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Lawyer, Founder and Director Alabama State Department of Archives 

and History, and author of numerous historical and 

bibliographical publications 






Copyrighted, 1921, 







Dr. Henry Tutwiler 
Principal of Green Springs Academy; 
first student of the University of Virginia 
to receive the A. M. degree. 

Dr. J. H. Johnson 

Founder Alabama Schools for the Deaf and 

Blind. Talladega 

Dr. Basil Manly 
Distinguished Baptist divine and second 
president of the Alabama State University 

Dr. William L. Broun 
President Alabama Polytechni 
1884 to 1902 


History of Alabama 


organization with headquarters in Mobile, of 
students especially interested in the local his- 
tory of the Mobile Territory of the State of 
Alabama. Its original membership was Peter 
J. Hamilton, president, A. C. Harte, recording 
secretary, Rev. A. G. Moses, secretary and 
treasurer, and M. Brewster, F. G. Bromberg, 
P. C. Boudousquie, C. W. Butt, L. M. Brown, 
Erwin Craighead. L de V Chaudron, A. C. 
Harte. R. Hines. Thomas M. Owen, H. Pillans, 
P. Rapier. P. J. Robert. W. F. Tebbetts, J. 
A. Taylor, W. K. P. Wilson. 

The Society is still active, and issues from 
time to time papers, bulletins, etc.. etc. 

References. — Publications in Alabama De- 
partments of Archives and History. 

ICE MANUFACTURE. In 1880 there were 
three ice making establishments in the State 
with materials valued at $1,575, and prod- 
ucts at $13,679. In 1914 there were 55 es- 
tablishments, materials valued at $930,169, 
and products. $1,121,106. 

The legislature of February 17. 1854, in- 
corporated the "Livingston Ice House Com- 
pany," with James Hair, Robert F. Houston, 
John H. Sherard, Henry H. Hanes. David H. 
Trott, John F. Valy, Socrates Parkes and 
George Wilson as incorporators. It was given 
power to hold property not exceeding $50,000 
in value. 

References. — Acts, 1853-54, pp. 294-295; U. 
S. Census Reports, Manufactures. 

IDIOTS. See Mental Defectives. 

IGNEOUS ROCKS. See Building Stones. 

IKANATCHAKA. An Upper Creek Indian 
town known as the "Holy Ground." It was 
located on the south side of the Alabama 
River, between Pintalala and Big Swamp 
Creeks, in Lowndes County. The ground on 
which it was situated was believed by the In- 
dians to be holy ground, because of certain 
rites by their prophets in setting it aside, and 
it was therefore believed to be immune or 
exempt from hostile attack. It was the home 
of William Weatherford, the "Red Eagle," 
and of Hillis Hadjo, "The Prophet." Weather- 
ford had plantations on the right bank of the 
river higher up. The town was destroyed 
December 23, 1813, by Gen. F. L. Claiborne's 
References. — Ala. Hist. Society, Transactions 

(1897-98), vol. 2; Index, Holy Ground and 
Weatherford; Handbook oj American Indians 

(1907), vol. 1, p. 596; Meek, Romantic Pas- 
sages in Southwestern History (1857), pp. 278- 

280; Drake, Book of Indians (1848), Book 4, 
p. 58; Gatschet, in Alabama Historv Commis- 
sion, Report (1901), vol. 1, p. 398. 

IKANHATKI. An Upper Creek town in 
Elmore County, on the north side of the 
Tallapoosa River, and about 2 miles down 
stream from Kulumi. This town is generally 
regarded by Gatschet and others as inhabited 
by Shawnees. The first reference to it is 
found on De Crenay's map, 1733. where it is 
spelled Canatque. It is then located on the 
Tallapoosa River, very near Fusihatchi, and 
both on the south side of the river. These 
towns must have been subsequently moved 
across the river, where they were located in 
later historical times. Doubtless, however, 
they retained the fields and possibly some 
settlements in their old sites. In a list of 
Creek villages of 1764 the name is spelled 
Kanaatkes, with which some old Kusas were 
then living. This census gives the two people 
40 warriors, and their town as 3 leagues from 
Fort Toulouse. The English trade regula- 
tions of 1761, assigned the town, spelled as 
Conhatchee, to the traders, Crook and Com- 
pany. It had at that time 30 hunters. Dr. 
Swanton questions the Shawnee origin of this 
town, believing it to be Muscogee. After the 
Creek War he states that its inhabitants 
went almost in a body to Florida, and that at 
present their descendants form one town with 
the people of Fusihatchi in the southern 
part of the Seminole Nation, Okla. 

References. — Hawkins. Sketch of the Creek 
Country (1848), p. 34; Gatschet, in Alabama His- 
tory Commission, Report (1900), p. 398; Geor- 
gia Colonial Records (1907), p. 523. 

PANY. Incorporated by act'of the legislature 
of the State of Illinois, February 10, 1851, and 
various amendments thereto; mileage oper- 
ated June 30, 1915 — main track and 
branches, 5.754.62, side tracks, 2,086.19, to- 
tal, 7,840.81; mileage operated in Alabama — 
main track and branches, 131.18, side tracks, 
27.78, total, .158.96; capital stock authorized 
— $109,296,000. no preferred stock, actually- 
issued, $109,291,716; shares, $100; voting 
power, one vote a share; and funded debt, 

The Illinois Central Railroad Co. entered 
Alabama with the construction of the Can- 
ton, Aberdeen & Nashville Railroad in Ala- 
bama, which was completed and put in opera- 
tion in June, 1899. The road was built in 
order to reach the coal mines at Brilliant, 
and it extended from that point to Winfield, 
7.84 miles. The tracks of the Kansas City, 
Memphis & Birmingham Railroad (q. v.) 
were used between Aberdeen, Miss., and Win- 




field by the Illinois Central in operating the 
new branch road. 

In 1906 a contract was entered into with 
the St. Louis & San Francisco Railroad Co. 
(q. v.) and its subsidiary companies by 
which the Illinois Central obtained, for a 
long term of years, the use of their tracks 
between Winfield and Birmingham, which 
gave the latter company a connection between 
its St. Louis-New Orleans line and the Bir- 
mingham mineral district. 

In 1907 the company made trackage agree- 
ments with the Southern and the Northern 
Alabama Railway companies for the use of 
their lines between Haleyville and Jasper, 
a distance of 40 miles. About the same time, 
arrangements were made for the construction 
of a road from Haleyville, Ala., to Corinth, 
Miss., 80.23 miles, under separate charters 
in Alabama and Mississippi, and land was se- 
cured for the erection of a modern freight 
terminal in Birmingham. The charter in Ala- 
bama was issued under general laws to the 
Alabama Western Railroad Co. 

On December 16, 1907, the portion of the 
new line between Corinth, Miss., and Red 
Bay, Ala., 41.97 miles, was put in operation. 
The rest of the line was completed and put 
in operation on April 19, 19 08. 

In June, 1899, the Illinois Central bought 
the entire capital stock of the Central of 
Georgia Railway Co. (q. v.), but the latter 
property is operated separately. 

References. — Railroad Commission of Ala., 
Annual reports, 1900 et seq.; Poor's manual of 
railroads, 1899 et sea.: Annual report of the 
company to Ala. Public Service Commission, 

BAMA. A permanent State executive com- 
mission, created by the legislature, February 
9, 1915, "for the removal of adult illiteracy 
in Alabama." It is composed of five mem- 
bers, both men and women, including the 
State superintendent of education, who is ex 
officio a member, appointed by the governor, 
"for their fitness, ability and experience in 
matters of education, and their acquaintance 
with the conditions in the State of Alabama 
and its various communities." It is a body 
corporate "with all the powers necessary to 
carry into effect all the purposes of" the act 
creating it. Its officers consist of a president 
and a secretary-treasurer, elected by the com- 
mission from its membership. The latter 
officer is required to furnish bond in a re- 
putable bonding company, in such sum as the 
commission may designate, for the faithful 
performance of his duties, and he may be re- 
moved from office and a successor appointed 
by the commission at its discretion. The 
members receive no compensation for their 
services nor expenses of any kind out of 
the State treasury, but may be reimbursed 
out of any funds which may come into the 
hands of the commission from other sources, 
for their actual traveling and other necessary 
expenses incurred in the performance of their 

It is the duty of the commission "to make 

research, collect data . . looking to 

the obtaining of a more detailed and definite 
knowledge as to the true conditions of the 
State in regard to its adult illiteracy, and re- 
port regularly the results of its labors to the 
governor, and to perform any other act which 
in its discretion will contribute to the elimi- 
nation of the State's adult illiteracy by means 
of the education and enlightenment of illit- 
erate persons in the State. . . ." It is 
empowered to adopt such additional rules and 
regulations as may seem expedient for carry- 
ing on its business, but it must expend the 
funds coming into its hands in a manner and 
for purposes "in keeping with the general 
purposes" of its creation. 

Pursuant to the provisions of the act, on 
March 25, 1915, the governor appointed as 
members of the commission ex-Gov. William 
D. Jelks of Birmingham, James B. Ellis of 
Selma, Miss Mary N. Moore of Athens (now 
the wife of Bishop H. McCoy of Birming- 
ham), and Mrs. W. K. Linscott of Mobile. 
The commission organized on April 2, 1915, 
by electing ex-Gov. Jelks as president, and 
William F. Feagin, superintendent of educa- 
tion and ex officio member of the commission, 
as secretary-treasurer. The last-mentioned 
officer was authorized to select for each 
county at least five citizens to serve as a 
county subcommission; to solicit donations 
for the furtherance of the movement; and to 
appoint a field agent to travel over the State 
in the interest of the cause. The commis- 
sion requested the governor to proclaim the 
first Monday in June as Illiteracy Day and 
to appeal to the citizens of the State to ob- 
serve it. The proclamation was issued on 
May 5, and Illiteracy Day was generally and 
enthusiastically observed throughout the 
State. In preparation for an active campaign, 
the commission caused a careful analysis to 
be made of the United States Census reports 
for 1910, the results of which were published 
in a bulletin entitled "The problem, the plan, 
the proclamation of the governor." The pub- 
lication and wide circulation of this pam- 
phlet produced a profound effect among the 
people of the entire State; and, together with 
the personal appeals made by the secretary- 
treasurer, resulted in a very liberal subscrip- 
tion of funds with which to inaugurate and 
carry on the work. A field agent was there- 
fore appointed, and active work begun among 
the teachers and other interested persons in 
the different counties. In furtherance of the 
work, four pamphlets were issued by the 
commission and given general distribution: 
and as a means of stimulating interest and 
of obtaining additional funds, "Button Cam- 
paigns" were conducted in many of the coun- 
ties, cities, and towns throughout the State. 

The first city campaign was conducted in 
Union Springs, and the first county campaign 
in Autauga County. Similar campaigns sub- 
sequently were made in Montgomery. Eufaula, 
Huntsville, Opelika, Dothan, Anniston, Gads- 
den, Talladega, Selma, Mobile. Birmingham, 
Tuscaloosa, and Bessemer in the order given. 
The general effect of these campaigns, aside 



from the funds realized, is thus described 
by the commission in its first report: 

"Men and women of intelligence above the 
average being brought face to face with the 
astounding figures printed on the button, 
openly confessed they were ignorant of edu- 
cational conditions in the State. A desire 
for information was stimulated, resulting in 
a general awakening of the public conscience 
as to Alabama's duty in speedily remedying 
existing conditions. 

"The subject of illiteracy was uppermost 
in the minds of the people; it occupied a 
prominent place on club programs and was 
discussed with telling effect from the pulpit. 
As the light was thrown on the subject, 
commercial organizations began to realize its 
economic significance and entered without 
reservation into the spirit of the publicity 

"The more striking effect of the campaigns 
was their general influence in preparing the 
minds of the people for better school facili- 
ties — a need that could be met only by giv- 
ing them the right of local taxation. The 
campaigns truly paved the way for the great 
local tax victory of November 7, 1916." 

Genesis of the Movement. — The germ of 
the idea which eventuated in the illiteracy 
campaign in the State and the creation of the 
Alabama Illiteracy Commission was planted 
in the minds of the members of the delega- 
tion of Alabama educators to the annual meet- 
ing of the Southern Educational Association, 
held in Houston. Tex., November 30-Decem- 
ber 2, 1911, by Mrs. Cora Wilson Stewart, 
county superintendent of education of Rowan 
County, Ky., who told of the work being 
done in the mountains of Kentucky in the 
effort to remove illiteracy. An invitation to 
visit the State and address the Alabama Edu- 
cational Association was extended to her, and 
on the evening of April 5, 1912, she spoke 
to an audience composed of more than 2,000 
teachers and citizens. "Her address was one 
of the most inspiring ever delivered before 
the association." says the report of the com- 
mission. "The seed sown in the hearts of 
the teachers is today bearing fruit in the 
lives of many of our good people, who, as 
children, because of circumscribed conditions, 
were denied the educational privileges to 
which every child is entitled." 

"During the spring of 1914," continues 
the report, "the co-operation of the county 
superintendents was enlisted in a movement 
to secure a complete list of illiterate white 
children between the ages of eight and twenty 
years. The work was done during the month 
of July when the biennial enumeration of 
school children was made. The results were 
inaccurate in some respects, due to the diffi- 
culties necessarily encountered in such an 
undertaking. However, it served the purpose 
for which it was intended; it brought the 
general public to a full realization of the fact 
that the 'mill of neglect' was busy each year 
grinding out a new crop of illiterates. It did 
much to stimulate the public conscience to 
a full realization of the necessity of a com- 
pulsory attendance law, which was enacted 

by the Alabama Legislature. September 15, 
1915. In addition, it created a sentiment 
favorable to great movements which were 
about, to be projected. 

"The executive committee of the Alabama 
Educational Association, at its annual meet- 
ing in November, 1914, adopted as a cam- 
paign slogan for the year, 'Illiteracy in Ala- 
bama — Let's Remove It,' and set apart Friday 
night, April 2nd, during the 1915 meeting of 
the Association to be observed as Illiteracy 

"The program of the evening was partici- 
pated in by Dr. P. P. Claxton, United States 
Commissioner of Education, who discussed 
general educational conditions in the United 
States with special reference to illiteracy; 
Mrs. Cora Wilson Stewart, of Rowan County, 
Kentucky, who told of the progress of the 
work in Kentucky; and the State Superin- 
tendent, who spoke of conditions in Alabama 
and outlined definite plans looking to the 
gradual reduction of illiteracy. 

"On February 9, 1915, prior to the above 
named date, a bill authorizing the creation 
of the Commission for the removal of adult 
illiteracy having been passed by both houses 
of the Legislature, was signed by Governor 

Commissioners. — William D. Jelks, presi- 
den, 1915-; J. B. Ellis, 1915-; Mrs. Mary 
Moore McCoy, 19 15-; Mrs. W. K. Linscott, 
1915-; William F. Feagin, secretary-treas- 
urer, ex officio member, 1915-. 

Field Agents. — Mrs. E. D. Thames, 1915; 
J. B. Hobdy, 1915; Miss Esther R. Foster. 

Publications. — Report. Apr. 2, 1915-Oct. 1. 
1916; Literacy and illiteracy in Alabama — 
biennial census for 191!, (Sept. 30, 1914, pp. 32, 
copies issued, 20,000) ; The plan, the problem, 
the proclamation of the governor (May 10, 
1915, copies issued, 5,000). a comparative, sta- 
tistical study by counties; Elimination of illit- 
eracy in Dale County (July 19, 1915, copies is- 
sued, 25.000); Exercises for Alabama adult 
schools (May 1, 1916, copies issued, 10.000). a 
textbook in reading, writing, spelling and arith- 
metic sold at 10 cents a copy, or furnished free 
to illiterate pupils unable to pay for it. 

See Education; Education, State Depart- 
ment of. 

References. — General Acts. 1915, pp. 80-81; 
publications listed supra. 


See Inspection of Merchandise. 

IMBECILES. See Mental Defectives. 


An institution for the education of negroes, 
conducted by the Catholics of Mobile. On 
September 30, 1916, its report to the State 
superintendent of education showed buildings 
and site valued at $4,000; equipment, $500; 
2 teachers; 130 pupils; and a total support 
of $730. 

References. — Superintendent of Education, 
Annual report. 1916, pp. 182-183. 



gration Commissioner. 

ecutive officer of the State immigration hoard, 
authorized March 4, 1907, and abolished by 
act of February 11, 1915, the records and 
duties of the office being transferred to the 
department of agriculture and industries. 
The commissioner, though in charge of the 
administrative affairs of the immigration de- 
partment, was under the supervision and 
control of the immigration board, by which 
all questions of policy and procedure were to 
be decided. He was appointed by the gover- 
nor for a four-year term; was' required to 
furnish a surety bond of $5,000; and his 
salary was $2,400 a year. It was his duty 
to encourage the immigration to the State 
of desirable persons by means of published 
circulars of information, handbooks on the 
resources of the State, and the promulgation 
of compilations concerning lands available 
for settlement. He was also required to make 
to the governor an annual report of the 
workings of the department, which should be 
printed as other State documents. 

Soon after the creation of the department 
in 1907, Gov. Comer appointed R. H. de Holl 
as commissioner. He went to Germany at the 
expense of the Tennessee Coal & Iron Co. 
and brought back about a hundred immi- 
grants. However, rulings of the Federal 
authorities had the effect of destroying the 
efficacy of the law for similar efforts, and 
Mr. de Holl declined further service. The 
office remained vacant until the appointment 
of Robert H. Walker, October 19, 1910. 

On April 24, 1911, an act was passed 
which appropriated out of the general fund 
of the State $5,000 a year for the encourage- 
ment of immigration. With this sum work 
went forward to 1915, when the office was 
abolished, and its activities added to those 
of the department of agriculture and indus- 
tries already existing on the subject. It is 
proper to add, however, that the new duties 
under the act of 1915 are to be performed 
by the commissioner under the general direc- 
tion of the State board of horticulture, of 
which he is a member. 

Immigration, Board of. — The ex officio 
board, mentioned above, consisted of the gov- 
ernor, as chairman, the commissioner of agri- 
culture and industries, and the immigration 
commissioner. It was empowered to make 
arrangements with individuals, firms or cor- 
porations for promoting immigration, and 
might send an agent to any part of the United 
States, or to foreign countries, for that pur- 
pose, provided there should be no expense to 
the State. It was made a misdemeanor, pun- 
ishable by a fine not less than $1,000, for 
any person, firm, association or corporation 
to bring or cause to be brought into the State, 
any immigrants from any foreign country in 
any other way than through the immigration 
board. With the exception of the commis- 
sioner, the members of the board served 
without pay. 

The establishment of this board was the 

first official step taken by the State toward 
stimulating immigration after the old office of 
commissioner was abolished by the code of 
1886. Shortly after its creation, the Attorney 
General of the United States rendered certain 
opinions concerning the national immigration 
laws, which so limited the operation of the 
State law as practically to nullify it, per- 
mitting nothing more than the advertisement 
in a general way of the State's resources 
and advantages for settlement. No personal 
inducements or dealings with possible immi- 
grants from abroad were permitted. 

Operations Under Old Law. — The first for- 
mal encouragement of immigration in an 
official way was required as a part of the 
duties of the bureau of industrial resources, 
created by the constitution of 1868, but which 
was abolished in 1875. The first specific 
agency provided to carry out the mandate of 
the constitution was the adoption of an act 
of February 11, 1875, which empowered the 
governor to appoint a commissioner of immi- 
gration and a board of commissioners direc- 
tors for the encouragement of immigration, 
without conflicting with the Constitution and 
laws of the United States. The number of 
members to constitute the board was not 
specified, and no funds were appropriated for 
its work, which it was expected would be 
financed by contributions from the various 
counties desiring new settlers, and donations 
from corporations and industrial companies 
in need of more skilled laborers. Provision 
was made for the establishment of an "immi- 
gration depot," at Mobile for the care of 
immigrants until called for by the parties 
contracting for them. 

In pursuance of this act. Gov. Houston 
appointed C. F. Seivers, commissioner of im- 
migration, and A. Murdock, F. H. Herndon, 
Price Williams, D. Clopton, B. M. Woolsey, 
G. G. Lyon, W. H. Chambers, J. I. Foster, 
Daniel Coleman, J. R. Hawthorne, L. M. 
Stone, E. S. Shorter, S A. Fordyce, and W. V. 
Chardavoyne as a board of directors. The 
board took up its work at once, held several 
meetings, and planned a campaign of pub- 
licity for settlers, both in America and abroad. 
But for reasons which are not apparent in the 
records, the next legislature repealed the law, 
and passed a new act, approved March 7, 
1876, which empowered the governor to ap- 
point a commissioner of immigration, who 
was authorized to designate two assistant 
commissioners, all to serve without salaries 
or other expense to the State, and to secure 
their compensaton from per capita commis- 
sions on contracts for the sale or lease of 
lands to immigrants, to be paid by the con- 
tracting parties. It was the duty of the 
commissioners to collect and disseminate data 
and information as to the resources, products 
topography, prices of lands for sale or lease, 
wages and demand for labor, with a view to 
obtaining new settlers and investors from 
desirable classes of people outside the State. 
They were expected to constitute themselves 
a general clearing house for information of 
all sorts which related to the settlement of 



the vacant lands of the State, or the devel- 
opment of its idle industrial resources. The 
funds with which to defray the expense of 
these important activities, the commissioner 
was expected to obtain by voluntary subscrip- 
tions, donations, "or loan on such security 
as he can offer; Provided, however, That noth- 
ing herein contained shall be construed or 
held as incurring in any manner or creating 
any claim or obligation whatsoever upon the 
State of Alabama." 

In his message to the legislature. Novem- 
ber 14, 1876, Gov. Houston said: "I sub- 
mit herewith a report from the commissioner 
of immigration, and invite your attention to 
its contents, as showing the prospects of the 
enterprise in his hands. It is gratifying to 
me, as it must be to yourselves, to know that 
in many localities of the State considerable 
numbers of the best class of people from other 
States have become permanent citizens. They 
are gladly received and welcomed by the 
resident population, and will not only make 
very desirable additions to the society of the 
respective localities, but will also aid in 
the general prosperity, wealth and power of 
the State. . . . The tide of immigration has 
now well set in, and I expect much of these 
instrumentalities in the future." The legisla- 
ture. February 9, 1877, so amended the law 
as to provide for the appointment of as many 
assistant commissioners as the governor 
might think necessary, whose terms should 
not exceed two years unless reappointed. 

In order to carry on the work contemplated 
by the law, Commissioner Seivers accepted 
employment as a commercial traveler, by 
which means he visited many sections of the 
North, Northwest, and West and familiarized 
himself with the conditions obtaining in 
those communities which were settled largely 
by immigrants. This expedient was made 
necessary by the absence of an appropriation 
for the work. He issued a report in 1878 in 
which he recounted his efforts toward secur- 
ing immigrants and recommended the estab- 
lishment of a regularly organized State de- 
partment with a central office at the capitol 
and funds for prosecuting its work. Nothing 
was done by the legislature, however, toward 
making the department effectual. 

The immigration acts of March 7, 1876, 
and of February 9, 1877, were codified as 
chapter 19 of the code of 1876. This chapter 
with its seven sections was not carried for- 
ward into the code of 1886. The reasons for 
their omission are thus stated by the commis- 
sioners in their report to Gov. E. A. O'Neal, 
p. 11: 

"Sections 1756 to 1762 of the Code of 1876, 
in reference to commissioner and assistant 
commissioner of immigration have been omit- 
ted as unnecessary, these offices not being 
filled, and as it is obvious are rather for the 
transaction of private than of public busi- 

While there were various commissioners 
and assistant commissioners, there is no rec- 
ord of their service, if any. No reports were 
printed, following the report of Mr. Seivers 

in 1878, and if any were ever filed, they are 
not now available. 

The next stage in the official promotion of 
immigration was the incorporation of a pro- 
vision in the act of February 23, 188 3, estab- 
lishing a department of agriculture, requir- 
ing the commissioner "to aid immigration by 
publishing each year such information as to 
the agricultural, mineral and other industries 
and resources of this State as shall be of 
interest to those seeking homes in the State 
of Alabama." This duty still remains in force, 
with the addition of a requirement that the 
commissioner shall aid those "seeking invest- 
ments" as well as homeseekers. In the execu- 
tion of his duty hereunder, the commissioner 
has published a number of handbooks and 
other literature of a descriptive nature. He 
has also advertised the advantages and re- 
sources of the State by participating in state, 
sectional and national fairs and expositions, 
and by occasional advertisements in leading 
farm and industrial journals. 

Immigration Policy. — During its entire 
history, the State has maintained a liberal 
policy on the subjects both of immigration 
and emigration. Every constitution has car- 
ried a provision declaring that emigration 
from the State should not be prohibited, and 
that no citizen should be exiled. With the 
adoption of the constitution of 1875 the fun- 
damental provision was enlarged, and carried 
forward into the constitution of 1901, viz: 
"That immigration shall be encouraged; emi- 
gration shall not be prohibited, and no citi- 
zen shall be exiled." This section was con- 
strued in the case of Kendrick v. State, 14 2 
Ala., p. 43. It was there held that an act of 
the legislature prohibiting emigration agents 
from plying their vocations within the State, 
without first obtaining a license therefor, 
was not violative of the fourteenth amend- 
ment of the Constitution of the United States, 
nor of section 31 of the constitution of Ala- 
bama. The license imposed was held to be 
an occupation tax, designed for the purpose of 
raising revenue, and that it was not intended 
to interfere with the freedom of egress from 
the State, or the freedom of contract. 

The present policy is indicated in the fol- 
lowing extract from the immigration law of 
February 11, 1915: 

"The commissioner of agriculture and in- 
dustries shall use lawful means to prevent 
the induction into this State of immigrants 
of an undesirable class, and to this end shall 
investigate the conditions of the applicants 
for admission through the department, so as 
to discourage the coming in of [persons of] 
an anarchistic tendency and paupers, persons 
suffering from contagious or communicative 
diseases, cripples without means and unable 
to perform mental or physical service and 
idiots, lunatics, persons of bad character, or 
any persons who are likely to become a charge 
upon the charity of the State and all such 
that will not make good and law-abiding citi- 

It is further provided that "immigrants 
shall be sought from desirable white citizens 



of the United States first, and then citizens 
of English-speaking and Germanic countries 
and France, and the Scandinavian countries 
and Belgium, as prospective citizens of this 
State and conformable with the laws of the 
United States." 

In the early history of the State, however, 
constitutional provisions and statutes were 
not necessary to stimulate immigration. One 
historian declares with enthusiasm that after 
the conclusion of the treaty of Fort Jackson, 
"The flood-gates of Virginia, the two Caro- 
linas, Tennessee, Kentucky and Georgia were 
now hoisted, and mighty streams of emigra- 
tion poured through them, spreading over the 
whole territory of Alabama. The axe re- 
sounded from side to side, and from corner 
to corner. The stately and magnificent forests 
fell. Log cabins sprang, as if by magic, into 
sight. Never before or since, has a country 
been so rapidly peopled." 

Directors of First Board of Immigration, 
1875. — W. H. Chambers, W. V. Chardavoyne, 
David Clopton, Daniel Coleman, J. C. Foster, 
J. R. Hawthorn, Thomas H. Herndon, George 
G. Lyon, Abraham Murdock, Eli S. Shorter, 
Lewis M. Stone, Price Williams, B. M. 

Commissioners (Old law). — C. F. Seivers, 
1875; E. R. Smith, 1879; J. J. Alston, 1881; 
Henry C. Stoutz, 1882. 

Assistant Commissioners (Old law. Dates 
of appointment only are given). — Charles N. 
Golding, 1876; Jay W. Cowdery, 1876; Nor- 
ris C. Buxbanne, 1876; J. E. Reimann. 1877; 
Lewis Heinsheimer, 1877; Joseph Goetter, 
1877; George D. Reigal, 1877; W. R. King, 
1877; John A. Lile, 1877; Louis Ballinger, 
1877; W. J. B. Lansdale, 1878; W. J. Van- 
kirk, 1878; J. M. Alexander, to Paris, 1878; 
Dr. Thomas T. Pratt, to Paris, 1878; Prof. 
James F. Park, to Paris, 1878; George Dunn, 
1878; C. W. Gee, 1879; J. J. Alston, 1881; 
Otto Cullman, 1881; Charles Smallwood, 
1881; Henry C. Stoutz, 1882. 

Commissioners (New law). — R. H. de Holl, 
1907; R. H. Walker, 1910-1911; Lee Cowart, 

Ptiw.TOATioNs. — (Old) Address of Commis- 
sioner of Immigration, March 20, 1876; Report, 
Nov. 6, 1876; Report, Oct. 11, 1878. 3 vols. 
(New) Report, Feb. 3, 1911-Jan. 1, 1915. 1 vol. 
Alabama's new era, 1911-1913, vols. 1-3; and 
sundry circulars and leaflets. 

See Agriculture and Industries, Department 
of; Horticulture. State Board of; Industrial 
Resources Bureau; Population. 

References. — Constitution, 1901, sec. 30; 
Codes, 1876, sees. 1756-1762; 1907, sec. 22, sub- 
div. 14. and sees. 827-837; Aets. 1874-75, pp. 121- 
124; 1875-76, pp. 266-267; 1876-77, p. 125; 1882- 
83, p. 193; Gov. George S. Houston, "Message," 
in Senate Journal, 1876-77, p. 16; General Acts. 
1907, pp. 313-316; 1911, p. 689. 

IMPEACHMENTS. The grounds, meth- 
ods of procedure, and the officers subject to 
removal by impeachment are set out in arti- 
cle vii, sections 173-176 of the constitution 
of 1901. Certain State and county officers 
may be impeached, under the provisions of 

section 173, "for wilful neglect of duty, cor- 
ruption in office, incompetency, or intemper- 
ance in the use of intoxicating liquors or 
narcotics, to such an extent, in view of the 
dignity of the office and importance of its 
duties, as unfits the officer for the discharge 
of such duties, or for any offense involving 
moral turpitude while in office, or committed 
under color thereof, or connected therewith. 
. . ." For these causes the following State 
officers may be impeached before the senate: 
governor, lieutenant governor, attorney gen- 
eral, auditor, secretary of state, treasurer, 
superintendent of education, commissioner of 
agriculture and industries, and justices of 
the supreme court. Other officers may be 
impeached for the same causes by the supreme 
court, namely, chancellors, judges of circuit 
courts, of probate courts, and of other courts 
from which appeal may be taken directly to 
the supreme court, solicitors and sheriffs. 
Under the constitution the impeachment of 
other officers may be provided for by legis- 
lative enactments. The clerks of circuit 
courts, criminal courts, and other courts of 
like jurisdiction, tax assessors, county treas- 
urers, county superintendents of education, 
judges of inferior courts created under au- 
thority of section 168 of the constitution, 
coroners, justices of the peace, notaries pub- 
lic, constables, and other county officers, and 
mayors, intendants, and other officers of in- 
corporated cities and towns may be removed 
from office for any of the causes specified in 
section 173 by the circuit or criminal court 
of the county in which such officer holds his 
office. In such cases it is provided that 1he 
right of trial by jury and appeal shall be 
secured to the defendant. 

Under the constitution, the penalties in 
cases of impeachment or removal from office 
"shall not extend beyond removal from office, 
and disqualifications from holding office, un- 
der the authority of this State, for the term 
for which the officer was elected or ap- 
pointed; but the accused shall be liable to 
indictment and punishment as prescribed by- 
law. " 

Pursuant to the provisions of the constitu- 
tion, a body of law governing impeachment 
proceedings has been enacted and incorpo- 
rated in the code of 1907. sections 1172-1177 
and 7099-7126. Under the provisions of the 
code, disqualification is made a ground for 
impeachment, and proceedings may be insti- 
tuted upon the information of five resident 
tax payers. In the impeachment case against 
Charles W. Buckley, 54 Ala., p. 599, the court 
held that such proceedings constituted a 
criminal prosecution. Sections 1172 to 117 7 
of the code, based on an act of August 13. 
1907, govern the impeachment of municipal 

The first impeachment case in the State 
was the famous attempt in 1829 to depose 
three justices of the supreme court. This 
case is popularly known as "The Trial of the 
Judges." It was not an impeachment in the 
strict sense of the term, as it was not insti- 
tuted as required by the constitution of 1819, 



but was commenced by means of a memo- 
rial to the senate under authority of article 
v, section 13, of the constitution, which pre- 
scribed that "the judges of the several courts 
in this State shall hold their office during 
good behavior; and for wilful negligence of 
duty, or other reasonable cause, which shall 
not be sufficient ground for impeachment, 
the Governor shall remove any of them on 
the address of two-thirds ot each House of 
the General Assembly." 

At that time judges were elected by joint 
vote of the two houses of the legislature, and 
served during good behavior. The supreme 
court was composed of the judges of the vari- 
ous judicial circuits. The proceedings were 
"begun by William Kelly, a lawyer of north 
Alabama, who undertook the removal from 
office of Justices Reuben Saffold, John White, 
and Anderson Crenshaw, for alleged improper 
Tulings and decisions in connection with the 
celebrated usury cases. The case was tried 
"before the senate, Arthur F. Hopkins and 
John J. Ormond acting as counsel for the 
judges, and William Kelly prosecuting. The 
judges were acquitted and sustained. In the 
case of Judge Saffold, the resolution states 
that "it is the opinion of the Senate that 
the charges preferred against Judge Saffold 
dv William Kelly, Esq., are not sufficiently 
sustained by proof to authorize an address 
to the Governor for his removal." Similar 
resolutions were adopted in each of the other 

Other impeachment trials have occurred 
since "The Trial of the Judges," as fol- 

Ledbetter, clerk Bullock 

County court; 1846; wilful neglect of duty 
and incompetency; acquitted. — 10 Ala., p. 

Charles W. Buckley, probate judge Mont- 
gomery County; 1876; corruption in office 
and malfeasances; acquitted. — 54 Ala., p. 

William Seawell. justice of the peace, 
Montgomery County; 1879; corruption in 
•office; acquitted; the court held that charges 
were too vague and indefinite to uphold the 
proceedings. — 64 Ala., p. 225. 

Wiley C. Jones, probate judge Barbour 
Gounty; 1881; wilful neglect of duty, cor- 
ruption in office, habitual drunkenness, in- 
competency, and commission of offenses in- 
volving moral turpitude; plead guilty to the 
charge of neglect of duty, and thereupon 
nolle prosequi entered as to the others. 

F. M. Taylor, probate judge Winston 
County; 1886: wilful neglect of official du- 
ties, corruption in office, and embezzlement; 
plead guilty to the charge of neglect of duty, 
and was removed from office. — Atty. Gen., 
Report, 1886, p. 88. 

Robert R. Savage, probate judge Cherokee 
County; 1889; habitual drunkenness while 
in office; impeached. — Ibid, 1890, p. 6. 

John B. Talley, judge ninth judicial cir- 
cuit; 1894; wilful neglect of duty and mur- 
der; acquitted on first charge, convicted on 
second, and removed from office. — Ibid, 1894, 
pp. 7-9. 

William C. Robinson, probate judge Lee 
County; 1895; habitual drunkenness; ac- 
quitted. — Ibid, 1896, pp. 6-8. 

J. H. Lovejoy, probate judge Etowah 
County; 1902; corruption in office and wil- 
ful neglect of duty; acquitted. — 135 Ala., p. 

Richard H. Lowe, solicitor eighth judicial 
circuit; 1901; wilful neglect of duty; im- 
peached and office declared vacant. 

J. C. Wood, probate judge Lowndes Coun- 
ty; 1903; offenses involving moral turpi- 
tude; resigned, and proceedings dismissed. 

Frank Cazalas, sheriff Mobile County; 
1909; wilful neglect of duty under section 
174 of the constitution; impeached. — Atty. 
Gen., Report, 1908-1910, pp. xxxi-xxxii. 

Edgar E. Latham, sheriff Tuscaloosa 
County; 1910; intemperance in the use of 
intoxicating liquors; acquitted — Ibid, pp. 

P. W. Jinwright, sheriff Bullock County; 
1911; wilful neglect of duty, incompetency, 
connivance, etc.; impeached. 

William Martin, sheriff Hale County; 1913; 
wilful neglect of duty and incompetency; 
State failed to make out a case. 

A. L. Hasty, probate judge Marengo 
County; 1913; wilful neglect of duty, incom- 
petency and corruption in office; acquitted. 

John W. Lane, sheriff Chambers County; 
1914; corruption in office and offenses in- 
volving moral turpitude; acquitted. 

Robert I. Burke, probate judge Cullman 
County; 1914; wilful neglect of duty; ac- 

W. L. Pratt, probate judge Bibb County; 
1915; intemperance in the use of intoxi- 
cants; impeached. 

J. B. Lyons, probate judge Lee County: 
1915; misappropriation of county funds and 
habitual drunkenness; resigned, and case 

David C. Almon; solicitor eighth judicial 
circuit; 1915; corruption in office, offenses 
involving moral turpitude, wilful neglect of 
duty; acquitted. 

P. M. Daniel, sheriff Russell County; 
1916; wilful neglect of duty and incompet- 
ency; impeached. 

References.— Constitution. 1819, art. v; 1901, 
Frt. vii. sees. 173-176; Corf e. 1907. sees. 1172- 
1177, 7099-7126: Acts. 1875-76, pp. 277-284; Sav- 
age's case. 89 Ala., p. 1; Talley's case. 102 Ala.. 
p. 25; Robinson's case. Ill Ala., p. 482; Cazalas' 
case. 162 Ala., p. 210; Latham's case. 174 Ala., 
p. 281. 

IMPORT DUTIES. An indirect tax col- 
lected by the United States Government on 
certain articles and materials imported into 
the country, at stipulated rates, sometimes 
specific and sometimes ad valorem. These 
duties are the only taxes upon imports now 
collected in the State. Mobile is at pres- 
ent the only port of entry in Alabama where 
customs duties are collected. Before the 
organization of the State of Alabama, there 
were ports of entry collecting tonnage 
charges on imports at Fort Stoddert and at 
Blakeley, but there was no customhouse at 


either port. The first customhouse was es- 
tablished at Mobile by the United States 
Government in 1831. (See Mobile Federal 
Building.) There are only meager records 
of the duties collected at Blakeley, Fort 
Stoddert or Mobile previous to 1871. It ap- 
pears, however, that duties on Imports and 
tonnage charges for the year ending Septem- 
ber 30, 1823, aggregated $27,953.50. 

The duties collected at Mobile by the 
United States Government in each fiscal year 
from 1871 to 1916 are shown by the ap- 
pended table: 

Duties Collected at Mobile, Alabama. 

Year ended June 30 Amount 

1871 $660,126 

1872 371,414 

1873 89,110 

1874 75,622 

1875 19,396 

1876 38,592 

1877 38,141 

1878 33,206 

1879 , 21,141 

1880 27,106 

1881 222,017 

1882 108,957 

1883 200,399 

1884 50,139 

1885 6,869 

1886 18,787 

1887 18,815 

1888 9,235 

1889 12,071 

1890 4,989 

1891 7,397 

1892 9,157 

1893 14,921 

1894 9,561 

1895 17,852 

1896 19,053 

1897 20,048 

1898 9,707 

1899 11,686 

1900 17,452 

1901 26,735 

1902 16,193 

1903 32,261 

1904 34,651 

1905 . . 33,893 

1906 26,149 

1907 34,391 

1908 58,660 

1909 49,414 

1910 69.02S 

1911 69,487 

1912 85,859 

1913 85,124 

1914 73,873 

1915 80,402 

1916 73,103 

See Blakeley; Federal Taxation; Fort 

Stoddert; Income Tax; Internal Revenue; 
Mobile, Port of; Mobile Harbor; Water-borne 

References. — Toulmin, Digest, pp. 849-877; 
McLaughlin and Hart, Cyclopedia of American 
Government (1914); American State Papers, 
Finance, vols. 1-5, passim. 

IMPOSTS. See Import Dutiee. 

vided by section 20 of the constitution of 
1901, "that no person shall be imprisoned 
for debt." The same inhibition was con- 
tained in section 21 of the constitution of 
1875, and in section 22, article 1 of the con- 
stitution of 1868, where it first appeared. 
Previous constitutions, viz, those of 1819, 
1861, and 1865, contained, as a section of the 
"Bill of Rights" included in each, the fol- 
lowing provision: 

"The person of a debtor, where there is not 
strong presumption of fraud, shall not be 
detained in prison, after delivering up his 
estate for the benefit of his creditors, in 
such manner as shall be prescribed by law." 

Thus, for practically 50 years, or from 
the organization of the State government un- 
til the adoption of the constitution of 1868, 
so far as constitutional provisions were con- 
cerned, a debtor could be arrested, placed in 
prison and kept there, at the desire of the 
creditor, so long as he failed to surrender 
his estate for the satisfaction of his debts, 
but no longer, unless there was "strong pre- 
sumption of fraud." However, after the pas- 
sage of the act of February 1, 1839, "to abol- 
ish imprisonment for debt," a debtor could 
neither be imprisoned nor arrested for debt, 
except in cases of fraud. Section 1 of the 
law provided "that from and after the pas- 
sage of this act, it shall not be lawful to take 
the body of any person, in custody, to answer 
for a civil demand except in cases of fraud 
as hereinafter prescribed." From the pas- 
sage of this act until the constitution of 
1868 became effective, debtors could be im- 
prisoned lawfully only when fraudulent 
methods had been used in contracting or in 
avoiding payment of a debt. Since 1868 im- 
prisonment for debt, whether fraudulently 
contracted or not, has been held by the su- 
preme court to be unconstitutional. That is 
to say, a debtor may not be arrested nor in- 
carcerated as a means of forcing him to pay 
a debt, or as a penalty for its nonpayment, 
even when fraud has been used in contracting 
the debt or in avoiding payment. 

In Ex parte Hardy (68 Ala., p. 303) the 
supreme court held, with the chief justice 
dissenting, that that part of a statute which 
authorized a court of equity to commit to 
prison the person of. a debtor who refused 
to comply with a decree of the court requir- 
ing the delivery of property in settlement of 
a judgment for debt, on the ground that such 
refusal was a contempt of court, was violative 
of section 21 of the constitution of 1875, and 
therefore null and void. This ruling has 
formed the basis of all subsequent decisions. 

Old Laws and Practices. — The provisions 
of the first constitution of the State with re- 
spect to imprisonment for debt were simply 
the embodiment in a single sentence of the 
substance of the laws of Alabama Territory 
in effect at the time that instrument was 
framed. The Territorial code was founded 
upon the English common law, which sanc- 
tioned imprisonment for debt; but the pro- 



visions of the common law had already been 
modified in some particulars by the Missis- 
sippi Territory when Alabama Territory was 
created in 1817. The existing laws of the 
former were carried forward into the or- 
ganization of the latter, as was the case 
with the statutes of the latter when the State 
was organized. 

Among the earliest statutes upon the sub- 
ject was the act of the legislature of Mis- 
sissippi Territory, passed February 7, 1807, 
"concerning executions, and for the relief 
of insolvent debtors." It covered the entire 
procedure in the collection of debts, and su- 
perseded all previous enactments. It au- 
thorized the seizure of "the goods, lands, or 
body" of a debtor upon writs of fieri facias, 
elegit, and capias ad satisfaciendum, sued 
out by a creditor holding a judgment of a 
court of record of the Territory, for the sat- 
isfaction of such judgment; and a debtor so 
imprisoned might be kept in prison until the 
the debt and the court costs were paid. How- 
ever, an insolvent debtor might take the oath 
of insolvency, prescribed in the act. and file 
a sworn schedule of his assets with the 
courts, whereupon he would be discharged 
from prison, and could not again be impris- 
oned on account of the same judgment. 

With respect to the support of prisoners 
for debt, the act provided: "Any person im- 
prisoned in a civil or qui tarn action, shall 
furnish his, or her own sustenance, or pay 
the gaoler fees for the same, until lawfully 
discharged; and when any prisoner shall be 
committed to gaol in a civil action, as afore- 
said, and shall provide for his, or her own 
support, in any way wherein the sheriff or 
gaoler shall have no concern, it shall be the 
duty of the gaoler, or prison keeper, to ad- 
mit to the wicket grate, or small window of 
a prison, in which such prisoner shall be 
confined, any person who may come to ad- 
minister to the wants of such prisoner, by 
furnishing him or her with meat or drink; 
which shall be conveyed through such small 
window or grate, that the security of the 
prison be not too frequently exposed by 
opening the doors thereof." It provided fur- 
ther: "That if any person being in prison, 
charged in execution, [for debt] shall hap- 
pen to die in execution, the party or parties 
at whose suit or to whom such person shall 
stand charged in execution for any debt or 
damages recovered, his or their executors or 
administrators may, after the death of the 
person so dying in execution, lawfully sue 
forth and have new execution against the 
lands and tenements, goods and chattels, or 
any of them, of the person so 

The law was no respecter of persons, for 
the members of the legislature itself, who 
were by law immune from arrest while en- 
gaged in their duties as such, could obtain 
relief from its penalties only temporarily, 
under the following section: "That if any 
person taken in execution, be delivered by 
privilege of either House of Assembly, so 
soon as such privilege ceaseth, he shall re- 

turn himself a prisoner in execution, or be 
liable to an escape." 

On December 11, 1811, the legislature ex- 
tended the benefits of the above-discussed 
act to persons "in custody, upon original 
or mesne process," the same as to persons 
charged in execution; and on January 15, 
1821, the legislature passed an amendatory 
act for the relief of insolvent debtors, by 
which it was provided that a debtor arrested 
upon mesne process, or taken in actual cus- 
tody, who desired to surrender his propertv 
for the benefit of his creditors, might give 
bond in the amount of the judgment or execu- 
tion for his personal appearance at such time 
and place as should be designated by the 
court, and thus secure his release; and, fur- 
ther, that an insolvent debtor might obtain 
his discharge from arrest or imprisonment by 
filing a declaration of his insolvency and a 
schedule of his creditors with the amount due 
each. The making of a false return in filing 
such declaration and schedule made the cul- 
prit "subject to all the pains and penalties 
prescribed by law against perjury," and such 
person should "never thereafter be entitled 
to the privileges or benefits extended" by 
the act. Additional stipulations contained 
in the act were as follows: "That no person 
in custody shall have the liberty of the prison 
bounds, who shall neglect or refuse for sixty 
days to take the benefit of this act;" and 
"that all persons ordered to be imprisoned 
for failing to pay any fine imposed by law, 
who shall be unable to pay the same, shall 
have the benefit of this act, subject to the 
same rules and instructions applicable to 
other debtors." 

With the foregoing modifications, all tend- 
ing to ameliorate the harshness of the com- 
mon law, the statutes of Mississippi and of 
Alabama Territories concerning debtors, sol- 
vent and insolvent, remained in effect, un- 
changed by the provisions of the constitution 
of 1819, which merely forbade the further 
detention in prison of a debtor who sur- 
rendered his property for the benefit of his 
creditors, unless there were grounds for a 
strong suspicion of fraud, until the passage 
of the act of February 1, 1839, above re- 
ferred to, which prohibited arrest or impris- 
onment for debt except in cases of fraud; 
and with this further modification, continued 
in force until the adoption of the constitution 
of 1868. 

Thus, prior to 1807 there could be no re- 
lief from imprisonment for debt except death 
or the will of the prosecuting creditor; from 
1807 to 1821 a debtor could secure his re- 
lease by surrendering his estate or by prov- 
ing himself insolvent — his further confine- 
ment after taking such action being forbid- 
den by the constitution after the organiza- 
tion of the State in 1819; from 1821 to 1839 
he could escape arrest and imprisonment by 
furnishing bond to appear in court and de- 
liver up his estate, or prove his insolvency; 
from 1839 to 1868 he could be arrested for 
debt only in cases of fraud; and since 1868 
he cannot be imprisoned, directly or indi- 



rectly, because of debt, whether accompanied 
by fraud or not. 

Prison Bounds. — One of the interesting 
phases of imprisonment for debt as practiced 
in Mississippi and Alabama Territories and 
in the earlv years of the State, was the ex- 
tension of partial liberty to certain classes of 
prisoners by allowing them the freedom of 
"prison bounds." The custom dates from 
the passage of an act in February, 1807, 
"for the appointment of justices of the peace, 
and the establishment of county courts," 
which provided, among other things, "that 
the justices of every county court shall be 
empowered to mark and lay out 
the bounds and rules of their respective pris- 
sons. not exceeding ten acres, which marks 
and bounds shall be recorded, and renewed or 
altered, from time to time, as occasion shall 
require; and every prisoner not committed 
for treason or felony, giving good security, 
(at the discretion of the court,) to keep 
within the said rules and bounds, shall have 
liberty to walk therein out of the prison for 
the preservation of his health, and keeping 
continually within the said bounds, shall be 
adjudged and admitted in law a prisoner." 

The act of February 7, 1807, above referred 
to, provided "That if any person or persons, 
taken or charged in execution, shall enter 
into bond with good and sufficient securities, 
under a reasonable penalty, upon condition 
that he or they shall not depart or go out of 
the rules or bounds of the prison to which he 
or they shall be committed, it shall be lawful 
for the sheriff, in whose custody such prisoner 
shall be, to permit him or them to go out of 
the prison and return at their pleasure." An 
act of December 23, 1824, superseded these 
laws, and required county officials "to mark 
and lay out, the bounds and rules of their 
respective prisons, not exceeding one mile 
from the jail, which marks and bounds shall 
be recorded and renewed, or altered from 
time to time, as occasion may require." The 
conditions under which a prisoner in a civil 
action for debt or damages might have the 
freedom of the prison bounds remained the 
same as in the former laws. This law, in 
turn, was repealed by act of June 30, 1837, 
and the boundaries of the different counties 
were fixed as "the limits within which prison- 
ers confined for debt shall be restricted, on 
entering into bond. ... to keep within the 
prison bounds." It was further provided that 
plaintiffs in suits should not thereafter be 
compelled to pay for the support of prisoners 
who took the benefit of the bounds. 

With the foregoing revisions, the laws gov- 
erning prison bounds were incorporated in 
the codes of 1852 and 1867, and continued 
in force until abrogated, together with those 
regarding insolvent debtors, by section 22, 
article 1 of the constitution of 1868, forbid- 
ding imprisonment for debt. 

Ex Parte John Hardy. — The whole subject 
of imprisonment for debt, both its constitu- 
tional, its legal and its historical phases, is 
discussed at length in the opinion of the 
supreme court in the case of Ex parte John 
Hardy (68 Ala., pp. 303-352), which was an 

application for a writ of habeas corpus, denied 
by the lower court, for the release of John 
Hardy, a citizen of Dallas County, committed 
to jail for contempt of court, consisting in his 
refusal to obey the court's order that he sur- 
render certain securities in settlement of a 
judgment debt. The court by a majority held 
that such imprisonment was tantamount to 
imprisonment for debt, and granted the peti- 
tion for release from custody; but the chief 
justice, dissenting, held the opposite doctrine, 
and submitted an elaborate argument in sup- 
port of his opinion. Other decisions bearing 
upon the subject will be found In the list of 
references hereto. 

References. — Constitution 1819, art. 1, sec. 
18; 1861, art. 1, sec. 18; 1865, art. 1, sec. 22; 
1868, art. 1, sec. 22; 1875, art. 1, sec. 22; 1901, 
sec. 20; Toulmin, Statutes of Mississippi Ter- 
ritory, 1807, pp. 175-200, 215-218; and Digest, 
1823, pp. 178, 289-324, 520-521. 657, 659; Aikin, 
Digest, 1833, pp. 225-231, 351-352; Clay, Digest, 
1843, pp. 272-278, 499; Code, 1852, sees. 2175- 
2191, 2734-2749; 1867, sees. 2574-2592, 3173- 
3188; 1876, sees. 3550 (p. 798, footnote), and 
4494 (p. 943, footnote); Acts, 1824-25, p. 34; 
1837, p. 7; 1838-39, pp. 80-81; Allen v. White, 
Minor, p. 289; Eeenan v. Carr, 10 Ala., p. 867; 
Nelson v. State, 46 Ala., p. 186; Morgan v. State, 
47 Ala., p. 36; Caldwell v. Stare, 55 Ala., p. 133; 
Ex parte John Hardy, 68 Ala., p. 303; State v. 
Allen, 71 Ala., p. 543; State v. Bauerman, 72 
Ala., p. 252; Lee v. State, 75 Ala., p. 29, and 
State v. Leach, Hid, p. 36; Tarpley v. State, 87 
Ala., p. 271; Wynn v. State, 82 Ala., p. 55, and 
Smith v. State, laid, p. 40; Bailey v. State, 87 
Ala., p. 44; Ex parte Russellville, 95 Ala., p. 19; 
Ex parte King, 102 Ala., p. 182; Carr v. State, 
106 Ala., p. 35; Brown v. State, 115 Ala., p. 74; 
Chauncey v. State, 130 Ala., p. 71; Gray v. 
State, 140 Ala., p. 183. 

IMUKFA. An Upper Creek town on the 
north or right bank of Imukfa Creek, in the 
southern part of Clay County. The people 
of the town were a vigorous and hearty branch 
of the Muscogees, and in 1799, Hawkins says 
that they had "fine rich plats on the creek, 
and a good range for their cattle; they 
possess some hogs, cattle and horses, and 
begin to be attentive to them." The word is 
Hitchiti, meaning a shell, or a metallic orna- 
ment of concave shape. Hawkins defines it as 
"a gorget made of conch." At or near this 
village Jackson fought the Creek Indians on 
January 22, 1814, or perhaps more properly, 
he successfully defended himself against their 
attack at that point, following the battle of 

See Emuckfau; Okfuski. 

References. — Gatschet, in Alabama History 
Commission, Report (1901), vol. 1, p. 398; 
Hawkins, Sketch of the Creek Country (1848), 
p. 47; Handbook of American Indians (1907), 
vol. 1, p. 603. 

Jefferson, in Alabama; Governor. 

INCOME TAX. A tax upon incomes of in- 
dividuals and corporations is the newest 
method adopted for raising public revenue. 



The taxation of incomes had for several years 
been considered in various States, and in 
1913 such taxes were made a part of the Fed- 
eral fiscal policy. By a resolution of Con- 
gress, July 12, 1909, the sixteenth amendment 
to the United States Constitution, permitting 
the levy of an income tax by the Government, 
•was submitted to the legislatures of the sev- 
eral States. During a period of three and a 
half years, the question of its ratification was 
before the people. Alabama acted on August 
17, 1909, being the first of the States to rat-' 
ify. On February 25, 1913, the Secretary of 
State announced its ratification by 38 States. 
On October 3, 1913, Congress passed the 
income-tax law. It became effective Novem- 
ber 1, 1913. The income tax is collected in 
connection with the internal revenue (q. v.) 
and the administration of the law in this 
State is under the Collector of Internal 
Revenue at Birmingham. Under its pro- 
visions, Alabama citizens and corporations 
paid a total income tax, during the fiscal year 
ending June 30, 1915, of $261,760, of which 
$84,633 was reported by individuals, and 
$177,127 by corporations. There were 1,908 
individuals so reporting. For the year ending 
June 30, 1916, a total of $311,552 was paid, 
$109,983 by individuals, and $201,568 by cor- 
porations. The number of individuals paying 
the tax was 1,791, of whom 1,428 were mar- 
ried men, 243 single men, 121 single women, 
and 9 married women who rendered separate 
returns. The income-tax returns from Ala- 
bama for 1915 and 1916 were: 

Net Income 1915 1916 

$ 2,000 to $ 4,000 489 437 

4,000 to 5,000 377 319 

5,000 to 10,000 761 679 

10,000 to 15,000 192 183 

15,000 to 20,000 19 81 

20,000 to 25,000 24 36 

25,000 to 30,000 16 21 

30,000 to 40,000 16 14 

40,000 to 50,000 6 6 

50,000 to 75,000 6 11 

75,000 to 100,000 2 2 

100,000 to 150,000 

150,000 to 200,000 1 1 

200,000 to 250,000 - 1 

The aggregate Federal income tax collected 

in Alabama during each of the years in which 

it was in effect, from 1866 to 1916, is shown 


1866 $ 3,568.75 

1867 404,036.77 

1868 179,825.32 

1869 81,092.95 

1870 185,284.07 

1871 78,249.54 

1872 35,799.41 

1873 9,442.75 

1895 108.78 

1914 218,629.27 

1915 261,760.79 

1916 311,552.33 

Total $1,769,350.73 

Refebexces. — U. S. Statutes at Large, vol. 38, 
pt. 1, pp. 166-181; Com. of Int. Rev., Annual 
reports, 1914, pp. 110-113, and 1915, pp. 114-117; 

U. S. Constitution. 16th amendment; Com. of 
Int. Rev., Regulations (1913), p. 10; Mortimer 
L. Schiff, "Some aspects of the income tax," in 
Annals of the Am. Acad. Pol. and Soc. Sc, vol. 
viii, Mar. 1915, pp. 15-31; National Tax Asso- 
ciation, Proceedings. 1914, pp. 264-269, 298-313, 
and 1915, pp. 279-334; Acts, 1909, pp. 13-14. 

INDEMNITY LANDS. Lands certified to 

the State by the United States Government as 
compensation for deficiences in the lands act- 
ually received under original grants, whether 
sixteenth sections held by the State in trust 
for the public schools of the several town- 
ships, or the swamp and overflowed lands 
donated outright to the State. All of these 
lands remaining undisposed of are at present 
under the jurisdiction of the State auditor 
(q. v.), by an act of June 19, 1915, and he 
is allowed an additional clerk to keep the 
necessary accounts and records. At the same 
time, under act of August 2, 1915, amending 
section 1782 of the code of 1907, the superin- 
tendent of education is authorized to sell, 
subject to the approval of the governor, all 
school and indemnity lands, or any part of 
the timber thereon. Sales of indemnity lands 
have been made from time to time since 1895, 
but the amount of the proceeds can not be 
stated because they have sometimes been com- 
bined in the auditors' reports with those from 
sales of sixteenth sections. In 1913 the super- 
intendent of education issued a bulletin pre- 
pared by W. J. Martin, State land agent, show- 
ing the indemnity lands which were to be sold 
publicly on various dates, beginning April 21, 
1913. The lands were described as to location 
and as to approximate value of mineral con- 
tents. Detailed information regarding actual 
sales made is not at present accessible. 

Genesis. — As early as 1872 the attention of 
the legislature had been directed to the act 
of Congress of February 26, 1859, under 
which the State was entitled to receive from 
the Government considerable acreage, "in the 
place of the sixteenth section lost by reason 
of private claims, pre-emption, Indian claims, 
or where the sixteenth section is wanting by 
reason of State boundaries, rivers, etc."; in 
lieu of swamp and overflowed lands (q. v.), 
granted by act of Congress, September 28, 
1850, but not received for similar reasons; 
and also to receive compensation for 5 per 
cent of the value of lands granted to the 
State upon its admission to the Union, which 
had been disposed of by military warrants 
and land scrip issued for military services in 
the wars of the United States. 

A joint resolution of March 18, 1873, 
authorized the governor to appoint an agent 
in behalf of the State "to prosecute to final 
decision before Congress or in the courts," its 
claims on account of the two and three per 
cent funds (q. v.). The agent was to be 
allowed "such a compensation as shall be 
agreed upon between the governor and said 
agent, and to be paid only after the recovery 
of the claim, in whole or in part, and not to 
be paid out of any other fund." It was fur- 
ther provided "that the State shall not be 
otherwise liable for any expense whatever 
attending the prosecution of such claim." 



Apparently no appointment was made under 
this authority, and no active steps in the pros- 
ecution of the claims were taken during the 
following six years. 

The matter came before the legislature 
again in 1878, and an act was passed on Feb- 
ruary 12, 1879, which provided, among other 
things, "that the governor of the State be 
empowered, at his discretion, to employ under 
written contract such agent or agents as he 
may deem necessary under the present or any 
future act or acts of congress, to select and 
locate any swamp and overflowed lands here- 
tofore granted or that may hereafter be 
granted to the State by the congress of the 
United States, such agents to be paid only 
out of the proceeds of sales of swamp and 
overflowed lands." 

State Agent Appointed. — In December, 
1879, Gov. R. W. Cobb entered into a con- 
tract with John H. Caldwell, of Calhoun 
County, whereby the latter undertook, for a 
contingent remuneration, not only to pros- 
ecute the claims specifically set forth in the 
legislation referred to, but also "to examine 
into and ascertain what amounts are due from 
the United States to the State of Alabama on 
account of grants heretofore made or to be 
hereafter made by Congress to said State, and 
as such agent to receive and receipt in the 
name of the State, for all amounts which may 
be paid by the United States, as now due to 
the State of Alabama, on account hereinbefore 
mentioned, and to locate all swamp and over- 
flowed lands not heretofore secured and locat- 
ed to the State." The contract with Mr. Cald- 
well was renewed by Gov. E. A. O'Neal, Jan- 
uary 8, 1885, and Charles M. Shelley was 
associated with him under a similar contract. 
The claims of the State were vigorously 
pressed by the agents, and during the year 
1886, they obtained from the Government, 
scrip for 33,884.91 acres of swamp and over- 
flowed lands. 

On February 28, 1887, the legislature con- 
ferred more specific powers upon the gover- 
nor for the purpose of securing to the State 
"the benefits resulting from all claims .... 
against the United States .... under exist- 
ing laws or ... . laws hereafter enacted." 
The act also authorized the governor to have 
the lands called for by the scrip already ob- 
tained selected and certified to the State. On 
December 11, 1886, the governor had been 
empowered to sell the indemnity swamp and 
overflowed lands, or the equivalent scrip. 
Pursuant to the first-mentioned act, Gov. 
Thomas Seay made a new contract with Mr. 
Caldwell, who shortly instituted proceedings 
against the United States; and, under a de- 
cision of the United States Supreme Court 
rendered October 24, 1887, the accumulated 
net proceeds of the two and three per cent 
funds, which had been withheld on the ground 
that the State had never paid its quota of the 
direct tax (q. v.) levied by Congress in 1861, 
were paid into the State treasury. The State's 
prorata of this tax was $529,313.33, and It 
had been thought to constitute a set-off 
against the claims of the State. However, the 

Supreme Court held otherwise, and the ac- 
cumulations have since been paid over in 
accordance with the act of admission. The 
cost of litigation and the other expenses of 
collection were defrayed by the agent of the 

In his report to the governor in 1889, Mr. 
Caldwell included certain information with 
respect to the claim of the State for indemnity 
school lands, under section 2275 of the 
United States Revised Statutes. He advanced 
the argument that the State was entitled to 
make its selections of such lands from any of 
the Government lands within its boundaries. 
The administration at first opposed this con- 
struction of the law; but, after much delay 
and litigation, the right of the State in behalf 
of the townships was affirmed, and the agent 
made selection of all indemnity school lands 
from the reserved mineral lands. His success 
in this particular was a considerable service 
to the school system, for the indemnity lands 
in the mineral district were of greater value 
and more readily saleable than the sixteenth 
sections originally granted in the several 
townships would have been. 

Sales Authorized. — On December 9, 1890, 
the legislature authorized the superintendent 
of education to sell the school indemnity 
lands, subject to the approval of the governor, ' 
at public or private sale, and for cash or part 
cash and part on time; provided that in no 
case should there be less than one-fourth of 
the purchase money in cash, and that the 
remainder should be paid in yearly install- 
ments, extending over a period of not more 
than three years, and secured by notes, with 
approved sureties, bearing interest from the 
date of sale. The proceeds of such sales were 
to be divided as follows: one-fourth to be 
paid to the agent of the State, and three- 
fourths into the State treasury to the credit 
of the school fund of the township to which 
the land belonged. It further authorized him 
to lease any of the lands for a term not ex- 
ceeding 5 years, or to dispose of the minerals 
from them upon a royalty basis for a term not 
exceeding 20 years. 

On December 12, 189 2, an act was passed 
at the suggestion of Gov. Thomas G. Jones, 
providing for partitioning the indemnity lands 
between the State and Mr. Caldwell in accord- 
ance with the contracts under which they 
had been secured. This was done, one-fourth 
going to Caldwell, and the remainder to the 
State. Deeds to Caldwell for his lands were 
executed by the governor in behalf of the 
State. Gov. Wm. C. Oates informed the legis- 
lature on November 19, 1896, that the parti- 
tion had been made. Up to the end of 1894 
none of the State's share of the lands had 
been sold, the governor believing that the 
general unprosperous conditions prevailing 
during the previous two years made it inad- 
visable to place them on the market. 

On February 19, 1899, the senate adopted a 
resolution calling on the governor and the sup- 
erintendent of education to report the exact 
number of acres of indemnity lands received 
from the Government, their location and 


value, and their character; that is, "whether 
coal, iron, mineral, agriculture [sic] or tim- 
ber lands"; the amount of the five per cent 
fund received and the disposition made of it; 
the consideration paid by John H. Caldwell 
for the lands deeded to him by the State, "and 
why it was that such great amount of said 
lands and such fund was paid said John H. 
Caldwell; and any other facts or information 
calculated to throw light and information 
upon this important matter." Gov. Joseph 
F. Johnston and Supt. of Education John W. 
Abercrombie replied on February 23. They 
reviewed the various transactions in connec- 
tion with the indemnity lands, and cited the 
terms of the contracts under which they had 
been secured by Caldwell as agent for the 
State. The governor gave the total number 
of acres received as 35,395, and their location 
and character as mineral lands in Bibb, Jef- 
ferson and Walker Counties; but he did not 
state what proportion was school indemnity 
and what swamp and overflowed land. On the 
same day an act was approved which author- 
ized the governor to employ an agent "for the 
purpose of examining into the sale and dis- 
position heretofore made of school, or other 
lands belonging to the State with a view of 
recovering to the State lands which have 
illegally passed out of [its] possession." 

See Auditor, The State; Sixteenth-Section 
Lands; Land Agent, the State; Swamp and 
Overflowed Lands; Two and Three Per Cent 

References. — V. S. Rev. Stat., sees. 2275-2277; 
U. S. Stat, at Large, vol. 11, p. 385; Code, 1896, 
sees. 3661, 3665; 1907, sees. 1782-1803; Acts, 
1872-73, pp. 535-536; 1878-79, pp. 198-199; 1886- 
87, pp. 73-74, 162; 1890-91, pp. 88-91; 1892-93, p. 
74; General Acts, 1898-99, p. 116; Ibid, 1915, 
pp. 217, 266; Gov. Thomas Seay, "Message," in 
Senate Journal, 1886-87, pp. 441-443, and Ibid, 
1888-89, pp. 245-247, and Ibid, 1890-91, pp. 25-26; 
Gov. Thomas G. Jones, Ibid, 1892-93, pp. 123-124, 
Ibid, 1894-95, p. 58; Gov. Wm. C. Oates, Ibid, 
1896-97, p. 133; Gov. Joseph F. Johnston, Ibid, 
1898-99, pp. 1136-1137; Senate Journal. 1898-99, 
pp. 1079-1080; Thomas Donaldson, The public 
domain (H. Mis. Doc. 45, pt. 4, 1884, 47th Cong., 
2d sess.), pp. 223-231, 710-711, 1249-1250; 
Stephen B. Weeks, "History of public school 
education in Alabama," (in U. S. Bureau of Ed- 
ucation Bulletin No. 12, 1915), pp. 26-41; W. 
J. Martin, State land agent, Report, Apr. 20, 
1911-Dec. 16, 1914 (1914, pp. 29), and "Sale 
of indemnity lands," in Dept. of Education, 
Bulletin, Apr. 1913 (1913. pp. 12); John H. 
Caldwell, Report to Gov. Thomas Seay, in House 
Journal, 1888-89, pp. 977-990. 

INDEPENDENCE DAY. See Special Days. 

CHARACTERS. The characters discussed 
here have so much association with the his- 
toric connections of the State, that these 
sketches, while largely of a biographical na- 
ture, are given in this place because they pre- 
sent information not shown under other 

Vol. II— 2 


Creek Chief. The few general facts of the 
early life of this Lower Creek chief, as given 
by himself, are that he had lived so long 
among the white people that he looked upon 
himself as much a white as a red man; that 
the white people had given him the name he 
bore, Captain Aleck, and that he had always 
lived in friendship with the English. 

Apart from these statements, an evidence 
of Captain Aleck's association with white peo- 
ple is the letter A, the first letter of Aleck, 
which he adopted as his mark in signing his 
name. That Captain Aleck had always been 
a true friend of the English is borne out by all 
the recorded facts extant of his history. He 
showed his loyalty by his actions. The first 
notice of him is in 1754, when all things 
pointed to rupture between England and 
France and between England and Spain. On 
November 11, accompanied by a few follow- 
ers, he called on Governor John Reynolds in 
council in Savannah and informed him that 
the French had persuaded some of the Upper 
Creeks to come to Mobile and receive pres- 
ents, and the Spaniards had done likewise in 
persuading some of the Lower Creeks to come 
to Pensacola for the same purpose. That he 
had not yet learned the objects of the French 
and Spaniards in these matters, but if he 
succeeded in doing so, he would inform the 
Governor. Captain Aleck's talk agreed with 
the reports that had already come to the ears 
of the Governor that the French and Span- 
iards were very busy in endeavoring to win 
the Creeks over to their respective interests. 
Some presents were the next day presented 
to Captain Aleck and his followers, with 
which they were well pleased. 

On May 11, 1757, Captain Aleck and his 
brother Will, accompanied by twelve men and 
women, had a talk with Governor Ellis in the 
council chamber in Savannah. After a con- 
versation on several topics, the Governor told 
Captain Aleck that the Creeks should join 
no party to the prejudice of the English, to 
which Captain Aleck gave his full assent. 
The Governor then expatiated largely upon 
the cruelties of the French in all their pro- 
ceedings, and instanced a recent attempt by 
them to induce the Choctaws and Cherokees 
to exterminate the Chickasaws, which attempt 
proceeded solely from this desire to get pos- 
session of the lands of the Chickasaws. That 
the Great King expected the Creeks to join 
the English and assist them in driving back 
the French, who were daily encroaching on 
the Indians' lands, and who, if they should 
grow stronger, would treat the Creeks as 
they had lately tried to treat the Chickasaws. 
On the contrary, the English had honestly 
paid for the lands which they got from the In- 
dians. But the policy of the French was to be- 
come masters of the Indians' lands, after mur- 
dering the Indian inhabitants; and their pres- 
ent designs were either to cut the Indians off 
entirely, or to reduce them, their wives and 
children, to a state of slavery. The Eng- 
lish, on the other hand, were a people fond 
of trade and sent their ships laden with 
merchandise to all parts of the world; that 


wherever they went, their study was to make 
people free and happy; and when they talked, 
their tongues and hearts went fast together; 
that the Great King showed the love he bore 
his red children by presents and by frequent 
and friendly talks. The French too gave 
presents, but these presents, like the rum 
drank by the Indians, however sweet it might 
be at first, always made them sick in the end. 
After other remarks, by no means compli- 
mentary to the French, the Governor closed 
his talk by saying that every Indian who went 
to war against the French, should receive for 
every French scalp a reward equal in value 
to eight pounds of deer skins; and for a 
French prisoner a reward equal in value to 
sixteen pounds of deer skins, which he would 
much rather pay for than for the scalps. For, 
although the English were known to be war- 
riors, it was likewise known that they took 
no pleasure in shedding human blood. Cap- 
tain Aleck in reply said that the Governor's 
talk was very true and just, that he had come 
down to hear a good talk and not for pres- 
ents, and so was not disappointed; that his 
brother would set off to the nation in a few 
days, and there was a beloved day approach- 
ing and his brother there would declare this 
talk before all the people, and no one could 
say that he had never heard it. Captain 
Aleck then applied for a grant of a piece of 
land or small island on which he was settled, 
but as he could not satisfactorily give its 
location, the consideration of his request was 
postponed, but he was told that if the land 
was vacant, or if the proprietor of it would 
accept other land in its place, he should have 
a grant for it. This matter settled, the Gov- 
ernor invited Captain Aleck and his brother 
to dine with him. 

Nothing further is on record about Captain 
Aleck until January, 1763, when he sought 
the good offices of Governor James Wright to 
recover his wife, who had been stolen from 
him by some Yuchee Indians and carried into 
the province of South Carolina. Governor 
Wright wrote to Governor Boone of South 
Carolina desiring him to use every effort to 
secure the return of Captain Aleck's wife. 

Captain Aleck was present as Speaker of 
the Upper and the Lower Creeks at the Great 
Congress in Augusta in November, 1763. On 
one occasion during the six days in which the 
Congress was in session he spoke of the fre- 
quent stealing of horses by white people and 
Indians and proposed that some means should 
be adopted to prevent it for the future. 
These words speak high for Captain Aleck's 
desire for peace and order on the frontier, 
the crime of horse stealing being promotive 
of frequent murders and killings by both 
white people and Indians, often culminating 
in wars. Captain Aleck also attended the 
Pensacola Congress in May, 1765. During 
its six days sessions he made several appro- 
priate talks and was one of the signers of 
the treaty. A part of Captain Stuart's talk 
on May 30 to one of Captain Aleck's is here 
given as it bears witness to the moral worth 
of the Muscogee chief: "I am glad to find 
you in the same good disposition in which I 

left you at Augusta, of which you have given 
so many proofs, during the course of your 
life; the white people must always put a value 
on your friendship, as the Governor and I 
ever will. We are very sensible of the effect 
and influence your talks have had on your 
nation and we desire you may continue them." 
All the facts preserved in historic records, 
relative to Captain Aleck are favorable to his 
character as a man and a leader of his people. 

The last historical notice of Captain Aleck 
occurs January 10, 17 68. There having been 
a disagreement between the Georgians and 
the Creeks with regard to the boundary line 
which, separated the two, on that day, Gov- 
ernor Wright and Captain Aleck, represent- 
ing the Creek Confederacy, came to an agree- 
ment that the dividing line should "commence 
at the Ogeechee river where the lower trad- 
ing path leading from Mount Pleasant on 
Savannah river to the Lower Creek Nation 
crosses the said river Ogeechee, and thence 
in a straight line cross the country to that 
part of the river Alatamaha opposite to the 
entrance or mouth of a certain Creek on the 
south side of the said river Alatamaha com- 
monly called Fen-hollow or Turkey Creek, 
and that the line should be thence continued 
from the mouth of the said Creek across the 
Country and in a southwest course to the St. 
Mary's river, so as to reach it as far up as the 
tide flows or swells." 

Bibliography. — The Colonial Records of 
Georgia, vol. vii, pp. 33, 34, 566-569; Ibid, vol. 
IX, pp. 17, 18; The Colonial State of North 
Carolina, vol. XI, pp. 179, 184, 185, 188-190, 
194, 203; Mississippi Provincial Archives, 
(1911), vol. I, pp. 190, 197, 198, 200, 203, 204, 
207, 210; Jones' History of Georgia, vol. II, 
pp. 80, 81. 


born about 1783 in the Creek Nation, died in 

about near Fort Mitchell in Alabama; 

was the son of Timothy Barnard, who was 
the son of Captain John, commanding a com- 
pany of rangers in Georgia, dying in that col- 
ony about 1768. Captain John Barnard may 
have been of Scotch birth, as possibly may 
have been the case with his son Timothy, 
who was born, conjecturally, about 1750. 
Timothy Barnard evidently received a fair 
education. He was an officer in a company 
of rangers in Georgia in 1773, and in the 
same year was appointed a justice of the peace 
with power to act on the lands, then recently 
ceded by the Creeks and Cherokees. He was 
also a trader among the Creeks and married 
a Yuchee woman, by whom he became the 
father of six sons and two daughters. The 
sons were James, who was a cripple, William, 
who married a daughter of Sullivan, an In- 
dian trader. Timpoochee, Cuseene, who with 
his Indian wife emigrated to the Arkansas 
Territory, Michy and Buck. His daughters 
were Polly, who married Joe Marshall, and 
Matoya, who died single. Timothy Barnard 
was a Royalist during the American Revolu- 
tion. His property was confiscated by the 
Georgia legislature and he himself was ban- 
ished from the State. From the meager ref- 

Dr. Otis Smith 
For 25 years professor of 
Alabama Polytechnic Institute, Auburn 

Anthony F. McKissick 
Professor of electrical engineering, Ala- 
bama Polytechnic Institute, first man in 
the south to use "X-Ray." He made his 
own apparatus, 1897. 

Dr. Thomas W. Palmer 
President Alabama Girls' Technical Insti- 
tute and College for Women, Montevallo 

Dr. Eugene A. Smith 

Dean of Department of Geology, University 

of Alabama, and state geologist 




erences attainable, he then made his home in 
the Creek Nation. It was perhaps about this 
time that his son Timpoochee was born. Tim- 
poochee is merely an Indian corruption of 
Timothy. In February. 1785, probably 
through the influence of Captain Patrick 
Carr, Timothy Barnard was relieved from the 
penalty of treason and permitted to return 
to his former home, there to enjoy and pos- 
sess every right of citizenship. Being now 
a thorough American, he was the deputy 
agent of the Lower Creeks in 1793 and 1794 
and was one of the interpreters at the treaty 
of Coleraine in 1796. He died at an advanced 
age on Flint River, Georgia, the year not 
known. But little is known of the early life 
of Timpoochee Barnard. His mother care- 
fully taught him to speak her native Yuchee 
dialect, while no doubt he learned much Eng- 
lish from his father. Following the custom 
of his people, he also mastered the Muscogee 
dialect, as a knowledge of it was indispensa- 
ble in the public and private life of the Creek 
people. Timpoochee Barnard first became 
prominent in General Floyd's campaign 
against the Creek Indians in January, 1814. 
He was commissioned major, and commanded 
one hundred Yuchee warriors. In the latter 
part of the night of January 2 7, the Creeks, 
in large force, made a furious attack on Gen- 
eral Floyd's troops, who were encamped in 
Calebee swamp. Captain John Broadnax was 
in command of a detachment, stationed at 
some distance from the main army. The 
Creeks, discovering the isolation of the de- 
tachment, assailed it, surrounded it, and cut 
it off from the other troops. Major Barnard, 
taking in the situation, made a desperate on- 
set on the Creeks with his Yuchee warriors, 
drove them back and so opened a way for 
Broadnax's men to join the main army. This 
heroic exploit gave Major Barnard a great 
name with the Americans. He continued to 
serve in the army with distinction until the 
close of the war. He was twice wounded. 
General Jackson, many years afterwards paid 
this high tribute to Major Barnard in a con- 
versation with his son William: "A braver 
man than your father never lived." Major 
Barnard was present at the treaty of Fort 
Jackson, August 9, 1814, signing the treaty- 
as "Captain of the Uchees." While no doubt 
a man of high military instincts, Major Bar- 
nard was domestic in his habits and de- 
votedly attached to his family. He had six 
children, two of them girls, and they all had 
the reputation of being the handsomest chil- 
dren in the Creek Nation. His son, William, 
received a fair education, and in after years 
served in the Seminole war of 1835 under 
Paddy Carr. The military career of Major 
Barnard did not close with the Creek War. 
In 1818, in command of a band of Yuchee 
warriors, he served under his old commander, 
General Jackson, through the Seminole War 
of that year. He distinguished himself in the 
fight of April 12, 1818, at Econafflnnah or 
Natural Bridge, where was rescued Mrs. Stu- 
art, the only survivor of the massacre of 
Lieutenant Scott's party on Apalachicola 

River, of November 30, 1817. Major Bar- 
nard was opposed to the treaty of the In- 
dian Springs, and was one of the delegation 
that went to Washington to protest against 
the validity of that treaty. After this event, 
he continued to reside his remaining years at 
his home near Fort Mitchell, blessed with all 
the wealth that was desirable, and noted for 
his public spirit, his hospitality and benevo- 
lence. Thus passed away a genuine man, 
that was an honor to the Indian race. 

Bibliography. — McKenney and Hall's Indian 
Tribes of North America (1854), vol. II, pp. 
25-28; Pickett's History of Alabama (Owen's 
Edition, 1900) p. 585; White's Historical Col- 
lections of Georgia (1855) p. 166; Woodward's 
Reminiscences of the Creek or Muscogee In- 
dians (1859), pp. 54, 109; Handbook of the 
American Indians (1810), Part 2, p. 752. 

BIG WARRIOR, Creek chief, was born 

probably at Tuckabatchee and about 1760. 
No facts have been preserved of his early 
life. His marriage to the deserted or dis- 
carded wife of Efa Hadjo, must have taken 
place about 1785, as Tuckenea, his oldest 
son by her, was a man of affairs in 1810. 
Big Warrior was not of full Muscogee blood, 
but was a descendant of a Piankashaw In- 
dian, and he made no little boast of this 
northern Indian blood. His first recorded ap- 
pearance in public life was at the treaty of 
Coleraine in June, 1796; his next appear- 
anoe at the treaty of Fort Wilkinson in June. 
1802. Thirteen days after this treatv, but 
on the treaty ground, Efa Hadjo, the speaker 
and first chief of the nation, abdicated his 
office to Micco Hopoie, and the place of the 
national council was transferred from Tucka- 
batchee to the Hickory Ground. 

From the lack of records it cannot be 
stated in what year Big Warrior became 
Speaker of the Upper Creeks. It may have 
been in 1812, on the death of Efa Hadjo. On 
his attaining this office it seems that Tucka- 
batchee again became the national capital. 
In 1810, or thereabouts, a Scotchman from 
Pensacola came to Tuckabatchee and spent 
some time with Big Warrior, with whom he 
had many talks through a negro interpreter 
belonging to the Tuckabatchee chief. The 
topics of these conversations were never re- 
vealed, except that during his visit the 
Scotchman asked William Weatherford, who 
was then in Tuckabatchee, how many war- 
riors the Creek nation could raise. Soon 
after the departure of the Scotchman, Tuske- 
nea, Big Warrior's son, with a party went 
north and visited the Shawnees and some 
other tribes. He returned in the summer of 
1811. In the fall of this year, Tecumseh at 
the head of a band of Shawnees came to 
Tuckabatchee. It is possible that the visit 
of the Scotchman to Tuckabatchee, and the 
visit of Tuskenea to the north, may have had 
some connection with the coming of Tecum- 
seh. Soon after the Shawnees arrived at 
Tuckabatchee, the notable council took place, 
about which much has been written, some 
fact and some fiction. During his stay in the 



Creek nation, Tecumseh made several efforts 
to detach Big Warrior from his friendly at- 
titude towards the United States. 

Some of Big Warriors contemporaries have 
represented him at the time of the outbreak 
of the Creek War, and even during its con- 
tinuance, as being at heart unfriendly to the 
American government, and only adhered to 
it from a fear of the consequences, should 
he take the opposite side. This view was 
adopted by Pickett, the historian, but it does 
not seem to be borne out by a close study 
of Big Warrior's actions during those trou- 
bled times. The peace party among the Up- 
per Creeks were greatly in the minority. 

There were twenty-nine Upper Creek towns 
and villages that belonged to the war party 
and only five to the peace party. Notwith- 
standing this preponderating majority, Big 
Warrior, who, at this time was certainly the 
Speaker of the Upper Creeks, did all in his 
power to induce the hostile chiefs to come 
over to the side of the Federal Government. 
He sent a special messenger to the Alaba- 
mas, who were the most implacably hostile 
of all the Upper Creeks. But all of Big War- 
rior's efforts towards the pacification of the 
hostile element were of no avail from their 
point of view, since he had been mainly in- 
strumental in the execution of Little War- 
rior and his party for the murders committed 
by them in February, 1813, near the mouth 
of Ohio. For using in this matter his ex- 
ecutive authority, which was directed agree- 
ably to the requirements of the treaty of 
Coleraine, Big Warrior, along with six other 
chiefs, was formally condemned to death by 
a council of the war party. By midsummer 
of 1813 this party had become so dangerous, 
that Big Warrior built for himself and fol- 
lowers a fort at Tuckabatchee, which he 
filled with supplies. Here he was besieged 
a number of days by the Red Sticks until 
two hundred warriors from Coweta came to 
his relief, and carried Big Warrior and all 
his people safe to Coweta, which became the 
great place of refuge for the friendly Creeks. 
Big Warrior from the very beginning of the 
Creek troubles until his arrival at Coweta 
certainly conducted himself as a brave and 
honorable chief. Without fear or favor he 
cooperated in the execution of Little War- 
rior's party, and did his whole duty in at- 
tempting to pacify the large hostile element 
of his people. Lastly, we see him with his 
few faithful followers in their fort at Tucka- 
batchee, besieged by their enraged country- 
men, bravely holding the fort for weeks, with 
the full knowledge that should the fort fall 
no mercy would be extended to its inmates. 
A consideration of all these facts show that 
historians have been unjust to the memory 
of Big Warrior. While he continued loyal 
to the Americans during the war, so far as 
the records show, he does not figure in any 
of the battles. Perhaps he was serving his 
people better by remaining with them at 
Coweta. Pickett represents him as being 
present at Weatherford's surrender. 

Four months later, as Speaker of the Up- 
per Creeks, he was one of the signers at 

Fort Jackson. Before signing the treaty Big 
Warrior made an address to General Jackson, 
in which, in the name of the Creek Nation, 
he tendered donations of land to him, to Col- 
onel Hawkins, the Creek agent, and to George 
Mayfield and Alexander Cornells, Creek in- 
terpreters. Big Warrior was also a signer 
of the treaties of the Creek Agency, January 
22, 1818, and of the treaty of Indian Spring 
January 8, 1821. 

Big Warrior died in 1824 in Washington 
while in attendance there with a delegation 
of his people. General Woodward describes 
Big Warrior as the largest man that he had 
ever seen among the Creeks and as spotted 
as a leopard. The name of only two of his 
children, both sons, Tuskenea and Yargee, 
have been preserved. As an incident in the 
career of Big Warrior, may be cited, — his 
conversation in 1822, with the Missionary, 
Rev. Lee Compere, in which, in giving the 
traditional history of the Creeks, he stated 
that in remote times they "had even whipped 
the Indians then living .in the territory of 
South Carolina and wrested much of their 
country from them." Modern philological 
research has confirmed this tradition of Big 
Warrior as being true history; for the local 
names of the parts of South Carolina, tra- 
versed by the Del Pardo expedition of 1567, 
and recorded by its historians are significant 
in the Muscogee tongue, showing a Muscogee 
occupancy of these parts. Hence, apart from 
being a wise Creek counsellor, Big Warrior 
should be accorded some reputation as a 
man thoroughly and patriotically conversant 
with the traditional history of his people. 

Bibliography. — Pickett's History of Alabama 
(Owen's Edition, 1900), pp. 80, 514, 518, 520, 
593, 599, 618, 621; Woodward's Reminiscences 
of the Creek or Muscogee Indians (1859), pp. 
36, 37, 44, 94, 95, 96, 110, 116; American State 
Papers, Indian Affairs, vol. I, pp. 837-845, 848, 
849, 851; American State Papers, Indian Affairs, 
vol. 1, pp. 755, 762; American State Papers, 
Military Affairs, vol. i, p. 699; Brewer's Ala- 
bama ( ), p. 17, footnote. 

Died, on the 8th inst. at Washington City, 
Big Warrior, principal chief of the Creek na- 
tion. He was a man of great talents as a 
savage warrior — a person of immense bodily 
powers, and it has been said of him that he 
was endowed with a mind as colossal as his 
body. Although he possessed not the ad- 
vantages of education, or even of understand- 
ing but little of the English language, yet he 
has done much towards improving the con- 
dition of his people, and had great influence 
over them. During the late Indian wars, he 
had been uniformly friendly to the whites 
and fought for them in many battles. — (From 
Niles' Register, March 19, 1825.) 

CROZAT, ANTOINE, French financier, 

born in Toulouse in 1655, was the son of a 
French peasant. He received a good rudi- 
mentary education, and at the age of fifteen 
entered a commercial house as clerk. En- 
dowed by nature with a genius for finance, 
in time he became the partner of his em- 
ployer, married his daughter, and on the 



death of his father-in-law, he found himself 
one of the richest merchants of France. He 
won the favor of Louis XlVth by lending 
money to the government, was made by him 
Marquis de Chatel, and on September 14, 
1712, was given the trade of Louisiana for 
a period of fifteen years. By the provisions 
of his charter Crozat was given the exclusive 
privilege of trading in the territory between 
Old and New Mexico, in the territory be- 
tween Louisiana and the Carolinas, and from 
the mouth of the Mississippi northward to 
the river Illinois, together with the Missouri 
and the Ohio rivers, and the rivers flowing 
directly and indirectly into the Mississippi. 
This territory, styled the government of 
Louisiana, could be enlarged at the King's 
pleasure. To Crozat, under royal protection 
was given the exclusive right of exports from 
Fiance into this territory during the life of 
his charter. To him alone was given the 
right to open and work mines in Louisiana, 
one-fourth of the precious metals to be the 
property of the crown. • No one was allowed 
to trade with the colonists or Indians except 
under Crozat's written permit. 

"All land under cultivation, and all fac- 
tories or establishments erected for the man- 
ufacture of silk, indigo, wool and leather, 
were to become the absolute property of 
Crozat in fee simple, the title to continue in 
him so long as the cultivation or manufac- 
ture was maintained, but to become forfeited 
at the end of three years of idleness. All 
his goods were to be exempt from duty; he 
was to be permitted to draw 100 quintals of 
powder from the royal magazines each year 
at actual cost; was given the privilege of 
using the king's boats to load and unload 
his ships, provided that the boats were re- 
turned in good condition; and was granted 
permission to send every year a vessel to 
Guinea for negroes, whom he might sell in 
Louisiana "to the exclusion of all others." 
In return for all these rights and privileges 
Crozat was required to send annually two 
vessels to Louisiana, on which he was to 
carry free twenty-five tons of provisions and 
ammunition for the colonists and garrisons, 
and to send on each ship "ten young men or 
women at his own selection." After the ex- 
piration of nine years he was to pay the sal- 
aries of the officers and garrisons in Louisi- 
ana, and in case of vacancies he was to nom- 
inate officers to fill the same, commissions 
to be issued to these officers on approval by 
the king. The king's expenses for salaries 
during the first nine years were fixed at $10,- 
000 annually, to be paid to Crozat in France, 
and the drafts of the commissaire ordonna- 
teur were to be paid in Crozat's stores, in 
cash or in goods with an advance of 5 per 
cent. Sales in all other cases were to be at 
an advance of 100 per cent. The laws, edicts 
and ordinances of France and the custom of 
Paris were extended to Louisiana. In spite 
of every effort of Crozat to make his patent 
profitable, the whole affair came to naught. 
The colonists, who wished to be free-traders, 
were opposed to the monopoly, and set it 
at defiance. They traded with the Canadians 

from the north, were more or less smugglers 
with the Spaniards at Pensacola, and every- 
where carried on an illicit trade with Indians. 
Gayarre says: "In vain had his agents re- 
sorted to every means in their power to 
trade with the Spanish provinces, either by 
land or by sea, either legally or illegally;- — 
several millions worth of merchandise which 
he had sent to Louisiana, with the hope of 
finding their way to Mexico, had been lost 
for want of market. In vain also had ex- 
pensive researches been made for mines and 
pearl fisheries. As to the trading in furs 
with the Indians, it hardly repaid the cost 
of keeping factories among them. Thus, all 
the schemes of Crozat had failed. The mis- 
erable European population, scattered over 
Louisiana, was opposed to his monopoly, and 
contributed, as much as they could to de- 
feat his plans. As to the officers, they were 
too much engrossed by their own interest 
and too intent upon their daily quarrels, to 
mind anything else. There was but one thing 
which, to the despairing Crozat, seemed des- 
tined to thrive in Louisiana — that was, the 
spirit of discord." Under all these circum- 
stances Crozat became much discouraged. 
Every year saw him playing a losing game, 
and at last in August, 1717, he surrendered 
his charter. Thenceforth he lived an un- 
eventful life until his death in 1738. 

DAVILA Y. PADLLLA. This Spanish 
author and explorer has an interest for stu- 
dents of Southern history, for the story of 
Tristan de Luna's colony in Alabama, 1559- 
1561, is preserved mainly by him. He was 
born in 1562 of a good family in the City 
of Mexico. He became a Dominican in 1579, 
and in time became lecturer on philosophy 
and theology in the colleges of Puebla and 
Mexico, and was Archbishop of San Domingo 
in 1601. He visited Rome and Spain as a 
representative of the Dominicans of Mexico 
and was appointed preacher of Philip the 
Third. He died in 1604. Davila was the 
author of several works. He had good op- 
portunities for securing historical materials, 
and his works contain much information in 
regard to the contact of the Spaniards with 
the Indians. To him are we also indebted 
for the first notice of the establishment of 
the printing press in Mexico. 

DE SOTO, HERNANDO, was born about 
149 6, in Xeres, Estremadura, Spain, of a 
noble but impoverished family; but through 
the friendship and liberality of Pedrarias 
Davala, he obtained a good education. De 
Soto spent many years of his early life with 
his patron, Davila, in Central America. In 
15 3 2 he went to Peru where he was asso- 
ciated with Pizarro in the conquest of that 
country in which he acquired great wealth. 
He returned to Spain in 1536, the possessor 
of half a million dollars, and was received 
with great distinction by the Emperor, 
Charles the Fifth. He had long been at- 
tached to Isabella Bodadilla, the daughter 
of his old friend, Pedrarias, Davila. His 
wealth now enabled him to marry her, — a 



marriage which greatly strengthened his in- 
fluence at court. With wealth and a happy 
marriage, De Soto now aspired to eclipse the 
glories of Cortes aria Pizarro. He sought 
and received permission from Charles the 
Fifth to conquer Florida at his own expense. 
He accepted the services of numerous volun- 
teers from Spain and Portugal, and with 
these, his wife and other ladies, in 1538, he 
embarked in several vessels for Cuba. Here 
he spent a year perfecting his plans, and at 
last with a well equipped army of a thousand 
men, leaving behind in Havana his faithful 
wife, he again set sail, and in May, 1539, 
landed in Florida. De Soto's expedition, the 
so-called conquest of Florida, has ever been 
an attractive field to the historical student, 
yet, in truth, it was almost, if not wholly 
barren of results, and its main interest lies 
with the ethnologist, for the flood of light it 
throws upon the Southern Indians of the six- 
teenth century, who were really prehistoric 
Indians. But in contrast with the ethnologist 
comes the lover of martial exploits, who is 
carried away with the thrilling stories of 
De Soto's four great Indian battles, — the bat- 
tle of the Two Ponds in Florida, of Maubila 
in Alabama, of Chicasa and of Chicacilla in 
Mississippi. Still there is a very dark side 
to this picture, for the expedition of De Soto 
was conducted with all that cruelty and in- 
humanity characteristic of the sixteenth cen- 
tury Spaniard, — the seizing of the natives, 
especially the women to be used as burden 
bearers and for base purposes, and when 
these perished from fatigue or the lack of 
food, the substitution of others, seized in the 
villages or on the march, the pitiless appro- 
priation of the Indian food supplies, and at 
the least infraction of the wishes or orders 
of De Soto, the flinging of the Indians to his 
blood-hounds to be torn to pieces by them. 
Oviedo, the historian, who was well ac- 
quainted with De Soto, did not hold him in 
high estimation as a man. In an interpo- 
lated passage in Rodrigo Ranjel's narrative, 
he "holds up to the execration of the world, 
the daily immoralities practised by the Span- 
iards of the expedition, from the educated 
De Soto down to the most ignorant private. 
After a long three years' wandering, De Soto 
died, a disappointed man, in June, 1542, upon 
the bank of the great river which he had 
discovered, and in whose waters he found his 
last resting place. Moscoso, his successor, 
after leading the survivors of the expedition 
in a long wandering to the west, returned 
to the Mississippi, there built brigantmes, 
embarking in which the wretched remnant 
of De Soto's army at last reached Mexico. 
Thence the news of the failure of the ex- 
pedition reached Havana, and the tidings of 
the death of De Soto broke the heart of his 
devoted wife. 

FRANCOIS RIGAND, Marquis, governor of 
Louisiana, governor-general of Canada, born 
in Quebec in 1688, died in Paris, October 
20, 1765; was the son of Philippe Rigand 
de' Vaudreuil, governor of Canada. He en- 

tered the army, attained the rank of major 
in the Marine corps, and in 1733 was ap- 
pointed governor of the Three Rivers. He 
was appointed governor of Louisiana early 
in 1743 and held the office for ten years, 
until February 9, 1753, when he was suc- 
ceeded by Kerlerec. One of the first acts of 
Vaudreuil's administration of Louisiana was 
an ordinance requiring all the planters along 
the Mississippi to put their levees in safe 
condition by the end of the year under pain 
of forfeiting their lands to the crown. But 
all his efforts to promote the agriculture of 
Louisiana during the ten years of his ad- 
ministration met with but indifferent suc- 
cess. In a letter to the minister of the col- 
onies, he notes the striking contrast of the 
French of Illinois to those of Louisiana. 
Vaudreuil's administration was characterized 
by the usual Indian wars and by several In- 
dian uprisings. Gayarre thus writes of 
Vaudreuil's administration: "The adminis- 
tration of the Marquis of Vaudreuil was long 
and fondly remembered in Louisiana, as an 
epoch of unusual brilliancy, but which was 
followed up by corresponding gloom. His 
administration, if small things may be com- 
pared with great ones, was for Louisiana, 
with regard to splendor, luxury, military dis- 
play, and expenses of every kind, what the 
reign of Louis XIV has been for France. He 
was a man of patrician birth and high breed- 
ing, who liked to live in a manner worthy 
of his rank. Remarkable for his personal 
graces and comeliness, for the dignity of his 
bearing and the fascination of his address, 
he was fond of pomp, show and pleasure; 
surrounded by a host of brilliant officers, of 
whom he was the idol, he loved to keep up 
a miniature court, in distant imitation of 
that of Versailles; and long after he had de- 
parted, old people were fond of talking of 
the exquisitely refined manners, the mag- 
nificent balls, the splendidly uniformed 
troops, the highbrow young officers, and 
many other unparalled things they had seen 
in the days of the Great Marquis." In 1755 
Vaudreuil was appointed governor-general of 
Canada. This new office did not prove as 
congenial to him as that of Louisiana; for- 
there was much dissension between him and 
Montcalm, and this want of harmony be- 
tween the two highest civil and military of- 
ficers doubtless hastened the fall of the 
French dominion in Canada. After the fall 
of Quebec in 1759, Vaudreuil might have 
routed Wolf's exhausted army, but he dal- 
lied and let slip this last opportunity of pos- 
sibly saving Canada. In 1760, against the 
will of General Levis, the highest military 
officer, he capitulated to General Amherst at 
Montreal. On his return to France he was 
brought to trial for mismanagement of Can- 
adian affairs, but was absolved of all blame. 
He died in Paris, October 20, 1765. 


historian and explorer, was born in Tourco- 
ing, France, in 1689, and died in Paris, in 
17 75. No ancestral or early educational de- 
tails are known. He served in the French 



army in Germany. Having obtained an in- 
terest in Law's "Company of the West," he 
sailed from France in May, 1718, to take 
possession of the lands of the company lo- 
cated near New Orleans. In 1720, he set- 
tled among the Natchez. In 1722 he began 
on an eight-year exploring tour, in which 
he visited the regions watered by the Mis- 
souri and Arkansas Rivers. On his return 
to New Orleans he became treasurer of the 
Company, an office which he held until it 
was abolished. He then returned to France, 
landing in June, 1734. In 1758 he pub- 
lished his Historire de la Louisiane, etc. An 
English translation of this work was pub- 
lished in London, for T. Becket, in 1763, 
followed by a new edition in 1764. 

DOG, Creek Chief. It would be an interest- 
ing fact, if it could be proven, that the Effa 
Adjo who signed the treaty made by the 
English and the Creeks in June, 1765, at 
Pensacola, was the same man as Efa Hadjo, 
who was in after times so long the speaker 
of the Creek Nation. Be the fact as it may, 
the first notice of Efa Hadjo or Mad Dog in 
April, 1792, shows him a partisan of the ad- 
venturer, Bowles. Many of the ignorant 
Creeks at that time supposed that Bowles 
represented the English government, and 
that England, France and Spain were op- 
posed to the Americans. A year later, how- 
ever, in April, 1793, found Efa Hadjo a de- 
cided friend of the Americans. Alexander 
Cornell in a letter to James Seagrove, the 
Creek agent, in April, 1793, writes: "If 
every man should exert himself as well as 
the Mad Dog, and the headmen of the Upper 
towns, and Mr. Weatherford, we should have 
an everlasting peace with our brothers of the 
United States." From the lack of records, 
it cannot be stated when Efa Hadjo became 
the speaker of the Creek Nation. He did 
not hold this office at the treaty of Coleraine 
in June, 179 6, though he was one of the 
signers of the treaty. Fusatchee Mico, the 
Whitebird King of the Hickory Ground, was 
the speaker at Coleraine. Efa Hadjo was 
the speaker of the Creek Nation at the treaty 
of Fort Wilkinson in 1802. He also at the 
same time was speaker of the Upper Creeks, 
with Coweta Micco, as speaker of the Lower 
Creeks. His several talks at this treaty were 
all sensible and relevant to the subjects un- 
der consideration. Twelve days after the 
treaty Efa Hadjo abdicated his station as 
speaker and first chief of the nation to Hopoie 
Micco and transferred the seat of the Na- 
tional Councils from Tuckabatchee to the 
Hickory Ground. He was at this time, as 
he stated, "getting in age." This action of 
Efa Hadjo was either of short duration or 
was not accepted by the Nation, as can be 
seen from Colonel Hawkins' notice of the 
chief in 1799. 

"This (Tuckabatchee) is the residence of 
Efan Hanjo, one of the great medal chiefs, 
the speaker of the Nation at the National 
Council. He is one of the best informed men 
of the land, and faithful to his National en- 

gagements. He has five black slaves, and a 
stock of cattle and horses; but they are of 
little use to him; the ancient habits instilled 
in him by French and British agents, that 
red chiefs are to live on presents from their 
white friends, is so riveted that he claims it 
as a tribute due to him, and one that never 
must be dispensed with." 

Efa Hadjo died in Tuckabatchee in 1812. 

References.— American State Papers, In- 
dian Affairs, vol. i, pp. 297, 367, 382, 383, 385, 
390, 396, 424, 461, 670, 672-681, 840; Hawkins' 
Sketch of the Creek Country, p. 30. 

ELVAS, THE KNIGHT OF, explorer and 

author. There were nine followers of De 
Soto who came from Elvas in Portugal', and 
whose names are all recorded by the anony- 
mous Portuguese narrator of the expedition 
of De Soto. Of these nine men four perished 
in Florida, one being killed at Maubila, and 
the other three dying at Aminoya. Of the 
five surviving Portuguese, one may indulge 
in his own suppositions or conjectures, as 
to which one was the author of the anony- 
mous narrative; so far his identity has de- 
fied the researches of all the De Soto com- 
mentators. This unknown Portuguese Knight 
seems to have been with the main army. 
Nowhere does he ever make reference to 
himself. He seems not to have kept a diary, 
but may have made memoranda of the dates 
of some of the events. Aside from this con- 
jecture, his narrative seems to have been 
written mainly from memory and hence can- 
not be accurate in every particular. In com- 
mon with the custom of the day he did not 
hesitate to invent speeches which he put into 
the mouths of the Indians. With all its de- 
fects, the narrative has a high value as a 
record of De Soto's expedition, and is es- 
pecially valuable for the facts it gives rela- 
tive to the manner of life of the Southern 
Indians of the sixteenth century. In this re- 
spect it is fuller than all the other narra- 
tives of the expedition of De Soto. 

FARMAR, ROBERT, Commandant of Mo- 
bile, was born in 1735. But little is known 
of his early life. He first appears in 1765, 
as commander of the troops in Mobile, and 
in the Alabama-Tombigbee basin, after the 
withdrawal of the French to the west of the 
Mississippi River. He seems to have been 
an officer of much ability, but he soon in- 
curred the ill-will of Governor George John- 
stone, who charged him with various acts of 
official misconduct. The court-martial which 
followed resulted in his complete vindication. 
Major Farmar owned considerable property 
in Mobile, where he married and raised a 
family of five children. He moved to Ten- 
saw Bluff near the present Stockton, where 
he lived the life of an opulent planter until 
his death in 1780. His will is on record in 
the office of the Surrogate of Canterbury. 
Descendants reside in Washington. 

Creek Chief, born probably about 1770, and 
in Autauga town, was the son of David Fran- 


cis a white trader and silversmith, who lived 
many years in Autauga Town, and made 
silver ornaments and implements for the In- 
dians. The name of his mother is not known, 
and apart from his father, the only other 
fact recorded as to his family relationship 
is that he was a half-brother of Sam Moniac. 
Hillis Hadjo, properly spelled Hilis Hadsho, 
is the name of an official of the Creek busk; 
"hilis," medicine, "hadsho," crazy. Some 
corrupt spellings of the name are Hidlis Had- 
jo, Hillishago, Hillishager, etc. In his youth 
Josiah Francis learned the silversmith trade 
of his father. The first recorded public fact 
of his life is being created a prophet, which 
was about the latter part of 1812. It took 
Sukaboo, the great Shawnee prophet, ten 
days' work to endow Francis with prophetic 
powers. When this was completed, Francis 
was considered the greatest prophet in the 
Creek Nation. He himself now assumed the 
role of prophet-maker. He made many 
prophets, among others, Jim Boy of Atossee. 
In June, 1813, just before the outbreak of 
the Creek War, General James Wilkinson of 
the United States Army, noted the presence 
of Francis, with a large number of followers, 
camped at or near the Holy Ground on the 
Alabama River, evidently making prepara- 
tions for a war of destruction upon the white 
and the half-breed Indian settlements in 
South Alabama. For the purpose of procur- 
ing ammunition for the oncoming war, early 
in July, Josiah Francis, commanding the 
Alabama, Peter McQueen at the head of the 
Tallassee warriors, and Jim as principal-war 
chief, commanding the Atossees, with many 
packhorses took up the line of march from 
the Holy Ground for Pensacola. They were 
successful in attaining their object, and on 
their return march, while encamped on Burnt 
Corn Creek, they were attacked, on July 2 7, 
by a body of Americans, under Colonel James 
Coller, and there was fought what is known 
as the battle of Burnt Corn. The victory 
was with the Creeks. This fact and the loss 
of American prestige in their defeat, no 
doubt, prompted the Creeks to begin the war 
on a larger scale. About the middle of Au- 
gust a great Creek council was held at the 
Holy Ground. After much debate and de- 
liberation, it was resolved by the council to 
divide the Creek forces into two divisions, 
and with each to make simultaneous at- 
tacks on Fort Mims and Fort Sinquefield. 
Hopie Tustenuggee commanded the larger 
division that was to assault Fort Mims, while 
Josiah Francis with one hundred and twenty- 
five warriors was to operate against Fort 
Sinquefield. On the night of August 30, 
Francis and his warriors camped in the 
Wolf's Den, a large deep ravine three miles 
east of Fort Madison. Thence, the next day, 
they moved northward and massacred twelve 
members of the James and Kimball families, 
living on Bassett's creek. The bodies of the 
dead were, the next day, brought to Fort 
Sinquefield for burial by a party sent out for 
that purpose. The day following, September 
2, about eleven o'clock, a part of the people 
were out of the fort engaged in the burial, 

and a number of the women were at the 
spring, some engaged in washing, and others 
who had come there to bring buckets of water 
back to their families in the fort. The time 
was propitious for Francis and his warriors, 
who were advancing in a stooping position 
to cut off the burial party and the women 
at the spring. The Creeks were discovered 
in time, and all, with one exception, made 
their escape into the fort, upon which a furi- 
ous attack was made. After two hours' fight- 
ing, Francis was repulsed with the loss of 
eleven warriors slain and many wounded. 
He then retreated across the Alabama River, 
where several of the wounded died. There 
is no record of Josiah Francis in other en- 
gagements of the Creek War. After the de- 
feat at the Horseshoe, he and Nehemathla 
Micco placed their people on the Catoma, not 
far above the Federal crossing. But they 
remained there a very short time, for Gen- 
eral Jackson writing from Fort Jackson on 
April 18, states "Hillishagee, their great 
prophet, has absconded." Francis and his 
refugee people founded a town near Fort 
St. Marks, in Florida. Early in 1815 Col- 
onel Edward Nichols negotiated a treaty with 
the fugitive Creeks and the Seminoles. This 
treaty was an offensive and defensive alli- 
ance between the English government and 
the Indians, and through it the Creeks in 
Florida were led to believe that they would 
secure the restitution of the lands ceded by 
the treaty of Fort Jackson. Early in the 
summer following Nichols sailed for London, 
taking with him Francis and other Indians, 
Creeks and Seminoles. Nichols hoped that 
, his treaty would be ratified by the British 
Foreign Office, but it refused to receive him 
or even to listen to his proposals. While 
Colonel Nichols' treaty was thus ignored by 
the English government, his friend Francis 
was treated with much distinction. He was 
created a colonel in the British army (colon- 
ial establishment), with a full uniform; was 
presented with a diamond-studded snuff box, 
a gold-mounted tomahawk, five hundred 
pounds in gold, and some jewels for his 
daughters. He was admitted to an inter- 
view with the Prince Regent which is thus 
described by a London journal: "The sound 
of trumpets announced the approach of the 
patriot Francis, who fought so gloriously in 
our cause in America during the late war. 
Being dressed in a most splendid suit of red 
and gold, and wearing a tomahawk set with 
gold gave him a highly imposing appear- 
ance." Francis and the other Indians were 
sent back to Florida, in 1816, by the English 
government in a sloop of war. It would have 
been well for Francis had he been content 
with the honor and glory which he had now 
received from the English government, and 
had made peace with the Americans. But 
the old war spirit was too strong and the 
close of 1817 found him inciting the refugee 
Creeks and the Seminoles to war. About 
this time, an American soldier, named Dun- 
can McKrimmon, was captured by the In- 
dians near Fowl Town. He was taken by 
his captors to Francis' town, delivered to the 


chief, who sentenced him to death by the 
fire torture, in retaliation tor the killing of 
four Indians by the Americans in their at- 
tack on Fowl Town. But McKimmon's life 
was saved through the entreaties of Francis' 
daughter, Malee. (This name is incorrectly 
given in some books as Milly. Malee is the 
Indian imperfect articulation of Mary, there 
being no r in the Choctaw "Muscogee dialects, 
1 being used or substituted in its place.) In 
the following April, Francis and Nehemathla 
Micco were captured, and without the for- 
mality of a trial, General Jackson ordered 
both to be hanged. Nehemathla Micco was 
justly put to death on the charge of tortur- 
ing his prisoner, Lieutenant Scott, to death. 
But it may be questioned whether Francis 
ought to have been executed on the two 
charges brought against him, — complicity in 
the massacres during the Creek War, and for 
inciting the refugee Creeks to war. As to 
the first charge, Francis was no more guilty 
than other Creeks for massacres during the 
war and whom Gen. Jackson did not punish. 
As to the other charge, it may be said that he 
was not a party to the treaty of Fort Jackson, 
of August, IS 14, a treaty not recognized by 
the Creeks in Florida. Hence from his point 
of view he had the right to renew or con- 
tinue the struggle of the Creeks against the 
Americans in Florida. Francis is described 
by an officer of Jackson's army as "a hand- 
some man, six feet high; would weigh one 
hundred and fifty pounds; of pleasing man- 
ners; conversed well in English and Spanish; 
humane in his disposition; by no means bar- 
barous — withal a model chief." Accepting as 
true this favorable account of Francis' char- 
acter, it may be inferred that, while he him- 
self was averse to needless barbarity in war, 
he was unable to control his warriors, as in 
the case of the Kimball-James Massacre and 
the killing of Mrs. Phillips at Fort Sinque- 
field. Francis was survived by his wife and 
several daughters. His wife was a half- 
blood, her name not recorded, and said to 
be a half-sister of William Weatherford. Of 
his daughters, the name of the youngest, Ma- 
lee, incorrectly given by some as Milly, has 
been preserved, and ever will be remembered 
for the romance, tragedy, and pathos con- 
nected with it. The story of this Alabama- 
born girl, her beauty, her accomplishments, 
her saving the life of McKrimmon, her grief 
over the execution of her father, her mar- 
riage to McKrimmon, her subsequent life, — - 
all surpass in interest the somewhat apocry- 
phal story of the Virginia-born Pocahontas. 

References. — Aleck's Romantic Passages in 
Southern History (1857), p. 271; Pickett's His- 
tory of Alabama (Owen's edition, 1900), pp. 
514, 515, 521, 544; Woodward's Reminiscenses 
of the Creek or Muscogee Indians, 1857, pp. 43, 
53, 97; American State Papers, Indian Affairs, 
vol. i, pp. 850, 853; American State Papers, 
Military Affairs, vol. i, pp. 700, 745; Buell's 
History of Jackson (1904), vol. ii, pp. 122- 
125; Parton's Life of Jackson (1861), vol. ii, 
pp. 395, 397, 415, 420, 431, 437, 455, 457; Halbert 
and Ball's Creek War (1895), pp. 184, 185, 
197, 198; Handbook of American Indians 

(1911), Part i, pp. 549, 550; Claiborne's Mis- 
sissippi (1800), p. 323. 

GUN MERCHANT, Creek chief. This chief 
of Okchaiyi first came into prominence after 
the massacre of the traders on March 14, 
1760. Twelve days after this affair, while 
staying at Muklasa, he, in the name of the 
headmen of the Upper Creeks and some ref- 
ugee traders present, sent a talk to Gover- 
nor Ellis in which he expressed the hope 
that the Governor would not think that this 
affair was a concerted plot of the nation in 
general, that if it had been a concerted af- 
fair, not a single trader would have ever got 
to his own country; that the traders present 
knew what uneasiness it gave the Indians; 
and he wished the Governor to believe that 
the Indians had no malice in their hearts, 
and their only wish was that a good under- 
standing and friendship might be renewed 
with the white people. The deeds were done 
by a few young men and the headmen were 
not privy to it, and he hoped that traders 
would be allowed to return to the Nation. 

The Governor sent a talk in reply in which 
he stated the Creeks must inflict capital pun- 
ishment on the murderers, and that the trade 
would be renewed when it was safe to do 
so. but that first the Creeks in every town 
must select some powerful person to take 
charge of the traders and their goods; other- 
wise no traders would venture their persons 
and goods among them; and the traders must 
pay a yearly consideration to these guardians. 
Some weeks after the Governor sent another 
talk into the Nation. Gun Merchant was at 
Okfusky when the talk came there. He com- 
mented on it largely as a good talk and that 
they ought to quench the fire while in their 
power to do so. At his suggestion, the In- 
dians went forth, gathered up the bones of 
the traders, wrapped them in white deer 
skins and buried them. Another evidence 
of Gun Merchant's fair dealing occurred ear- 
ly in 17 61. The store of a trader named 
Henderson among the Upper Creeks was 
robbed. This coming to the ears of Gun 
Merchant, he interposed to prevent further 
mischief, and at the same time took two 
traders and their goods under his protection. 
Governor Wright was so appreciative of this 
action that he sent a special talk to Gun 
Merchant. But the obligations of the traders 
and their guardians were not altogether well 
observed. Gun Merchant in a talk of April 
30, which he sent to Governor Wright, says: 
"There was a Man appointed to look after 
the Traders in each Town — some performed 
it, others did not, and that the said Head- 
men were to be paid for their Trouble; this 
Talk was given out last year by Joseph 
Wright from Governor Ellis; but we see no 
Rewards for it yet; there are others that go 
Guards to the Pack Horses that get nothing 
for this Trouble, which make the Young Peo- 
ple indifferent of going down." 

Gun Merchant was one of the four great 
medal chiefs of the Upper Creeks created at 
the Congress in Pensacola in June, 1765. 



After this there is no further record relating 
to his career. 

References. — The Colonial Records of Geor- 
gia, vol. viii, pp. 325, 348, 421, 423, 514, 543, 
544; Mississippi Provincial Archives, vol. 1, p. 

GALVEZ, BERNARDO, Governor of Louisi- 
ana, Captain-General of Cuba and Viceroy 
of Mexico, born in Malaga, Spain, in 1748, 
and died in the City of Mexico, November 
30, 1786; was the son of Matias Galvez, who 
in his latter years was Viceroy of Mexico. 
In 1772 he entered the French army, and was 
promoted lieutenant. In 1775, as captain, 
he entered the Spanish army in the war 
against the Moors of Algiers, rose to the rank 
of colonel, and on his return to Spain was 
promoted brigadier-general. Early in 17 7 7 
he was appointed governor of Louisiana, and 
held that office for eight years. Claiborne 
says that Galvez was "the ablest and most 
active man that ever swayed Louisiana/' 
One of the first acts of his administration 
was the issuing of a proclamation permit- 
ting the inhabitants of Louisiana to trade 
with the United States, followed by another 
proclamation three days later, permitting 
them to export their produce to any port of 
France. By these acts the trade of the prov- 
ince, which had hitherto been controlled by 
the English, was henceforth carried on main- 
ly by French and Americans. Governor Gal- 
vez strongly sympathized with the American 
Revolution. In 1778 he secretly furnished 
Colonel James Willing, the continental agent 
in New Orleans, with arms, ammunition and 
seventy thousand dollars in cash for the re- 
volted colonies. Meanwhile the English gov- 
ernment having contemptuously spurned the 
overtures of Spain as a mediator between 
her and the colonies, on May 8, 1779, Charles 
III, formally declared war against Great 
Britain. As soon as the declaration of war 
reached Louisiana, Governor Galvez resolved 
on the conquest and re-occupation of West 
Florida. He marched an army up the east 
bank of the Mississippi in conjunction with 
a fleet bearing provisions and military sup- 
plies up the river, and in succession captured 
Fort Bute, Baton Rouge, and Fort Panmure 
and reduced the entire district of Natchez. 
In October his army was increased by re- 
inforcements from Cuba, and he was pro- 
moted to the rank of Brigadier General. 
With this force on March 14, 1780, he cap- 
tured Fort Charlotte and forced Mobile to 
surrender. Galvez's next objective point was 
Pensacola. Going to Havana he returned 
thence in March, 1781, with a fleet and a 
well equipped army. Still further strength- 
ened with Creole troops from New Orleans, 
he laid siege to Pensacola, which capitu- 
lated on May 9, and West Florida was once 
more a possession of Spain. After the close 
of the American Revolution Galvez advocated 
the free trade of Louisiana with all the ports 
of Europe and America, but this liberal propo- 
sition was proved unacceptable to the Span- 
ish Ministry. As a reward for his great serv- 
ices, early in 1785, Galvez was appointed 

Captain-General of Cuba, Louisiana and the 
Floridas. On June 17, 1785, he succeeded 
his father as Viceroy of Mexico, and held 
that to his death the same year in Tucabaza. 


Coosada chief, born conjecturally about 1765. 
He received his English name from an In- 
dian trader, who died at an advanced age 
in Lincoln county, Tennessee. No facts are 
preserved of his life, until 1792, when he 
was one of the Creek chiefs that were in 
the habit of making raids upon the Cumber- 
land settlers in Tennessee. On August 21, 
1793, he and his party murdered a Mrs. 
Baker, a widow, and all her family except 
a daughter, named Elizabeth. They brought 
her to Coosada, where she was forced to be 
an eye-witness of the dance around the scalps 
of her family. But she was soon fortunate 
in finding a friend in the noted trader, 
Charles Weatherford, who lived on the east 
side of the Alabama River, opposite Coosada. 
He ransomed her, placed her in charge of 
his wife, where she remained until restored 
to her friends. After the treaty of Coleraine, 
made in 1796, Captain Isaacs became a friend 
to the United States. He was the only chief 
at the great Council held at Tuckabatchee 
in the fall of 1811, that refused to take the 
talk of Tecumseh. General Woodward very 
erroneously states that Captain Isaacs went 
north with Tecumseh and that, on his way 
back home, he was associated with Little 
Warrior in the murders committed in Feb- 
ruary, 1813, near the mouth of the Ohio. 
Official records show that Captain Isaacs 
never went north with Tecumseh, nor after- 
wards to Tecumseh. and that he had noth- 
ing to do with those murders, living in all 
those times at his home in the Nation. Fur- 
thermore, from his persistent loyalty to the 
whites, he was one of the seven prominent 
chiefs whose deaths had been decreed by 
the hostile faction in the early summer of 
1813. Captain Isaacs met his fate in June, 
himself, a nephew and three of his warriors, 
being killed at the same time by the Red 
Sticks. His wife was a daughter of General 
McGillivray, but apart from this, there is no 
further record of his family. 

References. — Pickett's History of Alabama 
(Owen's Edition, 1900), pp. 425, 512, 519; 
American State Papers, Indian Affairs, vol. i, 
p. 487; Woodward's Reminiscences of the Creek 
or Muscogee Indians (1859), pp. 36, 37. 


was born about 1790 in the Creek Nation, 
the birth-place not known. Tustenuggee is 
the Creek term for "warrior:" Emathla is a 
war title, corresponding nearly to "disciplin- 
arian." Nothing is known of Jim Boy's life 
prior to the outbreak of the Creek War of 
1813, where Pickett calls him High Head 
Jim. He was chief of the Atossees, and com- 
manded the hostile Creeks at the battle of 
■Burnt Corn, fought March 27, 1813. It is 
not known in what other battles fie was en- 
gaged during the war. After its close, he 
settled near Polecat Spring, and there built 


a little town called Thlopthlocco. In 1818 
he served under General Mcintosh agaTnst 
the Seminoles in Florida. During the Creek 
troubles of 1836, he attached himself to the 
friendly party. At the close of these trou- 
bles he was solicited by General Jessup to 
raise warriors for service against the Sem- 
inoles in Florida. He and Paddy Carr ac- 
cordingly raised nine hundred and fifty war- 
riors, and with them reached the seat of 
war in September. Here the Creeks were 
organized into a regiment and placed under 
the command of Major David Moniac. Jim 
Boy was with his regiment in two battles 
and in a number of skirmishes in the Sem- 
inole war. The battles were the second bat- 
tle of Wahoo Swamp, fought in November, 
1836. and the battle of Lake Monroe, fought 
February 8, 1837. The Creeks fought cour- 
ageously in both these engagements. 

On his return from Florida, he found that 
his family had been removed west in the 
emigration of the Creeks, and that all his 
property in the nation had been destroyed. 
He had joined the army in Florida under a 
promise of the commanding general that his 
family and property should be cared for, and 
that he should be remunerated for any loss 
he might sustain during his absence. This 
promise was not kept. But all this was a 
slight trouble compared to the death of four 
out of his nine children, who were of the 
two hundred and thirty-six Creeks that were 
lost in the striking of the emigration steam- 
boat, Monmouth. 

Jim Boy's home in the Creek Nation west, 
was near Wetumpka, where he died in 1851. 
The name of his wife was Nihethoye. Rev. 
William Jim Boy, a well known Methodist 
minister in the Creek nation, is a grandson. 

Jim Boy is described as a remarkably 
handsome man, full six feet high, perfectly 
formed and with a commanding air. The 
late Rev. John Brown of Daleville, Missis- 
sippi, who served in the Seminole War, states 
that on one occasion, at General Jessup's 
headquarters, he saw Jim Boy, clad in his 
full war dress, engaged in conversation with 
the general; that he was struck with Jim 
Boy's appearance, and with the fact that he 
was by far a finer looking man than General 

References. — McKenney and Hall's Indian 
Tribes of North America (1842), vol. iii, 95, 
96; Pickett's History of Alabama (Owen's 
Edition, 1900), pp. 521-524; Woodward's Rem- 
iniscences of the Creek or Muscogee Indians, 
pp. 91, 97, 98; Halbert and Ball's Creek War, 
pp. 125-132, 300, 301; Drake's Indians, fifteenth 
edition, pp. 474, 476, 477, 479. 

LAW, JOHN, financier, born in Edinburg, 
Scotland, in 1671, and died in Venice, Italy, 
March 21, 1729. He was the son of a wealthy 
goldsmith and banker and was well edu- 
cated. Becoming an orphan at the age of 
fourteen he fell heir to his father's estates 
of Lauriston and Randleston. Young Law 
devoted much of his early life to the study 
of finance, at the same time becoming an 
expert in games of chance. In 1694 he went 

to London, where he became a gambler, and 
soon got rid of his inherited estates. From 
gambling to duelling was an easy transition; 
and to escape the consequences of having 
killed his antagonist, Law fled to France. 
Here he studied the financial methods of Col- 
bert; afterwards he lived in Holland and 
studied the commercial methods of that coun- 
try. He then for years rambled over various 
parts of Europe, vainly broaching financial 
schemes to different governments and about 
the time of the death of Louis the Fourteenth 
returned to France with a fortune of half 
a million dollars, made by gambling. Through 
the favor of the regent, Philip, Duke of Or- 
leans, Law now established a private bank 
which was chartered in 1716 and did a vast 
business. The bank was abolished in Decem- 
ber, 1718, and was succeeded by the royal 
bank, of which Law was the director-general. 

The West India Company was formed in 
1717. Law was appointed its director-gen- 
eral, and received a large concession on Ar- 
kansas River, with the title of Duke. In 1719, 
the company obtained the exclusive trade 
with the East Indies, China and the South 
Seas, and the name was changed to the India 
Company, and existed until 1731. 

In 1720, in consequence of a large issue 
of paper money, Law's bank collapsed and 
he became a fugitive from France. The re- 
gent, however, remained loyal to him and 
appointed him minister at the court of Bava- 
ria, a post he held until the death of the 
regent. He visited England in 1721, re- 
turned to the continent in 1722, and retired 
to Venice where he died in obscurity. He 
was survived by a daughter, his presumable 
wife, his only son having died some years 

HOPOIE, Creek chief. History and tradi- 
tion are both utterly silent as to the early 
life of this chief, who lived at Broken Ar- 
row and was for many years speaker of the 
Lower Creeks. The first notice of him is in 
1780. In the spring or summer of this year, 
the Indian Agent, John Tate, who was sta- 
tioned at the Hickory Ground, raised a large 
number of warriors, for the British service 
from all the Upper Creek towns, except from 
the Tallassees and the Natchez, and with 
them marched to the Creek towns on the 
Chattahoochee. Here he was reinforced by 
a band of Lower Creeks under Little Prince. 
The combined Indian forces, all under the 
command of Tate, began their march to 
Augusta to the aid of Colonel Thomas Brown, 
in command of that post. Near the head 
springs of Upatoy creek, Tate became de- 
ranged, was brought back to Coweta, where 
he died and was buried. After his death, 
all the Upper Creeks returned except the 
Tuckabachees .under Efa Tustenuggee, or 
Davy Cornells. He and Little Prince resumed 
the march with their warriors, numbering 
two hundred and fifty, arrived at Augusta 
and were there when the place was besieged 
by Colonel Elijah Clarke. In the fighting 
that ensued, the Creeks lost seventy men, — 


a loss showing the high grade of their fight- 
ing qualities. After the abandonment of the 
siege and the retreat of the Americans, Colo- 
nel Brown first hung some of the most 
prominent Americans and then delivered the 
remainder into the hands of the Indians, who, 
in revenge for their slain warriors, put them 
to the most torturing and protracted deaths, 
by cuts, blows, scalpings and burnings. The 
memories of Colonels Brown and Grierson, 
the commanding officers of the post, justly 
deserve to be held in eternal opprobrium for 
these enormous atrocities. Those familiar 
with Indian character and history know that 
the chief has but little real control over his 
warriors. What he accomplishes is mainly 
by dint of persuasion. How much Little 
Prince favored or disapproved of the actions 
of his warriors at Augusta cannot be known. 
But one can indulge in no charitable conjec- 
ture in regard to his colleague, Efa Tuste- 
nuggee, who is described by General Wood- 
ward as being "the most hostile and bitter 
enemy the white people ever had." 

So far as known, the Augusta campaign 
was the only military service ever performed 
by Little Prince. He was one of the signers 
of the treaty of Coleraine in 1796. He ever 
after continued friendly to the American 
government. He was too old for military 
service during the Creek War of 1813, but 
was active in sending his warriors into the 
field. And for his share in the execution of 
Little Warrior and his party in the spring 
of 1813, he was one of the seven chiefs for- 
mally condemned to death by the war party. 
He continued to be the head chief of the 
nation and speaker of the lower towns until 
his death in 1832. His grave is yet pointed 
out on Broken Arrow creek. 

References. — American State Papers, In- 
dian Affairs, vol. i, pp. 845, 849, 857; Ameri- 
can State Papers, Indian Affairs, vol. ii, pp. 
839, 840; Pickett's History of Alabama (Owen's 
Edition, 1900), pp. 519; Woodward's Remi- 
niscences of the Creek or Muscogee Indians, 
pp. 35, 59; McCrady's History of South Caro- 
lina, 1775-1780, pp. 734-739; Jones' History of 
Georgia, vol. 2, pp. 455-459. 

CHI, Creek chief, born about 1711, as in 
May, 174 0, he claimed to be nearly thirty 
years old, was the son of Bream of Coweta, 
the head chief of the Muscogees. Bream had 
an elder son, named Auletta, who, in July, 
1721, went to Charleston to hold a talk with 
Governor Nicholson, and to make up their 
differences. Malatchee was still a youth at 
the time of the death of Bream, his father. 
The chief power was then put into the hands 
of Chigillie, Chickeley or Chikilee, apparent- 
ly a brother of Bream, until Malatchee 
should arrive at years of maturity. In 1736 
a school for the instruction of Creek chil- 
dren, under the charge of the Rev. Benja- 
min Ingham, was established on the Savan- 
nah River, near the town of Tomochichi. 
Chikelee and Malatchee visited the school, 
and became much interested in it, Malatchee 
saying that if he had twenty children he 

would have them all taught. This was a 
remarkable statement for an untutored In- 
dian chief of that day, and shows that Ma- 
latchee was a man of very advanced ideas, 
far beyond most of his contemporaries. In 
the meantime, the young Malatchee had so 
signalized himself as a warrior, that he was 
looked upon as the greatest man in the Creek 
Nation. He was one of the party that con- 
cluded a treaty with General Oglethorpe, 
August 1, 1739, his uncle, Chigillie, being 
the principal. Ever after this treaty, Ma- 
latchee enjoyed the favor of General Ogle- 
thorpe, for just prior to his Florida Cam- 
paign, he ordered a number of presents to 
be given to him, among these a scarlet coat. 
Malatchee, in May, 1740, joined General 
Oglethorpe in his expedition against the Span- 
iards, and, it seems, was present at the siege 
of San Augustine. A contemporary has left 
a sketch of him as he appeared at this period 
of his life: "His ability, as well as his good 
will to the English, is not to be questioned; 
so his person is very engaging; his stature 
is but little short of six feet, his make clean, 
and perfectly shaped from head to foot, as 
he appears when naked to the skin; and 
when he puts on a coat and hat, his be- 
havior is such, that one would rather image 
from his complaisance, he had been bred in 
some European court, than among barba- 
rians. At the same time, though the features 
of his face are interesting, and show tokens 
of good nature, yet there is something in his 
aspect which demands awe." In December, 
1747. Malatchee, with sixteen chiefs of vari- 
ous towns of ihe Creek Confederacy, chanced 
to be on a visit to Frederica. He was then 
and there persuaded by the notorious Bosom- 
worth to have himself acknowledged as the 
head or emperor of the Creek Nation, with 
full power to cede land, conclude treaties, 
and transact any other business connected 
with the royal administration of the affairs 
of his people. Malatchee was at once pro- 
claimed and saluted Supreme Chief of the 
Creek Nation. A document setting fortn this 
act was immediately prepared by Bosom- 
worth, signed by the chiefs and attested by 
some Englishmen present. Malatchee re- 
quested that a copy should be sent to the 
King of England and that due record should 
be made of the original. Bosomworth's ob- 
ject in this matter, and its unpleasant re- 
sults, are fully given by Colonel C. C. Jones 
in his History of Georgia. In 1752 the 
Creeks had a quarrel with the Cherokees. in 
which the former committed some outrages, 
among others scalping an English trader. 
On Governor Glen's demand for satisfaction, 
Malatchee with a hundred warriors visited 
Charleston. After a talk by the Governor, 
Malatchee made a talk in which he apolo- 
gized for the conduct'of the Creeks, and the 
whole affair was satisfactorily adjusted. 
Malatchee's talk has been preserved by 
Hewatt, the South Carolina historian. On 
the fifth day of November, 1754, six days 
after he was inducted into office as Captain- 
General and Governor in Chief of the Prov- 
ince of Georgia, Governor John Reynolds sent 



a talk to Malatchee in which he assured him 
that he would use every means to preserve 
the good understanding that then existed be- 
tween the King's subjects of Georgia and the 
Creek Nation. That it would be a very great 
pleasure to him to have an opportunity of 
shaking hands with him, and talking with 
him face to face. That he would notify him 
when it would be proper for him to come 
to Savannah, where he would be able to give 
him a further testimony of his love and 
friendship. "In the meantime, I wish you, 
your wives and children health and prosper- 
ity, assuring you that I am your loving friend 
and brother." 

Malatchee died in 1755. This date is based 
upon a statement made by his son Togoulki 
or Thougoulskie (the Young Twin), at the 
Augusta Congress of 1763, that his father 
had been dead eight years. This fixes 1755 
as the year of his death. The American 
Indians, from time immemorial, universally 
held to the custom of burying all movable 
property in the grave with the deceased. 
After long persuasion by the traders, the 
Cherokees, by the middle of the eighteenth 
century, had, in a great measure, given up 
this custom. Malatchee, whether influenced 
by white people, or whether it was the result 
of. his own thinking, certainly had advanced 
ideas on this subject. Adair writes: "Ex- 
cept the Cherokee, only one instance of de- 
viation, from this ancient and general Indian 
custom occurs to me: which was that of 
Malahche, the late famous chieftain of the 
Kowwetah war-town of the lower part of 
the Muskohge country, who bequeathed all 
he possessed to his real, and adopted rela- 
tions, — -being sensible they would be much 
more useful to his living friends, than to him- 
self during his long sleep: he displayed a 
genius far superior to the crowd." Malatchee 
was succeeded in the chieftainship by his 
son, Tougulki. or as frequently known, 
"Young Twin." For a few years before 
actually assuming the office. Tougoulki's 
uncle, Sampiaffi. acted as his guardian. 

References. — Year Book of Charleston, S. 
C. (1894), p. 339; The Colonial Records of 
Georgia, vol. 4, pp. 565, 566, 567; Adair's 
American Indians (1775), p. 178; Hewett's 
History of South Carolina, vol. i, pp. 173-178; 
Jones' History of Georgia, vol. i, pp. 327-331, 
392, 399; The Colonial Records of Georgia, 
vol. 7, p. 24; Ibid, vol. 21, p. 22. 

McITVTOSH, WILLIAM, Creek chief, born 
at Corvata, Creek nation, probably about 
1775, was the son of Captain William Mc- 
intosh, of the British army and a full blood 
Creek woman. Nothing is known of his ear- 
ly life, only it may be inferred from the 
fair education which he had acquired and 
his proficiency in the English language that 
he must have passed much of it in associa- 
tion with white people. A tradition states 
that he could even speak some Gaelic, an 
evidence of his mingling in boyhood or youth 
with Scotch Highlanders somewhere in Geor- 
gia. He first appears in history as one of 
the signers of the treaty of Washington, 

November 14, 1805. After this, nothing is 
known of his history until April, 1813, when 
he sent a oand of warriors to Tuckabatchie 
to assist the Upper Creek authorities in ar- 
resting Little Warrior and his associates, 
who had committed some minders at the 
mouth of the Ohio in February, 1813. The 
murderers were all put to death. For this 
action, and on account of his sympathy for 
the Americans, sentence of death was passed 
upon him by the hostile Creeks. At the same 
time six other chiefs were condemned to 
death. In the fall of that year he appears 
as the leader of a band of Cowetas in the 
army of General John Floyd. He was at the 
battle of Atossee, November 14, 1813, and 
General Floyd in his report states that Mc- 
intosh and his braves fought in this battle 
"with an intrepidity worthy of any troops." 
He also distinguished himself at the battle 
of the Horseshoe, where General Jackson in 
his report speaks of him as "Major Mcin- 

His name appears as one of the signers 
of the treaty of Fort Jackson, August 9, 
1814. He was also a signer of the treaty 
of the Creek Agency, Georgia, January 22, 
1818. After this, at the head of a force of 
Creek Warriors he joined General Jackson 
in Florida for service against the Seminoles. 
He was commissioned general and placed in 
command of all the Indian troops, together 
with a company of Tennessee cavalry. In 
this short Seminole war, "he signalized him- 
self by various acts of gallantry." General 
Jackson, in his report of the fight at Econa- 
finnah, says: "On the morning of the 12th 
(April, 1818), near Econfinnah, or Natural 
Bridge, a party of Indians were discovered 
on the margin of a swamp, and attacked by 
General Mcintosh, and about fifty Tennessee 
volunteers, who routed them, killing thirty- 
seven warriors, and capturing six men and 
ninety-seven women and children; also re- 
capturing a white woman who had been taken 
at the massacre of Scott. The friendly In- 
dians also took some horses, and about five 
hundred head of cattle from the enemy, who 
proved to be McQueen's party." 

Another official report states that General 
Mcintosh in this fight killed with his own 
hand three of the enemy and captured one. 
General Thomas Woodward with five other 
white men was with General Mcintosh in 
this fight, in which the white woman, Mrs. 
Stuart, was rescued. She had been a cap- 
tive since November 30, 1817. General 
Woodward thus describes this affair, gener- 
ally known as "Mcintosh's fight." 

"Shortly after the firing commenced, we 
could hear a female voice in the English lan- 
guage calling for help, but she was concealed 
from our view. The hostile Indians, though 
greatly inferior in number to our whole force, 
had the advantage of the ground, it being a 
dense thicket, and kept the party that first 
attacked at bay until General Mcintosh ar- 
rived with the main force. Mcintosh, though 
raised among savages, was a General; yes, 
he was one of God's make of Generals. I 
could hear his voice above the din of fire- 


arms — 'Save the white woman! Save the In- 
dian women and children!' All this time 
Mrs. Stuart was between the fires of the com- 
batants. Mcintosh said to me, 'Chulataria 
Emathla, you, Brown and Mitchell, go to 
that woman.' (Chulataria Emathla was the 
name I was known by among the Indians.) 
Mitchell was a good soldier and a bad crip- 
ple from rheumatism. He dismounted from 
his horse and said, 'Boys, let me lead the 
way.' We made the charge with some 
Uchees and Creeks but Mitchell, poor fellow, 
was soon left behind, in consequence of his 
inability to travel on foot. I can see her 
now, squatted in the saw-palmetto, among a 
few dwarf cabbage trees, surrounded by a 
group of Indian women. There I saw Brown 
kill an Indian, and I got my rifle-stock shot 
off just back of the lock. Old Jack Carter 
came up with my horse shortly after we cut 
off the woman from the warriors. I got his 
musket and used it until the fight ended." 

General Mcintosh was mainly instrumental 
in negotiating the treaty of January 8, 1821. 
This treaty was certainly illegal, for it was 
made by a party representing only one-tenth 
of the nation, and to be legal it should have 
had the consent of the whole nation, assem- 
bled in public council. While the Creeks 
submitted to it, they 'became alarmed at this 
cession of their domain. As far back as 
1811, in a council held at Broken Arrow, 
they had enacted a law, forbidding, under 
the penalty of death, the cession of land, 
except by the chiefs of the nation and rati- 
fied in full council. Rendered uneasy by this 
and other acts of General Mcintosh, this law 
was formally re-enacted at Polecat Springs 
in 1824. 

In their progress in agriculture and edu- 
cation the Creeks were becoming more and 
more appreciative of the value of their lands, 
and consequently were more and more re- 
luctant to part with them. The treaty of 
Indian Springs of February 12, 1825, made 
in defiance of the national law, was the fatal 
mistake of General Mcintosh, and he had to 
pay the penalty. The Creek nation was great- 
ly excited by this treaty, and in due time, a 
secret council of the Upper Creeks convened, 
and at it one hundred and seventy men were 
appointed to take the life of Mcintosh. They 
received minute instructions as to their 
marching, place of camping, and the manner 
of the execution, and ere long were on their 
way to the Chattahoochee River, on the 
west bank of which, near Coweta, stood the 
house of Mcintosh. There are several ver- 
sions, differing in details, as to the manner 
in which General Mcintosh was killed in the 
early morning of April 30, 1825. 

Pickett's version is undoubtedly the most 
trustworthy, and with the omission of such 
circumstances as the escape of Chilly Mcin- 
tosh and the burning of an outhouse, which 
occurred before the attack on the main house, 
it is here given: 

"In the meantime, the principal body of 
the assailants had surrounded the main build- 
ing, and the lightwood being immediately 
kindled, torches were applied to the sides, 

and under it. The flames threw a bright light 
over the yard, and exhibited to the aston- 
ished family of Mcintosh the approaching 
conflagration of the houses, and the hideous 
forms of those who were to murder them. 
They frequently shouted with much exulta- 
tion, 'Mcintosh, we have come, we have 
come. We told you, if you sold the land to 
the Georgians, we would come.' 

"Mcintosh, upon the first discovery of the 
assailants, had barricaded his front door, and 
stood near it when it was forced. He fired 
on them, and, at that moment, one of his 
steadfast friends, Toma Tustinugee, fell life- 
less upon the threshold. His body was rid- 
dled with balls. Mcintosh then retreated to 
the second story, with four guns in his hand, 
which he continued to discharge from a win- 
dow. He fought with great courage, and, 
aware that his end was near, determined to 
sell his life as dear as possible. He was at 
this time the only occupant of the burning 
house, for his two wives, Peggy and Susan- 
nah, who had been dragged into the yard, 
were heard imploring the savages not to burn 
him up, but to get him out of the house, and 
shoot him, as he was a brave man, and an 
Indian like themselves. Mcintosh now came 
down to the first story, and was received 
with salutes of the rifle, until, being pierced 
with many balls, he fell to the floor, was 
seized by the legs, and dragged down the 
steps to the ground. While lying in the 
yard, and while the blood was gushing from 
his wounds, he raised himself on one arm, 
and surveyed his murderers with looks Of 
defiance. At that moment, an Ocfuskee In- 
dian plunged a long knife, to the hilt, in the 
direction of his heart. He brought a long 
breath, and expired. The party, after this, 
plundered the houses, killed the stock, and 
committed other depredations, as described 
in the public papers of that day." 

It may be added that on the same day and 
very soon after General Mcintosh's death, 
his son-in-law, Sam Hawkins, was killed at 
his own residence by a party of warriors de- 
tailed for that purpose. 

The best and most charitable commentary 
upon the inducements which prompted Gen- 
eral Mcintosh to defy the law of his nation 
and thus incur its deadly penalty, was writ- 
ten by Colonel Thomas L. McKenney, who 

"He probably foresaw that his people 
would have no rest within the limits of Geor- 
gia, and perhaps acted with an honest view 
to their interests. The intercourse he had 
enjoyed with the Army of the United States, 
and the triumph of their arms over the des- 
perate valour of the Indians, which he had 
witnessed at Autossee, the Horseshoe, and in 
Florida, induced him to believe he would be 
safe under the shadow of their protection, 
even from the vengeance of his tribe. But 
there were, besides, strong appeals to his 
cupidity, in the provisions of the treaty of 
the Indian Springs, and in its supple- 
ments. By one of these, the Indian Spring 
reservation was secured to him; and by an- 
other it was agreed to pay him for it twenty- 



five thousand dollars. Moreover, the second 
article of the treaty provided for the payment 
to the Creek Nation, of four hundred thou- 
sand dollars. Of this sum he would of course 
have received his share. Such inducements 
might have been sufficiently powerful to shake 
a virtue based upon a surer foundation than 
the educa'ion of a heathen Indian could af- 
ford. Besides this, he was flattered and ca- 
ressed by the Commissioners, who were ex- 
tremely eager to complete the treaty, and 
taught to believe he was consulting the ulti- 
mate advantage of the nation. These consid- 
erations, in some measure, remove the odium 
from his memory. But it must still bear the 
stain which Indian justice affixes to the repu- 
tation of the chief who sells, under such cir- 
cumstances, the graves of his fathers." 

General Mcintosh is represented as a tall, 
finely formed man, with polished manners, 
which he had acquired from contact with the 
more refined of the white people and from 
association with army officers on the Southern 
frontier. He was the owner of a number of 
negro slaves, whom he treated kindly, and 
possessed considerable wealth. 

General Mcintosh had a half-brother on his 
father's side, named Rolin or Rolla, and a 
half-brother on his mother's side, named Ho- 
gey, often called Hogey Mcintosh, who was a 
full blooded Indian. He had two wives, 
named Peggy and Susannah, one of whom was 
a Creek, the other a Cherokee, but in the 
lack of records, it cannot be decided to which 
nationality each one respectively belonged. His 
Creek children were two sons, Chilly, who suc- 
ceeded him in the chieftainship, and Lewis, 
and three daughters, Jane, Hetty, and Lucy. 
Jane was the oldest daughter. She first mar- 
ried Billy Mitchell, a son of the Creek agent 
David B. Mitchell; she next married Sam Haw- 
kins, whose death has already been noted. 
She then married Paddy Carr, but left him 
and went to Arkansas Territory at an early 
day. General Mcintosh had only one Cher- 
okee child, a daughter, who married Ben 
Hawkins, a brother of Sam. Ben was killed 
years afterwards in Texas. The Mcintosh 
family has ever been distinguished in the 
Creek nation, prominent in church, state and 
military affairs. Several of them were Con- 
federate field officers. The blood of the Mc- 
intosh clan thus shows that it was born to 
command, even when mingled with the wild 
blood of the Muscogee Indian. 

General Mcintosh wrote an official report 
of the affair of Econfinnah, which has the 
distinction of being the first report of this 
character ever written by an American In- 

Nearly all the fighting of the first Seminole 
war was done by General Mcintosh's com- 
mand. They were mustered out of service on 
April 24. (Parton's Life of Jackson, vol. ii, 
p. 463.) A summary of their campaign is 
thus recorded by D. B. Mitchell, the Creek 
agent: "When Mcintosh and his warriors 
were mustered at Fort Mitchell, he divided 
his force, and with that part which he re- 
tained under his own command, he descended 
the Chattahoochee on its western bank, and 

Vol. II— 3 

on reaching the town called Red Ground, en- 
countered their chief and warriors. In this 
affair he took fifty-three warriors, and one 
hundred and thirty women and children. 
The chief made his escape with a few war- 
riors. Colonel Lovett, with the rest of the 
warriors, mustered at Fort Mitchell, descend- 
ed the Chattahoochee on the eastern bank, 
and General Mcintosh crossing the river be- 
low the fork, the two detachments united on 
their march to Mickasuky, where they all 
joined General Jackson. At Mickasuky the 
Indians had generally fled, and but few were 
found at the town. On the march to Suwany 
Mcintosh, with his warriors, encountered 
about two hundred of the hostile party, un- 
der Peter McQueen, of whom he killed thir- 
ty-seven, and made six warriors and one hun- 
dred and six women and children prisoners 
The next enemy they engaged were the ne- 
groes of Sauwannee, amounting to about two 
hundred and fifty, of whom eleven or twelve 
were killed, and three made prisoners. The 
Indians of this part of the country fled before 
the army, and here ended the Seminole cam- 
paign, as far as the Indians were concerned." 
(American State Papers, Military Affairs, 
vol. i, p. 749.) 

References.— McKenney and Hall's Indian 
Tribes of North America (1854), vol. 1, pp. 
129-133; American State Papers, Military Af- 
fairs, vol. 1, pp. 699-701; American State 
Papers, Indian Affairs, vol. 1, pp. 841, 843, 
852; Pickett's History of Alabama (Owen's Edi- 
tion, 1900), pp. 519, 558; Woodward's Remi- 
niscences of the Creek or Muscogee Indians 
(1£59), pp. 50, 54, 55, 114; White's Historical 
Collections of Georgia (1855), pp. 170-173; 
Hand onk of American Indians (1907), part 
7,Jl\ 7S2; S P ark ' s Memories of Fifty Years 
(1872), pp. 467-473; and Alabama Historical 
Reporter, vol. 3, no. 7. July, 1855; and Parton's 
Life of Jackson (1861), vol. ii, p. 459, 460. 

M« QUEEN, PETER, Creek chief, born 
probably 1780, and on Line Creek in Mont- 
gomery County, Alabama, was the son of 
James McQueen and a Tallassee woman. 
James McQueen was a Scotchman, born, it is 
said in 1683, deserted from a British vessel 
at San Augustine in 1710, went to the Creek 
Nation and died there in 1711, at the great 
age of one hundred and twenty-eight years. 
There are no facts on record as to the early 
life of Ppter McQueen. It was evidently only 
a few years before the Creek War that he 
marriPd ^°t S v Durant. a daughter of Benja- 
min and Sophia (McGillivray) Durant, who 
was a daughter of Lachlan McGillivray. It 
is not improbable that his marriage into a 
wealthy ard influential family had much to 
do with his becoming the chief of the Tal- 
liEsees McQueen at this time was a wealthy 
man for an Indian, owning many negroes 
and much stock. He was a man of integrity, 
and lived on good terms with the American 
officials and other white people. Like many 
other half-bloods, through the influence 
brought to bear upon him from English and 
Spanish sources, he joined the hostile fac- 
tion in 1813, and became one of the most 



prominent Red Stick leaders during the Creek 
war. McQueen commanded the large band 
of Indians that went to Pensacola in July, 
1813, for supplies of ammunition to be used 
in the contemplated war against the Amer- 
icans. On their return march, while en- 
camped. July 27, 1813, on Burnt Corn creek, 
they were attacked by an American force un- 
der' Colonel Caller, and what is known as the 
battle of Burnt Corn took place, in which the 
Creeks were the victors. After the return of 
McQueen's party, at some undetermined 
place, in accordance with the Indian method 
of keeping the exact day of an appointment, 
twenty short broken sticks, about six inches 
long, the sticks representing twenty days, 
were given to each warrior, one stick to be 
thrown away every day, and on the last day, 
when the last stick was thrown away, the 
warrior was to make his appearance at the 
rendezvous. In this case, the rendezvous 
was the Holy Ground. Here in council as- 
sembled, the Creek warriors at first resolved 
to march to Coweta, destroy town and people, 
as here was the home and rallying place of 
all the friendly Creeks. But the families of 
the killed and wounded at Burnt Corn forced 
the council to change Coweta to Fort Mims, 
as it contained many of their white and half- 
breed antagonists at Burnt Corn, and to some 
fort in the fork of the Tombigbee and Ala- 
bama. Fort Mims was accordingly unan- 
imously seelcted, and after two days' discus- 
sion, Fort Sinquefield was the fort selected in 
the fork. McQueen was a prominent chief 
at the massacre of Fort Mims. He seems 
not to have been present at the battle of the 
Horse-Shoe. After this defeat, he and his 
two brothers-in-law, John and Sandy Durant, 
placed themselves for a short time with their 
people on the headwaters of Line Creek. 
Thence they went to Florida. Owing to the 
confusion of the times, McQueen left his ne- 
groes in the Creek Nation, which were un- 
justly appropriated by some half-bloods, that 
were American partisans. He afterwards 
made a vain effort to have them sent to him 
in Florida. With these grievances it could 
hardly be otherwise that McQueen was by no 
means averse to reviving the war. General 
Thomas Woodward writes of meeting him and 
Josiah Francis at Fort Hawkins near the close 
of 1817. The two chiefs were there trading 
and their meeting with their old acquaintance, 
Woodward, was entirely friendly. Very soon 
after this, the fugitive Creeks and Seminoles 
were at open war against the Americans, and 
Peter McQueen was recognized as the head 
leader. The war of 1818 in Florida, known 
in history as the first Seminole war, was 
fought almost solely by the friendly Indians 
under General William Mcintosh against the 
Red Stick Creeks and Seminoles under Peter 
McQueen. There was very little fighting done 
by the Americans. The most notable fight 
was on April 12, 181"8, at Econfinnah, in 
which McQueen was defeated with the loss 
of thirty-seven men killed, and six men and 
ninety-seven women and children captured; 
add to these, a number of horses and about 
five hundred head of cattle. Mcintosh's loss 

was three men killed and four wounded. At 
the close of the Florida war McQueen took 
refuge on a barren island, on the Atlantic 
side of Cape Florida, where he soon after 
died. After his death his widow returned 
to the Creek Nation and married Willy Mc- 
Queen, a nephew of Peter, and became the 
mother of two daughters, Sophis and Mus- 
cogee, and two or three sons. Her children 
by Peter were a son, James, and three daugh- 
ters, Milly (Malee), Nancy and Tallassee. 

References. — Pickett's History of Alabama 
(Owen's Edition, 1900), 517, 521; Meek's 
Romantic Passages in Southwestern His- 
tory (1854), pp. 544, 547; American State 
Papers, Indian Affairs, vol. i, pp. 847, 849, 851, 
852, 857; American State Papers, Military 
Affairs, vol. i, pp. 682, 683, 700, 749; Wood- 
ward's Reminiscences of the Creek, or Musco- 
gee Indians (1857), pp. 9, 21, 25, 42, 44, 48, 
97, 110, 153; Parton's Life of Jackson (1861), 
vol. ii, pp. 447, 449; Buell's History of Jack- 
son (1894), vol. ii, pp. 127; Halbert and Ball's 
Creek War (1895), pp. 125-149. 

MENAWA, Creek chief, born probably at 
Okfuskee, about 1766, died in the Creek Na- 
tion west, — but year of death not known. He 
was a half-breed, but neither history nor tra- 
dition has preserved the name of his white 
father. He was noted in early life for his 
annual horse-stealing exploits on the Cumber- 
land frontier in Tennessee, but seldom shed- 
ding the blood of the settlers, except when 
he met with resistance. He received, in con- 
sequence of these raids, the name of Hop- 
othla, said by McKenney and Hall to mean 
crazy war hunter. The stealing of horses by 
Hopothla must not be ascribed solely to a 
spirit of adventure. He had evidently inher- 
ited the commercial instincts of his white 
progenitors, and these horses added largely 
to his wealth. After a few years, he gave 
up these inroads into Tennessee, largely 
adopted some of the ways of civilized life 
and became a wealthy man. He owned large 
herds of cattle, great numbers of hogs, and 
several hundred horses. He owned a store, 
filled with various articles of merchandise 
suited for Indian life, which he bartered to 
his people for the products of the chase. He 
was known to drive to Pensacola, a hundred 
horses, loaded with peltries and furs. By 
the time of the outbreak of the Creek war of 
1813, Menawa, the name by which he was 
now known, was one of the wealthiest Indians 
of the Upper Towns. 

When Tecumseh visited the Creeks in 1811, 
Menawa was the second chief of the Okfuskee 
towns. He entered heart and soul into 
Tecumseh's schemes, influenced to this ac- 
tion, in a measure, by his hatred of General 
Mcintosh, who. he knew, in case of war, 
would be on the side of the Americans. While 
Menawa was the war chief of his people in 
the Creek war, the head chief was a medicine 
man, in whose supernatural powers the ig- 
norant Creeks placed the most implicit con- 
fidence. Menawa himself was not exempt 
from this superstition. He fought in several 
battles of the Creek war, but is best known 




from his connection with the battle of the 
Horse-Shoe. The medicine man had assured 
the Creeks, fortified on this consecrated 
ground, that the Americans would attack 
them in the rear, in the place where it was 
swept by the river. Menawa, just before the 
battle, posted his warriors in accordance with 
this prophecy. General Jackson at once saw 
that the vulnerable point of the horse-shoe 
was the breastwork in front extending across 
the isthmus. He at on'ce rapidly moved for- 
ward his cannon, and with them made 
breaches in the breastwork, towards which 
the Tennesseeans made an impetuous charge. 
Menawa saw the fatal mistake he made by 
heeding the false prophet; in his furious 
wrath, he struck him dead, and then, at the 
head of his Okfuskee braves, dashed forth 
over the breastwork against the Tennessee- 
ans. The battle which ensued, terminating in 
the death of near one thousand Creek war- 
riors, has often been described. When it 
ended, about sunset, Menawa, desperately 
wounded, lay unconscious amid a heap of the 
dead. When he recovered, and the darkness 
grew deeper, the love of life prompted him 
to escape from the fatal field. He crawled 
to the river, found a canoe, floated in it down 
the river to near the camp where the women 
and children were hidden prior to the battle. 
The canoe was seen by some of the women, 
Menawa was taken from it, and sent to an 
appointed rendezvous on Elkahatchee Creek, 
where he was joined by other unhappy sur- 
vivors of the battle. Three days were passed 
by them in mourning for their dead, in 
which no one ate, drank or permitted his 
wounds to be dressed. This over, it was re- 
solved that each one should retire to his own 
home, and then make his own peace with the 
victors. Their wounds were then dressed, 
and all, except Menawa, went away to follow 
out the plan agreed upon in their council. 
Such is the story of the escape of Menawa 
from the battlefield of the Horse-Shoe, as re- 
lated by McKenney and Hall. It differs ir- 
reconcilably from the version given by Pick- 
ett, but may be reconciled with the incidents 
in Woodward's version of Menawa's making 
use of a woman's dress while lying wounded 
on the field. Pickett's statement that Mena- 
wa, while lying in the river, breathed through 
the long joint of a cane, one end of which 
projected above the water, records something 
that no human being can do, and this state- 
ment, made perhaps in a quizzical mood by 
Menawa himself, was palmed off upon Pick- 
ett's credulity. In short, Pickett's version 
must be rejected. Menawa's wounds kept him 
in his retreat until after the close of the war. 
He then sought his old home in Okfuskee, but 
found everything swept away by the war, and 
he was now indeed a very poor man. Ac- 
cording to one authority he and his people 
made their homes near the falls of the Ca- 
tawba for more than a year after the war. 
He regained his health, reassumed his old 
time leadership over the Okfuskee people, 
and again was an influential man in the Creek 
nation. Like the great majority of his peo- 
ple he was opposed to any cessions of land. 

In 1825, in the excitement following the 
treaty of Indian Springs, a secret council was 
held, in which a party of chiefs and warriors 
were appointed to carry into execution the 
national law by putting to death General 
William Mcintosh, who, in violation of this 
law, had presumed to make a cession of land 
at Indian Springs. Menawa was one of these 
National executioners. In after years, he re- 
gretted his share in this affair, saying that he 
would freely lay down his life, if by so doing, 
he could bring back to life Billy Mcintosh. 
He was one of the delegates that went to 
Washington to remonstrate against the treaty 
of Indian Springs. His conduct during the 
negotiations was calm and dignified, for he 
was a gentleman in appearance and manners. 

In 1835 he sent his oldest son to serve 
against the Seminoles in Florida. In 1836 
he was among the first Creeks to offer his 
services against his insurgent countrymen, 
and in combination with Opothleyaholo, he 
marched with his braves against the hostile 
town of Hatchechubbee. On this occasion 
he wore a full American uniform and "af- 
fected the conduct of a civilized leader, whose 
sole object was to prevent the effusion of 
blood." This shows a great evolution in his 
mental and moral attitude, from that of the 
savage chief in 1814 to a military leader, 
imbued with the ideas of civilization, in 1836. 
Menawa was opposed to the emigration of the 
entire Creek Nation, but wished that certain 
reservations, to be held in perpetuity, should 
be granted to such individuals as wished to 
remain in the ceded territory. Such a res- 
ervation was granted to him in consideration 
of his past services. But scarcely was it 
granted when "by some strange inadvertence 
or want of faith, he was ordered to join the 
emigration camp." He went west with his 
people, but there is no record of his life in the 
new country, not even when and where he 
died. In 1894, Miss Hannah Monahwee, the 
granddaughter of the chief Menawa, was the 
matron of the Wetumpka National Labor 
School in the Creek Nation, Colonel William 
Robison, Superintendent. Monahwee is an- 
other form of writing Monawa. 

References. — McKenney and Hall's Indian 
Tribes of North America (1854), vol. ii, pp. 
97-105; Pickett's History of Alabama (Owen's 
Edition, 1900), p. 590; Woodward's Reminis- 
cences of the Creek, or Muscogee Indians 
(1859), pp. 43, 116, 117, 168. 


CO, Creek chief, of whose early life nothing 
is known. He was born in Okchaiyi, be- 
longed to the Bear clan, and became a prom- 
inent chief of his native town. He did his 
trading at Fort Toulouse, and during the 
French and Indian war was in the French in- 
terest. Governor Ellis of Georgia often sent 
messages to him to come and see him, as he 
wished to cultivate a good understanding 
with him and convert him to the English in- 
terest. The Great Mortar, at last, about the 
summer of 1759, inclined to the English and 
perhaps might have become a thorough Eng- 


lish partisan but for the foolish conduct of 
Edmund Atkin. the first Superintendent of 
the Southern Indians. About the first of 
October. 1759. Atkin was holding a council 
with the chiefs and headmen of the Creeks 
in "the great beloved Square of Tucka- 
batchee." Here he committed a most egre- 
gious folly in stigmatizing the chiefs as 
Frenchmen, that is, in the French interest, 
and refusing to shake hands with them, an 
act regarded by them as extremely discour- 
teous. Worse than all this, he forbade them 
to hand the white peace pipe to the Great 
Mortar, because he had been in the French 
interest. Atkin here threw away a great op- 
portunity, for had he acted with wisdom he 
might then and there have thoroughly re- 
claimed the Great Mortar. In the course of 
his talk to the Creeks, he made use of so 
many bitter remarks, that at last a chief, 
stung to madness, sprang up and threw his 
tomahawk at the agent's head. It fortunate- 
ly missed and struck a plank above his head. 
The action would have been repeated but for 
the interposition of a friendly warrior. After 
the personal affronts and insults at Tucka- 
batchee, the Gerat Mortar became a staunch 
friend of the French. In the war that soon 
broke out between the Cherokees and the 
province of South Carolina the French at 
Fort Toulouse made much use of the Great 
Mortar and his adherents, by sending through 
them all kinds of military supplies to the 
Cherokees. In the spring of 1760 the Great 
Mortar devised a scheme to kill all the trad- 
ers among the Upper Creeks and to appro- 
priate their goods. He engaged the services 
of all the young warriors who were his kins- 
men and selected May 14 as the day for the 
bloody work, as at this time the Creeks were 
usually in their fields hoeing their crops. The 
whole affair was a secret, known only to the 
conspirators. The day came and the bloody 
work began in the northernmost town. Suk- 
aispoka. whence the raging savages surged 
down the country to Kialagee, where the mas- 
sacre was repeated, then to Okfuskey, but be- 
fore they reached Okchaiyi, the traders of 
that place received warning, and all made 
their escape except two, who were killed by 
some warriors of the town who were in the 
conspiracy. Ten traders were killed on this 
day. all the outcome of the Great Mortar's 
revenge. In the meantime, while the Chero- 
kee war was still going on, the French, after 
mature deliberation, concluded to settle the 
Great Mortar, his family and his warriors, far 
up the Coosa, half-way to the Cherokee coun- 
try, where he could better enlist the Chero- 
kees and other disaffected Indians in the 
French cause. The place selected was all 
that could please the Indians. — no annoying 
insects, the river at that point shallow, and 
its bottoms covered with a salty grass upon 
which the deer were always feeding, — making 
it altogether a most suitable place for an In- 
dian village. Supplies for it could always be 
sent up the river from Fort Toulouse. In 
due time the Great Mortar, furnished with a 
French commission, a French flag, and other 
essentials. with his numerous followers. 

loaded with supplies for themselves and the 
Cherokees, began their march to the new 
settlement. Here they built their cabins, and 
here they erected the French flag, no doubt 
the farthest point up Coosa River where the 
French flag ever floated. The French and 
the Great Mortar were not mistaken as to the 
advantages of this border town. It became a 
great rendezvous to the Cherokees, the Mis- 
sissippi Indians and the disaffected Creeks. 
Had this "nest of hornets." so styled by 
Adair, been left to remain undisturbed, it 
would have shown itself the deadliest foe of 
the Georgia and Carolina colonists. The 
Chickasaws, staunch friends of the English, 
soon heard of its establishment. Their war- 
riors were thoroughly familiar with the lo- 
cality, even with the very site of the Great 
Mortar's residence. A large party of them 
embodied, marched against the town and 
broke it up.. They attacked the Great Mor- 
tar's house. He managed to escape, but his 
brother who was with him was slain. The 
disaster wrought deeply upon the proud spirit 
of the Great Mortar. Ashamed to return to 
his former home, he and his followers made 
a settlement in the most northern part of the 
Creek nation, the place receiving from the 
traders the name of "Mortar's plantation." 
From this place, with their Cherokee allies, 
they made frequent raids upon the Carolina 
settlements. They were with the Cherokees 
in 1761, when Colonel Grant brought the war 
to a close. It is probable that when Colonel 
Grant began his march from Fort Prince 
George up into the Cherokee country in June, 
1763, the Great Mortar may have begun to 
doubt the ultimate success of the Cherokee 
cause, and hence may have wished to make 
fair weather with the English. For, about 
this time, in a public talk with another head- 
man, he denied being in the French interest, 
or an ally of the Cherokees in their war; 
but declared himself a firm friend of the 
English, and wished to be looked upon as 
such; and that he would be greatly pleased 
to receive a small present from them. This 
talk of the Great Mortar having been report- 
ed to Governor Wright, he ordered on July 
21, 1761, that a silver gorget and armlets 
should be sent to some headman in the na- 
tion, who would present them to the Great 
Mortar. The peace made between the Eng- 
lish and French was certainly generally 
known among the Southern Indians by the 
spring of 1763. Then for the first time there 
was an interchange of talk between the 
Great Mortar and Governor James Wright 
of Georgia. The Creek chief was present at 
a council of the Upper Creeks, on April 5, 
17 63. where he made a talk which was sent 
to Governor Wright. In his talk the Great 
Mortar complained and justly so of the intru- 
sion of white people with their cattle and 
horses upon the Indians' lands, that these 
people had killed or driven off all the deer 
and bear, so that the Creeks could not supply 
their families with provisions as formerly, 
and as a matter of necessity they had to kill 
the white people's cattle roaming on the 
land so as to have food to eat when they were 


hungry. The Virginia people occupying these 
lands had said that they would not leave 
them, neither for the King's nor the red 
people's talk, and he hoped that the King 
would oblige them to take his talk, which 
would prevent much mischief that would 
otherwise happen. The Great Mortar next 
spoke of the insufficient supplies of powder 
and lead, which the traders supplied the 
Creek town, which should be fifteen bags of 
powder and an equivalent amount of bullets 
to each town. A chief of the Lower Creeks 
present at the council also sent to Governor 
Wright a talk of the same import, — that he 
had told Sampiaffii and Togulki that as soon 
as the Cherokee war was over, the Virginians 
should be sent off the lands, but now since 
the close of the war they were settled there 
more numerous than before. 

On May 8, a common talk by the Great 
Mortar and Gen. Merchant was sent from 
Okchaiyi to Governor Wright in which the 
land question was still the burden, and the 
talk closed with the fear that the white peo- 
ple intended to settle all around the Indians 
and so smother them out of life. The Gov- 
ernor replied to these talks by a talk inform- 
ing the Indians that there would be a gen- 
eral meeting with them at Augusta in the 
fall, when all these things would be talked 
over and settled. He also sent them copies 
of the King's instructions, forbidding any 
persons settling on the lands claimed by the 
Indians, and requiring those already settled 
on them to remove therefrom. According to 
Adair the Great Mortar was present at the In- 
dian congress held in Augusta in November. 
If so, he was there only as a looker on, for his 
name does not appear among the Creek speak- 
ers, nor among the signers of the treaty. 
Adair also states that the Great Mortar, 
after his return home, sent off into South 
Carolina the party that murdered on Decem- 
ber 23, the fourteen persons in the Long Cane 
settlement above Ninety-six. There is a 
dearth of historical materials relating to the 
Southern Indian world in 1764. But from 
some causes, during this year the Great Mor- 
tar became the leading chief in the Creek 
nation. The fall of this year was a period 
fraught with peril to the people of Mobile 
and Pensacola. Pontiac was still a formida- 
ble character in the northwest in spite of the 
subjugation of the Shawnees and Delawares, 
his staunchest allies. In the summer of 1764, 
he visited the Kickapoos, the Peankishaws, 
the Miamis and the Illinois, and by his im- 
perious eloquence aroused them to the fiercest 
hatred and hostility against the English. At 
Fort Chartres he had his women to make a 
wampum belt six feet long and four inches 
wide, wrought with the symbols of the forty- 
seven towns and tribes that still adhered to 
his alliance. This belt was consigned to 
an embassy of chosen warriors with instruc- 
tions to carry it down the Mississippi River 
and exhibit it to every nation inhabiting its 
banks, exhorting them to watch the move- 
ments of the English and repel any attempt 
they might make to ascend the river. Gov- 
ernor George Johnstone and Captain John 

Stuart have left it on record that the Great 
Mortar, and Alabama Mingo of the Choctaw 
Upper Towns were allies of Pontiac in this 
great scheme of a general war against the 
English. This statement certainly implies 
that emissaries of Pontiac must surely have 
visited the Southern Indian chiefs in 1764. 
But whatever hopes they may have enter- 
tained were soon after dashed to earth by the 
ruin of Pontiac's cause. Still the evils of 
Pontiac's teachings lived after him. His 
emissaries had instilled into the minds of the 
various Indian nations that the English in- 
tended to surround them, extirpate them by 
cutting off their supplies, and then take pos- 
session of their lands. All this was fully 
believed by these untutored peoples. In such 
an alarming state of affairs, it was a most 
serious consideration with the English offi- 
cials how to induce the Creeks, now so greatly 
under the influence of Great Mortar, to 
attend the congress that was proclaimed to 
be held in Pensacola. First it was needful 
to gain over the Great Mortar himself. 
Finally John Hanny and a Lieutenant Camp- 
bell were commissioned by Governor John- 
stone to go up into the Creek nation and in- 
duce him to attend the congress. They ac- 
quitted themselves well of their dangerous 
mission. The Congress in Pensacola was in 
session from May 26 to June 4, 1765. The 
Great Mortar was present and was the recip- 
ient of marked attention on the part of the 
English officers. He was a prominent speaker 
in the councils and was one of the thirty-one 
chiefs that signed the treaty then made be- 
tween the English and the Creeks. On the 
last day, after the signing of the treaty, the 
Great Mortar and three other r Jpper Creek 
chiefs were vested with the authority of great 
medal chiefs, and at the same time three 
Lower Creek chiefs were made small medal 
chiefs. The medals were given to them under 
the discharge of the great guns of the fort 
and of the ships in the harbor and with the 
music of drums and fifes. Captain Stuart 
then gave a charge to the chiefs, explaining 
the nature and duty of their offices, and then 
presented them to the Indians present as their 
chiefs, whom they must obey and respect as 
their superiors. This ceremony over, the 
Congress was closed with the drinking of the 
King's health. The Great Mortar was un- 
doubtedly a very superior Indian. But, as in 
the case of men of all undeveloped races, he 
was, viewed from the point of modern civ- 
ilization, like a child in some respects. Some- 
time after the Congress, on account of some 
traae regulations, he became very much of- 
fended with some traders, and received some 
affronts from them. This nettled him and 
with childish pe'tishness, he resigned his 
medal to Neahlatko, the Headman of Little 
Tallassee, with instructions for him to carry 
it back to Governor Johnstone. At a council 
held at Okchayi on May 16, 1766, which the 
Great Mortar attended, Neahlatko in a talk 
said that if ever the Great Mortar should 
visit England without the medal given to him 
by the English it would not look well, and 
he wished him to take it back, and the general 



talk of the people was that he should take it 
hack. By keeping the medal, it might too 
induce him to live in the nation as now he 
lived far from it. If he resigned it, the peo- 
ple might think that he took no interest in 
the affairs of the nation. As now the gov- 
ernor had written to the King that the Great 
Mortar had accepted the medal, he insisted 
that the chief should keep it and wear it. 
The Great Mortar yielded to the force of 
Neahlatko's arguments and took back the 
medal. Notwithstanding this action, the 
Great Mortar at heart never was really friend- 
ly to the English, — "that bitter enemy of the 
English name," as he is styled by Adair. In 
17 68 war was raging between the Creeks and 
the Chickasaws. In April of this year, a dep- 
uty Superintendent convened a council of 
most of the headmen of the Creeks in order 
to induce them to make overtures by send- 
ing the Chickasaws a friendly mediating let- 
ter. The Creeks assented, and the letter, ac- 
companied with such peace tokens as eagle 
tails, swan wings, white beads, white pipes 
and tobacco, was entrusted to a white man 
who traded with the Chickasaws. The Great 
Mortar, animated by a bitter feeling against 
everything transacted by a British official, 
determined to render these peace measures 
of no avail. Soon after the departure of the 
trader, he set off with ninety men and trav- 
eled to within one hundred and fifty miles of 
the Chickasaw nation. Here he halted and 
sent seven of his staunchest warriors, under 
the command of his brother, to surprise and 
kill any one in the Chickasaw country they 
might encounter. The trader meanwhile ar- 
rived at his point of destination, delivered 
the letter and the peace tokens, assuring the 
Chickasaws besides that he had seen no 
tracks of any war party on the long trading 
path that he had traveled. With all such evi- 
dences of peace, the Chickasaws were thrown 
off their guard. It was now early in May. 
Two days after the delivery of the letter and 
the peace tokens, two women, who were hoe- 
ing in a field, were shot down, tomahawked 
and scalped by two of the Big Warrior's de- 
tailed party, who then gave the death whoop 
and bounded away in an oblique course so as 
to baffle their pursuers. The Chickasaws at 
once gave their shrill war whoop, and forty 
mounted men at once started in hot pursuit. 
Pour sprightly young Chickasaws, outstrip- 
ping the others, intercepted the Creeks, killed 
the Great Mortar's brother, and recovered 
from him the scalp of one of the women, 
which was fastened to his girdle. The other 
six Creeks escaped by taking refuge in a 
large dense cane brake. With all this mishap, 
the Great Mortar succeeded in his scheme. 
All hopes of peace were broken and the war 
continued to rage between the Creeks and 
the Chickasaws. The last extant notice of 
the Great Mortar is his presence at the con- 
gress held at Augusta in June, 1773. Here 
he persuaded Captain Stuart to write a con- 
ciliating letter to the Choctaws. A white in- 
terpreter and a Creek chief named Meshee- 
steeke were the carriers of this letter, which 
was accompanied with the usual peace tokens. 

History is silent as to its reception. The 
Great Mortar's design in this matter is left 
to conjecture. Suffice it to say that Stuart's 
action was censured by the traders, who ever 
considered it the worst kind of policy to inter- 
vene in Indian inter-tribal wars, for during 
the continuance of such wars, there was gen- 
erally more or less peace upon the frontiers, 
the pitiless wrath of the uncontrollable young 
Indian warriors being then vented against 
people of their own race. 

References. — Adair's American Indians 
(1775), pp. 253-256, 268-272; Mississippi Provin- 
cial Archives (1912), vol. i, pp. 184, 189-191, 
198-210, 516, 517, 525-531; The Colonial Records 
of Georgia, vol. 9, pp. 70-74; Ibid, vol. 8, p. 539; 
Drake's Indians, p. 384. 

MICCO, Creek chief. Nothing has been left 
on record as to the early life of this chief. 
The war of 1813 finds him a chief of Atossa, 
and a partisan of the hostile faction. He was 
present at the massacre of Fort Mims. After 
the defeat at the Horse-Shoe, he and Josiah 
Francis temporarily placed their people on 
the Catoma, just above the Federal crossing; 
thence they all went to Florida, where the 
two chiefs became leaders of the hostile In- 
dians, and at last by one act, Neamathla won 
an infamous celebrity. On November 30, 
1817. Lieutenant Richard W. Scott, in com- 
mand of forty United States soldiers, with 
seven soldiers' wives and four children, in a 
large open boat, was slowly ascending the 
Apalachicola River. They were within a 
mile of the confluence of the Chattahoochie 
and the Flint, and were passing along by a 
swamp densely covered with trees and cane, 
the boat within a few yards of the shore. 
Here lay in ambush Nehemathla with a large 
band of warriors. Not a soul of the whites 
had the least suspicion of danger. Suddenly 
the ambushed Indians poured a deadly volley 
into the closely crowded party on the boat, 
killing or wounding nearly every man. After 
firing other volleys, the Indians arose from 
their ambush, rushed forth, took possession 
of the boat, and then there took place a hor- 
rible scene of indiscriminate killing and scalp- 
ing. Four men, two of them wounded, made 
their escape by leaping overboard and swim- 
ming to the opposite shore. In twenty min- 
utes the affair was over. The lives of five 
persons were spared, one being Lieutenant 
Scott, who was wounded, and one a Mrs. Stu- 
art, the only person unhurt. The five prison- 
ers were bound and carried to a Mikasuki vil- 
lage. Here Mrs. Stuart was given to an In- 
dian, named Yellow Hair, who, it is stated, 
treated her humanely during all her captivity. 
But an awful doom, by order of Nehemathla 
Micco, was reserved for Lieutenant Scott. 
During the entire day he was subjected to the 
fire torture in every conceivable form before 
being put to death. During all this time 
Nehemathla Micco stood by and enjoyed the 
prisoner's agony. The enormity of this act 
was too great for pardon, and four months 
later the day of reckoning came. In April, 
1814, he and Josiah Francis were both cap- 



tured and both executed. The torture of 
Lieutenant Scott was the very charge upon 
which Nehemathla was hanged by order of 
General Jackson. An eye witness of the ex- 
ecution described him as "a savage-looking 
man, of forbidding countenance, indicating 
cruelty and ferocity. He was taciturn and 

In Buell's History of Jackson, the first syl- 
lable of this chief's name is elided, and 
emathla converted into Himallo, — Himollo- 
micco. In an official letter of General Jack- 
son it is strangely spelled Hornattlemico, — a 
pen or printer's slip, perhaps a combination 
of both. In another letter he spells it Ho- 
mattlemicco, which excepting the loss of the 
first syllable closely approaches Nehemathla- 
micco. General Jackson's epithet, "the old 
Red Stick," shows that he was familiar with 
his career as a Red Stick during the Creek 

References. — American State Papers, Mili- 
tary Affairs (1832), vol. i, p. 700; Woodward's 
Reminiscences of the Creek or Muscogee In- 
dians (1859), pp. 43, 53, 54, 97; Parton's Life 
of Jackson (1861), vol. ii, pp. 430, 431, 455-458; 
Buell's History of Jackson (1904), vol. ii, pp. 

OPOTHLEYAHOLO, Creek chief, born 
probably in Tuckabatchee, year of birth un- 
known, died in Kansas about 1866, was the 
son of Davy Cornells, who was the son of 
Joseph Cornells by a Tuckabatchee woman. 
On good Creek authority the etymology of the 
name is "hupuena," child, "hehle," good, and 
"Yaholo," holloer, whooper. Davy Cornells, 
the father, was killed by a party of lawless 
whites in June, 17 93, while going under a 
white flag to see James Seagrove, the Creek 
agent, at Coleraine. No facts have been pre- 
served of the early life of Opothleyaholo, ex- 
cept that he was considered a promising 
youth, nor is it known when he rose to the 
position of speaker of the councils of the 
Upper Creek towns. His residence was in 
Tuckabachee, near the great council house. 
His first public service was in February, 182 5, 
at the treaty of Indian Springs, whither he 
went as the representative of the Upper 
Creeks to remonstrate with General Mcintosh 
against the cession of any part of the Creek 
country. In his speech before the commis- 
sioners, he told them that the chiefs present 
had no authority to cede lands, which could 
only be done in full council and with the con- 
sent of the whole Nation, and this was not 
a full council. While perfectly respectful to 
the commissioners, in his speech he warned 
General Mcintosh of the doom that awaited 
him if he signed the treaty. Opolthleyaholo 
left the treaty ground for home the next day. 
Mcintosh signed the treaty and paid for this 
action with his life. Opothleyaholo was at 
the head of the Creek chiefs that soon after 
went to Washington to protest against the 
validity of this treaty, and to execute one that 
would be more acceptable to his people. In 
all the negotiations that followed, "he con- 
ducted himself with great dignity and firm- 
ness, and displayed talents of a superior or- 

der. He was cool, cautious, and sagacious; 
and with a tact which would have done credit 
to a more refined diplomatist, refused to enter 
into any negotiation until the offensive treaty 
of the Indian Springs should be annulled. The 
executive being satisfied that the treaty had 
not been made with the consent of the nation, 
nor in accordance with its laws, but in oppo- 
sition to the one, and in defiance of the other, 
disapproved of it, and another was made at 
Washington in January, 1826, the first arti- 
cle of which declared the treaty of the Indian 
Springs to be null and void. Under the new 
treaty the Creeks ceded all their lands in 
Georgia except a small strip on the Chatta- 
hoochee, which after much negotiation was 
ceded to Georgia in 1827. On the death of 

Little Prince in Opothleyaholo became 

practically the principal chief of the Creeks, 
though he still continued to exercise the 
functions of speaker of the councils. In the 
Creek troubles of 1836, Sangahatchee, an 
Upper town, was the first to rise in revolt, 
and its painted warriors began to waylay and 
murder travelers on the highways. Without 
delay Opothleyaholo arrayed the warriors of 
Tuckabatchee, marched against the insurgent 
town, captured it, and delivered the prison- 
ers captured into the hands of the military 
authorities. He next, at the request of Gov- 
ernor Clay, called a council of his warriors 
at Kialgee, and there, taking fifteen hundred 
of them, he marched to Talladega and offered 
their services to General Jessup, there in com- 
mand of the regular troops. The offer was 
accepted, and Opothleyaholo, promoted to the 
rank of colonel, was appointed commander of 
all the Indian troops. The united regular 
and Indian forces, all under the command of 
General Jessup, now marched without delay 
to the town of Hatcheechubbee, where were 
embodied the hostiles, who, overawed by such 
an imposing force, surrendered, and the trou- 
ble was over. 

Shortly after this came the enforced migra- 
tion of the Creeks from their native land. 
Opothleyaholo had ever been extremely 
averse to emigration west. One of his ob- 
jections was that the Upper and Lower 
Creeks could not live harmoniously in close 
contiguity with each other in the new coun- 
try, cherishing, as they did, the bitter feelings 
engendered by the death of General Mcintosh. 
His forebodings were not realized, for after 
settling in the new country, the old feud 
was in a measure forgotten, and Opothleya- 
holo still continued in his office as chief 
speaker in the Creek councils. At the out- 
break of the great war of 1861, the Creeks 
divided, the more ignorant position, influ- 
enced by Opothleyaholo, adhered to the Fed- 
eral cause, while the educated and progres- 
sive element, under the Mclntoshes, were 
strong adherents of the Confederacy. A civil 
war ensued, with the result that Opothleya- 
holo with his partisans, in great destitution, 
retreated in December to Coffey County, Kan- 
sas, where the old chief died shortly after the 
war. But little is known of the domestic life 
of Opothleyaholo, whether he had one or more 
wives. He had a son, born about 1816, who 


was educated at the Choctaw Academy in 
Kentucky, and named Colonel Johnson, in 
honor of Colonel Richard M. Johnson. He 
had several daughters, said to have been 
handsome women. 

References.- — McKenney and Hall's Indian 
Tribes of Nwth America (1854), vol. ii, pp. 
7-15; Pickett's History of Alabama (Owen's Edi- 
tion), (1900), pp. 84, 652; Brewer's Alabama 
(1872), p. 18; Transactions of the Alabama 
Historical Society (1899), vol. 3, pp. 163-165; 
Transactions of the Alabama Historical So- 
ciety (1904), vol. iv, p. 114; Handbook of 
American Indians (1910), part 2, pp. 141, 142; 
Official War Records. Serial Nos. 8, 19, 111, 
117, 128; Sparks' "The Memories of Fifty 
Years (1872), pp. 467-478. 

PKNICAUT, JEAN, author, born in La 

Rochelle, Prance, in 1680. He was a ship 
carpenter by occupation, but must have re- 
ceived otherwise a fair education. He came 
in 1698 with Iberville to Louisiana. On ac- 
count of his aptitude for the Indian lan- 
guages he accompanied all the French ex- 
ploring parties. He was a man of family, 
and a slave holder, and the owner of a conces- 
sion near Natchez, which he purchased in 
1720. He sailed to France in 1721, at the 
advice of Bienville, to secure a treatment 
for an affection of his eyes. He returned to 
Louisiana, and was one of the few French- 
men who escaped the massacre of 1729. The 
date and place of his death is unknown. 
Penicaut's Annals of Louisiana from 1698 to 
1722, is a most important record of the col- 
onization of Louisiana. 

French administrator ami traveler, was born 
in 1766 in Chaux de Fonds, France; died 
July 22, 1824, in Rambouillet, Seine et Oise, 
France. In 1789 he entered the civil service 
in Santo Domingo. In the troubles that en- 
sued he was loyal to the royal government, 
and was bitterly opposed to the revolution- 
ary decree freeing the blacks. In 1791 he 
visited the United States to secure the help 
of the American government against the ne- 
gro insurgents of Santo Domingo. His mis- 
sion proving useless, and the war between 
England and France preventing his return 
home, he traveled extensively over many of 
the American States and territories. Late in 
1803 he returned to France and in 1805 he 
published his American travels. With the 
exception of a brief interval he lived in retire- 
ment, until the accession of Louis XVIII, 
when he held a position in the navy depart- 
ment. In 1819 he was appointed "Sous pre- 
fet" of Sancerre, whence he was transferred 
to Rambouillet, where he lived until his 

PITCHLYNN, JOHN, United States inter- 
preter for the Choctaw Nation, born in South 
Carolina, but supposed by others in the 
Island of St. Thomas, about 1757. The in- 
ference drawn from Colonel G. S. Gaines' 
sketch that he was born about 1770 is very 
erroneous; died at Waverly in Clay county, 

Mississippi, in May, 1835. Nothing is known 
of his parents except that his father was a 
British commissary. He was, however, in 
some manner, a blood relative of the Lince- 
cum family of Mississippi and Louisiana. 
About 1773 he accompanied his father on a 
journey from South Carolina to the Natchez 
settlement on the Mississippi River. While 
in the Choctaw Nation the elder Pitchlynn 
sickened and died, leaving his son alone 
among the Indians. Some circumstances 
show that this was in the Sukinatcha coun- 
try, where lived the Indian countryman. 
Nathaniel Folsom. There is no record of 
young Pitchlynn's early Indian life, save that 
it was a hard one and that at one time he 
was grievously afflicted with the mange, 
caught by sleeping in too close proximity to 
the Indian dogs. 

Notwithstanding all the unpleasant sur- 
roundings of his young manhood, Pitchlynn 
became a wealthy and influential man among 
the Choctaws. As was the case with others 
living among the Indians, he was a sympa- 
thiser with the American Revolution. After 
a residence of several years in the Sukinatcha 
country, Pitchlynn with others moved up on 
Hashuqua Creek in Noxuhee county, where 
he lived until about 1805, when he estab- 
lished a home at the mouth of Oktibbeha 
creek in Lowndes county, at the place known 
as Plymouth. Pitchlynn was the United 
States interpreter for the Choctaws for more 
than forty years, serving as such at the 
treaty of Hopewell in 1786, at the Nashville 
conference in 1792, and at the treaties of 
1802, 1803, 1805, 1816, 1820, 1825, and 
1830, and often served at councils that were 
called for various purposes by the Choctaw 
agents. He himself once served as agent for 
fourteen months, during the absence of Mr. 
Dinsmoor. He was generally called Major 
Pitchlynn, but as far as known, there is no 
evidence that this rank was ever officially 
conferred upon him. 

Major Pitchlynn, to make use of his usual 
title, ever showed himself desirous of pre- 
serving unimpaired friendly relations between 
the Choctaws and the United States govern- 
ment. In following this principle, he used all 
his influence in 1811 against Tecumseh, who 
visited the Choctaw Nation in that year for 
the purpose of bringing the Choctaws over 
into his hostile Indian confederacy. Major 
Pitchlynn, in like manner, was of great serv- 
ice in the ensuing Creek War in arraying the 
Choctaw warriors on the side of the Amer- 
icans, — a fact gratefully acknowledged by 
Colonel John McKee. Choctaw agent. Even 
before the actual outbreak of the war he ad- 
vised the raising of a few Choctaw and Chick- 
asaw companies for the defense of the fron- 
tiers, and for the protection of the whites 
traveling through the Indian country. 

Perhaps above everything else, Pitchlynn 
was a great friend of education. He not only 
took care to have his own children well edu- 
cated, but constantly encouraged the Choc- 
taws to send their children to the schools 
established by the missionaries. 

Major Pitchlynn was twice married. His 


first wife was Rhoda, daughter of Ebenezer 
Folsom, an elder brother of Nathaniel Fol- 
som. His second wife was a widow, Mrs. 
Sophia or Sophy Howell, a daughter of 
Nathaniel Folsom. She spoke no English. 
As seen, his wives were cousins and half- 
breeds. He was the father of five sons and 
three daughters. His sons were John or 
Jack, James, Silas, Peter and Thomas. His 
daughters were Betsy, Eliza and Kizziah. 
Jack was certainly a son of the first mar- 
riage. But it is uncertain as to James and 

By the treaty of Dancing Rabbit, Major 
Pitchlynn was provided with two sections of 
land on the Robinson road, four miles west 
of Columbus. "Here he built a large house, 
where he lived in a style befitting his position 
in life. According to the Choctaw census of 
1831, he was the owner of fifty negro slaves, 
and had two hundred acres of land in culti- 
vation. In addition to this valuable prop- 
erty, he dealt largely in horses and cattle. 
He was also joint owner with the elder Rob- 
ert Jemison, of Tuscaloosa, Alabama, in a 
stage line over the Robinson road to Jackson, 
Mississippi, having personal supervision of 
that part west of Columbus. In 1834 he sold 
bis lands on the Robinson road, and at the 
time of his death was living at Waverly, now 
in Clay county." Major Pitchlynn is de- 
scribed by those who knew him as a hand- 
some man. a litle. above the middle size, with 
dark hair and eyes, but becoming somewhat 
liald in his latter years. He was a hospitable 
man and ever loyal to his friends; as Colonel 
Gaines states, he was a "natural gentleman." 
And in spite of his long residence on the bor- 
ders of civilization, it can be truly said that 
there have been but few men that ever lived 
a more active and useful life than Major John 

ernor of Louisiana, was probably a native of 
France, but of his nativity and early life 
-nothing appears to be available. On August 
9, 1726, he was appointed governor of Lou- 
isiana. Dumont describes him as "a brave 
marine officer, to whose praise it can be said 
that he caused himself to be loved by the 
troops as well as by the inhabitants, for his 
equity and benevolent generosity." He ar- 
rived in New Orleans in October, and at once 
zealously began the work of establishing the 
colony on a more prosperous basis. Gayarre 
says: "Governor Perier signalized the be- 
ginning of his administration by some im- 
provements of an important nature. On the 
15th of November he had completed in front 
a levee of 1,800 yards in length, and so broad 
that its summit measured 18 feet in width. 
This same levee, although considerably re- 
duced in its proportions, he caused to be 
continued 18 miles on both sides of the city, 
above and below." The encouragement of 
agriculture during Perier's administration 
was seen in the fields of rice, tobacco and in- 
digo, and the fig and orange recently intro- 
duced, was soon thriving everywhere. Negro 
slaves sent to the colony by the West India 

Company were impartially distributed by 
Perier among the various plantations. This 
promotion of agriculture necessarily added 
to the value of land and increased the number 
of land owners. Governor Perier was a se- 
cret partisan of Spain in the war existing be- 
tween that country and England in 1727. In 
furtherance of this policy he put an end to 
all the small Indian wars among the tribes 
from the Arkansas to the Balize and then 
excited a feeling of hostility among these 
tribes towards the English. The most noted 
event of Perier's administration was the great 
Natchez war, which terminated in the expul- 
sion of the Natchez from their ancestral seats. 
In 1732, Bienville was reappointed governor 
of Louisiana, but as a reward for his services 
Perier was subsequently promoted to the 
rank of lieutenant-general. Gayarre thus 
characterizes Perier as a man and governor. 
"Perier had been over six years governor of 
the colony, and retired with the reputation 
of a man of integrity and talent, but of stern 
disposition, and of manners somewhat bor- 
dering on roughness. There was at the bot- 
tom of his character a fund of harshness from 
which the Indians had but too much to suf- 
fer, and which made itself felt even by his 
French subordinates." 

SARGEXT, WINTHROP, governor of the 
Mississippi Territory, born in Gloucester, 
Massachusetts, May 1, 1753, died in New Or- 
leans, Louisiana, June 3, 1820. He was the 
son of Winthrop and Judith (Sanders) Sar- 
gent, the grandson of Colonel Epes and 
Esther (Macarty) Sargent, and of Thomas 
and Judith (Robinson) Saunders. His first 
paternal immigrant ancestor was William 
Sargent, who came from Gloucester, England, 
and settled at Cape Ann, Massachusetts. 

Winthrop Sargent was graduated from 
Harvard College with A. B. degree in 1771, 
and with A. M. in 1774. Soon after he be- 
came captain of a merchant ship, which be- 
longed to his father. On July 7, 1775, he 
enlisted in the Revolutionary Army as a lieu- 
tenant in Gridley's regiment of Massachusetts 
artillery. December 10, 1775, he was pro- 
moted captain lieutenant in Henry Knox's 
regiment of Continental artillery. From Jan- 
uary 1, to March 16, he was naval agent at 
Gloucester. He was promoted captain of ar- 
tillery in Knox's regiment, January 1, 1777. 
He was aide-de-camp to General Howe from 
1777 to 1783, in the latter year being pro- 
moted brevet major. 

Captain Sargent took part with his artil- 
lery in the siege of Boston, in the battles of 
Long Island, White Plains, Trenton, Prince- 
ton, Brandywine, Germantown and Mon- 
mouth. In 178 6 he became connected with 
the Ohio company, which was organized for 
the settlement of the Northwestern Territory 
and was appointed by Congress, Surveyor of 
the Territory. 

Major Sargent served as adjutant-general 
of the army under General St. Clair in his 
campaign against the confederated North- 
western Indian tribes and was wounded in 
the disastrous defeat on the Maumee River, 


November 4. 1791. Roosevelt in his Win- 
ning of the West, writing o£ the mismanage- 
ment of St. Clair's campaign, and the incom- 
petency or unfitness of its two commanding 
officers, says: 

"The whole burden fell on the Adjutant- 
General, Colonel Winthrop Sargent, an old 
Revolutionary officer; without him the ex- 
pedition would probably failed in ignominy 
even before the Indians were reached, and 
he showed not only cool courage but ability 
of a good order; yet in the actual arrange- 
ments for battle he was, of course, unable to 
remedy the blunders of his superiors." 

In 1794 Sargent was with General Wayne 
in his successful campaign against the con- 
federated tribes. On December 19 of this 
year he was commissioned Secretary of the 
Northwestern Territory, and much of his 
time he acted as governor. He continued in the 
discharge of these duties until May 7, 1798, 
when he was appointed governor of the Mis- 
sissippi Territory. This territory was cre- 
ated April 7, 179 8, and its eastern part was 
embraced in the present State of Alabama. 
Governor Sargent arrived at Natchez on Au- 
gust 6, and his first act, August 16, was the 
delivery of an address to the people of the 
Territory. Soon after, on September 8, in 
consequence of the apparent prospect of a 
war with France, by an official order he tem- 
porarily organized the militia of the Missis- 
sippi Territory. 

On October 28, 1798, Governor Sargent 
was married to a wealthy young widow, Mrs. 
Mary Mcintosh Williams, daughter of Wil- 
liam and Eunice (Hawley) Mcintosh, of In- 
verness, Scotland, later of Natchez, Miss. 
William Fitz Winthrop was the only son of 
this marriage. 

Governor Sargent was not popular with the 
people of the Mississippi Territory. While 
he was a conscientious and patriotic man and 
did his whole duty in attempting to concil- 
iate and attach the people to the United 
States, he was a New England Federalist, and 
doubtless inclined to be autocratic from his 
long military training. Hence he did not 
prove acceptable to the turbulent Jefferso- 
nian Republicans of the Southwest. It was 
his fate to encounter a strong opposition from 
some of the most influential men of the Ter- 
ritory. The first opposition was against the 
code of laws of 1799, which laws were neces- 
sarily made before the Territory had voters 
enough to entitle it to a territorial legisla- 

After this there was a constant opposition 
to all other measures of Governor Sargent's 
administration. Finally, in 1801, on the ac- 
cesion of Jefferson to the presidency, he was 
released from his office by the appointment of 
W. C. C. Claiborne as governor of the Terri- 
tory. Notwithstanding the opposition to bis 
administration, Governor Sargent seems to 
have been strongly attached to the Mississippi 
Territory, for, on his retirement from office, 
he made it his home the remainder of his life. 
He lived near Natchez on his plantation, 
named Gloucester, in honor of his birth- 
place. And here after his death in New Or- 

leans his remains were brought for burial, to 
rest forever within the confines of that terri- 
tory to which he had given such faithful 

of the Cherokee alphabet, born about 1760, in 
the Cherokee town, Tuskegee, died in August, 
1743, near San Fernando, New Mexico, was 
the son of a German trader, named George 
Gist, and of a Cherokee woman of mingled 
white and Indian blood belonging to a good 
family. Her name has not been preserved. 
She became a widow or a deserted wife be- 
fore the birth of her son, who received the 
name of his father. His Indian name, spelled 
Sikwayi in the Cherokee language, cannot be 
translated. As the son grew in years, he 
assisted his mother in her domestic duties, in 
the cultivation of her small farm, and in tak- 
ing care of her horses and cattle. He early 
showed great mechanical ingenuity and as 
he grew to manhood became a fine silver- 
smith. Like most of his people he was also 
a trader and hunter. He had no educa- 
tional advantages, as he was a man of middle 
age when missions were established among 
his people; nor did he ever even learn to 
speak broken English, an attainment not un- 
common with many of the Cherokee half- 
breeds of his day. In short, George Guess 
was a totally illiterate man, but a man of 
profound thought and close observation. In 
1809 a chance conversation with some of his 
people led him to think deeply over the prob- 
lem how it was possible that white people 
could communicate thought by means of writ- 
ing. He then and there resolved to devise a 
similar system for his own people. A hunting 
accident after this making him a lifelong crip- 
ple, his now enforced sedentary life gave him 
all the leisure to evolve his great invention. 
He was during these years a man of some 
note among his people, for he was one of the 
signers of the treaty of 1816. After this he 
made his home in Will's town, situated in the 
present DeKalb county, Alabama. Here he 
devoted five years of thought and labor to the 
subject that was ever uppermost in his mind. 
He first invented or fabricated ideographic 
characters, each character representing a 
word in the Cherokee language. But after 
much labor, he realized that these characters 
would be too numerous, and their acquisition 
far beyond the power of the average memory. 
At last, in 1820, at his home in Will's town, 
after years of turmoil, exposed all the time 
to the ridicule of his friends, he at last 
evolved a syllabic alphabet, representing 
eighty-six syllables, perfectly suited to the 
Cherokee language. In 1821 he submitted 
his invention to the leading men of the Chero- 
kees; it was accepted as a success, and the 
name of George Guess became immortal as 
the Cadmus of his race. "Without advice, as- 
sistance, or encouragement — ignorant alike 
of books and of the various arts by which 
knowledge is disseminated — with no prompt- 
er but his own genius, and no guide but the 
light of reason, he had formed an alphabet 
for a rude dialect, which, until then, had been 



an unwritten tongue." The Cherokee syl- 
labary was soon recognized by the Cherokees 
as an invaluable invention for their elevation 
as a people and everywhere, in their cabins 
and along the roadside, they began to teach 
it to each other. Guess, of course, was its 
first teacher. "The invention of the alphabet 
had an immediate and wonderful effect on 
Cherokee development. On account of the 
remarkable adaptation of the syllabary to 
the language, it was only necessary to learn 
the characters to be able to read at once. No 
school houses were built and no teachers 
hired, but the whole Nation became an acad- 
emy for the study of the system, 'until in the 
course of a few months, without school or ex- 
pense of time or money, the Cherokees were 
able to read and write in their own lan- 
guage!'" In 1822 Guess went on a visit to 
the Cherokees in the Arkansas Territory, con- 
stituting one-third of the Cherokee people, 
and introduced among them his syllabary. It 
was readily accepted and a correspondence 
was soon opened between the two divisions 
of the Cherokee people. Having accomplished 
his purpose, Guess returned to his eastern 
• home, where he remained but a short time, 
and then, in 1823, emigrated permanently to 
the west. He never after visited his people 
in the east. In the fall of 1823, the general 
council of the Cherokee Nation, in apprecia- 
tion of Guess' great service to his people, 
awarded to him a silver medal, which bore 
on one side two pipes, on the other, a head 
with this inscription, "Presented to George 
Gist, by the General Council of the Cherokee 
Nation, for his ingenuity in the invention 
of the Cherokee Alphabet." The inscription 
was the same on both sides, excepting that 
on one side it was in English, on the other 
in Cherokee, in the characters invented by 
Guess. The medal was sent to Guess, then in 
the west, through John Ross, the president 
of the Council, who sent with it a written 
address. The first literary productions in 
the Cherokee syllabic alphabet were made, 
copied, and circulated in manuscript. In 
1827 the Cherokee National Council, having 
resolved to establish a National paper in the 
Cherokee language and characters, types for 
this purpose were cast in Boston, and the first 
issue of the paper, Tsalagi Tsulihisanunhi or 
Cherokee Phoenix, printed in English and 
Cherokee, appeared in New Echota, February 
21, 1828. Thenceforth, year after year, a 
large amount of literature in the Cherokee 
language and alphabet was created, educa- 
tional, legal and religious works, that were 
suitable for a people rapidly advancing in a 
Christian civilization. Guess became a prom- 
inent man in the public affairs of the west- 
ern Cherokees. He was chosen one of the 
delegates that visited Washington and nego- 
tiated the treaty of May 6, 1828. He and 
three other delegates signed their names to 
this treaty in the Sequoyan alphabet. While 
in Washington much attention was paid to 
Guess by various parties, who felt an interest 
in him on account of his wonderful invention. 
In 1838, in the re-organization of the Chero- 
kee Nation, Guess as the President of the 

Eastern Cherokees, signed the act of union. 
In 1843, imbued with the tradition that there 
was a band of Cherokees, long segregated 
from their people, living somewhere in North- 
ern Mexico, he left home to seek for this lost 
band. He had gone far on his journey, when 
worn out with age and toil, alone and unat- 
tended, he sank under his efforts and died, 
near the village of San Fernando, in Mexico. 
Before his death, news of his condition hav- 
ing come back to his people, a party was sent 
to his relief, but they arrived too late to find 
him alive. 

An annual pension that had been previ- 
ously granted to Guess was continued to his 
widow. Besides his wife, he was survived 
by two sons and a daughter. Sequoya dis- 
trict of the Cherokee Nation was named in 
his honor. His name too is forever preserved 
in the big tree (Sequoia gigantea) and the 
red wood (Sequoia sempervirens) of Califor- 
nia, and even in the sequoiene distilled from 
its needles. 

References. — McKenney and Hall's Indian 
Tribes of North America (1842), vol. i, pp. 63- 
70; Handbook of American Indians (1910), part 
a, pp. 510, 511; Mooney's Myths of the Chero- 
kee, pp. 14, 108-110, 135, 137, 138, 139, 
147, 148, 219, 220, 353, 355, 485, 501; Fifth 
Annual Report of the Bureau of Ethnology 
(1887), pp. 230, 302; Harper's Encyclopedia of 
United States History, vol. 8, p. 130; Phillips' 
Sequoya, in Harper's Magazine, pp. 542-548, 
September, 1870; Pilling's Iroquorian Bibliog- 
raphy (1888), p. 21; Foster's Sequoya, the 
American Cadmus and the Modern Moses 
(1885); The New International Encyclopedia 
(1909), p. 815; Drake's Indians, fifteenth edi- 
tion, p. 364. 

STUART, JOHN, superintendent of Indian 
affairs, born in Scotland about 1700, died in 
England in 1779. He came to America with 
General Oglethorpe in 1735 and was appoint- 
ed to a subordinate command in the British 
service. He was second in command in Fort 
London, when it was besieged by the Chero- 
kees in August, 1760. After the surrender 
of the garrison and the subsequent massacre 
of some of its inmates, the Cherokee chief, 
Atakullakulla, claimed hi«i as his prisoner. 
He took him into the woods, ostensibly for a 
hunting excursion, but he secretly carried 
him through the wilderness to his friends in 
Virginia. Early in 1763 he was appointed 
Superintendent of Indian affairs for the 
Southern district. In the ensuing year he 
sent the King's talk to the Catawbas, the 
Cherokees, the Creeks, the Chickasaws, and 
the Choctaws, inviting them to a congress 
to be held in Augusta, Georgia, with the gov- 
ernors of the colonies of Virginia, North 
Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia. The 
congress met there on November 5, in full ses- 
sion, with representatives from the five In- 
dian nations. Stuart delivered the opening 
talk, representing the four governors, all of 
whom were present. On November 10, the 
congress closed with the signing of a treaty 
for the preservation and continuance of a 
firm and perfect peace between King George 



and the five Indian nations. In spite of this 
treaty there was still considerable disaffection 
among the Creeks and the Choctaws. Stu- 
art's diplomacy, however, held them in check, 
nntil the complete pacification brought about 
by the Choctaw-Chickasaw congress, held in 
Mobile, March 26-April 4, 1765, and by the 
Creek congress held in Pensacola, May 2 6- 
June 4, 1765, in both of which he was the 
dominant factor. His speech on March 27 
at the Choctaw-Chickasaw congress, is spoken 
of by Hewat, the Carolina historian, as "a 
speech, in which is exhibited a good specimen 
of the language and manner proper for ad- 
dressing barbarous nations." When Major 
Robert Fa'rmar, in the summer of 1765, was 
organizing an expedition to take possession of 
Fort Chartres, Stuart engaged the Choctaws, 
the Chickasaws, and the Cherokees to furnish 
flanking parties that would act as an aux- 
iliary force to the troops in their voyages up 
the Mississippi. The work of the Indians 
was so well done that, by the direction of 
General Thomas Gage, commanding in Amer- 
ica, the three nations received the thanks of 
Superintendent Stuart. On October 14, 1768, 
Stuart concluded a treaty with the Cherokees 
at Hard Labor, by which Kanawha River was 
made the western boundary of Virginia. He 
had his deputies among all the tribes of his 
district, their deputies it seems being appoint- 
ed by himself. James Adair in his American 
Indians, pp. 294, 296, 370, 371, does not 
speak in high terms of Stuart as a public 
officer, and criticizes severely the favoritism 
shown by him in the appointment of his dep- 
uties, men utterly unfit as he claimed or un- 
suitable for the position, some even being said 
to be near relatives of Stuart. It was the pol- 
icy of the English officials in America never 
to interfere in Indian inter-tribal wars, believ- 
ing that when Indians were thus engaged 
they would be less apt to go to war against 
the whites, and besides the sooner the Indian 
tribes were decimated or swept out of exist- 
ence by such wars, the greater facilities 
would be given to the whites to acquire their 
lands. Stuart avowedly followed this policy 
in the long Creek-Choctaw war which began 
in 176 6. He made no effort to establish 
peace between the two warring tribes until 
the outbreak of the American Revolution 
made it necessary for him to unite all the 
tribes on the side of the King. He then made 
peace between the two tribes about the close 
of 1776. Being an ardent loyalist, Stuart 
now conceived a plan for crushing the revolt- 
ed colonies, which was approved by the Brit- 
ish cabinet. This was the landing of a large 
force in West Florida, which in conjunction 
with numerous bands of Indian warriors 
would march against them and destroy the 
western settlements of the colonies, while 
other British troops would attack the col- 
onists on the sea coast, and the Tories would 
rise in the interior, — all thus acting together 
would soon crush the patriots. On the dis- 
covery of the plot, followed by the defeat of 
the hostile Cherokees, Stuart fled to Florida, 
whence he soon sailed for England, where he 
died in 1799. 

TAIT, JOHN, Indian agent, was probably a 
Scotchman. Nothing is known of his career 
prior to 1778, when he was appointed agent 
for the Creek Indians, very probably receiv- 
ing this appointment from John Stuart. Gen- 
eral Woodward's statement that John Tait 
came to the Creek nation with Lachlan Mc- 
Gillivray seems erroneous, for if he was a 
grown man in 1735, the year of McGillivray's 
arrival, he would have been too old a man to 
be appointed Indian agent in 1778. Col. 
Tait's station in the Creek nation was at the 
Hickory Ground. It was doubtless soon after 
his appointment that he married Sehoy Mc- 
Gillivray, an alliance, it may be conjectured, 
formed through the influence or persuation 
of Lachlan McGillivray. The well known 
David Tait of later times was the son of this 
marriage. In the summer of 1780, Colonel 
Tait raised a large force of Creek warriors 
from almost all the upper towns, except from 
the Tallissee and the Natchez, who were kept 
neutral through the influence of James Mc- 
Queen, and started on the march to Augusta 
to the aid of Colonel Grierson. On the Chat- 
tahoochee he was reenforced by Little Prince 
with a force of Lower Creeks. On their 
march, while near the head springs of Upatoy 
Creek, Tait became deranged. He was 
brought to Cusseta town, there died, and was 
buried on a high hill east of the town. On 
Tait's death, nearly all the Upper Creeks re- 
turned home except the Tuckabatchies, com- 
manded by Efa Tustenuggee. This man and 
Little Prince, with their warriors, numbering 
about two hundred and fifty men, proceeded 
to Augusta, where they lost seventy men in 
battle in September when the place was at- 
tacked by Colonel Elijah Clarke. After the 
abandonment of the siege and the retreat of 
the Americans, Colonel Thomas Brown, the 
chief in command at Augusta, after hanging 
a number of the prominent American pris- 
oners, delivered the others into the hands of 
the Indians, who, in revenge for their slain 
warriors, put them to the most protracted 
and torturing deaths, by cuts, blows, scalp- 
ings and burnings. The opprobrium of these 
enormous atrocities must forever be shared 
by the Indians with Colonels Brown and 
Grierson, the white officers in command at 
Augusta. Some months after the death of 
Colonel Tait, his widow married Charles 
Weatherford. He was succeeded in his office 
by David Tait, who was perhaps a brother, 
aad who for several years previously, had 
been a Justice of Peace in the Creek nation. 
There is no record available to show how, or 
from whom, David Tait received his appoint- 
ment. He was the last British agent among 
the Creek Indians. It is on record that he 
was living in 1793 in England, in wealth and 
affluence "on the money received from the 
English for sending the Creeks to war against 
the Americans." 

References. — Woodward's Reminiscences of 
the Creek or Muscogee Indians, p. 59; Mc- 
Cready's History of South Carolina, 1775-1780, 
pp. 1734-1739; Jones' History of Georgia, vol. 
2, pp. 455-459; The Colonial Records of Geor- 
gia, vol. 12, pp. 334-364; American State Papers, 



Indian Affairs, vol. i, p. 382; Pickett's History 
of Alabama, Owen's Edition, p. 342, authority 
for Hickory Ground as Tate's headquarters. 


born probably about 1740 and in Coweta, was 
the son of Malatchee, the Creek emperor, who 
was the son of the great chief. Brim. There 
is no record of the mother of Togulki. On 
the death of his father in 1755, Sampiaffi, or 
Stumpee, the white perversion of the name, 
was appointed the guardian of his nephew 
Togulki until he should arrive at years of 
maturity, when he would assume his father's 
rank and office. The first public appearance 
of Togulki in the affairs of his people was 
in the treaty made at Savannah in November, 
1757, with Sir Henry Ellis, Governor of the 
province of Georgia. The council at which 
were representatives of twenty-one towns of 
the Upper and the Lower Creeks, was in ses- 
sion two days. October 29 and November 3. 
On the first day Wolf King of the Upper 
Creeks acted as speaker for the whole Creek 
nation. After his address Togulki made a 
short talk, expressive of his appreciation of 
the Governor's reception of his people. It is 
here given in full: 

" 'Tis not many months (said he) since I 
was in Charles Town where I met with many 
marks of esteem and respect from the Gov- 
ernor and his beloved men — I am now re- 
ceived with even stronger tokens of love 
which as they are proofs of a sincere friend- 
ship cannot but rejoice my heart." After 
Togulki's talk the headmen were all invited 
to dine with the Governor. The marks of es- 
teem and respect of which Togulki was the 
recipient from the Governor and other offi- 
cials of Charleston were no doubt prompted 
by their memory of his father, who had ever 
been popular with the people of Carolina. It 
must have been soon after the treaty of 
Savannah that Togulki was chosen as the 
Emperor of the Creeks, and was also commis- 
sioned as such by the Governor of Georgia. 
In the summer of 1759, Edmund Atkin, the 
Superintendent of Indian affairs of the South- 
ern district, came to the Lower Creek town 
of Cusseta. Soon after his arrival with his 
escort, it was agreed by the chiefs to go and 
shake hands with him and learn the object 
of his visit. But when they appeared before 
him, he abruptly asked them what they want- 
ed, and told them to go about their busi- 
ness, and when he wanted he would send 
for them. The chiefs were mortified at 
this rude reception. Though greatly pro- 
voked, Togulki nevertheless resolved to 
make another attempt at a conversation 
with Atkin. He accordingly forcibly passed 
the sentinel and entered the house where 
the King's beloved man was and offered 
his hand, which Atkin scornfully refused 
to take. Exasperated at this affront, To- 
gulki told the agent that he had shaken 
hands with the Governors of Carolina and 
Georgia, and he wished to know if he, Atkin, 
was greater than they. To this Atkin re- 
plied that there was a Governor of Carolina 
and a Governor of Georgia, but that he, At- 

kin, was greater than they, as he was the 
King's own mouth. He then accused Togulki 
of being a Frenchman, that is, as in the 
French interest. Togulki replied that he was 
no Frenchman, nor did he intend becoming 
one, but rather than stay in his own nation 
and be subject to such ill treatment by the 
agent, and to avoid all other uneasiness, he 
would go off on a ramble in the woods. To- 
gulki was as good as his word. He accord- 
ingly went to his uncle Sampiaffi. who was 
hunting on Broad River, thence with his un- 
cle's son to the Cherokee Nation in search of 
some stray horses. In consequence of some 
misrepresentations in regard to his visit to 
the Cherokee Nation, in the following Octo- 
ber, he, his uncle Sampiaffi and son, with 
some other Creeks visited Governor Ellis in 
Savannah in order to clear himself from these 
misrepresentations. They related to the Gov- 
ernor the story of Atkin's behavior in Cus- 
seta, and closed their talk with the request 
that he be immediately recalled thence to 
prevent further mischief. Governor Ellis and 
the Indians had hardly finished their talk 
when an express arrived with the news of the 
assault upon Atkin at Tuckabatchee. It was 
thought prudent for the present not to men- 
tion the matter to the Indians. The Gov- 
ernor further stated to the Indians that he 
was glad to hear that the rumor relative to 
their visit to the Cherokee Nation was abso- 
lutely false; and that they saw their own in- 
terests so well as to persist in an inviolable 
friendship, and other attachment to the Eng- 
lish. In closing he asked them if they had 
anything more to say. After much irrelevant 
talk the Indians finally came to a grievance 
which they had with the Virginia people who 
had settled high upon their hunting grounds 
and who were killing all the deer. They wished 
these people to be removed and a paper to 
be given to them to show that it must be 
done. The Governor postponed his reply to 
this grievance until the next day, when he 
again held a council with them. After some 
general talk the Governor at last told the 
Indians of the outrage upon Atkin in Tuck- 
abatchee. The Creeks were greatly perturbed 
at this news. After some comments on the 
affair, the Governor told the Indians that the 
Cherokees were on the point of declaring war 
and there was danger of the Creeks being 
involved in it. The only way to prevent this 
was for the Creeks to resolve to keep the 
path to the white people clear by engaging 
to resent any injuries done to the people of 
Georgia by the Cherokees, and to signify 
the same to them immediately. And as the 
people of Carolina would likely soon be in 
open war with the Cherokees, they must cau- 
tion their people not to go into that province 
lest they be taken for enemies. As the mat- 
ter was urgent, and concerned both the white 
people and the Creeks, the Governor request- 
ed the Indians to send runners immediately, 
some to their own nation, and some to the 
Cherokee, to inform them of their resolve. 
In this way the Creeks would have peace, a 
good trade, free communication with the 
whites, and no interruption on their hunting 



grounds, for the white people should be re- 
moved from it. The Creek auditors highly 
approved of the Governor's talk, and said that 
thev would send runners immediately to their 
own people and to the Cherokees. This point 
settled, the Governor gave them some pres- 
ents and dismissed them completely satisfied. 
After their departure, he issued a proclama- 
tion ordering all persons illegally settled in 
the back part of the province near the Indians' 
hunting grounds to remove from those lands 
bv the first of the coming January. The 
Creeks, by following Governor Ellis' counsel, 
doubtless saved themselves from being in- 
volved in the war which very soon after broke 
out between the Cherokees and the Caro- 
linans, which continued until the Cherokees 
were subdued by the successive campaigns of 
Colonels Montgomery and Grant in 1760 and 
1761, and there was again peace on the fron- 
tiers. There is no record of Togulki until 
the great Indian congress in Augusta in No- 
vember, 17 63, which he attended with his 
uncle Sampiaffi. Here he resigned his Eng- 
lish commission as Emperor. His name does 
not appear one of the signers of the treaty 
made at the Congress. Six weeks after the 
Congress, on December 23, 1763, fourteen 
people — they being women and children, were 
killed by a party of Creek Indians in the Long 
Cane settlement above Ninety-six. When the 
news of this deed came to the ears of Togulki, 
he with another Indian, at once went to see 
George Galphin to inform him who were the 
guilty parties, and to request him to write 
out a talk from him in relation thereto to 
Governor Wright. Togulki's talk as recorded 
by Galphin runs as follows: "As soon as I 
was acquainted in the woods who the Persons 
were that had killed the White People, I came 
immediately to acquaint my Friend Galphin 
of it, that he might write down and acquaint 
both Governors and the beloved Man of it, 
and I have left this Talk with him to send 

"The Fellows that have done the Murder 
are seven that have been among the Chero- 
kees these four or five years and helped them 
against the White People — The People are 
all going home, by the time this Moon is gone 
they will be all at Home, and there we shall 
have a meeting of all the Heads of the Na- 
tion, and before the next moon is done you 
shall hear from us. We hope this will not 
make a general war if the murderers can be 
killed, there is two of my own Towns Peopls 
concerned in it, all the Head Men are much 
concerned about it, and hope it will be Strait 
yet, and I desire that you will be up on your 
Guard on this River, for they have taken the 
Cherokee Talk, and that they will kill all 
the White People where ever they find them. 
And in case any of your People come up with 
them we hope they will kill them. There 
were three of our People came "up with them 
and were going to kill them, but they were 
an overmatch for them, and they went in 
search of Abraham and his Gang to help 
them. They dare not go to the Nation, for 
they say now they must be killed, and they 
will do all the Damage they can before they 

are killed: it is the Talk of the Head Men 
in the woods to forewarn any of the Young 
People to join them. They say it is the Young 
Warrior's Talk of Istatoe, and if he is not 
concerned he will order his People to kill 
them: and it is my Desire that you will write 
down and have them killed, as they harbor 
in his Nation and have Wives there — - 

"Tugulkey alias Young Twin. 

"P. S. The Fellows that have done the 
Murder are 

"2 Cussetaws. 

"2 Cowetaws. 

"2 Tallissees. 

"1 Oakfuskee." 

From the lack of records it cannot be 
stated whether the Creeks ever put to death 
the murderers of the Long Canes people. 
The talk of Togulki shows that he personally 
was in favor of inflicting this extreme pen- 
alty upon them. His talk is the last record 
we have of him and hence we may well sup- 
pose that his after life was uneventful. 

References. — The Colonial Records of Geor- 
gia, vol. vii, pp. 644-648, 655-667; Ibid, vol. 8, 
pp. 160-170; The State Records of North Caro- 
lina, vol. 11, 1777 and Supplement, 1730-1776; 
The Colonial Records of Georgia, vol. 9, pp. 
115, 116. 

TONTI, HENRI DE, Spanish explorer, and 

"The man of the ironhand," son of Lorenzo 
Tonti, inventor of the Tontine system of life 
insurance, was born in Gaeta, Italy, about 
1650. In youth he entered the service o£ 
France, and was in several naval engage- 
ments. In one of these he lost a hand, for 
which he used an iron substitute, and this 
in after years often served him to good pur- 
pose in his relations with Indians. In 1678, 
he accompanied La Salle to Canada. La 
Salle's life purpose was to take up the unfin- 
ished work of Marquette and Joliet, and se- 
cure as a permanent possession for France 
the great Mississippi basin, by means of a 
chain of forts extending from Canada to the 
mouth of the Mississippi. Tonti enlisted 
heart and soul into La Salle's great enter- 
prise. In March, 1680, he first stands forth 
prominent in history as the commander of 
Fort Crevecouer. After the mutiny and disper- 
sion of its garrison, he and four faithful ad- 
herents went and lived for many months at 
the large Illinois town on Illinois river near 
Starved Rock. Here he acted as mediator 
in the great Iroquois raid, and he certainly 
saved the Illinois tribe from annihilation. 
In the spring of 1681 he and La Salle after 
more than twelve months separation met 
again at Mackinac. After all his misfortunes, 
La Salle began anew his preparation for ex- 
ploring the lower Mississippi. Towards the 
close of 1681, in six causes of fifty-four voy- 
ages, eighteen of whom were Indians, he and 
Tonti floated down the Illinois river, reach- 
ing its mouth the last of January. Here 
Tonti beheld for the first time the mighty 
Mississippi, over which it was to be his lot 
to maintain the supremacy of France for 
twenty succeeding years. Days, weeks and 
months passed away with the voyagers, and 



at last on April 9, 1682, near Its influx into 
the Gulf, with solemn ceremonies, they took 
formal possession of the great river in the 
name of the King of France. On the return 
voyage La Salle was stricken down with an 
almost fatal sickness and Tonti was dis- 
patched to Canada to bear to Frontenac the 
tidings of the great discovery. In the sum- 
mer of 1682 by La Salle's order Tonti built 
Fort St. Louis on Illinois river, the fort bet- 
ter known in American history as Starved 
Rock. This noted and romantic place, with 
intermissions of exploration, was to be Tonti's 
home for eighteen years. Here he and La 
Salle passed days and weeks together, and 
here they parted never to see each other 
again. In 1686 Tonti made a voyage down 
the Mississippi to seek tidings of La Salle, but 
his voyage was all in vain. Towards the close 
of 168S, having learned positively of the 
death of La Salle, he embarked in a canoe 
with five Frenchmen, a Shawnee warrior and 
two Indian slaves and started off on a long 
voyage for the purpose of rescuing the sur- 
vivors of La Salle's colony and of hunting 
down and bringing to justice his murderers. 
Four months later with only two men faith- 
ful to him he was pursuing his search and in- 
quiries among the western tribes, not know- 
ing that La Salle's colony had all perished in 
a ruthless Indian massacre. Continuously be- 
trayed by Indian falsehood, worn down with 
fatigue and sickness, Tonti, the ever-faithful, 
at last was forced to set his face northward 
and in September, 1690, he reached Fort St. 

In 1699, by a royal decree Fort St. Louis 
was abandoned and Tonti was ordered to 
reside on the Mississippi. With a few faith- 
ful followers he floated down the Mississippi 
in the summer of 1700, and joined Bienville 
in his new fort on the Mississippi in Louis- 
iana. His woodcraft and practical knowl- 
edge of Indian life was of invaluable benefit 
to the colonists of Louisiana. In 1702 while 
at Fort Mobile he was sent by Iberville on a 
mission into the country of the Choctaws and 
Chicasaws, for the purpose of establishing 
peace among these Indians, and of bringing 
them over to the French interest. Starting 
from Fort Mobile at 27 mile bluff, and tak- 
ing ten picked men, Tonti visited these war- 
ring tribes. He was successful in making 
peace between them, and brought back to 
Fort Mobile several of their representative 
chiefs, with whom Iberville made a treaty. 
Tonti made no report of this mission through 
the present Southwest Alabama and East 
Mississippi, among the Tohomies, the Choc- 
taws, and the Chickasaws. He and his fol- 
lowers were the first Europeans to traverse 
these regions after the days of De Soto and 
Tristan De Luna. Tonti was endowed with a 
magnetic nature by which he was enabled to 
gain and hold a boundless influence over the 
Indians. When Iberville visited the Houma 
Indians on the Mississippi in 1699, fourteen 
years after Tonti's short stay among them, he 
found that they had not forgotten him, and 
that his name was often on their lips. "The 
Indians talked to me much about Tonti," is 

Iberville's brief, but striking record. Tonti 
died of yellow fever in September, 1704, at 
Fort Louis de la Mobile, and his remains 
were laid to everlasting rest in an unknown 
grave near Mobile River, and not far from the 
monument erected 19 02 to commemorate the 
site of old Mobile. 


ish explorer. Of the life of this early explorer 
of the old Southwest, nothing is known prior 
to 1559, though possibly he may be the same 
man as the Tristan de Arellano of Coronado's 
expedition of 1540. In accordance with the 
royal scheme for the peaceful settlement of 
Florida, Don Luis de Velasco, Viceroy of 
Mexico, in 155 9 appointed Tristan de Luna y 
Arellano Captain-General and Governor of 
that country and placed him in command of 
the fifteen hundred persons, including sol- 
diers, women, children, servants, and negro 
slaves, that were to form one of the settle- 
ments of Florida. Six Dominican Monks ac- 
companied the expedition, one of whom, Fray 
Pedro de Feria, was appointed provincial 
Vicar of Florida. The fleet of the colonists 
set sail from Vera Cruz, June 11, 1559, and 
after a series of misfortunes and troubles, on 
August 14, it entered the port of Ichuse, 
which has been positively identified as Mo- 
bile Bay. On the 24th of the same month 
De Luna sent a galleon back to Mexico an- 
nouncing his arrival, the success of his move- 
ments so far, the prospects of a fertile and 
inhabited country in the interior and request- 
ing more horses and supplies so that he would 
not be compelled to take food by violence 
from the natives, whose good-will he wishes 
to gain; that he would colonize and fortify 
the port and not penetrate into the interior 
before the arrival of the supplies. In the 
meantime exploring parties, each accompa- 
nied by a monk, were sent out along the coast 
and up the Mobile River into the interior 
During their absence an exceedingly great 
misfortune befell the colonists; for a most 
terrific hurricane from the north, lasting 
twenty-four hours, swept down upon them, 
shattering to pieces five ships, a galleon, a 
bark, and driving a caravel with its cargo 
farther ' than an arquebuse shot from the 
shore. Many of the people perished and most 
of the provisions were destroyed. In this ex- 
tremity the colonists lived upon the provi- 
sions found in the stranded caravel while 
awaiting the return of the explorers. De 
Luna determined that as soon as they should 
return with their reports he would seek some 
place in the interior where he could subsist 
his people, reserving his little remaining food 
for those who were to remain in the settle- 
ment that he had established in the port. 
After three weeks the explorers returned with 
the information that the countries they had 
traversed were sterile and uninhabited. An- 
other expedition was now sent forth. A ma- 
jor in command of four companies of horse 
and foot now penetrated the country forty 
leagues to the northeast, where they discov- 
ered a deserted Indian town named Nani- 
pacna. This name in the Choctaw tongue 



signifies "Hilltop," "Nanih pakna," evi- 
dencing that the town was built upon a hill, 
and with the greatest probability it was lo- 
cated upon Boykin's Ridge, on the east side 
of the Alabama River, in the upper part of 
Wilcox county. The Spaniards found a wel- 
come supply of maize, beans and other pro- 
visions in the abandoned houses, but found no 
other towns in its vicinity. The natives of 
Nanipacna at last returned and became 
friendly. De Luna was notified by the major 
of his fortunate discovery. But he did not 
act upon it at the time; for about this time 
he had received some relief supplies sufficient 
to last his people through the winter. When 
they were nearly exhausted, De Luna was for 
a while prostrated with a fever. Upon his 
recovery, perhaps in February or March, 
1560, leaving a lieutenant with fifty men and 
the negro slaves in charge of the port, De 
Luna proceeded with the colonists, now less 
than one thousand, to Nanipacna, some going 
by land, others by water. 

WILlLETT, MARINUS, Colonel, U. S. A., 

was born at Jamaica, Long Island, July 31, 
1740, and died in New York City, August 
4, 1830. In 1758 he served under General 
Abercrombie in the expedition against Ticon- 
deroga, and then under Colonel Bradstreet 
in the capture of Fort Frontenac. He was 
one of the leaders of the Sons of Liberty in 
New York City which on June 6, 1775, pre- 
vented the sending of arms from the arsenal 
to the British troops in Boston Harbor. He 
was soon after commissioned captain and 
served under General Richard Montgomery 
in the invasion of Canada. He was placed in 
command of St. John after its capture, where 
he remained until January, 1776, and soon 
afterwards was made colonel of the Third 
New York regiment. In 1777 he was second 
in command at Fort Stanwick, and during the 
siege of that place he made a sortie and 
gained a victory over Colonel Barry St. Leger, 
— a diversion which enabled General Herki- 
mer to win the battle of Oriskany. He was 
with Washington's army in 1778, was pres- 
ent at the battle of Monmouth, and in 1779 
was with General Sullivan in his expedi- 
tion against the Six Nations. From 1780 
to the close of the war he commanded the 
troops in the Mohawk Valley. In 1784 he 
was elected a member of the New York 
State Assembly, but resigned on being elected 
sheriff of New York City and an office which 
he held until 1792. In this year he was of- 
fered the rank and command of a brigadier- 
general in an expedition against the North- 
western Indians, but declined. In 1794 he 
was sent by President Washington on a mis- 
sion to the Creek nation, whence he brought 
back with him Alexander McGillivray and 
other Creek chiefs and warriors, who signed 
the treaty of New York, the first American 
treaty with the Creek Indians. In 1807 he 
was mayor of New York. His last public 
service was in 1812 when he was secretary 
of a mass meeting in favor of military prep- 
arations aga'nst the British. His son, Wil- 
liam Marinus Willett, collated from his fath- 

er's manuscript and from other sources a 
work, giving his father's military career. 
This work, entitled "A narrative of the mili- 
tary actions of Colonel Marinus Willett," 
was published in 1831. It contains much 
information about the Creek Indians. 

WILLIAMS, ROBERT, Member of Con- 
gi-ess, Governor of the Mississippi Territory, 

born in Prince Edward county Virginia in 
1768, died in Washita Parish, Louisiana, 
January 25, 1836, was the son of Nathaniel 
and Mary Ann (Williamson) Williams. In 
early life his parents settled in North Caro- 
lina, where young Williams studied law and 
entered upon its practice in Nottingham 
county. He was a member of the State Sen- 
ate of North Carolina from 1792 to 1795, 
and was a member of the House of Repre- 
sentatives from 1797 to 1802. In 1803 he 
and Thomas Rodney of Delaware were ap- 
pointed commissioners to ascertain the rights 
of persons claiming land in the Mississippi 
Territory, west of Pearl River. Their work 
was satisfactorily performed. On March 1, 
1805, he was commissioned by President 
Jefferson Governor of the Mississippi Terri- 
tory. He held this office with a re-appoint- 
ment in March 1808, until his resignation 
in March 1809. After his resignation Gov- 
ernor Williams resided successively in Mis- 
sissippi and North Carolina, and finally set- 
tled as a planter near Monroe, Washita Par- 
ish, Louisiana, where he resided until his 
death. A tombstone marks his grave. The 
wife of Governor Williams was Elizabeth, 
daughter of General Joseph Winston of North 
Carolina. She died at the Governor's resi- 
dence, near Washington, Mississippi Terri- 
tory, July 25, 1814. She left only one child, 
Eliza Winston Williams. 

WOLF KING, Creek Chief, lived in Muk- 

lasa, an Upper Creek town. The first notice 
of this chief is in 1749, when he appears 
under a somewhat comical aspect. At some 
time in that year, the noted author and 
trader, James Adair, was traveling on official 
business from the Chickasaw nation to 
Charleston. One day, about ten o'clock in 
the morning, somewhere on the trading path 
between Flint River and Okmulgee, he met 
a party of hostile Shawnees, from "whom he 
managed to escape. About sun set on the 
same day he met another party of Indians, 
whom he at first supposed were also Shaw- 
nees. But, he writes, — "I discovered them 
to be a considerable body of the Muskohge 
headmen, returning home with presents from 
Charles-Town, which they carried on their 
backs. The wolf king (as the traders term- 
ed him) our old steady friend of the Amook- 
lasah Town, near the late Alebahma, came 
foremost, harnessed like a jack-ass, with a 
saddle on his back, well girt over one shoul- 
der, and across under the other. We seemed 
equally glad to meet each other, they, to 
hear how affairs stood in their country, as 
well as on the trading path; and I to find, 
that instead of bitter-hearted foes, they were 
friends, and would secure my retreat from 


any pursuit that might happen." Apart from 
his pleasant meeting with Adair, the first 
noteworthy appearance of Wolf King in his- 
tory is at the treaty made by the Creeks 
with Sir Henry Ellis, Governor of Georgia, 
and his board of council in Savannah, on 
November 3, 1757. The Governor had about 
August 1, sent Joseph Wright, a man fa- 
miliar with the Creek language, into the 
Creek nation, which was then in ill mood, 
to invite the chiefs of the Upper and the 
Lower Creeks to a conference to be held 
with them in Savannah. There the Indians 
would receive the King's presents, and at 
the same time, an effort would be made to 
remove the ill impressions they had conceived 
of the English. Wright was successful in 
his mission in persuading many to go to 
Savannah. The Indians arrived on October 
27, and were received with imposing cere- 
monies and with the firing of the guns of the 
fort. They represented twenty-one towns of 
the Upper and Lower Creeks. They were 
formally conducted into the council chamber 
and introduced to the governor, who hold- 
ing out his hands, thus addressed them: 
"My Friends and Brothers, behold my Hands 
and Arms; our Common Enemies, the French, 
have told you they are red to the elbows; 
view them; do they speak the Truth? Let 
your own eyes witness. You see they are 
white, and could you see my Heart, you 
would find it as pure, but very warm and 
true to you, my Friends. The French tell 
you whoever shakes my Hand will immedi- 
ately be struck with disease and die; if you 
believe this lying foolish talk, don't touch 
me; if you do not, I am ready to embrace 
you." Whereupon all the Indians approach- 
ed and shook the Governor's hand, declaring 
that the French had lied and deceived them 
in this manner. The Indians then seating 
themselves, the Governor continued his talk, 
in which he first expressed the hope that 
they had left their brethren well in the na- 
tion, and that they were well themselves, and 
then referred to the hardships they must 
have endured in their long journey. That 
they had been told by bad people in the 
nation that the English had spread all over 
the Indian hunting grounds, and they could 
now see the falsity of this assertion. That 
it was only the lands that lie on the water's 
edge, that the English valued, where their 
ships could come with goods and carry away 
the skins sold by the Indians and the pro- 
ductions raised by the English out of the 
ground. That during their stay with him, it 
would be his particular care that they should 
be well supplied with everything the plan- 
tations afforded. That he had a large home 
erected where they could enjoy each other's 
company and be protected from the weather. 
Again warning them against the French and 
their emissaries, he told them that as they 
were very much fatigued he would not de- 
tain them; but after having rested and re- 
freshed themselves, he would meet them 
again and deliver to them the King's talk. 
Meanwhile, he advised that they get their 
guns and saddles repaired, which he had 

ordered his workmen to do, if they wished it. 
Again he expressed his satisfaction at seeing 
so many of his friends, under the same roof 
with himself. Wolf King, as speaker of both 
the Upper and the Lower Towns, arose and 
responded as follows to the Governor's talk: 
"We have heard many good talks of you 
in our own country which were not lies, and 
I think myself extremely happy and thank 
God that this day affords us an opportunity 
of seeing you face to face — I and my country- 
men have been accustomed to visit the Gov- 
ernors of the English Provinces but never 
had more satisfaction than we feel on this 
occasion. 'Tis true we experienced great 
hardships on our journey from the back 
lands being uncultivated, but as soon as we 
reached the Homes of our Friends, we re- 
ceived plenty of every thing, and the kindest 
treatment possible. The length of our jour- 
ney has greatly fatigued us. We therefore 
approve of taking the refreshments and the 
other steps you recommend to us; after 
which we shall hear the Great King's Talk." 
Wolf King's talk was followed by a short 
one from Togulki, after which the Governor 
invited the headmen to dine with him in his 
own house, where they were delighted with 
the kind and friendly manner with which 
they were entertained. After taking a long 
and thorough rest, the representatives of a hun- 
dred and twenty-one towns, with, besides up- 
wards of their countrymen, on November 3, 
were with the same ceremonies formally con- 
ducted again into the council chamber. After 
being seated, the Governor opened the confer- 
ence with a short talk, and then read to the 
Indians a paper entitled, "A Letter from the 
great King George to his beloved Children 
of the Creek Nations." The letter was in- 
terpreted and explained, paragraph by para- 
graph, and at every period the Indians ex- 
pressed aloud their approval. The Governor 
then resumed his talk, in which he told the 
Indians that they had now heard with their 
own ears the words of the Great King, how 
he loved them and entertained no suspicion 
of their obedience and friendship. He then 
detailed at some length the advantages the 
Creek Indians, "the best beloved" of all the 
Indian nations, would have in their friend- 
ship and alliance with the English, who could 
do more for them than the French. After 
a reply by Sampiaffi, the treatv was produced 
and thoroughly interpreted and explained. It 
was approved in every particular bv the head- 
men, who then put their hands and seals to 
it before a numerous audience. 

When the last man had signed, Wolf King, 
who was one of the signers, desired that he 
might be heard, which being granted he 
turned to his people and made a short and 
vehement talk: "All of you have this Day 
freely confirmed your ancient Treaties with 
the English by a new one, in which some 
fresh articles are inserted; I know that it 
has been customary for you to deny in your 
own Towns the Contracts you have made in 
those of the White People; but remember 
how cheerfully and readily you all joined 
in this Act; which of you then will dare to 



deny it in your public square hereafter? If 
there is one of you that can be so base, I 
am the man that will call him a Liar, and 
the rest of you shall confirm it." The coun- 
cil now arose and the headman, by the Gov- 
ernor's invitation, attended him to his house 
to dinner. 

Wolf King, the chiefs of Cometa, and per- 
haps several others received copies of the 
King's talk to carry home and which could 
be read and interpreted in the public squares 
of their towns. History is silent as to the 
day on which the presents were distributed, 
and their quantity and quality. 

A pleasing episode in the life of Wolf 
King occurred in May, 1760. On probably May 
15 as he and his people were on the point 
of going to a ball play news came to them 
of the massacre of the traders the day be- 
fore in some of the Upper Towns, and that 
those that escaped the massacre were seek- 
ing places of refuge. He at once received 
a number of the fugitives into his own house 
and treated them with the greatest kind- 
ness. Others were brought down to him by 
the chief of Okchaiyi. Wolf King had only 
forty warriors in his town, a small force 
with which to protect them against the large 
numbers of Indians in the French interest, 
and under the thorough control of the Great 
Mortar. He told the traders of the situa- 
tion, supplied those among them that were 
unarmed with guns and ammunition, and 
then conducted them all into a place in a 
swamp, where, he said, they could maintain 
themselves by their own valor against the 
French and the mad Indians. The traders 
fortified the place so well that their enemies 
feared to attack them. Wolf King, in the 
meantime, secretly and at great risk to him- 
self, supplied them with food, and after the 
lapse of some two weeks sent them to a 
friendly Lower Creek town where were gath- 
ered other fugitive traders from different 
places in the nation. This action of Wolf 
King, with his slender band of warriors in 
protecting the traders against his numerous 
enraged countrymen, shows that he was a 
brave and high-souled man. About six weeks 
after the massacre, Governor Ellis, in view 
to the protection of the traders in the future, 
sent Joseph Wright into the Creek nation 
with a written talk, in which he said that 
he expected to open trade with the Creeks 
as soon as it could be done with safety, but 
first the headmen in every town must meet 
and chooso some powerful person who would 
take charge of the traders and be answerable 
for their persons and goods, otherwise the 
traders would not risk their lives nor the 
merchants their goods amongst them; and 
for this protection the traders must pay a 
yearly consideration to their respective guar- 
dians. Although Wolf King and his people 
were and had always been friendly to the 
English, as soon as he received the Gover- 
nor's talk, he appointed suitable persons in 
all the towns he controlled to be guardians 
of the traders and their goods. Wolf King's 
action in saving the fugitive traders gave 
him great consideration with the Governors 

of Georgia and South Carolina, the latter 
sending him a written talk- and inviting him 
to visit him in Charleston. Early in 17 61 
a talk from the Mohawks was received by 
Governor Wright, who sent it to the Creek 
nation by Wolf King, who, it seems, was in 
Savannah at that time. The talk seems to 
have been a friendly letter to Governor 
Wright and the Creek nation. On April 3 0, 
1761, a council of twelve Upper Creek towns 
was held at Muklasa. Wolf King here re- 
plied to the Mohawk talk in the following 
letter to Governor Wright: "The Governor 
of each Province desired me to have this 
(alk in the Upper and Lower Nation, and 
for me to hold fast by the English and they 
to hold fast by us and now our meetings 
are over and done as I wanted, and its agreed 
to hold fast the English both here and in 
the lower towns. When I was in Georgia 
and Carolina there was many bad reports 
about this Nation, now I am come home I see 
'tis otherwise, and we hope everything will 
remain quiet. We have not thrown away 
the Governor's talk, and we shake hands with 
them, and all the towns hold fast by the 
English." In October, 1763, Wolf King went 
to Pensacola to see the military authorities 
in regard to the land there ceded for the 
English garrison, which was the old Span- 
ish cession. An evidence of his presence 
there appears in Major Farmar's contingent 
account, showing that on October 21, 1763, 
Lieutenant Hilton paid for Wolf a large wine 
bill and a bill for mending guns, all amount- 
ing to two pounds, three shillings and two 
pence. From Pensacola Wolf King must 
have gone direct to the great congress which 
was held in Augusta in November. He was 
the main factor on the side of the Creeks, 
in fixing the boundary line there agreed upon 
between the Creeks and the English. His 
name appears appended to the treaty as 
The Wolf. This name and Wolf King were 
often used interchangeably or indifferently. 
Wolf King had such a clear understanding 
of what should be the English interest at 
this troublous time that he advised Major 
Farmar to defer relieving Fort Toulouse, 
until he, Wolf King, should inform him of 
the disposition of the Indians in the French 
interest who had not yet resolved upon a 
course of action. His advice was heeded. 
Although a firm and unswerving friend of 
the English, Wolf King evidently feared en- 
croachments upon the lands of his people 
from Pensacola. The Creeks claimed all the 
lands for more than sixty miles above Pen- 
sacola, except the small plat granted the 
Spaniards around the fort, now occupied by 
the English. At some time in the winter of 
1763-1764, while on a visit to Pensacola with 
a large band of his warriors, he intimated to 
Major Forbes, the commandant, that if the 
English should settle upon these lands, war 
would be declared against them by the 

Wolf King did not stand alone in this 
matter, for a general uneasiness continued to 
prevail among the Creeks in regard to possi- 
ble encroachments upon their lands until the 



meeting of the congress in Pensacola, where 
everything was satisfactorily settled by a ces- 
sion to the English. The evidence is lack- 
ing of the presence of Wolf King at this 
congress. His name does not appear among 
the signers of the treaty, unless he signed 
under his Indian name, which has not been 

The last notice of Wolf King is a brief 
reference to him in a letter written by Will 
Struthers, a trader to Governor Johnstone, 
May 20, 1766. Struthers calls him the old 
Wolf King, an expression which shows that 
he was then advanced in years. 

References. — Adair's American Indians 
(1775), pp. 263, 277; The Colonial Records of 
Georgia, vol. 7, pp. 648, 657-668, 704, 734; Ibid, 
vol. 8, pp. 333, 467, 469, 470, 542, 543; Ibid, 
vol. ix, pp. 148, 149; The State Records of 
North Carolina, vol. 11, pp. 160, 166, 203; 
Mississippi Provincial Archives, vol. i, pp. 12, 
68, 72, 114, 142, 365, 414, 424, 460, 521. 

YOHOLOMICCO, Creek Chief, born about 
1788, died in 1838. Nothing has been re- 
corded as to his parents, his early life, nor 
when he became chief of Yufala and Speaker 
of the Creek Nation. There were two towns 
named Yufala in the Upper Creek country; 
the one, of which Yoholomicco was chief, 
was situated on the west bank of the Talla- 
poosa, two miles below Okfuskee. Yoholo- 
micco served with General Mcintosh in the 
Creek war of 1813 and bore an honorable 
part in ail the battles in which the friendly 
Creeks were engaged against their insurgent 
countrymen. He was delegate from his 
nation to Washington in 1826. He was 
greatly instrumental in negotiating the treaty 
of November 15, 1827, by which the Creeks 
ceded the last of their lands in Georgia. 
As Speaker of the Council convened to hear 
the propositions of the government on that 
occasion, his demeanor is thus described by 
Colonel Thomas L. McKenny, there present 
representing the government, and a most 
competent eye witness: "Yoholo Micco ex- 
plained the object of the mission, in a man- 
ner so clear and pointed as not to be easily 
forgotten by those who heard him. He rose 
with the unembarrassment of one, who felt 
the responsibility of his high office, was fa- 
miliarly versed in its duties, and satisfied of 
his own ability to discharge it with success. 
He was not unaware of the delicacy of the 
subject, nor of the excitable state of the 
minds to which his argument was to be ad- 
dressed, and his harangue was artfully suited 
to the occasion. With the persuasive man- 
ner of an accomplished orator, and in the 
silver tones of a most flexible voice, he 
placed the subject before his savage audi- 
ence in all its details and bearings — making 
his several points with clearness, and in or- 
der, and drawing out his deductions in the 
lucid and conclusive manner of a finished 

On account of his advocating the adoption 
by his people of the plans proposed by the 
government and by individuals to promote 
the civilization of the Creeks, Yoholomicco 

finally became unpopular, and was deposed 
from his chieftianship, the year not known. 
He was consistent in his private life in fol- 
lowing the ways of civilized life, which he 
had vainly urged upon his people. He gave 
his children the best education the country 
afforded, and brought his sons up to the 
pursuits of civilized life. His example was 
followed by one of his married daughters, 
the wife of a Yufala chief, who gave all her 
children liberal educations. Yoholomicco is 
represented as a man of a mild, generous 
disposition. He died on his way to the new 
home of the Creeks from the fatigues inci- 
dent to the emigration. 

References. — McKenney and Hall's Indian 
Tribes of North America (1842), vol. iii, pp. 
17, 18; Handbook of American Indians 
(1910), part 2, p. 998. 

PENICAUT, JEAN, Author, born in La 
Rochelle, France, in 1680. He was a ship 
carpenter by occupation, but must have re- 
ceived otherwise a fair education. He came 
in 1698 with Iberville to Louisiana. On ac- 
count of his aptitude for the Indian languages 
he accompanied all the French exploring 
parties. He was a man of family, and a slave 
holder, and the owner of a concession near 
Natchez, which he purchased in 1720. He 
sailed to France in 1721, at the advice of 
Bienville to secure a treatment for an af- 
fection of his eyes. He returned to Louis- 
iana, and was one of the few Frenchmen 
who escaped the massacre of 1729. The date 
and place of his death is unknown. His 
Annals of Louisiana from 1689 to 1722 is 
a most important record of the colonization 
of Louisiana. 

INDIAN CREEK. A small creek, tributary 
to the Tennessee River (q. v.), which it enters 
on the right bank, just above the village of 
Triana. Its drainage area lies wholly within 
Madison County. One prong of the creek is 
fed by the famous big spring at Huntsville. 
Its course is almost wholly through the Tus- 
cumbia or St. Louis limestones of the lower 
Subcarboniferous formation. It is not now 
navigable, though, before the War, cotton 
boats were floated down to the Tennessee 
River. No project for its improvement has 
been undertaken by the United States Govern- 

An act of the Alabama Legislature, Decem- 
ber 21, 1820, incorporated the Indian Creek 
Navigation Co., for the purpose of opening 
and improving the navigation of Indian Creek, 
from the spring at Huntsville to the town of 
Triana, at the mouth of the creek, by remov- 
ing obstructions, opening a canal or canals, 
"or in such other mode or way as they may 
deem expedient." The act provided futher: 

"Sec. 11. . . . That whenever said creek 
shall be rendered navigable for boats drawing 
ten inches of water, and so long as said creek 
shall be keep (sic) thus navigable, it shall be 
lawful for said corporation to demand and 
receive toll on boats navigating the same be- 
tween said town of Huntsville and Triana, at 
the following rates: two dollars for every ton 

rv t 


freight which said boat carries, provided that 
toll shall not be collected on boats running 
between Prout's mill and Triana," and, "Sec. 
12. . . . That if any person shall obstruct 
said navigation by fe"lling trees in said creek 
or otherwise, he, she, or they so offending, 
shall forfeit and pay to said corporation 
double the amount of the damages which may 
be assessed by a jury, in any court of record 
having jurisdiction thereof." 

The promoters of this navigation enterprise 
were Leroy Pope, Dr. Thomas Fearn, Stephen 
S. Ewing, Henry Cook, and Samuel Hazard. 
Dr. Fearn was the leader. Several wooden 
locks and dams were built in the creek by this 
company, and it was for many years used by 
flatboats carrying cotton to the Tennessee 

Some of the earliest settlers of the Ten- 
nessee Vallev built their homes along the 
banks of Indian Creek. As early as Decem- 
ber 16, 1811, the General Assembly of Mis- 
sissippi Territory enacted a law penalizing 
the contamination or pollution of its waters. 
The preamble states that — "Whereas a num- 
ber of persons have settled on Indian Creek, 
in Madison County, who are obliged to make 
frequent use of the water thereof for drink- 
ing and other purposes ." 

References.---! rfs. 1820, pp. "-99: 1834-35. 
pp 49-50; Toulmin. Digest. 1823, p. 691; Betts. 
EarUi history of Huntsville (1916) pp 34. 36. 
66-70; Southern Advocate, Huntsville, Ouly 14. 

several heads illustrated below, is given in 
a concise manner, the habits of aboriginal 
man in this State, so far as a compilation of 
their family customs can be made. William 
Bartram, the naturalist, Colonel Benjamin 
Hawkins, The Indian Agent, Leclerc Milfort, 
a French writer, the DeSoto travelers, Adair, 
as well as other references might he cited, 
but these conclusions have been arrived at 
after a digest of the observations of all these 
early travelers in this Southern country. 

1. The "Individual family abode" was 
similar to the community house though 
smaller. It was constructed of upright poles 
stuck in the ground at intervals opposite one 
another. Canes were placed between the 
posts without removing the leaves and small 
branches. After being built up to the de- 
sired height the wall was plastered inside 
and out with mud. The roof was generally 
made of bark reinforced with reeds (cane). 
The foregoing applies to winter houses, 
which in earlier times at least, had the door 
or opening high up from the ground. It con- 
sisted of an opening only. They were with- 
out floor. Some forms had a hole in the 
roof for the escape of smoke. References to 
Cherokee houses in DeSoto's time show the 
opening at the ground only, without the 
smoke holes. Summer houses were what we 
•later know as bush arbors only. 

2. The most ancient cooking vessel was 
the stone boiler. The most ancient equip- 

ment was the stone, on which corn, or ber- 
ries, or fruit, or vegetables, was crushed pre- 
paratory to cooking. 

Jerked meat was roasted on coals or hung 
upon or under a tripod made of poles, or 
suspended from a pole directly over the fire. 

Bowls of earthenware were used in which 
to make soup. Gourd and shell spoons were 
used. Wooden objects and gourd vessels 
were doubtless those most in use, as among 
the Creeks, everything was broken up and 
new ones substituted once a year. 

3. The tomahawk was of stone. Euro- 
peans introduced the iron type. 

4. Axes were of stone. Celts of stone 
were used for the same purpose. They were 
used in connection with fire, mostly for goug- 
ing and splitting. War axes were probably 
used more like clubs than otherwise. A 
stick of proper length and weight was chosen, 
one end of which was split and into which 
the stone axe was inserted. It was bound 
by vines or thongs of skin. 

5. Drills were both hand and bow, though 
the hand drill was the one most generally 

6. Blankets of skin covered with hair 
were worn over one shoulder and down to 
the knee. A skirt and leggins, of the same 
material, were worn by the women. 

They used no headdress. 
Moccasins were made of skin. 
Men wore a breechclout, and later 
breeches, but formerly only the mantle. 

7. Feather ornaments worn in the war 
consisted of a headband or crown of upright 
feathers of the eagle, wild turkey or other 
large birds, generally painted in bright 

Mantles of feathers are shown by some 
early writers, in the form of a wide collar, 
hung around the shoulders and reaching 
nearly to the ground. This ornament, of 
course, had no practical use and could not 
be worn on the chase. Single feathers of 
the golden eagle were sometimes worn in 
the hair. 

8. The earliest drum was most probably 
made by tying a skin (stretched tight) over 
a section of hollow log. An earthenware 
bowl or large gourd was sometimes used. 

9. The rattle had an important part in 
all ceremonials, whether sacred, war or 
otherwise. They were commonly made of 
gourds, turtleshells, reeds and hollowed tubes 
were used, as well as bags of hard surfaced 
objects' tied on to canes. Bones, pieces of 
horn, stones, seed, etc., were used in these 
bags or other receptacles. 

10. The designs employed in war paint- 
ing varied much with the different tribes. 
A form of heraldry existed. The fish clan 
painted a fish on their standards, their robes, 
their moccasins, etc. "Standards" must not 
be confused with "flags." A sort of 
"baton" such as carried by a drum major, 
however, was used. Red was always the 


i to 

sign of war, and white the sign of peace. The 
war shirt was generally painted. Later, after 
the introduction of horses, the war pony was 
painted with certain designs. Rings of dif- 
ferent colored paint, one within the other, 
were often shown on the breasts and fore- 
heads of the warriors. 

See Cotton Manufacturing. 

INDIAN MOUNTAINS. The several high 
mountains with their spurs, to the north of 
the Southern Railway in the southeast corner 
of Cherokee County, being merely the exten- 
sion to the northeast of the Terrapin or 
Ladiga Mountains (q. v.). They extend into 
Alabama 5 or 6 miles, and are several miles 
in width. The altitude of the group varies 
from 1,000 to nearly 2,000 feet. These 
mountains are bulges, or the faulted folds of 
a great faulted anticlinal with a general north- 
east and southwest trend. The group is com- 
posed of interstratified quartzites, conglom- 
erates, and shales, which contain in their 
upper strata large quantities of limonite. 

Reference. — McCalley, Valley regions of Ala- 
bama. Pt. 2, Coosa Valley (Geol. Survey of 
Ala., Special report 9, 1897), pp. 18, 756-757. 


Congress, April 18, 1796, the establishment 
of government trading houses was author- 

Soon there were established fourteen trad- 
ing posts among various tribes. They were 
established as follows: At Coleraine on the 
St. Mary's River, Georgia, 179 5; at Tellico 
block house, or Hiwasee, Tennessee, 1795; 
at Fort St. Stephen, Alabama, 1802; at 
Chickasaw Bluffs, now Memphis, Tenn., 1802; 
Fort Wayne, Indiana, 1802; at Detroit, Mich- 
igan, 1802; at Arkansas, on the river Ar- 
kansas, 1805; at Natchitoches on Red River, 
Louisiana, 1805; at Belle Fontaine, at mouth 
of the Missouri River, 1805; at Chicago, Lake 
Michigan, 1805; at Sandusky. Lake Erie. 
1806; on the Island of Michilimackinac, Lake 
Huron, Michigan, 1808; at Fort Osage, on 
the Missouri River, Missouri, 1808; at Fort 
Madison, 1808. 

Detroit was discontinued in IS 05, and 
Belle Fontaine in 1808. The post at Cole- 
raine, Georgia, was moved to Fort Wilkinson 
in 1797 and again to Fort Hawkins in 1806. 

The United States hoped by the establish- 
ment of these trading houses to create a 
more satisfied and friendly feeling among 
the Indians toward the government. It was 
designed to bring to them in their own ter- 
ritory, such supplies as would add to their 
domestic comfort and at a price that would 
undersell the private trader. For a time 
the policy seemed to be most successful, but 
gradually the Government came more and 
more to see that the system was a failure. 
Every trading house was protected by U. 8. 
soldiers and the factors, in most cases, thus 
protected, were indifferent as to whether the 

Indians were in a friendly attitude toward 
him or not, while the private trader, being 
constantly in their power, became identified 
with the tribe which he commonly visited. 
Again, the Government factors, generally, 
carelessly allowed their stock to become in- 
ferior, and of such character as was not 
suited to the needs of the Indians, while the 
private trader carried just what they wanted. 

The Choctaw Trading house in Alabama 
was established at Fort St. Stephen in 1802. 
The first factor was Joseph Chambers, who 
was instrumental in bringing into Alabama 
from Tennessee, George S. Gaines, who served 
as his assistant until 1807, when he suc- 
ceeded Chambers as factor. The building 
occupied by the factor being old and inade- 
quate, a new brick warehouse was built near 
the old Fort. This was probably the first 
brick house within the bounds of the pres- 
ent State of Alabama. 

This trading house under the management 
of Mr. Gaines was highly satisfactory. He 
fully realized the importance of his position 
and the mission he had to perform and was 
proud of the results of his labors. The busi- 
ness of the trading house increased wonder- 
fully. Not only did the Choctaws frequent the 
post, but also the Creeks, from the Black War- 
rior River, and even the Chickasaws. Mr. 
Gaines was careful to treat all fairly and 
justly. If the goods was defective or in- 
ferior, he pointed it out to the Indians and 
reduced the price. Consequently he won 
their utmost respect and confidence. 

As the stream of immigration came into 
the State and as the white population about 
St. Stephens grew and multiplied, it was 
found advisable to move the trading house 
farther into the Choctaw country. George 
S. Gaines called on the famous Choctaw Chief, 
Pushmataha to advise a suitable location. 
He suggested the site of the old Fort 
Tombecbe, the Spanish Fort Confederation. 
Work upon the new post immediately began 
and on its completion in May, 1816, the post 
was opened to active trade with the Indians. 

In October of the same year, the U. S. 
War Department authorized Colonel McKee 
to arrange for a treaty to be held at the Choc- 
taw trading house in order that new sessions 
of lands might be secured from the Indians. 
The chiefs and commissioners spent several 
days discussing all sides of the question till 
October 24th, when the treaty was signed. 
By this treaty all of Alabama, with the ex- 
ception of the territory of the Cherokees in 
the lower Tennessee Valley, was open to white 

John Hersey succeeded Gaines as factor in 
October, 1819, and served so long as the 
trading house existed. 

The entire system of Government trading 
houses was abolished by act of Congress, 
May 6, 1822. 

References. — Hamilton, Colonial Mobile 
(1910), pp. 376-378, 455; Pickett, History of Ala- 
lama (Owen's edition, 1900), p. 505; Alabama 



Historical Society Transactions, 1898-99, vol. 3, 
p. 230; Hamilton, Mobile of the five flays (1913), 
p. 184; Brewer, Alabama (1872), p. 393; U. S. 
Statutes at Large, vol. 2, p. 652; American State 
Papers; Indians affairs, vol. 1, pp. 684, 768, vol. 
2, pp. 66, 329-331, 417, 421. 

lachee; Chattos; Mobilians, Naniabas; To- 
homes; Tensaws. 

this head reference is made to both aborig- 
inal and later day towns, as well as places 
shown on early maps to which there is no 
positive location given. Streams and points 
having aboriginal associations, at which there 
were probably located settlements in these 
early days, are also included. The locations 
of these points, as shown, has been arrived 
at, after a thorough examination of the bibli- 
ographical references shown, and after use of 
the material brought together during the last 
ten years, in the investigations of the Ala- 
bama Department of Archives and History, 
and the Alabama Anthropological Society, 
both institutions working in co-operation, 
with the effort to locate, geographically, all 
aboriginal points in this State. See 

Abihka, Abikudshi, Aequite, Ahiki Creek, 
Alibamu, Alkehatchee, Anatitchapko, Apal- 
achee, Apalatchukla, Asbury Mission, Assil- 
anapi, Atagi, Atasi, Atchina-algi; Atchina 
Hatchi, Athahatchee, Aucheucaula, Autossee, 
Battle, Bachcha Chuka, Bachcha Illi, Bashi, 
Bashi, Skirmish; Bear Creek Village, Big 
Shoal Creek Indian Village, Black Bluff, 
Black Warrior Town, Bogue Chitto, Bogue 
Homma, Bogue Loosa, Brown's Village, Bur- 
gess Town, Burnt Corn Creek, Burnt Corn 
Fight, Caantakalamos, Cabusta, Cahaba Old 
Town, Cahaba Town, Caujauda, Calebee, 
Battle of, Canoe Fight, Casiste, Cauwaoulau, 
Caxa, Cedar Creek Indian Village, Chakihlako, 
Chalakagay, Chananagi, Chatoksofki, Chat- 
tooga Village, Chattos, Chattukchufaula, 
Chawocelauhtachee, Chiaha (ancient), Chiaha 
(Creek), Chiahudshi, Chichoufkee, Chickasaw 
Bogue, Chickasaw Creek, Chickasaw Town, 
Chickianose, Chinnaby's Fort, Chinakbi, Chi- 
ska Tolofa, Chollocco Litabixee, Chuahla, 
Chukfi, Chukka Chaha, Chunchula, Co- 
hatchee, Coassati, Cold Water Village, Co- 
loomee, Conaliga, Coosada (Creek Indian), 
Coosada, Coosakhattak Falaya, Corn Silk's 
Village, Cosa, Coste, Creek Path, Crow Town, 
Dauphin Island, Double Head's Village, Ecor 
Bienville, Ecunchati, Elm Bluff, Emuckfau, 
Battle of; Emussa, Enitachopco, Battle; Eu- 
faubee, Fakitchipunta, Faluktaeunna, Fife's 
Village, Fin'Halui, Fort Mims Massacre, Fort 
Sinquefield Attack, Fullemmy's, Funacha, 
Fusi-Hatchi, Ghullahatchee, Griffin's Village, 
Gunter's Village, Haihaigi, Halbama, Haptibo- 
kosi, Hatchaosi, Hatchetigbee, Hatchitchapa, 
Hillabee, Hitchiti, Hobuckintopa, Hoithle- 
wauli, Holy Ground Campaign and Battle, 
Horseshoe Bend, Battle of; Hulitaiga, Hu- 

mati, Ikanatchaka, Ikanhatka, Imukfa, Ipi- 
soga, Istapoga. Istudshilaiki. Kailaidshi. Kan- 
chati, Kashita, Kawaiki, Kawita, Kawita Tal- 
lahassi, Kimbal-James Massacre, Kayomulgi, 
Kitchopataki, Kawaiki, Kohamutkikatska, 
Kulumi, Kunsha Chipinta, Kusa, Lalokalka, 
Lanudshi Apala, Lapiako, Liikatchka, Line 
Creek Indian Village, Litafatchi, Littafuchee, 
Letohatchie, Long Island Town, Lutchapoga, 
Melton's Village, Mobilians, Moculixa, Muk- 
lassa, Murder Creek, Muscle Shoals Villages, 
Nafolee, Nanafalia, Naniabas, Nani Kosoma, 
Nanipacna, Nannechahaw, Nannachubba, 
Nanne Chufa, Natchez. Ninnipaskulgi, Nita 
Abe, Nita Alabani Bok, Nitahaurits, Nita- 
hobachi, Niuyaka, Noxubee River. Oakchinawa 
Creek Indian Village. Oakfusk'dshi, Odshia- 
pofa. Oka Kapassa, Okchayi, Okchayudshi, 
Okfuskee Fort, Okitiyakni, Okmulgi, Oquechi- 
ton, Opillako, Osonee Old Town, Osotchi, 
Otchisi, Otipalin, Otituttchina, Pafallaya, Pa- 
kana, Pakan Tallahassee, Patsilika River, Pa- 
wokti, Penootaw, Pinhoti, Potchushatchi, 
Quilby, St. Stephens, Sakapatayi, Sakit Hom- 
ma, Sakti Hata, Sakti Lusa, Sakti Nakni 
Ontala, Satapo, Saugahatchi, Sauta, Sawonogi, 
Sawokli, Secharlecha,' Shawnees, Sinta Bogue, 
Sooktaloosa, Suka Ispoka, Sukinatchi, Tali 
Hula Tali Lusa, Talimuchasi, Talipakana, 
Talishoki, Talisi, Talisihatchie Town, Talatigi, 
Talladega, Battle of, Tallaseehatchi, Battle of, 
Talladega Creek Indian Village, Taluahadsho, 
Talualako, Tamali, Tamahita, Taskigi, Tchna 
'nagi, Tchukolako, Tensas, Thoblocco, To- 
homes, Tombecbe, Fort, Tombigbee Turkey 
Town, Tomeehettee Bluff, Tomonpa, Touale, 
Toulouse Fort, Tukabatchi, Tukabtachi Tala- 
hassi, Tukpafka, Tulawahajah, Turkey 
Creek, Turkey Town (Upper), Turkey Town 
(Lower), Tuskahoma, Tutalosi, Tuxtukagi, 
Uktahasasi, Uncuaula, Wako Kayi, Walla- 
hatchee, Wasasa's Village, Watulahoka, Weo- 
gufka, Wetumpka Creek, Wetumpka, We- 
woka, Wihasha, Will's Town, Witumka, Wo- 
koyudshi, Yagnahoolah, Yaknipakna, Yama- 
see, Yuchi, Yufala (5). 


Organization. — Organized at the Univer- 
sity of Alabama, Tuscaloosa, December 11, 

Objects. — The promotion of scientific ex- 
amination and the discussion of various ques- 
tions of interest to the material progress of 
the State. 

First Officers. — Cornelius Cadle, president; 
Thomas Seddon, W. E. Robertson, C. P. Wil- 
liamson, M. C. Wilson, J. W. Burke, Horace 
Harding, vice presidents; William B. Phillips, 
secretary; Henry McCalley, treasurer. 

Officers, 1896. — President, William B. 
Phillips, Birmingham; vice-presidents, T. H. 
Aldrich, Birmingham, L. C. Harrison, War- 
rior, F. M. Jackson, Brookwood, George B. 
McCormack, Pratt City, Ernest Prochaska, 
Birmingham; Secretary, Eugene A. Smith, 
University; Treasurer, Henry McCalley, Uni- 


THE ALABAMA. A voluntary scientific so- 
ciety organized to bring together the civil 
and mining engineers, mine and furnace own- 
ers and managers, chemists, metallurgists, 
geologists, and all others interested in the 
material progress of the State, for the promo- 
tion of scientific examination and discussion 
of practical every day affairs. The move- 
ment originated with William B. Phillips, 
professor of chemistry and metallurgy in the 
University of Alabama, who enlisted the aid 
of Dr. Eugene A. Smith of the same institu- 
tion. They, as members of a University com- 
mittee on which were Pres. R. C. Jones, R. A. 
Hardaway and J. H. Foster, together with 
twenty-seven interested persons, addressed a 
circular letter to six hundred parties in this 
and other States. Twenty-nine gentlemen 
interested in the movement met in the chemi- 
cal lecture room of the University on De- 
cember 11, 1890 and perfected a temporary 

Pres. Jones of the University was tempo- 
rary chairman and W. C. Ruffin temporary 
secretary. The committee on organizations 
and nominations, viz: W. H. Hassingen, J. S. 
Walker, L. C. Harrison, G. S. Patterson, 
Ernest Prochaska and Henry McCalley, se- 
lected the following officers who were elected: 
President, Cornelius Cadle, vice-presidents, 
Thomas Seddon, W. E. Robertson, C. P. Wil- 
liamson, M. C. Wilson, J. W. Burke, Horace 
Harding; Secretary, Wm. B. Phillips; Treas- 
urer, Henry McCalley. Meetings of the so- 
ciety were held during the spring and autumn, 
with some postponements, until Nov. 16, 
1899. Since that date the organization has 
not been active. 
Presidents. — 

1890-91. Cornelius Cadle. 

1891-92. Cornelius Cadle. 

1892-3. C. A. Meissner. 

1893-4. Erskine Ramsey. 

1894-95. Wm. B. Phillips. 

1895-96. Thomas Seddon. 

1896-97. F. M. Jackson. 

1897-98. T. H. Aldrich. 

1898-99. M. C. Wilson. 

1899-00. J. H. Fitts. 
Secretaries. — 

1890-91. Wm. B. Phillips. 

1891-92. Wm. B. Phillips. 

1892-93. Eugene A. Smith. 

1893-94. Eugene A. Smith. 

1894-95. Eugene A. Smith. 

1895-96. Eugene A. Smith. 

1896-97. Eugene A. Smith. 

1897-98. Eugene A. Smith. 

1898-99. Eugene A. Smith. 

1899-00. Eugene A. Smith. 

Publications. — Proceedings 1891-1899, vols. 

References. — Proceedings vols. 1-9, 1891-1899; 
Owen's Bibliography of Alabama, 1897. 

passing of the years, with the stabilizing of 
industrial enterprises, and with the apprecia- 

tion of the advantages of centralization of ad- 
ministration, the Various original or pioneer 
mining, manufacturing, milling and other de- 
velopment companies have largely either been 
absorbed or merged into larger corporations, 
or their corporate life has been lost through 
dissolution or through the bankruptcy courts. 
The record of the development of the indus- 
trial life of the State has been admirably 
presented by Miss Ethel Armes in "The Story 
of Coal and Iron in Alabama," issued in 1910, 
after extensive and painstaking original re- 
search. It is an Industrial Epic, thrilling in 
the telling, and an inspiration to the patriotic 
and aspiring Alabamian. The story is not 
without pathos, however, witnessing as it 
does the passing of well-planned dreams and 
ardent hopes. It may be stated that there 
is hardly one of the older companies still in 

The present industrial activities are repre- 
sented and directed by a number of newly- 
organized corporations, representing the 
merger of the earlier schemes, all based on 
sound business experience and having abund- 
ant capital for operation. It may be pre- 
dicted with some assurance of certainty that 
they will remain indefinitely as stable enter- 
prises, all in their respective fields harmon- 
iously working toward a greater common- 

For individual sketches refer to particular 
titles, with very brief sketches and references 
to the history of the older companies. The 
list which follows contains all that are so 

See Alabama Co., The; Alabama Fuel and 
Iron Co.; Alabama Marble Co.; Alabama & 
New Orleans Transportation Co.; Alger- 
Sullivan Lumber Co.; American Agricultural 
Chemical Co.; American East Iron Pipe Co.; 
Central Iron & Coal Co.; Continental Gin 
Co.; Cullman Coal & Coke Co.; Daniel Pratt 
Gin Co.; DeBardeleben Coal Co., Inc.; Gulf 
States Steel Co.; International Agricultural 
Corporation; Northern Alabama Coal, Iron & 
Railway Co.; Pratt Consolidated Coal Co.; 
Republic Iron & Steel Co.; Sheffield Coal & 
Iron Co.; Shelby Iron Co.; Sloss-Sheffield 
Steel & Iron Co.; Southern Cotton Oil Co.; 
Southern Wheel Co.; Tennessee Coal, Iron & 
Railroad Co.; United States Cast Iron Pipe 
& Foundry Co.; Virginia-Carolina Chemical 
Co.; Woodward Iron Co., Inc. 


A State bureau created by article 12 of the 
constitution, 1868, under the management of 
a commissioner elected by the people for a 
term of four years. The bureau was intended 
to be a convenient clearing house for data, 
statistics and all other information regarding 
every phase of the State's resources, devel- 
oped and undeveloped, whether lands, timber, 
minerals, agriculture, industrial or commer- 
cial opportunities, labor conditions and wages. 
In obedience to the constitution, the legis- 
lature, August 12, 1868, passed an act which 
prescribed the details of the bureau's opera- 
tions, fixed the commissioner's salary at 
$2,5 a year, and authorized the employment 


of a clerk, whose salary should not exceed 
$1,000. Among the special activities pro- 
vided by law tor the bureau, were the estab- 
lishment of a system of monthly weather and 
crop reports from the various counties to be 
published for geneial circulation; the holding 
of public meetings in different localities for 
consultation with and the instruction of the 
people concerning the best methods of devel- 
oping the resources of the State, diversifying 
its industries, encouraging immigration, and 
increasing its general prosperity; the organ- 
ization of local societies to aid in bringing 
about these objects, and to encourage the 
holding of fairs, disseminate agricultural in- 
formation and knowledge of improved farm- 
ing; to establish and maintain a museum, open 
to the public a portion of each week day, con- 
taining geological, mineralogical, botanical, 
and entomological specimens from different 
parts of the State. 

Very soon after entering upon his duties, 
the first commissioner, John C. Keffer, issued 
a brief pamphlet of 2 2 pages in which he very 
happilv described the advantages of the State. 
This was widely circulated. The reports of 
the commissioners indicated a sympathetic ap- 
preciation of the great riches and possibilities 
of the State, and they appear to have made a 
verv sincere effort to arouse interest in all 
forms of development. However, they com- 
plained of limited funds, of a lack of coopera- 
tion, and of various hindrances to progress. 
Unfortunately the work had political asso- 
ciations and connections which continually 
brought embarrassment and finally destruc- 
tion. The office was the creation of forces 
dominating the State at the adoption of the 
radical constitution of 1868, and it was never 
looked upon with favor. It was, therefore, 
abolished bv the constitutional convention of 
1875, bv tlie failure to provide for its con- 
tinuance. Just how far it developed a meteor- 
ological service, or a museum, or local agri- 
cultural or industrial societies, or many other 
of its activities is not known. No relics or 
other museum objects are known to survive. 
Commissioners. — John C. Keffer, 186 8- 
1871; James L. Tait, 1871-1872; Thomas 
Lambert, 1872-1875. 

Publications. — Reports. 1869, 1870. 18/3. 
1874, 4 vols.; Alabama (1869, 8vo. pp. 22), con- 
taining "a few remarks upon her resources, 
and the advantages she possesses as induce- 
ments to immigration." 

References.— Constitution. 1868, art. 12; 
Code, 1876, p. 117; Acts. 1868, pp. 55-5S. 


See sketches of: The Alabama Company; 
Alabama Fuel and Iron Company; Alabama 
Marble Company; Alabama Power Company; 
Alger-Sullivan Lumber Company; American 
Agriculture Chemical Company; Birmingham, 
Ensley and Bessemer Railroad; Central Iron 
and Coal Company; DeBardelaben Coal Com- 
pany, Inc.; International Agricultural Cor- 
poration; Mobile Light and Railroad Com- 
pany; Montgomery Light and Water Power 
Companv; Pratt Consolidated Coal Company; 
Selma Lighting Company; Selma Street and 

Suburban Railway Company; The Southern 
Cotton Oil Company; United States Cast Iron 
Pipe Foundry Company; and Woodward Iron 

INDUSTRIES. The term used to designate 
the factory system of manufacturing as dis- 
tinguished from individual or custom work. 
Little was done in Alabama before the War 
in the way of industrial development except 
in the case of cotton factories and an occa- 
sional iron furnace; and these enterprises 
cannot properly be classified as industries in 
the strict, modern sense of the term, for the 
labor of slaves was almost altogether used, 
and thus questions of the relation between 
capital and labor, one of the principal ele- 
ments of industrialism, were avoided. One 
notable exception to this general rule among 
ante bellum manufacturing enterprises was 
the Daniel Pratt Gin Co. (q. v.), which man- 
ufactured large numbers of cotton gins, using 
free labor. During the War, foundries, am- 
munition factories, and plants for the man- 
ufacture of other military supplies were es- 
tablished in various parts of the State, but 
most of them were destroyed or dismantled 
either during the latter part of the War or 
during the Reconstruction period. 

Beginning with the early seventies, numer- 
ous enterprises looking to the development 
of the State's mineral resources were in- 
augurated. The mining of coal and iron, as 
well as some other minerals of less commercial 
importance, and the manufacture of various 
mineral products grew within a few years to 
considerable proportions. The construction 
of railroads, several of them traversing the 
mineral district, was coincident with the de- 
velopment of the mining and manufacturing 
interests; and with the completion of the 
South & North Alabama Railroad, in the fall 
of 1872, the industrial era, or the era of 
incorporated manufacturing companies em- 
ploying large numbers of wage earners, may- 
be said to have been fairly begun in the State. 
See Cotton Manufacturing; Industrials; 
Manufacturing and Manufactures; Public 
Utilities; and titles of different industrial cor- 
porations in their appropriate alphabetical 

Reference. — Manuscript data in the Ala- 
bama Department of Archives and History. 

INFERIOR COURTS. See City Courts. 


state "institution for the care and treatment 
of insane persons," originally founded by the 
legislature of Alabama in 1851, and reor- 
ganized under act of December 11, 1900. As 
originally projected, the care and treatment 
of both white and negro insane was under- 
taken at Tuscaloosa, the location of the prin- 
cipal building. 

However, on March 1, 1895, Congress do- 
nated the Mt. Vernon Barracks military res- 
ervation, situated in the upper part of Mobile 
county, "together with all the buildings and 
improvements thereon," "to be held in use 
for public purposes." In accepting this dona- 



tion, the legislature on December 11, 1900, 
set aside the reservation in question for the 
exclusive care of the negro insane. The orig- 
inal hospital by the same act was set aside as 
the "Bryce Hospital." 

Both the "Bryce Hospital" and the Mt. 
Vernon Hospital are controlled by a board of 
seven trustees, under the name of the head 
of this title. The board has possession and 
control of all of the real or personal property 
belonging to either hospital and they may 
later be acquired in any manner, to maintain, 
sue and have perpetual succession, to have a 
corporate seal which may be changed, and 
power to sell and convey any real property of 
the hospitals. The management and control 
of the hospitals and "any of other allied in- 
stitutions, such as places for the care and 
treatment of the inebriates, epileptics, harm- 
less dements, feeble-minded, and the like, 
which may be at time to time confined to 
them by law." The trustees serving for terms 
of seven years each, the term of one trustee 
expiring on the 30th of September every year. 
The amendatory act of September 25, 1915, 
names the seven trustees, with the expiration 
of their several terms. The trustees elect 
their own successors. Three trustees reside 
near the Bryce and two reside convenient to 
the Mt. Vernon hospital. An annual meeting 
is to be held each year. The governor is 
ex officio a member of the board. 

"For the immediate management and gov- 
ernment of the hospitals," the trustees select 
a superintendent, fixed term of office and sal- 
ary. The superintendent is a graduate prac- 
titioner of medicine and qualified in the spe- 
cialty of caring for and treating the insane. 
An assistant superintendent, assistant phy- 
sician, interne, supervisor, nurses, and at- 
tendants, are authorized. For the outside 
work in the shops, yards, gardens and fields, 
a manager and laborers are provided. A 
treasurer and a steward are also provided. 

The hospitals are maintained and used 
solely for the care, treatment and custody of 
such patients as have been committed to them 
as insane by a proper court. No other classes 
of patients are admitted. Under the law a 
person is adjudged insane, "who had been 
found by a proper court, sufficiently deficient 
or defective mentally, to require that, for his 
own or others' welfare, he (or she) be re- 
moved to the insane hospital for the restraint, 
care and treatment. Whether the persons' 
abnormality is sufficiently grave to necessi- 
tate such a procedure is always a question 
to be decided by the court." 

Superintendents. — Dr. Peter Bryce, 1860- 
1901; Dr. James T. Searcy, 1901-1919; Dr. 
W. D. Partlow, 1919. 


State constitution forbids the inspection 
of merchandise, manufacture, or commodity 
by State officers, in the following terms: "No 
state office shall be continued or created for 
the inspection or measuring of any merchan- 
dise, manufacture, or commodity, but any 
county or municipality may appoint such 
officers when authorized by law." However, 

regulation of the manufacture and sale of 
arious articles of merchandise are provided 
ar by statute, as follows: commercial fertil- 
izers by the department of agriculture and 
ndustries (q. v.), under code of 1907, sec- 
ions 14-52 and subsequent amendments; il- 
uminating oils, by the State chemist (q. v.), 
under code of 1907, sections 1572-1580; and 
foods, drugs and feeds, by a bureau of the de- 
partment of agriculture and industries, under 
an act of March 9, 1911. 

Inspection of Fertilizers. — The first of these 
inspection laws was enacted March 8, 1871, 
and was entitled, "An Act to protect the 
planters of this State from imposition in the 
sale of fertilizers." It created the office of 
inspector of fertilizers for the State, appointed 
by the governor for terms of two years, and 
having authority to appoint subinspectors for 
such counties as the governor thought proper. 
The inspector and the subinspectors were re- 
quired to be agricultural chemists. Salaries 
were not authorized, but a fee of 75 cents 
for each ton of fertilizer inspected, payable 
by the person procuring the inspection, was 
provided by law. A penalty, not to exceed 
$1,000. was prescribed for failure to procure 
State inspection of fertilizer before selling or 
offering it for sale. The administration of 
this law was believed to have worked a hard- 
ship on the people of the State. Too many 
inspectors were appointed, and the com- 
petency and fidelity of some of them came 
under grave suspicion. Therefore, the law 
soon became obnoxious to the people, and was 
repealed on December 14, 1874. 

In 1875 a new constitution was adopted. 
When the convention met to frame it, the 
abuses of the fertilizer inspection law were 
still fresh in the memories of the delegates. 
A section, in the precise language of the sec- 
tion of the present constitution, quoted in the 
opening paragraph of this sketch, was inserted 
for the purpose of preventing forever the pas- 
sage of another such troublesome and unsat- 
isfactory law. 

In 1882 the object of the former inspection 
law, namely, the protection of planters from 
imposition in the sale of fertilizers, was ac- 
complished by the creation of the department 
of agriculture with jurisdiction of the sale of 
fertilizers in the State, power to assess a li- 
cense tax, and authority to obtain samples for 
analysis by the State chemist (q. v.). In 1884 
the constitutionality of this act was attacked 
without success. The supreme court held 
that the regulation of the quality of fertilizers 
came within the police powers of the State 
and was not violative of the constitution. 

Inspection of Illuminating Oils. — On Feb- 
ruary 16, 1897, a law was enacted, "to pro- 
vide for the inspection and sale of illuminat- 
ing oils in the State of Alabama." This act 
provided for an inspector in every con- 
gressional district, appointed by the State 
auditor for terms of four years, and each 
authorized to appoint as many assistants as 
he thought necessary. The constitutionality 
of this law was promptly attacked, and the 
supreme court declared it to be in conflict 


with section 77 of the constitution of 1901, 
quoted above. 

On March 4, 1903. regulation of the quality 
of illuminating oils sold in this State, under 
the general police powers of the State govern- 
ment, was effected by means of an enactment 
requiring a tag to be attached to each tank, 
barrel, can, package, or parcel of such oil, 
and used for every gallon sold in bulk from 
tank wagons or storage. These tags are sup- 
plied by the State, through the Alabama Poly- 
technic Institute ( q. v.) at Auburn, for a 
charge of one-half cent per gallon of oil, and 
one-fourth of the proceeds of the tax thus 
levied is appropriated to the use of the insti- 
tute. The professor of chemistry at Auburn 
is the official chemist to make tests of samples 
of oils, -which the board of trustees is em- 
powered to obtain, and the copy of the official 
test so made, under the seal of the board of 
trustees, is admissible as evidence of the facts 
therein stated in any of the courts of this 
State on the trial of any issue involving the 
merits of the oil. 

The machinery for the execution of this 
law evades the constitutional inhibition 
against State inspection officers by virtue of 
the fact that the State merely takes samples 
of oils offered for sale and uses the result of 
an official chemical analysis as a basis for 
legal proceedings against manufacturers or 
vendors of oils which fail to meet the pre- 
scribed tests. 

Inspection of Feedstuffs. — In 1911 the sale 
of commercial feedstuff's was brought under 
the regulation of the State in much the same 
manner as in the case of illuminating oils. An 
act was approved on March 9 which required 
"every lot or parcel of feeding stuff sold, of- 
fered or exposed for sale or distributed within 
this State" to bear a label showing the net 
weight of contents; the name, brand or trade 
mark; the name and principal address of the 
manufacturer; the minimum percentage of 
crude protein, crude fat; the maximum per- 
centage of crude fibre; and the specific name 
of each ingredient used in its manufacture. 
Every manufacturer of such commodities is 
required to file with the commissioner of agri- 
culture and industries, before putting them 
on the market, a certified statement showing 
the character of each brand, as set out above; 
and to pay a tag or stamp tax of 20 cents 
for each ton of feed sold. 

The commissioner of agriculture and in- 
dustries may refuse to register a brand, name, 
or trade-mark which would be misleading or 
deceptive, and he is charged with the duty of 
enforcing the provisions of the act, with the 
assistance of a special food, drug and feed 
clerk, and two agents of the bureau who col- 
lect samples to be submitted to the State 
chemist for analysis. The reports of the State 
chemist upon these analyses furnish the 
grounds for action against violators of the 
law, and they are in such suits prima facie 
evidence of the facts set out therein. Penalties 
for conviction of violating the provisions of 
the law are prescribed, but such conviction 
cannot be obtained except upon the evidence 

of certified chemical analyses, as outlined 

See Agriculture and Industries, Department 
of; Fertilizers; Polytechnic Institute, Ala- 

References. — Constitution, 1901. sec. 77; 
Acts. 1870-71, pp. 68-70; Ibid, 1896 97, pp. 1133- 
1141; General Acts, 1911, pp. 104-111; Ibid, 
1915, pp. 767-769; Codes. 1886, 1896; Ibid. 1907, 
sees. 14-52, 1572-1580; "Report of inspection of 
illuminating oils in 1913," in Ala. Pol. Inst., 
Bulletin, vol. 9, Sept. 1914; Steiner d Sons v. 
Ray et al. 84 Ala., p. 93; Stare v. McGouoh. 118 
Ala., pp. 159-172. 

1881 the office of inspector general was a part 
of that of the adjutant general, the official 
title being, "Adjutant and Inspector-General." 
When the offices were separated, the inspec- 
tor general was required by law to visit en- 
campments of State troops, in order to ascer- 
tain whether or not they had been properly 
instructed and trained. His rank, and his 
pay when actually engaged in the discharge 
of his duties, were those of a colonel of 
cavalry. In 1915 the duties of the inspector 
general were again consolidated with those 
of the adjutant general and his assistants. 

See Adjutant General. 

References. — Toulmin, Digest. 1823, pp. 591- 
623; Aikin, Digest. 2d ed., 1836, p. 315; Aikin. 
Digest Supplement, 1841, pp. 123-174; Code. 
1907, sees. 930, 935; General Acts. 1915, pp. 745- 

AND COTTON MILLS. See Prison Inspector. 

encies, authorized, provided, or organized 
by constitution or statute, to care for or 
meet certain duties of the commonwealth in 
the field of education, benevolence, reform, 
and miscellaneous. These agencies constitute 
one of the eight groups of activities through 
which the State as a political organization 
operates in meeting its duties to society. The 
line of demarkation between state institu- 
tions and some of the agencies organized as 
and operating upon the classification of ex- 
ecutive departments is very narrow. Many of 
the executive departments are referred to as 
institutions, but this designation is used 
largely in a descriptive sense. State insti- 
tutions are distinguished from special com- 
missions in that they are permanent and not 

The educational institutions of the State 
are the University of Alabama, the Alabama 
Polytechnic Institute, the Alabama Girls' 
Technical Institute, the six state normal 
schools at Florence, Troy, Jacksonville, Liv- 
ingston, Daphne, and Moundville, nine agri- 
cultural schools, the Northeast Alabama Agri- 
cultural and Industrial Institute, the Alabama 
Schools for the Deaf and Blind, Industrial 
School for White Boys, Mercy Industrial 
Home for White Girls, Alabama Home of 
Refuge, Tuskegee Normal and Industrial In- 
stitute, Agricultural and Mechanical School 


of Alabama for Negroes, and the State Nor- 
mal School for Colored Students. The fore- 
going form a part generally of the State edu- 
cational system, and as such are under the 
general supervision of the State education 
department, although specifically governed 
by their own boards or special governing 
bodies. The educational system referred to 
includes the state educational institutions 
and the common or elementary schools and 
high schools, the latter not regarded as an 
institution in the sense understood by this 

The benevolent institutions of the State are 
the Confederate Soldiers Home, at Mountain 
Creek; the insane hospitals, including the 
Bryce Hospital for white patients at Tusca- 
loosa, and the Mt. Vernon Hospital for negro 
insane at Mt. Vernon, Mobile County; the 
Alabama Sanatorium for Consumption and 
Tuberculosis, the Alabama Epileptic Colony, 
and the Alabama Tuberculosis Commission. 

The reformatory institutions are the Ala- 
bama Industrial School for White Boys, at 
East Lake, and the State Training School 
for Girls, at Birmingham. 

In the miscellaneous group are to be in- 
cluded the Canebrake Experiment Station, at 
Uniontown, and the Alabama State Bar Asso- 
ciation. The work of the experiment station 
is articulated with the office of commis- 
sioner of agriculture and industries, and also 
with the Alabama Polytechnic Institute. The 
commissioner of agriculture and the director 
of the experiment station of the Alabama 
Polytechnic Institute are members of its 
board of control. The State Bar Associa- 
tion, while a voluntary professional and edu- 
cational institution, is nevertheless related 
to the State officially, in that it is given 
authority to institute and prosecute or cause 
to be instituted and prosecuted in the name 
of the State, proceedings for the removal or 
disbarment of attorneys. — Code of Ala., sees. 
54-58; Acts of Ala., 1911, p. 242; and Gen- 
eral Acts, 1915, p. 201. For Bar Associa- 
tion, see Code, 1907, sec. 2995. 

The penitentiary is sometimes referred to 
as a penal institution. While this is true 
in its larger sense, for purposes of admin- 
istration, it is not so regarded. The peni- 
tentiary, together with all of the business 
connected with the administration and man- 
agement by the State of criminals after con- 
viction, is under the management and control 
of a board of convict inspectors, which con- 
stitutes a branch of the executive department 
of the State. 

Authority is given the trustees of the Ala- 
bama Polytechnic Institute to "establish and 
maintain an agricultural experiment station 
at which careful experiments in scientific 
agriculture may be made." This has been 
established and is conducted in conjunction 
with the Alabama Polytechnic Institute. 

Agricultural experiment stations and 
schools are established by the Code of 1907, 
p. 59. 

Experiment station work conducted by 
these schools is regarded generally as a part 
of their educational activities. It has been 

the custom to print a bulletin each year, 
descriptive of the work conducted by them 
as an experiment station. 

State institutions are either organized un- 
der constitutional requirement or by statute. 

Those named in the constitution of 1901 
are the University of Alabama, the Alabama 
Polytechnic Institute, the Alabama Girls' 
Technical Institute, and the Alabama School 
for the Deaf and Blind. 

Sec. 267 provides that the legislature shall 
not have power to change the location of 
the State University or of the Alabama Poly- 
technic Institute, or of the Alabama School 
for the Deaf and Blind, or of the Alabama 
Girls' Technical Institute "as now established 
by law, except upon a vote of two-thirds of 
the legislature taken by yeas and nays and 
entered upon the journals." Sec. 264 of the 
constitution provides that the University of 
Alabama shall be under the management and 
control of a board of trustees, to consist ot 
two members from the congressional district 
in which the University is located, and one 
from each of the other congressional dis- 
tricts, and the superintendent of education 
and the governor are ex-officio members of 
the board and the governor is ex-officio presi- 
dent. The members of the board elect their 
own successors. Sec. 265 of the constitution 
of 1901 requires that after the ratification 
of the constitution, there shall be paid out of 
the treasury of the State the sum of not less 
than $36,000 annually "as interest on the 
funds of the University of Alabama, hereto- 
fore kept covered into the treasury, for the 
maintenance and support of said institution," 
but the proviso is made that the legislature 
shall have power at any time it may deem 
proper for the best interest of the University 
to abolish the military system at the institu- 
tion then in existence, or reduce the said sys- 
tem to a department of instruction, and that 
such action on the part of the legislature 
shall not cause any diminution of the amount 
of annual interest payable out of the treas- 
ury for the support and maintenance of said 
university. The military was abolished in 
1903. See Acts, 1903, p. 115. 

By sec. 266, the Alabama Polytechnic In- 
stitute is placed under the management and 
control of a board of trustees, to consist of 
two members from the congressional dis- 
trict in which the institution is located, and 
one from each of the other congressional 
districts of the State, the state superintend- 
ent and the governor, the latter ex-officio 
president of the board. 

All of the institutions above referred to 
are under governing boards, known either as 
boards of trustees or boards of control, or 
boards of managers or directors. 

With the exception of the Confederate 
Soldiers' Home, the Canebrake Experiment 
Station, the State Bar Association, the Epi- 
leptic Colony, and the three negro normal 
Bchools, the governor is ex-officio president 
or chairman of the several boards. 

The state superintendent of education is 
ex officio a member of all educational insti- 



tutions, with the exception of the three nor- 
mal schools for negroes. 

The State has no ex-officio relation to the 
State Bar Association. 

The attorney general is ex-officio a member 
of the boards of the Alabama Industrial 
School for White Boys, the Mercy Home In- 
dustrial School for White Girls, and of the 
State Training School for Girls. 

The commissioner of agriculture and in- 
dustries is ex-officio a member of the board 
of control of the district agricultural schools 
and experiment stations, the Alabama In- 
dustrial School for White Boys, and the Cane- 
brake Agricultural Experiment Station. 

The state health officer is ex-officio a mem- 
ber of the board of control of the Alabama 
Sanitorium for Consumption and Tubercu- 
losis, and of the board of commissioners of 
the Alabama Epileptic Colony. 

All of these institutions receive state sup- 
port with the exception of the Alabama State 
Bar Association. 

All are wholly dependent upon state sup- 
port with the exception of the Mercy Home 
Industrial School for White Girls, and the 
Tuskegee Normal and Industrial Institute. 
The former is under the patronage of the 
Mercy Home, a private philanthropic institu- 
tion of Birmingham. The latter has large 
endowments, as well as annual gifts in large 

The Alabama Sanatorium for Consumption 
and Tuberculosis has not yet been erected. 
A site has been secured near Cullman, but 
nothing further has been done. The board 
of commissioners of the Epileptic Colony has 
organized, but nothing has been done by way 
of carrying forward its activities or for 
opening an institution for inmates. 

The oldest of the state institutions is the 
State University, which had its genesis in the 
enabling act, which provided a township of 
land as the basis for an endowment. The 
next oldest is the Bryce Hospital at Tusca- 
loosa. The Mt. Vernon Hospital, which is 
used for the negro insane, is located on the 
grounds and in the buildings' formerly the 
Mt. Vernon military reservation and barracks, 
donated or re-ceded to the State in 1895 by 
the federal government. 

The Alabama Polytechnic Institute is the 
agency in the State through which the Fed- 
eral government extends aid in agricultural 
and industrial arts. It is the recipient of all 
monies which come to Alabama under the 
Hatch, Morrill, and Smith-Lever acts. 

Administration. — In the administration of 
State institutions, they are almost uniformly 
directed by individual or separate boards. 
One section obtains in the matter of the gov- 
ernment of the State normal schools and the 
agricultural schools and experiment stations. 
The former are under a board of eight mem- 
bers consisting of the governor, the super- 
intendent of education and six members ap- 
pointed by the governor "for the government, 
regulation and control of the several white 
normal schools of the State." — (Acts of Ala. 
1911, p. 494.) The latter are under the con- 
trol of the boards of control, one for each 

school, to be composed of the governor, the 
State superintendent of education, the com- 
missioner of agriculture and industries and 
two members to be appointed for the con- 
gressional district in which the particular 
school is located. 

In 1868, by article II of the constitution 
adopted in that year, "The normal schools, 
and other educational institutions of this 
State shall be under the management of a 
board of education, consisting of a member 
of public constructions and two members for 
each congressional district." The governor 
was to be ex-officio a member of the board, 
but without vote. The superintendent of 
education was to be the president of the 
board and have a casting vote in case of a 
tie only. This board was also to serve as a 
board of regents of the State University. 
This was the first important effort at cen- 
terizing the administration of the education- 
al institutions of the State, but it was not a 
success, and broad as it was of reconstruction 
it was stricken down by the adoption of the 
constitution of 1875. 

The modern method of administration as 
evidenced in many states by the creation of 
state boards of charity and correction, state 
board of regents, etc., have been revived by 
the creation of the board for administration 
for agricultural schools and normal schools 
as above. 

There are no State institutions for feeble- 
minded, or inebriates. 

See McLaughlin and Hart, vol. 2, p. 185. 

In practically all cases the governor names 
the members of the boards. None are elect- 
ed directly by the people. Prom time to time, 
through experience or other consideration, 
the first members of the board have been 
elected by the legislature. Some are self- 
perpetuating as with the University, the re- 
formatory at East Lake. 

INSURANCE. Insurance and the business 
of insurance and all State laws relating there- 
to are administered by the insurance depart- 
ment (q. v.), which has jurisdiction over all 
corporations, companies, firms, and individ- 
uals doing any form of insurance, whether 
fire, life, benefit, accident, indemnity, naeiuy, 
guaranty, employers' liability, casualty, pia-ie 
glass, burglary, automobile, tornado or 
cyclone. Every life insurance company char- 
tered under the laws of Alabama must have 
at least $100,000 paid up capital; every such 
fire insurance company, except mutual com- 
panies chartered before the adoption of the 
present code, $100,000; all other domestic 
insurance companies, not less than $50,000. 
The law specifically forbids the declaration or 
payment of any dividend except from surplus 
profits. Mutual life insurance companies, 
that is, companies issuing life insurance upon 
the cooperative or assessment plan, may not do 
business in the State until at least 100 per- 
sons shall have subscribed in writing for in- 
surance to the aggregate amount of at least 
$250,000; nor may any such company be per- 
mitted to do business unless and until it com- 
plies with the law requiring the deposit of 



certain securities with the insurance depart- 
ment. Any insurance company which so de- 
sires may adopt the mutual plan. 

Early Charters of Combination Insurance 
Companies. — The first company intended to 
transact insurance business as a part of its 
activities incorporated under Alabama laws, 
was the "Mobile Marine Railway and Insur- 
ance Company," January 13, 1827. From the 
organization of this company until about 
1875, all domestic insurance companies were 
incorporated under special charters issued by 
the legislature, the same as other corpora- 
tions. Their rights, powers, and the restric- 
tions upon their activities usually were stip- 
ulated in more or less detail in the acts of in- 
corporation. The charter of the first company 
in the State prescribed among other things 
the number and the mode of electing direc- 
tors; defined their duties and powers; author- 
ized the adoption of by-laws; specified the 
class of insurance risks that should be taken; 
and fixed other minor regulations for the 
government of the company. Several of the 
early companies were empowered to trapsact 
other kinds of business as well as insurance. 
The one above mentioned was of this class. 
It was incorporated "for the purpose of erect- 
ing a marine iron railway, for the hauling up 
and repairing of vessels, steam boats and other 
water craft, and for transacting the business 
of marine, inland and general insurance." 
Some of the others were authorized to do min- 
ing, navigate steamboats, act as trust com- 
panies, etc. 

Beginnings of Regulation. — Aside from the 
regulations included in the charters there 
were no laws applying specifically to insurance 
or insurance companies until 1860, when an 
act taxing foreign insurance companies, evi- 
dently for the purpose of preventing competi- 
tion with domestic companies, was passed. 
Under the code of 1852, the capital stock of 
insurance companies was taxed the same as 
that of other domestic corporations. In the 
penal code adopted January 9, 1841, and form- 
ing a part of the code of 1852, penalties were 
provided for attempting to defraud insurance 
companies by burning or otherwise destroying 
ships or vessels, or goods and property on the 
same, or any building, goods, wares, merchan- 
dise, or other property. These laws were in- 
tended not only to penalize crime, but also 
to protect insurance companies. The act of 
February 24, 1860, which first placed the 
regulation of insurance companies under the 
jurisdiction of an executive officer of the 
State, imposed a tax of 2 per cent on the 
gross amount of premiums collected in the 
State by a foreign insurance company, and in 
addition required of foreign companies tran- 
sacting business in the county of Mobile, the 
payment of $2 00 a year for the benefit of the 
Fire Department Association of Mobile, and 
$200 a year to the trustees of the Mobile 
Medical College. It was likewise required 
that $200 a year should be paid by each com- 
pany for establishing an agency in any other 
town where there was a fire company, for the 
benefit of such fire company. No such priv- 
VoL n— 5 

ilege taxes were required of domestic com- 
panies; and it appears, therefore, that foieign 
companies were subjected to these rather high 
charges mainly as a means of minimizing 
competition with Alabama companies. How- 
ever, this scale of taxation did not long re- 
main in effect, that part of the law being re- 
pealed by act of November 28, 1862. In 1867 
an act was passed to permit married women 
to insure the lives of their husbands under 
specified conditions. In November, 1868, it 
was provided that persons thereafter apply- 
ing for charters under the corporation laws 
of the State should file their application with 
the secretary of state, by whom the charter 
would be issued instead of by special act of 
the legislature as theretofore. After the pas- 
sage of this act there were no more insurance 
companies chartered by the legislature. 

Alabama Insurance Companies during the 
War. — During the first two years of the War 
there were several new insurance companies 
incorporated in the State, and quite a number 
of acts were passed to increase the powers and 
privileges of domestic companies so as to 
enable them to meet the unusual conditions. 
Acts of November 20 and December 11, 1862, 
made provision respectively for the absence 
of officers of insurance companies in the Con- 
federate Army, and for the investment of 
such companies' funds in Confederate secur- 
ities. Besides these, there were several acts 
authorizing increases in the capital stock of 
different companies, probably to enable them 
to assume the large amount of business can- 
celled by northern companies on account of 
the War. 

Post Belluni Conditions. — While there were 
no insurance companies chartered by the leg- 
islature after 1868, yet there were several 
laws passed during the next 10 years which 
made provision for the adjustment of insur- 
ance companies' affairs, the reduction of their 
capital stock, and in some cases for their 
liquidation. An act of April 23, 1873, author- 
ized the consolidation of insurance companies 
with companies organized for the transaction 
of other kinds of business, under stiplated con- 
ditions. Provision was made by act of Feb- 
ruary 10, 1875, for winding up the affairs and 
the dissolution of private domestic corpora- 
tions, including insurance companies. During 
the latter part of the seventies, the mutual 
plan of insurance came into prominence, and 
an act of February 13, 1879, enabled Alabama 
companies to adopt or abandon that plan. On 
February 18, 1897, the supervision of all the 
insurance companies, both domestic and 
foreign, was vested in the office of the secre- 
tary of state. 

Earliest Companies. — The first Alabama 
company organized for the purpose of issuing 
insurance as a part of its business was the 
Mobile Marine Railway & Insurance Co., or- 
ganized January 13, 1827. Because of the 
delay in launching the company, it was neces- 
sary to reissue the charter January 28, 1829. 
The company's authorized capital stock was 
$500,000, of which $100,000 must be paid in 
before it could commence business. The next 



company incorporated was the Merchants' In- 
surance Co., organized December 28, 1832, 
whose authorized capital stock was $200,000. 
The charter of this company ran until Decem- 
ber 31, 1850. The Tuscumbia Rail Road In- 
surance Co. was incorporated January 17, 
1834, and the Alabama Lite Insurance & Trust 
Co., of Mobile, January 9, 1836. The latter 
company was one of the more prominent ones, 
and its charter is typical of most of those 
issued previous to 1860. 

It was incorporated for 20 years, with an 
authorized capital of $1,000,000. Its affairs 
were managed by a board of trustees, which 
was empowered "to make insurance on lives 
and also against losses by fire and to take 
marine risks; to grant and purchase annuities; 
to make any other contracts involving the in- 
terests or use of money, and the duration of 
life; to receive moneys in trust, and to ac- 
cumulate the same at such rate of interest 
as may be obtained or agreed on, or to allow 
such interest thereon as may be agreed on; 
to accept and execute all such trusts of 
every description as may be committed to 
them .... ; to receive and hold lands under 
.... general or special trusts or covenants, 
so far as the same may be taken in payment 
of their debts, or as security for loans of their 
capital or otherwise. . . ." The company was 
authorized to act as guardian or trustee of 
estates of infants, lunatics or other persons, 
upon appointment by a competent court; and 
it was required to pay not less than 4 per cent 
interest on sums over $100 received in trust 
or on deposit. There were 27 sections in the 
act of incorporation, in which most of the 
details of the insurance and trust business as 
at present carried on were provided for and 
regulated. The right to charter other insur- 
ance companies was expressly reserved to the 
legislature. The attitude of the lawmakers 
and the conception of the rights and proper 
functions of private corporations upon which 
these early charters were predicated are well 
illustrated by section 26 of this company's 
charter, which provided that, "this act shall 
not be construed to confer on the said com- 
pany any rights or power to make any con- 
tract, or to accept or exercise any trust what- 
ever, which it would not be lawful for any 
individual when not restrained by statute 
under the general rules of law, which are, or 
shall be in force, to make, accept or execute." 
Statistics of Incorporation of Companies. — 
Up to 1868, between 75 and 80 insurance com- 
panies, including those which transacted other 
kinds of business along with insurance, were 
incorporated by the legislature. The spread 
of interest in the subject of insurance and 
the growth of the business in the State are 
exhibited by analysis of the statistics of do- 
mestic companies chartered in various years. 
There was one company chartered in 1827, 
one in 1832, one in 1834, three in 1836, two 
in 1837, three in 1840, one each in 1843 and 
1845, four in 1848, one in 1849, two in 1850, 
one in 1851, four in 1852, four in 1854, nine 
in 1856, four in 1858, fourteen in 1860, six 
in 1861, two in 1863, five in 1866, and seven 

panies organized in Mobile; 9 in Selma; 7 in 
Montgomery; 4 in Eufaula; 3 in Wetumpka; 
2 in Florence; 2 in Tuscaloosa; 2 in Tuskegee; 
1 each in Cahaba, Demopolis, Eutaw, Green- 
ville, Huntsville, Jacksonville, Lafayette. Liv- 
ingston, Opelika, Talladega, Troy, Tuscumbia, 
in 1867. There were 17, possibly more, com- 
Uniontown, and Woodville, and several others 
organized in different counties but not listed 
here. Many of these companies probably never 
actually did any business, nor even perfected 
their organizations; but just how many can 
notbe ascertained because there was no pub- 
lic supervision of them, and consequently no 
available record of their history. Several of 
them were organized by men of wealth and 
prominence, and had, not only sufficient 
capital with which to do business, but also 
the confidence of the people, and enjoyed 
the prestige conferred by the integrity and 
wisdom of their directorates. There were sev- 
eral increases in capitalization, and an occa- 
sional consolidation among these local enter- 
prises; and probably a reasonable proportion 
of their number did not long survive, but here 
again records are lacking. The scope of the 
undertakings of some of the companies is 
shown by an examination of the charter of the 
Marion Insurance & Trust Co., incorporated 
in 1860. This company was "invested with 
power and authority to make general insur- 
ance upon houses, stables, machinery, cotton, 
corn and other produce; upon lives and health, 
both of white persons and of slaves, upon 
stock of every description, upon vessels, boats, 
freights, money, goods, wares and merchan- 
dise, and any other species of property, against 
loss in any manner by fire, dangers of the sea, 
rivers or otherwise, at such rate of premium 
as such company may agree to, and to tran- 
sact all such matters as appertain to an in- 
surance company, and also .... to loan its 
money or funds, from whatever source re- 
ceived, at interest, to invest the same in real 
or personal securities, by discounting, and 
deal with the same in the purchase and sale 
of domestic and foreign exchange .... to 
receive in trust, or on deposit, all funds or 
moneys that may be offered to them, on inter- 
est or otherwise." The company was forbid- 
den to issue any certificates of deposits, notes, 
or other paper intended to circulate as money, 
and to deal in or use the funds of foreign 

Statistics, 1915. — At the close of 1915 there 
were 15 insurance companies of various kinds 
organized under Alabama laws which were 
actively engaged in business. Of these, two 
do fire and marine insurance; four life insur- 
ance; one accident or casualty insurance; and 
eight are assessment and mutual aid associa- 
tions. One of the fire and marine companies 
began business in 1866, and the other in 
1870. Their combined capital is $300,000; 
the total amount of insurance in force Decem- 
ber 31, 1915, $3,649,414. They have paid 
losses aggregating $775,014.59, and have re- 
ceived in premiums on insurance written since 
beginning business a total of $2,572,087.03. 
The four life insurance companies were 

Col. Albert J. Pickett William R. Smith William Garrett Alexander B. Meek 

7*i EM 1"%! 
'■JB ij {B 

n n oi 

Peter J. Hamilton 

Matthew P. Blue Dr. Dudley D. Saunders 

Joel C. Du Bose Prof. Henry S. Halbert Rev. T. H. 

William G. Brown Dr. Thomas M. Owen George M. Cruikshank Willis Brewer 



organized in 1906. 1907, 1908, and 1913; 
their combined paid-in capital stock is $511,- 
517.50; the combined amount of insurance in 
force December 31, 1915, $28,533,900.50; 
total in force in Alabama, $10,895,084.50. 

The casualty company was organized in 
1909 and commenced business in 1910. Its 
paid-in capital is $300,000. 

The assessment or mutual aid associations 
have all been incorporated since 1897. 

See Auditor, the State; Fires; Insurance, 
Department of; Insurance, Fraternal; Secre- 
tary of State. 

References.— Code. 1852, sees. 391, 3134-3137; 
1867, sees. 1180-1191; 1907, sees. 4543-4610; 
General Acts, 1909, pp. 321-326; 1911, pp. 685- 
689; 1915, pp. 505, 834-838; State Auditor, Re- 
port, Insurance Dept, 1870, pp. iv and ix, 1871, 
p. ix, 1872, p. ix; State Insurance Commissioner, 
Reports, 1897-1915; State Fire Marshal, Annual 
reports, 1910-1913; Mobile Marine Dock & Mu- 
tual Ins. Co. v. McMillan, 31 Ala., p. 711; Pied- 
mont & Arlington Life Ins. Co. v. Young, 58 
Ala., p. 476; Alabama Gold Life Ins. Co. v. 
Mayes, 61 Ala., p. 163; Home Ins. Co. v. Adler, 
71 Ala., p. 516; Alabama Gold Life Ins. Co. v. 
Johnston, 80 Ala., p. 467; Central City Ins. Co. 
v. Oates. 86 Ala., p. 558; Noble v. Mitchell, 100 
Ala., p. 519; Moore v. McClure, 124 Ala., p. 120; 
Continental Ins. Co. v. Parkes, 142 Ala., p. 659; 
Ray ford v. Faulk, 154 Ala., p. 291; State Life 
Ins. Co. v. Westcott et al, 166 Ala., p. 192; 
Mutual Life Ins. Co. v. Allen, Ibid, p. 159; 
Sheffield Oil Mill et al v. Pool et al, 169 Ala., 
p. 422. 

executive department, created September 25, 
1915. The act relieved the office of the secre- 
tary of state of all powers of regulation, and 
committed to the newly established depart- 
ment "the administration of all laws, now in 
force or, which may hereafter be enacted re- 
lating to insurance companies doing business 
in the State." 

The "chief officer of the department" is a 
commissioner of insurance, who is appointed 
by the governor for a term of four years. He 
is required to enter into bond for $25,000; 
and receives an annual salary of $3,000. The 
commissioner may appoint a deputy, at a 
salary of $2,000; and a clerical assistant, at 
a salary of $1,000 a year. The department 
has offices in the capitol, and succeeded to all 
functions and property of the insurance de- 
partment in the office of the secretary of 
state. The commissioner is empowered to 
examine periodically the affairs and financial 
condition of every insurance company doing 
business in the State, with particular refer- 
ence to its ability to fulfill its obligations, 
and, when making such an examination, may 
call upon the governor for the services of an 
examiner of public accounts. The commis- 
sioner may designate a qualified actuary to 
assist the State examiner. It is the duty of 
the commissioner, after having satisfied him- 
self of thtir qualifications under the laws, to 
issue licenses to all insurance companies, both 
domestic and foreign, before they can solicit 
business or issue policies. 

Supervision. — State supervision of insur- 
ance companies in Alabama begins with an 
act of February 24, 1860, requiring every in- 
surance company, not chartered under Ala- 
bama laws, to procure a certificate of author- 
ity from the comptroller of public accounts 
(now State auditor) before the transaction of 
business. Before issuing such certificates, 
the comptroller was required to procure from 
each company a statement under oath of its 
president or secretary, setting forth in pre- 
scribed detail its history and financial condi- 
tion, and to procure such reports in the month 
of July annually thereafter, upon which, if 
satisfactory, renewal of the authority of each 
company to do business should be issued. 

Notwithstanding the fact that the law con- 
ferred wide powers of discretion upon the 
comptroller in connection with the issuance 
of certificates to foreign insurance companies, 
little in the way of supervision of their condi- 
tion and activities seems to have been under- 
taken by that officer for a number of years 
after its passage. This is partly to be ex- 
plained by conditions during the War and 
Reconstruction periods. It does not appear 
that any discussion or even tabulation of the 
insurance business of the department was in- 
corporated in the annual reports until 1869, 
and for that year is given merely a list of 
the names and locations of the companies 
which had complied with the law. 

Genesis of State Regulation. — Prior to 
1860 no State regulation of insurance com- 
panies, either domestic or foreign, had been 
provided for by law, and domestic companies 
were not brought under the supervision of 
State officers, except in so far as they were 
governed by the stipulations of their respec- 
tive charters, until 1897. No report was 
made by the comptroller or auditor of for- 
eign companies that had complied with the 
terms of the law of 1860 until 1869, and then 
merely the names and locations of such 
companies were reported. In 1870 State 
Auditor R. M. Reynolds made a separate re- 
port for the insurance department of his 
office, in which he recommended the exten- 
sion of the State's regulation so as to include 
companies organized under its own laws as 
well as foreign companies. 

"Those insurance companies are deemed 
most safe and transact most business," he 
said, "which are by law required to respond 
to the most rigid exactions, and hold the 
largest reserve fund for the security of the 
assured .... the people of this common- 
wealth are all interested in having sound in- 
stitutions only presented to tnem for patron- 
age, and I am fully convinced that the legisla- 
tive and executive departments should fur- 
nish such and only such safe depositories of 
trust for the assured, so that the fact that 
any insurance company has an agent duly 
authorized and empowered to issue a policy 
in this State, should give full confidence to 
the assured that his policy will not prove a 
broken reed in the day of loss or sad bereave- 
ment. This office is charged only with the 
supervision of 'insurance companies not in- 



corporated by this State.' No supervision is 
granted or required over the institutions 
which Alabama should carefully cherish and 
present as of first importance to our own 
citizens. There is no good reason why 
'Alabama companies' should not do the larger 
portion of the insurance business of the State; 
yet they are scarcely known, and when 
known, they only have character or influence 
from the known integrity of the managers. 
The assured have no official guarantee of the 
soundness or solvency of any Home company 
in which he is insured." 

With these comments on the existing con- 
ditions he submitted specific suggestions for 
legislation calculated to bring about an im- 
provement; but no action was taken by the 
legislature. He renewed his recommenda- 
tions in his annual report for 1871, stating 
that "it is well known that this office Is not 
charged with any supervision of companies 
incorporated by the laws of this State. Vari- 
ous companies have been organized under 
the general law regulating corporations, and 
many of them are doing a profitable business 
in insurance. The people are not officially 
advised of the solvency of these companies 
from any sworn statements filed as to assets 
and liabilities, and their ability to re-insure 
outstanding risks. They have character and 
standing only from the known integrity of 
their corporators and managers. 

"It will be seen by the list of companies 
hereinafter given, that the Central Insurance 
Company, of Selma, and the Home Protection 
Fire, of Huntsville, have invited examination, 
by a voluntary compliance with the laws gov- 
erning 'insurance companies not incorporated 
by this State,' and have filed annual statement 
of condition, &c. Believing that many of our 
home companies would gladly comply with 
an exacting law, and being fully convinced 
that it would largely increase their business, 
I would recommend that the laws be so 
amended as to require supervision of all home 
companies in the State, by filing satisfactory 
evidence of solvency before transacting any 
business of insurance through their agents. 

"It is estimated that less than one-fifth 
of the perishable property in this State is cov- 
ered by insurance. Life insurance extends to 
less than one-tenth of the adult population of 
the State whose lives are insurable. This 
leaves a large field for insurance, which 
should be occupied chiefly by home compan- 
ies. It is evident that most of the business 
is now done by companies organized in other 
States, and, indeed, without change in the 
laws regulating home companies, which would 
place them upon a known solvent basis, it 
becomes indispensable to the welfare of the 
people that foreign companies should con- 
tinue to do the greater part of the business 
of insurance in this State." 

And again in 1872, he urged: "I would 
urgently recommend the enactment of an in- 
surance law which would secure full and 
rigid supervision of all corporations of insur- 
ance doing business within the State of Ala- 
bama. All patrons of insurance wish to be 

well advised in relation to the solvency of 
companies in which they insure, and if they 
cannot be officially guaranteed as to solvency, 
they can profit by a thorough official exami- 
nation into the condition of such companies 
as they wish to patronize. The present laws 
are entirely inadequate to secure proper ex- 
amination and supervision. It is with pleas- 
ure that we record the fact that the policy- 
holders of the State have not lost money to 
any considerable amount by the bankruptcy 
of foreign insurance companies, yet we are 
as frank to admit that this prevention of 
loss did not arise from a rigid supervision 
of insurance under existing laws. The im- 
portance of a general insurance act for this 
State cannot be over estimated, provided that 
its provisions will secure solvency in all com- 
panies who may secure certificates of author- 
ity from the head of the department, and 
place the business of insurance upon a perma- 
nent basis in the State. The State should, 
through her officers, protect patrons of insur- 
ance from loss, and the corporations should 
secure consideration at the hands of the 

Insurance Commissioner Ex Officio (1897.) 
— A new insurance law was enacted in 1875, 
but it applied only to foreign companies as 
before. In 1897 the whole system of insur- 
ance regulation was reorganized, and its 
administration placed in the hands of the 
secretary of state, who was made insurance 
commissioner ex officio, and was allowed a 
deputy commissioner to assist him. The juris- 
diction of the new ex officio department ex- 
tended both to domestic and foreign com- 
panies, and thus, for the first time, companies 
organized under Alabama laws were brought 
under the supervisory functions of the execu- 
tive department of the State. Provision was 
made in 1909 for the investigation by a State 
executive officer of the origin and circum- 
stances of fires affecting insured property, 
whether in urban or rural communities; and 
in aid of such official investigation, mayors 
of towns and villages, chiefs of city fire de- 
partments, county sheriffs, and other public 
officers are required to report to the insurance 
commissioner within one week the occurrence 
of every such fire. 

Fire Marshal. — In the proclamation con- 
vening the legislature in extra session, 1909, 
Gov. B. B. Comer included in the list of sub- 
jects to be considered the question of investi- 
gation of fires by the insurance department, 
acting directly through its officials, instead of 
through the county officials as formerly. 
While the law of 1897 governed the activities 
of the department, all inquiries into the 
origin of or the circumstances attending fires 
had to be conducted by a jury composed of 
three property holders, appointed by the 
sheriff upon request of the insurance commis- 
sioner, or by a regular grand jury. But under 
the provisions of an act approved August 31, 
1909, the appointment of a special deputy 
insurance commissioner was authorized, 
whose salary was fixed at $2,000 a year, pay- 
able from the proceeds of a tax of one-fifth 


of one per cent on the gross premiums re- 
ceived by insurance companies on business 
transacted in Alabama. The deputy was re- 
movable at the pleasure of the commissioner 
and was required to furnish a surety bond 
of $5,000. He was given ample powers to 
investigate the origin, causes, and circum- 
stances of all fires which affected insured 
property, whether in cities or rural communi- 
ties, and to assist him in the discharge of his 
duties, mayors of towns and villages, chiefs 
of city fire departments, county sheriffs, and 
other public officers were required to report 
to the insurance commissioner, within one 
week, the occurrence of every such fire. This 
official was known as fire marshal. In 1911 
this law was so amended as to authorize the 
employment of such special assistants or legal 
advisers as might be needed in conducting in- 
vestigations of fires. 

Fire Prevention. — As a part of the work of 
reducing the loss from fires in the State, and 
supplementing the efforts of the State fire 
marshal in the same direction, the legislature 
adopted a joint resolution, September 25, 
1915, requesting the governor to issue his 
proclamation designating October 9, 1915, as 
Fire Prevention Day in Alabama, to be ob- 
served by "fire drills in public schools, the 
inspection of fire apparatus everywhere, and 
the removal of all dangerous rubbish from 
public and private buildings and premises." 
The date selected was the anniversary of the 
great Chicago fire, and had been designated 
as National Fire Prevention Day by the Safety 
First Federation of America. The proclama- 
tion was issued, and the day generally ob- 
served in the State with appropriate exercises. 

Publications— Reports. 18981914, 17 vols.; 
Preliminary Reports. 1906-1915, 7 vols.; Ala- 
bama insurance bulletin. 1908-1914, vols. 1-7; 
Fire marshal publications, 6 vols.; Insurance 
codes and laws, 1893-1915, 12 vols.; Insurance 
agents' directory. 1901-1916, 13 vols.; Reports 
of examinations, 1905-1912, 7 vols. 

See Auditor, the State; Fires; Insurance; 
Insurance, Fraternal; Secretary of State. 

References.— Code. 1867. sees. 1180-1191; 
1907, sees. 4543 et seq.; Acts, 1859-60, pp. 113- 
117; 1874-75, pp. 142-147; 1896-97, pp. 1377 et 
seq.; General Acts, 1909, pp. 321-326: 1911, pp. 
685-689; 1915, pp. 132, 834-838, 882-883, 915. 

fits, funeral benefits, or benefits on account 
of temporary or permanent physical disa- 
bility, either as the result of disease, accident, 
or old age, paid or contracted to be paid by 
"any corporation, society, order or voluntary 
association, without capital stock, organized 
and carried on solely for the mutual benefit 
of its members and their beneficiaries, and 
not for profit, and having a lodge system with 
ritualistic form of work and representative 
form of government. . . ." In their insur- 
ance activities in the State, fraternal socie- 
ties are governed by the act of April 24, 1911, 
"for the regulation and control of fraternal 
benefit societies"; and, except as therein pro- 
vided, are "exempt from all provisions of the 
insurance laws of this State, not only in gov- 

ernmental relations with the State, but for 
every other purpose, and no law hereafter 
enacted shall apply to them, unless they be 
expressly designated therein." However, by 
its own terms, the act is administered by the 
State commissioner of insurance, (see Insur- 
ance, Department of) the same as other in- 
surance laws; and the license, or permit to 
do an insurance business in the State, of every 
fraternal benefit society is issued or annually 
renewed by him, for which a fee of $50 is 

Section 3 of the act provides that "every 
fraternal benefit society organized or licensed 
under this act is hereby declared to be a chari- 
table and benevolent institution, and all of 
its funds shall be exempt from all and every 
State, county, district, municipal and school 
tax, other than taxes on real estate and office 
equipment." The act regulates many details 
of the transaction of assessment or "benefit" 
insurance, as the character of the benefits 
which may be paid and the sources from 
which the necessary funds may be obtained, 
with the mode of their collection; the degrees 
of kinship of beneficiaries to the insured; the 
qualifications for beneficial membership; the 
nature and scope of the benefit certificates is- 
sued; the creation and maintenance of emer- 
gency, surplus, or sinking funds; the methods 
of disbursing such funds; the investment of 
funds, with the character of securities in 
which investments may be made; the mode 
of organization and the forms of constitutions 
and by-laws; methods of internal govern- 
ment; the relations between supreme, or 
grand lodges and their subordinate bodies; 
the responsibilities and liabilities of general 
and of local officials; and numerous other 
details which cannot be here enumerated. 

In addition to those named below, there 
have been active in the State at different 
times, several other fraternal insurance socie- 
ties, among them the American Patriots, An- 
cient Knights and Daughters of Africa, Emi- 
nent Household of Columbian Woodmen, 
Grand Lodge Knights and Ladies of Hon- 
or, Knights of Honor, Knights of the 
Mystic Chain, North American Union, Order 
of Calanthe, Praetorians, Rising Sons and 
Daughters of Protection, Southern Wood- 
men, Supreme Lodge Masons' Annuity, Uni- 
ted Brothers of Friendship and Sisters of 
Mysterious Ten, and others. 

The appended list shows the title and the 
headquarters of the 39 fraternal benefit socie- 
ties licensed in the State for the year 1916. 
American Workmen, Washington, D. C. 
Brotherhood of All Railway Employees, Chi- 
cago, 111. 
Brotherhood of Locomotive Firemen & 

Enginemen, Peoria, 111. 
Colored Knights & Ladies of Honor of 

America, Birmingham, Ala. 
Columbian Circle, Chicago, 111. 
Columbian Fraternal Association, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 
Columbian Woodmen, Atlanta, Ga. 
Cycle of Equity, Birmingham, Ala. 
Fraternal Aid Union, Lawrence, Kas. 



Grand Fraternity, Philadelphia, Pa. 

Grand Union Order of Odd Fellows (Col.), 

Selma, Ala. 
Heralds of Liberty, Huntsville, Ala. 
Improved Order of Heptasophs, Baltimore, 

Independent Order of Brothers & Sisters of 

Consolation, Uniontown, Ala. 
Independent Order of Immaculates, Florence, 

International Order Twelve Knights and 
Daughters of Tabor, Montgomery, Ala. 
Loyal American Life Association, Chicago, 111. 
Maccabees, Detroit, Mich. 

Masonic Mutual Life Association, Washing- 
ton, D. C. 
Modern Order of Praetorians, Dallas, Tex. 
Modern Woodmen of America, Rock Island, 

National Order of Mosaic Templars of 

America, Little Rock, Ark. 
National Council of the Knights & Ladies of 

Security, Topeka, Kas. 
National Slovak Society of U. S. A., Pittsburg, 

National Union, Toledo, Ohio. 
Order of the Golden Seal, Roxbury, N. Y. 
Order of United Commercial Travelers of 

America, Columbus, O. 
Protected Home Circle, Sharon, Pa. 
Royal Neighbors of America, Rock Island, 111. 
Sovereign Camp Woodmen of the World, 

Omaha, Neb. 
Supreme Camp American Woodmen, Denver, 

Supreme Forest Woodmen Circle, Omaha, 

Supreme Lodge Knights of Pythias (Insur- 
ance Department), Indianapolis, Ind. 
(See Knights of Pythias.) 
Supreme Ruling of the Fraternal Mystic 

Circle, Philadelphia, Pa. 
Supreme Tribe of Ben-Hur, Crawfordsville, 

Travelers Protective Association of America, 

St. Louis, Mo. 
United Order of the Golden Cross, Knoxville, 

United Order of Good Shepherds, Montgom- 
ery, Ala. 
Woman's Benefit Association of the Macca- 
bees, Port Huron, Mich. 
See Insurance; Insurance, Department of; 
Knights of Columbus; Knights of Pythias. 

Referen-ces— General Acts, 1911, pp. 700-722; 
Fraternal insurance regulations (n. d., pp. 16); 
Commissioner of Insurance, Annual report, Dec. 
31, 1916 (1917), pp. 1050-1051; Supreme Com- 
matidery of Knights of Golden Rule v. Ains- 
worth, 71 Ala., p. 436; Southern Mutual Aid 
Association v. Boyd et al. 145 Ala., p. 167; Fra- 
ternal Union of America v. Zeiglcr, Ibid, p. 
287; United Order of Golden Cross v. Hooser, 
160 Ala., p. 334; Mutual Life Industrial Asso- 
ciation of Georgia v. Scott, 170 Ala., p. 424. 

of Alabama is prohibited by its constitution 
from engaging in works of internal improve- 
ment. Section 9 3 of that instrument provides 
that, "The State shall not engage in works of 

internal improvement, nor lend money or its 
credit in aid of such; nor shall the State be 
interested in any private or corporate enter- 
prise, or lend money or its credit to any in- 
dividual, association, or corporation." A 
similar prohibition was also contained in the 
constitution of 1875, but not in previous con- 
stitutions. When the conservative white 
people of the State met in the convention of 
1875 to draft a new constitution, they came 
with their minds made up to prevent a repeti- 
tion of the frauds and venality in connection 
with public aid of private enterprises which 
during the previous 10 years had caused 
much trouble and litigation, and resulted in 
piling up an enormous State debt. 

However, for the first several years the 
State had no regular organized system of 
revenue, and partly for that reason, the legis- 
latures were slow to adopt a policy calling for 
continued expenditures. Upon one principle 
nearly every one agreed: The future develop- 
ment of the State, agriculturally, commer- 
cially, socially and politically depended upon 
the connection of its northern and southern 
sections by some ready means of communica- 
tion and transportation. From the first ses- 
sion of the legislature until the completion of 
the South & North Railroad (q. v.) in 
September, 1872, this belief continued to be 
the crux of the internal-improvement ques- 
tion. The means first suggested for accom- 
plishing this desideratum, as we have seen, 
was the construction of roads and the im- 
provement of rivers and large creeks, shortly 
followed by propositions for digging canals to 
connect the streams which were already navi- 
gable. Pike roads and plank roads later came 
into prominence as the most economical and 
efficacious means of connecting the isolated 
communities in the State. Almost contem- 
poraneously with the advocacy of the plank 
road, the promotion of railroad enterprises 
began, and later they were the principal re- 
cipients of State financial assistance. Some 
companies were chartered both as plank road 
and railroad companies, the construction of 
one or the other being optional with the 
boards of directors. After the adoption of a 
definite policy of public aid to internal im- 
provement enterprises, the assistance was for 
several years rendered by means of appropria- 
tions from the two and three per cent funds as 
loans, for which the companies were to fur- 
nish ample security to the State, and pay in- 
terest. Later, loans of money from the State 
treasury, the endorsement of railroad bonds 
by the State, and the loan of State bonds to 
railroad companies became the usual practice 
in assisting such enterprises. 

Early Recommendations. — The necessity for 
a system of internal improvements was 
recognized from the organization of the 
State. The first governor, William Wyatt 
Bibb, discussed the desirability of encourag- 
ing or assisting, or both, the construction of 
public roads and other means of communica- 
tion between the towns and settlements of 
the young Commonwealth by the granting of 
franchises with certain exclusive privileges, 



or the loan of public funds to individuals or 
companies who would undertake such im- 
provements. In his message of October 26, 
1819, he recommended the passage of a law 
providing for the appointment of a "skillful 
engineer, whose duties it shall be to examine 
the rivers within our limits, and to report 
as soon as practicable, to what extent, in 
what manner, and at what expense, the navi- 
gation of each may be improved, and also 
the nearest and most eligible approaches 
which can be made between the waters of 
the Tennessee and Mobile Rivers." He called 
attention to the provision of the constitution 
to the effect that "the General Assembly 
shall make provision by law for obtaining 
correct knowledge of the several objects pro- 
posed for improvement in relation to the 
navigable waters and to the roads of the state 
and shall make a systematic and economical 
application of the means appropriated to those 
objects." In accordance with this recommen- 
dation the legislature passed a law authoriz- 
ing the examination of various improvements 
by a competent engineer under the direction 
of the executive. 

Gov. Israel Pickens in his message of No- 
vember 10, 1821, discussed the question and 
suggested that the funds arising from the 
sales of land granted to the State by the Fed- 
eral Government, known as the two and three 
per cent funds, could be used for the con- 
struction of roads and highways and the im- 
provement of navigable rivers. The amount 
realized from this source during the previous 
13 months, he said, was $7,899.07, and it was 
assumed that an equal sum would be received 
during the following 8 years. This amount 
he did not consider sufficient to accomplish 
extensive improvements, but thought it would 
provide for thorough examinations and sur- 
veys of the prospects, and possibly for the 
accomplishment of some of the least expen- 
sive enterprises. He further recommended, 
as the means best adapted to secure the de- 
sired results, the establishment of a board of 
improvement whose membership should not 
exceed five, chosen annually or biennially by 
the legislature, and the members to receive 
compensation from the State for their actual 
expenses. The advantages of this system, he 
said, would be "the greater probability of a 
disinterested exercise of duty: From the 
common public spirit and intelligence of those 
who would most probably be selected as mem- 
bers of the board, and owing their appoint- 
ment to the legislature of the state, they 
would be relieved from that local obligation 
which is often so much felt by representatives 
from counties." Among the projects which 
he thought should first receive the attention 
of such a board if created, were the construc- 
tion of the canal to connect the Hiwassee 
with the headwaters of the Coosa River, and 
the one between the Alabama and Tombigbee 

The board recommended by Gov. Pickens 
was not authorized by law until the passage 
of the act of January 15, 1830, which created 
a body known as the "president and directors 

of the board of internal improvements." It 
consisted of six commissioners, biennially 
elected by joint vote of the two houses of the 
legislature. The governor was ex officio 
president of the board. In order that it might 
be nonpartisan, it was provided that one 
member should be selected from each of sev- 
eral districts selected with reference to their 
contiguity to the streams whose improvement 
was likely to be brought under the considera- 
tion of the board. The financial resources at 
the disposition of the board were restricted to 
the accumulations of the three per cent fund, 
which were to be held in the State bank sub- 
ject to the draft of the president and direct- 
ors. Practically nothing was accomplished 
by the board, and the act creating it was 
repealed January 21, 1832. 

Internal improvements continued to be one 
of the most prominent questions before the 
people, and in 1831 Gov. Andrew B. Moore 
called the attention of the legislature, in his 
message of November 22, to the necessity for 
the adoption of some definite policy regarding 
work of public improvement if the State was 
to attain its proper rank among the other 
States of the Union. "While we feel a degree 
of becoming pride in the consciousness that 
the State of Alabama stands pre-eminently 
distinguished on the map of our country for 
its commercial advantages," he said, "yet 
there are works of public improvement, the 
accomplishment of which is imperiously 
called for by the growing wants of our flour- 
ishing country, which would incalculably 
tend to the promotion of the welfare and 
prosperity of the State." 

Among the improvements thus imperiously 
called for were the connection of the Tennes- 
see and Alabama Rivers and the removal of 
obstructions from, or the construction of a 
canal around the Muscle Shoals in the Ten- 
nessee River so as to open to the State the 
domestic and foreign markets to be reached 
at Mobile and New Orleans. Three years 
later Gov. John Gayle included in his mes- 
sage of November 18, 1834, a detailed dis- 
cussion of the whole subject, and strongly 
recommended that measures for accomplish- 
ing the connection of the isolated sections of 
the State and the opening of the markets to 
its people should be undertaken; but he rec- 
ommended the construction of railroads as 
the means of bringing about these desirable 
ends instead of canals, roads, and river im- 
provements. From this time forward the es- 
tablishment of a connection by railroad 
between the agricultural sections of northern 
and central Alabama and the port of Mobile 
was continually discussed, and was the object 
of numerous railroad enterprises, most of 
which proved abortive. The immediate pas- 
sage of legislation in aid of a railroad to con- 
nect the Tennessee Valley with the navigable 
waters of the Alabama River was also urged 
by Gov. C. C. Clay in his message of Novem- 
ber 27. 1835; and he suggested that the best 
route and the probable expense be ascertained 
by surveys and estimates to be prepared by "a 
scientific and practical engineer." 



In 1839 Gov. A. P. Bagby expressed him- 
self as favoring a policy of internal improve- 
ments, but as being unwilling to see any ex- 
pensive system adopted at that time. "It is 
true," he said, "that I came into office favor- 
ably and pledged, to some extent, to this sub- 
ject; but I am too deeply impressed with a 
sense of the embarrassment of the present 
period, to think of embarking in any business 
enterprise calculated to add to the other 
pecuniary difficulties either of the State or 
people." The pecuniary embarrassments re- 
ferred to consisted of the failure of the State 
bank about two years before, which had de- 
stroyed the State's only source of revenue and 
inflicted serious financial loss on most of the 
well-to-do people. For many years, the profit 
of the State bank had been sufficient to defray 
all the expense of the State government; and 
taxation had, therefore, been wholly dis- 
pensed with. Upon the failure of the bank 
it was necessary to reestablish a system of 
taxation; and this, added to the financial 
loss sustained by large numbers of people, 
emphasized the desirability of the utmost 
economy in public as well as in private busi- 
ness affairs. Because of these things, inter- 
nal improvements made little progress during 
the next decade. 

Winston's Vetoes. — One of the most promi- 
nent, if not the most prominent, issues in the 
election of State officers in 1853 was the ques- 
tion of public aid. Opinion on the subject 
was nearly equally divided. The opposition 
to the policy was led by John A. Winston, who 
was elected upon what was virtuall an anti- 
railroad platform. The governor had no con- 
fidence in the ability of State officers to con- 
duct successfully the affairs of business enter- 
prises. In his first message to the legislature 
he stated that the propriety of the State's 
lending its credit or subscribing money to aid 
in the construction of railroads appeared by 
the results of the election not to have received 
the approbation of the people or of the repre- 

During his second term the governor de- 
clined to approve more than 30 bills, most of 
which carried appropriations or loans for rail- 
roads. Many of them were later passed by 
the constitutional majority, but by his con- 
tinued opposition he earned the sobriquet of 
"the veto governor." Despite Gov. Winston's 
earnest and continued opposition, and not- 
withstanding the fact that both he and the 
legislature had been elected upon an opposi- 
tion platform, before the expiration of his 
term the State had been launched on a policy 
of State-subsidized railroads. 

Most of the appropriations were, however, 
made from the two and three per cent funds. 
In 1854 a joint committee from the two 
houses of the legislature reported that the 
amount standing to the credit of these funds 
was $858,498, all of which was distributed 
as loans to various railroad companies, viz: 
North-East & South-West Railroad Co., 
$218,135; Wills Valley Railroad Co., $75,- 
000; Selma & Gulf Railroad Co., $40,000; 
Cahaba, Marion, & Greensboro Railroad Co., 

$25,000; Opelika & Oxford Railroad Co., 
$50,000; Montgomery & Eufaula Railroad 
Co., $30,000; Tennessee & Coosa Railroad 
Co., $195,363; Alabama & Tennessee Rivers 
Railroad Co., $225,000. All of these loans 
were secured by the hypothecation of railroad 
bonds, and were to draw interest at the rate 
of 6 per cent. Seven years later, by a special 
act, all these loans were recalled from the 
foregoing companies and the entire amount 
appropriated to the South & North Alabama 
Railroad Co. 

During the War railroad building was vir- 
tually at a standstill. In a few cases the Con- 
federate Government and the State assisted 
in the construction of lines which would be 
of special value in connection with military 
affairs, but for the most part it was a time 
of destruction rather than construction. Per- 
haps the only good derived from the War by 
railroads in Alabama was the fact that north- 
ern capitalists then learned of the mineral 
resources of the State, and shortly after its 
close began to interest themselves in their 

State Aid Policy Adopted, 1867. — The 
legislature, February 19, 1867, passed the 
"act to establish a system of internal im- 
provements in the State of Alabama." This 
law with subsequent amendments became the 
basis of a system of appropriating public funds 
in aid of railroad schemes which was respon- 
sible for the creation of an enormous public 
debt and constituted one of the most discredit- 
able chapters in the history of the State. (See 
"Railroads" for an analysis of the law and 
details of its operation.) The requirements 
of this act appear to have been too stringent 
to suit the railroad promoters, and it was 
amended at their request, August 7, 1868, 
so as to reduce the number of miles of rail- 
road required to be completed before State 
endorsement could be obtained. In less than 
two months another amendatory act was 
passed increasing the amount of the State's 
endorsement from $12,000 to $16,000 a mile, 
and further modifying the requirements of 
the original act so as to enable Alabama com- 
panies to get the benefit of the endorsement 
upon their roads outside as well as inside the 
State. Many other acts for the benefit of 
railroad enterprises were passed by subse- 
quent legislatures. Some of them applied to 
only one company or corporation. Charges 
were openly made that some of these laws 
had been obtained by bribery. Subsequent 
reports of legislative investigating commit- 
tees seemed to substantiate these charges in 
some cases. In addition to financial aid to 
railroad building rendered by the State, many 
of the counties, cities and towns assisted by 
subscriptions to capital stock, the purchase 
of railroad bonds, and occasionally by gifts 
or loans, or both. Complete and accurate 
information with respect to county and town 
subscriptions to railroads is not obtainable. 

Within two years after the adoption of the 
first internal improvement act, it had become 
apparent to the governor that the policy, if 
continued, would end in bankruptcy for the 


State. The auditor in his report to the gov- 
ernor, October 1, 1869, also called attention 
to the risk involved in the existing State-aid 
policy, and recommended the repeal of the 
law authorizing endorsement to the amount 
of $16,000 a mile, or an amendment reducing 
the amount to $10,000 a mile or less. The 
legislature disregarded these warnings and 
passed another endorsement law in 1869, 
which was virtually a reenactment of the law 
then in effect. In addition to the endorse- 
ment law, the same legislature passed an act 
lending to the Alabama & Chattanooga Rail- 
road Co. $2,000,000 of State bonds upon the 
security of the land grants held by the com- 
pany. The passage of this bill was secured 
by open bribery of legislators, and it later 
came to be known as the "Stanton Bill," 
from the name of the principal promoter of 
the Alabama & Chattanooga. (For further 
details of acts in aid of particular railroad 
companies see Railroads, South & North Ala- 
bama Railroad Co., Alabama Great Southern 
Railroad Co.) 

By 1870 it had become impossible to 
ascertain with any degree of accuracy what 
the amount of the State's indebtedness really 
was. In his message of January 24, 1871, 
Gov. Lindsay stated that upon his accession 
to office he had made an effort to ascertain 
the State's actual and contingent liability, 
but had been unable to find records showing 
what companies had received endorsement, or 
the amount of bonds endorsed, or the date of 
endorsement. He criticised severely the 
methods of his predecessor in office in 
handling the State's finances; but neverthe- 
less continued to endorse the bonds of vari- 
ous railroads, keeping little better record of 
his actions in that respect than Gov. Smith 
had done. In November, 1874, George S. 
Houston was elected governor, representing 
the better element of the State's population. 
During his administration, a commission was 
appointed to investigate the debt. The com- 
mission submitted an exhaustive report with 
recommendations for effecting some equitable 
settlement. (See for details of the financial 
settlement, State Debt.) 

It was during Gov. Houston's administra- 
tion also that the convention met which 
adopted the constitution of 1875, above re- 
ferred to, which prohibited the State's partici- 
pating in any manner in the construction of 
any sort of internal improvements. 

See Canals; Plank Roads; Railroads; 
Rivers and Harbors; Roads and Highways. 

References. — Toulmin, Digest, 1823; Aikin, 
Digest, 1833; Clay, Digest, 1843; Code, 1852, 
1867, 1876, 1886, 1896 and 1907; Acts, passim, 
for full text of laws. For the early history of 
the internal improvement policy, see Governors' 
Messages; Oct. 26, 1819 (S. Jour., 1819-20, pp. 
7-17); Nov. 13, 1821 (S. Jour., 1821, pp. 27-34); 
Nov. 22, 1831 (S. Jour., 1830, pp. 7-16) ; Nov. 18. 
1834 (H. Jour., 1834, pp. 8-12); Nov. 27, 1835 
(H. Jour., 1835, pp. 49-58); Dec. 2, 1839 (H. 
Jour., 1839, pp. 8-22). The principal general 
authorities are W. E. Martin, "Internal im- 
provements in Alabama," in Johns Hopkins 

University, Studies in historical and political 
science (1902); Fleming, Civil War and Re- 
construction in Alabama (1905), pp. 583-605; 
Herbert, ed., Why the Solid South? (1890), pp. 
29-69; Clark, "Railroads and navigation," in 
Memorial record of Alabama (1893), vol. 1, pp. 
318-328; Garrett, Public men in Alabama (1872), 

INTERNAL REVENUE. Internal revenue 
or excise duties date from the act of Con- 
gress, July 1, 1862. This was confessedly a 
war measure; and subsequently was amended 
several times, as the exigencies of the Federal 
Treasury demanded. These laws imposed 
taxes on luxuries, such as spirits, beers, to- 
bacco, and other articles of domestic manu- 
facture and consumption. They were justified 
because of the failure of customs duties, or 
taxes on imports, to meet the financial needs 
of the Government. Alabama did not come 
under the provisions of the revenue laws until 
the close of the War in 1865, except as re- 
spects such cotton as may have been carried 
through the military lines. After 1865 many 
of the specific taxes were reduced or repealed, 
and by act of July 14, 1870, a general revi- 
sion was made, so that the present system 
may be said to be based upon that act. 

Under the present system, internal revenue 
taxes are imposed on distilled spirits, de- 
natured alcohol, industrial (farm) distilleries, 
distilleries, brandy used in fortifying wines, 
fermented liquors, tobacco, oleomargarine, 
adulterated butter, renovated butter, and in- 
comes (q. v.). 

During the fiscal year 1916, internal 
revenue collections in Alabama aggregated 
$667,840.10, being derived from the follow- 
ing sources: oleomargarine, $2,590.84; cor- 
poration income tax, $201,568.82; individual 
income tax, $109,983.51; perfumery, cos- 
metics, etc., $1,320.78; documentary stamps, 
etc., $173,967.92; penalties, etc., $1,453.19; 
distilled spirits, $68,078.11; tobacco, $43,- 
202.39; fermented liquors, $1,722.22; spe- 
cial taxes not elsewhere enumerated, $59,- 
468.86; miscellaneous, $4,483.46. 

The aggregate internal revenue collections 
in Alabama, exclusive of income taxes which 
are shown in the article on Income Tax in 
Alabama, for each of the fiscal years, 1866 to 
1916, is shown in the following table: 

1866 $ 4,099,366.46 

1867 3,715,093.46 

1868 4,099,780.49 

1869 391,223.30 

1870 410,416.10 

1871 285,508.83 

1872 202,360.73 

1873 143,050.60 

1874 135,792.61 

1875 115,689.37 

1876 109,340.97 

1877 108,010.00 

1878 137,969.57 

1879 122,234.38 

1880 135,890.38 

1881 130,651.39 

1882 140,532.92 

1883 108,673.85 


















1903 .... 














Total $22,584,586.44 

Collectors. — The list which follows con- 
tains the names of all collectors, with terms 
of service, where offices were located in 
Alabama, August 14, 1865 to June 30, 1916: 

1st Collection District, Mobile: P. W. Kel- 
logg, 1865-1868; M. S. Foote, 1868-1869; 
John F. Foster, 1869-1873; L. H. Mayer, 
1873-1880; Albion L. Morgan, 1880-1883. 

2d Collection District, Montgomery: 
James Berney, 1865-1867; Charles B. 
Andrews, 1867-1868; George W. Colby, 1868- 
1869; C. A. Colby, Acting, March 4, 1869- 
May 18, 1869; Francis Widmer, 1869-1873; 
Jos. S. Farden, Acting, Sept. 24, 1873-Nov. 
30, 1873; Prelate D. Barker, 1873-1877; 
Daniel D. Booth, 1877-1878; James T. Rapier, 
1878-1883; F. H. Shouse, Acting, June 1, 
1883-Aug. 14, 1883. 

3d Collection District, Athens, 1865-1867, 
Huntsville, 1868-1877: J. T. Tanner, 1865- 
1867; James E. Russell, Acting, March 4, 
1867-March 31, 1867; Robert Johnson, 
1867-1869; Ephraim Latham, 1869-1877. 

Alabama Collection District, Montgomery, 
1883-1893, Birmingham, 1893-: Arthur 
Bingham, 1883-1884; Julien H. Bingham, 
Acting. July 8, 1884-Aug. 31, 1884 and 
1897-1902; Prelate D. Barker, 1884-1885; 
Edmond W. Booker, 1885-1889; Robert A. 
Moselev, Jr., 1889-1893; Rudolphus O. Ran- 
dall, 1893-1897; Joseph O. Thompson, 1902- 
1912; William E. Hooper, Acting, July 26, 
1912-Aug. 15, 1912; Sim T. Wright, 1912- 
1914; John D. McNeel, 1914-. 

References. — Com. of Int. Rev., Annual re- 
ports, various years; U. S. Statutes at Large, 
vol. 12, pp. 462-489; McLaughlin and Hart, 
Cyclopedia of American Government (1914), 
vol. 3, pp. 212-215. 

PORATION. An industrial corporation, in- 
corporated June 14, 1909, in New York; 
capital stock: authorized — $18,000,000 cumu- 
lative preferred, $18,000,000 common, total, 
$36,000,000, outstanding, $13,055,500 pre- 
ferred, $7,303,500 common, total $20,359,- 
000; shares, $100; both classes of stock 
listed on New York Stock Exchange; funded 
debt, $11,578,600; property in Alabama — 
fertilizer plant of 69,000 tons annual capacity 
at Montgomery, and one of 18,000 tons at 
Florence; manufactures and deals in fertiliz- 
ers, cotton oil, and implements of agricul- 
ture, and mines phosphate rock, potash and 
other minerals; offices: New York. 

References. — Poor's manual of industrials, 
1916, pp. 627-632; International Agricultural 
Corp., 7th annual report, 1916. 

IPISOGA. An Upper Creek town in Talla- 
poosa County, upon a stream of the same 
name, but now known as Sandy Creek. This 
creek flows into the Tallapoosa from the east 
and opposite the historic town of Okfuski on 
the right bank of the Tallapoosa River. It 
was one of the seven villages thrown off from 
Okfuski. In 1799 there were "forty settlers 
in the village, who have fenced their fields 
this season, for the benefit of their stock, 
and they have all of them cattle, hogs and 

Hawkins spells the town Epesaugee. 

References. — Gatschet, in Alabama History 
Commission, Report (1901), vol. 1, p. 399; 
Handbook of American Indians (1907), vol. 1, 
p. 615; Hawkins, Sketch of the Creek Country 
(1848), p. 47. 

IRON AND STEEL. Alabama ranks third 
among the States in the production of iron 
ore, and fourth in the production of pig iron. 
Practically all the ore mined in Alabama is 
smelted in the State. Large quantities of it 
also are manufactured in the mills and fac- 
tories of the State and marketed as finished 
products. In the order of their economic im- 
portance, the iron ores are red ore or hema- 
tite, brown ore or limonite, and gray ore. 
The black band and clay iron stone occur in 
a number of localities, but only the red ore 
and the brown ore have been extensively 

Red Ore. — Hematite, or red ore, is found 
in commercially important quantities in the 
upper Silurian alone, though small deposits 
are found in several other geological forma- 
tions. It is known as the Red Mountain, or 
Clinton, ore, and is the most important in 
the State because of its great quantity, acces- 
sibility, and proximity to supplies of fuel and 
fluxing materials. The Red Mountain ridges 
occur normally on each side of the anticlinal 
valleys which separate the coal fields, and are 



distinguished as east Red Mountain and west 
Red Mountain. In places the red ore ridges 
are lacking on one side of the valleys, usually 
the western side, being cut out by faults, 
while on the other hand a ridge may be 
duplicated on one side by the same cause. It 
is usually the case that the ore beds show the 
kighest angle of dip at the outcrop, the dip 
decreasing rapidly as the bed is penetrated. 
The iron is found mainly in the central part 
of the formation, in from one to five seams 
or beds, which vary in thickness from a few 
inches to 30 feet. These ore seams, though 
very persistent along the outcrop — about 5 
miles in Alabama — are not uniform, being 
too thin in places or too lean for profitable 

The most important development of the 
Clinton ore in the world is within a distance 
of 15 or 16 miles along the east Red Moun- 
tain, between Birmingham and Bessemer. A 
great deal of the ore has also been mined 
near Gate City, Village Springs, Attalla, 
Gadsden, Round Mountain, Gaylesville, Fort 
Payne, and Valley Head. On Red Mountain 
considerable mining has been done by simply 
stripping the overburden from the ore until 
it became too thick to remove economically; 
but most of the ore is now obtained from 
deep mines going down on the slope of the 
beds. These mines are equipped with im- 
proved devices for the cheap handling of the 
ore. The ore of the "Big Seam" improves 
in quality toward the southwest, the percent- 
age of lime increasing while that of silica 
decreases. The percentage of alumina re- 
mains about constant, but on account of slate 
partings, more care in mining is necessary. 
The leached red ore is called soft ore, and the 
unleached, or limy ore, hard ore, though these 
terms do not refer to the actual physical 
hardness, but to the chemical content of the 
ores. The soft ore is usually hard enough 
to require blasting and crushing. As a rule 
it extends down on the dip a distance of 15 
to 200 feet from the outcrop, sometimes as 
far as 300 feet. In places the hard ore 
begins at the outcrop. The transition from 
the one variety to the other is most often 
abrupt, but the line of contact is irregular, 
the soft extending in points down into the 
hard ore. Again the soft occasionally includes 
bowlders and pockets of hard ore, and now 
and then a "horse" of ferruginous sand- 
stone. Both are quite uniform away from 
the line of contact. The soft ore is limited 
in quantity, but the fact is unimportant since 
it is being less and less used in the furnaces. 
In composition it is usually a mass of smooth, 
rounded, and flattened grains of quartz, of 
the size of bird shot and smaller, coated with 
hematite and cemented together with the 
same material. 

The so-called hard ore forms by far the 
greater part of that used in Alabama furnaces, 
mainly on account of its being to a large 
extent self-fluxing, due to its content of lime 
and silica. In the mines it begins at the 
water-level and retains its uniformity of com- 

position and thickness to the bottom of the 
deepest mine so far sunk, and probably to a 
much greater depth. In October, 1912, a 
diamond drill boring in Shades Valley, within 
a mile of the base of Shades Mountain, was 
completed, and settled the question whether 
or not the quantity and the quality of the ore 
fall off with increasing distance from the out- 
crop. The top of the ore was reached at a 
depth of 1,902 feet, and analyses of samples 
of the drill core proved that the depth of 
the ore at a distance of 2% miles from the 
outcrop on Red Mountain, and the thickness 
and constancy of the seam, are such as to 
make shaft mining profitable. This demon- 
stration of the virtually unlimited available 
supply of ore is of the utmost importance 
to the future of the iron and steel industry 
of the State. 

Brown Ore. — Limonite, or brown ore, is the 
second in importance of the iron ores of the 
State. The old-time Catalan forges, bloom- 
aries, and charcoal furnaces used this ore 
exclusively. It was not until 1876 that the 
practicability and economy of making good 
iron from the red ores, with coke for fuel, 
were demonstrated. The famous Shelby iron 
of the pioneer days of iron making in Ala- 
bama was made of this ore. The limonites 
are considered the best of the ores and com- 
mand the highest prices and a ready sale. 
They commonly occur in irregular masses of 
concretionary origin in the residual clays re- 
sulting from the decomposition of limestones, 
and consequently the mining is uncertain and 
expensive. They also occur in regularly 
stratified seams or beds, but practically all of 
the brown ore actually mined is that found 
in the residual clays. It is necessary to wash 
and screen most of this ore, and this fact, 
together with the cost of mining, makes it 
the most expensive of the iron ores. Hence 
it is seldom used alone, but usually mixed 
with the red ore in proportions depending on 
the quality of the iron desired. It is used 
alone, however, when a particularly tough 
iron is wanted. In a few places a mangani- 
ferous limonite occurs, and small quantities 
of it have been used in the production of 
spiegeleisen and ferromanganese. 

The limonite deposits are numerous and 
distributed over a wide area. In some, the 
ore is in nearly solid mass, and in others, 
much scattered. They occur in nearly all the 
geological formations of the State, but in 
most the ore is insufficient or not pure enough 
to be of commercial value under present con- 
ditions. The principal deposits are in the 
Knox dolomite, the Weisner quartzite, the 
Lauderdale chert of the lower Carboniferous, 
and the Lafayette. Some extensive beds of 
inferior ore occur in the Tuscaloosa forma- 
tion of the Cretaceous, in the upper part of 
the lower Carboniferous, and in the meta- 
morphic rocks. 

Gray Ore. — Gray ore is found principally 
in the upper part of the Weisner quartzite 
formation in Talladega and adjacent counties. 
It has often been spoken of as "magnetite," 



but examination shows that it is tor the most 
part a hematite with more or less magnetite 
intermixed. The workable deposits are 
mainly restricted to a narrow strip about 2 
miles wide and 20 miles long, extending from 
Talladega southwestward nearly to Syla- 
cauga. They vary from 3 to 4 feet in thick- 
ness and extend with remarkable continuity 
throughout the length of the strike. Experi- 
ments have shown the gray ore to be excellent 
for mixing with the hard red ores. It is also 
the most easily fluxed of the iron ores of the 
State. The deposits were mentioned by Prof. 
Tuomey in 1858, but it was not until 1904 
that the production of this ore was separately 
reported. In that year the output was 17,944 
tons. The ore works well, and but for the 
cost, doubtless would be used extensively. 
Dr. Wm. B. Phillips, an authority on the 
subject, whose book "Iron making in Ala- 
bama," has gone through three editions, on 
page 75, says: 

"It Is believed that the gray ores will ulti- 
mately come into market on a much larger 
scale than at present, but it will not be until 
the supply of soft red ore and of brown ore 
is materially diminished." 

History. — The history of the iron industry 
in Alabama began with the arrival of a com- 
pany of blacksmiths, sent to the Creek country 
at the suggestion of Benjamin Hawkins (q. 
v.). United States Indian Agent, during the 
seventeen-nineties. These men, with a num- 
ber of blacksmiths, machinists, and wagon 
makers mustered out of Andrew Jackson's 
army at the close of the War of 1812, were 
the pioneer coal diggers and iron makers of 
the State, as well as the first explorers of 
several of the mineral fields. "By the year 
1819, when Alabama was admitted to the 
Union," says Miss Armes, "there was not a 
community in the State without its black- 
smith shop and its hardy frontier man-of- 
work." The red rock, or "dyestone," of Red 
Mountain is thought to have been known to 
the Indians, and used by them as war paint 
and for dyeing, for years before white set- 
tlers came into the territory. When the 
blacksmiths reached the locality the "red 
rock" was found to be iron ore, and was used 
by them in making tools, pots, cranes, uten- 
sils, farm implements, etc. 

The first blast furnace in the State was con- 
structed in 1818, in Franklin County, by 
Joseph Heslip, who also built a Catalan forge, 
a foundry, and a crude rolling mill on the 
banks of Cedar Creek, from which the furnace 
took its name. A unique feature of this forge 
was the hammer, weighing 500 pounds, which 
was raised by water power obtained from the 
creek, and let fall upon the iron to be forged, 
thus utilizing two forms of natural energy 
to perform the work now done by rolling 
mills. Heslip obtained his ore from the 
neighboring hills. It was all surface ore, 
probably limonite of the Lafayette formation, 
which often occurs as loose bowlders scat- 
tered over the surface. Charcoal was the 
fuel, as was the case with all the furnaces in 
the State for many years. After many vicissi- 

tudes this furnace was abandoned, having 
been operated intermittently during a period 
of about twenty years, and it had fallen into 
ruins long before the War. The brown ore 
beds in northwestern Alabama were not again 
worked until 1888. 

In 1830 Daniel Hillman erected a forge in 
Roups Valley, which he called the Roups Val- 
ley Iron Works. It was known later as "Old 
Tannehill," and is now included in the hold- 
ings of the Republic Iron & Steel Co. From 
these and other pioneer enterprises, which 
cannot be discussed here, have grown the 
gigantic industrial plants which manufacture 
and ship iron and steel to all parts of the 

Steel. — The first steel made in Alabama 
was produced on March 8, 1888, in an experi- 
mental furnace erected by the Henderson 
Steel & Manufacturing Co. The furnace was 
of 15 tons capacity and made 200 heats before 
it was closed down. The steel ingots were 
sold to the Bessemer Rolling Mill Co. and 
manufactured into boiler plate. The Jeffer- 
son Steel Co. succeeded to the property in 
189 2, remodeled the furnace, and resumed 
operations, which were continued until the 
summer of 1893. In 1897 the Birmingham 
Rolling Mill Co. erected two open-hearth steel 
furnaces of 35 tons capacity each, but the 
plant was in operation only until November 
12, 1898. About this time the Tennessee 
Coal, Iron & Railroad Co. (q. v.) began con- 
struction of a 10-furnace plant, which was put 
into operation November 30, 1899. These 
furnaces were of 50 tons capacity. They were 
abandoned in 1908 and a new plant, with 
four 100-ton furnaces, installed, which has 
since been enlarged by the construction of 
four more similar furnaces, giving an aggre- 
gate capacity of from 70,000 to 75,000 tons 
per month. During 1903-4 five open-hearth 
furnaces were built at Gadsden by the Ala- 
bama Steel & Wire Co., which sold out In 
December, 1905, to the Southern Steel Co., 
which in turn disposed of the plant in July, 
1909, to the Southern Iron & Steel Co. (q. 
v.). The old furnaces were rebuilt by the 
latter, and a new one of 50 tons capacity 
erected and put in service in April, 1910. 

Production. — The production of iron ore 
and pig iron in the State, from 1870 to 1914, 
is shown in the following table: 

Iron Ore Pig Iron Tons of 

Tons of 2,240 lbs. 

Year 2,240 lbs. Coke Charcoal Total 

1870 11,350 


1872 22.000 11,171 11,171 

1873 39,000 19.805 19.895 

1874 58,000 29.342 29,342 

1875 44,000 22,418 22,418 

1876 44.000 1,262 20.818 22.0S0 

1877 70.000 14,643 22.180 36,823 

1878 75.000 15,615 21.422 37,037 

1879 90.000 15,937 28,563 44.500 

1880 171,139 35,232 33.693 68.925 

1881 220.000 48,107 39.483 87.590 

1882 250,000 51,093 49,590 100.683 

1883 385.000 102,750 51.237 153,987 

1884 420.000 116.264 53.07S 109,342 

1885 505,000 133,808 69. 2(11 203.069 

1886 650.000 180,133 73.312 253.445 

1887 675,000 176,374 85,020 261.394 

1888 1,000.000 317,289 84.041 401.330 

1889 1.570,000 608,034 98,595 706,6-9 


1 V92 

IS 93 






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2. 202.15V 
2. 027.090 
3.99.". 09v 


3,955. 5v2 



lv. sir. 


SI 0.911 

797.. 672 





922.1 70 

947. 831 




1.22.-. 212 


1.. "61. 398 



1.674. 848 







2.9-7 911 


For data concerning the different com- 
panies engaged in the iron and steel business 
in the State, see the following titles: Ala- 
bama Coal, Iron & Railway Co.; Alabama 
Fuel & Iron Co.; American Pipe & Foundry 
Co.; Central Iron & Coal Co.; Gulf States 
Steel Co.; Northern Alabama Coal. Iron & 
Railway Co.; Sheffield Coal & Iron Co.; Shelby 
Iron Co.; Sloss-Sheffield Steel & Iron Co.; 
Southern Wheel Co.; Tennessee Coal, Iron & 
Railroad Co.; Woodward Iron Co. 

References. — For details of the character, 
extent, and distribution of the ores, and an 
outline of the genesis of the mineral industry 
in the State, the principal authority is Phillips, 
Iron making in Alabama. 3d ed. (Geol. Survey 
of Ala., Monograph 7, 1912.) The development 
and history of the mineral industry have been 
comprehensively and sympathetically portrayed 
in Miss Armes' Story of coal and iron in Ala- 
bama (1910), which is critically noticed in the 
title Coal. Swank, History of the manufacture 
of iron in all ages (Phila., 1892), treats the 
whole subject exhaustively. See also Smith and 
McCalley, Index to mineral resources of Ala- 
bama (Geol. Survey of Ala., Bulletin 9, 1904), 
pp. 9-18; Geol. Survey of Ala., Statistics of min- 
eral production of Alabama. 1914 (Bulletin 16), 
pp. 41-48; E. A. Smith, "The iron ores of Ala- 
bama in their geological relations" (in U. S. 
Geol. Survey, Min. resources of D. S.. 18S3, pp. 
149-161); U. S. Geol. Survey, Mineral resources 
of United States. 1885, pp. 85-92, 1891, pp. 18-19; 
Swank. "Iron and steel at close of nineteenth 
century" (in U. S. Geol. Survey, Min. resources 
of V. S.. 1900, pp. 69-104) ; C. W. Hayes, "Iron 
ores of the United States," in Pavers on con- 
servation of natural resources (U. S. Geol. Sur- 
vey. Bulletin 394, 1909), pp. 70-113; Burchard 
and Butts, Iron ores, fuels, and fluxes of Bir- 
mingham district. Alabama (Ibid, Bulletin 400, 
1910); Berney, Handbook (1892), pp. 456-470; 
Dept. of Agriculture and Industries, Alabama 
(Bulletin 27, 1907), pp. 282-286. 

IROXATOX. Post office, incorporated town 
and mining center, on the Atlanta Birming- 
ham & Atlantic Railroad, in the eastern part 
of Talladega County, sec. 33, T. 18, R. 6 E., 

on the western slopes of Talladega Mountains, 
8 miles east of Talladega, and 10 miles south 
of Jenifer. Altitude: 650 feet. Population: 
1890 — 562; 1900 — 735; 1910 — 982. It was 
incorporated February 17, 1885. It has a 
city hall, a jail, privately owned electric 
light plant and waterworks, a volunteer fire 
department, and 4 miles of graveled streets 
and sidewalks. It has no bonded indebted- 
ness. Its industries are 2 blast furnaces, sev- 
eral iron ore mines, a gristmill, a sawmill, a 
machine shop, a blacksmith shop, a wood- 
working shop, and the public utilities men- 
tioned above. 

This point was developed in 1871, by 
Stephen N. Noble, and Samuel Noble. Its 
name is derived from the character of its 
principal industry, the mining of iron ore. 

References— Acts. 1884-85, pp. 741-750: 
Armes, Story of coal and iron in Alabama 
(1910); Xorthern Alabama (1888), p. 167; 
Polk's Alabama gazetteer. 1888-9, p. 438; Ala- 
bama Official and Statistical Register, 1915. 

ISTAPOGA. An Upper Creek settlement, 
in Talladega County. It was doubtless lo- 
cated near the mouth of Estaboga Creek, 
which flows into Choccolocco Creek about 10 
miles above its influx with the Coosa. Indian 
remains are found in the vicinity. The word 
signifies "Where people reside," that is, Isti, 
"people." apokita, "to reside." 

References.— Gatschet, in Alabama History 
Commission, Report (1901), vol. 1, p. 399; Hand- 
book of American Indians (1907), vol. 1, p. 624. 

ISTUDSHILAIKI. A branch village of the 
Hillabi. situated on the left side of Hillabi 
Creek. 4 miles south of the mother town. It 
is probably opposite the influx of the present 
Town and Sandy Creeks. The Hillabi branch 
village of Uktahasasi lies across the Hillabi 
near the mouth of Sandy Creek. Hawkins 
spells the word E-cushe-is-li-gau, and states 
that it means "where a young thing was 
found. A young child was found there, 
and that circumstance gives it the name." 

See Hillabi. 

References. — Gatschet, in Alabama History 
Commission Report (1901), vol. 1, p. 399; Hand- 
book of American Indians (1907), vol. 1, p. 
624; Hawkins, Sketch of the Creek Country 
(1848), p. 43. 

IVY COAL, & LROX CO. See Pratt Con- 
solidated Coal Co. 

JACKSOX. Post office and incorporated 
town, in the western part of Clarke County, 
on the eastern bank of the Tombigbee River, 
just north of the mouth of Bassetts Creek, 
in sees. 4, 5, 8. and 9, T. 6, R. 2 E. and sec. 
32, T. 7, R. 2 E. It is on the Southern 
Railway, 20 miles southwest of Grove Hill 
and lib miles north of Mobile. Population: 
1870 — 1,360; 1880 — 1,012; 1900 — 1,039; 
1910 — 1,379; 1915 — 2,500. It was incor- 
porated by the Mississippi Territorial Legisla- 
ture, November 27, 1816, but is now operated 
under the municipal code of 1907. It has a 
city hall, a brick jail, privately owned electric 


light plant, graveled streets and sidewalks 
and a few concrete sidewalks put in by in- 
dividuals. Its tax rate is 5 mills, and its 
bonded indebtedness $10,000 in school bonds, 
maturing in 20 years, with interest at 5 
per cent. The Jackson Bank & Trust Co. 
(State) is its only bank. The South Ala- 
bamian, a Democratic weekly established in 
1889, is published there. Its industries are 
2 veneer plants, a stave mill, 2 sawmills, a 
ginnery, a cotton warehouse, a gristmill, pot- 
tery works, a brick kiln, ochre mines, and an 
electric light plant. It is the location of the 
First District Agricultural School. 

The settlement was first called Republic- 
ville, and as early as 1813 had attained con- 
siderable importance. In 1816 its name was 
changed to Pine Level, and later to the pres- 
ent name, in honor of Gen. Jackson. In 1813 
Gen. Claiborne's army camped at the town 
while enroute to the scene of the Battle of 
the Holy Ground. Capt. Sam Dale, with a 
scouting party, scoured the swamps of Bas- 
setts Creek, clearing out the lurking Indians, 
and thus securing safety for the settlers. 
Frank Stringer was the first settler. John 
Chapman came in 1810. William Walker set 
up a mill on Bassetts Creek in 1811, and 
David Taylor built a flouring mill in 1812. 
Reuben Saffold arrived in 1813, and took 
part in the Burnt Corn expedition. A large 
tannery was early established, and supplied 
saddles, harness, shoes, and other leather 
articles needed by the pioneers. Sailing ves- 
sels frequently came from Mobile, and as 
many as 20 were sometimes at anchor in the 

References.— Ball, Clarke County (1882); 
Ala. Hist. Soc, Transactions, 1898-9, vol. 3, pp. 
123-124; Brewer, Alabama (18/2), pp. 173-181; 
Polk's Alabama gazetteer, 1888-9, p. 439; Ala- 
bama Official and Statistical Register, 1915. 

JACKSON, FORT. An American canton- 
ment located on the site of old Fort Toulouse 
(q v.), on the Coosa River. At the close 
of the Creek War of 1813-14, after the 
decisive battle of Horseshoe Bend, March 27, 
1814, Gen. Andrew Jackson withdrew his 
men to Fort Williams, but almost imme- 
diately started for the Hickory Ground, just 
above the site of Fort Toulouse. On the 
way he moved against Hoithlewale and Foos- 
hatchie, but the Indians fled on his approach. 
He then marched to the site of the old fort, 
now fast crumbling to ruins, cleaned the 
trenches, built a stockade and blockhouses 
and established a cantonment, which was 
named Fort Jackson. 

Here the defeated Indian chiefs came to 
Gen Jackson and submitted to the terms 
of surrender. The "Red Eagle," Wm. Weath- 
erford, who was intensely hated by the 
soldiers for his part in the Fort Mims Mas- 
sacre, rode boldly up to the camp, and made 
an eloquent plea for the Indian women and 
children who were starving. Many of the 
soldiers were so incensed against Weather- 
ford that they would have killed him at once, 
but Gen. Jackson was so impressed with his 

courage and the manliness of his request that 
he protected him from injury. Upon the 
resignation of Generals Hamilton and Harri- 
son, Gen. Jackson was promoted to the rank 
of major-general, July 10, 1814, and imme- 
diately assumed command of the Southwest. 
After much opposition from some of the 
principal chiefs, Gen. Jackson concluded the 
treaty with the Creeks at Fort Jackson, 
August 9, 1814. This was an event of great 
importance, as it threw open to settlement 
almost half of the area of the present State 
of Alabama. 

The fort continued to be a garrisoned post 
for some time. The rich and fertile country 
of which it was the centre soon became the 
objective for large numbers of settlers coming 
into the territory. It was designated as the 
temporary place for holding the courts of 
the newly created county of Montgomery. A 
post office was established with Wm. R. Ross 
of Virginia, as postmaster. Sessions of court 
were held here until May, 1818. Just above 
the fort a town was laid off and called Jack- 
son, but the tides of population flowed by it, 
and in a short time the influence of Fort Jack- 
son waned, although for many years it was 
the center of a thriving farming territory. 

See Toulouse, Fort. 

References.— Pickett, History of Alabama 
(Owen's ed., 1900), pp. 194, 195, 230, 293, 599; 
Hamilton, Colonial Mobile (1910), pp. 424, 425, 
footnote; Brewer. Alabama (1872), pp. 33-35; 
Robertson, Early settlers of Montgomery 
County (1892); West, History of Methodism in 
Alabama (1893), pp. 172-174; Trans. Ala. Hist. 
Society, 1897-98, v. 2, p. 132, footnote; Eaton, 
Life of Jackson (1824) pp. 168, 175; Colyar, 
Life and times of Jackson (1904), v. 1, pp. 173, 
184; Parton, Life of Jackson (1861), v. 1, pp. 
527, 537; Buell, History of Jackson (1904), p. 

JACKSON COUNTY. Created by an act 
of the legislature December 13, 1819. Its 
territory was formed from that tract of coun- 
try which had been recently acquired from 
the Cherokees, lying on the north side of the 
Tennessee River, south of the Tennessee 
State line, and east of the Madison County 
line and of Flint River, after it has left Madi- 
son County. The western half of the county 
was formed into Decatur County, by an act 
of the legislature of December 21, 1821. 
Woodville was selected by the commissioners 
of Decatur County, as its seat of justice. De- 
catur County was abolished in 1824, and its 
territory divided between Jackson and Madi- 
son Counties. In 1836 a part of the abol- 
ished county that belonged to Jackson was 
given to form Marshall. It contains 1,136 
square miles, or 727,040 acres. 

The County was named in honor of General 
Andrew Jackson, later President of the 
United States, who was visiting in Huntsville 
at the time the legislature was in session 

Location and Physical Description.— It is 
located in the northeast corner of the state. 
It is bounded on the north by the Tennessee 
line, on the east by the Georgia state line and 



De Kalb County, south by Marshall and west 
by Madison County. 

The county comprises three distinct regions, 
namely, the spurs of the Cumberland Moun- 
tains in the northwestern part, the Sequa- 
hatcbie Valley, extending across tne county 
from northeast to southwest, and Sand Moun- 
tain, which occupies the eastern and south- 
eastern section. The topography and geologi- 
cal structures of these regions are quite dif- 
ferent. The first is the largest division, and 
is characterized by narrow, level to gently 
rolling plateaus, with intervening coves and 
valleys. Its maximum elevation exceeds 
1.600 feet. The escarpments of the plateaus 
are steep and rough. The plateaus are 
capped with sandstone. The intervening 
coves and valleys, from northeast to south- 
west and from northwest to southeast are 
narrow and usually of rolling topography. 
The Sequahatchie Valley is three to five miles 
wide, and consists of low hills and ridges. 

There are two lines of hills in the region, 
one on the southeast side of the valley, fol- 
lowing the course of the Tennessee River, 
known as the "River Hills." The Sand 
Mountain region is a broad plateau having an 
elevation of thirteen to seventeen hundred 
feet above sea level. The topography is 
level to gently rolling. The edge of this 
plateau which faces the valley of the Ten- 
nessee River is a bold escarpment 600 to 
800 feet in height. Practically the entire 
drainage of the county is into the Tennessee 
River, which flows from the northeast in a 
southwesterly direction. The smaller streams 
are Paint Rock River, Big Coon Creek, Big 
Crow Creek, Raccoon Creek, Long Island 
Creek, and Santa Creek. These streams are 
not navigable with the possible exception of 
Long Island Creek and Paint Rock River. 

Nineteen different geological formations 
occur in the county, extending from the 
Cambrian, through the Silurian, Devonian, 
sub-Carboniferous and Carboniferous to the 
occasional gravel remnants of the Tertiary. 
One writer says: "These formations of rocks 
consist of consolidated material deposited in 
the ancient seas that once existed here at 
different periods. There was considerable 
variation in these deposits, as is evidenced 
in the rocks, which range from the pure 
limestone of the valleys to the standstone 
capping the mountains." Nineteen soil types, 
including Rough stony land and Meadow, are 
represented. These are included in three 
large soil provinces as developed in the coun- 
ty: (1) the Appalachian (2) the Limestone 
Valleys, and (3) the River Flood Plains. All 
of the soils are derived through the decay 
of the underlying rocks under the influence 
of weathering, except the stream bottom lands 
and the occasional colluvial fans or colluvial 
slopes. These various soils are reasonably 

The mountainous region of the county still 
retains much of its original growth, con- 
sisting of shortleaf pine, oak and hickory. 
The oak, hickory and poplar, native timber 
growth of the valleys has practically all been 
vol. n— i 

removed. Many fine cedar trees are scat- 
tered along the sides of the mountains as 
well as on the plateaus. The mean annual 
temperature is 59.8° F. The coldest months 
average about 41.1° F., while the summer 
temperature averages 77.1° F., with a maxi- 
mum of 100° F. The average annual rainfall 
is 59.62 inches. Details of the extent and 
character of production are noted in the sta- 
tistics below. 

Aboriginal History. — Cherokee traditional 
history holds that their people were the first 
settlers in the Tennessee valley, with villages 
extending as far west as Big Bear Creek. 
Prior to 1650 they withdrew, for some reason, 
to the east of the Cumberland and Sand 
Mountains, using the Tennessee valley as a 
hunting ground. The Shawnees took pos- 
session of this abandoned territory in 1660. 
This act was resented by the Cherokees and 
in time brought on a war between the Shaw- 
nees and the Cherokees, the latter being 
aided by the Chickasaws. which lasted "nearly 
five hundred moons." The allied tribes suc- 
ceeded in expelling the Shawnees about 1721, 
driving them across the Ohio River, with 
the exception of some bands that found a 
home with the Creeks. About 1760 the 
Cherokees began again the formation of a set- 
tlement in the Tennessee valley. 

Located in the southern part of the Chero- 
kee Country and traversed by the Tennessee 
River, evidences of the early settlement are 
frequently met with. Coosada, a small mixed 
town was situated on South bank of the Ten- 
nessee River at what is now called Larkins 
Landing. Crowtown one of the "five lower 
towns on the Tennessee," was situated on 
Crow Creek a half mile from its confluence 
with the Tennessee Long Island town, the 
only other of the "Five lower towns," situ- 
ated in Alabama, was on Long Island in the 
Tennessee River at Bridgeport. Santa was 
situated on North Santa Creek, about five 
miles from Scottsboro. Here it is said Sequo- 
yah first made known his invention of the 
Cherokee alphabet. The western part of 
JacKson County became an American pos- 
session by the treaty of February 21, 1819, 
the eastern part by the treaty of New Echota, 
December 29, 1835. Mounds in this county 
are located: on west bank of Tennessee River, 
one mile above Bridgeport; three small 
mounds on west bank of the Tennessee River 
three miles below Bridgeport; two mounds 
just above Widow's Creek; four mounds near 
Williams or Lone Oak landing on property of 
Judge J. J. Williams containing many buri- 
als; burial mound on property of J. H. Cam- 
eron about ten miles below Bridgeport Island; 
two mounds on Rudder place opposite and 
just above the former; two mounds at Snod- 
grass landing; cemeteries and dwelling sites 
near Garland's ferry, in which have been 
found many burials. These burials, like 
many others along the Tennessee River, are 
enclosed in stone slabs and show character- 
istics alike to the "stone-graves" further 
north in Tennessee. 

The act of December 13, 1819, establishing 



the county, designated Santa Cave as the 
temporary seat of justice. Bellefonte was 
selected as the place for the courthouse, by 
the Commissioners who were appointed by 
an act of December 13, 1821. It remained 
at this place until 1859, when it was voted 
to remove it to Scottsboro. The federal 
troops burned the building at Bellefonte and 
after the War of Secession the new court- 
house was built at Scottsboro. 

Agricultural Statistics. — From U. S. Census 

Farms and Farmers. 
Number of all farms, 4,860. 
Color and nativity of farmers: 
Native white, 4,4 66. 

Foreign-born white, . 

Negro and other non white, 394. 
Number of farms, classified by size: 

Under 3 acres, ■ . 

3 to 9 acres, 108. 
10 to 19 acres, 516. 
20 to 49 acres, 1,849. 
50 to 99 acres, 1,063. 
100 to 174 acres, 749. 
175 to 259 acres, 275. 
260 to 499 acres, 213. 
500 to l'99 acres, 73. 
1.000 acres and over, 14. 

Land and Farm Area. 
Approximate land area, 729,600 acres. 
'Land in farms, 443,289 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 169,890 acres. 
Woodland in farms, 260,043 acres. 
Other unimproved land in farms, 13,356 

Value of Farm Property. 
All farm property: 

Land, $4,338,138. 

Buildings, $1,154,630. 

Implements and machinery, $271,875. 

Domestic animals, poultry, and bees, $1,- 
Average values: 

All property per farm, $1,492. 

Land and buildings per farm, $1,130. 

Land per acre, $9.79. 

Domestic Animals (Farms and Ranges). 
Farms reporting domestic animals, 4,717. 
Domestic animals, value, $1,433,233. 
Cattle: total, 18,249; value, $249,041. 

Dairy cows only, 7,171. 
Horses: total, 3,419; value, $329,307. 
Mules: total, 6,102; value, $736,421. 
Asses and burros: total, 88; value, $6,495. 
Swine: total, 29,429; value, $97,399. 
Sheep: total, 6,169; value, $11,942. 
Goats: total, 2,168; value, $2,628. 

Poultry and Bees. 
All poultry, 143,419; value, $48,112. 
Bee colonies, 3,482; value, $6,474. 

Farms Operated by Oioners. 
Number of Farms, 2.255. 
Per cent of all farms, 46.4. 

Land in farms. 312,099 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 85.628 acres. 

Land and buildings. $3,013,343. 
Farms of owned land only, 1,756. 
Farms of owned and hired land, 499. 
Native white owners, 2,145. 

Foreign-born white, . 

Negro and other nonwhite, 110. 

Farms Operated by Tenants. 
Number of farms, 2,591. 

Per cent of all farms, 53.3. 
Land in farms, 128,168 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 83,751 acres. 
Land and buildings, $2,442,500. 
Share tenants, 2,354. 
Share-cash tenants, 23. 
Cash tenants, 202. 
Tenure not specified, 12. 

Native white tenants, 2,307. 

Foreign-born white, . 

Negro and other nonwhite, 2 84. 

Farms Operated by Managers. 
Number of farms, 14. 
Land in farms, 3,022 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 511 acres. 
Value of land and buildings, $36,925. 

Live Stock Products. 

Dairy Products. 

Milk: Produced, 1,753,739; sold, 9,734 gal- 

Cream sold, . 

Butter fat sold, 25 pounds. 

Butter: Produced. 609.701; sold, 34,476 lbs. 

Cheese: Produced, . 

Dairy products, excluding home use of milk 
and cream, $109,060. 

Sale of dairy products, $8,595. 

Poultry Products. 
Poultry: Number raised, 235,156; sold, 66,- 
Eggs: Produced, 687,754; sold, 417,071 
Poultry and eggs produced, $164,225. 
Sale of poultry and eggs, $83,007. 

Honey and Wax. 
Honey produced, 24,759 pounds. 
Wax produced, 1,4 4 2 pounds. 
Value of honey and wax produced, $3,098. 

Wool. Mohair and Goat Hair. 
Wool fleeces shorn, 4,004. 
Mohair and goat hair, fleeces shorn, 12. 
Wool and mohair produced, $2,250. 

Domestic Animals Sold or Slaughtered. 
Calves — Sold or slaughtered, 1,171. 
Other cattle — Sold or slaughtered, 6,801. 
Horses, mules, and asses and burros — Sold, 

Swine — Sold or slaughtered, 25,943. 
Sheep and goats — Sold or slaughtered, 1,783. 
Sale of animals, $262,838. 
Value of animals slaughtered, $220,524. 

Methodist Church, still standing, opposite the old Pleasant Hill School, Jefferson County 

Pleasant Hill School, Jefferson County, taught by Prof. I. W. McAdory, and where 
Thomas M. Owen, historian, Governor Hogg of Texas, and other public men were pre- 
pared for college. 



Value of All Crops. 
Total, $2,212,734. 
Cereals, $837,889. 
Other grains and seeds. $7,714. 
Hay and forage, $133,807. 
Vegetables, $163,154. 
Fruits and nuts, $68,906. 
All other crops, $1,001,264. 

Selected Crops (Acres and Quantity). 
Cereals: total, 75,619 acres; 1,017,529 bush- 
Corn, 71,026 acres; 963,862 bushels. 
Oats, 3,962 acres; 48,577 bushels. 
Wheat, 603 acres; 4,513 bushels. 
Rye, 8 acres; 77 bushels. 
Kafir corn and milo maize, 20 acres; 500 

Rice, . 

Other grains: 

Dry peas, 734 acres; 3,616 bushels. 

Dry edible beans, 58 acres; 214 bushels. 
Peanuts, 26 acres; 344 bushels. 
Hay and forage: total, 10,877 acres; 8,913 
All tame or cultivated grasses, 3,897 acres; 

3.353 tons. 
Wild, salt and prairie grasses, 1,232 acres; 

996 tons. 
Grains cut green, 5,510 acres; 4,204 tons. 
Coarse forage, 238 acres; 360 tons. 
Special Crops: 

Potatoes, 509 acres; 38,753 bushels. 
Sweet potatoes and yams, 445 acres, 41,169 

Tobacco, 11 acres; 4,796 pounds. 
Cotton, 26,793 acres; 9,602 bales. 
Cane — sugar, 14 acres; 53 tons. 

Sirup made, 804 gallons. 
Cane — sorghum, 467 acres; 1,717 tons. 
Sirup made, 17,600 gallons. 
Fruits and Nuts. 
Orchard fruits: total, 177,879 trees; 98,368 
Apples, 74,134 trees; 45,111 bushels. 
Peaches and nectarines, 84,897 trees; 48,- 

911 bushels. 
Pears, 2,874 trees; 1,346 bushels. 
Plums and prunes, 14,014 trees; 2,791 

Cherries, 1.560 trees; 141 bushels. 
Quinces, 349 trees; 4 7 bushels. 
Grapes. 8,363 vines; 42,260 pounds. 
Tropical fruits, 94 trees. 

Figs, 94 trees; 3,705 pounds. 

Oranges, . 

Small fruits, 10 acres; 9,662 quarts. 

Strawberries, 9 acres, 9,285 quarts. 
Nuts: 40 trees; 260 pounds. 
Pecans, 19 trees; 110 pounds. 

Laoor, Fertilizer and Feed. 
Labor — Farms reporting, 1,428. 

Cash expended, $64,862. 

Rent and board furnished, $13,320. 
Fertilizer — Farms reporting, 2,379. 

Amount expended, $51,032. 
Feed — Farms reporting, 1,195. 

Amount expended, $48,639. 

Receipts from sale of feedable crops, $119,- 

Domestic Animals Not on Farms. 
Inclosures reporting domestic animals, 778. 
Value of domestic animals, $99,369. 
Cattle: total, 1,607; value, $28,060. 

Number of dairy cows, 764. 
Horses: total, 401; value, $43,709. 
Mules and asses and burros: total, 163; value, 

Swine: total, 1,652; value, $6,260. 
Sheep and goats: total, 190; value, $360. 

Post Offices and Towns. — Revised to July 

1, 1919 from U. S. Official Postal Guide. Fig- 
ures indicate the number of rural routes from 
that office. 

Alto Maxwell 

Aspel Milan 

Bass Station Narrows 

Bridgeport — 1 Nat 

Dutton — 1 Olalee 

Estillfork Paint Rock 

Fabius — 1 Pierceton 

Fackler Pisgah — 1 

Flat Rock — 1 Princeton 

Francisco Rash 

Gonce Scottsboro (ch) — 5 

Gray's Chapel Section — 2 

Greerton Smilax 

Hollytree Stevenston — 1 

Hollywood — 1 Sunset 

Hytop Swain 

Langston — 1 Trenton 

Larkinsville Wannville 

Letcher Woodville — 1 

Lime Rock Yucca 

Long Island — 2 

Population. — Statistics from decennial 

publications of the U. S. Bureau of the Census. 

White Negro Total 

1820 8,129 622 8,751 

1830 11,418 1,282 12,700 

1840 13,868 1,852 15,715 

1850 11,754 2,334 14,088 

1860 14,811 3,472 18,283 

1870 16,350 3,060 19,410 

1880 21,074 4,033 25,107 

1890 24,179 3,840 28,026 

1900 26,860 3,642 30,508 

1910 29,666 3,136 32,918 

1920 35,864 

Delegates to Constitutional Conventions. — 

1861 — John R. Coffey, J. P. Timberland, 
W. A. Hood. 

1865 — Bailey Bruce, W. J. B. Padgett, 
James Williams. 

1867 — Charles O. Whitney, Alfred Collins. 

1875 — Jesse E. Brown, John H. Norwood. 

1901 — P. W. Hodges, John F. Proctor, 
Milo Moody. 

Senators. — 

1820-1 — William D. Gaines. 
1822-3 — Robert McCarney. 
1825-6 — Robert McCarney. 
1828-9 — Samuel B. Moore. 






















2 — William Barclay. 

5 — William Barclay. 

8 — Joseph P. Frazier. 

41 — Thomas Wilson. 

4 — Thomas Wilson. 

8 — Joseph P. Frazier. 

2 — Joseph P. Frazier. 

6 — Thomas Wilson. 

8 — William A. Austin. 

2 — F. Rice. 

6 — John H. Norwood. 

— C. O. Whitney. 

2 — CO. Whitney. 

3 — A. Snodgrass. 

—A. Snodgrass. 

5 — A. Snodgrass. 

6 — A. Snodgrass. 

7 — L. A. Dobbs. 

9 — L. A. Dobbs. 

1 — P. Brown. 

Preston Brown. 

5 — Ira R. Foster. 

7 — J. L. Sheffield. 

9 — W. W. Haralson. 

1 — Wm. W. Haralson. 

3_W. H. Bogart. 

5 — W. H. Bogart. 

7 — G. J. Hall. 

9 — George I. Hall. 
(Spec.) — George I. Hall. 

01 — Floyd A. Bostick. 

—Floyd Alexander Bostick. 

—J. A. Lusk. 
(Spec.) — J. A. Lusk 
(Spec.) — Samuel Philips. 

— C. W. Brown. 

—J. A. Lusk. 

—John B. Tally. 

Representatives. — 

1821-2 — William Barclay; Booker Smith; 
George W. Hopkins. 

1822-3 — William Barclay; Alexander Du- 
laney; Thomas Bailey. 

18 23-4 — William Barclay; Samuel B. 
Moore; Daniel Peyton. 

1824-5 — William D. Gaines; Samuel B. 
Moore; Daniel Peyton. 

1825-6— Philip H. Ambrister; Charles Lew- 
is- Daniel Peyton; John Baxter. 

1826-7 — William Barclay; Samuel B. 
Moore; William Lewis; Philip H. Ambrister. 

1827-8 — James Russell; Samuel B. Moore; 
William A. Davis; Daniel Price. 

1828-9 — James Russell; Stearnes S. Well- 
born; James Smith; Philip H. Ambrister. 

1829-30 — James Russell; William Barclay; 
James Smith; James Roulston. 

1830-1 — William Barclay; John Gilbreath; 
John B. Stephens; Daniel Price. 

1831-2 Henry Norwood; John Gilbreath; 

John D. Stephens; Daniel Price. 

1832 (called) — Henry Norwood; John 
Lusk; Benjamin B. Goodrich; Caleb B. Hud- 

1832-3 — Henry Norwood; John Lusk; Ben- 
jamin B. Goodrich; Caleb B. Hudson. 

1833-4 — Henry Norwood; Edwin H. Web- 
ster- Samuel McDavid; P. H. Ambrister. 

1834-5 — Robert Jones; John Gilbreath; 

James W. Young; Benjamin Snodgrass; Philip 
H. Ambrister; Wyatt Coffey. 

1835-6 — Henry Norwood; Joseph P. Fra- 
zier; John Berry; William King; Stephen 
Carter; Washington F. May. 

1836-7 — Robert T. Scott; Joseph P. Fra- 
zier; John Berry; William M. King; Benja- 
min Snodgrass; Samuel McDavid. 

1837 (called) — Robert T. Scott; Joseph P. 
Frazier; John Berry; William M. King; Ben- 
jamin Snodgrass; Samuel McDavid. 

1837-8 — Robert T. Scott; C. M. Cross; Alva 
Finley; William M. King; Thomas Wilson; 
Daniel Lucas. 

1838-9 — William Mason; James Williams; 
Alva Finley: F. A. Hancock; Thomas Wilson: 
McNairy Harris. 

1839-40 — Robert T. Scott; James William; 
F. A. Hancock; Thomas Wilson. 

1840-41 — G. R. Griffin; E. W. Williams; 
Joshua Warren; James Smith. 

1841 (called) — G. R. Griffin; E. W. Wil- 
liams; Joshua Warren; James Smith. 

1841-2 — William L. Griffin; Philip H. Am- 
brister; Wm. M. King; James Smith. 

1842-3 — Robert T. Scott; E. W. Williams; 
Alva Finley; James Munday. 

1843-4 — Benjamin Franks; James Wil- 
liams; Joseph P. Frazier; F. A. Hancock. 

1844-5 — Robert T. Scott; James Williams; 
Moses Maples; Williamson R. W. Cobb. 

1845-6 — C. F. Williams; James Williams; 
W. R. W. Cobb. 

1847-8 — Robert T. Scott; James Williams; 
F. A. Hancock. 

1849-50 — Benjamin Franks; Thomas Wil- 
son; J. C. Austin. 

1851-2 — Joshua Stephens; Thomas Wilson; 
J. C. Austin. 

1853-4 — Robert T. Scott; James M. Green; 
H. C. Cowan. 

1855-6— W. R. Larkins; Moses Maples; F. 
A. Hancock. 

1857-8 — John B. Talley; J. S. Eustace; 
J. M. Cloud. 

1859-60 — P. G. Griffin; Jonathan Latham; 
J. M. Hudgins. 

1861 (1st called) — P. G. Griffin; Jonathan 
Latham; J. M. Hudgins. 

1861 (2d called) — John B. Talley; Jona- 
than Latham; T. T. Cotman. 

1861-2 — John B. Talley; Jonathan Lath- 
am; T. T. Cotman. 

1862 (called) — John B. Talley; Jonathan 
Latham; T. T. Cotman. 

1862-3 — John B. Talley; Jonathan Latham; 
T. T. Cotman. 

1863 (called) — P. Brown; J. W. Young; 
W. H. Robinson. 

1863-4 — P. Brown; J. W. Young; W. H. 

1864 (called) — P. Brown; J. W. Young; 
W. H. Robinson. 

1864-5 — P. Brown; J. W. Young; W. H. 

1865-6 — W. J. B. Padgett; James Wil- 
liams; Henry F. Smith. 

1866-7 — W. J. B. Padgett; James Wil- 
liams; Henry F. Smith. 

1868 — J. W. Daniel; W. F. Hurt. 



1869-70 — J. W. Daniel; W. P. Hurt. 

1870-1 — W. F. Hurt; J. H. Cowan. 

1872 — J. H. Cowan; W. P. Hurt. 

1872-3 — J. E. Brown; J. H. Cowan. 

1873 — J. E. Brown; J. H. Cowan. 

1874-5 — W. J. Higgins; W. M. Maples. 

1875-6 — W. J. Higgins; W. M. Maples. 

1876-.' — Wm. McFarlane; Samuel Butler. 

1878-9 — G. D. Campbell; James Evans. 

1880-1 — W. H. Robinson; J. H. Vaught. 

1882-3 — S. H. Glover; C. W. Hunt. 

1884-5 — W. H. Bogart; I. P. Brown. 

1886-7 — P. P. St. Clair; W. M. Maples. 

1888-9 — W. H. Bogart. 

1890-1 — W.H. Clanton; T. B. Parks. 

1892-3 — S. W. Frazier; J. H. Roach. 

1894-5 — W. McC. Maples; J. H. Roach. 

1896-7 — P. B. Timberlake; Virgil Boul- 

1898-9 — Milo Moody; Calvin Rousseau. 

1899 (Spec.) — Milo Moody; Calvin Rous- 

1890-01 — J. R. Johnson; G. W. Bullman. 

1903 — William Henry Bogart; Samuel Wi- 
ley Frazier. 

1907 — James Armstrong; James S. Benson. 

1907 (Spec.) — James Armstrong; James 
S. Benson. 

1909 (Spec.) — James Armstrong; James S. 

1911 — J. T. Brewer; W. J. Martin. 

1915 — C. W. Brown; P. H. Whorton. 

1919— J. C. Austin; P. H. Whorton. 
References.— Toulmin, Digest (1823), index; 
Acts of Ala., Brewer, Alabama, p. 282; Berney, 
Handbook (1892), p. 299; Riley, Alabama as it 
is (1893), p. 29; Northern Alabama (1888), p. 
92; Alabama, 1909 (Ala. Dept. of Ag. and Ind., 
Bulletin 27), p. 138; U. S. Soil Survey (1912), 
with map; Alabama land book (1916), p. 81; 
Ala. Official and Statistical Register, 1903-1915, 
5 vols.; Ala. Anthropological Society, Hand- 
book (1910); Geol. Survey of Ala., Agricultural 
features of the State (1883); The Valley Re- 
gions of Alabama, parts 1 and 2 (1896, 1897), 
and Underground "Water Resources of Alabama 


JACKSONVILLE. Post office and incorpo- 
rated town in the east-central part of Cal- 
houn County, and on the Southern Railway, 
about 12 miles north of Anniston, about 50 
miles southwest of Rome, Ga., and about 20 
miles southeast of Gadsden. Altitude: 720 
feet. Population: 1870 — 958; 1888 — 2,000; 
1890 — 1,237; 1900 — 1,176; 1910 — 2,231. It 
was incorporated in 1836. Its corporate lim- 
its were enlarged to their present dimensions 
in 1860, and in 1907 the town adopted the 
general municipal code. It has a city hall 
and a jail, erected in 1906, a volunteer fire 
department, and several miles of cherted 
streets. There are parks and playgrounds 
covering several blocks. The city installed 
a waterworks system in 1868, which was later 
sold to private persons. It also has a privately 
owned electric light plant. The city tax 

rate is three-fourths of 1 per cent, and its 
bonded indebtedness $32,000 — $10,000 for 
waterworks, $10,000 for State normal college, 
and $12,000 for city high school. The First 
National is the only bank. The Jacksonville 
Record, a Democratic weekly established in 
1906, and the Bulletin of the State normal 
college, a quarterly established in 1905, are 
published there. Its industries are the Profile 
Cotton Mills, capitalized at $1,000,000 and 
spinning thread only, cotton ginneries, cotton 
warehouses, fertilizer plant, cottonseed oil 
mills, heading mills, 2 flouring mills, grain 
mills, waterworks plant, electric light plant, 
and iron ore, kaolin, and lead mines in the 
vicinity. There are also marble and limestone 
quarries nearby. The Jacksonville State 
Normal College, established in 1884, is lo- 
cated in the town. 

In 1833 Jacksonville built the county 
courthouse in the center of a large square. 
When the county seat was removed to Annis- 
ton in 189 5, the Jacksonville people placed 
a handsome Confederate monument in the 
center of one square. 

Among the early settlers of the locality, 
were the Forney, Foster, Crook, Stevenson, 
Abernathy, Gardner, Pelham, Walker, and 
Ellis families. 

References. — Brewer, Alabama (1872), pp. 
152 et seq.; Northern Alabama (1888), p. Ill; 
Polk's Alabama gazetteer, 1888-9, p. 440; Ala- 
bama Official and Statistical Register, 1915. 

MOUNTAINS. A high range of mountains 
extending from Piedmont to Oxford, in Cal- 
houn County, a distance of 25 miles. Their 
highest peaks range from 1,800 to 2,000 feet 
above sea level. These mountains are sepa- 
rated from the Coldwater Mountain to the 
southwest, by the narrow, faulted valley be- 
tween Oxford and Anniston, and from the 
Terrapin Mountains, to the northeast, by the 
similar valley between Piedmont and White 
Plains. In the top strata of the mountains 
there are many deposits of limonite. 

Reference. — McCalley, Valley regions of Ala- 
bama, Pt. 2, Coosa Valley (Geol. Survey of Ala., 
special report 9, 1897), pp. 18-19, 679. 

RAILROAD COMPANY. See East Tennessee, 
Virginia and Georgia Railway Company. 

SCHOOL. A "Class A" normal school "es- 
tablished by the State of Alabama to prepare 
teachers for its public schools." It was 
chartered February 22, 1883, and as appears 
by the act, was "permanently established in 
the Calhoun college building at Jacksonville." 
A board of directors, consisting of S. K. 
McSpadden, John M. Caldwell, James Crook, 
W. P. Howell, Wm. M. Hames, D. A. Ader- 
holt, H. L. Stevenson, W. J. Alexander, J. Y. 
Nisbet, L. W. Grant and John D. Hammond, 
and the superintendent of education, was 
named in the act. Mr. Hames was subse- 


quentlv chosen president of the board, and 
John M. Caldwell, secretary. 

The board was directed to organize the 
school "upon the most approved plan," and 
authority was given to establish "a public 
school or other school" in connection with 
the institution. The faculty was required "to 
establish a course of instruction with special 
reference to educating teachers in the theory 
and practice of teaching." Students were to 
be admitted from any part of the State, and 
"shall receive instructions free of charge for 
tuition, upon signing a written obligation to 
teach at least two years in the public schools 
of Alabama." Graduates were empowered 
to teach in the public schools of the State 
without further examination. The sum of 
$2,500 annually was appropriated "out of 
the general educational revenue apportioned 
to the whites." While the charter contained 
many other general provisions the foregoing 
illustrate the attitude of the legislature at 
the beginning of this form of educational 

The school opened in the fall of 1883, with 
James G. Ryals, Jr., as president. The first 
class was graduated in 18 8 6. Through the 
assistance of Dr. J. L. M. Curry, $300 an- 
nually was granted by the Peabody Education 
Fund, which sum was later substantially in- 
creased. In 1899 an experimental garden and 
field was established in connection with the 
study of botany and physiography. In 1903 
the trustees arranged a system of scholar- 
ships, whereby one person from every county 
in the State might receive tuition free of 
charge. In 1910 Mrs. Fannie Atkins made a 
donation to the school of 123 acres of land 
and the dwelling thereon in memory of her 
husband, David Atkins. 

Legislative History. — The original charter 
provided that the directors should hold office 
at their own pleasure. This was changed by 
act of February 15, 189 7, the governor was 
added to the board, and upon him was con- 
ferred the power of appointment. The leg- 
islature, December 9, 1900, ratified and con- 
firmed the action of the county commissioners 
in donating to the State for the school, the 
old courthouse and the lot on which it was 
located, so long as "used by said school for 
school purposes," but a later act of August 
2, 19 07, empowered the trustees to sell the 
old building and the grounds for the use of 
the institution. On September 9, 1903, the 
legislature increased the appropriation to 
$10,000. A still further appropriation of 
$60,000 was generously made, April 20, 1911, 
to meet "a balance due for permanent im- 
provements heretofore made [for] equipments 
and buildings for said school, and to aid in 
further erection of necessary buildings for 
the same; and for improving and extending 
the grounds thereof." 

Library. — The school was one of the first 
of the educational institutions in the State 
to appreciate the value of trained librarian- 
ship. In 1908 Miss Susan Lancaster, a gradu- 
ate librarian, was engaged. The library at 
once took its place as a laboratory of real 

service to both faculty and students, standard 
rules were substituted for haphazard use, a 
love of reading was stimulated, and courses 
offered in library methods and in the use of 
books. The library uses the Dewey decimal 
classification, and is carefully catalogued. 
It is kept open every day except Sunday. It 
numbers about 2,500 volumes. 

General Details. — The courses of study, 
organization of departments and general 
ideals conform to the requirements prescribed 
by the State Normal School Board, estab- 
lished in 1911. (For details see Normal 
Schools.) Public lecture courses are pro- 
vided during the sessions. Three literary 
societies are organized among the students: 
the "Calhoun" and the "Morgan" for men, 
and the "Sidney Lanier" for women. Active 
branches of the Y. M. C. A. and the Y. W. 
C. A. are maintained. A summer school of 
12 full weeks is offered as a permanent part 
of the school plan. Physical culture courses 
are required, modeled upon the Ling-Swedish 

The department of rural school work is 
designed to meet the growing demand for 
teachers with special preparation for rural 
work. "The course includes such subjects 
as the organization and management of the 
rural school, grading, daily program, physi- 
cal environment, rural school methods and 
rural sociology. Opportunity is given the stu- 
dents to observe work of the rural schools 
near Jacksonville. Two of these schools are 
used as model and practice schools, one at 
Merrillton and one at Cedar Springs. The 
effort is made to use the county rural schools 
of Calhoun as training schools for the teach- 
ers of the State enrolled here. A lyceum 
course is maintained for them, school asso- 
ciations encouraged, industrial work stressed, 
county supervision had, better teachers, fewer 
schools, longer terms, and better roads advo- 
cated. The efforts put forth by the school 
in this work are discussed with the pupil 
teachers. The vital problems of the rural 
school which are met and dealt with furnish 
valuable lessons to them. A county com- 
mencement and a fair demonstrate the re- 
sults obtained and furnish a strong incentive 
to get the work started in their home coun- 
ties." — Catalogue, 1916-17. 

On September 30, 1916, its report to the 
State superintendent of education showed 
buildings and site valued at $80,000; equip- 
ment, $12,000; 15 teachers; 436 pupils, of 
which 173 were in the model school, and 
261, in the normal work; and State appro- 
priation of $20,000. 

Presidents. — James G. Ryals, 1883-1885; 
J. Harris Chappell, 1885-1886; Charles B. 
Gibson, 1886-1892; Jacob Forney, 1893- 
1899; Clarence Wm. Daugette, 1899-. 

Librarian. — Miss Susan Lancaster, 19 08-. 

Publications. — Catalogues, 1883-.1915; Nor- 
mal Bulletin. 1905-1916, 11 vols.; and Purple 
and White (student), 1911-1916. 

References.— Acts, 1882-83, pp. 520-522; 
1896-97, pp. 1033-1035; 1900-01, pp. 131-132; Gen- 
eral Acts, 1903, np. 238-239; 1907, pp. 544-545; 


1911, p. 586; Clark, Histoni of education in Ala- 
bama (1889), p. 256; Weeks. History of public 
school education in Alabama (U. S. Bureau of 
Education, Bulletin 12, 1915); and Publications 

SCHOOL LIBRARY. See Jacksonville State 
Normal School. 

JAILS. See State Prison Inspector. 

MISSION, THE ALABAMA. See Centennials 
and Expositions. 

JASPER. County seat of Walker County, 
situated in the center of the county, on the 
"Frisco," the Northern Alabama, and the 
Alabama Central railroads, 9 miles northwest 
of Cordova, 44 miles northwest of Birming- 
ham, 56 miles northeast of Tuscaloosa, 210 
miles southeast of Sheffield. Altitude: 322 
feet. Population: 1880 — 400; 1890 — 780; 
1900 — 1,661; 1910 — 2,509. It was incor- 
porated as a city February 6, 1889. It has 
electric lights, waterworks and paved streets. 
Its banks are the First National, Jasper Trust 
Co. (State), and the Central Bank & Trust 
Co. (State). The Mountain Eagle, a Demo- 
cratic weekly established in 1872, and the 
Nazarene, a semimonthly established in 1912, 
are published there. Its industries are a 
flour mill, a gristmill, a tannery, a harness 
factory, a concrete-block factory, an ice 
plant, a sawmill, a planing mill, a woodwork- 
ing plant, a wagon factory, coke ovens, a 
light and power plant, and coal mines. It is 
the location of the Walker County High 
School. Its public buildings are a court- 
house of granite, which cost $150,000, and 
the Federal building now under construc- 
tion. The town was named in honor of Ser- 
geant Jasper, a Revolutionary soldier. The 
first settler was Dr. E. G. Musgrove, 
who laid out the town and presented it to. the 
county, on condition that it be made the 
county seat. 

References. — Acts, 1888-89, pp. 290-303; 
Brewer, Alabama (1872), p. 571; Armes, Story 
of coal and iron in Alabama (1910); Northern 
Alabama (1888), p. 173; Polk's Alabama gazet- 
teer. 1888-9, p. 443; Alabama Official and Sta- 
tistical Register. 1915. 

COMPANY. A public utility corporation, in- 
corporated in August, 1904, under the laws 
of Alabama; capital stock — authorized. $50,- 
000, paid in, $45,100; shares, $100; funded 
debt, $50,000; serves the town of Jasper 
under a franchise which will expire in 1934; 
and property in Alabama consists of its plant 
at Jasper. It is controlled by the Cranford 
Mercantile Co., which owns a majority of 
shares of the stock and all the bonds. Offices: 

This company had its real beginning in 
1913 when J. H. Cranford, now its president, 
conceived the idea of sprinkling the streets 

around his stores from a water tank on the 
roof of one of them. Water was secured 
from a spring about two-thirds of a mile 
away and the plan put in practice, and with 
such success that the owners of the adjacent 
property wanted it extended to include the 
streets in front of their stores. From this 
small beginning the present plant has de- 
veloped. It now has about 400 consumers of 
electric current and 375 water customers. 

References. — Jasper Water, Light & Power 
Co.. Contract and rates of water department. 
pp. 1. 11; Poor's manual of public utilities. 1916, 
p. 297. 

JEFFERSON COUNTY. Created by an 
act of the legislature December 13, 1819. 
The territory from which this county was 
formed was taken from Blount County. 
Since 1890, however, a portion of Jefferson 
has been annexed to Walker, and a part of 
Shelby to Jefferson. 

The county has a total area of 719,360 
acres, or 1,124 square miles. 

The name was given to this county in honor 
of Thomas Jefferson, third president of the 
United States. 

Location and Physical Description. — Sit- 
uated in the north central portion of the 
state, on the "southern extension of the Ap- 
palachian system and in the center of the 
rich iron, coal, and limestone belt of the 
south," it is bounded on the north by Walker 
and Blount, on the east by St. Clair and Shel- 
by, on the south by Tuscaloosa, Shelby and 
Bibb, and on the west by Tuscaloosa and 
Walker Counties. 

Elevations range from 240 to 1,400 feet 
above sea level. The average mean tempera- 
ture is 64° F. The annual precipitation is 
57 inches. 

Thirteen types of soil are found which are 
characteristic of the Appalachian province, 
and represent eight series, "The Alluvial 
soils are the Wabash clay, Huntington 
gravelly loam, and Huntington silt loam. 
The residual limestone soils include the 
Decatur clay loam. Hagerstown stony loam, 
Hagerstown loam, and Clarkville stony loam." 

The county is divided almost in half by a 
long narrow valley ranging from four to 
twelve miles in width, the upper part be- 
ing known as Jones' Valley, the lower half 
as Roup's Valley. Northwest of this valley, 
are the "coal measures of the great War- 
rior field." (q. v.), and on the southeast is 
the Cahaba field (q. v.). 

The principal drainage is into the Little 
Cahaba, Warrior, and Locust Fork Rivers. 

Forest growth consists of pine, oaks, ash, 
hickory, elm, walnut, cedar, gum and hard- 

There is no water communication to the 
sea, but the Alabama Great Southern; Ala- 
bama, Birmingham and Atlantic; St. Louis 
and San Francisco; Central of Georgia; Mo- 
bile and Ohio; Louisville and Nashville; 
Seaboard Air Line; Illinois Central; and 
Southern Railway afford transportation for 
the county's products to distant markets. 



The principal agricultural crops are cot- 
ton, corn, potatoes, peas, a small amount of 
tobacco, melons and fruits. 

A fine system of macadamized roads is 

Aboriginal History. — The earliest settlers 
of Jefferson County say that the Indians did 
not use this area to live in, but that it was 
used by the Creeks, Choctaws and Chero- 
kees as a hunting and ceremonial ground. 

Scattered throughout the county are some 
evidences of aboriginal occupancy, though 
located as the territory is away from the more 
thickly peopled centers, these remains are 
not extensive. A group of mounds is to be 
found in T. 17 S. R. 1. W., four miles north 
of Birmingham. A large quadrangular 
mound a few miles from Elyton. Mounds 
and "furnaces" on Village Creek, were noted 
many years ago, as well as those near old 
Jonesborough (southwest from Bessemer), 
on Sec. 8, T. 19 S., R. 4 W., known as the 
Talley mounds. Indian graves have been 
found near Bullard's Shoals on Valley Creek 
and on Red Mountain near Red Gap, in Sec. 
21, T. 19 S., R. 4 W. opposite the Thomas 
McAdory place. 

The earliest pioneers came to Jefferson 
County about 1815, and settled in Jones' 
valley, the name being given in honor of one 
of the first settlers, John Jones. The first 
white child born in the county was Moses 
Field. Settlements were soon made at Vil- 
lage Springs, Turkey Creek, and Elyton. 

The first regular term of the circuit court 
was held at a place called Carrollsville. 

In 1821 the seat of justice was removed 
to Elyton. 

A company was raised in Jefferson County 
for the Seminole War of 1836, with James 
McAdory as Captain. This organization 
went to Florida and all but a few of its men 
returned, those not returning having died of 

Between the years of 1836 to 1861 the 
county increased in population and prosper- 

About 1823 a company was formed to 
make iron. The company secured the co- 
operation of Mr. Hillman of New Jersey, 
and "on a bold little stream which runs 
across Roupe Valley and empties its water 
in Shades Creek, near its mouth, he erected 
his little furnace, and with a large hammer 
propelled by water, hammered out a suf- 
ficient quantity of the best kind of tough 
metal to supply the county for some distance 
around." (See sketch of Alice Furnaces). 

For the full history of the development 
of the coal and iron industry in Jefferson 
County, see sketches of Birmingham, Red 
Mountain, Sloss-Sherneld Steel and Iron Co., 
Pratt Consolidated Coal Company, Tennessee 
Coal and Iron Company, Alabama Power 
Company, Col. James Sloss, H. F. DeBar- 
deleben, and Republic Steel and Iron Co. 

Jefferson County furnished its full quota 
of men to the Confederate Army. 

The county site was changed from Elyton 

to Birmingham, in 1871, the court house 
was burned in 1870 at the former place. 

Agricultural Statistics. — From U. S. Cen- 
sus 1910: 

Farms and Farmers. 
Number of all farms, 3,917. 
Color and nativity of farmers: 
Native white, 3,372. 
Foreign-born white, 83. 
Negro and other non-white, 462. 
Number of farms, classified by size: 
Under 3 acres, 52. 

3 to 9 acres, 503. 

10 to 19 acres, 665. 

20 to 49 acres, 1,261. 

50 to 99 acres, 752. 

100 to 174 acres, 448. 

175 to 259 acres, 139. 

260 to 499 acres, 73. 

500 to 999 acres, 21. 

1,000 acres and over, 3. 

Land and Farm Area. 
Approximate land area, 726,400 acres. 
Land in farms, 235,820 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 95,85 6 acres. 
Woodland in farms, 128,314 acres. 
Other unimproved land in farms, 11,650 

Value of Farm Property. 
All farm property, 113,819,790. 

Land, $9,988,089. 

Buildings, $2,207,306. 

Implements and machinery, $376,317. 

Domestic animals, poultry, and bees, 
Average values: 

All property per farm, $3,528. 

Land and buildings per farm, $3,113. 

Land per acre, $42.35. 

Domestic Animals (Farms and Ranges). 
Farms reporting domestic animals, 3,760. 
Domestic animals, value, $1,192,408. 
Cattle: total, 21,440; value, $423,173. 

Dairy cows only, 11,368. 
Horses: total, 2,954; value, $313,971. 
Mules: total, 2,947; value, $364,366. 
Asses and burros: total, 20; value, $3,243. 
Swine: total, 19,239; value, $74,946. 
Sheep: total, 2,820; value, $6,022. 
Goats: total, 5,627; value, $6,685. 

Poultry and Bees. 
All poultry, 100,779; value, $49,797. 
Bee colonies, 2,647; value, $5,873. 

Farms Operated by Owners. 
Number of farms, 2,656. 

Per cent of all farms, 67.8. 
Land in farms, 179,768 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 68,362 acres. 
Land and buildings, $7,132,091. 
Farms of owned land only, 2,367. 
Farms of owned and hired land, 289. 
Native white owners, 2,344. 
Foreign-born white, 61. 
Negro and other non-white, 251. 



Farms Operated by Tenants. 
Number of farms, 1,245. 

Per cent of all farms, 31.8. 
Land in farms, 53,943 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 26,847 acres. 
Land and buildings, $4,841,984. 
Share tenants, 484. 
Share-cash tenants, 21. 
Cash tenants, 629. 
Tenure not specified, 111. 
Native white tenants, 1,015. 
Foreign-born white, 21. 
Negro and other non-white, 209. 

Farms Operated by Managers. 
Number of farms, 16. 
Land in farms, 2,109 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 64 7 acres. 
Value of land and buildings, $221,320. 

Live Stock Products. 

Dairy Products. 
Milk: Produced, 3,521,885; sold, 1,663,700 

Cream sold, 3,974 gallons. 
Butter fat sold, 4,910 pounds. 
Butter: Produced, 798,464; sold, 232,959 


Cheese: Produced, . 

Dairy products, excluding home use of milk 

and cream, $531,148. 
Sale of dairy products, $398,727. 

Poultry Products. 
Poultry: Number raised, 206,159; sold, 

Eggs: Produced, 521,363; sold, 211,478 

Poultry and eggs produced, $198,454. 
Sale of poultry and eggs, $68,245. 

Honey and Wax. 
Honey produced, 18,130 pounds. 
Wax produced, 571 pounds. 
Value of honey and wax produced, $2,287. 

Wool, Mohair, and Goat Hair. 
Wool, fleeces shorn, 1,120. 

Mohair and goat hair, fleeces shorn, . 

Wool and mohair produced, $682. 

Domestic Animals Sold or Slaughtered. 
Calves — Sold or slaughtered, 2,075. 
Other cattle — Sold or slaughtered, 4,672. 
Horses, mules, and asses and burros — Sold, 

Swine — Sold or slaughtered, 11,231. 

Sheep and goats — Sold or slaughtered, 1,475. 

Sale of animals, $106,840. 

Value of animals slaughtered, $145,893. 

Value of All Crops. 
Total, $1,878,843. 
Cereals, $503,022. 
Other grains and s c <=u 
Hay and forage, $91,046. 
Vegetables, $609,566. 
Fruits and nuts, $102,516. 
All other crops, $558,652. 

Selected Crops (Acres and Quantity). 
Cereals: total, 37,827 acres; 559,235 bushels. 

Corn, 31,571 acres; 474,185 bushels. 

Oate, 5,858 acres; 81.920 bushels. 

Wheat, 198 acres; 2,72 6 bushels. 

Rye, 19 acres; 396 bushels. 

Kafir corn and milo maize, 

Rice, . 

Other grains: 

Dry peas, 980 acres; 5,331 bushels. 

Dry edible beans, 15 acres; 308 bushels. 

Peanuts, 131 acres; 3,090 bushels. 
Hay and forage: total, 3,629 acres; 6,940 

All tame or cultivated grasses, 1,222 
acres; 2,120 tons. 

Wild, salt, and prairie grasses, 146 acres; 
224 tons. 

Grains cut green, 1,101 acres; 1,667 tons. 

Coarse forage, 1,160 acres; 2,929 tons. 
Special crops: 
Potatoes, 995 acres; 81.882 bushels. 

Sweet potatoes and yams, 3,152 acres- 
298,975 bushels. 

Tobacco, 12 acres; 2,639 pounds. 

Cotton. 13,172 acres; 5.038 bales. 
Cane — sugar, 92 acres; 480 tons. 

Syrup made, 6,832 gallons. 
Cane — sorghum, 581 acres; 2,476 tons 

Syrup made, 32,489 gallons. 
Fruits and Nuts. 
Orchard fruits: total, 203,248 trees; 86,198 


Apples, 67,039 trees; 26,922 bushels. 

Peaches and nectarines, 112,310 trees- 
50,732 bushels. 

Pears, 8,020 trees; 2,139 bushels 

Plums and prunes, 13,383 trees; 6 119 

Cherries, 1,430 trees; 171 bushels 

Quinces, 1,041 trees; 115 bushels 

Grapes, 25,441 vines; 132,103 pounds 
Tropical fruits: total, 533 trees. 

Figs, 525 trees; 4,354 pounds. 

Oranges. 1 tree. 
Small fruits: total, 62 acres; 125,676 quarts 

Strawberries, 56 acres; 116,084 quarts 
Nuts: total, 82 trees; 767 pounds 

Pecans, 18 trees; 82 pounds. 

Labor, Fertilizer and Feed. 
Labor — Farms reporting, 1,277. 

Cash expended, $131,049. 

Rent and board furnished, $38,899. 
Fertilizer — Farms reporting, 2,430. 

Amount expended, $67,960. 
Feed — Farms reporting, 1,571. 

Amount expended, $284,384. 
Receipts from sale of feedable crops, $18,632. 

Domestic Animals Not on Farms. 
Inclosures reporting domestic animals, 9,885 
Value of domestic animals, $1,645,070 
Cattle: total, 12,333; value, $306,047 

Number of dairy cows, 7,450. 
Horses: total, 5,167; value, $673,065. 
Mules and asses and burros: total, 3 5S0- 

value, $618,650. 
Swine: total, 8,955; value. $45,316. 
Sheep and goats: total, 1,223; value, $1,992. 



Post Offices and Town*. — Revised to July 
1. 1919. from U. S. Official Postal Guide. 
Figures indicate the number of rural routes 
from that office. 

Adamsville — 2 Lovick 

Adger— 1 McCalla— 1 

Alton Maben 

Argo Morris — 2 

(Avondale) Mulga 

Belle Sumter New Castle 

Bessemer— 5 (North Birmingham) 
Birmingham (ch.) — 7 Oxmoor 

Blossburg Palos 

Boyles Pinson— 2 

Brighton Porter 

Brookside Pratt City 

Cardiff Republic 

Coalburg Sayre 

Covington Sayreton 

Dolomite Shannon 

(East Lake) Short Creek 

Ensley — 2 (South Highland) 

Fairfield (Thomas) 

(Fairview) Trafford — 1 

Flat Top Trussville — 2 

Irondale — 1 Warrior — 3 

Johns Watson 

Kimberly (West End) 

Leeds — 1 Woodlawn 

Lewisburg Woodward 

Littleton Wylam 

Population. — Statistics from decennial pub- 
lications of the U. S. Bureau of the Census. 
White. Negro. Total. 

1830 5,121 1,734 6,855 

1840 5,486 1,645 7,131 

1850 6,714 2,275 8,989 

I860 9,078 2,668 11,746 

1870 9,839 2,506 12,345 

1880 18,219 5,053 23,272 

1890 56,334 32,142 88,484 

1900 83,489 56,917 140,420 

1910 135,839 90,617 226,476 

1920 309,513 

Delegates to Constitutional Conventions. — 

1861 — William S. Earnest. 

1865 — William S. Mudd. 

1867 — W. A. Walker. 

1875 — William S. Mudd; Alberto Martin. 

1901 — A. C. Howze; R. M. Cunningham; 
Charles W. Ferguson; Charles P. Beddow; 
James Weatherly; John W. O'Neal; H. C. 
Selheimer; T. J. Cornwell; Robert J. Lowe; 
Frank S. White. 

Senators. — 

1822-3 — John Wood. 
1825-6 — John Brown. 
1828-9 — John Wood. 
1830-1 — John M. Dupuy. 
1833-4 — John Brown. 
1836-7 — Harrison W. Goyne. 
1838-9 — Walker K. Baylor. 
1839-40 — C. C. P. Farrar. 
1841-2 — Walker K. Baylor. 
1843-4 — Moses Kelly. 
1844-5 — John Ashe. 
1847-8 — Moses Kelly. 




-2 — Moses Kelly. 
-4 — Moses Kelly. 
-6 — H. W. Nelson. 
-8 — John T. Storrs. 
-6 0— H. W. Nelson. 
-2 — John P. Morgan. 
-5 — Mitchell T. Porter. 
-6 — G. T. Deason. 
— John Oliver. 
-2 — John Oliver. 
-3 — G. W. Hewitt. 
— J. W. Inzer. 
-5 — J. W. Inzer. 

6 — J. W. Inzer. 

7 — R. W. Cobb. 

9 — W. C. Rosamond. 

1 — J. B. Luckie. 

3 — J. B. Luckie. 

5— R. H. Sterrett. 

7 — R. H. Sterrett. 

9 — J. T. Milner. 

1 — John T. Milner. 

3 — J. T. Milner. 

5 — John T. Milner. 

■7 — R. M. Cunningham. 

9 — R. M. Cunningham. 
(Spec.) — R. M. Cunningham. 

01 — Hugh Morrow. 

— Hugh Morrow. 

— N. L. Miller. 
(Spec.) — N. L. Miller. 
(Spec.) — N. L. Miller. 
— Hugh Morrow. 

T. J. Judge. 
— C. R. West. 

Representatives. — 

1822-3 — Isaac Brown; Thomas W. Farrar. 

1823-4 — John Brown; Isham Harrison. 

1824-5 — Benjamin Worthington; Thomas 
W. Farrar. 

182 5-6 — John Brown; Walker K. Baylor; 
John M. Dupuy. 

1826-7 — John Brown; John Martin; John 
M. Dupuy. 

1827-8 — John Brown; John F. Forrest; 
William K. Paulding. 

1828-9 — John Brown; John M. Dupuy. 

1829-30 — John Brown; John F. Forrest. 

1830-1 — John Brown; Peyton King. 

1831-2 — Emory Lloyd; Harrison W. 

1832 (called) — Hugh M. Carithers; Sam- 
uel S. Earle. 

1832-3 — Hugh M. Carithers; S. S. Earle. 

1833-4 — Hugh M. Carithers; John Brown 

1834-5 — W. A. Scott; John Cantley. 

1835-6 — L. G. McMillion; John Cantley. 

1836-7 — L. G. McMillion; Moses Kelly. 

1837-8 — Octavius Spencer; Benjamin Tar- 

1838-9 — L. G. McMillion; S. S. Earle. 

1839-40 — L. G. McMillion; S. S. Earle. 

1840-1 — L. G. McMillion; Jeremiah Ran- 

1841 (called)— L. G. McMillion; Jeremiah 

1841-2 — L. G. McMillion; Jeremiah Ran- 


1842-3— L. G. McMillion; William S. Mudd. 

1844-5 — Octavius Spencer; William S. 

. 1845-6 — Christopher Deavers; Jeremiah 

1847-8 — L. G. McMillion; W. S. Mudd. 

1849-60 — John Camp; Hugh Coupland. 

1851-2 — William S. Earnest; S. A. Tar- 

1853-4 — John Camp. 

1855-6 — John Camp. 

1857-8 — O. S. Smith. 

1859-60 — Alburto Martin. 

1861 (1st called) — Alburto Martin. 

1861 (2d called) — Alburto Martin. 
1861-2 — Alburto Martin. 

1862 (called) — Alburto Martin. 
1862-3 — Alburto Martin. 

1863 (called) — John C. Morrow. 
1863-4 — John C. Morrow. 

1864 (called) — John C. Morrow. 
1864-5 — John C. Morrow. 
1865-6 — John Oliver. 

1866-7 — John Oliver. 

1868 — Thomas Sanford. 

1869-70— G. W. Hewitt. 

1870-71— Goldsmith W. Hewitt. 

1871-2 — G. W. Hewitt. 

1872-3 — R. J. Greene. 

1873-R. J. Greene. 

1874-5 — R. S. Greene. 

1875-6 — R. S. Greene. 

1876-7 — John J. Jolly. 

1878-9 — J. J. Akers. 

1880-1 — J. Kent; H. J. Sharit. 

1882-3— J. E. Hawkins; C. McAdory. 

1884-5 — Chambers McAdory; S. E. Greene. 

1886-7 — G. W. Hewitt; I. W. McAdory. 

1888-9 — Robert J. Lowe; M. A. Porter. 

1890-1 — H. H. Brown; M. V. Henry. 

1892-3 — John McQueen; Fred S. Fergu- 
son; Frank P. O'Brien; John T. Shugart; 
T. Y. Huffman; George W. Ward. 

1894-5 — W. F. Fulton; Lawrence Y. Lip- 
scomb; John McQueen; Frank P. O'Brien; 
Joseph H. Montgomery; Sam Will John. 

1896-7 — J. J. Altman; D. A. Greene; D. J. 
Ovens; L. Y. Lipscomb; John Harkins; I. A. 

1898-9 — G. B. Burkhalter; John W. Mc- 
Queen; S. C. Davidson; J. B. Gibson; D. W. 
Houston; Van Huey. 

1899 (Spec.) — G. B. Burkhalter; John W. 
McQueen; S. C. Davidson; J. B. Gibson; D. 
W. Houston; Van Huey. 

1900-01— Frank P. O'Brien; A. R. Ben- 
ners; J. H. Leath; H. R. Dill; E. P. Lacey; 
A. J. Reilly. 

1903 — Augustus Benners; Felix Edward 
Blackburn; William Columbus Cunningham; 
Joel Campbell DuBose; Littleberry James 
Haley, Jr.; Cunningham Wilson Hickman; 
Alexander Troy London. 

1907 — John T. Glover; L. J. Haley; Sam 
Will John; Jere C. King; W. E. Urquhart; 
R. F. Lovelady; M. C. Ragsdale. 

1907 (Spec.) — John T. Glover; L. J. 
Haley; Sam Will John; Jere C. King; W. E. 
Urquhart; R. F. Lovelady; M. C. Ragsdale. 

1909 (Spec.) — John T. Glover; L. J. Haley; 

Sam Will John; Jere C. King; W. E. Urqu- 
hart; R. F. Lovelady; M. C. Ragsdale. 

1911 — W. H. Barnard; J. A. Eastis; Thos. 
J. Judge; T. C. McDonald; T. H. Moulton; 
Walker Percy; C. A. O'Neill. 

1915 — Dr. E. P. Hogan; Isadore Shapiro; 
F. I. Tarrant; J. B. Weakly; D. R. Copeland; 
W. S. Welch; N. W. Scott. 

1919 — J. C. Arnold; A. Benners; W. E. 
Dickson; S. W. Hawkins; W. L. Harrison; 
Geo. Ross; J. D. Truss. 

References. — Toulmin, Digest (1823), index; 
Acts of Ala., Brewer, Alabama, p. 288; Berney, 
Handbook (1892), p. 301; Riley, Alabama as it 
is (1893), p. 67; Northern Alabama (1888), 
p. 141; Alabama, 1909 (Ala. Dept. of Ag. and 
Ind., Bulletin 27), p. 139; U. S. Soil Sur- 
vey (1910), with map; Alabama land book 
(1916), p. 81; Ala. Official and Statistical 
Register, 1903-1915, 5 vols., Ala. Anthropological 
Society, Handbook (1910); Geol. Survey of 
Ala., Agricultural features of the State (1883) ; 
The Valley regions of Alabama, parts 1 and 
2 (1896, 1897), and Underground Water re- 
sources of Alabama (1907). 


Organization. — Organized, 1869; incor- 
porated, 1877. Its founders were T. M. 
Prince, M. D., president; R. N. Hawkins, 
M. D., secretary; J. B. Luckie, M. D., M. H. 
Jordon, M. D., J. W. Sears, M. D., and Joseph 
R. Smith, M. D. 

Objects. — Mutual benefit, protection, ad- 
vancement, and education in the practice of 
medicine and surgery. 


See Special Days. 

JEMISON. Post office and incorporated 
town, in the northern part of Chilton County, 
on the main line of the Louisville & Nash- 
ville Railroad, about 10 miles northwest of 
Clanton. Altitude: 710 feet. Population: 
1880 — 450; 1900 — 245; 1910 — 413. It is 
incorporated under the code of 1907. Its 
principal industries are connected with lum- 
bering interests. 

References. — Brewer, Alabama (1872), p. 
113; Berney, Handbook (1892), p. 276; North- 
em Alabama (1888), p. 125; Polk's Alabama 
gazetteer, 1888-9, p. 443; Alabama Official and 
Statistical Register, 1915. 

JENIFER. Post office and mining town on 
the Louisville & Nashville Railroad and the 
Southern Railway, in the northeast corner of 
Talladega County, sec. 17, T. 17, R. 7 E., on 
Salt Creek, about 1 mile from Choccolocco 
Creek, and 12 miles northeast of Talladega. 
Altitude: 577 feet. Population: 1888 — 500; 
1890 — 323; 1900 — 331; 1910 — 104. 

In December, 1863, Samuel Clabaugh and 
James A. Curry (half-brother of Hon. J. L. 
M. Curry) began the erection of an iron 
furnace on the spot where Jenifer furnace 
now stands. It was operated until burned 
by the invading armies in the spring of 1865. 



The ruins were purchased in 1866 by Horace 
Ware, who formed a company and began 
operations in 1872, under the name of the 
Alabama Furnace. In 1881 the property 
again changed hands. H. Ware, Samuel 
Noble, and A. L. Tyler rebuilt the plant and 
called it "Jenifer," in honor of Samuel 
Noble's mother, Jenifer Ward Noble. 

References. — Armes, Story of coal and iron 
in Alabama (1910); Northern Alabama (1888), 
p. 167; Hodgson, Manual (1869), pp. 103-104; 
Polk's Alabama gazetteer, 1888-9, p. 445. 

Jews in limited numbers were among the 
earliest settlers of the State, they do not ap- 
pear to have been for many years sufficiently 
strong to institute a Congregation. The first 
Congregation incorporated in the State was 
"Sharai Shomayim," Jan. 25, 1844, at Mobile. 
Congregations now flourish in Montgomery, 
Birmingham, Selma, Huntsville, Demopolis 
and Anniston. One organized at Claiborne 
in the early fifties is now disbanded. Rabbi 
Tobias Schanfarber, of Mobile, reports "that 
in the majority of instances the early records 
of the congregations are either very imperfect 
or lost altogether." 

Kahl Montgomery. (The late Mathew P. 
Blue, Esq., an early historian of Montgom- 
ery, in a pamphlet on "Churches of the City 
of Montgomery," published in 1878, gives 
such a comprehensive account of the estab- 
lishment of "Kahl Montgomery," and the be- 
ginnings of a religious association of the 
Jewish people in Alabama, that his article is 
quoted in full below.) 

"More than ten years elapsed after the first 
settlement of Montgomery before a repre- 
sentative of the Hebrew race was numbered 
among its population. In those early days 
the Hebrews were few in numbers in the 
South, and chiefly confined to the cities 
like New Orleans, Mobile, Charleston and 
Savannah. Nor did they then exhibit the Amer- 
ican go-aheaditiveness in penetrating new 
settlements which is now so characteristic 
of them. The prejudices against them at 
that period in the South, especially out- 
side of the large cities, was very general, 
deepseated and bitter. Although slow to 
emigrate to our present city, one of that 
race was among the first settlers in what 
is now Montgomery County. Abram Mor- 
decai of Pennsylvania located, in 1785, 
two mills west of Line Creek, some eighteen 
miles east of this place. He died not many 
years ago in Tallapoosa County, over a cen- 
tury old. We call to mind Jacob Sacerdote as 
the first Hebrew citizeji of Montgomery. He 
kept a kind of restaurant at the corner of 
Montgomery street and Court Square, the 
present location of Mr. M. Munter. The next 
came a few years afterwards, Messrs. Isaac 
Isaacs & Son, who kept a store at the Ex- 
change Hotel corner. Messrs. Joseph Young, 
Isaias Weil, Freedman R. Gans, and S. M. Gans 
were the next to settle in the city and engage 
in business. It was at the dwelling house of 
the former of those brothers that the few 

Hebrews were wont to have religious serv- 
ices prior to the formation of a regular so- 
ciety in the city, and at the same house the 
first circumcision was performed in Mont- 

The necessity of a regular organization 
among the Hebrew population was deeply felt 
for several years. This was not provided for, 
however, until November 17, 1846, when a 
society under the name of "Chefra Mefacker 
Cholim," or society for relieving the sick, was 
formed. This had for its object a close union 
of the members of the ancient faith, and an 
organization for benevolent purposes. The 
first members were Messrs. M. Englander, 
A. Englander, M. L. Gerson, S. Cellner, P. 
Kraus, J. Meyer, G. Myer, H. Weil, H. Leh- 
man, J. Eberhardt, B. Kohn, and J. Weil. 
The following officers were also elected, 
namely: M. Englander, President; J. Myer, 
Vice-President; A. Englander, Secretary; H. 
Weil, Treasurer. The society regularly ob- 
served in a public manner, especially the 
Hebrew New Year's day and the Day of 
Atonement, according to the Pentateuch and 
the teachings of the Rabbinical fathers. Their 
public services were first held in the "Lyceum 
Hall," in the Pond building, corner of Mar- 
ket and Perry streets; and afterwards over 
the present store of A. Pollak & Co., on 
Court Square. On those days of the year 
Hebrew citizens of Selma, Marion, Camden, 
Tuskegee, Hayneville, and other towns in 
this State, would come to Montgomery and 
participate. Several of the citizens of other 
religious creeds, also, attended to witness 
what to them were entirely new religious 
exercises. Although they had read the Books 
of Moses, never before had they a proper 
conception of the solemn and sublime Ritual 
of the chosen people of God, delivered to them 
during the memorable journey from Egypt 
to the promised land. Whether profitable 
to those Gentiles attracted by the novelty of 
the services or not, they were edifying to the 
Hebrews who had assembled to observe the 
ceremonies commanded by Abraham's God, 
as their progenitors had done for over three 
thousand years. 

This society gradually increased by the set- 
tlement of other Hebrews in the city, so that 
in 1849 they had a sufficient number to or- 
ganize a congregation. In accordance with 
the unanimous wishes of the members, as ex- 
pressed at a meeting held May 6, 1849. the 
officers of the "Chefra Mefacker Cholim" re- 
solved on the 3d day of June of that year 
to form a Hebrew Congregation. A commit- 
tee consisting of Messrs. M. Englander, Isaias 
Weil, J. Newman, P. Kraus. H. Weil and 
Emanuel Lehman, appointed for the purpose, 
drew up and submitted a Constitution and 
By-Laws for the government of the new con- 
templated organizations. These were par- 
tially amended and adopted on that day. The 
name assumed was "Kahl Montgomery," 
which has ever continued the style of the 
congregation. The following officers were 
elected to serve for one year, namely: Isaias 
Weil, President; H. Lehman, Vice-President; 



Emanuel Lehman, Secretary; Jacob Myer, 
Treasurer; and Messrs. H. Weil and M. Eng- 
lander, Trustees. The congregation then com- 
prised about thirty members. 

In 185 9 it was determined to consummate a 
cherished purpose long formed and revolved 
in their minds, that of building a house of 
public worship. Under a resolution offered 
by Mr. Jacob Abraham, April 10, 1859, a com- 
mittee consisting of Messrs. J. Myer, M. Uh- 
felder, M. Lehman, H. Weil and A. Strass- 
burger was appointed to select a site for the 
synagogue. This committee reported June 
13, 1859, recommending the purchase of the 
present location for $2,500, which report was 
adopted. On the 18th. of September of that 
year, on motion of Mr. H. Weil, it was re- 
solved by the Congregation to build a Syna- 
gogue, and the following appointed, with 
the President as the chairman, a Building 
Committee, viz.: L. Cahn, H. Weil, Loeb 
Marks, S. Cellner, J. Myer and M. Uhfelder. 
An eligible lot at the corner of Catoma and 
Church streets was purchased and the erec- 
tion of a Synagogue commenced. The plan 
was drawn by Mr. Stewart of Philadelphia, 
the architect of the Alabama Insane Hospital, 
the Court House in Montgomery, and the 
Methodist Female College in Tuskegee. The 
work was executed by Mr. G. M. Figh, late 
of this city, the worthy successor of his father 
as a builder. The Synagogue was dedicated 
by the Rev. J. K. Gutheim of New Orleans, 
March 8, 1862, with appropriate and impres- 
sive ceremonies, constituting the most re- 
markable event up to that time in the history 
of Judaism in Montgomery. The congrega- 
tion on that occasion felt like Solomon at 
the dedication of the great Temple in Jeru- 
salem, "I have surely built thee an house to 
dwell in, a settled place for thee to abide in 
forever." They realized by faith what the 
Lord declared to Solomon when he appeared 
to him a second time as he had appeared unto 
him at Gideon. "I have heard thy prayer 
and thy supplication that thou hast made 
before me, I have hallowed this house which 
thou hast built, to put my name there for- 
ever; and mine eyes and mine heart shall be 
there perpetually." The cost of this sacred 
edifice was fourteen thousand dollars. 

Rev. Mr. Gutheim was the first Rabbi of 
"Kahl Montgomery;" previously readers had 
been employed. He entered upon his minis- 
terial duties in 1862, after the occupation of 
New Orleans by the Federal troops. He offi- 
ciated with the highest satisfaction to the 
congregation until the close of the late war. 
His intellectual endowments and education 
were of a superior order, ranking him equal, 
at least, to any of the ministers of our city. 
He is at present in charge of "Temple Eman- 
uel" in New York City. 

Rev. Dr. Meyer of Savannah, Georgia, was 
the successor of Mr. Gutheim. This Rabbi 
is a native of England and had resided in 
Jamaica, prior to his coming to the United 
States. He remained with "Kahl Montgom- 
ery" only one year, during which his minis- 
tration proved beneficial, and a strong at- 

tachment was formed for him by his flock. 
He, also, now resides in the City of New 
York. Rev. E. B. M. Brown of Cincinnati. 
Ohio, was the third Rabbi, but he continued 
only nine months and then returned to the 

His successor was the Reverend Dr. Moses, 
a native of Germany, who came direct from 
the Fatherland to Montgomery. He has suc- 
ceeded admirably in making a very favorable 
impression with the congregation, able in his 
ministrations and prompt and faithful in all 
of his services. The regular membership has 
now reached the number of seventy. 

For ten years an excellent school was 
conducted in the Synagogue, for youths of 
both sexes, children of Hebrew parents. 

The Hebrew ladies have in successful 
operation a benevolent society, which has 
contributed its full quota to benevolent and 
charitable enterprises. 

The present officers of "Kahl Montgomery" 
are — L. Waldman, President; A. Moog, Vice- 
President; David Weil, Treasurer; L. Young, 
Secretary; S. Cahn, Sexton. The Trustees 
are — L. Lemle, J. Goetter, M. Kahn, E. H. 
Jacobi, H. E. Faber, and J. Simon. 

Up to 1874, the congregation conformed to 
the German Ritual. Since that period, the 
Ritual of Temple Emanuel of New York 
has been used. Sundry alterations have been 
made, among which the adoption of pews for 

Rev. Dr. Moses, now of Temple Sinai of 
New Orleans, was succeeded by the Rev. 
Dr. B. E. Jacobs. Rev. Dr. S. Hecht, the 
present learned and able Rabbi, became Pas- 
tor last year, and fully maintains the high 
reputation he deservedly enjoyed elsewhere." 
Temple Emanu-EI, Birmingham. — The con- 
gregation was organized June 28, 1882, in 
the Masonic Hall of the First National Bank 
building on the present site of the Marx 
building. The first officers were Abe Wise, 
president; Henry Lazarus, vice-president; 
Ben M. Jacobs, secretary; Ike Hochstadter, 
treasurer; E. Rubel, collector. The charter 
membership consisted of 16 persons, eight 
of whom were unmarried men. Arrangements 
were at once effected for the proper observance 
of holy days. A church building was rented 
and a young student of the Union Hebrew 
College was engaged to conduct the services. 
The first public service was held on Friday 
evening, in September, 1882, preceding New 
Year, in the Cumberland Presbyterian church, 
on 5th Avenue. Services were conducted 
through the holiday month by the Rev. Joseph 
Stolz, a junior student at the Hebrew Union 
College, Cincinnati. A Sunday school was 
soon formed under the leadership of Mr. 
Hochstadter and a class of boys and girls 
made ready for confirmation in 1883. 

During the next three years there was a 
large influx of co-religionists into Birming- 
ham and a cemetery plot was secured in the 
northwestern outskirts of the city. In 1884, 
a lot was purchased for the site of the pro- 
posed Temple on 5th Avenue and 17th. Sam- 
uel Ullman was elected president of the 


Congregation Emanu-El in 1886 and the 
corner stone of the Temple was laid that 
year, the impressive ceremonies being con- 
ducted by Rev. Isaac M. Wise of Cincinnati. 
The Rev. Mr. Rosenspitz was elected minister 
but served only a few months. 

Rev. Maurice Eisenberg was elected min- 
ister in 1888, and upon his resignation shortly 
afterwards Mr. Samuel Ullman, president of 
the congregation was elected spiritual leader 
and accepted the position of Rabbi in 1890. 
A. Stern was made acting president and Mr. 
Jacob Fies was elected as vice-president. 
In 1891 Mr. J. R. Hochstadter was elected 
president of the congregation and on leaving 
the city Mr. Fies was elected president. 

Mr. Ullman resigned from the pulpit in the 
beginning of 1894 and Rabbi David Marx, 
a young graduate of the Hebrew Union Col- 
lege was extended a call. He was succeeded 
by another graduate of the Hebrew Union 
College, Rabbi Morris Newfield, the present 

Mr. B. Steiner served as president of the 
congregation 1893-1900 and was succeeded by 
S. Klotz who served from 1900 to 1904. 

In September, 1908, the site on Highland 
Avenue and 31st street was purchased at a 
cost of ?20,000. 

In 1910 Mr. M. V. Joseph was elected 
president and is serving at this time. 

Since 1911 the congregation has erected 
a very handsome new Temple at a cost of 
$200,000, with a seating capacity of 1,200 
and all the equipment that goes with a 
modern church plant. It is one of the finest 
church buildings in the country. The Inde- 
pendent Presbyterian Church (Dr. Henry M. 
Edmonds, pastor) has been using the build- 
ing for all its activities ever since they 
organized, as guests of the Jewish congrega- 

Temple Emanu-El has a membership of 300 
families, with approximately 1,000 com- 
municants, while the Jewish population of 
Birmingham is about 4,500. 

In the Great War, the congregation fur- 
nished to the army and navy more than 
100 men, of whom 25 were commissioned as 
officers and 3 5 were non-commissioned offi- 
cers; one, Lt. Julius Schnitzer, received the 
distinguished service cross, croix de guerre, 
and Belgian cross of honor; another, Lt. 
Jerome Fox, the croix de guerre. The rabbi 
and another member of the congregation went 
into service as welfare-workers. 

B'nai Sholem (Children of Peace), Hunts- 
ville was organized about 1870 by a dozen 
families of German Jews whose descend- 
ants still reside in that city. The Jewish 
population is now about a hundred souls. 
Religious services were held for many years 
in a hall of the Masonic Temple. In i898, 
the present beautiful Temple on Clinton and 
Lincoln Streets was dedicated. The official 
reader in 1920 was Gus Marx. Rabbis: 
Newman Block, Michnie Wagenheim, Dr. 
Lauterbach Reich. Past presidents, M. Wise, 
Robert Herstein, I. Weil, Jos. Kalus, I. 

Jewish Church Census, In U. S. Census 
Report, 1916. 

Total number of organizations, 15. 

Number of organizations reporting mem- 
bers, 15. 

Total number members reported, 2,947. 

Total number members reported (Male), 

Total number members reported (Female), 

Church edifices, 10. 

Halls, etc., 5. 

Number of church edifices reported, 10. 

Value of church property reported, $291, 

Amount of debt reported, $71,500. 

Value of parsonages reported, $3,000. 

Amount expenditures reported, $57,721. 

Number of Sunday Schools reported, 12. 

Number of officers and teachers, 78. 

Number of scholars, 778. 

JOXES COUNTY. See Lamar County. 

JOXES VALLEY. The long valley sep- 
arating the Cahaba from the Warrior coal 
field. It is slightly more than 100 miles long, 
and generally not over 3 or 4 miles wide, 
though at its junction with Murphrees Val- 
ley, one of its subordinate valleys, it reaches 
a width of about 12 miles. Its area is about 
3 00 square miles. It is one of the outliers of 
the Coosa Valley (q. v.), and is a complex 
valley, fluted with smaller valleys and ridges. 
It was formed entirely by erosion, and its 
floor for nearly its whole length is higher 
than the mountainous country on either side 
of its raised edges. It thus presents the ano- 
maly of a valley that is a water-divide in a 
mountainous country. Its edges are well 
defined by ridges of millstone grit, and it is 
much more complicated in its structure than 
the valley between the Coosa and the Cahaba 
fields. Like the Cahaba Valley (q. v.), it is 
of anticlinal structure, somewhat masked by 
faulting. The geological formations repre- 
sented in it are (1) the lower Silurian; (2) 
upper Silurian; (3) Devonian; (4) lower 
Subcarboniferous; (5) upper Subcarbonifer- 
ous; and (6) Carboniferous. 

Jones Valley and its outliers. Possum and 
Roupes Valleys, occupy portions of Jefferson, 
Tuscaloosa, and Bibb Counties — their soils 
are mainly of two varieties, known as the 
Decatur and the Hagerstown, both residual 
soils representing the decay of many hun- 
dreds of feet of the limestone rock out of 
which the valleys were carved. The Decatur 
clay loam is a favorite truck-garden soil. Its 
heavy texture makes it especially suited to 
the cultivation of such crops as tomatoes and 
cabbage. The Hagerstown stony loam is 
formed from the Knox dolomite and Coosa 
shale of Cambrian and Silurian ages. It can 
be plowed when wetter than the Decatur clay 
loam and is especially well suited for pasture. 
Corn and cotton, particularly the latter, 
produce very well on these soils, and the 
yield can be much increased by the use of 
proper fertilizers. The principal agricultural 



products of the valleys, aside from garden 
vegetables, are cotton, corn, oats, cowpeas, 
sweet and Irish potatoes, sorghum and sugar- 
cane. The number and diversity of these 
crops are susceptible of great increase by the 
use of improved methods of farming. 

The first settlers of the valley came from 
Tennessee, Kentucky, and the Carolinas. The 
population increased rapidly, and with the 
development of mining and related industries, 
has become concentrated in the cities and 

References. — Squire, Report on the Cahaba 
coal field (Geol. Survey of Ala., Special report 
2, 1890), pp. 170-180; McCalley, Valley regions 
of Alabama, Pt. 2, Coosa Valley (Ibid. 9, 1897) ; 
Gibson, Report on the geological structure of 
Murphrees Valley (Ibid, 4, 1893); U. S. Dept. 
of Agriculture, Bureau of Soil Surveys, Soil 
survey of Jefferson County (1910); Jefferson 
County and Birmingham, Alabama, historical 
and biographical (1897), pp. 17-49; Berney, 
Handbook (1892), pp. 426-430; Armes, Story of 
coal and iron in Alabama (1910), pp. 10-11, et 

JOPPA. Post office and interior village, in 
the northeast corner of Cullman County, on 
the headwaters of the Mulberry Fork of the 
Warrior River, and 20 miles northeast of 
Cullman. Population: 1900 — 130; 1910 — 

JOURNALISM. See Newspapers and Peri- 

JUDICIARY. "The system of courts of jus- 
tice in a country. The department of govern- 
ment charged or concerned with the adminis- 
tration of justice." The federal courts were 
established by Act of Congress of September 
24, 1875; March 3, 1S87, which was amended 
August 13, 1888; March 3, 1891, which created 
the circuit court of appeals; and the judiciary 
code of March 3, 1911, which became effective 
January 1, 1912. 

The judiciary, or judicial department of 
Alabama was created by the constitution of 
Alabama, adopted August 2, 1819. The judi- 
cial power of the state, was vested by Art. 
5, S. 1 "in one supreme court, circuit courts 
to be held in each county in the State, and 
such inferior courts of law r and equity, to 
consist of not more than five members, as the 
General Assembly may find time to direct, 
ordain, and establish." By section 2, of 
article 5, appellate jurisdiction only was con- 
ferred on the supreme court. However, it 
was given power to issue the necessary and 
remedial writs," in order to exercise a general 
superintendence over inferior courts. By 
Article 5. S 3, "The judges of the Circuit 
Court were vested with the powers and re- 
quired to perform the duties of the Supreme 
Court, until the General Assembly otherwise 
prescribed." The supreme court was re- 
quired to sit at the seat of government of the 
state, but was authorized to remove if danger 
from the enemy or disease was known. The 
judges were to be selected by the general 
assembly and were to hold office during good 
vol. n— i 

behavior. The constitution was amended in 
1830, and the term of office of judges was 
prescribed at six years. 

The first term of supreme court was held 
at Cahaba. which was the Capital of the state 
at that time and began on the first Monday 
in May, 1820. The first court consisted 
of Hons. C. C. Clay, Reuben Saffold, Henry 
Y. Webb, and Richard Ellis. Hon. A. S. Lip- 
scomb, the fifth circuit judge was absent and 
there is no record that he was present dur- 
ing the term. Hon. Clement C. Clay was se- 
lected as chief justice. There were only nine 
cases presented, and they contained' onlv 
points of pleading and practice. 

In 1821, a sixth circuit was established, 
and Hon. Anderson Crenshaw was elected 
judge. In 1828 a seventh circuit was cre- 
ated and Hon. Sion L. Perry was elected 

As has been mentioned above the term 
of office of the judges was limited in 1830. 
It was further provided that those in office 
should continue until 1833. The legislature 
of 1832 however, enacted a law which re- 
duced the supreme court to three members, 
provided that they should be elected by both 
houses of the legislature, and that thev 
should hold office for six years. Under the 
provisions of this statute judges Lipscomb, 
Saffold. and Taylor were elected. Judge Tay- 
lor resigned in 1834, and was succeeded by 
Hon. Henry Hitchcock. Under the reorganf- 
zation Judge Lipscomb became chief justice 
and when he resigned in 18 34 Judge Saffold 
succeeded him. 

The Legislature in 1S51-52, increased the 
number of judges from three to five and 
Hons. David G. Ligon and John D'. Phelan 
were elected to the new positions. The con- 
stitution of 1S67, which was framed in obedi- 
ence to the "Reconstruction Laws" of Con- 
gress, gave to the direct vote of the people, 
the power of selecting all judges. Under 
the new constitution Hon. E. W. Peck, was 
elected chief justice, and Hon. Thomas M. 
Peters, and Hon. B. F. Saffold associates. 

In 1889, the n'Umber of judges was in- 
creased to four, and attorney-general Thomas 
N. McClellan was elected to the newly cre- 
ated place. Upon the addition in 1891 of an- 
other judge. Hon. Richard W. Walker was 
appointed to the new justiceship. 

By an act of the legislature of 1903, the 
number of judges was increased from five to 
seven, the new members to enter upon the 
office, after the general election of 1904. The 
constitution of 1901 prescribed terms and 
upon casting lots it was found that Judges 
Anderson and Denson. had drawn the six 
year term, Haralson and Simpson, four years, 
and Tyson and Dowdell, two years. 

Under the present system, the judicial de- 
partment consists of a supreme court, pro- 
bate courts, chancery courts, county courts, 
circuit courts, courts of common pieas (old 
Justice of the Peace Courts), and City courts, 
now Recorder's Courts. 

Refeue.n-ces.— Mayfield's Digest, Vol. 6; Code 
of Alabama, 1907. 


JUDSON COLLEGE. An institution of A 
grade for the education of young women, 
located in Marion, Perry County. It is the 
property of the Alabama Baptist State Con- 
vention, and is wholly supported by that body. 
It is controlled by a board of 16 trustees 
appointed by the convention. The officers 
and teachers all receive stipulated salaries, 
and no one is interested in any pecuniary 
profits arising from its management. The 
college grounds include a campus of 20 acres, 
all attractively landscaped. It has a central 
administration building and dormitory, an 
auditorium and music hall, a separate library 
building and a president's home. 

The College is a member of the Alabama 
Association of Colleges, and "maintains the 
same requirements for entrance and standards 
of excellence that are to be found in the 
University of Alabama and other institutions 
of higher learning in Alabama." Admission 
is by certificate from accredited schools, and 
by examination. However, for the benefit of 
students who are not prepared for entrance, 
an academy is maintained "separate from the 
college," in which four year courses are given. 
Full college courses, courses in music, art 
and expression, a teachers' training course, 
and a business course are offered. These 
courses lead to the B. A. and B. S. degrees. 
Founding and Early History. — The college 
was founded as the Judson Female Institute 
in 1838, and was opened to students January 
7, 1839. Its name was given in honor of 
Ann Hasseltine, wife of Adoniram Judson, 
the famous missionary. Its founders were 
public spirited gentlemen, members of the 
Baptist church, who resided in Marion, then 
the center of influence of this denomination 
throughout the South. The sessions of the 
first two or three years were held "in a 
modest, two story wooden building thirty 
by forty feet, with two small wings." Nine 
pupils were enrolled the first day, which was 
soon increased to 19, and the first year closed 
with between 70 and 80. Just two years after 
the opening, January 9, 1841, the legislature 
incorporated the institute, naming Edwin D. 
King, James S. Goree, Larkin Y. Tarrant, 
A. C. Eiland, Langston Goree. Francis Lowery. 
John Lockhart, and Win. E. Blassingame as 
trustees. They were clothed with usual cor- 
porate powers, but their real estate holdings 
were limited to $50,000. It was provided 
that they might "grant certificates or diplo- 
mas, or such other evidences of scholarship, 
as they may prescribe," they were empow- 
ered "to do any and all such acts as other 
incorporate literary institutions of this state 
may lawfully do," and "that so long as the 
property, real and personal of said corpora- 
tion, shall be used for purposes of education, 
the same shall be exempt from taxation of 
every kind." In 1907 the charter was 
amended changing the name to Judson 

Rev. Milo P. Jewett, first President of the 
Judson College was a man of striking powers 

and character. Born in 1808 in Vermont, 
educated at Dartmouth college, he first taught 
school, then studied law, and afterwards at- 
tended Andover seminary to prepare himself 
for the ministry of the Congregational church. 
In 1838 he came to Marion and aided in the 
work of establishing the Judson, as already 
related. The school was immediately suc- 
cessful. Mr. Jewett devoted all his time and 
enthusiasm to its upbuilding. A commodious 
brick structure was erected in 1841 on the 
site of the present Judson, which, with many 
important additions, remained in use till the 
great fire of 1888. Mr. Jewett taught the 
ancient languages and mental and moral sci- 
ence. The professor of music was Mr. D. W. 
Case, while the other teachers were ladies. 

There were three departments, primary, 
preparatory, and collegiate, the last divided 
into three classes, Junior, Middle, and Senior. 
In 1849 a fourth class appeared, sub-junior. 
Greek, Latin, Hebrew, German, French, 
Italian, and Spanish were offered among the 
languages. Board with bed and bedding cost 
$9.50 a month, fuel, lights, and washing be- 
ing extra; and feather beds were a luxury to 
be "furnished at a small charge" if desired. 

The boarding pupils were required to wear 
a uniform, not only on public occasions, but 
every day in the school room. For winter, 
green merino; for summer, pink calico, and 
for Sabbath, white muslin dresses were re- 
quired. A bonnet, was also worn, in the win- 
ter it was trimmed with green, in the summer 
with pink. Blue checks and white muslin 
aprons were also used. 

The catalogue of 1843-4 mentions the "Par- 
thenian Society," a literary and scientific 
association for the purpose of founding a 
library, making collections in the various de- 
partments of natural science, in the fine arts, 
and in illustration of the manners and custom 
of foreign nations. 

Mr. Jewett resigned the presidency of the 
Judson in 1855, and Dr. Samuel Sterling 
Sherman was elected his successor, bringing 
with him as his presiding teacher his sister 
Miss Mary E. Sherman, who had graduated 
at the Judson in 1850. The school this year 
( 1855) numbered 239. 

Dr. Noah K. Davis succeeded Prof. Sherman 
in 1859, but resigned in 1864, and was suc- 
ceeded by J. G. Nash, of Pickens County, who 
had been a gallant soldier and was a teacher 
of experience. Prof. Nash remained at the 
Judson only one year. 

The Judson began its fall session, in 1865, 
as usual in October, with Rev. A. J. Battle 
as President, and during the session there 
were over 200 students in attendance, which 
was remarkable. 

In 1872 Dr. Battle was called to the presi- 
dency of Mercer University, Ga., and resigned 
the care of the Judson to accept that position. 
The original buildings were replaced by 
three handsome three story brick edifices, 
joined by two story wings, forming an im- 
posing structure 240 by 120 feet, occupying 

Author of some fine poems 

Among whose numerous novels the scenes 
of several are laid in 



the highest point in Marion, well furnished, 
and liberally supplied with apparatus and 
musical instruments. These buildings were 
destroyed by fire, November 2, 1888, but re- 
built the following year, the new structure 
being superior in plan and construction to its 
predecessors. Under the leadership of Rev. 
Robert G. Patrick the necessary amount, $24,- 
000. was raised and on May 1st, 1S97, the 
debts incurred in rebuilding the college after 
the fire of 1888 were paid. 

The Conversational Club was formed on 
the evening of November 17, 1893, in the 
old library room, under the direction of Miss 
Kirtley, head of the English department. 
Since 1899 the club has published the Judson 
Annual, called "The Conversationalist." The 
establishment of the lecture course which has 
brought so many fine lectures and concerts 
to the Judson has proved of great educational 

Scholarship and Gifts. — (1) Averett Memo- 
rial Association Scholarship — ^or one pupil; 
(2) Students aid fund, helps several girls 
every year; (3) Harriette McKleroy Memo- 
rial Scholarship; (4) Farham Donation; (5) 
United Daughters of the Confederacy, $65; 
(6) O. L. Shivers Scholarship, consisting of 
$1,000; (7) Ellen Cochran Crumpton Schol- 
arship; (8) Lydia Hombucke scholarship; (9) 
The pessie Curry Quisenberry Memorial; 
(10) "The J. Curtis Bush Endowment 

Carnegie Library. — The building was com- 
pleted in 1908, and on May 12, of that year 
was dedicated with appropriate ceremonies. 
The building is of Colonial style and repre- 
sents an expenditure of $30,000. There are 
in the library now about 10,000 books and 
the reading room is well supplied with news- 
papers and periodicals. 

The President's Mansion was finished in 
1910 and is a memorial to Zaidee Ellis Ash- 

The Alumnae Auditorium , for. which 
ground had been broken in 1902, was com- 
pleted and used in the commencement of 

Society of Alumnae, was organized on April 
30, 18 68. The first officers being Mrs. Mary 
P. Lovelace. President; Mrs. Lucy Langhome, 
first vice-president. Miss Ruth S. Tarrant, 
second vice-president; Miss Ida Walker, re- 
cording secretary; Miss Georgia Sumner, Cor- 
responding secretary; Miss Josephine Tutt, 

Organizations. Athletic association, The 
Conversational Club, Y. W. C. A., Ann Has- 
seltine Missionary Society. 
Kappa Delta 
Zeta Tau Alpha 
Delta Delta Delta 
Alpha Delta Phi 
Lambda Sigma Deta 
Psi Delta Zi 
Beta Sigma 
Phi Sigma 

K. K's. 

Grand Chapter of The Eyeshudwurrys. 

Judson Chapters. 

Pho Omega Phi Chapter. 
Beta Chapter 
Delta Theta Chapter 
Kappa Chapter 

Presidents of the Board of Trustees. — Gen. 
Edwin Davis King, 1838-6 2; William X. 
Wyatt, 1S62-68; Judge Porter King, 1868-87; 
Judge John Moore. 1SS7-91; W. W. Wilker- 
son. M. D., 1891-93; Jesse B. Lovelace, 1893- 
1901; Benj. F. Ellis, 1901-09; Ernest Lamar, 

Presidents. — Milo Parket Jewett, LL. D., 
1838-55; Samuel Sterling Sherman. LL. D., 
1855-59; Noah Knowles Davis, LL. D., 1859- 
64; Jesse G. Nash, 1864-65; Archibald J. 
Battle. D. D., 1865-72; Richard H. Rawlings, 
1872-75; Martin T. Sumner, D. D., 1875-76; 
Luther Rice Gwaltney, D. D., 1876-82; Rob- 
ert Frazier, LL. D., 1882-87; Samuel Wootten 
Averett, LL. D., 1887-96; Robert Goodlett 
Patrick, 189 6-1913; Paul Vernon Bomar, 

Librarian. — Miss Frances Pickett. 

Ptblicatioxs. — Catalogues. 1847-1916; Bulle- 
tins, 1913-1916; The Conversationalist (student 
annual), 1899-1916, IS vols.; Judson Echoes, 
prob. est. in 1880. and vol. 6 published in 
1886-87, but particulars not ascertained; Y. W. 
C. A., Handbooks. 

On September 30, 1916, the reports of Judson 
College to the State superintendent of education 
showed 26 teachers; 233 pupils, of which 26 
only were enrolled as day students; and a total 
support of $70,406. The claim of its Catalogue 
of 1914-1915 appears well sustained, that "For 
seventy-seven years the Judson has been a 
leading factor in the civilization of the South, 
and, for the character of its work, we point with 
confidence and pride to the thousands of noble 
women who have come under its training and 
who are now exerting a potent influence in 
almost every refined community from the At- 
lantic to the Pacific." 

References. — Miss Louise Manlv, History of 
Judson College (1913), ill.; Clark, History of 
Education in Alabama (1889), pp. 193-197; 
Townes, History of Marion (1844); Acts, 1840- 
41, p. 52; Riley, History of the Baptists of 
Alabama (1895); Alabama Baptist State Con- 
vention, Proceeding, 1841-1916; and Publica- 
tions listed supra. 

son College. 


Girls Patriotic League. 

MECHANICS. A secret, patriotic, political, 
and beneficiary society, formed in 1853, at 
Germantown, Pa., as a branch of the Order 
of United American Mechanics, to prepare 
young Americans for membership in the lat- 
ter; became an independent organization in 
1885, without the junior age limitation as to 
eligibility for membership. Among its dec- 



larations is a restricted immigration, protec- 
tion to Americans, the U. S. flag on school 
houses, and the daily reading of the Bible in 
schools. Its total membership is about 300,- 
000, in 26 states and 2,500 subordinate 

The state council in Alabama was organized 
at Huntsville, June 10, 1897. Sixty-one 
councils have been chartered by the state 
council. The active membership was, in 
1919, in excess of 3,000. 

Refebences. — International Encyclopedia ; 
letters from E. R. Calhoun, Stute Secretary, 
Birmingham, in the Alabama State depart- 
ment of archives and history. 

JTJVENII/E COURTS. Special or regular 
courts having jurisdiction of neglected or 
delinquent children, wards of the State, under 
sections 6450 to 6465 of the code of 1907, as 
amended by the act of September 16, 1915. 
In all the counties of the State, except Jeffer- 
son and Mobile which have separate juvenile 
courts, this jurisdiction is exercised by the 
probate courts with the assistance of the 
necessary special probation officers; but in 
cities having recorders' courts, such courts 
have concurrent jurisdiction with the probate 
courts. The courts having jurisdiction are 
required to keep separate dockets for the 
trial of children's cases, and to enter their 
orders and decrees in such cases in separate 
minute books; to hold the trials of such cases 
at a different time from the hearing of other 
cases; and to conduct the trials in such man- 
ner as to disarm the fears of the children 
and win their respect and confidence. 

The spirit underlying the juvenile laws and 
intended to guide in their interpretation and 
administration, is admirably shown in the 
act referred to: 

"The court may conduct the examination 
without the assistance of counsel, and may 
take testimony and inquire into the habits, 
surroundings, condition and tendencies of 
such child to enable the court to render such 
order or judgment as shall best serve the 
welfare of the child, and carry out the object 
of this chapter; and the court, if satisfied 
that the child is in need of the care, discipline, 
or protection of the State, may so adjudicate 
and may further render such judgment and 
make such order or commitment according to 
circumstances of the case as will conserve the 
welfare of said child and purposes of this 
chapter. It is the intention of this chapter 
that in all proceedings coming under its pro- 
visions, the court shall proceed upon the 
theory that said child is a ward of the State 
and is subject to the discipline, and entitled 
to the protection, which the court should give 
such child under the conditions disclosed in 
the case." 

Probation Officers. — The judges of probate, 
in their capacity of judge of the children's 
court, are empowered to appoint probation 
officers, who may be either men or women, 
and who receive salaries from the county 
in which they serve. The age limit of chil- 

dren who come within the provisions of the 
juvenile court laws is 16 years, and while 
it is intended that neglected and delinquent 
children within those limits shall be re- 
moved from the jurisdiction of the criminal 
courts, they do not prevent the criminal 
prosecution in the ordinary courts of any 
child which the probate judge is convinced 
cannot be reformed and brought to a correct 

Scope of the Laws. — The juvenile court law 
is based squarely on the principle of the 
State's parental right to discipline and care 
for its neglected wards. The jurisdiction con- 
ferred is in equity, and in no sense criminal, 
and the personal jurisdiction is made broad 
enough to cover the case of any needy child. 
The error of trying to set out just what 
specific facts must exist in order for the 
court to acquire jurisdiction of the child is 
thus avoided. Power is given the court to 
punish parents and other persons who con- 
tribute to the delinquency of children. Pro- 
vision is also made for the appointment of an 
advisory board, of citizens interested in child 
welfare work, which shall have general su- 
pervision of the activities of the probation 

Desertion and Nonsupport Law. — Another 
act, which also was approved September 16, 
1915, provides penalties against husbands 
and parents for desertion or nonsupport of 
wives or children, and confers jurisdiction of 
such cases upon the probate courts of all the 
counties except those having separate juvenile 
courts, in which counties the juvenile courts 
have jurisdiction. This act is popularly 
known as the "Desertion and Nonsupport 
Law," and the courts, in the exercise of their 
functions under its provisions, as "Domestic 
Relations Courts." Together these laws 
form a system of dealing with a special class 
of cases which ranks with those in vogue 
in the most progressive States of the coun- 
try. They represent the effort of the State 
to differentiate in its judicial and reforma- 
tory methods between the child and the 
adult, the delinquent and the criminal, the 
redeemable and the incorrigible. 

Mobile County Juvenile Court. — There was 
no special provision for the handling of 
juvenile delinquency cases in the courts of 
Alabama until 1907, when the first legisla- 
tion on the subject, an act applying only to 
Mobile County, was approved on March 5. 
This law fixed the age limit of children sub- 
ject to its terms at 16 years, provided for a 
salaried probation officer, conferred concur- 
rent jurisdiction on the inferior criminal 
court and the probate court of the county 
and the recorder's court of the city of Mobile, 
defined specifically the nature of the offenses 
that would subject a child to its operation, 
and provided for jury trials. There was noth- 
ing in the law, however, which prevented the 
prosecution of a child in the regular criminal 
courts at the discretion of the authorities. 
The club women of the city of Mobile were 
largely instrumental in getting the law 



enacted, and with their supervision and assist- 
ance much good was accomplished in its 

The legislature created a separate juvenile 
court in Mobile County, March 29, 1915, pre- 
sided over by a judge "learned in the law," 
who is paid a salary of ?5 a month, but is 
not thereby prohibited from practising in 
other courts except in cases arising out of the 
juvenile court. The necessary number of sal- 
aried probation officers is provided for at the 
cost of the county, and a commission of seven 
members, four men and three women, from 
the membership of the Boy's Club of Mobile, 
serving without compensation, and known as 
the Juvenile Court Commission of Mobile 
County, with authority to appoint the judge 
and probation officers of the court. The com- 
mission' also has general supervisory powers 
over all matters affecting the workings of the 
court. It is the intention of the act "that 
all proceedings coming under the provisions 
thereof shall be upon the theory that said 
child is the ward of the State, and all provi- 
sions in this act shall be construed liberally 
that its beneficial purpose may be carried out, 
and that any delinquent child shall not be 
treated as a criminal but as misdirected and 
in need of assistance." 

First General Juvenile Law. — The legisla- 
ture enacted a law, March 12, 1907, "to define 
who are delinquent children, and to provide 
for their arrest, care and reformation," which 
applied to all the counties except Mobile. The 
age limit was fixed at 14 years, and jurisdic- 
tion was conferred on the chancery court, or 
any court having equity powers and jurisdic- 
tion, except in cities having police courts, with 
the power to try misdemeanants against the 
laws of the State, where such police courts 
had concurrent jurisdiction with the chancery 
courts. In most of its provisions, this law- 
was similar to the present juvenile law. It 
required separate dockets and minute books 
for juvenile cases, and trials at a different 
time from the hearing of other cases, from 
which trials everyone except the officers of 
the court, attorneys engaged in the trial, and 
the parents or guardian of the child was ex- 
cluded. Salaried probation officers were also 
provided for. The same legislature at its 
extra session passed an act, November 23, 
1907, repealing the juvenile court law; and 
when the code of 19 07 was adopted, the 
repealing act was included as a note to section 
6450 which established the courts. The re- 
pealing act was declared unconstitutional and 
void by the supreme court in deciding the 
case of State v. Smith (162 Ala., p. 1); but 
the general impression that the law establish- 
ing children's courts had been repealed had 
resulted in little or nothing being done, out- 
side of Mobile County, toward their establish- 
ment. The legislature amended the code by 
act of August 25, 1909, as to certain details of 
the juvenile law, but left its main provisions 
practically as before. 

Jefferson County Juvenile Court. — In 1911 
the Boy's Club and the Children's Aid Society 
of Birmingham obtained the passage of an 

act, approved April 22, creating the juvenile 
court of Jefferson County. The act was mod- 
eled after the "Rochester Court Law," at that 
time considered by authorities as the standard 
juvenile court law. It provided for a salaried 
judge who should devote all of his time to the 
work of the court, one salaried probation offi- 
cer, and the maintenance of a receiving home 
for delinquent, indigent, or neglected children 
under 16 years of age. Samuel D. Murphy 
was appointed judge of the court, and has con- 
tinued to devote himself to the work and to 
the cause of child welfare, not only in Jef- 
ferson County, but throughout the State. The 
Boy's Club and the Children's Aid Society con- 
tinued their support of the work in the 
county, and paid the salaries of a larger pro- 
bation force until the enactment of the pres- 
ent law in 1915, by which the powers and 
juisdiction of the court were extended and the 
entire expense of its maintenance put upon 
the county. It now has seven salaried proba- 
tion officers and a well-equipped receiving 
home. The work is under the supervision 
of an advisory board appointed by the judge. 

Genesis of Child Welfare Work in State. — 
Up to the time the legislature of 1915 con- 
vened, there was practically no organized 
child welfare work being done in the State 
except in Mobile and Jefferson Counties. At 
that session two bills, drawn by Judge Murphy 
of Birmingham, were introduced in the house 
by Representative A. R. Brindley of Etowah 
County, which were designed to establish in 
every county of the State a modern, efficient 
juvenile and domestic relations court, and a 
county child welfare board to insure active 
and effectual community child welfare work. 
Both the bills became law. One of them is 
based on the model juvenile court law, drawn 
by a committee appointed by the Attorney 
General of the United States to draft a law 
establishing juvenile courts in the District of 
Columbia. The other is modeled after the 
desertion and nonsupport law approved by the 
American Bar Association. The passage of 
these progressive child welfare laws was se- 
cured by the aid of Gov. Charles Henderson, 
the Alabama Federation of Women's Clubs, 
Judge Samuel D. Murphy, and other individ- 
uals interested in a child welfare program for 
the entire State. 

Proposed Organizations. — Those who were 
interested in a State-wide child welfare pro- 
gram and had been instrumental in securing 
the passage of the above-mentioned general 
laws, immediately began to plan for the or- 
ganization of the various counties in accord- 
ance with their provisions. To this end, the 
Federal Children's Bureau was induced to 
send Miss Evelina Belden, one of its trained 
investigators, to Alabama for the purpose of 
investigating the conditions of child life in 
the larger counties, at least; and to aid by 
suggestions in the planning of a proper pro- 
gram. The completion of her work was fol- 
lowed by a child welfare conference, of dele- 
gates and other interested individuals from 
different parts of the State, at Montgomery, in 
May, 1916. Miss Julia Lathrop, chief of the 


Children's Bureau, and Miss Belden were In 
attendance. It was deemed essential to the 
success of the work that a State children's aid 
society should be organized, to have charge 
of the home-finding and child-placing work 
for the whole State, and to develop, through 
juvenile courts and advisory boards estab- 
lished by law, community child welfare work 
in every county. An organization committee, 
with Judge Samuel D. Murphy as chairman, 
was appointed. The committee met at Mont- 
gomery, selected Dr. Thomas M. Owen, direc- 
tor of the State department of archives and 
history, as president, and took other steps to 
perfect the organization of the Alabama State 
Children's Aid Society. Much interest has 
been aroused in the objects of the society, 
and Alabama is now well on the way to a 
position among the more progressive States 
with respect to the care of the needy classes 
of children. 

References. — Code, 1907, sees. 6450-6465; Lo- 
cal Acts. 1907, pp. 363-369; General Acts, 1907, 
pp. 442-448; General Acts, 1907, special sess., p. 
49; Acts, 1909, special sess., pp. 117-119; Local 
Acts, 1911, pp. 354-367; Ibid, 1915, pp. 115-119, 
268-284; General Acts, 1915, 560-565, 577-589; 
State v. Smith, 162 Ala., p. 1; Phillips v. Stare, 
167 Ala., p. 75; McLaughlin and Hart, Cyclo- 
pedia of American Government (1914); Mobile 
Central Trades Council, Manual, 1917, pp. 61- 

mountain and several lower mountains, with 
cross spurs that branch off and form with the 
main mountain a broad, broken, fan-shape 
mountainous country in Talladega County, 
known locally as the Kahatchee Hills. The 
main mountain between Sycamore and Chil- 
dersburg is between 16 and 18 miles long, and 
in places more than 1,200 feet above sea level. 
In its top strata are some deposits of limonite 
and of gray magnetic ore. 

Reference. — McCalley, Valley regions of Ala- 
bama, Pt. 2, Coosa Valley (Geol. Survey of Ala., 
Special report 9, 1897), pp. 20, 545. 

KAILAIDSHI. An Upper Creek town in 
Elmore County, situated on the right bank 
of Little Kowaliga, and immediately above 
its junction with Kowaliga Creek, about 2% 
miles below the junction of Hurricane Creek 
with Big Kowaliga, and about three miles 
above the influx of this latter creek with the 
Tallapoosa River. It is in sees. 5 and 6, R. 
21, T. 20. This point is on the plantation of 
Mrs. Maggie Hatton, widow of S. H. Hatton. 
It is 15 miles by trail, above Tukabachi. The 
modern village of Kowaliga is one mile east 
of the old Indian town site. The towns of 
Atchinahatchi, and Hatchitachapa were peo- 
pled from Kailaidshi. The name is variously 
written as Kialige, Kiliga, Killeegko and 
Kiolege. According to Gatschet, the word 
probably has reference to a warrior's head- 
dress, that is Ika, "his head," ilaidshas, "I 
kill." The town was destroyed in the Creek 

War of 1813-14 by a party of hostile Creeks. 
It was doubtless rebuilt, as a Census reference 
of the early 30's refers to the town. It has 
considerable local tradition attached to it, 
from the fact that the rock on which Tecum- 
seh is reported to have stood when he ad- 
dressed the Creeks in 1811, in his effort to 
arouse them against the white settlers, still 
stands immediately beside the road, 200 
yards north of Prospect M. E. church, South, 
Cemetery. This stone, which projects more 
than seven feet above the surface, is in Sec. 5, 
while the mound of the old town is in Sec. 6. 

See Atchinahatchi; Hatchitchapa; Kowa- 

References. — Gatschet, in Alabama History 
Commission, Report (1901), vol. 1, p. 399; Hand- 
book of American Indians (1907), vol. 1, p. 
642; Hawkins, Sketch of the Creek Country 
(1848), p. 48; Woodward, .Reminiscence* 
(1859), p. 83. Manuscript data in Department 
Archives and History. 

KANCHATI (Talladega). An Upper Creek 
town, probably in Talladega County. No 
history preserved other than a mention of 
1835. The word is sometimes written Kan- 
shade. The spelling in the 1835 reference is 
Conchanti. It may be at or near the site 
of Conchardee, a few miles southwest of Tal- 
ladega, the county seat. This town is said 
to be a branch of Abihka. The word means 
"red dirt," or "little earth," that is, Ikana, 
"ground," tchati, "red." 

See Abihka; Kanchati (Montgomery). 

References. — Gatschet, in Alabama History 
Commission, Report (1901), vol. 1, p. 399; Hand' 
book of American Indians (1907), vol. 1, p. 

tion, February 1, 1887, under the general 
laws of Tennessee, Mississippi, and Alabama, 
of the Memphis & Birmingham Railroad Co., 
with the Kansas City, Memphis & Birming- 
ham Railroad Co. The latter was a consolida- 
tion on July 26, 1886, under the laws of Ten- 
nessee and Mississippi, of the Memphis & 
Southeastern Railroad Co., and the Kansas 
City, Memphis & Birmingham Railroad Co.; 
mileage operated June 30, 1915 — -main track 
and branches, 290.40, side tracks, 122.29, to- 
tal, 412.69; mileage operated in Alabama — 
main track and branches, 132.49, side tracks, 
80.97, total, 213.46; capital stock author- 
ized — common, $6,250,000, no preferred 
stock, actually issued, $5,976,000; shares, 
$100; voting power, one vote a share; and 
funded debt, $6,322,780. The company is 
controlled by the St. Louis & San Francisco 
Railroad Co., through ownership of the entire 
capital stock of the Kansas City, Fort Scott 
& Memphis Railroad Co., which owns the en- 
tire capital stock of the Kansas City, Mem- 
phis & Birmingham Railroad Co. The latter 
is operated as a part of the "Frisco" system. 

This railroad was originally projected as a 
continuation of the Kansas City, Fort Scott 
& Memphis system for the purpose of reach- 



ing Birmingham and the mineral district, and 
its stock and securities were largely held by 
the owners of the latter. The main line be- 
tween Memphis, Tenn., and Birmingham was 
opened in October, 1887, and a branch be- 
tween Ensley and Bessemer in the following 
year. The new road was then made an integ- 
ral part of the system of the Kansas City, Fort 
Scott & Memphis. On August 23, 1901, the 
Kansas City, Fort Scott & Memphis Railroad 
Co. leased its entire property to the St. Louis 
& San Francisco Railroad Co. for 99 years at 
a rental equivalent to the interest on the 
bonds, for which the former is liable, and 
dividends at the rate of 4 per cent on the 
preferred stock. It is now operated by and 
its accounts merged with those of the "Frisco" 

References. — Railroad Commission of Ala., 
Annual reports, 1889 et seq.; Kansas City, Mem- 
phis & Birmingham R. R. Co., 3d annual report, 
1892; Ppor's manual of railroads, 1888 et seq.; 
Annual report of company to Ala. Public Serv- 
ice Commission, 1915. 

KAOLINS. See Clays, Kaolins and Shales. 

KAPPA ALPHA (Southern). College fra- 
ternity; founded at Washington College (now 
Washington and Lee University), Lexington, 
Va., December 21, 1865; entered Alabama in 
1882 when Phi chapter was established at 
Southern Univ., Greensboro. Chapters: Phi, 
1882, Southern Univ., 264 members; Nu, Nov. 
24, 1883, Ala. Pol. Inst., 286 members, owns 
its chapter house, erected 1893, at a cost of 
12,500; Alpha Beta 1885, Univ. of Ala., 200 
members. Phi Chapter disbanded in 1882, 
but was reorganized in 1883, and withdrawn 
in 1914. Alumni chapters are maintained in 
Birmingham and Anniston. Periodical: 
"Kappa Alpha Journal." Colors: Crimson 
and old gold. Flowers: Magnolia and red 

References. — Baird, Manual (1915), pp. 184- 
195; and Kappa Alpha Catalogues, editions of 
1891, 1901 and 1915. 

KAPPA DELTA. Women's college frater- 
nity; founded at Virginia State Normal 
School, Farmville, October 27, 1897; and en- 
tered Alabama when Zeta chapter was estab- 
lished at the State University in 1904. Chap- 
ters: Zeta, 1904, Univ. of Ala., 80 members; 
Rho Omega Phi chapter at Judson College was 
formed from a local organization December 3, 
1904, maintains a scholarship standard, 134 
members; and Kappa, 1913, Woman's College 
of Alabama, but it was destroyed the next year 
by antifraternity opposition of the trustees, 9 
members. Alumni chapters are maintained 
at Montgomery, Mobile, Union Springs, Tusca- 
loosa, Selma and Birmingham. Periodical: 
"Angelos." Colors: Olive green and white. 
Flower: White rose. Flag: Pennant of three 
bars displaying white rose, a dagger, and gold 

Reference.— Baird, Manual (1915), pp. 439- 

KAPPA PHI. Medical-pharmaceutical col- 
lege fraternity; founded in the pharmaceutical 
department of the University of the South, 
1909; entered Alabama in 1911, when the Ala- 
bama Alpha chapter was established in the 
medical department of the State University. 
Its membership is 25. Colors: Scarlet and 

Reference. — Baird, Manual (1915), p. 521. 

KAPPA PSI. Medical college fraternity; 
founded at the Russell Military Academy, New 
Haven, Conn., May 30, 1879; entered Alabama 
in 1905 when Iota chapter was established at 
the Univ. of Ala. Medical Department, Mobile. 
Chapters: Iota, 1905, Univ. of Ala. Med. Col- 
lege, 147 members; Kappa, 1906, Birming- 
ham Medical College, 108 members; and Tau, 
1909, Univ. of Ala. Pharmaceutical Dept., 8 
members. The chapter at the Univ. of Ala. 
was withdrawn when the pharmaceutical de- 
partment was removed to Mobile in 1913. 
Periodical: "The Mask." Colors: Scarlet and 
gray. Flower: Red carnation. 

Reference. — Baird, Manual (1915), pp. 522- 

KAPPA SIGMA. College fraternity; 
founded at the University of Virginia. Char- 
lottesville, December 10, 1869. Entered Ala- 
bama in 1869 when Beta, the second chapter 
to be founded, was installed at the State Uni- 
versity. Chapters: Beta, 1869, Univ. of Ala.,, 
killed in 1870 by antifraternity legislation, 
revived in 1899, chapter house erected in 
1916 at a cost of $12,500, 150 members; Beta 
Eta, January 20, 1900, Ala. Pol. Inst., 175 
members. Alumni chapters are maintained 
in Birmingham, Mobile and Montgomery. 
Periodical: "The Caduceus," and "The Star 
and Crescent." Colors: Scarlet, white and 
emerald green. Flower: Lily-of-the-valley. 

References.— Baird, Manual (1915), pp. 196- 
207; and Kappa Sigma Cataloaues, editions of 
1881, 1886, 1906, 1912. 

KASIHTA. A Lower Creek town, in the 
northwest corner of Chattahoochie County, 
Ga. It is situated on the left or east bank of 
the Chatahoochee River, 2% miles below the 
Indian town of Kawita Talahassi. Although 
actually located in the state of Georgia, its 
Influence on the Creek Indian Nation, lying so 
largely in Alabama, justifies a full sketch. 
The Kasihtas once claimed a much more ex- 
tensive territory than that immediately trib- 
utary to their town. From time to time 
branch villages were thrown off, and its in- 
fluence was large, not only because of Its 
position as Kasihta lako, "the great one," 
but because of so many Indians and villages 
traced to it as the mother town. It was the 
leading white or peace town among the Lower 

The town appears as Kachetas on De Cren- 
ay's map, 1733. The French census of 1760, 
in which the name is given in the same form, 
gives the town 150 warriors, and places it 3 2 
leagues distant from Fort Toulouse. Under 
the English trade regulations of 1761, the 


town with its 100 hunters was assigned to the 
trader, John Rae. 

Hawkins presents a more elaborate account 
of the town than is ordinarily given in his 
Sketch. The locality is carefully described. 
Continuing he says: 

"The people of Cussetuh associate, more 
than any other Indians, with their white 
neighbors, and without obtaining any ad- 
vantage from it; they know not the season 
for planting, or if they do, they never avail 
themselves of what they know, as they always 
plant a month too late. 

"This town with its villages is the largest 
in the Lower Creeks; the people are and 
have been friendly to white people, and are 
fond of visiting them; the old chiefs are 
very orderly men and much occupied in 
governing their young men, who are rude and 
disorderly, in proportion to the intercourse 
they have had with white people; they fre- 
quently complain of the intercourse of their 
young people with the white people on the 
frontiers; as being very prejudicial to their 
morals; that they are more rude, more in- 
clined to be tricky, and more difficult to gov- 
ern, than those who do not associate with 

Branch settlements from this town spread 
out on the Alabama side of the river. In 1799 
its warriors were estimated at 180. In 183 2 
it had 620 families, and 10 chiefs. In this 
town there was a fine mound, known in 
later times as the Kyle Mound, but it has 
long since been destroyed. It is thus described 
by Hawkins: "At the entrance of the fields 
on the right, there is an oblong mound of 
earth; one quarter of a mile lower, there is 
a conic mound forty-five yards in diameter at 
the base, twenty-five feet high, and flat on 
the top, with mulberry trees on the north 
side and evergreens on the south. From the 
top of this mound, they have a fine view of 
the river above the flat land on both sides of 
the river, and all the field of one thousand 
acres; the river makes a short bend round 
to the right, opposite this mound, and there 
is a good ford, just below the point." 

Gatschet is authority for the statement that 
the Kawitas and Kasihtas were originally the 
same people, as evidenced by the migration 
legend preserved by him. Their separation 
took place in very ancient times. Of them 
he says: "The name Kasi-hta, Kasixta, is 
popularly explained as "coming from the sun" 
(ha'si) and being identical with hasi'hta. 
The Creeks infer, from the parallel Creek 
form hasoti, "sunshine," that Kasi'hta really 
means "light," or "bright splendor of the 
sun;" anciently this term was used for the 
sun himself, "as the old people say." The 
inhabitants of the town believed that they 
came from the sun." 

References. — Handbook of American Indians 
(1907), vol. 1, p. 661; Hawkins, Sketch of the 
Creek Country (1848), pp. 57-59; Mississippi, 
Provincial archives (1911), vol. 1, p. 196; Geor- 
gia, Colonial records (1907), vol. 8, p. 522; 
Gatschet, Creek Migration Legend (1884), vol. 
1, pp. 133-134, and also Alabama History Com- 

mission Report (1901), p. 399; Hamilton, Colo- 
nial Mobile (1910), p. 190. 

KATALA MOUNTAINS. A series of sev- 
eral ridges, divided into two main prongs 
separated by a broken country about one-half 
mile wide at the southern extremity of the 
mountains. The two prongs come together 
near the northeast end in an irregular, high 
mountain or peak. The eastern prong is much 
the longer, exceeding 5 miles. The altitude 
of the mountains varies from 700 to 900 feet. 
Their trend is generally north and south and 
they extend from near the Fayetteville and 
Childersburg road almost to Fayetteville. 
Limonite, roofing slate, and some pieces of a 
sandy, magnetic gray ore are found upon and 
in the immediate vicinity of the mountains. 
These mountains, with the Kahatchee Moun- 
tains (q. v.), occupy a considerable area in 
Talladega County. They are a part of the 
Appalachian Range. 

Reference. — McCalley, Valley regions of Ala- 
bama, Pt. 2, Coosa Valley (Geol. Survey of 
Ala., Special report 9, 1897), pp. 20, 544-545. 

KAWAIKI. A Lower Creek town in Bar- 
bour County, at the junction of the present 
Cowikee Creek with the Chatahoochee River. 
Very little is known of its history. However, 
it had *5 heads of families in 1833. The 
word means "water-carrying place," that is, 
oka "water," awaiki, "hauling," "carrying" 
I place 1. The town was doubtless a Hitchiti 
settlement, as its name was Hitchiti, and its 
inhabitants doubtless spoke their language. 
Gatschet states that Cowikee Creek "is named 
after quails," which is doubtless an error, as 
the genesis of the town name is accurate. 

See Hitchiti. 

References. — Gatschet, in Alabama History 
Commission, Report (1901), vol. 1, p. 400; Hand- 
book of American Indians (1907), vol. 1, p. 

K A WIT A (Upper Coweta). A Lower 
Creek town in Russell County, situated on 
the west bank of the Chattahoochee River, 
about five miles below Columbus, Ga., and on 
Cochgalechee Creek (the Koteskelejau) of 
Hawkins' time. It is two miles north of 
Kawita Talahassi (Old Coweta). In 1799, 
the settlements extended up the river two 
miles on the flats. They reached the point 
formed by a bend in the river, up beyond the 
old Jennys' Island now removed by Govern- 
ment dredging. The fisheries on the right 
of the river belonged to Kawita, those on the 
left to Kasihta. 

This point is nearly opposite to the mound 
known in later years as the Kyle Mound, 
which is in Muscogee County, Ga., north of 
the mouth of Upatoi Creek. Until a recent 
date, the town was located at the Fitzgerald 
mound, opposite Bickerstaff's Brick Yard, on 
the Humber Plantation. 

References. — Hawkins, Sketch of the Creek 
Country (1848), p. 52; Handbook of American 
Indians (1907), vol. 1, p. 669; Gatschet, in Ala- 
bama History Commission, Report (1901), vol. 



1, p. 400. Mms. records in Department of 
Archives and History of Alabama. 


Lower Creek town in Russell County. It was 
situated west and about a half mile from 
the Chattahoochee River, and on the south 
side of Broken Arrow Creek. It lies on the 
Central of Georgia R. R., formerly the old 
Mobile and Girard R. R., and is between the 
railroad and the river at old Flournoy's 
Crossing, now a small flag station known as 
Tickfaw. It is about 2 miles northeast from 
Fort Mitchell. It is also known as Lower 
Kawita to distinguish it from another tdwn, 
called Upper Kawita. 

The first record of the town is on De 
Lisle's map, 1707, where it is spelled Caoui- 
tas. It is placed on Okmulgee River, called 
"Riviere des Caouitas." Colonies of the Ka- 
witas also appear on this map, some located 
between the Flint and Chattahoochee Rivers, 
and others on the west side of the Chatta- 
hoochee. Some of these even appear at their 
well-known location here described. The 
towns on the Okmulgee appear to have been 
gradually abandoned and concentered on the 
Chattahoochee. On De Crenay's map, 1733, 
the Chattahoochee country is called "Em- 
pire des Caouitas," and the Chattahoochee 
River is designated as "Riviere des Caouitas." 
On Belen's map, 1744, Caouita appears on 
the west side of Okmulgee, or on one of its 
tributaries, while Cauitas are placed on the 
Flint River. In 1762, a map in the American 
Gazetteer locates Koweta Old Town on the 
east side of Osechee Creek, an unidentified 
tributary of Okmulgee, while the later Ko- 
weta stands on its well known site, west of 
the Chatahoochee and below the falls. The 
French census of 1760 gives the town 150 
warriors, and locates it 30 leagues from 
Fort Toulouse. Under the English trade reg- 
ulations the town is noted as having 150 
hunters, and is assigned to the trader George 

Bartram visited the town in 1775. He 
makes the following, among other references: 
"The great Coweta town, about twelve miles 
higher up this river, is called the bloody 
town, where the Micos chiefs and warriors 
assemble when a general war is proposed, 
and here captives and state malefactors are 
put to death." 

In 1799 the town is thus described by 

"The town is half a mile from the river, 
on the right bank of the creek; it 'is on a 
high flat, bordered on the east by the flats 
of the river, and west by high broken hills; 
they have but a few settlers in the town; the 
fields are on a point of land three-quarters 
of a mile below the town, which is very rich, 
and has been long under cultivation; they 
have no fence around their fields. 

"Here is the public establishment for the 
Lower Creeks; and here the agent resides. 
He has a garden well cultivated and planted, 
with a great variety of vegetables, fruits and 
vines, and an orchard of peach trees. Ar- 

rangements have been made, to fence two 
hundred acres of land fit for cultivation, and 
to introduce a regular husbandry to serve as 
a model and stimulus, for the neighboring 
towns who crowd the public shops here, at all 
seasons, when the hunters are not in the 

"The agent entertains doubts, already, of 
succeeding here in establishing a regular hus- 
bandry, from the difficulty of changing the 
old habits of indolence, and sitting daily in 
the squares, which seem peculiarly attractive 
to the residenters of the towns. In the event 
of not succeeding, he intends to move the 
establishment out from the town, and aid the 
villagers where success seems to be infallible. 

"They estimate their number of gun men 
at one hundred; but the agent has ascer- 
tained, by actual enumeration, that they have 
but sixty-six, including all who reside here, 
and in the villages belonging to the town. 

"They have a fine body of land below, and 
adjoining the town, nearly two thousand 
acres, all well timbered; and including the 
whole above and below, they have more than 
is sufficient for the accommodation of the 
whole town; they have one village belonging 
to the town, Wetumcau." 

In 1799 the town had 66 warriors, but this 
diminution of population was doubtless due 
to the formation of smaller settlements, 
which took away large numbers. In 1833 
the town had 289 families. 

Gatschet is authority for the statement that 
Kawita Talahassi was settled from Kasihta, 
but this is hardly probable. Its individuality 
seems clearly established, and originally it 
was of as great antiquity as Kasihta. 

See Kawita (Upper); Witumka. 

References. — Gatschet, in Alabama History 
Commission Report; Hawkins, Sketch of the 
Creek Country (1848), p. 55; Handbook of 
American Indians (1907), vol. 1, p. 669; Gat- 
schet, Creek Migration Legend, vol. 1, (1884), 
p. 135; Bossu, Travels, 1 (1771), p. 229; Royce, 
in 18th Report Bureau American Ethnology 
(1899), Georgia Map; McKenney and Hall, In- 
dian Tribes, vol. 3 (1854), p. 79; Adair, Ameri- 
can Indians (1775), p. 257. 

KAYOMULGI. A town in Talladega Coun- 
ty on the south side of Talladega Creek, sev- 
eral miles above its influx into Coosa River. 
It is also spelled Coyomulgee and Cayomulgee. 
Nothing is known of its history apart from 
its record on the two maps noted in the ref- 

References. — Winsor, Mississippi Basin 
(1895), p. 47; Ibid, Westward Movement 
(1897), p. 31. 

Keeper of. 

KENNEDY. Post office and station on the 
Southern Railway, in the southeastern part 
of Lamar County, on Lookapallila Creek, 20 
miles southeast of Vernon. Population: 
1900 — 166; 1910 — 261. It is incorporated 
under the municipal code of 1907. The Bank 
of Kennedy (State) is located there. 


of Pythias. 

massacre, September 1, 1813, in Clarke Coun- 
ty, and in which the Creeks under the Prophet 
Francis cruelly murdered 12 members of the 
Kimball and James families. In the fall of 
1813 the settlers in Clarke County were con- 
stantly alert, fearing Indian attack. They had 
gathered in rude forts. Ransom Kimball and 
Abner James, however, became dissatisfied 
with an inactive life at Port Sinquefleld, and 
some time in August they and their families 
moved out to the home of the former about 
a mile distant to the east. 

On September 1, 1813, about three o'clock 
in the afternoon, a band of Creek warriors 
under the Prophet Francis suddenly sur- 
rounded the house, and before they could 
hardly realize that the Indians were upon 
them, 12 of the inmates were killed. Only a 
few made their escape to the fort. After 
the massacre, the Indians plundered the 
house, killed the stock, and then retired to 
Bassett's Creek swamp. During the attack, 
Mrs. Sarah Merrill, a daughter of Abner 
James was struck down, together with her 
infant son. Both were supposed to be dead. 
Mrs. Merrill was scalped. She was revived 
by the falling rain, recovered her child from 
among the bodies, and with it succeeded in 
making her way to the fort also. She and 
the child eventually recovered. Mrs. Merrill 
died in Clarke County in 1869, but she 
could never remain long in the sun because 
of the wound on the head. The attack on 
Fort Sinquefleld was made on the following 

See Clarke County; Fort Sinquefleld At- 

References. — Me'k, Romantic Passages in 
Southwestern History (1857) pp. 300, 301; 
Pickett, History of Alabama (Owen's ed. 1900), 
pp. 544, 545; Ball, Clarke and its surroundings 
(1882), pp. 150-153; Halbert and Ball, Creek 
War of 1813 and 1811, (1895), pp. 177-181. 

KITCHOPATAKI. An Upper Creek town 
in Randolph County, near the influx of a 
creek of the same name with the Tallapoosa 
River. It is a few miles below the modern 
village ol Oakfuskl. The name of the creek 
is locally spelled Ketchapedrakee, and flows 
through the northern part of Clay County, 
emptying into the Tallapoosa River, in the 
northwestern corner of Randolph. The name 
is derived from Kitcho, "maize-pounding 
block of wood," pataki, "spreading out." In 
1832 the town had 48 families. 

References. — Handbook of American Indians 
(1907), vol. 1, p. 706; Gatschet, in Alabama His- 
tory Commission, Report (1901), vol. 1, p. 401. 


fraternal society organized in Kentucky in 
1877 for social and beneficial purposes, both 
men and women being admitted to member- 
ship on equal terms. The supreme lodge is 
the central authority, and the title of supreme 

protector is borne by the chief officer. The 
general order in 1914 had 15 grand lodges 
and 1,230 subordinate lodges, with a total 
membership of 70,000. Since its organization 
it has dispensed $34,000,000 to beneficiaries 
of deceased members. 

The order existed in Alabama for many 
years, but about 1916 was merged into an- 
other organization. The last Grand Lodge 
was held in Birmingham in 1910. In the re- 
port of Edward L. Cahall, Grand Secretary, 
at the meeting of the Grand Lodge held in 
1903, at Selma, it was shown that the mem- 
bership was 927, in 20 lodges. 

References. — New International Encyclo- 
pedia; Reports of the Grand Lodge; letter from 
Col. J. B. Stanley, Greenville, in the Depart- 
ment of Archives and History. 


A fraternal and benefit order, organized in 
Topeka, Kan., February 22, 1892, with 11 
charter members. On December 31, 1917, 
there were 198,824 members and $3,063,- 
911.75 assets. All the business of the organi- 
zation is handled through the National Coun- 
cil. The society was first licensed to do busi- 
ness in Alabama in the city of Birmingham, 
May, 1913. 

Reference.— Letter from J. M. Kirkpatrick, 
National president, Topeka, Kan., In Depart- 
ment of Archives and History. 

and insurance order, organized under a char- 
ter granted March 29, 1882, by Connecticut, 
to Michael J. McGivney, Patrick Lawlor and 
others. It is composed of a supreme council, 
a board of directors, and state and subordi- 
nate councils. The supreme council is the 
highest authority in the order, and meets an- 
nually in August for legislative purposes. 
The board of directors is the executive body 
of the order, and meets quarterly for the 
transaction of business incident to the con- 
duct of affairs. The subordinate councils of 
the order meet in state convention in their 
respective States in May of each year. Sub- 
ordinate councils meet regularly, and have 
full control of their affairs, consistent with 
law. There are 52 state councils and 1,754 
subordinate councils in the order, with a 
membership in good standing of 369,639 — 
divided between 116,382 in the insured class, 
and 253,257 in the associate class. 

The first subordinate council chartered in 
Alabama was organized in Birmingham on 
January 12, 1902, exemplification of the de- 
grees being in charge of State Deputy Bryan 
of Tennessee. There are now five subordinate 
councils in Alabama, located at Birmingham, 
Mobile, Huntsville, Montgomery, and Cull- 
man, with a membership of 796 in good 

Membership. — Practical Roman Catholics 
only are eligible to and entitled to continue 
membership in the order. Applicants for in- 
surance membership must be at least 18, and 
not over 5 years of age. Applicants for as- 



sociate membership must be 21 years of age; 
but with the proviso that when an applicant 
for insurance membership, under 21, is 
rejected for insurance membership, such 
applicant is eligible for associate membership. 
No person is eligible to membership in the 
Knights of Columbus who is engaged in the 
manufacture or sale, either wholesale or 
retail, of intoxicating liquors. 

Insurance. — The insurance side of the 
order, as shown by actuarial valuation on 
December 31, 1915, presents a ratio of assets 
to liabilities of 134.56 — the highest percent- 
age of solvency of any fraternal insurance 
organization in the United States. 

Reference. — Manuscript data in the Ala- 
bama Department of Archives and History. 

KNIGHTS OF HONOR. A fraternal ben- 
efit society of the United States, organized at 
Louisville, Ky., June 30, 1873, by the insti- 
tution of the Golden Lodge No. 1 with 17 
charter members. Its objects are the social, 
moral and intellectual elevation of its mem- 
bers, the establishment of bonds of fellow- 
ship between them, and the payment of death 
benefits to the widows and orphans of de- 
ceased members. It has paid to benevolence 
since its organization $100,000,000. 

The order entered Alabama in 1878 and 
has lodges at many different points through- 
out the State with a membership of several 

References. — New International Encyclo- 
pedia; and proceedings of the Grand Lodge, 
Knights of Honor of Alabama, twer.ty-fifth an- 
nual session, at Montgomery. 

order, founded at Washington, D. C. February 
19, 1864, by Justus H. Rathbone. It entered 
Alabama with the organization of Monte Sano 
Lodge No. 1, at Huntsville, October 6, 1870. 
The institution of the grand lodge followed at 
Mobile, June 11, 1872, two lodges from 
Mobile, one from Huntsville, one from Selma, 
one from Uniontown and one from Marion, 
participating. On July 1, 1916, there were in 
the State 200 lodges, with a membership of 
about 12,000. The grand lodge in session at 
Montgomery, October 19, 1911, laid the cor- 
ner stone for a Pythian temple, which was 
dedicated and occupied May 15, 1912. It was 
projected for the purpose of gathering "into 
one mighty fraternity, worthy men, who ap- 
preciate the true meaning of friendship; who 
are cautious in word and act; who love truth; 
who are brave in defending right; whose 
honor is untarnished; whose sense of justice 
will prevent, to the best of their ability, a per- 
sonal act or word injurious to the worthy; 
whose loyalty to principles, to family, to 
friends, to their country and to the constituted 
authority under which they enjoy citizenship 
is undoubted; and who, at all times, are pre- 
pared to do unto others as they would that 
others should unto them." The building and 
furniture are valued at $90,000. It is a four- 
story brick and stone structure, located at the 
corner of Bexter Avenue and South 

McDonough Street, Montgomery. It contains 
the headquarters of the general officers, lodge 
room for local lodges, a Pythian library, and a 
grand lodge hall. Agitation has recently been 
started looking toward the erection of a wid- 
ows and orphans home. 

The order was chartered in the State by act 
of November 21, 1896, Tennent Lomax, John 
H. Donahoo, Charles R. Bricken, J. G. 
Thomas, Louis J. Adler, Jacob Greil, J. B. 
Wadsworth, T. W. Peagler, D. C. Cooper, J. 
H. Disque, B. J. Schuster, Edward A. Graham, 
Albert Steinhart and Jacob Peppernian being 
the incorporators. 

Endowment Rank. — The insurance feature 
of the order is not directly connected, except 
that all policyholders must be members. It 
is a nonassessable insurance, and is conducted 
much in the same manner as old-line business. 
The total insurance in the State is about $4,- 
092,623. The number of members in Ala- 
bama holding insurance January 1, 1917, was 
2,641. The sum of $2,332,426, covering 
1,056 names, has been paid on insurance 
claims in the State. 

Auxiliary Orders. — The uniform rank, or 
the military branch of the order was estab- 
lished August 30, 1878. It was at one time 
very strong in the State. The Mobile com- 
pany under Capt. T. J. Ford won the third 
prize of $500 in Boston in 1908. 

The Dramatic Order, Knights of Khorras- 
san, was instituted about 1894 for social pur- 
poses. The first convention of the imperial 
palace was held in Chicago, 1895, with repre- 
sentatives from 12 temples. John B. Powell 
was the founder. Temples in Alabama are 
located at Montgomery, Mobile, Birmingham 
and Florence. The order bears the same rela- 
tion to Pythianism that the shrine does to 

The Pythian Sisters is an auxiliary of the 
Knights of Pythias, although independent in 
matters of government and control. It is 
made up of the mothers, wives, sisters or 
daughters of members, and the daughter, or 
the mother of a Pythian Sister. There are 
seven temples in the State with a membership 
of more than 500. 

Grand Chancellors. — T. L. Eastburn, 1872- 
1873; W. A. Shields, 1873-1875; Wade Allen 
McBryde, 1875-1876; R. Hugh Nesbitt, 1876- 
1877; George F. Taylor, 1877-1878, and 
1879-1880; C. A. Terrell, 1878-1879; George 
H. Sporman, 1880; J. B. Grayson, 1880-1882; 
John H. Disque, 1882-1883; Edward Alfred 
Graham, 1883-1884; Albert Steinhart, 1884- 
1885; John W. Cooper, 1885-18S6; John A. 
Kirkpatrick, 1886-1887; Oscar R. Hundley, 
1887-1888; Joseph Thomas Hawkins, 1888- 
1889; J. R. Carter, 1889-1890; Benjamin 
Joseph Schuster, 1890-1891; Benjamin Maclin 
Huey, 1891-1892; Junius M. Riggs, 1892- 
1893; Edmund B. McCarty, 1893-1894: Wil- 
liam Vaughan, 1894-1895; Tennent Lomax, 
1895-1896; John H. Donahoo, 1896-1897; 
Charles R. Bricken, 1897-1898; James Grey 
Thomas, 1898-1899; Jesse Boring Wadsworth, 
1899-1900; Davis Clay Cooper, 1900-1901; 
William H. Wilder, 1901-1902; James Bacha- 


lor Ellis, 1902-1903; Alexander Michael Gar- 
ber, 1903-1904; W. P. Nichols, 1904-1905; 
Thomas E. Knight, 1905-1906; B. Clay Jones, 
1906-1907; Jacob D. Bloch, 1907-1908; T. D. 
Samford, 1908-1909; Herman M. Beck, 1909- 
1910; Frank W. Lull, 1910-1911; J. Lee Hol- 
loway, 1911-1912; Daniel B. Cobbs, 1912- 
1913; A. G. Patterson, 1913-1914; L. G. 
Waldrop, 1914-1915; Graham Perdue, 1915- 
1916; Benjamin A. Taylor, 1916-1917. 

Grand Keepers of Records and Seal. — W. 
H. Sheffield, 1872-1873; T. A. Blackman, 
1873-1875; C. H. Barnes, 1875-1877; Harry 
Mercer, 1877-1878; Leopold Proskauer, 1878- 
1879; George M. Rousseau, 1879-1880; 
George F. Taylor, 1880-1881; L. Hensley 
Grubbs, 1881-1887; Thomas Hudson, 1887- 
1888; B. F. Ludwig, 1888-1890; L. J. Adler, 
1890-1898; John H. Donahoo, 1898-1902; 
George G. Miles, 1902-1908; J. M. Dannelly, 
1908-1916; Boling K. McMorris, 1916; Mayer 
W. Aldridge, 1916-. 

Publications. — Proceedings of the Grand 
Lodge, 1st to 45th sessions, 1873-1917; Grand 
constitution and grand statutes, 1874, 1880, 
1890, 1901; circulars and miscellaneous minor 

See Fraternal Insurance. 

References. — Publications, supra. 

KNOX ACADEMY. A denominational 
school for the education of negroes, located 
at Selma. It was founded May 11, 1874. 
The present school building, a commodious 
three-story structure of brick, was erected in 
the summer of 1881, the teachers' home in 
the summer of 1894, and the superintendent's 
home was completed in November, 1902. 
The course of study, including academic, agri- 
cultural, manual and industrial training de- 
partments covers 12 years. On September 30, 
1916, its report to the State superintendent 
of education showed buildings and site val- 
ued at $30,000; equipment, $4,000; 17 teach- 
ers; 590 pupils; and a total support 
of $13,556. 

Principals.— Rev. G. M. Elliott, 1876-1886; 
Rev. H. W. Reed, 1886-1887; Rev. T. J. Speer, 
1887-1891; Rev. R. J. Mclsaac, 1891-1900; 
Rev. J. G. Reed, 1900-. 

References. — Miscellaneous school publica- 

KNOX DOLOMITE. See Iron and Steel; 

town, the location of which has not been iden- 
tified. Schoolcraft in 1832 lists it with 123 
families. The word means "place where blow- 
gun canes are broken," that is, Koha, "cane," 
mutki, "cut off," katska, "broken." 

References.— Gatschet, in Alabama History 
Commission Report (1901), vol. 1, p. 401; Hand- 
hook of American Indians (1907), vol. 1, p. 

RACE. A private institution for the educa- 

tion of negroes located at Kowaliga, Elmore 
County, 35 miles from Montgomery. It was 
established largely through the efforts of 
William E. Benson, a graduate of Howard 
College. Washington, and of Harvard Uni- 
versity, but a native of Kowaliga. The cor- 
ner store of the first building was laid in 
August, 1896, and the buildings were ready 
for occupancy in 1897. The first building 
known as Patron's Hall, was erected largely 
through the contributions of 70 colored 
farmers of the community. The trustees 
named in the act of incorporation, approved 
February 10, 1899, were John J. Benson, Solo- 
mon Robinson, Miss Emily Howie, Mrs. J. L. 
Kaine, Jackson Robinson, C. J. Cal' sway and 
W. E. Benson. The trustees were given the 
usual pow r ers; and it was expressly provided, 
to the end that the school "shall be an in- 
stitution of learning of high grade, no one 
but a professional educator of Christian char- 
acter, known ability, and successful experience 
shall be eligible to the office of president 
thereof." The chief aim and purpose of the 
school was "to establish an educational, 
religious, and industrial centre within the 
reach of hundreds of energetic young men 
who will never be able to leave the farms 
or go' any great distance away^from the home 
to get an education." In addition to the school 
building, farm buildings, and the boys' and 
girls' dormitories, there are the Kellogg In- 
dustrial Rooms for girls, the Endeavor Indus- 
trial Building for boy , and the Hampton 
Wood Shop. 

Prof. Benson, founder, died in 1915. but 
the work did not suspend. On September 30, 
1916, its report to the State superintendent of 
education showed buildings and site valued at 
$20,319; equipment, $4,192; 7 teachers; 139 
pupils; and a total support of $8,124. 

References.— Acfs, 1898-99, pp. 831-832; An- 
nual statements and miscellaneous publica- 
tions, 1898 to date; U. S. Bureau of Education, 
Negro Education (Bulletin 39, 1917) vol. 2, p. 

KU KLUX KLAN. A militant secret order 
in the Southern States, organized at Pulaski, 
Tenn., in May, 1866, by six young men of the 
town, James R. Crowe, Richard R. Reed, 
Calvin Jones, John C. Lester, Frank O. Mc- 
Cord, and John Kennedy. These young men 
had no other object than to found a society 
for their intellectual entertainment and im- 
provement, and it was several months after 
the organization of the club before the idea 
of adapting it to the work of "regulation" 
was conceived. In fact, it may be said to 
have been an accident that the effect which 
the club's mysterious conduct and grotesque 
disguises had upon the negroes of Pulaski 
was noticed at precisely the time when serious 
men were seeking some method of counter- 
acting the influence of carpetbaggers, scala- 
wags, and the loyal league. Before any gen- 
eral organization had been formed, various 
local "dens" of the Ku Klux had been insti- 
tuted in other towns and neighborhoods of 
Tennessee and northern Alabama. By the 



early part of 1867. the necessity for some sort 
of defensive measures against the activities 
of the undesirable white persons and the 
negroes who were under their influence had 
become apparent even to conservative southern 
men. Accordingly, a convention was held at 
Nashville, in May, 1867, a general organiza- 
tion formed, and a constitution and ritual 
adopted. Its character and objects are thus 
stated in the revised and amended prescript: 
"This is an institution of Chivalry, Humanity, 
Mercy and Patriotism; embodying in its genius 
and its principles all that is chivalric in con- 
duct, noble in sentiment, generous in man- 
hood, and patriotic in purpose; its peculiar 
objects being. First: to protect the weak, the 
innocent and the defenceless, from the indig- 
nities, wrongs, and outrages of the lawless, 
the violent and the brutal; to relieve the 
injured and oppressed; to succor the suffering 
and unfortunate, and especially the widows 
and orphans of Confederate soldiers." 

Very soon after the formation of the orig- 
inal den at Pulaski, local dens were organized 
at several places in north Alabama. It is 
probable that the first Alabama den was at 
Huntsville, and among the earliest was the 
one at Tuscaloosa. Ryland Randolph, for a 
long time grand cyclops of the Tuscaloosa den. 
states that he first heard of the Ku Klux Klan 
in Alabama in the winter of 1866. He must, 
however, have referred to the local societies 
patterned after the original den at Pulaski. 
for the order did not take on its serious 
character until the spring of 1867. 

As has been stated, the Ku Klux Klan 
proper was formed purely for defensive pur- 
poses; but it was nevertheless thoroughly 
organized with military features, and its dis- 
cipline was equal to that of any army. The 
supreme control of the order was vested in a 
grand wizard, assisted by a staff of 10 general 
officers, called genii. Each State was in 
charge of a grand dragon and a staff of 8 
hydras; each congressional district, in charge 
of a grand titan and a staff of 6 furies; each 
county, of a grand giant and a staff of 4 
goblins. Each local lodge or den was com- 
manded by a grand cyclops and 2 couriers or 
messengers, called night hawks; a grand 
magi, a grand monk, a grand scribe, a grand 
exchequer, a grand turk, and a grand sentinel. 
The individual members of the order were 
known as ghouls. The general order had a 
tribunal of justice known as the grand coun- 
cil of yahoos, before which charges against 
officers were tried. This principle extended 
down through all the subdivisions of the 
organization, including the individual dens. 
It may safely be said that the invariable prac- 
tice of the original or true Ku Klux Klan 
was to submit every case of proposed correc- 
tion or punishment to a regularly designated 
court before taking action. Apparently this 
did not always hold true in the later years of 
the organization's activity, when it had gone 
out of the hands of its original members. 
The true clan was disbanded by formal decree 
of Gen. Nathan Bedford Forrest, the grand 
wizard, in the early spring of 1869. The 

members of the original order referred con- 
temptuously to the members of the later 
organization, by whom most of the reprehen- 
sible deeds were done for which the true as 
well as the false, Ku Klux Klan has been 
criticised, as the "new Ku Klux." 

While the Ku Klux Klan was the most 
prominent and best known of the defensive 
secret organizations that were active during 
Reconstruction, it was not the onlv one. There 
were several others, some of which had almost 
or quite as many members as the Ku Klux 
Klan. One of these was the Knights of the 
White Camelia, which was active in the Cot- 
ton States, particularly in Mississippi and 
Louisiana. Its organization and ritual were 
somewhat different from those of the Ku Klux 
Klan, but its principles, objects and methods 
were similar. Because the Ku Klux was 
the first and best known, its name was given 
to the whole movement. 

The objects of the clan, the methods used 
to attain them, the conditions which made 
some such organization necessary, were prac- 
tically the same in Alabama as in Tennessee, 
where it originated. The order kept no rec- 
ords. Its most effective weapon was the pro- 
found secrecy with which it surrounded all its 
activities. For these reasons, little is known 
of the details of its history. The State depart- 
ment of archives and history enjoys the unique 
distinction of possessing in its large collection 
of Ku Klux documents a copy both of the orig- 
inal and the revised prescript. It is probable 
that one or more dens existed in Lauderdale, 
Limestone, Madison, Jackson, Morgan, Law- 
rence, Franklin, Winston, Walker, Fayette and 
Blount Counties, in northern Alabama, and 
possibly in all the counties of central Ala- 
bama. The clan in Alabama became more 
active after the elections of 1868. 

After the disbandment of the original clan, 
the organization in Alabama began to de- 
generate, as was the case in all the other 
States. Irresponsible and unscrupulous men 
obtained control, and used it to further their 
own political ambitions, or to wreak venge- 
ance upon their personal enemies. In many 
cases atrocities charged to the clan were found 
to have been perpetrated by "carpetbaggers," 
"scalawags," or even by negroes. By 1870, 
the organization was virtually extinct, al- 
though sporadic outbreaks occurred in isolated 
communities, which may or may not have been 
incited by former members of the clan. 

Methods of Operation. — The Ku Klux Klan 
was organized primarily to combat the activi- 
ties of, and if possible to destroy, the Union, 
or "Loyal League," a secret oath-bound so- 
ciety, consisting mainly of negroes, and offi- 
cered by whites of the lowest class who, in 
secret sessions held usually at night under the 
protection of sentries mounted at a distance 
of 40 yards on all sides of the building, incul- 
cated in the minds of the ignorant and credu- 
lous negroes the belief that the property 
belonging to their former masters would be 
confiscated by the Government and divided 
among the freedmen. The negroes were also 
trained in the use of arms, and taught indo- 


pendence in their attitude toward the southern 
whites. The fruit of this teaching soon be- 
came manifest in the increased insolence and 
disorder among the bolder negroes. Often 
the quiet of night was disturbed by shouting 
and the firing of guns in the hands of negroes 
returning from the league meetings, and 
threats of bodily harm, or even death, were 
made against white men who had incurred 
their ill will, or more often the ill will of their 
carpetbagger leaders. In some of the leagues 
the negroes were taught that the only way to 
make their new-found freedom permanent was 
to intimidate the whites by killing off several 
of the most prominent men and putting the 
torch to their possessions. Political and social 
equality was advocated by many of the white 
leaders in the leagues and intermarriage of 
the races was not only suggested, but pro- 
phesied as a condition soon to obtain. These 
things could not do otherwise than have the 
most regrettable effect upon a race which has 
never been characterized by the exercise of 
sober second-thought in repressing its im- 
pulses, and their insolent attitude toward 
the whites became more marked. Women 
and children were frequently crowded from 
the sidewalks, even in daytime. The bravest 
dared not venture out at night. These condi- 
tions, daily growing worse, and caused by the 
agitation of undesirable alien whites, brought 
home to the southern white man, as nothing 
else could have done, the necessity for some 
effectual way of thwarting the designs of the 
political adventurer, protecting the southern 
whites, and saving the negro from the con- 
sequences of the course he was pursuing. 
And it was in the effort to accomplish these 
results that the idea accidentally originated 
at Pulaski was adopted and adapted and de- 
veloped to meet the general need, with what 
success the results of the election of 1875, 
and the conditions since obtaining, bear 

In most cases it was only necessary for the 
Ku Klux to show themselves in full regalia in 
the neighborhood of a meeting of the Union 
League in order to break up the meeting. 
"When news came to the leaders of a den that 
a meeting was in progress, a number of men 
would disguise themselves and their horses, 
frequently muffling the horses' feet so that 
the procession moved without noise, thus 
heightening the effect of ghostliness, and 
simply ride by the meeting place, maintaining 
profound silence. The league sentinels lost 
no time in reporting the passage of the weird 
cavalcade, and usually the reports were no 
sooner received than the meeting stood ad- 
journed. After a time, however, the negroes 
became accustomed to the mystery and weird- 
ness surrounding the activities of the Ku Klux, 
and more drastic methods sometimes had to 
be used in bringing the bolder spirits under 

One of the most famous of the Ku Klux 
"outrages" in Alabama, was the so-called 
Huntsville riot which occurred on the night 
before the general election on November 3, 
1868. A political speaking was going on, 

and large crowds of negroes were gathered 
at the courthouse; also a good many whites, 
most of them Radical politicians who were 
engineering the raising of enthusiasm among 
their colored constituents. At 10 o'clock a 
party of about 150 Ku Klux in full panoply, 
men and horses, rode into the public square 
and made a circle around it. Each man had 
a rifle or shot gun lashed to his saddlebow, 
and two large revolvers in his belt. As the 
head of the column neared the point at which 
it had entered the square, firing commenced 
near the north gate of the courthouse yard. 
Immediately the Ku Klux wheeled into line 
of battle and stood for a few moments at at- 
tention, the while maintaining profound 
silence. The firing for a time became general 
and Judge Thurlow was mortally wounded. 
A negro was killed and two others severely 
wounded. As soon as the firing ceased, the 
Ku Klux wheeled into column and rode off, 
not having discharged a gun, nor made any 
demonstration beyond their mere presence. 
Testimony before the Congressional Ku Klux 
Committee established with reasonable cer- 
tainty that no part in the melee was taken 
by any of the disguised horsemen; that the 
firing was done among the negroes and per- 
haps a few of the white men in the crowd. 
Nevertheless, this occurrence was heralded in 
the North as a most flagrant outrage, and the 
number of killed and wounded was multiplied 
many times over. 

Attempts at Suppression. — The legislature 
of 1868 convened for its third session on the 
morning of the day on which the Huntsville - 
episode took place. A week later Gov. Wil- 
liam H. Smith sent a special message to the 
legislature, in which he stated that there was 
in the files of his office ample evidence of the 
existence in some parts of the State of an 
organization, whose members when in disguise 
had committed acts which showed conclu- 
sively that it aimed at the accomplishment of 
purposes wholly unwarranted by law. He 
suggested the appointment of a joint com- 
mittee to investigate these organizations and 
recommend such legislation as might be neces- 
sary to stop them. A joint resolution was 
adopted November 14, appointing a joint 
committee "to investigate the recent alleged 
outrages perpetrated upon members of this 
legislature, and other good and law-abiding 
citizens of this State, and to report by bill 
or otherwise, at the earliest day practicable, 
what measures may be necessary for the vin- 
dication of the law and future powers of the 
State." The committee was empowered to 
adjourn from time to time, and from place 
to place, to send for persons and papers, and 
to punish for contempt "any one who may 
refuse to obey, or attempt to evade or avoid 
its mandates, or in any other way obstruct 
its investigations." Soon after the creation 
of this committee, probably before its report 
had been made, an act, "For the suppression 
of secret organizations, of men disguising 
themselves for the purpose of committing 
crimes and outrages," was passed. This act 
penalized the appearance of any person away 



from home by night, or by day, alone or in 
company, wearing a mask, or disguised in 
other costume, by a fine of $1,000 and im- 
prisonment in the county jail not less than 
six months nor more than one year, at the 
discretion of the trial court. Penalties were 
also provided for assaults, or attempted as- 
saults, by disguised persons, and for the 
destruction of property. To insure its en- 
forcement, a fine of $5 00 and forfeiture of 
office were prescribed for any magistrate, 
sheriff or other officer who refused or 
neglected to carry out its provisions. The 
act was approved December 26. Two days 
later another act "to suppress murder, lynch- 
ing, and assault and battery," became a law. 
The latter enactment was somewhat unique 
in its provision that the widow or the husband 
or the next of kin of any person killed in any 
county of the State by any outlaw, or person 
or persons in disguise, or mob, should be 
entitled to recover in the county in which 
such assassination occurred, the sum of five 
thousand dollars as damages, to be distributed 
among them according to the laws regulating 
distribution of estates of intestate decedents. 
The law prescribed with considerable detail 
the method of procedure in such cases, and 
also prescribed penalties against officers who 
failed to perform their duty under its terms. 
Considerable opposition to the passage of 
this bill was developed in the legislature. 
Senator Worthy was one of its most active op- 
ponents. The bill, he said, was unconstitu- 
tional, and could not be enforced, as nine- 
tenths of the white people of the State were 
opposed to it. It would also, he thought, 
offer an inducement to the amount of $5,000 
to every wife who was tired of her husband, 
to every derelict husband, to every son who 
wanted his father's estate, to every next of 
kin who valued money more than he did the 
life of him who stood between him and the 
coveted money, to arrrange and to accomplish 
the assassination of such person. He be- 
lieved that for $5,000 many a man could be 
found who would submit to a sound beating, 
prearranged by him and his friends, who 
would be sure to touch no vital point nor 
break any bones. "The whole bill," he said, 
"is a bonus offered for assassination and per- 
jury. If its provisions are enforced crime 
will be increased a thousand fold. 
No man will be safe at home or abroad, and 
the name of Alabama will be a scorn and 
reproach throughout the christian world." 
Notwithstanding these cogent reasons why the 
bill should not pass, it was very promptly 
enacted. It does not appear that the State, 
either through legislative committees, or 
through the executive department, made any 
very energetic or continuous efforts to break 
up the Ku Klux Klan. A few subofficials 
were dispatched from time to time, after "out- 
rages" had been reported, to hold investi- 
gations; but little was thus accomplished. 
About the same time laws providing severe 
penalties against newspapers which published 
Ku Klux notices or warnings were passed. 
These laws hampered the operation of the 

Vol. II— 8 

clan to some extent. The only really effective 
measures toward preventing the activities of 
the clan were those enacted by Congress, 
which were enforced by the miltary. It seems 
to be beyond question that the increased dan- 
ger of apprehension by the United States 
military authorities after the passage of the 
Congressional Ku Klux laws had a deterrent 
effect upon the members. However, the clan 
continued active until its work was done — ■ 
until the things had been accomplished which 
were necessary to insure the restoration of 
good government. 

See Freedmen's Bureau; Reconstruction; 
Union League. 

References. — The principal authorities for 
the history of the Ku Klux Klan in Alabama, as 
elsewhere, are the works of Dr. Walter L. 
Fleming: Civil War and Reconstruction in 
■Alabama (1905), pp. 653-709; Documentary his- 
tory of Reconstruction (1906), 2 vols., passim; 
Lester and Wilson, Ku Klux Klan (Fleming's 
ed., 1905); Hilary A. Herbert, ed.. Why the 
Solid South? (±890), pp. 29-69; and "How we 
redeemed Alabama," in Centum Magazine. Apr. 
1913, vol. 85, No. 6, pp. 854-862; Eyre Darner, 
When the Ku Klux rode (1912), pp. 61-74; 
Brewer, Alabama (1872), pp. 61-74; Committee 
)n Affairs in Insurrectionary States, Report on 
GTw Klux conspiracy, 1872 (H. Rept. 22, 42d 
Oong., 2d sess.), pp. 20, 61-73; Ibid, Alabama 
testimony, 3 vols.; Independent Monitor, Tus- 
caloosa, circa, 1868-1870; Acts, 1868, pp. 444, 
452, 593; Gov. W. H. Smith, "Message," Nov. 9, 
1868 (S. Jour., 1868, pp. 246-248); Huntsville 
Advocate, Oct. 28, 1870. 

KULUMI. An Upper Creek town in Elmore 
County, situated on the Tallapoosa River, just 
below and contiguous to Fusihatchi. It lies 
along the elevated lands about a half mile 
from the river and west from old Ware's 
Ferry. The corn fields of Kulumi were on the 
opposite side of the river. These fields were 
unfenced. The town had cabins on the south 
side of the river also, used in hunting and 
also during the planting season. During the 
harvesting period practically the entire com- 
munity moved across the river temporarily. 

The name is spelled Coulommie on De 
Crenay's map, 1733, and is located on the 
east bank of the lower Coosa River. This lo- 
cation, may however, be a mistake on the 
part of the topographer in placing it nearer 
to the Coosa than to the Tallapoosa River, 
since the two rivers flow near each other at 
this point. On Belen's map, 1744, however, 
Colomin is placed on the west side of the 
Altamaha, just below the Atasees. This may 
indicate that the inhabitants of the town 
were originally seated in that region, and 
that they later migrated to the Coosa, and 
still later removed their town to its well 
known site on the north bank of the Talla- 
poosa. In 1762, the American Gazetteer 
places the Culloomies on the west side of 
the Chattahoochee above the Attasees, and 
Colume Town is located on the east side 
of the lower Tallapoosa. These references 
suggest either two separate divisions of tha 


town, or two successive seats, first on the 
Chattahoochee, and later on the Tallapoosa. 
Under the English trade regulations of 1763 
Kulumi, with 50 hunters was assigned to 
James Germany. The French census locates 
the Colonics 4 leagues from Fort Toulouse, 
with 50 warriors. In 1777 Bartram visited 
the town, where he stayed two days. Mr. 
Germany was the principal trader at the time. 
Of the town Bartram says in 1791: 

"Here are very extensive old fields, the 
abandoned plantations and commons of the 
old town, on the east side of the river, but 
the settlement is removed, and the new town 
now stands on the opposite shore, in a charm- 
ing fruitful plain, under an elevated ridge 
of hills, the swelling beds or bases of which 
are covered with a pleasing verdure of grass, 
but the last ascent is steeper, and towards 
the summit discovers shelving rocky cliffs, 
which appear to be continually splitting and 
bursting to pieces, scattering their thin ex- 
foliations over the tops of the grassy knolls 
beneath. The plain is narrow where the 
town is built; their houses are neat, commo- 
dious buildings, a wooden frame with plas- 
tered walls, and roofed with cypress bark or 
shingles; every habitation consists of four 
oblong square houses, of one story, of the 
same form and dimensions, and so situated as 
to form an exact square, encompassing an 
area of court yard of about a quarter of an 
acre of ground, leaving an entrance into it at 
each corner. Here is a beautiful new square 
or areopagus, in the center of the new town; 
but the stores of the principal trader and two 
or three Indian habitations, stand near the 
banks of the opposite shore on the site of the 
old Coolome town. The Tallapoosa River is 
here three hundred yards over, and about 
fifteen or twenty feet of water, which is very 
clear, agreeable to the taste, esteemed salu- 
brious, and runs with a steady, active cur- 

The signification of the name has not been 
ascertained, but Gatschet suggests that it may 
be connected with Ahkolumas, meaning "I 
clinch." After the Creek Indian War of 1813- 
14, the Kulumi went direct to Florida, and 
joined the Seminoles. 

References. — Gatschet, in Alabama History 
Commission, Report (1901), p. 401; Hawkins, 
Sketch of the Creek Country (1848), pp. 25, 
33, 52; Handbook of American Indians (1907), 
vol. 1, p. 734; Hamilton, Colonial Mobile (1910), 
p. 190; Shea, Charlevoix's History of New 
France (1900), vol. 6, p. 11; Mississippi Provin- 
cial archives (1911), p. 94; Georgia, Colonial 
Records (1907), vol. 8, p. 523; Winsor, The 
Westward Movement (1899), p. 31; Bartram, 
Travels (1791), pp. 396-397. 

KCNSHA CHIPINTA. Indians in their every 
day talk are prone to elide vowels and con- 
sonants in place names, when these names 
are long by such elision, an economy of 
speech is secured. Kunsha chipinta is thus 
abbreviated into Kunshapinta, which appears 
on De Crenay's map as Conchapita. "Kun- 
sha Chipinta" means Little Reed Brakes. It 

was the name applied to Gum Cypress Lake 
in Autauga County, and to the reed braker 
enveloping the lake. 

References. — Mms. records in Alabama De- 
partment Archives and History. 

KUSA. See Cosa. 



See Special Days 

MONTGOMERY. A patriotic organization 
founded on April 16, 1866, in Montgomery. 
It was the result of an appeal of April 14, 
1866, made by the Alabama historical and 
monumental society to the ladies of Montgom- 
ery to hold fairs, concerts, etc., in order to 
help in defraying the expenses necessary in 
the proper and decent burial of Alabama 
soldiers. Thus it will be seen that the Ladies' 
memorial association was the outcome of the 
Alabama historical and monumental society. 
A meeting was held at 10 o'clock on the 
morning of April 14, of that year, at the Court 
Street Methodist Episcopal church. 

"At a meeting of the ladies of Montgom- 
ery held pursuant to notice at the Methodist 
Episcopal Church on Monday, the 16th day 
of April, 1866, to devise ways and means for 
raising funds to have the remains of Ala- 
bama soldiers, now lying scattered over the 
various battlefields of the war, collected and 
deposited in public burial grounds, or else- 
where, where they may be saved from neglect, 
Mrs. Judge Bibb was requested to preside 
over the meeting and Mrs. Dr. Baldwin re- 
quested to act as Secretary. 

"The object of the meeting was explained 
by the Chair, and on motion of Mrs. Dr. Bald- 
win a committee of five was appointed by 
the Chair to consider and report some plan 
that might best promote the objects of the 
meeting, and to recommend the names of 
suitable persons as permanent officers of this 
Society. The Chair appointed on this com- 
mittee Mrs. Dr. Baldwin, Chairman; Mrs. 
Wm. Johnston, Mrs. Judge Rice, Mrs. Dr. 
Holt and Mrs. Dr. James Ware, who retired 
and after consultation suggested the follow- 
ing names as permanent officers, and on mo- 
tion of Mrs. Wm. Pollard they were unani- 
mously elected: Mrs. Judge Bibb, President; 
Mrs. Judge Phelan, Vice President; Mrs. Dr. 
Baldwin, Secretary; Mrs. E. C. Hannon, 

This committee, after suggesting permanent 
officers, reported the following resolutions, 
which were unanimously adopted: 

1. RESOLVED, That it is the sacred duty 
of the people of the South to preserve from 
desecration and neglect the mortal remains 
of the brave men who fell in her cause, to 
cherish a grateful recollection of their 
heroic sacrifices and to perpetuate their 

2. RESOLVED, That we earnestly request 
our country women to unite with us in our 
efforts to contribute all necessary means to 
provide a suitable resting place and burial 

Dr. Jerome Cochrane 

Dr. J. Marion Sir 

Dr. William H. Sanders 

Dr. J. C. Nott 



for our noble and heroic dead; that we will 
not rest our labors until this sacred duty is 

3. RESOLVED, That in order to raise 
funds to carry out the objects expressed in 
the foregoing resolutions, we constitute our* 
selves a Society to be styled "The Ladies' 
Society for the Burial of Deceased Alabama 
Soldiers," and that we solicit voluntary con- 
tributions for the same; and that we will hold 
in this city on Tuesday, the first day of May 
next, and annually on the first day of May 
thereafter, and oftener if deemed expedient, 
exhibitions consisting of concerts, tableaux, 
juvenile recitations, songs, suppers, etc., to be 
regulated and determined by committees to 
be appointed for that purpose. 

4. RESOLVED, That to carry out these 
plans an Executive Committee shall be ap- 
pointed, which shall have authority to ap- 
point sub-committees and agents at their 

5. RESOLVED, That the President of this 
Society, together with the present resident 
ministers in charge of the different churches 
of this city and their successors in office, shall 
constitute a committee for the purpose of 
keeping and making proper application of 
the funds raised by this Society. 

6. RESOLVED, That any lady can become 
a member of this Society by registering her 
name and by paying into the treasury an 
annual assessment of one dollar. 

7. RESOLVED, That all clergymen or 
ministers of the gospel shall be considered 
honorary members of this Society. 

On motion of Mrs. Dr. Baldwin, the Chair 
was authorized to appoint an Executive Com- 
mittee consisting of ten, whereupon the Chair 
appointed the following ladies: Mrs. Dr. 
Rambo, Chairman; Mrs. Jno. Elmore, Mrs. 
Wm. Pollard, Mrs. Dr. Wilson, Mrs. W. J. 
Bibb, Mrs. Hausman, Mrs. Mount, Mrs. Bug- 
bee, Mrs. W. B. Bell, Mrs. Fort Hargrove, 
and Mrs. James Ware. 

On motion, the Society adjourned to meet 
whenever requested by the President." 

The exact date of the change of the name 
of the Society to "The Ladies' Memorial As- 
sociation" is not known. The first use of 
the new name was in an article by Dr. Sam- 
uel K. Cox, in "The Mail" of December 22, 
1866. This article was headed "Ladies' 
Memorial Association," but no change in the 
name is found in the secretary's book until 
1874. The ladies of this association met at 
the cemetery on April 26, 1866, for the pur- 
pose of decorating the graves of the soldiers, 
and on May 1 and 2 a festival was held at 
Concert and Estelle halls and the theatre, 
$3,000 being realized from this, the first 
venture, of the association. 

The association in 1866 appointed Dr. Sam- 
uel K. Cox as agent to visit different battle- 
fields and ascertain the condition. Dr. Cox 
faithfully discharged these duties and in this 
way the money was most judiciously spent 
in reburying and marking the graves of the 
Alabama soldiers at various places. 

In 1868 the accumulations of the associa- 
tion were spent on headstones costing $5,600 

and a monument and chapel costing $3,000, 
in the Montgomery cemetery. It was not 
until 1876 that it was decided to do away 
with the May day offering always held on 
the first day of May. This original custom 
had been preserved through the ten long 
years of reconstruction. 

On April 26, 1886, by invitation of the 
Monumental association and the Ladies' 
memorial association, President Davis visited 
Montgomery and laid the foundation stone 
of the Confederate monument, on the Capitol 
grounds. Later the Monumental association 
withdrew and deposited the amount of $6,777 
with the Ladies' memorial association for the 
completion of this work. It was not until 
December 7, 189 8, that the work was com- 
pleted and the monument to the Confederate 
soldiers and sailors of Alabama was unveiled. 

Charter Members. — Officers: Mrs. Judge 
B. S. Bibb, president; Mrs. Judge J. 
D. Phelan, vice president; Mrs. Dr. W. O. 
Baldwin, secretary; Rev. Dr. S. D. Cox, as- 
sistant secretary; Mrs. E. C. Hannon, treas- 

Executive Committee: Mesdames Dr. Sam- 
uel Rambo, John Elmore, William Pollard, 
Dr. Wilson, W. J. Bibb, G. L. Mount, C. J. 
Hausman, Judge F. Bugbee, W. B. Bell, Fort 
Hargrove, James Ware. 

Other Members: Mesdames Gov. Benjamin 
Fitzpatrick, Gov. T. H. Watts, Gen. W. W. 
Allen, Gen. J. Clanton, Gen. Hotlzclaw, Col. 
John Gindrat, Col. Jack Thornington, Col. J. 
B. Bibb, Col. Warren Reese, Col. T. Lomax, 
Col. Virgil Murphy, Col. W. C. Bibb, Judge 
George Goldthwaite, Judge Samuel Rice, 
Judge T. J. Judge, F. M. Gilmer, Samuel 
Jones, Dr. Carnot Bellinger, Dr. W. C. Jack- 
son, Dr. S. Holt, Dr. G. W. Petrie, Dr. E. A. 
Semple, Dr. Keyes, Dr. Hill, Dr. Thomas Tay- 
lor, Eliza Moore, Eliza Ponder, Leon Wyman, 
William Johnston, John Whiting, Benjamin 
Micou, Amanda Snodgrass, Eliza Brown, J. 
Cox, Daniel Cram, S. E. Hutcheson, J. Du- 
bose Bibb, A. Gerald, Samuel Reid, Lou Mc- 
Cants, James Terry, Henry Weil, Sarah Her- 
ron, Henry Lee, Gallatin McGehee, Sam 
Marks, Virginia Hilliard, Wm. L. Yancey, 
George R. Doran, S. P. Hardaway, James 
Stewart, P. H. Gayle, Richard Goldthwaite, 
Tucker Sayre, William Ray, A. Strassburger, 
John Cobbs, William Ware, Misses Louisa S. 
Bibb, Mary Phelan, Priscilla Phelan, Bettie 
Bell, Ida E. Rice, Sallie Baldwin, Annie 

Officers — 1921. — Mrs. Mary Phelan Watt, 
president; Mrs. J. B. Allen, first vice-presi- 
dent; Mrs. J. T. Mapes, second vice-president; 
Mrs. C. A. Allen, recording secretary; Mrs. 
Edward R. Holt, treasurer; Mrs. Stephen Mit- 
chell, historian; Mrs. A. H. McNeel, chaplain. 

See also: Confederated Memorial Associa- 

References. — Cory, Origin and Organization 
Ladies' Memorial Association, 1902; Ladies' 
Memorial Association, the Confederate Monu- 
ment on Capitol Hill, ed. by Mrs. I. M. P. Ock- 



LAFAYETTE. County seat of Chambers 
County, on the Central of Georgia Railway, 
in the'central part of the county, on the head- 
waters of Cane Creek, 18 miles north of 
Opelika, 20 miles west of West Point, and 83 
miles northeast of Montgomery. Altitude: 
843 feet. Population: 1870—1,382; 1880— 
2,000; 1890—1,369; 1900—1,629; 1910— 
1,632. It is incorporated under the munici- 
pal code of 1907. Its banks are the Bank 
of Lafavette (State), and the Chambers 
County Bank (State). The Lafayette Sun, a 
Democratic weekly established in 18 80, is 
published there. Its industries are grist- 
mills, cotton ginneries, cotton warehouses, 
cottonseed oil mill, fertilizer plant, feed mill, 
sawmill, planing and woodworking plant, and 
a wagon shop. Lafayette College, a Baptist 
school, is located in the town. 

The locality was settled in 183 3, when 
Judge Thompson, the first judge of Chambers 
County, and the commission selected "the NW 
14 of sec. 13, T. 22, R. 26," near the center 
of the county, for the seat of justice. The 
commissioners entered 160 acres of land for 
county purposes, surveyed the town, laid off 
the courthouse square, and sold lots for 
enough to pay for the building, which was 
completed in 1836, and is still standing. 

The first home on the present site of La- 
favette was built by John Atkins, a carpenter. 
The next settler in the new town was W. H. 
House, clerk of the circuit court. Other early 
settlers were Henry T. Dawson, Judge James 
Thompson and G. Driver. 

References.— Brewer, Alabama (1872), pp. 
161-163; Berney, Handbook (1892), p. 274; 
Northern Alabama (1888), p. 178; Polk's Ala- 
bama gazetteer, 1888-9, p. 454; Alabama Official 
and Statistical Register, 1915. 

PANY. See Central of Georgia Railway Com- 

LA FAYETTE COLLEGE. A public school 
for the education of boys and girls, located 
in La Fayette. Chambers County. This in- 
stitution was chartered by Act of December 
9 1886, though it had been founded three 
years previously. The control of the school 
was placed in William C. Bledsoe. James C. 
Griffin. Albert H. R. Frederick. George H. 
Chatfield, Charles Schuessler, S. J. Meadows, 
and David G. Allen as a Board of Trustees. 
The school building is a two story brick 
structure, containing seven recitation rooms, 
music and art rooms, library, laboratories, 
chapel, etc., and is well heated, lighted and 
ventilated. Primary, intermediate, high 
school and college departments form the cur- 
riculum, while special courses are offered in 
normal studies, music, elocution and physical 
culture, bookkeeping, typewriting and stenog- 
raphy A number of scholarships and medals 
are awarded annually for proficiency. 

Presidents. — George R. Neill; John P. 
Neff, 1901-1908; J. E. Hendley; F. T. 

Publications.— La Fayette College Sunbeams, 
2 issues, not dated, appear to be in 1901. 

Rkkkhkncf.s.— Prospectus and catalogues, 
1889-1915; catalogue of 1907-08. contains regis- 
ter of students from 1903-06. 

LAFAYETTE'S VISIT. General Lafayette, 
on his visit to America in 1824-25, spent the 
early days of April, 1825, in what is the 
State of Alabama. He entered the Creek 
Nation, at Fort Mitchell, on the Chatta- 
hoochee, in Russell County, traversed the 
Old Federal Road as far as Mount Meigs, 
detoured to include the village of Montgom- 
ery in his itinerary, and taking the boat here, 
visited Cahaba, the State Capital, thence pro- 
ceeded by boat to Mobile. 

He was met at Fort Mitchell by General 
William Taylor, the senior Major-General 
in the State militia, with two troops of vol- 
unteers, the Montgomery troop under com- 
mand of James Abercrombie. and the Monroe 
troop under command of Brigadier General 
Moore. Brigadier General Thomas Wood- 
ward was senior brigadier in charge and com- 
manded until the arrival in the Creek Nation. 
In the reception party, which was compelled 
to wait several days before the arrival of 
the Georgians on the bank of the Chatta- 
hoochee opposite Fort Mitchell, were, in ad- 
dition to the military and a large contingent 
of Indians, many citizens of the new State, 
among them Boling Hall, Member of Congress, 
Governor Murphy, John D. Bibb. Colonel 
Freeman, and Colonel James Johnston. The 
headquarters of the Alabama delegation was 
at Haynes Crabtree's house, on Big Uchee 
Creek, three or four miles west of Fort 

The Georgians, who had escorted the Gen- 
eral through their State, on the arrival at 
the river turned him over to the Indian dele- 
gation, under Chily Mcintosh, composed of 
fifty naked painted warriors, who ferried him 
across the river, and seizing the sulky in 
which he rode dragged him to the top of 
the bank, some eighty yards, and delivered 
him to the Alabama delegation. Chily Mc- 
intosh introduced him to Mr. Hall, who wel- 
comed him to Alabama. John Dandridge 
Bibb made the principal address of the occa- 
sion, and after these formalities they repaired 
to Fort Mitchell, one mile away, at the top 
of the hill. A stay of one day was made at 
Fort Mitchell, when the party proceeded 
through the Nation, making a two day trip 
to Line Creek, then the Alabama state line. 

The first night was spent at the home of 
Kendall Lewis at Fort Bainbridge on the 
Russell County line. Mr. Lewis, formerly a 
Captain in the United States Army, who had 
married an Indian woman, had amassed some 
property and entertained in lavish style. 
They arrived the next evening at Line Creek, 
which was crossed, and spent the night at 
the home of Walter B. Lucas, on the present 
Montgomery to Tuskegee Highway, and about 
midway between the town of Waugh and Line 

The party left the Lucas home on the 
morning of April 3. reaching Montgomery 
early in the day, and were received on Cap- 



itol Hill, at the point where the Lafayette 
School o£ the city of Montgomery now stands. 
They were welcomed by Governor Israel 
Pickens, who had come up from Cahaba. and 
the greatest concourse of people ever assem- 
bled in Montgomery up to that time. The 
Montgomery delegation was headed by 
Colonel Arthur Hayne, a soldier of the war 
of 1813. After a day spent in Montgomery, 
followed by a ball that evening at a tavern 
which occupied the southwest corner of Tal- 
lapoosa and Commerce Streets. At two 
o'clock on the following morning the party 
embarked on the Steamboat Anderson down 
the Alabama River, arriving that night at 
Cahaba. The official entertainment by the 
State took place here, and among the guests 
at the banquet tendered the General, were 
a number of his countrymen whom political 
events had caused to leave France, and who 
now were a part of the colony at Demopolis. 
in later years referred to as the Vine and 
Olive Colony. 

From Cahaba the steamer carrying the 
party proceeded to Claiborne and another 
reception was given him there. They ar- 
rived at Mobile on the 7th of April, where 
he was most cordially received. He was 
welcomed at Claiborne by Mr. Dellett, and 
at Mobile by Mr. Garrow. Mr. Webb wel- 
comed him in the name of the State, though 
the governor had a part in the program. He 
remained in Mobile only one day. From 
there he proceeded to Xew Orleajis. 

Anticipating his visit to America, the Ala- 
bama legislature by a joint resolution ap- 
proved December 24, 1824, memorialized him 
to visit this State. His journey through the 
state was marked with enthusiasm on the 
part of the" Indians, and the observations of 
his secretary, who kept a journal of the trip., 
are most interesting, and is a valuable con- 
tribution to our history of that time. 

References. — Woodward, Reminiscences. 
( ), PP — ; Levaseeur. A.. Journal of a Voy- 
age to America, 1824-25 ( ), pp. — ; Mss. 
data in Alabama Department Archives and 

LA GRANGE COLLEGE. Methodist de- 
nominational school, located at LaGrange, 
Franklin County, was chartered by the legis- 
lature January 19, 1830, though opened 
to students January 11 of that year. This 
college was the second established by Meth- 
odists in the south, the first being Augusta 
College, in Kentucky. Ten thousand dollars 
were subscribed by the citizens of the La 
Grange community, and the school was 
opened under the patronage of the Tennessee 
and Mississippi conferences. The commis- 
sioners were instructed and empowered by 
the two conferences to erect, equip, and set 
in operation a college of the style and title 
prescribed, met at LaGrange. January 10, 
1829, and disposed of the initial affairs com- 
mitted to their hands with promptness and 
facility. They selected a site on which to 
erect the edifice to be appropriated to the 

use of students, formed a constitution for 
the government of the college, and prepared 
an address to the public setting forth the 
design and character of the institution so 
auspiciously inaugurated. From the many 
choice plots of land offered the commission- 
ers at LaGrange for the college site "that 
beautiful and commanding eminence called 
Lawrences' Hill" was selected by unanimous 

During 1828-29, Edward D. Sims had con- 
ducted an academy at LaGrange. The pro- 
posed LaGrange college had fifty trustees 
each being named in the act of incorporation 
These trustees were of two groups, the first 
residing in the vicinity of the college, the 
others living at a distance. 

Section 15, of the act of incorporation 
stipulated that "the institution hereby incor- 
porated, shall be purely literarv and scien- 
tific; and the trustees are hereby prohibited 
from the adoption of any system of educa- 
tion which shall provide for the inculcation 
of the peculiar tenets or doctrines of any 
religious denomination whatever " Rev 
William Winans, D.D., later one of the trus- 
tees, protested bitterly against the provision 
mentioned above, claiming that the vouth of 
the church should be taught its doctrines 
He was supported by a large number of peo- 
ple though they were greatly in the minority. 

In founding LaGrange college in Ala- 
bama, the Methodists were ahead of the state 
or any other denomination. At the time of 
the opening of LaGrange there was no school 
in the state with the grade of college Rev 
Robert Paine, later Bishop Paine, was 
selected first president. The facultv asso- 
ciated with him were William W. Hudson 
professor of mathematics and modern lan- 
guages, and Edward D. Sims, professor of 
ancient languages. Mr. Sims had conducted 
an academy at LaGrange, 1S28-29. Dr. Paine 
had charge of the department of geology 
and as the school was located on a spur of 
the Cumberland mountains, seven miles from 
Leighton there was an abundance of speci- 
mens, whlch he accumu i ated fQr clags uge 

When in 1847 Dr. Paine was elevated to the 
Episcopacy he resigned his position as pres- 
ident oi the college, and was succeeded by 
Dr. Edward Wadsworth, who continued in 
office until 1852 when he resigned. 

Prof. J. W. Hardee was selected to fill the 
vacancy, and several months afterward was 
stricken and died in the prime of life be- 
loved by all who knew him. Rev. Richard 
H. Hivers then became president and served 
as such until 1855 when he was one of the 
eaders m the agitation for the removal of 
the college to some city, where it could be 
made into a great university. In 1853-54 
LaGrange college had two hundred and thirtv 
odd students on its rolls, and an endow- 
ment of $50,000. 

The college was removed to Florence, and 
the new school began its career as "Florence 



Wesleyan University" with all powers to 
grant diplomas and to confer degrees. At 
LaGrange the dormitory system had pre- 
vailed, but after its removal, the students 
were allowed to secure board in private 

Two literary societies were connected with 
the institution, "The Dialectical" and "The 

A commercial department was installed by 
the trustees, in addition to the regular cur- 
riculum in 1856-75. In 1858 the school was 
removed to Florence, and Dr. Rivers served 
as president of the new establishment until 
its exercises were closed and its property 
transferred to the state in consideration of a 
normal school being established in its stead. 

LaGrange College and Military Academy. — 
When the exercises of LaGrange college were 
temporarily suspended, on account of the loss 
of its president and a great number of its 
students, going to Florence, the LaGrange 
College and Military academy was established 
in 1858 with James W. Robertson as super- 
intendent. New buildings were constructed 
and with the addition of the military feature 
new students arrived. Under its new name 
and management the institution reached its 
highest state of prosperity and popularity. 
Provision was made by the state for the edu- 
cation of two boys from each county, after 
a competitive examination. In 1861, 47 otit 
of the 171 students enrolled were State 

Upon the secession of Alabama in 1861, and 
the declaration of war, many of the student 
body resigned to enter the Confederate States' 
service. The college was the rendezvous of 
the 35th Alabama infantry regiment, during 
its formation. Three members of the fac- 
ulty, Col. J. W. Robertson, Col. Edward Good- 
win and Maj. W. H. Hunt became members, 
while many of the students joined the cadet 
company. Many of this company were either 
killed or wounded in battle or died of dis- 
ease incident to camp life. Captain Thad- 
deous W. Felton was killed in the second bat- 
tle of Corinth. Col. J. W. Robertson wa3 
given a position in the Engineering depart- 
ment of the Confederate government, and 
Lieut. -Col. Goodwin was promoted to a 
colonelcy. Major Hunt was elected Lieuten- 
ant-Colonel of a Georgia Regiment but died 
on his way to the Army of Virginia, to join 
his command. 

One of the buildings was used by Prof. 
Williams as a private school for several 
months, but as the venture proved a failure 
he returned to his home in Massachusetts. 
His only son enlisted in the cadet company of 
the college and lies in an unknown grave, 
having died in the defense of the southland. 
The buildings remained standing until 
April 28, 1863, when they were destroyed by 
fire, at the hands of members of the 10th 
Missouri Cavalry, U. S. Army, under Col. 
Florence N. Cornyn. The library of four 

thousand volumes, and all of the chemical 
and physical apparatus, furniture, buildings, 
etc., valued at $100,000 were destroyed. 

A bill was introduced in Congress in 1904 
by the Hon. William Richardson to reimburse 
the trustees of the LaGrange Military Acad- 
emy for the loss of property sustained dur- 
ing the War of Secession. The surviving 
students and faculty of LaGrange college met 
in 1904 in Leighton and formed, under the 
leadership of Dr. John Allen Wyeth (q. v.) 
an alumni association, the purpose of which 
was to reorganize the LaGrange College and 
Military Academy. 

References— DuBose, Alabama History, Re- 
vised, pp. 210-213; DuBose, Sketches of Alabama 
History, p. 161; Clark, History of Education 
in Ala., pp. 161-171; Rivers, Rev. R. H., History 
of Robert Paine, D. D., Bishop; Commencement 
programs of the Florence Wesleyan University, 
1856 and 1857; Wesleyan University. Exhibition 
of Junior Class, 1856; Report Card of Dr. W. 
M. Brice, 1856; Annual Catalogue of Officers 
and Students of the Florence Wesleyan, 1856-57, 
pp. 16; An address to the public (in answer to 
the report of the Florence Faculty), by the 
trustees of LaGrange College, Franklin Co., Ala., 
setting forth the position of the trustees in 
reference to that institution, n. p. 1855, 8 vo., 
p. 8, no title page, double columns, signed, at 
LaGrange, Nov. 28, 1855, by Com. of trustees, 
contains Act of incorporation, as amended Jan- 
uary 14, 1850, pp. 7-8, Copies seen: Curry; West, 
History of Methodism in Alabama, pp. 428-445. 

ACADEMY. See LaGrange College. 

LALOKALKA. An Upper Creek town, or- 
iginally settled from Okchayi (q. v.). It was 
situated "on a small, pond-like creek," an 
upper branch of Elkehatchee, and about 14 
miles from its junction with the Tallapoosa. 
Jack's Creek is believed to be the location 
and modern name of the pond-like creek. 
The site is probably 3 or 4 miles east of 
Hissop in Coosa County. The name is ab- 
breviated from Laloakalka, "fish separated, 
placed apart," that is, Lalo, "fish," akalgas, 
"I am separated from." Gatschet suggests 
that the name was probably suggested from 
the circumstance that the older Creeks had 
some method of catching fish, besides fishing 
for them, perhaps a contrivance for dipping 
them up with nets. The name is spelled 
Thlot-lo-gul-gau, which he says was "called 
by the traders fish-ponds." 

As illustrating something of aboriginal 
and pioneer conditions, an extract is here in- 
troduced from Hawkins, in which is given 
an account of the life of a young girl cap- 

"Hannah Hale resides here. She was taken 
a prisoner from Georgia, when about eleven 
or twelve years old, and married the head 
man of this town, by whom she has five chil- 
dren. This woman spins and weaves, and has 
taught two of her daughters to spin; she has 
labored under many difficulties: yet by her 
industry has acquired some property. She 


has one negro boy, a horse or two, sixty 
cattle, and some hogs; she received the 
friendly attention of the agent for Indian 
affairs, as soon as he came in the nation. He 
furnished her with a wheel, loom, and cards; 
she has an orchard of peach and apple trees. 
Having made her election at the national 
council, in 1799, to reside in the nation, the 
agent appointed Hopoithle Haujo to look out 
for a suitable place for her, to help her to 
remove to it with her stock, and take care 
that she receives no insults from the 

References. — Gatschet, in Alabama History 
Commission, Report (1901), p. 402; Hawkins, 
Sketch of the Creek Country (1848). pp. 49-50. 

LAMAR COUNTY. Created by an act of the 

legislature approved February 4, 1867. 
Known as Jones County, being named in 
honor of E. P. Jones, of Fayette County. Its 
territory was taken from Marion and Fayette 
Counties. By an act of November 13, 1867, 
the county was abolished and its territory 
returned to the counties from which it was 
taken. On October 8, 1868, an act was ap- 
proved creating a new county to be known as 
Sanford County out of the same territory 
as that which Jones had occupied. Its bound- 
aries were as follows: "Starting at the 
Mississippi line and following township line 
between eleven and twelve, to where said 
township line crosses the range line between 
the thirteenth and fourteenth range; and fol- 
lowing said range line southward to the Mar- 
ion and Fayette line, and thence along the 
same line southward to its crossing the Pick- 
ens County line, and thence along the Pickens 
County line westward to the Mississippi line, 
State line, and northward along said line to 
township line, between township eleven and 
twelve." By act of February 8, 1877, San- 
ford County became Lamar County, and "all 
public property, rights and credits pertaining 
to said county of Sanford," were transferred 
to Lamar. The new county was named in 
honor of Hon. L. Q. C. Lamar of Mississippi. 

The county comprises an area of 391,232 
acres, or about 611 square miles. 

Location and Physical Description. — It is 
situated in the northwestern part of the 
State, and is bounded on the west by Lown- 
des and Monroe Counties, Miss., the north 
and northeast by Marion County, on the east 
by Fayette and on the south by Pickens 
County. The topography of the county varies 
from rolling to almost mountainous. Its 
level areas are limited. The eastern half 
of the county is rough and hilly, and the 
ridges marking the boundary between the 
major streams are from 250 to 300 feet 
above the water courses. In many cases 
the slopes are so precipitous as to give the 
valleys of Beaver, Yellow and Hell Creeks 
a gorgelike appearance. In the central and 
western parts of the county, with the excep- 
tion of the area between Luxapallili and Mud 
Creeks, and between Mud and Yellow Creeks, 
the hills are broader and more rounded. The 
highest point above sea level is about 600 

feet, and the lowest 200 feet. The drainage 
of the county is into the Tombigbee River. 
The streams are the Luxapallili and Butta- 
hatchee Rivers, and Mud, Yellow, Hell, Wil- 
son, Watson and Cut Bank Creeks. The 
soils of the county present two general di- 
visions, including 11 types. Eight of these 
belong to the hilly and uplands, and are 
derived principally from the Lafayette and 
Tuskaloosa formations. The others are al- 
luvial and terrace soils derived from more 
recent sediments. Three geological forma- 
tions are exposed and these give rise to the 
soil type names. One writer says: "Lamar 
County lies in the southwestern border of the 
Cumberland plateau. The old shore line 
is approximately parallel to the east county 
line and about 15 miles to the east of it." 
The timber growth is of the several species 
of oak, hickory, poplar and cypress, with a 
little pine. The climate is equable. The 
mean temperature for the summer months is 
80° F., and for the winter months 45° F. 
The winters are short and mild. The rivers 
never freeze, and the snow falls, usually too, 
are very light. The mean annual precipita- 
tion is 49.5 inches. 

Aboriginal History. — -Lamar County was 
embraced in the domain claimed by the Chick- 
asaws. It is an interesting fact that the line 
separating Lamar and Pickens Counties was 
the ancient line separating the Choctaw and 
Chickasaw claims. The Chickasaw claim 
to the country in which Lamar County is em- 
braced was extinguished by the treaty of the 
Chickasaw Council House, September 20, 
1816. There were no Chickasaw settlements 
in the county, and in ancient times prior to 
the expansion of the Choctaw and Chickasaw 
nations, after the American Revolution it 
was a part of that vast neutral hunting 
ground, used by them, and occasionally by 
the Creeks. Careful investigations have been 
made to locate if possible evidences of pre- 
historic relics or remains, but so far nothing 
has been found, although they have been 
found in contiguous parts of Mississippi. 

The present inhabitants of this county are 
descendants of the early settlers from Geor- 
gia and South Carolina. As very few of 
the early emigrants were slave holders, the 
colored population is very small. Settle- 
ment was slow, due to the roughness of the 
country, and the distance of the markets. 
The towns are small and each has only a 
small population. Vernon is the county 
seat, and Sulligent and Millport are probably 
the largest towns. 

Transportation facilities are limited and 
inadequate. The St. Louis and San Francisco, 
and Southern Railways furnish "handy ship- 
ping points for the northern and southern 
parts of the county, but the farmers in the 
interior of the county have to haul their 
products 12 to 15 miles to reach a railroad. 
In the southwestern corner of the county 
considerable of the trade' goes to Columbus, 
Miss." The nearest largest cities to the 
caunty are Birmingham, and Memphis, Tenn. 



Agricultural Statistics. — From U. S. Census 

Farms and Farmers. 

Number of all farms, 3,027. 
Color and nativity of farmers: 
Native white, 2,505. 
Foreign-born white, 2. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 520. 
Number of farms, classified by size: 
Under 3 acres, 1. 

3 to 9 acres, 51. 

10 to 19 acres, 338. 

20 to 49 acres, 742. 

50 to 99 acres, 694. 

100 to 174 acres, 694. 

175 to 259 acres, 292. 

260 to 499 acres, 184. 

500 to 999 acres, 27. 

1,000 acres and over, 4. 

Land and Farm Area. 
Approximate land area, 384,640 acres. 
Land in farms, 313,065 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 94,926 acres. 
Woodland in farms, 179,299 acres. 
Other unimproved land in farms, 38,840 

Value of Farm Property. 
All farm property, $3,634,671. 

Land, $1,964,988. 

Buildings, ?757,905. 

Implements and machinery, $192,726. 

Domestic animals, poultry, and bees, $719,- 
Average values: 

All property per farm, $1,201. 

Land and buildings per farm, $900. 

Land per acre, $6.28. 

Domestic Animals (Farms and Ranges). 
Farms reporting domestic animals, 2,952. 
Domestic animals, value, $698,211. 
Cattle: total, 7,561; value, $131,128. 

Dairy cows only, 4,105. 
Horses: total, 1,921; value, $174,683. 
Mules: total, 2,975; value, $352,508. 
Asses and burros: total, 34; value, $2,4S0. 
Swine: total, 6,729; value, $36,120. 
Sheep: total, 795; value, $1,124. 
Goats: total, 168; value, $168. 

Poultry and Bees. 
All poultry, 62,595; value, $18,935. 
Bee colonies, 1,264; value, $1,906. 

Farms Operated by Owners. 
Number of farms, 1,809. 

Per cent of all farms, 59.8. 
Land in farms, 248,079 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 65,101 acres. 
Land and Buildings, $2,025,034. 
Farms of owned land only, 1,603. 
Farms of owned and hired land, 206. 
Native white owners, 1,582. 
Foreign-born white, 2. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 225. 

Farms Operated by Tenants. 
Number of farms, 1,217. 

Per cent of all farms, 40.2. 
Land in farms, 64,866 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 29,785 acres. 
Land and buildings, $693,859. 
Share tenants, 950. 
Share-cash tenants, 12. 
Cash tenants, 247. 
Tenure not specified, 8. 
Native white tenants, 922. 

Foreign-born white, — . 

Negro and other nonwhite, 295. 

Farms Operated by Managers. 
Number of farms, 1. 
Land in farms, 120 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 40 acres. 
Value of land and buildings, $4,000. 

Live Stock Products. 

Dairy Products. 

Milk: Produced, 1,162,117; sold, 4,955 gal- 

Cream sold, 140 gallons. 

Butter fat sold, 5 pounds. 

Butter: Produced, 577,588; sold, 14,204 lbs. 

Cheese: Produced, . 

Dairy products, excluding home use of milk 
and cream, $102,726. 

Sale of dairy products, $3,185. 

Poultry Products. 

Poultry: Number raised, 155,045; sold, 43,- 

Eggs: Produced, 264,560; sold, 134,981 doz- 

Poultry and eggs produced. $77,939. 

Sale of poultry and eggs, $32,004. 

Honey and ~\Yax. 
Honey produced, 8,612 pounds. 
Wax produced, 245 pounds. 
Value of honey and wax produced, $1,036. 

Wool. Mohair, and Goat Hair. 
Wool, fleeces shorn, 370. 

Mohair and goat hair, fleeces shorn, . 

Wool and mohair produced, $317. 

Domestic Animals Sold or Slaughtered. 
Calves — Sold or slaughtered. 511. 
Other cattle — Sold or slaughtered. 2,821. 

Horses, mules, and asses and burros — 

Sold, 340. 
Swine — Sold or slaughtered, 6,537. 
Sheep and goats — Sold or slaughtered, 326. 
Sale of animals, $72,309. 
Value of animals slaughtered. $84,959. 

Value of All Crops. 
Total, $1,403,519. 
Cereals, $332,137. 
Other grains and seeds, $13,319. 
Hay and forage, $25,232. 
Vegetables, $105,793. 
Fruit and nuts, $30,620. 
All other crops, $896,418. 



Selected Crops (Acres and Quantity). 
Cereals: total, 33,455 acres; 349,971 bushels. 

Corn, 29,414 acres; 315,154 bushels. 

Oats, 4,026 acres; 34,710 bushels. 

Wheat, 15 acres; 83 bushels. 

Rye, , 11 bushels. 

Kafir corn and milo maize, — , 13 bushels. 

Rice, . 

Other grains: 690 acres. 

Dry peas, 690 acres; 4,471 bushels. 

Dry edible beans, . 

Peanuts, 318 acres; 4.596 bushels. 
Hay and forage: total 2,266 acres; 2,323 

All tame or cultivated grasses, 1,033 acres; 
1,074 tons. 

Wild, salt, and prairie grasses, 664 acres; 
680 tons. 

Grains cut green, 394 acres; 402 tons. 

Coarse forage, 175 acres; 167 tons. 
Special crops: 

Potatoes, 70 acres; 4.847 bushels. 

Sweet potatoes and yams, 709 acres; 54,35 2 

Tobacco, 1 acre; 103 pounds. 

Cotton, 30,916 acres; 9,876 bales. 
Cane — sugar, 326 acres; 2,018 tons. 

Syrup made, 32,123 gallons. 
Cane — sorghum, 552 acres; 1,811 tons. 

Syrup made, 18,859 gallons. 

Fruits and Nuts. 
Orchard fruits: total, 66,726 trees; 51,755 

Apples, 18,658 trees; 12,497 bushels. 

Peaches and nectarines, 44,269 trees; 37,- 
736 bushels. 

Pears, 1,562 trees; 520 bushels. 

Plums and prunes, 1,830 trees; 922 bushels. 

Cherries, 2 82 trees; 37 bushels. 

Quinces, 85 trees; 21 bushels. 

Grapes, 1,205 vines; 23,414 pounds. 
Tropical fruits: total, 251 trees. 

Figs, 238 trees; 5,258 pounds. 

Oranges, . 

Small fruits: total, 1 acre; 909 quarts. 

Strawberries, 1 acre; 514 quarts. 
Nuts: total, 58 trees; 487 pounds. 

Pecans, 17 trees; 237 pounds. 

Labor, Fertilizer and Feed. 
Labor — Farms reporting, 759. 

Cash expended, $29,569. 

Rent and board furnished, $8,529. 
Fertilizer — Farms reporting, 2,321. 

Amount expended. $64,154. 
Feed — Farms reporting, 1,164. 

Amount expended, $38,181. 
Receipt from sale of feedable crops, $15,371. 

Domestic Animals Not on Farms. 
Inclosures reporting domestic animals, 206. 
Value of domestic animals, $32,481. 
Cattle: total, 303; value, $8,90 6. 

Number of dairy cows, 168. 
Horses: total, 133; value, $15,470. 
Mules and asses and burros: total, 55; value, 

Swine: total, 177; value, $1,044. 
Sheep and goats: total, 11; value, $18. 

Post Offices and Towns. — Revised to July 
1, 1919, from U. S. Official Postal Guide. 
Figures indicate the number of rural routes 
from that office. 
Beaverton Kennedy — 3 

Bedford — 1 Melborn — 1 

Blowhorn Millport — 4 

Crews Depot — 1 Sulligent — 4 

Detroit — 2 Vernon (ch.) — 4 

Fern bank — 1 

Population. — Statistics from decennial pub- 
lications of the U. S. Bureau of the Census. 
White. Negro. Total. 

1880 9,967 2,173 12 140 

1890 11,439 2,748 14 187 

1900 13,015 3,069 16,084 

1910 14,307 3, ISO 17,487 

1920 18,149 

Delegates to Constitutional Conventions. 

1875— M. L. Davis. 

1901— C. C. NeSmith. 
Senators. — 

1876-7 — J. H. Bankhead. 

1878-9 — W. A. Musgrove. 

1880-1— W. A. Musgrove. 

1882-3— A. L. Moorman. 

18 84-5 — A. C. Moorman. 

1886-7— Geo. C. Almon. 

1888-9 — Geo. C. Almon. 

1890-1— R. L. Bradley. 

1892-3— R. L. Bradley. 

1894-5— J. L. Hollis. 

1896-7— J. S. Hollis. 

1898-9— T. L. Sowell. 

1899 (Spec.)— T. L. Sowell. 

1900-1 — J. J. Ray. 

1903 — Christopher Columbus NeSmith. 

1907 — M. L. Leith. 

1907 (Spec.) — M. L. Leith. 

1909 (Spec.) — M. L. Leith. 

1911— C. A. Beaslev. 

1915— J. C. Milner. 

1919— M. L. Leith. 
Representatives. — 

1876-7 — D. W. Hollis. 

1878-9 — J. H. Sanders. 

1880-1 — John H. Bankhead. 

1882-3 — T. B. NeSmith. 

1884-5— T. B. NeSmith. 

1886-7 — R. L. Bradley. 

1888-9 — R. L. Bradley. 

1890-1 — M. L. Davis. 

1892-3 — D. G. W. Hollis. 

1894-5 — John D. McCluskey. 

1896-7 — Walter NeSmith. 

1898-9 — A. B. Seay. 

1899 (Spec.)— A. B. Seay. 

1900-01 — J. I. Guyton. 

1903 — John Daniel McCluskey. 

1907 — C. W. White. 

1907 (Spec.) — C. W. White. 

1909 (Spec.)— C. W. White. 

1911 — J. C. Milner. 

1915— L. D. Byrd. 

1919— A. W. Hollis. 

References.— Toulmin, Digest (1823), index; 
Acts of Ala,; Brewer, Alabama, p. 517- Berney 
Handbook (1892), p. 302; Riley, Alabama at is 



is (1893), p. 130; Northern Alabama (1888), p. 
142; Alabama, 1909 (Ala. Dept. of Ag. and Ind., 
Bulletin 27), p. 144; U. S. Soil Survey (1909), 
with map, Alabama land book (1916), p. 96; 
Ala. Official and Statistical Register, 1903-1915, 
5 vols.; Ala. Anthropological Society, Handbook 
(1910); Geol. Survey of Ala., Agricultural Fea- 
tures of the State (1883); The Valley Regions 
of Alabama, parts 1 and 2 (1896, 1897), and 
Underground Water Resources of Alabama 

LAMBDA CHI ALPHA. College frater- 
nity; founded at Boston University, Novem- 
ber 2, 1909. It entered Alabama in 1915 
when Delta Pi Sigma, a local at the Ala. Pol. 
Inst., was granted a charter and was enrolled 
as Omega chapter. It has 28 initiates. Peri- 
odical: "The Purple, Green and Gold," 
"Cross and Crescent." Colors: Purple, green 
and gold. Flower: Violet. 

Reference. — Baird, Manual (1915), p. 208. 

agent whose employment was authorized by 
the legislature, February 23, 1899, for the 
purpose of examining into the sale and dispo- 
sition made of school or other lands belong- 
ing to the State, with a view to the recovery 
of those which had illegally passed out of 
its possession, and of settling or quieting dis- 
puted titles. The agent was employed by the 
governor; and was removable at his pleasure. 
He received a salary of $100 a month and his 
expenses, not exceeding $1 a day while actu- 
ally engaged in the work, all of which was 
paid out of the money recovered to the State 
by him. To facilitate his work, he was given 
authority to call upon any State or county 
official for access to any records bearing on 
the subjects of his investigations. 

The creation of the position of State land 
agent was made necessary by numerous and 
flagrant violations of the laws governing 
school lands, indemnity lands, swamp and 
overflowed lands and salt lands (see those 
titles), many thousands of acres of which 
were held or occupied by corporations or indi- 
viduals without legal title or authority. It 
became necessary for the land agent to insti- 
tute suits to test the legality of titles to such 
lands claimed under the statutes of limita- 
tion. This question being decided adversely 
to the State, both by its own courts and the 
United States Supreme Court, it devolved 
upon the land agent to seek out and record 
those lands which were held under the op- 
eration of this statute. Owing to meagre 
records or, in some cases, none at all, this 
was a difficult and a tedious undertaking. 
However, despite the paucity of funds and le- 
gal authority with which the office was 
equipped, much was accomplished by its sev- 
eral incumbents toward the recovery of lands 
illegally or irregularly disposed of. 

In 1915, January 12, Gov. Emmet O'Neal 
called attention, in his final message to the 
legislature, to what he called "the imperative 
necessity for legislative action in regard to 
our State lands." "The management of these 

lands has not been creditable to the State, 
neither can it be said that the obligation that 
the State assumed, when it took title to them, 
has been in all respects properly and faith- 
fully discharged. . . . The records with 
reference to the different classes of lands 
owned by the State and held in trust by it for 
various institutions, have always been, and 
are now, distributed through three or four 
departments, neither of which is hardly com- 
plete within itself, but each, more or less, in- 
terdependent upon another, or upon all the 
others. ... To properly place these affairs 
in such shape as to accomplish the most satis- 
factory results, a distinct department for the 
conservation and management of the State 
lands should be formed by reforming all the 
laws of the State in regard to State lands. 
If this were done, more effective results would 
be accomplished at less expense than is in- 
curred under the present disorganized and 
incomplete method." 

Notwithstanding these recommendations, 
the legislature, June 19, 1915, abolished the 
office of State land agent and placed all of the 
State's lands under the supervision of the 
State auditor, who is allowed the services of a 
special clerk to look after the land business. 

Agents. — Thomas W. De Yampert, 1899- 
1901; E. H. Lawrence, 1901; John R. McCain, 
1901-1907; Robert W. Manning, 1907-1911; 
William J. Martin, 1911-1915. 

Publications. — W. J. Martin, Agent, Report, 
Apr. 20, 1911-Dec. 16, 1914, 1 vol.; and, also* 
Sale of indemnity lands (Dept. of Education, 
Bulletin, 1913). 

References. — Acts, 1898-99, pp. 116-117; Code, 
1907, sees. 892-897; Gov. Emmet O'Neal, Mes- 
sage, 1915, pp. 216-218; General Acts, 1915, p. 
217; State v. Schmidt, 180 Ala., p. 374 and cases 
cited; Alabama v. Schmidt, 232 U. S. Sup. Ct. 
Reports, p. 168, and 58 Law. Ed., p. 555. 

LAND OFFICES. See Lands, Public. 

tax laid by the United States Government 
upon the value of all lands and lots of 
ground, with their improvements and dwelling 
houses, by act of Congress, August 5, 1861. 
The tax was imposed for the purpose of rais- 
ing the additional revenue made necessary by 
the outbreak of the War of Secession. This 
was the fourth levy of a direct tax by the 
United States Government, the first being a 
tax of $2,000,000 laid in 1798, the second of 
$3,000,000 laid in 1813, and the third of 
$6,000,000 laid in 1815. The law of 1861 also 
levied a tax upon income, the first such tax 
imposed by the United States Government. 
Section 8 provided "That a direct tax of 
twenty millions of dollars be and is hereby 
annually laid upon the United States," and 
apportioned the total among the various 
States, Alabama's quota being $529,213.38. 
The collection of the tax was placed in the 
hands of assessors who, with their assistants, 
were directed to inquire after and seek out all 
items of property which were subject to the 
tax. By an act of June 7, 1862, Congress re- 



stricted the application of this law to one 
year. A penalty of 5 per cent of the amount 
of the tax was provided for its nonpayment, 
and in cases of delinquency, if sufficient per- 
sonal property to satisfy the tax and costs 
could not be found, the real estate was to be 
sold; and if the real estate did not sell for 
enough to pay the tax, the United States took 
possession of it. Possession of property sold 
for taxes under this law could be regained 
after advertisement, but before actual sale, 
by the payment of the accrued taxes plus 10 
per cent; and after being sold, if redeemed 
within two years, by the payment of the 
accrued taxes and the amount paid for the 
property by the purchaser with interest at 
the rate of 20 per cent a year. 

A proviso was included to enable any State 
or Territory to assume and pay its prorata, 
in its own way and by its own officers; but 
notice of such intention was required to be 
given the Secretary of the Treasury by the 
second Tuesday in February after the passage 
of the act. Such action by a State entitled 
it to a reduction of 15 per cent on the amount 
to be paid, being the estimated cost of collec- 
tion. It was further provided that should any 
of the States or Territories of the United 
States be in actual rebellion against the 
United States at the time the act should go 
into operation, so that the laws of the United 
States could not be executed therein, it should 
be the duty of the President to enforce the 
provisions of the act within such State or 
Territory as soon as the authority of the 
United States could be reestablished. The act 
of June 7, 1862, above referred to, provided 
for the collection of this tax in the Con- 
federate States through the agency of com- 
missioners, appointed by the President, who 
were authorized to sell lands for its nonpay- 

Several of the States paid their full quotas, 
and a few paid some portion. In fact, all 
the States both North and South, paid some 
part of their assessments, excepting only Ala- 
bama. In this State assessments were made, 
but no part of the tax was ever collected. In 
1866 Congress passed a law suspending the 
collection of the taxes in the insurrectionary 
States, which became effective in August. 
Subsequently the suspension was continued to 
January 1, 1869. No further attempts at col- 
lection, in the South or elsewhere, were made 
after 1869. 

The legislature passed an act February 20, 
1866, authorizing the governor to assume and 
provide for the payment of the tax on real 
estate, imposed by act of Congress, August 5, 
1861, by delivering to the Government, state 
bonds to bear interest at such rates as might 
be agreed upon, not exceeding 7 per cent. In 
his message of November 12, 1866, Gov. R. M. 
Patton reported that in pursuance of this act 
he had called upon the President, the Secre- 
tary of the Treasury, and several members of 
Congress, and consulted with them concern- 
ing the assumption of the tax by the State 
upon the terms provided by the act of the 
legislature. The Secretary of the Treasury, 

he said, did not have authority to acceed to 
the proposal, but had agreed to recommend 
that Congress take favorable action upon it. 
The proposal of the legislature was sub- 
mitted in writing by Gov. Patton to the Sec- 
retary of the Treasury, who referred the 
matter to President Andrew Johnson, by 
whom it was transmitted to Congress with 
a message of April 3, 1866. Both the Sec- 
retary and the President recommended favor- 
able action upon the proposition submitted, 
but the matter remained in abeyance for sev- 
eral years. 

Congress enacted a law, June 8, 1872, per- 
mitting owners of lands sold for nonpayment 
of direct taxes to redeem them upon payment 
of taxes, interest, and costs. A bill was in- 
troduced in 1876 for the relief of owners and 
purchasers of lands sold for direct taxes in 
insurrectionary States. In 1888 Congress 
passed laws refunding the entire amount col- 
lected under the direct-tax law of 1861. At 
that time Alabama's quota of $529,313.33 
still remained unpaid except for a credit of 
$18,285.03, consisting of $8,491.46 and 
$9,793.57, accumulations of the 2 and 3 per 
cent funds, due the State from the United 
States under acts of Congress, March 2, 1819, 
and September 4, 1841. Because of the re- 
funding of the entire amount of the land tax 
paid by all the States, Alabama declined to 
agree to this disposition of its share of the 
2 and 3 per cent funds, and the matter was 
later readjusted. Thus it came about that 
Alabama never paid any part of its quota of 
the United States land tax. 

See Cotton Tax; Income Tax; Reconstruc- 

References. — U. S. Statutes at Large, vol. 12, 
pp. 292-313; Gov. R. M. Patton, "Message," Nov. 
12, 1866, S. Jour. 1866-67; R. M. Patton, Let- 
ter to Congress on Special land tax in Alabama 
(H. Mis. Doc. 114, 39th Cong., 1st sess.) ; An- 
drew Johnson, Message, Apr. 3, 1866 (H. Ex. 
Doc. 79, 39th Cong., 1st sess.); Compt. of Pub- 
lic Accounts, Annual report, 1865, pp. 5-7; Sec- 
retary of the Treasury, Letter regarding the 
collection of direct taxes, July 14, 1870 (H. Ex. 
Doc. 312, 41st Cong., 2d sess.); Ibid. Feb. 25, 
1871 (S. Ex. Doc. 47, 41st Cong., 3d sess.); U. 
S. Com. of Internal Rev., Letter regarding 
direct tax (H. Mis. Doc. 101, 41st Cong., 3d 
sess.); Ibid, Apr. 16, 1872 (S. Mis. Doc. 141, 
42d Cong., 2d sess.); Edward McPherson, In- 
dex of bills relating to banks, currency, public 
debt, tariff, and direct taxes, 1st to 42d Cong., 
inclusive (H. Mis. Doc. 92, 43d Cong., 2d sess.); 
Committee on the Judiciary, Report on direct 
taxes in insurrectionary states (H. Rept., 44th 
Cong., 1st sess.); Ibid, Lands sold for direct 
taxes (H. Rept. 908, 45th Cong., 2d sess.) ; 
Ibid (H. Rept. 168, 46th Cong., 2d sess.); Com- 
mittee on Claims, Report on payment of direct 
taxes (H. Rept. 2486, pts. 1 and 2, 48th Cong., 
2d sess.); Acting Secretary of the Treasury, 
Letter regarding direct tax apportionment (H. 
Ex. Doc. 158, 49th Cong., 1st sess.); Secretary 
of the Treasury, Letter regarding refund of 
direct taxes (H. Rept. 683, 51st Cong., 1st 
sess.); Committee on Claims, Report on refund 



of direct taxes to West Virginia (S. Rept. 31, 
52d Cong., 1st sess.) ; U. S. Com. of Internal 
Rev., Compilation of direct tax laws (1874). 

LANDS, PUBLIC. That part of the na- 
tional domain, in the ownership of the gov- 
ernment, subject to sale or other disposal 
under general laws, acquired for the United 
States chiefly by cession from the individual 
States and by treaties with foreign nations. 

The Federation Constitution adopted in 
17 89 conferred upon Congress the power to 
make all needful rules and regulations re- 
specting the territory and other property be- 
longing to the United States, thus making 
Congress the sole authority for the control 
of the public lands. The government has 
often reserved large areas for special pur- 
poses or for such disposal as it may see fit, 
and these areas are popularly and officially 
known as the public lands of the United 
States. Title to lands occupied by Indian 
tribes are legally vested in the United States. 
The public lands of the United States have 
been disposed of by sale at a nominal price, 
or by gift to individual settlers and grants 
to States and corporations. Prior to 1801 
the government practiced the policy of selling 
its public lands in large quantities by public 
contract. The policy of selling small lots, 
on credit, and later lots to suit purchasers, 
for cash, was followed. By 1883 the total 
receipts from the sale of public lands 
amounted to 233 million dollars, the cost of 
which to the government for purchase from 
foreign territory, extinguishing Indian titles, 
expense of surveying, maintaining land offi- 
cers, etc., exceeded that sum by 126 millions. 
The purposes for which public land has been 
granted has been in recognition of special 
services to the Republic, especially to vet- 
erans of wars, to corporations for the purpose 
of aiding in the construction of railroads, or 
to the States for the encouragement of edu- 

cation or the building of roads and canals. 
Public lands are acquired by preemption, 
homestead, public auction or private sale, 
bounty law or military land warrants, and 
under the Timber Culture Act. 

Alabama was created out of lands ceded 
to the United States by France and by the 
States of South Carolina and Georgia. The 
returns of public land surveys of Alabama 
show only the general characteristics, as 
"broken, sandy, level, mountainous, rolling, 
pine, hilly," etc. 

On the 22d of March, 1832, a treaty was 
concluded by the Secretary of War, with the 
Creek Indians, by which they ceded to the 
United States all their lands east of the Mis- 
sissippi River. The territory acquired by 
this treaty lies within the limits of Alabama. 
By the Act of May 23, 1828 (4 Stat. 290), 
a grant of 400,000 acres of land was made 
by Congress to the State of Alabama for the 
purpose of improving the navigation of the 
Tennessee, Coosa, Cahawba and Black War- 
rior Rivers within said State. These lands 
were to be selected in the Counties of Mad- 
ison, Morgan, Limestone, Lawrence, Franklin 
and Lauderdale, in said State. On Sep- 
tember 15, 1829, a list of lands, aggregating 
400,016.19 acres was selected by Benjamin 
M. Bradford, State Agent under said Act. 

Governor John Gayle, in a message to the 
called session of the legislature, November 6, 
183 2, declared that "her right (Alabama) 
of jurisdiction over the inhabitants will 
henceforth be relieved of all doubt or embar- 
rassment which was supposed to grow out of 
the relations between the general govern- 
ment and the Indian tribes. The duty will 
devolve upon you at the present session, to 
lay it off into suitable and convenient coun- 
ties, and to establish a system of county or- 
ganization, so that the protection, as well 
as the wholesome restraints of our laws may 
be speedily introduced." 

1846 to 1916 


land stock, 

Office Acres Cash 

Cahaba 809.565.47 $ 550,809.89 

Centre 241,484.69 113,646.26 

Demopolis 186,218.05 81,787.08 

Elba 1,023,985.03 265,060.94 

Greenville 410,500.73 193,451.16 

Huntsville 4,924,899.98 1,143,322.97 

Lebanon 450,449.63 461,822.72 

Mobile 328,318.09 45,918.45 

Montgomery 6,300,042.81 2,188,252.39 

Sparta 271,423.63 336,930.41 

St. Stephens 628,280.86 291,087.95 

Tuscaloosa 1,239,537.28 349,733.78 

Treasury and 

Beceipts Choctaw 

and Notes certificates Total Expenditures 

$ 460.59 $1,792.07 $ 553,062.55 ? 29,494.54 

113,646.26 13,336.85 

81,787.08 21,332.37 

265,060.94 25,012.25 

.*.... 193,451.16 13,514.53 

100.77 1,143,423.74 246,669.97 

461,822.72 33,822.85 

45,918.45 22,608.12 

2,188,252.39 366,541.56 

2,400.00 339,330.41 15,859.49 

1,672.00 2,746.51 293,506.46 30,411.85 

200.00 324.44 350,258.22 41,197.59 

Total 16,814,706.25 $6,021,824.00 $2,332.59 $5,363.79 $6,(129,520.38 $859,801.97 



The records in the Department of the In- 
terior, Washington, D. 0., do not show 
whether the State of Alabama performed the 
improvement work required by the said Act 
of May 23, 1828, so as to entitle it to the 
benefits thereof, but by an Act of the Ala- 
bama legislature, February 1, 1838, it was 
provided that it should be the duty f the 
registrar and receiver to give sixty days' 
notice in a newspaper published in the coun- 
ties in which the land lay, and on the day 
named offer for sale to the highest bidder, 
all of the lands of the 400,000 acres remain- 
ing unsold and to continue the sale until the 
whole of the lands were offered for sale, and 
that the minimum price of the land sold at 
said sale shall be one cent." 

Sixteenth Section. — By an Act of Congress, 
approved March 2, 1819, "the inhabitants of 
the Territory of Alabama" were authorized 
to form for themselves a constitution and 
State government, "to assume such name as 
they may deem proper," and when formed 
into a State should be "admitted into the 
Union, upon the same footing with the orig- 
inal States, in all respects whatever." The 
Act also says: "That the section numbered 
sixteen in every township, and when such 
section has been sold, granted, or disposed 
of, other lands equivalent thereto, and most 
contiguous to the same, shall be granted to 
the inhabitants of such townships for the 
use of schools." 

The governor, State superintendent of edu- 
cation, and attorney general are constituted 
a board of compromise for the purpose of 
examining into the title or claim of the State 
to any sixteenth section or other school lands 
which have illegally passed out of the pos- 
session of the State, or which have heretofore 
been disposed of by the State and not paid 


Purchase to June 30, 1880, and cessions. 

The entire public domain contained (esti- 
mated) cessions, 259,171,787 acres; pur- 
chases, 1,589,900,800 acres; total, 1,849,072,- 
587 acres; cost, $55,157,389.98, which is 
about 4-7/10 cents per acre. 

Purchases — cost, 181,957,389.98; con- 
tained 1,593.139,200 acres; cost 5-1/10 
cents per acre. 

Louisiana purchase — cost, $27,267,621.98; 
contained 756,961,280 acres; cost, 3-3/4 
cents per acre. 

East and West Florida, from Spain — cost, 
$6,489,768; contained 37,931,520 acres; cost 
17-1/10 cents per acre. 

Mexico, Quadalupe Hidalgo, — cost $15,- 
000,000;contained 334,443,520 acres; cost 
4 Va cents per acre. 

Texas purchase. 1850 — cost $16,000,000; 
contained 61,892,480 acres; cost about 
25-17/20 cents ->er acre. 

Mexico, Gadsden purchase, 1853 — cost 

$10,000,000; contained 29,142,400 acres; cost 
34-3/10 cents per acre. 

Alaska, from Russia, 1867 — cost $7,200,- 
000; contained 369,529,920 acres; cost, 
10-10/17 cents per acre. 

The United States has disposed of (esti- 
mated) 547.754,483.88 acres of public do- 
main, exclusive of Tennessee, and received 
therefor, net $200,702,849.11, or nearly 
36-9/20 cents per acre. 

The public domain contained (estimated) 
1.849,072,587 acres, and cost for purchase, 
Indians, survey, and disposition, $322,595.96, 
or about 17-2/5 cents per acre. 

Land Grants to Aid Railroad Construction, 
— Grants of land to aid in the construction of 
railroads in the State of Alabama were made 
as follows: 

Act of September 20, 1850 (9 Stat., 466), 
benefit of Mobile and Ohio R. R. Co., from 
Mobile to State line, area, 419,528.44 acres, 
approved same quantity, now operated by 
same company. 

Act of May 17. 1856 (11 Stat., 15), Ala- 
bama and Florida, subsequently Mobile and 
Montgomery R. R. Co., from 'Flomaton to 
Montgomery, Alabama, area 439,972.58 
acres, approved. 399,022.84 acres. Operated 
by Louisville and Nashville R. R. Co. 

Act of June 3, 1856 (11 Stat., 17); Ten- 
nessee and Coosa R. R. Co., from Gadsden to 
Guntersville, area, 96,033.12 acres, approved, 
67,784.96 acres. Operated by Nashville, 
Chattanooga and St. Louis R. R. Co. 

Act of June 3, 1856, supra, Wills Valley 
and Northeast and Southwestern, subse- 
quently Alabama and Chattanooga R. R. Co., 
from Mississippi State line near Meridian, to 
Wauhatchie, Tennessee, area, 832,693.62 
acres, approved, 653,888.76 acres. Operated 
by Alabama Great Southern Ry. Co., Queen 
and Crescent route. 

Act of June 3, 1856, supra, Mobile and 
Girard R. R. Co., from Girard to Troy, Ala- 
bama, area (as adjusted by act of September 
29, 1890, 26 Stat., 496), 302,181.16 acres, 
approved, same ^rea. Operated by Central 
of Georgia Rwy. Co. 

Act of June 3, 1856, supra, South and 
North Alabama R. R. Co., area, 594,689.60 
acres, approved, 445,438.43 acres. Operated 
by Louisville and Nashville R. R. Co., Mont- 
gomery to Decatur, Alabama. 

Act of June 30, 1856, supra, Selma, Rome 
and Dalton R. R. Co., from Selma to Jackson- 
ville, Alabama, area 508,620.33 acres, ap- 
proved 458,555.82 acres. Operated by South- 
ern Rwy. Co. 

Other grants were made, but subsequently 
forfeited by act of Congress for failure to con- 
struct the road. 

Railroad rights of way within the State of 
Alabama granted under the act of March 3, 
1875 (18 Stat., 482): 

Alabama and Florida R. R. Co.. from Sec. 
20, T. 4 N., R. 16 E., to Sec. 29, T. 1 N., R. 
22 E., S. S. M., approved March 10, 1902, 
Louisville and Nashville R. R. Co. 


Louisville and Nashville R. R. Co., Sec. 2, 
T. 6 VS., R. 13 E., to Sec. 29, T. 1 N., R. 22 
E., approved October 3, 1903, and from Sec. 
29, T. 12 N., R. 8 E., to Sec. 21, T. 10 N., 
R. 9 E., approved May 17, 1902, operated by 
same company. 

Mobile, Jackson and Kansas City R. R. 
Co., from Sec. 6, T. 4 S., R. 2 W., to Sec. 20, 
T. 2 S., R. 4 W., approved September 24, 
1889, operated by New Orleans, Mobile and 
Chicago R. R. Co. 

Pensacola and Louisville, act of June 8, 
1872 (17 Stat., 340), from Sec. 24, T. 1 N., 
R. 8 E., to Sec. 26, T. 10 N., R. 10 E., July 
1, 1872, operated by Louisville and Nashville 
R. R. Co. 

A number of other railroad rights of way 
appear to have been granted at different 
times within the State, but so far as the rec- 
ords of the General Land Office disclose no 
railroads were actually constructed over such 
rights of way. 

Land and Scrip Granted to Alabama for 
Educational and Other Purposes. — 
Tuskegee Normal and Industrial 

Institute 25,000.00 

Industrial School for Girls 25,000.00 

Seminary of Learning 46,080.00 

Internal Improvements 500,000.00 

Agricultural College Scrip 240,000.00 

Common Schools, Sec. 16 911,627.00 

Salt Springs and contiguous lands 23,040.00 

Seat of Government 1,620.00 

University 46,080.00 





Alexander Pope, July 15, 1817-Aug. 1, 

G. Saltonstall, August 1, 1829-July 14, 

Alan. Saltmarsh, July 15, 1831-November 
25, 1850. 

E. W. Saunders, November 26, 1850-May 
1, 1853. 

Eldridge Gardner, May 2, 1853-April 6, 

John K. Henry, April 7, 1857-March 4, 

Geo. L. Henry, March 5, 1860 . 


John Taylor, July (?), 1817-July 12, 1826. 

Horatio Perry, July 12, 1826-February (?), 

David McCord, February (?), 1828-(died). 

U. G. Mitchell, June 16, 1828-February 27, 

Matthew Gayle, February 27, 1837-April 
30, 1847. 

Wm. W. Fambro, May 1, 1847-April 3, 

Wm. M. Sapsley, April 4, 1851-May 2, 


Thos. E. Herbert, March 5, 1860 . 



A. I. Crawford, March 2, 1833-March 2 

Thomas Simpson, March 3, 1837-March 3 

L. B. McCarty, November 20, 1840-Novem- 
ber 24, 1850. 

Edw. A. Taylor, November 25, 1850-No- 
vember 23, 1853. 

L. B. McCarty, May 24, 1853-March 30. 


Thomas Simpson, March 2, 1833-March 2, 

David E. Moore, March 3, 1837-October 11, 

A. M. McDowell, October 12, 1850-Octo- 
ber 8,. 1854. 

Sidney T. Torbert, October 9, 1854-March 
30, 1866. 



Benj. S. Pope, May 22, 1820-September 
15, 1835. 

John J. Coleman, September 16, 1835-No- 
vember 14, 1850. 

Wm. B. Figures, November 15, 1850-May 

10, 1853. 

John H. Ware, May 11, 1853-September 7, 

E. C. Hatten, September 8, 1886-June 9, 

Wm. A. McDonald, June 10, 1869-March 
12. 1872. 

John M. Cross, March 13, 1872-December 

11, 1884. 

William C. Wells, December 12, 1884-De- 
cember 2, 1886. 

Frank Coleman, December 3, 1886-June 
30, 1889. 

Wm. C. Wells, July 1, 1889-August 23, 

Jesse W. Ellis, August 24, 1894-September 
30, 1897. 

John A. Steele, October 1, 18 9 7-February 
28, 1905. 


Obadiah Jones, December 31, 1821, died. 

Samuel Cruse, August 2, 1825-May 10, 

John S. Nance, May 11, 1853-October 7, 

Danl. M. Bradford, September S, 1866- 
July 15, 1869. 

J. G. Blackwell, July 16, 1869-February 
28, 1875. 

Wm. H. Councill, July 1, 1875-October 12, 



P. J. Kaufman, October 13, 
Wm. H. Tancre, March 2, 

-March 1, 
-April 3, 

J. C. Street, April 4, 1888-July 1. 1889. 

Charles Hendley, July 2, 18S9-June 20, 

Albert M. Avery, June 21, 1894-October 1, 

Hershal V. Cashin, October 2, lS97-Febru- 
ary 28, 1905. 



Jack Shackelford. July 14, 1832-April 9, 

T. J. Bradford, April 10, 1833-August 
31, 1845. 

Hugh P. Caperton. September 1, 1845- 
July 1, 1849. 

Sampson Clayton, July 2, lS49-March 14, 

J. L. Barnard, March 15, 1853-July 21, 

John Cunningham, Julv 22, 1853-April 5, 

Notley M. Warren, April 6, 1857 . 


Joab Lawler, Julv 14, lS32-November 1, 

L. W. Lawler, November 2. lS35-March 9, 

Wm. E. Sawyer, March 10, lS40-October 
24, 1841. 

L. W. Lawler, October 25, 1841-September 
30, 1845. 

John G. Winston, October 1, 1845-June 
28, 1848. 

Peter I. Walker, June 25, 1849-March 13, 

Obadiah W. Ward, March 14, 1853-July 1, 

Alex. Snodgrass, July 2, 1853-June 30, 

Lafayette M. Stiff, July 1, 1859 . 



Salmon Dutton, July 16, 1866-April 20, 

C. F. Stearns, April 21, 1869-June 24, 


William L. Howard, June 10, 1868-April 
20, 1869. 

Stephen Moore, April 21, 1869-June 30, 

James A. Somerville, July 1, 1873-June 
24, 1879. 



J. H. Sommerville, July 10, 1832-April 3, 

Duncan B. Graham, April 4, 1840-Novem- 
ber 14. 1850. 

Vol. n— 9 

Hardy Herbert, November 15, 1850-Feb- 
ruary 24, 1851. 

Albert B. Herbert, February 25, 1851-May 
31, 1853. 

T. O. Glascock, June 1, 1853-March 31, 

Abraham Edwards, August 3, 1865-May 10, 

P. J. Anderson, May 11, lS69-November 
15, 1881. 

Thomas J. Scott, November 16, 1881-Feb- 
ruary 27, 1886. 

J. G. Harris, February 28, 1886-August 
30. 1889. 

J. H. Bingham, August 31, 1889-April 15, 

Harrison Purcell, April 16, 1894-September 

29, 1896. 

Robert Barber, September 30, 1897-Mav 
26, 1906. 

R. D. Johnston, Mav 29, 1906-June 29, 

N.. H. Alexander, June 30, 1908-July 15, 

Cato D. Glover, July 16, 1913-date. 


Nimrod E. Benson, July 14, 1832-Novem- 
ber 29, 1854. 

Thomas Welsh, November 30, lS54-Sep- 
tember 30, 1857. 

Edmund M. Hastings, October 1, 1857- 
March 31, 1861. 

William Miller, August 25, lS65-December 
10. 1866. 

P. J. Anderson, December 11, 1866-August 
5, 1868. 

A. L. Buffington, August 6, 1868-May 11, 

Wm. H. Dingley, May 12, lS69-April 16, 

Peyton Finley, April 17, 1873-April 30, 

P. J. Strobach, May 1, 1877-April 15, 

Harvey A. Wilson, April 16, 1883-Septem- 
ber 30, 1884. 

A. A. Mabson, October 1, 1884-December 
4, 1885. 

Wm. C. Jordon, December 5, 1885-August 

30, 1889. 

N. H. Alexander, August 31, 1889-April 
12, 1894. 

Larry W. Hunter, April 13, 1894-October 
8, 1897. 

John C. Leftwich, October 9, 189 7-January 

31, 1902. 

N. H. Alexander, February 1, 1902-June 
29, 1908. 

John A. Steele, June 30, 1908-July 15, 

John S. Hunter, July 16, 1913-date. 



Wm. Aylett, March 25, 1822-May 3, 1826. 

J. B. Hazard, May 4, lS26-August 23, 



James Magoffin, September 29, 1835-March 
25, 1860. 

Elijah H. Gordy, March 26, 1860-July 12, 

Salmon Dutton, September 6, 1866 . 

William Crawford, May 26, 1817-May 27, 

George Conway, May 27, 1824-September 

John H. Owen, September 17, 1827-No- 
vember 2, 1836. 

T. J. Wilkinson, November 2, 183 6-August 
4, 1840 (died). 

Elijah H. Gordy, November (?), 1840-May 
7, 1851. 

Jackson W. Faith, May 8, 1851-May 15, 

Sam S. Houston, May 16, 1853-August 31, 

John Peebles, September 1, 1858 . 



E. G. Greening, February 19, 1822-Decem- 
ber 4, 1825. 

I G Shaw, December 5, 1825-May 16, 1828. 

W. H. Greening, May 17, 1828-April 7, 

William Judge, April 8, 1850-May 1, 1853. 

N. Stallworth, May 2, 1853-September 26, 

Ed. W. Martin, September 27, 1853- 
August 13, 1855. 

James Clayton, August 14, 1855-May 28, 

Jos. I. Baldwin, May 29, 1856-January 
11. 1861. 

John T. Knight, July 16, 1866-April 11, 


John Herbert, January 8, 1821-December 

Andrew F. Perry, December 21, 182 6-May 

10, 1828. 

John S. Hunter, May 17, 1828-March 6, 

A. D. Carey, March 7, 1834-April 8, 1850. 

Andrew Jay, April 9, 1850-April 28, 1853. 

Willis Darby, April 29, 1853-July 17, 1854. 

James Larkin, July 18, 1854-February 7, 

Richard F. Cook, February 8, 1856-January 

11, 1861. 

J. G. Moore, July 16, 1866-April 11, 1867. 



John McKee, March 9, 1821-January 13, 

Wm. P. Gould, January 14, 1824-June 16, 

■ J. H. Vincent, June 17, 1829-October 31, 

Patrick Redmond, November 1, 1837-May 
3, 1840. 

Richard Whitney, May 4, 1840-November 

Monroe Donohoo, January 26, 1849-April 
11, 1851. 

E. M. Burton, April 12. 1851-May 16, 1853. 

Monroe Donohoo, May 17, lS53-March 30, 


Wm. G. Parrish, January 8, 1821-August 
8. 1841. 

Edw. F. Comegeys, August 9, 1841-April 
11, 1851. 

Thos. I. Burke, April 12, 1851-May 9, 

Marmaduke I. Slade, May 10, 1852-April 
6, 1853. 

James W. Warren, April 7, 1853-Mareh 
30, 1866. 

References. — Correspondence, official reports 
etc., between Senator John H. Bankhead and 
the commissioner of the General Land office, 
Department of the Interior, Washington, D. C, 
now in the Alabama State Department of Ar- 
chives and History. 

LANETT. Post office and incorporated 
manufacturing city, in the southeast corner 
of Chambers County, on the Western Railway 
of Alabama, and the Chattahoochee Valley 
Railroad, and on the west bank of the Chat- 
tahoochee River, 13 miles southeast of Lafay- 
ette. Population: 1890 — 777; 1900 — 2,909; 
1910 — 3,820. It has electric lights, water- 
works, and sewerage system. Its principal in- 
dustries are large cotton mills, and a bleach- 
ing and dyeing works. It is on the road from 
Opelika to West Point, Ga. The site of Fort 
Tyler is within the limits of the town. 

The settlement was known as Bluffton until 
1893, when it was incorporated as the city 
of Lanett, named in honor of Lanier and Bar- 
nett, owners and officers of the Lanier Cotton 
Mills. Some of the early settlers were Dr. 
A. H. Reese and brother, James A. Reese, and 
the Smith, Croft, Forbes, Thomas, Barker, 
Jackson, Benham, Mitcham and Griggs 

References. — Brewer, Alabama (1872), p. 
161; Northern Alabama (1888), p. 178; Ala- 
bama Official and Statistical Register, 1915. 

Cotton Manufacturing. 

LANG COTTON MILLS, Lanett. See Cotton 

LANGSTON. Interior village and post 
office in the southern part of Jackson County, 
on the south side of the Tennessee River, 
about 10 miles south of Scottsboro. Popu- 
lation: 1870 — "Coffee Town," 640; 1900 — 
Langston Precinct, 672, village proper, 270; 
1910 — Langston Precinct, 619, village 
proper, 314. It was originally named Coffee 
Town. The Davis, Morgan, Wilborn and 
Kirby famines were among the earliest 

Lev. Robert K. Hargrove, D. D., Bishop 
Methodist Episcopal Church, South 

Rt. Rev. John Quinlan, Second Bishop of 
the Diocese of Mobile, Roman Catholic 
Church, 1S59 to 1866. 

Rev. Nicholas Hamner Cobbs, D. D., 
Bishop of the Diocese of Alabama, Protest- 
ant Episcopal Church. 




Reference. — Manuscript data in the Alabama 
Department of Archives and History. 

LAXTDSHI APALA. A branch village of 
the Hillabi, situated on the northwest fork 
of Hillabi Creek. 15 miles from the mother 
town. The word signifies "over the little 
mountain," or "on the side of the little moun- 
tain," a phrase which well expresses its loca- 
tion. The town house was on the left side 
of the creek. Hawkins spells the name Thla- 
noo-che-au-bau-lau; from thlenne "a moun- 
tain," oo-ehe, "little," and au-bau-lau. "over." 
Its precise location is on the east side of the 
stream and between it and the mountain, 
Simmons Ridge, and opposite the junction of 
the creeks. It is north from the Talladega 
and Goldville Road. Noxihala's grave is 300 
yards from the present Millerville. His hut 
stood near the village and old Delliac Springs. 

See Hillabi. 

References. — Gatschet, in Alabama History 
Commission, Report (1901), p. 403; Handbook 
of American Indians (1907), p. 552; Hawkins, 
Sketch of the Creek Country (1848), p. 43. 

LAPLAKO. An Upper Creek village, of 
which no facts are preserved, other than the 
mention of it in 1832. It is said to have 
been settled from Huliwahli. Since that town 
was destroyed by Gen. Jackson's forces in 
April, 1814, and' its identity lost, it is not 
improbable that a part of its inhabitants 
formed this new settlement. The name of 
the town means "Tall Cane," or "Big reed." 
It must have been in the vicinity of a stream 
on which there was an abundance of cane 
or reed from which blow-guns were made. 

See Huliwahli. 

References. — Gatschet, in Alabama History 
Commission, .Report (1901), p. 403; Woodward, 
Reminiscences (1859), p. 91. 

LARKLVSVILLE. Post office and station 
on the Southern Railway, in the southern 
part of Jackson County, 5 miles west of 
Scottsboro. Altitude: 622 feet. Population: 
1870 — 2,098; 1888 — 300; 1890 — Larkinsville 
Precinct, 1,157; 1900 — precinct, 1,236; 1910 
— precinct, 1,001, village, 237; 1912 — village, 
246. The Larkinsville Banking Co. (State) 
is its only banking institution. It was named 
for David Larkin, who with the Cotten, Dil- 
lard, Smith, Harris, and Cowart families, set- 
tled the community in the early days. 

Reference. — Manuscript data" in the Alabama 
Department of Archives and History. 

act of the Alabama Territorial legislature, 
February 6, 1818. It was formed of that 
tract of country lying west of Limestone 
County and north of the Tennessee River. 
The dimensions of the county were reduced 
by an act of the legislature of November 2 7, 
1821, by adding to Limestone County all of 
that territory that lay between Tennessee and 
east of the range numbered six and Elk 
River. This has been the only change in 
the original size of the county. 

The name was given to the county in honor 

of Colonel James Lauderdale, "a gallant Ten- 
nessean," who was killed in a night attack 
upon the British below New Orleans, Decem- 
ber 23, 1814. It contains 453,056 acres, or 
about 708 square miles. 

Location and Physical Description. — Situ- 
ated in the north western section of the state, 
Lauderdale is bounded on the north by 
Hardin, Wayne, and Lawrence Counties, 
Tenn., on the east by Limestone County, on 
the south by Colbert and Lawrence Counties, 
and on the west by Mississippi. It is em- 
braced within the parallels 34° 43' and 35° 
north latitude and the meridians 87° 12' and 
88° 12' west longitude. The greatest length 
of the county is 57 miles in an east and west 
direction, and its greatest width is 2 miles 
from north to south. 

Located in what is known as the Ten- 
nessee valley, a variety of surface features 
which have "a direct bearing upon the soils 
and agricultural interest," are found. Eleva- 
tions range from something over 4 00 feet at 
river level to 1,000 or more feet on the 
high ridges along the Tennessee river. Many 
bluffs are found marking river bottoms. The 
eastern two-thirds of the county, is a broad, 
"gently rolling surface," which is known as 
the plateau section. The western third, 
known as the highlands, is rougher and more 
hilly, and filled with ridges and valleys. The 
soil survey of Lauderdale County, 1905, says 
in speaking of the plateau region: "Into this 
plateau the larger streams have cut deep nar- 
row gorges, through which they flow in tor- 
tuous channels until they emerge from the 
bluffs. Many of the smaller streams disappear 
in underground channels through this upland 
area, and appear as large springs at the 
base of the bluffs, the bed rock being mas- 
sive limestone of the St. Louis group (Tus- 
cumbia) of sub Carboniferous age and con- 
siderable purity, which, when free from chert, 
gives rise to the Clarksville Clay loam soil, 
or when, mixed with large amounts of chert, 
to a place of the Clarksville stony loam." 

There are six types of soil recognized in 
the county, Clarksville loams, stony loams, 
silt loams and ciay loams predominating. De- 
rived from limestone, these soils respond 
readily to cultivation, and splendid crops of 
corn, wheat, oats, cotton and grasses, are 
grown. This county is also one of the leaders 
in stock raising and dairying. 

The county's climate is mild. Extreme 
heat is not encountered in summer, but occa- 
sionally the temperature falls to zero or 
below in winter, but these occurrences are 
rare. The average rainfall is 52 inches. 

Aboriginal History. — The territory origi- 
nally embraced in this county was claimed 
by both the Chickasaws and Cherokees, both 
making cessions of it to the United States. 
By the treaty of January 7, 1806, the Chero- 
kees ceded all claim to lands on the north 
side of the Tennessee River and west of the 
Chickasaw Old Fields, with the exception of 
two reservations, one of which lay wholly 
within Lauderdale County, the other largely 
so, its eastern boundary being Elk River. 


The Chickasaws, by the treaty o£ "Chicka- 
saw Council House," September 20, 1816, 
ceded all right or title to lands on the north 
side of the Tennessee River, with the excep- 
tion of three reservations, the largest of 
which was for George Colbert and his heirs. 
Colbert's reservation included his ferry and 
lay between the two Cherokee reservations, 
being in fact, overlapped by one of them. 
The two reservations of the Cherokees were 
ceded to the United States by the treaty of 
July 8, 1817. Colbert's reservation was 
confirmed to him and his heirs by the treaty 
of October 19, 1818, and was deeded to the 
United States, May 15, 1819. 

Recent exploration work along the Ten- 
nessee river has shown a number of aborigi- 
nal town sites. None of these have been 
positively identified as Chickasaw towns how- 
ever. In the southeastern corner of a large 
cultivated field at the juncture of Bough's 
branch with Tennessee river, is a large town 
site on which is a burial mound, now prac- 
tically obliterated by the plough. Some in- 
teresting vessels of earthenware have been 
found there. One fourth mile back from the 
landing at the Johnson place, on property of 
Mr. John Beckwith of Florence, are two 
mounds about 10 and 7 feet, in height, re- 
spectively. On Kager's Island, a property 
controlled by J. T. Reeder of Smithsonia are 
three town site evidences, which in recent 
years, although practically destroyed by cul- 
tivation, have shown some interesting burial 
remains. Opposite this island, on property 
of the same owner, a short distance from 
Perkins Spring, are three mounds, from 
which recently have been secured some very 
fine copper objects and an interesting agri- 
cultural implement of shale. On no part 
of the large town site in the proximity of the 
mounds was any evidence of pottery noted, 
though sherds were numerous and some 
whole pieces have been found on the island 
about a mile distant. At Florence is the 
great domiciliary mound 42 feet in height 
and the largest on the Tennessee river and 
possibly in Alabama. It originally is thought 
to have had an eastern side caseway lead- 
ing to the summit. At Lock 3 in the Muscle 
Shoals canal, where Bluewater Creek enters 
the Tennessee, is a large town site. On prop- 
erty of J. T. Thornton, at the upper entrance 
of the canal, is a large shell-heap, known 
locally as "Pennywinkle" hill, in reality Per- 
riwinkle Hill, named no doubt from the num- 
ber of shells of this species found there. A 
small well worn mound is to be found on the 
plantation of Dr. L. A. Weaver, in view from 
the river. On property of Mr. W. F. Harri- 
son, about half-a-mile above Nance's Reef, 
is a large domiciliary mound and a smaller 
one, some distance easterly, composed 
largely of shell and which is doubtless a 
burial mound. At numbers of other points 
on the Tennessee are noted shell mounds or 
shell-heaps as they are more commonly 
known, which are in connection with town 

Florence, the County seat, was laid out 

in 181S, and Gen. Jackson, and ex-president 
Madison, owned lots in it, about that time. 

This county was one of the first settled by 
white people, the immigrants coming from 
Virginia, the Carolinas, and Tennessee. Scat- 
tered settlements were made along Cypress, 
Shoal, Bluewater, and the other large creeks. 
Staple crops, such as cotton, corn, wheat, 
and oats were planted, and even now the 
crops show little change. 

About 1870 a colony of Germans settled 
at St. Florian, these people planted little 
cotton giving most of their attention to 
grains, truck crops, and fruits. 

The Government nitrate plant at Muscle 
Shoals is in Lauderdale County. Chief 
among the towns are Florence, Sheffield and 

Transportation facilities are poor. The 
Louisville and Nashville railroad, traverses 
the entire county. It enters near Pruitton 
and crosses to Florence, where it connects 
with the Southern Railroad. No shipping 
towns are located on the Louisville and Nash- 
ville. Much of the territory of the county 
is not easily accessible to a railroad. 

Agricultural Statistics. — From U. S. Census 

Farms and Farmers. 
Number of all farms, 4,440. 
Color and nativity of farmers: 
Native white, 3,487. 
Foreign-born white, 44. 
Negro and other non-white, 909. 
Number of farms, classified by size: 

Under 3 acres, . 

3 to 9 acres, 84. 
10 to 19 acres, 557. 
20 to 49 acres, 1,706. 
50 to 99 acres, 1,057. 
100 to 174 acres, 655. 
175 to 259 acres, 222. 
260 to 499 acres, 117. 
500 to 999 acres, 27. 

1,(100 acres and over. 


Land and Farm Area. 
Approximate land area, 444,160 acres. 
Land in farms, 345,502 acres. 
Improved land in farms. 163,793 acres. 
Woodland in farms, 163,180 acres. 
Other unimproved land in farms, 18,529. 

Value of Farm Property. 
All farm property, $6,689,001. 

Land, $3,881,197. 

Buildings, $1,200,258. 

Implements and machinery, $293,177. 

Domestic animals, poultry, and bees, $1, 
Average values: 

All property per farm, $1,507. 

Land and buildings per farm, $1,144. 

Land per acre, $11.23. 

Domestic Animals (Farms and Ranges). 
Farms reporting domestic animals, 4,322. 
Domestic animals, value, $1,269,851. 
Cattle: total, 14,260; value, $192,144. 
Dairy cows only. 6,266. 


Horses: total, 3,660; value, $348,449. 
Mules: total, 5,203; value, $624,575. 
Asses and burros: total, 54; $6,938. 
Swine: total, 20,397; value, $81,649. 
Sheep: total, 6,241; value, $13,059. 
Goats: total, 2,271; value, $3,037. 

Poultry and Bees 
All poultry, 100,454; value, $42,544. 
Bee colonies, 1,346; value, $1,974. 

Fai-ms Operated by Otcners. 
Number of farms, 2,138. 

Per cent of all farms, 4 8.2. 
Land in farms, 253,504 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 93,346 acres. 
Land and buildings, $3,176,558. 
Farms of owned land only, 1,460. 
Farms of owned and hired land, 678. 
Native white owners, 1,873. 
Foreign-born white, 44. 
Negro and other non-white, 221. 

Farms Operated by Tenants. 
Number of farms, 2,293. 

Per cent of all farms, 51.6. 
Land in farms, 89,932 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 69,535 acres. 
Land and buildings, $1,860,607. 
Share tenants, 1,234. 
Share cash-tenants, 66. 
Cash tenants, 971. 
Tenure not specified, 22. 
Native white tenants, 1,606. 

Foreign-born white, . 

Negro and other non-white, 687. 

Farms Operated by Managers. 
Number of farms, 9. 
Land in farms, 2,066 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 912 acres. 
Value of land and buildings, $44,290. 

Live Stock Products. 

Dairy Products. 
Milk: Produced, 1,652,209; sold, 19,063 

Cream sold, 142 gallons. 

Butter fat sold, . 

Butter: Produced, 633,349; sold, 62,457 


Cheese: Produced, . 

Dairy products, excluding home use of milk 

and cream, $112,390. 
Sale of dairy products, $16,167. 

Poultry Products. 
Poultry: Number raised, 191,793; sold, 

Eggs: Produced, 475,906; sold, 232,843 

Poultry and eggs produced, $117,586. 
Sale of poultry and eggs, $46,478. 

Honey and Wax. 
Honey produced, 7,157 pounds. 
Wax produced, 412 pounds. 
Value of honey and wax produced, $894. 

Wool, Mohair, and Goat Hair. 
Wool, fleeces shorn, 4,445. 
Mohair and goat hair, fleeces shorn, 11. 
Wool and mohair produced, $2,823. 

Domestic Animals Sold or Slaughtered. 
Calves — Sold or slaughtered, 1,368. 
Other cattle — Sold or slaughtered, 6,386. 
Horses, mules, and asses and burros — Sold, 

Swine — Sold or slaughtered, 17,571. 
Sheep and goats — Sold or slaughtered, 2,368. 
Sale of animals, $194,334. 
Value of animals slaughtered, $213,298. 

Value of All Crops. 
Total, $2,270,326. 
Cereals, $806,575. 
Other grains and seeds, $6,991. 
Hay and forage, $116,478. 
Vegetables, $147,526. 
Fruit and nuts, $37,696. 
All other crops, $1,155,060. 

Selected Crops (Acres and Quantity). 
Cereals: total, 60,805 acres; 1,032,201 

Corn, 56,250 acres; 981,649 bushels. 

Oats, 2,942 acres; 36,502 bushels. 

Wheat, 1,593 acres; 13,965 bushels. 

Rye, 20 acres; 85 bushels. 

Kafir corn and milo maize, . 

Rice, . 

Other grains: 

Dry peas, 408 acres; 2,441 bushels. 

Dry edible beans, 38 acres; 256 bushels. 

Peanuts, 36 acres; 1,361 bushels. 
Hay and forage: total, 8,862 acres; 7,615 

All tame or cultivated grasses, 3,535 
acres; 3,325 tons. 

Wild, salt, and prairie grasses, 231 acres; 
300 tons. 

Grains cut green, 4,628 acres; 3,584 tons. 

Coarse forage, 468 acres; 406 tons. 
Special crops: 

Potatoes, 469 acres; 39,825 bushels. 

Sweet potatoes and yams, 338 acres; 35,- 
850 bushels. 

Tobacco, 6 acres; 3,076 pounds. 

Cotton, 43,891 acres; 12,706 bales. 
Cane — sugar, 92 acres; 523 tons. 

Syrup made, 10,114 gallons. 
Cane — sorghum, 637 acres; 1,932 tons. 

Syrup made, 33,472 gallons. 

Fruit and Nuts. 
Orchard fruits: total, 88,932 trees; 59,396 

Apples, 40,225 trees; 27,280 bushels. 
Peaches and nectarines, 40,009 trees; 

29,887 bushels. 
Pears, 2,597 trees; 892 bushels. 
Plums and prunes, 5,100 trees; 1,188 

Cherries, 839 trees; 97 bushels. 
Quinces, 111 trees; 31 bushels. 
Grapes, 14,289 vines; 33,381 pounds. 



Tropical fruits: total, 4 9 trees. 

Figs, 49 trees; 435 pounds. 

Oranges, ■ „• 

Small fruits: total, 21 acres; 37,397 quarts. 

Strawberries, 14 acres; 30,358 quarts. 
Nuts: total, 123 trees, 1,220 pounds. 

Pecans, 3 trees; 120 pounds. 

Labor, Fertilizer and Feed. 
Labor — Farms reporting, 1,470. 

Cash expended, $73,229. 

Rent and board furnished, $15,402. 
Fertilizer — Farms reporting, 2,495. 

Amount expended, $59,316. 
Feed — Farms reporting, 1,236. 

Amount expended, $43,377. 
Receipts from sale of feedable crops, $88,323. 

Domestic Animals Not on Farms. 
Inclosures reporting domestic animals, 769. 
Value of domestic animals, $81,348. 
Cattle: total, 1,068; value,$21,658. 

Number of dairy cows, 672. 
Horses: total, 361; value, $42,338. 
Mules, and asses and burros: total, 99; 

value, $12,875. 
Swine: total, 866; value, $4,076. 
Sheep and goats: total, 221; value, $401. 

Post Offices and Towns. — Revised to July 
1, 1917, from U. S. Official Postal Guide. 
Figures indicate the number of rural routes 
from that office. 

Cloverdale— 2 Lexington — 1 

Florence (ch.)— 5 Pruitton 

Hines— 2 Rogersville— 3 

Jacksonburg Smithsonia 

Killen— 2 Waterloo— 2 

Population. — Statistics from decennial pub- 
lications of the U. S. Bureau of the Census. 

White. Negro. Total. 

1820 3,556 1,407 4,963 

1830 7,960 3,821 11,781 

1840 .... 9,447 5,038 14,485 

1850 11,097 6,075 17,172 

I860 10,639 6,781 17,420 

1870 9,921 5,170 15,091 

1880 " 14.173 6,860 21,033 

1890 16,647 7,091 23,738 

1900 ...19,169 7,390 26,559 

1910 23,840 7,096 30,936 

1920 39,556 

Delegates to Constitutional Conventions. — 

1819 — Hugh McVay. 

1861 — Sidney C. Posey; Henry C. Jones. 

1865 — Robert M. Patton; James Irvine. 

1867 — James W. Stewart; James T. Rapier 
(colored). , _ , , 

1875 — Edward A. O'Neal; Richard Onck 
Pickett. m , , 

1901— Emmet O'Neal; John B. Weakley; 
John T. Ashcraft. 

Senators. — 

1819-20 — Joseph Farmer. 
1821-22 — Hugh McVay. 
1822-3 — Hugh McVay. 
1825-6 — James Jackson. 
1828-9 — Hugh McVay. 

1830-1 — James Jackson (1830). 

1832-3 — Hugh McVay. 

1834-5— Hugh McVay (1836). 

183 7-8 — Sidney C. Posey. 

1838-9— Hugh McVay. 

1841-2 — Hugh McVay. 

1844-5 — Sidney C. Posey. 

1847-8 — John C. F. Wilson. 

1851-2 — Robert M. Patton. 

1855-6 — Robert M. Patton. 

1859-60— Robert M. Patton (1861). 

1862-3 — James Stewart. 

1865-6 — James Jackson. 

1868 — B. Lentz. 

1871-2 — B. Lentz. 

1872-3 — Daniel Coleman. 

1873 — Daniel Coleman. 

1874-5 — Daniel Coleman. 

1875-6 — R. A. McClellan. 

1876.7— W. J. Wood. 

1878-9 — W. J. Wood. 

1880-1 — T. N. McClellan. 

1882-3 — Thos. N. McClellan. 

1884-5 — R. T. Simpson. 

1886-7 — R. T. Simpson. 

1888-9— W. N. Hays. 

18 90-1 — Wm. N. Hayes. 

1892-3 — J. M. Cunningham. 

1894-5 — J. M. Cunningham. 

1896-7 — Ben M. Sowell. 

1898-9 — B. M. Sowell. 

1899 (Spec.) — B. M. Sowell. 

1900-01 — H. R. Kennedy. 

1903 — Dr. Hiram Raleigh Kennedy. 

1907 — Wm. N. Hayes. 

1907 (Spec.) — Wm. N. Hayes. 

1909 (Spec.) — Wm. N. Hayes. 

1911 — Thurston H. Allen. 

1915 — H. C. Thach; James E. Horton. 

1919 — B. A. Rogers. 

Representatives. — 

1819-20 — Jacob Byler; Thomas Garrard. 
1820-1 — H. McVay; Jonathan Bailey. 
1821 (called) — H. McVay; Jonathan 

1821-2 — G. Masterson; John Craig. 
1822-3 — James Jackson; F. Durett. 
1823-4 — James Jackson; C. S. Manley. 
1824-5 — Jacob Byler; J. P. Cunningham. 
1825-6 — Jonathan Bailey; William B. Mar. 
tin; George Coalter. . 

182 6-7 — Hugh McVay; Samuel Craig; 
Henry Smith. . 

1827-8 — Hugh McVay; Samuel Craig; 
Francis Durett. 

1828-9 — J. L. D. Smith; William George; 
Francis Durett. 

1 g29-30 — John Pope; Samuel Craig; F. 

18 30-1— Hugh McVay; William George; J. 
P. Cunningham. . 

1831-2 — Hugh McVay; Samuel Craig; 
John McKinley. 

1832 (called) — Cornelius Carmack; 
George S. Houston; Samuel Young. 

1832-3 — Cornelius Carmack; George S. 
Houston; Samuel Young. 

1833-4 — Cornelius Carmack; James Jack- 
son; Samuel Harkins. 



1834-5 — Cornelius Carmack; James Jack, 
son; Samuel Young; J. B. Womack. 

1835-6 — Cornelius Carmack; S. C. Posey; 
L. Garner; E. Sheffield. 

1836-37 — Cornelius Carmack; S. C. Posey; 
John McKinley; R. M. Patton. 

1837 (called) — Cornelius Carmack; S. C. 
Posey; John McKinley; R. M. Patton. 

1837-8 — Cornelius Carmack; George Sim- 
mons; J. M. Boston; B. Sheffield. 

1838-9 — Cornelius Carmack; J. Douglas; 
James M. Boston; S. R. Garner. 

1839-40 — Henry D. Smith; J. Douglas; A. 
O. Horn. 

1840-1— Henry D. Smith; J. Douglas; J. 
R. Alexander. 

1841 (called) — Henry D. Smith; J. 
Douglas; J. R. Alexander. 

1841-2 — Henry D. Smith; J. S. Kennedy; 
J. R. Alexander. 

1842-3 — Henry D. Smith; J. Douglas; 
John S. Kennedy. 

1843-4 — B. B. Barker; J. Douglas; J. R. 

1844-5 — Henry D. Smith; W. Baugh; J. R. 

1845-6 — E. G. Young; B. B. Barker; J. 
C. F. Wilson. 

1847-8 — L. P. Walker; John E. Moore; J. 
S. Kennedy. 

1849-50 — L. P. Walker; R. M. Patton; 
Joseph Hough. 

1851-2 — R. W. Walker; V. M. Benham; 
O. H. Oates. 

1853-4 — L. P. Walker; William Rhodes. 

1855-6 — R. W. Walker; H. D. Smith. 

1857-8 — S. A. M. Wood; H. D. Smith. 

1859-60 — S. D. Hermon; H. D. Smith. 

1861 (1st called) — S. D. Hermon; H. D. 

1861 (2d called) — S. C. Posey; J. H. 

1861-2 — S. C. Posey; J. H. Witherspoon. 

1862 (called)— S. C. Posey; J. H. Wither- 

1862-3 — S. C. Posey; J. H. Witherspoon. 

1863 (called) — Alexander McAlexander; T. 
L. Chisholm. 

1863-4 — Alexander McAlexander; T. L. 

1864 (called) — Alexander McAlexander; 
T. L. Chisholm. 

1864-5 — Alexander McAlexander; T. L. 

1865-6 — Edward McAlexander; B. E. 

1866-7 — Edward McAlexander; B. E. 

1868— W. R. Chisholm. 

1869-70 — W. R. Chisholm. 

1870-1 — B. P. Taylor. 

1871-2— B. P. Taylor. 

18 72-3 — B. F. Taylor. 

1873 — B. P. Taylor. 

1874-5— S. D. Herman. 

1875-6 — S. D. Herman. 

1876.7 — J. M. Cunningham. 

1878-9 — B. P. Taylor. 

1880-1 — C. H. Patton. 

1882-3 — R. T. Simpson; J. C. Kendrick. 

1884-5 — R. O. Pickett; H. Richardson. 

1886-7 — H. Richardson; R. O. Pickett. 

1888-9 — T. O. Bevis; J. M. Cunningham. 

1890.1 — O. P. Tucker; T. O. Bevis. 

1892-3 — H. R. Kennedy; John C. Ott. 

1894-5— H. R. Kennedy; John C. Ott. 

1896-7 — J. J. Mitchell; H. A. Killen. 

1898-9 — J. J. Mitchell; H. A. Killen. 

1899 (Spec.) — J. J. Mitchell; H. A. Killen. 

1900-01 — R. E. Simpson; C. P. Anderson. 

1903 — Henry Alexander Killen; Robert 
Tennent Simpson. 

1907— John L. Hughston; H. A. Killen. 

1907 (Spec.) — John L. Hughston; H. A. 

1909 (Spec.) — John L. Hughston; H. A. 

1911 — Lee Waits; Jas. S. Kulburn. 

1915 — H. A. Bradshow; T. E. Jones. 

1919 — S. C. McDonald; W. L. Sherrod. 
References. — Toulmin, Digest (1823), index; 
Acts of Ala., Brewer, Alabama, p. 294; Berney, 
Handbook (1892), p. 303; Riley, Alabama as it 
is (1893), p. 12; Northern Alabama (1888), p. 
90; Alabama, 1909 (Ala. Dept. of Ag. and Ind., 
Bulletin 27), p. 146; U. S. Soil Survey (1905), 
with map; Alabama land book (1916), p. 97; 
Ala. Official and Statistical Register, 1903-1915, 
5 vols., Ala. Anthropological Society, Handbook 
(1910); Geol. Survey of Ala., Agricultural fea- 
tures of the State (1883); The Valley regions 
of Alabama, parts 1 and 2 (1896, 1897), and 
Underground Water resources of Alabama 

LAWRENCE COUNTY. Created by act of 
the Territorial Legislature of February 4, 
1818. Formed from territory acquired by 
the Cherokee and Chicasa cession of 1816, its 
original dimensions have not changed. 

It was named for Capt. James Lawrence 
of the Federal navy, who was in command 
of the "Hornel" in 1813, when he fought 
and captured the "Peacock," British man-o'- 
war, and who fought the "Chesapeake" in 
a disastrous battle with the British frigate 
"Shannon," off Boston June 1, 1813. 

Location and Physical Description. — Lo- 
cated in the northwestern part of the state, 
Lawrence County is bounded on the north by 
the Tennessee River, which separates it from 
Lauderdale and Limestone Counties, on the 
east by Morgan County, on the south by Win- 
ston County, and on the west by Franklin 
and Colbert Counties. From north to south 
its greatest length is 34 miles, and its great- 
est width from east to west is twenty-four 

The topographic features of this county 
fall into four divisions, namely the mountain 
area, the costal plain, the valley section and 
the Tennessee and creek flood plain. County 
elevations vary from 2 to 75 feet above the 
Tennessee river and from 500 to 600 .feet 
above sea level. 

Thirty-two kinds of soil are found in this 
county, and four general soil provinces are 
represented — the Appalachian, "comprising 


Little and Sand Mountains, the Limestone 
Valleys and Upland, including the Tennessee 
and Moulton Valleys, the River flood plains, 
and the Coastal Plain." Rocks consist of 
limestone, sandstone, shale, chert and con- 
glomerate. Coal is found near the top of 
Sand Mountain, and other "pockets" appear. 
The county lies in the warm temperate zone, 
and there are long hot summers, and cold 
and warm periods during the winter. The 
mean temperature for the winter is about 
42° F. and for summer about 79° P. Numer- 
ous mineral springs are found in the county. 

The principal crops are cotton, corn and 
hay. Wheat and oats are also of a fine qual- 
ity. Sheep and other live stock find fine 
pasture land. Among the timber which 
abounds in abundance may be found: short 
leaf pine, post and black jack oaks, hickory, 
cedar, gum, chestnut, and honey locust. The 
streams of the county flowing into the Ten- 
nessee River are Town, Big Nance, Mallets', 
Fox, and the West Fork of Flint Creek, with 
its tributaries. The streams of t.e southern 
part of the county are the headwaters of the 
East and West forks of the Sipsey Fork of 
the Warrior River. 

Aboriginal History. — Lawrence County is 
situated within the domain claimed both by 
the Cherokees and Chickasaws. It became 
an American possession, by two treaties, first 
the treaty negotiated with the Cherokees at 
the Chickasaw Council House, and Turkey 
Creek, September 14, 1816; second, the treaty 
negotiated with the Chickasaws at their 
Council House, September 20, 1816. 

At a few points in the county along Ten- 
nessee River aboriginal remains have been 
met with, and on the islands in the river 
opposite to and which are in the county 
boundary, some evidences could formerly be 
seen. These lands have so often been under 
water that little remains at the present time. 
Tick Island, owned by R. N. Harris of Flor- 
ence, however, is an exception in that in a 
large sand mound one mile from the upper 
end of the island, numbers of burials have 
been encountered and evidences in consider- 
able numbers are yet to be seen in the village 
site in proximity thereto. A large domiciliary 
mound showing a few superficial burials 
is half mile above Sycamore Landing on 
the property of J. H. Gilchrist of Courtland. 
Large shell mounds and village sites are lo- 
cated on Gilchrist Island and one mile above 
Milton's Bluff respectively. On Brown's 
island, which is sometimes called Knight's 
Glan, being owned by John W. Knight of De- 
catur, is a large flat top domiciliary mound. 
In the central and southern sections of the 
county are seen scattering remains which are 
probably evidences of outlying villages. In- 
dications though do not suggest that the 
county was extensively peopled except in the 
northern section. 

The early settlers of the county came from 
Virginia, Tennessee and the Carolinas. A set- 
tlement was first made at Marathon (Mel- 
ton's Bluff) on the Tennessee River, about 
two miles above the present Lock A. Court 

was first held at that place but in 182 the 
seat of government of the county was moved 
to Moulton, where it has since remained. 

The chief towns of the county are Moul- 
ton, the county seat, fourteen miles from the 
railroad at Hillsboro; Courtland; Town 
Creek; Landersville; Mount Hope, Wolff 
Springs. Wrenn; and Oakville. 

The county is traversed by public roads, 
which as a whole are in fairly good condi- 
tion. Mountain roads follow divides, and at 
stream crossings are rough and stony. There 
are a large number of churches and school 
buildings in the county. The county high 
school is located at Moulton. A telephone 
system embracing local and long distance lines 
is in use in the county, and the rural lines 
are largely owned by the farmers. Practi- 
cally every section of the county is reached 
by the rural free delivery. 

Agricultural Statistics. — From U. S. Census 

Farms and Farmers. 
Number of all farms, 4,003. 
Color and nativity of farmers: 
Native white, 2,820. 
Foreign-born white, 2. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 1,181. 
Number of farms, classified by size: 

Under 3 acres, . 

3 to 9 acres, 74. 

10 to 19 acres, 361. 

20 to 49 acres, 1,576. 

50 to 99 acres, 997. 

100 to 174 acres, 636. 

175 to 259 acres, 195. 

260 to 499 acres, 130. 

500 to 999 acres, 31. 

1,000 acres and over, 3. 

Land and Farm Area. 
Approximate land areas, 448,000 acres. 
Land in farms, 311,481 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 162,022 acres. 
Woodland in farms, 140,566 acres. 
Other unimproved land in farms, 8,893. 

Value of Farm Property. 
All farm property, $5,447,263. 

Land, $3,138,515. 

Buildings, $878,432. 

Implements and machinery, $253,359. 

Domestic animals, $1,176,957. 
Average values: 

All property per farm, $1,361. 

Land and buildings per farm, $1,003. 

Land per acre, $10.08. 

Domestic Animals (Farms and Ranges). 
Farms reporting domestic animals, 3,918. 
Domestic animals, value, $1,148,094. 
Cattle: total, 13,061; value, $181,671. 

Dairy cows only, 6,035. 
Horses: total. 2,987; value, $292,943. 
Mules: total, 4,814; value, $596,780. 
Asses and burros: total, 59; value, $5,905. 
Swine: total, 15,101; value, $66,563. 
Sheep: total, 1,959; value $3,779. 
Goats: total, 395; value, $453. 



Poultry and Bees. 
All poultry, 87,649; value, $27,284. 
Bee colonies, 1,096; value, $1,579. 

Farms Operated by Owners. 
Number of farms, 1,662. 

Per cent of all farms, 41.5. 
Land in farms, 203,913 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 82.299 acres. 
Land and buildings, $2,250,048. 
Farms of owned land only, 1,223. 
Farms of owned and hired land, 439. 
Native white owners, 1,461. 
Foreign-born white, 2. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 199. 

Farms Operated by Tenants. 
Number of farms, 2,337. 

Per cent of all farms, 58.4. 
Land in farms, 104,701 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 78,783 acres. 
Land and buildings. $1,709,659. 
Share tenants, 1,108. 
Share cash-tenants, 65. 
Cash tenants, 1.146. 
Tenure not specified, 18. 
Native white tenants, 1,355. 

Foreign-born white, . 

Negro and other nonwhite, 982. 

Farms Operated by Managers. 
Number of farms, 4. 
Land in farms, 2,867 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 940 acres. 
Value of land and buildings, $57,240. 

Live Stock Products. 

Dairy Products. 

Milk: Produced, 1,712,550; sold, 2,005 gal- 

Cream sold, . 

Butter fat sold, . 

Butter: Produced, 615,810; sold, 30,000 

Cheese: Produced, . 

Dairy products, excluding home use of milk 
and cream, $87,022. 

Sale of dairy products, $5,306. 

Poultry Products. 
Poultry: Number raised, 186,178; sold 40,- 

Eggs: Produced, 403,428; sold, 203,643 

Poultry and eggs produced, $100,024. 
Sale of poultry and eggs, $38,399. 

Honey and Wax. 
Honey produced, 5,738 pounds. 
Wax produced, 163 pounds. 
Value of honey and wax produced, $678. 

Wool. Mohair, and Goat Hair. 
Wool, fleeces shorn, 1,023. 
Mohair and goat hair, fleeces shorn, 5. 
Wool and mohair produced, $670. 

Domestic Animals Sold or Slaughtered. 
Calves — Sold or slaughtered, 830. 

Other cattle — Sold or slaughtered, 6,572. 
Horses, mules, and asses and burros — Sold, 

Swine — Sold or slaughtered, 9,632. 
Sheep and goats — Sold or slaughtered, 830. 
Sale of animals, $146,366. 
Value of animals slaughtered, $123,233. 

Value of All Crops. 

Total, $2,170,761. 

Cereals, $633,647. 

Other grains and seeds. $3,07^. 

Hay and forage, $61,340. 

Vegetables, $97,629. 

Fruits and nuts, $33,738. 

All other crops, $1,341,337. 

Selected Crops (Acres and Quantity i. 
Cereals: total, 53,354 acres; 722,190 bushels. 

Corn, 48,693 acres; 661.511 bushels. 

Oats, 4,580 acres; 60,337 bushels. 

Wheat, 59 acres; 311 bushels. 

Rye, 2 acres; 6 bushels. 

Kafir corn and milo maize, 20 acres; 25 

Rice, . 

Other grains: 

Dry peas, 2i4 acres; 1,165 bushels. 

Dry edible beans, 1 acre; 1 bushel. 

Peanuts, 44 acres; 917 bushels. 
Hay and forage: total, 3,742 acres; 4,822 

All tame or cultivated grasses, 896 acres; 
1,128 tons. 

Wild, salt and prairie grasses, 1,227 acres; 
1,378 tons. 

Grains cut green, 917 acres; 847 tons. 

Coarse forage, 702 acres; 1,469 tons. 
Special crops: 

Potatoes, 208 acres; 20,116 bushels. 

Sweet potatoes and yams, 427 acres; 40,887 

Tobacco, 7 acres; 2,847 pounds. 

Cotton, 51,535 acres; 14,948 bales. 
Cane — sugar, 313 acres; 1,030 tons. 

Sirup made. 14,333 gallons. 
Cane — sorghum. 683 acres; 2.104 tons. 

Sirup made, 25,965 gallons. 

Fruits and Nuts. 
Orchard fruits: total, 5S.012 trees; 54,942 
Apples, 18,418 trees; 17,091 bushels. 
Peaches and nectarines, 33.867 trees; 34,- 

572 bushels. 
Pears, 3.145 trees; 2,088 bushels. 
Plums and prunes, 1,622 trees; 1.045 

Cherries, 573 trees; 89 bushels. 
Quinces, 228 trees; 24 bushels. 
Grapes, 3,924 vines; 28,456 pounds. 
Tropical fruits: total, 389 trees. 
Figs, 387 trees; 4,682 pounds. 

Oranges, . 

Small fruits: total, 1 acre; 516 quarts. 

Strawberries, 1 acre; 314 quarts. 
Nuts: total. 89 trees; 6.081 pounds. 
Pecans, 10 trees; 81 pounds. 



Labor, Fertilizer and Feed. 
Labor — Farms reporting, 992. 

Cash expended, $48,824. 

Rent and board furnished, $11,171. 
Fertilizer — Farms reporting, 2,352. 

Amount expended, $59,012. 
Feed — Farms reporting, 1,026. 

Amount expended, $45,686. 
Receipts from sale of feedable crops, $35,563. 

Domestic Animals Not on Farms. 
Inclosure reporting domestic animals, 169. 
Value of domestic animals, $36,331. 
Cattle: total, 410; value, $7,795. 

Number of dairy cows, 183. 
Horses: total, 154; value, $19,420. 
Mules, and asses and burros: total, 46; value, 

Swine: total, 274; value, $1,648. 
Sheep and goats: total, 75; value, $111. 

Post Offices and Towns. — Revised to July 
1, 1919, from U. S 
Figures indicate the 
from that office. 

Courtland — 1 

Hillsboro — 2 


Landersville — 1 

Mehama — 1 

Moulton (ch.) — 
Mount Hope — 2 
Town Creek — 3 
Wheeler — 1 

Population. — Statistics from decennial pub- 
lications of the U. S. Bureau of the Census. 
White. Negro. Total. 

1830 8,361 6,623 14,984 

1840 7,143 6,170 13,313 

1850 8,342 6,916 15,258 

1860 7,173 6,802 13,975 

1870 10,096 6,562 16,658 

1880 12,642 8,750 21,392 

1890 12,553 8,171 20,724 

1900 12,967 7,156 20,124 

1910 15,046 6,933 21,984 

1920 24,307 

Delegates to Constitutional Conventions. — 

1819 — Arthur Francis Hopkins, Daniel 

1861 — David P. Lewis. James S. Clark. 

1865 — James B. Speake, James S. Clark. 

1867 — Thomas M. Peters, Benjamin O. 

1875 — Francis W. Sykes, Charles Gibson. 

1901 — D. C. Almon, W. T. Lowe. 

Senators. — 


-Fleming Hodges. 
Arthur F. Hopkins. 
Mathew Clay. 
David Hubbard. 
David Hubbard. 
Thomas Coopwood. 
James B. Wallace. 
James B. Wallace. 
Hugh M. Rogers. 
Hugh M. Rogers. 
Tandy W. Walker. 
Thomas M. Peters. 
-H. L. Stevenson. 
William A. Hewlett. 

1857-8 — O. H. Bynum. 
1861-2 — J. Albert Hill. 
1865-6 — Francis W. Sykes. 
1868— D. V. Sevier. 
1871-2— D. V. Sevier. 
1872-3— J. C. Goodloe. 
1873 — J. C. Goodloe. 
1874-5 — J. B. Moore. 
1875-6— J. B. Moore. 
1876-7 — W. C. Sherrod. 
1878-9 — John D. Rather. 
1880-1 — John D. Rather. 
1882-3 — James Jackson. 
1884-5 — James Jackson. 
1886-7 — James H. Branch. 
1888-9 — James H. Branch. 
1890-1 — W. W. NeSmith. 
1892-3 — W. W. NeSmith. 
1894-5 — David W. Day. 
1896-7— David W. Day. 
1898-9 — S. P. Rather. 
1899 (Spec.) — S. P. Rather. 
1900-01 — S. P. Rather. 
1903 — Seybourne Arthur Lynne. 
1907 — W. T. Lowe. 
1907 (Spec.) — W. T. Lowe. 
1909 (Spec.) — W. T. Lowe. 
1911 — C. M. Sherrod. 
1915 — D. F. Green. 
1919— W. H. Smith. 
Representatives. — 

1819-20 — Lewis Dillahunty; Samuel Bing- 

1820-1 — Mathew Clay; Samuel Bingham. 
1821 (called) — Mathew. Clay; Samuel 

1821-3 — Mathew Clay; Hugh A. Anderson. 
1822-3 — Mathew Clay; Green K. Hubbard; 
Joseph Young. 

1823-4 — Zadoc McVay; Benjamin B. Jones; 
Joseph Young. 

1824-5 — Zadoc McVay; James McCord; 
John White. 

1825-6 — John P. Hickman; Joseph Coe; 
Thomas Coopwood. 

1826-7 — Zadoc McVay; Joseph Coe; 
Thomas Coopwood. 

1827-8 — Zadoc McVay; Ellison A. Daniel; 
Thomas Coopwood. 

1828-9 — David Wallace; W. Hodges; 
Thomas Coopwood. 

1829-30 — David G. Ligon; W. Hodges; 
Thomas Coopwood. 

1830-1 — Harvey Dillahunty; W. Hodges; 
Thomas Coopwood. 

1831-2 — D. Hubbard; J. T. Abernethy. 
1832 (called) — David Hubbard; John J. 
Ormond; John Stewart. 

1832-3 — David Hubbard; John J. Ormond; 
John Stewart. 

1832-3 — David Hubbard; John J. Ormond; 
John Stewart. 

1833-4 — John H. Lawson; John J. Ormond; 
John Stewart. 

1834-5 — James McCord: James Wallis; 
Hugh M. Rogers; Isaac N. Owen. 

1835-6 — John H. Lawson; William Re- 
neau; H. M. Rogers; H. L. Stevenson. 

1836-7 — Richard Puckett; William Re- 
neau; J. T. Abernethy; Micajah Priest. 


1837 (called)— Richard Puckett; William 
Reneau; J. T. Abernethy; Micajah Priest. 

1837-8 — Richard Puckett; H. M. Rogers; 
H. L. Stevenson; Micajah Priest. 

1838-9 — Tandy W. Walker; Samuel Hen- 
derson; Manoah B. Hampton; Micajah 

1839-40 — Tandy W. Walker; H. L. Steven- 
son; O. H. Bynum. 

1840-41 — Tandy W. Walker; James E. 
Sanders; Hartwell King. 

1841 (called) — Tandy W. Walker; James 
E. Sanders; Hartwell King. 

1841-2 — Tandy W. Walker; Denton H. Va- 
liant; Charles Baker. 

1842-3 — Tandy W. Walker; Denton H. Va- 
liant; David Hubbard. 

1843-4 — Leroy Pope Walker; Archibald 
Campbell; David Hubbard. 

1844-5 — Leroy Pope Walker; F. H. Jones; 
C. C. Gewin. 

1845-6 — Thomas M. Peters; David Hub- 

1847-8 — H. L. Stevenson; Joseph G. Evetts. 

1849-50— Richard O. Pickett; O. H. By- 





D. Hub 




2 — J. Armstrong; W. C. Graham. 
4 — Richard 0. Pickett; David Hub- 

6 — F. W. Sykes; W. M. Galloway. 
8 — James S. Clarke; Henry A. Mc- 

60 — William C. Sherrod; D. Hub- 

(lst called) — William C. Sherrod; 
(2d called) — F. W. Sykes; R. O. 

•2 — F. W. Sykes; R. O. Pickett, 
(called) — F. W. Sykes; R. O. Pickett. 
■3 — F. W. Sykes; R. O. Pickett 
(called) — F. W. Sykes; James S. 

■4 — F. W. Sykes; James S. Clarke, 
(called) — F. W. Sykes; James S. 

5 — F. W. Sykes; James S. Clarke. 
6 — A. E. Ashford; John M. Clarke. 
■7 — J. M. Warren, vice A. E. Ash- 

— Thomas Masterson; E. 
-70 — Thomas Masterson; I 

F. Jen- 
F. Jen- 

1870-1 — James B. Speake; Philip P. Gil- 

1871-2 — P. P. Gilchrist; J. B. Speake. 

1872-3 — Thomas Masterson; John S. Simp- 

1873 — Thomas Masterson; John S. Simp- 

1874-5 — O. D. Gibson; W. Gilmer. 

1875-6 — O. D. Gibson; W. Gilmer. 

1876-7 — W. B. McDonald; J. B. Speake. 

1878-9 — D. W. Boger; J. B. Clark. 

1880-1 — E. P. Martin; A. O. Pickett. 

1882-3— J. H. Branch; J. M. Clark 

1884-5— J. H. Branch; J. S. Gibson. 

1886-7 — J. R. NeSmith; I. S. Simpson. 

1888-9 — W. W. NeSmith; W. V. Curtis. 

1890-1— G. W. Thrasher; John Leigh. 

1892-3 — James E. NeSmith. 

1894-5— M. M. Summers. 

1896-7 — J. J. Abercrombie. 

1898-9 — Luther W. White. 

1899 (Spec.) — Luther W. White 

1900-01 — D. C. Almon. 

1903 — William Thomas Lowe. 

1907— C. M. Sherrod. 

1907 (Spec.) — C. M. Sherrod. 

1909 (Spec.) — C. M. Sherrod. 

1911— H. D. Lane. 

1915 — F. T. Neelv. 

1919— D. H. Bracken. 

References.— Toulmin, Digest (1823), index- 
Acts of Ala.; Brewer, Alabama, p. 306; Berney 
Handbook (1892), p. 305; Riley, Alabama as it 
is (1893), p. 40; Northern Alabama (1898), p 
66; Alabama, 1909 (Ala. Dept. of Ag. and Ind 
Bulletin 27), p. 147; 17. S. Soil Survey (1916)! 
with map; Alabama Landbook (1916), p. 97- 
Ala. Official and Statistical Reqister, 1903-1915 
5 vols., Ala. Anthropological Society, Handbook 
(1910) ; Geol. Survey of Ala., Agricultural Fea- 
tures of the State (1883); The Valley Regions 
of Alabama, parts 1 and 2 (1896, 1897), and 
Underground Water Resources of Alabama 

LAWYERS. One of the earliest laws of 
the Mississippi Territory was enacted in 1802 
and was devoted to a consideration of coun- 
selors and attorneys at law. This law pro- 
vided that no person should practice in the 
courts of the Territory without first obtain- 
ing a license from the governor. This pro- 
vision with reference to license was con- 
tinued in force until after the establishment 
ot the Alabama Territory, and until an act 
of December 16, 1819, when provisions for 
admission were adopted, whereby a license 
was required from the supreme court of the 

The laws of Alabama from the beginning 
have hedged attorneys or lawyers about with 
an atmosphere of dignity, character and 
trust. The law first above referred to pro- 
vided that no person convicted of a felonious 
crime should be licensed. Should such a 
person obtain a license, the judges were au- 
thorized to cancel it. 

The judges of the courts were given wide 
latitude in regulating the conduct of attor- 
neys, in the protection of the bench for mis- 
behavior or contempt on the part of attor- 
neys, and in safeguarding the interests of 
litigants through their representatives, the 
lawyers. The act of 1807, which is a re- 
vision of the act of 1802, provided that if 
the judges "from their own observation, de- 
tect any malpractice in the said courts, in 
any counsel or attorney of those courts, or 
if complaint in writing be made to them of 
such malpractice in the said courts, or in the 
county courts of any county" the offending 
party was to be summoned to show cause 
why proceedings should not be had against 

The relation of attorney to client was also 
safeguarded. If any suit was dismissed for 
the nonattendance or neglect of the attorney 



and without just and reasonable excuse, the 
court costs were to be taxed against him, and 
it was further provided that he should be 
liable for all damages that his client might 
sustain for such dismission, or any other 
neglect of his duty. Where an attorney 
should receive money for his client and re- 
fuse to pay it on demand, he was subject to 
a summary proceeding, and where an attor- 
ney authorized the sheriff to enter his en- 
dorsement upon a writ, in the event he should 
fail to make an appearance in the case, the 
sum of $25 was forfeited to the defendant. 
So serious was an appearance without author- 
ity deemed that he was subject to a forfeit 
of $2,000 to the defendant, and moreover 
liable to an action of a suit of damages at 
the suit of the party aggrieved. 

Officers were not permitted to appear as 
attorneys in cases in their courts. 

On the establishment of Alabama Terri- 
tory in 1817, the governor was authorized 
to license persons to practice as attorneys 
who possessed the requisite qualifications. 
Those attorneys who had been previously 
licensed by the governor of Mississippi Ter- 
ritory were also authorized to practice in 
the newly created territory without additional 
license. The manuscript records of the Ala- 
bama Territory contain the names of attor- 
neys licensed by Gov. William Wyatt Bibb. 

After the formation of the State, the legis- 
lature, December 16, 1819, adopted a new 
svstem with reference to the licensing and 
practicing of attorneys. That act provided 
that no person be admitted "as counselor or 
attorney at law unless he shall have obtained 
a license from the supreme court of this 
State." It was made the duty of the court 
when application was made by any person 
for license, "on his producing satisfactory 
evidence that he sustains a good moral char- 
acter, to examine or cause to be examined in 
open court the person so applying; and if 
after such examination it be the opinion of 
said court that he is duly qualified, it shall 
be the duty of the judges thereof to grant the 
license under their hands and seals, which 
shall be attested by the clerk of said court." 
The act saves the rights of attorneys thereto- 
fore commissioned by the governors of the 
Mississippi and Alabama Territories. 

The attorney was properly regarded as an 
officer of the court. He was required by this 
act to take an oath or affirmation in which 
he pledged himself to "honestly demean him- 
self in the practice of a counselor or attorney 
at law, and will execute my said office ac- 
cording with the best of my skill and abil- 
ities." This oath or affirmation was admin- 
istered in the presence of the court. 

Judges or justices of all courts, sheriffs 
and under sheriffs were prohibited from ap- 
pearing as an attorney in any court. Clerks 
and deputy clerks were prohibited from 
practicing as attorneys in the courts of which 
they were officers. 

By act of November 24, 182 0, a concession 
was made in favor of circuit judges in the 
Mississippi Territory or in Alabama, who 
were known to the judges of the supreme 

court to have presided as circuit judges in 
either the Territory or State, to receive a 
license without examination. 

Presumably for purposes of convenience, 
by act of June 14, 1821, it was made "law- 
ful for any two judges of the circuit court 
in this State, to grant licenses to attorneys 
to practice in the circuit or county courts," 
and by act of June 15, at the same session, 
judges or justices of the county courts who 
were regularly licensed attorneys were au- 
thorized to practice in the circuit courts of 
the counties of their residence, but in no 
other courts. 

In 1824, December 20, judges of the county 
courts regularly licensed were authorized to 
practice in all of the courts of the State, pro- 
vided that they shall not be absent from 
their own counties at the times appointed 
for holding courts on any return day required 
by law by them to hold or appoint. 

On January 25, 1828, it was made unlaw- 
ful for the judges of the several county courts 
to appear or practice as attorneys in any 
suit for or against any administrator, ex- 
ecutor, or guardian of the county whereof 
he is judge, and it was further provided that 
he should not appear or practice as an at- 
torney in any cause, matter, or suit for or 
against any public official in his official ca- 
pacity wherein it is the duty of such judge 
to take a bond for the performance of such 
trust or duty. 

The privileges of practice were extended by 
act of January 13, 1830, whereby it was pro- 
vided that any counselor or attorney resid- 
ing in the territory of Florida might practice 
in Alabama on the production of a certificate 
or license from such territory, and on taking 
the oath of attorneys in Alabama. This ac- 
tion was passed upon the principle of comity, 
the Florida authorities authorizing Alabama 
lawyers to practice in the courts of that terri- 
tory. By acts of 1835, 1836, and 1841, re- 
spectively, the same principle of comity was 
extended toward the lawyers of Mississippi, 
Georgia, and Florida. 

With the exceptions noted, as indicated by 
the dates of laws in 1828, 1830, 1835, 1836, 
and 1841, the territorial act of 1807 and 
the first state act of 1819 continued in force 
and operation as the law governing attor- 
neys in this State, and practice, etc., until 
1852, with the adoption of the code of that 

LEAD ORE. See Galena or Lead Ore. 

LEE COUNTY. Created by an act of the 

legislature of December 15, 1866. The terri- 
tory from which this county was formed was 
taken from portions of Chambers, Russell, 
Macon and Tallapoosa Counties. It has an 
area of 402,752 acres, or 629 square miles. 

The county was named in honor of Gen. 
Robert E. Lee, commander-in-chief of the 
Confederate Armies, and later president of 
the Washington and Lee University. 

Location and Physical Description. — Lee 
County lies along the eastern line of the state 
about midway north and south. It is bounded 



on the north by Chambers County, on the 
east by the Chattahoochee River, "which 
stream is here also the boundary between the 
state of Alabama and Georgia," and on the 
south by Russell County, and on the north- 
west, west and southwest by Tallapoosa 
County. This county is 41 miles in "extreme 
length," from east to west, and 19 miles in 
width from North to South, the boundary 
however is very irregular. 

The surface varies in elevations from 250 
to 82 feet, and from rough to hilly. It 
resembles a high rolling plateau which has 
been "badly dissected and eroded by stream 
action." The county is well watered, and 
there is a ridge which runs through Opelika 
which "forms the drainage divide." Osauip- 
pa, Halawachee, Wachoochee, and Wetumpka 
Creeks and the Chattahoochee River, drain 
the eastern part of the county, while Sou- 
gahatchee and Chewacla Creeks, together 
with their numerous branches and many small 
creeks drain the western portion. 

Lee county has two distinct physiographic 
divisions, each of which contains several soil 
types. The first which includes about two 
thirds of the county is within the meta- 
morphic region of the pre-Cambrian age. 
Among the rocks of this division are to be 
found hornblende gneiss, mica schists, gran- 
ite, quartzite, hornblende schists, and mica 
slate. Quartz veins are also noticeable. The 
red color seen in the soils of this division are 
due principally to the iron in the hornblende. 
The other division, which covers the south- 
ern third of the county "consists of sedimen- 
tary material of the LaFayette formation, 
which has been laid down as a marine de- 
posit on the much eroded surface of the 
older rocks." Sands, gravel, and yellow and 
reddish sandy clay characterize this forma- 
tion. The soils are a part of the Norfolk series, 
and in addition "small strips of Orangeburg 
sandy loam and small areas of Meadow" may 
be found. Eleven different types of soil pre- 
dominate through the county. Among the 
chief crops are cotton, corn, wheat, oats, 
sugar cane, potatoes, orchard fruits, melons, 
and grapes. Lime is made in large quanti- 
ties at the Chewacla Lime Works, near Jones- 
boro. Among the forest growth may be 
mentioned: short leaf pine, upland oaks, hick- 
ory, poplar, ash, maple, dogwood, gums and 

The annual average temperature is 67.6° 
F. The annual precipitation 4 8.5 inches, is 
fairly well distributed throughout the year. 

Aboriginal History. — Situated as the 
county is, in the northern section of the 
Lower Creek territory, along the headwaters 
of the Wetumpka or Little Uchee Creek, in 
the Waucoochee Valley and on the Chatta- 
hoochee River, are to be found many evi- 
dences of its former settlement. Many of its 
place names bear those of the Creeks. 
Among them are Waucoochee, Opelika, Loa- 
chapoka, Halawochee, Wetumpka, Chewacla. 
Sanguahatchee, Sawackahatchee and many 
others. Hu'li Taiga, a Lower Creek village, 
planted by Okfuski Indians was on Chatta- 

hoochee river. Big Halawockee Creek in the 
northeastern section of the county, very 
probably derives its name therefrom. Pin' 
Hoti or "Turkey town," an Upper Creek town, 
was located on the trail from Ninyaxa to 
Kawita. Tchuko 'Lako. a Lower Creek town 
settled by Okfuski Indians was on Chatta- 
hoochee river, believed to have been located 
near the mouth of the present Waucooche 
creek. A mound and extensive village site is 
found here. On the plantation of Mr. Pow- 
ledge, Sr., of Waucoochee is an extensive 
town site, possibly the location of Pin' Hoti. 
Some fine specimens of chipped objects and 
earthenware have been secured from this point. 
Witumka council house, noted on all the 
earlier maps, was situated just north of the 
present Crawford to Columbus turnpikes on 
the headwaters of what is locally called little 
Uchee Creek. Near the source of the main 
stream of Uchee Creek, in the southwestern 
section of the county, is the remains 
of an unidentified village. Along the 
river, extending all way from Phenix to 
Waucoochee Creek (known locally as Soap 
Creek) are found remains. On an island in 
the river about 9 miles above Phenix, burials 
and some fine pots have been noted. In 
T. 19 N., R. 27 E. on the Central of Georgia 
Railway, east of old Youngsboro formerly ex- 
isted a considerable workshop site. 

The country now included in Lee County 
was settled by whites many years before the 
county itself was established. The majority 
of the early settlers came from Georgia, and 
the Carolinas, but now the greater part of the 
rural population are negroes. 

Transportation facilities are good. The 
Western Railway of Alabama passes through 
the county and affords "excellent service." 
The Central of Georgia Railroad crosses the 
county, and a branch of this road runs north 
out of Opelika. The Chattahoochee valley 
Railroad, with about three miles of trackage 
in the county has as a terminal point Jester. 

County roads are in good condition with 
the exception of the hills, rocks and sand 
in many places. 

The chief market for the cotton and corn 
of the county is Opelika. Auburn is a good 
market for vegetables, and some cotton is 
sold at that place. West Point, and Colum- 
bus, Ga., afford also good markets for the 
crops of the farmers. 

The seat of justice is Opelika (q. v.). 

Agricultural Statistics. — From U. S. Census 

Farms and Farmers. 
Number of all farms, 3,869. 
Color and nativity of farmers: 
Native white, 1,295. 

Foreign-born white, . 

Negro and other nonwhite, 2,574. 
Number of farms, classified by size: 
Under 3 acres, 1. 

3 to 9 acres, 146. 
10 to 19 acres, 187. 
20 to 49 acres, 1,504. 
50 to 99 acres, 957. 


100 to 174 acres, 731. 
175 to 259 acres, 191. 
260 to 499 acres, 117. 
500 to 999 acres, 30. 
1,000 acres and over, 5. 

Land and Farm Area. 
Approximate land area, 404.480 acres. 
Land in farms, 318,199 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 191,535 acres. 
Woodland in farms, 96,711 acres. 
Other unimproved land in farms, 29,953. 

Value of Farm Property. 
All farm property, $6,076,170. 

Land, $3,429,474. 

Buildings, $1,343,356. 

Implements and machinery, $296,116. 

Domestic animals, poultry, and bees, 
Average values: 
All property per farm, $1,570. 

Land and buildings per farm, $1,234. 

Land per acre, $10.78. 

Domestic Animals (Farms and Ranges). 
Farms reporting domestic animals, 3,670. 
Domestic animals, value, $981,695. 
Cattle: total, 12,384; value, $204,230. 

Dairy cows only, 5,603. 
Horses: total, 1,773; value, $216,338. 
Mules: total, 3,575; value, $509,283. 

Asses and burros: total, . 

Swine: total, 10,624; value, $50,811. 
Sheep: total, 327; value, $808. 
Goats: total, 108; value, $225. 

Poultry and Bees. 
All poultry, 64,778; value, $23,621. 
Bee colonies, 1,343; value, $1,908. 

Farms Operated by Owners. 
Number of farms, 1,014. 

Per cent of all farms, 26.2. 
Land in farms, 133,643 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 70,403 acres. 
Land and buildings, $2,190,651. 
Farms of owned land only, 875. 
Farms of owned and hired land, 139. 
Native white owners, 696. 

Foreign-born white, . 

Negro and other nonwhite, 318. 

Farms Operated by Tenants. 
Number of farms, 2,840. 

Per cent of all farms, 73.4. 
Land in farms, 180,650 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 119,278 acres. 
Land and buildings, $2,479,479. 
Share tenants, 864. 
Share-cash tenants, 15. 
Cash tenants, 1,707. 
Tenure not specified, 254. 
Native white tenants, 585. 

Foreign-born white, . 

Negro and other nonwhite, 2,255. 

farms Operated by Managers. 
Number of farms, 15. 
Land in farms, 3,906 acres. 

Improved land in farms, 1,854 acres. 
Value of land and buildings, $102,700. 

Live Stock Products. 

Dairy Products. 

Milk: Produced, 1,134,559; sold, 62,456 gal- 

Cream sold, 4,780 gallons. 

Butter fat sold, . 

Butter: Produced, 383,111; sold, 82,358 

Cheese: Produced, . 

Dairy products, excluding home use of milk 
and cream, $97,973. 

Sale of dairy products, $37,313. 

Poultry Products. 
Poultry: Number raised, 142,581; sold, 

Eggs: Produced, 201,085; sold, 66,119 

Poultry and eggs produced, $79,862. 
Sale of poultry and eggs, $22,909. 

Honey and Wax. 
honey produced, 9,084 pounds. 
Wax produced, 179 pounds. 
Value of honey and wax produced, $997. 

Wool, Mohair, and Goat Hair. 
Wool, fleeces shorn, 41. 

Mohair and goat hair, fleeces shorn, . 

Wool and mohair produced, $23. 

Domestic Animals Sold or Slaughtered. 
Calves — Sold or slaughtered, 338. 
Other cattle — Sold or slaughtered, 2,720. 
Horses, mules, and asses and burros — Sold, 

Swine — Sold or slaughtered, 6,232. 
Sheep and goats — Sold or slaughtered, 36. 
Sale of animals, $61,040. 
Value of domestic animals slaughtered, 


Value of All Crops. 
Total, $2,728,680. 
Cereals, $402,903. 
Other grains and seeds, $42,823. 
Hay and forage, $35,865. 
Vegetables, $151,256. 
Fruit and nuts, $36,319. 
All other crops, $2,059,514. 

Selected Crops (Acres and Quantity). 
Cereals: total, 40,716 acres; 453,178 

Corn, 34,235 acres; 351,999 bushels. 

Oats, 6,317 acres; 99,720 bushels. 

Wheat, 149 acres; 1,305 bushels. 

Rye, 15 acres; 149 bushels. 

Kafir corn and milo maize, . 

Rice, . 

Other grains: 

Dry peas, 5,118 acres; 23,675 bushels. 

Dry edible beans, 52 acres; 309 bushels. 

Peanuts, 43 acres; 669 bushels. 
Hay and forage: total, 1,649 acres; 2,160 


All tame or cultivated grasses, 654 acres; 
811 tons. 

Wild, salt, and prairie grasses, 82 acres; 
90 tons. 

Grains cut green, 635 acres; 726 tons. 

Coarse forage, 278 acres; 533 tons. 
Special crops: 

Potatoes, 92 acres; 6,777 bushels. 

Sweet potatoes and yams, 1,085 acres; 
86,891 bushels. 

Tobacco ; 35 pounds. 

Cotton, 79,261 acres; 24,411 bales. 
Cane — sugar, 523 acres; 5,077 tons. 

Syrup made. 78,935 gallons. 
Cane — sorghum, 87 acres; 342 tons. 

Syrup made, 4,505 gallons. 

Fruits and Xuts. 
Orchard fruits: total, 65,829 trees; 35,491 

Apples, 10,895 trees; 7,358 bushels. 

Peaches and nectarines, 51,085 trees; 24,- 
340 bushels. 

Pears, 2,786 trees; 3,381 bushels. 

Plums and prunes, 772 trees; 289 bushels. 

Cherries, 117 trees; 21 bushels. 

Quinces, 106 trees; 38 bushels. 

Grapes, 954 vines; 9,848 pounds. 
Tropical fruits: total, 1,452 trees. 

Figs, 1,383 trees; 31,521 pounds. 

Oranges, . 

Small fruits: total, 4 acres; 3,980 quarts. 

Strawberries, 4 acres; 3,738 quarts. 
Nuts: total, 6.17. trees; 5,882 pounds. 

Pecans, 501 trees; 3,072 pounds. 

Labor, Fertilizer and Feed. 
Labor — Farms reporting, 1,602. 

Cash exrended, $129,035. 

Rent and board furnished, $22,011. 
Fertilizer — Farms reporting, 3,103. 

Amount expended, $182,445. 
Feed — Farms reporting, 1,544. 

Amount expended, $84,318. 
Receipt from sale of feedable crops, $6,738. 

Domestic Animals Not on Farms. 
Inclosures reporting domestic animals, 708. 
Value of domestic animals. $69,851. 
Cattle: total, 628; value, $17,053. 

Number of dairy cows, 441. 
Horses: total, 262; value, $35,603. 
Mules, and asses and burros: total, 101; 

value, $13,585. 
Swine: total, 626; value, $3,559. 
Sheep and goats: total, 11; value, $51. 

Post Offices and Towns. — Revised to July 
1, 1919, from U. S. Official Postal Guide. 
Figures indicate the number of rural routes 
from that office. 
Auburn — 3 Opelika (ch) — 9 

Blanton — 2 Phoenix — 1 

Gold Hill Salem — 3 

Loachapoka — 1 Smith's Station — 1 

Population. — Statistics from decennial pub- 
lications of the U. S. Bureau of the Census. 
White Negro Total 

1870 10,151 11.597 21,748 

1880 12,217 15,041 27,259 

1890 12,197 16,497 28,694 

1900 12,759 19,067 31,826 

1910 13,224 19,643 32,867 

1920 32,821 

Delegates to Constitutional Conventions. — • 
1-867 — John C. Meadors; Samuel Blandon 
(colored) . 

1875 — George P. Harrison; William J. Sam- 

1901 — George P. Harrison; Emmett C. 
Jackson; Noah P. Renfro. 

Senators. — 

1868 — J. L. Pennington. 

1871-2 — J. L. Pennington. 

1872-3 — J. L. Pennington. 

1873 — J. L. Pennington. 

1874-5— J. T. Harris. 

1875-6— J. T. Harris. 

1876-7 — Geo. P. Harrison, Jr. 

1878-9 — Geo. P. Harrison, Jr. 

1880-1 — Geo. P. Harrison. 

1882-3 — Geo. P. Harrison, Jr. 

1884-5 — W. J. Samford. 

1886-7 — W. J. Samford. 

1888-9 — J. T. Harris. 

1890-1 — John T. Harris. 

1892-3 — W. J. Samford. 

1894-5 — W. J. Samford. 

1896-7 — W. J. Boykin. 

1898-9 — W. J. Boykin. 

1899 (Spec.) — W. J. Boykin. 

1900-01 — G. P. Harrison. 

1903 — George Paul Harrison. 

1907 — E. H. Glenn. 
' 1907 (Spec.) — E. H. Glenn. 

1909 (Spec) — E. H. Glenn. 

1911 — N. P. Renfroe. 

1915 — W. J. Price. 
; 1919 — B. T. Phillips. 

Representatives . — 

1871-2 — Sheldon Toomer; J. M. Simms. 

1872-3 — Samuel G. Jones; Thomas B. Ped- 

1873 — Samuel G. Jones; Thomas B. Peddy. 

1874-5 — m. J. Greene; T. R. Leslie. 

1875-6 — M. J. Greene; T. R. Leslie. 

1876-7 — L. Booker; Thomas L. Kennedy. 

1878-9 — William Lowther. 

1880-1— R. H. Harris; W. W. Wright. 

1882-3 — W. J. Samford; E. H. Baker. 

1884-5 — H. C. Armstrong; J. T. Holland. 

1886-7 — O. Kyle; J. J. L. Allen. 

1888-9 — W. D. Kyle; W. A. McElvey. 

1890-1 — W. M. Bass; E. C. Jackson. 

1892-3 — W. D. Kyle; E. C. Jackson. 

1894-5 — E. C. Jackson; L. R. Wheeless. 

1896-7 — R. B. Barnes; E. H. Baker. 

1898-9 — John T. Harris;' L. C. Jones. 

1899 (Spec.) — John T. Harris; L. C. 

1900-01 — T. L. Kennedy; L. C. Jones. 

1903 — Cleopas Rhett McCrary; Levi Rob- 
ertson Wheeless. 

1907 — T. D. Power; R. C. Smith. 

1907 (Spec.) — T. V. Power; R. C. Smith. 

1909 (Spec.) — Warren Williams; R. C. 

1911 — E. C. Jackson; L. R. Wheeless. 


1915 — W. T. Andrews; Dr. C. T. Yar- 

1919 — J. A. Albright; W. T. Andrews. 
References. — Toulmin, Digest (1823), index; 
Acts of Ala.. Brewer, Alabama, p. 315; Berney, 
Handbook (1892), p. 306; Riley, Alabama as it 
is (1893), p. 110; Northern Alabama (1888), 
p. 143; Alabama. 1909 (Ala. Dept. of Ag. and 
Ind., Bulletin 27), p. 150; U. S. Soil Survey 
(1907), with map; Alabama Landbook (1916), 
p. 98; Ala. Official and Statistical Register 
(1903-1915), 5 vols., Ala. Anthropological So- 
ciety, Handbook (1910); Geol. Survey of Ala., 
Agricultural Features of the State (1883); The 
Valley Regions of Alabama, parts 1 and 2 (1896, 
1897), and Underground Water Resources of 
Alabama (1907). 

cial Days. 

LEETH MOUNTAIN. A small mountain, 
or hill, on the southeast side of an unsym- 
metrical, anticlinal valley dividing it from 
Little Mountain (q. v.), in Etowah County. 
A seam of red iron ore 8 to 10 inches thick 
crops out near the top of the mountain and 
has been quite extensively worked. Leeth 
Mountain proper begins in the SW. 14 , NE. 14 
sec. 2, T. 11, R. 7 E., and runs to the south- 
west for about 1 mile. 

References. — McCalley, Valley regions of 
Alabama, pt. 2, Coosa Valley (Geol. Survey of 
Ala., Special report 9, 1897), p. 232. 

LEGISLATURE. The legislative depart- 
ment of the State government, in which is 
vested all legislative power of the State. It 
consists of a senate and a house of repre- 
sentatives; and it meets quadrennially at the 
State capitol in the senate chamber, and in 
the hall of the house, on the second Tues- 
day in January next succeeding the election. 
However, it may meet on "such other day 
as may be prescribed by law." It can not 
sit longer than fifty days. In the event it 
should for any cause become impossible or 
dangerous for it to meet or remain at the 
capitol for its sessions, the governor may 
convene the body, or remove it after it has 
convened, to some other place, or may desig- 
nate some other place for the sittings of the 
respective houses, or either of them, as neces- 
sity may require. 

The pay of members of the legislature is 
four dollars per day, and ten cents per mile 
in going to and returning from the seat of 
government, to be computed by the nearest 
usual route traveled. 

The fifty days have been construed to 
"mean fifty legislative working days, exclu- 
sive of the Sundays, and other days upon 
which the senate and house concur in refus- 
ing to sit by joint resolutions of adjourn- 
ment. — Moog vs. Randolph, 77 Alabama, 597; 
Sayre vs. Pollard, 77 Alabama, 608; ex parte 
Cowart, 92 Alabama, 94. 

It has likewise been held that the members 
of the legislature are entitled to draw their 
per diem on Sundays, holidays, and other 
days while the two houses are in recess. — 

Ex parte Mathews, 5 2 Alabama, 51; ex parte 
Pickett, 24 Alabama, 91. 

Members of the legislature, expelled for 
corruption, are not thereafter eligible to 
either house, and punishment for contempt 
or disorderly behavior is not a bar to an in- 
dictment for the same offense. Members, in 
all cases except treason, felony, violation of 
their oath of office, and breach of the peace, 
are privileged from arrest during their at- 
tendance on the sessions of their respective 
houses, and in going to and returning there- 
from. For any speech or debate in either 
house, they are not to be questioned in any 
other place.— Constitution, 1901, Sec. 56. 

"No senator or representative shall, during 
the term for which he shall have been elect- 
ed, be appointed to any office of profit in this 
state, which shall have been created, or the 
emolument of which shall have been in- 
creased during such term, except such offices 
as may be filled by election by the people." 
— Sec. 59. 

"No person convicted of embezzlement of 
public money, bribery, perjury, or other in- 
famous crime shall be eligible to the legisla- 
ture or capable of holding any office of trust 
or profit in this state." — Sec. 60. 

When the legislature is called in special 
session there can be no legislation upon sub- 
jects other than those designated in the proc- 
lamation of the governor calling such ses- 
sion, except by vote of two-thirds of each 
house. Special sessions are limited to thirty 

The president of the senate and the speaker 
of the house receive six dollars for each day's 
attendance; members receive four dollars for 
each day's attendance. The Code indicates 
the number of miles for which members are 
allowed pay in going to and returning from 
the seat of government and their respective 
counties. The amount paid for mileage is 
ten cents per mile each way. In the event a 
member, in consequence of sickness, is de- 
tained after leaving home and going to the 
seat of government, or is unable to attend the 
house or senate after he arrives there, he is 
entitled to the same pay as an attending 

Members of the legislature who may be 
required by joint resolution or resolution of 
either house to serve on the committee dur- 
ing any recess of the legislature, and all 
clerks whom the committee is authorized by 
law to employ, receive four dollars per day 
while engaged on the work assigned the 
committee. The members receive the same 
mileage as they receive for attending the 
legislature. — Code 1907. 

When the interval between a regular and 
a called session, or between a called and reg- 
ular session is not more than four days, no 
mileage is allowed. 

The compensation due to officers and mem- 
bers is certified to the auditor by the presi- 
dent and speaker respectively, who on such 
certificate, issues his warrant therefor on the 
state treasurer. 

House. — The subordinate officers of the 
house of representatives are a clerk, an as- 


Lawyer, editor, orator, leader of Secession movement, and Confederate Commissioner 

to Europe 


sistant clerk, an engrossing clerk, an enroll- 
ing clerk, a doorkeeper, and an assistant 
doorkeeper, all to be elected by the house of 
representatives at the beginning of the ses- 
sion of the legislature, or at such other time 
as may be neeessary. They hold their offices 
until the close of the session, with the ex- 
ception of the clerk and doorkeeper, who hold 
their offices until their successors are qual- 
ified. Any one of the foregoing officers may 
be removed for cause. The assistant clerk, 
engrossing clerk, and enrolling clerk, and 
their assistants, are under the control and 
direction of the clerk of the house. 

The clerk receives six dollars per day, to- 
gether with mileage for attendance upon the 
organization of the next session of the legis- 
lature. The assistant clerk receives six dol- 
lars a day. The engrossing clerk of the 
house and the enrolling clerk of the house 
receive five dollars a day. The doorkeeper 
and the assistant doorkeeper receive four 
and a half dollars each a day. The door- 
keeper is charged with the duties of a ser- 
geant at arms, and is required to keep order 
in the lobby and galleries. — Code 920-921- 

The subordinate employees of the house 
consist of a reading clerk, six pages, three 
messengers, and committee clerks not to ex- 
ceed ten in number, and clerical assistants 
to the clerk of the house not to exceed 
eleven in number at any one time, and cler- 
ical assistants to the enrolling clerk of the 
house not to exceed fifteen in number at any 
one time, and clerical assistants to the en- 
grossing clerk of the house not to exceed nine 
in number at any one time, two servants and 
one doorkeeper of the sallery. The door- 
keeper of the gallery, reading clerk, pages 
and messengers of the house are appointed 
by the speaker. The servants of the house 
are selected by the doorkeeper of the house 
with the approval of the speaker. The cler- 
ical assistants to the clerk of the house and 
to the engrossing and enrolling clerks shall 
be selected by them respectively, with the 
approval of the speaker. Committee clerks 
are selected according with the rules or res- 
olutions adopted by the house at the begin- 
ning of each session. 

• All employees hold office at the pleasure 
of the house, and their employment does not 
extend beyond the session of the legislature. 
Following is the compensation of the sub- 
ordinate employees of the legislature: 

Per day 

Comparing clerk of the senate $4.00 

Senate and house committee clerks. . . . 4.00 

Assistants to secretary of senate 4.00 

Assistants to clerk of the house 4.00 

Senate engrossing clerk 4.00 

Senate enrolling clerk 4.00 

House engrossing clerk 4.00 

House enrolling clerk 4.00 

(The six last named receive pay for the 
time they are actually employed only.) 
Pages and messengers for each house. .$2.00 
Senate gallery doorkeeper 3.50 

Per day 

House gallery doorkeeper 3.50 

Senate and house servants 2.5 

House reading clerk 6.00 

It is made the duty of the legislature to 
examine, through a joint committee of six 
members, the offices of the state auditor and 
state treasurer. 

In the execution of its task, the committee 
is to examine the accounts and vouchers of 
such offices as to all monies received into and 
paid out of the state treasury during the four 
preceding fiscal years, comparing the war- 
rants drawn with the several laws by author- 
ity of which they purport to be drawn, to 
examine into the accounts and books of such 
offices and to count the money on hand at the 
time of the examination. 

The committee submits a written report to 
the respective houses, setting forth the 
amount of money received into and paid out 
of the treasury during the four preceding 
fiscal years on warrants drawn on the auditor, 
specifying the warrants drawn in their opin- 
ion without authority, and their reasons 
therefor, the time when the treasurer in 
office entered upon his duties, the amount of 
money received by him up to the time of the 
examination, the balance in the treasury on 
the first day of November preceding, and at 
the time of such examination, and the con- 
dition of such offices and the correctness of 
all books and accounts required to be kept 
therein. — Code 9 06-9 08. 

Special Session. — Under the several con- 
stitutions, provision is made for convening 
the legislature in extraordinary session. Un- 
til the adoption of the constitution of 1901, 
this could only be accomplished on the call 
of the governor, who was required to specify 
the reasons for the call in his proclamation. 

The constitution of 1819 provided that the 
governor "may, by proclamation, on extraor- 
dinary occasions, convene the general assem- 
bly at the seat of government, or at a differ- 
ent place, if that shall have become, since 
last adjournment, dangerous from an enemy 
or from contagious disorders; in case of dis- 
agreement between the two houses, with re- 
spect to the time of adjournment, he may ad- 
journ them to such time as he shall think 
proper, not beyond the day of the next (an- 
nual) meeting of the general assembly." This 
has been continued with slight verbal change, 
and now stands as section 122 of the consti- 
tution of 1901, with this significant addition, 
"and he shall state specifically in such procla- 
mation each matter concerning which the ac- 
tion of that body is deemed necessary." 
When convened, "there shall be no legisla- 
tion upon subjects other than those desig- 
nated in the proclamation of the governor 
calling such session, except by a vote of two- 
thirds of each house." Special sessions are 
limited to 30 days. 

In the history of the State there has never 
been such a disagreement between the two 
houses, with respect to the time of adjourn- 
ment, as to require executive intervention. 

During the existence of the State from 



1819 to 1916, the legislature has been con- 
vened in called, special, or extraordinary ses- 
sion on twelve occasions. 

The first of these held June 4 to 18, 1821, 
was necessitated by the failure of the pre- 
ceding session to make the apportionment of 
senators and representatives in accordance 
with the numeration previously made in 
1820, under Section 9 of Article 3 of the 
Constitution of 1819. 

The 2nd session convened just preceding 
the regular session in 1832, and was in ses- 
sion from November 5 to 15. The legislators 
were called together in order to amend the 
law providing for the election of presidential 
electors. The original act of December 26, 
1823, continued in force by act of December 
27, 1827, provided that every ticket should 
not contain more than five names, and that if 
there should be any such, the first five names 
on these tickets should be considered the only 
persons voted for. It was believed by many 
of the leaders that unless this act were re- 
pealed Alabama would be denied her full 
complement of votes at the approaching pres- 
idential election. The legislature promptly 
amended the act in question and at the same 
time proceeded with other important public 
business, including the passage of an act to 
establish a branch of the State Bank in the 
Tennessee Valley. 

The 3rd called session, June 12-30, 1837, 
was made necessary because of the financial 
crisis through which the State was then pass- 
ing. The message of Gov. C. C. Clay, June 
13, 1837, contains a thorough review of con- 
ditions. The State Bank had suspended spe- 
cie payments and all business was in a greatly 
disordered condition. An act was passed to 
extend the indebtedness of all individuals to 
the bank, and to legalize the suspension of 
specie payments. In other ways, and as far 
as legislative action could make it possible, 
steps were taken to relieve the depression, 
and to stimulate the public spirit. The ac- 
tion of the special session served to restore 
confidence in a limited degree, but it failed 
to permanently meet the difficulties which 
were fundamental. In the message of the 
governor above referred to, among other 
things, he stated that: 

"The universal object appeared to be to de- 
vise a means of alleviating pecuniary distress 
without impeding the regular operations of 
the laws, or of the judicial tribunals." Con- 
tinuing he says, "I trust it will ever be the 
proud boast of Alabama, that whatever dan- 
gers may threaten, or evils overtake us, her 
honor and integrity shall forever remain un- 

The president of the United States by proc- 
lamation of March 17, 1841, convened Con- 
gress in extraordinary session. Because of 
the expiration of the terms of the members 
or several representatives in Congress from 
Alabama on the 4th of March of that year, 
and since an election did not under the laws 
then in force take place until the first Mon- 
day in August, long after the extraordinary 
session had convened, it was necessary to 

make a change in the laws on the subject. 
The governor, therefore, convened the legis- 
lature in April, and it remained in session 

from to . An act was passed, 

dated April 27, 1841, providing for a special 
election for electing members to the 27th 
Congress, to be held in May, 1841. In the 
same act, it was provided that at the general 
election to be held in August, 1841, "the 
managers at election precincts in the State 
shall inquire of each voter, as he hands in 
his ticket, whether he is for or against the 
general ticket system, in the election of mem- 
bers of Congress from this State; and that he 
endorse or cause to be endorsed on the back 
of each ticket, for the 'general ticket,' or 
'district system,' as the voter may answer; 
and that return thereof be made at the time 
and in the manner herein provided." 

The 5th, 6th, 7th, 8th and 9th called ses- 
sions were all held during 1861, 1862, 1863 
and 1864. Two were held in 1861, the 5th 
from January 14 to February 9, and the 6th 
from October 28 to November 11, 1861. 
Others were held as follows: 7th, October 
27-November 10, 1862; 8th, August 17-29, 
1863; and 9th, September 25, 1864. The 
business of these sessions was substantially 
the same as that transacted in the regular 
sessions. With the exception of the one held 
in January-February, 1861, they immediately 
preceded, if they did not actually run into the 
regular sessions, held in the fall of each 

House of Representatives. — The house of 
representatives is the popular branch of the 
legislature. .From 1819 to the adoption of 
the second amendment to the constitution in 
1846, members were elected every year in 
August. Sec. 4 of Article 3 provided that: 

"No person shall be a representative, un- 
less he be a white man, a citizen of the 
United States, and shall have been an inhab- 
itant of this state two years next preceding 
his election, and the last year thereof a resi- 
dent of the county, city, or town, for which 
he shall be chosen, and shall have attained 
the age of twenty-one years." 

Sec. 9 of Article 3 of the constitution 
provided that at its first meeting in 1819, 
and in the years 1820, 1823, 1826, and every 
six years thereafter, an enumeration of the 
inhabitants of the State should be made, and 
the whole number of representatives should 
after the first session held after making such 
enumeration, be fixed by the general assem- 
bly and apportioned among the several coun- 
ties, cities, or towns entitled to separate rep- 
resentation "according to their respective 
numbers of white inhabitants," and the ap- 
portionment when made, should "not be sub- 
ject to alteration, until after the next census 
should be taken." 

The same section provided that the house 
of representatives should consist of not less 
than forty-four, nor more than sixty mem- 
bers, "until the number of white inhabitants 
shall be one hundred thousand; and after 
that event, the whole number of representa- 
tives shall never be less than sixty, nor more 


than one hundred," with a proviso that every 
county should be entitled to at least one rep- 

After assembling, the house of representa- 
tives chooses its speaker and its other officers, 
and "each house shall judge of the qualifica- 
tions, elections, and returns, of its own mem- 
bers; but a contested election shall be deter- 
mined in such manner as shall be directed 
by law." A majority of each house consti- 
tutes a quorum. Each house determines the 
rules of its own proceedings. 

Sec. 16 of Article 3 expressly provided that 
each house should have "all other powers 
necessary for a branch of the legislature of 
a free and independent state." 

The two sessions of the territorial legisla- 
ture were held in St. Stephens. Under the 
act of March 3, 1817, creating the territory, 
the governor was required "immediately 
after entering into office," to convene at the 
town of St. Stephens, designated as the seat 
of government for the territory until other- 
wise provided, "such members of the legis- 
lative council and house of representatives, 
of the Mississippi Territory, as may then be 
the representatives from the several coun- 
ties within the limits of the territory to be 
established by this act." The legislature 
when convened was given the same powers as 
that possessed by the Mississippi Territory. 

In conformity with the requirements of 
the act, Gov. Bibb convened the legislature. 
The members met at St. Stephens on January 
19, 1818. The only member of the legisla- 
tive council of the Mississippi Territory left 
in the Alabama section was James Titus, of 
Madison County. On organization, Mr. Titus 
went through all the formality of selecting 
himself as president, electing a secretary, a 
doorkeeper, and otherwise performing all of 
the functions of a legislative bodV. Gabriel 
Moore of Madison County was chosen speaker 
of the house of representatives, which con- 
tained thirteen members, representing the 
Counties of Washington,, Madison, Baldwin, 
Clarke, Mobile, Monroe, and Montgomery. 
Much business was transacted at this session. 
Thomas Estin was elected territorial printer. 
Under the enabling act, the legislature was 
required to select six persons and certify them 
to the President, from which he should select 
three members of the next legislative council. 
The six names were George Phillips, Joseph 
Howard, Mathew Wilson, Joseph P. Kennedy, 
John Gayle, and Reuben Saffold. Messrs. 
Phillips, Gayle, and Saffold were subsequently 

One of the most pressing subjects demand- 
ing attention was the formation of new coun- 
ties. The Counties of Cotaco (now Morgan), 
Franklin, Blount, Cahaba (now Bibb), Dal- 
las, Conecuh, Lawrence, Limestone, Marengo, 
Marion, Shelby, and Tuscaloosa were organ- 
ized. Several changes were made in the 
boundaries of Baldwin, Madison, Mobile, and 

The second session of the same legislature 
convened at St. Stephens on November 2, and 
continued through November 21, 1818. 

The population of the territory increased 
so rapidly that Congress, March 2, 1819, 
passed an enabling act for the admission of 
the State into the Federal Union. Provision 
was made for a constitutional convention to 
be held in Huntsville, in July, 1819. That 
body assembled, adopted a constitution, and 
certified it to Congress. In anticipation of 
favorable action by Congress, and in accord- 
ance with the requirements of the conven- 
tion, an election was held throughout the 
State on the third Monday and the day fol- 
lowing in September, 1819, for the election 
of governor, a representative in Congress, 
members of the legislature, clerks of courts, 
and sheriffs of the counties. The convention 
also adopted a basis of representation, giving 
to each one of the twenty-two counties one 
senator, and apportioning the representatives 
in accordance with the population. 

In accordance with section 29 of article 3 
of the constitution, the first legislature of 
the State, then designated as the "general 
assembly," convened on the fourth Monday in 
October, the 25th of that month, and in the 
town of Huntsville, which was known as the 
temporary seat of the State government. 
Thomas Bibb was elected president of the 
first session of the State senate, and James 
Dellet, of Monroe County, speaker of the 
house of representatives. 

The next session was held in Cahaba, No- 
vember 6 to December 21, 1820. Under sec- 
tion 9, article 3 of the constitution, the legis- 
lature was required at its first meeting and 
also in 1820, 1823, and 1826, and every six 
years thereafter, to cause an enumeration to 
be made of all the inhabitants of the State 
The section further provided that the whole 
number of representatives should at the first 
session held after making every such enu- 
meration, be fixed by the legislature and ap- 
portioned among the several counties, cities, 
or towns entitled to representation according 
to their representative number of white in- 
habitants, and that such apportionment when 
made, should not be subject to alteration 
until after the next census. It was further 
provided that the house of representatives 
should consist of not less than 44 nor more 
than 60 members until the number of white 
inhabitants should be 100,000, and that after 
that event, the whole number of representa- 
tives should never be less than 60 nor more 
than 100, with the proviso that every county 
should be entitled to at least one representa- 

By section 10, it was provided that at the 
first session after making every such enu- 
meration, the legislature should fix by law the 
whole number of senators, and should divide 
the State into the same number of districts, as 
nearly equal as to white inhabitants as pos- 
sible, each of which districts was to be en- 
titled to one senator and no more, with the 
proviso that the whole number of senators 
should never be less than one-fourth nor 
more than one-third of the whole number of 

By section 11, when a senatorial district 



was composed of two or more counties, the 
counties of which such district consisted 
should not be entirely separated by any coun- 
ty belonging to another district, and no 
county should be divided in forming a dis- 

Under section 13, to be considered in con- 
nection with the provisions of sections 9 and 
10 above noted, the senators chosen accord- 
ing to the apportionment under the census 
of 1826 were required to be divided by lot 
into three classes; the seats of senators of 
the first class to be vacated at the end of the 
first year, those of the second at the expira- 
tion of the second year, and those of the third 
at the expiration of the third "year, in order 
that one-third might be annually chosen 
"and a rotation thereby kept up perpet- 

Under section 8 of the Schedule, the sev- 
eral counties were assigned the number of 
representatives to which they would be en- 
titled until after the first enumeration should 
be made, and an apportionment prepared 

The reasons prompting the provision as to 
the several reapportionments provided under 
censuses to be taken in 1820, 1821, 1823, and 
1826, were due to the constant additions be- 
ing made to the population of the State, the 
opening up of new sections to settlement, the 
creation of new counties, and the aleration 
of county boundaries. With wise foresight, 
the constitution makers adopted an elastic 
provision in order to take care of the con- 
tingencies just referred to, and to prevent 
inequality in representation in the legislative 
body after the population of the State had 
become more or less stable. 

The legislature of 1820 failed to make 
provision for the enumeration contemplated. 
This failure caused considerable irritation 
throughout the State, and necessitated an 
extraordinary session, which was held in 
June, 1821. The message of Gov. Thomas 
Bibb severely arraigned those responsible for 
the necessity of convening the extra session. 
The message also contained a history of the 

Notwithstanding the legislature was con- 
vened for the specific purpose of correcting 
their failure at the preceding session, they 
were still unwilling to meet their duty, and 
they adjourned after passing many laws, but 
nothing in reference to apportionment. The 
few papers of the period indicate that there 
was considerable politics of a petty nature in 
the failure. It would appear that some sec- 
tions of the State would be deprived of their 
large representation by reason of the change 
which would be brought about by apportion- 
ment, and representatives from these sections 
were unwilling to act. 

The legislature which convened in 1821 on 
December 14, passed a reapportionment act, 
and at the same time organizing the State 
into senatorial districts. 

Acts ol the Legislature. — By act of March 
9, 1915, it is provided that the head of each 
separate act shall be printed, the governor's 
number on the left, the house or senate num- 

ber on the right, with the name of the author. 
The same act provides that the public printer 
shall issue an edition of 1,250 copies of each 
act, separately printed in sheet form, octavo 
size, and where more than four pages, shall 
be stitched, stapled, or pasted, so as not to 
make a pamphlet of more than 6x9 in size. 
The heading shall be Alabama General Laws, 
second line, Regular Session, etc. 

Among other provisions for distribution, 
the Department of Archives and History is 
given 250 copies for use in its exchanges and 
for local distribution. — Gen. Acts, 1915, p. 

Senate. — The senate is popularly known 
as the upper house of the legislature, al- 
though, as a matter of fact, there is no dis- 
tinction whatever in the dignity of the two 
branches. Senators are chosen by the qual- 
ified electors for terms of three years. This 
provision obtained until the adoption of the 
amendment of 1850, when the term was 
changed to four years. 

The constitution of 1819, sec. 13, article 
3, provided that the senators chosen under 
the apportionment made after the census of 
1826 should be divided by lot into three 
classes. The seats of the senators of the 
first class were to be vacated at the expira- 
tion of the first year, those of the second 
class at the expiration of the second year, 
and those of the third class at the expiration 
of the third year, "so that one-third may be 
annually chosen thereafter, and a rotation 
thereby kept up perpetually." 

The second constitutional amendment, 
adopted in 1846, provided that the 13th sec- 
tion should be stricken out, and that at the 
first" meeting of the general assembly after 
the adoption of these amendments, the sen- 
ators were to be divided into two classes, as 
nearly equal as may be. "The seats of the 
senators of the first class shall be vacated at 
the expiration of the two next ensuing years, 
so that one-half may be biennially chosen 
thereafter, and a rotation thereby kept up 

The third amendment adopted in 1850 pro- 
vided that the 13th section of the third arti- 
cle as amended should be stricken out, and 
the following inserted: 

"Senators shall be chosen for the term of 
four years; yet at the general election after 
every new apportionment, (sic) elections 
shall be held anew in every senatorial dis- 
trict; and the senators elected, when con- 
vened at the first session, shall be divided by 
lot into two classes, as nearly equal as may 
be; the seats of those of the first class shall 
be vacated at the expiration of two years, 
and those of the second class at the expira- 
tion of four years, dating in both cases from 
the day of election, so that one-half may be 
biennially chosen, except as above provided." 

Capitol v. Courthouse Legislature, 1872. — 
The elections of 1872 came on, with Thomas 
H. Hearndon, of Mobile, representing the 
Democrats, pitted against David P. Lewis, 
Republican. The latter was victorious, to- 
gether with his full ticket. In both houses 
of the legislature, however, the Democrats 


had a majority by the returns. This situation 
developed a contest of great bitterness. 
George E. Spencer, Republican incumbent, 
decided to succeed himself as senator, which 
would have been impossible with a Demo- 
cratic legislative body. When the legisla- 
ture came to organize, the Democrats met at 
the capitol, but the Republican members 
declined to sit with them. Two houses were 
therefore organized. Democratic organiza- 
tion was effected with 19 senators and 64 
representatives, giving each house more than 
a quorum. The Republican body had 14 
senators and 4 6 representatives with certifi- 
cates of election, of which there were 4 ne- 
groes in the .senate and 27 in the house. 
Both houses were without a quorum. To 
make up the necessary number, they decided 
to seat several defeated candidates. The 
Democratic organization counted the votes, 
and declared all the regularly elected Repub- 
lican State officials entitled to their posi- 
tions. The lieutenant governor so declared 
elected, Col. Alexander McKinstry, after be- 
ing declared elected, took the oath of office, 
and as presiding officer of the senate ex 
officio, he at once recognized the courthouse 
legislature. Gov. Lindsey had recognized the 
capitol legislature, but Gov. Lewis, the newly 
elected Republican governor, recognized the 
courthouse body. 

Feeling ran high, and for a time it was 
feared there would be a personal encounter 
between the respective houses or their parti- 
sans. Federal troops were called for, and 
although four years had passed since Con- 
gress had declared Alabama in the Union 
and entitled to all the privileges of state- 
hood under the Congressional plan, the troops 
were stationed on the vacant lot adjoining 
the capitol, with no other purpose than in- 
timidation. Gov. Lewis appealed to the at- 
torney general of the United States, who sub- 
mitted a proposal for settlement. This plan 
involved the assembling of both bodies at the 
capitol, and a temporary organization was to 
be formed in the usual way. The Democrats 
whose seats were contested, but who had cer- 
tificates of election, were to be excluded, 
while the Radical contestants were to be 
seated. A permanent organization was then 
to be formed. The senate was similarly or- 
ganized, the regularly elected Democrats ex- 
cluded. The Democrats foresaw difficulty 
unless they acceded to the suggestions made 
by Atty. Gen. Williams. The plan eliminated 
all the Democrats whose seats were contested, 
both in the house and the senate, with the 
exception of one in the latter. 

In the meantime. Senator George E. Spen- 
cer had been elected as his own successor by 
the courthouse assembly. The single contest 
in the senate above referred to involved the 
seat of the senator from Conecuh and Bullock 
Counties, and until it was disposed of, the 
Republicans could not safely count on the 
eontrol of both houses on joint ballot. By 
a trick in which the pair between a Repub- 
lican and a Democratic senator was broken 
by the former, the contest was decided ad- 
versely to the Democratic member from Cone- 

cuh, and Miller, his opponent, was admitted. 
The Democratic body had elected Dr. Fran- 
cis W. Sykes to the senate, and in due course 
he contested the seat of McKinstry, but to 
no avail. 

After the contest and after it had become 
apparent to the Democrats that further con- 
test would be useless, the reorganized legis- 
lature, with a Republican majority, contin- 
ued its sessions until adjournment, April 23, 
1873. The journals of the courthouse as- 
sembly were printed, together with the pro- 
ceedings after reorganization, as the official 
record of the legislature of 1872-73. The 
journals of the rival, or capital body, were 
not printed until 1874, when they were bound 
with the proceedings of the session for No- 
vember-December, 1873. 

Hon. Hilary A. Herbert in 1890, writing of 
conditions in Alabama in Why the Solid 
South? said of this contest: 

"No Anglo-Saxon legislative body had ever 
yet so tamely bowed its neck to the yoke of a 
master; unless it was some similarly situated 
southern state, but the once proud State of 
Alabama was now prostrate in the dust. Still 
another move was necessary to re-elect Sen- 
ator Spencer. A Democratic member of the 
house, socially inclined, after indulging in 
liquor with some Republican friends the night 
before, was too sick to attend the election 
next day; and so Mr. Geo. E. Spencer went 
to the United States Senate for six years 
more. The member claimed that his liquor 
was drugged." 

References. — Herbert, Why the Solid South? 
pp. 57-59; Fleming, Civil War and Reconstruc- 
tion in Alabama, pp. 754-761; Owen, "Bibliog- 
raphy of Alabama" in Report American Histori- 
cal Association, 1897, p. 943. 

Contested Elections in the Legislature. — 

Provision was made for contests of the seats 
of senators and representatives in the leg- 
islature. Minute regulations are given as to 
tlfe preparation of statements, security for 
costs must be given, notices of contest issued, 
and the taking of testimony. — Code, 189 7, 
vol. 1, sees. 463, 464, 465. 

After the testimony is taken, the commis- 
sioners are required to return their commis- 
sions, together with the depositions, to the 
clerk issuing same, who in turn must securely 
enclose all papers, endorsing on thepi the 
title or subject matter of contest, and direct 
the package to the presiding officer of that 
branch of the legislature before which the 
contest should be tried. 

During the history of the legislature, com- 
paratively few contests have been instituted. 
The most notable was that of Miller v. Mar- 
tin, which arose in the senate, 1872-73, in 
which William Miller, jr., contested the seat 
of E. W. Martin, the Democratic incumbent. 
The contest came on and was a part of the 
contest between the Democrats and Repub- 
licans for the control of the legislature of 
that year. Particulars of the general con- 
test will be found supra. Martin was clearly 
entitled to his seat as the senator from the 
31st senatorial district, composed of Butler 



and Conecuh Counties. Senator Pennington, 
chairman of the committee, reported in favor 
of Miller, while William H. Parks and W. H. 
Edwards reported in favor of Martin. Di- 
vested of all question or element of partisan- 
ship, the report of the minority ought clearly 
to have been sustained. However, by reason 
of the trick above mentioned, Mr. Miller was 
given the contest. 

At the same session of the senate, a con- 
test arose between James Taylor Jones, Dem- 
ocrat, and John W. Dureen. The committee 
declared in favor of Senator Dureen, and he 
was seated. 

Deaths in the Legislature. — During the 
sessions of the senate and house of repre- 
sentatives, in the coming together of large 
numbers of men at varying seasons and from 
different localities, it would not be unnat- 
ural for several to be taken by death. So 
far as records are available, the number is 
not large, however. 

At tne s^ssiin of 1847-48, Philip S. Glover, 
a member of the house of representatives 
from Sumter County, died while on duty in 
the city of Montgomery. A joint resolution 
was adopted March 2, 1848, authorizing John 
A. Winston, state senator, to draw the 
amounts that were due him at the time of 
his death, and to "apply so much of it as may 
be necessary to discharge his board and phy- 
sician's bill." 

By act of February 7, 1852, the governor 
was authorized to have erected over the grave 
of Hon. John R. Larkin, late a member of the 
legislature, a suitable tombstone with an 
appropriate inscription thereon, and he was 
authorized to draw on the state treasurer for 
the amount necessary to pay the cost thereof. 
— Acts of Ala., 1851-52, p. 97. 

At the session of 1872-73, R. L. Bennett, 
representative from Hale County, died on De- 
cember 7, 1872. Suitable joint resolutions 
were adopted, expressive of the sympathy of 
the members with his family. — Senate Jour- 
nal, 1872-73, p. 27. 

Hon. Francis L. Pettus died March 6, 1901, 
while still a member of the legislature of 
190 0-01. His death was on the day imme- 
diately following the final adjournment of 
session. He was a member of the house of 
representatives from Dallas County, which 
he had often represented both in the house 
and in the senate. At the time of his 
death he was serving as speaker. He was 
buried in Selma. The legislature having ad- 
journed, could take no formal action, but 
Gov. William J. Samford issued a proclama- 
tion in which he recited the many fine qual- 
ities of the deceased. 

Hon. William L. Martin, representative In 
the legislature from Montgomery County, 
1907 died near the close of the spring ses- 
sion,' on March 3, 1907. He was ill but a 
short time with pneumonia. At a special 
election, May 7, 1907, Peter B. Mastin was 
elected to succeed Mr. Martin. Hon. A. H. 
Carmichael, of Colbert, was elected to suc- 
ceed Mr. Martin as speaker of the house. 
Mr. Martin was buried in the city of Mont- 
gomery. The legislature, July 17, 1907, 

adopted a joint resolution, requesting the 
governor to pay the funeral expenses out of 
the contingent fund, and to report his action 
to the legislature after the recess. 


Held at St. Stephens, temporary seat of 
Territorial Government: 

1st session, 1st General Assembly, Alabama 
Territory. Legislative Council: pp. 56, iT. 
House: pp. — . Acts: pp. 116, Iv. 

2d session, 1st General Assembly, Nov. 2 
to Nov. 21. Legislative Council: pp. — . 
House: 120. Acts: pp. 79, 3. 

Held at Huntsville, temporary seat of State 

1st session, Oct. 25 to Dec. 17, 1819. Sen- 
ate: pp. 203. House: pp. 203. Acts: pp. 

President — Thomas Bibb, Limestone Coun- 

Speaker — James Dellett, Claiborne, Mon- 
roe County. 

Held at Cahawba, first State Capital: 

2d session, Nov. 6 to Dec. 21, 1820. Sen- 
ate: pp. 131. House: pp. 132. Acts: pp. 

President — Gabriel Moore, Huntsville, 
Madison County. 

Speaker — George W. Owen, Mobile, Mobile 

Called session, June 4 to 18, 1821. Sen- 
ate: pp. 62. House: pp. — . Acts: pp. 
43 (1). 

3d session, Nov. 5 to Dec. 19, 1821. Sen- 
ate: pp. 168. House: pp. 240. Acts: pp. 

President — John D. Terrell, Pikeville, Ma- 
rion County. 

Speaker — James Dellet, Claiborne. 

4th session, Nov. 18, 1822, to Jan. 1, 1823. 
Senate: pp. 168. House: pp. 176. Acts: 
pp. 148. 

President — John D. Terrell, Pikesville. 

Speaker — Arthur P. Bagby, Claiborne. 

5th session, Nov. 17 to Dec. 31, 1823. 
Senate: pp. 172. House: pp. 192. Acts: pp. 

President — Nicholas Davis, "Walnut 
Grove," Limestone County. 

Speaker — William I. Adair, Huntsville. 

6th session, Nov. 15 to Dec. 25, 1824. Sen- 
ate: pp. 151. House: pp. 172. Acts: pp. 

President — Nicholas Davis, "Walnut 

Speaker — Samuel Walker, Huntsville. 

7th session, Nov. 21, 1825, to Jan. 14, 

1826. Senate: pp. 168. House: pp. 230. 
Acts: pp. 114. 

President — Nicholas Davis, "Walnut 

Speaker — William Kelly, Huntsville. 

Held at Tuscaloosa, second State Capital. 
8th session, Nov. 20, 1826, to Jan. 13, 

1827. Senate: pp. 156. House: pp. 279. 
Acts: pp. 124. 

President — Nicholas Davis, "Walnut 


Speaker — Samuel W. Oliver, Sparta, Cone- 
cuh County. 

9th session, Nov. 18, 1827, to Jan. 15, 1828. 
Senate: pp. 195. House: pp. 289. Acts: pp. 
176 (6). 

President — Nicholas Davis, "Walnut 

Speaker — Samuel W. Oliver, Sparta. 

10th session, Nov. 17, 1828, to Jan. 29, 

1829. Senate: pp. 222. House: pp. 272. 
Acts: pp. 108. 

President — Levin Powell, Tuscaloosa, Tus- 
caloosa County. 

Speaker — Clement C. Clay, Sr.. Huntsville. 
11th session, Nov. 16, 1S29, to Jan. 20, 

1830. Senate: pp. 214. House: pp. 296. 
Acts: pp. 95. 

President — Levin Powell, Tuscaloosa, Tus- 
caloosa County. 

Speaker — John Gayle, Greensboro, Greene 
(now Hale) County. 

12th session, Nov. 15, 1830, to Jan. 15, 

1831. Senate: pp. 198. House: pp. 274. 
Acts: pp. 80. 

President — Samuel B. Moore, Scottsboro, 
Jackson County. 

Speaker — James Penn, Huntsville. 

13th session, Nov. 21, 1831, to Jan. 21, 

1832. Senate: pp. 207. House: pp. 246. 
Acts: pp. 120. 

President — James Jackson. Florence. Laud- 
erdale County. 

Speaker — James Penn, Huntsville. 

Called session, Nov. 5 to 15, 1832. Senate: 
pp. 40. House: pp. 48. Acts: pp. 13, 11. 

President — Levin Powell, Tuscaloosa. 

Speaker — Samuel W. Oliver, Sparta. 

14th session, Nov. 19, 1832, to Jan. 12, 

1833. Senate: pp. 188. House: pp. 224. 
Acts: pp. 146. 

15th session, Nov. 17. 1833. to Jan. 17, 

1834. Senate: pp. 184. House: pp. 246. 
Acts: pp. 205. 

President — John Erwin, Greensboro, Greene 

Speaker — Samuel W. Oliver. Sparta. 

16th session, Nov. 17, 1834, to Jan. 10, 
1»35. Senate: pp. 194. House: pp. 197. 
Acts: pp. 160. 

President — Francis S. Lyon, Demopolis, Ma- 
rengo County. 

Speaker — Samuel W. Oliver. Sparta. 

17th session, Nov. 16, 1835, to Jan. 9, 
1836. Senate: pp. 168. House: pp. 209. 
Acts: pp. 184. 

President — Samuel B. Moore, Carrollton, 
Pickens County. 

Speaker — James W. McClung, Huntsville. 

18th session, Nov. 7 to Dec. 23, 1836. Sen- 
ate: pp. 128. House: pp. 200. Acts: pp. 

President — Hugh McVay, Florence. 

Speaker — Arthur P. Bagby, Claiborne. 

Called session, June 12 to June 30, 1837. 
Senate: pp. 40. House: pp. 91. Acts: pp. 
42, 11. 

President — Jesse Beane, Cahaba, Dallas 

Speaker — James W. McClung. Huntsville. 

19th session, Nov. 6 to Dec. 25, 1837. Sen- 

ate: pp. 136. House: pp. 208. Acts: pp. 

20th session, Dec. 3, 1838, to Feb. 2, 1839. 
Senate: pp. — . House: pp. 296. Acts: pp. 

President — James M. Calhoun, Cahaba, Dal- 
las County. 

Speaker — James W. McClung, Huntsville. 

21st session. Dec. 2, 1839, to Feb. 5, 1840 
Senate: pp. 336. House: pp. 376. Acts: pp. 

President — Green P. Rice, Morgan Coiintv. 
Speaker — John D. Pheland, Tuscaloosa. 
22d session. Nov. 2, 1840, to Jan. 4. 1841. 
Senate: pp. — . House: pp. 335. Acts: pp. 

President — J. L. F. Cottrell. Havneville, 
Lowndes County. 

Speaker — Samuel Walker, Huntsville; Rob- 
ert A. Baker, Franklin County. 

Called session, April, 1841, Senate: pp. . 

House: pp. — . Acts: pp. 24. (Reprinted 
in photo-facsimile by Statute Law Book Co. 
Washington, D. C, 1895; price, $5.00). 

President — Nathaniel Terry, Athens, Lime- 
stone County. 

Speaker — David Moore, Huntsville. 

23rd session, Nov. 1 to Dec. 31, 1841. Sen- 
ate: pp. — . House: pp. 356. Acts: pp. 182. 

24th session, Dec. 5, 1842, to Feb. 15, 1843 
Senate: pp. 387. House: pp. 472. Acts: pp. 

President — Nathaniel Terry, Athens. 
Speaker — John Erwin, Greensboro. 
25th session, Dec. 4, 1843, to Jan. 17, 1844 
Senate, pp. 286. House: pp. 292. Acts: pp. 

President — Nathaniel Terry, Athens. 

Speaker — Andrew B. Moore, Marion Perry 

26th session, Dec. 2, 1844 to Jan. 27, 1845. 
Senate: pp. 320. House: pp. 403. Acts: pp. 
247. Journals not indexed prior to this ses- 

President — Nathaniel Terry, Athens. 

Speaker — Andrew B. Moore, Marion. 

27th session, Dec. 1, 1845, to Feb. S, 1846 
Senate: pp. 299. House: pp. 507. Ac's- dp 
280. ' 

President — John A. Winston, Gainesville. 
Sumter County. 

Speaker — Andrew B. Moore, Marion. 

Held at Montgomery, third and present 

1st biennial session, Dec. 6, 1847, to Mar. 
6. 1848. Senate: pp. 432. House: pp. — . 
Acts: pp. 493. 

President — John A. Winston, Gainesville. 

Speaker — LeRoy Pope Walker, Florence. 

2d biennial session, Dec. 12, 1849, to Feb. 
13, 1850. Senate: pp. 501. House: pp. 559. 
Acts: pp. 544. 

President — Dennis Dent, Tuscaloosa. 

Speaker — LeRoy Pope Walker, Florence. 

3rd biennial session, Nov. 10, 1851 v to Feb. 
10, 1852. Senate: pp. — . House: pp. 586. 
Acts: pp. 575. 

President — Charles McLemore, Lafayette. 
Chambers County. 



Speaker — John D. Rather, Decatur, Morgan 

4th biennial session, Nov. 14, 1853, to Feb. 
18, 1854. Senate: pp. 342. House: pp. 563. 
Acts: pp. 534. 

President — William B. Martin, Jackson- 
ville, Calhoun County. 

Speaker — William Garrett, Rockford, Coosa 

5th biennial session, Nov. 12, 1855, to Feb. 
15, 1856. Senate: pp. 372. House: pp. 648. 
Acts: pp. 388. 

President — Benjamin C. Yancey, Centre, 
Cherokee County. 

Speaker — Richard W. Walker, Florence. 

6th biennial session, Nov. 9, 1857, to Feb. 
8, 1858. Senate: pp. 356. House: pp. 607. 
Acts: pp. 468. 

President — James M. Calhoun, Cahaba. 

Speaker — Crawford M. Jackson, Coosada, 
Autauga County. 

7th biennial session, Nov. 14, 1859, to Feb. 
27, 1860. Senate: p«. 411. House: pp. 543. 
Acts: pp. 724. 

President — John D. Rather, Decatur. 

Speaker — Alexander B. Meek, Mobile. 

1st called session, Jan. 14 to Feb. 9, 1861. 
Senate: pp. 115. House: pp. 198. Acts: pp. 
161, 11. 

2d called and list annual session, Oct. 2 8 to 
Nov. 11, 1861, and Nov. 11 to Dec. 10, 1861. 
Senate: pp. 247. House: pp. 296. Acts: pp. 
303 (I). 

President — Robert M. Patton, Florence. 

Speaker — Walter H. Crenshaw, Greenville, 
Butler County. 

Called and 2d annual session, Oct. 27 to 
Nov. 10, 1862, Nov. 10 to Dec. 9, 1862. Sen- 
ate: pp. 238. House: pp. 273. Acts': pp. 226. 

President — James M. Calhoun, Cahaba. 

Speaker — Walter H. Crenshaw, Greenville. 

Called and 4th annual session, Sept. 27 to 
Nov. 18, 1864. Senate: pp. — . House: pp 
— . Acts: pp. 218. 

President — Thomas A. Walker, Jackson 

Speaker — Walter H. Crenshaw, Greenville 

Session, Nov. 20, 1865, to Feb. 23, 1866 
Senate: pp. 352. House: pp. 450. Acts: pp 

President — Walter H. Crenshaw, Greenville 

Speaker — Thomas B. Cooper, Centre, Chero 
kee County. 

Session, Nov. 12, 1866, to Feb. 19, 1867 
Senate: pp. 415. House: pp. 509. Acts: pp 

President — Walter H. Crenshaw, Green- 

Speaker — Thomas B. Cooper, Centre. 

Sessions, July 13 to Aug. 12, Sept. 16 to 
Oct. 10. Nov. 2 to Dec. 3, 1868. Senate: pp. 
482. House: pp. 493. Acts: pp. 663. 

Presidents — Andrew J Applegate, Lieuten- 
ant Governor, ex-officio, Mobile. 

Speaker — George F. Harrington, Mobile. 

Session, Nov. 15, 1869, to Mar. 3, 1870. 
Senate: pp. 476. House: pp. 584. Acts: pp. 

President — Robert N. Barr, A. J. Apple- 
gate, Lieut. Governor. 

Speaker — George F. Harrington, Mobile. 

Session, Nov. 21, 1870, to Mar. 9, 1871. 
Senate: pp. 373. House: pp. 609. Acts: 
pp. 367. 

President — E. H. Moren, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor, Centreville, Bibb County. 

Speaker — J. P. Hubbard, Troy, Pike 

Session, Nov. 20, 1871, to Feb. 26, 1872. 
Senate: pp. 591. House: pp. 685. Acts: pp. 

President — E. H. Moren, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor, Centreville. 

Speaker — J. P. Hubbard, Troy. 
. Session, Nov. 18. 1872, to April 23, 1873. 
Senate: pp. 739. House: pp. 976. Acts: pp. 
636, 11. 

President — Alexander McKinstry, Lieuten- 
ant Governor, Mobile. 

Speaker — Lewis E. Parsons, Talladega. 

This was known as the "Court-House" as- 
sembly. The Journals of its rival, the "Capi- 
tol" body, were not printed until 1874, when 
they were bound with the next succeeding 
title, .viz: Senate, Nov. 18 to Dec. 17, 1872: 
pp. 1-102, House: pp. 275-386. 

Session, Nov. 17 to Dec. 16, 1873. Senate: 
pp. 320. House: pp. 274. Bound with these, 
respectively, are the Journals of the "Capi- 
tol," Senate and House, 1872-73. See pre- 
ceding title. Acts: pp. 247, 11. 

Session, Nov. 16, 1874, to Mar. 22, 1875. 
Senate: pp. 685. House: pp. 800. Acts: pp. 
745 (1). 

President — R. F. Ligon, Lieutenant Got- 
ernor, Tuskegee, Macon Co. 

Speaker — D. C. Anderson, Mobile. 

Session, Dec. 28, 1875, to Mar. 8, 1876. 
Senate: pp. 721, 11. House: pp. 767. Acts: 
pp. 463 (I). 

President — R. F. Ligon, Lieutenant Gov- 
ernor, Tuskegee. 

Speaker — D. C. Anderson, Mobile. 

Session, Nov. 14, 1876, to Feb. 9, 1877. 
Senate: pp. 560. House: pp. 764. Acts: pp. 

President — Rufus W. Cobb, Helena, Shelby 

Speaker — Newton Clements, Tuscaloosa. 

Session, Nov. 12, 1878, to Feb. 13, 1879. 
Senate: pp. 666. House: pp. 907. Acts: pp. 

President — William G. Little, Sumter 

Speaker — David Clopton, Montgomery. 

Session, Nov. 9, 1880, to Mar. 1, 1881. 
Senate: pp. 757. House: pp. 964. Acts: 
pp. 538, 11. 

President — John D. Rather, Tuscumbia, 
Colbert County. 

Speaker — N. H. R. Dawson, Selma, Dallas 

Session, Nov. 14, 1882, to Feb. 23, 1884. 
Senate: pp. 820. House: pp. 957. Acts: 
pp. 720. 

President — George P. Harrison, Jr., Ope- 
lika, Lee County. 

Speaker — Wilbur F. Foster, Tuskegee. 

Session, Nov. 11, 1884, to Feb. 17, 1885. 



Senate: pp. S88. House: pp. 1045. Acts: pp. 

President — Thomas Seay, Greensboro, Hale 

Speaker — H. Clay Armstrong, Auburn, Lee 

Session, Nov. 9, 1886, to Feb. 28, 1887. 
Senate: pp. 1037. House: pp. 1391. Acts: 
pp. 1096. 

President — William J. Samford, Opelika. 
Speaker — Thomas G. Jones, Montgomery. 
Session, Nov. 13, 1888, to Feb. 28, 1889. 
Senate: pp. 797. House: pp. 1300. Acts: pp. 

President — A. C. Hargrove, Tuscaloosa. 
Speaker — C. C. Shorter, Eufaula, Barbour 

Session, Nov. 11, 1890, to Feb. 18, 1891. 
Senate: pp. 908. House: pp. 1300. Acts: pp. 
1509 (I), 11. 

President— A, C. Hargrove, Tuscaloosa. 
Speaker — -N\ N. Clements, Tuscaloosa. 
Session, Nov.--i5, 1892, to Feb. 21, 1893. 
Senate: pp. 1015. House: pp. 1513. Acts: 
pp. 1270. 

President- — J. C. Compton, Selma. 
Speaker — F. L. Pettus, Selma. 
Session, Nov. 13, 1894, to Feb. 18, 1895. 
Senate: pp. 993. House: pp. 1211. Acts: 
pp. 1328. 

President — F. L. Pettus, Selma. 
Speaker- — Thomas H. Clark. Montgomery. 
Session, Nov. 10, 1896, to Feb. 18, 1897. 
Senate: pp. 1451. House: pp. 1442. Acts: 
pp. 1611 (I). 

President — A. D. Sayre, Montgomery. 
Speaker — N. N. Clements, Tuscaloosa. 
Session, Nov. 15, 1898, to Feb. 23, 1899. 
Senate: pp. 1889. House: pp. 1554, 11. Gen- 
eral Acts: pp. 301. Local Acts: pp. 1903. 

President — R. M. Cunningham, Ensley, Jef- 
ferson County. 

Speaker — Charles E. Waller. Greensboro. 
Special Session, May 2, 1899, to May 17, 
1899, 13 days. Senate: pp. 67. House: pp. 
70. Acts: pp. 30, I. 

Session, Nov. 13, 1900, to March 5, 1901. 
Senate: pp. 1538. House: pp. 2075, II. 
General Acts: pp. 279. Local Acts: pp. 

President — William D. Jelks, Eufaula. 
Speaker — F. L. Pettus, Selma. 
Session, Jan. 13 to Feb. 28, 1903, and 
Sept. 1 to Oct. 3, 1908, 60 days. Senate: 
pp. 2055. House: pp. 2488. General Acts: 
pp. 646. Local Acts: pp. 891. 

President — R. M. Cunningham, Ensley. 
cer — A. M. Tunstall, Greensboro. 

Jan. 8 to March 6, 1907, and July 
9 to Aug. 7, 1907. Senate: Vol. i, pp. 1239; 
Vol. ii, pp. 1241-2131. House: Vol. i, pp. 
2031, vol. ii, p. 2033-4362. General Acts: 
pp. 967. Local Acts: pp. 948. 

President — Henry D. Gray, Lieut.-Gov., 
Birmingham, Jefferson County. E. Perry 
Thomas, Pres. pro tem, Eufaula. 

Special session, Nov. 7 to Nov. 23, 1907, 
13 days. Senate: pp. 349. House: pp. 479. 
General Acts: pp. 211. Local Acts: pp. 72. 
Special Session, July 27, to Aug. 24, 1909. 

House: pp. 973. 

2 2 days. Senate: pp 
Acts: pp. 455. 

Session, Jan. 10 to April 14, 1911. Senate: 
Vol. i, pp. 1207; vol. ii, pp. 1209-2325. 
House: vol. i, pp. 1535; vol. ii, pp. 1537-2862. 
General Acts: pp. 768, Local Acts: pp. 398. 

President — Walter D. Seed, Lieutenant 
Governor, Tuscaloosa, Hugh Morrow, Presi- 
dent, pro tem, Birmingham. 

Speaker — E. B. Almon, Tuscumbia. 

Session, Jan. 12, to September 25, 1915. 
Senate: Vol. i, pp. 1840; vol. ii, pp. 1841-4236. 
House: vol. i, pp. 2288; vol. ii, pp. 2289. 
General Acts: pp. 1043, Local Acts: pp. 501. 

President — Thomas E. Kilby, Lieut.-Gov., 
Anniston, Calhoun County; Thomas L. Bul- 
ger, Pres. pro tem, Dadeville, Tallapoosa 

Speaker — A. H. Carmichael, Tuscumbia. 

Session, Jan. 14 to Sept. 27, 1919. Senate: 
Vol. I, pp. 1246; vol. II, pp. 1251-2574. 
House: vol. I, pp. 1192; vol. II, pp. 1195-2907 
General Acts: pp. 1227-1. Local Acts: pp. 

President — Nat. L. Miller, Lieut-Gov., Bir- 
mingham, Jefferson County. T. J. Bedsole, 
Pres. pro tem, Thomasville, Clarke County. 

Speaker — Henry P. Merritt, Tuskegee. 

Session, Sept. 14 to Oct. 2, 1920. Senate: 
— . House: — . General and Local Acts: pp. 

President — Nat. L. Miller, Lieut.-Gov., Bir- 
mingham, Jefferson County. T. J. Bedsole, 
Pres. pro tem, Thomasville, Clarke County. 

Speaker — S. A. Lynne, Decatur, Morgan 

natural family, Leguminosae, some trees and 
shrubs and many herbs are to be found in 
Alabama. The most important belonging to 
field crops are alfalfa, beans, clovers, cow- 
peas, Iespedeza, melilotus, peas, peanuts, soy- 
beans, velvet beans, and vetch. The settle- 
ment of the State brought with it the intro- 
duction and use of many of these, and there 
was hardly a farm or plantation without 
them. Inasmuch as they were not classed 
with the staple crops, no records are pre- 
served, but the agricultural periodicals in the 
fifties discuss them all, with the exception of 
soybeans and velvet benns, both of which 
were brought in after 1865. 

Legumes have two values. They are par- 
ticularly rich in protein, and afford fine feed 
for farm animals; and they possess in a pre- 
eminent degree the power of drawing, in their 
growth, free nitrogen from the air. A record 
at the Alabama Experiment Station at Au- 
burn shows the production of 105.5 pounds 
of nitrogen from hairy vetch, 143.7 pounds 
from crimson clover, and 26 pounds from 
rye, the last named being a non-leguminous 

See Grasses and Forage Crops; Peanuts; 
Soy Bean; Velvet Bean. 

References. — Duggar, Agriculture for South- 
ern schools (1908), pp. 87, 169, and Southern 
field crops (1911), p. 154; Hunt, Forage and 
fiber crops in America (1911), pp. 121 et seq.; 
Wilcox, Farmer's cyclopedia of agriculture 



(1911), p. 516-518; and Bailey, Cyclopedia of 
American agriculture (1907), vol. 2, pp. 391- 

LEIGHTON. Post office and incorporated 
town, in the eastern part of Colbert County, 
at the base of the Cumberland Hills, 6 miles 
west of Towne Creek, and on the Southern 
Railway, 11 miles east of Tuscumbia, and 
15 miles southeast of Florence. Altitude: 
569 feet. Population: 1888 — 500; 1900 — 
506; 1910 — 540. It was incorporated Feb- 
ruary 13, 1891, and adopted the municipal 
code of 1907, in May, 1916. The corporate 
limits include 1 square mile. The town owns 
its school building and a jail, and has 1% 
miles of concrete sidewalks. Its tax rate is 
5 mills, and it has no bonded indebtedness. 
It has a branch of the Tennessee Valley Bank 
of Decatur. The Leighton News, a Demo- 
cratic weekly established in 1890, is published 
there. Its industries are 2 cotton ginneries, 
a gristmill, a sawmill and lumber yard, and 
woodworking shops. It is the location of 
the Colbert County High School. 

The first settlers were the Leigh, Robert- 
son, Robinson, Kumpe, Abernathy, McGregor, 
Gargis, Wilson, Kernachan, Downs, Deloney, 
Galbraith, Peden, Landers, Rand, King, Mad- 
din, Johnson, Stanley and McGehee families. 
The ornithologist, Frederick W. McCormick, 
was born in Leighton. In 1891, he published 
a work on "Birds of Colbert County, Ala- 

References— Brewer, Alabama (1872), pp. 
187-189; Northern Alabama (1888), pp. 103- 
105; Polk's Alabama gazetteer, 1888-9, p. 463; 
Alabama Official and Statistical Register, 1915; 
The Leighton News, circa, 1903-1904. 

LEMONS. See Fruits. 

LETOHATCHIE. A village and P. O. in 
Lowndes County, on the Louisville and Nash- 
ville. R. R. It is modern, dating from the 
establishment of a railway station at that 
point in the decade prior to 1860. It doubt- 
less received its name from the creek in the 
vicinity, by the same name, known as Arrow 
Creek, that is, lita, "arrow," hatche, "creek." 

Reference. — Manuscript data in the Alabama 
Department of Archives and History. 

ALABAMA RURAL. An organization com- 
posed of affiliated rural letter carriers, and 
of State wide membership. The 1920 Con- 
vention was held in Montgomery on July 4. 

F. A. Reynolds, Minter, is president, with 
F. D. Duncan, secretary, Honoraville. 

This association is not connected with the 
American Federation of Labor. 

References. — Mss. data in Alabama Depart- 
ment Archives and History. 

ALABAMA (Rural). An affiliated associa- 
tion of rural letter carriers, connected with 
American Federation of Labor, and entirely 

separate from the Alabama Rural Letter Car- 
riers Association, which see. The president 
is Julius Merritt, Dothan. 

References. — Mss. data in Alabama Depart- 
ment Archives and History. 

LIBRARIES. The free, public, and school 
libraries in Alabama are: 
Abbeville, Third District Agricultural School 

Gladstone H. Yeuell, Librarian. 
Alabama City, Howard Gardner Nichols Mem- 
orial Library. 
Albertville, Seventh District Agricultural 

Anniston, Carnegie Library, 

Anne Van Ness Blanchet, Librarian. 
Athens, Athens College. 

Athens, Eighth District Agricultural School. 
Auburn, Alabama Polytechnic Institute, 

Mary E. Martin, Librarian. 
Bessemer, Carnegie Library, 

Mrs. W. T. Warlick, Librarian. 
Birmingham, Public Library, 
L. W. Josselyn, Director. 
Lila May Chapman, Vice-Director. 
Avondale Branch, 

Mrs. J. D. Ellis, Librarian. 
Booker T. Washington Branch, 

Erline Driver, Librarian. 
Central High School, 

Mrs. Sadie A. Maxwell, Librarian. 
Ensley Branch, 

Louise Roberts, Librarian. 
Ensley High School, 

Mrs. J. B. Messer, Librarian. 
East Lake Branch, 

Martha Attaway, Librarian. 
Woodlawn Branch, 

Pearl Sabdifer, Librarian. 
West End Branch, 

Mrs. M. F. Johnston, Librarian. 
East Lake, Howard College, 

Marie Bost, Librarian. 
Birmingham-Southern College, 
Lillian Gregory, Librarian. 
Blountsville, Ninth District Agricultural 

Brewton, Intercollegiate Institute. 
Brundidge, Pike County High School. 
Citronelle, Public Library, 

Miss Mary B. Carothers, Librarian. 
Daphne, State Normal School, 

Ursula Delchamps, Librarian. 
Decatur, Carnegie Library, 

Louise Leadingham, Librarian. 
Dothan, Public Library, 

Sue Malone, Librarian. 
Eufaula. Carnegie Library, 

Mrs. W. E. Barron, Librarian. 
Evergreen, Second District Agricultural 
Louise Thomas, Librarian. 
Florence, State Normal School, 

Mrs. Mary Inge Hoskins, Librarian. 
Southern Library Association, 

Mrs. G. H. Smith, Acting Librarian. 
Fairhope, Public Library, 

Mrs. Lydia J. N. Comings, Librarian. 
Gadsden. Carnegie Library, 
Lena Martin, Librarian. 


Geneva, Public Library. 

Mrs. William K. Kenan. Librarian. 
Hamilton, Sixth District Agricultural School, 

Edgar Ellen Wilson, Librarian. 
Huntsville, Carnegie Library, 

Mrs. J. C. Darwin, Librarian. 
Jackson, First District Agricultural School. 
Livingston Public Library, 

Minnie Simmons, Librarian. 
State Normal College, 

Mrs. Moon, Acting Librarian. 
Marion, Marion Institute, 

R. G. Craig, Librarian. 
Judson College, 

Fannie Pickett, Librarian. 
Mobile Public Library, 

Mrs. E. C. Harris, Librarian. 
Mobile, Y. M. C. A. Library. 
Montevallo, Alabama Technical Institute and 
College for Women, 

Fannie Taber, Librarian. 
Montgomery Carnegie Library, 

Laura Elmore, Librarian. 
Alabama Supreme Court Library, 

J. M. Riggs, Librarian. 
Alabama Department of Archives and 

Mrs. Marie B. Owen, Director. 

Mary R. Mullen, Librarian. 
Woman's College of Alabama, 

Marion Shivers, Librarian. 
Normal, Carnegie Library, A. & M. College 

E. L. Gulley, Librarian. 
Opelika, Lee County Library, 

Maud Palmer. Librarian. 
Orrville, Public Library, 

J. R. Foster, Librarian. 
Oxford, Public Library, 

Nell Dodd, Librarian. 
St. Bernard, St. Bernard College, 

Rev. Edward I. Fazarkerly, Librarian. 
Selma, Carnegie Library, 

Bettie Keith, Librarian. 
Summerdale, School Library, 

Winnie Cherry, Librarian. 
Sylacauga, Fourth District Agricultural 

Talladega, Alabama School for the Blind. 
Talladega College (Negro), 

Mary Elizabeth Lane, Librarian. 
Carnegie Library, 

Mrs. Marie Fechet Kilburn, Librarian. 
Thorsby, Thorsby Institute, 

Carrie Belle Thomas, Librarian. 
Troy, State Normal School, 

Evelyn Somerville, Librarian. 
Tuskegee, Normal and Industrial Institute 

M. Ernestine Suarez. Librarian. 
Union Springs, Carnegie Library, 

Mollie Norman, Librarian. 
University, University of Alabama, 

Alice Wyman, Librarian. 
Wetumpka, Fifth District Agricultural 

John M. Crowell, Librarian. 

COURT. The library of the State and Su- 

preme Court occupies the same position in 
Alabama as is usually held by the commonly 
known and accepted state libraries in other 
states. It is directly under the control of the 
justices of the Supreme Court as a library 
board, who have the authority to "make such 
rules as they may deem necessary for the 
preservation and protection of the libraries." 
The marshal is ex-ofRcio the "librarian of the 
Supreme Court library, and of the State 
library." The marshal and librarian has au- 
thority to employ an assistant, who may at 
any time be removed by him. 

Funds for Support. — The library is sup- 
ported from various funds. A direct appro- 
priation of $500.00 annually is made, "for 
the use and benefit of the library." The 
money arising from the sales made by the 
secretary of state of reports of the Supreme 
Court remaining at his office on the first of 
March, 1881, and the surplus proceeds of the 
sales of such reports as have been, or may be 
published under contract made by the gov- 
ernor, remaining after paying the expenses 
of binding and printing, constitute a part of 
the library fund. For further maintenance a 
fee of $5.00 is "taxed in each civil case de- 
cided by the Supreme Court on appeal," to 
be collected as other costs. All disburse- 
ments are made by the librarian on the order 
of the justices. 

The library tax of $5.00 was attacked as 
unconstitutional in the case of Swann & 
Billups v. Kidd. The case carefully reviewed 
the nature and purpose of such legislation, 
and it was held that it was not only not viola- 
tive of the constitution, but that it was a 
valid exercise of power by the imposition of 
a reasonable incidental tax. Among other 
things, the opinion states that: "There is 
nothing in the suggestion, that the tax is for 
a private purpose. The maintenance of a li- 
brary, to aid the judiciary department in the 
proper administration of the law, is a public 
benefit — one to which taxes in the treasury 
have long been appropriated. That the tax 
is paid directly for the purpose, without the 
delay and formality of passing through the 
coffers of the State, cannot change its nature. 
The State itself is virtually the beneficiary of 
its own bounty." 

Publications. — Catalogue of books belonging 
to the supreme court library (1859), 8 vo., p. 
16; Junius M. Riggs, librarian, Catalogue 
(1882), 8 vo., p. 171; and Riggs, Catalogues 
of the supreme court library and of the state 
library (1902), 8 vo., p. 301. 

References— Acts, 1859-60, pp. 75-76; 1882-83, 
p. 149; Code, 1907, sees. 5971-5981; General Acts, 
1903, p. 341; 1907, p. 216; 1911, p. 100; 1915, 
p. 934; Riggs v. Brewer, 64 Ala., p. 282; Swann 
d Billups v. Kidd, 79 Ala. 431. 


Organization. — Organized, Nov. 21, 19 04, 
in Montgomery, in response to a call issued 
and signed by Thomas M. Owen, Laura M. 
Elmore, Junius M. Riggs, Wm. H. Dingley, 
Eliza M. Bullock and L. D. Dix, represent- 



lng the library interests of the capital city. 
Meets annually. 

Objects. — "Its objects shall be the promo- 
tion of libraries and library interest in Ala- 
bama." — Constitution. 

First Officers, 1904-05. — Thomas M. Owen, 
president; A. C. Harte, Charles C. Thach, and 
Herbert A. Sayre, vice-presidents; Junius M. 
Riggs, secretary; Laura M. Elmore, treas- 
urer; and J. H. Phillips, Sara Callen, Eliza 
M. Bullock, C. W. Daugette and Douglas 
Allen, executive council. 

Present Officers, 1920. — J. R. Rutland, Au- 
burn, acting president since the death of Dr. 
Owen; P. A. Brannon, Montgomery, secre- 

Publications. — Proceedings, 1904 (8vo.) ; and 
Proceedings, 1905 (8vo.). Circulars. 

was created by the constitutional convention 
of 1867, and the incumbent was to serve 
a term of two years and in case of the death, 
impeachment, resignation, removal or other 
disability of the governor, the powers and 
duties of the office, for the residue of the 
term, or until he shall be acquitted, or the 
disability removed, shall devolve upon the 
lieutenant-governor. He is also president of 
the senate, but votes Only when the senate 
is equally divided. In case of his absence 
or impeachment, or when he is acting as gov- 
ernor, the senate chooses a president pro 
tempore. If, while executing the office of gov- 
ernor he is impeached, displaced, resigns or 
dies, or otherwise becomes incapable of per- 
forming the duties of the office the president 
of the senate acts as governor until the va- 
cancy is filled or the disability removed. This 
office was abolished by the constitution of 
1875 and again created by the constitution 
of 1901. By the constitution of 1875 the 
governor's office would devolve upon the 
president of the senate in case of the impeach- 
ment, removal, etc., of the governor. By the 
constitution of 1901 the term of office of the 
lieutenant-governor was changed to four 
years, he must be at least thirty years of 
age; is ex officio president of the senate 
but does not have the right to vote except 
in the event of a tie. His compensation is 
the same as that received by the speaker of 
the house, is fixed by law and cannot be 
increased or diminished during his term. He 
is not required to reside at the state capital, 
except during epidemics. While serving in 
the place of the governor his compensation 
is the same as that received by the governor. 
In case of the impeachment of the governor, 
his absence from the state for more than 
twenty days, unsoundness of mind, or other 
disability the power and authority of the office 
devolve upon the lieutenant governor. 
Lieutenant-Governors. — 

A. J. Applegate, Montgomery, elected Feb- 
ruary, 1868. 

Edward H. Moren, elected November 8, 

Alexander McKinstry, Mobile, elected No- 
vember 5, 1872. 

Robert F. Ligon, Tuskegee, elected Novem- 
ber 3, 1874. 

Russell M. Cunningham, Birmingham, 
elected November, 1902. 

Henry B. Gray, Birmingham, elected 1906. 

Walter D. Seed, Montgomery, elected No- 
vember 8, 1910. 

Thomas E. Kilby, Anniston, elected No- 
vember 3, 1914. 

Nathan B. Miller, Birmingham, elected No- 
vember 5, 1918. 

References. — Code, 1907; Manuscript in State 
department of archives and history; Official 
and Statistical Register. 1903, 1907, 1911, 1915. 

LIGHTHOUSES. A form of building 
erected to carry a light for the purpose of 
warning or guiding, especially at sea. The 
earliest example were towers built by the 
Lybians in lower Egypt, beacon fires being 
maintained by the priests. Probably the first 
light regularly maintained for the guidance 
of marines was at Sigeum, on the Troad. The 
science of lighthouse construction is called 
"pharology" the name bearing relation to the 
famous Pharos of Alexandria, a lighthouse six 
hundred feet high, built on the Island of that 
name in the reign of Ptolomy II, and re- 
garded as one of the wonders of the ancient 

The United States Lighthouse Board was 
constituted by Act of Congress in 1852. The 
Secretary of Commerce and Labor is the ex- 
officio president. The*; board consists of two 
officers of the navy, two engineer officers of 
the army and two civilian scientific mem- 
bers, with two secretaries, one a naval officer, 
the other an officer of engineers in the army. 
The members are appointed by the president 
of the United States. The coastline of the 
States, with lakes and rivers and Porto Rico, 
is divided into 16 executive districts for pur- 
poses of administration. The' various types 
of lighthouses comprise lighthouses and bea- 
con lights, 1,333; light vessels in position, 53; 
light vessels for relief, 13; gas lighted buoys 
in position, 94; fog signals operated by steam 
or oil engines, 228; fog signals operated by 
clock work, etc., 205; sub-marine signals, 
43; portlights 2,333; day or unlighted bea- 
cons, 1,157; bell buoys in position, 169; 
whistling buoys in position, 94; other buoys, 
576; steam tenders, 51; constructional staff, 
318; light keepers and light attendants, 
3,137, officers and crews of light-vessels and 
tenders, 1,693. 

Mobile Bay Entrance. — Approaching Mobile 
from seaward, the waterway is marked by 
lights, buoys, and other aids to navigation 
at the entrance of Mobile Bay and along the 
Mobile Ship Channel. Of these aids Sand 
Island Light is the first one picked up, and 
is used in connection with two range rear 
lights for crossing the bar. Most of the 
lights and beacons originally established are 
gone. Numerous changes have been made as 
necessity required and the buoys have often 
been shifted to mark the changing channels. 
Lights have been established and discontinued 



to meet the requirements of navigation. 
There are other minor lights, lighted and 
unlight buoys and day beacons marking this 
important waterway but only principal lights 
now in commission are herein described. 

A lighthouse was built in 1838 on Sand 
Island, under the Act approved March 3, 
1837, then a low lying island about three 
miles southerly of Mobile Point; replaced in 
1858, under Act approved August 18, 1856, 
a white light was shown 152 feet above water 
from a brick tower, which was destroyed in 
the early sixties. A light was then tem- 
porarily shown from a small wooden tower 
until a permanent lighthouse was built and 
a light established in 1873, under the Acts 
approved March 2, 1867, March 3, 1871, and 
March 3, 1873. This was a second-order 
fixed white light, shown 131 feet above water 
from a conical brick tower painted black and 
located in the middle of the island about 700 
feet from the site of the former tower, and 
is the structure standing today. Near this 
new tower, a double, wooden, two-story, keep- 
ers' dwelling was constructed. As the small 
island had been gradually washing away, the 
original dwelling was removed to a more 
secure location in 1893, but was taken down 
in 1902 and a new dwelling built on piles 
on the rocks near the tower. This dwelling 
was destroyed in the hurricane of 1906, and 
the Assistant Keeper and his wife were 
drowned. The keepers have since then re- 
sided in the tower itself. The original island 
has disappeared and the tower is now in the 
water surrounded by a mound of riprap or 
massive stones that have been placed at the 
base of the tower from time to time by the 
Lighthouse Service to protect it from the en- 
croachment of the sea. In 1912 the oilwick 
lamp then in use was replaced by a modern 
incandescent oilvapor lamp and the light is 
now of 17,000 candlepower, visible 18 miles. 

Further inside the entrance to the bay is 
another important aid to mariners, Mobile 
Point Light, established in 1822, and refitted 
in 1835 under the acts approved May 15, 
1820 and March 3, 1835. It was again re- 
fitted with illuminating apparatus in 1S58. 
During the Civil War it was badly damaged 
and was rebuilt in 1873 under the Acts ap- 
proved March 2, 1867, and March 3, 1871. 
The tower is still standing and consists of 
iron skeleton structure located on one of the 
bastions of Fort Morgan, and exhibits a fixed 
red light of 150 candlepower, 49 feet above 
the sea, and visible nine miles. 

Mobile Ship Channel. — Prior to the dredg- 
ing of the ship channel in Mobile Bay from 
its entrance to Mobile, the aids to navigation 
seem to have consisted of buoys entirely, as 
evidenced by appropriations made by Acts ap- 
proved between that of May 18, 1826, and 
August 3, 1854. • Immediately after the War of 
Secession steps were taken to mark the channel 
with lights, but nothing seems to have been 
accomplished until an appropriation of 
$19,000 was made by the Act approved March 

Vol. II— 11 

3. 18S3. under which a number of small 
lighted beacons were established along both 
sides of the then recently completed ship 
channel. Under this appropriation, a screw 
pile structure, known as Mobile Bay Light Sta- 
tion, was also established in December, 1885, 
at the bend in the channel about 14 miles be- 
low Mobile. This structure is still standing, 
but at that time it exhibited a fixed white 
light varied by a red flash every 30 seconds 
from a fourth-order lens whose focal plane 
was 44 feet above water, and was provided 
with a fog bell struck by machinery. This 
system of lighting proving insufficient, two 
appropriations amounting in all to $60,000 
were made by the Acts approved August 18, 
1894, and March 2, 1895, under which a sys- 
tem of lighting was carried out which included 
the construction and erection of 16 cast iron 
beacons on wooden piles supporting posts 
from which lens lanterns showing fixed white 
lights were established. Ten additional bea- 
cons were subsequently added to the system 
in 1902. In 1906 thirteen of the lights were 
changed from oil to acetylene. At present the 
system consists of 24 lighted beacons, includ- 
ing old Mobile Bay Light Station, using acety- 
lene as illuminant. 

During the year 1916, the Lighthouse Serv- 
ice established as additional markers 17 spar 
buoys midway between the lights on the west- 
erly side of the channel and one at junction 
of this channel with the Cutoff Channel, also 
replaced the whistling buoys at the entrance 
channel with a large gas and whistling buoy 
showing a flashing light of high candlepower. 
The light has a flash of one second every ten 
seconds and the whistle is sounded by action 
of the sea. The following is quoted from the 
Buoy List, Eighth Lighthouse District, page 
4 : 

"The following states bordering on the 
waters included in this list have passed laws 
providing penalties to be paid by persons in- 
terfering in any manner with the'aids to navi- 
gation established and maintained by the 
United States, as follows: Florida. Revised 
Statutes of Florida, 1892; Alabama. Code of 
1907, sections 4923 and 7870; Texas, Penal 
Code, 1895, article 789." 

In this connection attention is invited to 
pages 326 to 332 of the Light List, Atlantic 
and Gulf Coasts of the United States, 1917 
items No. 1881 to 1917. 

References.— Encyclopedia Britannica; letter 
from G. R. Pulnam, Conmissioner, Bureau of 
Lighthouses, Washington, D. C, in Department 
of Archives and History. 

LIIKATCHKA. A river ford on the south- 
ern trail whic'i crossed Chattahoochee River 
southeast of the present Jernigan in Russell 
County. Swan, Bartram, and other early 
travelers, crossed here. It is supposed that 
this is the same ford which is sometimes 
called "the military ford." The name, signi- 
fying "broken arrow" is given because of the 
prevalence here of reeds for making arrow 

shafts. A smau 

town existed on the right 


side of the river at this point, being an off- 
shoot from Kawita. A small stream now 
called Broken Arrow Creek, and referred to 
on the old maps as Lekatchka Creek, flows 
north of the site of old Coweta. 

References. — Gatschet in Alabama History 
Commission, Report (1901), p. 403. Mms. Rec- 
ords in Alabama Department, Archives and 

school for the education of boys and young 
men, located at Trinity Station. This in- 
stitution was established in 1874, by John A. 
Lile (deceased), under the name of Mountain 
Spring School. It was founded for the educa- 
tion of his eight sons, Prof. J. Roy Baylor, 
now of Chattanooga, Tenn., being principal. 
Mountain Spring School continued to grow 
in favor until the death of Mr. Lile in 1883 
when its exercises were suspended. In 1890 
the school was purchased from the estate 
of John A. Lile, by Henry T. Lile, who has 
since been principal and proprietor. It is 
strictly college preparatory in its nature and 
is limited to twenty boys. 

Reference. — Register, 1901-02. 

LIMESTONE COUNTY. Created by an 
act of the legislature February 6, 1818. It 
was formed from land lying west of Madison 
County, north of Tennessee River, and east 
of the western boundary line of range six, 
west of the basis meridian of the county. An 
act of the legislature of November 27, 1821, 
gave to this county all of the country belong- 
ing to Lauderdale County, in the fork of 
the Tennessee and Elk Rivers, east of range 

The name of the county comes from the 
large creek which flows through it, whose bed 
is of hard limestone. 

It has an area of 584 square miles, or 
373,760 acres. 

Location and Physical Description. — In the 
extreme northern part of the state, Limestone 
County is bounded on the north by the Ten- 
nessee state line, on the east by Madison 
County, on the south by Morgan and Law- 
rence Counties, and on the west by Lauder- 
dale County. 

There are two general physiographic divi- 
sions in the county — "the river bottoms, 
which include the first and second terraces 
along the rivers and streams, and the up. 
lands, which include the valley slopes and 
the divides." The general geological struc- 
ture of the county resembles that of Lau- 

The river bottoms consist of first and sec- 
ond bottoms, being so termed on account of 
their proximity to the Tennessee and Elk 
Rivers, and the large creeks which water the 
county. The uplands consist of three divi- 
sions — the Tennessee Valley, the Highlands of 
Tennessee, and the Elk River watershed. The 
Tennessee Valley extends north to a line 
which runs between townships 3 and 4. The 
surface is "gently rolling, billowy and undu- 
lating," and contains what is known locally 

as "red lands." The second division is a 
continuation of the Highlands of Tennessee, 
the slopes toward the Tennessee are gentle, 
while those toward the Elk are steep and in 
some places precipitous. The Elk watershed 
is characterized by steep, mountainlike, and 
in places rough topography. It is called "hill 

Drainage is generally southerly through 
Elk River, Limestone Creek, and a number 
of smaller streams into the Tennessee River. 
"The Elk River is the most important water 
course in the county," draining the north, 
western section. Limestone Creek and tribu- 
taries drain the eastern part of the county, 
while the drainage from central townships is 
through Swan and Round Island Creeks. 

Limestone County soils are of two classes: 
upland and lowland. The former consists of 
all the country known locally as "red lands," 
"the barrens" and the "hill country," while 
the latter comprises the bottom lands of the 
streams and the "upland sinks." "The soils 
of the county have an intimate relation to the 
geology." Sixteen different types of soil are 
found. Those of the first bottoms are classed 
with Huntington, Holly and Abernathy series 
of the second bottoms with the Elk and Cum- 
berland series. "The soils of the upland dvi- 
sion, or residual soils, vary from gravelly 
loams through silt loams to silty clay loams 
and clay loams, and with the exception of a 
few types they are well drained. The upland 
soils are classed with the Clarkville, Decatur, 
Hagerstown, Guthrie, and Colbert series. 

There is no station of the Weather Bureau 
in Limestone County, but the records of the 
station at Decatur in Morgan County are 
fairly representative of local conditions. An 
annual mean temperature of 61.1° P shows, 
while the annual precipitation for the wet- 
test year shows 61.99 inches and for the 
driest year 34.7 inches. 

Among the principal crops of the county 
are cotton, corn, oats, grain, hay, sorghum 
and sugar cane, potatoes, apples, peaches, and 
plums, legumes, cowpeas, soy beans, red top, 
Bermuda and Johnson grass, alfalfa and to- 
bacco. Farm labor is cheap and principally 

The forest growth of the county consists 
of hickory, poplar, chestnut, red and white 
oak, beech, maple, red and white gum, wal- 
nut and cherry. 

Aboriginal History. — The territory em- 
braced in Limestone County, was at one time 
in the large domain on the Tennessee River, 
that was claimed by both the Chickasaws and 
Cherokees. There is no record of any settle- 
ment ever having been made, within its bor- 
ders by either nation. Both however made 
cession of it to the United States. It was 
embraced in the Cherokee cession of Janu- 
ary 7, 1806. From this cession the Cherokees 
reserved a tract which embraced that part 
of Limestone County west of Elk River. This 
land was given over to the United States by 
the cession made in the treaty of July 8, 
1817. On September 20, 1816, the Chicka- 
saws, ceded to the United States, with the 

Anti-Secession leader 



exception of three reservations, all right or 
title to lands on the north side of the Ten- 
nessee River. 

John Craig, of Tennessee, made the first 
attempt to settle in this county about 1S00. 
Camping three days above the big spring at 
Athens, and not liking the temper of the 
Indians he broke camp and returned to Ten- 

By a treaty with the Chickasaws July 23, 

1805, a triangular tract of country in Ala- 
bama, north of the Tennessee River, was 
acquired, which in 1808 was created into 
Madison County. By the treaty of January 7, 

1806, the Cherokees ceded to the United 
States, all their lands in Alabama, with the 
exception of two reserves, north of the Ten- 
nessee River, and west of the Chickasaw Old 
Fields. This cession, of course, included 
Madison County. The claim of the Chero- 
kees was not admitted by the Chickasaws, 
nor by the United States, which in spite of 
the Cherokee cession, continued to recognize 
the Chickasaws' property right to the tract 
which they had ceded, and their claim to all 
the rest of the land north of the Tennessee 
river, west of this cession. 

The islands in the Tennessee river nearly 
all show evidences of aboriginal occupancy 
and those located in Limestone County are 
no exceptions. On Elk river and Limestone 
Creek are further evidences. Near Brown's 
Ferry, a property of the late Henry Warten 
of Athens is a large town site. On the upper 
end of Mason Island is a small town site, 
which recent investigations have shown to 
contain numbers of burials, accompanying 
which were copper coated objects of wood 
used for ear pendants, and some earthern 
ware of a very interesting design. On the 
property of Arthur Steel near the landing 
is a domiciliary mound 12 feet high. Near 
by is a smaller one, probably a burial mound 
though no investigation of it has been at- 
tempted. On the plantation of J. E. Penney 
of Birmingham, is a cultivated field, one and 
a half miles back from the union of Lime- 
stone Creek with Tennessee River is a burial 

This was the situation in 1807 when a party 
consisting of Thomas Redus, William Redus, 
William and James Simms, James Withy, 
John Maples, Benjamin Murrell, and one 
Piedmore came from Roane County, Tenn., 
in flats down the Tennessee River, to the 
mouth of Elk River, and thence up this 
stream to Buck Island where they landed. 
After prospecting for a few days the party 
moved out to form their settlement and 
on October 3, the first cabin was erected, 
this cabin was for the Simms brothers and 
hence the community became known as 
Simms' settlement. This was the first white 
settlement in what is Limestone County. 
The year 1808 saw the advent of many 
others in the county, nearly all of whom 
settled on Limestone Creek. In the fall of 
the same year another settlement was made 
on Limestone Creek, a few miles above 
Mooresville, by John James and Joseph Bur- 
leson. Mooresville took its name from Rob- 

ert and William Moore who were its first 

Samuel Robertson settled in 1808 on the 
present site of Athens, where he established 
a trading house, and for two years carried 
on a considerable business with the white 
people and Indians. Thomas Redus built 
the first grist mill in 1808. About 1810 
one was built in the fork of Piney about a 
mile and a quarter above Mooresville, and 
about the same time one was built on Round 
Island Creek. 

After the treaty made with the Chicka- 
saws, July 23, 1805, Governor Williams is- 
sued a proclamation forbidding immigrants 
to settle outside of the ceded territory. His 
proclamation was disregarded, and all set- 
tlers in Limestone County from 1807 to 1816 
were, in fact, intruders on forbidden land. 
There was more or less friction between them 
and the thin band of Chickasaws, who made 
their homes in the county. By 1809 the com- 
plaints of the Indians had become so persist- 
ent that Col. R. J. Meigs was ordered into 
the county with a small force to protect the 
Indians and exercise a general supervision 
over the county. 

Col. Meigs established himself at Fort 
Hampton, a post which he erected on Elk 
River seventeen miles from Athens. He was 
a discreet man and was successful in his 
dealings with the rough frontiersmen under 
his control. He drove from the county all 
those who had settled on lands claimed by 
or cultivated by the Indians. Others, whose 
presence it seems was not objected to by the In- 
dians were allowed to remain. Thomas Re- 
dus was allowed to remain and operate his 
mill for the benefit of soldiers and Indians. 
Robertson was removed from his trading post, 
and a man named Wilder put in his place, and 
the post was made a stopping point between 
Fort Hampton and Huntsville. 

The services of the soldiers were used in 
opening roads, and they built one from Fort 
Hampton to Athens, and thence assisted by 
some of the Huntsville garrison, it was ex- 
tended to that place. What was known as the 
"Township Road," from Huntsville to 
Brown's Ferry was the work of the Hunts- 
ville garrison. In 1810 the opening of the 
road from Mooresville to Elk Ferry on Elk 
River, was the work of the Fort Hampton 

The first white child born in what is now 
Limestone County was Robert Pridmore in 
May, 18 08, five miles above Athens, followed 
by the birth of George Witty in the following 
November, seven miles north of Athens. 

Robert Bell, a Cumberland Presbyterian 
minister, in 1809, was the first to preach the 
gospel in Limestone County, the home of 
Jonathan Blair in the fork of Big and Little 
Piney being one of his appointments. He 
kept regular appointments even after most 
of the squatter population had been driven 
out. In 1810 other Cumberland Presbyte- 
rian ministers entered the field, followed 
shortly by Methodist ministers, as well as 
those of other denominations. 

The legislature passed an act on November 



17, 1818, ordering an election to be held in 
the courthouse in Athens on the fourth Mon- 
day in March, 1819, for the purpose of elect- 
ing five commissioners, who should have pow- 
er to select a proper place for the seat of 
justice in the county; and all free men in the 
county were entitled to vote. The act further 
gave power to the commissioners to be elect- 
ed, power to contract for and receive in 
behalf of the county a good and sufficient 
title to four acres of land for the purpose of 
erecting a courthouse, a jail, pillory, and 
stocks for the use of the county. Power was 
also given to build a courthouse and other 
necessary buildings. 

The location of the courthouse was an all 
absorbing question in the election of the com- 
missioners. Three places were nominated, 
Athens, Cambridge, and English's Springs. 
After an exciting contest, Athens was select- 
ed, the men who were running on her part 
were Reuben Tilman, Thomas Redus, Jere- 
miah Tucker, Robert Pollock, and Samuel 

Setting about their duties immediately, 
they secured from Robert Beaty, John D. Car- 
roll, John Coffee and John Reed, the ground 
now covered by the public square of Athens, 
on which the public buildings of the county 
were established. 

Agricultural Statistics. — From U. S. Census 
1910: • 

Farms and Farmers. 
Number of all farms, 4,709. 
Color and nativity of farmers: 
Native white, 2,901. 
Foreign-born white, 28. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 1,780. 
Number of farms, classified by size: 
Under 3 acres, — . 

3 to 9 acres, 83. 
10 to 19 acres, 671. 
20 to 49 acres, 2,139. 
50 to 99 acres, 1,059. 
100 to 174 acres, 489. 
175 to 259 acres, 142. 
260 to 499 acres, 86. 
500 to 999 acres, 36. 
1,000 acres and over, 4. 

Land and Farm Area. 
Approximate land area, 381,440. 
Land in farms, 298,393. 
Improved land in farms, 163,292. 
Woodland in farms, 127,272. 
Other unimproved land in farms, 7,829. 

Value of Farm Property. 
All farm property, $7,568,693. 

Land, $4,700,665. 

Buildings, $1,310,368. 

Implements and machinery, $320,212. 

Domestic animals, poultry, and bees, 
Average values: 

All property per farm, $1,607. 

Land and buildings, per farm, $1,276. 

Land per acre, $15.75. 

Domestic Animals (Farms and Ranges). 
Farms reporting domestic animals, 4,409. 
Domestic animals, value, $1,194,466. 
Cattle: total, 13,050; value, $195,407. 

Dairy cows only, 6,107. 
Horses: total, 3,686; value, $364,623. 
Mules: total, 4,799; value, $542,718. 
Asses and burros: total, 50; value, $5,830. 
Swine: total, 16,990; value, $78,409. 
Sheep: total, 2,140; value, $5,166. 
Goats: total, 1,776; value, $2,313. 

Poultry and Bees. 
All poultry, 94,281; value, $41,509. 
Bee colonies, 977; value, $1,473. 

Farms Operated oy Ovmers. 
Number of farms, 1,628. 

Per cent of all farms, 34.4. 
Land in farms, 175,570 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 70,3 01 acres. 
Land and buildings, $3,414,124. 
Farms of owned land only, 1,220. 
Farms of owned and hired land, 408. 
Native white owners, 1,364. 
Foreign-born white, 28. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 236. 

Farms Operated oy Tenants. 
Number o*. farms, 3,067. 

Per cent of all farms, 65.1. 
Land in farms, 112,900 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 91,216 acres. 
Land and buildings, $2,430,011. 
Share tenants, 1,946. 
Share-cash tenants, 37. 
Cash tenants, 1,044. 
Tenure not specified, 40. 
Native white tenants, 1,523. 
Foreign-born white, — . 
Negro and other nonwhite, 1,544. 

Farms Operated oy Managers. 
Number of farms, 14. 
Land in farms, 9,923. 
Improved land in farms, 1,775. 
Value of land and buildings, 166,898. 

Live Stock Products. 

Dairy Products. 
Milk: Produced, 1,599,758; sold, 10,434 


Cream sold, . 

Butter fat sold, . 

Butter: Produced, 583,504; sold, 60,717 


Cheese: Produced, . 

Dairy products, excluding home use of milk 

and cream, $101,396. 
Sale of dairy products, $12,859. 

Poultry Products. 
Poultry: Number raised, 172,812; sold, 

Eggs: Produced, 435,242; sold, 195,378 

Poultry and eggs produced, $121,466. 
Sale of poultry and eggs, $46,312. 



Honey and Wax. 
Honey produced, 6,501 pounds. 
Wax produced, 272 pounds. 
Value of honey and wax produced, $795. 

Wool. Mohair, and Goat Hah: 
Wool, fleeces shorn, 1,175. 
Mohair and goat hair, fleeces shorn, 7. 
Wool and mohair produced, $814. 

Domestic Animals Sold or Slaughtered. 
Calves — Sold or slaughtered, 1,535. 
Other cattle — Sold or slaughtered, 5,517. 
Horses, mules, and asses and burros — Sold, 

Swine — Sold or slaughtered, 13,855. 
Sheep and goats — Sold or slaughtered, 1,488. 
Sale of animals, $156,526. 
Value of animals slaughtered, $150,016. 

Value of All Crops. 
Total, $2,429,623. 
Cereals, $743,772. 
Other grains and seeds, $3,710. 
Hay and forage, $106,548. 
Vegetables, $111,674. 
Fruit and nuts, $23,243. 
All other crops, $1,440,676. 

Selected Crops (Acres and Quantity). 
Cereals: total, 52,782 acres; 898,161 bushels. 

Corn, 49,215 acres; 855,237 bushels. 

Oats, 2,478 acres; 33,578 bushels. 

Wheat, 1,069 acres; 9.217 bushels. 

Rye, 18 acres; 119 bushels. 

Kafir corn and milo maize, . 

Rice, . 

Other grains: 

Dry peas, 263 acres; 1,727 bushels. 

Dry edible beans, 3 acres; 37 bushels. 

Peanuts, 26 acres; 546 bushels. 
Hay and forage: total, 4,104 acres; 6,626 

All tame or cultivated grasses, 1,898 
acres; 2,52 9 tons. 

Wild, salt, and prairie grasses. 279 acres; 
370 tons. 

Grains cut green, 3,861 acres; 3,634 tons. 

Coarse forage, 66 acres; 93 tons. 
Special crops: 

Potatoes, 242 acres; 23,300 bushels. 

Sweet potatoes and yams, 207 acres; 23,995 

Tobacco, 4 acres; 1,510 pounds. 

Cotton, 58,179 acres; 16,648 bales. 
Cane — sugar, 2 20 acres; 9 67 tons. 

Syrup made, 13,723 gallons. 
Cane — sorghum, 558 acres; 2,288 tons. 

Syrup made, 25,643 gallons. 

Fruits and Nuts. 
Orchard fruits: total, 61,903 trees; 39,584 

Apples, 22,129 trees; 17,348 bushels. 
Peaches and nectarines, 32,199 trees; 

20,920 bushels. 
Pears, 2,888 trees; 526 bushels. 
Plums and prunes, 3,798 trees; 714 

Cherries, 736 trees; 37 bushels. 

Quinces, 117 trees; 9 bushels. 

Grapes, 6,312 vines; 8,530 pounds. 
Tropical fruits: total, 28 trees. 

Figs, 25 trees; 225 pounds. 

Oranges, 3 trees. 
Small fruits: total, 6 acres; 4,618 quarts. 

Strawberries, 5 acres; 4,082 quarts. 
Nuts: total, 39 trees; 380 pounds. 

Pecans, 6 trees; 180 pounds. 

Labor. Fertilizer and Feed. 
Labor — Farms reporting. 1,381. 

Cash expended. $73,940. 

Rent and board furnished. $14,150. 
Fertilizer — Farms reporting, 2,386. 

Amount expended, $49,599. 
Feed — Farms reporting, 1,064. 

Amount expended, $43,097. 
Receipts from sale of feedable crops, $55,062. 

Domestic Animals Not on Farms. 
Inclosures reporting domestic animals, 305. 
Value of domestic animals, $48,995. 
Cattle: total, 418; value, $9,661. 

Number of dairy cows, 266. 
Horses: total, 231; value, $29,005. 
Mules, and asses and burros; total, 75; value, 

Swine: total, 384; value, $1,957. 
Sheep and goats: total, 15; value, $34. 

Post Offices and Towns. — Revised to July 
1, 1919, from U. S. Official Postal Guide. 
Figure indicate the number of rural routes 
from that office. 
Athens (ch.) — 7 Mooresville 

Belle Mina Mount Roszell — 1 

Elkmoht — 3 Ripley — 1 

Elk River Mills Tanner — 1 

Greenbrier Veto — 1 


Population. — Statistics from decennial pub- 
lications of the U. S. Bureau of the Census. 
White. Negro. Total. 

1S20 6,922 2.949 9,871 

1830 8,077 6,730 14,807 

1840 7,498 6,876 14,374 

1850 8,399 8,084 16,483 

I860 7,215 8,091 15,306 

1870 7,764 7,253 15,017 

1880 11,637 9,963 21,600 

1890 12,198 9,002 21,201 

1900 12,558 9,828 22,387 

1910 16,625 10,255 26,880 

1920 31,341 

Delegates to Constitutional Conventions. — 
1819 — Thomas Bibb; Beverly Hughes; 
Nicholas Davis. 

1861 — Joshua P. Coman; Thomas J. Mc- 

1865 — Joshua P. Coman; Thomas J. Mc- 

1867 — Daniel H. Bingham. 
1875 — Robert A. McClellan. 
1901 — W. T. Sanders; Erie Pettus. 

Senators. — 

1819-20 — Thomas Bibb. 
1820-1 — Nicholas Davis. 



2 — Nicholas Davis. 

5 — Nicholas Davis. 

8 — Nicholas Davis. 

30 — William Edmonson. 

1 — William Edmonson. 

4 — John W. Lane. 

7 — Nathaniel Terry. 

-40 — Nathaniel Terry. 

3 — Nathaniel Terry. 

6 — Milton McClanahan. 

8 — Nathaniel Davis. 

50 — William S. Compton. 

2 — John N. Malone. 

6 — John N. Malone. 

8 — John D. Rather. 

2 — Joshua P. Coman. 

6 — Isaac M. Jackson. 

— B. Lentz. 

2 — B. Lentz. 

3 — Daniel Coleman. 

—Daniel Coleman. 

5 — Daniel Coleman. 

6 — R. A. McClellan. 

7 — W. J. Wood. 

9 — W. J. Wood. 

1 — T. N. McClellan. 

3 — Thos. N. McClellan. 

5 — R. T. Simpson. 

7 — R. T. Simpson. 

9 — W. N. Hays. 

1 — Wm. N. Hayes. 

3 — J. M. Cunningham. 

5 — J. M. Cunningham. 

7 — Ben M. Sowell. 

9 — B. M. Sowell. 

(Spec.) — B. M. Sowell. 

01 — H. R. Kennedy. 

—Dr. Hiram Raleigh Kennedy. 

— Wm. N. Hayes. 

(Spec.) — Wm. N. Hayes. 

(Spec.) — Wm. N. 
—Thurston H. Allen. 
— H. C. Thatch. 
— B. A. Rogers. 

Representatives. — 

1819-20 — Nicholas Davis; James W. Exum; 
William Whitaker. 

1820-1 — John S. Doxey; William Edmon- 
son; Quin Morton. 

1821 (called) — John S. Doxey; William 
Edmonson; Quin Morton. 

1821-2 — Benjamin Murrell; William Ed- 
monson; Quin Morton. 

1822-3 — J. L. Martin; William Edmonson; 
Quin Morton; W. Montgomery. 

1823-4 — J. L. Martin; J. W. Smith; W. 
Whitaker; Joseph Powell. 

1824-5 — J. L. Martin; William Edmonson; 
Quin Morton; James W. Exum. 

1825-6 — J. L. Martin; William Edmonson; 
Quin Morton; Waddy Tate. 

1826-7 — James W. Exum; William Edmon- 
son; Joseph Bell; W. P. Robertson. 

1827-8 — J. L. Martin; William Edmonson; 
Joseph Bell; Joseph Powell. 

1828-9 — William Saunders; William Ed- 
monson; Thomas Bibb. 

1829-30 — George W. Lane; Daniel Cole- 
man; Thomas Bibb. 

1830-1 — George W. Lane; Wm. Saunders; 
Wm. Richardson. 

1831-2 — George W. Lane; William Saun- 
ders; Joseph Johnson. 

1832 (called) — Richard B. Brickell; Wil- 
liam J. Mason; William Richardson. 

1832-3 — Richard B. Brickell; William J. 
Mason; William Richardson. 

1833-4 — Richard B. Brickell; William 
Saunders; Archibald Harris. 

1834-5 — John H. J. Wynn; William Saun- 
ders; Waddy Tate. 

1835-6 — John H. J. Wynn; Joshua P. 
Coman; Joseph Johnson. 

1836-7 — John H. J. Wynn; Asa Allen; F. 
B. Nelson. 

1837 (called) — John H. J. Wynn; Asa 
Allen; F. B. Nelson. 

1837-8— Robert A. High; Joshua P. Co- 
man; F. B. Nelson. 

1838-39 — John H. J. Wynn; Robert A. 
High; A. F. Mills. 

1839-40 — Elbert H. English; Robert A. 

1840-1— John H. J. Wynn; Nathaniel 

1841 (called) — John H. J. Wynn; Natha- 
niel Davis. 

1841-2 — John H. J. Wynn; Nathaniel 




ley Dav 





3 — Elbert H. English; Waddy Tate. 
4 — Nathaniel Davis; Waddy Tate. 
5 — Nathaniel Davis; Egbert J. Jones. 
6 — Milton Walker; Egbert J. Jones. 
8 — Nathaniel Davis; Frederick Tate. 
50 — Nathaniel Davis; L. Rip. Davis. 
2 — Nathaniel Davis; Nicholas Davis, 

4 — W. R. Hanserd; W. B. Allen. 
6 — Thomas H. Hobbs; Luke Pryor. 
8 — T. H. Hobbs; William M. Reedus. 
6 0— T. H. Hobbs; L. Ripley Davis. 
(1st called) — T. H. Hobbs; L. Rip- 

(2d called) — T. J. McClellan; James 

2 — T. J. McClellan; James Shelton. 
(called) — T. J. McClellan; 

3 — T. J. McClellan; James Shelton. 
(called) — J. B. McClellan; J. W. S. 

1 — J. B. McClellan; J. W. S. Donnell. 
(called) — J. B. McClellan; J. W. S. 

5 — J. B. McClellan; J. W. S. Donnell. 
6 — C. W. Raisler; William Richard- 


1866-7 — C. W. Raisler; William Richard- 

1868 — R. E. Harris. 

1869-70 — R. E. Harris. 

1870-1 — Charles W. Raisler. 

1871-2 — C. W. Raisler. 

1872-3 — John Lamb. 

1873 — John Lamb. 


1874-5 — J. M. Townsend. 

1875-6 — J. M. Townsend. 

1876-7 — Gaines C. Smith; B. M. Towns- 

1878-9 — W. R. Crutcher; L. R. Davis. 

1880-1 — J. G. Dement; C. P. Lane. 

1882-3 — Porter Bibb; C. W. Raisler. 

1884-5 — J. H. Hundley; W. W. Hill. ■ 

1886-7 — W. E. Vasser; W. R. Crutcher. 

1888-9 — Benj. M. Sowell; A. W. Mosely. 

1890-1 — H. D. Lane; J. B. Townsend. 

1892-3 — G. A. Gilbert. 

1894-5 — J. E. Fielding. 

1896-7 — "W. H. McClellan. 

1898-9— Erie Pettus. 

1899 (Spec.) — Erie Pettus. 

1900-01 — Erie Pettus. 

1903 — Henry Clyde Thach. 

1907 — B. B. Peete. 

1907 (Spec.) — B. B. Peete. 

1909 (Spec.) — B. B. Peete. 

1911 — J. E. Horton, jr. 

1915 — Perry Henderson. 

1919 — J. R. Christopher. 
References. — Toulmin, Digest (1823), index; 
Acts of Ala., Brewer, Alabama, p. 317; Bernev. 
Handbook (1892), p. 307; Riley, Alabama as it 
is (1893), p. 21; Northern Alabama (1888), p. 
71; Alabama, 1909 (Ala. Dept. of Ag. and Ind., 
Bulletin 27), p. 151; U. S. Soil Survey (1916), 
with map; Alabama land book (1916), p. 100; 
Ala. Official and Statistical Register, 1903-1915, 

5 vols.; Ala. Anthropological* Society, Hand- 
took (1910) ; Geol. Survey of Ala., Agricultural 
features of the State (1883) ; The Valley regions 
of Alabama, parts 1 and 2 (1896, 1897), and 
Underground Water Resources of Alabama 


quantity of these rocks in Alabama, used for 
furnace flux and for lime burning, is vir- 
tually without limit. Until recent years lime- 
stones were used almost exclusively for flux- 
ing, but dolomite has been found well adapted 
to that purpose, and is now extensively used 
in the furnaces of the Birmingham district. 
The dolomite is considered better for mak- 
ing low silicon pig iron as it contains, on an 
average, not more than 1.5 per cent silica 
as against 3 to 4 per cent in the limestone. 
The limestone most extensively used is that 
known as the "Mountain Limestone," occur- 
ring in the lower Carboniferous formation. 
This rock covers a great area in the northern 
part of the State, and varies from 350 to 1,300 
feet in thickness. As its name indicates, this 
rock often occurs on mountain sides above 
drainage level, making it easily and cheaply 
quarried. The principal quarries are near 
Blount Springs and Bangor on the Louisville 

6 Nashville Railroad, and near Trussville and 
Vann's on the Alabama Great Southern. An- 
other important limestone for fluxing and for 
lime burning is the Trenton, or Pelham, lime- 
stone of Silurian age, which occurs in long, 
narrow belts on the flanks of the Red Moun- 
tain ridges on each side of the anticlinal val- 
leys. In its best quality, this rock is a 
compact blue limestone, often highly fos- 

siliferous. The best portion of the rock is 
comprised within the uppermost 200 feet of 
the formation, and the purest ledges carry 
from 95 to 98 per cent of carbonate of lime. 
Some of the mountainside quarries show clear 
faces of the stone 100 feet in height, and 
hundreds of tons can be thrown down by a 
single blast. One of the most extensive is 
that of the Sloss-ShefAeld Steel & Iron Co. 
near Gate City. Rock of this formation has 
been more widely used than any other in the 
State for lime burning. 

The most important horizon of the dolo- 
mite is the Knox dolomite of the Cambrian 
formation. As a formation the Knox dolomite 
is from 2,000 to 5,000 feet thick. The purest 
dolomite is in the lower part, while the upper 
beds are much intermixed with chert. The 
rock used as flux is mostly coarse grained, 
light gray to dark blue color, and more or 
less crystalline in texture. One of the largest 
quarries in the State is the Dolcito quarry 
near Birmingham. There are others, too, 
in the immediate vicinity of North Birming- 
ham. An excellent lime can be made from 
this dolomite, though it has not been much 
used for. that purpose. 

Reference. — Smith and McCalley, Index to 
mineral resources of Alabama (Geol. Survey of 
Ala., Bulletin 9, 1904), pp. 27-29. 

LIMONITE. See Iron and Steel. 

LINDEN. County seat of Marengo County, 
near the center of the county, 5 miles east of 
the Tombigbee River, 17 miles south of 
Demopolis and 20 miles southwest of Fauns- 
dale, and on the Myrtlewood branch of the 
Louisville & Nashville Railroad. Population: 
1870 — 300; 1912 — 600. It is one of the old 
settlements of the State, and was incorporated 
at an early date. Its boundaries were re- 
arranged in 1903, and the municipal code of 
1907 adopted in 1908. The town rents its 
municipal buildings. The main streets are 
graveled with sidewalks of cinders. Its 
bonded indebtedness is $8,500, for schools, 
maturing in 1942. Its banks are The First 
National, and the Marengo County Bank 
(State). The Democrat-Reporter, a Demo- 
cratic weekly, established in 1889, is pub- 
lished there. Its industries are cottonseed 
oil mill, a gristmill, a cotton ginnery, a saw- 
mill, and a planing mill. 

The original Linden was surveyed in 1824 
by George N. Stewart, secretary of the French 
colony at Demopolis. It was located on a 
quarter-section of land for which Allen Glover 
paid from his private purse, being afterward 
reimbursed by the county. The first court- 
house was built of logs. The present one is 
of brick. The first lots sold in Linden 
brought $25 to $50, and were bought by 
John O. Glover, B. P. Whitlow, Morgan G. 
Brown, Geo. N. Stewart, and H. M. Bondurant. 
Later quite a number of the French colonists 
from Demopolis settled there, among them 
being the DeYamperts, DeJarnettes, Georges, 
Agees and Woolfs. 

References.— Tharin, Marengo County direc- 
tory, p. 53; Polk's Alabama gazetteer, 1888-9, 



Creek Indian town, on the south side of Line 
Creek, and in Montgomery County, probably 
an outlying settlement of some of the Talla- 
poosa River towns. 

References.- — Mms. data in Alabama Depart- 
ment Archives and History. 

LINEVILLE. Post office and station, on 
the Atlanta Birmingham & Atlantic Railroad, 
in the eastern part of Clay County, about 8 
miles west of Tallapoosa River, about 8 miles 
northeast of Ashland, and about 6 miles south- 
east of Pyriton. Altitude: 1,007 feet. Popu- 
lation: 1880 — 400; 1890 — 234; 1900 — 211; 
1910 — 1,053. It is incorporated under the 
municipal code of 1907. Its banks are the 
Lineville National, the Citizens National, and 
the Farmers & Merchants Bank (State). 
The Lineville Headlight, a Democratic weekly, 
established in 1904, is published there. 

References. — Brewer, Alabama (1872), p. 
182; Northern Alabama (1888), p. 127; Polk's 
Alabama gazetteer, 1888-9, p. 467; Alabama Of- 
ficial and Statistical Register, 1915. 

LITAFATCHI. An Upper Creek town in 
St. Clair County, situated on the right or 
south bank of Canoe Creek, between Ashville 
and Springville. The word is said to refer to 
the making of arrows. Few facts of its his- 
tory are preserved. It was destroyed by 
Lieut. Col. Robert H. Dyer, October 29, 1813, 
with a force of cavalry. 

References. — Pickett, History of Alabama 
(Owen's ed., 1900), p. 552; Handbook of Ameri- 
can Indians (1907), p. 769; Gatschet, in Ala- 
bama History Commission, Report (1901), vol. 
1, p. 403; Bureau of American Ethnology. 
Eighteenth annual report (1899), Pt. 2, map 
1; Brewer, Alabama (1872), p. 523. 

of Alabama embraces a large number of 
writers and authors. Many of these have 
possessed marked individuality, and their 
lives and labors have reflected honor upon 
the State. Their work has been of a high 
class, and includes every department of lit- 
erature — poetry, fiction, history, law and 

During the early settlement of the coun- 
try, and for many years afterwards, with 
one marked exception, there were no writers 
of consequence, the energies and activities of 
the people being largely absorbed in material 
affairs. Harry Toulmin, who came to Missis- 
sippi Territory in 1804 as Superior Court 
Judge for Washington District (now in Ala- 
bama), was one of the most distinguished 
men whose labors have been spent in the 
service of the State. He was thoroughly edu- 
cated, and before he came to the territory had 
displayed his skill as a political writer. In 
1807 he published a "Magistrates' Guide," 
and a "Digest of the Laws of the Mississippi 
Territory;" and in 1823 he compiled a "Di- 
gest of the Laws of Alabama." In addition 

to these legal publications, he was a fre- 
quent contributor to newspapers in various 
parts of the United States, and his descriptive 
writings did much to call attention to the 
attractions of the territory now embraced in 
Alabama. A number of his letters, now pre- 
served in manuscript, indicate a mind of 
vigor and versatility. He died in 1824. For 
twenty years he labored in season and out of 
season for the good of the Southern country, 
and his influence in these formative years 
it would be hard to overestimate. As belong- 
ing to the latter years of this early period 
should be named Henry Hitchcock's "Ala- 
bama Justice of the Peace" (1822); and 
Dr. Jabez W. Heustis' "Medical Facts and 
Inquiries, Respecting the Causes, Nature, Pre- 
vention and Cure of Fever" (Cahawba, 

With the improvement in the material con- 
ditions of the people, came the leisure and 
inclination for purely literary work. This 
tendency was encouraged by a growing press, 
through whose columns much excellent work 
appeared. The University, from the date of 
its establishment, was the center of intel- 
lectual activity, and furnished the nucleus of 
a literary coterie in A. B. Meek, John G. 
Barr, William R. Smith and others. Mr. 
Smith in 1837, published, at Mobile and 
Tuscaloosa, "The Bachelor's Button," a 
monthly museum of southern literature. It 
contained numerous short stories, poems and 
book reviews, and was the first periodical 
of its kind published in the State. In 1839, 
several numbers of the "Southron" appeared. 
It was likewise devoted to poetry, fiction, es- 
says, and book reviews, with the valuable 
addition of sketches in the early history of 
Alabama. It was edited by Alexander B. 
Meek, and contained contributions from a 
number of writers who subsequently acquired 
fame in the world of letters. In 1843-44 F. 
H. Brooks conducted the "Southern Educa- 
tional Journal and Family Magazine" (Mo- 
bile), filled with miscellaneous literary mat- 
ter. These periodicals, for want of support, 
had only a brief existence. 

Historical writing in the State had its be- 
ginning in a number of sketches of Alabama 
history published in 1839, by A. B. Meek 
in the "Southron." These were subsequently 
collected and revised, and, with additions, 
issued as "Romantic Passages in Southwest- 
ern History" (1857). The style is vivid and 
picturesque. The first distinctively historical 
volume published in the State was "A His- 
tory of the Rise and Progress of the Baptists 
in Alabama" (1840), prepared by Rev. Hosea 
Holcombe, one of the most earnest ministers 
in this church. The first effort in local his- 
tory writing was Samuel A. Townes' "His- 
tory of Marion, Alabama" (1844), a series 
of lively and spirited sketches. 

The publication in 1851, by Albert James 
Pickett, of the "History of Alabama and In- 
cidentally of Georgia and Mississippi from 
the Earliest Times," forms probably the most 
valuable secondary work on the history of 
the Southern country. Its execution required 
years of labor, and was attended by a liberal 



outlay of money in obtaining authorities and 
data. Its value has been recognized and 
acknowledged by the leading critics and his- 
torians. Mr. Pickett was also a vigorous poli- 
tical and controversial writer. 

Southwestern political history from the 
formation of the Federal government to 1861 
is graphically presented from the Southern 
view in Joseph Hodgeson's "Cradle of the 
Confederacy; or, the Times of Troup. Quit- 
man and Yancey," (1876). A similar, but 
far superior work, is John Witherspoon Du- 
ljose's "Life and Times of William Lowndes 
Yancey, a History of Political Parties in the 
United States, from 1834 to 1864" (1892). 
In this biography Mr. Dubose has made the 
best contribution of the South to Southern 
history. It is prepared with remarkable thor- 
oughness, and is not only the life of Yan- 
cey, but a story of the marvelous period of 
which he was the luminous central figure. 

One or tlie most prolific writers, and one 
whose utterances are always of value, is Dr. 
J. L. M. Curry. His work covers the entire 
field of intellectual effort, with the exception 
of poetry. His "Southern States of the 
American Union" (1894) is one of the most 
thoughtful and forceful presentations of the 
true historical relation of the States to the 
Constitution of the United States, that has yet 
appeared. Dr. Curry's writings on education 
and general topics have placed him in the 
first rank of the thinkers and leaders of the 

Excellent historical work has been done 
by William Garrett in "Reminiscences of 
Public Men in Alabama" (1872); Willis 
Brewer in "Alabama: Her History, Resources, 
War Record and Public Men" (1872); Dr. 
B. F. Riley. "History of the Baptists of 
Alabama" (1895); Dr. Anson West, "History 
of Methodism in Alabama" (1893); Rev. 
Walter C. Whitaker, "History of the Protes- 
ant Episcopal Church in Alabama" (1898); 
Willis G. Clark, "History of Education in 
Alabama" (1889); T. C. DeLeon, "Four 
Y T ears in Rebel Capitals" (1892); Henry W. 
Hilliard, "Politics and Pen Pictures at Home 
and Abroad" (1892); and Bishop R. H. Wil- 
mer's "Recent Past From a Southern Stand- 
point" (1887). 

A justly merited international reputation 
has been achieved by Hannis Taylor, through 
his "Origin and Growth of the English Con- 
stitution" (1889, 1898), a monumental work 
in two volumes. Its circulation has been 
large; and it forms the basis for Constitu- 
tional study in numbers of Universities. It 
has been said that it is the greatest work pro- 
duced in the South since Maury's "Physical 
Geography of the Sea." Other valuable and 
thoughtful institutional work has been done 
Dy Thomas H. Clark, Thomas Chalmers Mc- 
Corvey, Dr. George Petrie and Peter Joseph 
Hamilton. The latter has also prepared the 
most valuable local history in the decade — 
"Colonial Mobile" (1897) — in which he has 
rewritten in the light of new authorities the 
early history of the Gulf Coast. 

The success of women in the severer work 

of critic, biographer and historian is worthy 
of special note. As belonging to this class 
are Mary LaFayette Robbins' "Alabama 
Women in Literature" (1895); Miss Kate 
Cummings' "Journal of Hospital Life in the 
Confederate Army of Tennessee" (1886); 
Miss Mary Alice Caller's "Literary Guide for 
Home and School" (1892); Miss Louise 
Manly's "Southern Literature from 1579 to 
1895" (1895); Mrs. Virginia V. Clayton's 
"White and Black Under the Old Regime" 
(1899); and Miss Leila Herbert's "Homes 
of the First American" (1899). 

Probably the first literary production, as 
such, in Alabama was the little volume on 
verse, entitled "College Musings, or Twigs 
from Parnassus." published bv William R. 
Smith in 1833. in his eighteenth year. About 
the same time he issued "The Bridal Eve." 
another poetical work. Mr. Smith was prolific 
in verse, as in other writings, and through a 
long life his literary work has been extensive. 
He has rendered translations from Homer, 
prepared law books, indulged in original 
verse, entered the field of controversy, all 
with eminent skill. His "History and Debates 
of the Convention of 1861" (1861) is the 
principal authority for the events of that mo- 
mentous period. His latest important work 
was a volume of "Reminiscences" (1889). 
covering his long life of historical, political 
personal and literary recollections. 

Alexander B. Meek must, however, rank 
at the head of the poets of Alabama. His 
"Red Eagle, a Poem of the South" (1855) 
and "Songs and Poems of the South" (1857) 
have given him a reputation as a poet alto- 
gether beyond his fame as historian, journal- 
ist and topical writer. 

A number of others have essayed verse, 
and with success, but extended characteriza- 
tion cannot be given. Among those who have 
published fugitive pieces are Margaret 
(O'Brien) Davis, T. C. DeLeon, Miss Marv 
Gordon Duffee, Miss Julia Tutwiler, Miss 
Anne Bozeman Lyon. Mrs. I. M. P. Ockenden. 
Mrs. Margaret Henry-Ruffin, Mrs. Mary Mc- 
Neil Fannalosa and Miss Frances Nimmo 
Greene. Others have given their work to the 
public in book form. These are Thomas Bibb 
Bradley and Miss Julia (Pleasants) Cres- 
well's "Aphelia"; and other poems (1854); 
Louis DeY. Chaudron's "Madam La Mar- 
quis" (1892); W. P. Chilton, Jr.'s "Mansions 
of the Skies" (1875); Dr. Orion T. Dozier's 
"Foibles of Fancy and Rhymes of the Times" 
(1894); Mrs. Belle Richardson Harrison's 
"Poems"; Mrs. Caroline Lee Hentz's "De 
Lara; or. The Moorish Bride" (1843); Robert 
Loveman's "Poems" (1897); Andrew M. Mc- 
Connell's "Echoes from the Heart" (1895); 
Thomas Maxwell's "King Bee's Dream" 
(1875); J. M. Oliver's "Battle of Franklin, 
and other Poems" (1870); Samuel Minturn 
Peck's "Cap and Bells" (1886); "Rings and 
Love Knots" (1892); "Rhymes and Roses" 
(1895); "Fair Women of To-day" (1895). 
and other poems; A. J. Requier's "Poems" 
(1860); W. C. Richardson's "Gasper, a 
Romaunt" (1873); Samuel L. Robertson's 



"Dora, or On the Boarder, and other poems" 
(1894); Miss Howard Weeden's "Shadows 
on the Wall" (1899), and "Bandanna Ballads" 
(1899); and H. L. Flash's "Poems" (1860). 

The first efforts in fiction were put forth 
by Mrs. Caroline Lee Hentz. She came to 
Alabama in 1834 as a teacher, but the year 
preceding had published "Lovell's Folly." 
Her works are numerous, and when written 
were very popular. They depict Southern life 
in its refined aspects. Her best are "Linda" 
(1850); "Rena" (1850); and the "Planter's 
Northern Bride." Ranking next to Mrs. 
Hentz in point of time, but of superior merit, 
are the novels of Mrs. Augusta (Evans) 
Wilson. These are "Inez," "Beulah," "Ma- 
caria," "Vashti." "St. Elmo," "Infelice," and 
"At the Mercy of Tiberius." They have been 
widely circulated, and some have appeared 
in French and German translations. The 
writings of Mrs. Wilson have been criticized 
as too metaphysical and pedantic, but her 
style is flowing and her sentiments exalted 
and pure. Her personal character is one of 
modesty and sweetness. She resides at Mo- 
bile. Mrs. Elizabeth W. Bellamy, who died 
during the present year, was a novelist and 
short story writer of power and skill. Her 
works are "Four Oaks," "Kamba Thorpe," 
"The Little Joanna," and "Old Man Gilbert." 
Mrs. Aidelade deVendel Chaudron is one of 
the few textbook writers of the State. But 
she is best known by her delightful and ac- 
curate translation of Muhlbach's "Joseph II 
and His Court." 

Jeremiah Clemens, who had long been a 
prominent political figure, came before the 
public in 1856, with "Bernard Lile," an 
historical romance of the times of the Texas 
Revolution and the Mexican War. Two years 
later it was followed by "Mustang Gray," and 
in 1860 by "The Rivals," a tale of the time 
of Burr and Hamilton. 

While T. G. DeLeon has displayed remark- 
able versatility of talents, ranging from his- 
torical reminiscences to travesty, he excels in 
fiction. His first success was "Creole and 
Puritan" (1889), followed by "Juny" (1890), 
a "Fair Blockade-Breaker" (1891) and the 
"Puritan's Daughter" (1892), a sequel to 
"Creole and Puritan," but in "Crag-Nest" 
(1897), a romance of the days of Sheridan's 
ride, and "John Holden, Unionist" (1893), 
a romance of the days of destruction and re- 
construction, he attains the highest levels of 
his art. The last work appeared in collabora- 
tion with Erwin Ledyard. 

Other works of fiction which excited much 
interest at the time of the publication are 
Mrs. Julia (Pleasants) Creswell's "Calla- 
mura" (1868), an allegorical novel; Mrs. 
Mary Ann Cruse's "Cameron Hall" (1867), 
a picture of the hopes and expectations of 
the Southern heart during the War between 
the States; Miss M. P. Swaine's "Mara; or 
a Romance of the War" (1864); Willis 
Brewer's "Children of Issachar" (1884), a 
story of reconstruction times in Alabama; 
Henry W. Hilliard's "De Vane; a Story 
of Plebeians and Patricians" (1884); 

Dr. S. C. Oliver's "Onslow"; Mrs. Alice 
(Brownlee) Cole's "Affinities" (1890); Miss 
Ruby Beryl Kyle's "Paul St. Paul, a Son of 
the People" (1895); and Miss Anne Bozeman 
Lyon's "No Saint" (1890). "Judith, the 
Daughter of Judas," by Margaret (O'Brien) 
Davis, is an historical novel of great skill in 
execution and of sustained strength. 

The writers of short stories have been 

But the work of no writer has shed more 
lustre on the literary annals of the State 
,than the writings of Miss Mary Johns- 
ton. Her "Prisoners of Hope" and "To Have 
and to Hold" have everywhere met un- 
bounded applause. She has achieved the most 
remarkable literary success yet known to 
Southern women. Fortunately this fame will 
endure, for its foundation is based on solid 
and meritorious work. 

In the field of humor the work of Joseph 
G. Baldwin and Johnson Jones Hooper is 
unrivaled. "The Flush Times of Alabama 
and Mississippi" (1853 and later editions), 
by the former, is a volume of rare anecdote 
and unequalled humor. It illustrates the 
characters and phases of the "flush times" 
as no other book can ever do. Mr. Hooper's 
"Simon Suggs' Adventures," and other writ- 
ings, afford never-tiring amusement. Mr. 
Baldwin and Mr. Hooper are not, however, to 
be judged by their work of this character 
alone. They were men of prominent ability, 
the former a profound jurist, and the latter, 
at his death, the head of Alabama journalism. 
Other humorous work has been done by 
Francis B. Lloyd, under the name of "Rufus 
Sanders," Sage of Rocky Creek; while T. C. 
DeLeon has won wide applause by his bur- 
lesque and good-humored satire. 

Books descriptive of travel in foreign lands 
have not been numerous. In 1857, Octavia 
(Walton) LeVert published "Souvenirs of 
Travel," in two volumes. Her writing is 
characterized by ease and grace of style, with 
excellent descriptive power. Madame LeVert 
was a woman of rare brilliance, and her 
conversational powers were remarkable. 
Other publications of this class by Alabam- 
ians are Peter J. Hamilton's "Rambles in 
Historic Lands" (1893); Edgar Magness' 
"Tramp Tales of Europe" (1895); and Rev. 
W. A. Whittle's "Baptist Abroad, or Travels 
and Adventures in Europe and All Bible 
Lands" (1890). 

The high value of the scientific writings 
of Dr. Josiah C. Nott has been generally 
recognized. Prof. Michael Tourney, Dr. 
Eugene Allen Smith, Henry McCalley, T. H. 
Aldrich and D. W. Langdon have enriched 
the literature of geology by their contribu- 
tions. The writings of Dr. Charles Mohr 
embrace the entire field of Alabama forestry. 
Dr. P. H. Mell, of the Alabama Polytechnic 
Institute, is the author of a number of im- 
portant botanical, as well as some valuable 
biographical works. 

Other Alabama writers in the various 
branches of literary work, of whom a men- 
tion only can be made, are Mrs. Laura S. 



Webb, Mrs. Annie Creight Lloyd, Mrs, Lilian 
Rozell Messenger, Mrs. Sarah E. Peck, Mrs. 
Julia L. Keyes, Mrs. Catherine Barber Towles, 
Mrs. Julia Finley Shelton, Dr. B. F. Meek, 
Francis B. Clark, Wade Keyes, George P. Keyes, 
Benj. F. Porter, W. W. Screws, Erwin Craig- 
head, Hilary A. Herbert, Dr. W. S. Wyman, Clif- 
ford Lanier. R. C. Brickell, Anthony W. Dillard. 
Saffold Berney, George M. Cruikshank, Chappel 
Cory, Lucien Julien Walker, William Garrott 
Brown, Sam Will John, Dr. Wm. LeRoy 
Broun, Dr. J. K. Powers, Rufus N. Rhodes, 
Edward W. Barrett, Richard F. Johnston, 
Miss Martha Young, Mrs. George C. Ball, Mrs. 
Wm. C. Jemison, Dr. J. H. Phillips, Joel C. 
DuBose, Miss Bell Moses, Mrs. Zach Smith, 
Charles C. Thach, Mrs. J. M. DeCottes, and 
Miss Annie Kendrick Walker. This is not 
intended to be a complete list, and doubtless 
many meritorious names have not been noted. 
In the space allowed, however, it could not 
be made more exhaustive. (From Owen's 
edition of Pickett's Alabama, 1900.) 

Alabama Men Authors, Pamphleteers and 
Contributors to the Press. — Peter J. Hamil- 
ton, Mobile; Dr. W. S. Wyman, Tuscaloosa; 
Dr. W. C. Richardson, Tuscaloosa; Col. T. C. 
McCorvey, University; Prof. M. C. Burke, 
University; Dr. E. A. Smith, University; Prof. 
Wm. F. Prouty, University; Prof. J. J. Dos- 
ter, University; Prof. E. B. Kay, University; 
Prof. Joel C. DuBose, Birmingham; Rev. J. 

E. D. Hall, Birmingham; Dr. A. P. Montague, 
East Lake; Dr. J. H. Phillips, Birmingham; 
Mr. Frank P. Glass, Birmingham; Col. S. W. 
John, Birmingham; John B. Weakley, Esq., 
Birmingham; Judge J. J. Mayfield, Montgom- 
ery; Dr. W. H. Sanders, Montgomery; Col. 

A. M. Garber, Birmingham; L. H. Lee, Esq., 
Montgomery; Dr. John W. Abercrombie, Uni- 
versity; Hon. T. H. Allen, Florence; Senator 
John H. Bankhead, Jasper; Senator Joseph 

F. Johnston, Birmingham; Rev. T. H. Hall, 
Crown Point, Indiana; Saffold Berney, Esq., 
Mobile; Dr. E. D. Bondurant, Mobile; Dr. 
W. H. Blake, Sheffield; S. J. Bowie, Esq., 
Birmingham; Willis Brewer, Esq., Montgom- 
ery; Rev. George E. Brewer, Montgomery; 
F. G. Bromberg, Esq., Mobile; Judge Arm- 
stead Brown, Montgomery; Hon. John L. 
Burnett, Gadsden; Wm. M. Byrd, Esq., Bir- 
mingham; Col. F. G. Caffey, New York, 
N. Y.; Dr. C. A. Cary, Auburn; Rev. C. L. 
Chilton, Montgomery; T. H. Clark, Esq., 
Washington, D. C; Hon. H. D. Clayton, 
Eufaula; Gov. B. B. Comer, Birmingham; 
Lawrence Cooper, Esq., Huntsville; Hon. W. 

B. Craig, Selma; Dr. J. D. S. Davis, Bir- 
mingham; Frank Deedmeyer, Esq., Birming- 
ham; Judge Edward deGraffenried, Montgom- 
ery; T. C. DeLeon, Esq., Mobile; S. H. Dent, 
Jr., Montgomery; G. W. Duncan, Esq., 
Auburn; L. M. Duncan, Esq., Auburn; Judge 
N. B. Feagin, Birmingham; Hon. J. H. Fitts, 
Tuscaloosa; Dr. Walter L. Fleming, Baton 
Rouge, La.; Dr. Wm. O. Scroggs, Baton 
Rouge, La.; Harry Gunnels, Esq., Montgom- 
ery; W. A. Gunter, Esq., Montgomery; H. 
S. Halbert, Montgomery; W. P. G. Harding, 
Esq., Birmingham; Mr. Hiram Hawkins, 

Hawkinsville; Hon. J. Thomas Heflin, Lafay- 
ette; Hon. H. A. Herbert. Washington, D. C.; 
Dr. L. L. Hill, Montgomery; Hon. R P Hob- 
son, Greensboro; Gov. W. D. Jelks, Birming- 
ham; Judge Thomas G. Jones. Montgomery; 
Hon. John B. Knox. Anniston; Hon. W P 
Lay, Gadsden; Hon. J. T. Letcher, Montgom- 
ery; Judge E. S. Lyman, Montevallo; Dr W 
F. Melton. Oxford. Ga.; Dr. G F Mellen" 
Knoxville, Tenn.; Dr. A. G. Moses, Mobile;' 
W D. Nesbitt, Birmingham; Frank Nun- 
nelle. Esq., Montgomery; Gov. Emmet 
ONeal, Montgomery; Dr. J. K. Powers 
Florence; Dr. B. B. Ross, Auburn; Ray Rush- 
ton, Esq., Montgomery; Dr. J. T. Searcv 
Tuscaloosa; Will T. Sheehan, Esq., Montgom- 
ery; Judge H. M. Somerville, New York N 
Y.; Dr. Charles A. Stakely, Montgomery; 
J. S. Stalhngs, Esq., Birmingham; Prof. J 
M. Starke, Montgomery; O. D. Street, Esq., 
Guntersville; Hon. Hannis Taylor, Washing- 
\° n ' D - C; Dr. C. C. Thach, Auburn; Judge 
Wm. H. Thomas, Montgomery; Judge W S 
Thonngton. Montgomery; Major W. W 
Screws, Montgomery; Alexander Troy Esq ' 
Montgomery; Walker Percy, Esq., Birming- 
ham; Hon. J. H. Wallace, Jr., Montgomery; 
E. L. C. Ward, Esq., Talladega; J. J. Willett, 
Esq., Anmston; S. A. Woods, Esq., Birming- 
ham; Col. M. L. Woods, Montgomery; Dr 
John A. Wyeth, New York, N Y.; Dr B f' 
Riley, Birmingham; Morgan D. Jones', Esq ' 
Floralla; S. J. Shields, Esq., Vernon- Rev' 
Dr. W. C. Bledsoe, Lafayette; Rev Dr' 
Josephus Shackleford, Tuskegee; Dr. J F 
Duggar, Auburn; J. M. Riggs, Esq., Mont- 
gomery; Dr. C. L. McCartha, Troy; Dr E M 
Shackleford, Troy; Prof. I. w. Hill, Mobile-' 
Dr. R. M. Smith, Montgomery; Capt. W C 
Jordan, Midway; W. E. W. Yerbv, Greens- 
boro; Rev. Edgar Gardner Murphy, Mont- 
gomery; Rev. Stewart McQueen, Montgom- 
ery; Dr. Erwin Craighead, Mobile; Wm 
Garrott Brown, Asheville, N. C.; Rev Frank 
Seay, Georgetown, Texas; Gen. J. B. Stanley, 
Greenville; Peter A. Brannon, Montgomery; 
Thomas M. Owen, Montgomery; H. F Thomp- 
son, Montgomery; Grover C. Hall, Montgom- 
ery; Horace C. Hood, Montgomery; Frank 
Harvey Miller, Montgomery; Joseph I Mc- 
Iver, David Holt, Joe McCoy, Montgomery. 

„ fJ T H° GR APHIC STONE. Some of the 
bedded hmestone of the lower Carboniferous 
formation has been quarried in Jackson 
County, and used in producing very satis- 
factory lithographic prints. Certain of the 
Knox dolomites in the central part of the 
State have been pronounced suitable for this 
purpose, but little practical use has so far 
been made of them. The details of the dif- 
ferent beds of calcareous rocks above re- 
ferred to may be found in the reports of the 
Geological Survey of Alabama, particularly 
in the Report on the Valley Regions, parts 
1 and 2. 

References. — Smith and McCalley, Index to 
mineral resources of Alabama (Geol. Survey of 
Ala., Bulletin 9, 1904), p. 32;'U. S. Geol. Survey 



Mineral resources of United States, 1883, pp. 

engagement or attack, by Col. Dyer, with 2 00 
cavalry, October 29, 1813, in which the In- 
dian village of Littafuchee was destroyed. 
The town was attacked at four o'clock in 
the morning. It was burned, and 29 pris- 
oners, consisting of men, women and children 
were taken. This town was located on the 
headwaters of Canoe Creek, between Ashville 
and Springville in St. Clair County. 

References. — Pickett, History of Alabama 
(Owen's ed., 1900), pp. 552-553; Brewer, Ala- 
bama (1872), p. 523. 

LITTLE MOUNTAIN. A striking topo- 
graphical feature of the Tennessee Valley, 
separating the Moulton and Russellville Val- 
ley (q. v.) from the rest of the main valley. 
Its general direction is east and west, and it 
gradually merges with Sand Mountain (q. v.) 
on the east. Its slope to the west is gradual 
from its apex to near the Mississippi line. The 
mountain is about 85 miles long and 10 miles 
broad, from 875 to 1,000 feet above sea level 
at its summit, and from 300 to 500 feet above 
the general level of the Tennessee Valley. It 
is composed of hard capping strata with softer 
underlying strata. In the latter, which crop 
out on the steeper northern side, are several 
caves and big springs. Some of the springs 
have deen dammed, forming subterranean 
ponds which furnish water power to run mills. 
The scenery, both on the mountain itself 
and that visible from its elevations, is very 
picturesque. Many fine views of the Ten- 
nessee Valley can be had, and also of high 
bluffs, rock houses, natural bridges over sinks, 
etc., most of them along the numerous water- 
courses of the valley. The southern slope of 
the mountain has a thin, light-yellowish, sili- 
ceous soil. Its principal growth is short-leaf 
pine. Asphalt, gas, and petroleum have been 
obtained in small quantities on the mountain 
but have not been important commercially. 
The towns of Hartselle and Somerville are 
situated on its southern slope. 

Reference. — McCalley, Valley regions of Ala- 
bama, pt. 1, Tennessee Valley (Geol. Survey 
of Ala., Special report 8, 1896), pp. 17, 156, 257. 

LITTLE RIVER, postoffice and interior vil- 
lage, in the extreme northern part of Bald- 
win County on the south bank of Little River; 
about 6 miles northeast of Blacksher; and 
about 30 miles north of Bay Minette. Pop- 
ulation: 1910, 70. 

This was one of the earliest settled sections 
of the interior. Pickett refers to "the wealthy 
half-bloods about Little River." Alexander 
McGillivray spent the winter of 1792-93 here, 
presumably on his own plantation, or at one 
of his homes, Just prior to his death at Pen- 
sacola Februa'ry 17, 1793. In November, 
1773, Francis, a trader, lived in the vicinity 
and a record is preserved of his ransom of a 
negro woman from the Indians for $100 (pe- 
sos). David Tait's cow-pens were on or near 
the river; and here Col. James Caller was 

reinforced by a company from Tensaw Lake 
and Little River, under Capt. Dixon Bailey, 
a half-breed Creek, on the ill fated Burnt 
Corn expedition in 1813. 

After the Creek War, Weatherford, whose 
relatives were numerous in this region, gath- 
ered his negroes, horses and cattle together 
and settled permanently. Meek says: "His 
home, to which his family repaired, was lo- 
cated in a fine live-oak grove upon the banks 
of Little River." He died March 9, 1824, 
and is buried near by. His remains lie in an 
unmarked grave. 

The Little River is the boundary between 
Baldwin and Monroe Counties, and between 
Monroe and Escambia. 

References. — Pickett, Alabama (Owen's ed., 
1900), pp. 429, 522, 528; Hamilton, Colonial 
Mobile (1910), p. 349; Meek, Romantic pas- 
sages in southwestern history (1857), pp. 

discussed, live stock includes domestic and 
farm animals, that is, horses, donkeys, mules, 
cattle (bulls, milch cows and steers), sheep, 
goats and hogs. Live stock products include 
dairy products (milk, cream, butter, cheese), 
hides, tallow and wool. The United States 
censuses of 1900 and 1910 included poultry 
and bees with live stock. Notwithstanding 
this arrangement in government statistics, 
these two topics are treated separately. 

Early History. — With the planting of their 
colonies, the French brought horses, cattle, 
and hogs. They also brought other living 
things, as well as such material things as 
could be brought so great a distance, which 
would add to comfort and enjoyment in the 
new homes. The history of livestock is in a 
way, therefore, contemporaneous and concur- 
rent with the expansion and growth of the 
colonists themselves. All animal life multi- 
plied rapidly, and in a few years, in all sec- 
tions where the French maintained posts or 
settlements, they were surrounded by flocks 
and herds. Records are preserved of the use 
of cattle as money, or as a medium of ex- 
change. For the sale of a lot and house in 
Mobile, made in 1749, the consideration was 
not named in money, but "fifteen cows and 
calves, one pair of oxen of three years, and a 
bull of two years and a half, the whole to be 
paid in two installments." In 1765, a great 
Indian conference was held in Mobile, and 
John Stuart, Indian superintendent, made 
contracts for "beef cattle at 20 piastres a 
head" to meet the needs of the large numbers 
who were to be in attendance. Some of these 
cattle were brought into town from the range, 
but they were found to be "too poor for 

In 1765, cattle and horses were at large 
in the interior, mention being made of them 
in land cessions of that year made by the 
Creeks to the British. Maj. Robert Farmer 
was the commandant at Mobile under the Brit- 
ish domination. In exploring the country north 
of Mobile, with a view to causing the with- 
drawal of the French, he found them engaged 
in cattle raising. In 1766, one of the officers 



reported that there were 2,280 head of cattle 
belonging to the people on the east side of 
the Bay of Mobile. In 1767, it appears that 
cattle was shipped from the country west of 
Mobile into Louisiana, a practice soon to be 
declared unlawful. 

The uplands and forests were always good 
ranges for cattle, and in 1812, Josiah Blakeley 
writes to relatives in Connecticut, among 
other things, that cattle and hogs do well on 
such lands. Speaking specifically, he says, 
"Upon them I have about 3 head of cattle 
and hundreds of hogs, the hogs wild. I shoot 
or catch them with dogs." 

During the French period, the value of the 
horse was not much appreciated. For local 
use, oxen were employed. Long voyages were 
made into the interior by boat or on foot along 
the Indian trails. In developing the farms, 
oxen were used for plowing, rather than 

Among the Indians, a breed of horses had 
been developed from the "Spanish barbs." 
In 1780, Galvez, then in command of New 
Orleans, took Mobile for the Spanish. The 
British in command at Pensacola evidently 
had mounted men, since the Indians were em- 
ployed to drive back the Spaniards "who had 
crossed the Perdido and overpowered the 
British advance posts in order to drive off 

On the trip through the southern country 
in 1777 made by William Bartram, the botan- 
ist, his party traveled on horseback. Bar- 
tram records that his horse gave out, and in 
order to keep up with his companions, "he 
had to buy a new one from some traders 
whom they met," at a cost of ten pounds. 
Bartram describes a custom of traders which 
allowed their horses to gra-ze at night, and 
because of the difficulty in getting them to- 
gether, they were unable to start in the morn- 
ing until the sun was high. When the beasts 
were loaded and ready, they fell into single 
file, urged along with whip and whoop. 

The more wealthy Indians in early Ameri- 
can times, had large plantations along the 
Alabama and other rivers. These were 
stocked with horses, cattle, and hogs. Owing 
to natural conditions, trade was limited, al- 
though Mobile afforded a market. 

Among the historic horses of which record 
is made in Indian annals, is the gray horse 
"Arrow," which Weatherford rode in his leap 
into the Alabama River, after the battle of 
the Holy Ground. Some writers state that 
Weatherford rode the same horse when he 
came into Fort Jackson to surrender after 
the Creek War. 

The remarkable eight-day ride of Sam Dale, 
from Hawkins Creek agency in Georgia, with 
despatches from Washington for Gen. Jack- 
son, at Mobile, was made on a tough Georgia 
pony, which bore the name of Paddy. 

Pioneer and Later Development. — The pio- 
neers brought with them horses, cattle and 
hogs. Soon after permanent settlement came 
sheep, goats, and poultry. With the develop- 
ment of plantations and the enlargement of 
agricultural interests, mules were introduced. 
Water and forage, the two factors which 

largely contributed to stock raising in the 
early settlement of the State were abundant. 
Ranges as a rule were good. Cattle were 
rarely ever confined. During even the cold- 
est winters, in the river bottoms and densely 
wooded areas, they flourished without any 
care or attention. With the taking up of 
lands, however, and the building up of waste 
spaces, the open range was discouraged. In 
some sections long dry seasons made stock 
raising unprofitable, both commercially and 
for local use. With the advent of the arte- 
sian or bored well, these conditions changed. 

The early years of the State found the 
planters and farmers all interested in the 
development of good breeds, and many of the 
very best strains had their origins on the 
plantations of the South in ante bellum days. 
The few farmers' publications preserved dur- 
ing the first half of the nineteenth century, 
have interesting illustrations of blooded ani- 
mals. Prior to the War, 1861, the business 
of importing selected breeds had assumed 
quite large proportions. The absence of sta- 
tistics makes difficult the presentation of de- 
tails of introduction and cultivation. 

The census of 1840 shows 668,018 cattle, 
163,243 sheep, 143.147 horses and mules, and 
1,423,873 hogs. By 1850, the value of live- 
stock had increased to $21,690,112 which 
included 728,015 cattle, 371,880 sheep, 187,- 
896 horses and mules, and 1,904,510 hogs. 
The census of 1850 recorded a wool clip of 
657,118 pounds and in 1860, 775, 117 pounds. 
This fell off to 318,253 pounds in 1870, while 
in 1909 it fell off still further to 339,884 
pounds, valued at $85,667. The census of 
18 60 shows a decrease in the values of live- 
stock products, and on account of the War, 
several decades passed before the State 
reached the high-water mark of 1850. 

During the War period and for many years 
afterward, indeed, until within the last twen- 
ty-five years, there had been little change in 
live stock development in the State. Energies 
of the people during the years from 1861 to 
1875 were directed toward the continuation 
of living opportunities, rather than to in- 
troduction of new methods, new breeds and 
improvements in other directions. While in 
many individual instances and in some coun- 
ties there were signs of betterment, these 
things were the exception rather than the 
rule. The cattle, horses and mules in the 
State during the particular period mentioned 
were hardly more than sufficient to meet 
the actual needs of farms, and other local 
domestic and business uses. It is to be noted 
here that live stock did not increase for the 
better in the ratio of the increase in other 
departments of agriculture. This was true 
notwithstanding agricultural societies and 
other organizations encouraged stock raising 
and the improvement of cattle. 

Imported Stock, 185 4. — As illustrative of 
live stock activities, particularly in the mat- 
ter of the importance of breeds, the follow- 
ing record of a progressive community in 
middle Alabama is given. The community 
referred to was in Autauga county, and in- 
cluded Robinson's Springs and Coosada. The 



letter was in the "Cotton planter," February 
1854, in answer to a meager description given 
in an earlier number of that journal. Mr. 
Jackson says: 

"The stock here referred to, was purchased 
for myself and some of my neighbors, by an 
agent of mine of the vicinity of Poughkeepsie, 
N. Y. In this lot of stock, I had a bull and 
heifer of the short-horn Durham breed; a 
buck and ewe of the Cotswold breed of sheep, 
the buck weighing at one year old one hun- 
dred and sixty pounds live weight; and a 
pair of Suffolk pigs; my brother, Gen. C. M. 
Jackson, a bull and heifer, and a pair of 
Cotswold sheep; Capt. Lunceford Long, a 
heifer and pair of Cotswold sheep; Capt. 
Joseph S. Ruse a pair of Cotswold sheep, and 
Mr. Robert J. Glenn a heifer. Since this 
importation, Gen. Jackson has added to his 
stock a pair of Suffolk pigs. My agent "was 
instructed, in the first place, to look to the 
purity of pedigree, and in the next place, in 
the case of cattle, to their milking qualities; 
in the case of sheep, to size and quality of 
mutton; and in the case of pigs, to their fat- 
tening qualities. This importation of stock 
is destined, no doubt, to have a favorable 
influence on stockbreeding in this part of 

"Col. Hall was in advance of myself and 
the gentlemen above named, in the introduc- 
tion of fine stock into this neighborhood. 
More than a year ago he had an arrival of 
a short-horn Durham bull, some heifers of 
the same breed, a Devon heifer, and a half 
dozen South Down sheep. He has lost by 
death some of this stock, but has some of 
each variety yet alive and doing well. 

"When I say above that Col. Hall was in 
advance of others in the introduction of fine 
stock into our neighborhood, I only speak in 
reference to recent times. In 183 6, I imported 
from England some very fine stock. The bull 
of that importation lived till 1848. The im- 
provement in my cattle, and the cattle of my 
neighbors, from having bred to him for so 
long a time, is most manifest." 

Improvement in Post Bellum Conditions. — 
However, the campaign for improved condi- 
tions, persistently made by the experts of the 
U. S. Department of Agriculture through its 
Bureau of Animal Industry, the Alabama 
Polytechnic Institute through its Experiment 
Station, and the State Department of Agricul- 
ture and Industries, began to bear fruit in 
the last quarter of the last century. The 
statistics for this period form a stimulating 
record of progress, not only in the various 
improvements in all farm animals, but also in 
the increase of the business of live stock grow- 
ing for the market. The first essential 
toward successful cattle raising, namely, the 
introduction of well-bred or high-bred ani- 
mals, has been made. The great herds of the 
middle west have been drawn upon to improve 
individual stock as well as local dairy and 
commercial herds. This process has gone on 
until nearly all cattle of Alabama have now 
more or less of improved blood. The old 
scrub cattle have almost disappeared, except 
in isolated localities. 

Hand in hand with the improvement just 
narrated, have been the formation of live 
stock associations, both county and city. The 
Montgomery Live Stock Association, formed 
in 1915, is an excellent illustration of the 
value of organized effort, through thoughtful 
direction. The various State, sectional and 
county fairs have shared in the progress of the 
period. They have invited exhibits of thor- 
ough bred horses, mules and cattle, sheep, 
goats and h"gs, not only from their home 
products, but also from abroad. Without dis- 
paraging other agencies, expositions and fairs 
have perhaps done more than any other by 
way of giving publicity to the live stock in- 
dustry, and the fine opportunities offered for 
raising thorough bred stock for the market. 

Legislation and Regulation. — Mississippi 
Territory was but one year old when the gov- 
ernor and judges, September 21, 1799, by 
virtue of their legislative powers, provided a 
penalty of ten dollars a head for the bringing 
into the territory of "cattle afflicted with a 
contagious distemper." In March, 1803, the 
territorial legislature enacted "that every per- 
son in this territory, who hath any horses, cat- 
tle or other stock, shall have a brand and 
ear mark, different from the brand and ear 
mark of every other person in the same 
county," such brand and mark to be recorded 
in the county. Heavy fines were imposed for 
altering or defacing marks or brands. In 
1807 a stringent stray law was adopted, 
which together with other legislation, was re- 
enacted December 21, 1820. In territorial 
times one of the county officials of much im- 
portance was the ranger, whose duties re- 
quired, among other things, the looking after 
stray animals. Penalties were provided for 
killing live stock and domestic animals by 
persons "hunting with fire in the night-time." 
Stock drovers passing with their stock through 
the country were required to be careful that 
stock from the ranges should not join their 
droves, and if any such should be discovered, 
a halt was to be made to separate them. 
Drovers and butchers, their slaves or servants, 
were not permitted to "drive cattle, sheep or 
swine in any part of this territory [Missis- 
sippi], on the first day of the week, called 
Sunday, under the penalty of five dollars." 

One of the early criminal statutes, Decem- 
ber 17, 1821, provides for the punishment of 
"malicious mischief," that is, the unlawful, 
wanton or malicious killing, disabling, disfig- 
uring, or injury to any animal, the property 
of another. On April 8, 1873, owners of dogs, 
"known to worry, or kill sheep," who per- 
mitted them "to run at large," were guilty 
of a misdemeanor; and on February 26, 1881, 
the prohibition was extended so as to include 
hogs, and the protection, to "sheep or domes- 
tic fowls or goats." Legislation for the pre- 
vention of cruelty to animals dates from Feb- 
ruary 27, 1883. 

Stock Law Districts. — In Alabama the com- 
mon law doctrine that one must confine his 
cattle to his own premises has not been 
adopted, not being suited to the condition of 
the people, and is opposed to the legislation 
of the State as to estrays and damage by ani- 


mals at large. Therefore the owner of cattle 
is not a trespasser, and can demand ordinary 
care and diligence to avoid injury to them 
while upon another's unenclosed lands, or on 
a railroad track. The language of the court 
in Pruitt v. Ellington is that: "It is the right 
of every owner to permit his cattle and stock 
to run at large; those who would avoid in- 
jury to their lands from the exercise of this 
right, must enclose against them." Because 
of this, fences were everywhere necessary for 
the protection of crops, orchards and gardens. 
Even in pioneer times there was a feeling of 
protest against the language of the common 
law rule, and communications are found in the 
papers of the times, proposing various meas- 
ures of relief. 

At the West Alabama Fair, Demopolis, No- 
vember 1, 1859, Col. Isaac Croom, at one time 
president of the State Agricultural Society, 
presented "An essay on the propriety and 
policy of abolishing fences." This essay was 
awarded a prize. The writer pointed out 
what appeared to him to be the large and 
unnecessary expense of fencing, and at the 
same time suggested that improved stock con- 
ditions could not be looked for until all their 
stock were kept in enclosures, rather than 
turned out to make their subsistence on the 
public commons or pastures. He urged an 
appeal to the legislature for the passage of 
special or private laws laying out fence law 
districts, or in providing for the common 
fencing of large areas by the beneficiaries who 
would be enclosed. 

Just when the first district stock law was 
passed has not been determined. However, 
on December 3, 1866, an act was passed for 
the protection of the crops within certain 
limits of Dallas County, and in which it was 
made unlawful "for any stock of any descrip- 
tion whatever to run at large at any time," 
between February 15 and December 25 fol- 
lowing in the same year. On December 29, 
1868, an act was likewise passed to regulate 
the enclosure of stock in Greene County. 
The former was repealed March 9, 1871, and 
the latter was supplanted by a new act Feb- 
ruary 18, 1871. The legislative records at 
every session, until the adoption of the con- 
stitution of 1901, contain many stock law 
acts. These multiplied as interest in stock 
raising and the improvement of breeds in- 
creased, and in many instances almost entire 
counties were covered. As might have been 
expected these acts were attacked, but the 
supreme court uniformly held that laws pre- 
venting the running of stock at large within 
certain districts were within the constitu- 
tional power of the legislature. 

In 1903, the legislature, September 29, 
passed a general stock law for the establish- 
ment of separate stock districts, with provisos 
that it should not apply to incorporated cities 
and towns, and that it should not be con- 
strued as repealing any of the local stock 
laws heretofore enacted. 

Municipal Regulation. — Adequate powers 
are usually granted municipalities to regulate 
live stock and products for the protection of 
the public health. The general municipal 

Vol. n— 12 

laws confer authority to regulate the sale of 
fresh meats, and to establish a system of in- 
spection of slaughter houses, and of meats, 
either before or after being butchered. Such 
powers, however, are not self-executing, and 
the city authorities must provide a means for 
their enforcement. The case of Barrett v. 
Mobile, 129 Ala., p. 180, contains an inter- 
esting discussion of such legislation. Milk 
and meat inspectors are appointed in Annis- 
ton, Auburn, Bessemer, Birmingham, Green- 
ville, Mobile, Montgomery, Selma, Troy, Tus- 
caloosa and Union Springs. Concerning the 
important subject of inspection, Dr. Charles 
A. Cary, state veternarian, in his Report for 
1917 says: 

"In some towns the officials seem to think 
that a city marshal, or a policeman or a 
butcher, is qualified to inspect meat and milk. 
This is a serious mistake and officials should 
learn that it requires special instruction and 
experience to become an efficient milk and 
meat inspector. In many states the law spe- 
cifically states that a meat or milk inspector 
must be a graduate of a legally recognized 
veterinary college. The time has come when 
such should be the case in Alabama, since 
Alabama has the only legally recognized and 
qualified veterinary college in the South. 

"It is gratifying to note that Birmingham 
for the first time has tested a large part of 
the dairy cattle that supply milk to the city 
public. The city should now employ more 
graduate veterinarians." 

Live Stock Diseases. — Live stock are care- 
fully protected from diseases of all kinds to 
which they are subject. Laws exist, prohibit- 
ing their transportation to the State when 
infected, or from infected districts. A live 
stock sanitary board and the office of state 
veterinarian have been established, not only 
to protect cattle and to administer the stat- 
utes for the regulation of the live stock in- 
dustry, but to safeguard the public health. 
In this work they have had the valuable sup- 
port of the United States Department of 
Agriculture. The live stock sanitary board 
and the state veterinarian have large powers, 
and for particulars, see those titles. 

Any person having in his possession a horse 
or other animal "afflicted with glanders or 
other fatal contagious or infectious disease, 
who fails to keep such diseased horse or other 
animal securely confined and away from all 
other animals" is subject to a fine, and is also 
liable, in a civil action, "for all damages sus- 
tained by any person by reason of such fail- 
ure." The sale or exchange of a "choking" 
horse, or one afflicted with glanders, or other 
fatal contagious or infectious disease is pun- 
ishable by fine of not less than $100 nor more 
than $500, and a hard labor sentence of not 
less than three nor more than six months may 
be imposed. For special discussion of Hog 
Cholera serum laboratory and Cattle tick era- 
dication, see titles below. 

Cattle Tick Eradication. — The cattle tick 
has throughout the entire history of the 
State been the greatest menace to cattle. 
The Texas or tick fever is the most common 
of all cattle diseases, and it is now known 


that the cause of transmission from infected 
to non-immune cattle is only by and through 
the cattle tick. While this condition was 
generally known, farmers, dairymen and stock 
raisers submitted to the menace, with great 
losses to their herds. No systematic effort 
at relief was undertaken. The usual practice 
was merely to apply oils by means of swabs 
or sprays, and by picking off by hand. 

Dr. Charles A. Cary, veterinarian of the Ala- 
bama Polytechnic Institute, in 1901 published 
the results of a series of investigations as -to 
tick fever, which was republished with addi- 
tions in 1907. In his report for 1902, he 
declared that "The time is coming when Ala- 
bama must begin the battle of tick-extermina- 
tion," meaning, by organized effort, and by 
legislative aid, if need be. This appeal and 
prophecy was realized in the passage of the 
act of March 12, 1907, in which it was di- 
rected "That the work of cattle tick eradica- 
tion, or the suppression or eradication of any 
other infectious, contagious or communicable 
disease of live stock shall be taken up by 
the live stock sanitary board." The same act 
conferred authority upon county commission- 
ers in which the State or Federal authorities 
should take up the work, to make appropria- 
tions in aid thereof. The first work was done 
in Baldwin County, a preliminary canvass 
being made by Dr. Robbins, of the Bureau 
of Animal Industry, and Dr. I. S. McAdory, 
of the Alabama Experiment Station, working 
under the law just referred to. Notwithstand- 
ing a careful canvass, a meeting of the farm- 
ers decided that they did not wish cattle tick 
work to continue in their county. About the 
same time work was taken up in Limestone 
and Madison Counties, and as a result, they 
would each have been wholly free of cattle 
tick, if the law had not been so amended 
August 20, 1909, as to prohibit its operation in 
counties which did not have stock laws ap- 
plying to more than half their territory. In 
1908 the State and Federal authorities 
adopted the policy of working only in coun- 
ties, which would cooperate by furnishing 
one or more inspectors. This policy continued 
until 1915. 

The legislature of 1915 determined upon a 
more definite and vigorous course for the 
further prosecution of the work. On March 
5 an act was passed whereby elections could 
be held to determine the question of whether 
or not tick eradication should be undertaken 
by counties, under the direction of the State 
Live Stock Sanitary Board as provided by law. 
On September 2, 1915, an amendment to the 
original law was adopted providing that noth- 
ing in the act should be construed as requiring 
an election to be held for the work in those 
counties where it was then being conducted 
under county authorization. The same leg- 
islature March 25, 1915, made an appropria- 
tion of $25,000 annually for four years, for 
the use of the Live Stock Sanitary Board 
"for the purpose of eradicating the cattle 

References.— Tick Eradication: Code, 1907, 
sec. 765; General Acts, 1907, p. 416; 1909, p. 61; 
1915, pp. 123, 204, 341; Dr. C. A. Cary, in Agri- 

cultural Experiment Station, Reports, 1902, p. 
26; 1904, p. 28; 1905, p. 16; 1906, p. 23; Tait 
Butler, "Why eradicate the cattle ticks," in Ala- 
bama Live Stock Association, Proceedings, 1911, 
pp. 53-57; Dr. J. A. Kiernan, "Necessary steps 
for eradicating the cattle tick in Alabama," in 
Ibid, 1914, pp. 35-43; Dr. R. E. Jackson, "Tick 
eradication," Ibid, 1916, pp. 22-25; Dr. Cary, 
"Texas or acclimation fever," in Alabama Ex- 
periment Station, Bulletins, vol. 9, p. 149 (Bull. 
No. 116), "Texas or tick fever," in Ibid, vol. 
15, p. 107 (Bull. No. 141); and "Dipping vats 
and dips," in Ibid, vol. 21, p. 98 (Bull. No. 171) ; 
and Graybill and Lewallen, "Biology or life his- 
tory of the cattle tick," in Ibid, Bulletins, vol. 
21, p. 79 (Bull. No. 171); Veterinarian, State, 
Reports, 1907-1917, passim. 

Live Stock Products. — Since no state 
agency has ever been provided for the col- 
lection of statistical data, except for special 
purposes, and inasmuch as the surveys of the 
U. S. Bureau of the Census and of the U. S. 
Department of Agriculture have only covered 
the State in a limited way in recent years, 
facts as to the extent and value of live stock 
products are almost wholly wanting, and in 
many cases they are unreliable. While they 
have been collected in a limited way as indi- 
cated below, they are doubtless incomplete, 
and they are here offered as of possible sug- 
gestive value only. As noted in the prelimi- 
nary paragraph above, these products include 
dairy products (milk, butter and cheese), 
hides, tallow and wool. 

Statistical details as to numbers and farm 
values of sheep from 1867 to January first, 
1918, are set forth below. Wool production 
is as follows: For 1880, there were 347,538 
fleeces; for 1890, 351,716 fleeces; for 1900, 
299,118 fleeces, or 744,274 pounds, valued at 
$150,943; and for 1910, 120,039 fleeces, or 
339, 884 pounds, valued at $85,677. These 
figures show 43.2 decrease in value for the 
decade. Estimated statistics shown by the 
yearbooks of the United States Department of 
Agriculture for 1916 shows 100,000 fleeces, 
with minimum and maximum values of twen- 
ty-one and twenty-four cents per pound; and 
for 1917 106,000 fleeces, with minimum and 
maximum values of twenty-six and thirty- 
eight cents per pound. The average weight 
of fleeces is from two to three pounds. 

Dairy. — Dairy products have always had an 
important place in the dietary economy of Ala- 
bama homes. The State is largely agricul- 
tural and it is doubtless true that during its 
early history at least the money value of 
milk, butter and cheese exceeded that of 
live stock slaughtered for home consumption. 
The business of dairying has developed, 
largely because of the increasing density of 
population and the growth of cities. Statis- 
tics as far as obtainable follow: 

(1) Milk. According to the U. S. census 
for 1870, 104,657 gals, were sold; for 1880, 
260,387 gals, were sold; for 1890, 55,508,687 
gals, were produced; for 1900, 95,882,103 
gals, were produced, and 3,087,433 were sold; 
and for 1910 78,728,345 gals, were produced, 
and 3,397,426 were sold. On April 15, 1910, 

Surgeon General, U. S. Army, 
who won fame by directly apply- 
ing Major Walter Reed's discovery 
of the prevention of yellow fever. 

Brigadier General, C. S. Army, 
Mexican War Veteran and presi- 
dent of the University of Alabama. 

Librarian at the University of 
Alabama and called by the students 
"the angel of the campus." 


the number of farms reporting dairy cows to 
the U. S. census was 203,939, but only 164,- 
333 reported dairy products in 1909. This 
difference is explained because of a possible 
increase of dairy cows on the farms, but more 
probably because of inaccuracy in reporting. 
It is estimated that only about one-twentieth 
of the milk reported as produced by Alabama 
tarmers in 1909 and included in the census 
of 1910, was disposed of by sale. 

(2) Butter. Statistics cover a little longer 
period, and are as follows: for 1850, 4,008,- 
811 pounds were produced; for I860, 6,028,- 
478; for 1870, 3,213,753; for 1880, 7,- 
997,719; for 1S90, 14,54S,435; for 1900, 19,- 
139,321; for 1910, 29,550,595 pounds, all 
produced on farms. 

(3) Cheese. Statistics of cheese production 
date from 1860. For that year, 15,923 
pounds were produced; for 1870, 2,732 
pounds; for 1880, 14,091; and for 1890 
6,131 pounds. The foregoing was doubtless 
produced on farms alone. The census of 
19 distinguishes the production, showing 
10,000 pounds produced by factories, and 
36,374 on farms, making a grand total for 
that year of 46,374. In 1910 there was a 
complete falling off, the census reports show- 
ing 5,528 pounds produced, and 2,435 pounds 

Telephone Survey. — In 1917 the Southern 
Bell Telephone and Telegraph Company un- 
dertook a partial survey of the live stock 
industry in the southern section of Alabama, 
through their local and long distance tele- 
phone managers. Direct appeal was made 
to the farmers, either in person or over the 
telephone, and in this way statistics were 
secured at first hand, and at the same time 
emphasis was placed on the importance of 
the industry, and an urgent appeal for greater 
interest. The press gave wide publicity to 
the movement, and in that way the industry 
was further stimulated. The survey under- 
took to secure details of carload lot shipments 
in 1915 and in 1916, both of cattle and hogs 
from Headland, Ozark, Troy, Abbeville, Do- 
than, Selma, Demopolis, Greensboro, Fauns- 
dale, Marion, Opelika, Tuskegee, Ala. and 
from West Point, Ga. The principal points 
to which shipments were made found to be 
were Montgomery, Birmingham, Mobile and 
Andalusia and to the great stock and packing 
centers of the Middle West. 

Horses. — Statistics from 1867 to Jan. 1, 
1918, viz.: 
Years Number Farm Value 

1867 82,591 ? 4,708,620 

1868 82,591 4,315,007 

1869 86,720 5,712,264 

1870 100,600 8,888,960 

1871 103,600 9,296,860 

1872 106,700 8.522,308 

1873 107,700 8,852,134 

1874 106,600 7,229,419 

1875 104,400 6,528,505 

1876 104,400 6,540,811 

1877 105,400 6,145,240 

1878 108,500 6,217,641 

1879 112,800 6,098,637 

1880 113,900 6,450,157 







119, S06 

Farm Value 







































-Statistics from 1S67 to Jan. 1, 



Farm Value 

$ 6,605,406 















































































Milk Cows.- 


1, 1918, viz.: 

















































































Farm Value 

Farm Value 
$ 3,310,647 



1, 1918, 







Farm Value 
9, £00,000 

Cattle. — Statistics from 1867 to Jan 




432, Oyu 

Farm Value 
$ 1,774,548 



from 1867 to Jan. 1, 

Farm Value 



Goats. — Although one of the most common 
of domestic farm animals, very few statistics 
as to goats are available. Although on prac- 
tically all small farms, their numbers have 
evidently never been large, so that in statis- 
tical estimates they have been negligible. On 
April 15, 1910, 5,667 farmers reported 79,347 
goats and kids on their farms, but only thirty- 
six reported the production of goat hair or 
mohair during 1909. These farmers reported 
383 fleeces, weighing 808 pounds, valued at 


-Statistics fro 

1919, viz. 











































































































Hogs. — Statistics from 1867 to Jan. 1, 

























































Farm Value 
$ 2,609,524 

Packing Plants, Slaughter Houses, Stock 
Yards. — Available information shows that 
the first packing house established in Alabama 
was the Tennessee Packing Company at Bir- 
mingham, 189 0. It was operated ten months, 
destroyed by fire, and rebuilt by a new and 
different corporation. After operating under 
the new management about three years it 
failed. The Birmingham Packing Company 
was established in 1895 as a copartnership 
and operated as such for about twelve years, 
with a capital of approximately $30,000, and 
an annual business of about $200,000. It was 
incorporated in 19 04, with a paid up capital 



of $100,000, and has been in operation con- 
tinuously since, doing an annual business of 
$1,500,000. The capacity of the plant is 
200 cattle and 500 hogs per day. The build- 
ings are of brick. About 1914 the entire 
plant was remodeled. 

There is a packing plant at Auaalusia. 
originally erected by local capital, but now 
owned by Swift & Co. There are two slaugh- 
ter houses in Mobile, one in Selma and one 
in Montgomery. The Union Slaughter House 
at Montgomery is controlled by M. Sabel and 
Sons. As illustrating the character and vol- 
ume of this class of business, their statistics 
for 1916 are given: Beeves, 6,521; calves, 
1.S46; hogs, 5,445; sheep, 735; and goats 
211, making a grand total of 14,758 animals. 

Union Stock Yards of Montgomery is a 
recent corporation, organized with ample capi- 
tal, and well equipped for an extensive busi- 
ness, which is being developed, not only 
throughout Alabama, but also in adjacent 
parts of Georgia and Mississippi. 

References. — Code, 1907, sees. 757-770, 4873- 
4876, 6230, U. S. Bureau of the Census, Abstract, 
with supplement for Alabama (1910), pp. 309, 
624, 632, 640; Bailey, Cyclopedia of American 
agriculture, 4th ed. (1912), vol. 3, passim; 
American cotton planter. Montgomery 1853-1861, 
passim; Ala. Experiment Station, Bulletins; 
Ala. Dept. of Ag. and Ind., Bulletins; U. S. Dept. 
of Commerce, Statistical abstract, 1888; U. S. 
Dept. of Agriculture, Yearbook, 1917, and pre- 
vious issues; Burkett, First principles of feed- 
ing farm animals (1912) ; Hunt and Burkett, 
Farm animals (1917) ; Ewing, Southern pork 
production (1918); American National Live 
Stock Association, Proceedings, 1911, and pre- 
vious volumes; Hamilton, Colonial Mobile 
(1910), index; Barrett v. Mobile, 129 Ala., p. 
180; U. S. Dept. of Agriculture, Bulletin No. 73 
(1914), and No. 110 (1914); Ibid, Bureau of 
Animal Husbandry, Bulletin, 147 (1914). Stock 
Laws: Code, 1907, sec. 5881 et seq.; Spigener v. 
Rives, 104 Ala. p. 437; Pruitt v. Ellington, 59 
Ala. p. 454; Davis v. State, 68 Ala. p. 64; M. & 
O. R. R. v. Williams, 53 Ala. p. 596; Sta7ifil v. 
Court of County Revenue of Dallas County, 80 
Ala., p. 287; Col. Isaac Croom, "Essay on the 
propriety and policy of abolishing fences," in 
American cotton planter, Aug. 1860, p. 358. 


State board governing the movement, trans- 
portation or disposition of live stock that 
may be quarantined on account of being af- 
fected with or exposed to a contagious or com- 
municable disease or on account of being in- 
fected or infested with the carrier or carriers of 
the cause or causes of contagious infections or 
communicable diseases. It is composed of the 
Commissioner of Agriculture and Industries 
of the State. The professor of animal indus- 
tries, and the professor of veterinary science 
at the Alabama Polytechnic Institute and two 
actual live stock breeders, appointed by the 
Governor. The commissioner of Agriculture 
and Industries is chairman of the board. The 
veterinarian of the board is secretary. 

The Act became effective May 1, 1908. 

Having been approved March 12, 1907. The 
board has full power to make and enact all 
rules and regulations governing the imposed 
duties. The professor of veterinary science 
of the Alabama Polytechnic Institute, being 
the State veterinarian of Alabama, is clothed 
with the power to quarantine an tick infected 
cattle or carriers and any infected livestock 
with communicable diseases, in any or all 
parts of the State. No quarantine cattle can 
be moved by any railroad company, vessel, 
boat, or other transportation agency out of 
the quarantine area, nor can this agency de- 
liver any live stock into this area, except 
under and in compliance with the rules and 
regulations of the Board. All live stock for 
immediate slaughter, when brought into Ala- 
bama, shall be accompanied by a certificate 
of health, which certificate must be attached 
to the shipping bill, and agents of transporta- 
tion companies, are required to send imme- 
diately to the State veterinarian this certifi- 

The Act creating the State Live Stock 
Board, provides an appropriation of $5,000 
for the administration of the Act. The State 
Veterinarian is required to make an annual 
report to the Governor giving full account 
of the work done during the preceding year, 
and a detailed report of the money expended. 

Dr. C. A. Cary, Auburn, has been secretary 
of the board since creation. Hon. Miles C. 
Allgood, the present commissioner of Agri- 
culture is president. 

References. — Acts of Alabama 1907 (Act ap- 
proved March 12, 1907); Regulations adopted 
by the Live Stock Sanitary Board. 

LIVINGSTON. County seat of Sumter 
County, in the central part of the county, 
sec. 33, T. 19, R. 2 W., on the Succarnoochee 
River, 10 miles northeast of York, about 40 
miles northwest of Demopolis, and 3 8 miles 
southwest of Greensboro. It is on the Ala- 
bama Great Southern Railroad. Altitude: 
160 feet. Population: 1870 — 500; 1880 — 
738; 1888 — 1.000; 1890 — 850; 1900 — 851; 
1910 — 877. The town was made the county 
seat in 1833; and incorporated by the legis- 
lature January 25, 1867. The charter was 
amended in 1867, 1885, and 1900; and the 
municipal code was adopted in 1907. 
It owns no municipal buildings except 
the schools. It has electric lights, water- 
works, sewerage, and paved sidewalks in the 
business district. Its bonded indebtedness is 
$20,000, $16,000 school bonds due in 1932, 
with interest at 5 per cent, and $4,000 school 
certificates, payable $500 annually, and draw- 
ing 6 per cent. Its banks are The Bank of 
Sumter (State), and McMillan & Co. (State). 
Our Southern Home, a Democratic weekly 
established in 1865, and the State Normal 
School Quarterly, established in 1910, are 
published there. Its industries are an electric 
light plant, waterworks plant, both privately 
owned, a sawmill, a veneering plant, a head- 
ing mill, a gristmill, cotton ginneries, and a 
warehouse. It is the location of the Liv- 



ingston State Normal School. The city is 
well supplied with parks and playgrounds, and 
has a public square, 90 yards square. Liv- 
ingston possesses a widely known artesian 
mineral well, whose boring was begun in 
1855. It is located on the corner of the 
public square. 

The town was laid out in 183 3, and named 
for Hon. Edward Livingston, of Louisiana, at 
that time United States Secretary of State. 
The settlers were wealthy men, who culti- 
vated large plantations, while they enjoyed 
refined society within the town. They en- 
couraged education and everything that goes 
to make good citizenship. They induced Prof. 
Tutwiler to establish the boys' high school, 
which has ranked high as an educational in- 
stitution. Miss Julia Tutwiler. his daughter, 
established a girls' school of high rank. It 
has since been converted into the Livingston 
State Normal School. Among the early set- 
tlers were the Lyde, Brown, DeLoach. Green, 
Forster, Inge. Winston, Chapman, Hopkins, 
Payne, and Baldwin families. Some of the 
distinguished people who have made Liv- 
ingston their home are Gov. John A. Winston, 
Miss Julia Tutwiler, Prof. J. W. A. Wright, 
Jeremiah Brown, Rev. Jere Boland. Rev. Dr. 
B. P. Riley, and Joseph G. Baldwin, the author 
of "Flush Times in Alabama." 

Livingston is built upon the site of a Choc- 
taw Indian village, and many evidences of 
Indian occupation still exist. A striking 
feature of the city is the large number of 
primeval water oaks along its streets, and 
surrounding its homes. 

References. — Acts. 1866-67, pp. 215-223; 
Brewer, Alabama (1872), pp. 226-233; Berney, 
Handbook (1892), p. 329; Northern Alabama 
(1888), pp. 215-223; Polk's Alabama gazetteer, 
1888-9, p. 471: Alabama Official and Statistical 
Register, 1915. 

school for the education of boys and young 
men. The school was established on Septem- 
ber 12. 1882, with G. F. Mellen as principal. 
In 1883, Prof. S. S. Mellen. formerly one of 
the proprietors of the Tuscaloosa Female Col- 
lege joined the faculty. A good build- 
ing had been secured in 18S2, and "To sup- 
ply the growing demands and increasing 
necessities" of the school, a library room, spa- 
cious chapel, and additional recitation rooms, 
were constructed during the summer session 
of 1883. Prof. Joel C. DuBose was elected 
principal in 1886. A proficient military 
department was conducted in connection 
with the school. College preparatory and 
business courses were offered. The students 
maintained a literary society, and beside the 
library of the school, the books of the presi- 
dent were always in reach of the students. 
Presidents: G. F. Mellen, Joel C. DuBose, J. 
W. A. Wright. 

References. — Catalogues, 1886-87; 1891-93. 


cember 1, 1873, at Port Jervis. New York, the 
beneficiary department coming into existence 
January. 1882, a certificate of $1,000 being 
issued to everyone who was a member at that 
time. The organization was the result of the 
death of one George Page, a fireman on the 
Erie Railroad at Port Jervis, N. Y., who was 
killed in the line of his duty, leaving a fam- 
ily practically destitute. The national grand 
lodge is located in Cleveland, Ohio, and the 
total membership 109,091, with 864 lodges, 
S5 of which are in the Dominion of Canada. 

The first lodge in the State of Alabama was 
organized at Tuscumbia, August 22, 1889. 
The order was granted a certificate by the 
Insurance department of the State of Ala- 
bama to transact business in the State, Octo- 
ber 19, 1912. The membership in 191S was 
521, divided among six lodges. To that time 
there was no State grand bodv. 

References.— Letter from A. H. Hawley, Gen- 
eral Secretary and Treasurer, Brotherhood of 
Locomotive Firemen and Enginemen, Cleveland 
Ohio, in Department of Archives and History. 

LOCUST FORK. See Warrior River. 

LONG ISLAND TOWN. A small Cherokee 
village, settled in 1783 and situated on Long 
Island in Tennessee River, at Bridgeport. It 
was the second and only other of the "Five 
Lower Towns on the Tennessee," situated in 
Alabama, and was one of the "crossings" 
of the Tennessee used by the Creeks in their 
war against the white settlers of Tennessee 
and Kentucky. 


fortified post at Twenty-seven Mile Bluff on 
the Mobile River. The site for the town 
of Mobile and its old fort, called Fort Louis, 
was selected by Iberville. The entire super- 
vision of the building of the fort was placed 
in the hands of Bienville. 

The fort was built of logs, with four 
bastions of six guns each. Unlike most 
early forts, it was not built for protection 
against Indian attacks but against Euro- 
peans. The whole western side of the fort 
consisted of a church. At some distance 
from the fort and nearer the river was a 
magazine built of brick. It was about 2 4 
feet square by 10 feet deep. 

The first priest at the old fort was Father 
Davion, later succeeded by La Vente. To the 
church records is due much of our know- 
ledge of the times. 

To add to the many and varied troubles of 
life at the old fort, in March, 1711, a flood 
swept the country, surrounding the fort. 
Because of the flood and the decay of the 
fort, Bienville decided to remove the town 
site of Mobile to Choctaw Point. The lands 
he had previously given to some fugitive 
Choctaw Indians, but these he persuaded to 
move to Dog River. Here, where the delta 
was wide and no fear from overflow, began 



the building of the new Fort Louis. Soon all 
the inhabitants and many of the friendly In- 
dians had removed to the new town, and the 
old Fort Louis and its little cemetery, where 
Tonty in September, 1704, had been buried, 
were left deserted. 

The erection of the new Fort Louis was 
probably begun in May, 1711. It was square, 
was built of cedar stakes, pointed at the 
top, and had a bastion at each corner. This 
new fort was hardly more than a stockade 
and was built too near the river. Because 
of its inadequacy, Crozat in 1717 authorized 
the erection of a new building more within 
the city. It was built of brick and renamed 
Fort Conde. 

Anniversary of Founding. — The two 
hundredth anniversary of the founding of 
the first Fort Louis at Twenty-seven Mile 
Bluff was celebrated in 1902, by unveiling a 
monument there, and also by placing a tablet 
on the courthouse at Mobile. In 1911, the 
removal of the fort to the present Mobile 
was also commemorated by marking the cor- 
ners of the old French town and by placing 
a splendid bronze tablet on the city hall. 
The legislature, February 26, 1903, declared 
the monument at Twenty-seven Mile Bluff 
public property, and placed it in the custody 
of the director of the Alabama Department 
of Archives and History. The same act ap- 
propriated $150.00 to raise the monument 
and fence the spot. 

References. — Hamilton, Oolonial Mobile 
(1910), pp. 53, 79-82, 84-87, 98; Pickett, Alabama 
(Owen's ed., 1900), pp. 170, 325; Hamilton, Mo- 
bile of the five flags (1913), pp. 42, 45-47, 51, 
55, 60-62, 389; Code, 1907, sec. 807. 

HOME. See Child Welfare. 


See Centennials and Expositions. 

LOUISVILLE. Post office and incorporated 
town, on the Central of Georgia Railway, in 
the east-central part of Barbour County, on 
the headwaters of the Choctawhatchee River, 
and about 12 miles southwest of Clayton. 
Population: 1888 — 200; 1890 — 288; 1900 — 
416; 1910 — 483. It has the Bank of Louis- 
Tille (State), and the Barbour County Bank 
(State). The Louisville News, a Democratic 
weekly established in 1914, is published 
there. By 1819 the whites had begun to 
encroach upon the territory of the Creek 
Indians, and several settlements had been 
made, Louisville being the most important. 
Among the earliest settlers were Dr. E. M. 
Herron, the first physician, Harrell Hobdy, 
Green Beauchamp, John R. Robinson, Rev. 
Joseph Harley, the first preacher, and John 
Bartley, the first teacher in the county. The 
•first merchant was John G. Morgan. I ouis- 
ville was made the county seat of Pike County, 
when that county was established in 1821. 
When Barbour was created in 1832, Louis- 
ville was designated as the seat of justice 
for the new county. Two years later it was 

removed to Clayton. In 1833 the first cir- 
cuit court was held at Louisville, Judge Ander- 
son Crenshaw presiding, Harrell Hobdy. 
sheriff, and Thomas Pugh, clerk. The grand 
jury was composed of Henry Faulk, Jr., fore- 
man, Noah Tyson, William Bennett, Richard 
Head, Jr., Zachariah Bush, William McRae, 
James Faulk, Henry Faulk, Sr., William Head, 
Thomas Cavanaugh, John F. Davis, Starling 
Johnson, Miles Mclnnis, Daniel Dansby, Dun- 
can McRae, and Stephen Lee. In 1836 there 
was an engagement between the hostile Creeks 
and a force of 200 men under Gen. William 
Welborn, on Pea River, near Hobdy's bridge, 
about 6 miles west of Louisville. 

References. — Northern Alabama (1888), pp. 
182-183; "Chronicles of Barbour County," in 
Eufaula Times, circa, 1873. 

ROAD COMPANY. Incorporated under the 
laws of Kentucky by the legislature, March 
5, 1850; mileage operated June 30, 1915 — 
main track and branches, 5,412.06, side tracks, 
2,034.32, total 7,446.38; mileage operated in 
Alabama — main track and branches, 1,448.12, 
side tracks, 550.49, total, 1,998.61; capital 
stock authorized — common, $72,000,000, no 
preferred stock, actually issued, $71,719,920; 
shares, $100, voting power, one vote a share; 
and funded debt, $174,231,000. This system 
is controlled by the Atlantic Coast Line Rail- 
road Co. through ownership of 51.05 per cent 
of its capital stock, acquired November 1, 
1902. — Annual Report of Company to Ala. 
Public Service Commission, 1915. 

The Louisville & Nashville Railroad Co. 
began operations in Alabama with the assump- 
tion, early in 1871, of the contract for the 
completion of the South & North Alabama 
Railroad (q. v.) and the Tennessee & Ala- 
bama Central Railroad, originally undertaken 
by Sam Tate and associates. The completion 
of these undertakings on October 1, 1872, 
gave the Louisville & Nashville Railroad a 
continuous line from Decatur to Montgomery, 
through Birmingham and the mineral dis- 

On May 1, 1871, a contract was executed 
by which the Nashville & Decatur Railroad 
Co. leased to the Louisville & Nashville Rail- 
road Co. for 3 years, its railroad and ap- 
purtenances between Nashville, Tenn., and 
Decatur Junction, Ala., together with its con- 
tract with the Memphis & Charleston Rail- 
road Co. for right-of-way over the road and 
bridge of that company at Decatur, but ex- 
cluding the Mt. Pleasant branch which con- 
nected with the main line at Columbia, Tenn. 
The L. & N. obligated itself to take charge 
of the road on July 1, 1872, and to complete 
the South & North Alabama Railroad with all 
reasonable dispatch. The lease of the Nash- 
ville & Decatur connected the South & North 
Alabama Railroad with the main stem of the 
Louisville & Nashville Railroad and opened 
the way for the development of that com- 
pany's extensive system of railroads in the 
State. (For the history of the South & 
North Alabama, the Tennessee & Alabama 
Central, and the Nashville & Decatur railroad 


companies see South & North Alabama Rail- 
road Company.) 

The traffic conditions existing at the time 
these roads were acquired, the motives which 
actuated the management of the Louisville & 
Nashville in so doing, and the effect upon 
the subsequent history of the L. & N. system, 
were set forth by Pres. Milton H. Smith, who 
was the company's general freight agent at 
the time mentioned, in a statement before 
the Alabama Railroad Commission in April, 
1905: "At that time the L. & N. Railroad 
Company was operating a railroad from 
Louisville to Nashville, and from a point near 
Bowling Green to Memphis, with some other 
branches. With its large investment in these 
lines it was necessary to secure through or 
interstate traffic, and to actively engage in 
moving property between points on and be- 
yond the Ohio River, and Chattanooga, At- 
lanta and points beyond. To do this they 
had to interchange traffic with the Nashville 
and Chattanooga Railroad at Nashville. The 
Nashville and Chattanooga Railroad was also 
interested in what was known as the Nash- 
ville and Northwestern Railroad, a line ex- 
tending from Nashville to Hickman, Ky. The 
management of the N. & C. Railroad deemed 
that the interests it represented would be 
promoted by diverting traffic, so far as it 
legitimately could, from Louisville and Cin- 
cinnati, or points reached via the L. & N. 
Railroad to St. Louis and other points. In 
other words, it was claimed by the L. & N. 
that the N. & C. Railroad discriminated 
against it on business delivered to it by the 
L. & N. from Louisville and Cincinnati, by 
exacting higher proportional rates from Nash- 
ville to Chattanooga and beyond that it ex- 
acted on traffic coming to It over its long 
line, the Nashville and Northwestern. 

"This rendered the management of the L. 
& N. desirous of an outlet, and they were 
induced to enter into a contract with Sam 
Tate and associates, and the South and North 
Alabama Railroad Co., to complete the South 
and North Alabama Railroad and equip it, 
for which it was to receive the securities 
which the contract gave to Sam Tate and 
associates. The L. & N. Railroad Company 
carried out its contract, completed the road, 
and opened it for traffic the last of Septem- 
ber, 1872. At that time there was a good 
deal of business activity — wouldn't be con- 
sidered much now — but it was then considered 
large, and the traffic was more than could 
be moved at rates from 100 to 15 per cent 
higher than now. At the time I speak of 
the rate on provisions was 60 cents per 100 
pounds, Louisville to Montgomery; it is now 
30 cents; and it was quite an important item, 
Louisville being an important packing point. 
We had more than we could do, and had a 
great deal of difficulty in operating the new 
road. The very next spring the panic of 1873 
came along and we had no business. Now 
the cost of constructing the South and North 
Alabama was very great. . . . And with 
the limited capital, a first-class road was not, 
and in such a country could not be con- 
structed. The road has heavy grades, one 

and a quarter per cent, and excessive curva- 
ture. Rails (iron rails) cost $90 per ton. 
Gold was worth about $1.50. The result was 
that the first cost of the South and North 
Alabama Railroad was very great. This was 
very materially increased by the absolute lack 
of credit of the South and North AiaDama 
Railroad Company, and the then not very good 
credit of the L. & N. Railroad. The L. & N. 
at that time bought the bonds — took them in 
payment for the work done on the South and 
North Alabama Railroad — I think for the 
Sterling Bonds, the L. & N. Road paid the 
South and North 87 cents. The L. & N. 
endorsed them and took them to London and 
sold them, the first lot at a price that netted 
about 83 or 84 cents, and the next lot at con- 
siderably less; so that the discount on bonds 
was an addition to the cost of the road. It 
was supposed when the L. & N. entered upon 
this hazardous and unfortunate venture, that 
the line was going to develop valuable min- 
erals. It was known that coal and iron ores 
existed in Alabama, but they had never been 
developed and no one knew much about them. 
The road did cross a part of the Warrior coal 
field at a point where the veins are thin, and 
the lower veins in the vicinity of Warrior 
Station have never developed much traffic, 
nor have the mines been very profitable to the 
people who have operated them. They have 
struggled against the hard condition of operat- 
ing on thin veins, which materially increases 
the cost of mining. The road also crossed 
the red ore vein in Grace's Gap. 

"I have said that the transaction was a 
most unfortunate one for the L. & N. Rail- 
road Company. It very nearly bankrupted it. 
It was with the greatest difficulty that the 
company succeeded in keeping from default- 
ing on its obligations. The load was heavy. 
It struggled as best it could, having gotten 
itself into a trap by entering upon the con- 
struction of the South and North Road, and 
endorsing its bonds. To extricate itself, it 
had to patiently encourage the development 
of traffic. In 187 3 there was almost none. 
There was scarcely a sawmill that could 
operate successfully, and practically no coal 
and ore. The directors, officers, and others 
interested did what they could to aid in estab- 
lishing the manufacture of iron. The ore un- 
smelted and the coal not mined, mineral de- 
posits were of no benefit. The agricultural 
products were insignificant. When the con- 
struction of the road was entered upon, there 
was but one community between Montgomery 
and Decatur, I think, of over ten families, 
and that was at Lime Kiln, now Calera. Ely- 
ton, the small county seat of Jefferson County, 
of perhaps two or three hundred people, was 
not directly on the line — it was on the Ala- 
bama Great Southern Road, four or five miles 
off. One of the first things was to aid in 
a venture to manufacture iron at Oxmoor. 
The directors and officers of the road con- 
tributed. Mr. Sloss, President of the Nash- 
ville and Decatur Railroad and of the South 
and North Alabama Railroad Company in- 
vested. Other officers or directors invested 
something. The L. & N., notwithstanding its 



impecunious condition, put in about $125,000, 
and made very low rates on pig iron. I re- 
call that I made for that furnace the first 
sliding scale rate, which, so far as I know, 
had ever been made in the South; that is, 
when pig iron was worth so much, we were 
to have so much for hauling it to the Ohio 
River, and when prices increased rates in- 
creased. It having been demonstrated that, 
iron could be made, the L. & N. contributed 
to some of the other companies, and its friends 
contributed to the capital of the rolling mill; 
aided in opening some of the coal mines. 

On July 1, 1878, the Wetumpka branch, 
between Wetumpka and Elmore, 6 miles, was 
opened. In 1880, the Louisville & Nashville 
acquired the Mobile & Montgomery Railway 
(q. v.) whose line extended from Mobile to 
Montgomery; the New Orleans & Mobile Rail- 
road, connecting the cities named in the title; 
the Pensacola & Selma Railroad, projected 
between Selma and Pensacola Junction and 
completed between Selma and Pineapple, 4 
miles (see Selma & Gulf Railroad Co.); and 
the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis Rail- 
way (q. v.) and its subsidiary lines. 

In 1881 the L. & N. began building the 64 
miles of road between Pineapple, the southern 
terminus of the Pensacola & Selma, and the 
northern terminus of the Pensacola Railroad, 
which would complete a through line between 
Selma and the port of Pensacola. The por- 
tion of the connecting link between Escambia 
Junction and Repton, 29.36 miles, was com- 
pleted within a few months and there the 
work stopped. 

Southern Alabama Railway. — On January 
27, 1899, the Southern Alabama Railway Co. 
was chartered under the general laws to build 
the line from Repton to Pineapple, 44.5 miles. 
The work was completed in January, 1900, 
and the entire line opened March 19. In the 
autumn of 1899 the disconnected sections of 
the Pensacola & Selma were sold to the 
Southern Alabama Railway Co., which, in 
turn, was purchased by the Louisville & Nash- 
ville Railroad Co. for $1,680,000. The Cam- 
den branch from Nadawah to Camden, 11.61 
miles, was acquired with the Southern Ala- 
bama Railway. 

New Orleans & Mobile Railroad. — The 
New Orleans & Mobile Railroad, another of 
the roads merged into the Louisville & Nash- 
ville in 1880, as stated above, had its begin- 
ning in Alabama as the New Orleans, Mobile 
& Chattanooga Railroad Co., organized by 
Oakes Ames, Peter Butler, William Sprague, 
James A. Raynor, William S. Williams, 
Charles W. Durant, John M. Courtenay, 
Charles Walsh and William O. Winston, and 
chartered by the legislature November 24, 
1866, for the purpose of building a railroad 
from Mobile toward the Mississippi line in 
Mobile County, and to operate in connection 
therewith a line through Mississippi and 
Louisiana to New Orleans; also to build a 
road from Mobile to the Tennessee line or 
the Georgia line, and to operate a line to 
Chattanooga. This was a subsidiary com- 
pany of the New Orleans, Mobile & Texas 

Railroad Co., which projected a railroad 
across the continent. An amendment of 
February 12, 1867, authorized the company 
to receive grants of land, franchises, privi- 
leges, etc., from the United States or any 

An act of August 12, 1868, confirmed the 
authority of the company to consolidate with 
other roads and repealed the forfeiture 
clauses of the charter so as to allow un- 
limited time in which to build the road. The 
line between New Orleans and Mobile, 140 
miles, was completed and put in operation in 
1870. On January 1, 1873, default was made 
in payment of interest and the property was 
sold under foreclosure in New Orleans on 
June 6, and purchased by the first-mortgage 
bondholders. An act of December 17, author- 
ized the purchasers of the property of the 
New Orleans, Mobile & Texas Railroad Co., 
east of the Mississippi River, to organize 
under the name of the New Orleans & Mobile 
Railroad Co. 

That part of the road between New Orleans 
and Mobile having been unable to pay its 
interest was put in the hands of trustees for 
the purchasers, E. D. Morgan, of New York, 
and J. A. Raynor, of New Orleans, on Feb- 
ruary 1, 1875, and operated by them until 
the Louisville & Nashville Railroad Co. took 
possession, May 8, 1880, having acquired 
$3,990,000 of its $4,000,000 capital stock. 
The New Orleans & Mobile Railroad Co. made 
a formal lease of the property to the Louis- 
ville & Nashville Railroad Co. for 50 years. 

On May 1, 1880, the Louisville & Nash- 
ville took a lease for five years upon the 
Western of Alabama Railroad (q. v.) be- 
tween Selma and Montgomery, a distance of 
50 miles, at an annual rental of $52,000. 

Nashville, Florence & Sheffield Railway. — 
In 1878 the L. & N. management decided to 
build a road from Columbia, Tenn., to the 
mineral deposits between that point and 
Florence, Ala. For this purpose the Nash- 
ville & Florence Railroad Co. was chartered 
in Tennessee in 1879, with the financial back- 
ing of the Louisville & Nashville. The road 
was opened to State Line, Ala., 51 miles, 
November 26, 1880. On May 16, 1887, the 
Nashville & Florence Railroad Co. was con- 
solidated with the Tennessee & Alabama Rail- 
road Co., a Tennessee corporation, to form 
the Nashville, Florence & Sheffield Railway 
Co., a subsidiary of the Louisville & Nash- 
ville, which rapidly pushed to completion the 
extension of the road from the Tennessee-Ala- 
bama line to Florence. The road was opened 
to Florence June 16, 1888, and by means of 
trackage rights over the road of the Memphis 
& Charleston (q. v.), was operated to Shef- 
field and later to Tuscumbia. The property 
was sold under foreclosure April 10, 1900, 
and purchased by the Louisville & Nashville, 
which assumed the payment of $2,096,000 
outstanding first-mortgage 5 per cent bonds, 
and merged the road with the L. & N. system. 

Birmingham Mineral Railroad. — In 1884 
the development of the Birmingham Mineral 
division of the L. & N. system was projected 
by the incorporation, under general laws, on 



March 19, of the Birmingham Mineral Rail- 
road Co. On June 1, roads built under this 
charter were opened between May-Ella and 
Sloss, 7.76 miles, and Grace and Redding, 
2.71 miles, and operated in connection with 
the South & North Alabama division. 

On May 1, 1885, the lease of the Louis- 
ville & Nashville Railroad Co. of the line 
between Selma and Montgomery expired and 
was not renewed, the road reverting to the 
Western Railway of Alabama. 

During 1889, additions were made to the 
lines of the Birmingham Mineral Railroad, as 
follows: Boyles to Bessemer, 15.38 miles; 
the road between Graces and Redding ex- 
tended to Bessemer, making its length 10.56 
miles; the May-Ella-Sloss line extended to 
Bessemer, making its total mileage 7.99; a 
road built between Bessemer and Blocton 
Junction, 27.02 miles; Chamblee and Goe- 
thite, 3.65; Gate City branch, 7.90; total, 
72.50 miles. 

Alabama Mineral Railroad. — On January 
1, 1891, the Louisville & Nashville Railroad 
Co. purchased the Alabama Mineral Railroad, 
which was a reorganization and consolidation, 
July 28, 1890, of the Anniston & Atlantic 
Railroad, from Anniston to Sylacauga, 5 3 
miles, and the Anniston & Cincinnati Rail- 
road, from Anniston to Attalla, 35 miles. 
The former was chartered May 24, 1883, 
under the general laws; road opened from 
Anniston to Talladega, 30 miles, May 15, 
1884; to Sycamore, 45 miles, September 15, 
and to Sylacauga, December 1, 1886. This 
company purchased and merged with its line 
the Clifton Railroad, which extended from 
Jenifer to Ironaton, about 9 miles. The An- 
niston & Atlantic was purchased for account 
of the Louisville & Nashville Railroad Co. in 
February, 1890. 

The Anniston & Cincinnati Railroad Co. 
was incorporated in February, 1887, and its 
road opened October 17, 1888. The Louis- 
ville & Nashville Railroad Co. purchased the 
property in February, 1890, and consolidated 
it with the Anniston & Atlantic on July 28. 
The new. company built an extension from 
Sylacauga to Calera in the latter part of the 
year. The Shelby Iron Co.'s railroad between 
Shelby and Columbiana, 5.19 miles, was pur- 
chased in the same year and added to the 
Alabama Mineral Railroad. The entire prop- 
erty was taken over for operation by the L. 
& N. on January 1, 1891. 

li. & N. System. — The system of short lines 
and branches connecting the mines, furnaces, 
and other industrial plants of which the Bir- 
mingham Mineral and Alabama Mineral rail- 
roads formed the nucleus, has since been so 
extended and developed as to form one of the 
most important transportation groups in the 
State. Since it acquired the two original 
lines, the Louisville & Nashville Railroad Co. 
has added to its mileage, from time to time, 
as follows: in 1888, July 2, Blue Creek ex- 
tension, Bessemer to Blocton, 29 miles, and 
the Pioneer branch, Chamblee to Goethite, 
4 miles; September 22, Gate City branch, 
Boyles to end of track, 17 miles; December 
21, Self Creek branch, Palmers to Bradford, 

4 miles, and Gurley Creek branch, Village 
Springs to Compton, 3 miles; in 1889, Feb- 
ruary 1, Muscoda branch, Muscoda Junction 
to Muscoda, 3 miles; November 1, Dudley 
branch, Yolande to Milldale, 4 miles; in 1890, 
March 14, Red Gap branch, Red Gap Junction 
to Graces, 9 miles; July 17, H. & B. branch, 
Tacoa to Gurnee, 11 miles; in 1891, May 7, 
Fossil and Spring Gap branch, Winetka and 
Wades Gap, 3 miles; in 1896, October 5, 
Readers Gap branch, Readers to Leogusta, 1 
mile; in 1902, September 6, Long Branch 
Coal Road, Gurley Junction to Lehigh, 7 
miles; in 1903, August 18, Dunn branch, 
Mineral Springs to Dunn, 1 mile; Cain Creek 
branch. Black Creek to Kosmo, 7 miles; and 
Nickel Plate branch, Mineral Springs to Rilma, 
3 miles; December 24, Crocker branch, 
Crocker Junction to Crocker, 1 mile; in 1904, 
April 12, Crocker branch, Crocker to Durant, 
1 mile; April 23, Sayre branch, Chetopa to 
Vulcan, 2 miles; February 1, Graystone 
branch, Mattawana to Deming, 2 miles; June 
2, Graves branch, Genoa to Graves Mine, 3 
miles; August 4, Nebo branch, Udora to 
Erskine, 1 mile; in 1907, February 20, Skel- 
ton Creek branch, Vulcan to Globe, 8 miles; 
and Globe branch, Globe to Hecla, 1 mile; 
February 21, Banner branch, Chetopa to Ban- 
ner, 4 miles; April 22, Colta branch, Colta to 
Blacree, 1 mile. In addition the following 
short connections or branches the length of 
which is not obtainable: May 28, 1905, Hunts- 
ville branch, No. 2, Oneonta to Moragne; and 
August 22, 1907, Acton branch, Helena to 

Prattville Branch. — In 18 94, the New and 
Old Decatur Belt & Terminal Co.'s line, with 
3.96 miles of track, was completed by the 
Louisville & Nashville Railroad Co., and dur- 
ing the fiscal year ending June 30, 1897, the 
Montgomery & Prattville Branch Railroad 
(see South & North Alabama Railroad Co.), 
was built, and the Sheffield & Tuscumbia Rail- 
road (see Tuscumbia Railway Co.) was pur- 
chased, rebuilt and leased to the Nashville, 
Florence & Sheffield Railway Co. This had 
been operated as a street railway since 1887. 
In 1889 the Louisville & Nashville and the 
Southern Railway companies jointly purchased 
the Birmingham Southern Railroad from the 
Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railway Co., owning 
equal shares in it. The road is operated 
under separate management by agreement of 
the proprietary companies. 

Alabama and Florida. — The Alabama & 
Florida Railroad Co. was chartered August 
23, 1898, under the general laws, and under 
the auspices of the L. & N., to build a rail- 
road from Georgiana, 60 miles south of Mont- 
gomery on the Mobile and Montgomery divi- 
sion, to Geneva, Ala., 77.5 miles. The author- 
ized capital stock of the company was 
$750,000 in $100 shares; its paid-in capital, 
$364,000. The road was completed as far as 
Andalusia, 32.71 miles, June 30, 1900, and 
to Geneva in October. It was leased to the 
Louisville & Nashville, the sole owner of the 
capital stock, for 20 years from January 19, 
1900, the lessee receiving the net earnings. 
The road was formally deeded to the L. & 


N. on December 17, 1900, and on the same 
day the Mobile & Montgomery Railroad (q. v.) 
was deeded to the L. & N. During 1901 steps 
were taken by the management to merge 
into the L. & N. system all the subsidiary 
lines that it was operating, and the issuing 
of separate statements for those roads was 
discontinued. During this year also the con- 
trol of the Birmingham, Selma & New Orleans 
Railway ( q. v.), from Selma to Myrtlewood, 
60 miles, completed between Selma and Mar- 
tins, 20 miles, was obtained, and on April 
21. 1902, it was formally deeded to the L. 
& N. 

During 1902 the Alabama & Florida Rail- 
road was extended from Geneva to Graceville, 
Fla., 22.81 miles, the extension being opened 
July 13. On November 1, the Atlantic Coast 
Line Railroad Co. obtained control of the 
Louisville & Nashville Railroad Co., by the 
purchase of $30,600,000 — a majority — of the 
capital stock. 

On June 14, 1903, the Sardis-Selma line 
of the Southern Alabama Railroad, 1.8 miles, 
was completed, which enabled the L. & N. to 
dispense with 7.32 miles of trackage rights 
over the Western Railway of Alabama be- 
tween Gulf Junction and Selma. During the 
early part of 1903 a branch was built from a 
junction just south of Opp, on the Alabama 
and Florida division, to Florala, 23.48 miles. 

On July 1 the Louisville & Nashville began 
to operate, under a joint agreement with the 
Seaboard Air Line Railway, 80 miles of that 
company's Atlanta & Birmingham Air Line 
Railway, from Dukes, Ala., to Cartersville, Ga. 

The Eastern Railway of Alabama was or- 
ganized May 1, 1901, to construct a road from 
Stockdale to Pyriton, a distance of 19.8 miles. 
The road was completed September 1, 1903. 
The money to build it was furnished by the 
Louisville & Nashville, who took a mortgage 
on the property to secure the amount ad- 
vanced. The track of the Alabama Mineral 
division is used between Stockdale Junction 
and Talladega, 5 miles. 

Bay Minette & Fort Morgan Railroad. — 
On May 11, 1905, still another branch line, 
or "feeder" for the main line in Alabama, was 
completed. The Bay Minette & Fort Morgan 
Railroad, 36.52 miles long, between Bay 
Minette and Foley, was put in operation as a 
part of the L. & N. system on that day. Al- 
though the road was built under a separate 
charter, the L. & N. owned its entire capital 
stock. On May 28, an extension from Oneonta 
to a connection with the Nashville, Chatta- 
nooga & St. Louis Railway near Attalla was 
put in operation. This extension connected 
with the northern ends of the Alabama 
Mineral and the Birmingham Mineral rail- 
roads, and, together with trackage rights over 
the Atlanta & Birmingham Air Line between 
Wellington, Ala., and Cartersville, Ga., and 
over the Nashville, Chattanooga & St. Louis 
Railway from Cartersville to Atlanta, gave 
the L. & N. a through line from the Birming- 
ham district to Atlanta. 

South & North Alabama Railroad. — At the 
annual meeting of the stockholders of the 
Louisville & Nashville Railroad Co., held 

October 4, 1905, authority was voted for the 
purchase of all the property of the South & 
North Alabama Railroad Co., but the deal 
was not consummated until November 9 r 
1913, when the stockholders of the South & 
North Alabama approved the proposed sale. 
Formal transfer of all its property, rights and 
franchises, except the right to continue to 
exist as a separate corporation, was made by 
deed dated January 21, 1914. Since that 
time, extensive revision and partial relocation 
of the line between New Decatur and Boyles 
has been completed. 

On March 31, 1906, the L. & N. Railroad 
discontinued operating the Eastern Railway 
of Alabama, and the Alabama Northern Rail- 
way, and on April 1, the Atlanta, Birmingham 
& Atlantic (q. v.) began to operate them 
under a separate organization, styled the 
Eastern Railway of Alabama. 

New Orleans, Mobile & Chicago Railway. — 
The Louisville & Nashville and the St. Louis 
& San Francisco railroad companies bought 
an equal number of shares of the preferred 
and common stock, constituting a majority of 
the capital stock of the New Orleans, Mobile 
& Chicago Railway Co. (q. v.), and under an 
agreement dated November 15, 1911, the sep- 
arate operation of the road has been con- 
tinued. The line extends from Middleton, 
Tenn., to Mobile, Ala., a distance of 369 miles, 
Beaumont to Hattiesburg, 27 miles, and from 
Ellisville Junction to Ellisville, 8 miles. 

Woodstock & Blocton Railway. — In July, 
1906, the Tennessee Coal, Iron & Railroad Co. 
repurchased the Birmingham Southern Rail- 
road from the L. & N. and the Southern, upon 
condition that the line from Woodstock to 
Blocton, 7.73 miles, formerly a part of the 
Birmingham Southern, should be conveyed to 
a new company formed under the name of the 
Woodstock & Blocton Railway Co., of whose 
capital stock the L. & N. and the Southern 
each own one-half. The road is used jointly 
by the L. & N., the Southern and the Alabama 
Great Southern. 

References.— Acts, 1866-67, pp. 6-18, 400-403; 
1868, p. 127; 1873, p. 142; Railroad Commission 
of Ala., Annual reports, 1889 et seq.; Organiza- 
tion and charter of the Nashville and Decatur 
Railroad Co., 1872; Extracts from proceedings- 
before the Alabama Railroad Commission, 
April and May, 1905; Gov. David P. Lewis, 
Message, Nov. 17, 1873, p. 9; Special House 
Committee, appointed to investigate railroad 
matters, Report (1872), pp. 12-13; Martin, "In- 
ternal improvements in Alabama," in Johns 
Hopkins University Studies in historical and 
political science (1902); Armes, Story of coal 
and iron in Alabama (1910) ; Poor's manual of 
railroads. 1869 et seq.; Clark, "Railroads and 
navigation," in memorial record of Alabama 
(1893), vol. 1; Interstate commerce commis- 
sion, Reports (1917), vol. 46, pp. 711-755, 9, 
with cases cited on p. 712, note. 

See Cotton Manufacturing. 

LOWNDES COUNTY. Created by an act 
of the legislature of January 20, 1830. It 



was formed from territory taken from Mont- 
gomery, Dallas and Butler Counties. The 
part taken from Butler was afterward given 
to Crenshaw, thus leaving the county with 
its present dimensions. The total area of 
the county is approximately 708 square miles, 
or 453,120 acres. 

It was named in honor of William Lowndes, 
a distinguished South Carolina statesman. 

Location and Physical Description. — Situ- 
ated in the south-central portion of the state, 
Lowndes County is bounded on the north by 
Autauga Couity, on the east by Montgom- 
ery and Crenshaw Counties, on the south by 
Crenshaw, Butler and Wilcox Counties, and 
on the west by Wilcox and Dallas Counties. 

Elevations above sea level range from 100 
to 600 feet. The mean annual temperature 
is 65°5'F; while the mean annual precipita- 
tion is 51.16 inches. 

Lying partly in the Black Belt and partly 
on Chunnenuggee Ridge, the county is well 
within the Coastal Plain. Prairie soils de- 
rived principally from Limestone are "most 
extensively developed in the central and 
northeastern parts of the county," they are 
classed in the Houston, Sumter and Oktibbeha 
Series. The other sections of the county show 
the gray and red sandy and sandy clay loams, 
classed in Norfolk, Ruston, Orangeburg and 
Greenville Series. Bottom and alluvial soils 
are known as Kalmia, Catalpa, Cahaba, Leaf 
and Ocklocknee. There are 33 different 
types of soils found in Lowndes County. 

The county is drained by the Alabama River 
and the following: Pintlala Creek; Tallewas- 
see; Holy Ground Creek; Letohatchee or 
Big Swamp; and Old Town Creek. The prin- 
cipal forest trees are long leaf pine, various 
oaks, including wateroaks, hickory, beech, 
ash and sweet gum. 

Cotton, corn, sweet and Irish potatoes, 
oats, hay, soy beans, peanuts, and truck 
products are among the principal products. 

Affording fine grazing lands, much live 
stock is raised, and dairy products are very 

There are a large number of cotton, grist, 
and sawmills in the county. Two railroads 
traverse the county, the main line of the 
Louisville and Nashville railroad, and the 
Western Railway of Alabama. The Hayne- 
ville and Montgomery Railway connects 
Hayneville with the Louisville and Nashville 
Railroad at Tyson. Transportation facilities 
are inadequate in the central western and 
southwestern parts of the county. Public 
roads reach all through the county, and rural 
mail service extends to all sections. Schools 
are maintained in all towns and villages, and 
the county high school is located at Fort 
Deposit (q. v.). 

Montgomery, Selma and Mobile receive 
most of the cotton and corn marketed. The 
principal cattle market is New Orleans, but 
the better grade of beef animals are shipped 
to St. Louis or Louisville. Dairy and poultry 
products go to Montgomery, Selma, and 

Aboriginal History. — This county was in- 

habited by the Alibamo Indians, whose chief 
town was Ikanatchaka, or Holy Ground. It 
was at that place that the Creeks were de- 
feated by General Claiborne's army, December 
23, 1813. William Weatherford had a plan- 
tation near the Holy Ground. The Alibamo 
Indians lost all of their ancestral lands in 
Lowndes and Monroe counties by the treaty 
of Fort Jackson, August 9, 1814. 

Aboriginal remains are met with in those 
sections of the county bordering on Pintlala 
and Old Town Creeks and on the Alabama 
river. Urn burials are found in an extensive 
cemetery at the mouth of Pintlala Creek. 
The indications here are clearly pre Colum- 
bian. In the vicinity of Mount Willing and 
on Muscle Creek in the southern part of the 
county are found further evidences. The 
locality was first visited by white men in 
September, 1540, when De Soto and his men 
passed through on the way from Toasi to 
Talise on the right bank of Old Town Creek, 
immediately at its mouth. No doubt he was 
met at a point within the county by messen- 
gers from Chief Tuscaloosa. Econachacca, 
the "Holy Ground" an Upland Creek town, 
was located just below the mouth of the 
present Holy Ground Creek two and a half 
miles above the town of Whitehall. Remains 
of the town site are still identified and the 
bluff from which Weatherford leaped his 
horse during the engagement here on Decem- 
ber 23, 1813, remains intact to this day. At 
Benton just across the creek from Talise 
(above referred to, in Dallas County) is a 
large mound immediately on the river bank. 
Village and workshop sites are to be found 
on the Hartley plantation in Sec. 36, T. 13 
N. R. 13 E., and on the Lee place, Sec. 3 2, 
T. 13 N. R. 14 E. On Big Swamp Creek in 
T. 14 N. R. 14 E. is a mound. On the Fisher 
Merritt place in T. 12 N. R. 14 E. in the 
extreme southern section of the county is a 
mound and town site. Formerly a mound 
could be observed on the river bank about 
midway between Whitehall and Benton. 

The first white settlers in the county came 
from Georgia and Tennessee and the present 
inhabitants are nearly all their descendants. 
About 88 per cent of the total population of 
the county are negroes. Hayneville, the 
county seat, was named for Hon. R. Y. Hayne, 
of South Carolina. 

Fort Deposit, Lowndesboro, and Leto- 
hatchee are the chief towns of the County. 

Agricultural Statistics. — From U. S. Census 

Farms and Farmers. 
Number of all farms, 6,436. 
Color and nativity of farmers: 
Native white, 676. 
Foreign-born white, 5. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 5,755. 
Number of farms, classified by size: 
Under 3 acres, 3. 

3 to 9 acres, 1,326. 
10 to 19 acres, 732. 
20 to 49 acres, 3,007. 
50 to 99 acres, 902. 


100 to 174 acres, 223. 
175 to 259 acres, 89. 
260 to 499 acres, 87. 
500 to 999 acres, 42. 
1,000 acres and over, 25. 

Land and Farm Area. 
Approximate land area. 472,960 acres. 
Land in farms, 307,889 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 204,396 acres. 
Woodland in farms, 56,609 acres. 
Other unimproved land in farms, 46,884. 

Value of Farm Property. 
All farm property, $6,271,079. 

Land, $3,628,458. 

Buildings. $1,107,790. 

Implements and machinery, $226,961. 

Domestic animals, poultry, and bees, 
Average values: 

All property per farm, $974. 

Land and buildings per farm, $736. 

Land per acre, $11.78. 

Domestic Animals (Farms and Ranges). 
Farms reporting domestic animals, 5,476. 
Domestic animals, value, $1,270,639. 
Cattle: total. 21,773; value, $310,712. 

Dairy cows only, 9,459. 
Horses: total, 2,957; value, $298,112. 
Mules: total, 4,767; value, $589,673. 
Asses and burros: total, 13; value, $3,700. 
Swine: total, 22,349; value, $63,564. 
Sheep: total, 1,160; value, $3,382. 
Goats: total, 1,331; value, $1,496. 

Poultry and Bees. 
All poultry, 79,964; value, $28,944. 
Bee colonies, 2,344; value, $8,287. 

Farms Operated by Owners. 
Number of farms, 721. 

Per cent of all farms, 11.2. 
Land in farms, 114,654 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 48,197 acres. 
Land and buildings, $1,809,448. 
Farms of owned land only, 570. 
Farms of owned and hired land, 151. 
Native white owners, 349. 
Foreign-born white, 4. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 368. 

Farms Operated by Tenants. 
Number of farms, 5,704. 

Per cent of all farms, 88.6. 
Land in farms, 185,732 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 154,336 acres. 
Land and buildings, $2,835,260. 
Share tenants, 684. 
Share-cash tenants, 14. 
Cash tenants, 4,483. 
Tenure not specified, 523. 
Native white tenants, 317. 
Foreign-born white, 1. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 5,386. 

Farms Operated by Managers. 
Number of farms, 11. 
Land in farms, 7,503 acres. 

Improved land in farms, 1,863 acres. 
Value of land and buildings, $91,540. 

Live Stock Products. 

Dairy Products. 

Milk: Produced, 1,057,736; sold, 9,917 gal- 

Cream sold, . 

Butter fat sold, . 

Butter: Produced, 364,557; sold, 37,016 

Cheese: Produced, . 

Dairy products, excluding home use of milk 
and cream, $75,867. 

Sale of dairy products, $11,687. 

Poultry Products. 
Poultry: Number raised, 163,042; sold, 

Eggs: Produced. 189,681; sold, 58,176 

Poultry and eggs produced. $70,807. 
Sale of poultry and eggs, $19,216. 

Honey and Wax. 
Honey produced, 23,627 pounds. 
Wax produced, 1,362 pounds. 
Value of honey and wax produced, $2,076. 

Wool,* Mohair, and Goat Hair. 
Wool, fleeces shorn, 603. 
Mohair and goat hair, fleeces shorn, 73. 
Wool and mohair produced, $439. 

Domestic Animals Sold or Slaughtered. 
Calves — Sold or slaughtered, 632. 
Other cattle — Sold or slaughtered, 2,723. 
Horses, mules, and asses and burros — Sold, 

Swine — Sold or slaughtered, 7,454. 
Sheep and goats — Sold or slaughtered, 707. 
Sale of animals, $48,168. 
Value of animals slaughtered, $73,599 

Value of All Crops. 
Total, $2,797,609. 
Cereals, $414,476. 
Other grains and seeds, $15,203. 
Hay and forage, $42,065. 
Vegetables, $86,900. 
Fruits and nuts, $16,122. 
All other crops, $2,222,843. 

Selected Crops (Acres and Quantity). 
Cereals: total, 38,055 acres; 461,895 bushels. 
Corn, 35,463 acres; 424,963 bushels. 
Oats, 2,521 acres; 36,503 bushels. 
Wheat, 71 acres; 419 bushels. 

Rye, . 

Kafir corn and milo maize, . 

Rice, 10 bushels. 
Other grains: 

Dry peas, 989 acres; 5,731 bushels. 
Dry edible beans, 23 acres; 46 bushels. 
Peanuts, 368 acres; 5,835 bushels. 
Hay and forage: total, 3,444 acres; 3,751 

All tame or cultivated grasses, 3,197 

acres; 3,395 tons. 


prairie grasses, 61 acres; 

Wild, salt, < 
139 tons. 

Grains cut green, 63 acres; 56 tons. 

Coarse forage, 123 acres; 161 tons. 
Special crops: 

Potatoes, 68 acres; 3,810 bushels. 

Sweet potatoes and yams, 1.101 acres; 
46,505 bushels. 

Tobacco, . 

Cotton, 122,629 acres; 27,945 bales. 
Cane — sugar, 399 acres; 2,3 92 tons. 

Sirup made, 43,116 gallons. 
Cane — sorghum, 91 acres; 348 tons. 

Sirup made, 3,351 gallons. 

Fruits and Nuts. 

Orchard fruits: total, 18,876 trees; 12,993 

Apples, 4,242 trees; 2,911 bushels. 

Peaches and nectarines, 13,062 trees; 
8,025 bushels. 

Pears, 1,480 trees; 2,002 bushels. 

Plums and prunes, 54 trees; 28 bushels. 

Cherries, 9 trees; 7 bushels. 

Quinces, 14 trees; 5 bushels. 
Grapes, 69 vines; 2,470 pounds. 
Tropical fruits: total, 1,068 trees. 

Figs, 1,060 trees; 26,959 pounds. 

Oranges, 2. 
Small fruits: total, 386 quarts. 

Strawberries, 296 quarts. 
Nuts: total, 2,227 trees; 13,089 pounds. 
s, 2,166 trees; 11,784 pounds. 

Laoor, Fertilizer and Feed. 
Labor — Farms reporting, 1,763. 

Cash expended, $217,394. 

Rent and board furnished, $56,517. 
Fertilizer — Farms reporting, 1,200. 

Amount expended, $86,369. 
Feed — Farms reporting, 2,067. 

Amount expended, $112,480. 
Receipts from sale of feedable crops, $11,153. 

Domestic Animals Not on Farms. 
Inclosures reporting domestic animals, 233. 
Value of domestic animals, $34,183. 
Cattle: total, 549; value, $9,155. 

Number of dairy cows, 281. 
Horses: total, 150; value, $18,705. 
Mules and asses and burros: total, 30; value, 

Swine: total, 471; value, $1,480. 
Sheep and goats: total, 84; value, $203. 

Post Offices and Towns. — Revised to July 
1, 1919, from U. S. Official Postal Guide. Fig. 
ures indicate the number of rural routes from 
that office. 




Calhoun — 1 




Fort Deposit — 



Vol. n— is 

Hayneville (ch.)— 2 

Letohatchee — 1 





Mount Willing 


Saint Clair 

White Hall 

Population. — Statistics from decennial pub- 
lications of the U. S. Bureau of the Census. 

White. Negro. Total. 

1830 5,001 4,409 9,410 

1840 6,956 12,583 19,539 

1850 7,258 14,657 21,915 

1860 8,362 19,354 27,716 

1870 5,086 20,633 25,719 

1880 5,645 25,528 31,173 

1890 4,563 26,985 31,550 

1900 4,762 30,889 35,651 

1910 3,769 28,125 31,894 

1920 25,406 

Delegates to Constitutional Conventions. — 

18 61 — James S. Williamson; James G. Gil- 

1865 — George C. Freeman; James F. Clem- 

1867 — Charles A. Miller; William M. Buck- 
ley; Nathan D. Stan wood. 

1875 — H. A. Carson (colored). 

1901 — C. P. Rogers; Joseph Norwood; 
Evans Hinson. 

Senators. — 

183 2-3 — James Abercrombie. 

1834-5 — Thomas B. Scott. 

1835-6 — Lorenzo James. 

1837-8 — John Archer Elmore. 

1838-9 — James LaFayette Cottrell. 

1841-2 — John Starke Hunter. 

1843-4 — James Berney. 

1844-5 — Archibald Gilchrist. 

1847-8 — Thomas J. Judge. 

1851-2 — Walter H. Crenshaw. 

1855-6 — F. C. Webb. 

1857-8 — Thomas J. Burnett. 

1861-2 — Edmund Harrison. 

1865-6 — Walter H. Crenshaw. 

1868 — W. M. Buckley. 

1871-2 — W. M. Buckley. 

1872-3 — J. W. Jones. 

1873 — J. W. Jones. 

1874-5 — J. W. Jones. 

1875-6 — J. W. Jones. 

1876-7 — P. H. Owen. 

1878-9 — W. D. McCurdy. 

1880-1 — W. D. McCurdy. 

1882-3 — Willis Brewer. 

1884-5 — Willis Brewer. 

1886-7 — Willis Brewer. 

1888-9 — Willis Brewer. 

1890-1 — Mac A. Smith. 

1892-3 — Mac A. Smith. 

1894-5 — Willis Brewer. 

1896-7 — Willis Brewer. 

1898-9 — A. E. Caffey. 

1899 (Spec.) — A. E. Caffey. 

1900-01 — C. P. Rogers. 

1903 — Joseph Norwood. 

1907 — Evans Hinson. 

1907 (Spec.) — Evans Hinson. 

1909 (Spec.) — Evans Hinson. 

1911 — C. P. Rogers, Sr. 

1915 — L. E. Easterly. 

1919 — H. M. Caffey. 

Representat ives . — 

1834-5 — James LaF. Cottrell; John W. 
Mundy; John Sally. 



1835-6 — Walter Urane; Thom-as Daven- 
port; George W. Esselman. 

1836-7 — James LaF. Cottrell; Russell P. 
McCord; Alfred Harrison. 

1837 (called) — James LaF. Cottrell; Rus- 
sell P. McCord; Alfred Harrison. 

1837-8 — James LaF. Cottrell; Russell P. 
McCord; John P. Cook. 

1838-9 — John A. Tarver; George W. Essel- 
man; John P. Cook. 

1839-40 — Nathan Cook; William Swanson. 

1840-1 — John S. Hunter; Robert B. Camp- 

1841 (called) — John S. Hunter; Robert 
B. Campbell. 

1841-2 — Peyton S. Alexander; John W. 

1842-3 — Alfred Harrison; James W. Dun- 

1843-4 — Walter Drane; John P. Nail. 

1844-5 — Edward H. Cook; T. J. Judge. 

1845-6 — Edward H. Cook; T. J. Judge. 

1847-8 — James G. Gilchrist; A. B. Forney. 

1849-50 — Jasper M. Gonder; W. C. Swan- 

1851-2 — Jasper M. Gonder; J. S. William- 

1853-4 — Walter Cook; F. C. Webb. 

1855-6 — William Barry; Stephen D. Moorer. 

1857-8 — Duncan McCall; James S. Wil- 

1859-60 — James G. Gilchrist; Nathan L. 

1861 (1st called) — James G. Gilchrist; Na- 
than L. Brooks. 

1861 (2d called) — Hugh C. McCall; Nathan 
L. Brooks. 

1861-2— Hugh C. McCall; Nathan L. 

1862 (called)— Hugh C. McCall; Nathan L. 

1862-3 — Hugn C. McCall; Nathan L. 

1863 (called) — P. T. Graves; William S. 

1863-4 — P. T. Graves; William S. May. 

1864 (called) — P. T. Graves; William S. 

1864-5 — P. T. Graves; William S. May. 

1865-6 — George S. Cox; Nathan L. Brooks. 

1866-7 — George S. Cox; Nathan L. Brooks. 

1868 — T. W. Armstrong; N. A. Brewing- 
ton; John Ninninger. 

1869-70 — T. W. Armstrong; N. A. Brew- 
ington; John Ninninger. 

1870-1 — John Ninninger; William Gaskin; 
Mansfield Tyler. 

1871-2 — William Gaskin; John Ninninger; 
Mansfield Tyler. 

1872-3 — W. E. Carson; W. H. Hunter; 
January Maull. 

1873 — W. E. Carson; W. H. Hunter; Jan- 
uary Maull. 

1874-5 — W. D. Gaskin; Sam Lee; L. ~Mc"- 

1875-6 — H. A. Carson; Sam Lee; L. Mc- 

1876-7 — Ben DeLemos; R. J. Mayberry. 

1878-9 — J. F. Haigler; W. L. Smith. 

1880-1 — Willis Brewer; J. R. Tyson. 

1882-3 — R. W. Russell; James Scar- 

1884-5— G. H. Gibson; L. A. Callier. 

1886-7 — P. N. Cilley; G. H. Gibson. 

1888-9— A. C. McRee; J. H. Russell. 

1890-1 — W. Brewer; J. D. Poole. 

1892-3— Willis Brewer; J. D. Poole. 

1894-5 — C. P. Rogers, Sr.; Chas. A. Whit- 

1896-7 — C. P. Rogers; J. D. Poole. 

1898-9— C. P. Rogers; Dr. A. C. McRee. 

1899 (Spec.) — C. P. Rogers; Dr. A. C. 

1900-01 — James D. Poole; R. L. Gold- 

1903 — Daniel Floyd Crum; Robert Lee 

1907 — J. a. Coleman; D. F. Crum. 

1907 (Spec.) — J. A. Coleman; D. F. Crum. 

1909 (Spec.) — J. A. Coleman; D. F. Crum. 

1911 — W. D. McCurdy; R. F. Twombly. 

1915 — H. M. Caffey; I. N. Jordan. 

1919 — R. M. Guy; R. R. Moorer. 
References. — Toulmin, Digest (1823), index; 
Acts of Ala., Brewer, Alabama, p. 327; Berney, 
Handbook (1892), p. 308; Riley, Alabama as it 
is (1893), p. 168; Northern Alabama (1888), p. 
202; Alabama, 1909 (Ala. Dept. of Ag. and Ind., 
Bulletin 27), p. 153; U. S. Soil Survey, with 
map; Alabama land book (1916), p. 100; Ala. 
Official and Statistical Register, 1903-1915, 5 
vols.; Ala. Anthropological Society, Handbook 
(1910); Geol. Survey of Ala., Agricultural 
features of the State (1883) ; The Valley regions 
of Alabama, parts 1 and 2 (1896, 1897), and 
Underground Water Resources of Alabama 

LUBBUB CREEK. A tributarv of the 
Tombigbee River (q. v.), rising in Fayette 
County and flowing nearly south, through 
Pickens County, to its confluence with the 
Tombigbee, about 54 miles below Columbus, 
Miss. Data as to its length, width, and depth 
are not accessible. It is not navigable, and 
no improvements have been undertaken by 
the United States Government, or by the 
State. The name of this creek is sometimes 
spelled "Lubbah." The word is of Choctaw 
origin, and is "Lahba" warm or tepid, per- 
haps so called because its waters were 
warmer than of the neighboring streams. 

Reference. — Nelson F. Smith, Pickens County 
(1865), p. 180. 

LUTCHAPOGA. An Upper Creek town in 
Randolph County, situated on the Tallapoosa 
River, probably south of and near the influx 
of Crooked Creek. It is perhaps very near 
Wellborn's Ferry, Loochee Creek flows into 
the river from the opposite side, and the 
name may be suggestive of the presence of 
the town. Swanton is authority for the 
statement that this town was a branch of Ta- 
lisi (q. v.). The town is mentioned in the 
census list of 1832. Atchinapalgi was set- 
tled from Lutchapoga. In 1830 the old trail 





si : ^TTr^ 


i p 




from Fort Jackson by way of Okfuski and 
Tuckabatchi Tala&assi passed Lutchapoga, 
and thence north and west to Fort Strother 
on the Coosa. Hawkins spells the word Loo- 
chau Po-gau. It means Terrapin-resort, that 
is, lutcha "terrapin," poka, "gathering place." 

The modern town of Loachapoka in Lee 
County, received its name from the Indian 
town, but is far distant from the locality. 

See Atchina-algi. 

References. — Hawkins, Sketch of the Creek 
Country (1848), p. 47; Handbook of American 
Indians (1907), vol. 1, p. 778; Gatschet, in Ala- 
bama History Commission, Report (1901), p. 

LUTHERAN CHURCH. This church is the 

mother of Protestantism and arose from the 
Reformation in Germany. The Protestant 
Evangelical church was organized between 
1524 and 1530, in Germany. By 154 almost 
the whole of northern Germany was Protes- 
tant. The movement also made great prog- 
ress in South Germany and in Austria as far 
south as the Alps. Scandinavia. Denmark, 
parts of Hungary and Finland became Luth- 
eran before the close of the sixteenth century. 
Later they were found in Hungary, Holland, 
Livonia, France, England, and the United 

In 1619 a Lutheran pastor, Rasmus Jen- 
sen, came to America as a chaplain of a 
Danish expedition preaching at their quarters 
on Hudson Bay. The first Dutch colony in 
1623 settling on Manhattan Island had a 
number of Lutherans among them. In 1638 
a colony was estalbished in Delaware and 
the first Lutheran minister to settle in the 
territory of the United States, Roerus Torkil- 
lus, arrived in 1639, and became pastor of 
this colony; building the first church at 
Christiania. In Germantown and Philadelphia 
the first English Lutheran services were held 
in 16S4. The first German Lutheran church 
at Falckner's Swamp. Pennsylvania, is 
thought to date from 1703. Pennsylvania 
contained about 30.000 Lutherans by the mid- 
dle of the eighteenth century. 

During the eighteenth century group set- 
tled along the whole Atlantic coast in New 
Jersey, Virginia, North and South Carolina 
and Georgia. 

"The system of faith held by Lutherans 
is set forth in the Augsburg Confession. A 
number of other symbols, knows as 'Luther's 
Catechisms. Larger and Smaller,' the 'Apology 
of the Augsburg Confession.' the 'Smalcald 
Articles,' and the 'Formula of Concord,' 
are regarded as setting forth more or less 
fully the doctrinal system in the Augsburg 
Confession, and the differences between the 
various bodies, so far as they are doctrinal 
in character, are based chiefly upon deduc- 
tions made from these other symbols all alike 
accept the Augsburg Confessions." 

In 1820 the General synod was founded. 
Its aim was the union of all Lutherans in 
America. The synods south of the Potomac 
withdrew from the General synod during the 
War of Secession and formed the United 
Synod of the South. 

Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference 
of America. 

Organizations, 1. 

Members, 150. 

Church edifices, 1. 

Value of property, $10,000. 

Expenditures. $2,769. 

Sunday Schools, 1. 

Officers and teachers, 8. 

Scholars, 78. 

Organizations, 1. 

Members, 325. 

Church edifices, 1. 

Value of property. $6,000. 

Expenditures, $2,271. 

Sunday School, 1. 

Officers and teachers, 15. 

Scholars, 140. 
Alabama Statistics, 1916. — 

United Synod of the Evangelical Lutheran 
Church in the South. 

Total number of organizations, 2. 

Number of organizations reporting, 2. 

Total number members reported, 109. 

Number of organizations reporting, 2. 

Total number of members reported (Male), 

Total number of members reported (Fe- 
male), 64. 

Church edifices, 2. 

Halls, etc., . 

Number of church edifices reported, 2. 

Number of organizations reporting, 2. 

Value reported, $3,500. 

General Council of the Evangelical Luth- 
eran Church in North America. 

Total number of organizations, 3. 

Total number of organizations reporting, 3. 

Total number members reported, 74. 

Number of organizations reporting, 3. 

Total number of members reported (Male), 

Total number of members reported (Fe- 
male), 42. 

Church edifices, 3. 

Halls, etc.. 1. 

Number of church edifices reported, 2. 

Number of organizations reporting, 2. 

Value reported, $5,000. 

Evangelical Lutheran Synodical Conference 
of America. 

Total number of organizations, 12. 

Total number of organizations reporting, 

Total number members reported, 1,334. 

Number of organizations reporting, 12. 

Total number members reported (Male), 

Total number members reported (Female), 

Church edifices, 12. 

Halls, etc., . 

Number of church edifices reported. 15. 

Number of organizations reporting, 12. 

Value reported, $33,157. 

Evangelical Lutheran Joint Synod of Ohio 
and Other States. 

Total number of organizations, 2. 



Total number of organizations reporting, 2. 

Total number members reported, 82. 

Number of organizations reporting, 2. 

Total number members reported (Male), 

Total number members reported (Female), 

Church edifices, 1. 

Halls, etc., . 

Number of church edifices reported, 1. 

Number of organizations reporting, 1. 

Value reported, $2,200. 

References. — New International encyclo- 
pedia; U. S. Census Bureau, Religious bodies, 
1916, pts. 1 and 2. 

LUXAPALLILA CREEK. A tributary of 
the Tombigbee River (q. v.), having its source 
in Fayette County and flowing southwest- 
ward, through that county, and the southern 
end of Lamar, to its junction with the Tom- 
bigbee about 2% miles below Columbus, Miss. 
Data concerning its length, width, and depth 
are not available. The creek is not navigable, 
and no surveys have been made by the State 
or the United States Government, with the 
object of improving it for navigation. The 
name of this creek is sometimes given on 
old maps as Looksapallila, or "Floating 
Turtle Creek." This translation, however, 
is incorrect. It is properly "Taksi," terra- 
pin, and "boluli," to crawl, and is "creek" 
where the terrapin crawls. 

Reference. — Manuscript data in the Alabama 
Department of Archives and History. 

LUVERNE. The county seat of Crenshaw 
County, in the central part of the county, on 
the Patsaliga River, 52 miles south of MonW 
gomery, and the terminus of a branch of the 
Atlantic Coast Line Railroad. Population: 
1890 — 451; 1900 — 731; 1910 — 1,384. It 
was incorporated February 6, 1891, and 
adopted the municipal code of 1907 in August, 
1908. The corporate limits extend 1 mile in 
each direction from the courthouse. It has a 
municipal electric light plant, established in 
1905, at a cost of $10,000, a waterworks plant, 
constructed in 1908, at a cost of $20,000, a 
fire department installed in January, 1908, 2 
miles of sanitary sewerage, constructed in 
1910, at a cost of $10,000. Its bonded in- 
debtedness is $40,250, $10,000 electric light 
bonds maturing in 1925, $20,000 water bonds 
maturing in 1928, and $10,250 sewerage 
bonds maturing in 1921. Its banks are the 
First National, the Bank of Luverne (State), 
and the Farmers Bank (State). The Cren- 
shaw County News, a Democratic weekly es- 
tablished in 1907, is published there. Its 
industries are a cottonseed and peanut oil 
mill, 3 cotton ginneries, a stave mill, a feed 
mill, a machine shop, 2 gristmills, water plant, 
and electric power plant. There is a mineral 
spring within the corporate limits, whose 
medicinal properties have attained a more 
than local reputation. The earliest settlers 
were the Moody, Brunson, Hawkins, and 
Knight families. 

Under an election held in January, 1893, 

the county seat was removed from Rutledge 
to Luverne. 

See Crenshaw County; Rutledge. 

Reference. — Manuscript data in the Alabama 
Department of Archives and History. 

LYNCHINGS. (Compiled by the Division 
of Records and Research of Tuskegee Insti- 

In May, 1835, near Mobile, Alabama, two 
negroes were burned at stake for the murder 
of two children. 

Year Number Lynched 
1871-73 1 (white, shot for murder) 

1885 5 

1886 6 

1887 5 

1889 7 

1890 7 

1891 26 

1892 21 

1893 27 

1894 19 

1895 16 

1896 15 

1897 19 

1898 12 

1899 6 

1900 8 

1901 12 (constitution adopted this 

year made sheriffs re- 

1902 4 
1003 2 
1904 — No data. 
1905 — No data. 
1906 — No data. 
190 7— No data. 

1908 4 

1909 8 

1910 8 

1911 2 

1913 2 

1914 2 

1915 9 

1916 1 

Details concerning lynchings in Alabama 
are as follows: 

1901. (To September.) 

Jan. 3 — Louis McAdams, colored, murder- 
ous assault, Wilsonville, Ala. 

March 6 — Bud Davis, colored, unknown of- 
fense, Moulton, Ala. 

May 6 — Edward Mays, colored, sheltering 
murderer, near Selma, Ala. 

May 6 — Doc Mays, colored, sheltering mur- 
derer, near Selma, Ala. 

May 6 — Robert Dawson, colored, sheltering 
murderer, near Selma, Ala. 

May 11 — William Williams, colored, theft, 
Southside, Ala. 

May 11 — Unknown negro, mistaken iden- 
tity, Leeds, Ala. 

May 3 — Frank Reeves, colored, attempted 
rape, Butler County, Ala. 

July 15 — Alexander Herman, colored, mur- 



der, Portland, Ala. 

August 2 — Charles Bentley, colored, mur- 
der, Leeds, Ala. 

August 7 — John W. Pennington, colored, 
rape, Enterprise, Ala. 


;No details for.) 


Jan. 9 — Cleveland Franklin, robbery and 
shooting, Dothan, Ala. 

April 4 — Walter Clayton, criminal assault. 
Bay Minette, Ala. 

Aug. 4 — William Miller, dynamiting, Brigh- 
ton, Ala. 

Oct. 20 — Tom Sover, attempted assault, 
Decatur, Ala. 


Jan. 23 — Douglas Roberson, negro, insult- 
ing white woman. Mobile, Ala. 

Jan. 24 — Sam Davenport, negro, incendiar- 
ism, Leighton, Ala. 

Jan. 24 — Unidentified negro, attempted at- 
tack on woman, Scottsboro. Ala. 

Feb. 7 — Will Parker, negro, attack on 
woman, Mexia, Ala. 

April 25 — John Thomas, negro, attack on 
woman, Bessemer, Ala. 

Sept. 4 — Josh and Lewis Balaam, negroes, 
murder of deputy sheriff, Jackson, Ala. 


May 26 — Jesse Matson, colored, murder, 
Calera, Ala. 

July 3 — Henry McKenny, colored, at- 
tempted rape. Dothan, Ala. 

Aug. 1 — William Wallace, colored, rape, 
Axis, Ala. 

Sept. 14 — Isaac Glover, colored, murder, 
Springville, Ala. 

Oct. 4 — Bush Withers, colored, rape, San- 
ford. Ala. 

Oct. 9 — Unnamed negro, rape, McFall, Ala. 

Oct. 9 — Grant Richardson, colored, rape, 
Centerville, Ala. 

Oct. 9 — John Dell, colored, murder, near 
Montgomery, Ala. 


Feb. 12 — Iver Peterson, colored, attempted 
rape, Eufaula, Ala. 

April 2 — Abberdine Johnson, colored, rape, 
Union Springs, Ala. 


Jan. 2 8 — John Chandler, murder, Besse- 
mer, Ala. 

Feb. 19 — Unnamed, negro, murder, Do- 
than, Ala. 

Aug. 5 — Samuel Verge, colored, murder, 
Hall's Station. Ala. 

Aug. 28 — Unnamed negro, murder, near 
Gadsden, Ala. 

Nov. 2 — William Smith, colored, murder, 
Bessemer, Ala. 

Nov. 18 Berney, colored, 

murder, Wetumpka, Ala. 

Dec. 7 — Azariah Curtis, colored, murder, 
Butler, Ala. 

Dec. 20 — Unnamed negro, murder, Cuba, 


Jan. 25 — Jim Greene, colored, was whipped 
by his landlord, Sam Spicer. Greene, out of 
revenge, later fatally shot Mrs. Spicer, Anda- 
lusia, Ala. 

Aug. 23 — Wilson Gardner, colored, half- 
witted, for frightening women and children 
near Birmingham, Ala. 


March 21 — Charles Young, colored, charged 
with rape, Clanton, Ala. 

Dec. 18 — William Jones, colored, attempted 
rape, Fort Deposit, Ala. 


Jan. 1 — Dock Hartley, colored, charged 
with burglarizing a store. 

Jan. 4 — William Smith, colored, charged 
with murder, Wetumpka, Ala. 

Jan. 4 — Edward Smith, colored, charged 
with murder, Wetumpka, Ala. 

Jan. IS — Herman Deeley, colored, for 
shooting a white man, Taylorsville, Ala. 

May 3 — Jesse Hatch, colored, charged with 
attempted rape, Fulton, Ala. 

Aug. 9 Fox, colored, for dan- 
gerously wounding a Deputy Sheriff, near 
Tunnel Springs, Ala. 

Aug. 18 — Harry Russell, colored, accused 
of poisoning mules. Had been released on 
bail, Hope Hull, Ala. 

Aug. 18 — Kitt Jackson, colored, accused of 
poisoning mules. Had been released on bail, 
Hope Hull, Ala. 

Aug. 18 — Edward Russell, colored, accused 
of poisoning mules. Had been released on 
bail, Hope Hull, Ala. 

Jan. 25 — Richard Burton, colored, robbing 
store, Boyd Station, Ala. 


order organized with headquarters at Lon- 
don, Canada, and entered the United States 
at Port Huron, Mich., September, 1883. The 
first subordinate tent organized in Alabama 
was "Fidelta Tent. No. 1," at Florence, May 
31, 1890. The supreme commander since 
February, 1892, has been Daniel P. Markey. 
The order has about 400,000 benefit mem- 
bers, with assets of about $22,000.00. The 
headquarters of the Alabama order are in 
Birmingham, where the first State conven- 
tion was held, March 13, 1911. Frank O. 
Croy was elected State deputy supreme com- 
mander at the time and has held the office 
continuously since. A State convention is 
held every four years. In 1917 there were 39 
Tents in Alabama and a membership of 2,000. 
Osmond K. Ingram, who was killed in a naval 
engagement with a German U. Boat, October 
15, 1917, the first man to lose his life in the 



naval service of the United States in the 
World War, was a member of the Maccabees, 
Tent 11, Alabama, and his heirs were paid a 
life benefit of $1,000 by the order. 

References. — Letters from L. E. Sisler, su- 
preme record keeper, Detroit, Mich., and Frank 
O. Croy, State deputy supreme commander, Bir- 

SOCIATION OF. An adequate rate fraternal 
order for women, founded October 1, 1892, 
at Port Huron, Mich., its present headquar- 
ters, known until 1915 as "The Ladies of 
the Maccabees of the World," and is an aux- 
iliary of The Maccabees. It was founded by 
Miss Bina M. West, supreme commander, and 
Miss Frances D. Partridge, the supreme 
record keeper. It is officered and managed 
solely by women for home protection, mu- 
tual fellowship and fraternal aid. 

The Association in 1918, had 2,631 local 
bodies, with 195,000 members. The reserve 
fund September 1, was $11,518,826.51; 
death benefits paid $16,344,648.49. The in- 
surance protection includes women and chil- 
dren, and carries last illness and burial, 
and maternity benefits. It has free hospital 
service in every State for needy sick, and 
patriotic service for the aid of members af- 
fected by the war. The order entered Ala- 
bama October 6, 1896, the first local body 
having organized at Florence, October 16, 
1896. In 1918, there were 21 local bodies 
with a membership of 1,175 in the State. 

Reference. — Letter written by Frances Part- 
ridge, Supreme Record Keeper, Port Huron, 
Mich., in the Department of Archives and His- 

McGILL INSTITUTE. See Roman Catholic 

McINTOSH BLUFF. A high point on the 
west side of the Tombigbee River in Washing- 
ton County. It was the ancient seat of the 
Tohomes (q. v.). Early records refer to it 
as Tomeehettee Bluff. It received its modern 
name from the celebrated Scotch family of 
Mcintosh, prominent in the history of the 
Creek Indians. Capt. John Mcintosh, chief 
of the clan, long attached to the British 
Army of West Florida, for his services re- 
ceived a grant of land from his government, 
including the bluff to which his name was 
subsequently given. Capt. Mcintosh built a 
home near the bluff of the river, and here, 
while on a visit, his daughter, the wife of 

Troup, a British officer, gave birth to 

a son, George Mcintosh Troup, later governor 
of Georgia and prominent in the history of 
that State. 

This vicinity was one of the earliest set- 
tled portions of south Alabama. It was in- 
cluded in the first cession made by the In- 
dians to the British in 1765, and it was 
later included in the Mount Dexter cession 
of the Choctaws in 1802. Hundreds of Ala- 
bama families date from the coming of their 
pioneer ancestors to this particular region. 

When Washington County was established, 
including at that date, 1800, all of the Missis- 
sippi Territory lying in what is now Alabama, 
it was at Mcintosh Bluff that the first courts 
were held and other county business trans- 
acted. It was the first county seat of Bald- 
win County (q. v.), and in 1820 the old 
court house was ordered sold. 

References. — Pickett, History of Alabama 
(Owen's ed., 1900), pp. 417, 474-476, 676; Hamil- 
ton, Colonial Mobile (1910), index; Harden, 
Life of George M. Troup (1859). 

McWILLIAMS. Post office and station on 
the Louisville & Nashville Railroad, in the 
southern part of Wilcox County, about 4 miles 
southwest of Pineapple, and about 18 miles 
southeast of Camden. Population: 1910 — 

Reference. — Manuscript data in the Alabama 
Department of Archives and History. 

MACON COUNTY. Created by an act of the 

legislature, December 18, 1832. The county 
was created out of territory acquired by the 
last cession of the Creek Indians, March 24, 
1832. Its dimensions were thirty-four years 
afterwards reduced, by portions being set 
apart for the formation of Bullock and Lee 
Counties, respectively December 5, and 15, 
1866. Its extreme dimensions, are 34 miles 
from east to west and 24% miles from 
north to south. The total area of the county 
is 397,440 acres, or about 622 square miles. 

The county was named in honor of Na- 
thaniel Macon, a distinguished soldier and 
statesman of North Carolina, who was a rep- 
resentative in congress from 1791 to 1828. 

Location and Physical Description. — Situ- 
ated in the east central portion of the state, 
Macon County is bounded on the north by El- 
more, Tallapoosa and Lee Counties, on the 
east by Lee and Russell, on the west by Bul- 
lock, Montgomery, Elmore and Tallapoosa 
Counties. Elevations vary from 200 to 500 
feet. Annual mean temperature for the 
county is 65.2°F., while the annual precipi- 
tation is 52.72 inches. 

Macon County is situated in the Coastal 
Plain, and eleven soil types are recognized. 
The surface of the county is composed of 
gravelly hills and a large scope of prairie re- 
gion. The metamorphic rocks constitute the 
substratum of the extreme northern part of 
the county. The southern part of the county 
is underlaid with rotten limestone. Red 
ochre and vast quarries of granite are found. 
The soils are generally the yellow sandy 
loams of the uplands, and the clay loams of 
the bottoms, in many places these being cal- 
careous or prairie soils — all being easily 
tilled, and very productive. 

The county is extremely well watered by 
many creeks, whose waters flow into the 
Tallapoosa, among them being: Uphapee 
Creek, Chervocklahatchee, Sawacklahatchee, 
Opintlocco. Tolockela, Jesse, Chowocola, An- 
gelina, Panther, Chohcochah, Wolf and Chin- 
capin, Calebee, Persimmon, Ofucskee or Old 
Town Creek, and Line Creek. 



Among the trees found in Macon County, 
are pine, various species of oak, hickory, 
poplar, red elm, gum, beech, maple and mag- 

The principal crops are cotton, corn, pea- 
nuts, velvet beans, potatoes and forage trucks. 
Pecans, garden products and large and small 
fruits are also grown. Dairying is one of the 
chief industries. 

The southern part of the county is crossed 
by the Seaboard Air Line Railway, and the 
Western Railway traverses the northern part. 
A branch road extends from Chehaw, a sta- 
tion on the latter road, to Tuskegee the county 

Aboriginal History. — The western part of 
the county which borders along the Talla- 
poosa River, was thickly settled by the Creek 
Indians, the most noted towns being Atassi 
and Talisa. About the middle of the eight- 
eenth century a town named Nafolee was situ- 
ated apparently at the mouth of Eufaubee 
Creek, and below this town were the Amissi 
or Massi, a tribe of unknown ethnic origin. 

The birthplace of Osceola, the Seminole 
chief, is between Eufaubee and Chattabogue 
Creeks. Two battles with the Creeks in the 
War of 1813 were fought in Macon County, 
one at Atassi, November 29, 1813, the other 
at Calebee Creek, January 27, 1813. The 
territory embraced by the county became an 
American possession by the treaty of March 
24, 1832. 

The western section of the county is rich 
in aboriginal remains, having been occupied 
by a thickly settled people from the very 
earliest times. Town and village sites are 
quite numerous along the Eufaubee and Cale- 
bee Creeks and along the Tallapoosa River, 
however with the exception of Autossee, on 
Calebee Creek, there is no record of any of 
the larger towns being located on the south- 
ern bank of the river. Like Lee, many of 
its place names are suggestive of its former 
people, the Upper Creeks. At the mouth of 
Calebee occurred the engagement on No- 
vember 29, 1813, between Gen. Floyd and his 
Georgians and Indians who had congregated 
here from the Coosa Valley, driven down by 
Jackson's army on the north. This being 
known as the "battle of Autossee." Port 
Bainbridge and Fort Hull, both established 
in December, 1813, were located on the old 
Federal road, the highway leading through 
the county from Fort Mitchell in Russell to 
the southwestern part of the State. Fort De- 
catur at the present Milstead was established 
in March, 1814. Here died and was buried, 
Gov. John Sevier, who had come to adjust 
the troubles of the general government with 
the Creeks, on September 24, 1815. School- 
craft (History Indian Tribes [1856] vol. 5, 
p. 2 82), reports three mounds ten miles be- 
low Little Tallassee in Macon County. These 
however refer to a group a few miles above 
Montgomery on the Alabama River. One 
and half miles east of Hornady, north of 
W. of A. R. R. and one fourth mile south 
of Eufaubee Creek, on property of Dr. Baker 
of Gadsden, is a large flat top domiciliary 

mound. A small one on the opposite side of 
the stream is now under cultivation. At the 
site of the town of Autossee just below 
Calebee Creek is a large flat top mound, often 
referred to by the early writers. It remains 
perfectly intact. The property is now owned 
by J. C. Pinkston. A small conical mound is 
found on the Cloud place, three miles from 
Shorters and one half mile from Calebee 
creek on property of Mrs. F. M. Letcher. Op- 
posite to Tuckabatchie and just below the 
Tallapoosa County line are the remains of 
an extensive site, this however may be a part 
of the town just opposite. Evidences indi- 
cative of villages extend all way up Watuhnee 
Creek into the present Tallapoosa County. 
Opil'-'Lako, or Big Swamp, an Upper Creek 
town was located on a stream of the same 
name, twenty miles from Coosa river. 

The first white settlers in the county came 
from Georgia, Tennessee, the Carolinas and 
Virginia. Tuskegee was laid out in 1833, and 
after the removal of the Indians in 1836 the 
growth of both Tuskegee and Macon Counties 
in population was rapid. 

Tuskegee (q. v.) the only town of im- 
portance is the county seat, and in it is 
located the Tuskegee Normal and Industrial 
Institute for Negroes (q. v.) the 
institution of its kind in the world. 

Agricultural Statistics. — From U. £ 

Farms and Farmers. 
Number of all farms, 4,475. 
Color and nativity of farmers: 
Native white, 632. 
Foreign-born white, 1. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 3,842. 
Number of farms, classified by size: 
Under 3 acres, 1. 

3 to 9 acres, 434. 

10 to 19 acres, 358. 

20 to 49 acres, 2,299. 

50 to 99 acres, 865. 

100 to 174 acres, 329. 

175 to 259 acres, 64. 

260 to 499 acres, 93. 

500 to 999 acres, 23. 

1,000 acres and over, 9. 

Land and Farm Area. 
Approximate land area, 392,960. 
Land in farms, 251,265. 
Improved land in farms, 171,118. 
Woodland in farms, 71.589. 
Other unimproved land in farms, 8,558. 

Value of Farm Property. 
All farm property, $5,422,585. 

Land, $3,136,986. 

Buildings, $1,162,141. 

Implements and machinery, $224,162. 

Domestic animals, poultry, and bees, $899, 
Average values: 

All property per farm, $1,212. 

Land and buildings per farm, $981. 

Land per acre, $12.48. 



Domestic Animals (Farms and Ranges). 
Farms reporting domestic animals, 4,025. 
Domestic animals, value, $872,963. 
Cattle: total, 11,375; value, $190,604. 

Dairy cows only, 5,175. 

Horses: total, 1,912; value, $210,720. 
Mules: total, 3,244; value, $411,215. 
Asses and burros: total, 7; value. $950. 
Swine: total, 14,531; value, $58,749. 
Sheep: total, 119; value, $495. 
Goats: total, 186; value, $230. 

Poultry a7id Bees. 
All poultry, 63,012; value, $25,279. 
Bee colonies, 738; value, $1,054. 

Farms Operated by Owners. 
Number of farms, 770. 

Per cent of all farms, 17.2. 
Land in farms, 91,202 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 45,026 acres. 
Land and buildings, $l,569,24lr 
Farms of owned land only, 662. 
Farms of owned and hired land, 108. 
Native white owners, 339. 
Foreign-born white, 1. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 430. 

Farms Operated by Tenants. 
Number of farms, 3,691. 

Per cent of all farms, 82.5. 
Land in farms, 154,970 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 124,441 acres. 
Land and buildings, $2,509,916. 
Share tenants, 705. 
Share cash-tenants, 90. 
Cash tenants, 2,767. 
Tenure not specified, 129. 
Native white tenants, 291. 

Foreign-born white, . 

Negro and other nonwhite, 3,400. 

Farms Operated by Managers. 
Number of farms, 14. 
Land in farms, 5,093 acres. 
Improved land in farms. 1,651 acres. 
Value of land and buildings, $219,970. 

Live Stock Products. 

Dairy Products. 

Milk: Produced, 931,605; sold, 69,566 gal- 

Cream sold, 300 gallons. 

Butter fat sold, 183 pounds. 

Butter: Produced, 304.444; sold, 32,322 

Cheese: Produced, 800; sold, 775 pounds. 

Dairy products, excluding home use of milk 
and cream, $82,992. 

Sale of dairy products, $27,435. 

Poultry Products. 
Poultry: Number raised, 149,813; sold, 20,- 

Eggs: Produced, 172,952; sold, 34,351 

Poultry and eggs produced, $66,439. 
Sale of poultry and eggs, $11,654. 

Special crops: 

Potatoes, 57 acres; 3,207 bushels. 

Sweet potatoes and yams, 1,187 acres; 
76,596 bushels. 

Tobacco, 235 pounds. 

Cotton, 89,796 acres; 21,168 bales. 
Cane — sugar, 490 acres; 3,514 tons. 

Sirup made, 43,327 gallons. 
Cane — sorghum, 61 acres; 200 tons. 

Sirup made, 1,913 gallons. 

Fruits and Xuts. 
Orchard fruits: total, 13,006 trees; 8,462 
Apples, 1,429 trees; 1,259 bushels. 
Peaches and nectarines, 9,710 trees; 5,168 

Pears, 464 trees; 827 bushels. 
Plums and prunes, 1,344 trees; 1,172 

Cherries, 55 trees; 36 bushels. 

Quinces. . 

Grapes, 2,399 vines; 17,496 pounds. 
Tropical fruits: total, 234 trees. 
Figs. 232 trees; 6,901 pounds. 

Oranges, . 

Small fruits: total, 15 acres; 19,574 quarts. 
Strawberries, 12 acres; 16,310 quarts. 
Nuts: total, 88 trees; 2,213 pounds. 
Pecans, 66 trees; 575 pounds. 

Labor, Fertilizer and Feed. 
Labor — Farms reporting, 1,821. 

Cash expended, $141,296. 

Rent and board furnished, $89,176. 
Fertilizer — Farme reporting, 1,976. 

Amount expended, $159,898. 
Feed — Farms reporting, 1,900. 

Amount expended, $94,646. 
Receipts from sale of feedable crops, $6,159. 

Domestic Animals Not on Farms. 
Inclosures reporting domestic animals, 237. 
Value of domestic animals, $37,201. 
Cattle: total, 601; value, $10,848. 

Number of dairy cows, 150. 
Horses: total, 148; value, $17,980. 
Mules and asses and burros: total, 62; value, 

Swine: total, 299; value, $1,476. 
Sheep and goats: total, 27; value, $62. 

Honey and Wax. 
Honey produced, 5,063 pounds. 
Wax produced, 460 pounds. 
Value of honey and wax produced, $626. 

Wool, Mohair, and Goat Hair. 
Wool, fleeces shorn, 85. 

Mohair and goat hair, fleeces shorn, . 

Wool and mohair produced, $34. 

Domestic Animals Sold or Slaughtered. 
Calves — Sold or slaughtered, 207. 
Other cattle — Sold or slaughtered, 1,588. 
Horses, mules, and asses and burros — Sold, 78. 
Swine— Sold or slaughtered, 6,404. 
Sheep and goats — Sold or slaughtered, 83. 
Sale of animals, $29,262. 
Value of animals slaughtered, $71,125. 


Value of AU Crops. 
Total, $2,144,207. 
Cereals, $313,768. 
Other grains and seeds, $31,753. 
Hay and forage, $16,184. 
Vegetables, $112,697. 
Fruits and nuts, $11,207. 
All other crops, $1,658,598. 

Selected Crops (Acres and Quantity). 
Cereals: total, 39,703 acres; 345,525 

Corn, 35,889 acres; 276,587 bushels. 

Oats, 3.S04 acres; 68,834 bushels. 

Wheat, 9 acres; 83 bushels. 

Rye, 1 acre; 13 bushels. 

Kafir corn and milo maize, . 

Rice, 8 bushels. 
Other grains: 

Dry peas, 3,222 acres; 14,709 bushels. 

Dry edible beans, 17 acres; 172 bushels. 

Peanuts, 294 acres; 6,558 bushels. 
Hay and forage: total, 1,481 acres; 1,141 


All tame or cultivated grasses, 821 acres; 
640 tons. 

Wild, salt, and prairie grasses, 270 acres; 
194 tons. 

Grains cut green, 352 acres; 285 tons. 

Coarse forage, 38 acres; 22 tons. 

Post Offices and Towns. — Revised to July 

1, 1919, from U. S. Official Postal Guide. 
Figures indicate the number of rural routes 
from that office. 

Armstrong Liverpool 

Chesson Millstead — 1 

Creek Stand Notasulga — 3 

Cubahatchie Roba 

Downs Shorter — 1 

Fort Davis Tuskegee (ch.) — 3 

Gabbett Tuskegee Institute 

Hannon Tysonville 

Hardaway Warriorstand 

Population. — Statistics from decennial pub- 
lications of the U. S. Bureau of the Census. 

White. Negro. Total. 

1840 5,369 5,878 11,247 

1850 11,286 15,612 26,898 

1860 8,624 18,177 26,802 

1S70 5,103 12,620 17,727 

1880 4,587 12,784 17,371 

1890 4,251 14,188 18,439 

1900 4,252 18,874 23,126 

1910 4,007 22,039 26,049 

1920 23,561 

Delegates to Constitutional Conventions. — 

1861 — Samuel Henderson. O. R. Blue, J. H. 

1865 — Linn B. Sanders, J. T. Crawford, R. 
H. Howard. 

1867 — Littleberry Strange, John J. Martin. 

1875 — Cullen A. Battle, B. F. Johnston. 

19 01 — James E. Cobb. 

Sentaors. — 

1834-5 — James Larkins. 
1836-7 — John W. Devereux. 
1839-40 — Solomon Washburn. 

1840-1 — Samuel C. Dailey. 
1843-4 — Robert Dougherty. 
1845-6 — Nathaniel J. Scott. 
1849-50 — George W. Gunn. 
1853-4 — Nathaniel Holt Clanton. 
1855-6 — George W. Gunn. 
1857-8 — George W. Carter. 
1859-60— William P. Chilton. ' 
1861-2 — Robert F. Ligon. 
1865-6 — Richard H. Powell. 
1868 — W. W. Glass. 
1S71-2 — W. W. Glass. 
1872-3 — W. W. Glass. 
1873 — W. W. Glass. 
1S74-5— W. W. Glass. 
1875-6 — R. J. Thornton. 
1876-7 — H. C. Armstrong. 
1878-9 — G. R. Banks. 
1880-1 — G. R. Banks. 
1882-3 — A. L. Brooks. 
1884-5 — A. L. Brooks. 
1886-7 — Thomas L. Bulger. 
1888-9 — Thomas L. Bulger. 
1890-1 — J. H. Reynolds. 
1892-3 — J. H. Reynolds. 
1894-5 — I. F. Culver. 
1896-7 — D. S. Bethune. 
1898-9 — C. W. Thompson. 
1899 (Spec.) — C. W. Thompson. 
1900-01 — C. W. Thompson. 
1903 — Thomas Sidney Frazer. 
1907 — H. P. Merritt. 
1907 (Spec.) — H. P. Merritt. 
1909 (Spec.) — H. P. Merritt. 
1911 — T. S. Frazer. 
1915 — O S. Lewis. 
1919 — S. C. Cowan. 

Representatives. — 

1834-5 — Joseph Clough. 

1835-6 — Joseph Clough. 

1837 (called) — Joseph Clough. 

1837-8 — Joseph Clough. 

1838-9 — Nathaniel Holt Clanton. 

1839-40 — Raney Fitzpatrick. 

1840-1 — Raney Fitzpatrick. 

1841 (called) — Raney Fitzpatrick. 

1841-2 — Nathaniel J. Scott. 

1842-3 — Whiting Oliver. 

184 3-4 — Whiting Oliver. 

1844-5 — Nathaniel J. Scott. 

184 5-6 — Joseph V. Bates; Milton J. Tar- 

1847-8 — Howell Peebles; Philip H. Rai- 

1849-50 — Robert F. Ligon; B. W. Walker. 

1851-2 — John Smith; Seaborn Williams. 

1853-4 — Charles A. Abercrombie; T. V. 
Rutherford; Sidney B. Paine. 

1855-6 — N. G. Owen; J. W. Echols; J. H. 

1857-8 — Thomas F. Flournoy; J. W. 
Echols; Benjamin Thompson. 

1859-60 — Thomas S. Tate; Charles J. 
Bryan; William R. Cunningham. 

1861 (1st called) — Thomas S. Tate; 
Charles J. Bryan; William R. Cunningham. 

1861 (2d called) — Wylie W. Mason; John 
C. Judkins; Benjamin Tompkins. 



1861-2 — Wylie W. Mason; John C. 
kins; Benjamin Tompkins. 

1862 (called) — Wylie W. Mason; John C. 
Judkins; Benjamin Tompkins. 

1862-3 — Wylie W. Mason; John C. Jud- 
kins; Benjamin Tompkins. 

1863 (called) — Augustus B. Fannin; 
Charles J. Bryan; J. C. Head. 

1863-4 — Augustus B. Fannin; Charles J. 
Bryan; J. C. Head. 

1864 (called) — Augustus B. Fannin; 
Charles J. Bryan; J. C. Head. 

1864-5 — Augustus B. Fannin; Charles J. 
Bryan; J. C. Head. 

1865-6 — J. W. Echols; J. C. Judkins; Alex- 
ander Frazier. 

1866-7 — F. S. Ferguson (vice J. C. Jud- 

1868— William Alley; J. H. Alston. 

1869-70 — William Alley; J. H. Alston. 

1870-1 — William Alley; Henry St. Clair. 

1871-2 — William Alley; Henry St. Clair. 

1872-3 — George Patterson; Henry St. Clair. 

1873 — George Patterson; Henry St. Clair. 

1874-5 — A. W. Johnson; George Patterson. 

1875-6 — A. W. Johnson; George Patterson. 

1876-7 — E. S. McWhorter; L. C. Ramsey. 

1878-9 — A. L. Brooks; W. F. Foster. 

1880-1 — A. L. Brooks; W. F. Foster. 

1882-3 — W. F. Foster. 

1884-5 — J. A. Bilbro. 

1886-7 — B. W. Walker. 

1888-9 — S. B. Paine. 

1890-1 — J. C. Simmons. 

1892-3 — P. S. Holt. 

1894-5 — P. S. Holt; J. R. Wood (to succeed 
P. S. Holt, deceased). 

1896-7 — J. R. Wood. 

1898-9 — W. H. Hurt. 

1899 (Spec.) — W. H. Hurt. 

1900-01 — John B. Breedlove. 

1903 — John Richard Wood. 

1907 — E. W. Thompson. 

1907 (Spec.) — E. W. Thompson. 

1909 (Spec.) — E. W. Thompson. 

1911 — H. P. Merritt. 

1915 — H. P. Merritt. 

1919 — H. P. Merritt. 

References. — Toulmin, Digest (1823), index; 
Acts of Ala.. Brewer, Alabama, p. 336; Berney, 
Handbook (1892), p. 309; Riley, Alabama as it 
is (1893), p. 186; Northern Alabama (1888), p. 
205; Alabama 1909 (Ala. Dept. of Ag. and Ind., 
Bulletin 27), p. 155; U. S. Soil Survey (1905), 
■with map; Alabama land book (1916), p. 101; 
Ala. Official and Statistical Register, 1903-1915, 
5 vols.; Ala. Anthropological Society, Hand- 
book (1910); Geol. Survey of Ala., Agricul- 
tural Features of the State (1883); The Valley 
Regions of Alabama, parts 1 and 2 (1896, 1897), 
and Underground Water Resources of Alabama 

MAD STONES. See Health, State Board 

MADISON. Post office and incorporated 
town, in the western part of Madison County, 
In NW. % of sec. 16 and NE. % of sec. 17, 
T. 4, R. 2 W., and on the Southern Railway, 

10 miles southwest of Huntsville. Altitude: 
673 feet. Population: 1880 — 410; 1888 — 
350; 1912 — 426. It has the Bank of Madi- 
son, a State institution, and the Madison 
Training School. It has a volunteer Hre de- 
partment Its industries are a sawmill, 2 
cotton ginneries, and 2 gristmills. 

It was settled in 1818. Among its early 
settlers and prominent residents have been 
the Walker, Clemens, Patton, Stevens, Martin, 
Lewis, and Wiggins families. Hon. Jere 
Clemens and C. C. Clay were born there. 

References. — Brewer, Alabama (1872), p. 
348; Northern Alabama (1888), pp. 60, 249; 
Polk's Alabama gazetteer, 1888-9, p. 482; Taylor, 
"Madison County," in Huntsville Independent, 
circa 1879. 

MADISON COUNTY. Created by proclama- 
tion of Gov. Robert Williams, of the Missis- 
sippi Territory, December 13, 1808. The 
territory originally included in the county, the 
Indian titles of which had been extinguished, 
began on the north bank of the Tennessee 
River, on the Cherokee boundary line, thence 
northly along this boundary to the southern 
boundary of Tennessee, thence west with this 
boundary until it struck the Chickasaw boun- 
dary, then southward along the Chickasaw 
line, crossing the Tennessee river twice, to 
its beginning. By act of the Territorial leg- 
islature of Alabama, February 8, 1818, the 
dimensions of the county were enlarged by its 
being bounded on the west by the western 
boundary of range number two, west of the 
basis meridian of the county, extending from 
the southern part of the boundary of the 
state of Tennessee to the Tennessee River 
and bounded on the south by the river. By 
act of the Alabama legislature December 13, 
1819, all the tract of country lying between 
the east Madison County line, and Flint 
River were added to the county. The terri- 
tory east of Flint River, belonging to Decatur 
County was added to Madison County on the 
abolition of Decatur in 1824, thus giving 
Madison its final shape and dimensions. 

The total area of the county is 512,000 
acres, or about 800 square miles. 

It was named in honor of James Madison 
who at the time of the county's creation was 
secretary of state, later becoming President 
of the United States. 

Location and Physical Description. — Situ- 
ated in the north central part of the state, 
it is bounded on the north by Giles and 
Lincoln Counties. Tenn., on the east by Jack- 
son County, on the south by Marshall and 
Morgan Counties, and on the west by Lime- 
stone County. 

Elevations vary from 2 00 to 1.600 feet. 
The mean annual temperature is 61°F, and 
the mean annual precipitation is 40.1 inches. 

The topographic features of the county 
are varied and may be classed as river and 
stream bottoms, general uplands, and the 
mountain spurs and knobs of the Cumber- 
land plateau. 

Eighteen soil types appear in the county, 
thirteen are included in the Uplands, and 



five in the alluvial or bottom lands. The 
Decatur, Clarksville, Colbert, Hagerstown 
and DeKalb are mapped as upland series, 
while the Elk, Holly and Huntington series 
are found in tne alluvial areas. 

Drainage is southward into the Tennessee 
river through Limestone Creek, Indian 
Creek, Aldridges Creek, and Flint and Pain 
Eivers. The tributaries of these streams also 
aid materially in supplying drainage. Madi- 
son County has exceptionally good water. 
Many springs are found in the area seeping 
from bluffs or bubbling up through tissues 
in the lime rock. Water may be secured in 
wells from 12 to 100 feet. 

The principal crops are: cotton, corn, 
wheat, hay, oats, sorghum, sweet potatoes, 
Irish potatoes, clover, peanuts, fruits and 
alfalfa. Livestock raising, such as cattle, 
hogs, sheep, and goats is a growing industry. 
Nursery stock has also become an important 

Forest growth consists of post, black, white, 
Spanish and blackjack oaks, beech, poplar 
and sugar maple. 

The Southern Railway using the right of 
way of the old Memphis and Charleston road, 
traverses the county from east to west. The 
Gadsden and Decherd Branch of the Nash- 
ville, Chattanooga and St. Louis railway, 
crosses the county from north to south. The 
Fayetteville and Harvest branch of the same 
system cuts the northwest corner of the 

Aboriginal History. — According to the tra- 
ditional mstory of the Cherokees they were 
the first inhabitants of the Tennessee val- 
ley. About 1650, from some cause they with- 
drew from the region to the east of the 
Cumberland and Sand Mountains, reserving 
the valley as a hunting ground. 

Some years after their withdrawal bands 
ot Shawnees moved southward from Cum- 
berland river and took possession of the 
Tennessee River country in Alabama. This 
action angered the Cherokees and they were 
soon at war with the intruders. Finally 
after some forty years of warfare, with tne 
aid of the Chickasaws, about 1721, the Shaw- 
nees were driven from the country and forced 
to seek a new home beyond the Ohio. After 
this long war the Tennessee valley remained 
without occupants for many years. 

About 1765 the Chickasaws moved into the 
country and formed a settlement in the great 
bend of the Tennessee River in Marshall 
County. The founding of this settlement 
aroused the resentment of the Cherokees, who 
were soon at war with their former allies. 
In 176 9 a great battle was fought between 
the two tribes at the Chickasaw village. The 
Chickasaws were the victors, but their victory 
was won at such a great loss that they with- 
drew from the country. This abandoned set- 
tlement was thenceforth known as the Chicka- 
saw Old Fields, and a Cherokee settlement 
was finally made in it. The Chickasaws con- 
tinued to claim lands on both sides of the 
Tennessee River. As the first occupants, the 
Cherokees never ceased to claim a full title 

to lands on both sides of the river as far 
west as Big Bear Creek. In view perhaps of 
their former occupancy of the great bend, 
the Chickasaws claimed that their boundary 
line on the north side of the river ran from 
the Chickasaw Old Fields northwardly to the 
great ridge dividing the waters of the Tennes- 
see and Cumberland rivers. 

In spite of the overlapping of these two 
tribal claims, both were recognized by the 
United States. By the Chickasaw treaty of 
July 23, 1805, that part of the country in- 
cluded between this Chickasaw boundary line 
on the east and a line on the west, running 
from the Chickasaw Old Fields northwest to 
the ridge near the main source of Buffalo 
River, was ceded to the United States. 

By the Cherokee treaty of January 7, 1806, 
all their territory north of the Tennessee 
River and west of a line drawn from the 
upper part of the Chickasaw Old Fields, at 
the upper end of an island, called Chickasaw 
Island, northerly so as most directly to in- 
tersect the first waters of Elk River, was 
ceded to the United States. 

This triangular tract of country, acquired 
by these two treaties, became the original 
Madison County of 1808. 

By the treaty of September 20, 1816, the 
Chickasaws ceded to the United States, with 
the exception of three reservations, all right 
or title to lands north of the Tennessee River. 
This brought about the western enlargement 
of the county in accordance with the act of 
the legislature of 1818. By the treaty of 
February 27, 1819, Alabama acquired all the 
remaining Cherokee lands within her borders 
north of the Tennessee river. In this treaty 
the Cherokees also ceded to the United States, 
in trust, to be sold for the benefit of the 
Cherokee school fund, a tract of land twelve 
miles square. From this treaty with the 
Cherokees, Madison County ultimately ac- 
quired its last territory, giving it its present 
shape and dimensions. 

The old Cherokee Reservation lay for the 
most part in the county and evidences of its 
former occupancy are found in a number of 
places. Along the Tennessee river and in the 
extreme northern section further indications 
are met with. Mounds are found on the 
Jones' plantation, near Newmarket; on the 
old Jeffries place at Hazel Green; and Shell- 
mounds or heaps are seen at Huntsville and 
on the north bank of the Tennessee near 
Whitesburg. Huntsville Cave, a short dis- 
tance from the Spring, "a great natural curi- 
osity and affords the mineralogical student a 
rich harvest in limestone formations and fos- 
sil remains." On Hobbs Island, on property 
of Mrs. F. M. Henderson of Natchez, Miss., 
are two mounds on a town site. At the 
mouth of Flint river is a town site. Opposite 
Bluff City on the property of W. M. Hopper 
is a large town site which unlike other loca- 
tions in this section, shows no evidence of 

There is some doubt as to who was the 
first settler in Madison County. If Ditto, a 
Pennsylvanian, was not the first settler, as 



it is said that he was, living among the In- 
dians in the Chickasaw Old Fields in 1804, 
then the honor must be conceded to Joseph 
and Isaac Criner. These two men with 
Stephen McBroom explored the northern part 
of the county in 1804. In the early part of 
1805, the two Criners erected cabins for them- 
selves, near Criner's Big Spring on Mountain 
Fork. While engaged in this work, they were 
visited by John Hunt and a man named Blan, 
who stated that they were in search of the 
big spring. After spending the night, the 
two visitors continued their journey. About 
a week afterward Blan returned stating that 
he was going to return to Tennessee to live, 
but that Hunt would locate at the big spring, 
which had been found, and that he would go 
back to East Tennessee for his family. But 
apart from the Criners and Hunt, other fam- 
ilies came from Tennessee during 1805 and a 
number of settlements were made. These 
early settlers, and those who came in the 
next few years were typical pioneers, used to 
all the dangers, toils and privations of pio- 
neer life. Their lives were peaceful and 
they had no trouble with the Indians. 

The first great inconvenience was the lack 
of mills. The settlers were forced to carry 
their corn to the mills near Winchester, Tenn., 
causing them to be absent from home for 
several days. Some of the people obviated 
this necessity by the use of a mortor and 
pestle. In the lack of meal lye hominy was 
extensively used. 

The first cotton gin, the year unknown was 
put up by Charles Cabaness on Barren Fork. 
By 1809 settlements had been found along 
Flint River, at Huntsville, Hazel Green, Me- 
ridianville, and many other places in the 
county. During 1809 and the years following 
many wealthy families from Virginia and 
Georgia came to the county with their slaves 
and opened large plantations. They in time 
outnumbered the pioneers and became the 
dominant element in the county. 

The second capital of the state located at 
Huntsville (q. v.). 

Among the principal towns of the county 
are: Huntsville, the county seat, Gurley, New 
Hope, New Market, and Madison. 

Churches and school houses are located at 
convenient points throughout the county, 
while the population has rural free delivery 
mail service, and local and long distance tele- 
phone service. 

Agricultural Statistics. — From U. S. Census 

Farms and Farmers. 
Number of all farms, 5,854. 
Color and nativity of farmers: 

Native white, 3,244. 

Foreign-born white, 15. 

Negro and other nonwhite, 2,5 95. 
Number of farms, classified by size: 



3 acres, 1. 



9 acres, 




19 acres, 




4 9 acres, 




99 acres. 


100 to 174 acres, 659. 

175 to 259 acres, 215. 

260 to 499 acres, 150. 

500 to 999 acres, 54. 

1,000 acres and over, 6. 

Land and Farm Area. 
Approximate land area, 519,040 acres. 
Land in farms, 408,781 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 245,056 acres. 
Woodland in farms, 141,899 acres. 
Other unimproved land in farms, 21,826 

Value of Farm Property. 
All farm property, $10,947,142. 

Land, $6,679,591. 

Buildings, $2,074,182. 

Implements and machinery, $432,107. 

Domestic animals, poultry, and bees, $1,- 
Average values: 

All property per farm, $1,870. 

Land and buildings per farm, $1,495. 

Land per acre, $16.34. 

Domestic Animals (Farms and Ranges). 
Farms reporting domestic animals, 5,534. 
Domestic animals, value, $1,708,895. 
Cattle: total, 19,181; value, $282,628. 

Dairy cows only, 8,362. 
Horses: total, 4,840; value, $482,029. 
Mules: total, 7,259; value, $828,416. 
Asses and burros: total, 50; value, $6,077. 
Swine: total, 20,810; value. $96,096. 
Sheep: total, 3,588; value, $11,151. 
Goats: total, 1,576; value, $2,498. 

Poultry and Bees. 
All poultry, 129,203; value, $49,728. 
Bee colonies, 1,363; value, $2,639. 

Farms Operated by Owners. 
Number of farms, 1,933. 

Per cent of all farms, 33.0. 
Land in farms, 238,690 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 111,551 acres. 
Land and buildings, $4,637,384. 
Farms of owned land only, 1,403. 
Farms of owned and hired land, 530. 
Native white owners, 1,496. 
Foreign-born white, 12. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 425. 

Farms Operated by Tenants. 
Number of farms, 3,899. 

Per cent of all farms, 66.6. 
Land in farms, 162,624 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 129,831 acres. 
Land and buildings, $3,843,016. 
Share tenants, 2,381. 
Share-cash tenants, 53. 
Cash tenants, 1,424. 
Tenure not specified, 41. 
Native white tenants, 1,728. 
Foreign-born white, 3. 
Negro and other nonwhite, 2,168. 

Farms Operated by Managers. 
Number of farms, 22. 



Land in farms, 7,467 acres. 
Improved land in farms, 3,674 acres. 
Value of land and buildings, $273,373. 

Live Stock Products. 

Dairy Products. 
Milk: Produced, 1,970, 687; sold, 67,646 

Cream sold, 95 gallons. 

Butter fat sold, . 

Butter: Produced, 681,933; sold, 104,617 


Cheese: Produced, . 

Dairy products, excluding home use of milk 

and cream, $141,540. 
Sale of dairy products, $33,995. 

Poultry Products. 
Poultry: Number raised, 220,458; sold, 

Eggs: Produced, 661,306; sold, 333,851 

Poultry and eggs produced, $169,325. 
Sale of poultry and eggs, $72,638. 

Honey and Wax. 
Honey produced, 8,688 pounds. 
Wax produced, 418 pounds. 
Value of honey and wax produced, $1,093. 

Wool, Mohair, and Goat Ha-ir. 
Wool, fleeces shorn, 1,576. 
Mohair and goat hair, fleeces shorn, 6. 
Wool and mohair produced, $1,294. 

Domestic Animals Sold or Slaughtered. 
Calves — Sold or slaughtered, 1,144. 
Other cattle — Sold or slaughtered, 8,380. 
Horses, mules, and asses and burros — Sold, 

Swine — Sold or slaughtered, 17,036. 
Sheep and goats — Sold or slaughtered, 1,309. 
Sale of animals, $246,276. 
Value of animals slaughtered, $189,080. 

Value of All Crops. 
Total, $3,378,691. 
Cereals, $938,974. 
Other grains and seeds, $7,987. 
Hay and forage, $194,150. 
Vegetables, $165,8 34. 
Fruit and nuts, $54,351. 
All other crops, $2,017,395. 

Selected Crops (Acres and Quantity). 
Cereals: total, 83,615 acres; 1,130,540 

Corn, 75,192 acres; 1,016,151 bushels. 

Oats, 5,979 acres; 88,639 bushels. 

Wheat, 2,422 acres; 25,460 bushels. 

Rye. 10 acres; 150 bushels. 

Kafir corn and milo maize, . 

Rice, . 

Other grains: 

Dry peas, 414 acres; 4,450 bushels. 

Dry edible beans, 24 acres; 278 bushels. 

Peanuts. 55 acres; 1,662 bushels. 
Hay and forage: total, 15,359 acres; 13,099 

lne grasses, 9S2 acres; 

All tame or cultivated grasses, 5,9S 
acres; 5,415 tons. 

Wild, salt, a 
854 tons. 

Grains cut green, 7,906 acres; 6,338 tons. 

Coarse forage, 485 acres; 492 tons. 
Special crops: 

Potatoes, 444 acres; 36,377 bushels. 

Sweet potatoes and yams, 614 acres; 60,864 

Tobacco, 9 acres; 2,235 pounds. 

Cotton, 75,627 acres; 19,882 bales. 
Cane — sugar, 351 acres; 1,087 tons. 

Syrup made, 13,380 gallons. 
Cane — sorghum, 537 acres; 1,501 tons. 

Syrup made, IS, 954 gallons. 

Fruits and Nuts. 
Orchard fruits: total, 121,561 trees; 66,226 

Apples, 55,082 trees; 28,894 bushels. 

Peaches and nectarines, 50,730 trees; 
33,262 bushels. 

Pears, 9,145; trees, 2,328 bushels. 

Plums and prunes, 4,164 trees; 1,312 

Cherries, 2,164 trees; 237 bushels. 

Quinces, 236 trees; 153 bushels. 

Grapes, It. 802 vines; 23,124 pounds. 
Tropical fruits: total, 115 trees. 

Figs, 115 trees; 2,471 pounds. 

Oranges, . 

Small fruits: total, 36 acres; 40,709 quarts. 

Strawberries, 22 acres; 37,437 quarts. 
Nuts: total, 120 trees; 631 pounds. 

Pecans, 17 trees; 480 pounds. 

Laoor, Fertilizer and Feed. 
Labor — Farms reporting, 1,357. 

Cash expended, $162,666. 

Rent and board furnished, $28,9S3. 
Fertilizer — Farms reporting, 2,241. 

Amount expended, $62,274. 
Feed — Farms reporting, 1,099. 

Amount expended, $64,533. 
Receipts from sale of feedable crops, $79,635. 

Domestic Animals Not on Farms. 
Inclosures reporting domestic animals, 1,226. 
Value of domestic animals, $176,408. 
Cattle: total, 1,931; value, $42,726. 

Number of dairy cows, 1,149. 
Horses: total, 962; value, $111,711. 
Mules and asses and burros: total, 164; value, 

Swine: total, 472; value, $2,540. 
Sheep and goats: total, 57; value, $161. 

Post Offices and Towns. — Revised to July 
1, 1919, from U. S. Official Postal Guide. 
Figures indicate the number of rural routes 
from that office. 

Brownsboro — 1 
Chase — 1 
Elkwood — 1 

Gurley — 1 
Harvest — 2 
Huntsville (ch.)- 

Madison — 3 
Meridianville — 1 
New Hope — 1 


New Market — 3 Ryland 

Normal Taylorsvi