and Later History. — The names 
of the first settlers in the county are not at 
hand. However, immigrants began to arrive 
in 1815 and within the next two or three 
years it had a sufficient population to call for 
the establishment of county government. In 
the acts creating the county, re-arranging 
county boundaries, providing the selection of 
the county seat, and fi.xing election precincts 
during the first five years of the county his- 
tory, are given the names of several of the 
settlers, as will appear above. The voting 
precincts were fixed at or near the houses 
of prominent settlers. These points were 
selected with reference to their convenience, 
and their location upon the public roads. 

During the first five years of its history, 
the county had an uneventful record. While 
abounding in mineral wealth, with two ex- 
ceptions, its people were wholly engaged in 
agricultural pursuits, and lived far removed 
from the main currents of travel. 

Some of the names of early settlers are 
preserved, including Major John Mahan, 
James Hill, Noah B. Coker, John and David 
Ward, father and son, John Allen, and Mat- 
thew Cox. The Falls of the Cahaba is men- 
tioned in 1819. This was evidently one of 
the early points of settlement, and was looked 
to as the coming town of the new county, 
since it was believed to be at what was then 
the head of the possible navigation of the 
Cahaba River. The city bore the name of 
Centreville in 18 24. An act of December 
22nd of that year provided that the sheriff 
of Bibb County in selling negroes and lands 
levied upon on the west side of the Cahaba 
River, should sell them at the "town of 

The two exceptions to the agricultural con- 
ditions of the. county are the building of the 
old Brierfield furnace and the cotton factory 
and mill at Scottsville. The Scottsville fac- 
tory was built in 1836 by Major David Scott. 
Near Brierfield the Mahans had a forge in 
the early days, and during the War the Con- 
federate rolling mill was operated there. The 
plant was located on Six Mile Creek. 

The later history of the county is inter- 
linked with the industrial era of the State. 
Much of its territory is located in the famous 
Cahaba coal region and the development of 
the county in the matter of railroad building 
and coal industry has been notable. The 
towns of Blocton, West Blocton, Brent, Eoline, 
Coleanor, Six Mile, Ashby, Belle Ellen, Garn- 

sey and Marvel are representative of the 
newer development of the county. 

Agi-icultural Statistics. — From U. S. Cen- 
sus, 1910: 

Farms and Farmers. 
Number of all farms, 2,016. 
Color and nativity of farmers: 

Native white, 1,365. 

Foreign-born white, 4. 

Negro and other nonwhite, 647. 
Number of farms, classified by size: 

Under 3 acres, — . 

3 to 9 acres, 68. 

10 to 19 acres, 255. 

20 to 49 acres, 737. 

50 to 99 acres, 396. 

100 to 174 acres, 328. 

175 to 259 acres, 119. 

260 to 499 acres, 79. 

500 to 999 acres, 24. 

1,000 acres and over, 10. 

Land and Farm Area. 
Approximate land area, 405,760 acres. 
Land in farms, 181,213 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 64,065 acres. 
Woodland in farms, 106,869 acres. 
Other unimproved land in farms, 10,279 

Value of Farm Property. 
All farm property, 13,175,686. 

Land, ?1, 866, 781. 

Buildings, $643,215. 

Implements and machinery, $111,962. 

Domestic animals, poultry, and bees, 
Average values: 

All property per farm, $1,575. 

Land and buildings per farm, $1,245 

Land per acre, $10.30. 

Domestic Animals (Farms and Ranges). 
Farms reporting domestic animals, 1,935 
Domestic animals. $537,478. 
Cattle: total, 7,775; value, $104,158. 

Dairy cows only. 3,312. 
Horses: total, 1,061; value, $106,344 
Mules: total, 2,252; value, $287,617. 
Asses and burros: total, 10; value, $1,000 
Swine: total, 12,572; value, $34,890. 
Sheep: total, 1,448; value, $1,572. 
Goats: total, 2,016; value, $1,897. 

Poultry and Bees. 
All poultry, 39,485; value, $12,544. 
Bee colonies, 2,249; value, $3,706. 

Farms Operated ly Oioners. 
Number of farms, 980. 

Per cent of all farms, 48.6. 
Land in farms, 124,987 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 35,495 acres. 
Land and buildings. $1,523,057. 
Farms of owned land only, 843. 
Farms of owned and hired land, 137. 
Native white owners. 809. 
Foreign-born white, 2. 
Negro and other non-white, 169. 


Farms Operated by Tenants. 
Number of farms, 1,031. 

Per cent of all farms, 51.1. 
Land in farms, 50,980 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 27,447 acres. 
Land and buildings, $838,624. 
Share tenants, 765. 
Share-cash tenants, 16. 
Cash tenants, 233. 
Tenure not specified, 17. 
Native white tenants, 551. 
Foreign-born white, 2. 
Negro and other non white, 478. 

Farms Operated by Managers. 
Number of farms, 5. 
Land in farms, 5,24 6 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 1,123 acres. 
Value of land and buildings, $148,315. 

; Live Stock Products. 


Milk: Produced, 755,021; sold, 19,573 

Cream sold, gallons. 

Butter fat sold, pounds. 

Butter: Produced, 265,723; sold, 35,264 
pounds. , , „ J 

Cheese: Produced, 0; sold, pounds. 

Dairy products, excluding home use of 
milk and cream, $61,058. 

Sale of dairy products, $10,827. 


Poultry: Number raised, 76,423; sold 
Eggs: Produced, 168,278; sold, 59,758 

Poultry and eggs produced, $47,886. 
Sale of poultry and eggs, $14,369. 


Honey produced, 20,446 pounds. 

Wax produced, 748 pounds. 

Value of honey and wax produced, $2,209. 


Wool, fleeces shorn, 597. 

Mohair and goat hair, fleeces shorn, 10. 

Wool and mohair produced, $515. 

Domestic Animals Sold or Slaughtered. 
Calves — Sold or slaughtered, 254. 
Other cattle — Sold or slaughtered, 1,479. 
Horses, mules, and asses and burros — Sold, 

Swine — Sold or slaughtered, 5,986. 

Sheep and goats — Sold or slaughtered, 959. 

Sale of animals, $36,386. 

Value of animals slaughtered, $61,712. 

Yalue 0/ All Crops. 
Total, $1,055,892. 
Cereals, $261,903. 
Other grains and seeds, $12,934. 
Hay and forage, $40,406. 
Vegetables, $115,095. 
Fruits and nuts, $29,497. 
All other crops, $596,057. 

Selected Crops (Acres and Quantity). 
Cereals: total, 22,588 acres; 276,013 

Corn, 20,104 acres; 241,639 bushels. 
Oats, 2,465 acres; 34,269 bushels. 
Wheat, 16 acres; 95 bushels. 
Rye, 3 acres; 10 bushels. 
Kafir corn and milo maize, acres; 

Rice, acres; bushels. 
Other grains: 

Dry peas, 835 acres; 4,609 bushels. 
Dry edible beans, acres; bushels. 
Peanuts, 348 acres; 4,080 bushels. 
Hay and forage: total, 2,654 acres; 2,791 

All tame or cultivated grasses, 1,547 

acres; 2,108 tons. 
Wild, salt, or prairie grasses, 88 acres; 

135 tons. 
Grains cut green, 681 acres; 461 tons. 
Coarse forage, 338 acres; 87 tons. 
Special crops: 

Potatoes, 39 acres; 2,605 bushels. 
Sweet potatoes and yams, 736 acres; 

61,504 bushels. 
All other vegetables, 727 acres. 
Tobacco, acres; pounds. 

Cotton, 19,068 acres; 6,335 bales. 
Cane — sugar, 331 acres; 2,931 tons. 

Sirup made, 34,766 gallons. 
Cane — sorghum, 52 acres; 257 tons. 
Sirup made, 2,493 gallons. 

Fruits and Nuts. 
Orchard fruits: total, 34,911 trees; 30,268 

Apples, 8,451 trees; 6,880 bushels. 
Peaches and nectarines, 22,647 trees; 

21,305 bushels. 
Pears, 2,942 trees; 1,557 bushels. 
Plums and prunes, 738 trees; 450 

Cherries, 41 trees; 7 bushels. 
Quinces, 83 trees; 62 bushels. 
Grapes, 3,855 vines; 26,742 pounds. 
Tropical fruits: total, 746 trees. 
Figs, 740 trees; 13,389 pounds. 
Oranges, trees; boxes. 
Small fruits: total, 2 acres, 1,024 quarts. 

Strawberries, 2 acres, 1,024 quarts. 
Nuts: total, 328 trees; 272 pounds. 
Pecans, 321 trees; 260 pounds. 

Labor, Fertilizer and Feed. 
Labor — Farms reporting, 627. 

Cash expended, $37,535. 

Rent and board furnished, $6,751. 
Fertilizer — Farms reporting, 1,482. 

Amount expended, $47,152. 
Feed — Farms reporting. 608. 

Amount expended, $21,327. 
Receipts from sale of feedahle crops, 

Domestic Animals Not on Farms. 
Inclosures reporting domestic animals, 

Value of domestic animals, $131,001. 
Cattle: total. 2,011; value, $38,433. 

Number of dairy cows, 945. 
Horses: total, 301; value, $34,430. 
Mules and asses and burros: total, 356: 
value, $48,783. 



Swine: total, 3,019; value, $8,538. 

Sheep and goats: total, 649; value, |817. 

Population. — Statistics from decennial pub- 
lications ot the U. S. Bureau of the Census: 

White Negro Total 

1820 2930 746 3676 

1830 5113 1193 6306 

1840 6256 2028 8284 

1850 7097 2872 9969 

■ 1860 8027 3867 11894 

1870 5061 2408 7469 

1?80 5887 3600 9487 

1890 9080 4744 13824 

1900 12285 6213 18498 

1910 15081 7710 22791 

Post Offices and Towns. — Revised to De- 
cember 31, 1916, from U. S. Official Postal 
Guide. Figures indicate the number ot rural 
routes from that office. 

Ashby — 1 Green Pond 

Belle Ellen Hargrove 

Blocton — 3 Lawley — 2 

Brent Marvel 

Brierfield Mertz 

Camp Hugh Piper 

Centreville (ch) — 5 Randolph — 2 

Coleanor Sandy 

Cox West Blocton 

Eoline Woodstock — 1 


Delegates to Constitutional Conventions. — 

1819 — Littlepage Sims. 

1861 — James W. Crawford. 

1865 — Jackson Gardner. 

1867 — James W. Mahan. 

1875 — Dr. Edward Hawthorn Moren. 

1901 — J. F. Thompson; John C. Jones. 

Senators. — 

1819-20 — Littlepage Sims. 
1821-2 — Charles A. Dennis. 
1822-3 — Jack Shackelford. 
1825-6 — D. Sullivan. 
1828-9 — Thomas Crawford. 
1831-2 — Joab Lawler. 
1832-3 — Alexander Hill. 
1834-5 — David R. Boyd. 
1835-6— James Hill. 
1837-8— James Hill. 
1840-1 — Daniel E. Watrous. 
1843-4 — Daniel E. Watrous. 
1847-8 — James M. Nabors. 
1849-50 — Daniel E. Watrous. 
1853-4 — Jack F. Cocke. 
1857-8— Jack F. Cocke. 
1861-2 — Edward H. Moren. 
1865-6 — Edward H. Moren. 
1868 — J. W. Mahan. 
1871-2 — J. W. Mahan. 
1872-3— R. W, Cobb. 
1873— R. W. Cobb. 
1874-5— R. W. Cobb. 
1875-6 — R. W. Cobb. 
1876-7 — A. C. Hargrove. 
1878-9 — A. C. Hargrove. 
1880-1 — A. C. Hargrove. 
1882-3 — A. C. Hargrove. 
1884-5 — E. H. Moren. 
1886-7— W. C. Cross. 




-9 — A. C. Hargrove. 
-1 — W. T. Downey. 
-3 — W. T. Downey. 
-5 — W. F. Hogue. 
-7 — W. F. Hogue. 
-9— J. G. Moore. 

(Spec.) — J. G. Moore. 
-01 — J. G. Moore. 
— William Francis Hogue. 
— H. E. Reynolds. 

(Spec.) — H. E. Reynolds. 

(Spec.) — H. E. Reynolds. 
— W. J. Vaiden. 
— W. H. Cooper. 
— J. Marvin Moore. 

Representatives. — 

1819-20 — Jonathan Jones. 

1820-1 — Gabriel Benson. 

1821 (Called) — Gabriel Benson. 

1821-2 — Jonathan Jones. 

1822-3 — Jonathan Jones; John Wallace. 

1823-4 — Charles A. Dennis; Alexander 

1824-5 — Jonathan Jones; Alexander Hill. 

1825-6 — Jonathan Jones. 

1826-7 — Jonathan Jones. 

1827-S — James B. Clark. 

1828-9 — James B. Clark; Alexander Hill. 

1829-30 — James B. Clark; Jonathan 

1830-1 — James B. Clark; David R. Boyd. 

1831-2 — David R. Boyd; Julius Goodwin. 

1832 (Called) — James W. Davis; John E. 

1832-3 — James W. Davis; John E. Sum- 

1833-4 — James W. Davis; John E. Sum- 

1834-5 — David E. Davis; Hopkins Pratt. 

1835-6 — David E. Davis; Robert Parker. 

1836-7 — John Williams; William Christian. 

1837 (Called)— John Williams; William 

1837-8 — James W. Davis; Robert Parker. 

1838-9 — John B. Summers; L. Kennedy. 

1839-40 — John Williams; Frederick James. 

1840-1 — David E. Davis; S. W. Davidson. 

1841 (Called) — David E. Davis; S. W. 

1841-2 — David E. Davis; Ezekiel Henry. 

1842-3 — Pleasant Hill; Kenneth Morrison. 

1843-4 — Pleasant Hill; David E. Davis. 

1844-5 — K. Morrison; B. L. Dufreese. 

1845-6— Robert Hill. 

1847-8 — James W. Davis. 

1849-50 — O. S. Quinn. 

1851-2 — James W. Davis. 

1853-4 — James W. Davis; Charles P. Find- 

1855-6— E. H. Bernhard; J. W. Crawford. 

1857-8 — Robert Parker. 

1859-60 — S. W. Davidson, jr. 

1861 (1st called) — S. W. Davidson, jr. 

1861 (2d called) — Henry D. Calhoun. 
1861-2 — Henrv D. Calhoun. 

1862 (Called) — Henry D. Calhoun. 
1862-3 — Henrv D. Calhoun. 

18 63 (Called)— James W. Davis. 

1863-4 — James W. Davis. 

18 64 (Called) — James W. Davis. 



1864-5 — James W. Davis. 

1865-6 — James W. Davis. 

1866-7 — James W. Davis. 

1868 — P. A. Kendrick. 

1869-70 — P. A. Kendrick. 

1870-1 — T. J. Smitherman. 

1871-2-^T. J. Smitherman. 

1872-3 — J. N. Smitli. 

1873 — J. N. Smith. 

1874-5 — J. W. Davis. 

1875-6— J. W. Davis. 

1876-7— J. S. Hansburger. 

1878-9 — J. D. Cooper. 

1880-1 — R. C. Caffee. 

1882-3— E. H. Moren. 

1884-5—1. N. Suttle. 

1886-7 — James W. Brand. 

1888-9 — Samuel M. Adams. 

1890-1 — S. M. Adams. 

1892-3 — Nelson Fuller. 

1894-5 — Nelson Fuller. 

1896-7 — W. W. Lavender. 

1898-9 — Charles Collier. 

1899 (Spec.) — Charles Collier. 

1900-01— John T. Wilson. 

1903 — Jasper Fritz Thompson. 

1907 — Jerome T. Fuller. 

1907 (Spec.)— Jerome T. Fuller. 

19 09 (Spec.) — Jerome T. Fuller. 

1911 — W. W. Lavender. 

1915 — J. B. Davie. 

1919— N. E. Stewart. 

See Blocton; Brierfield; Cahaba Old 
Towns; Cahaba River; Cahaba Valley; Cen- 
treville; Coal; Randolph; West Blocton. 

References.— Toulmin, Digest (1823), in- 
dex; Acts, 1824-25, p. 65; 1827-28, pp. 24-28; 
Brewer, Alabama, p. 135; Berney, Handbook 
(1892), p. 269, 426-430; Riley, Alabama a^ it is 
(1893), p. 124; Northern Alabama (1888), p. 
109; Alabama. 1909 (Ala. Dept. of Ag. and Ind., 
Bulletin 27), p. 77; U. S. Soil Survey (1910), 
with map; Alabama land book (1916), p. 42; 
Ala. Official and Statistical Register, 1903-1915, 
5 vols.; Ala. Anthropological Society, Hand- 
book (1910); Geol. Survey of Ala., Agricultural 
features of the State (1883), The Valley re- 
gions of Alabama, parts 1 and 2 (1896, 1897), 
and Underground Water resources of Alabama 
(1907); Armes, Story of coal and iron in Ala- 
bama (1910); Squire, Cahaba coal field (Geol. 
Survey of Ala., Special report 2, 1890). 

tary semireligious organization, whose object 
Is "to promote the circulation of the Holy 
Scriptures in their common version in all ordi- 
nary ways." Through the efforts of Rev. Dr. 
Joseph C. Stiles, corresponding secretary of 
the American Bible Society, the society was 
formed on March 22, 1852, in the Court 
Street Methodist Episcopal Church at Mont- 
gomery. At the same time a three-story 
building, at No. 7 Dexter Avenue, Montgom- 
ery, was donated by Abner McGehee to the 
society for a permanent Bible House. 

The state society was organized as an 
auxiliary of the American Bible Society, and 
was incorporated by act of February 17, 
1854. The incorporators were E. A. Holt, 
Henry W. Hilliard, William L. Yancey, J. H. 

Smith, Henry Lucas, Thomas M. Cowles, 
William B. Bell, Rush Jones, J. Thorington, 
John Whiting, J. W. Roberts, T. M. Gilmer, 
jr., Abner McGehee, Benajah S. Bibb, Charles 
T. Pollard, E. C. Hannon, and W. Poe. It is 
governed by a board of directors of 12 per- 
sons, including the president, secretary, and 
treasurer. A superintendent in charge of the 
Bible House is appointed by the board. 

The work is nonsectarian, and the several 
Protestant denominations are represented in 
the board. These are the Baptist, Episcopal, 
Methodist Episcopal, Methodist Protestant, 
and Presbyterian Churches. The officers are 
a president, five vice-presidents, one from 
each of the denominations represented, a sec- 
retary, and a treasurer. Monthly and annual 
meetings are held. In the Bible House is kept 
a constant supply of Bibles, Testaments, 
Psalms and other scriptural literature. 

Refere.\ce. — Constitution and by-laws, 1896 
and 1902; Daily Post. Montgomery, Ala., June 
3, 1861; Handbook (1896). 

BIBLIOGRAPHY. The first attempt at a 
complete and exhaustive Alabama bibliog- 
raphy, in accordance with usually accepted 
forms for such work, was the "Bibliography 
of Alabama," compiled by Thomas M. Owen, 
and published in the Annual Report of the 
American Historical Association, 1897, pp. 
777-1248. The scope and plan of the work, 
with the difficulties attending it, and some 
indications as to sources and inspiration are 
found in the preface, which is here repro- 

"The work here presented is an attempt in 
the widest sense at a complete State bibliog- 
raphy. An effort has been made to give the 
titles, arranged alphabetically by authors, of 
all known publications, whether books, 
pamphlets, newspaper and magazine sketches 
where of apparent value, articles printed in 
the transactions of societies, publications of 
societies, official documents, maps, etc. It 
therefore embraces not only the historical and 
biographical works relating to the State, its 
institutions, and its public men, but it in- 
cludes as well the intellectual product of 
the literary and business life of the State. 
And yet it is by no means exhaustive, and 
of many omissions the compiler is aware. 

"Many difficulties have attended the satis- 
factory preparation of the work. The absence 
of any approximately complete collection of 
the material included in the scope of the 
bibliography has made the compilation slow, 
tedious, and after all incomplete." 

The practice of giving full references and 
citations to authorities for statements is in a 
way a later development in history writing. 
Such a course is now not only expected but 
no work would be received with any favor 
without the listing of authorities. The fur- 
ther practice of presenting, in a separate 
chapter, group or section, a bibliography or 
check list of authorities is now very general. 

Conspicuous examples of careful biblio- 
graphical work in connection with main titles 
are to be found in Fleming, Civil War and 
Reconstruction in Alabama (1905); Armes, 



History of Coal and Iron in Alabama (1910); 
Hamilton. Colonial Mobile, 2d ed. (1910); 
Dr. Stephen B. Weeks, History of Public 
School Education in Alabama (1915). 

BIG BEAR CREEK. A creek of north- 
west Alabama, tributary to the Tennessee 
River (q. v.), and about 140 miles In length. 
Its average width and depth are not avail- 
able. The creek rises In the southeast corner 
of Franklin County, flows westwardly for 
about 80 miles to the boundary line between 
Alabama and Mississippi, and thence north- 
wardly for about 60 miles, crossing and re- 
crossing the State line several times, before 
it unites with the Tennessee River at East- 
port, Tishomingo County, Miss., about 224 
miles above the confluence of the Tennessee 
and the Ohio. It is not navigable. 

Big Bear Creek lies wholly within the 
territory once occupied by the Chickasaw 
Indians, and it Is likely that there were small 
towns or villages along Its banks, although no 
records are now immediately available. 

The mouth of this creek is one of the fixed 
points by which the boundaries of the State 
of Alabama are determined, being a part of 
the western boundary line, which is de- 
scribed in the code of 1907, section 83, as 
follows: "thence up said river [the Tennes- 
see] to the mouth of Big Bear Creek; thence 
by a direct line, to the northwest corner of 
Washington county, in this State as originally 
formed; thence southerly along the line of 
the State of Mississippi to the Gulf of 

In 1913 a proposal was made to the Gov- 
ernment to construct a waterway between 
the Tennessee and Tombigbee Rivers, using, 
so far as practicable, the channels of Big 
Bear, Crippled Deer and Mackeys Creeks, to 
be supplemented by a canal across the divide 
separating the watersheds of the Tennessee 
and the Tombigbee. The scheme was investi- 
gated by War Department engineers who 
reported adversely upon It. A similar pro- 
posal was submitted, and a survey, with plan 
and estimate, made In 1875, but without 
tangible result. 

References. — U. S. Chief of Engineers, Re- 
port on preliminary examination of waterway 
to connect Tennessee River with Tombigbee 
River, by way of Big Bear Creek, 1913 (In H. 
Doc. 218, 63d Cong., 1st sess.); U. S. Chief of 
Engineers, Annual report, 1875, App. R., pp. 


An old Creek Indian town, south of Oxford, 
Calhoun County, on the north side of Big 
Shoal Creek. 

Reference. — Bureau of American Ethnology, 
Eighteenth Annual Report (1899), pt. 2, map 1. 

BILL OF BIGHTS. Under the constitution 
of Alabama, more strictly a "Declaration of 
Rights." in which are set forth "the great, 
general, and essential principles of liberty 
and free government." and in the several con- 
stitutions always appearing as article I, imme- 

diately following the preamble. This article 
in the constitution of 1819 has 30 sections; 
1861, 30 sections; 1865, 36 sections; 1868, 
38 sections; 1875, 39 sections; and 1901, 36 
sections. A few of the more important de- 
velopments and changes only can be given. 
A full analysis and discussion of its several 
provisions, in the light of the decisions of 
the courts and the political history of the 
State, is impossible because of limitation of 

Historically considered the practice of in- 
troducing bills of rights in the constitutions 
of State governments dates from the Virginia 
Constitution of 1776. The purpose of the 
enumeration, or the place of the declaration, 
is admirably stated by Judge Henry Goldth- 
waite in Dorsey's Case, 7 Porter, p. 359: 

"I consider the declaration of rights, as the 
governing and controlling part of the consti- 
tution; and with reference to this, are all its 
general provisions to be expounded, and their 
operation extended or restrained. The dec- 
laration itself, is nothing more than an enu- 
meration of certain rights, which are expressly 
retained and excepted out of the powers 
granted; but as it was impossible, in the na- 
ture of things, to provide for every case of 
exception, — a general declaration was added, 
that the particular enumeration should not be 
construed to disparage or deny others re- 
tained by the people. What those other rights 
are, which are thus reserved, may be readily 
ascertained by a recurrence to the preamble 
to the declaration of rights. The object to be 
attained by the people, when assembled in 
convention, was not the formation of a mere 
government, because such might, and in many 
cases would be, arbitrary and tyrannical, al- 
though democratic in its form: — It was to 
form a government with clearly defined and 
limited powers. In order that 'the general, 
great and essential principles of liberty and 
free government might be recognized and es- 
tablished.' " 

The first section of the bill of rights of the 
constitution of 1819 declares "That all free- 
men, when they form a social compact, are 
equal in rights; and that no man or set of 
men are entitled to exclusive, separate public 
emoluments or privileges, but in considera- 
tion of public services." This was carried for- 
ward without change to the Constitution of 
1861. Of this doctrine Judge Goldthwaite in 
the case above cited says: 

"The first section of the declaration of 
rights, announces the great principle which 
is the distinctive feature of our government, 
and which makes it to differ from all others 
of ancient or modern times. This is no empty 
parade of words: it means, and was intended 
to guarantee to each citizen, all the rights 
or privileges which any other citizen can 
enjoy or possess. Thus, every one has the 
same right to aspire to oflice. or to pursue 
any avocation of business or pleasure, which 
any other can. As this general equality is 
thus expressly asserted and guaranteed as 
one of the fundamental rights of each citizen, 
it would seem to be clear, that the power 
to destroy this equality must be expressly 



given, or arise by clear implication, or it can 
have no legal existence." 

Further analysis and discussion are hardly 
necessary to indicate or to emphasize the 
place of the bill of rights in our constitu- 
tional system; and reference is made to the 
constitution itself and to the decisions of the 
courts thereunder for details. 

References. — Constitution. 1901, art. 1, and 
cases cited; In re Dorsey. 7 Porter (Ala.), p. 
359 €t seg.; Cooley, Constitutional Limitations 
(1903); Tiedeman, Limitation of Police Powers 
(1900); Bouvier, Laic Dictionary (3d rev., 
1914), p. 362; United States, Constitution. 
amendments 1-10; and McLaughlin and Hart, 
Cyclopa-dia of American Government (1914). 

BILLINGSLEY. An incorporated town in 
Autauga County, on the Mobile & Ohio Rail- 
road, about 25 miles northwest of Mont- 
gomery, and in the northern part of the 
county near the Chilton County line. Popu- 
lation: 1910 — 256. It was incorporated by 
the legislature, March 5, 1901, with limits 
extending one-half mile in each direction 
from the Mobile & Ohio Railroad depot. 

References. — Local Acts. 1900-01, pp. 2546 — 
2552; Alabama Official and Statistical Register, 

BIRD DAY. A special day set aside for 
observance each year in the schools, for the 
purpose of encouraging interest in the bird 
life of the State. While there may have 
been the occasional observance of special days 
here and there in the State prior to 1908, it 
was not until that year that May 4 was for- 
mally adopted as bird day in Alabama. This 
annual celebration was instituted by John H. 
Wallace, jr.. State gdme and fish commis- 
sioner. Beginning in 1908, he has compiled, 
and published annually through the State 
education department, an attractive bird day 
book, which is given general distribution for 
use in the schools of the State. These books 
now under nine volumes, and constiute a 
very interesting series. They are filled with 
poems, prose selections, notes on bird life, 
economic value of birds, outlines of bird 
study, descriptions of particular birds, and 
occasional reference to mammals. May 4 was 
selected because it was the birthday of John 
James Audubon, the great naturalist and bird 

Reference.— Wallace, Bird day iook. 1908- 
1916, 9 vols. 

Island Bird Reservation. 

BIRDS IX .WjAB.\>IA. Alabama is sit- 
uated, except the northeastern corner, in the 
Austroriparian fauna of the lower Austral 
zone. Its varied and pleasant topographical 
and climatic conditions make its entire area 
attractive to most forms of bird life. Because 
of the generally mild winters, many -birds of 
the extreme north spend the colder portion 
of the year within its borders. Practically 
all of tiie shore and water birds of eastern 
North America are to be seen during the 

winter months on the Gulf coast. Migration 
through the State is very general, and the 
grain fields and the forests furnish abundant 
food supply at all times. 

With the exception of the wild pigeon and 
the Carolina parakeet, both of which were 
here formerly in great numbers, none of the 
native birds has become extinct. The fla- 
mingo, ivory billed woodpecker, roseate 
spoonbill, and whooping crane are extirpated 
in the State. 

More than three hundred species and sub- 
species are known to exist here. While the 
wild turkey and the wood duck have been 
reduced in numbers, stringent game laws 
have served to arrest reckless and unneces- 
sary slaughter. The State game laws for the 
protection of birds, together with the Federal 
migratory bird acts, have served to increase 
the numbers of the nongame birds, and the 
prohibition of market hunting and bird-bait- 
ing has tended to increase the native game 

The principal collectors in the Alabama 
field have been William Bartram, John James 
Audubon, Philip H. Gosse, Dr. Wm. C. Avery, 
Nathan Clifford Brown, Aretas A. Saunders, 
Lewis S. Golsan. Ernest G. Holt and Arthur 
H. Howell. The collection made by Dr. 
Avery consists principally of scientific skins, 
though a small number have been mounted, 
and are on display in the Alabama Museum 
of Natural History, maintained by the State 
geological survey at the University of Ala- 
bama. The collection made by Mr. Howell, 
and some by Mr. Golsan and Mr. Holt are in 
the Bureau of Biological Survey, United 
States Department of Agriculture. Washing- 
ton. Mr. Golsan's principal work as a col- 
lector has been done for the department of 
archives and history, where the specimens 
collected bv him are to be found. 

The Birmingham High School has a collec- 
tion of 197 North American birds and 17 
mammals, known as the "Mary Griffin Col- 
lection," maintained principally for study pur- 
poses. The Young Men's Christian Associa- 
tion, Mobile, has a few cases of specimens 
collected in Baldwin and Mobile Counties. 
Mr. James K. Glennon has a case of mounted 
birds in the hotel at Point Clear. Miss 
Bessie R. Samuel, of Guntersville, has a col- 
lection of local birds mounted by herself. The 
State Normal School at Florence, has a small 
museum, and the Alabama Polytechnic Insti- 
tute at Auburn has. in its general museum, a 
few specimens, without data, many of which, 
however, came from localities outside of Ala- 

The Alabama State Department of Archives 
and History is endeavoring to bring together 
a complete collection of all Alabama birds. 
The specimens have been largely collected by 
Lewis S. Golsan, though a few trappers and 
hunters have contributed. The taxidermy for 
this collection has been done by C. H. M. 
Barrett, Larry Chastain and F. F. Brannon. 


Anliinra. Anhlnga anhinga. 
Bee Martin. See King bird. 




American, Botaurus lentiginosus. 
Least, Ixohrychiis exilis. 

Red-winged. Agelaius pJiocniceus predatorius. 

Florida Red-winged, Agelaius phoeniceus 

Rusty, Euphagus carolinus. 
Blue Darter, See Hawk, sharpshinned. 
Bluebird, Sialia sialis sialis. 
Bobolink, DoHchonyx oryzivorus. 
Bobwhite, Colinus virginianus virginianus. 
Bull-bat, See Nighthawk. 
Bunting, Indigo, Passerina cyanea. 
Bunting, Painted, Passerina ciris. 
Butcher bird. See Shrike, Loggerhead. 

Black, See Black vulture. 
Turkey, See Turkey vulture. 
Canary, wild, See Goldfinch. 
Cardinal, Cardinalis cardinalis cardinalis. 
Catbird, Dumetella carolinensis. 
Cedar-bird, See Waxwlng. 
Chat, Yellow-breasted, Icteria virens virens. 
Chewink (See Towhee). 
Chickadee, Carolina, Penthestes carolinensis 

Chimney sweep. See Swift, chimney. 
Chuck-will's-widow, Antrostomtis carolinensis. 
Coot, Fulica americana. 
Cormorant, Double-crested, Phalacrocorax auri- 

tiis auritus. 
Cowbird, Molothrus ater ater. 

Blue. See Great Blue Heron. 

Sand-hill, Grus mexicana. 

Whooping, Or us americana. 
Creeper, Brown, Certhia familiaris americana. 
Crossbill, Loxia curvirostra minor. 

Carrion. See Vulture, black. 

Fish, Corinis ossifragiis. 

Rain, See Yellow-billed Cuckoo. 

Southern, Conns hrachyrhynchos pauhis. 

Black-billed, Coccyziis erythropMhalmus. 

Yellow-billed, Coccyzus americanus ameri- 
can us. 
Curlew, Hudsonian, Numenius hudsonicus. 

Long-billed, Numenius americamis. 
Darter, See Anhinga. 
Dickcissel, Spiza americana. 

Ground, Chaemepelia passerina terrestris. 

Mourning, Zenaidura macroura carolinensis. 
Dovvitcher. Macrorhamphus griseus griseus. 

Lone-billed, Macrorhamphus griseus scolo- 

Baldpate, Mareca americana. 

Black, See Red-legged Black. 

Buffle-head. Charitonetta albeola. 

Canvasback, Marila valisineria. 

Gadwall, Chaulelasmus strejjeriis. 

Golden-eye, Clangula clangula americana. 

Mallard, Anas platyrhynchos. 

Black Mallard, See Black. 

Merganser, American, Mergus americanus. 

Merganser, Hooded, LopJiodytes cucullatus. 

Merranser, Red-breasted, Mergus serrator. 

Old-Squaw, Harelda hyemalis. 

Pintail, Daflla acuta. 

Redhead, Marila americana. 

Red-legged Black, Anas rubripes. 

Ring-necked, Marila collans. 

Ruddy, Erismatura jamaicensis. 

Scaup, Marila marila. 

Lesser Scaup, Marila affinis. 

Scoter, American, Oidemia americana. 

Scoter. Surf, Oidemia perspicillata. 

Shoveller, Spatula clypeata. 

Summer, See Wood. 

Teal, Blue-winged, Querquedula discors. 

Teal, Green-winged, Nettion carolinense. 

Whistler, See Golden-Eye. 

Widgeon, See Baldpate. 

Wood, Aix sponsa. 
Eagle, Bald, Halitretus leucocephalus leuco- 

Eagle, Golden, Aquila chrysaetos. 
Egret, Snowy, Egretta candidissima candidis- 

Egret, White, Herodias egretta. 
Field Lark, See Meadowlark. 
Finch, Purple, Carpodacus purpurcus pur- 

Flamingo, Phwnicopterus ruber. (Extirpated.) 
Flicker, Colaptes auratus auratus. 

Northern, Colaptes auratus luteus. 

Acadian, Empidonax virescens. 

Alder, Empidonax trailli alnorum. 

Crested, Myiarchus crinitus. 

Least, Empidonax minimus. 

Olive-sided, Nuttallornis borealis. 

Scissor-tailed, Muscivora forflcata. 

Wood Pewee, Myiochanes virens. 

Yellow-bellied, Empidonax flariventris. 
Ply-up-the-creek, See Heron, Little green. 

Florida, Gallinula galeata. 

Purple, lonornis martinicus. 
Gnatcatcher, Blue-gray, Polioptila arrulea 

Godwit, Marbled, Limosa fedoa. 
Goldfinch, Astragalinus tristis tristis. 

Blue, Chen cwrulescens. 

Canada, Branta canadensis canadensis. 

Snow, Chen hyperboreous nivalis. 

Boat-tailed, Megaguiscalus major major. 

Bronzed, Quiscalus quiscula (mens. 

Florida, Quiscalus quiscula aglo'us. 

Purple, Quiscalus quiscula quiscula. 

Rusty, See Rusty Blackbird. 

Horned. Colymbus auritus. 

Pied-billed, Podilymbus podiceps. 
Grosbeak, Blue, Guiraca caerulea caerulea. 
Grosbeak, Rose-breasted, Zamelodia ludoviciana. 
Grouse, Ruffed, Bonasa umbellus umbelUis. 

Herring, Larus argentatus. 

Bonaparte, Larus Philadelphia. 

Laughing, Larus atricilla. 

Ring-billed, Larus delawarensis. 

Brjad-winged, Buteo platypterus platypterus. 

Cooper's, Accipiter cooperi. 

Duck, Falco peregrinus anatum. 

Fish, Pandion haliaetus carolinensis. 



Hen, See Red-shouldered. 
Marsh, Circus hudsonius. 
Pigeon, Falco columbarius columhanus. 
Red-tailed, Buteo borealis iorealis. 
Red-shouldered, Buteo Hneatus Uneatus. 
Florida Red-shouldered, Buteo Uneatus allem. 
bharp-shinned, Accipiter velox. 
sparrow, Falco sparverius sparverius. 
tiouthern Sparrow, Falco sparverius paulus. 

Great Blue, Ardea herodias herodias. 
Little Blue, Florida caerulea. 
Green, Butorides virescens virescens. 
Louisiana, Hydranassa tricolor ruficollis. 
Black-crowned Night, Nycticorax nycticorax 

Yellow-crowned Night, Nyctanassa violacea. 
Ward's, Ardea herodias wardi. 
Hummingbird, Ruby-throated, Archilochus 

Ibis, White, Guara alba. 

Wood, Mycteria americana. 
Indian hen, See Bittern, American. 
Jay, Blue, Cyanocitta cristata cristata. 

Southern Blue, Cyanocitta cristata florincola. 
Joree, See Towhee. 

Junco, Slate-colored, Junco hyemalis hyemalis. 
Kingbird, Tyrannus tyrannus. 
Kingfisher, Belted, Streptoceryle alcyon alcyon. 

Golden-crowned, Regulus satrapa satrapa. 
Ruby-crowned, Regulus calendula calendula. 

Mississippi, Ictinia mississippiensis. 
Swallow-tailed, Elanoides forficatus. 
Knot, Tringa canutus. 
Lark, Horned, Otocoris alpestris alpestris. 

Prairie Horned, Otocoris alpestris praticola. 
Loon, Oavia immer. 
Man-o'-war-bird, Fregata magnificens roths- 

Martin, Purple, Progne subis subis. 

Sand, See Bank Swallow. 
Meadowlark, Sturnella magna magna. 
Florida, Sturnella magna argutula. 
Mockingbird, Mimtis polyglottos polyglottos. 

French, See Shrike. 
Mud-hen, See Coot. 

Nighthawk, Chordeiles virginianus virginianus. 
Nighthawk, Florida, Chordeiles virginianus 


Brown-headed, Sitta pusilla. 

Florida White-breasted, Sitta carolinensis 

Red-breasted, Sitta canadensis. 
White-breasted, Sitta carolinensis carolinen- 

Baltimore, Icterus galbula. 
Orchard, Icterus spurius. 
Osprey, See Fish hawk. 
Ovenbird, Seiurus aurocapillus. 

Barn, Tyto alba pratincola. 

Florida Barred, Strix varia alleni. 

Florida Screech. Otus asio asio. 

Great Horned, Bubo virginianus virginianus. 

Hoot, See Barred. 

Long-eared, Asio wilsonianus. 

Screech, Otus asio nwvius. 

Short-eared, Asio flammeus. 
Oyster-catcher, Hwmatopus palliatus. 
Partridge, See Bobwhite. 

Parquet, Carolina, Conuropsis carolinerisis. | 

(Extirpated.) i 


Brown, Pelecanus occidentalis. 

White, Pelecanus erythrorhynchos. J 

Phoebe, Sayornis phoebe. I 

Pewee, wood. See Flycatcher. 
Phalarope, Wilson, Steganopus tricolor. 
Pigeon, Passenger, Ectopistes migratorius. 

Pipit, A7ithus rubescens. 

Black-bellied, Sguatarola squatarola. 
Kildeer, Oxyechus vociferus. 
Piping, Aegialitis meloda. 
Semipalmated, Aegialitis semipalmata. 
Snowy, Aegialitis nivosa. 
Upland, Bartramia longicauda. 
Wilson's, Ochthodromus ivilsonius. 
Raven, Northern, Corus corax principalis. 

King, Rallus elegans. j 

Louisiana Clapper, Rallus crepitans satura- 

Sora, Porzana Carolina. 
Virginia, Rallus virginianus. 
Yellow, Coturnicops noveboracensis. 
Redbird, See Cardinal. 
Redpoll, Acanthis linaria linaria. 
Redstart, Setophaga ruticilla. 

Robin. I 

American, Planesticus migratorius migra- ■ 

torius. j 

Southern, Planesticus migratorius achrus- 
Sanderling, Calidris leucophaea. j 


Least, Pisobia minutilla. 

Pectoral, Pisobia maculata. 1 

Red-backed, Pelidna alpina sakhalina. 
Semipalmated, Ereunetes pusillus. \ 

Solitary, Helodromas soUtarius solitarius. 
Spotted, Actitis macularia. i 

Stilt, Micropalama himantopus. 

Whlte-rumped, Pisobia fuscicolUs. I 

Western, Ereunetes mauri. : 

Sapsucker, Yellow-bellied, Sphyrapicus varius 

Saw-bill, See Merganser, American. 
She-rwater, Sooty, Puffinus griseus. | 

Shrike. , ^ . ' 

Loggerhead, Lanius ludovieianus ludovi- i 

Migrant, Lanius ludovieianus migrans. 
Siskin, Pine, Spinm pinus. 
Skimmer, Black, Rynchops nigra. 
Snake Bird, See Anhinga. 
Snipe, Wilson's, Oallinago delicata. 

Chipping, Spizella passerina passerina. 

English, Passer domesticus. (Introduced.) 

Field, Spizella pusilla pusilla. 

Fox, Passerella iliaca iliaca. 

Grasshopper, Ammodramus savannarum 

Henslow's, Passerherbulus henslowi hens- 




Lark, Chondestes grammacus grammacus. 

Leconte's, Passerherbulus lecontei. 

Nelson's, Passerherbulus caudacutus nel- 

Savannah, Passerculus sandwichensis sa- 

Scott's Seaside, Passerherbulus maritimus 

Song, Melospiza melodia melodia. 
Swamp, Melospiza georgiana. 
Vesper, Pocecetes gramineus gramineus. 
White-throated, Zonotrichia albicollis. 
Spoonbill, Roseate, Ajaia ajaja. (Extirpated.) 
Sungazer, See Bittern, American. 

Bank, Riparia riparia. 
Barn, Hirundo erythrogastra. 
Cliff, Petrochelidon lunifrons lunifrons. 
Rough-winged, Stelgidopteryx serripennis. 
Tree, Iridoprocne bicolor. 
Chimney, See Chimney swift. 
Swan, Whistling, Olor columbianus. 

Scarlet, Piranga erythromelas. 
Summer, Piranga rubra rubra. 
Swift, Chimney, Chwtura pelagica. 

Black, Hydrochelidon nigra surinamensis. 
Cabot, Sterna sandvicensis acuflavida. 
Caspian, Sterna caspia. 
Common, Sterna hirundo. 
Forster, Sterna forsteri. 
Gull-billed, Gelochelidon nilotica. 
Least, Sterna antillarum. 
Royal, Sterna maxima. 
Thrasher, Brown, Toxostoma rufum. 

Bicknell's, Hylocichla alicice bicknelli. 
Gray-cheeked, Hylocichla alicicr alicice. 
Hermit, Hylocivhla guttata pallasi. 
Olive-backed, Hylocichla ustulata swainsoni. 
Wilson's, Hylocichla fuscescens fusoescens. 
Wood, Hylocichla mustelina. 
Titmouse, 'Tufted, Bwolophus bicolor. 
Towhee, Pipilo trythrophthalmus erythroph- 
Alabama, Pipilo erythrophthalmus canaster. 
Turkey, Wild, Meleagris gallopavo silvestris. 
Turnstone, Ruddy, Arenaria interpres morinella. 
Teery, See Wilson's Thrush. 

Blue-headed, Lanivireo solitarius solitarius. 
Mountain, Lanivireo solitarius alticola. 
Red-eyed, Tireosylva olivacea. 
Warbling, Vireosylva gilva gilva. 
White-eyed, Vireo griseus griseus. 
Yellow-throated, Lanivireo flavifrons. 
"Vulture, Black, Catharista urubu. 

Turkey, Cathartes aura septentrionalis. 

Bachman's, Vermivora bachm.ani. 
Bay-breasted, Dendroica castanea. 
Blackburnian, Dendroica fusca. 
Black-and-white, Mniotilta varia. 
Black-poll, Dendroica striata. 
Black-throated, Blue, Dendroica cwrulescens 

Black-throated. Green, Dendroica virens. 
Blue-winged, Vermivora pinus. 
Canada, Wilsonia canadensis. 
Cape May, Dendroica tigrina. 

Cerulean, Dendroica cerulea. 

Chestnut-sided, Dendroica pensylvanica. 

Golden-winged, Vermivora chrysoptera. 

Hooded, Wilsonia citrina. 

Kentucky, Oporornis formosus. 

Kirtland's, Dendroica Kirtlandi. 

Magnolia, Dendroica magnolia. 

Myrtle, Dendroica coronata. 

Nashville, Vermivora rubricapilla rubri- 

Orange-crowned, Vermivora celata celata. 
Palm, Dendroica palmarum palmarum. 
Parula, Compsothlypsis americana americana. 
Pine, Dendroica vigorsi. 
Prairie, Dendroica discolor. 
Prothonotary, Protonotaria citrea. 
Swainson's, Helinaia swainsoni. 
Tennessee, Vermivora peregrina. 
Wilson's, Wilsonia pusilla pusilla. 
Worm-eating, Helmitheros vermivorus. 
Yellow, Dendroica a:stiva (estiva. 
Yellow Palm, Dendroica palmarum hypo- 

Yellow-throated, Dendroica dominica do- 
Water-thrush, Seiurus noveboracensis nove- 
Grinnell's, Seiurus noveboracensis notabilis. 
Louisiana, Seiurus motacilla. 
Water turkey. See Cormorant. 
Waxwing, Cedar, Bombycilla cedrorum. 
Willet, Catoptrophorus semipalmatus semi- 

Willet, Western, Catoptrophorus semipal- 
matus inornatus. 
Whip-poor-will, Antrostomus vociferus vo- 

Woodcock, Philohela minor. 

Hairy, Dryobates villosus villosus. 
Ivory -billed, Campephilus principalis. (Prob- 
ably extirpated.) 
Pileated, Phlceotomus pileatus pileatus. 
Red-bellied, Centurus carolinus. 
Red-cockaded, Dryobates borealis. 
Red-headed, Melanerpes erythrocephalus. 
Southern Downy, Dryobates pubescens pube- 

Southern Hairy, Dryobates villosus auduboni 

Bewick's Thryomanes bewicki bewicki. 
Carolina, Thryothorus ludovicianus ludovi 

Western House, Troglodytes a-don parkmani 
Long-billed Marsh, Telmatodytes palustris 

Marian Marsh, Telmatodytes palustris ma- 

Prairie Marsh. Telmatodytes palustris iliacus. 
Short-billed Marsh, Cistothorus stellaris. 
Winter, Nannus hiemalis hiemalis. 
Yellow-hammer, See Flicker. 
Yellowlegs, Totamis flavipes. 

Greater, Totanus melanoleucus.^ 

Florida, Oeothlypis trichas ignota. 

Maryland, Geothlypis trichas trichas. 

References, — Avery, Dr. Wm. C, "Bird 

migration," In American Field, vol. 21, p. 545; 

"Migration of the coot," in Ornithologist and 

Oologist, vol. 11, p. 107; "Domestication of the 



wild turkey," in American Field, vol. 26, p. 343: 
"Wiles of the Peregrine falcon," in Ornitholo- 
gist and Oologist, vol. 12, pp. 74-75; "King rail 
in [Alabama]," Ihid, vol. 13, p. 80; "Observa- 
tions on the grasshopper sparrow in Hale 
County," Ibid, vol. 14, p. 122; "Chondestes 
grammacus," (lark sparrow) in American Field, 
vol. 32, p. 200; "Notes" on a male bob- 
white incubating, Ihid, vol. 32, p. 223; 
"The woodcock," Hid. vol. 33, p. 5S4; 
"Swainson's warbler in Hale County," in 
Ornithologist and Oologist, vol. 15, p. 157; 
"Number of eggs in a set of the cardinal," 
Ihid, vol. 15, p. 185; "Birds observed in Ala- 
bama," in American Field, vol. 34, pp. 5S4, 607; 
vol. 35, pp. 8, 32, 55; "Notes," IMd, vol. 40, p. 7; 
"Rapidity of flight of the duck hawk," in Or- 
nithologist and Oologist, vol. 18, p. 144; Golsan, 
Lewis S., and Holt, Ernest G., "Birds of 
Autauga and Montgomery Counties," in Auk, 
1914, vol. 31, pp. 212-235, also issued separately 
and containing an annotated list of 184 species; 
Nuttall, Manual of Ornitnologii (2 vols., 1832, 
1S34 ) ; Gosse, Philip H., Letters from Alabama 
(1859); Brown, Nathan C, "List of birds 
observed at Coosada," in Nuttall Ornithological 
Club Bulletin. 1878, vol. 3, pp. 168-174, 1879, 
vol. 4, pp. 7-13; Ridgway, Robert, The Birds of 
North and Middle America (U. S. Natl. 
Museum Bulletin 50, Parts i-vii) ; Saunders, 
A. A., "Some birds of central Alabama, 1908," 
in Auk. vol. 25, pp. 413-424; Holt, Ernest G., 
"Notes on the loggerhead shrike at Barachias, 
Montgomery County," in Auk. 1913, vol. 30, pp. 
276-277; Howell, Arthur H., "Descriptions of 
two new birds from Alabama," in Biological 
Society of Washington Proceedings. 1913, vol. 
26, pp. 199-202. Mr. Howell has made an ex- 
haustive study of the birds of the State, of 
which he has prepared an account, and which 
is to be published by the department of 
archives and history of Alabama. 

BIRMINGHAM. The city of Birmingham 
was founded in July, 1871, by an association 
of business men and financiers, of whom 
Josiah Morris, of Montgomery, was the leader. 
The site selected was near the village of Ely- 
ton and at the point where the Alabama Great 
Southern Railroad, between Chattanooga. 
Tenn., and Meridian, Miss., crosses the South 
& North Alabama Railroad ( Louisville & 
Nashville Railroad). The occasion for estab- 
lishing a city there was the mineral resources 
of the vicinity, which centered in the neigh- 
borhood of the place selected for the rail- 
road crossing mentioned: but until transpor- 
tation facilities were provided by the coming 
of railroads, little or nothing could be done 
toward developing the natural wealth of the 
country, however great it might be. Thus the 
founding and the striking growth of the 
State's industrial center have been determined 
by the locatioij of extensive mineral deposits 
and the provision of adequate transportation 
for raw materials and finished products. 

Topography and Geology. — Birmingham is 
situated in the east-central part of Jefferson 
County, in Jones Valley (q. v.). and in the 
midst of the most extensive mineral district 
of the State. The valley was once a mountain 

and is wholly due to erosion, having been 
cut out of the mountain-top by the action of 
the water. Thus it presents the unusual spec- 
tacle of a valley which is a water-divide. 
The streams that rise within its limits flow 
some to the east and some to the west. None 
flows for any considerable distance within 
the valley before breaking through its rocky 
rim to the rugged country outside. The floor 
of the valley for most of its length is higher 
than the mountainous country surrounding 
it, and its raised edges or rims of millstone 
grit are the highest points of the locality. 
These facts cause the site and surroundings 
of the city to be exceedingly picturesque, and 
also have a marked influence on its climate. 
Some of the most attractive residential sec- 
tions are in the more rolling parts of the city 
and its suburbs. 

The geological formations represented in 
the valley are the Carboniferous or Coal 
Measures, Devonian or black shale, and the 
Silurian. The first-named group contains the 
coal seams; and the last-named, the iron 
ores and fluxing materials. Nowhere else 
in the State, nor in the United States, are the 
three essentials to the manufacture of iron 
and steel, coal, iron ore, and limestone, 
present in such close proximity and in prac- 
tically unlimited quantity. This fortunate 
circumstance has enabled the manufacturers 
of the Birmingham district to make iron and 
steel more cheaply than others, and, as a 
result, practically to control the market-price. 
Elyton Land Co. — The plan for developing 
an industrial city in the hep.rt of the mineral 
district originated with John T. Milner, the 
engineer who located the line of the Ten- 
nessee & Alabama Central Railroad, which 
was virtually the same as that on which the 
South & North Alabama Railroad subsequently 
was built. The financing of the town-building 
scheme was handled by Josiah Morris, a 
friend and business associate of Milner, who 
purchased about 4,000 acres of land in what 
is the central part of the present city in 1870, 
paying $100,000, or approximately $25 an 
acre, for it. In 1871 he and several asso- 
ciates, among whom were James R. Powell, 
Sam Tate, Campbell Wallace, H. M. Caldwell, 
Boiling Hall, J. N. Gilmer, B. P. Worthington, 
Robert N. Greene, W. P. Nabers, John A. Mil- 
ner, and William S. Mudd, incorporated the 
Elyton Land Co., capitalized at $200,000, for 
"the buying lands and selling lots with the 
view to the location, laying off and effecting 
the building of a city at or near the town of 
Elyton . . ." James R. Powell was presi- 
dent. The land in Jones Valley purchased by 
Mr. Morris was transferred to the company 
at a valuation of $200,000 and this consti- 
tuted the capital stock, which was divided 
into 2,000 shares. 

The naming of the proposed city caused 
some perplexity. The selection of the name 
is described by Truman H. Aldrich — quoted 
by Miss Arms in The Story of Coal and Iron 
in Alabama (p. 222, footnote) — as follows: 
"When this good town of Birmingham was 
organized, there was a great discussion as 
to the name that would be given it. ■ Some 



suggested calling It Powellton after Colonel 
Powell, at the head of the Elyton Land Com- 
pany; others wanted to name It Milnerville 
or Morrisville. Mr. Josiah Morris objected 
very strongly to these names, and, looking out 
of the window, said there was a distinguished 
citizen w^ho was a native of an adjoining 
town whose name would be particularly ap- 
propriate, and to name it after Judge Mudd 
and call it Muddtown. As a matter of fact, 
nothing could have suited the place more at 
that particular time, and indeed for a good 
while later. The town just missed it." 

The name Birmingham was then suggested 
and adopted; and the principal industrial 
center of the State, and of the South, which 
then existed only in the imagination of its 
promoters, was named for the seat of Iron 
manufacture in England. 

Soon after the organization of the company, 
a few sales of land were made, and the build- 
ing of the town had been started. The first 
building on the site was a small frame black- 
smith shop. The first town lot sold was the 
northeast corner of 19th Street and Second 
Avenue, 5 0x100 feet, which was deeded to 
O. A. Johnson, October 26. 1871, for ?75. 
One-half this lot has since been sold for 

The increase in population of the city of 
Birmingham has been phenomenal, and has 
been referred to by statisticians as "the cen- 
sus wonder of the country." The rapidity of 
the progress made is exhibited by the follow- 
ing population figures; 1880, 3,086; 1890, 
26,178, an increase of more than 748 per 
cent; 1900. 38,415, 46.7 per cent; 1910, 
132,685, 245.4 per cent. The increase from 
1900 to 1910 is partly accounted for by an- 
nexations of suburban territory to the city 
proper. Its growth in population, wealth and 
commercial importance has caused the city 
to be given the popular name of Magic City. 

Cholera Epidemic and Financial Panic, 
1873. — In 187 3 the young community was 
almost depopulated by an epidemic of cholera; 
and in the same year its financial ruin was 
all but completed by the financial panic which 
began in New York on the famous "Black 
Friday" in September. The town's recovery 
from these disasters was slow. During the 
succeeding 10 years its promoters had a 
struggle to prevent the collapse of the whole 
enterprise. The market value of stock in 
the Elyton Land Co. fell as low as 17 cents 
on the dollar of par value. There were for 
several years practically no sales of lots, 
amounting in 1874 only to $7,955.83. From 
1873 to 1878, inclusive, the aggregate sales 
of property amounted only to $55,516.70. 
Five years later the remarkable growth of the 
town had set in, and the value of the prop- 
erty transferred had increased proportion- 
ately. In 1883 the Elyton Land Co. paid its 
first dividends. In 1886 it declared a divi- 
dend of 340 per cent. In each of two 
months of the latter year the land sales aggre- 
gated more than a million dollars. The 
company continued prosperous until 1896, but 
during the next three years it was in finan- 
cial straits, and in 1899 its property was sold 

under foreclosure, bought in by a committee 
representing the bondholders and the stock- 
holders, and transferred to a new company 
known as the Birmingham Realty Co. 

Establislinient of Waterworlvs. — Almost be- 
fore the building of the town of Birmingham 
had been commenced, the Elyton Land Co., 
with confidence in its future development, 
began the construction of a waterworks sys- 
tem to supply its needs. Work was started 
in ^November, 1872, and continued through 
1873 and 1874, some additions being made 
in the latter year. The plant consisted, on 
January 1, 1875, of a small steam pump, 
about 41/2 miles of mains, and a reservoir 
of about 1,000,000 gallons capacity, all of 
which had cost about $60,000. The source 
of supply was Village Creek, 2 miles north 
of the town. In 1879-80 the mains were 
extended to the Alice furnace at the rolling 
mills, and increased pumping, storing and 
distributing facilities were provided during 
1881-2. The system has since been extended 
to meet the growing needs of the community. 

Incorporation.— The "city" of Birmingham 
was incorporated by the legislature, Decem- 
ber 19, 1871. The charter declared that "all 
the territory within three thousand feet of 
the Alabama & Chattanooga Railroad, on each 
side of the same, extending from twenty- 
sixth street in said city to the eastern 
boundary of the city of Elyton, is hereby 
declared to be within the limits of said cor- 
poration." An unusual feature of the charter 
was the provision that the mayor and seven 
aldermen should be appointed by the governor 
instead of being elected by the" peopfe of the 
city. This provision was put into the act of 
incorporation, it is said, to prevent the control 
of municipal affairs from getting into the 
hands of the reckless and undesirable element 
which predominated at that time among the 
town's inhabitants. 

By an act of February 26, 1872, the cor- 
poration was empowered either to "establish 
and erect gas works for lighting said city 
with gas, and water works for supplying said 
city with water," or "to contract with any 
person or association of persons or corpora- 
tion to light said city with gas and supply 
said city with water." 

The first mayor was Robert H. Henley who 
was appointed by Gov. Robert B. Lindsay, 
and took office, December 21, 1871. The 
first board of aldermen was composed of 
James B. Francis, B. F. Roden, W. J. Mc- 
Donald, A. Marre, J. B. Webb, John A. Milner 
and T. S. Woods. 

County Seat. — On March 5, 1873. the legis- 
lature authorized an election to be held in 
Jefferson County on the first Monday of the 
following JIay. to determine whether or not 
the county courthouse should be moved from 
Elyton to Birmingham. The decision was in 
favor of Birmingham, by a large majority, 
and it has continued the county seat until 
the present time. The county now has a 
magnificent courthouse, in keeping with the 
importance of the city, at the corner of Third 
Avenue and 21st Street. 

Churches — The first church edifice com- 



pleted in Birmingham was tlie Church of the 
Advent, Protestant Episcopal, which was oc- 
cupied in the spring ot 1873. However, sev- 
eral congregations had perfected organiza- 
tions and begun work in the community at 
earlier dates, as shown in the following list 
which gives the date of the earliest organiza- 
tion of each of several denominations: Metho- 
dist Episcopal, South, organized in February, 
1872, and building completed in June, 1872; 
Presbyterian, organized in May, 187 2, and 
building removed from Elyton the same year; 
Baptist, organized June 21, 1872, and build- 
ing erected in 1873; Roman Catholic, con- 
gregation formed in 1871 and building 
commenced in September, 1872; Protestant 
Episcopal, congregation formed early in 1872 
and building erected in 1873; Cumberland 
Presbyterian, organized in 1876 and building 
erected in 1878; Methodist Episcopal, North, 
building erected in 1881; Jewish, established 
April 23, 1882, and erection of synagogue 
commenced in 1886; Disciples of Christ, or 
Christian, organized in April, 1885. 

"Greater Birmingham." — The legislature, 
August 8, 1907, authorized the extension of 
the corporate limits ot the city so as to take 
in extensive suburban territory and satellite 
towns also, including Ensley, Pratt City, 
Woodlawn, North Birmingham, and others, so 
as to form "Greater Birmingham." When 
the agitation was started, a good deal of 
opposition to the inclusion of some of these 
towns arose among their inhabitants, es- 
pecially among the owners of the industrial 
plants and the larger property holders. For 
this reason, the legislature, whfie prescribing 
the new limits tentatively, left the decision 
to the votes of the qualified electors residing 
in all the territory which would be affected. 
In the event of a favorable majority, the act 
was to take effect on October 1, 1909. The 
contest was heated, but resulted in an en- 
thusiastic popular endorsement of the plan 
for a great city; and "Greater Birmingham" 
is now in population probably the third city 
in the South, being exceeded only by New 
Orleans and Louisville. 

Municipal Government. — From its incor- 
poration until April 10, 1911, Birmingham 
was governed by a mayor and board of alder- 
men; but on that date the plan of commission 
government provided for cities of 100,000 or 
more population by act of the legislature, 
March 31, 1911, became effective in Birming- 
ham, the only city in the class to which the 
law applied. The commission has three mem- 
bers; and the city government is divided into 
three departments — finance, streets and parks, 
and public justice — each under the immediate 
supervision of one commissioner in his ca- 
pacity of executive officer, while the commis- 
sion collectively constitutes the legislative 

The foregoing plan was changed by the 
legislature, September 25, 1915, so as to sub- 
stitute for the commission of three members 
serving three years, one of five members serv- 
ing four years. Under the new plan, there 
are five administrative departments, each in 
charge of a commissioner chosen by the com- 

mission collectively, namely, (1) department 
of general administration, finances and ac- 
counts; (2) department of public improve- 
ments; (3) department of public property 
and public utilities; (4) department of public 
safety; (5) department of public health and 
education. The powers and duties of each 
of these departments are prescribed by the 
commission as a whole; however, the law 
stipulates that the president of the commis- 
sion shall be the general executive officer of 
the city, "charged with the general super- 
vision and direction of its affairs." The presi- 
dent receives $5,000 and each of the other 
members, $4,000 a year; and all of them are 
required to devote their entire time' to the 
duties of their offices. 

Candidates for election as commissioner 
are nominated by petition, which must be 
signed by at least 200 qualified voters, and 
a majority of the votes cast for any office is 
requisite to election. 

Any commissioner may be recalled upon 
petition of not less than 3,000 voters, and 
ordinances may be introduced, or initiated, 
by petition of 1,500 voters, whereupon they 
must either be enacted by the commission or 
submitted to the vote of the people at a 
referendum election. 

Industrial Development. — Industrially and 
financially the city is so closely identified 
with what is known as the Birmingham 
mineral district that these phases of the his- 
tory of the two are practically inseparable. 
The growth of the city's population is else- 
where commented on. Its growth in indus- 
trial importance is well exhibited by a com- 
parison of the average number of wage 
earners and the value of marketed products 
at different periods of time. During 1899 
there was in the city an average of 3,490 wage 
earners, and the value of industrial products 
was $8,599,418. During 1904 the figures 
were 3,987 and $7,592,958, respectively. 
During 1909, the latest available data, the 
average number of wage earners was 8,999, 
and the value of products, $24,128,214, an 
increase over 1899 of 157.85 per cent in the 
former, and 180.58 per cent in the latter. 

There v/ere 109 industrial establishments 
of all kinds in the city in 189 9, whose com- 
bined capital was $4,314,000; and 122 in 
1904, capitalized at $5,739,000. In 1909 
there were 248 establishments whose capital 
aggregated $23,718,000; an increase over 
1899 of 127.52 per cent in the number of 
industries, and 449.79 per cent in value of 

Settlers and Builders. — Among the early 
settlers and builders of the city the following 
may be mentioned: John T. Milner, Maj. 
Thomas Peters, Maj. A. Marre, Col. James 
R. Powell, Dr. Henry M. Caldwell, Maj. 
Willis J. Milner, Col. J. W. Sloss, Henry F. 
DeBardeleben, Robert H. Henley, Willis 
Roberts, Judge W. S. Mudd, John T. Heflin, 
Alexander O. Lane, Robert A. McAdory, 
James E. Webb, Oscar W. Underwood, David 
B. Grace, William Berney, Robert Jemison, 
B. F. Roden, William T. Underwood, C. P. 
Williamson, James A. VanHoose. 



See Birmingham Federal Building; Bir- 
mingham Railway, Light & Power Co.: Cities 
and Towns; Coal: Coke; Commission Gov- 
ernment; Geology; Industries; Iron and 
Steel; Jefferson County; Jones Valley; Ju- 
venile Courts; Mine Safety Station; Popu- 
lation; Railroads; Warrior River. 

References.— Acts, 1871-72, pp. 229-234; 1872- 
73, pp. 231-236; General Acts, 1907, pp. 204-223; 
Local Acts, 1907, pp. 902-907; 1915, p. 222; Jef- 
ferson County and Birmingham, historical and 
biographical (1887); Arms, Story of coal and 
iron in Alabama (1910); U. S. Bureau of the 
Census, Abstract of 13th Census with supple- 
ment for Alabama (1913); and General statis- 
tics of cities. 1915 (1916); and Financial statis- 
tics of cities. 1915 (1916); The Birmingham 
Magazine, circa 1915-1917; Birmingham Cham- 
ber of Commerce, Jefferson County and Bir- 
mingham (1911, pp. 30); and How Birmingham 
grows (n. d. [1910] folder) ; Birmingham Com- 
mercial Club, Birmingham, its resources and 
advantages [1901]; Ibid. June 1, 1904; Bir- 
mingham and vicinity, a brief review (1898, pp. 

ROAD COMPANY. Organized under general 
laws of Alabama, October 1, 1890; line ex- 
tends from Talladega to Pell City; mileage 
operated June 30, 1915 — main track, 22.9, 
side tracks, 0.66, total, 23.56; capital stock 
authorized and outstanding — common, $50,- 
000, no preferred stock; funded debt, $650,- 
000. It Is owned solely by the Northern Ala- 
bama Coal, Iron & Railway Co. — Annual Re- 
port of the Company to Ala Public Service 
Commission, 1915. 

This company succeeded to the franchises 
and property of the Talladega & Coosa Val- 
ley Railroad Co., which was chartered under 
the general laws of the State on December 
19, 1883. Its road between Murphy and 
Coosa River, 15 miles, was opened In 1886. 
It reached Talladega over 2 miles of road 
leased from the Anniston & Atlantic Rail- 
road Co. In 1887 the road was extended to 
Pell City, making the total length of main 
line, 26.9 miles. During the same year a 
branch, 2.7 miles in length, was built from 
Ragan to the ore beds of the Talladega Iron 
& Steel Co. The Birmingham & Atlantic 
Railroad Co. was organized, October 1, 1890, 
and purchased the property of the Talladega 
& Coosa Valley Railroad Co. The new com- 
pany completed a line from Renfroe to the 
Cook ore mines, a distance of 8 miles, in the 
latter part of the year. On June 1, 1899, a 
branch from Talladega to Weisinger, 3 miles 
in length, was completed. 

References. — Railroad Commission of Ala., 
Annual report. 1889 et seg.; Poor's manual of 
railroads. 1886 et seg.; and sketches of D. W. 
Rogers and D. Morgan Rogers, early promoters. 
In Northern Alabama (1888), pp. 459, 463. 

TRIC RAILWAY. A public utility corpora- 
tion, chartered June 1, 1909, under the laws 
of Alabama; capital stock — authorized, ?25,- 
000, outstanding, $15,000; shares, $100; no 

funded debt; property in Alabama — electric 
railway line, 4.5 miles in length, connecting 
Birmingham, Rosedale, Oak Grove, and 
Edgewood. The power is purchased and the 
equipment leased from the Birmingham Rail- 
way, Light & Power Co. (q. v.); offices: 

Reference. — Poor's manual of ptiblic utilities, 
1916, p. 46. 

RAILWAY COMPANY. Incorporated under 
general laws, March 8, 1901, as Union 
Springs & Northern Railway Co., and name 
changed to present designation. May 1, 1911: 
its line extends from Union Springs to Elec- 
tric; mileage operated June 30, 1915 — main 
track, 48.2, side tracks, 1.0, total, 49.2; 
capital stock authorized, common, $3,000,000, 
no preferred stock; actually issued, $700,000; 
shares $10 0; voting power, one vote a share; 
funded debt, $818,605.14. 

The Union Springs & Northern Railway Co., 
was chartered March 8, 1901, under the laws 
of Alabama, and put its line from Union 
Springs to Fort Davis, a distance of 7.5 miles, 
in operation July 1, 1902. On May 1, 1911, 
the name of the company was changed to the 
Birmingham & Southeastern Railway Co. as 
above. In April, 1912, the company pur- 
chased the Tallassee & Montgomery Railway, 
extending from Tallassee to Milstead, 6.28 
miles, and merged it with its own line. The 
Tallassee & Montgomery Railway Co. was 
chartered in perpetuity under the laws of the 
State, August 10, 1895. Its road was opened 
early in 1896, for the purpose of developing 
the water power at Tallassee. 

References. — Annual report of company to 
Railroad Commission of Ala., 1915; Poor's man- 
ual of railroads, 1901 et seg. 

BRARY. See Libraries. 


See Child Welfare Activities. 

cational institution, located at Birmingham, 
and owned and controlled by the North Ala- 
bama Conference, Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South. At the session of the con- 
ference, in Tuscaloosa, November, 1896, it 
was definitely decided to begin the enterprise 
of locating, building and equipping a college 
for men within its bounds. 

The committee on organization met at the 
First Methodist Church, Birmingham, Feb- 
ruary 3, 1897, and located the college on a 
50-acre site at Owenton, a suburb and now 
in the heart of Birmingham, the chief city 
within the bounds of the Conference. The 
location was made possible through the lib- 
erality of Rose W. Owen, Thomas G. Bush, 
Robert N. Greene, and Paul H. Earle. 

Rev. T. K. Tierce was appointed financial 
agent; and the foundation of the first col- 



lege building was laid in 1897. In April, 
189S, Rev. Z. A. Parker, D. D., was elected 
president; and on September 14, 1898, after 
a full faculty, had been organized, the 
"North Alabama Conference College" (its 
original name), opened its doors. It was 
chartered December 14, 1898, with Dr. Anson 
West, Rev. Frank T. J. Brandon, John B. 
Gregory, Rev. James S. Glasgow, Dr. Zacha- 
riah A. Parker, James H. Leslie, Dr. Isaac Q. 
Melton, Dr. Hiram G. Davis, Rev. Robert A. 
Timmons. Rev. Joseph T. Morris, Dr. John S. 
Robertson, Rev. Edgar M. Glenn, and Dr. 
George W. Read, as trustees. 

The name was changed to Birmingham 
College in 19 06, under the general law of 
October 1, 1903. In 1909 the trustees pur- 
chased 18 acres, which added to the dona- 
tions above named makes the realty holdings 
68 acres. The central building is of red 
pressed-brick, three stories in height. It 
contains a chapel, library, and reading room, 
two literary society halls, and seven recita- 
tion rooms. It has three modern dormitories. 
Courses are offered leading to the degrees of 
B. A., B. S., M. A., and M. S. It has two 
literary societies — R. E. Lee and The 
Eumenean; an alumni association; Young 
Men's Christian Association; a science club; 
an athletic association; and a student quar- 
terly publication, called the "Birmingham 
College Reporter." Its report to the state 
superintendent of education, September 30, 
1916, shows building and site, valued at 
$180,000; equipment, $5,000; library, of 
5,000 vols., valued at $4,000; 11 teachers; 
176 students; and total support of $15,300. 

Presidents. — Rev. Z. A. Parker, D. D., 
1898-99; Rev. Edgar M. Glenn, D. D., 1899- 
1902; Rev. John S. Robertson, 1902-1903; 
Rev. Anson West, D. D., 1903-1904; Rev. 
John R. Turner, 1904-1906; Rev. James H. 
McCoy, D. D., 1906-1910; Rev. J. D. Simp- 
son. D. D., 1910-1915. 

Presidents, Board of Trustees. — Rev. Dr. 
Anson West, 189 8-1904; Robert S. Munger, 

References. — Catalogues, 1898-1916, 14 vols.; 
Local Acts. 1898-99, pp. 264-265. 


professional institution, organized in 1893, 
consolidated with the Birmingham Medical 
College in 1910, but discontinued with the 
closing of the last named institution in June, 

CoUese History. — It was chartered under 
the laws of Alabama July 12, 1893, with 
Judge S. E. Greene. Capt. Joseph P. Johnston, 
Capt. Frank P. O'Brien, B. Steiner, William 
Berney, H. M. Caldwell, Rufus N. Rhodes, Dr. 
Joseph R. Smith, sr., and William A. Walker 
as trustees. The legislature February 18, 
1895. confirmed the incorporation, and en- 
larged its powers. It was provided that the 
school should be so conducted as to give 
"instruction in operative dentistry and dental 
surgery, aud all other branches of learning, 
necessary or desirable in the proper and eflS- 
cient instruction of dental science." It was 
given power to hold property not exceeding 

in value $250,000. It was first opened in 
the same building with the Birmingham Medi- 
cal College, Nos. 209 and 211, North 21st 
Street. It opened its doors in the fall of 
1893, and its first class included three grad- 
uates. With the session of 1903-04, it en- 
tered its new building on the corner of 5th 
Avenue and 22nd Street north. On March 2, 
1901, its powers were further enlarged by 
the legislature so that among other things it 
might "acquire by gift or purchase any dead 
human bodies for the purpose of dissection 
and use for instruction of its students." Com- 
pletion of the course of study entitled grad- 
uates to the degree of doctor of dental 
surgery. In 1910 the college was reorganized 
and became the dental department of the Bir- 
mingham Medical, Dental and Pharmaceutical 
College. During its existence the college was 
a member of the National Association of 
Dental Faculties; and it was recognized by 
the National Association of Dental Examiners, 
having conformed to all of the requirements 
of that association. As stated, with the tak- 
ing over of the consolidated schools by the 
University of Alabama, to be operated in 
future as the graduate school of medicine, 
its separate work was discontinued in June, 

1915. Work in the graduate school of den- 
tistry has not yet been organized. Lists of 
the graduates will be found in the later cata- 
logues. An alumni organization is organized 
among the students. 

The following are the several deans. Dr. T. 
M. Allen, Dr. Charles S. Merrill, Dr. B. G. 
Copeland. Other members of the faculty 
were Dr. W. D. Carmichael, Dr. Meta T. 
Haley, Dr. W. B. Fulton, Dr. L. A. Crumly, 
Dr. John E. Frazier, Dr. W. R. Dillard, Dr. 
G. M. Lathem, Dr. Alfred Eubank, Dr. N. C. 
Glass, Dr. F. L. Whitman, Dr. C. Henckell, 
Dr. James A. Allen, jr., and Dr. A. R. Bliss, 
jr. The foregoing were all doctors of dental 
surgery. Included in the regular faculty and 
lecturers were many members of the faculty 
of the Birmingham Medical College. For 
many years D. J. Ponceler, Esq., was professor 
of dental jurisprudence. 

Referexces.— Acfs, 1894-95, pp. 1164-1167; 
1900-01, p. 2007; Catalogwes, 1893-1914. 

utility corporation, incorporated, 1911, in 
Alabama; funded debt, $2,650,000; property 
owned: 19.3 miles main line, 12.11 miles 
second track, and 1.48 miles sidings, etc., 
total 32.72; car barn, substations and storage 
rooms; 1 locomotive, 25 electric passenger, 
and several work cars; and a franchise in 
Greater Birmingham which runs 99 years. 
The company defaulted in payment of interest 
due September 1, 1914, and is now in the 
hands of W. G. Brown as receiver; offices: 

Reference. — Poor's manual of public utilities, 

1916, p. 2166. 


The original Federal building at Birmingham 
was used as courthouse and post office. A 

Hero of the canoe fight on the Alabama River during the Creek War in 181! 


From »n old print 



site and building to cost $300,000 were au- 
thorized April 19, 1888, and $150,000 appro- 
priated for construction, October 2, 1888. 
The erection of an additional story on the 
building at a cost of $35,000 was authorized 
March 3, 1891. and the limit of cost increased 
by $15,000, August 23, 1894. Additional 
appropriations for the building were made as 
follows: March 2, 1889, $150,000; March 
3, 1891, $35,000; April 23, 1894, $15,000. 
This building was located on the northeast 
corner of Second Avenue and Eighteenth 
Street on a lot fronting 170 feet on the 
former, and 140 feet on the latter. The site 
was secured for $55,000, March 19, 1899, 
and the construction of the building com- 
menced under contract awarded June 28, 
1890. It was occupied on July 19, 1893, but 
not finally completed until the following 
year. The total cost of the completed build- 
ing was $296,425. The first floor was used 
exclusively by the post office, and the re- 
mainder of the building was divided into 18 
offices which were used by the United States 
Court and the Internal Revenue Department. 
The cubic contents of the building are 827,- 
212 feet. It is heated by steam and provided 
with elevators. 

The purchase of a site for a new post ofllce 
and courthouse at a cost of $200,000 was 
authorized June 25, 1910, and $200,000 ap- 
propriated for the purpose March 4, 1911. 
The purchase of additional land and the con- 
struction of the building at a cost of $1,000,- 
000 was authorized March 4, 1913, and 
$185,000 appropriated for the purpose April 
6, 1914. An additional appropriation of 
$100,000 was made February 28, 1916. A 
plot of ground, 400x190 feet, at the corner 
of Fifth Avenue and 18th Street, was secured 
April 25, 1914, but the contract for the new 
building has not been awarded. 

References. — [7. g. Statntes at Large, vol. 
25, pp. 86, 505, 939; vol. 26, p. 949; vol. 28, p. 
428; vol. 36, pp. 628, 1367; vol. 37, p. 880; vol. 
38, p. 314; vol. 39, p. 17; History of public 
buildings under control of Treasury Dept. 
(1901), p. 7; Supervising Architect of the 
Treasury, Annual report, 1916, pp. 48-49. 


Cruelty to Animals. 


professional institution, originally organized 
in 1894, but now reorganized and conducted 
as the graduate school of medicine of the 
University of Alabama. As such it opened 
October 1, 1913. The graduate school con- 
trols the lands and fully equipped buildings 
of the former college. Its executive faculty 
constitutes the visiting staff of the Hillman 
hospital. In addition it has a large general 
faculty. Clinical work is offered in the 
University Free Dispensary and in the Hill- 
man hospital. The college buildings adjoin 
the hospital, all located on Avenue "F" and 
20th Street, Birmingham. Departments of 
instruction are provided in the following: 
Medicine and Neurology; General Surgery; 
Surgical Anatomy and Clinical Surgery; 

Gynecology and Abdominal Surgery; Pediat- 
rics; Obstetrics; Genito-Urinary Surgery; 
Orthopedic Surgery; Diseases of Ear, Nose 
and Throat; Dermatology; Ophthalmology; 
Tropical Diseases; Histology, Pathology and 
Bacteriology; and Public Health. Special 
courses are offered in Cvstoscopv; Surgical 
Pathology; Biological Chemistry, and the 
Wasserman Reaction. Dr. Lewis C. Morris 
has been dean of the new school since its 

College History. — The Birmingham Medi- 
cal College had its origin in the feeling on 
the part of a number of progressive physi- 
cians in the city of Birmingham that such 
a professional institution was needed, and 
that the opportunities for its successful main- 
tenance existed there in a marked degree. 
It was chartered under the general laws of 
the state June 9, 1894, with the following 
regents: W. C. Ward, James B. Head, M. 
T. Porter, B. F. Moore. Gen. E. W. Pettus, 
Senator John T. Morgan, Col. Hilary A. Her- 
bert, Dr. Joseph R. Smith, sr.. Rev. Dr. Z. 
A. Parker, Rev. Dr. A. W. McGaha, Maj. F. 
Y. Anderson, W. M. Newbold, J. Morgan 
Smith, Col. J. W. Bush, Frank P. O'Brien 
and Dr. T. M. Allen, D. D. S. Its first home 
was a commodious five-story building located 
at Nos. 209 and 211 North 21st Street. It 
opened its doors October 1, 1894 with an 
attendance of 32 for the first session, among 
whom were first, second and third year stu- 
dents; and in 1895 it had 1 graduate. The 
second year there was an enrollment of 3 7 
students, and 2 graduates. 

At the legislature of 1896-97, an act was 
secured, approved February 16, 1897, con- 
firming the incorporation of the college, de- 
claring its powers, and co^nferring additional 
rights and privileges. It was empowered "to 
conduct and carry on a medical college, and 
to instruct therein students in the science and 
practice of medicine in all its branches, in- 
cluding surgery, to graduate students in such 
science and to confer upon such students 
diplomas, and to do all things necessary or 
proper to be done in the management and 
conduct of such college or to accomplish the 
purposes aforesaid." Among the important 
additional powers granted was the right to 
receive the unclaimed bodies of pauper dead 
from the proper authorities of the city of 
Birmingham and of the county of Jefferson 
for use in instruction in anatomy. This legis- 
lation settled all legal difficulties, and gave 
a sure supply of anatomical material. 

In 1902 the college was reorganized. It 
was at that time occupying its original build- 
ing, which had been found wholly inadequate 
for teaching purposes. A lot was purchased 
adjacent to the Hillman hospital, a modern 
medical college building was erected, and the 
first session in the new building opened in 
the fall of 1903. The curriculum approved 
by the council of education of the American 
Medical Association was adopted in April 

Throughout its entire history the college 
had kept pace with progress, had regularly 
provided additions to its material equipment. 



and had in every way improved the efficiency 
of its teaching. However, in order to meet 
the demand for still larger professional op- 
portunity, it was decided by the authorities 
to again reorganize, and the entire property 
was tendered the University ot Alabama for 
use as a graduate school of medicine. It 
occupied this relation to the University from 
October 1, 1913. It closed its doors as an 
independent institution with the completion 
of the session of June, 1915. An alumni asso- 
ciation is organized among the graduates. 

The following served as deans, namely. Dr. 
W. H. Johnston, Dr. B. Leon Wyman, and Dr. 
Lewis C. Morris. The last named continues 
as dean of the graduate school of medicine. 
Others, serving at various times as members 
of the faculty, or as lecturers and demonstra- 
tors are: Dr. J. H. McCarty, Dr. J. D. S. 
Davis, Dr. B. G. Copeland, Dr. W. E. B. 
Davis, Dr. L. G. Woodson, Dr. R. M. Cunning- 
ham, Dr. J. C. LeGrand, Dr. R. A. Berry, 
Dr. W. R. Luckie, Dr. J. D. Heacock, Dr. G. 
C. Chapman, Dr. G. F. Broun, Dr. E. H. 
Sholl, Dr. J. W. Sears, Dr. A. B. Burke, Dr. 
Thomas D. Parke, Dr. Dyer F. Tally, Dr. W. 
B. Fulton, Dr. Edgar A. Jones, Dr. Mack 
Rogers, Dr. George A. Hogan, Dr. W. M. 
Jordan, Dr. Robert Jones, Dr. N. G. Clark, 
Dr. W. P. McAdory, Dr. John L. Worcester, 
Dr. J. S. McLester, Dr. W. H. Wilder, Dr. N. 
P. Cocke, Dr. A. F. Toole, Dr. W. T. Berry, 
Dr. F. G. Grace, Dr. Hardee Johnston, Dr. 
E. P. Hogan, Dr. John F. Hogan, Dr. H. Levy, 
Dr. E. S. Casey, Dr. Robert Nelson, Dr. C. W. 
Shropshire, Dr. J. H. Edmondson, Dr. Charles 
Wheelan, Dr. H. Swedlaw, Dr. R. C. Woodson, 
Dr. E. P. Solomon, Dr. W. R. Ward, Dr. L. G. 
McCollum, Dr. W. C. Gewln, Dr. Kenneth 
Bradford, Dr. M. A. Copeland, Dr. Mortimer 
H. Jordan, Dr. A. R. Bliss, Jr., Dr. E. 
Lawrence Scott, Dr. C. E. Dowman, jr.. Dr. 
Farley W. Harris, Dr. W. G. Harrison, Dr. 
H. S. Ward, Dr. K. W. Constantine, Dr. 
Walter P. Scott, Dr. A. H. Olive, Dr. S. H. 
Welch, Dr. W. H. Sanders, Dr. P. M. Kyser, 
Dr. J. C. Anthony, Dr. Bernard McLaurine, 
Dr. H. A. MclCinnon, Dr. A. E. Cowan, Dr. 
G. W. Rogers, Dr. W. E. Drennen, Dr. J. 
Ross Snyder, Dr. H. P. Shugerman, Dr. 
George Lotterhos, Dr. W. L. Thornton, Dr. 
Russell Callen, Dr. H. M. Ginsberg, Dr T. 
K. Lewis, Dr. G. S. Graham, Dr. R. C. Mc- 
Quiddy, Dr. C. C. McLean, Dr. John Edmond- 
son. Dr. J. D. Dowling, Dr. W. B. Smith, Dr. 
George A. O'Connor, Dr. Chalmers Moore. 

Department of Pharmacy. — With the open- 
ing of the college a department of pharmacy 
was organized, including a two years' graded 
course of instruction in the theory and prac- 
tice of pharmacy, materia medica, botany, 
physics, inorganic and organic chemistry, 
qualitative and quantitative analysis, and 
toxicology. A separate faculty in part was 
organized. The courses were so developed 
as to lead to the degrees of graduate in phar- 
macy, bachelor of science in pharmacy, 
doctor of pharmacy, and pharmaceutical 
chemist. The students of the department of 
pharmacy are organized into an alumni asso- 

Referexces.— Acfs. 1896-97, pp. 1186-1189; 
Catalogues 1894-1914. 


See Mine Safety Station. 

POWER COMPANY. A public utility cor- 
poration, chartered June 13. 1901, under Ala- 
bama laws, as a consolidation of the Bir- 
mingham Railway. Light & Power Co., 
Birmingham Gas Co., and the Consolidated 
Electric Co.; capital stock authorized and 
outstanding — $3,900,000 common, $3,500,- 
000 preferred, total, $7,400,000; shares, 
$100; funded debt, $15,184,000; property in 
Alabama — a street railway system consisting 
of 61 miles of single track, 44.54 miles of 
double track, and 3.97 miles of barn and 
storage tracks, making a total of 154.05 
miles; 1 power station, of 17,700 kilowat 
rated capacity, and 6 substations; a gas plant 
with 197.99 miles of mains, and average an- 
nual production of 410,884,300 cubic feet. 
It obtains electric current, under a long-term 
contract, from the Alabama Power Co. (q. 
v.); owns and operates the entire street rail- 
way, gas, electric light and power, and steam 
heating business ot Birmingham and all the 
principal nearby towns. All franchises, with 
two or three unimportant exceptions, are per- 
petual; and it is controlled by the American 
Cities Co., which owns 98.11 per cent of the 
common, and 79.16 per cent of the preferred 
stock; offices: Birmingham. 

Reference. — Poor's manual of public utilities, 
1916, pp. 830-833. 


See Birmingham Medical College. 

by legislative act of February 23, 1866, as 
the New Orleans & Selma Railroad Co. It 
was organized by Gen. W. J. Hardee, J. W. 
Lapsley, R. M. Robertson, Gen. John T. Mor- 
gan, M. M. Creagh, Eugene McCaa, Dr. James 
R. Jones and C. C. Huckabee, for the purpose 
of constructing a railroad "from New Orleans 
to Selma, by the most practicable route, or 
to connect with the Alabama Mississippi road, 
as the company may elect;" capital stock, 
$1,000,000. On December 22, 1868, the 
charter was amended so as to change the 
name of the company to the New Orleans & 
Selma Railroad Co. & Immigration Associa- 
tion; to increase the capital stock to $10,000,- 
000, which might consist of money, lands or 
other property; to exempt all lands owned by 
the company, whether acquired by gift, grant 
or otherwise, from taxation so long as held 
by the company and for five years after their 
sale to immigrants, but &ection 5 of the act 
provided that the lands should not be exempt 
from taxation tor school purposes. 

In his Selma, p. 113, John Hardy says: 
"Immediately after the war in 1867, Dr. R. 



M. Robertson and others obtained a charter 
from the State Legislature for this corpora- 
tion, through the State of Alabama, in the 
direction of the city of New Orleans, with the 
most remarkable and valuable privileges that 
could be given by the Legislature. The act 
exempts all the real and personal property 
of the corporation from State and county tax- 
ation. Books of subscriptions for stock were 
opened in 1S68, and the necessary amount of 
stock was taken in a few days, and an organ- 
ization effected by the election of Wm. M. 
Byrd, R. M. Robertson, B. M. Woolsey, John 
Hardy, A. B. Cooper, Alexander White, and 
Charles Hays, as Directors. The Directors 
elected Wm. M. Byrd, President, and P. D. 
Barker, Secretary and Treasurer. Major 
Robertson, with a good corps of engineers, 
made a locating survey to Rehobeth Church, 
in Wilcox County, forty miles from Selma, and 
a preliminary survey to the Bigbee River in 
Clark County. The county subscribed $140,- 
000 of stock, and issued bonds for the same. 
A contract was entered into with P. Hawkins 
Duprey, for the construction and equipment 
of the first twenty miles, which contract was 
soon complied with. Three hundred and 
twenty thousand dollars of first mortgage 
bonds were issued and endorsed by the State, 
and thus this important work to Selma's in- 
terest is permitted to slumber. There are 
trains running tri-weekly on the road, to 
Martin's Station, twenty miles from Selma. 
This road brings to Selma, every season, 
over 10,000 bales of cotton, and if completed 
to the Bigbee River, we predict it would in- 
crease this to 30,000 bales. F. G. Ellis is 
the Superintendent, and James Allen, En- 
gineer, M. A. Smith, Road Master. The 
repairing of machinery is done at the Selma, 
Rome and Dalton shops, and the rolling stock 
is mostly furnished by the same road." 

On November 16, 1886, the Birmingham, 
Selma & New Orleans Railroad Co. was 
chartered under the general laws of the State 
and purchased the property of the Selma & 
New Orleans Railroad Co. & Immigration 
.Association. Its capital stock was $200,000 
in shares of $100 each, with the privilege of 
increasing it to $1,000,000. The new com- 
pany added nothing to the length of the road 
and sold it on April 22, 1902. to the Louis- 
ville & Nashville Railroad Co., which ex- 
tended it to Linden during the next year and 
to Jlyrtlewood, its present terminus, on 
August 10. 

Reieuexces. — Railroad Commission of Ala., 
Aiiniinl reports, 1889, et seq.; Poor's manual of 
railroads. 1S72 et seg.; Acts, 1865-66, pp. 236- 
243; Ibid. 1868, pp. 424-427. 

BimilXGHAM SEMINARY. See Loulie 
Compton Seminary. 


institution for the education of young men, 
property of the two Jlethodist Conferences 
of Alabama, located at Owenton, in greater 

"At the session of the North Alabama Con- 
ference, held at Tuscaloosa in November, 

18 9 6, it was decided to begin the enterprise 
of establishing a college for men within the 
bounds of this Conference. On February 3, 
1897. a committee met in the First Methodist 
Church of Birmingham for the purpose of 
considering a site for the proposed college. 
After careful consideration of various offers 
and inducements for the location, the com- 
mittee agreed with unanimity that the col- 
lege should be located in Birmingham. 
Among the inducements offered by the city, 
was a splendid property, 56 acres well suited 
for the campus. In the fall of 1897, the 
foundation for the first building was laid. 
In April, 1898, Rev. Z. A. Parker, D. D., 
was elected president, and a faculty was duly 
chosen and organized. The Conference then 
surrendered its interests in Southern Univer- 
sity, and on September 14. 1897, in the pres- 
ence of a great congregation of people, the 
North Alabama Conference College (later 
named Birmingham College) opened its doors 
for students. Additional land was bought. 
Several dormitory cottages with all modern 
conveniences were built. During the sum- 
mer of 1911 there was erected, adjacent to 
the excellent athletic field, a spacious gym- 
nasium, which has been equipped with dress- 
ing rooms, hot and cold shower Baths, and 
various apparatus. In 1916,- a three-story 
science hall, modern in every respect and 
equipped for the effective teaching of sci- 
ence, was opened for use. At the session of 
the Conference held in 1912 subscriptions 
amounting to $85,000 were secured for the 
purpose of erecting other buildings and for 
endowment. This amount was, within two 
or three years, increased to more than 

For 20 years the two colleges were main^ 
tained by the Methodists of Alabama. Then, 
on the 30th of May, 1918. through their 
appointed commissioners, the two Confer- 
ences, manifesting a splendid spirit of Chris- 
tian unity, consolidated these institutions 
under the name of Birmingham-Southern Col- 
lege. With no loss of time from the regu- 
lar work at either place, the consolidation 
was effected. 

R<»soui-cos. — (1) Land. The College owns 
at Owenton 68 acres of land donated as fol- 

16 acres occupied by present buildings do- 
nated by the late R. W. Owen. 

15 acres adjoining the above on the south- 
west, donated by the late Col. T. G. Bush. 

15 acres east of the College, separated 
from Owenton tract by public road, donated 
by the late Robert N. Greene. 

Five acres northwest of College, adjoining 
Bush tract, donated by the late Paul H. 

IS acres north of main building, purchased 
of the Walker Land Company in July of 1909. 

Six lots south of main building, with one 
residence of 11 rooms on same, extending 
campus to Eighth Avenue, were purchased 
from Frank W. Brandon in October, 1919. 

It will be seen from the above that the 
College has 68 acres in a body. There is no 



more beautiful property around Birmingham 
than these College Highlands. The main 
building occupies the middle one of three 
hills, from each of which the whole city of 
Birmingham and Jones Valley, from Boyles 
to Bessemer, a distance of 20 miles, lie in 
plain view. 

(2) Buildings. The main building is of 
red pressed brick, three stories high and cov- 
ered with slate. It contains a chapel 70x60 
feet, a study hall, two society halls 4 0x2 
each, and seven recitation rooms. In this 
building all High School work is conducted. 
There are four modern dormitory build- 
ings equipped with steam heat, electric lights, 
sanitary connections, hot and cold water, 
bath rooms, etc. These buildings are being 
erected on a plan that permit of constant en- 
largement to meet the growing necessities of 
the College. 

During the summer of 1911 a gymnasium 
40x80 feet was erected. It is equipped with 
dressing rooms, hot and cold water, baths, 
sanitary connections, and with a marked 
floor providing most excellent facilities for 
basketball. The list of apparatus comprises 
athletic horse, parallel bars, horizontal bars, 
basket-ball and baskets, flying rings, travel- 
ing rings, spring boards, mats, dumb bells, 

A new science hall was opened in Septem- 
ber, 1916. The building is three stories In 
height, fireproof, and equipped with all the 
latest facilities and apparatus for eiflcient 
instruction in the sciences. This building is 
the second unit of a group which will form 
the first quadrangle of the scheme, already 
adopted by the Board of Trustees, which 
looks to an artistic arrangement of all build- 
ings on the campus. All work in the college 
department is now done in this new building. 
The College has at present two residences 
on campus for the use of tbe faculty, the two 
being valued at ?12,000. 

(3) Endowment. Birmingham-Southern 
College has now a productive endowment of 
$110,000, and an unproductive endowment of 
about $100,000, consisting of bona fide sub- 
scriptions in process of collection and in real 

(4) The Good Will of the Alabama Con- 
ference and of the North Alabama Confer- 
ence. This is a real asset. Indeed, it is a 
substantial endowment, for the Conferences 
levy on their members an annual assessment 
of $20,000 for the maintenance of the College. 

In addition to the three dormitories al- 
ready on the campus, another three-story 
brick dormitory will be completed by early 

I(oan Funds. — Through the consecrated 
generosity of friends of Christian education 
the following loan funds have been estab- 
lished in the College: 

The Amanda Martin Fund, for the aid of 
young men preparing for the ministry, by 
Mrs. Amanda Martin. 

The Ann B. Betts Fund, similar in purpose 
to the Martin Fund, by bequest of the late 
Mrs. Ann B. Betts. 

The Banks Memorial Fund in memory of 
Newton B. Banks, for the aid of candidates 
for the ministry. 

The A. S. Andrews Scholarship Fund, by 
the Union Springs Methodist Church, in 
memory of their former pastor. Rev. Dr. A. 
S. Andrews, to offer scholarships to worthy 
young men. (Not yet available under the 
terms of the gift.) 

The Wilson Scholarship Fund, for the es- 
tablishment of loan scholarships for minis- 
terial students, by Mr. C. H. Wilson, of Cof- 
feeville, Ala. 

The Scarborough Memorial Fund, for the 
aid of needy and worthy students, preference 
being given to applicants who are preparing 
for the Methodist ministry, by Mrs. Julia E. 
Scarborough, in memory of her son, Robert 
S. Scarborough. 

The J. D. Flowers Fund, for the benefit of 
ministerial students, by Mr. J. D. Flowers, 
of Dothan. Ala. 

North Alabama Conference Loan Fund. 
The North Alabama Conference has accumu- 
lated a very substantial fund to be loaned on 
approved security. By the help of this fund 
a number of our best students have been 
kept in college who otherwise would have 
been compelled to drop out. 

Special Fund. During the year 1917, a 
friend, whose name is withheld at his request, 
generously donated $300 as a Loan Fund. 

Bryant Flournoy Cumming Memorial 
Scholarship Loan Fund. In memory of their 
son, Bryant Flournoy Cumming. a former 
student of the College, who lost his lite in 
the recent war with Germany, Rev. and Mrs. 
J. B. Cumming have donated to the institu- 
tion $1,000 to establish the Bryant Flournoy 
Cumming Memorial Scholarship Loan Fund." 
Margaret Johnson Loan Fund. In the 
early part of 1919, through the bequest of 
Mrs. Margaret Johnson, an estate ranging in 
value from 2 to 3 thousand dollars was 
added to the Loan Fund resources of the Col- 
lege, $12,000 of which is drawing interest at 
the present time. 

The Susan Henry Puckett Scholarship 
Fund. A Fund established in memory of 
their mother by the children of Mrs. Susan 
Henry Puckett. This fund provides two 
scholarships of $70.00 each, which pays the 
tuition and matriculation fee of the recipi- 
ents. These scholarships are available for 
worthy and needy students other than young 
ministers and sons of ministers. 

Scholarships. — The Eva Comer Scholarship 
in English, established in 1912 by Gov. B. B. 
Comer, LL. D., in honor of his wife, is 
awarded annually to the best student in the 
department of English during the session. 
This scholarship is in amount the income from 

District Conference Scholarships. Through 
the beneficence of the various District Con- 
ferences of the Alabama and of the North 
Alabama Conferences, quite a number of 
scholarships are available for the session of 
1919-1920. Each of these scholarships Is 
worth $75.00, and may be enjoyed only by an 



earnest, ambitious student living within the 
bounds of the District offering the scholar- 
ship. No student who is financially able to 
go to College without such aid should apply 
for one of these scholarships. Application 
should be made to the Presiding Elder of the 

U. D. C. Scholarship. A scholarship is 
awarded annually by the U. D. C. of Alabama. 
The Association selects the beneficiary, sub- 
ject to the approval of the faculty. This 
scholarship is worth $50.00. 

Medals. — Freshman Medal. The College 
gives a medal to that member of the Fresh- 
man class who excels in declamation at com- 

Sophomore Medal. For the best declama- 
tion by a Sophomore speaker at commence- 
ment, the College offers a medal. 

Junior Medal. A medal is offered by the 
College for the best oration by any Junior 
:speaker at commencement. 

Inter-Society Oratorical Medal. A medal 
given by the two literary societies of the Col- 
lege to that student who shall excel in oratory 
in a contest at Commencement. 

The Straiton Ready Debater's Medal, 
given by John A. Straiton, of Greensboro, 
Ala., for that student who shows greatest 
proficiency in extempore debate. 
. Trustee Medal. The Trustees of the College 
offer a medal to that member of the Senior 
iClass presenting the best original essay. 

Comer English Medal. $500 has been 
given to the College by the Hon. Braxton 
Bragg Comer, the interest of which shall pro- 
vide annually a medal for that student of the 
College who has excelled in English. 

Johnson Medal in Philosophy. A medal 
is given by James W. Johnson, D. D., to that 
rstudent who shall have excelled during the 
year in Philosophy. 

Scholarship Medal. The president of the 
■College offers a medal for the highest grade in 
scholarship during the session. 

Porter Athletic Cup. A silver cup is given 
by the Porter Clothing Company to the best 
all-around athlete. 

Robertson Athletic Medal. A medal is given 
by Mr. Hugh W. Robertson, formerly pro- 
fessor of English in this institution, to that 
student who shall have proved during the 
year to be the best all-around athlete. 

Student Activities. — Glee Club. One of the 
College organizations that contribute to the 
pleasure and interest of student life is the 
Glee Club. Concerts are given in and about 
Birmingham, and one or more trips of about 
a week each are taken over the State. 

Young men who have singing voices and 
who like to sing, may find in this organiza- 
tion opportunity for much pleasure as well 
as for something of musical culture. 

Greek Letter Fraternities. There are char- 
tered chapters of several fraternities, whose 
purpose is to foster the best in the social life 
of their members and to bind them together 
in bonds of friendship more intimate and 
deeper than they might otherwise experience. 
While these are secret orders, their activities 

are subject to the rules and regulations of 
the College. 

Literary Societies. The students conduct 
two literary societies — the Clariosophic, with 
which was joined the Eumenean of Birming- 
ham College, and the Belles Lettres, with 
which was joined the Robert E. Lee, of Bir- 
mingham College. Each of these societies 
has an honorable history. The Clariosophic 
of Southern University traced its origin to a 
mother chapter founded at Oxford University 
in 1820. The Belles Lettres wag established 
at Southern University in 1859. To remove 
today from their places of leadership in 
church and state those men who acknowledge 
their debt of gratitude to the Robert E. Lee, 
Belles Lettres, Eumenean. or Clariosophic 
Society, would cause a loss of wisdom and 
power from which neither church nor state 
could recover in many years. These societies 
continue to offer a training ground for intel- 
lectual leadership. While one must be hon- 
ored with an invitation before membership 
is opened to him, no student with serious 
purpose will be neglected. Regular weekly 
meetings are held in well-adapted and nicely 
furnished halls. There is constant practice 
in parliamentary tactics, declamation, oratory, 
debate, and various literary exercises. Dur- 
ing the year and at commencement public, 
exercises are held. 

Athletics. Birmingham-Southern College 
promotes every kind of wholesome athletics 
demanded by a college of this kind. The idea 
that young men need physical development 
under the best conditions is carried out In 
every year of the college work. All stu- 
dents are provided tor. 

A commodious gymnasium is arranged for 
basketball, and provides ample room tor all 
kinds of indoor exercise. In connection with 
the main floor are shower baths and dressing 
rooms and lockers in sufficient number to 
meet the need of the students. 

Munger Field is located near the gymna- 
sium and offers an ideal place for all out- 
door sports. No better field can be found. 
It was fashioned so that the permanent grand- 
stands give perfect view of every contest. 
Mr. R. S. Munger, of Birmingham, donated 
the completed field to the College at a great 
cost, and after him it takes Its name. 

Alumni Association. — The Southern Uni- 
versity and Birmingham College have each 
a well-organized Alumni Association. Each 
of these Associations has had for its pur- 
pose the cultivation and perpetuation among 
its members of feelings of attachment to one 
another and to Alma Mater. 

These Associations, at their first oppor- 
tunity since the consolidation of Southern 
University and of Birmingham College, came 
together in a joint meeting on June 2, 1919, 
during commencement, and organized the 
Alumni Association of Birmingham-Southern 
College, carried out the regular Alumni Com- 
mencement pi-ogram, and set themselves in 
their usual loyal way to the task of foster- 
ing the interests of Alma Mater. 



Honorary Degrees Conferred. — 

Marvin, Enoch M., D. D., St. Louis, Mo.; 
Bisliop, Methodist Church, South. 

Anderson, William H., D. D., Minister, 
Little Rock, Ark. 

Lee, Nathaniel H., D. D., Minister, Virginia. 
Fitzgerald, Oscar P., D. D., Minister, Nash- 
ville, Tenn.; Bishop, Methodist Church, South. 

Campbell, C. D., D. D., Minister, Missis- 

Redford, A. H., D. D., Minister, Nashville, 

Andrews, Allen Skeen, D. D., Minister, 
Union Springs; President, Southern Univer- 
sity, 1870-75, 1883-94. 

Finney, Thomas Y., D. D., Minister, St. 
Louis, Mo. 


Du Bose, J. W., A. M., Birmingham. 

Keener, John Christian, LL. D., New Or- 
leans, La.; Bishop, Methodist Church, South. 

Morgan, John Tyler, LL. D., Selma; United 
States Senator from Alabama. 

Blue, O. R., D. D., Minister, Greensboro. 

Moore, John S.. D. D., Oxford, Ga.; Pro- 
fessor in Emory College. 

Bounds, E. M., D. D., Minister, Washing- 
ton, Ga. 

Black, W. C, D. D., Minister, Meridian. 

Seay, Thomas, LL. D., Greensboro. 


Bonnell, John F., Ph. D., Oxford, Ga.; 
Professor in Emory College. 

Andrews, Allen Skeen, LL. D., Minister, 
Union Springs; President, Southern Univer- 
sity, 1870-75, 1883-94. 

Cameron, J. D., D. D., Minister, Mississippi. 

Chapman, M. B., D. D., Minister, Author, 
St. Louis, Mo. 

Phillips, J. H., Ph. D., Superintendent City 
Schools, Birmingham. 

Rankin, Charles Y., D. D., Minister, Cal- 

Gregory, John D., D. D., Minister, Tusca- 

Mason, James M., D. D., Minister, Mont- 

Newman, James W., D. D., Minister, De- 


Allen, John R., D. D., Georgetown, Texas; 
Professor Philosophy, Southwestern Uni- 


Hawkins, V. O., D. D., Minister, Trinity. 

Hosmer, Samuel Monroe, D. D., Minister, 

Brundidge; President, Southern, 1899-1910. 

Keener, John Ormond, D. D., Minister, 

Greensboro; President, Southern University, 


Moore, Warner, D. D., Minister, Ripley, 

Lamar, Andrew Jackson, D. D., Minister, 
Nashville, Tenn.; Publishing Agent, M. E. 
Church, South. 

Peterson, Francis Marion, D. D., Minister, 
Montevallo; President, Alabama Girls' In- 
dustrial School. 

Dobbs, Samuel L., D. D., Minister, North 
Alabama Conference. 

Frazer, John Stanley, D. D., Minister, Ala- 
bama Conference. 

Note: All honorary degrees to 1902 were 
conferred by Southern University. From 
1902 through 1918 (S. U.) indicates de- 
gree conferred by Southern University, and 
(B. C.) indicates degree conferred by Bir- 
mingham College. 

Andrews, Allen L., D. D. (S. U.), Fort 
Worth, Texas. 

Glenn, Edgar Massillon, D. D. (B. C), Bir- 

Morris, Joseph T., D. D. (B. C), Birming- 

McGehee, Oliver Clarke, D. D. (S. U.), 

Peterson, John Albert, D. D. (S. U.), Ever- 

Simpson, John Dixon, D. D. (B. C), Bir- 

Weber, John L., D. D. (S. U.), Memphis, 

Winton, George B., D. D. (S. U.), Nash- 
ville, Tenn. 

Coleman. A. A., LL. D. (S. U.), Jurist, 

Hobson, Richmond Pearson, LL. D. (S. U.), 
Lecturer, Greensboro. 

Hurt, William Posey, D. D. (S. U.), 

Isaacs, Walter G., D. D. (S. U.), Chaplain, 
U. S. Navy. 

McCoy. James Henry, D. D. (S. U.), Bir- 
mingham; Bishop, Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South. 

Comer, Braxton Bragg, LL. D. (S. U.), 
Birmingham; United States Senator. 

Dannelly, John Milton, D. D. (S. U.), Mo- 

Howard, Harry C, D. D. (S. U.), Atlanta, 
Ga.; Professor in Emory University. 

McVey, Edgar C, D. D. (S. U.), Neosho, 

Atkinson, Charles Prescott, D. D. (S. U.), 


Sampson; Professor in Southern University, 

McNeill, Hannibal, D. D. (S. U.), Marianna, 

Rush, Charles Andrew, D. D. (S. U.), 


Chadwick, John Shelly, D. D. (B. C), Bir- 
mingham; S. S. Field Secretary, North Ala. 

Jenkins, Charles Rush, D. D. (B. C), Ma- 
con, Ga. 

McCoy, James Henry, LL. D. (B. C), Bir- 
mingham; Bisjiop, Methodist Episcopal 
Church, South. 

Stowe, Joseph Joel, D. D. (B. C), Pulaski, 


Cox, William M., D. D. (S. U.), Montgom- 

Dannelly, Edward A., D. D. fS. U.), Dothan. 

Moore, Edward C, D. D. (S. U.), Mobile. 

Williams, Robert L., LL. D. (S. U.), Okla- 
homa City; Judge United States Supreme 
Court, Okla. 


Dobbs, Hoyt M., D. D. (S. U.), Dallas, 
Texas; Dean, Theological Dept., S. Methodist 

Griswald, J. Thomas, D. D. (S. U.), Sweet- 
water, Texas. 

Johnson, James William, D. D. (B. C), 

Northcutt, John E., D. D. (S. U.), Mobile. 


Chadwick, John Shelby, D. D. (S. U.), Bir- 
mingham; Sunday School Field Secretary, 
North Ala. Conference. 

Dempsey, Elam Franklin, D. D. (S. U.), 

James, John Caller, D. D. (S. U.), Pratt- 

The following academic degrees were 
awarded by the Southern University to those 
who entered the Confederate Army directly 
from the student ranks of the University 
from 1861 to 1865, and were hindered from 
earning such degrees in due course: 

Averv, Robert A. B., Soldier, Havana. 

Christian, William Collier, A. B., Greens- 
boro; Probate Judge, Hale County. 

Crews, Melancthon, A. B., Planter, Inwood, 

Harris. Gideon D., A. B., Business, Colum- 
bus. Miss. 

Hutchinson, Edward, A. B., Business, 

Pickering, Richard A. B., Soldier, Dayton. 

Powell, Smith, A. B., Business, Waco, 

Spivey, Reuben M., A. B., Business. 

Walker, William A., A. B., Minister, 


Glasgow, Benjamin B.. D. D. (B. C), Ath- 
ens; President Athens College. 


Calhoun, Otis V., D, D. (S. U.), Selma. 

Cowan, E. E., D. D. (S. U.), Headland. 

Daniel, Cullen Coleman, D. D. (S. U.), 
Birmingham; President, Birmingham South- 
ern College. 

.Moody, R. A., D. D. (S. U.), Dothan. 

Pi>esi(lent.s. — Rev. Zachariah A. Parker, 
Rev. Edgar M. Glenn, Rev. John S. Robert- 
son, Rev. John R. Turner, Rev. James Henry 
McCoy, Rev. John Dixon Simpson, Dr. Thorn- 
well Haynes, Rev. Edward A. Dannelly. 

Refere.vces.— Christenberry, History of South- 
ern University; Catalogues, Birmingham 
Southern College. 

bir:\ii\gh.\.ai southern 

CO.AIPAXY. Incorporated under the general 
laws of Alabama on March 3, 1899; mileage 
operated June 30, 1915 — main track, 42.934, 
side tracks, 84.703, total, 127.637; capital 
stock authorized and outstanding — common, 
$600,000, preferred, $600,000, total, $1,200,- 
000; shares $100, voting power, one vote for 
each share; no funded debt; and entire cap- 
ital stock owned by the Tennessee Coal, 
Iron & Railroad Co. 

During 1899 the Southern Railway Co. (q. 
v.) and the Louisville & Nashville Railroad 
Co., (q. V.) jointly purchased the Birming- 
ham Southern Railroad from its builders, the 
Tennessee Coal & Iron Co., but the road 
continued to be operated independently under 
separate management. 

In July, 1906, the Tennessee Coal, Iron & 
Railroad Co., successor to the Tennessee Coal 
& Iron Co., purchased the road from its joint 
owners, but that part of it between Wood- 
stock and Blocton was, by special agreement, 
conveyed to the Woodstock & Blocton Rail- 
way Co., (See Louisville & Nashville Rail- 
road Co..) whose stock is owned jointly by 
the Louisville & Nashville Railroad Co., and 
the Southern Railway Co. The Birmingham 
Southern Railway, under its present manage- 
ment, performs a general switching service 
for the industries in the Birmingham dis- 

References. — Annual report of company to 
Public Service Commission of Ala., 1915; Rail- 
road Commission of Ala., Annual reports. 1900 
et seq.; Poor's manual of railroads, 1899 et 

P.\NY. A public utility corporation, incor- 
porated by the legislature, February 13, 1885, 
by M. T. Porter, Joseph F. Johnston, J. W. 
sioss, A. T. Jones, B. W. Rucker, James E. 
Webb, and associates; capital stock outstand- 
ing, $1,500,000; shares, $100; funded debt, 
$4,827,000; property in Alabama — 10 city 
lots and brick office building in Birmingham; 
and 5,773.69 acres of other real estate, 440 
acres being coal lands, from which the com- 
pany obtains its coal supply. It has a reser- 
voir on the east branch of the Cahaba River 
storing 1,581,000.000 gallons, and one on the 
west branch storing 200,000,000 gallons; the 
Cahaba pumping station has a capacity of 
28,000,000 gallons daily, and the filtration 



plant 15,000,000 gallons, lately increased to 
27 000,000; a pumping station and filtration 
plant in North Birmingham of 5,000,000 gal- 
lons daily capacity; and an additional water 
supply obtained from Five Mile Creek. It 
supplies water to the city of Birmingham and 
suburbs; and is controlled by the American 
Water Works & Electric Co., Inc., which owns 
the entire capital stock; offices: Birmingham 
and New York. 

Reference. — Poor's manual of public utilities, 
1916, p. 2117. 

BLACK. Post office and station on the 
I^ouisville & Nashville Railroad, in the south- 
ern part of Geneva County, about 6 miles 
■east of Geneva. Population: 1910 — 485. It 
was incorporated in 1905. It was named In 
lienor of the Black family, its founders. In 
1916, A. B. Black was mayor, and J. B. 
Black, Jr., chief of police. 


A highly carbonaceous variety of the carbon- 
ate ore, a metal substance, occurring at a 
number of points in the Coal Measures. It 
■has been mined or quarried near New Castle 
in Jefferson County to a limited extent. The 
clay iron stone occurs in regular seams and 
in rounded and flattened concretions In the 
strata of the Coal Measures, and in the lower 
Cretaceous and the Tertiary formations; but 
It is not yet of commercial importance. The 
weathering and disintegrating of this ore have 
in places formed very good deposits of 
limonite or brown ore. 

Reference. — Smith and McCalley, Index to 
mineral resources of Alabama (Geol. Survey of 
Ala., Bulletin 9, 1904), p. 18. 

BLACK BELT. The popular name for an 
area in central Alabama, lying wholly within 
the Coastal Plain, and including 16 counties. 
The characteristic soil of the region is the 
Selma chalk, or "prairie lands." These soils 
are of a dark color, and to this characteristic 
is due the adoption of the name. They are 
peculiarly adapted to the culture of cotton, 
and as a result, the negro population of the 
State lias been to a great extent concentrated 
on them. This incidental fact gives another, 
thougli a secondary, significance to the popu- 
lar name. 

The area of the black belt proper is ap- 
proximately 4,365 square miles, or 2,793,600 
acres. It includes all or parts of Macon, 
Montgomery, Dallas, Perry, Greene, Hale, 
Marengo, Sumter, Pickens, Lowndes, and Bul- 
lock Counties. The area is drained to the 
Gulf by the Alabama and Tombigbee Rivers 
with their tributaries, and a large proportion 
of its lands are in the first, second, and third 
terraces of the river valleys. The location 
and the great fertility of the soils, particularly 
of the bottom and the true "prairie" lands, 
made tlie l)lack belt especially attractive to 
the large planters of cotton who came to this 
State from Virginia, the Carolinas, and Ten- 
nessee during the three decades previous to 
the War, witli their slaves and other property, 
in seareli of new and more fertile lands. As a 

result, that section of the State contained 
many large plantations. From the first, cot- 
ton has been the principal crop, although 
considerable quantities of corn and other 
grains have been raised both before and since 
the War. During the War, the black belt of 
Alabama was the granary of the Confed- 
eracy, supplying the bulk of the grain needed 
for the subsistence of the Southern Army. 

With the revolutionizing of labor condi- 
tions brought about by the result of the War, 
these large plantations were less profitably 
cultivated. This fact, together with the im- 
paired fertility of the lands, caused by the 
old system of obtaining the greatest produc- 
tion without any attempt at conservation or 
renewal of the soils, has brought about a 
gradual breaking up of the large plantations 
into smaller farms, and also the introduction 
of modern scientific methods of restoring and 
improving the productivity of the soils. The 
new methods include the extensive growing 
of livestock, with the accompanying increase 
in forage and pasturage acreage. 

The black belt section contains several 
important cities and towns. Among the more 
populous and wealthy are Montgomery, Selma, 
Demopolis, Uniontown, Eutaw, Greensboro, 
Marion, Tuskegee, Livingston and Union 

See Geology; Livestock; Agriculture; 
River and Drainage Systems; also the articles 
under the names of the counties mentioned 

References. — Geol. Survey of Ala., Report 
of agricultural features of the State (Mono- 
graph 1, 1884), pp. 268-272, 410 et seq.; Smith, 
Coastal Plain of Alabama (Geol. Survey of 
Ala., Special report 6, 1894), passim; Berney, 
Handbook (1892), pp. 423-448; Alabama's new 
era (Dept. of Immigration, Bulletin, vol. 2, 
1912), pp. 91-93; Bailey, Cyclopedia of American 
agriculture (1909), vol. i, pp. 56-57; and Cyclo- 
pedia of American horticulture (1900), vol. i, pp. 
39-40; Sehna Morning Times, Aug. 1899. 

BLACK BLUFF. A high point on the west 
side of the Tombigbee River, 2 miles below 
the influx of Sukinatcha. This point was the 
great war crossing used by the Creeks, and 
Clhoctaws in their wars with each other. 
Here a part of Koassati (q. v.) lived lor sev- 
eral years. 1764-1767. The Choctaw word 
for the locality is Saklilusa, meaning sakti. 
"bluff," and lusa, "black." Both French and 
English used the Choctaw word, although on 
English maps it is put down as Black Bluff, 
and the French Ecor Noir. 

Reference. — La Tourrette, Map of Alabama 

BLACK BLUFF. See Sooktaloosa. 



1813, Gen. John Coffee, shortly after the Ten- 
nessee troops had entered Alabama, was dis- 
patched to Black Warrior Town, located 
upon the Mulberry Fork of the Black War- 



rior River, opposite the confluence of the 
Sipsey Fork, in the northeastern part of the 
present Walker County. He found that it 
had been abandoned by the Indians, who had 
evidently gone to the towns lower down in the 
Indian country, in anticipation of the invasion 
of the whites. The town was burned, and 
Gen. Coffee returned without having seen a 
single Indian. 

References.— Pickett, History of Alabama 
(Owen's ed., 1900), p. 552; LaTourrette, Map 
of Alabama (1838); Bureau of American 
Ethnology, Eighteenth Report, part 2, map. 

BLADON SPRINGS. Post office and in- 
terior town, in the southern edge of Choctaw 
County, about 3 miles west of Tombigbee 
River, about 9 miles west of Coffeeville, and 
85 miles north of Mobile. Population: 1880 
— 300; 1910 — 440. The town was named for 
the original patentee of the land, upon which 
the mineral springs were discovered. By 
1838 the curative properties of these springs 
had become well known, and they were 
opened to the public. In 1845, Prof. Richard 
T. Brumby, state geologist, analyzed and re- 
ported on the water. When the report was 
published, wealthy planters, who formerly 
had visited Saratoga and other northern re- 
sorts, flocked here by hundreds. It was a 
most fashionable resort, when the War be- 
tween the States began. Since that time its 
popularity has at times declined somewhat, 
but it is still frequented by considerable num- 
bers of people. 

References. — Berney, Handbook (1892), p. 
277; Northern Alabama (1888), p. 182; Polk's 
Alabama gazetteer. 1888-9, p. 225. 

BLAKELEY RIVER. See Mobile River. 

BLOCKADE-RUNNING. Private shipping 
engaged in contraband trade during the War 
of Secession, 1861-1865. In 1860, the South 
was exporting $150,000,000 worth of cotton, 
and Mobile was the second cotton port in 
America. The proclamation of President 
Lincoln, April, 1861, declared a blockade of 
all ports of the Southern States. In the tall 
of 1861, the Alabama Legislature incor- 
porated two "Direct Trading Companies" 
empowered to own and sail merchant vessels 
between Mobile and foreign ports. The out- 
bound vessels carried principally cotton, and 
brought back munitions of war, and cloth- 
ing, boots, shoes, coffee, sugar, drugs and 
medicines. At first only one vessel was used 
to blockade Mobile, but later a fleet of fast 
vessels patroled the Gulf, and captured many 
of the blockade-runners. The latter avoided 
the regular ship channel, and used shallower 
channels that led out into Mississippi Sound. 
A typical blockade-runner was specially de- 
signed to meet these conditions. They were 
usually low, slender, sidewheel steamers of 
400 to 600 tons, about nine times as long as 
broad, with powerful engines, and "feather- 
ing paddles." Their funnels were short, and 
could be lowered to the deck; their masts, 
short and stout. They were painted a dull 
gray, and could not readily be observed at a 

distance of 200 yards. The expense of one 
trip was about $80,000; the profits nearly 
$175,000. They sailed mostly to Cuban and 
British West Indian ports. The machinery 
for the arsenals and foundries at Selma and 
Mt. Vernon was secured in this way. In 
August, 1864, Farragut established a more 
effective blockade of Mobile, and cut off the 
operations of the blockade-runners. 

Reference.— Fleming, Civil War and Re- 
construction in Alabama (1905). 

BLOCTON. Post office and mining town, 
in the northeast corner of Bibb County, on 
the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, and 
Southern Railway, and about 20 miles north- 
east of Centerville. Population: 1888 

1,000; 1890, Blocton precinct — 2,709; 1900 
same— 3,823; 1910, same— 3,315; 1913, town 
proper — 2,500. The town was founded by the 
Cahaba Coal Mining Co., about 1883, for the 
development of its coal properties. In 189 2 
the Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Co. ac- 
quired its holdings. 

Reference.— Armes, Story of coal and iron in 
Alabama (1910), pp. 295-298. 

BLOUNT COUNTY. Created by the Terri- 
torial Legislature, February 7, 1818. Its 
original territory was of vast extent, and in- 
cluded the present county of Jefferson, and 
that part of Walker east of the Sipsey Fork 
of the Black Warrior. It was almost wholly 
in the Creek Indian cession of August 9, 1814". 
It was reduced to its present limits by the 
acts of December 13, 1819, creating Jefferson 
county, and of December 20, 1824, creating 
Walker county. Its area is 649 square miles 
or 415,360 acres. 

It was named for Governor Willie G. Blount 
of Tennessee. He was governor of that State 
during the Creek Indian War, 1813-14, and 
his sympathetic response to the appeal of the 
settlers of Alabama, then the Mississippi Ter- 
ritory, prompted this honor. 

The Act creating the county provided that 
its courts "shall be holden at the house of 
Maj. Kelly, in Jones' Valley." This point 
was within two miles of the present court- 
house in Birmingham, Jeft'erson County. 
County oflScers were appointed by William 
Bibb, governor of Alabama Territory. On 
the same date of the formation of Jefferson 
county, December 13, 1819, John Gilbraith, 
William Rino, Stephen Box, Moses Burleson 
and Henry McPherson were appointed com- 
missioners, "to fix on a suitable place for 
the seat of justice." The commissioners were 
required to fix a temporary seat for holding 
the courts until the permanent seat be fixed 
on. On December 18, 1820, the permanent 
county seat was located at Blountsville, and 
John Fowler. Richard Yeelding. Lewis John- 
son, Joseph H. Mead and John Gilbraith were 
appointed commissioners to superintend the 
erection of the county buildings. However, 
on December 4, 1822, an act was passed pro- 
viding for an election to be held in March, 
1823, for the election of five commissioners, 
who were to have full power to fix the 
county site and to erect necessary county 



buildings. Details concerning the election 
are not preserved, but Blountsville continued 
as the county seat until 1889. On February 
2 5th of that year an act was pasesd by the 
legislature providing tor an election in August 
following, to ascertain whether a majority of 
the legal voters in the county were in favor 
of the removal of the county seat from 
Blountsville. The election was held and "re- 
moval" won. Under the same act another 
election was held, September, 1889, in which 
Nectar, Anderson (Cleveland), W. T. Wood's 
Store, Brooksville, Blountsville, Blount 
Springs, Bangor, Chepultepic (Allgood) and 
Oneonta were voted upon for the permanent 
county site. The last named, Oneonta, a 
comparatively new town, and in an entirely 
different section of the county, was successful. 
The site for the court house and other public 
buildings was then selected by George D. 
Shelton, Henry Taylor, W. B. Allgood, Elijah 
Cowden and Elias R. Bynum, commissioners 
appointed by the act. 

After the removal of the county seat to 
Oneonta, the legislature, February 13, 1891, 
provided for terms of courts in what was 
known as the western division of the county. 
In August, 1891, an election was held for the 
place of holding the courts in the new divi- 
sion, and Bangor was chosen over Blount 

The first election precincts were fixed at 
the house of John Gilbraith, and at the old 
store-house of Andrew Greer, November 21, 
1818; three additional precincts were named, 
December 16, 1819 — one at Captain Roberts's 
muster ground, in Brister's Cove, one at the 
muster ground of Captain M'Daniels', and one 
at Captain M'Pherson's muster ground on 
Mulberry Fork; and on December 26, 1822, 
the precinct at Captain Roberts's muster 
ground was changed to the house of Jesse 
Watson in the muster ground of Captain 
Brinlie(sic), the precinct at Captain Mc- 
Daniel's muster ground was changed to the 
house of James Anderson, sr., and two addi- 
tional election precincts were named — one at 
the house of James Doyle, and the other 
at the house of Thomas A. Williams. 

Location and Physical Description. — It lies 
in the northeastern section of the state, gen- 
erally known as the mineral region. It is 
irregular in outline, and is bounded north by 
Cullman and Marshall, east by Etowah and 
St. Clair, south by Jefferson and west by 
Walker and Cullman counties. The city of 
Birmingham is about 4 miles distant from 
the centre of this county. The surface of 
the county is hilly and broken, consisting 
mainly of parallel valleys, ridges and moun- 
tains with northeast-southwest trend, cut by 
minor transverse valleys or gaps. The ridges 
and mountains vary in elevation from 6 00 to 
1400 feet above sea level, but the valleys lie 
50 to 4050 feet lower. The mountain tops 
so called vary in width from 4 to 12 miles, 
the surface sometimes flat and at others con- 
sisting of gently rolling slopes. The county 
is drained by Locust and Mulberry Forks of 
the Black Warrior River, and there are sev- 
eral branches, the head waters of this drain- 

age system lying largely in this county. The 
drainage direction is southeast. The northern 
part of the county is drained by Brown and 
Big Spring creeks flowing into the Tennessee 
River. The rock strata of the county con- 
sists of limestone, sandstone, shale and chert, 
all belonging to the Cambrian, Lower Silu- 
rian, Devonian, or Carboniferous periods, 
during which the area intermittently formed 
the floor of an interior sea that covered most 
of the Mississippi Valley. At the close of 
the Carboniferous period the area was perma- 
nently elevated, and by folding and subse- 
quent erosion assumed the main features of 
its present topography. The constituent 
strata of the county are found conveniently 
placed almost side by side, iron ore, coal, 
and limestone, combinations necessary for 
the cheap and successful production of iron. 
The Warrior coal field is in part in this 
county. Shales and clays suitable for making 
Portland cement are found, and extensive 
quarries of mountain limestone exist. There 
are a number of mineral springs in the county, 
Blount Springs being the most notable, and 
long famous as a local watering place. The 
soils are derived from the weathering of con- 
solidated rocks, which themselves are of sedi- 
mentary origin. Of these there are eight 
distinct types. They are more or less clayey, 
and except in the rough and mountainous 
districts, are fairly productive. They may be 
generally described as fine sandy loam, sandy 
loam, upland loam, stony class and stream- 
bottom lands. Detailed statistics of products 
are hereinafter noted. Forest growth com- 
prises longleaf and shortleaf pine, hickory, 
the various oaks, walnut, poplar, gum, beech, 
cherry, cedar and mulberry. The average 
temperature is 62' F. Winter temperature 
averages 43° F., ranging from 5° to 70' F. 
The summer average is 78° F., ranging from 
55° to 105° F. The climatic conditions admit 
of a wide latitude in the growing of summer 
crops, while certain so-called winter crops, 
suitable for range, are to be relied upon. 

Aboriginal History. — Several mounds and 
small village sites have been found in the 
county, though none of them can be positively 
identified. Chipped implements are found in 
many sections. A burial cave, known as 
"Crump's Cave," fifteen miles south of 
Blountsville, in which skeletons, wooden 
trough, bark matting, copper articles, etc., 
were found, furnishes one of the few in- 
stances of this character in the State. 
Mounds are found in the following localities: 
Murphree's Valley; in the trough of the 
Locust Fork of the Warrior River; in Blounts- 
ville Valley; in Brown's Valley; and north- 
west of the Mulberry Fork. Near the junc- 
tion of the Little Warrior and Locust Fork 
is an old earthwork. A cache of 17 fine 
chipped implements was found in a cultivated 
field, near Blountsville, in 1882. Near Village 
Springs in the extreme southern part of the 
county is a cave in which, more than fifty 
years ago, were found skeletons, pottery, etc. 
Thirteen different points are represented in 



Settlement and Later History. — The county 
was first opened to settlement by the Creek 
War of 1813-14, when Tennessee troops 
opened a wagon road to Baird's Bluff, which 
is near the Blount county line. Gen. John 
Coffee's mounted troops marched through 
Brown's Valley and Blountsville Valley in 
their campaign against Black Warrior Town. 
In this way a great number of Teunesseans 
became familiar with the country, and sought 
homes here after the close of the war. 

The first settlers with their wagons, came 
in the fall of 1816. They were "Devil" John 
Jones and his brother-in-law, Caleb Friley, of 
Madison County. The first founded Jones- 
boro, in what is now Jefferson County; the 
latter settled at the present Blountsville. 
Other settlers came in rapidly. The emi- 
grants from Madison and Middle Tennessee 
traveled over the Old Indian trail that led 
from Ditto's Landing to Mud Town on the 
Cahaba, and in 1817, every suitable place on 
or near this trail was settled. The East 
Tennesseeans came down the Tennessee River 
in flatboats, carrying their provisions, house- 
hold effects, wagons and live stock. After 
landing at Deposit, or Gunter's landing, they 
stored their provisions, then drove their 
wagons up Gunter's Creek to Brooksville. 
thence turning to the left, they entered 
Murphree's valley and continued their course 
until they intersected the old Indian trail at 

Agricultural Statistics. — From U. S. Cen- 
sus 1910: 

what later became Village Springs. This 
route was also thickly settled in 1817. The 
route traveled by Gen. Coffee was also thickly 
settled the same year, mostly by Tennes- 
seeans. In 1818 and 1819 South Carolina 
families settled in the country in such great 
numbers that they became a predominate 
element of the population. They have left a 
permanent impress upon the history of the 
county. These emigrants crossed the Chat- 
tahoochee at the Upper Shallow Ford, passed 
through Rome, crossed Will's Creek at Ben- 
nettsville, and leaving the Raccoon Mountains 
to the right, entered Jones' Valley, where 
they struck the Tennessee road. From 1816 
to 1820 every old Indian trail running 
through the county was used as a thorough- 
fare by families seeking homes on the nevv-- 

A considerable quantity of corn was grown 
here in 1817, but not enough to supply the 
constant influx of emigrants. Corn was the 
most profitable crop, selling in 1817 at two 
dollars a bushel: in 1818 at one dollar a 
bushel; and in 1819 scarcely any sale, as by 
this time the best lands were filled up. The 
people realized enough money from their 
crops to pay the first installment on their 
lands, when they were thrown opon for entry 
at Huntsville in July, 1819. The early set- 
tlers had no mills for grinding their corn. 
In default of these necessities of civilization, 
they pounded their corn into meal in a mor- 
tar, or made it into hominy. Wheat was 
raised in 1817. It is not known when the 
first mills were built. It is stated that a 
mill expressly for wheat was erected in 18 27 

by D. Hanby on Turkey Creek, in what is 
now the upper part of Jefferson County. 

There were several ministers of the gospel 
among the early settlers of the county. The 
Rev. Ebenezer Hearn, Methodist, in 1816 
preached the first sermon. The next year, 
Revs. Charles Guynn and Warwick Brister 
began their labors among the people. In 1819 
Rev. Joseph Hill was the pastor of Mount 
Moriah, a Baptist church, the first established 
in the county and located in Murphree's Val- 
ley. Two years later the Rev. Mr. Lockhart 
established a Cumberland Presbyterian 
church in the same valley. 

The county is noted for its fruit, particu- 
larly for its apples. Their introduction to the 
county dates from 1817. John Fowler came 
to the county in 1817, and five years later 
he had imported many different varieties 
from East Tennessee. The name and reputa- 
tion of Fowler's apples became widely ex- 
tended, and considerable quantities were 

Agricultural Statistics. — From U. S. Cen- 
sus, 1910: 

Farms and Farmers. 
Number 'of all farms, 3,602. 
Color and nativity of farmers: 

Native white, 3,506. 

Foreign-born white, 6. 

Negro and other nonwhite, 90. 
Number of farms, classified by size: 

Under 3 acres, 1. 

3 to 9 acres. 111. 

10 to 19 acres, 420. 

20 to 49 acres, 1,080. 

50 to 99 acres, 924. 

100 to 174 acres, 714. 

175 to 259 acres, 228. 

260 to 499 acres, 107. 

500 to 999 acres, 15. 

1,000 acres and over, 2. 

Land and Farm Area. 
Approximate land area, 415,360 acres. 
Land in farms. 297,897 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 120,188 acres. 
Woodland in farms, 165,282 acres. 
Other unimproved land in farms, 12,427 

Value of Farm Property. 
All farm property, H. 509, 247. 

Land, $2,488,620. 

Buildings, $897,075. 

Implements and machinery, $231,399. 

Domestic animals, poultrv, and bees, 

Average values: 

All property per farm, $1,252. 

Land and buildings per farm, $940. 

Land per acre, $835. 

Domestic Animals (Farms and Ranges). 
Farms reporting domestic animals, 3,446. 
Domestic animals, $854,512. 
Cattle: total. 11,107; value, $188,597. 

Dairy cows only, 5,401. 
Horses: total, 3.418; value. $173,142. 
Mules: total, 3,418; value, $442,974. 



Asses and burros: total, 13; value, $1,870. 
Swine: total, 7,907; value, $44,707. 
Sheep; total, 1,433; value, $2,490. 
Goats: total, 456; value, $732. 

Poultry and Bees. 
All poultry, 73,215; value, $34,235. 
Bee colonies, 1,978; value, $3,406. 

Farms Operated iy Owners. 
Number of farms, 2,081. 

Per cent of all farms, 57.8. 
Land in farms, 224,810 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 79,633 acres. 
Land and buildings, $2,377,373. 
Farms of owned land only, 1,765. 
Farms of owned and hired land, 316. 
Native v/hite owners, 2,031. 
Poreign-born white, 5. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 45. 

Farms Operated hy Tenants. 
Number of farms, 1,509. 

Per cent of all farms, 41.9. 
Land in farms, 68,935 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 39,436 acres. 
Land and buildings, $957,722. 
Share tenants, 1,301. 
Share-cash tenants, 59. 
Cash tenants, 127. 
Tenure not specified, 22. 
Native white tenants, 1,463. 
Foreign-born white, 1. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 45. 

Farms Operated hy Managers. 
Number of farms, 12. 
Land in farms, 4,152 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 1,125 acres. 
Value of land and buildings, $50,600. 

Live Stock Products. 


Milk: Produced, 1,576,150; sold, 25,168 

Cream sold, gallons. 

Butter fat sold, pounds. 

Butter: Produced, 673,805; sold, 102,895 

Cheese: Produced, 125; sold, pounds. 

Dairy products, excluding home use of milk 
and cream, $127,389. 

Sale of dairy products, $27,776. 


Poultry: Number raised, 174,902; sold, 

Eggs: Produced, 392,023; sold, 233,782 

Poultry and eggs produced, $111,988. 

Sale of poultry and eggs, $56,323. 


Honey produced, 8,45 2 pounds. 

Wax produced, 270 pounds. 

Value of honey and wax produced, $1,240. 


Wool, fleeces shorn, 842. 

Mohair and goat hair, fleeces shorn, 2. 

Wool and mohair produced, $505. 

Domestic Animals Sold or Slaughtered. 

Calves — Sold or slaughtered, 1,777. 

Other cattle — Sold or slaughtered, 8,583. 

Horses, mules, and asses and burros — 
Sold, 498. 

Swine — Sold or slaughtered, 9,671. 

Sheep and goats — Sold or slaughtered, 

Sale of animals, $198,680. 

Value of animals slaughtered, $113,718. 

Value of All Crops. 
Total — $1,715,387. 
Cereals, $528,173. 
Other grains and seeds, $12,040. 
Hay and forage, $32,355. 
Vegetables, $141,792. 
Fruits and nuts, $81,998. 
All other crops, $919,029. 

Selected Crops (Acrei and Quantity). 
Cereals: total, 46,553 acres; 558,727 

Corn, 40,638 acres; 499,591 bushels. 
Oats, 5,692 acres; 57,737 bushels. 
Wheat, 208 acres; 1,325 bushels. 
Rye, 15 acres; 74 bushels. 
Kafir corn and milo maize, acres; 

Rice, acres; bushels. 
Other grains: 

Dry peas, 1,326 acres; 6,146 bushels. 
Dry edible beans, 19 acres; 153 bushels. 
Peanuts, 71 acres; 1,643 bushels. 
Hay and forage: total, 1,890 acres; 2,534 
All tame or cutlivated grasses, 528 acres; 

706 tons. 
Wild, salt, or prairie grasses, 310 acres; 

407 tons. 
Grains cut green, 636 acres; 700 tons. 
Coarse forage, 416 acres; 721 tons. 
Special crops: 

Potatoes, 356 acres; 26,855 bushels. 
Sweet potatoes and yams, 812 acres; 

70,455 bushels. 
All other vegetables, 851 acres. 
Tobacco, 4 acres; 2,320 pounds. 
Cotton, 29,511 acres; 10,489 bales. 
Cane — sugar, 77 acres; 289 tons. 

Sirup made, 3,891 gallons. 
Cane — sorghum, 764 acres; 2,108 tons. 
Sirup made, 27,184 gallons. 
Fruits and Nuts. 
Orchard fruits: total, 214,932 trees; 118,- 
494 bushels. 
Apples, 90,563 trees; 65,347 bushels. 
Peaches and nectarines, 114,232 trees; 

50,825 bushels. 
Pears, 3,313 trees; 1,100 bushels. 
Plums and prunes, 5,797 trees; 1,112 

Cherries, 739 trees; 49 bushels. 
Quinces, 245 trees; 39 bushels. 
Grapes, 3,273 vines; 23,345 pounds. 
Tropical fruits: total, 80 trees. 
Figs, 80 trees; 2,223 pounds. 
Oranges, trees; boxes. 
Small fruits: total, 10 acres; 6,761 quarts. 
Strawberries, 10 acres; 6,544 quarts. 


Nuts: total, 148 trees; 5,071 pounds. 
Pecans, 4 trees; 36 pounds. 

Labor, Fertilizer and Feed. 
Labor — Farms reporting, 7 29. 

Cash expended, $28,992. 

Rent and board furnished, $8,539. 
Fertilizer — Farms reporting, 2,869. 

Amount expended, $77,933. 
Feed — Farms reporting, 831. 

Amount expended, $31,567. 
Receipts from sale of feedable crops, 

Domestic Animals Not on Farms. 
Inclosures reporting domestic animals, 348. 
Value of domestic animals, $47,446. 
Cattle: total, 638; value, $16,568. 

Number of dairy cows, 325. 
Horses: total, 121; value, $16,265. 
Mules and asses and burros: total, 76; 

value, $12,255. 
Swine: total, 320; value, $2,153. 
Sheep and goats: total, 44; value, $205. 

Population. — Statistics from decennial pub- 
lications of the U. S. Bureau of the Census. 
White Negro Total 

1820 2,239 176 2,415 

1830 3,882 351 4,233 

1840 5,225 345 5,570 

1850 6,941 426 7,367 

1860 10,193 672 10,865 

1870 9,263 682 9,945 

1880 14,210 1,159 15,369 

1890 20,155 1,770 21.927 

1900 21,338 1,781 23,119 

1910 20,275 1,181 21,456 

Post Offices and To^vns. — Revised to De- 
cember 31, 1916, from U. S. Official Postal 
Guide. Figures indicate the number of rural 
routes from that office. 
AUgood Lehigh 

Bangor — 3 Liberty — 1 

Blount Springs — 1 Oneonta (ch) — 4 
Blountsville — 3 Remlap 

Brooksville — 1 Rosa 

Cleveland — 2 Summit 

Inland Village Springs — 2 

Delegates to Constitutional ConTentions. — 

1819 — Isaac Brown, John Brown, Gabriel 

1861— John S. Brasher, William H. Ed- 
wards. I 

1865 — William H. Edwards, J. C. Gillespie. 

1867 — Rev. William C. Garrison. 

1875— S. C. Allgood. 

1901 — J. B. Sloan. 

Senators. — 

1819-20 — Gabriel Hanby. 
1822-3 — D. Conner. 
1825-6 — John Ash. 
1828-9— D. Conner. 
18 3 2-3 — John Ash. 
18 34-5 — Samuel Johnson. 
1835-6 — William H. Musgrove. 
1838-9 — Emory Llovd. 
1841-2— Mace T. P. Brindley. 




5 — William M. Griffin. 
8 — Mace T. P. Brindley. 
2 — Enoch Aldredge. 
4 — Mace T. P. Brindley. 
8 — William Thaxton. 
60 — T. W. Staton. 
2 — W. N. Crump. 
4 — C. G. Beeson. 
6 — W. H. Edwards. 
—J. J. Hinds. 
2 — J. J. Hinds. 
3— W. H. Edwards. 
— W. H. Edwards. 
5— W. H. Edwards. 
6 — W. H. Edwards. 
7 — Brett Randolph. 
9 — Brett Randolph. 
1— J. C. Orr. 
3 — John C. Orr. 
5 — C. F. Hamil. 
7 — C. F. Hamil. 
9 — Wm. E. Skeggs. 
1 — W. E. Skeggs. 
3 — J. M. C. Wharton. 
5 — J. M. C. Wharton. 
7 — W. G. Brown. 
9 — W. G. Brown. 

01 — R. L. Hipp. 
—Robert Lee Hipp. 
—John F. Wilson. 

(Spec.) — John F. Wilson. 
—J. B. Sloan. 
— C. J. Higgins. 
—A. A. Griffith. 


1819-20 — John Browne; Isaac Brown; 
Benjamin Matterson. 

1820-1 — John Browne; Isaac Brown; Col. 
John Brown. 

1821 (Called) — John Browne; Isaac 
Brown; Col. John Brown. 

1821-2 — John Browne; Moses Ayres; 
Washington Allen. 

1822-3 — Marston Mead. 

1823-4 — Marston Mead. 

1824-5 — Marston Mead. 

1825-6 — Martson Mead. 

1826-7 — Marston Mead. 

1827-8 — 

1828-9 — William H. Musgrove; David 

1829-30 — Marston Mead; David Murphree. 

1830-1 — William H. Musgrove; David 

1831-2 — William H. Musgrove; Thomas 

1832 (Called) — William H. Musgrove; 
Samuel Johnson. 

1832-3 — William H. Musgrove; Samuel 

1833-4 — William H. Musgrove; Samuel 

1834-5 — David Murphree; Emory Lloyd. 

1835-6 — Emory Lloyd; Middleton T. 

1836-7 — Middleton T. Johnson; Enoch 



1837 (Called) — Middleton T. Johnson; 
Enoch Aldridge. 

1837-8 — Enoch Aldridge; Joseph Tiffin. 

1838-9 — Marston Mead; G. H. Harrison. 

1839-40 — Mace T. P. Brlndley; Ira E. Mc- 

1840-1 — Ira E. McMillion; Godfrey Fow- 

18 41 (Called) — Ira E. McMillion; Godfrey 

1841-2 — Ira E. McMillion; William H. Mus- 

1842-3 — Godfrey Fowler; Isaac Wharton. 

1843-4 — Ira E. McMillion; Enoch Aldridge. 

1844-5 — Enoch Aldridge; Aquilla Jones. 

1845-6 — Enoch Aldridge. 

1847-8 — Enoch Aldridge. 

184 9-50 — Enoch Aldridge. 

1851-2 — Thomas W. Staton. 

1853-4 — Enoch Aldridge; William P. St. 

1855-6 — Thomas Staton; Reuben Ellis. 

1857-8— Thomas H. Staton; W. H. Ed- 

1859-60 — Enoch Aldridge; A. M. Gibson. 

1861 (1st called) — Enoch Aldridge; A. M. 

1861 (2d called)— Enoch Aldridge; Reu- 
ben Ellis. 

1861-2 — Enoch Aldridge; Reuben Ellis. 

1862 (Called) — Enoch Aldridge; Reuben 

1862-3 — Enoch Aldridge; Reuben Ellis. 

1863 (Called)— Reuben Ellis; A. M. Gib- 

1863-4 — Reuben Ellis; A. M. Gibson. 

1864 (Called)— Reuben Ellis; A. M. Gib- 

1864-5 — Reuben Ellis; A. M. Gibson. 

1865-6 — Solomon Palmer; A. M. Gibson. 

1866-7 — Solomon Palmer; A. M. Gibson. 

1868 — G. White. 

18 69-70 — G. White. 

1870-1 — A. P. Payne. 

1871-2 — A. P. Payne. 

1872-3— H. A. Galaspie. 

1873 — H. A. Galaspie. 

1874-5 — Enoch Aldridge. 

1875-6 — Enoch Aldridge. 

1876-7— Wm. N. Crump. 

1878-9 — A. S. Davidson. 

1880-1 — S. H. C. Johnson. 

1882-3 — J. M. S. Wharton. 

1884-5 — Wm. Hullett. 


1888-9 — S. H. C. Johnson. 

1890-1 — T. M. Davidson. 

1892-3 — J. F. Bellinger. 

1894-5— J. P. Bellinger. 

1896-7 — J. T. Stewart. 

1898-9 — George S. Sloan. 

1899 (Spec.) — W. E. Dickson. 

1900-1— W. E. Dickson. 

1903— William Edgar Byars. 

1907— W. A. Weaver. 

1907 (Spec.) — 

1909 (Spec.) — 

1911— G. W. Darden. 

1915 — Dr. J. S. Wittmier. 

1919— W. Y. Adams. 

See Black Warrier Town; Blount Springs; 

Blountsville; Blountsville Valley; Brown 
Valley; Coal; Coosa Valley; Iron; Jefferson 
County; Oneonta; Streight's Raid. 

References. — Acts Alabama Territory, Feb. 
1818, pp. 16-21; Toulmin, Digi^st (1823), index; 
Acts. 1888-89, pp. 599-601; 1890-91, pp. 592-594; 
1892-93, p. 1059; Brewer, Alabama, p. 138; 
Berney, Handbook (1892), p. 270; Riley, Ala- 
bama as it is (1893), p. 64; Northern Alabama 
(1888), p. 108; Alabama. 1909 (Ala. Dept. of 
Ag. and Ind., Bulletin 27), p. 78; U. S. Soil 
Hurvey (1906), with map; Alabama land book 
(1916), p. 43; Ala. Official and Statistical Reg- 
ister. 1903-1915, 5 vols.; Ala. Anthropological 
Society, Handbook (1910); Geol. Survey of 
Ala., Agricultural features of the State (1883); 
The Valley Regions of Alabama, parts 1 and 
2 (1896, 1897), and Underground u-ater Re- 
sources of Alabama (1907) ; U. S. Bureau of the 
Census, Abstract of the l-ith Census, with sup- 
plement for Alabama (1913); George Powell, 
"History of Blount County," in Ala. Hist. So- 
ciety, Transactions. 1855, pp. 30-65; and mis- 
cellaneous contributions to the newspapers of 
the county, by Miss Mary Gordon Duffee of 
Blount Springs. 

BLOUNTSVILLE. Post office and in- 
terior town, in the northwestern part of 
Blount County, near Copeland Creek, In the 
northern part of Blountsville Valley, 12 miles 
northeast of Bangor, its shipping point, and 
about 18 miles northwest of Oneonta. Popu- 
lation: 1870—539; 1888—500; 1910 — 287. 
This is one of the oldest and most historic 
spots in Blount County. Here stood "Bear- 
Meat tabin," the home of a Creek chief, in 
1815. Here In 1816 came Caleb Friley, the 
first settler in the first wagon ever in the 
county. Under the shelter of the high bluffs 
of the Sand Mountains to the north, this rest- 
ing place for the stream of traveling immi- 
grants southward was established. A black- 
smith shop was erected for the convenience 
of the travelers. It is related that one man 
brought in many bars of iron, out of which 
he intended to make many different imple- 
ments, but he was forced to use all of the 
iron for horseshoes alone. "Bear-Meat 
Cabin" was located on Towne Creek, on the 
Huntsville Pike. By 1819, it had become 

In 1820 Blountsville became the county 
seat of Blount County. The southern half of 
its territory, with Elyton, the first county 
seat, in 1819, had been set off as Jefferson 

Rev. Ebenezer Hearn preached in "Bear- 
Meat Cabin" in 1816-17. This was the first 
religious address ever delivered in Blount 
County. He was succeeded by Rev. Charles 
Guynn. They were both Methodists. The 
Methodist church in Guynn's Cove, is said 
to have been the first erected in the county. 
Ore (iron) from the bluffs nearby furnished 
the pioneers with dye-stuff for dresses, 
blankets and everything desired to be a bril- 
liant red. This art they learned from the 
Indians. The town is the center of the apple 
country of the county. 

References. — Amies, Story of coal and iron 



in Alabama (1910), pp. 41-43; Powell, "History 
of Blount County," in Alabama Historical So- 
ciety, Transactions, 1S55; Birmingham Age- 
Herald, Aug. 15, 1909. 


six important valleys of Blount County, and 
really the southern division of Brown Valley 
(q. v.), from which it is separated by an 
east-and-west ridge. The topography and 
geology of the two valleys are practically the 
same. Blountsville Valley is drained by the 
Warrior River. It Is 20 miles wide, and much 
broken in its surface. Its central ridge is 
higher than the mountains on either side. 
There are numerous springs in the valley — 
freestone, calybeate, limestone, and red, white 
and sweet sulphur, some of them with more 
than local reputations for their curative prop- 
erties. Sandstone, granite, limestone, iron 
ore, and coal are also found in considerable 
abundance. The valley contains quite a num- 
ber of aboriginal remains. The mounds and 
other relics are described in the title Blount 
County. The earliest settlers in the valley 
came from Tennessee and South Carolina in 
1816, most of them in boats down the Ten- 
nessee River. By 1817 it was quite thickly 
settled. Blountville, the old county seat, is 
situated in the valley. The towns of Blount- 
ville, Hunt, Blount Springs, Bangor, Rock- 
land, Joy, Gum Springs, and Harkness are 
within its limits. 

See Agriculture; Coosa Valley; Geology; 
Soils and Soil Surveys. 

Retekenc-es. — Powell, "Blount County," in 
Ala. Hist. Society, Transacrtions, 1855, p. 31; 
Armes, Story of coal and iron in Alabama 
(1910); Northern Alabama (1887), p. 108. 

BLUE MOUNTAIN. Post office and station 
at the crossing of the Louisville & Nashville 
Railroad and the Southern Railway; in the 
northern suburbs of Anniston, 2 miles from 
the center of the city. It is one of the cot- 
ton-mill and iron-mining sections of the city 
of Anniston. Population: 1910 — 528. Alti- 
tude: 1,500 feet. The locality was settled 
by the Hudgins family in the late thirties and 
for years was the terminus of the Selma. 
Rome & Dalton Railroad, being the shipping 
station for the Oxford furnace. During the 
War, the Confederate Government operated 
both the railroad and the furnace, the iron 
being shipped to Selma to make "Ironclads" 
for the Confederacy. The town was burned 
in 1864. 

References. — Armes, Story of coal and iron 
in Alabama (1910), pp. 180-182, 206. 

BLUE SPRINGS. Post office and interior 
village, in the southern section of Barbour 
County, on Blue Springs Creek, and 21 miles 
south of Clayton. Population: 1912 — 117. 
Of the spring that gives the name to the local- 
ity, Dr. E. A. Smith, state geologist, says: 

"The presence beneath the surface of lime- 
stone of the Clayton and Nanafalia horizon is 
shown for many miles south of its outcrop 
by the bold springs of blue limestone water 
which break out in places in the lower part 

of the county. The best known of these is 
the Blue Spring, .a place of resort for people 
from all parts of the county. This spring 
breaks out in the bottom of Choctawhatchee 
River and occupies a nearly circular area 
about 25 feet in diameter. The water is clear 
and blue like that of the Big Springs of 
Florida, but of considerably lower tempera- 

Refere.nces. — Geol. Survey of Ala., Under- 
ground water resources of Alabama (1907), p. 
239; Northern Alabama (1888), p. 183. 

B'NAI B'RITH. A Jewish fraternal secret 
order, founded at New York City in 1843, by 
a body of German Jews, headed by Henry 
Jones. It entered Alabama with the estab- 
lishment of Beth Zur lodge at Mobile Decem- 
ber 3, 1866. It now numbers 12 lodges in 
Alabama with a membership of nearly 900. 
These are under the supervision of the Grand 
Lodge of the Seventh District, composed of 
lodges in the States of Alabama, Florida, 
Tennessee, Arkansas, Louisiana, Mississippi 
and Texas. General headquarters: New 
Orleans. The several lodges in Alabama, 
with locations and dates of establishment, 
are as follows: 

Beth Zur, located at Mobile, organized 
Dec. 3, 1866. 

Emanuel, Montgomery, June 19, 1868. 

Jephtah. Eufaula, May 5, 1870. I 

Zadok, Selma, March 19, 1871. 

Esora, Huntsville, March 2, 1875. 

Morris Ely. Demopolis, June 12, 1877. 

Alabama, Montgomery, May 9, 1878. 

Birmingham. Birmingham, Apr. 15, 1887. 

Magic City, Birmingham, Jan. 12, 1913. 

Coosa, Gadsden, Feb. 25, 1913. 

Tuscaloosa, Tuscaloosa, June 7, 1913. 

Anchen Sterne, Anniston, Sept. 19, 1915. 

Referexce. — Manuscript data in the Alabama 
Department of Archives and History. 

BOAZ. Post office and incorporated town, 
in the southeastern part of Marshall County. 
It is located on the Nashville, Chattanooga & 
St. Louis Railway, and on the headwaters of 
Clear Creek. Population: 1900 — 253; 1910 
— 1,010. It is an incorporated community, 
and was established as a post office in 1887. 
Its financial institutions are the First Na- 
tional Bank, the Boaz Bank (State), and the 
Farmers & Merchants Bank (State). The 
Boaz Weekly News, established in 1914, is 
published there. There are Methodist, Bap- 
tist, and Presbyterian churches, and a city 
high school, in addition to the grammar 
schools. The town is located between Gun- 
tersville and Attalla, and in the northwestern 
edge of the iron ore region. 

Reference.?. — Polk's Alabama gazetteer, 
1888-9, p. 229; Alabama Official and Statistical 
Register, 1915. 

BODKA. Name of a creek, which empties 
into the Tombigbee in Sumter County. In 
Choctaw, the word "patha," means broad, 
wide. The plural of "patha" is "hopatka." 
From the last syllable of this plural begin- 
ning with a "k," it may be considered almost 



certain that there must once have existed an 
archaic or dialectic singular "patka." As- 
suming this to be so, Patka could very easily 
be converted by the American pioneer into 
Bodka, which is evidently his corruption, for 
the letter "d" does not exist in Choctaw; "t" 
being used instead of "d." Hence- provision- 
ally Bodka may be considered "Bok patka," 
wide creek. 

Refeeence. — Manuscript data in the Ala- 
bama Department of Archives and History. 

of two creeks, one In Dallas, the other in 
Pickens County. In its English spelling and 
pronunciation the word "Bogue" represents 
exactly the sound of the Choctaw word 
"bok," creek, the k of which the Choctaws 
pronounce like a hard g. The word is of com- 
mon occurrence in Alabama and Mississippi. 
Bogue Chitto of Dallas County rises just 
south of Cahaba Old Towns in Perry County, 
and flows south through these counties into 
the Alabama River at Old Lexington. 

Bogue Chitto of Pickens County rises in 
the southern part of Lowndes County, Mis- 
sissippi, flows southeasterly through Noxubee 
County and empties into the Tombigbee in 
Pickens County, about a mile and a half 
above the little village of Stone. 

There is a Bok Chitto, Bouk Tchitou, an- 
other tributary of the Tombigbee, laid down 
on De Craney's map, and which appears to 
be Chickasaw Bogue. 

Reference. — Manuscript data in the Ala- 
bama Department of Archives and History. 

BOGUE HOMA. Two creeks of this name, 
one in Mobile and the other in Washington 
County. In correct Choctaw orthography, the 
name is written "Bok homma," meaning red 
creek. "Bok," creek, "homma," red. The 
Mobile County creek is known both as Bogue 
homa and Red Creek. On modern maps the 
Choctaw name of the Washington County 
creek, which is a tributary of Buckatunna, no 
longer appears, and it is now known by its 
translated name. Red Creek. This creek has 
an historical significance, in being prior to 
the treaty of Mount Dexter, a part of the line 
of demarkation between the Choctaw Nation 
and the United States. Both creeks must 
have received their names from their red 
clay-colored waters. 

Reference.— Manuscript data in the Ala- 
bama Department of Archives and History. 

BOGUE LOOSA. A creek on Romans 
map, now known as Taylor's Creek, a tribu- 
tary of Santa Bogue, "Sinti bok," in Wash- 
ington County. Bogue Loosa, "Bok Lusa," 
Black Creek. "Bok," creek, "lusa," black. 
On modern maps Bogue Loosa is the name of 
a tributary of Okatuppa. Both creeks doubt- 
less received their names from the color of 
their waters, blackened by the infusion of the 
fallen leaves of hardwood trees. 

BOLLTNG. Post office and station in But- 
ler County, on the Louisville & Nashville 
Railroad, 9 miles southwest of Greenville. 

about 126 miles from Mobile, and about 54 
miles from Montgomery. Population: 1888 
— 300; 1900 — 735; 1910 — 979. It was lo- 
cated in 1865, by John T. and B. C. Milner, 
and is supposed to have been so named in 
honor of Judge S. J. Boiling of Greenville. 
The post office was established in 1873, with 
John J. Flowers as first postmaster. 

Reference. — Little, Butler County (1885), p. 

below will be found the private collectors on 
special subjects in this State. No doubt there 
are others, but this list includes those who 
have had direct contact with the libraries 
throughout the State, and whose own libraries 
contain books on these subjects. The most 
of these persons are authorities on these sev- 
eral subjects, many of them having large 
collections of books, pamphlets, and periodi- 
cal literature on these subjects. 
Anniston — Willett, Joseph J., Confederate lit- 
Auburn — Duggar, Dr. J. F., Agriculture. 

Petrie, Dr. George, American History; His- 
tory teaching. 
Ross, Dr. B. B., Chemistry. 
Rutland, Prof. J. R., English teaching, folk 

lore, literature. 
Wilmore, J. J., Mechanical Engineering. 
Birmingham — Allen, Miss Willie M., V. S. His- 
Barnwell, Rev. M. S., Sociology; Episcopal 

Church history. 
Beecher, Mrs. L. T., Modern poetry. 
Beers, Henry, Bacteriology. 
Bowron, James, Civil and Mining engineering. 
Burns, P. P., Shakesperian; Modern drama. 
Chapman, Miss Lila May, Spanish literature. 
Chase, Prof. D. G., History teaching. 
Coyle, Rev. James E., Roman Catholic Church 

Donelly, J. W., Art; Foreign travel. 
Eaves, Dr. George, Sociology; Treatment of 

Edmonds, Rev. Dr. Henry M., Philanthropy; 

Social service; Sociology. 
Elliott, Miss Hannah, Miniature painting. 
Engtsfeld, Mrs. C. B., Bookplates. 
Hendricks, Dr. J. A., Mediaeval history. 
Horner, H. H., Bacteriology; Zoology. 
Horton, Edgar C, Anthropology; Meteor- 
ology; Spanish literature. 
Hutto, Jasper C, Journalism. 
Jacobs, Mrs. Solon, Enfranchisement of 
Kendrick, Julian, Civil Engineering ; Hydrau- 
Lovell, Mrs. W. S., Bookplates. 
McCormack, G. B., Coal Mining. 
Murdoch, Mrs. W. L., Child Welfare; Women 

in Industry. 
Murphy, Judge Samuel D., Child Welfare; 

Juvenile Courts; Social reform,. 
Newfield, Rabbi M., History of the Jews. 
Parke, Dr. Thomas D., Sociology 
Phillips, Dr. J. H., Education; Psychology. 
Ramsay, Erskine, Coal Mining. 
Riley, Dr. B. F., Negro question. 


Rothpletz, P. F., Bookbinding. 

Rowley, Miss Daisy W., Mtisic. 

Schwend, Charles, Firearms. 

Smith, Mrs. R. F., Psychology. 

Smith, Dr. Richard M., Biblical history and 

Sparrow, John, Advertising. 

Ullman, Samuel, Hebrew literature. 

Woodson, Miss Louise, Russian literature. 
Citronelle — Cotting, Edgar L., Americana; Rev- 
olutionary Period New England local 
histories and genealogies. 
Florence — Dyas, Robert, Andi-ew Jackson; Ten- 
nessee Valley. 
Gadsden — Brandon, Frank W., History and 

biography; Anglo-Saxon history. 
Guntersville — Street, Oliver D., American In- 
dians; Archaeology^ Legal Literature. 
Long Island — Graves, E. W., Botany (special 

Mobile — Allen, Right Rev. Edward P., Cath- 
olic Church history. 

Bromberg, Frederick G., Law Reform; Hu- 
mane legislation. 

Brown, Leo, 604 Government St., history and 

Hamilton, J. Gaillard, Spring Hill, History; 

Hamilton, P. J., 1010 Government St., Ala- 
bama Bibliography ; History Economics; 
History of iiistitutions. 

Loding, H. P., Herpetology ; Natural History. 

Lowenstein, Victor, Church St., Literature. 

Moses, Dr. Alfred, 559 Government St., His- 
tory (special Hebrew) and Literature. 

Wright, Prof. Julius T., Pedagogy; Protes- 
tant Episcopal Church; Soc^l service. 
Montevallo — Palmer, Dr. Thomas W., Home 

economics; Industrial education. 
Montgomery — Andrews, Dr. Glen, Child Wel- 
fare; Medical Science. 

Battle, Dr. H. B., Anthropology ; Chemistry; 
Cotton oil industry. 

Beauchamp, George, Masons; Masonic His- 
tory; Proceedings of Masonic Chrand 

Brannon, Peter A., Anthropology; Firearms; 
Museums; Natural History; Numisma- 
tics; Philately. 

Brewer, Owen D., Philately. 

Burke, Dr. R. P., Mineralogy. 

Burnham, R. B., Anuiteur photography ; Nat- 
ural History. 

Chilton, W. Pierce, Art printing and binding; 
Office efficiency; Systems. 

Edwards, Thomas H., Archaeology; Highway 

Frank, Julius, Angling. 

Hill, Miss Amelie, Red Cross. 

Hill, Mrs. Walton, European War. 

Holt, Frank S., Cleaning and Dyeing. 

Jones, Conrad R., Numismatics; Philately. 

Kellar, W. S., State Highway Engineer, En- 
gineering; Highicays. 

Lincoln, Bart W., Astronomy; Comparative 
religions; Essays; Belles Lettres. 

McNeel, Allen, Amateur photography. 

Mullen, Miss Mary, European War: prints; 
War posters. 

Owem, Mrs. Thomas M., Motion pictures, 

Owen. Thomas M., Jr., Ambassador James 

Bryce; Henry Yan Dyke. 
Paterson, J. H., Botany; Entomology ; Flori- 
Pepperman, Miss Leonora, Motion Pictures. 
Perry, Dr. H. G., Public health administra- 
tion; Vital Statistics. 
Sheehan, Will T., Journalism, Pioneer history 

of the South. 
Smyth, P. H., Meteorology, Anthropology. 
Speed. Mrs. Mary C, Art, Architecture. 
Stakely, Rev. Dr. Charles A., American In- 
dians. Biblical antiquities; Surnames. 
Steiner, Gen. R. E., Law; General literatwre. 
Stuart, George, Angling; Hunting. 
Teague, Robert S., Masons. 
Thompson, Harry F., Ku Klux; Reconstruc- 
Thorington, Mrs. Robert G., Home econo- 
Tresslar, H. P., Photography. 
Troy, Daniel, Genealogy; Legal Literature. 
Wallace, J. H., Jr., State Conservation Com- 
missioner, Conservation; Natural his- 
tory; Sport. 
Weil, Mrs. Leon, Drama; Theatre. 
Wheeler, Dr. George, D. D. S., Dental Science. 
Pell City — Rennie, T. H., Cotton manufactur- 
ing; General Utcrattire. 
Prattville — Golsan, Lewis S., Birds and Mam- 
Prichard — Munroe, G. F., Natural history; 

Rockford — McEwen, John B., American In- 
dians, Archaeology. 
Satsuma — Jones, W. Russell, Herpetology. 
Seale — Lewis, L. J., Natural History; Herpe- 
Selma — Bishop, J. L., Early Americana; Philat- 
John, Col. Sam Will, Confederate; Thomas 
Talladega— Silsby, Prof. E. C, Congregational 
Church; Negro education. 
Parsons, Joseph H., Napoleonana; Political 
and Court Memoirs. 
Tuskegee Institute — Moton, Maj. Robert R., 
Negro; Agriculture; Industry; Social 
Tuscaloosa — DeGraffenreid, Edward, Law; Le- 
gal Literature. 
Partlow, Dr. William D., Psychology; Mental 

Garner, Tom, University of Alabama. 
Smith, Dr. E. A., State Geologist, Geology; 
Natural History; Museums. 
University — Bidgood, Dr. Lee, Political Sci- 
cnce ; Economics. 
Doster, J. J., Education and Psychology. 
Refbbences. — Private Book Collectors in the 
United States (1919), Alabama Section, pp. 3 
and 4. 

BORDEN SPRINGS. Postoffice and sta- 
tion on the Seaboard Air Line Railway, in 
the northern part of Cleburne County, about 
12 miles southwest of Cedartown, Ga., and 
about 25 miles northeast of Heflin. Alti- 


tude: 827 feet. Population: 1910 — 180. 
The mineral springs there are now known as 
Borden-Wheeler Springs, and Dr. E. A. 
Smith speaks of it as a "much visited resort." 
References. — Smith, Und-erground water re- 
sources of Alahama (1907), p. 80; Northern 
Alabama illustrated (1888), p. 134. 

BOTANY. See Forests and Forestry; Plant 
Life; Timber and Timber Products. 

bounded on the north by Tennessee, east by 
Georgia, south by Florida and the Gulf of 
Mexico, and west by the State of Mississippi. 
The several sections of the Code of Alabama, 
1907, containing a description of the State 
boundaries, with reference to the decisions of 
the courts thereon, are as follows: 

83. (623) (12) (12) (16) (15) Boun- 
daries of State. — The boundaries of this State 
are established and declared to be as fol- 
lows, that is to say: Beginning at the point 
where the thirty-first degree of north latitude 
crosses the Perdido River; thence east to the 
western boundary line of the State of 
Georgia; thence along said line to the south- 
ern boundary line of the State of Tennessee, 
thence west along the southern boundary 
line of the State of Tennessee, crossing the 
Tennessee River, and on to the second inter- 
section of said river by said line; thence up 
said river to the mouth of Big Bear Creek; 
thence by a direct line, to the northwest 
corner of Washington County, in this State 
as originally formed; thence southerly along 
the line of the State of Mississippi to the 
Gulf of Mexico; thence eastwardly, including 
all islands within six leagues of the shore, 
to the Perdido River; and thence up the said 
river to the beginning. 

Boundaries of Mississippi Territory, Toul- 
min's Digest, p. 76; territory ceded by Georgia 
Toulmin's Digest, p. 77; territory called Ala- 
bama; Toulmin's Digest, p. 78. (Aikin's Di- 
gest, p. 29, par. 4; p. 30, par. 6; Clay's 
Digest, p. 47, par. 4; p. 48, par. 6.) 

Note. — A strip twelve miles wide on the 
northern part of the State was ceded by South 
Carolina to the United States, and then 
granted to the Mississippi Territory. 

84. (624) (13) (17) (16) Boundary Be- 
tween Alabama and Georgia. The boundary 
line between Alabama and Georgia com- 
mences on the west side of the Chattahoochee 
River, at the point where it enters the State 
of Florida; from thence up the river, along 
the western bank thereof, to the point on 
Miller's Bend, next above the place where the 
Uchee creek empties into such river; thence 
in a direct line to the Nickajack. 

Clay's Digest, p. 48, par 9. In Howard v. 
Ingersoll, 17 Ala. 780, the boundary of the 
State, it was held commenced at low-water 
mark, on the west side of the Chattahoochee 
River, from the point where it enters the 
present State of Florida, to the "great bend" 
next above the place where the Uchee creek 
empties into the said river. In other words, 
low-water mark on the west side of the Chat- 
tahoochee River (was the line which sepa- 

rated the jurisdiction of the State of Alabama 
from the State of Georgia. On writ of error 
to the Supreme Court of the United States, 
the decision was reversed, a majority of the 
court holding that the boundary line between 
the two states was not low-water mark on 
the west side of the Chattahoochee River), 
but a line running up the river on and along 
its western bank, and that the jurisdiction 
of Georgia extended to the line which Is 
washed by the water wherever it covers the 
bed of the river within its banks. The per- 
manent fast land bank governs the line. 
From the lower edge of that bank the bed 
of the river commences, and the jurisdiction 
of Georgia extends to the lower edge of the 
hank on the west side of the river. Nelson 
and Grier, J. J., dissenting, held, that the 
true boundary line between the states of 
Georgia, and Alabama, was not a line drawn 
on the bank or the bluff of the river, at high- 
water mark, but the line marked by the 
permanent bed of the river, by the flow of 
the water at its usual and accustomed stage, 
and where the water will be found at all times 
in the season, except when diminished by 
drought or swollen by freshet. — Howard v. 
Ingersoll, 13 Howard 381. 

The boundary line between the states of 
Georgia and Alabama depends upon the con- 
struction of the following words of the con- 
tract of cession between the United States 
and Georgia, describing the boundary of the 
latter, namely: "West of a line beginning 
on the western bank of the Chattahoochee 
River, where the same crosses the boundary 
between the United States and Spain, running 
up the said river, and along the western bank 
thereof." — State of Alabama v. State of 
Georgia, 23 Howard U. S. 505. 

"It is the opinion of this court that the 
language implies that there is ownership of 
soil and jurisdiction in Georgia in the bed 
of the river Chattahoochee, and that the 
bed of the river is that portion of its soil 
which is alternately covered and left bare, as 
there may be an increase or diminution in 
the supply of water, and which is adequate 
to contain it at its average and mean stage 
during the entire year without reference to 
the extraordinary freshets of the winter 
spring or the extreme drought of summer or 
autumn." — lb. 

"The western line of the cession on the 
Chattahoochee River must be traced on the 
water-line of the acclivity of the western 
bank, and along that bank where that is 
defined; and in such places on the river where 
the western bank is not defined, it must be 
continued up the river on the line of its bed, 
as that is made by the average and mean 
stage of the water, as that is expressed In 
the conclusion of the above recited para- 
graph." — lb. 

By the contract of the cession, the naviga- 
tion of the river is free to both parties. — lb. 

85. (625) (14) (14) (18) (17) Boun- 
dary Between Alabama and Florida. The 
boundary line between Alabama and Florida 
is the line commonly known as the "mound 
line," or "Ellicatt's line," as distinguished 


from a blazed line, known as the "Upper" or 
"Coffee line," commencing at a point on the 
Chattahoochee River, near a place known as 
"Irwin's Mills;" and from thence to the Per- 
dido River, marked the whole distance by 
blazes on the trees and by mounds of earth, 
at distances of about one mile. 

References. — Codes and statutes cited supra; 
Gannett, Boundaries of the United States and of 
the several States and Territories (U. S. Geol. 
Survey, Bulletin 13, 1885); Ala. Hist. Society, 
Transactions, vol. 2, pp. 90-94; Miss. Hist. So- 
ciety, Transactions, vol. 3, pp. 167-184. 

BOWYER, FORT. An American fortified 
post erected at Mobile Point, Baldwin Coun- 
ty, in 1813, by Gen. James Wilkinson. It 
was named for the gallant Col. John Bowyer. 
In September, 1814, Fort Bowyer heroically 
held its own through an attack by the Brit- 
ish. Major Lawrence was in command with 
a garrison of but 130 men and but 20 small 

After the Battle of New Orleans, a second 
attack was made and Lawrence realizing the 
utter folly of resistance against such odds, 
was forced to surrender. The Fort, how- 
ever, remained in British hands but a few 

References. — Pickett, Alabama (Owen's ed., 
1900), pp. 602, 612; Brewer, Alabama (1872), 
p. 119; Hamilton, Colonial Mobile (1910), 430- 
437; Hamilton, Mobile of the five flags (1913), 
p. 203. 

BOY SCOUTS. A National organization, 
chartered by Congress, neither military nor 
anti-military, non-sectarian, whose motto is, 
"Be Prepared" and whose oath is, "On my 
honor I will do my best (1) To do my duty 
to God and my country, and to obey the 
Scout Law; (2) To help other people at all 
times; (3) To keep myself physically strong, 
mentally awake, and morally straight." The 
scout law is 1. A scout is trustworthy; 2. A 
scout is loyal; 3, A scout is helpful; 4. A 
scout is friendly; 5. A scout is courteous; 6. 
A scout is kind; 7. A scout is obedient; 8. 
A scout is cheerful; 9. A scout is thrifty; 10. 
A scout is brave; 11. A scout is clean; 12. 
A scout is reverent. 

Alabama Scouting. — The scout movement 
in Alabama during the past year (1920), has 
gone forward with pronounced activity. The 
statistics shown accompany this article, 
should not be considered more than as a 
basis, inasmuch as the activity, and interest 
manifested during the past twelve months 
have been so pronounced mat no compara- 
tive data can be estimated. New councils 
have been organized, new executives em- 
ployed, and many new troops organized. In 
the city of Montgomery alone, seven new 
troops were organized, an executive em- 
ployed, the council was reorganized and now 
includes seventeen scoutmasters and assist- 
ants, and sixty adult leaders. There are 
now (1921) 206 registered scouts in the 
city. These are practically all new scouts, 
as most of the original two troops have 

reached the age of eighteen, during the past 
year and did not re-register. 

Statistics as of December 31, 1919: 

Number of troops in State, 14 9. 

Number under Council, 59. 

Number not under Council, 90. 

Number of Scoutmasters, 144. 

Number of Assistants, 136. 

Number of Scout Committeemen, 448. 

Total number registered Scouts, 3,119. 

Local Councils, 3. 

Commissioners, 2. 

Executives, 3. 

Other Scout officials, 7. 

Total Adult Scout Leaders, 873. 

Total interested in Scout work, 3,992. 

The church preference of Scoutmasters at 
this date, was: Methodist 65, Baptist 27, 
Presbyterian 25, Christian and Episcopal, 6 
each. Congregational 3, Catholic 2; 79 of 
these leaders were college men; 57 were in 
mercantile pursuits, 32 were Clergymen, 19 
Teachers, and the others in miscellaneous 
occupations; 62 had previous boy scout 

The institutions with which the several 
troops in the State, are connected, are as 
follows: Methodist church 21, Baptist 8, Pub- 
lic schools 24, Episcopal Church 4, Roman 
Catholic 2, Presbyterian 9, Y. M. C. A. 3; 
Public institutions 5, while 5 8 of the others 
were not definitely connected with organized 
institutions. The meeting places of these 
troops were: in churches 43, in schools 24, in 
public buildings, 16; in semi-public buildings 
4, in homes of members 7, in Scout head- 
quarters 9, in Police Headquarters 3, in 
Clubs 4. with no record of the others, except 
two troops, one of which met at a hospital, 
and the other at a library. 

In Birmingham, there were five hundred 
and fifty tenderfoot scouts, three hundred 
and forty-one, second class scouts, and forty 
first class scouts, with three hundred and thir- 
teen leaders and officials. In Mobile, there 
were ninety-five tenderfoot scouts, forty 
second class scouts, fifteen first class scouts, 
and eignteen sea scouts, with seventy-six lead- 
ers and officials. Therefore, one-third of 
the scouts in the State at this date, were in 
these two cities. The figures are not avail- 
able for Montgomery. 

Re^teeences. — 10th Annual Report Boy Scouts 
of America in Scoiiting, April 8, 1920; Mss. 
data in hands of Montgomery Executive. 


Child Welfare. 


BRAGG'S GYlVmASIUM. A former private 
school for boys and girls, located at Central, 
then in Coosa, now in Elmore County, 26 
miles from Montgomery and 12 from We- 
tumpka. It was originally founded as Cen- 
tral Southern Mechanical and Literary Insti- 
tute, and was chartered January 30, 1852. 
J. Bankston, W. C. Barnes, A. H. Hendricks, 
R. Edwards, J. A. Pylant, I. W. Suttle, L. 
Marberry, S. J. Thomas, W. T. Hatchett and 
J. W. Jeter were named as trustees. The 


trustees were given authority to "receive sub- 
scriptions for capital stock to create a lund 
for the support of schools and for the pur- 
chase of land and material necessarj' for me- 
chanical and manufacturing purposes to such 
extent as they decide to establish in the 
county of Coosa," stock subscriptions to be in 
shares of $5 0. They were given authority to 
make rules for their government and the 
government of the institution, and power to 
create offices, employ teachers and "super- 
intendents of mechanical department " lt3 
property was exempted from taxation. It 
was made unlawful to sell intoxicating liquor 
within 1 mile of the buildings erected either 
for school or labor. This incorporation was 
the outgrowth of steps taken at the seventh 
session of the Central Baptist Association, 
October 4, 1851, at which time it was decided 
to found a literary institution, the main pur- 
pose being to better prepare ministers for 
their work. At the meeting of the association 
in 1852 it was reported that the charter had 
been secured, and that plans had been made 
for a literary institution, combined with in- 
struction in the mechanic arts. The school 
was located on the old plank road, a little 
below Union Church. A brick building, three 
stories in height, 80 feet long and 40 feet 
wide, was erected. The first general agent of 
the institute, appointed by the association, 
was J. A. Pylant. The school opened in 1853. 
It appears to have been very well attended, 
with a good teaching force, but ii was never 
very prosperous and every year witnessed an 
increase in indebtedness, with which the 
trustees struggled, and which was regularly 
reported to the association. Failing to clear 
the indebtedness, and unwilling to continue 
the struggle longer, the trustees sold the 
property on the first Monday in February, 
1860, to Capt. Thomas C. Bragg for $4,025, 
his being the highest bid. One of the presi- 
dents during this period was Rev. A. T. 
Holmes, who served during 1856 and 1857. 
Another agent of the institution was W. B. W. 

On acquiring the property, Capt. Bragg an- 
nounced in his first catalogue that the school 
would open October 1. 1860. He stated that 
it was no longer a college, but a high school, 
preparing its pupils for college or for busi- 
ness life, and that it was best characterized 
by a name in use in continental Europe, 
known as Gymnasium. "Its classical and me- 
chanical courses of study will be as extensive 
as those of an ordinary college, and its scien- 
tific course as full as requisite for those who 
do not intend to enter the university." The 
war coming on, the principal and twenty-five 
of his older boys left in one day. Others fol- 
lowed, until the school was reduced to the 
very young boys and young women. Capt. 
Bragg commanded Company D, 17th Alabama 
Infantry Regiment. The school was closed 
during the session of 1861-62. Capt. 
Bragg's health failing, he was discharged, re- 
turned home and opened up his school in the 
fall of 1862. It was continued until the end 
of the session in 1867, when its doors were 
permanently closed on account of the ill 

health of Mrs. Bragg. The locality is still 
known as Central Institute. The influence of 
the institution and the methods of its prin- 
cipal were far reaching. 

Refeeences. — Acts. 1S51-52. pp. 370-371; cata- 
logs 1860-67; and Brewer, History of Central 
Association (1895), pp. 19-40. 

BRANTLEY. Incorporated town and sta- 
tion on the Central of Georgia Railroad, in 
the southern part of Crenshaw County. It 
is located on Conecuh River, about 25 miles 
southwest of Troy, and about 10 miles south 
of Luvern. Population: 1910 — 803. The town 
was incorporated by the legislature in Feb- 
ruary. 1895, with corporate limits extending 
" 1/2 mile in every direction from the public 
well, as a center." It was named for Hon. T. 
K. Brantley of Troy, one of its promoters. 
Brantley carries on a considerable trade 
with the surrounding rich agricultural region. 
Its newspaper is the Brantley Booster, a Dem- 
ocratic weekly, established in 1914. 

BREXAU, AI.ABAMA. A former high- 
grade private school for girls and young 
women, located at Eufaula; opened for stu- 
dents, September 27, 1905; and now closed. 
(See Union Female College.) 

Refeuexces. — Catalogues, 1905-1910. 

BREWTON. County seat of Escambia 
County, in the central part of the county, 
between Burnt Corn Creek and Murder Creek, 
on the main line of the Louisville & Nash- 
ville Railroad, between Montgomery and 
Mobile, about 75 miles northeast of Mobile, 
and 105 miles southwest of Montgomery. Al- 
titude: 85 feet. Population: 1880 — 550; 
1890—1,115; 1900 — 1,382; 1910 — 2,185; 
1916 — 5,000. It was incorporated by act of 
February 13, 1885, with corporate limits de- 
scribed as "bounded on the East by Murder 
Creek, on the West by Burnt Corn Creek, and 
shall extend 1 mile North, from the Court 
House in said town, in all directions between 
the said two creeks." It has municipally 
owned electric light plant, erected in 1897; 
waterworks, capacity 600 gallons per minute; 
fire department, with motor fire-truck; san- 
itary sewerage; 5 miles paved sidewalks, and 
public parks. The bank of Brewton (State), 
and the Citizens Bank (State) are located 
there. The Brewton Standard, established In 
1887, and the Pine Belt News, established in 
1894, both Democratic weekly newspapers, 
are published in the town. Its principal in- 
dustries are an oil mill, an ice plant, veneer 
mills, 3 feed mills, 2 gristmills, iron works, 
machine shops and foundry, 2 fertilizer fac- 
tories, a ginnery, cotton warehouses, sash, 
door and blinds factory, 2 sawmills, 2 plan- 
ing mills, 1 moulding mill, a box factory, and 
the city light and water plant. There are 4 
acres of park and playgrounds in the heart 
of the city. The Baptist, Methodist Episco- 
pal, South, Presbyterian, and Universalist 
churches have organizations and buildings in 
the town, and there are 10 negro churches 
of several denominations. The Brewton Col- 
legiate Institute, owned by the city, and in- 


eluding the grades of the usual public school, 
is free to all the children of the town. The 
Downing Industrial School for Girls is located 
within 1% miles of Brewton. and is fostered 
by the citizens. It was established and began 
operation in 1906. Located on 120 acres of 
good land the buildings, which cost $70,000, 
occupy a beautiful elevation. Among the 
early settlers of Brewton were the Downing, 
Tippin. Rabb, McGowan, Sowell, Hill, and 
Mathis families. 

References. — Berney, Handbook (1892), p. 
292: Brewer, Alabama (1872), p. 246; Northern 
Alabama (1888), p. 235; Polk's Alabama 
gazetteer. 1888-9, p. 233; Alabama Official and 
Statistical Register, 1915. 


former private school for boys and girls, lo- 
cated at Brewton; established 1887; burned 
in April, 1894; rebuilt; and now a part of 
the public schools of Brewton. 
References.— Cnia/of/Hcs, 1899-1908. 

BRICK. See Clays, Kaolins and Shales. 

BRIDGEPORT. Post office and incorpo- 
rated town, at the crossing of the Southern 
Railway and the Nashville, Chattanooga & 
St. Louis Railway, and on the Tennessee 
River, in the northeast corner of Jackson 
County. 3 8 miles northeast from Scottsboro. 
Population; 1910 — 2,125. Altitude: 662 
feet. The J. C. Jacobs Banking Co. (State) is 
located there, and the Bridgeport News, a 
Democratic weekly newspaper, established In 
1891, is published in the town. For years 
Bridgeport was at the head of navigation in 
the Tennessee River, but since the improve- 
ments at Muscle Shoals were made by the 
United States Government, steamboats go 
farther up the river. During the "boom" of 
1889-1894 a syndicate of eastern capitalists 
built a $100,000 hotel, which was later 
taken down and re-erected on the university 
grounds at Sewanee, Tenn. The Bridgeport 
Pipe Works, and the Gunter Stove Works 
are the principal industrial enterprises of the 

Reference. — Northern Alabama (1888), p. 92. 

BRIEBFIELD. Postoffice and mining 
town, on the Southern Railway in the east- 
ern part of Bibb County. It is located on 
the Little Cahaba River, near the Chilton 
County line; is in the richest part of the 
coal and iron ore desposits of Bibb County. 
It is also near valuable outcrops of marble 
and limestone. Altitude is 384 feet. Popu- 
lation in 1880 was 800; in 1910, 1000. 

This point was settled by a group of Gen- 
eral Jackson's soldiers under the leadership 
of J. Mahan, returning from the victory of 
New Orleans, to their homes in Tennessee. 
The Mahans, Fanchers, Massingales, Linzeys, 
Ragans and Smiths returned from Tennessee 
with their families and made their homes 
in the vicinity. Major Mahan's grave is in 
the old cemetery, on Joseph R. Smith's farm, 
today, and it bears date 1820. The group 
of pioneer settlers lived first in tents, and 

then in log houses. The old Mahan home is 
still standing on the site of the Indian town, 
which formerly occupied the present village 
site. The Mahans, father and sons, evident- 
ly were the first to discover the presence of 
coal at Brierfield. In 1851, Edward Mahan 
and Jonathan Ware sent an exhibit of iron, 
from their Bibb County forges to an exposi- 
tion at Sydenham, England. This iron took 
first prize over all charcoal iron "blooms," 
from many quarters of the world. 

In 1863, Jesse Mahan, son of Edward, 
donated his mines, furnace and rolling mill 
at Brierfield to the Confederate cause. The 
product of the Brierfield Furnace "astonished 
the world," and was used in making the great 
guns, both for land and naval use. It was 
pronounced "the best tor strength, malle- 
ability, fluxibility and fine texture of fibre." 
The Brierfield plant was destroyed in 1865, 
by Federal cavalry under Wilson. In 
Armes' "Story of Coal and Iron in Alabama" 
is a beautiful picture of the ruins of Brier- 
field, as left by the enemy. 

In 186 6, Brierfield was seized as contra- 
band of war and sold at auction. Frances 
Strother Lyon purchased the property and 
formed a company to reconstruct it, with 
Gen. Josiah Gorgas. Messrs. Crawford, Brow- 
der, Glover. Prout and Collins as associates. 
The company placed Giles Edwards in 
charge of the work. By 1868 the plant was 
in full blast, and known as The Strother 
Furnace, named in honor of the mother of 
Mr. Lyon. In 1873, the financial panic 
caused the furnace to close down until 1880. 

This property passed into the possession 
of T. J. Peter, who remodeled the furnace 
and rolling mill, built a large nail factory, 
coke ovens and a washer. 

References. — Armes, iitory of coal and iron 
in Alabama (1910), pp. 24, 25, 71, 144, 171, 194, 
204, 207, 326, 328, 499, 500. 

BRIGHTON. An incorporated mining 
town in the southern part of Jefferson 
County, just north of Bessemer, which is Its 
post office, and about 10 miles southwest of 
Birmingham, with which it is connected by 
an interurban electric car line. Population: 
1910 — 1,502. 

References. — Alabama Official and Statis- 
tical Register, 1915; U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 
Soil survey of Jefferson County (1910). 


high point or hill near the southwestern end 
of the low ridge between Choccolocco Val- 
ley (q. V.) and Buck Horn Valley. Its top 
is a mass of loose chert overlying a cherty, 
blue limestone that outcrops as a high, over- 
hanging bluff on the steep northwest side 
of the hill. There is a high bluff of quite 
pure gray limestone at the southwest end of 
the hill at a locality called Lime Hill Church. 
This stone has been used considerably, for 
example, in constructing culverts, waterways, 
etc., along the East Tennessee, Virginia & 
Georgia Railway, now the Southern Railway. 
The timber of the locality is mainly red cedar 
and walnut. 


Reference. — McCalley, Valley regions of Ala- 
bama, Pt. 2, Coosa Valley (Geol. Survey of Ala., 
Special report 9, 1897), p. 639. 

BROOKIjYN. Interior village and post- 
office, situated in S. E. corner of Conecuh 
county, on Sepulga river; about 100 miles 
E. N. E. of Mobile; 67 miles N. E. of Pen- 
sacola; 16 miles S. E. of Evergreen. Popu- 
lation: 1888, 300; 1912, 360. The first set- 
tler of Brooklyn was a man named Cameron, 
who established a ferry across Sepulga river. 
In 1820, Cameron sold out to Edwin Robin- 
son, of Brooklyn, Conn., who opened a store 
and named his settlement Brooklyn for his 
former homie. He was quickly joined by Dr. 
Milton Amos, for whom Milton, Pla., was 
named. Then came the families of George 
and Reuben Dean and Benjamine Hart. Alex- 
ander Travis erected a church in 1831, which 
later became famous as Old Beulah Baptist 
Church. A school was established by Mr. 
Scruggs. A grist mill was soon built; cotton 
was raised and shipped by keel-boat to Pensa- 
cola, via the Sepulga and Conecuh rivers. 
These boats were first introduced by George 
Stoneham, followed by Edwin Robinson, John 
and James Jones, Starke and Henry Hunter 
and Frank Boykin, and in 1823, three thou- 
sand bales of cotton were shipped by this 
method. Among the early settlers are also 
noted the Hart, Meek, Hodges, Mannin, Folk, 
Turk, Burson, A. T. Robinson, Horton, Lee, 
Halstead, Slaughter Feagin, and Stoneham 
families. In the first ten years of the settle- 
ment Thomas Medenhall established a hand- 
factory for producing chisels, augurs, cotton- 
cards, gins and spinning-wheelers. Turk's 
cave, a refuge for boats, is a natural cu- 
riosity of this region. 

BROOKSIDE. An incorporated mining 
town in the northwestern part of Jefferson 
County, on the Southern Railway, about 10 
miles northwest of Birmingham, and in the 
heart of the mineral district. Population: 
1890—380; 1900—658. It was chartered by 
the legislature, February 18, 1897, with ir- 
regular corporate limits. 

References. — Acts. 1896-97, pp. 1347-1360; 
Alabama Official and Statistical Register, 1915. 

BROOMTOWN VALLEY. A small valley, 
about 15 miles long and 5 miles wide, and 
about 75 square miles in area. It is geo- 
logically described as the northwestern and 
the tallest anticlinal fold of a broad unsym- 
metrical complex anticlinal between Lookout 
and Dirt Seller Mountains. Its strata, how- 
ever, extend several miles to the southwest to 
Round Mountain. As a whole It is a broken 
country, made up for the most part of an 
Irregular central belt of cherty ridges. Its 
best and most extensive farm lands are along 
its southeast edge. It is drained into the 
Coosa River. The valley proper lies wholly 
within Cherokee County. 

References. — McCalley, Valley regions of Ala- 
bama, Pt. 2, Coosa Valley (Geol. Survey of Ala., 
Special report 9, 1897), pp. 13-14. 

PLOYEES. See Insurance, Fraternal. 

MEN AND ENGINEMEN. See Insurance, 

BROWN'S VALLEY. A valley extending 
from the northern part of Blount County, 
northeastward through Marshall and Jack- 
son Counties, into the State of Tennessee, 
where it becomes the Sequatchee Valley. The 
total length in Alabama of the Brown and the 
Blountsville Valleys is more than 100 miles, 
the greatest wihth less than 5 miles. Geolog- 
ically Brown Valley Is a narrow trough 
scooped out of the top of an unsymmetrical 
anticlinal fold. The fold, as a round un- 
broken anticlinal ridge, is continuous for 
many miles to the southwest of where the 
valley stops. The Tennessee River follows 
the trough as far as Guntersville, where It 
breaks through the northwest barrier and 
flows to the northwest. For 25 miles south- 
west of Guntersville the valley is drained by 
Brown and Big Springs Creeks, which flow 
northeastward to the Tennessee River. The 
remainder of the southwest end of the valley 
is drained into the Mulberry Fork of the 
Black Warrior River. The topography of the 
entire valley exhibits even more plainly than 
that of the other valleys of the State, its 
dependence upon the character of the strata 
out of which the trough was eroded. The 
deep coves and gorges in the high mountain 
rims lend much to the variety of the scenery 
of this valley. The views from the tops of 
the bluffs around them are often wild and pic- 
turesque. Numberless springs of very cold 
water, usually chalybeate, but sometimes 
alum water, flow from the capping bluffs of 
the mountain rims. The steep mountain sides 
contain some caves and many lime sinks and 
big springs. The best known of the caves is 
Bangor Cave, and of the springs, perhaps the 
Big Spring southwest of Guntersville. Blount 
Springs Is situated in this valley. 

Its soils are light gray, siliceous; stiff mu- 
latto; black, waxy, clay loams; and red sandy 
loams, lying in long, narrow strips to con- 
form to the ridges and depressions or to the 
underlying strata. The timber is for the 
most part hardwood, with some short-leaf 
pine; and, to the northeast of Guntersville, 
some extensive cedar glades. The geological 
formations represented in the valley are the 
upper and lower Silurian, the Devonian, the 
upper and lower Subcarboniferous, and the 
Tertiary (Lafayette) strata. The average al- 
titude is over 600 feet. 

The valley was named for Col. Richard 
Brown, a celebrated Cherokee chief, whose 
home was at one time in its limits. Settlers 
came into it as early as 1816, but the Indians 
and the United States Government forbade 
their settling, so they continued farther south. 
By 1818, however, the valley had a mixed 
population of Cherokees, Creeks and whites. 

Among the valley's chief products are 
wheat and other grains, and various fruits, 
especially apples. Its lands are largely in 



possession of descendants of the first settlers, 
being in that respect somewhat unique among 
those of the mineral district. 

Among the earliest settlers were Alex Gil- 
brath. Jeremiah Vestal and J. H. Henderson; 
"Father Briggs," one of James Fenimore 
Cooper's heroes, also lived here. Thomas 
Davis, a notorious counterfeiter, who was 
caught and executed at Tuscaloosa in 1822, 
found refuge for a time in the valley. 

References. — Powell, "Blount County," in 
Ala. Hist. Society, Transactions. 1855; Northern 
Alabama (1888), p. 108; Brewer, Alabama 
(1872), p. 139; McCalley, Valley regions of Ala- 
bama. Pt. 1, Tennessee Valley region (Geol. Sur- 
vey of Ala., Special report 8, 1896), passim. 

BROWN'S VILLAGE. A Cherokee village 
founded about 1790, and situated on the west 
side of Brown's, or Thompson's Creek, in 
Marshall County near the site of the present 
village of Red Hill. It bore the name of its 
chief. Richard Brown, who was a man of 
note, in the old Cherokee Nation, and com- 
manded a company of friendly Cherokees 
under Gen. Andrew Jackson in the Creek 
War of 1813-14. This village was situated 
in a beautiful and fertile valley, now known 
as Brown's Valley, a name also derived from 
the same family. It was reached by two 
important Indian trails, one leading from 
Ditto's Landing (now Whitesburg) across 
Brindley Mountain, the other being the 
"Creek Path," a noted Indian trail leading 
from the Coosa, near Ten Islands, across 
Raccoon, or Sand Mountain and down 
Brown's Valley to the Shoals, in Tennessee 
River, on the farm of Judge Street and two 
miles below Guntersville, thence it extended 
into Middle Tennessee. About fifteen miles 
south of this village a branch trail turned 
off and led to the Creek Settlement of Middle 

References. — 0. D. Street, in Alabama History 
Commission, Report (1901), vol. 1, p. 416; Fos- 
ter, Life of Sequoyah (1885), p. 173; Ellis, Life 
of David Crockett (n. d.), pp. 30-36; Abbott, 
Life of Crockett (1874), pp. 98-107; Anderson, 
Memoirs of Catherine Broun (1825); and Ala- 
bama Historical Society, Transactions 1899-1903, 
vol. 4, p. 193. 

BRUNDIDGE. Post office and incorporated 
town in the southeastern part of Pike County, 
sec. 26, T. 9, R. 22, on the Atlantic Coast 
Line Railroad, 12 miles southeast of Troy. 
Altitude: 515 feet. Population: 1870 — 300; 
1880—300; 1900—537; 1910—815. The 
municipal government consists of mayor and 
board of aldermen. The Bank of Brundidge 
(State) is located there, and the Brundidge 
News, a Democratic weekly newspaper, estab- 
lished in 1898, is published in the town. It 
has a cottonseed oil mill, sawmill, gristmill, 
cotton ginneries, cotton warehouses, stores, 
etc. It has the Pike County High School, and 
public grammar schools. The Methodist 
Episcopal. South, Baptist, and Primitive Bap- 
tist denominations have churches in the town. 
Brundidge is located on the old stagecoach 
road from Troy to Dale County, and was long 

known as Collier's Store, but changed to 
Brundidge, in honor of an early settler. 

Among the early settlers were G. C. Col- 
lier, first merchant; Dr. John Kendall Knox 
and Dr. John Russell first physicians; Rev. 
Anthony S. Dickinson, Methodist, and Rev. 
J. M. Macon, Baptist, first preachers; Prof. 
Johnson, Prof. Carr and Prof. Priest, early 
teachers; John Crumpton, T. J. Pierson, W. J. 
Seay, and the Nicholson, Carr, Dinkins, Mc- 
Swain, Williams, Carlisle, Faulk, Reid, Wood, 
Hendricks and Fleming families. Many of 
them were well-to-do and of a high order of 
intelligence and culture. Several of them 
owned and cultivated large plantations, rais- 
ing cotton, sugar-cane, corn, peanuts, melons, 
fruits, etc., and cattle and hogs were produced 
in abundance. It is still a cane-growing sec- 
tion and markets much syrup, besides large 
quantities of peanuts sold to manufacturers 
of oil. 

References.— Brewer, Alabama (1872), p. 
505; Polk's Alabama gazetteer, 1888-9, p. 239. 

BRYCE HOSPITAL. See Insane Hos- 

See Cotton Manufacturing. 

commission composed of the governor, the 
attorney general and the State auditor, all 
ex-officio, created by act of February 11, 
1919. The governor is chairman of the com- 
mission. It is the duty of the commission 
to prepare and submit to the legislature, a 
complete plan of proposed expenditures and 
estimated revenues of the State for each 
quadrennial period. The expenditures sub- 
mitted cover the appropriations, itemized 
and in detail, of the amounts required by 
every State office, department, commission, 
bureau, board and institution, and for all 
other expenditures necessary for the ongo- 
ing of the State government under the con- 
stitution and laws. 

In determining the amounts to be included 
in the budget, meetings are to be held, and 
if necessary officers and heads of institutions 
may be heard in support of the amounts esti- 
mated by them. To finally enable the com- 
mission to properly ascertain the facts neces- 
sary for its work and recommendations, its 
members of other duly accredited represen- 
tatives, acting under their instructions, may 
inspect without notice the affairs of any of- 
fice, department, commission, institution or 
public work, and in connection therewith 
may compel the attendance and testimony of 
witnesses, and may compel the production of 
books and papers. 

On or before the first day of April, 1919, 
and thereafter on or before the 15th of Oc- 
tober, quadrennially, beginning in 1922, 
every State officer or head of department, or 
board or commission in charge of a State 
institution is required to file with the budget 
commission, "an estimate in itemized form 
in detail, of the amounts required by such 
State office, department, board, commission 



or institution, for the proper support and 
maintenance, extension or improvement, of 
the work of said office, department, board, 
commission or institution, for the next suc- 
ceeding quadrennial period beginning with 
the first day of October, together with an 
estimate of the probable revenues of said 
office from all sources, including assess 
and license or other fees for said quad- 
rennium; also a statement showing the rev- 
enues and expenditures for the last preced- 
ing quadrennial period; all of which shall 
be arranged in proper manner and made in 
such form as the budget commission shall 
prescribe. The auditor is required after the 
same period to furnish to the commission 
statements, showing (1) the balances to the 
credit of the several appropriations each de- 
partment and institution tor the last fiscal 
year, (2) the revenues and expenditures from 
all the appropriation accounts in the twelve 
months of the last fiscal year, (3) the an- 
nual revenues and expenditures of each ap- 
propriation account for each of the last four 
fiscal years. 

The results of its investigations are to 
be submitted to the commission as a budget 
for the next ensuing four years. It is to be 
accompanied by bills for all proposed appro- 
priations by the budget, clearly itemized and 
classified, and it is made the duty of the gov- 
ernor to secure the introduction of these bills 
in each house as soon as practicable. Author- 
ity is given the commission through its chair- 
man to present amendments and supple- 
ments to the bills or recommendations sub- 
mitted, and when presented as by law, such 
amendments or supplements become part of 
the budget bill as it is originally introduced 
in connection therewith. 

In addition to considering the needs of 
offices, departments and institutions, it is 
made its further duty to consider and make 
recommendations as to claims of persons 
against the State, and for the adjustment of 
which legislative action is demanded. The 
first session of the commission was special- 
ly required to consider and report recom- 
mendations for further relief to needy Con- 
federate veterans. 

In a joint resolution of the legislature, a 
special joint committee of two from the sen- 
ate and three from the house was authorized 
to sit with the 1919 session of the budget 
commission "to investigate the financial con- 
dition and needs of the State, and its several 
departments, and to act with and assist said 
State Budget Commission in any manner 
that may be found necessary in order to 
carry out the purpose of said State Budget 
Commission, so as to be able to report to the 
adjourned session of the legislature a well 
defined financial plan for the State, the ob- 
jects and amounts of expenditures, the 
source and yield of revenues, and the way 
the expenditures and revenues are made to 

Legislative Procedui-e. — After the budget 
commission has communicated its recommen- 
dations, accompanied by bills as required, 
they are to be referred to appropriate com- 

mittees. These committees sit jointly In 
considering the budget. These meetings are 
public and all persons interested in the esti- 
mates under consideration may be admitted 
and heard. Any members of the budget com- 
mission may also be present and may be 
heard. Neither house is authorized to con- 
sider any other appropriations other than 
those recommended except "an emergency 
appropriation for the immediate expense of 
the legislature, until the budget has been 
finally acted upon by both houses. Every 
appropriation in addition to those provided 
for in the budget will be embodied in a 
separate bill, and will be limited to some 
single work, object or purpose," and "no 
supplementary appropriation will be valid 
or treated as valid if it, added to the appro- 
priations made and authorized in the budget 
bills, exceeds the revenues from taxes, fees 
and other sources, for the next ensuing quad- 
rennium as estimated in the budget." The 
foregoing legislative regulations are deemed 
under the law as rules of procedure to be 
observed by the two houses in dealing with 
the budget bills. A further restriction is 
provided as follows: "The legislature will 
not alter said bills except to strike out or 
reduce items therein, unless by a vote of two- 
thirds of the members elected in both 
houses," but appropriations for the principal 
or interest on the public debt are not to be 
reduced or eliminated. 

Regulation of Expenditures and Account- 
ing. — The appropriations having once been 
made are to be specifically expended as speci- 
fied. No transfer of funds from one account 
to another are to be made, "except upon the 
written request of the chief officer or officers 
of such State office, department, commission, 
board or institution, to the budget commis- 
sion, which request will be granted in writing 
by the budget commission, if in its judgment 
such a transfer of funds is deemed necessary 
or expedient. 

At the end of each quadrennium all unex- 
pended balances are re-appropriated to the 
several State offices and institutions "for the 
full period of one calendar month after the 
last day of September, to be used only to 
liquidate liabilities incurred and unpaid 
prior to the last day of September of the 
quadrennium, according to the schedule, 
which must be prepared by each State of- 
ficer, department, commission, board or in- 
stitution, which shall show the actual lia- 
bility existing," and after the expiration of 
the said calendar month, "any and all un- 
expended balances shall revert to the State 
treasury. All offices and institutions are re- 
quired to keep "a book or books showing 
in detail every credit, disbursement and re- 
ceipt, if any, and shall keep on file a dupli- 
cate of every voucher certified to the auditor 
for payment, and shall monthly compare his 
accounts with the account kept in the office 
of the auditor." 

The auditor is required to keep a set of 
books in which shall be exhibited in con- 
densed form "in the manner most easily in- 
telligible to the average citizen, the expenses 



of the State government by fiscal years for 
each of the activities undertaken by the 
State, the expenses of each department and 
division of the government under each of the 
principal items of expenditure and a sum- 
mary thereof, the said books to be open for 
inspection by the public at all convenient 
times." Typewritten abstracts of these books 
are to be prepared and furnished the public 
press at the close of each fiscal year. 

History. — Until the session of the legisla- 
ture of 1915, agitation for the establishment 
of the budget system had not taken definite 
shape in Alabama, although it had been dis- 
cussed in the press, and on the part of pub- 
lic men from time to time. In the report 
of the legislative investigating committee to 
the legislature of 1915, a bill accompanied 
the report but it failed of passage, notwith- 
standing in a special message. Governor 
Charles Henderson urged the importance of 
such a measure. 

The further history of the subject in this 
State is to be found in the following extract 
from the report. "There exists in Alabama 
no well defined plan for presenting to the 
legislature the needs of the several State 
offices, departments, commissions, bureaus, 
boards and the several State institutions. 
It is the practice for State officers and heads 
of departments and State institutions, 
through some friend in the legislature, to 
present bills for such appropriations as may 
by them be deemed necessary. The presenta- 
tion of such bills is usually followed by 
more or less activity akin to lobbying for the 
purpose of bringing about favorable legisla- 
tion and appropriations. In the hurly-burly 
of a short legislative session, the result is 
that appropriations do not receive the neces- 
sary consideration. The consideration that 
is given is not supported by any intelligent 
advice or investigation, the result being that 
the department, interest or institution which 
has the most Influential friends present ob- 
tains the largest appropriation without ref- 
erence to the relation the several depart- 
ments bear to each other or the State. 

"Alabama can never enter on a high plane 
In the conduct of its business affairs until 
some more rational and business-like system 
is devised. Throughout the country what is 
known as the budgetory laws are coming to 
be considered by way of meeting the objec- 
tions described above. A budget has been 
defined as, 'the financial statement of the 
government for a definite period which re- 
veals in details the objects and amount of 
expenditure, the source and yield of rev- 
enues, and the way the expenditures and 
revenues are made to balance.' It properly 
includes estimates both of revenues as well 
as of expenditures. In a recent official pub- 
lication of the State of Ohio it is declared 
that 'the wisdom of preparing a State bud- 
get of expenses and submitting the same to 
the general assembly is unquestioned. It is 
the only scientific method of obtaining econ- 
omy in State expenditures.' 

"In foreign countries this system has long 
been in force. We find state budget laws in 

force at the present time in California, 1909; 
Illinois, 1913; Indiana, 1901; Kansas, 1909; 
Montana, 1907; North Carolina, 1908; Ohio, 
1913; Rhode Island, 1909; and Wisconsin, 
1911. It is also noted in their messages to 
the legislatures of 1915, the governors of the 
States of Alabama, Colorado, Massachusetts, 
Michigan, Minnesota, Nevada, New York, 
North Dakota, Tennessee, Washington and 
West Virginia urge state budget laws. 

"These laws vary in detail but all of them 
uniformly require the preparation in advance 
of the session of the legislature of a carefully 
worked out statement, setting forth with par- 
ticularity the support currently allowed the 
several subjects receiving state appropria- 
tions, together with detailed estimates of all 
needed appropriations for the future, with 
full explanations as to increases or decreases. 

"Section 7 of our state constitution con- 
tains the following provision: 'All bills for 
raising revenue shall originate in the House 
of Representative. The governor, auditor 
and attorney general shall before each reg- 
ular session of the legislature prepare a gen- 
eral revenue bill to be submitted to the leg- 
islature for its information, and the secretary 
of state shall have printed for the use of the 
legislature a sufficient number of the copies 
of the bill so prepared, which the governor 
shall transmit to the House of Representa- 
tives as soon as organized, to be used or dealt 
with as that house shall elect.' This consti- 
tutional provision has served very little prac- 
tical purpose. Section 123 contains the fol- 
lowing, among other things, which the gov- 
ernor is instructed to communicate to the 
legislature: 'At the commencement of each 
regular session, he shall present to the legis- 
lature estimates of the amount of money re- 
quired to be raised by taxation for all pur- 
poses.' In another part of the same section, 
the governor is required to 'give to the leg- 
islature information with respect to the state 
of the government.' It will be noted that 
these constitutional provisions read together 
include recommendations not only with ref- 
erence to the revenues but also with refer- 
ence to the expenditures, both actual and pro- 
posed. They should be aided by statutory 

References. — General Laws, 1919, pp. 33, 67, 
111; Alabama Legislature, Leytslative Docu- 
ment. No. 13, 15, p. 5; Gov. Charles Hender- 
son, Message in reference to budget system, in 
Legislative Document, No. 1, 1919, 1915. 

BUILDING STONES. There are ample 
quantities of limestones, sandstones, granites 
and other igneous rocks, and sands for build- 
ing purposes situated in various parts of the 
State. The best of the limestones are found 
in the lower Carboniferous formations of the 
Tennessee Valley, in Franklin. Colbert and 
Marshall Counties especially. The stone from 
the Rockwood quarries in Franklin County Is 
of the general quality of the Indiana lime- 
stones, but is more durable and less affected 
by weathering. The limestones of the Tren- 
ton formation also have been quarried in 
many places in Bibb, Shelby, Jefferson, St. 


Clair, Talladega, Calhoun, DeKalb and Eto- 
wah Counties. These stones have been used 
in the construction of locks and dams on the 
Coosa River, while the lower Carboniferous 
limestone has been used in the locks of the 
Tennessee River. 

In the Coastal Plain of southern Alabama 
some of the materials from the lower Clai- 
borne (Tertiary) formation, especially an 
aluminous sandstone, have been utilized as 
rough building stones. The St. Stephens 
limestone has also been so used. This forma- 
tion holds some beds of rock, many feet in 
thickness, which is called "Chimney Rock," 
from one of the principal uses made of it. 
This is a soft, somewhat chalky white rock, 
almost pure carbonate of lime, which is quar- 
ried by cross-cut saw, and shaped with saw, 
hatchet and plane. This rock, though soft, 
it well adapted to the construction of chim- 
neys and fire-places, some of them being in 
a perfect state of preservation after 5 years. 

Some of the sandstones •of the Coal Meas- 
ures make excellent building stones, though 
as yet little used for that purpose. Some of 
the locks on the Warrior River were con- 
structed of sandstone from quarries in the 
immediate vicinity along the river banks, and 
loose stone from these quarries has been 
used for rip-rap work in connection with Gov- 
ernment improvements on the Warrior and 
Tombigbee Rivers. 

Large quantities of granites and other 
igneous rocks exist in the counties of Lee, 
Tallapoosa, Chambers, Randolph, Elmore, 
Chilton, Coosa, Cleburne, and Clay, conven- 
iently located for quarrying. The granites 
outcrop in "flat-rocks," which are low, dome- 
like masses of naked rock, sometimes 200 
acres or more in extent. The largest areas 
are near Almond post office, in Randolph; 
near Blakes Ferry, and Rock Mills, and We- 
dowee, in the same county; near Milltown, in 
Chambers; southwest of Roxana, and along 
Sougahatchee Creek in Lee. With the mas- 
sive granites are associated the gneisses, both 
excellent building stones, and also suitable 
for monuments. The factories, dams, and 
bridge piers at Tallassee and vicinity have 
been constructed of the gneissoid granite, 
which forms the bed and banks of the Talla- 
poosa River there. Some use has been made 
of the granite about Wedowee, in Randolph, 
at Rockford and other places in Coosa, for 
the construction of culverts, bridge founda- 
tions, etc. 

Sands suitable for building uses are ob- 
tained from loose beds overlying the forma- 
tions from which they are derived, from the 
drifted sands along water courses, from the 
stratified sands of some of the newer forma- 
tions, and from the harder sandstones of the 
older formations. The best of them are ob- 
tained by crushing the friable sandstones of 
the older formations, especially of the lower 
Carboniferous (Oxmoor) division. The ma- 
terial used in the glass works at Gate City, 
analyzing 9 9 per cent silica, is from this 
source. Sandstones of the Coal Measures and 
of the Weisner formation are also suitable 
for builders' use, and the Tuscaloosa division 

of the Lower Cretaceous contains an unlim- 
ited supply of sands of every grade. In the 
upper formation of the Cretaceous, the Rip- 
ley, there are many beds of excellent sands, 
some suitable for glass making, those In the 
vicinity of Linden, Marengo County, for ex- 
ample. The Tertiary formation contains beds 
of fine sands, of which those in the vicinity 
of Gaston in Sumter County are representa- 
tive; and in the territory covered by the 
Grand Gulf formation, there are extensive 
beds of all grades, in Washington, Mobile, 
Baldwin, Escambia, Covington, Geneva, Dale, 
Henry, and Houston Counties. The Lafayette 
formation, which mantles the entire Coastal 
Plain, is prevalently a sand and pebble forma- 
tion. The sands usually are ferruginous, but 
in many places are suitable for building pur- 

References. — Smith and McCalley, Index to 
mineral resources of Alabama (Geol. Survey of 
Ala., Bulletin 9, 1904), pp. 66-69; U. S. Geol. 
Survey, Mineral resources of the United States, 
1888, pp. 520-521; IMd, 1889-1890, p. 377; Ibid, 
1902, pp. 665-701; IMd, 1914, pt. 2, pp. 819-891, 
with bibliography. 

BULLOCK COUNTY. Created by the legis- 
lature. December 5, 1866, but at the same 
session, February 8, 1867, its boundaries 
were rearranged. Its territory was taken 
from Barbour. Macon, Montgomery and Pike 
counties. The county contains 610 square 
miles, or 390,400 acres. 

It was named in honor of Col. Edward C. 
Bullock, of Barbour County, colonel of the 
18th Alabama Infantry Regiment, C. S. A., 
who died later in the War. 

The act establishing the county named 
James T. Norman, Joel T. Crawford and Ma- 
lachi Ivey as commissioners to hold an elec- 
tion for officers, and also to hold an election 
for the selection of a county seat. These 
elections were held in 1867, and Union 
Springs was chosen (q. v.). 

liOcation and Physical Description. — It lies 
in the southeastern section of Alabama, south 
of Macon and Montgomery counties, bounded 
on the east by Russell and Barbour, on the 
south by Barbour and Pike, and on the west 
by Pike and Montgomery counties. Chunnen- 
nuggee Ridge divides "the county into two 
parts. This ridge is an important physio- 
graphic feature, forming the watershed of 
three river systems. It also separates the 
two main topographic divisions of the 
county, that is. the "prairie region" or north- 
ern section, and the "sandy-lands region" to 
the south. North of the ridge is a belt of low 
hills and irregular ridges with a network of 
V-shaped valleys and wet weather streams. 
This is locally known as the "hill-prairie" 
country. The true prairie lies to the south, 
and its typical development from Union 
Springs northwestward to the Montgomery 
county line is one of low relief. The eleva- 
tions along the Central of Georgia Railway 
vary from 260 to about 530 feet above sea 
level. High Ridge in the southwest section 
is apparently the highest point, and the place 
where Line Creek leaves the county is prob- 


ably the lowest. The drainage is mainly 
through the several cracks forming the head- 
waters of the Conecuh and Pea rivers, and 
several bold streams flowing northward 
through Macon County into the Tallapoosa 
River. The headwaters of Cowikee Creek are 
also in this county. The first and second 
bottoms comprise soils of alluvial origin. 
Thirty-two soil types, representing 17 differ- 
ent series, with the miscellaneous classifica- 
tion meadow, are found in the county. These 
soils cover a wide range and are all capable 
of a widely diversified agriculture. The forest 
growth consists of longleaf pine and short 
leaf pine, spruce, hickory, the several species 
of oak, cedar, gum, maple, birch, willow, 
magnolia and dogwood. The mean annual 
temperature is about 65° P. The winters are 
mild, with occasional frosts, and snow flur- 
ries. The average annual precipitation is 
about 54 inches. 

Aboriginal history. — While evidences of ab- 
original occupancy are met with in a few in- 
stances, no positive locations of Indian towns 
can be made. Tchona nagi, an Upper Creek 
village, was located in the county, giving its 
name to Chunnennuggee Ridge, but location 
and other details are wanting. The territory 
of the county includes few large streams, and 
is in the extreme southern section of the 
Upper Creek territory. It was evidently not 
very thickly peopled. Mounds are found on 
the plantation of J. H. Fielder, 10 miles from 
Union Springs. Village sites are recorded 
near the Central of Georgia Railway, between 
Union Springs and Guerryton, and some on 
the road to Eufaula, but the latter is doubt- 
less of Lower Creek affiliation. 

Settlement and Later History. — The early 
history of the county is identified with that 
of the counties from which it was formed. 
Settlement followed the final Creek cession 
of 1832. An excellent citizenship filled its 
rich lands, coming from other states as well 
as from adjacent counties. Handsome homes 
were located on the plantations and in the 
nearby villages. 

In January, 1837, the Creek Indians then 
being removed from the country, committed 
some depredations, which brought about an 
engagement between them and the whites, 
about three miles west of Midway, then in 
Barbour, but now in this county. One white 
man, Walter Patterson, was killed, and Judge 
W. R. Cowan lost his left arm. A few others 
were slightly wounded, and several horses 
were killed. General William Wellborn was 
in command. It is not known that any In- 
dians were killed. 

Agricultural Statistics. — From U. S. Cen- 
sus, 1910: 

Farms and Farmers. 
Number of all farms, 4,726. 
Color and nativity of farmers: 

Native white, 66 9. 

Foreign-born white, 1. 

Negro and other nonwhite, 4,056. 
Number of farms, classified by size: 

Under 3 acres, 2. 

3 to 9 acres, 117. 

10 to 19 acres, 242. 
20 to 49 acres, 2,617. 
50 to 99 acres, 1,163. 
100 to 174 acres, 358. 
175 to 259 acres, 106. 
260 to 499 acres, 86. 
500 to 999 acres, 27. 
1,000 acres and over, 8. 

Land and Farm Area. 
Approximate land area, 390,400 acres. 
Land in farms, 297,384 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 220,247 acres. 
Woodland in farms, 48,327 acres. 
Other unimproved land in farms, 28,810 

Value of Farm Property. 
All farm property, $5,393,925. 

Land, $3,287,789. 

Buildings, $865,704. 

Implements and machinery, $265,045. 

Domestic animals, poultry, and bees, 
Average values: 

All property per farm, $1,141. 

Land and buildings per farm, $879. • 

Land per acre, $11.06. 

Domestic Animals (Farms and Ranges). 
Farms reporting domestic animals, 4,406. 
Domestic animals, $1,009,680. 
Cattle: total, 15,428; value, $212,800. 

Dairy cows only, 6,069. 
Horses: total, 1,686; value, $163,775. 
Mules: total, 4,304; value, $570,910. 
Asses and burros: total, 4; value, $430. 
Swine: total, 18,327; value, $60,364. 
Sheep: total, 368; value, $1,143. 
Goats: total, 359; value, $258. 

Poultry and Bees. 
All poultry, 66,323; value, $22,703. 
Bee colonies, 1,197; value, $3,004. 

Farms Operated by Owners. 
Number of farms, 504. 

Per cent of all farms, 10.7. 
Land in farms, 79,117 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 42,712 acres. 
Land and buildings, $1,079,927. 
Farms of owned land only, 458. 
Farms of owned and hired land, 46. 
Native white owners, 337. 
Foreign-born white, 1. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 166. 

Farms Operated by Tenants. 
Number of farms, 4,210. 

Per cent of all farms, 89.1. 
Land in farms, 207,624 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 174,354 acres. 
Land and buildings, $2,878,286. 
Share tenants, 1,362. 
Share-cash tenants, 134. 
Cash tenants, 2,634. 
Tenure not specified, 80. 
Native white tenants, 321. 
Foreign-born white, 0. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 3,889. 



Farms Operated by Managers. 
Number of farms, 12. 
Land in farms, 10,643 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 3,181 acres. 
Value of land and buildings, $195,280. 

Live Stock Products. 


Milk: Produced, 761,308; sold, 8,540 gal- 

Cream sold, gallons. 

Butter fat sold, pounds. 

Butter: Produced, 247,445; sold, 26,755 

Cheese: Produced, 0; sold, pounds. 

Dairy products, excluding home use of milk 
and cream, $56,247. 

Sale of dairy products, $9,264. 


Poultry: Number raised, 162,547; sold, 

Eggs: Produced, 212,240; sold, 51,602 

Poultry and eggs produced, $7 4,138. 

Sale of Poultry and eggs, $17,766. 


Honey produced, 12,929 pounds. 

Wax produced, 284 pounds. 

Value of honey and wax produced, $1,409. 


Wool, fleeces shorn, 208. 

Mohair and goat hair, fleeces shorn, 0. 

Wool and mohair produced, $167. 

Domestic Animals Sold or Slaughtered. 
Calves — Sold or slaughtered, 147. 
Other cattle — Sold oi 
Horses, mules, and ass 

Swine — Sold or slaughtered, 6,826. 

Sheep and goats — Sold or slaughtered, 137. 

Sale of animals, $40,360. 

Value of animals slaughtered, $68,568. 

YaUie of All Crops. 
Totals, $2,280,643. 
Cereals, $350,898. 
Other grains and seeds, $25,931. 
Hay and forage, $15,542. 
Vegetables, $100,419. 
Fruits and nuts, $38,598. 
All other crops, $1,749,255. 

Selected Crops (Acres and Quantity). 
Cereals: total, 57,336 acres; 394,834 

Corn, 53,364 acres; 343,960 bushels. 

Oats, 3,971 acres; 50,864 bushels. 

Wheat, acres; — bushels. 

Rye, 1 acre; 10 bushels. 

Kafir corn and milo maize, acres; — 

Rice, acres; — bushels. 
Other grains: 
Dry peas, 2,108 acres; 13,401 bushels. 

Dry edible beans, acres; — bushels. 

Peanuts, 622 acres; 10,434 bushels. 
Hay and forage: total, 1,001 acres; 1,185 

slaughtered, 2,708. 
s and burros — Sold, 

All tame or cultivated grasses, 695 
acres; 856 tons. 

Wild, salt, or prairie grasses, 220 acres; 
256 tons. 

Grains cut green, 70 acres; 51 tons. 

Coarse forage, 16 acres; 28 tons. 
Special crops: 

Potatoes, 25 acres; 1,261 bushels. 

Sweet potatoes and yams, 1,02 2 acres; 
64,535 bushels. 

All other vegetables, 1,128 acres. 

Tobacco, 50 acres; 107,509 pounds. 

Cotton, 107,099 acres; 21,446 bales. 
Cane — sugar, 627 acres; 5,211 tons. 

Sirup made, 56,979 gallons. 
Cane — sorghum, 124 acres; 736 tons. 

Sirup made, 7,327 gallons. 

Fruits and Nuts. 
Orchard fruits: total, 194,128 trees; 25,- 
585 bushels. 

Apples, 4,163 trees; 1,200 bushels. 
Peaches and nectarines, 187,548 trees; 

23,259 bushels. 
Pears, 773 trees; 753 bushels. 
Plums and prunes, 1,535 trees; 323 

Cherries, 14 trees; bushels. 
Quinces, 1 tree; bushels. 
Grapes, 111 vines; 2,250 pounds. 
Tropical fruits: total, 1,708 trees. 
Figs, 597 trees; 14,271 pounds. 
Oranges, trees; — boxes. 
Small fruits: total, 1 acre; 482 quarts. 

Strawberries, 1 acre; 432 quarts. 
Nuts: total, 2,899 trees; 16,536 pounds. 
Pecans, 2,878 trees; 16,436 pounds. 

Laior, Fertilizer and Feed. 
Labor — Farms reporting, 1,829. 

Cash expended, $121,259. 

Rent and board furnished, $43,462. 
Fertilizer — Farms reporting, 2,427. 

Amount expended, $122,746. 
Feed — Farms reporting, 1,384. 

Amount expended, $57,774. 
Receipts from sale of feedable crops, 

Domestic Anim,als Not on Farms. 
Inclosures reporting domestic animals, 459. 
Value of domestic animals, $71,633. 
Cattle: total, 1,067; value, $18,003. 

Number of dairy cows, 438. 
Horses: total, 273; value, $39,169. 
Mules and asses and burros: total, 78; 
value, $12,230. 

Swine: total, 485; value, $2,216. 
Sheep and goats: total, 15; value, $15. 

Population. — Statistics from decennial pub- 
lications of the U. S. Bureau of the Census. 
White Negro Total 

1870 7223 17251 24474 

1880 6944 22119 29063 

1890 6055 21005 27063 

1900 5846 26097 31944 

1910 4833 25362 30196 

Post Offices and Towns. — Revised to De- 
cember 31, 1916, from U. S. Official Postal 

Commanding volunteer forces in Creek In- 
dian War of 1813 

Chief of Staff of Gen. Jackson 


Guide. Figures indicate the number of rural 
routes from that office. 
Fitzpatrick — 2 Peachburg 

Guerryton Perote — 3 

Iverness — 2 Suspension 

James — 2 Thompson — 1 

Midway — 1 Three Notch — 2 

Mitchell Station Union Springs (ch) — 3 


Delegates to Constitutional Conventions. — 

1867 — William H. Black. 
1875 — Richard H. Powell, Dr. George W. 

1901 — D. S. Bethune, James D. Norman. 

Senators. — 

1868 — B. F. Royal. 
1871-2 — B. F. Royal. 
18 7 2-3 — B. F. Royal. 
1873— B. F. Royal. 
1874-5 — B. F. Royal. 
1875-6 — B. F. Royal. 
187 6-7 — I. A. Wilson. 
1878-9—1. A. Wilson. 
1880-1 — J. T. Norman. 
1882-3 — J. T. Norman. 
1884-5 — J. T. Norman. 
1886-7 — E. H. Cabaniss. 
1888-9— C. W. Rumph. 
1890-1 — J. H. Reynolds. 
1892-3 — J. H. Reynolds. 
1894-5—1. F. Culver. 
1896-7— D. S. Bethune. 
1898-9 — 0. W. Thompson. 
1899 (Spec.) — C. W. Thompson. 
1900-01 — C. W. Thompson. 
1903 — Thomas Sidney Frazer. 
1907 — H. P. Merritt. 
1907 (Spec.) — H. P. Merritt. 
1909 (Spec.) — H. P. Merritt. 
1911 — T. S. Frazer. 
1915 — O. S. Lewis. 
1919 — S. C. Cowan. 

Representatives. — 

1868 — D. H. Hill; D. A. McCall (to suc- 
ceed Hill). 

18 69-70 — D. H. Hill: D. A. McCall. 

1870-1 — George M. Drake; Lawrence 

1871-2 — George M. Drake; D. A. McCall; 
L. S. Speed. 

1872-3 — C. H. Davis; Perry Matthews; L. 
S. Speed. 

1873 — C. H. Davis; Perry Matthews; L. S. 

1874-5 — G. W. Allen; P. Matthews; C. 

1875-6 — G. W. Allen; P. Matthews; C. 

1876-7 — Grove Caldwell; G. D. Rodgers. 

1878-9— G. Caldwell; I. F. Culver. 

1880-1 — J. T. Armstrong; R. H. Powell. 

1882-3 — J. F. Armstrong; R. H. Powell. 

1884-5— J. H. Reynolds; W. C. Jordan. 

1886-7 — S. T. Frazer; J. H. Reynolds. 

1888-9 — N. B. Powell; George Stowers. 

1890-1 — N. B. Powell; W. C. Hufman. 

1892-3 — L. J. Biggers; N. N. Cox. 

1894-5 — George Williams; Chas. L. Jinks. 

1896-7 — J. T. Flewellen; Geo. Harris. 

1898-9 — J. T. Flewellen; George Jones. 

1899 (Spec.) — J. T. Flewellen; George 

1900-01 — M. M. Baldwin; N. P. Powell. 

19 03 — John Knox Franklin; Norbonne 
Berkley Powell. 

1907 — N. B. Powell; S. P. Rainer. 

1907 (Spec.) — N. B. Powell; S. P. Rainer. 

1909 (Spec.) — N. B. Powell; S. P. Rainer. 

1911 — J. E. Jenkins; M. E. Pruett. 

1915— J. M. Ellis; P. W. Carlisle. 

1919 — J. M. Ellis; N. Lewis, Jr. 
References.— Arts, 1866-67, pp. 65-68; 363- 
364; Brewer, Alabama, p. 143; Berney, Hand- 
book (1892), p. 271; Riley, Alabama as it is 
(1S93), p. 184; Northern Alabama (1888), p. 
184; Alabama, 1909 (Ala. Dept. of Ag. and Ind., 
Bulletin 27), p. 79; U. S. Soil Survey (1915), 
with map; Alabama land book (1916), p. 44; 
Ala. Official and Statistical Register, 1903-1915, 
5 vols.; Ala. Anthropological Society, Hand- 
book (1910); Geol. Survey of Ala., Agricultural 
features of the State (1883); The Valley re- 
gions of Alabama, parts 1 and 2 (1896, 1897), 
and Underground Water resources of Alabama 
(1907); U. S. Bureau of the Census, Abstract 
of the 13th Census, with supplement for Ala- 
bama (1913). 

BURGESS' TOWN. The name of two 
former Lower Creek towns presumably so 
called for one Burgess, a white trader who 
was assigned to Yufala, located in the north- 
ern part of the present Barbour County. The 
location of these towns is uncertain but is 
assumed to be in the vicinity. Burgess was a 
considerable trader, and had a number of 

References. — Gatschet, Misc. Coll. Ala. Hist. 
Soc. (1901), vol. 1, p. 394. 

BURNT CORN CREEK. A creek in Es- 
cambia County, tributary to the Conecuh 
River. The name is derived from a "large 
spring, which bursts from beneath the hill 
below the village" of the same name. The 
spring is situated on the old Pensacola trail, 
and was a noted camping round during early 
Indian times. Near the spring, also known 
as Burnt Corn, in the early years of the 
nineteenth century, lived the noted Creek In- 
dian half-breed, James Cornells. He is au- 
thority for the statement that the name was 
given because of the finding of a pile of 
charred or burned corn at the spring, left 
there by a sick Indian. Many of the hostile 
Creek Indians wounded at Fort Mims died at 
Burnt Corn Spring. Near the crossing of 
the creek and the old Pensacola trail, July 
27, 1813, the Burnt Corn Fight, the first en- 
gagement of the Creek Indian War of 1813- 
14, took place. 

References. — Riley, History of Conecuh 
County (1881), pp. 62-63; Pickett, History of 
Alabama (Owen's ed., 1900), p. 539. 

BURNT CORN FIGHT. The first engage- 
ment between the pioneer settlers in the 
southern part of what is now Alabama, and 
the hostile Creek Indians, during the Creek 



Indian War of 1813-14. It occurred July 27, 
1813, near Burnt Corn Creek, in the northern 
part of the present Escambia County. 

In the early summer of 1813, large num- 
bers of disaffected Creeks assembled at the 
Holy Ground on the Alabama River, In July, 
about 300 warriors left the place, under the 
command of Peter McQueen, Jim Boy, and 
Josiah Francis, for Pensacola. There they 
expected to secure ammunition for the im- 
pending war. On the way some hostile acta 
were committed. It was subsequently 
learned, through spies, that they had pro- 
cured 300 pounds of powder and a quantity 
of lead from Gov. Manique. 

On information reaching the Tombigbee 
settlements. Col. James Caller, senior militia 
officer of Washington County, at once organ- 
ized an expedition to intercept the Creeks on 
their return to the nation. At the head of 
three small companies, Col. Caller crossed the 
Tombigbee, July 25, and on his march across 
Clarke County and beyond the Alabama, he 
received reinforcements, so that finally his 
entire command numbered about 180 men, 
composed of white men, half-breeds, and 
friendly Indians. On the night of July 26, he 
camped near the present Bellvllle, and the 
next morning took the line of march down the 
Pensacola trail. 

References. — Meek, Romantic passages in 
southwestern history (1857), pp, 244-246; 
Pickett, History of Alabama (Owen's ed., 1900), 
pp. 521-525; Claiborne, Life and times of Sam 
Dale (1860), pp. 70-82; Halbert and Ball, 
Creek War (1895), pp. 125-142; Alabama His- 
torical Reporter, June, 1880; Riley, Conecuh 
County. (1881), p. 16. 

school for the education of negro boys and 
girls, located at Florence, and under the pat- 
ronage of the American Missionary Associa- 
tion (Congregational.) This school was first 
opened at Selma, under the name of Burrell 
Academy. About 1900 its buildings were de- 
stroyed by fire; and in 19 04 it was located at 
Florence. The school building is a two- 
story brick structure. Primary, inter- 
mediate, high school and normal departments 
are maintained, and courses in manual and 
industrial training, music and art, are offered. 
On September 30. 1916, its report to the 
State superintendent of education showed 
building and site, valued at $8,500; equip- 
ment, $1,500; 9 teachers; 226 pupils; and a 
total support of $3,644. 

References. — Catalogues; Mrs. Benj. F. Cox, 
First impressions of Burrell (1904). 

BUKR'S ARREST. Aaron Burr, then a 
fugitive from the courts of the Mississippi 
territory, on February 19, 1807, at 9 o'clock 
a, m., was arrested in Washington County, in 
what is now Alabama. In the latter part of 
1806, on a Western expedition, he made his 
appearance in Kentucky. He was arrested 
at Lexington, but was later discharged. Go- 
ing down the Mississippi, he and party were 
met by Col. F. L. Claiborne a few miles above 
Natchez, and again taken into custody. He 

made bond for his appearance in the superior 
court. When his trial came on he demanded 
a release, but his application was overruled 
by the Judges. The following morning he 
was not present. Gov. Robert Williams of 
the Mississippi territory offered a reward of 
$2,000 for his capture. As later developed, 
he had set out overland for the Tombigbee 
and Tensaw settlements. It appears that in 
Natchez, soon after his arrest, he met Col. 
John Hinson, who resided on the Tombigbee, 
and who had invited him to his home in the 
event he should ever travel in that section. 

In his flight. Burr was accompanied by 
Chester Ashley as a guide. His dress "con- 
sisted of coarse pantaloons, made of home- 
spun of a copperas dye, and a roundabout of 
inferior drab cloth, while his hat was a flap- 
ping, wide-brimmed beaver, which had in 
times past been white, but now presented a 
variety of dingy colors." On the evening of 
February 18 he and the guide reached old 
Wakefield, then the county seat of Washing- 
ton County. In the cabin at which they in- 
quired for directions, were Nicholas Perkins, 
a lawyer, and Thomas Malone, clerk of the 
court, engaged in a game of backgammon. 
The travelers inquired for the home of Major 
Hinson. The direction was given, but the un- 
usual appearance of one of them excited the 
suspicion of Perkins, Arousing Theodore 
Brightwell, the sheriff, he and Perkins set 
out in pursuit. They reached the home of 
Col, Hinson soon after the arrival of the 
other party. Convinced that one of the trav- 
elers was none other than Burr, Perkins 
quietly left the house, and hastened down 
the river to Fort Stoddert, where he arrived 
just before sunrise. Advising with the then 
Capt, Edward P, Gaines, the latter sent a 
sergeant and three soldiers to make the ar- 
rest. Perkins and the soldiers met Burr on 
his way to Pensacola. After a parley the 
latter was arrested, and at once carried to 
Fort Stoddert, He was detained there about 
two weeks, and fascinated all by his agreeable 
manners and address. About March 5, Capt. 
Gaines placed Burr in charge of a picked 
guard, and sent him overland to Richmond to 
be tried for treason. The guard consisted of 
Nicholas Perkins, Thomas Malone. Henry B. 
Slade, John Mills, John Jay Henry, Samuel 
McCormack and John Mertes. A copy of the 
pledge, dated February 23, 1807, taken by 
these men to safely conduct the distinguished 
prisoner to the point of destination, together 
with a number of other papers left by Per- 
kins, are preserved in the Tennessee His- 
torical Society at Nashville. Leaving Fort 
Stoddert by boat the party went up the river 
to the boat yard, where they took horses. 
Their route lay along the line of the old 
Federal road. The difficulties of travel were 
many. It was a rainy season, and the party 
experienced great inconvenience, not only be- 
cause of constant downpour, but also from 
swollen streams. Hundreds of Indians were 
encountered along the way. The prisoner con- 
ducted himself with great composure, and 
during the whole of the journey it is said 
that he never complained of sickness or fa- 



tigue. The party left Alabama at the Chatta- 
hoochee, near what later became Fort 
Mitchell. At Richmond Burr was confined un- 
til his trial. On being arraigned for treason 
he was acquitted. He was then placed on 
trial for a misdemeanor, and again acquitted. 
References.— Pickett, History of Alabama 
(Owen's ed., 1900) pp. 488-502; Hamilton, 
Colonial Mobile (1910), pp. 383-384, 573; Par- 
ton, Life and Times of Aaron Burr (1882), vol. 
2, pp. 93-106; American Historical Magazine. 
Nashville, Tenn., 1896, vol. 1, pp. 140-153; Gulf 
States Historical Magazine, 1903-04, vol. 2, pp. 
372-3S0; Southern History Association, PiiblP 
cations. 1899, vol. 3, pp. 176, 265; and Ravesies, 
Settles and Settlers of Alabama (1886), p. 31. 


BUTIjEB. County seat of Choctaw County, 
on Warlock Creek, near the central part of 
the county, about 8 miles east of West Butler, 
the nearest railroad shipping-point, and about 
7 miles west of the Tombigbee River. Pop- 
ulation: 1870 — 200; ISSJS— 200; 1910—200. 
The same act of the legislature of 1847-48 
that erected Choctaw County, provided for 
the choosing of the county seat and the locat- 
ing of the courthouse. Butler was chosen 
and named in honor of Col. Pierce Butler, 
of South Carolina, killed during the Mexican 
War. The Choctaw Bank (State) is located 
in the town, and the Choctaw Advocate, a 
Democratic weekly newspaper, established in 
1890, is published there. Its principal in- 
dustries are a gristmill, a cotton ginnery, a 
cotton warehouse, and general stores. Its 
churches are the Baptist, and the Methodist 
Episcopal, South. Among the early settlers 
were the Houston, Gilmer, and Moody fam- 

References. — Berney, Handbook (1892), p. 
277; Brewer, Alabama (1872), p. 171; Northern 
Alabama (1888), p. 182; Polk's Alabama gazet- 
teer, 1888-9, p. 243; Alabama Official and Statis- 
tical Register, 1915. 

BUTLER COUNTY. Created by the first 
session of the state legislature, December 13. 
1819. Its territory was taken from Monroe 
and Conecuh counties, but was originally a 
part of the Creek Indian lands, ceded August 
9, 1814. On the formation of Covington 
County. December 18, 1821, and Crenshaw, 
November 24. 1866, its area was reduced on 
the east. The county contains 763 square 
miles, or 488,320 acres. 

The name of the county as originally pro- 
posed and which was reported in the bill, 
was Fairfield, probably so given because of 
the large number of settlers, who had come 
from the upper portion of South Carolina. 
However, on final passage the name Butler 
was adopted, in honor of the brave and ad- 
venturous Capt. William Butler, a soldier in 
the Indian Wars of 1813-14. He was one of 
the early settlers in the county, but soon 
after his arrival he was killed by Creek In- 
dians, and his body horribly mutilated. March 
20, 1818. 

The act creating the county named Micajah 
Wade, John Carter, Sr., George Harrison, 
Hilary Herbert and Taliaferro Livingston as 
commissioners, "to fix on a suitable place for 
the seat of justice," with power to purchase 
"not exceeding a fourth section of land" for 
the site chosen, and to erect a court house and 
jail. Acting under the authority of this act 
the commissioners named Fort Dale as the 
temporary seat of justice, pending a per- 
manent location. There the first court in 
the county was held. Judge Anderson Cren- 
shaw presiding. The next session of the legis- 
lature, December 7, 1820. authorized the 
commissioners to lay off the land they had 
secured, and to sell the lots. A subsequent 
act of December 15. 1821, appointed Ward 
Taylor and Isaac Cook commissioners in place 
of Carter and Livingston, "who have declined 

Nine days later another act was passed, 
providing "that Buttsviile shall be, and the 
same is hereby made the permanent seat of 
justice in and for the county of Butler," and 
authorizing an "extra tax" levy of one-half 
the state tax for the building of a court-house 
and jail. The town of Buttsviile had been 
settled by enterprising South Carolinians in 
1819, and named in honor of Capt. Samuel 
Butts, a patriotic Georgian, who was killed 
at the battle of Calebee, January 27, 1814. 
The legislature, in response to the appeal of 
the South Carolinians changed the name to 
Greenville. December 28. 1822. On May 22. 
preceding, the town had been laid out, lots 
sold, and a frame court house erected. It 
was burned in 1852, and all county records 
lost, but it was at once rebuilt. In 1871 it 
was replaced by a brick building. 

The first election precincts were fixed at 
"Fort Dale, or the most convenient house 
thereto." and at the house of Jesse Womack. 
December 13, 1819; at the house of Hartwell 
Elder. December 7. 1820; at Buttsviile 
(Greenville) December 15. 1820, and on the 
same date that at Fort Dale was discon- 

Location and Physical Description. — It lies 
in the southcentral section of the state, about 
midway between the eastern and western 
boundaries. On its north are Lowndes and 
Wilcox, on the east Crenshaw, on the south 
Covington and Conecuh, and on the west 
Conecuh, Monroe and Wilcox counties. Its 
surface is quite varied, with a hilly or rolling 
topography. Limited areas of level land are 
however frequently found on the high pla- 
teaus and on the lowlands along the streams. 
Its irregular and broken topography are to 
be ascribed not so much to the presence of old 
established hills as to the occurrence of many 
deep gulleys, which the streams have eroded 
through the otherwise level plain. A ridge 
extends across the county in a southwesterly 
direction dividing it into two unequal parts. 
North of the ridge lies the northwestern sec- 
tion of the county, whose streams flow into 
the Alabama River. The larger part lies to 
the southeast. The drainage of this area 
goes into rivers draining into Pensacola Bay. 
Between Wolf and Cedar creeks is another 



ridge 10 miles or more in length, of rough 
and rugged topography, ranging from 100 to 
200 feet above the adjacent bottoms. The 
streams in the northwestern section of the 
county are Cedar, Wolf, Breastwork, and 
Pine Barren creeks. Those to the east and 
south of the ridge are Sepulga River, and 
Pigeon, Persimmon, Three Runs, Mill, Hall, 
Rocky, Panther, Duck, and Long creeks. 

Butler County is situated in the Coastal 
Plain. Its soils are varied. These are de- 
rived from the weathering or reworking of 
marine deposits, and broadly speaking con- 
sist of upland or sedimentary soils, and the 
lowland or alluvial soils. Geologically the 
formation of the soils dates from the Cre- 
taceous, the Tertiary and the present. Most 
of the alluvial soils are found in the southern 
half of the county. The county has 16 
distinct soil types, all of which are common 
to the other states of the Gulf coast. Prac- 
tically all are productive, and respond well 
to good cultivation and fertilization. The 
products of the county are noted in detail in 
the statistics below. Special note In addition 
is to be made of the growth of the trucking 
industry. Fruits, vegetables, grasses for 
pasturage, berries, melons, and a high grade 
of Cuban filler tobacco are all profitably 
grown. Stock raising is also profitable. 

The forest growth consists of longleaf and 
shortleaf pine, oak, ash, sour and sweet gum, 
hickory, cedar, poplar, with some chestnut. 
Its climate is mild and temperate. The sum- 
mers are long, but the heat is tempered by 
cool Gulf breezes, and the winters are short, 
with only exceptional cases of long periods of 
cold. The mean temperature of the county 
for June, July and August is approximately 
80° F., and for December, January ami Feb- 
ruary about 40° F. The mean annual pre- 
cipitation is approximately 52.40 inches, with 
a good distribution throughout the year. 

Aboriginal History. — Mounds are to be 
found in different localities in the county. In 
almost all cases they are on the creeks and 
low places. Among these are: one on Cedar 
Creek below Sixteenth bridge; one above 
Steen's Ford near the old Creampot Springs; 
one on Cedar Creek; two on Long Creek in 
the Bennett settlement; two on Pigeon 
Creek, on Lovet B. Wilson's plantation; sev- 
eral on the banks of Persimmon Creek; and 
one on the farm of H. C. Smith one-fourth 
mile from the southeast corner of the 
county. Cultivation has reduced them prac- 
tically to the level of the surrounding ground. 
In these mounds bones and personal belong- 
ings have been found. Indicating their use as 
burial mounds. 

Settlement, and Later History. — The earliest 
settlers entered the county by way of the 
Federal Road. The first settler was James 
K. Benson, who built a house in Pine Flat in 
1815. Very soon William Oglesby and John 
Dickerson settled with their families on the 
Federal Road, about three miles below where 
Fort Dale was afterwards erected. In the 
fall of 1816 Thomas Hill and his two sons, 
Reuben and Josiah Hill. Warren A. Thomp- 
son, Captain John H. Watts, and Benjamin 

,Hill, and his son Isaac Hill, came from 
Georgia. These families brought their live 
stock, wagons, household effects, farming 
tools, with provisions to last for a year, and 
settled in the dense forests of Pine Flat. In 
the fall and winter of 1817, many other 
emigrants arrived, some settling near Fort 
Dale, others on the headwaters of Cedar 
Creek. Among these settlers were the fam- 
ilies of Thomas Gary, Colonel H. T. Perry, 
James D. K. Garrett, and Andrew Jones. 
John Murphy and Alpheus Carter settled at 
Butler Springs. Emigration was checked by 
the Indian disturbances in the early spring of 

1818. When these troubles came to an end 
in the following October, there was a great 
increase of emigration to Southwest Alabama. 
In the closing months of 1818, and early in 

1819, there came to the county the Dunklin, 
Herbert, Boiling, Graydon, Judge, Farmer, 
Hutchinson, Burnett, Pickens, Smith, Cald- 
well, Cook, Waters, Jones, Dulaney, Demiiig, 
and Black families. Many settled near where 
Greenville was later to be located. Soon 
afterward there followed the families of Car- 
ter, Arrington, Peavy, Donaldson, Jones, 
Manning, Levingston, Crenshaw, Womack and 
others, who made homes for themselves in 
different parts of the county. Among some 
of the early settlers that came prior to or in 
the years immediately after 1821, were James 
F. Barganier, Aaron Butler, William Porter- 
field, David Elder, Webster Gilbert, and John 

There were no mills and gins in the county 
for several years after its first settlement. 
Corn was ground in a hand mill, or pounded 
into meal in a wooden mortar. Only enough 
cotton was raised for domestic purposes, and 
the seeds were separated from the lint by 
picking with the fingers. But the demand for 
mills and gins after some years brought 
about their erection. 

In 1818 the county was the scene of 
troubles with refractory Creek Indians. On 
March 13 of that year they cruelly massacred 
William Oglesby, his four children, and Mrs. 
Elias Stroud. 

On March 20, 1818, another cruel mas- 
sacre took place. Capt. William Butler lo- 
cated in the county in 1817. Shortly after- 
wards the Indians began to create disturb- 
ances by attacking the settlers, driving off 
stock, and in other ways making themselves 
a menace. Rude defenses had been erected, 
all in the northwestern section of the county, 
known as Fort Bibb, Fort Gary and Fort 
Dale. On the day referred to, a week after 
the Oglesby massacre, William P. Gardner, 
Daniel Shaw and John Hinson, in company 
with Capt, William Butler and Capt. James 
Saffold, set out from Fort Bibb to carry an 
important message to Fort Dale. They were 
well armed. They took the trail along Pine 
Barren Creek. About 4 miles away they were 
fired upon by a band of Indians under Sa- 
vannah Jack. Gardner and Shaw were im- 
mediately killed. Butler and Hinson were 
wounded and thrown from their horses, but 
the latter regained his seat and hurried back 
to the fort. A detachment was sent out the 


next day by Col. Sam Dale. The dead had 
been horribly mutilated. 

Later in the spring the Indians stole sev- 
eral horses and cattle from the vicinity of 
Fort Bibb. They were pursued. William 
Cogburn of the militia was killed. Because 
of fear of Indian attacks, the people re- 
mained in or near the forts during the greater 
part of 1818. During the fall of that year 
the Indians had either withdrawn or been 
driven from the region, and the families re- 
turned to their homes. 

AgTiciiltural Statistics. — From U. S. Cen- 
sus, 1910: 

Farms and Farmers. 
Number of all farms, 4,211. 
Color and nativity of farmers: 
Native white, 2,177. 
Foreign-born white, 9. 
Negro and other non-white, 2,034. 
Number of farms, classified by size: 
Under 3 acres, 1. 
3 to 9 acres, 109. 
10 to 19 acres, 401. 
20 to 49 acres, 1,705. 
50 to 99 acres, 883. 
100 to 174 acres, 580. 
175 to 259 acres, 204. 
260 to 499 acres, 135. 
500 to 999 acres, 34. 
1,000 acres and over, 18. 

Land and Farm Area. 
Approximate land area, 488,320 acres. 
Land in farms, 338,358 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 153,356 acres. 
Woodland in farms, 162,230 acres. 
Other unimproved land in farms, 22,772 

Value of Farm Property. 
All farm property, $5,512,675. 
Land, $3,101,793. 
Buildings, $1,244,185. 
Implements and machinery, $222,872. 
Domestic animals, poultry, and bees, 
Average values: 

All property per farm, $1,309. 

Land and buildings per farm, $1,03-2. 

Land per acre, $9.17. 

Domestic Animals (Farms and Ranges). 
Farms reporting domestic animals, 3,921. 
Domestic animals, $914,667. 
Cattle: total, 13,536; value, $177,751. 

Dairy cows only, 5,556. 
Horses: total, 1,602; value, $167,968. 
Mules: total, 3,685; value, $486,448. 
Asses and burros: total, 7; value, $1,470. 
Swine: total, 27.020; value, $77,610. 
Sheep: total, 1,663; value, $2,547. 
Goats: total, 1,125; value, $875. 

Poultry and Bees. 
All poultry, 76,342; value, $25,073. 
Bee colonies, 3,301; value, $4,085. 

Farms Operated ty Owners. 
Number of farms, 1,659. 

Per cent of all farms, 39.4. 

Land in farms, 216,703 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 73,648 acres. 
Land and buildings, $2,668,812. 
Farms of owned land only, 1,465. 
Farms of owned and hired land, 194. 
Native white owners, 1,283. 
Foreign-born white, 0. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 376. 

Farms Operated by Tenants. 
Number of farms, 2,550. 

Per cent of all farms, 60.6. 
Land in farms, 121,345 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 79,508 acres. 
Land and buildings, $1,668,891. 
Share tenants, 970. 
Share-cash tenants, 66. 
Cash tenants, 1,484. 
Tenure not specified, 30. 
Native white tenants, 8 9 2. 
Foreign-born white, 0. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 1,658. 

Farms Operated by Managers. 
Number of farms, 2. 
Land in farms, 310 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 200 acres. 
Value of land and buildings, $8,275. 

Live Stock Products. 


Milk: Produced, 1,057,581; sold, 2, 

Cream sold, gallons. 
Butter fat sold, pounds. 
Butter: Produced, 350,602; 


Cheese: Produced, 0; sold, pounds. 
Dairy products, excluding home use of milk 
and cream, $71,828. 

Sale of dairy products, $4,302. 


Poultry: Number raised, 153,406; sold, 

Eggs: Produced, 257,517; sold, 65,608 

Poultry and eggs produced, $77,908. 

Sale of poultry and eggs, $17,640. 


Honey produced, 18,371 pounds. 

Wax produced, 958 pounds. 

Value of honey and wax produced, $1,977. 


Wool, fieeces shorn, 1,217. 

Mohair and goat hair, fleeces shorn, 0. 

Wool and mohair produced, $854. 

Domestic Animals Sold or Slaughtered. 
Calves — Sold or slaughtered, 206. 
Other cattle — Sold or slaughtered, 3,092. 
Horses, mules, and asses and burros — 
Sold, 109. 

Swine — Sold or slaughtered, 12,097. 
Sheep and goats — Sold or slaughtered, 233. 
Sale of animals, $35,435. 
Value of animals slaughtered, $114,550. 


Value of AU Crops. 
Totals, $2,427,182. 
Cereals, $427,636. 
Other grains and seeds, $5d,boS. 
Hay and forage, $36,399. 
Vegetables, $151,973. 
Fruits and nuts, $18,795. 
All other crops, $1,738,741. 

Selected Crops (Acres and Quantity). 
Cereals: total, 46,142 acres; 466,793 
bushels. „ ., , , , 

Corn, 40,718 acres; 394,986 bushels. 
Oats, 5,424 acres; 71,807 bushels. 
Wheat, acres; — bushels. 
Rye, acres; — bushels. 
Kafir corn and milo maize, acres; — 

Rice, acres; — bushels. 
Other grains: 

Dry peas, 1,454 acres; 11,253 bushels. 
Dry edible beans, acres; — bushels. 
Peanuts, 2,173 acres; 35,262 bushels. 
Hay and forage: total, 2,224; 3,031 tons. 
All tame or cultivated grasses, 750 acres; 

1,079 tons. 
Wild, salt, or prairie grasses, 257 acres; 
248 tons. ^ ,„„ 

Grains cut green, 1,175 acres; 1,480 

Coarse forage, 42 acres; 224 tons. 
Special crops: 

Potatoes, 156 acres. 11.037 bushels 
Sweet potatoes and yams, 1,148 acres; 

86,378 bushels. 
All other vegetables, 1,029 acres. 
Tobacco, acres; 220 pounds. 
Cotton, 69,529 acres; 20,638 bales. 
Cane— sugar, 747 acres; 7,194 tons. 

Sirup made, 98,463 gallons. 
Cane — sorghum, 60 acres; 501 tons. 
Sirup made, 4,575 gallons. 

Fruits and Nuts. 
Orchard fruits: total, 38,135 trees; 15,187 

bushels. „ ^ , , ^ V, , 

Apples, 7,290 trees; 3,541 bushels. 
Peaches and nectarines, 26,357 trees; 

8,364 bushels. 
Pears, 3,310 trees; 2,690 bushels. 
Plums and prunes, 932 trees; 447 

Cherries, 25 trees; 2 bushels. 
Quinces, 127 trees; 23 bushels. 
Grapes, 342 vines; 9,500 pounds. 
Tropical fruits: total, 1,757 trees. 
Figs, 1,737 trees; 48,601 pounds. 
Oranges, trees; — boxes. 
Small fruits: total, 19 acres; 21,188 

Strawberries, 17 acres; 19,050 quarts. 
Nuts: total, 2,154 trees; 9,4 86 pounds. 
Pecans, 2,109 trees; 8,736 pounds. 

Labor, Fertilizer and Feed. 
Labor — Farms reporting, 1,668. 

Cash expended, $122,042. 

Rent and board furnished, $19,238. 
Fertilizer — Farms reporting, 3,333. 

Amount expended, $221,863. 

Feed — Farms reporting, 1,465. 

Amount expended, $63,675. 
Receipts from sale of feedable crops, $8,- 

Domestic Animals Not on Farms. 
Inclosures reporting domestic animals, 566. 
Value of domestic animals, $65,816. 
Cattle: total, 872; value, $21,123. 

Number of dairy cows, 488. 
Horses: total, 224; value, $31,186. 
Mules and asses and burros: total, 74; 
value, $10,375. 

Swine: total, 694; value, $2,011. 
Sheep and goats: tots|,l, 40; value, $121. 

Population. — Statistics from decennial pub- 
lications of the U. S. Bureau of the Census. 

White Negro Total 

1820 835 570 1405 

1830 3904 1746 5650 

1840 6192 2493 8685 

1850 7162 3674 10836 

1860 11260 6862 18122 

1870 8590 6391 14981 

1880 10684 8965 19649 

1890 11326 10315 21641 

1900 12514 13246 25761 

1910 ...... 13654 15373 29030 

Post Offices and Towns. — Revised to De- 
cember 31, 1916, from U. S. Official Postal 
Guide. Figures indicate the number of rural 
routes from that office. 


Butler Springs — I 


Forest Home — 1 

Garland — 2 

Georgiana — 6 


Greenville (eh) — 

McKenzie — 2 

Monterey — 1 


Oakey Streak — 1 

Pigeon Creek — 1 


Delegates to Constitutional Conventions. — 

1861 — S. J. Boiling, John McPherson. 
1865 — Walter H. Crenshaw, M. C. Lane. 
1867 — Samuel S. Gardner. 
1875 — John Gamble, Samuel J. Boiling. 
1901 — J. Lee Long. 

Senators. — 

1822-3 — John Dandridge Bibb. 
1825-6 — William Jones. 
1828-9 — John Watkins. 
Ig30-1 — William Hemphill. 
1833-4 — William Hemphill. 
1836-7 — Samuel W. Oliver. 
1837-8 — H. Lee Henderson. 
1839-40 — Joseph W. Townsend. 
1840-1 — Jesse Womack. 
1842-3 — Asa Arrington. 
1845-6 — Archibald Gilchrist. 
1847-8 — Thomas J. Judge. 
1851-2 — Walter H. Crenshaw. 
1855-6— F. C. Webb. 
1857-8 — Thomas J. Burnett. 
1861-2 — Edmund Harrison. 
1865-6 — Walter H. Crenshaw. 
1868 — William Miller, Jr. 
1871-2 — William Miller, Jr. 
1872-3— William Miller. Jr. 
1873 — William Miller, Jr. 


1874-5— E. W. Martin. 

1875-6 — E. W. Martin. 

1876-7 — J. H. Dunklin. 

1878-9 — David Buel. 

1880-1 — G. R. Farnham. 

1882-3 — G. R. Farnham. 

1884-5 — J. K. Henry. 

1886-7 — J. C. Richardson. 

1888-9 — Nicholas Stallworth. 

1890-1 — Nicholas Stallworth. 

1892-3 — R. E. Steiner. 

1894-5— P. M. Bruner. 

1896-7 — A. W. Deans (of Covington). 

1898-9 — A. W. Deans. 

1899 (Spec.) — A. W. Deans. 

1900-01— D. M. Powell. 

1903 — Dempsey Monroe Powell. 

1907 — C. E. Reid. 

1907 (Spec.) — C. E. Reid. 

1909 (Spec.) — C. E. Reid. 

1911 — W. C. Crumpton. 

1915 — C. P. Winkler. 

1919 — J. Morgan Prestwood. 

Representatives. — 

1825-6 — Nathaniel Cook. 

1826-7 — Andrew T. Perry. 

1827-8 — Nathaniel Cook. 

1828-9 — Nathaniel Cook. 

1829-30 — Nathaniel Cook. 

1830-1 — Nathaniel Cook. 

1831-2 — Nathaniel Cook. 

1832 (Called) — Nathaniel Cook. 

1832-3 — Nathaniel Cook. 

1833-4 — Edward Bowen. 

1834-5 — Edward Bowen; Herndon Lee 

1835-6 — John W. Womack; Herndon Lee 

1836-7 — Henry T. Jones; Herndon Lee 

1837 (Called) — Henry T. Jones; Herndon 
Lee Henderson. 

1837-8 — Henry T. Jones; Herndon Lee 

1838-9 — Henry T. Jones; Walter H. Cren- 

183 9-4 — Jesse Womack; James W. Wade. 

184 0-1 — Edward Bowen; Walter H. Cren- 

1841 (Called) — Edward Bowen; Walter H. 

1841-2 — Joseph Rhodes; Walter H. Cren- 

1842-3— Thomas Hill Watts; H. L. Hen- 

1843-4 — William H. Trawick; W. D. K. 

1844-5 — Thomas Hill Watts; Joseph 

1845-6 — Thomas Hill Watts; W. D. K. 

1847-8 — Brockman W. Henderson; Walter 
H. Crenshaw. 

1849-50 — Edward Bowen; John S. Mc- 

1851-2 — B. W. Henderson; J. S. McMullen. 

1853-4 — Thomas J. Burnett; James R. Yel- 

1855-6— R. R. Wright; J. S. McMullen. 

B. Scar- 

1857-8 — Samuel Adams; 

1859-60 — Samuel Adams; M. C. Lane. 

1861 (1st called) — Samuel Adams; M. C. 

1861 (2d called) — Walter H. Crenshaw; 
Thomas J. Burnett. 

1861-2 — Walter H. Crenshaw; Thomas J. 

1862 (Called) — Walter H. Crenshaw; 
Thomas J. Burnett. 

1862-3 — Walter H. Crenshaw; Thomas J. 

1863 (Called) — Walter H. Crenshaw; 
S. F. Gafford. 

1863-4— Walter H. Crenshaw; S. F. Gaf- 

1864 (Called) — Walter H. Crenshaw; 
S. F. Gafford. 

1864-5 — Walter H. Crenshaw; S. P. Gaf- 

1865-6 — Thomas C. Crenshaw; S. F. Gaf- 

1866-7 — Thomas C. Crenshaw; S. F. Gaf- 

1868— John A. Hart. 

1869-70 — John A. Hart. 

1870-1— J. L. Powell. 

1871-2 — J. L. Powell. 

1872-3 — N. V. Clopton. 

1873— N. V. Clopton. 

1874-5— J. F. Tate. 

1875-6— J. P. Tate. 

1876-7— John Gilchrist; C. Wall. 

1878-9 — R. S. Hughes; T. A. McCane. 

1880-1— B. Wimberly; N. Wright. 

1882-3 — D. G. Dunklin. 

1884-5— T. J. Judge. 

1886-7— R. F. Steiner. 

1888-9— T. C. King. 

1890-1— L. J. Harrell. 

1892-3 — John A. Smith. 

1894-5 — John A. Smith. 

1896-7 — P. B. Lloyd. 

1898-9— J. E. Cheatham. 

1899 (Spec.) — J. E. Cheatham. 

1900-01 — T. H. Crenshaw. 

1903 — Rev. George Washington Lee; 
Henry Bascom Pilley. 

1907 — W. J. Jones; J. Lee Long. 

1907 (Spec.) — W. J. Jones; J. Lee Long. 

1909 (Spec.) — W. J. Jones; J. Lee Long. 

1911 — W. J. Nicholson; J. Lee Long (re- 

1915 — H. A. Thompson; G. S. Lazenby. 

1919 — W. I. Lee; J. Lee Long. 
Referexces. — Toulmin, Digest (1823), in- 
dex; Brewer, Alabama, p. 145; Berney, Hand- 
book (1892), p. 272; Riley, Alabama as it is 
(1893), p. 219; Northern Alabama (1888), p. 
225; Alabama. 1909 (Ala. Dept. of Ag. and Ind., 
Bulletin 27), p. 80; U. S. Soil Survey (1909), 
with map; Alabama land book (1916), p. 44; 
Ala. Official and Statistical Register, 1903-1915, 
5 vols.; Ala. Anthropological Society, Hand- 
book (1910): Geol. Survey of Ala., Agricultural 
features of the State (1883); The Valley re- 
gions of Alabama parts 1 and 2 (1896, 1897), 
and Underground Water resources of Alabama 
(1907); U. S. Bureau of the Census, Abstract 



o/ the 13th Census, with supplement tor 
Alabama (1913) ; J. B. Little, History of Butler 
County, Ala. (1885), with map; and Rev. C. 
B. Crensha^v, "Indian massacres in Butler 
County in 1818," in Ala. Hist. Society. 
Transactions, 1899-1903, vol. 4, pp. 99-101; Pick- 
ett, History of Alabama (Owen's ed., 1900), pp. 

BtJTTAHATCHEE RIVER. A large creek, 
tributary to the Tombigbee River (q. v.), hav- 
ing its source in Marion County and flowing 
southwestwardly, through Marion and the 
northern extremity of Lamar County, to its 
junction with the Tombigbee, about 20 miles 
above Columbus, Miss. It is not classed as 
a navigable stream. No surveys nor appro- 
riations for its improvement have been made 
by the United States Government. 

In December, 18 20, the Alabama Legisla- 
ture passed an act authorizing Anthony Win- 
ston, William Wilson, Jesse VanHoose, James 
Davis, Robert Gillespie, Isaac Anderson, 
James Moore, William Metcalf, Jabez Fitz- 
gerald, Lemuel Bean, J. S. Fulton, Richard 
Ellis, and John D. Terrell, to raise by lot- 
tery a sum not exceeding ?30,000, to be 
appropriated exclusively to the improvement 
of the navigation of the Buttahatchee River. 
The act provided that "within a convenient 
and reasonable time after the lottery shall 
hav? been drawn," the work of improving the 
river should- be let by contract to the lowest 
tidder. What work was done if anything, 
under this authority is not known. 

Reference. — Acts, 1820, pp. 34-35. 

CAANTAKALAMOO. A branch of a la- 
goon on the lower Tombigbee, as shown by 
the map accompanying Bernard Romans' 
Florida. The word is Choctaw, and correctly 
rendered is Kantak ai almo, but being rapidly 
pronounced, Cantakalmo. It means "china 
brier there gathered," that is, Kantak, "china 
brier," almo, "gathered." The root of the 
china brier was a common article of food 
among the southern Indians, and probably it 
grew plentifully in the vicinity, a circum- 
stance giving it the name. 

Retebence. — Romans, Florida (1776), p. 332, 

CABUSTO. An aboriginal town passed by 
De Soto in his expedition through Alabama 
in 1540. It has not been definitely identified, 
but the best conjectures place it on the west 
side of the Tombigbee River, in the south- 
western part of Pickens County. While not 
certainly determined, the word is dougtless 
Chickasaw, and the town was probably oc- 
cupied by Chickasaw people. In the Chicka- 
saw dialect, ishto, "great," corresponds to 
the Choctaw, chito. The name is believed 
to be oka ishto, "great water." In the 
Knight of Elvas narrative it is stated that 
"near unto Cabusto runs a great river." The 
town and vicinity were thus known as oka 
ishto, "great water," in contradistinction to 
the settlement on the Sipsey River, which was 
a "little water." 

References. — Halbert, in Ala. Hist. Society, 

Transactions (1898-99), vol. 3, p. 67; Handbook 
of American Indians (1907), vol. 1, p. 178; and 
Narratives of De Soto (Trainmakers' series, 
1904), 2 vols. 

CAHABA. First State Capital. By an act 
of the legislature, passed February 13, 1818, 
Clement C. Clay, Samuel Taylor, Samuel 
Dale, James Titus and Wm. L. Adams were 
appointed commissioners to select the most 
central and eligible location for the seat of 
government of the newly established Alabama 
Territory. The commissioners, after investi- 
gation, reported a site at the mouth of the 
Cahaba River, in the recently formed county 
of Dallas, as the most suitable location. Their 
report was concurred in, and an act was 
passed November 21, 1818, fixing this locality 
the permanent capital. The governor was 
named as commissioner to lay oil the town 
into lots, and to sell them at public sale. 
By an act of December 13, 1819, Cahaba was 
fixed on as the seat of justice of Dallas 
County. The place was, therefore, at the 
same time the capital of the State and the 
seat of justice of Dallas County. It became 
at once a thriving business and an attractive 
social center. 

Governor William W. Bibb, at the session 
of the legislature, 1819, in his message of 
October 26, reported that the town had been 
laid off, and that he had sold to the highest 
bidder 182 lots during the fourth week of 
May, 1819, for the sum of $123,856, of which 
one-fourth or $30,964, was received at the 
time of sale. The legislature December 3. 
1819, incorporated the town, to contain "all 
that tract of land granted by Congress to this 
State for the seat of government thereof." 
It was to he governed by seven councillors 
elected annually, who in turn were to select 
an intendant. Willis Roberts, Luther Blake, 
and Carlisle Humphreys were the managers 
of the first election. Tlie charter, among 
other provisions, conferred upon the town 
council "the privileges of granting license for 
retailing of spirituous and other liquors, and 
for keeping billiard tables." 

The next day, December 4, 1819, the legis- 
lature authorized the governor to lay off an 
additional number of lots in the town, not 
exceeding 200, to be sold under the same 
regulations as required by the act of Novem- 
ber 21, 1818. John Taylor, sr., Alexander 
Pope, Waller O. Bickley, John Howard, John 
W. Rinaldi and Thomas Casey were named as 
commissioners to have charge, under the di- 
rection of the governor, of the state lands 
and property within the limits of the town, 
with the power to rent the lands and the 
ferries so as best to promote the public 
interest. The act contained a provision mak- 
ing it unlawful to "cut down, or kill any 
tree or trees" on the state lands, without 
written permission of the commissioners. 
Two sections of the act are of sufficient in- 
terest to be set forth in full: 

"Sec. 3. And be it further enacted, That 
the governor as aforesaid shall select and 
reserve one square for the use of an academy, 
one square for a court-house and other public 



buildings for the county of Dallas, and four 
lots for churches, and the said squares and 
lots, when so selected and reserved, shall be, 
and are hereby declared, granted, and set 
apart for those purposes respectively. 

"Sec. 4. And be it further enacted, That 
the lot or parcel of land, numbered one 
hundred and fifty-one in the plan of the town, 
as now laid off, be, and the same is hereby 
appropriated and set apart for the erection of 
such buildings for the accommodation of the 
executive, as the general assembly may here- 
after deem necessary and proper." 

During the tirst few years of its history 
the town was much interested in the con- 
struction of a bridge across the Cahaba River. 
The commissioners under the preceding act 
were empowered to build such a bridge, 
"within the limits of the town ... as 
they may deem best calculated to enhance 
the value of the lots, lying between the 
Alabama and Cahawba rivers: Provided said 
bridge can be built without obstructing the 
navigation of said river." An appropriation 
of $4,000 was appropriated for the building 
of the bridge, and the contractor was to give 
bond "to keep said bridge up and in good 
order for the term of seven years." Work 
seems to have progressed slowly, since the 
State made a loan to the town December 
15, 1820. The special session of the legisla- 
ture June 16, 1821, passed two acts in refer- 
ence to the bridge, one placing it wholly under 
the town council and providing penalties tor 
injury to it, and the other authorizing the 
collection of tolls until November 1, 1822. 

A bridge was also built across Clear Creek, 
"within the limits of the town." This, how- 
ever, was not to be paid for out of the State 
or town treasury, but through a lottery, a 
means much employed during that period to 
raise funds for public purposes. Henry Hitch- 
cock, Alexander Pope, Thomas Casey, Uriah 
G. Mitchell, and Edmund Lane we 

as managers. 

In order to protect the public buildings, 
the Secretary of State w-as required to have 
them "enclosed in a cheap and substantial 
manner, and to have shutters for the win- 
dows made and hung," the expenses to be 
paid from the fund arising from the sale of 
lots in the town. Another law, approved on 
the same day, enacted "That the square of 
lots in the town of Cahawba, bounded west 
and east by Beech and Ash Streets, and north 
and south by fifth and sixth South streets, 
and reserved by the governor for a grave- 
yard," was vested in the town council for 
that use. The same act stipulated that the 
cross streets should be continued in an 
easterly direction to the margin or the water's 
edge of the Alabama River, and as such they 
were declared to be public streets, and the 
land commissioners were required to open 
and make a good and sufficient ferry landing, 
and to keep it in repair, on the Alabama 
River at the foot of Arch Street. 

The selection of Cahaba as the state capital 
was not made unreservedly. The constitution 
required all sessions of the legislature to 
be held there, beginning in 1820 and con- 

tinuing "until the end of the first session" 
of the legislature to be held in 1825, and 
during that session the legislature was given 
"power to designate by law, (to which the 
executive concurrence shall not be required) 
the permanent seat of government, which 
shall not thereafter be changed." The origi- 
nal choice of Cahaba had not long been made 
before it became apparent that the place 
had many disadvantages as a town site. Its 
situation was low, subjecting it to over-flow 
from both rivers, so that at times it was 
almost impossible to reach the statehouse 
without a conveyance by water. In 1825 
came the largest flood on record in the his- 
tory of the state. The almost complete inun- 
dation of the town hastened the decision of 
the legislature to choose a new location. 
Tuscaloosa was selected, and the public 
ofllces, property and records were removed. 

In consequence of the flood and the re- 
moval of the capitol, many influential citi- 
zens left the town, and for a time it dwindled 
into an insigniflcaut village. But in a few 
years it began to revive, and by the early 
thirties it was again a populous town, and 
the most important shipping point on the 
Alabama River. Large warehouses and stores 
were built, old residences repaired, new ones 
of excellent architectural design erected, and 
with the coming of many wealthy families, 
and an unusual number of men eminent in 
statesmanship, law and m.edical science, these 
combined, gave Cahaba an air of prosperity 
to which no other Alabama town could at 
that early period furnish a parallel. 

"The people being generally wealthy with 
many slaves and large plantations located 
near by in the surrounding country, had an 
abundance of leisure to extend a generous 
hospitality, which they did in a royal manner, 
and there was no limit to the round of visit- 
ing and entertainment, which was continuous 
and practically endless." — Fry. 

The old state house, the lot of land on 
which it stood, "together with the appur- 
tenances thereto belonging," on January 13, 
1830, were donated by the state to Dallas 

It would appear that the act of incorpora- 
tion had been permitted to lapse, as on De- 
cember 15, 1830, the legislature passed an act 
reviving and continuing in force the original 
charter. The act defined the limits of the 
town as "all that part of the lands owned by 
the state lying on the west side of the 
Cahaba and Alabama rivers." Lorenzo 
Roberts, Jacob Morgan, Thomas Morong, Bar- 
tram Robinson and George G. Brooks were 
appointed to conduct an election for coun- 
cillors, to be held at the house of John 

Many men prominent in Alabama and na- 
tional History resided in Cahaba. Of these 
may be mentioned Moratio G. Perry, George 
W. Gayle, Jesse Beene, George R. Evans, 
Lawrence E. Dawson, William L. Yancey, Col. 
C. C. Pegues, John S. Hunter, P. J. Wood, 
Gen. John T. Morgan, Judge B. F. Satfold. 
Daniel S. Troy. Gen. E. W. Pettus, Col. H. R. 
Dawson, Dr. E. G. Ulmer, Dr. Thomas Casey, 



Dr Jabez Heustis, Joel E. Matthews, Charles 
L Matthews, both millionaire planters, 
Robert S. Hatcher, Edward M. Perrine and 
Samuel M. Hill, both merchant princes. Ca- 
haba was in the zenith of its prosperity at 
the outbreak of the War in 1861. 

The community furnished one full company 
to the Contederate service, the "Cahaba 
Rifles," of Company F, 5th Alabama Infantry 
Regiment — a command that won imperishable 
renown during the War. Christopher C. 
Pegues was captain of the company, and early 
in 18 62 he was elected colonel of the regi- 
ment. He was mortally wounded at Gaines 
Mill, June 27, 1862, and died July 15, 1862. 
The military post at Cahaba, was commanded 
by Colonel Samuel Jones of the 2 2nd Louisi- 
ana Regiment. A confederate prison, known 
as Castle Morgan, was established there in 
the fall of 1863, and was situated on the 
bank of the Alabama River. An official re- 
port of October 16, 1864, shows that it then 
contained 2,151 Federal prisoners. 

In the early part of March, 1865, the place 
was visited by another disastrous flood. 
After the waters had subsided, the Federal 
prisoners were all paroled and sent to Vicks- 
burg, and the post at Cahaba was abandoned. 
The flood, followed soon after by the close of 
the War, and by the freedom of the slaves, 
involving the utter demoralization of labor, 
brought about the rapid decline of Cahaba. 
The end came in 18 66 when the court house 
was removed to Selma, under an act of De- 
cember 14, 1865. Many of the citizens of 
Cahaba removed also. Others moved to dis- 
tant localities, and a tew years later Cahaba, 
once one of the most noted towns of central 
Alabama, was left empty and desolate. 

The town was given the name of the 
river, at the mouth of which it was located. 
The Cahaba River (q. v.) rises in the northern 
section of the state, and flows southerly until 
its junction with the Alabama. The name 
is doubtless of great antiquity, although the 
first known reference to it is on Danville's 
map of 1732 as Caba. On De Crenay's map 
one year later, it is spelled Capo. It later 
appears, usually in its present form, but in 
early American times it is spelled Cahawba. 
The word is undoubtedly a corruption of the 
Choctaw oka aba, "water above," that is, oka, 
"water." aba, "above." If this genesis is cor- 
rect, the name was received from Choctaw 
speaking people, living on the lower Alabama 
In colonial times. Indian remains have been 
found in the vicinity, and an Indian village 
was undoubtedly located on or near the 
original site. Both along the Alabama and 
the Cahaba rivers in the vicinity are numerous 
evidences of Indian residence. 

See Cahaba Old Towns; Cahaba River; Ca- 
haba Valley; Capitals; Dallas County; Lafay- 
ette's Visit. 

Reference.s. — Brewer, Alabama, pp. 208, 209; 
Mrs. Amelia G. Fry, Memories of Old Cahaba, 
1908; Hawes, Cahaba. A story of captive boys in 
blue (1888); Official War Records, vol. vii, pp. 
998-1001; Acts. Territorial Legislature, Feb., 
1818, pp. 94-95; Nov., 1818, pp. 46-49; Acts of 
Ala.. 1825-26, p. 12; 1829-30, p. 11; 1830-31, p. 37; 

1865-66, pp. 464-466; Toulmin, Digest (1823), 
pp. 115, 692, 693, 814-827, 913, 921. 


see Coal, Iron & Railroad Co 

CAHABA OLD TOAVN. An old Indian 
town, so designated on early maps, and lo- 
cated in Perry County. It is on the west side 
of the Cahaba River, north of and near the 
mouth of Old Town Creek, and about two 
miles above Carmack's ferry. It is near the 
Marion and Centerville public road. It was 
probably occupied by an outlying band of 
Choctaws, although in the Creek territory. 
Extensive local traces of occupation are 
found. To the south about 3 miles, on the 
old Ford plantation, is the site of Athahatchee 
(q. v.), one of the villages passed by DeSoto. 
The name of the creek suggests its origin 
from the name of the town. 

Reference. — La Tourrette, Map of Alabama 
(1838); Smith, Map of Alabama (1891). 

CAHABA RIVER. A tributary of the Ala- 
bama River and a part of the Alabama- 
Tombigbee drainage system. Its length Is 
about 125 miles, and its average width 400 
feet. The river becomes very shallow during 
dry seasons, consisting of a series of discon- 
nected pools, separated by stretches of drift, 
sand bars and shoals. In wet weather, it 
frequently overflows its banks, inundating a 
large area of the surrounding country. The 
Cahaba is formed at the northern boundary 
of Shelby County by the junction of the East 
Cahaba and West Cahaba Rivers, which rise 
in the southeastern part of St. Clair County. 
It flows toward the southwest as far as Cen- 
terville, and thence almost due south until It 
empties into the Alabama River 20 miles 
below Selma, at the site of the old town of 
Cahaba (q. v.) the first capital of the State. 
For about six miles above Centerville the 
bed of the river is Silurian rock. In this for- 
mation occur the principal deposits of iron 
ore, marble and limestone. Above this is a 
narrow strip of sandstone, and beyond that 
are the coal fields which extend to the river's 
source and beyond. Below Centerville the 
bed of the stream, for about 45 miles, is prin- 
cipally gravel and sand, and for the remain- 
der of its length is of the Cretaceous forma- 
tion. Above Centerville the river is a series 
of pools and falls, having a fall of 109.2 feft 
in 21 miles. Below Centerville it is a series 
of pools and rapids, having a fall of 127.4 
feet in 88 miles. The country contiguous to 
the river originally was heavily timbered, but 
a considerable portion of it has now been 
cleared for cultivation. The Cahaba River, 
with its tributaries, the East Cahaba and 
West Cahaba, traverse and drain a part of 
St. Clair, Jefferson, Shelby, Bibb, Perry, and 
Dallas Counties. 

Originally the Cahaba was so obstructed by 
snags, logs, sunken trees, overhanging tim- 
ber, shoals, and reefs as to make navigation 
exceedingly dangerous during high water and 


Impossible during low water. Navigation was 
also impeded by three bridges which span 
the river below Centerville. However, trips 
to that town were made by steamboats of 
light draft in 1836, 1844, 1845, 1847, and 
1849. After the construction of the bridge 
of the Tennessee & Alabama Central Rail- 
road, in 1849, navigation of the river ceased 
until 1880 when a small steamer made the 
attempt. It proceeded as high as Centerville, 
and obtained a cargo of cotton, but on the 
return passage was disabled and capsized. 

The first examination of the Cahaba River 
by Government engineers was made in 1874, 
and covered the section between Centerville 
and its mouth. A supplementary examina- 
tion and survey was made in 1880. In Au- 
gust. 1882. an appropriation of $20,000 was 
made by Congress for the improvement of the 
river up as far as Centerville. The project 
contemplated securing a channel at least 3 
feet deep at low water, 100 feet wide in open 
river and 60 feet wide through rock and 
bar cuts. Work was commenced the follow- 
ing March and continued until June 30. In 
1884 an additional $10,000 was appropriated, 
and in 1886. $7,500, but this last could not 
be used because of a proviso in the act mak- 
ing its expenditure contingent upon the con- 
struction of draw openings in the railroad 
bridges spanning the river. In 1890 this re- 
striction was repealed, and in 1892 an addi- 
tional $7,500 was appropriated, making a 
total appropriation of $45,000, practically all 
of which was actually expended upon the 
improvement of the river but without making 
it navigable. In 1893 the work was finally 
abandoned. Since that time several addi- 
tional fixed bridges have been built across the 
stream, and no further work has been done 
on it, although in 1909 another examination 
was made under act of Congress approved 
March 3. The engineers reported the Cahaba 
unworthy of further improvement. 

The question of water power development 
has not entered into the problem of improv- 
ing the Cahaba for navigation; however, the 
stream offers good opportunities, particularly 
above Centerville, for plants utilizing from 
500 to 2,000 horsepower. The minimum ag- 
gregate power possibilities of the stream and 
its tributaries have been estimated by the 
United States Geological Survey at about 10,- 
000 horsepower. Practically nothing has so 
far been undertaken in this direction. 

Appropriations. — The dates, amounts, and 
the aggregate of appropriations by the Fed- 
eral Government for improvement of this 
stream, as compiled to March 4, 1915, in Ap- 
propriations for Rivers and Harbors ( House 
Doc. 1491, 63d Cong.. 3d sess., 1916), are 
shown in the appended table: 

Aug. 2, 1882 $20,000.00 

July 5, 1884 10,000.00 

Aug. 5. 1886 7.500.00 

July 13, 1892 7,500.00 

pendices; Ibid. Report of examination of Ca- 
haba River, from its mouth to Centerville, 
1910 (in H. Doc. 697, 61st Cong., 2d sess.); 
Hall, Water powers of Alabayna (U. S. Geol. 
Survey, Water supply papers 107; 1904), pp. 
118-131; Berney, Handbook (1892), pp. 516-517; 
Hamilton, Colonial Mobile (1910) p. 1S8. 

Hi.story. — The name first appears on 
Danville's map of 1732, and is spelled Caba. 
On De Crenay's map the spelling is Capo. 
The word seems to be a corruption of the 
Choctaw Oka uba, meaning "water above." 
If this genesis is correct, the name was re- 
ceived from Choctaw speaking people living 
on the lower Alabama in Colonial times. 
Along the stream in its upper waters are a 
number of old Creek Indian villages. 

See Cahaba; Cahaba Old Towns; Cahaba 

CAHAB.\ TOWNS. Along the Cahaba 
River, which lay wholly in the Creek Indian 
territory, and upon some of its larger tribu- 
tary streams, are to be found evidences of a 
number of Indian towns and villages. There 
are references to several of these on old maps. 
Since they were comparatively far away from 
the principal Creek settlements on the Coosa 
and Tall.^poosa and the lower Chattahoochee, 
they were without special historic significance, 
and very few facts are preserved about them. 
Many of them are without special designa- 
tion, other than as old Indian villages. Those 
of which the names are preserved are briefly 
referred to in their appropriate alphabetical 
Oder. Of (hose not named, note should here 
be made of two villages, located about 12 or 
15 miles northeasterly of Birmingham, the 
one on the east and the other on the west 
side of the upper waters of the Cahaba. 
These villages were doubtless small, with 
crude houses, and were largely temporary or 

See Osoonee Old Town; Penootah; Tula- 

References. — U. S. Chief of Engineers, An- 
nual report, 1875. App. T. pp. 13-18; Ibid. 1883, 
App. M, pp. 995-998; Ibid, 1884-1893, with ap- 

Reference. — Bureau of American Ethnology, 
Eighteenth anmtal report (1899), pt. 2, map 1. 

CAHABA A^^IjLEY. This valley separates 
the Cahaba and the Coosa coal fields and em- 
braces all the country from Odenville to 
Montevallo. A continuation of the valley ex- 
tends as far as Centerville. Its length is 
about 55 miles; its width nearly 3 miles; its 
area slightly more than 150 square miles. It 
is a denuded, unsymmetrical, anticlinal val- 
ley whose steep strata, on the northwest side, 
are engulfed in a great fault. Like most of 
the valleys in Alabama, it is complex, that is, 
made up of one or more subordinate valleys 
with ridges between them. One of these val- 
leys, lying between the chert rid,ge of the 
Knox dolomite and the edge of the Cahaba 
field, is known as O'Possum Valley; the other, 
lying between the chert of the Knox dolomite 
and Little Oak Mountain, is in the Cahaba 
Valley proper. In the Cahaba Valley there 
are representatives of all the Paleozoic rocks, 
from the Cambrian to the Coal Measures. 

The Cahaba Valley, with its subordinate 
valleys, and the Cahaba coal field, are drained 



by the Cahaba River (q. v.) and its numerous 
tributary creeks and branches. The Cahaba 
Valley in its upper part runs nearly north- 
east-southwest, but below Helena it turns 
nearly southward to Montevallo. It embraces 
parts of St. Clair, Jefferson, Shelby, and Bibb 

The surface of the country included in the 
Cahaba Valley is hilly, and in places decidedly 
broken. The soils are mainly of the DeKalb 
fine, sandy loam, and, in a general way, their 
character is closely related to and dependent 
upon the nature of the underlying strata. 
Some of them have considerable value for 
agricultural purposes, but others, especially 
the light colored and poorly drained soils, 
have a rather low agricultural value. 

The chief agricultural products of the 
farms in the valley are cotton and corn, the 
former greatly predominating. Small quan- 
tities of cowpeas, sugar-cane, oats, hay, and 
other minor crops are grown. All along the 
Cahaba Valley the area formed by the Knox 
dolomite is characterized by the occurrence 
of beds of brown ore or limonite that in many 
places are of great economic value. 

The majority of the early settlers came 
from the Carolinas, Georgia and Tennessee. 

References. — Squire, Cahaba coal field (Geol. 
Survey of Ala., Special report 2, 1890), paasim; 
McCalley, Valley regions of Alabama, Pt. 2, 
Coosa Valley (Geol. Survey of Ala., Special 
report 9, 1897), p. 21; Berney, Handbook 
(1892), pp. 426-430; U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, 
Bureau of Soil Surveys, Soil survey of Bibb 
County (1910). 

COMPANY. See East Tennessee, Virginia 
and Georgia Railway Company. 

BAIL, BOAD COMPANY. See East Tennes- 
see, Virginia and Georgia Railway Company. 

OALEBEE, BATTLE OF. An engagement 
between the Georgia militia, under Gen. 
Floyd, and the Creek Indians, January 27, 
1814, on Calebee Creek, about 7 miles from 
the present town of Tuskegee, Macon County. 
After the battle of Autossee, November 29, 
1813. and his retreat to Fort Mitchell, Gen. 
Floyd remained inactive about 6 weeks. On 
receiving necessary supplies, and recruiting 
his forces, with about 1,227 men, a company 
of cavalry, and 400 friendly Indians, he set 
out on another campaign. He moved along 
the line of the old federal road, establishing 
Fort Bainbridge in Russell, and Fort Hull in 
the Macon County. News was received that 
the Indians were fortifying themselves in 
large numbers at Hoithlewallee. On January 
26 he encamped in a pine forest, upon the 
high land bordering Calebee Swamp. The 
hostile Indians were on the same date en- 
camped in what was subsequently known as 
McGirth's Still House branch. " Here they 
held a council Their numbers had increased 
to 1.800 warriors, probably the largest force 
assembled during the Creek war. Many were 
without guns, and were armed with war-clubs, 

bows and arrows. William Weatherford was 
present and addressed the council. He pro- 
posed that the Indians wait until Gen. Floyd's 
army had crossed Calebee Creek. Weather- 
ford's advice was rejected, and he left the 
council, and started back to Polecat Spring. 
About an hour and a half before daybreak 
on the morning of January 27, the Indians 
stealthily approached the camp, fired upon the 
sentinels and made a fierce rush upon the 
main body. A general action immediately 
followed. Although surprised. Gen. Floyd's 
troops were quickly organized, and with the 
aid of the cannon repulsed them. The Indians 
made desperate efforts to capture the can- 
non, and in consequence the artillerymen suf- 
fered very severely. While the redsticks were 
thus bravely fighting, the friendly Indians 
with the exception of Capt. Timpochee Bar- 
nard and his Uchees, acted in a cowardly way. 
About daylight Gen. Floyd reorganized his 
lines, and ordered a general charge. The 
Indians gave way before the bayonet, and they 
were pursued through the swamp by the 
cavalry, by some of the rifle companies and 
by some of the friendly Indians. The Indian 
losses are not known, but 70 bodies were 
found upon the field. The American loss 
was 17 killed, and 132 wounded. The 
friendly Indians lost 5 killed and 15 wounded. 

The unexpected engagement on the Calebee 
thwarted Gen. Floyd's designs against Hoith- 
lewallee. He thereupon retreated to Fort 
Hull, in which he left a small garrison. He 
then returned to Fort Mitchell. After the 
withdrawal of Gen. Floyd the Creeks took 
possession of the battlefield. The retreat and 
abandonment of the campaign gave the 
Indians the impression that they had won 
the victory. 

References. — Russell, History of the Late 
War (1815), p. 242; Brackenridge, History of 
the Late War (1844), p. 193; White, Historical 
Collections of Georgia (1855), pp. 290-292; Pick- 
ett, History of Alabama (Owen's ed., 1900), pp. 
584-586 ; Woodward, Reminiscences of the Creek 
Indians (1859), pp. 101, 102; The Atlanta Con- 
stitution. April 30, 1905. 

CALEBA. Post office, incorporated town, 
and junction of the Louisville & Nashville 
Railroad and the Southern Railway, in the 
southern part of Shelby County, about 40 
miles south of Birmingham. Population: 
1880—800; 1900 — 770; 1910 — 754. Alti- 
tude: 502 feet. The Citizens Bank (State) la 
located there, and the Shelby County Review, 
a weekly newspaper, established in 1912, Is 
published in the town. Its industries are a 
barrel and stave mill, lime kilns, brick kilns, 
and ginneries. One of the finest artesian 
wells in the State is within its limits. The 
first settler was John R. Gamble, one of Jack- 
son's soldiers, who located there soon after 
Weatherford's surrender. About 1848, the 
Seale, Neely, Lyde, and Wright families cam_e 
from Old Cheraw, S. C, and settled at Calera. 
Dr. J. R. Morgan was the first physician; 
Rev. William Seale, Methodist, the first 
preacher. In 1853-4. the Alabama & Tennes- 
see River Railroad was built through Calera, 


and the first post office established as Lime 
Station. Shortly after, lime works were es- 
tablished. These works were acquired in 
1883 by J. R. Adams o£ Montgomery, later 
of Birmingham, and the name changed to 
Shelby Lime Co. 

References. — Armes, Story of coal and iron 
in Alabama (1910), p. 573; Berney, Hand- 
book (1892), p. 491; Northern Alabama (1888), 
p. 160; Polk's Alabama gazetteer, 1888-9, p. 


former private school for girls, established at 
Red Bank, New Jersey, 1895; removed to 
Montgomery 1902; now closed. 

References. — Catalogue, 1904-1905; "Unso- 
licited testimonials," reprinted from Montgom- 
ery Journal, June 22, 1903. 

vate school for the education of negro boys 
and girls, located at Calhoun, Lowndes 
County. It is a community school of ele- 
mentary grade with some secondary pupils; 
and undertakes to adopt simple, industrial 
and agricultural training to the needs of the 
people. It is owned and controlled by a 
board of trustees of influential men. It has 
an invested, permanent improvement, and 
current funds. It maintains a boarding de- 
partment. It receives support from the Gen- 
eral Education Board, the John F. Slater 
Fund, the Westchester Association, the Froth- 
ingham Fund, and the New Haven Calhoun 
Fund. The school owns 109 acres of land, 
of an estimated value of ?5,650. There are 
18 buildings including 6 teachers' cottages, 
4 industrial buildings, 3 class room buildings, 
2 dormitories, executive building, commissary, 
and doctor's office, estimated at $41,950. 

After preliminary preparation in securing 
lands and quarters, in October, 1892, the 
school was opened with 6 teachers and 300 
pupils. The founders were Charlotte R. Thorn 
and Mabel W. Dillingham, two enthusiastic 
and zealous young white women who had 
previously taught at Hampton, Va. They 
were co-principals from 1892 to 1894 when 
Miss Dillingham died. She was succeeded by 
her father, Rev. Pitt Dillingham, who acted 
as co-principal until 1909. Since that date 
Miss Thoru has been sole principal. The 
presidents of the board of trustees have been 
Hon. John Bigelow, from its organization to 
1904; and H. B. Frizzell, 1904 to his death 
in 1917. 

The report of the school to the state su- 
perintendent of education, September 30, 
1917, shows building and site valued at $51.- 
943; equipment, $43,364; library of 3,853 
volumes, valued at $2,500; 25 teachers; 405 
students; and a total support of $73,236. 

References. — Annual Reports, 1892-1917, 25 
vols.; U. S. Bureau of Education, Negro educa- 
tion (Bulletin 39, 1917), vol. 2, p. 58. 

CALHOUN COUNTY. Created by the leg- 
islature December 18, 1832, from the land 
ceded by the Treaty of Cusseta, executed 
March 24, 1832. It lost part of its original 

territory by the formation of Cleburne, De- 
cember 6, 1866, and Etowah County Decem- 
ber 7, 1866. Its area is 630 square miles 
or 403,200 acres. 

It was established as Benton County, in 
honor of Col. Thomas Hart Benton, senator 
from Missouri. Among other things in his 
public career commending him to Alabama 
was his service in the War of 1813-14. As a 
field officer he served in Alabama, being for a 
time in command of Fort Montgomery, Bald- 
win County. His later political course, how- 
ever, rendered him unpopular in the State, 
and January 29, 1858, the name of the county 
was changed to Calhoun, in honor of the great 
States Rights leader of South Carolina. 

The same legislature, January 12, 1833, 
named Samuel J. Bradford, Moses Benson, 
Christopher A. Green, John Mattox and 
Matther H. Haustin (sic) commissioners, 
who were empowered to locate the county 
seat, at or near the center of the county if 
practicable, or, if not, at the mosjt eligible 
point, not exceeding six miles from the center. 
The place selected was given the name Jack- 
sonville, in grateful appreciation of the serv- 
ices of Gen. Andrew Jackson to the State, 
lands were purchased, and a court house and 
Jail erected. 

The legislature, January 9, 1833, elected 
Christopher Green judge of the county court 
over Willis Franklin. The county was fur- 
ther organized by an election, held the first 
Monday in March, 1833, at which James 
Brown was chosen sheriff, James Crow clerk 
of the circuit court, and Wm. J. Arnold clerk 
of the county court. 

The growth of Anniston, the location of 
railroads, and the previous reduction of the 
county boundaries by the creation of Cleburne 
and Etowah Counties, changed conditions 
and brought about an agitation for the re- 
location of the county seat. In response to 
the demand the legislature, February 16, 
1895, authorized an election to be held to 
determine whether it should remain at Jack- 
sonville, or be removed to Anniston. The 
advocates of removal lost, but they again ap- 
pealed to the legislature. Another election 
was ordered by an act of November 30, 1898, 
later amended February 1, 1899, in which 
Jacksonville lost. The commissioners ex- 
officio under this act were the clerk of the 
City Court of Anniston, the mayor of Jack- 
sonville, and the chancellor of the Northeast- 
ern Chancery Division. The people of Annis- 
ton complied with the terms of the act, a 
suitable site was secured, and the officers and 
records were removed. 

Location and Physical Description. — It lies 
in the northeastern section of the state. On 
the north lies Cherokee and Etowah, on the 
east Cleburne, on the south Talladega and 
on the west Etowah, St. Clair and Talladega. 
The Coosa River in a southwesterly course is 
its dividing line with St. Clair County. Prac- 
tically the whole county area is within the 
Coosa Valley region, with the exception of 
a narrow strip along its western boundary, 
which latter is an extension of the Appala- 
chian Mountain system. The topography is 



generally rolling to hilly or mountainous, 
with elevations ranging from about 600 feet 
in the valleys proper, to over 2,000 feet upon 
the peaks of Choccoiocco and Cold Water 
mountains. These mountains form the wa- 
tershed, and largely determine the direction 
of the streams. The Choccoiocco, Nancy, Ter- 
rapin, Ohatchie, Tallahatchie, Cane, Cold Wa- 
ter and Eastoboga creeks largely comprise 
the drainage of the county, which finds an 
outlet through the Coosa and Alabama rivers 
to the Gulf. The soils are derived largely 
from the underlying geological formations, 
and are derived directly or indirectly from 
limestone, sandstone and shale. There are 
18 distinct types shown in the survey. These 
include stony loam, shale loam, clay loam, 
and fine sandy loam. The varied geological 
features of the county make possible its great 
resources. It has deposits of the Knox 
dolomite, manganese ore, china clays, galena, 
barite, quarries of limestone and Weisner 
sandstone,, beds of slate, and chert for road 
making. The Piedmont Springs, of chaly- 
beate water, are located in the county. A 
small area is embraced in the Warrior coal 
fields. Its forest growth consists principally 
of longleaf and shortleaf pine, post oak, red 
oak, blackjack, beech, poplar, sweet gum, wal- 
nut, hickory, elm and ash. The climate of the 
county is equable. Its mean annual tem- 
perature ranges from 44° F. in winter to 
77° F. in summer. The average dates of the 
first and last killing frosts are October 20 
and April 2. The mean annual precipitation 
is slightly less than 50 inches, and is evenly 
distributed throughout the growing season. 
The climate, the soils and its varied topog- 
raphy afford a wide range for diversified agri- 
culture, and it is well adapted to stock rais- 
ing. Details of the character and extent of 
productions are noted in the statistics be- 

Aboriginal History. — The county lies within 
the domain of the Creek Indians. It was 
traversed by De Soto in 1540 on his way to 
Cosa. Three miles southwest of Jacksonville 
on Tallaseehatchee Creek was the town of 
Tallasseehatchee. where General Coffee de- 
feated the Creeks, November 3, 1813. About 
12 miles south of Jacksonville on the north 
side of Big Shoal Creek, in the vicinity of 
Wolfskull Creek on the south was Chinaby's 
Fort, and some three miles below it, on the 
same side of the creek was an Indian village, 
whose name has not been preserved. Scat- 
tered along the Coosa River are many evi- 
dences of very aboriginal occupancy. Near 
Choccoiocco Creek, three miles southwest of 
Oxford on the Carver place Is a large isolated 
mound. The site has not been identified. In 
the southwestern corner of the county, on 
Coosa River at the influx of Cane Creek is a 
large village site, where chipped implements 
and pottery are quite numerous. This is the 
location of Tali of De Soto's time. Several 
sites are noted above this point, but none are 
associated with any places of historic times. 

Confederate Conimand.s from County. — The 
commands listed below were made up in 
whole or in part from this county. 

Co. A, "Calhoun Guards," 2d Regt. 
Co. B, "Calhoun Grays," 7th Regt. 
Co. D, "Alexandria Rifles," 10th Regt. 
Co. G, "Pope Walker Guards," 10th Regt. 
Co. H, "Choccoiocco Rifles," 10th Regt. 
Co. E, "Calhoun Boys," 22d Regt. 
Co. I, "Mountain Guards," 25th Regt. 
Co. A, "Calhoun Beauregards," 26th-50th 

Co. B, "Sallie Walker Boys," 30th Regt. 
Co. E, 30th Regt. 
Co. D, 31st Regt. 

Co. I, "Newman Pounds Guards," 48th Regt. 
Co. K, "Moore Rifles," 48th Regt. 
Co. C, "Oxford Rifles," 55th Regt. 
Co. F, 58th Regt. 
Co. I, "St. Clair Sharpshooters," 58th Regt. 

(in part from Calhoun). 
Co. E, 62d Regt. (in part from Calhoun). 
Co. B, 62d Regt. (in part from Calhoun). 

Co. A, 2d Regt. 
Co. G, 3d Regt. 
Co. F, 12th Regt. 
Co. D, 51st Regt. (Mounted Infantry.) 


Co. A. (Later Co. E), 1st Battn., Confederate 
Infantry. (Some members had seen serv- 
ice in 2d Inf. Regt.) 

Co. B, "Calhoun Sharpshooters," 5th Inf. 

Co. C, "White Plains Rangers," 5th Int. 

Farm, Iiivestock and Crop Statistics, 1917. 

— The statistics below are given for illustra- 
tive purposes, and, in tabular form, without 
any attempt at comparison or analysis. They 
were gathered under the direction of the 
Bureau of Crop Estimates, U. S. Department 
of Agriculture. 

Number of all farms, 2,090. 
Acres cultivated, 125,400. 
Acres in pasture, 54,340. 
Farm Animals: 

Horses and mules, 6,030. 
Milk cows, 3,510. 
Other cattle, 4,910. 
Brood sows, 1.480. 
Other hogs, 6,820. 
Sheep, 630. 
Selected Ciops (Acres and Quantity) : 
Corn, 57,530 acres; 908,040 bushels. 
Cotton, 33,280 acres; 11,940 bales. 
Peanuts, 760 acres; 11,110 bushels. 
Velvet beans, 1,805 acres; 13,540 tons. 
Hay, 9,020 acres; 9,830 tons. 
Syrup cane, 2,350 acres; 174,720 gallons. 
Cowpeas, 6.200 acfes; 28,200 bushels. 
Sweet potatoes, 1,360 acres; 73,320 

Irish potatoes, 340 acres; 15,230 bushels. 
Oats, 3,380 acres; 12,410 bushels. 
Wheat, 3,270 acres; 19,720 bushels. 
Post Offices and Towns. — Revised to July 1, 
1917, from U. S. OflBclal Postal Guide. 
Alexandria Bluemountain 

Anniston (ch) Choccoiocco 



De Armanville Ohatchee Representatives. — 

Duke Oxford 1834-5. — Charles Lewis. 

Ironcity Piedmont 1835-6. — John Turner. 

Jacksonville Reads 1836-7. — John Turner. 

McFall Weaver 1837 (called). — John Turner. 

Merrellton Wellington 183 7-8. — William B. Martin. 

1838-9. — William B. Martin. 

Population. — Statistics from decennial pub- 1839-40. — Thomas A. Walker; John Coch- 

lications of the U. S. Bureau of the Census. ran; John T. A. Hughes. 

White Negro Total 1840-1.— Thomas A. Walker; Stephen Kel- 

1820 ley; John T. A. Hughes. 

1830 1841 (called). — Thomas A. Walker; 

1840 Stephen Kelley; John T. A. Hughes. 

1850 1841-2. — Thomas A. Walker; JohnCoch- 

1860 17,169 4,370 21,539 ran; Mathew Allen. 

1870 10,088 3,892 13,980 1842-3.— William B. Martin; John Coch- 

1880 14,134 5,457 19,591 ran; Miles W. Abernethy. 

1890 23,947 3,879 33,832 1843-4.— William B. Martin; Henry T. 

1900 24,247 10,626 34,874 Reid; Mathew Allen. 

1910 28,357 10,757 39,115 1844-5.— William Young; Lewis D. Jones; 

Spartan Allen. 

Delegates to Constitutional Conventions. — 1845-6. — Abram J. Walker; Elijah Carr- 

1861. — D. T. Ryan, J. M. Crook, G. C. Mathew Allen. 

Whatley. 1847-8. — R. H. Wilson; W. R. Hanna; 

1865. — John Poster, Isaac P. Moragne, Giles L. Driver. 

Joseph C. McAuley. 1849-50. — J. N. Young; Asa Skelton; G. C. 

1867. — James H. Autry. Whatley. 

1875. — W. M. Hames. 1851-2. — William P. Davis; William C. 

1901. — L. W. Grant, L. F. Greer, J. T. Price; Mathew Allen. 

Martin, W. W. Whiteside, John B. Knox. 1853-4. — William P. Davis; Asa Skelton- 

J. N. Willis. 

Senators. — 1855-6. — William P. Davis; Isaac P Mo- 

1834-5. — William Arnold. ragne; G. C. Ellis. 

1838-9.— William B. McClellan. 1857-8.— John H. Caldwell; J. J Baugh- 

1839-40. — John R. Clarke. John H. Wright. ' 

1842-3. — Thomas A. Walker. 1859-60. — William H. Forney William F 

1845-6. — John R. Clarke. Bush; John H. Wright. 

1847-8. — William B. Martin. 1861 (1st called). — William H. Forney; 

1851-2. — Abram J. Walker. William F. Bush; John H. Wright 

1853-4. — William B. Martin. 1861 (2d called). — William B Martin- S 

1855-6. — Miles W. Abernethy. M. Caruth; S. D. McClelen. 

1859-60. — Thomas A. Walker. 1861-2. — William B. Martin; S M Caruth- 

1861-2. — Thomas A. Walker (1863.) S. D. McClelen. 

1865-6,— William H. Forney. 1862 (called). — William B. Martin- S M 

1868.— H. C. Sanford. Caruth; S. D. McClelen. 

1871-2. — H. C. Sanford. 1862-3. — William B. Martin; S M Caruth- 

1872-3. — Thomas B. Cooper. S. D. McClelen. 

1873.— T. B. Cooper. 1863 (called). — W. M. Hames; E. T Reid- 

1874-5. — T. B. Cooper. D. T. Ryan. 

1875-6.— T. B. Cooper. 1863-4.— W. M. Hames; E. T. Reid- D T 

1876-7. — W. P. Howell. Ryan. ' " ' 

1878-9. — W. P. Howell. 1864 (called). — W. M. Hames- E T Reid- 

1880-1. — L. W. Grant. D. T. Ryan. 

1888-9. — L. W. Grant. 1864-5. — W. M. Hames; E. T. Reid- D T 

18 84-5. — Wm. J. Alexander. Ryan. 

1886-7. — W. J. Alexander. 1865-6. — William J. Borden; Henrv Mc- 

1838-9.— L. W. Grant. Bee; G. C. Ellis. 

1890-1. — L. W. Grant. 1866-7. — William J. Borden- Henrv 

1892-3.— W. H. Porter. McBee; G. C. Ellis. 

1894-5. — W. A. Porter. 1868. — Thomas D. Fister. 

1896-7. — John W. Abercrombie. 1869-70. — Thomas D. Fister. 

1898-9. — J. W. Abercrombie. 1870-1. — James Crook. 

1899 (Spec). — J. W. Abercrombie. 1871-2. — James Crook. 

1900-01.— Frederick L. Blackmon. 1872-3.- J. M. Renfroe. 

1903. — Frederick Blackmon. 1873. — J. M. Renfroe. 

1907. — Frederick L. Blackmon. 1874-5. — L. W. Grant. 

1907 (Spec). — Frederick L. Blackmon. 1875-6. — L. W. Grant. 

1909 (Spec). — Frederick L. Blackmon. 1876-7. — E. H Allen 

1911.— Thomas E. Kilby. 1878-9.— J. M. Sheid 

1915.— Charles D. Kline. 1880-1.— J. D. Hammond 

1919.— W. P. Acker. 1882-3.— J. D. Hammond 



1884-5. — W. W. Whiteside. 

1886-7. — John M. Caldwell. 

1888-9. — G. C. Williams. 

1890-1. — W. P. Cooper. 

1892-3. — G. C. Williams; L. J. Morris. 

1894-5.— R. B. Kelly; W. C. Scarbrough. 

1896-7. — T. W. Coleman; P. H. Brothers. 

1898-9. — W. F. McCain; M. W. Maddox. 

1899 (Spec). — W. F. McCain; M. W. 

1900-01. — H. C. Gunnels; J. J. Arnold. 

1903. — Joseph Johnson Arnold; Dr. Genu- 
bath Coke Williams. 

1907. — Joseph J. Arnold; Wm. H. Cooper. 

1907 (Spec). — Joseph J. Arnold; Wm. H. 

1909 (Spec). — Joseph J. Arnold; Wm. H. 

1911. — J. J. Arnold; C. D. Martin. 

1915. — D. C. Blackwell; Dr. G. C. Williams. 

1919. — G. C. Williams; J. C Wilson 

See Anniston; Annlston College for Young 
Ladies; Alexandria; Alexandria Valley; Blue 
Mountain; Brock Mountain; Chambers of 
Commerce; Chirnaby's Fort; Choccolocco 
Creek; Choccolocco Valley; Cleburn County; 
Cold Water Mountain; Confederate Monu- 
ments; Coosa River; Coosa Valley; Cotton 
Manufacturing Counties; Country Clubs; 
Creek Indians; Cumberland Presbyterian 
Seminary; Etowah County; Jacksonville; 
Jacksonville or Choccolocco Mountains; Jack- 
sonville State Normal School; Noble Institute; 
Oxford; Piedmont; Soils and Soil Surveys; 

References.— Acts. 1831-32, pp. 9. 49; 1894-95, 
p. 692; Local Acts, 1898-99, pp. 8, 494; State ex 
rel. Crow v. Emmett F. Crook, Probate Judge, 
123 Ala. p. 657; Brewer, Alabama, p. 151; Ber- 
ney. Handbook (1892), p. 273; Riley, Alabama 
as it is (1893), p. 98; Northern Alabama (1888), 
p. Ill; Alabama, 1909 (Ala. Dept. of Ag. and 
Ind., Bulletin 27), p. 82; U. S. Soil Survey 
(1910), with map; Alabama land book (1916), 
p. 47; Ala. Official and Statistical Register. 1903- 
1915, 5 vols.; Ala. Anthropological Society, 
Handbook (1910); Geol. Survey of Ala., Agri- 
cultural features of the State (1883); The Val- 
ley regions of Alabama, parts 1 and 2 (1896, 
1897), and Underground Water resources o) 
Alabama (1907). 

CAMDEN. Incorporated town and county 
seat of Wilcox County, situated near the Ala- 
bama River, in the central part of the county, 
about 30 miles northwest of Pine Apple, and 
about 40 miles southwest of Selma. Popula- 
tion: 1870—1,000; 1880 — 1,400; 1890— 
545; 1900 — 478; 1910 — 648. 

It was incorporated by act of December 
30, 1841. Its banking institutions are the 
Bank of Camden, (State), and the Camden 
National Bank. The Wilcox Progressive 
Bra, a Democratic weekly newspaper, estab- 
lished in 1887, is published there. Its in- 
dustries are cotton ginneries, cotton ware- 
houses, cottonseed oil mill, gristmill, saw- 
mill, planing mill, general stores, &c. It is 
the location of the Wilcox County High 
School. The Methodist Episcopal, South, Bap- 
tist, First Presbyterian, Second Presbyterian, 

Episcopal, and Catholic churches have organi- 
zations and buildings. 

The town was settled in the early thirties 

by Thomas Dunn and Hall. Later 

arrivals were William Stearn, O. B. and 
Henry Savage, and Daniel Block, the first 
merchants. Dr. Fant was the first physician; 
Rev. B. Dulaney, the first preacher. The 
Methodists erected the first church near the 
present cemetery. The first postmaster on 
record was B. B. Ruffin. appointed in 1833. 

The settlement was first called Barbours- 
ville. In 1832, the county seat was moved 
from Canton to Barboursville, and in 1841, 
the name was changed to Camden, after 
Camden, S. C, whence many of the settlers 
had come. The original courthouse was used 
until 1858, when the present brick structure 
was erected. In 185 3, a handsome brick 
building for the use of the Wilcox Female 
Institute was built. It is now used as a 
county high school. In the same year, a 
brick hotel was erected. 

References. — Brewer, Alabama (1872), p. 
578; Northern Alabama (1888), p. 223; Polk's 
Alabama gazetteer, 1888-9, p. 248. 

CAMPBELIilTES. See Churches of Christ; 
Disciples of Christ. 

CA>IP HILL. Post office and staHon in 
the southeastern part of Tallapoosa County, 
sees. 16, 17, 20, and 21, T. 21, R. 24, on the 
Central of Georgia Railway, 8 miles south- 
east of Dadeville, 20 miles northwest of 
Opelika, 30 miles north of Tuskegee, and 15 
miles southwest of Lafayette. Altitude: 734 
feet. Population: 1888 — 300; 1890 — 366; 
1900 — 686; 1910 — 896. It is incorporated 
under the municipal code of 1907, the cor- 
porate limits including all territory "from 
the railroad bridge in the town, one mile in 
every direction." The municipal buildings 
are the jail, public school buildings, and 
electric light plant. It has municipal water- 
works, fire department, consisting of chief 
and 14 volunteer firemen, and a sewerage 
system installed in 1914 at a cost of |8,000. 
Tax rate: % of 1 per cent. Bonded indebted- 
ness: 127,000, 30-year, 5 per cent bonds ma- 
turing in 1944. It has the Bank of Camp Hill 
(State); and the Tallapoosa News, a Demo- 
cratic weekly newspaper, established in 
1900, and the Industrial Student, an educa- 
tional monthly, established in 1900. Its 
industries are a sawmill, fertilizer plant, 
brick kiln, 3 cotton warehouses, 3 cotton gin- 
neries, ice factory, gristmill, 2 automobile 
garages and machine shops, 2 general repair 
shops, harness shop, 2 shoe shops, and a lum- 
ber yard. Its educational institutions are 
the city high school, and the grammar school 
in a modern brick building costing $15,000, 
and negro public schools. Its churches are 
the Missionary Baptist, Primitive Baptist, 
Methodist Episcopal, South, colored Methodist 
Episcopal, South, and colored Baptist. 

The town is situated on the old trail to 
Wetumpka. As the country filled with set- 
tlers, they used this trail as a road over 
which to haul their produce to Wetumpka. 



They usually camped at the large spring, now 
In the eastern limits of the town, and hence 
the name. Camp Hill. The first settlers, near 
this spring and on this road, were the Love- 
lace, Herren and Smith families, who came 
while the Indians still owned and occupied the 
land. They were soon followed by Meadows, 
Whitten and Polk, the first merchants; Dr. 
Vaughan, first physician; Mathew Lale, first 
teacher. Rev. Brittain Conine, first Methodist 

Camp Hill is surrounded by a good farming 
region, especially for corn and wheat. But 
it is best known as the location of the Camp 
Hill Industrial Institute for the mountain 
bovs and girls, founded in 1898 by Lyman 

References. — Brewer, Alabama (1872), p. 
549; Polk's Alabama gazetteer, 1888-9, p. 249; 
Alabama Official and Statistical Register, 1915. 

CAMP McCLELLAN. United States Army 
Camp, located 5 miles north of Anniston. 
Upon the agreement of the citizens of Annis- 
ton to furnish land, water mains, electric 
lights, etc., the government of the United 
States agreed to locate a military camp at 
that point, where soldiers were to be trained 
for participation in the World War. 

The 29th Division consisting of the head- 
quarters troop; the military police; two 
brigades of infantry; three regiments of artil- 
lery; sanitary trains; French motor battery; 
field signal battalion; engineer regiment; en- 
gineer trains; ammunition and supply trains 
was trained at Camp McClellan before em- 
barking in May for France. 

A remount station. No. 309. was main- 
tained, and a base hospital was constructed 
with a capacity of 1,256 beds. The Southern 
and Louisville and Nashville railways had 
sidings which led into the camp. 

The Red Cross, Knights of Columbus, Sal- 
vation Army, War Camp Community service 
and Hostess Houses gave places for amuse- 
ment and entertainment. 

The American Library Association main- 
tained a library known as Camp McClellan 

References. — Manuscripts in the files of Ala- 
bama Department of Archives and History. 

C.\MP McClellan library. Branch 
of the American Library Association main- 
tained at Camp McClellan, Anniston, for the 
purpose of supplying officers and enlisted men 
with books and magazines. 

The camp library was opened by Mr. Carl 
H. Milam, on October 30, 1917, in a mess 
shack. At that time there were 2,000 books 
in the collection furnished by the people of 
Minneapolis and Chicago. Shortly afterward 
branches were opened in the "Y's" and 
"K. C." building. 

Mr. Milam, after selecting the site, which 
was one of the best in the city, let the con- 
tract for the building which on February 9, 
1918, was opened to soldiers. Its dimensions 
were 40 by 93 feet, and was furnished with 
regulation library tables and comfortable 

chairs. The men were allowed to smoke and 
were made to feel at home. 

The collection of books grew shortly from 
2,000 to 40,000 volumes. The greater num- 
ber were furnished by the people of Birming- 
ham and of Wisconsin and Illinois. The 
American Library Association purchased 
about 7,000 books for the library. Small col- 
lections were placed about camp in such a 
manner that they were accessible to the men 
at all times. All "Y" huts, the "K. C." 
building and "J. W. B." hut were provided, 
and books were placed in each ward in the 
Base Hospital. 

Many magazines were distributed by the 
Library. During November, 1918, the 
library received a call for books to be sent 
overseas. About 8,000 volumes were shipped. 
During the closing period of March and April, 
1919, 23,000 books were shipped to other 
camps, and when the library disbanded a 
good collection was given to the War Camp 
Community service, so that ex-service and 
service men might have good reading matter. 
The library was officially closed April 19, 

The personnel was as follows: 

Carl H. Milam, Birmingham, Organizer and 
Librarian, Oct. 30-Dec. 12. 1917; William 
Blair, Birmingham, Assistant, Nov. 15, 1917, 
to April 1, 1918; George L. Doty, Monroe, 
Mich., Librarian, Dec. 12, 1917, to Dec. 3, 
1918; Arthur Nelson, New Orleans, La., As- 
sistant, March 5-April 17, 1918; Helmer E. 
Johnson, Minneapolis. Minn., Assistant, April 
20, 1918, to April 12, 1919; Ernest L. John- 
son, Minneapolis, Minn., Assistant, April 1, 
1918, to April 19, 1919, acting librarian after 
Dec. 3, 1918; Harriet Lane, Freeport, 111., 
hospital librarian at Red Cross House. 

References. — Manuscript and letters in files 
of Alabama State Department of Archives and 

CAMP SHERIDAN, Montgomery. United 
States army camp located three and one- 
fourth miles north of Montgomery on the 
Lower Wetumpka Road. 

Vandiver Park had long been used by the 
national guard of Alabama as a training 
camp. When the president called the national 
guard together in 1916 for border service, 
they mobilized at that place. They were 
also encamped there, upon their return. 
When Montgomery was designated by the War 
Department as a mobilization center this 
tract of land with the purchase of additional 
property from Capt. A. G. Forbes and other 
citizens afforded the Government the two 
thousand acres which it had contracted with 
the city to furnish. 

In 1917 several hundred officers and men 
arrived at Montgomery to start preparing 
Camp Sheridan for the 37th Division, com- 
posed of troops from Ohio. 

Soon work was begun by the city to con- 
struct water mains, and to erect electric light 
poles, etc., and otherwise carry out its con- 
tract with the Federal government. 



The 37th Division, consisting of the head- 
quarters troops; the military police; two 
brigades of infantry; three regiments of ar- 
tillery; sanitary trains; field signal corps 
battalion; engineer regiments; engineer train; 
ammunition and supply trains, was instructed 
at Camp Sheridan before its departure for 

A Remount Station, No, 312 (q. v.), was 
maintained at the camp, as well as a motor 
transport corps training camp, and a base 
hospital, with a bed capacity of 1,106. 

Buildings were constructed for Young 
Men's Christian Association, Knights of Co- 
lumbus, Salvation Army and Red Cross 

The library building was constructed by 
the American Library Association and was 
one of the finest of its kind in the training 
camps of the United States. 

When the 37th Division departed from 
Montgomery for France in 1918 it was de- 
cided to form a new division which should 
be known as the Ninth Division, and the 
45th and 46th Regiments of Infantry were 
assigned to the camp to be used as a nucleus 
for the new division. 

After the signing of the Armistice Camp 
Sheridan was designated as a demobilization 

Recently the property reverted to the city 
of Montgomery, which in turn sold it to the 
State for the site of a new State penitentiary. 

The following is a brief summary of what 
was to be found at the time of the Armistice, 
November 11, 1918: 

20 miles of road, 3 feet wide in the res- 
ervations; 227 mess shacks for soldiers; 86 
mess halls for officers; 314 bath houses; 314 
latrines; 4,000 tents; 4 large and small 
warehouses; 21 stock sheds for the remount 
station; 15 miles of 4-inch piping. More 
than 1,000 acres of land were available for 
drill grounds close to the camp. 

Successive commanders at Camp Sheridan 
were: Major Gen. Charles Treat; Major Gen. 
William A. Holbrook; Brigadier-Gen. James 
A. Ryan; and Col. Charles C. Clark. 

References. — History of Camp Sheridan, by 
Ed May, together with personal reminiscences, 
letters and manuscript in State Department of 
Archives and History. 

CANALS. The construction of canals con- 
necting the navigable streams of Alabama 
represented one of the methods first con- 
sidered for developing the agricultural, com- 
mercial, industrial, and mineral resources of 
the State. This development was then con- 
ceived to be entirely dependent upon cheap 
and convenient transportation facilities. 
Other means suggested for accomplishing this 
end were the construction, by private means 
or with public aid, of systems of improved 
roads, including plank roads; improvement of 
rivers and large rreeks so as to admit of 
navigation by keelboats and steamboats; and, 
later, the construction of railroads. During 
the first 25 years after the admission of the 
State into the Union, the question of water 
transportation was uppermost in the public 

mind, but after that time the railroads sup- 
planted the canals in the estimation of most 
advocates of internal improvements as being 
more expeditious and cheaper of construc- 
tion, more practical in rugged country, and 
affording more rapid transportation. From 
the earliest times the opinion had been gen- 
eral among thoughtful men of Alabama that 
one of the essentials of State development 
was the connection of the fertile Tennessee 
Valley with the Gulf of Mexico through 
Mobile, the State's only seaport. The first 
plan suggested for accomplishing this end 
was the construction of a canal to connect 
the Tennessee River above the Muscle 
Shoals with the Tombigbee River, in order to 
bring to Mobile the produce which was then 
being sent to Savannah, Augusta and Charles- 
ton to be marketed or exported. 

Beginnings. — The first canal actually con- 
structed in the State was the Indian Creek 
Canal which was authorized by act of De- 
cember 21. 1820, incorporating the Indian 
Creek Navigation Co. In order to make 
Indian Creek navigable by flatboats and keel- 
boats from the town of Huntsville to the 
Tennessee River at Triana, it was necessary 
to increase the volume of water in the creek 
by the construction of a canal from the Big 
Spring at Huntsville. In connection with the 
canal, wooden locks and dams were built in 
the creek, and for many years a large part 
of the cotton products in the vicinity of 
Huntsville were floated down the creek and 
thence to market at Natchez or New Orleans 
via the Tennessee, Ohio and Mississippi 

The construction of a canal to connect the 
Hiwassee River, a tributary of the Tennessee, 
with the headwaters of the Coosa River was 
proposed as early as 1821. Gov. Pickens 
referred to this project in his message of 
November 13 of that year, and commended it 
to the favorable consideration of the legisla- 
ture. In the same message he expressed the 
hope that the canal between Fort Deposit on 
the Tennessee River and Tuscaloosa on the 
Black Warrior would be constructed. Neither