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of the 

Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 







Ph.K. (Simpsox), A.m. (Radcliffe) 

Editor First Edition 
Editor The Lyre 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fra/eniity 

By Mabel Harriet Siller 

All rights reserved 


U 3 1 A- 

Copyright 1917 by 
Florence A. Armstrong 


Alta Alh-n Loud 

ami to the Fratvrnity 

This I'oiiuue is Dedicated 

l>\ the Author 






1 Educational and Fraternity Conditions at the Time of the Founding of 

Alpha Chi Omega (1885). 

2 Organization of Alpha Chi Omega. 

3 Early Years. 

4 Expansion into State Universities as a General Fraternity with Musical 


5 Present Scope. 

6 Material Possessions. 

7 Colleges in which Alpha Chi Omega has Chapters. 

8 The Alumnae Association. 

9 Alumnae Chapters. 

10 Alumnae Clubs. 

1 1 Government. 

12 National Conventions. 

13 National Council Meetings. 

14 Insignia and Heraldry. 

15 The Lyre. 

16 The Heraeum, the Argolid, and the Songbook. 

17 The History. 

18 The Daily Convention Transcript, the Directorv. and the Calendar. 

19 Official Forms and Supplie.s. 

20 Endowment and Scholarship Funds. 

21 Chapter-house Ownership. 

22 The Macdowell Colony Studio. 

23 Influence of Grecian Culture upon Alpha Chi Omega. 

24 Traditions of the Fraternitv. 

25 The Panhellenic Movement. 

26 Prominent Members. 

27 The Contribution of Alpha Chi Omega to American Fife. 

Directory of National Officers. 
Chronological History of the Fraternity. 


It has been the aim of this volume to ij,ive mainly a picture of the Frater- 
nity as she exists today ; and to reveal her impulse, her evolution, and her 
genius, according to the records. 

I should like to acknowledge gratefully the generous help derived from 
many members of Alpha C"hi Omega. The history committees of the chapters, 
appointed at my request, contributed invaluable material. To them we are 
indebted for recent local statistics, as well as in many cases, for fresh 
material of the earlier days. From them, and from the authorities of the 
colleges also, came the historical data of the educational institutions where 
the Fraternity is rejiresented. The sketches of the celebrated honorary sisters 
were based upon a series of articles written for Thr Lyre by Winifred Byrd, 
Zeta ; the chai)ter on official suppl'es was largely written by Kathryn Morgan, 
Xi, Keeper of Supplies ; the section on mythology was compiled by Ina 
Weyrauch, Lambda ; while the story of altruistic work was done by Gladys 
Livingston Graff, Zeta, who, moreover, carried a large share of the corre- 
spondence relating to prominent members. The index was made by Myra 
H. Jones. To the National Alumnae Editor, Edna Boicourt, Zeta, I am 
indebted for assistance in correspondence, and for the delightful but onerous 
task of listing and mounting the photographs of the children of members. 
Lucile Lippett, Delta, gave extended and valuable aid in numberless 
details; among other services, she prepared for publication the results of my 
research regarding the national conventions. Assistance in the reading of 
proof Avas given by Mary-Emma Griffith, bv Mablc Siller Nafis, and by 
Alta Allen Loud. 

To Mrs. Loud I would express especial thanks, for advice and coo^jeration 
at every step of the way. No detail was too slight, no recjuest too large, 
for her careful and illuminating comment. 

Not only to the meml)ers mentioned above is gratitude due. To Mrs. 
Macdowell who welcomed the author to the artists' colony, and placed at her 
disposal the Star Studio, I wish to give sincere thanks. And to two professors 
of Harvard University, whose instruction has l)een oi the utmost helpfulness, 
I proffer my respectful appreciation ; to Chester Noyes Greenough, Professor 
of English, whose course in American Literature was of great value ; and 
to Frederick Jackson Turner, Professor of the Historv of the American West, 
whose grasp and power added to my understanding and enthusiasm in 

In this speaking of my gratitude, I trust that I have succeeded in making 
plain the wide cooperation which has been given in the search for facts, and in 
the composition, of the History of Al f^ha Chi Omega. As you proceed, kind 
reader, you will see how much aid I ha\'e received from Dean Howe and the 
founders, and from the first edition of the History. Miss Helen Campbell 
of Radcliffe College, assisted me, also, in making maps and charts. The 
volume is such a complex one that without numl)erless helpers, I should 

have found the composition impossible in the few months allotted to me. 
We were able, however, by herculean efforts, to send the manuscript to the 
publisher last October. Since that time the volume which was to appear in 
November has faced sad delays : a six-weeks' delay by the American Express 
Company, and delays on the part of the publisher. We regret these beyond 
words. But we hope that you will find the book readable and useful. 

Cambridge, Massachusetts, Florence A. Armstrong. 

February ig, 1917. 

Ai.TA Allen Loud 

General Secretary, 1897-1898 
National President, 1907-1910; 1912-1917 



There were five national (ireek-letter fraternities for women in 1885. 
Alpha Chi Omega became the sixth. In the understanding of our own his- 
tory some information of the college and fraternity world of that time may be 
illuminating. A new era was beginning in the education of womankind. 
"Interest in provision for the superior instruction of women shows no abate- 
ment," reports the American Commissioner of Education, in 1884-5, after 
investigation of conditions in the thirty-eight states of the Union, "although 
the vear has not been characterized by any special action in reference to the 
subject. The importance of full provision for this work is indeed so fully 
recognized that the discussions which it excites no longer turn on that ques- 
tion, but on those which pertain to it as a part of superior education in 
general." The movement toward woman's higher education was propelled 
throughout the two decades just passed, by the need for women to take the 
places of the soldier-pedagogues of the Civil War. The East had established 
separate institutions for the training of women, and the standard* of scholar- 
ship had not been injured. "It is my hope," Mathew Vassar had said, "to be 
the instrument, in the hands of Providence, of founding and perpetuating an 
institution which shall accomplish for young women what our colleges are 
accomplishing for young men." Vassar College was opened in 1855 ; a 
decade later Smith College was opened; Wellesley was established in 1870 
(the date on which the first national (ireek-letter fraternity for women was 
founded). The state of Massacliusetts granted to Wellesley in 1877 the 
authority to give degrees. 

Doubt concerning woman's mental capacitv had been allayed. Long 
treatises, however, inquired into the physical limitations of the feminine con- 
stitution. The Commissioner of Education pointed triumphantly to cases in 
Europe where women had endured collegiate labor with impunitv. Some 
institutions had introduced physical exercises for women, and these he recom- 
mended to all colleges. The era of experimentation was drawing to its close. 
The standard of women's colleges was improving steadily. In 1885 Bryn 
Mawr was founded, and has always had a high standard. There had been 
much change already since a youth had ventured his opinion in 1872 to Alice 
Freeman that "girls' colleges were a contrivance for enabling women to pre- 
tend that they had the same education as men." 

In the West women's education more nearly kept pace with that of their 
l)rothers. Accepting the advice of Horace Mann manv western states made 
their state universities serve both their bovs and their girls. The Universities 
of Iowa (1847). (1866). Minnesota (1868). and Nebraska (1871) 
were established for both sexes. About the same time Indiana (1868), Michi- 
gan (1870), Illinois (1870), California (1870). Missouri (1870), Ohio 

TiiK History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraiernity 

(1873). and Wisconsin (1874) opened their doors to women. One of these 
western uniYersities was destined to exert a moulding influence upon the 
education of women in the older East. Alice Freeman went as a pioneer 
woman student to the UniYcrsity of Michigan, and there receiYed her degree. 
As president of Wellesley College (1881-1887) she "developed and dignified 
its departments * * systematized inspection, and drew up a certificate 
(for admission from certain accredited schools), and then conducted 
examinations in Wellesley courses in such a way that there was a 
general rise in standards. A new atmosphere of exactitude, work, and insis- 
tence on what a college should mean, succeeding a sort of boarding-school 
looseness." She assisted in the organization of sixteen preparatory schools in 
many of which Wellesley graduates became teachers. 

The systematization given W^ellesley and the boarding-schools feeding it 
was needed in most of the many academies, female seminaries, and female 
colleges in the country. In the West the colleges themselves undertook to 
supply the deficiencies of the preparatory education of their students by 
giving preparatory courses. The country west of Missouri was still sparsely 
settled, and consequently transportation in the Middle West had improved 
but slowly. Most western young people had been educated, therefore, near 
their homes. Numberless academies, seminaries, and colleges had sprung up 
for this purpose. With the great improvement of railroad facilities, however 
(1885-1890), many students entered the state universities. These have 
grown with marvellous rapidity in the past two decades. 

After the pioneer period in the Mississippi Valley, the educational 
development of the western states is one of the most extraordinary phenomena 
in history. Alpha Chi Omega was founded at the psychological moment. 
She was spared struggling years of weakness, disfavor, and uncertainty in the 
education of women which she would have encountered two decades before. 
And she entered the educational world at the exact time when coeducation 
was a rising tide. 

It was in the colleges admitting both men and women that the woman's 
fraternity, logically, had its rise. In De Pauw, where the first national 
Greek-letter fraternity for women had been established fifteen years earlier, 
Alpha Chi Omega was founded. The following table illustrates the early 
location of first chapters by the national Greek-letter organizations prior to 

National Grcck-leftcr fraternities for wonien existing at the time Alpha 
Chi Omega uvis founded, i88^. 



Where Founded 

Founded Sec- 
ond Chapter 

Number of 

A $ 





A r 


Univ. of Mississippi 



r ^ B 





K A 


(De Pauw) 



K K r 





Educaiionai. anm) Fra ikrm I V Condi I IONS 3 

In the coeducational universities the fraternities had loni; heen the most 
important feature in the social life of the men. These organizations had 
begun a century before as literary orders, like the "Speaking Club" at Har- 
vard for debating purj)oses. Important libraries were collected by them, and 
they were thought of great intellectual value. But by the time that women's 
fraternities were founded the term "literary" was long ago outgrown. The 
development of the curricula of the universities themselves had rendered 
unnecessary pedagogical functions in the group itself. The fraternity had 
become social in its function providing comfortable living quarters for its 
members in congenial company. The old phraseology is slowly giving way 
among both men's and women's fraternities. The term "general" is sup])lant- 
ing the confusing and incongruous term, "literary." 

Some of the earlier generation still cling, however, to the old phrase. The 
remarkal)le development and scope of the modern university, in response to 
the needs of modern life, have broadened the fraternitv un'il a chajjter 
includes students of all undergraduate departments on ecjual footing, and 
have rendered impossible the appropriate use of any phrase other than 
general in their designation. To the present-day student the term "literary 
society" connotes a meaning far diliferent from a twentieth century fraternitv 

The women's fraternities were modeled after the existing men's frater- 
nities, and were formed to secure a social position for the women students in 
university life. By the time Alpha Chi ( )mega was organized, this purpose 
had broadened into a desire for mutual improvement, for social experience 
through congenial companionship, and in the case of our Fraternity, for the 
advancement of an art. The modern fraternity has "that close relationship, 
that clannish spirit and mutual helpfulness, that high regard for morality, 
which characterize an old and respected family, proud of its history, and 
anxious that no member shall fall below the standards." 

The colleges into which women's fraternities, including 2 K ( 1874), I. C. 
(n B $, 1888), Philomathean ( 4> M, 1904), and Adelphean (A A II, 1906), 
had entered in 1885 were the following forty-four institutions. 

Colby College, Waterville, Me., 2 K. Cornell University, A l\ K A O, K K P. 

(2nd ch. 1904) University of Colorado, A I", I. C. 

Syracuse, A 4>, V 4- B, K K T . University of Michigan, A T, 1' * \i. 

Northwestern, A <I>, A V, K K T. K A 9. 

Boston University, A *, K K V. De Pauvv, K A B, K K P. 

The Louis School, A T. Indiana University, K A H, K K P. 

(d. 1889).* Butler, K A O, k'k P. 

University of Akron, A P, K K P. Illinois University, K A B (d. iSg5), 

Trinity University, Te.\as A P. K K F. 

University of Wisconsin, A P, P <I> R, K K P. Wooster, K A B (d. 1913), K K P (d. 

Mount Union, A P (d. 1908). 1413). 

University of Minnesota, A P, K K P. Ohio University, K A B {d. i88b). 

Western Reserve University, A P. Simpson, K A B (d. iSqi), K K P (d. 

(d. 1888) i8c)o), 1. C. 

Albion College, A P. University of Kansas, K A B, K K P, I.C. 

St. Lawrence University, A P (d. 1887), University of Vermont, K A 9. 

K K P (d. 1808). Allegheny, K A B. 

*The date signifies that the chajjter became defunct at that time. 

4 Thk HisroKV of Alpha Chi Fraierxity 

Iowa Weslevan, I. C". Knox, I. C. 

Lombard College, I. C. York, I. C. (d. i8S8). 

Iowa State College, I. C. Unixersitj' of Denver, I. C. 

South Iowa Normal, I. C. (d. 18S7). \Vesleyan Female College, Atlelphean, 

Carthage College, 1. C. (d. iS8<S). I'hilomathean. 

Of these fortN'-four institutions, hut thirty-three proved to be permanent 
fraternity fields. Many of these early chapters became defunct in a few years 
(thirty-four, according to the data available). The fraternities which became 
later very strong were at this time in a stage of flux. Of twenty-four chap- 
ters which Kajjpa Alpha Theta. the oldest fraternity at this time, founded 
before 1890. she lust ten. I. C. in 1885. legislated to restrict extension to col- 
leges, in the future, thus depriving herself of nine city chapters in that year. 
In 1888 I. C. adopted a Greek-letter name, Pi Beta Phi, and became a 
national Greek-letter fraternity in the conventional sense of that term. In 
1885. also, the first number of the Kappa Alpha Theta Journal appeared 
(June), and the editors claimed "700 members enrolment." At this time the 
fraternity just mentioned possessed fourteen active chapters. Miss Green esti- 
mates "an average membership of ten. or a total active membership of 140.'" 
Alpha Phi and (iamma Phi Beta had but recently established their second 
chapters (1881 and 1882, respectively), and so were just entering upon 
national problems at the time of the founding of Alpha Chi Omega. Kappa 
Kappa (jamma estal)lished thirty-one chapters before 1890, and lost ten of 
them before 1900. The first is.sue of their magazine. The Golden Key. 
appeared in May, 1882, and was published by chapters until 1904 when it Avas 
placed in the hands of an editor. In 1886 its name had become The Key. 
Delta Gamma, like her contemporaries. Kappa Alpha Theta and Kappa 
Kappa (iamma. was lavish in her early bestowal of charters. Twenty-two 
chapters were established before 1890 of which twelve were lost, ten of them 
becoming defunct even before 1890. All three of these fraternities became 
very conservative in extension after the nineties. Alpha Chi Omega followed 
their later practice, it seems, for she has been extremely cautious from the 
first in the granting of charters. As a result she has lost but one chapter. 

The minutes of the early years, to take a look into the future, are shot 
through with discussions of the granting of new chapters, but nothing was 
done hastily or in an ill-considered way. Perhaps the early members profited 
from the experience of their contemporaries ; perhaps Dean Howe's advice, 
"to steer their course carefully, attend closely to their own affairs, and in 
good time all would work to their success." taught them discretion. At any 
rate, the foundation years were solid and permanent in their activity. We 
may regret the early ultra-conservatism ; we may also rejoice for it. 

Fraternity experience, then, before 1885, had demonstrated need for 
wisdom and for discretion in extension, and had proved the popularity and 
the real value of the fraternity system for women. Educational experience 
had proved the necessity for learning and for state support for women's 
education. In such favoring conditions as these, in the section of the 
country most pregnant with potentiality, Alpha Chi Omega was destined to 



At the time when Alpha Chi Omega was established, the fraternity system 
was ineradicably entrenched. Women's fraternities had not yet approached 
their present vigor of organization and national prestige. In 1885 but five 
national organizations for college women bearing Greek-letter names, Alpha 
Phi, Delta Gamma, Gamma Phi Beta, Kappa Alpha Theta, and Kappa 
Kappa Gamma, had been established. I. C. had not yet become Pi Beta Phi 
in name nor had vet restricted her chapters to the college field. For all 
practical purposes, however, she was, at this time, a college fraternity. Philo- 
mathean (later Phi Mu), and Adelphean (later Alpha Delta Pi) were still 
literary societies in a southern woman's college, and Sigma Kap'pa, at Colby, 
was not yet national. Altogether there had been established sixty-four chapters 
of these nine organizations'located in forty-four institutions. The five national 
Greek-letter organizations in 1885, relatively weak though they were in 
numbers, and, on an average i)ut thirteen years of age, had entered thirty- 
five colleges. Thirty of these proved to be permanent fraternity fields, and 
into fourteen of them Alpha Chi Omega has since entered. 

The colleges entered by the women's fraternities were widely dispersed, 
and as remarked above, often contained but one women's fraternity.* The 
groups, on the average, were small compared to the present size of chapters. 
The total number of women students in fraternities, therefore, was relatively 
small. Baini's Manual of American College Fraternities estimates the 
entire numer of alumnae and undergraduate members in 1883 as 1033. This 
table is, however, confused and incomplete. Estimating from various sources 
and including the members of I. C, Adelphean, and Philomathean, which 
Baird omitted, we decide that there were, perhaps, four or five hundred 
active fraternity women in the American colleges in 1885. 

There was, ostensibly, a need for more fraternities for women. In the 
social life of both men and women the fraternity system had become impor- 
tant. In the fall of 1885, therefore, James Hamilton Howe, then Dean of the 
School of Music of De Pauw University, Greencastle, Indiana, conceived the 
idea that such an organization would be a benefit both to the School of Music 
and to the young women students in that department. Having this idea in 
mind he called together several of the representative students, and presented 
the plan to them with the result that seven enthusiastic young women banded 
themselves together. Since Dean Howe w-as not a fraternity man, James G. 
Campbell (a member of Beta Theta Pi) was consulted as to the proper method 
of procedure in forming a Greek-letter society. Through his knowledge and 
assistance a constitution and by-laws were drafted, and after many other pre- 
liminaries had been arranged, on October 15, 1885, Alpha Chi Omega came 

*Seventeen institutions contained more than one woman's fraternity in 1885. See 
table in Chapter I. 

S -"S " 

2 cm 



into an organized existence with the following members enrolled as her found- 
ers : Anna Allen. Olive Burnett. Bertha Deniston, Amy Du Bois, Nellie Gam- 
ble. Bessie (irooms. and Mstelle Leonard. The new fraternity was very cor- 
dially received into the Greek world at 1 )e Pauw University, the other 
"Greeks" offering their hearty ccmgratulations and pledging their support to 
the "Ijabv sister." An "overwhelming ovation" was given bv the students to 

Jamks IIamhton Howe 

the new society on their first appearance in a botly at Chapel in Meharry Hall. 
Four months later, February 26, 1886. Dean Howe formally introduced his 
protegees by a Soiree Musicale. 

Dean Howe continued to maintain a deep interest in the new fraternity, 
manifesting that feeling in many tangible ways, doing everything that lay 
within his power for the advancement of Alpha Chi (Jmega. The fact that 
his interest has not waned even after an interval of more than a quarter of a 

8 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

century, is illustrated by the following epistle, which was received in response 
to a request for a letter, describing the founding of Alpha Chi Omega, for 
pul)lication in this volume. Because of mis-statements which have been 
made concerning the nature of Alpha Chi Omega in its earlv days this 
letter is a great value. "It is fortunate," says Dean Howe, "that I have 
lived long enough to be on hand to give decisive evidence." His letter reads 
as follows : 

Hotel Burlington, 
Seattle, Washington, 
September sixth, 1916. 
Miss Florence A. x\rmstrong. 

Author of History of Alpha Chi Omega, 
Macdowell Memorial Association, 
Peterborough, N. H. 
Dear Miss Armstrong : 

I am glad to be able to comply with your request for a few affidavits as 
to the organization and earlv situations of Alpha Chi Omega. 

The Alpha Chi Omega Sorority was not organized as a professional frater- 
nity. At its organization in 1885, it was a regular university fraternity, upon 
the same basis as the Kappa Alpha Theta, Kappa Kappa (lamma, and other 
fraternities of De Pauw University. 

I was verv careful that from the first, everv step should be taken in accor- 
dance with the accepted traditions and methods recognized by other fraterni- 
ties. I employed a regular fraternity man, a Beta, to lav out a constitution and 
set of by-laws, such as were generally approved at that time. These, I mider- 
stand, have been thoroughlv revised and brought up to meet the requirements 
of modern times. 

I watched over the young .sorority, as one would over one's own child. 
It was my only child, and it is the only child I have at the present time. 
I can assure all present members that not a step was taken that was not in 
harmonv with the rules and regulations incumbent upon our other regular 
university fraternities. 

Members of other fraternities were not invited to become members, nor 
did the Alpha Chi Omega ever accept invitations from other sororities. From 
the first, the membership was drawn freely from the Liberal Arts Department 
of the university ; the only specification being that they should, in some degree, 
be connected wdth the School of Music, some courses of which received 
liberal arts credit from the university. 

The School of Music -was an incorporated and integral part of De Pauw 
University ; and enrolled among its students many members of other frater- 
nities and sororities. The only difference between the Alpha Chi Omega and 
other fraternities was, that music was the chief tradition of Alpha Chi Omega ; 
and that some music culture, as well as literary culture, was expected of its 

When I took charge of the De Pauw School of Music in 1884, I arranged 
courses leading to Certificate, Diploma, and Degree of Bachelor of Music. 

Organization of Alpha Chi ()mk(;a 9 

These were granted as the students i)assed certain grades or completed certain 

I believe our first Degree of Mus.M. was granted to a Miss Kelly, a Kappa 
Kappa Gamma, in 1885. Tiie members of the Alpha Chi Omega more often 
received degrees in other departments than in the School of Music. 

We included about 150 students in the School of Music, around 1885. 
These numbers, under mv incumbency, were increased to about 300 in 1891-92. 
The "hard times" of 1893-94 struck us. and the "World's Fair" coming at 
the same time, tended to curtail the attendance during the last two years 
of my Deanship at De Pauw. 

I trust that the above will assist in clearing matters that some may believe 
to have been open to question. 

With kind regards to every member of Alpha Chi Omega, I close with the 
assurance that my services are at your call at any and all times. 

My best wishes for the Alpha Chi Omega. 

Very sincerely, 


While the seven founders of Alpha Chi Omega were all studying in the 
De Pauw School of Music, the fraternity which they established was not 
a "strictly musical" organization. Since there has been much misunderstand- 
ing on this point it is doubtless wise to explain the nature of the university 
in which the fraternity was born. The relationship between the liberal arts 
courses and the musical courses was close. The school of music was not, 
as in present larger universities, a separate college, far removed from the 
life of the university, but was a department of the undergraduate work of the 
university. An integral part of its work was in the courses of the liberal 
arts department, so that students in the music department were students 
also in the liberal arts department. There were, in addition to this fact, no 
arbitrary musical requirements for membership in Alpha Chi Omega beyond 
one that the university student be in some way connected with the School of 
Music. The interests of the students who carried work in music, as a conse- 
quence, included both the liberal arts and the fine arts. Their friendships, 
growing out of daily association with students in the different courses of the 
university, included, as a matter of counse, women in the various courses. 
Friends whose studies were mainly in the liberal arts frequently carried a 
course in music and were members of Alpha Chi Omega in precisely the same 
way in which women whose major work was in music were considered eligible 
to membership in other fraternities. This reasonable basis of membership, 
including both musical-minded and literary-minded students, was not peculiar 
to Alpha Chi Omega. She simply accepted a plan already followed, but 
went one step further by insisting that all lier members have some musical 
culture. Thus Alpha Chi Omega emphasized the princijile tliat music is as 


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Organization oi" Alpha Chi 11 

important a factor in a college woman's education as Latin or mathematics. 
In time, we believe, all great institutions of learning will take the same 
position. For, in the words of William H. Alexander, "When Plato said 
that musical training is a more {)otent instrument than any other, because 
rhythm and harmony hnd their way into the secret places of the soul, on 
which they mightily fasten, imparting grace, and making graceful the soul 
of him who is rightly educated, he uttered a sentiment which each succeeding 
age has increasingly emphasized, until it stands as truth." 

For a time Alpha Chi Omega debarred from her ranks all women who 
were not in some way connected with the School of Music. "Literary" 
students, in order to become eligil)le, registered at the School of Music for 
some course. But, contrary to the statements in Baird's Manual, at no time 
in her history has Alpha Chi Omega been a professional fraternity. In 1889, 
indeed, a national literary fraternity extended an invitation to Alpha Chi 
Omega to join her own ranks. Alpha Chi Omega never dreamed of inviting 
to membership those who belonged to other fraternities, a practice which 
Baird's Manual cites as a prominent characteristic of professional fraternities. 
In no way was Alpha Chi Omega at her birth different from other general 
fraternities except in her insistence that all her members possess musical 
culture. This requirement was too advanced, it seems, for the time. For as 
early as 1891 Beta Chapter requested permission to initiate freshmen without 
requiring them to study music. No immediate change was made in the 
constitution, but the trend of the practice of chapters was toward freedom 
in the matter. The expansion of the Fraternity into state universities begin- 
ning in 1889 was the signal for a forced change because of the highly 
specialized and separate character of the university departments, as described 
below. Had there been even a strong tendency in the direction of profession- 
alism. Alpha Chi Omega might have developed into a professional organiza- 
tion during a youthful period of four years in her life (1893-1897). In this 
period the constitution of the Fraternity permitted the entering of any conser- 
vatory of high standard. Under this policy but one chapter was established, 
Zeta, at the New England Conservatory of Music, Boston. Of the liberal 
training given by this institution Alta Allen Loud, National President, once 
wrote for The Lyre that she was much impressed with the rigid literary 
requirements exacted of the students. "Many of the students go there 
from other colleges and advanced institutions, and when we recall the 
fact that one of Zeta's members served us six years in the capacity of 
treasurer and later as business manager of The Lyre, and that two of our six 
editors have been chosen from her ranks, we feel like paying tribute to an 
institution that produces the artistic results that the New England Conser- 
vatory does and still develops the literary and all-round nature of its 

After the establishment of Zeta Chapter * * the original law was 
then reverted to which authorized the entering onlv of colleges and universities 

*The Lyre, November, iQio. Since the abo\e was written one of the members ot 
Zetn Chapter has served a term as National President. 

12 'I'm- IIisi'()R\' or At.pha Cm Omega Fraternity 

of high stantlard. I'ltimately, all regulations regarding the distribution of 
courses among the various departments of a university were removed so that 
now all collegiate courses leading to a degree, whether in fine arts, liberal 
arts, science, or industrial arts, are on a par. 

Alpha Chi Omega, like other fraternities then, was founded on the basis 
of mutual helpfulness and of congenial fellowship. Her purpose, like theirs, 
was the advancement of tlie intellectual, social, and moral culture of her 
members, and in addition to the aims common to the other fraternities, 
included specifically the furtherance of one of the fine arts. Her constitution, 
after constant changes which began immediately after the first draft was 
made, now reads : "The objects of this fraternity are to encourage the spirit of 
true sisterhood, to develop through personal effort a high moral and mental 
standard, and to advance the appreciation and practice of the allied arts 
among its members." 

The first constitution read: "The object of this fraternity is as follows: 
To attain to the highest musical culture and to cultivate those principles 
that embody true womanhood." 

The beloved founders of the fraternity are here mentioned in a brief 
way in order that the main facts of their lives may be available. 

An?ia Allen (Mrs. Harry M. Smith). Anna Allen was born in Green- 
castle, Indiana, in 1870, and has lived there all her life. While attending 
the public schools she began the study of music and became an accomplished 
musician at a very early age. Being one of the first students of the depart- 
ment of music of De Pauw University, she was the youngest in the school to do 
advanced work, graduating from the conservatory at the age of nineteen. 
During her junior year she began teaching pianoforte in the School of Music 
and occupied that position until 1896 when she went to Chicago to study 
under Mme. Fanny Bloomfield-Zeisler and Emil Liebling. Her reputation as 
a student of exceptional ability and rare self-possession, as a brilliant per- 
former and an excellent accompanist has rendered her very prominent in 
musical circles where her generosity has proved of great benefit and pleasure 
to the public. 

Miss Allen was married when quite young to Mr. Harry M. Smith, of 
Greencastle, Indiana, where they have a beautiful home on Walnut Street, 
which has always been open to the Alpha Chi girls. It has been her privilege 
to be more closely associated with the mother chapter than any of the other 
founders. The members of Alpha not only have always felt sincere apprecia- 
tion for her influence and counsel, but love and respect for her charming 
personality and impartial manner. 

Olive Burnett (Mrs. Ralph Clark). Olive Burnett was born in Green- 
castle, Indiana, June 10, 1867. After attending the public schools there 
until 1880, she spent one year in Indianapolis, Indiana, resuming her studies 
•on the piano and beginning on the violin. She then attended high school in 
Anderson, Indiana, until the fall of 1885, when she entered the School of 
Music of De Pauw University, studying the piano and violin. During the first 
year in the school, upon the request of Dean James Hamilton Howe, she 

Organization of Alpha Chi Omega 13 

took up the study of double bass and cello in order to fill a long-felt need in 
orchestra and ensemble work. During the years 1886-88, she was a member 
of the School of Music faculty of De Pauw, teaching pianoforte and primary 
work on the violin, cello, and double bass ; at the same time she was also 
organist at the College Avenue M. E. Church. In the spring term of her 
junior year she gave up her studies and began teaching piano and violin in 
Anderson and Franklin, Indiana. 

Her work for the building up of Alpha Chi Omega has, from the very 
first, been enthusiastic and tireless, for all her life she has lived in an atmos- 
phere of fraternity spirit, and she believes it to be a vital influence in a 
college education. She has always remained in touch with Alpha Chapter 
enjoying many visits with the girls. 

Miss Burnett was married in 1889 to Mr. Ralph B. Clark, a business 
man and a prominent musician of Anderson, Indiana. In their home they 
have continued their music not only as relating to themselves but in the 
education of their two sons and their daughter, each of whom studies a 
different instrument, which harmonious ensemble creates a beautiful musical 
atmosphere, the influence of which has brought great joy and satisfaction not 
only to the immediate family, but to their many friends. 

Mrs. Clark claims the honor of being the first and so far, the only one 
of the founders to be represented at De Pauw. The first son, (ieorge Linden- 
berg Clark, graduated there in 1914; the second, Robert Walker Clark, in 
1916. Both belong to the Beta Theta Pi Fraternity, and both are Phi Beta 
Kappas. During their college course they were active in the musical organi- 
zations and affairs of De Pauw, George playing the cello, and Robert, the 

But to Mrs. Clark the greatest honor and joy is that her only daughter, 
Maryellen, who enters De Pauw this fall of 1916, will be the first daughter 
of a founder to wear the colors of Alpha Chi Omega, "and in Alpha Chapter 
too!" Mr. and Mrs. Clark reside at 1132 Central Avenue, Anderson. 

Bertha Denistoti (Mrs. Scohy Ctiniiinghain ). Bertha Deniston was born 
at Peru, Indiana, July 28, 1869. It was the wish of her mother, who died 
in the spring of 1885, that her daughter should study music at De Pauw 
University, so in the fall of that year she entered the School of Music and 
lived in the dormitory. 

Although very quiet and reserved, her genial smile and sweet disposition 
soon placed her in high favor with all the students. She was well advanced 
in piano study when she entered the music school, and her remarkable execu- 
tion and composure were the envy of all the students, especially at recital 
time. She won the reputation of accomplishing more work with less expendi- 
ture of time than any student in the school. She and Mary Jones (Mrs. 
Richard Tennant) were the first national delegates of Alpha Chi Omega, 
having been chosen by Alpha to establisli Beta Chapter at Albion, Michigan. 

Miss Deniston left school before graduation to accept a position in Pear- 
son's Piano House in Indianapolis. On July 18, 1893, she was married to 

14 TiiK Hisrokv of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Mr. Scoby Cunningliam (Beta Thcta Pi), a graduate of Indiana University, 
and since that time they have lived in Indianapolis. She is an enthusiastic 
member of the Beta Beta Alumnse Chapter at her home city, and meets with 
the 1 )e Bauw girls each year at their annual banquet. 

Mr. and Mrs. Cunningham have two sons, Harold and Frederick, who 
with their parents, welcome the wearers of the lyre to 1909 Ruckle Street. 

.1/11 y Du Bois (Mrs. Julius Ricth). Amy Du Bois was born in Nokomis, 
Illinois, December 31, 1869, but when she was very young her parents moved 
to Oxford, Indiana, where she lived at the time she entered De Pauw Univer- 
sity in 1885. She studied both the pianoforte and voice in the School of 
Music and was familiarly known as the "little girl with the big voice." 
Although she attended the music school but one year, in that time she endeared 
herself not only to the Alpha Chis but also to her teachers and to the entire 
student body by her bright, cheerful disposition, her straightforward manner, 
and her industry. She was honored several times during the year by being 
selected to sing on important occasions, one of which was the Festival of the 
School of Music in which she took a leading part. 

After leaving college in 1886, she moved to Colby, Kansas, where she 
organized a music class. A few years later she was married to Mr. Julius 
Rieth, and went to live at Crete, Nebraska. For four years she was connected 
with the Doane College as teacher of piano, voice, and harmony. From Crete, 
Nebraska, they moved to Lincoln, Nebraska, where with their one daughter, 
Mrs. Rieth lived at 2433 Lynn Street until her death on August 12, 1915. 
Here Mrs. Rieth had enjoyed keeping in touch with the Fraternity through 
Xi Chapter. The death of one of the seven founders caused deep grief 
throughout the Fraternity. 

Nellie Gamble (Mrs. Edward Childe). Nellie Gamble was born May 
12, 1867, in Martinsville, Illinois. After completing the course in the public 
schools in her home city, she entered the School of Music at De Pauw LTni- 
versity to pursue her piano studies. She was amply possessed of personal 
charms, was an energetic and conscientious student, and had the thoroughly 
good qualities of a fraternity girl, loyalty, earnestness, and unselfishness. 

Her musical career, however, came to an end a short time after she entered 
the school, as she soon returned to her home to be married to Mr. Edward 
Willard Childe, of Moores, New York. Good traits of character are as essen- 
tial to successful housekeeping as to professional work, so Mrs. Childe has been 
fully equal to the requirements of her domestic "career." She and her 
husband are now living in Martinsville, Illinois. 

Bessie Grooms (Mrs. Luther Keenan). Bessie Grooms was born in Green- 
castle, Indiana, April 28, 1866, and lived there until her marriage to Mr. 
Luther Courtland Keenan in 1895. She began the study of pianoforte music 
when very young and by the time she graduated from the high school, was 
one of the most accomplished musicians in the city. She immediately entered 
the Music School of De Pauw University to continue her studies, intending 
to complete the course, but her work came to an abrupt end when by over- 
practice she strained the muscles of her left wrist. She lost the use of the 

Organizaiion of Ai.iMiA Chi Omkca 15 

fingers of that hand for over a year and. as a conseiinence. '^iwv U]' lier music 
entirely, for fear that steady practice might cause a permanent affliction. 

Mrs. Keenan was one of the three (ireencastle girls of the seven founders 
of Alpha Chi Omega. The first large social function of the Fraternity, an 
elaborate and memorable alfair, was given at her home. Mr. and Mrs. Keenan 
and their family of sons and daughters live in Le Roy, Illinois, where Mr. 
Keenan is engaged in the banking business. 

Est die Leonard. Estelle Leonard entered the Schot)l of Music of 
De Pauw University, September, 1885, and graduated from that department 
in 1891, having been a member of the faculty for the last two years that 
she was a student there. Miss Leonard was principal of the Music Depart- 
ment in Moores Hill College, 1889-1893, during which period she carried 
work in the senior year at De Pauw University. After studying at the 
Cincinnati College of Music in 1893-1894 and receiving a certificate, she 
l)ecame principal of the Piano Department in Centenary College, 1894-1895. 
During the next four or five years she studied at the College of Music 
irregularly and then located at 217 Plum Street, Union City. Indiana, where 
she now has a large class in piano music. Miss Leonard was choir director 
at the Lutheran Church in that city one year ; for fourteen years she has 
been organist and choir director at the First Methodist Church there, as well 
as an active member of the Cecilian Musical Club of which she was president 
1907-08. During her vacations Miss Leonard has studied with the best 
teachers in the East, having spent some time learning the methods in Musical 
Kindergarten, which she has introduced with marked success into her classes. 
She has recently published a volume of easy teaching pieces for the piano. 

In 1914 Miss Leonard entered the field of Pul)lic School Music, and 
since that time has been music supervisor in Union City East Side Schools. 
On July 14, 1916, she graduated from the American Institute of Normal 
Methods in Chicago. She also studied at Northwestern in the summer of 
1916. Beside her work in the public schools she is still teaching a large class 
of private pupils. 

Too much cannot be said of Miss Leonard's loyalty and influence for 
Alpha Chi Omega. Besides being one of the founders and Alpha's first 
president, she had the pleasure and satisfaction of working in the Fraternity 
for several years and did much toward effecting jjractical organization, and 
toward estal)lishin<r a firm foundation for future growth. 



As is probably the case with all fraternities founded twenty-five years ago 
or more, the early records of Alpha Chi Omega are somewhat meager, for 
the charter members did not begin to realize to what proportions the organi- 
zation they were founding would grow in a tjuarter of a century. The min- 
utes of the meetings of the first few years although incomplete are intensely 
interesting and often quaint as compared with the records of recent sessions. 
The minutes of some of the most significant of these early meetings are 
quoted, entirely or in part ; they tell vividly the story of those early business 
meetings which were held at least once a week, though often more frequently. 
Programs of a musical and literary nature were an important feature of these 

The first chapter roll contains, besides the names of the seven charter 
members, those of the following early initiates : Leota Fuqua, Anna Ryan, 
Leah Walker, Rose Meredith, Ella Farthing, Minnie Shaffer, Suda West, 
Florence Thompson, and Mrs. Earp. 

Library of the School of Music, De Parnv University 

Greencastle, Ind., October 15, 1885. 

The Dean of the School of Music, Prof. James H. Howe, feeling that by the 
organization of a musical fraternity, a larger interest could be developed in the Art 
of Music, called together a few young women students, for the purpose of forming a 
society for musical and social improvement, and of assisting in the furtherance of the 
cause of Art. After naming several objects for which the proposed society might work 
and rehearsing their benefits, a committee was chosen to meet and to formulate a plan 
for future development. The committee chosen to consult with the dean comprised 
Misses Estelle Leonard, Bertha Deniston, Nellie Gamble, and Amy Du Bois. Miss 
Estelle Leonard was chosen president of the proposed society and Bertha Deniston, 
secretary. This committee was ordered to meet on Monday evening at six o'clock. The 
meeting adjourned to October 22, at eight o'clock. 

Bertha Deniston, Secretary. 

Library of the School of Music, De Painv University, October ig, 1885. 

Report of the Formulating Committee. 

Meeting was called to order by President Estelle Leonard, Misses Bertha Deniston, 
Amy Du Bois, Nellie Gamble, and Professor Howe being present. Since the meeting 
of Thursday, October 15, 1885, members of the committee met together and talked over 
the subject of the proposed society, what it should embrace, the needs of such a society, 
and how the work should be carried on. It was voted that a Greek society be formed 
similar in character to the Greek fraternities of the College of Liberal Arts. Mr. J. G. 
Campbell (a member of such a fraternity) was called in to give the general information 
in regard to the management of fraternities. Mr. Campbell was asked to formulate a 
constitution and by-laws for the proposed Fraternity, to be handed in at the next meeting. 
A vote of thanks was tendered to him for his kindness. Additions were made to the 
list of officers : Miss Amy Du Bois was elected treasurer, Miss Nellie Gamble, cor- 
responding secretary. The name "Alpha Chi Omega," was presented and adopted. The 
colors chosen to represent the Fraternity were red and bronze green. As there was no 
further business requiring attention, a motion to adjourn was in order, which was carried. 

Bertha Deniston, Secretary. 

Early Years 17 

Adoption of the Constitution. 

December 5, 1885. 
An irregular meeting was held and was called to order by the president, Miss Fu(|ua, 
the following members being present: Bertha Deniston, Nellie (lamble, Rose Meredith, 
Ella Farthing, Estelle Leonard, Hessie Grooms, and Ollie Burnett. The jjresident made 
a few remarks as to the reason of the meeting. As the secretary was absent, the president 
appointed Miss Burnett to take her place. The secretary then read the constitution which 
was accepted. The next question brought before the house was in regard to the concert, 
and the secretary read the program ; but as several of the members were to leave soon, 
it was decided to postpone the concert until the middle of the ne.\t term, when every 
member was to take part. Next the De Painu Monthly was brought forward, and the 
article which appeared in regard to the Fraternity was read by the secretary and dis- 
cussed for a few minutes. Then it was decided to have it corrected in the next copy. 
The president then directed Miss Crooms, the corresponding secretary, to bring before 
the next meeting the letter she had been directed to write to a young woman in Kansas 
in regard to the starting of a Sister Chapter. Next in order was a motion to adjourn 
which was carried. 

Amy Dti Bo is, Secretary. 

Constitution Re-written. 

February 5, l886. 
Next in order the president, Estelle Leonard, appointed Suda West and Florence 
Thompson to rewrite the constitution and the form of initiation to be read at the ne.xt 
meeting. A motion was then put before the house that Florence Thompson write the 
words for a fraternity song and Estelle Leonard write the music. The motion was 

Amy Du Bois, Secretary. 

Opening Ceremony. 

February ii, 1886. 
Meeting was called to order by the president, Nellie Gamble. The roll was called 

and the following members were present The minutes of the previous 

meeting were read and approved, after which a motion was made to have a regular 
form with which to begin the meetings, the form suggested comprising singing, scripture 
reading, and prayer. The motion was carried. 

Amy Du Bois, Secretary. 

First Frater)iity Song. 

February 26, 1886. 
The new fraternity song which two of the members had been appointed to write, 
was then presented and accepted. Then there arose some discussion in regard to a 
name for the song and it was decided to call it "Alpha Prima." Another song, the 
words of which were written by IMr. Campbell and the music by Mr. Ilowe, was then 
brought forward. 

Amy Du Bois, Secretary. 

ReT'ised Constitution Adopted. 

April q, 1886. 
The constitution having been rewritten was now read and adopted. The by-laws 
were also adopted unanimously. 

Estelle Leonard. Secretary. 

Initiation of Madame Julia Ri-'c-K ing. 

April 23, 1886. 
The usual order of the meeting was changed and a discussion held regarding the 
admittance to the fraternity of Mnie. Ri\e-King, America's famous jiianist. Having 
signified to Professor Howe her willingness to be one of us, on the same afternoon 
Mme. Rive-King was consulted in regard to her initiation. As she was to give a concert 
that evening in Meharry Hall, it was thought best to have a brief initiatory service 
immediately afterward, if agreeable to her. 

Estelle Leonard, Secretary 

18 Thk HisroRv ov Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Report for ihc First Ycnr of the Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity. 

The Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity was founded October 15, 1885, at the School of 
Music, Greencastle, Indiana, by Prof. James H. Howe, Dean of the School. James G. 
Campbell should be mentioned for the assistance and suggestions which he gave. The 
object of this Fraternity is as follows : "To attain to the highest musical culture and 
to cultivate those principles that embody true womanhood." Seven charter members 
were chosen : Estelle Leonard, Anna Allen, Amy Du Bois, Bessie Grooms, Olive Burnett, 
Bertha Deniston, Nellie Gamble. Twenty-three meetings were held during the year. 
Programs were given at ten meetings. Six were called business meetings; the remaining 
seven were partly business meetings and some had no programs through carelessness. 
The subjects discussed were Beethoven, Mendlessohn, Haydn, Neilson, Lind, Patti. 
Several miscellaneous programs were given. 

The year was a prosperous one ; commencing with seven members, at the close of the 
year the Fraternity numbered twenty-two. But one public entertainment was given 
during the year, a Soiree Musicale in Music Hall which was largely attended by the 
music lovers of the city and which was a credit to the Fraternity. 

Extension Plans. 

Saturday Evening, April 23, 1887. 

The business for the evening was to revise the constitution and to hear the report 
from Mr. LaRash, of Northwestern University, who is willing to help us form a chajjter 
there and who has sent us the names of several young women music students there. 
Discussion, ^^otion carried that these young ladies be written to; also discussion of 
dues of new chapters and cost of charter. Suggested by Miss Jones that $. . . . be 
fixed as the price of our charter. Motion to that effect carried. Motion carried that 
this note be put into the constitution. Motion carried that the $. . . . go into the treasury 
of the Mother Chapter, subject to her judgment and inclination. Discussion whether 
to have a limited number of charter members or not to have a limited number. Decided 
to have not more than seven charter members. 

Discussion as to who of the girls shall be sent to represent our Fraternity at Evans- 
ton. Committee consisting of Misses Jones and Leonard, appointed to prepare a 
charter, said charter to be submitted to the criticism of the Fraternity the next Friday 

Programs read by the chairman of that committee. Approved. Decided to have 
fraternity picture taken next Fridaj' at one o'clock p. M. 

(The minutes of meetings previous to May 6 show that correspondence had been 
carried on for some time with students at Albion College relative to the establishment 
there of a chapter of Alpha Chi Omega.) 

Beta Chapter. 

Friday, May 6, 1887. 

A letter read from Albion, Michigan, saying they were ready for us to organize 
a chapter there, having five charter members waiting. Reading of the charters, two of 
them having been prepared ; one by Miss Jones, one by Miss Leonard. 

No decision made. To be decided next meeting. 

Friday, May 13, 1887. 

The program for this evening and next meeting withdrawn. Reading of charter. 
Discussion. Moved and seconded that Miss Jones revise the charter, adding the words, 
"the right to withdraw the charter." Letter read from Albion. Motion carried that 
Miss Jones and Miss Allen visit Albion, Thursday, May 26, 1887. Decided to hold 
fraternity meeting Friday and .Saturday evenings next week. Misses Berr^^ and Wilson 
appointed to look at books suitable to contain the constitution. 

Miss Deniston appointed to copy the constitution ;' Miss Jones, the songs ; Miss Allen, 
the music of our fraternitj' songs. 

Revision of Constitution. 

Saturday Night, May 21, 1887. 
The Fraternity resumed the revision of the constitution, going back to Article I, 
Section III. Question: What shall be our open motto? Moved and carried that a motto 
be presented b}' a committee of three to the Fraternity next Monday evening at half- 
past six. Committee of three appointed for this purpose. Misses Meredith, Barry, and 
lones. Motion carried that it shall require two-thirds vote of all the chapters to with- 

Beta Charter ME>[iiEKS anm) Installation Olitceks 

Florine Deffendorf 

Jennie A. Worthington l^.mma Crittenden 

Haniet Reynolds 

Mary Jones Tennant ,., lievtha Dcn.ston 

Elizabeth Smith Mora Aldgate 

20 The HIs^()R^ of Alpha Chi Omeca Fraier.mty 

draw a charter. Reading of the charter prepared by Miss Jones. Discussion. Motion 
carried that the new charter members shall pledge themselves individually, to the chair- 
man of the committee, who visits them, to support faithfully their chapter of Alpha 
Chi Omega. 

Amendment to By-law II is as follows: Officers shall be installed at the first meet- 
ing of the next term according to the form adopted January 14, 18S7. The motion 
carried that Sections 7 and 8 be struck out. 

Section 9. Motion carried that the duties of corresponding secretary be changed, 
part of the duties being transferred to the recording secretary. 

Slight changes made in Sections 15 and 17. Slight changes made in Section I of 
Article III. After motion that we meet Tuesday at seven p. M. to hear all reports, 

Open Molto — Beta Chapter. 

Tuesday, May 24, 1887, 7 p. M. 

Report from Miss Burnett in regard to the constitution book. Miss Barry bought 
it and Afiss Burnett left it at an establishment to be stamped with A X O in large form. 

Report from Motto Committee. Miss Jones said they had not decided on any one 
in particular, but would suggest a few to select from, as follows : "Strive for the 
highest." "Ye daughters of Music, come up higher!" "Musical culture, first and last!" 
Discussion. Motto chosen, "Ye daughters of Music, come up higher !" Secretary 
instructed to put this motto in its proper place in the constitution, which was done. 
Secretary also instructed to secure the Greek translation of this motto and to place it 
with the English in the constitution. 

Miss Deniston elected to be the second delegate to Albion on account of Miss 
Allen's not being able to go. Miss Burnett was appointed to copy the constitution in 
the place of Miss Deniston. Miss Meredith appointed to copy the songs. Decided to 
have a meeting to look over the constitution before the girls leave. Time set : Thursday 
evening at 5 o'clock. The girls leave at i p. M., Friday, May 27. Motion carried that 
a fine be required for absence on Thursday and have no meeting on Friday. 

By-laws taken up. Slight changes made in Section I of Article IV. A new section 
inserted after Section III of Article IV to this effect: "Non-active members shall be 
allowed to attend all fraternity meetings when they so desire, but shall not be put on 
duty nor be subject to fines." 

A new section was inserted after Section 5 of Article W to this effect : "\o member 
of this Fraternity may sever her connection with this Fraternity without an honorable 
dismissal or expulsion." 

Motion carried that Miss Shaffer purchase one-half dozen cards to be used as 
certificates of admission to our Fraternity. 

Reading of Initiation Ceremony. Motion carried that the explanation of grip, 
knock, and whistle be added to the constitution, which was done. Motion carried that 
initiation ceremony be added to the constitution. 

Report on Installation of Beta Cha.pter. 

Thursday, May 26, 1887. 
Report of the organization of Beta Chapter in Albion College in Michigan, where 
six girls were initiated as charter members. Miss Jones gave a detailed account of the 
committee's visit to Albion and Ann Arbor. They were charmed with our new sisters 
and much pleased with the women met in Ann Arbor, but owing to the peculiar relation- 
ship of the School of Music to the college in that place, could not, under our con- 
stitution, form a chapter. Report accepted. Motion carried to average the expense 
among the members. 

Scholarship Qualifications. 

February 2, 1888. 
Motion carried that hereafter no member be initiated without a certificate signed 
by the dean of the music school that said candidate is at least a regular freshman in 
the School of Music. 

Initiation of Mme. Fanny Bloom field-Zeisler. 

March 28, 1888. 
First meeting of term called to order by Miss Baker. Miss McReynolds inaugurated 
as president. Mme. Bloomfield having accepted our invitation to become an honorary 
member of the Fraternity, it was decided to give her a reception on the occasion of her 
concert, April 3. Invitation Committee was appointed. 

Early Years 


Resume of The First Three Years of Alpha Chapter 
{Vol. I. The Lyre) June, iSg4 

The first year was one of enthusiastic work and at its close seventeen 
active members were registered, l)esides five teachers and artists who had 
been chosen as honorary members. A principal feature of the work had 
been the musical and literary programs given 
at the weekly meetings. The event of the year 
was the Soiree Musicale. The iirst songs. 
Dear to the Heart of Alphas, and Alpha 
Prima were written. 

Dean Howe honored us by dedicating his 
new "System of Pianoforte Technicjue." to 
Alpha Chi Omega. 

At the beginning of the second year the 
attendance was considerably reduced, but it 
was soon increased by new members. I'he 
first anniversary was celebrated at the home 
of Miss Anna Allen of Greencastle. This 
social event, and a reception which was 
given some weeks later, were occasions long 
to be remembered by Alphas. A feature of 
the work of the year was the preparation for 
extending the organization to other institu- 
tions. No small amount of time was consumed 
in discussing rules, forms of charter, and 

devising plans for making the work interesting and effective at home, as well 
as for its extension. 

Correspondence with students at Kvanston seemed to promise the estab- 
lishment of our Beta Chapter at Northwestern ; but the fates had decreed 
otherwise. The correspondence with Evanston was still in progres.s, when 
we learned that a band of students at Albion College was awaiting organiza- 
tion. Delegates were sent at once, and on June 4, we held a jubilee meeting 
to celebrate the establishment of Beta Chapter of the Sorority. 

It is not my purpose to prolong this short history of the Sororitv through 
the remaining years of its existence. One of the most pleasant events of the 
third year was the initiation of Madame Fanny Bloomfield-Zeisler to honor- 
ary membership. The girls were all delighted with the genuine interest she 
took in their work. The reception given in her honor was in everv wav a 

Mar\ Janet JJ'i/son. Seeretary. 

IVIakv Janet Wilson, Alpha 

General President, 1896-1898 
Editor The Lyre, 1897-1900 

The extension of a fraternity is a vital matter which requires a progressive, 
yet conservative policy, well-balanced judgment, and liroad, loyal interest 
on the part of those already within the fraternity, especially of those in 
administrative offices. 

22 The History of Alpha Chi Omeiia Fraternity 

The matter of the extension of Alpha Chi Omega was deiinitely considered 
when the Fraternity was founded, and prt)Yision was made in the constitution 
for the establishment of sister chapters. According to the ruling adopted, 
the first three chapters were to be established by the consent of Alpha after 
which time, until the creation of the Grand Council, a two-thirds vote of the 
chapters was rec]uired in order to grant a charter, but with the advent of this 
governing body a new system was naturally adopted. 

From the time when the organization had been duly completed, the mem- 
bers of the Mother Chapter were alert for a good field for the Beta Chapter. 
After considerable inve.stigation they had expected to establish the second 
chapter at Northwestern University, but other correspondence with students 
at Albion College soon developed to such an extent that Bertha Deniston 
and Mary Jones were sent to Albion. Michigan, where they installed Beta 
Chapter May 27, 1887. 

Mrs. Tennant (Mary Jones) writes of that installation: 

When we reached Albion, though we were tired from our journey, the girls met us 
with great enthusiasm and we were immediatel}' conducted to the home of Emma Crit- 
tenden, where the initiation ceremony was held at once in order that the girls might 
that very evening "surprise everybody" by wearing Alpha Chi Omega ribbons. I have 
always felt that things were conducted with unseemly haste, but we were young and 
unsophisticated. That evening, immediately after the ceremony, we all attended a large 
college reception where the initiates received the hearty congratulations of their friends. 
The next day we indulged in drives and in other pleasures. 

From that time the two chapters worked together with the idea of exten- 
sion, and Beta reopened the correspondence with Professor Locke. Director 
of the Conservatory of Music at Northwestern University, which action 
resulted in the establishment of Gamma Chapter in that university Novem- 
ber 12, 1890. by Alta Roberts (Alpha) and Jean Whitcomb (Beta). Of 
this installation Mary Satterfield Osgood ( (iamma ) writes : 

Early one cloudy morning in November, i8qo, Jean Whitcomb, delegate from the 
Grand Chapter then at Albion, Michigan, arrived in Evanston, presumably as my guest. 

She was made welcome, and the lyre she had worn as a means of recognition was 
immediately removed for fear others might guess the secret of her mission before the 
consummation of our plans. Later, Alta Roberts of Alpha appeared on the scene. Word 
of their arrival was quickly passed among the girls, who had long been looking for- 
ward to this time, and all was suppressed excitement and expectation pending the 

This event for six of the girls took place on the evening of the same day, Saturday, 
November I2, 1890, in the attic of Willard Hall. Miss Whitcomb and Miss Roberts 
made the occasion very impressive and beautiful. The seventh girl, Mary Stanford, sang 
regularly in a church in Racine, Wisconsin, and was necessarily out of town on Satur- 
day evening, so on her return Monday morning, November 14, she, too, was initiated, and 
we six had the pleasure of participating in our first Alpha Chi Omega initiation. This 
initiation took place at her home, and thus was launched Gamma Chapter of Alpha 
Chi Omega. 

Wishing to make known our existence, and to make our first public appearance 
together, we went from Mary Stanford's home to the college, where we attended noonday 
chapel in a body. Our coming created sufficient stir to assure us our secret had not 
until now become known. 

In the evening Mrs. Stanford, who was always our beloved and confidential friend, 
made us welcome guests at her beautiful home on Lake Avenue, where, in honor of 
our new organization, and as a surprise to Mary, she gave us our initial banquet. It 
was a beautiful and happy affair. Marguerites and smilax and the colors scarlet and 
olive green, decorated the table. The evening was delightfully spent with music and 

" 1 s 

pj n 

- '-^ o 

itrs- M 

n n> : 


3 H 


Charter Members of Gamma, 1890 
^faude Walker Mae Burdick Mary Satterfield Osgood Mary Stanford 

Lottie Stine Casper Janet Marshall Weller La Piatt Sabin 

Charter Mf.mrers of Delta, 1891 
Ruby Krick Evans Fern Pickard Stevens Elizabeth Tate Wilson 

Etta May Tinker 
Antoinette Snyder P>ro\vn Zannie Tate Osgood Ella P.redin Robinson 

26 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Ganima immediately shared the responsibility of extension work by sug- 
gesting, within a month after her installation, Allegheny College, Meadv'ille, 
Pa., as a prospective home for a chapter of Alpha Chi Omega. The inves- 
tigation was carried on by Mary Satterfield (Gamma) through correspon- 
dence with her cousins. Zannie and Elizabeth Tate, both of whom were stu- 
dents in Allegheny College, with the result that Delta Chapter was installed 
in Allegheny College, January 29, 1891, by Libbie Price (Alpha) and Mary 
Satterfield (Gamma). The birth of Delta Chapter is described by Antoi- 
nette Snyder Brown as follows : 

The real story of Delta Chapter of Alpha Chi Omega had its setting in the old 
college town of Meadville, Pennsylvania, and dates from a meeting of musical students 
in January, 1891, at the home of Zannie and Elizabeth Tate to meet Libbie Price 
and Mary Satterfield. 

It is not to be supposed that this meeting was entirely impromptu. It had been 
known for a long time among those who formed this inner circle that fateful letters 
had been passing between Miss Tate and Miss Satterfield ; and mysterious, quiet dis- 
cussions had been going on among the members of this group, but no hint of what it 
meant had filtered to the outer world. 

Miss Price and Miss Satterfield were both charming girls, and we who were invited 
to meet them seemed to pass their inspection. On that very morning, in a gracious 
and dignified way, we seven girls were initiated into the mysteries of Alpha Chi Omega, 
and Delta Chapter began its eventful life. 

After the ceremony, a delightful luncheon was served by the Misses Tate, the first 
of many Alpha Chi functions in their hospitable home. It then remained to proclaim 
our existence to the other fraternities. On the next morning, in a body, we attended 
chapel at Allegheny College. Whether we were to be received as Greeks, indeed, 01 
were to be held aloof as a presumptuous lot of barbarians, we knew not. It proved, 
however, that the Greeks rose to the occasion and at once accepted us as a part of the 
Greek world. 

The establishment of Beta, Gamma, and Delta Chapters, only, are 

described here because they belong to practically tlie first five years of the 

life of Alpha Chi Omega. 



In 1898 Alpha Chi Omega entered the University of Michigan, probably 
the strongest of the state universities, at that time, both in its work for the 
women — and for the men — students. At the same time she stepped into a 
new phase of her life, into greater \-irilitv and power commensurate with the 
prestige, scholarly attaimnents, generous ecjuipment, and vigorous idealism of 
the western state university. Henceforward, with but one exception (Syracuse 
University, with 4,000 students). Alpha Chi Omega placed new chapters only 
in the progressive educational institutions west of the Alleghanies, as follows : 

0. 1898; I, 1899; K, 1903; A. 1906; M, N, E, 1907; O, 1908; n, 1909; 
P, 1910; 2, 1911; T, 1912; Y, 1913; ^, 1914; X, 1915; *, O, 1916. 

As there is nothing in American political history parallel to the tremen- 
dous development of the Mississippi Valley and its phenomenal effects upon 
national life, so there has been nothing in American educational history equal 
to the development and success of the western state institutions. Likewise, 
no chapter in the history of fraternities for women is so bright or so impor- 
tant as that which portrays their entrance and their happy growth in these 
remarkable universities and colleges. 

Out of seventeen institutions entered by Alpha Chi Omega during the 
eighteen year period, 1898-1916, only five of these were not state-supported. 
In the west (at Oberlin) coeducation had been tested early and proved a 
success ; and Horace Mann's theory that the public should educate its young 
men and young women in the same institution to avoid duplication of 
expense, and to insure sufhciency of funds for development on a large scale, 
had been triumphantly tested, also, by the time that Alpha Chi Omega first 
entered a state university. Another fact which prepared the wav for Alpha 
Chi Omega was that traditions of masculine superioritv. and of scepticism 
concerning the mental capacity or the social desirability of college women, 
had not become nearly as entrenched in these wide-awake western institutions 
as in the eastern universities for men. It was natural and sane, in the eyes 
of the West, to continue, during the few years of college education, the 
previous social relation between the sexes in the public school, which would 
inevitably be renewed, at any rate, after college days. With the rapid 
improvement of the transportation facilities in the last quarter of the nine- 
teenth century, the pressure upon a young woman to study at an adjacent 
though inferior academy fortunately was removed. It was no longer a hard- 
ship to travel to the seat of one's state university, or an impossibility to return 
home two or three times a year during holidays. 

Still another condition existed to contribute to the jjrosperity of the women's 
fraternities at the western colleges. That was the genuine need for just 
sucli orgam'zations. 'I'lie fraternity system liad become recognized, Ioulc ago. 


The HisioRV of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

in college traditions, as the basis of the college social life of leading men. 
The men were grouped pleasantly into fraternities and clubs. Their club- 
houses were their living centers. The universities themselves were too 
extensive and their life too complex, by the close of the nineteenth century, 
to lUM-mit the women to find their places readily and happily in the multi- 

DoE Memorial Library, Uxiversity of California 

tude. Their social adjustments with l)0th the men and the women students, 
as well as their mental adjustments to the curriculum, demanded the advice 
and close companionship of other and more experienced fellow-students. 
This boon could be secured only by selection and organization. Such selec- 
tion is omnipresent in educational centers as in all human associations. 
Exuberance of youthfulness, capacity for friendship and the need for it, and 

Expansion into State I'NivKRsrriES 29 

the limitations placed upon social intercourse by the exigencies of serious 
study make grouping into close intimacy desirable. 

Combined with the pitiful inadequacy of the dormitory eciuipment of most 
institutions, these conditions attracted many of the finest feminine students into 
fraternity circles. The students' point of view in this matter was expressed, a 
decade ago, by a young woman of one of the great universities, in The Lyre 
(Volume IX, page 123). "The chapter house," said she, "with its abun- 
dance of character-developing discipline, is by far the most sheltered and 
desirable home for girls that there is at Illinois and many of the other 
universities where there are no dormitories for girls. I, who have lived 
ill it as a sister, love it second only to my own home." Excej^t for fraternities 
c-ind clubs no such wholesome living conditions could be possible for more 
than about eight and one-third per cent of the women at the following 
group of institutions : Syracuse University. University of Iowa, Univer- 
sity of Nebraska, Albion College, University of Illinois, Baker University. 
De Pauw University, University of California. University of Wisconsin, 
James Millikin University, and Simpson College. The University of Cali- 
fornia, for instance, with 2,.S00 women students, has no university hall 
of residence; University of Illinois, with 1,200 women, is now planning 
its first dormitory, to accommodate 200. The University of Wisconsin, 
with from 1,500 to 2,000 women, have living accommodations for 266. Iowa, 
with about 1,000 women, can house 170. Of the 11,500 women estimated 
in these twelve institutions in 1916, for only 1,011 of them do their x^lma 
Maters find it possible to provide halls of residence. These twelve colleges 
were selected as representative of living conditions. The other universities 
possess similarly inadequate housing of their women students. 

The time was ripe in every way for Alpha Chi Omega to enter the well- 
tested field of the western state university. The origin of Alpha Chi Omega 
had been in the Mississippi Valley where her first three chapters had been 
placed in denominational colleges of high ideals and high standards, 
De Pauw University, Albion College, and Northwestern University. She 
was already firmly entrenched in the region. From the Mississippi Valley 
she had extended to Pennsylvania ; from Pennsylvania to California ; from 
California to Massachu.setts ; from Massachusetts to Pennsylvania again, 
and thence back to the Mississippi Valley where the second chapter in the 
State of Michigan was installed at the University of Michigan, Ann Arbor, 
on November 19, 1898. 

Because of the varied opportunities of these institutions the members of 
the three chapters therein, Theta, Iota, and Kappa, carried greatly diversi- 
fied courses, — music, literary courses, library training, and scientific courses 
of several kinds. A large proportion of the members of Theta Chapter have 
been in the liberal arts departments. Because the musical requirements of 
Alpha Chi Omega had always been most flexible, the university chapters, in 
the midst of college communities where the liberal arts received far greater 
emphasis and support than the fine arts, laid less stress upon musicianship 
than had the earlier chaiittrs which had been huMted in colleges more distinctly 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraterxity 

cultural than the great universities. IJterary and scientific interests were on a 
par in these chapters with the musical interests in curriculum work, and in 
frequent instances exceeded them ; although all students shared in an appre- 
ciation of music as an art. On the ^vhole, the liberal and fine arts courses pur- 
sued by the chapters were harmoniously balanced during the period 1896-1906. 
In the period preceding at least four of the seven chapters ( Gamma, Delta, 
Epsilon, Zeta) contained more interest in the study of music than in litera- 
ture and science. In 1906 the pendulum had swung, it seems, to the other 
limit, and the major work of active members was decidedly in literature and 
science, rather than in the fine arts. 

In the follow- 
ing year (1899) 
the second chap- 
ter in the state of 
Illinois was 
founded at the 
University of Illi- 
nois, Champaign. 
Alpha Chi Omega 
was the fourth wo- 
men's fraternity to 
enter Illinois, having 
been preceded by 
Kappa Alpha Theta, 
Pi Beta Phi, and 
Kappa Kappa Gamma. 
The chapter was in- 
stalled at the home of 
the president of the uni- 
versity whose daughter 
was a charter member of 
the group. Four years 
later the third of these 
greatest of state universities 
Extension \ \ \ / V ' 7 ^^'^^ entered with the in- 

OF Alpha Chi \ ) ^X""K \j!\jJ^kJ stallation of Kappa Chap- 

Omega in the \ i jr-—^'^^^^^\\U ^^^ ^^ ^^^^ Uulversity of Wis- 

Mississippi V 3^rfS2'^L4-4Hf consin, Madison, Wisconsin. 

Valley 1898- 191 6 »"^ — ' — ' — ' "^ ^ 1 i 1 ' ' 

We mentioned .the decade, 1896-1906, as harmoniously balanced between 
liberal arts and fine arts interests ; but the parity was only theoretical toward 
the close of the period. The tendency was unmistakably, even then, in favor 

Expansion into State Universiiiks 31 

of the liberal arts in every chapter except two, Gamma and Zeta. It was 
only with the exercise of considerable leniency and by continued flexibility 
that the division of active interests, long before the year 1906, could be pro- 
nounced an equipoise. There was no prejudice toward music study on the 
part of universitv women ; the value and beauty of the two arts in juxta- 
position was appreciated. Music students were rushed enthusiastically by 
the various fraternities. 

The explanation of the decrease in members who studied music as a part 
of their university curriculum lay in the fact that little emphasis was laid 
on the music department by the uni\ersity ; the state a|)propriations were 
devoted to more "useful" ends. 

In the convention of 1908. national action recognized that the constitu- 
tion of the Fraternity should be amended to meet more nearly the actual 
condition throughout the country. The requirement, consequently, was 
changed so that no longer was it true that two-thirds of the members of 
each chapter were expected either to be connected with the school of music 
or to have linished at some time in the past a definite amount of serious music 
study. In the future but half of the members, it was required, should be 
doing or should have completed at some time a certain amount of serious 
music study. Henceforth, and for some time preceding this legislation, we shall 
say that Alpha Chi ( )mega has been predominately a liberal arts fraternity. 
In 1915 convention action, again recognizing by legislation the actual condi- 
tion of the educational field, legislated the removal of all stated requirements 
as to division of membership between the liberal arts and the fine arts. With- 
out the faintest danger of misunderstanding from any quarter, as a result of the 
1915 constitutional revision. Alpha Chi Omega considers herself a general 
fraternity with musical traditions. And such she should have been called, 
in the light of the actual facts, from the date of her origin. 



Alpha Chi Omega has chapters in twenty-three of the strongest and finest 
educational institutions in America, well distributed over the continent. Her 
expansion has been conservative and unhurried. Rather than place chapters 
unwisely or prematurely, the Fraternity has refused scores of invitations to 
enter institutions of which either the petitioning group or the curriculum did 
not meet the comprehensive requirements of the exten.sion policy. At the last 
convention, for instance, there were reported, of nineteen petitions received, but 
three new chapters established. Alpha Chi Omega, as a result of this con- 
servatism, has but one defunct chapter ; her internal organization, moreover, 
is unusually well ordered and effective so that the Fraternity may be able to 
guide and develop, in the best possible manner, old and new chapters alike. 
In the thirty-one years of her life, the nomenclature of Alpha Chi Omega 
has appropriated the whole of the (ireek alphabet ; yet we feel that she is, 
perhaps, but beginning the greatest phase of her existence. 

Excellence in academic work has been stressed as of great importance. 
High scholarship has been sought for consistently. Many chapters rank 
second and third in scholarship averages among the women's fraternities of 
their respective colleges. All chapters do creditable intellectual work; many 
achieve brilliant records. The following list of chapters gaining highest rank 
among the fraternities in the same colleges shows that local chapters attain 
verv high scholarship. 
1911-12: Sigma, University of Iowa 

Pi, University of California 
1912-13: Epsilon, Universitv of Soutlitrn California 

Mu, Simpson College (tied with IT B 4>) 

Omicron. Baker University 

Sigma, University of Iowa 
1913-14: Alpha, De Pauw University 

Mu, Simpson College 

Omicron. Baker Ihiiversity 
1914-15: Alpha, De Pauw Iniversity 

Epsilon, University of Southern California 

Omicron, Baker University 

Mu, Simpson College 

Tau, Brenau College 
1915-16: Alpha, De Pauw I'niversity 

Mu, Simpson College 

Omicron, Baker University 

Tau, Brenau College 

Chi, Oregon State College 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Alpha Chapter. h)cated at l)e Pauw University, Greencastle. Indiana, 
\vas founded October 13, 1885. There were seven charter members: Anna 
Allen, Olive Burnett, Bertha Deniston, Amy DuBois, Nellie Ciamble, Bessie 
Grooms, K.stelle Leonard. Although she received a proposition to become a 
part of another national fraternity in 1889, Alpha bravely shouldered the 
heavy burdens of her position as mother chapter of a new fraternity. Her 
history for many years is the history of the organization. In 1899 Alpha 
entered the chapter house at 408 Elm Street which she still occupies. She 
was the third women's fraternity to enter De Pauw, Kappa Alpha Theta 
having been founded there in 1870, and Kappa Kappa Camma having pre- 
ceded Alpha Chi Omega by ten years. The attainments of the individuals of 

Home of Alpha Chapter, De Pauw University, Greencastle, Ind. 

Alpha and other chapters may best be traced elsewhere in the records of 
distinguished members. Alpha has a total membership of 378. She has the 
record of entertaining the national conventions of 1891, 1897, and 1906. 
Founders' Day celebration, alumnse reunion, and the state banquet at Indian- 
apolis are annual festivities of great importance. 

Beta Chapter was established on INIay 27, 1887, by Mary Jones and 
Bertha Deniston from Alpha. The charter members were Flora Adgate, 
Emma Crittenden, Florinne Defendorf, Harriet Reynolds. Elizabeth Smith, 
and Jennie Worthington. The meetings of the chapter were held at the 
homes of members until September, 1888, when a hall on the third floor of one 
of the college buildings was granted to the chapter for a fraternity hall. This 
served as a meeting place until October. 1895, when a new five-room brick 

I'kksi:n r Scope 


Beta's Lodge, Albion College, Albion, Mich. 

lodge was built. This lodgt is still owned and used by the chapter for 
fraternity functions and meetings. In 1887 Beta gave an entertainment with 
Pi Chapter of Kappa Alpha Theta. The next year but one. however, she 
began her series of amiual concerts which have been a unique feature in 
Beta's history. Until 1908 an admission fee was charged, and the proceeds 
used for furnishings for the lodge. In 1915. by faculty consent, admission 
was asked once more, this time for the benelit of the local Y. W. C. A. Beta 
was the second fraternity to enter Albion College. She has initiated 241 
girls. Her philanthropy, during recent years, has been directed most par- 
ticularly toward the Starr Commonwealth, a home for so-called incorrigible 
bovs. founded near Albion by Mr. and Mrs. Floyd A. Starr (Harriet 


Belle Miller Townsend. Beta, 1888; Mildred Lorene Townsend, 


TiiK History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Armstrong, B). This chapter has furnished tliree national presidents to the 

Gamma Chapter was established at Northwestern University, Evanston, 
Illinois, November 14, 1890, by Alta Roberts (Alpha) and Jean Whitcomb 
(Beta). The charter members were Lizzine Stine, Mae Burdick, Mary Stan- 
ford, Mary Satterfield, Mary Walker, Lulu Piatt, and Jeanette Marshall. 
Since no women's fraternity houses are permitted at Northwestern, Gamma 
Chapter held the weekly meetings in different rooms in the Woman's Build- 
ing until April 1, 1895, when a room was rented in the Hotel Monnett. For 
several years the chapter has had a room on the fourth floor of Willard Hall, 
where other fraternity rooms are likewise situated. Gamma has initiated 235 

An Alpha Chi Mother and Daughter 

Mayme Allen Ambrose; Doris Ambrose, Gamma 

Delta Chapter, Allegheny College, Meadville, Pennsylvania, was founded 
January 29, 1891, by Mary Satterfield (Gamma) and Libbie Price (Alpha). 
Mrs. Zannie Tate Osgood says: "I am sure no girls since could have had better 
or happier times than we did. I was the first girl in Meadville to know about 
the founding of a new chapter of Alpha Chi Omega. My cousin, Mary 
Satterfield ( Gamma) , wrote to me asking me to found a chapter at Allegheny 
and the Meadville Conservatory of Music which were affiliated at that time." 
After the work of organization and initiation came the welcome from the 
other Greeks and the college who welcomed the new chapter at chapel with 
the Chautauqua salute, and later by receptions and teas. 

For the first two years the chapter held its meetings in a small room in 
the Conservatory building, but in 1894 the third floor of the same building 
was secured by the chapter and turned into a very unique room, which was 
occupied by the chapter for seven years. Of this hall a member writes: "I 
wonder if girls could ever enjoy a fraternity room more than we did the one 

Present Scope 


in tlie rambling old attic of the Conservatory building, with its walls and 
ceiling hung with matting, witli oriental lamps suspended from the gables, 
and the pretty rugs, screens, and pictures." In the fall of 1901 a room was 
secured in the Mosier building on Chestnut Street, where the chapter met 
until 1906 w'hen a suite of rooms was fitted up on Highland Avenue, and since 
the fall of 1908 the chapter has occupied a beautiful suite of rooms in Hul- 
ings Hall. It is a strange coincidence that, starting as she did on the campus 
with seven charter members. Delta, in her twenty-six years of existence, and 
her 202 members, has maintained an average of seven initiates a year. The 
number of Delta members who have died within these twenty-six years is also 
seven. The social traditions of the chapter are very interesting. One Satur- 
day evening a month is called "alumna- night," the resident alumna.' being 
guests of honor at a business and social meeting. Delta celebrates the liirtli- 


day of the chapter as well as that of the national organization. During com- 
mencement week all the fraternities hold banc^uets the evening before 
commencement. In May of each year a Panhellenic banquet of the women's 
fraternities is held. In August a mid-vacation reunion of members has been 
held at Conneaut Lake since 1907. 

Epsilon Chapter was established at the University of Southern California, 
Los Angeles, June 16, 1895, as a result of correspondence started through 
the efforts of two Sigma Chis, who recommended this university as a promis- 
ing field for a chapter of Alpha Chi Omega and at the same time directed the 
members of a local club how to organize and to petition for the national 
charter. The charter members were : Louise Davis, Lulu Johns. Cornelia 
Keep, Flora Parker, and Bertie Phelps. After 1898, the university, owing 
to financial difiiculties, did not flourish for some years. Delta (iamma and 
Kappa Alpha Theta withdrew their charters. In 1898, Epsilon. after initial- 


'riiK Hlsl()R^ OF Ai.i'HA C"hi Omega Fraternity 

ing fourteen ineinbcrs in the three years of her activity, became dormant, 
remaining so until the fall of 1905. During this time, however, meetings 
with musical and literary programs were enjoyed so that the town members 
did not drift apart. In October, 1905, several students eager to organize a 
fraternity consulted with Dean Walter F. Skeele, who, knowing that our fra- 
ternity had existed there, advised them to interview Louise Davis Van Cleve. 
The result was that after an investigation by the Grand Council, Epsilon 
Chapter was reestablished October 30, 1905, six alumnae initiating the follow- 
ing members: Maude Hawley, Carrie McMillan. Carrie Trowbridge, Essie 
Neff, Erna Reese, and Flora Barron, the service being conducted by Mrs. 
Van Cleve. 

Home of Epsilon Chapter, University of Southern California, Los, Cal. 

The chapter has flourished with the splendid development of the univer- 
sity. In 1909 Epsilon entered a chapter house which has always been a source 
of enjoyment to her nitmbers. The enthusiasm which marked its establish- 
ment has never waned in spite of the difficulties which attend the maintenance 
of a chapter house in a city university. Annual afifairs of interest are the 
annual benefit musicale, given with Delta Delta Chapter, for the Children's 
Hospital in Los Angeles, the entertainment of the Burnt Cork Comedy Club 
at supper after their annual performance, the Freshman Tea, the Christmas 
Shower by the alumnae, and an original contribution of some kind at the May 
Festival of the University. The total membership of Epsilon is 118. 

Fkkskn I Sloim: 39 

Zeta Chapter was installed in the New l^ngland Conservatory of Music, 
Boston, Massachusetts. December 13. 1S95. The chapter was not a local, and 
the charter was obtained through the efforts of Barbara Strickler, (iamma, 
who was studying in the Conservatory at that time, and of Belle Sigourney. 
The installing delegates were Mary Janet Wilson and Mildred Rutledge, 
both of Alpha. 

Zeta Chapter gives an annual public musicale in Jordan Hall, the mem- 
bers taking entire charge. The faculty, other fraternities, and friends are 
invited. A formal dance is given every year, usually at Riverbank Court, 
Cambridge. In the spring a luncheon is held at the Hotel Vendome, honor- 
ary, alumnie. and associate members being invited. Numerous teas, informal 
evenings, and picnics, occur during the year. Zeta Chapter has initiated 216 
members. She has given to the Fraternity, among other national officers, a 
national president, and two Editors of The Lyre. Her membership is remark- 
ably cosmopolitan, being drawn from all sections of America. Many dis- 
tinguished musicians, as will be seen later, have come from Zeta's ranks. 
Although she is the only chapter which is distinctly musical. Zeta's interests 
are unified with those of the other chapters in a truly fraternal spirit. She 
has shown much interest in war-relief by extending her Hera Day service 
through the year by the adoption of two French war orphans. Y. W. C. A. 
has just been established in the Conservatory, and Zeta Chapter is interested 

Eta Chapter was established at Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Pennsyl- 
vania, June 16, 1898, the ceremonies being conducted by Mildred Rutledge, 
Alpha. Unfortunately, the chapter had but a short existence owing to a 
faculty ruling for sophomore pledging, which was passed soon after Eta's 
installation and with which the new chapter found it difficult to comply. 
Consetiuently the chapter became inactive June. 1899; in the hope that the 
chapter might be revived the charter was left until March. 1904, when 't 
was recalled. This is the only dead chapter on the roll of Alpha Chi Omega. 

Charter members: Belle Bartol. Amy Cilbert. Jessie Steiner, Mary Wood, 
Ida List. The total membership : five. 

Theta Chapter was installed at the University of Michigan. Ann Arbor, 
Michigan, November 19, 1898. through the influence of Hortense Osmun 
Miller, Beta, a resident of Ann Arbor. The installing delegates were Ethel 
Calkins, Jennie Dickinson, and Mrs. Miller, assisted by Ada Dickie. Lina 
Baum, Kate Calkins, all of Beta Chapter. 

Charter members : \\'inifred Bartholomew, Lydia Condon, Alberta 
Daniels, Virginia Fiske, Flora Koch, Rachael McKensie. and Florence 
Spence. The total membership is 212. 

In the fall of 1899, Theta occupied as her first home a house on Monroe 
Street. The beginning of the next year, a house was rented on Forest Ave- 
nue near the campus. .\ house was next taken on Wilmot Street, and in 
1902 another change was made to Tappan Street, where the chapter remained 
only one year. In the fall of l')03 they moved back to Wilmot Street, where 
thev remained until 1903. A delightful liome was then secured on the 

40 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

corner of Lawrence and Ingals Streets, which was the home of the chapter 
until June, 1916, when it was giYcn up for the new house. 

Theta is one of the first chapters to build a home of her own. The lot 
is located on the corner of Cambridge Road and Olivia Avenue, one of the 
best residence sections of Ann Arbor. Work on the building was begun in the 
summer of 1916. plans having been made to occupy the second and third 
floors at the beginning of the college year in October. 

Theta holds meetings every Monday evening during the college year at 
seven o'clock. In her new home a large room was provided for this purpose 
in the basement of the house. At first the meetings were almost entirely of 
a business nature. Carrying out the plan suggested by Mrs. Tennant, of 
having programs and of interesting the alumnae, an open meeting is held once 
a month. On this occasion a well-prepared program Ls given, in which the 
alumUce are the chief performers, immediatelv following a period set aside 
for business. The plan has proved so satisfactory that the chapter has 
adopted it permanently. 

During the year Theta gives two formal and several informal affairs. 
The fall initiation is held late in the afternoon and is followed by a, banquet 
to which alumnae and patronesses are invited. Each fall an informal dance 
is given in honor of the freshman members, while in May a formal dance is 
given in the chapter house, and several informal dances are given on differ- 
ent occasions throughout the year. Theta also holds an annual Christmas 
party at which active members, alumnae, and alumnae children are present. 
All dress as children and each receives a gift from the Christmas tree. In the 
spring a series of "At Homes" is given to the wives of the faculty members, 
mothers, alumnae, and other friends of the chapter. Wednesday night is 
known as faculty night, a few of the professors and their wives being enter- 
tained at dinner each week, thus giving the chapter opportunity to know the 
faculty outside of the classroom. At Sunday night lunch all pledges and 
members living outside the house enjov a few hours with the house girls. 

Besides teas and dances given in honor of 'visiting alumnae and friends, 
each girl who wishes to announce her engagement gives an announcement 
dinner to the active members. In our new home there is a special room known 
as the "alumnae room," where Theta's alumnic are always welcome to spend a 
night with the house girls. A cummon custom which Theta has adopted in 
recent vears is that of keeping a guestbook. in which many interesting com- 
ments are Avritten by those whom Theta has entertained. In addition to a 
graduating present given to each of the senior girls, the house holds a dinner 
and dance in their honor and gives them flowers. On the other hand, the 
seniors present the house with a gift, usually some suitable household article. 
Such a gift is also given by the newly initiated members each year. The chap- 
ter sends a .spoon to each new Theta baby, as soon as the announcement is 

In the matter of philanthropies, Theta observes Hera Day by doing some- 
thing for the poor children of the city. Until the past few years, however, 
the girls have always given a musical entertainment at the Old Ladies' Home 

I'rkskn r Scoi'E 


of Ann Arl)()r. Every year Tlieta ijirls assist the ladies' Hospital Associa- 
tion in their annual ''TaL; Daw"' the jiroceeds of wliich are ,u;;ven toward the 
ujjkeep of the Children's Hospital. At Christmas the chapter aids the V. W. 
C. A. in filling stockings for the poor children of the city. 

Iota Chapter was installed at the I'niversity of Illinois, I'rbana. Illinois, 
on December 8, 1899. On December 7 five delegates from Alpha — Wilhel- 
mina Lank, Raeburn Cowger, Certrude \\'amsley. Claudia Hill, and Mary 
Janet Wilson — came from De Pauw to install the new chapter. On that 
night a rectptit)n was held for them at the home of Charlotte L. Draper, 
whose father was president of the uni\-ersitv. Ihe next night installation 
was held at the home of Mrs. Daniels. The charter members were: Alison 
Marion Fernie, Kate Neil Kinlev, I'Auiice Dean Daniels. Emma (^uinby 
Fuller, Clara (icre, Charlotte L. Draper, Edna Louise Collins. 

For the first few years Iota did not have a house, but in 1902 a house 
was rented at 307^ (ireen Street, Champaign. In the fall a move was made 
to 309 (ireen Street, and in 1904 the chapter again moved, this time to 507 
Green Street where she remained until 1906. A home was built in that year 
for the chapter at 309 E. John Street, Cliampaign, after the plans drawn 
by Imo Baker. The chapter still occupies this house, but plans to build a 
home of its own in 1^M7. near the canijjus in Urbana. 

Iota Cii aitkk llm sk, Inueksitv ok, Chami'akjn, III. 

The social affairs varv from vear to year. During the rushing season in 
the fall the chapter entertains everv dav. either at the chapter house or at the 
homes of town girls and patronesses. The university has limited ex'ening social 
afifairs for taidi or^ani/ation to two a semester. .\ fall dance and a Christ- 


The His'Jorv of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

mas dance are usually held the first semester, and a formal function in March 
or early April. "Open House" for men is held once each semester, the first 
one being the Sunday after pledge day. A formal senior banquet in the 
spring is given in honor of the seniors. Once a semester Iota entertains the 
other sororuies and the faculty at tea, and almost every week she has patron- 
esses, faculty, and friends as dinner guests. 

Iota Chapter edits a chapter newspaper called the Eycota which bears the 
words "Published as best ive can, tvhcnevcr we can.'' Its purpose is to 
acquaint the alumna- with what the chapter is doing, and the only "subscrip- 
tion price is the and loyalty of the alumnae." There have been 
several publications, the last one in 1916, dealing with plans for the new 
chapter house. Every year Iota has employed different ways of celebrating 
Hera Day, but this year's custom was so interesting that it will doubtless be 
continued. The children of the Cunningham Orphans' Home were entertained 
at the chapter house for dinner and games. The chapter celebrates every 

Interior, Iota Chapter House 

birthday occurring during the school year among the active girls with a dinner 
which is always accompanied by the birthday cake and wishes. Every year 
in the early part of May the girls in the active chapter breakfast at Crystal 
Lake. The usual picnic breakfast is enjoyed around a big bonfire. An excit- 
ing ball game usually follows. Besides observing Hera Day, Iota Chapter 
furthers the philanthropic work of Champaign and Urbana, both with per- 
sonal volunteer service and financial contributions. Founders' Day is cele- 
brated by entertaining resident alumnae at a formal banquet at the chapter 
house. The banquet is followed by a program planned to be of 
particular interest to the alumnae. The alumnae in 1910 presented the chapter 
with a scholarship cup upon which Is engraved each year the name of the 
freshman who has the highest scholastic average. The names so far on the 
cup are: Lettie Busey, Jean Ripley, Edyth Body, Gretchen Gooch, Erna 
Goldschmidt, Cora Berger. Florence Lindahl. The total membership of Iota 
is 170. 

Present Scope 


Kappa Chapter was cstablislicd at Madison, Wisconsin, at the University 
of Wisconsin, on December 18. 1903, bv Mabel Dunn, Camma. The charter 
members were: Klizabetli Patten, lulna Swciisdu, Peora Fryette, Julia 
McGrew-, Elizabeth Davis, and Esther Concklin. 

For the first few years, the chapter held its meetings at the homes of the 
members. In the fall of 1907 Kappa moved into her first fraternity house 
at 702 State Street. As this place did not prove satisfactory, the chapter 
moved into a desirable home at 430 Sterling Court, a short street near the 
campus, which contains the fraternity houses of five other women's fraterni- 
ties. In 1916 the chapter purchased a spacious and elegant home at 146 
Pangdon Street, a wide and prominent street "running parallel and immedi- 
ate to the beautiful Pake Mendota." The grounds, extending to the shores of 
the lake, enhance greatly the attractiveness of Kappa's new home. The chap- 
ter has a large number of athletic honors, and has been much interested 

Interior Vikw of Kappa's New Home 

and consistently prominent in university dramatics. In June, 1912, Kappa 
was hostess to the national convention. Pike most university chapters Kappa 
has a well-regulated and valuable social life. Tliere are usually three dances 
given during the year, one of which is formal. A number of teas are given 
including each year one for both fraternity and independent w^omen, and 
one for guests at "home-coming" time. In the fall ()i)en house is held in 
honor of the new girls to which men from all the fraternities in the univer- 
sity are invited. In alternate years the chapter holds a reception for the 
members of the faculty. At Christmas time a party at the house for active 
members and town-alumn;e contributes to the cheer of the cheerless, for the 
gifts and the tree are carried off the next day by the Associated Charities. 
An annual reunion is held at commencement time. There are a great manv 
Alpha Chi Omegas in Wisconsin, and the reunion becomes each year more 
of an event. For Sunday evening lunch pledges, town girls, and house resi- 


Present Scope 45 

dents gather ahout the large round tal)le. Hera Dav has been celebrated by 
sending flowers to the hospitals in the city until 1915-16. During March 
and April of that year members of Kappa spent part of each Saturday after- 
noon at the day nursery teaching the poor children to sew. Kappa has 
initiated, during her thirteen years of life, 110 members. 

Lambda Chapter was installed in Syracuse University, Syracuse, New 
York. December 18, 1906, by Mary Jones 'Pennant, Inspector. The charter 
members were: Olive C. Morris, Nellie Rogers Miiiott, !•' ranees Louise 
Waldo, and Jessie Beatrix Lansing. Lambda has added to the membership 
of Alpha Chi Omega 110 young women, twenty-five p'^r cent of whom have 
entered the teaching profession. Lambda rented a house in September, 1907, 
at 606 Ostrom Avenue. May 1, 1908, the chapter moved to 405 University 
Avenue. This was occupied until September, 1911, when the chapter moved 
to 727 University Avenue. From there they moved in 1915 to 402 Walnut 
Place. In 1916 the plans of many months bore fruit in the purchase of an 
elegant and capacious chapter home at 123 College Place in a good fraternity 
district. Lambda entertains each year with a formal dancing party. During 
the semester informal dances are given at the chaptei" house. Each class 
entertains the chapter annually with original plays or with indoor picnics. 
The seniors give a Christmas party. The juniors as.sume full charge of the 
alumnae banquet in June. Financial support is given by the chapter to the 
university settlement which is doing efl^ective work in Syracuse. Several mem- 
bers teach gymnasium, sewing, and cooking-classes in the settlement. Every 
year on the first day of March, known as Hera Dav, about twenty-five or 
thirty children from the Onondaga Orphans' Home between the ages of five 
and ten are invited to a party at the chapter house. The children play games 
and enjoy a delightful supper after which thev receive favors, and on leaving 
each one is given a red carnation. These carnations are donated to the 
chapter every year by one of the leading florists. 

Lambda is noted in athletics as well as in other uni\'ersity activities. The 
tennis championship of the university has rested for several years in Lambda's 
ranks. Lambda, in the perfection of her alumnte organization, surpasses all 
other chapters. 

Mu Chapter of Alpha Chi Omega was organized as a local chapter, .\lpha 
Alpha (iamma, in October, 1905. In Januarv. 1907, she petitioned for a 
charter of Alpha Chi Omega, which was granted in April of the same year. 
On May 13, she was installed bv Alta Allen Loud, (irand President, and 
Marcia Clark Howell, Orand Vice-president, assisted by Elizabeth Patrick, 

Since women's fraternities are not permitted to live in fraternity houses 
at Simpson College, Mu Chapter owns no house or lodge. For several years, 
how^ever, a number of the girls have filled all the rooms at the home of Mrs, 
S. A. Silliman, a mother of two of Mu's charter members, thus keeping closely 
associated with each other. Meetings are held at the Silliman home or at 
the homes of the resident members. 

X x 


]*ki;si;N i- Sioi'i-; 


In the nine N'cars that Mu has li\L'(l in Alpha Clii ( )nu-ua. imich ha-. \>cl\\ 
accomplished and many ('(ilk'Li,\' and nalinnal honors hax-c comi' to Ikt. ()f 
her fifteen t'harter members — I'dorenre A. Arinstron,i,'. l'".mma l5ro\vn. Myrtle 
Hussey, I\llen C'onrey, Lena DalrNinple. I.ora IkiLjler. Nell Harris. Carrie 
McFadon, Kthel MacFadon, Bessie Reed. Ada .S(•hinlell"eni^^ Mar<,'arel 
Schimelfenig, Kffie Sillinian, Mayme Silhman. and I.ois Smi.h — three have 
won national fraternity distinction. 

Mu holds ^■ery ln\ij,h rank at Simpson in scholarship, and in all the college 
activities, literary, athletic, forensic, relii^'ious. and social. She has developed 
a remarkable number of leaders in the chapter as has also .Mbion College 
which corresponds closely to Simpson in atmosphere and standards. The 
social restrictions accompanying the smaller denominational institutions inten- 
sify the efforts expended along intellectual and athletic lines. The sacri- 
fices made by the patrons of such institutions are examples of earnestness and 
generosity to the students who fretiuently become most devoted ser\-ants of any 
cause to which their lives are consecrated. The limited numbers — an average 
of 500 — make close acquaintance common on the camjuis. Social affairs are 
ingenious and recreative. Rushing parties, and an annual formal bancjuet, a 
tea for the town mothers and patronesses, an annual Christmas i)artv. and th.e 
traditit)nal house party at the end of the college year are the imjxirtant func 
tions. A good Conservatory of Music provides the chapter with splendiil 
opportunities for musical culture. Mu has initiated lOS members. 

Home ok Nc C'iiai'tek, L'.mveksiiv uv Coiukahh, lioi i.kkk, C oi.o. 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Nu Chapter was installed at the University of Colorado. Boulder. Colo- 
rado, September 6. 1907, Harriet Mabel Siller, Grand Historian, acting as 
installing delegate after having made a previous investigation of the peti- 
tioners. The charter members were: Irene Hall, Ethel Brown, Jessie 
Rodcers. Frances Foote, Helen Rice, Willa Wales, Bertha Howard. Flora 
(ioldsworthv, and Mollie Rank. 

Alpha Chi Omega was the fifth women's fraternity to enter the Univer- 
sity of Colorado. The chapter has lived in a chapter house from the begin- 
ning. At present she resides at 1080 Thirteenth Street. She is the only chap- 
ter of Alpha Chi Omega in the Rocky Mountains except for the two alumnae 
clubs, Denver Alumnae Club, and Pueblo Alumnae Club. She has sorely 
missed the frequent contact with sister chapters which other groups enjoy. 
Several chapters, however, have been established recently between the Missis- 
sippi and the Pacific so that Nu will now have sisters in closer proximity. 
Attractive dances and teas, picnics in the picturesque mountains near Boulder, 
and a share in the annual university Y. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. fair, con- 
stitute the most important part of Nu's social events. She has a keen 
interest in the activities of the institution, and has developed much along all 
lines during the nine years of her existence. She has initiated ninety-one 

Home of Xi Chapter, University of Nebraska, Linxoln, Xeb. 

Present Scope 


Xi Chapter at the University of Nebraska. Lincohi, Nebraska, followed 
close in the wake of Mu and Nu Chapters and was established Thanksgiving 
day, 1907. 

Miss Laura Howe and Miss Mable Silk-r. assisted by Mrs. P. C. Som- 
merville and Mrs. Grace Slaughter (iamble, installed the chapter. The 
eleven charter members — then pledges — Vera Upton, Emma Farrow, Harriet 
Bardwell, May Bardwell, Lilah David, Beulah Coodson, Linna Timmer- 
man, Nina Beaver, Alice Lesher, Irene Little, and Beulah Buckley, met at the 
Lincoln Hotel, where the ceremony took place. 

Panhellenic immediately invited the chapter to become a member of that 
body and later gave a dance in her honor. Including Alpha Chi Omega, 
Panhellenic was represented by nine national sororities at that time. There 
are now fourteen members. 

from the first. Xi Chapter took a prominent place in universitv 
affairs, which includes Y. W. C. A., Cabinet Officers, Corn Huskcr Staff, all 
intercollegiate affairs, all interfraternity societies. Oirls' Club, and Pan- 
hellenic Associations. 

Since the chapter was installed on Thanksgiving day. it seems fitting that 
thev should continue the custom of oft'ering thanks in a substantial manner. 
No chapter liirthday has gone by unnoticed, and gifts of all kinds are 
received from friends, alumnie. and active members. 

The alumnae had charge of the banquet in 1909. and it was so successful 
that it is now understood that they preside over the occasion. Perhaps the 


y\ -^f ^ 

Garden Room of Lincoln Hotel. Lincoln. Xcb. 

gift of a loving-cup by the alumn;e at that banipitt is significant of the 
perfect cooperation of the two bodies, 'i'he Lyre Loving-cup was conferred 
upon Xi in 1910-1 \. On Hera Day. 1913. the chapter house, including many 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

of the fraternity possessions was almost destroyed by fire. The town girls 
opened their homes to those made homeless by the fire. The chapter returned 
a few weeks later to the same address. Insurance covered most of the 
chapter's loss, and in the following fall the chapter moved to their present 
home at 1410 Q Street. 

Since the installation of Xi Chapter, they have never failed to observe 
"Our Mothers' Dav." Fhe mothers of all girls of the chapter are made 
welcome at the chapter house. This custom among fraternities and sororities 
at Nebraska originated with Xi Chapter of Alpha Chi Omega, and practically 
every society in school observes this custom. 

An annual banquet is held in May to which scores of alumnae return. 
Messages are read from those absent. The toys received at the Christmas 
party, with the tree, are sent to a hospital on the following day. 

Omicron Chapter was installed September 17, 1908, at Baker University, 
Baldwin, Kansas, being formed from a seventeen-year-old local organization, 
Nu Alpha. The investigation of the petitioners was conducted by Alta Allen 
Loud, Grand President. The installing delegates were Mary Jones Tennant, 
Inspector, and Kate Calkins, Beta, formerly Grand President. All the active 
girls of Nu Alpha were initiated on the evening of the seventeenth, together 
with several Nu Alpha alumn:-e. After the ceremonies, a banquet was served. 
The afternoon was spent in a general reception to all the fraternities and to 
the friends of Nu Alpha. The charter members were : Aletha Kelley, Laura 
Nicholson, Edna Pearce, Bonnidell Sisson, Minerva Bragg, Eula Smith, 
Grace Davenport, Edith Bideau, Zula Green, Stella Morton, Mae Dennis, 
Beulah Kinzer, Iva Riley Farrer, Alice Reid Bacon. 

In the fall of 1909 the house was entered which is still occupied. It is a 
comfortable and attractive house, near the college campus, which accommo- 

HoAfE 01" Omicron Chapte;;, I'.aker University, Baldwin, Kan. 

1'ki:si:.\ r Scoi'k 


dates most of the members of the chapter. I'niversity rules entitle each fra- 
ternity to two informal parties and one formal partv during the college year. 
The Christmas party is held, according to tradition, on the first Tuesday eve- 
ning after the return of the .students from the holidays. The formal func- 
tion is held in the spring. For mothers, patronesses, and friends, a Kensing- 
ton is given. In the fall of 1914 ( )mi(ron received the Alpha Chi Omega 
Loving cup for highest ranking in fraternitv relations. Omicron Chapter 
has a total meml)ership of 141. 

On May 7, 1909. at the I niversity of California. Berkeley, California, 
La Solana House Club became I'i Chapter of Ali^ha Chi Omega. The 
installation was made by Mabel Harriet Siller, then (irand Historian, assist- 
ed bv Carrie Trowbridge. Kpsilon, and Anne Shepard. l^psilon, — Delta 
Delta tlelegates. The inspection of the petitioners and of the field had been 
made by x\lta Allen Loud. Cirantl President, assisted by resident alumn;e. At 
one-thirty p. m., on May 7. the initiation ceremony took ])lace, conducted by 
Miss Siller. In this she was assisted by the other installing delegates, and by 
Lida Bosler Hunter. Alpha; Theo White Lillard, Delta; Lucretia Drown, 
Beta; and Nellie Creen Wheeler. ( )live Kerryman. and Rowena Hall of 

On the afternoon of May 8, a reception was given for the faculty, and 
members of other fraternities, and in the evening the installation bancjuet 
was held in the chapter house. 

Pi Chapter had eighteen charter members — Beatrice Bocarde, Edith 
Brown, Dorothy Burdorf, Rue Clifford, Marguerite Creighton, Fern Fnos, 
Fthel Louden (iillis. Marion Hitchcock. Bvrd Howell, Leone Lane Kelley, 

Ho.MK 111 I'l (11 AIM i:k, L'mvkksiiv ni Cai.hokmv, 1>i:kkki.kv, C \i. 

52 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Bess Kcntnt-r, J^da Long, Clare Norton, (iertrude Rice, Mary Stafford, Alice 
Streets, Elsie Williams, and Elizabeth Wright. 

During the first few years of the chapter's existence, the members lived 
at 1711 Euclid Avenue. In spite of various enlargements which were made 
later, the house proved to be entirely too small for the chapter's needs. In 
August, 1912, therefore, the chapter moved to the present residence, 2421 Le 
Conte Avenue, a large frame house, about five minutes walk from the college 

(Jnce a year Pi Chapter gives a formal tea, to which are invited facultv 
members, other fraternities, and independent girls. Besides this, one or two 
informal teas are given during the year. About once a month a faculty 
dinner is given. This has been found to be an excellent way by which the 
girls may become acquainted, personally, with the professors and their wives. 
It is also the custom of the fraternity to give two dances each semester — a 
formal dance in the spring, followed by an informal dance, and two informal 
parties during the fall semester. 

Among Pi Chapter customs there are perhaps five which are most inter- 
esting. One is the Japanese Tea, given each August, about a week before the 
opening of College. The house is strung with lanterns which furnish the 
only light in the darkened rooms ; pink cherry blossoms bloom in the fire- 
places, and nod gaily from the tables and mantels. The girls dressed in gay 
Japanese costumes, complete the effect and serve tea in the dining-room. Then, 
too, there is Pi's St. Patrick Day dinner, when Ireland's green dominates 
everyone and everything: there is the much-enjoyed annual train dinner, 
when the dining-room becomes a dining-car, and the guests travel from 
Berkeley to Nova Scotia, merely l)v changing places after each course, with 
the aid of time-tal)les. Another of Pi's customs is a Christmas Bazaar. Then 
the active chapter unites with Theta Theta Alumnae Chapter, in making 
all manner of articles both useful and ornamental. The Bazaar continues 
all day and in the evening there is usually an auction, if anything remains 
unsold. The auctioneer is the father of one of the girls, and the articles are 
di.sposed of at excellent prices. It has also become a custom of Pi to buy 
a strip-picture for the chapter house each year ; th.ese are then framed and 
hung upon the walls of the dining-room. Pi's ambition is to place them 
upon the walls of the chapter-room of their own home some day. 

Pi's philantliropies are varied, for there is a great difference between 
assisting the Travelers' Aid Society and adopting a French war-orphan. 
Perhaps one of the things which gave Pi girls most pleasure was the making 
possible the ultimate cure of a little cripple whose parents were unable to 
supply the necessary money. Another opportunity that came to the girls last 
semester was that of making sets of warm clothing for the Belgian babies. 
From the time of Pi's installation have come such opportunities, both little 
and great, and as long as Pi exists will come others. The total membership 
of this chapter is 109. 

On October 14, 1910, Delta Nu was installed as Rho Chapter of Alpha 
Chi Omega at the chapter house, 4543 17th Avenue North East. The 

Prksext Scope 


installation ccrcniunics were conclLUtLcl by Alta Allen Loud assisted by Ada 
Dickie Hamblen, Beta; Louise Stone, Zeta ; Bess Kentner, Pi; Gaea Wood, 
Gamma; Pauline Drake, Iota; Ernestine Heslop. Xu ; Susan Hovcy Fitch, 
Theta; and Florence Clemens Kemp, Theta. 

The charter members were: Cogswell, Vera (Mrs. Wentworth Rogers) ; 
Greenberg, Edith; Harkins, Marjorie; Hawks. Hazel (Mrs. ^L1rvin Tuttle) ; 
Hindman, Edith; Jones, I'Ubel ; Maltbie. 'I'heodora (Mrs. James Collins); 
Niedergesaess, Gertrude (Mrs. A. M. Bryce) ; U'Donnell, (Iretchen (Mrs. 
George I^ast Starr) : Rogers:. Emily ; Rogers, Jennie (Mrs. Thomas Cole) ; 
Storrh. Bess. The total membership of Rho Chapter is eighty-one. Rho's 
chapter house is a large tliree-stnried structure of brick and Spanish plaster 

RlIO ClIAl'TEK lIul.sK. L'M\KK.sriV 111- \V ASl 1 1 N(;TuN , Seaiti.k, Wasii. 

planned and built by the chapter just before their installation into the 
Fraternity. One formal and one informal dancing party is given during the 
college year. Two informal ten o'clock dances are given each semester at 
the chapter house, tlie first one usually for the pledges. 'Lhe social affairs held 
early in the fall are devoted to rushing parties such as teas, luncheons, 
dinners, and vaudevilles. .\n annual Founders' Day Banquet is always 
given. In the fall a reception is lield for the housemother; receptions are 
also held for visiting national officers. 

Sigma Chapter was installed at the University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa, 
on June 10, 1911. She was the fifth women's fraternity to enter the univer- 
sity. The charter members were: Marie Bateman, Nina Shaffer. Ina Scherre- 
beck, Grace Overholdt. Mvrtle Moore. Mae Williamson, and Bertha Reichert. 
Winifred Van Buskirk Nh)uiu. National Treasurer; Mvrtle .McKean Dennis. 


The HisroRV of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Sigma Chapter House, University of Iowa, Iowa City, Iowa 

National Inspector ; and Florence A. Armstrong. National Editor, ^vho had 
organized the group, performed the installation. The chapter house is situated 
on Io\va AYenue, a beautiful street full of flowers and foliage. A large 
sleeping porch and, back of the house, a stream crossed by a rustic bridge, 
adds to the pleasure of the members. Sigma had the distinction of standing at 
the front of the fraternity ranks in scholarship throughout the first two years 
of her existence. She is enthusiasticallv interested in all the actiYities of a 
great university, and has held most honorable place in social, dramatic, 
religious, literary, and scholastic lields. She has initiated into Alpha Chi 
Omega fifty-five young women. 

Tau Chapter was installed November 24. 1911. at Brenau College. Gaines- 
ville, Georgia, being formed from Kappa Chapter of Eta Upsilon Gamma. 
The investigation of the petitioning chapter was conducted by Winifred Van 
Buskirk Mount, Grand Treasurer. Mrs. Leroy Childs (Nell Schuyler, 
Theta), Ethel McCoy (Lambda). Josephine Blanchard (Theta), and Mary 
Thankful Everett (Zeta), assisted in the installation. 

The charter members ^Yere : Montine Alford, Sara Lee Alford, Jewel 
Bond, Mary Carson, Mary Dortch. Aileen Deaver. Margaret Brown Holder, 
Opal Overpack, Her King, Faye McCiee. Willie Kate Travis. Virginia Hin- 
ton, Willie Hamilton. Constance Miller, Nan Osborne, Emma Partlow, Nell 



Quinn, Janie Russell. Laura Morton. Thu total incmhershij) of 'I'au Chapter 
is seventy-one. 

From the installation of the chapter until the fall of 1915 Tau occupied 
a house at 65 Sprinij; Street. In Seiiteniher. 1915. the house was changed to 
75 East Washington. 

Tau Chapter gives an annual dance and rece])tion of a formal nature to 
which the faculty, other fraternities, and friends are invited. A chapter 
reunion is held i)n the week-end of November 24, during which various 
entertainments are given, the most important being the banquet on the last 
night. Numerous teas, picnics, and informal evenings occur during the year. 

On Hera Day Tau always sends a check and a box of clothes to a moun- 

IIo.ME OF Tau Chapter, Bke.xau Coi.iece, Gaines\ ii if., t.',.\. 

tain school not far from here. About a week after pledge day the chapter 
gives their patronesses a musical tea to meet the pledges, and only the pledges 
take part in the program. Just before the Christmas holidays, the chapter 
has a Christmas tree and each girl presents the chapter with a book. Tau 
Chapter has a total memi)ership of sixty-nine. Her members have been the 
leaders in practically all of the college activities since her installation. 
The only chapter in the far soutli. I'au has much in common with the north- 
ern chapters, and is intensely loyal to all national undertakings. 

After the usual summer house party, there are permitted three parties 
for rushing in the fall ; the last is a formal bamjuet with prospective pledges. 
Informal teas on Sunday afternoons at the chapter house have been an 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

excellent means to solidarity and influence. According to Panhellenic rules 
each fraternity has the privilege of giving one large party each semester. 
The one formal party, a dance and banquet, is given annually in the spring. 
A very informal annual aifair is the May breakfast, and on May 9 comes the 
chapter anniversary banquet, whose deeply meant words and thoughts of fra- 
ternity ideals always raise the conception of esprit dc corps. 

Living-room, Tau Chapter House 

On the afternoon of May 13, 1908, eight girls, spurred by faculty 
influence, met and made of themselves an organization which should fill the 
need of a third sorority in James Millikin University. This group called 
Phi Pi existed locally until May 9, 1913, when it became a part of the 
national organization of Alpha Chi Omega. Alta Allen Loud, National 
President; Birdean Motter Ely, National Secretary; Lillian Zimmerman, 
National Treasurer; Florence A. Armstrong, Editor of Lyre; Lois Smith 
Crann, National Inspector ; Bonnidel Sisson Roberts, President of the Central 
Province; Alice Watson Dixon, President of the Eastern Province; and 
Myrtle Hatswell Bowman, in charge of the music, were the installing dele- 
gates. They were assisted by twenty-five members from Iota and eight from 
Garmna. Eight chapters were represented in the ceremony. 

Following the installation of Upsilon, the National Council held its annual 
meeting in Decatur. This gave the new chapter a fortunate week in which to 
become better acquainted with the actual lubrication of the Alphs Chi Omega 
wheels. The other fraternities at Millikin entertained the new chapter and its 
visitors very generously during the week. 

The charter members were : Effie Morgan, Laura Kriege, Helen Moffett, 
Alice Hicks, Anna McNabb, Margaret McNabb, Rowena Hudson, Estelle 
Du Hadway, Blanche Redmon, Sadie White, Florence Kriege, Elsie Springs- 
tun, Julia Owings, Laura Weilepp, Marie Hays, Ruth Seifried, Ora Bellamy, 
Celia Still, Louise Naber, Clara Randolph, Hilda Smith, Helen Hopple, 

Present Scope 


Blossom Redmon, Dee Worrell, Irene Staley, Mary Scott, I'.lizabeth Putnam, 
Mildred Gushing, Hazel (irady. Helen Heald. 

Upsilon's home during the year 1912-13 was the somewhat overflowing 
Walter House in W^est Wood Street. The associations of the glad young 
days are built round that house, but the larger place just off the camj)us ir. 
1158 West North Street, into which the chapter moved in the fall of 1913, 
and which still shelters them, has a thriving accumulation of equally tender 

Meetings are held at seven o'clock on Thursday evenings at the chapter Each month a buffet su])i)er is given in connection with the special 

Home of Upsu.ox Chaitek, Janies Mm.i.ikin Univeksitv, Decatcr, Ii.i.. 

program to which the pledges and the Decatur Aluinn;L Club of Alpha Chi 
Omega are invited. 

Of their altruistic work Upsilon writes : "That one of our customs which 
has endeared itself most to us is the one which represents our annual 'newsie' 
Christmas party. One would say that it replaced a dance with us. but for the 
fact that it fills a place many times larger than a dance could ever fill. We 
commandeer enough automobiles to carry our invited guests, whose number is 
usually in the scores, and enough Ali)ha Chi Omega fathers, husbands. i)roth 
ers. and friends, to drive the automobiles. When we have .supplied ourselves 
with an entirelv alarming stock of refreshments, we bring the voung horde 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

to our house. They produce a vast noise, are fed, are amused, are presented 
with miraculous gifts by Mrs. Santa Claus, they write their names in our 
guestbook, and depart yelling and enraptured. Certainly we shall never 
find a custom closer to our hearts than our 'newsie' party." 

On October 15, Upsilon has a Founders' Day celebration with a cake and 
candles and a prepared program. 

Upsilon Chapter has initiated sixty-four meml)ers. In 1914-15 she 
received the highest grade average of the chapters of the Fraternity. 

Phi Chapter is located at the University of Kansas, Lawrence, Kansas. 
The chapter was established September 15, 1914, with the following charter 
members: Marion Blake, Bessie Baird, Kva Stone, Marie Nelson^ Hedwig 

Home ov Phi Chaptek, Uni\eksity ok 
Kansas, Lawrence, Kan. 

Wulke, Aileen Anderson, Marjorie Kennedy, Tryne Latta, Myrna Van Zandt, 
Winona McCoskry, Helen Stout, Elsie Fleeson, Josephine Jaccjua, Claribel 
Lupton, and Virginia Weldon. The installing officers, Lillian G. Zimmerman, 
from the Council; Marie Moorehead El^right, and Jennie Oechsli Haggart, 
Omicron, were assisted by Omicron Chapter. This chapter has initiated 
thirty-seven members into Alpha Chi ( )mega. 

Chi Chapter was founded at (Oregon Agricultural College, Corvallis, 
Oregon, on February 25, 1915. The installing officers were Alta Allen 
Loud and Leigh Stafford Foulds, assisted by Myrtle Harrison and Edith 
Hindman, Rho ; by Beatrix Andrews Hopkins, Xi ; and by Myrtle Wilcox 
Gilbert, Theta. The chapter has added thirty-five members to Alpha Chi 

IIdmk 111 till c'liAPiKK, Okkco.n Ai;Ki(T[.riuAi. Coi.i.ECE,, Oke. 

The Music-koom in Chi Chapter's Home 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Omega. She has the honor to be the first national fraternity chapter estab- 
lished at Oregon Agricultural College. The charter members were : Lystra 
Tagg. Verna Tagg. hi via Tagg, Dorothy Passmore, Louise Williamson, Cora 
Ueland, Mildred Crout. Elizabeth Howitt, Faith Hanthorn, Edith Cather- 
vvood, Vesta Kerr Reynt)lds. Ruth Morrison. Bertha Davis, Leonora H. Kerr, 
Ada Reed, and Miriam Thayer. Not until early in the fall of 1915 was 
Chi's chapter house opened, for by faculty ruling a fraternity group must be 
organized for a year before a chapter house may be occupied. 

The social functions have been unique in their simplicity and informality. 
On alternate Sunday evenings the chapter has served tea to faculty members 
and to students. Dinner parties have been numerous, but simple. There 
have been "hikes," picnics, and country dinners in the beautiful foothills of the 
Coast Range Mountains. During the year there have been two formal parties, 
one in the chapter house, and the other, the Intersorority Ball, given in the 
Women's gymnasium. Chi's record in scholarship has been high. 

Psi Chai'ter House, L'niversity of Oklahoma, Norman, Oki.a. 

Psi Chapter was installed at the L'niversity of Oklahoma. Norman, Okla- 
homa, Januarv 14, 1916. The installing officers were Maude Staiger Steiner, 
Extension Vice-president ; El Fleda Coleman Jackson, Extension Officer for 
Oklahoma, and Jennie Oechsli Haggart, Extension Officer for Kansas; 
assisted by Mrs. Ralph Bennett, Mrs. R. J. Roberts, Mrs. Charles Odell, 
Miss Marion Blake, Mrs. F. D. Brooks, and Miss Bess Snell. The charter 
members were fifteen, as follows : Gladys and Dory Hollenbeck, Vivian 
Sturgeon, Alice Dunn, Ruth Snell, Lucy Clark, Jessie Stiles, Rosa McComis. 
Carmon Hampton, Mildred McClellan. Elizabeth Richardson, Ruby Russel, 
Dona Faulkenbury, Mrs. Frederick Holmberg, Minnaletha Jones. 

Present Scope ^^ 

Psi girls have a most attractive liome which was built especially for 
them this year. On the first floor arc a reception hall, music-room, livinj^- 
room. and dining-room which can be thrown togetlier for entertaining and 
dancing. In addition to these rooms are a chapter-room, two l)edro()ms. 
kitchen, servant's room, an<l hath. On the second floor are eiglit l)edro()ms, 
a large sleeping porch across the west end, and a balcony on the east. We 
have one of the largest fraternity liouses on the campus, the dimensions being 
forty-two by eighty-three feet. 

Omega Chapter was established at Washington State College, Pullman, 
Washington, September 22, 1916. 

The installing officer was Alta Allen Loud who was assisted by Edith 
Hindman, Rho, of Seattle, Extension officer for Washington; Mrs. Alice 
Reynolds Fischer, Theta, assisted by Chairman of Eocal Arrangements, and 
Elizabeth Stine Casper, Gamma, botli of Walla Walla; Cora Irene Leiby, 
Upsilon, and Ethel Jones, Rho, of Moscow, Idaho ; Emily Rogers, Rho, of 
Waterville; Hazel Learned Sherrick, Rho, of Starbuck ; and Alberta Caven- 
dar. Chi, of Pendleton, Oregon. 

The charter members were the following nineteen young women of whom 
four were alumna: Beryl Campbell, of Walla Walla; Iva Davidson, of 
Reardon; Lydia Champlin, of Tacoma ; and Winnie Shields, of Milton. 
Fifteen represented Omega's present active chapter : Jennie McCormack. 
Spokane; Irene Palmer, Bellingham ; Helen Holroyd. Helena. Mont.; Leila 
Nordby, Port Townsend ; Beryl Wadsworth, Richland ; Emma McCormick. 
Mount Vernon ; Rachel Shumann. White Salmon ; Dorothy Alvord : Anne 
Palmer, Bellingham; Doris Lay. Seattle; Elizabeth Henry. North Vakima ; 
Grace Stonecipher, Waitsburg ; (Jertrude Stephens, Monroe; Beulah Kelly, 
Walla \\'alla ; and Mary Setzer, Tacoma. 

The early history of Alpha Theta Sigma is very interesting, especially 
in comparing the ideals and ambitions of the chapter when it was founded 
and when its history closed. It was Octolier 12, 1908. when nine girls met 
in room 42 of Stevens Hall and organized themselves into the strong local 
chapter which has been known for eight years as Alpha Theta Sigma. Shortly 
after organization the chapter moved into a roomy, up-to-date bungalow on 
College Hill. Ever since this time, the cb.ajiter has resided in a fraternitv 

In the beginning, there was a rather strong trend toward literary ability, 
but it has become since almost evenly divided with musical ambitions. From 
an earlv date the chief purpose was to strive for recognition from a national 
organization which embodied the higliest tvpe of collegiate ideals. In the 
spring of 1915 it was decided that steps should be taken toward nationaliza- 

The chapter li\es in a thrte-storx' house which they have leased until 1918. 
It is very beautifully located near the campus. The house is a bungalow type 
with sleeping porch, eight bedrooms, a reception hall, living-room, and dining- 
room. .\ large porch extends across the entire rr(nit. The house is heated 


Present Scope 63 

by a hot water furnace and is electric lighted. It is a home which can easily 
be made to look pretty, and has the rei^utation of being the "homiest house on 
the campus." A large fireplace in the living-room is a very attractive feature, 
and everyone anticipates the evenings round the fire. The chapter has t)een 
active in the life of the ccdlege. and has received many high honors. 



The Financial Statement of the National Treasurer for 1916 shows that 
the wealth of the Fraternity is $125,233.74 or $5,445.11 per chapter. Since 
ten chapters, however, are making energetic plans for the acquisition of 
dignified, comfortable chapter houses, these figures will be subject to early 
and considerable revision. The following tabulated statistics denote the 
different aspects of the wealth of the Fraternity. 

Volume of Business — Annual Receipts from .all Departments of the Fraternity 

National Treasury $ 5,041.14* 

Lyre Treasury 3.776-03 

Active Chapters 69,360.39 

Alumnre Chapters and Clubs 1,000.00 

$ 7q.i77-56 
* Includes Convention Fund of $824.21. 

Property Owned 

Chapter houses and lots : 

Beta (Albion College lodge) $ 4,000.00 

Theta (University of Michigan) house and lot 24,000.00 

Kappa (University of Wisconsin) house and lot 25,000.00 

Lambda (Syracuse University) house and lot 25,000.00 

Omicron (Baker Universit}') lot 2,500.00 

Furnishings of chapter houses and rooms 25,160.00 

Permanent Funds 

National Reserve Fund $ 6,565.74 

Lyre Reserve Fund 1,500.00 

Scholarship Fund* 575-00 

*Fund has been in existence but one year. 

Chapter House Funds 

Cash $ 2,000.00 

Alumna? pledges 8,133.00 

Equipment of National Officers $ 800.00 800.00 

Total value of funds, property, and 

equipment owned by Alpha Chi Omega .$125,233.74 

The main items of the above table designate the principal material 
possessions of Alpha Chi Omega in three forms : Permanent Funds. Property 
Owned, and Chapter Building Funds. 

The permanent funds are three: The Reserve Fund, The Lyre Reserve 
Fund, and the Scholarship Fund. All these funds have been established 
during the past decade. The convention which celebrated the passing of 
the quarter century mark crystallized by legislation the long-felt desire of the 

Material Possessions 65 

Fraternit)' for a scholarship fund to stimulate and reward scholarly attain- 
ments of members. The fund was well begun, at this time, by pledges from 
individual members. At the next convention the committee to which the 
care of the new fund had been delegated recommended that its purpose be 
changed. In their opinion a general fund could be used with greater returns 
to the development of the Fraternity as a whole than a scholarship fund, the 
returns from which were of individual character. A scholarship fund, it was 
suggested, might well be established later, perhaps by the following con- 

The recommendation was adopted with enthusiasm, and the Fraternity 
loyally supported the determination of the committee to reach the $5,000 
mark by the time of the next convention (1915). 'I'he lirst few thousand 
dollars, the chairman of the committee, Mrs. Loud, predicted would be the 
most difficult part of the fund to raise. 

Individual pledges were made and Mu Chapter offered her share of the 
proceeds of a recital by Maud Powell to be given the next season as a 
specific pledge of cooperation. Thirteen of the active chapters gave one 
hundred dollars each; four gave fifty dollars or more; each of the twelve 
alumnte chapters gave twenty-five dollars or more ; eight alumnae 
clubs gave ten dollars each, and three gave smaller amounts. The calendars, 
symphony postcards, and convention labels were published for the benefit of 
the fund. Other sources were found for increasing the fund, so that the goal 
set for 1915 convention was reached and passed. The report of the Reserve 
Fund Committee set the sum of $8,000 as the goal for the fund for the 1917 

The fund has been managed most ably by the chairman. Mrs. Loud, and 
has yielded a splendid rate of interest by investment. The amount of the 
fund has been at the disposal of the Fraternity since the $5,000 was reached, 
and has been used carefullv and wisely as loans to chapters for house building 
or for house furnishing. Nine chapters have been aided in some wav by 
such loans at a reasonable rate of interest. The terms upon which the fund 
has made loans to chapters for building purposes are sane and encourage 
the chajjters entering upon tlie large task of liouse ownership. .V more 
complete description of these terms will be found in the chapter on House 

The ultimate end of the Reserve Fund is for an endowment for the 
PTaternity. The desire for a Scholarship Fund was Ijut abated. After the 
successful launching of the Reserve Fund the attention of the I-Taternity was 
turned toward the possibilities for the long desired Scholarsliip Fund. .\ 
committee which had been appointed previously recommended the establish- 
ment of such a fund to the 1915 Convention. Personal gifts were made 
by members of the convention. The adoption of a sole official jeweler resulted 
in a slight profit on every badge purchased and this amount, to be paid semi- 
annually was turned into the Scholarship Fund. A portion of the proceeds 
from Alumna' Notes was appropriated likewise for the funti. .\fter one year 

66 TiiK HisioRV i)F Alpha Cjii Omega Fraternity 

the Alumnit Association was enabled to make the following report of the 
Scholarship Fund receipts : 

Profits on sale of fraternity badges $228.00 

Proceeds from alumnai notes 228.22 

Daily Convention Transcript 42.36 

Personal Pledges 52.50 $551.08 

Five active members representing live chapters have been granted 
loans for 1916-17. The advantages of a loan fund of this nature are 
unmistakable, Miss Zimmerman says, in her report to the 1916 Council Meet- 
ing: "College Courses, like everything else, are costing more each vear, and 
the Fraternity as a whole would l)e benefited by the attempt to help as many 
of our girls as is in our province, to remain in college. In this connection 
let me cite that Kappa Alpha Theta has a fund of $7,000 for the purpose, 
Delta Gamma has $5,000, Pi Beta Phi $1,600, Kappa Kappa (jamma annually 
provides ten scholarships. Gamma Phi Beta and Pi Beta Phi are working for 
Association of Collegiate Alumnse fellowships of $500. We earnestly hope 
that the alumnae W'ill make this fund their special responsibilitv for the 
coming year, and wall help us to raise our fund to $1,500 or $2,000 by the 
1917 Convention." 

The third of the permanent funds is in the form of an endowment for the 
magazine. The Lyre Reserve Fund. Its growth and purpose are described 
at length in the section concerning The Lyre and will not be repeated in this 
connection. Like the other funds it is the result of hard work and persistent 
economy, and is pregnant with large good in the future to the Fraternity. 

The property which is owned by the Fraternity is the main body of her 
wealth. Chapter-house ownership began when the Fraternity was eight years 
old. In 1895 Beta built the substantial brick lodge which she still uses 
for all fraternity purposes. The financial interests of all the other chapters 
were, for a period, directed toward house furnishing and general fraternity 
responsibilities rather than toward house building. In consequence, Avhile the 
chapters accrued considerable wealth in possessions, not until 1910 did they 
report house-building funds, and not until 1916 were any more chapters in 
actual possession of their own homes. 

At the present time (1916), Theta (University of Michigan), Lambda 
(Syracuse University), and Kappa (University of Wisconsin), own comfor- 
table and elegant homes in keeping with the needs of a fraternity. Two other 
chapters. Iota (LTniversitv of Illinois), and Omicron (Baker University), 
are well on the road to house-ownership ; ten other chapters are working 
toward the same end. 

All chapters of Alpha Chi Omega reside in fraternity houses except in 
the four cases (A, F, Z, M), where chapter houses are debarred. All possess 
valuable furnishings and all will own their homes as soon as it is possible to 
do so. The large sums exacted for rental for fraternity houses make owner- 
ship of their home by the Fraternity a good investment as well as a great 
satisfaction. Tlie matter has developed in an unhurried way so that the dangers 


might be avoided which attend liasty housr l)uihhn,i;-, such as the deterioratimi 
of standards of menihershii), over-eiiii)hasis of the material which gixes a had 
perspective in the college perioti, and the financial o\er-l)urdening of under- 
graduates. Now that Alpha Chi Omega has reached the stage when house- 
ownership is a safe and sane ])roi)osition, the renting of fraternity houses is 
fast giving way to the purchase or the building of beautiful homes. 

Every chapter has its building fund which is increased annually by the 
proceeds of the Alumn;e Notes; in the few instances where chapter houses 
are not practicable, these funds are i)ermitted to be appro])riated for tlie 
equipment of the chapter's fraternity rooms. 

The financial projects of the future include a Memorial Hall in honor of 
the founders to be erected at ( ireencastle, Indiana, as a home for the mother 
chapter, and as a "treasure hall" for the archives of the Fraternity; the ten 
new chapter houses mentioned above ; the increase of the Scholarship Fund ; 
the maintenance oi a Fraternity Vocational Bureau ; national altruistic work ; 
and for the convenience of the Fraternity, the establishment of a central 
ofiice equipped for the handling of the great volume of the business of the 
Fraternity, with a salaried officer in charge. 

By the following table, compiled from Baird's Manual for 1915, some 
idea of the relative ranking of Alpha Chi Omega in the subject of material 
possessions may be gained. The basis for Baird's figures is dilTerent frt)m 
and more restricted than that used in our compilation of the possessions oi 
Alpha Chi Omega. Some conception, however, though imperfect, is thus 
to be attained of the self-respecting financial condition of Alpha Chi ( )mega. 


Fraternity Total Wealth Average Date Founded Number Chapters 

K K r $125,250 $3,296 1870 3S 

A r 118,500 4,558 1874 26 

n B <^ 113,200 2,358 1867 48 

K A @ 105,250 2,770 1870 38 

A <I> 97,000 5.389 1872 18 • 

r ^ B 95,200 5.950 1874 16 

X O 67,500 2,109 1895 32 

AHA 41,600 2,080 1893 20 

AAA 36,800 708 1888 52 

ATA 26,000 1,857 1904 14 

2 K 20,000 1.538 1874 13 

A O n 15,200 950 1897 16 


De Pauw University (Alpha) 

Indiana Asburv University was founded at Greencastle, Indiana, in the 
year 1837. The chief promoter and leading spirit in the founding of old 
Asbury was Robert R. Roberts, the sixth Bishop of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church in America, and the first president of the board of trustees. The 
Rev. Matthew Simpson, A.M.. was elected as the first president of the insti- 
tution. The West Campus and the central part of West College formed the 
Universitv Campus at that time, and the first commencement was held in this 

During the administration of the Rev. Thomas Bowman coeducation was 
established in 1867. In 1870 the corner stone of East College was laid but 
the construction was delayed for some time because of lack of funds. In 1879 
the old West College building was partially destroyed by fire which was a 
severe loss to the University. After the rel)uilding the institution suffered 
financial embarrassment, but was saved from bankruptcv in 1884 l)y the 
benefaction of Washington C. De Pauw. 

The name was changed to De Pauw University, and the plan of the new 
University included schools of Liberal Arts, Law, Medicine. Theologv. and 
special schools. The growth since 1884 has been steady and permanent, 
from one department to eight organized schools and again concentrated 
into three ; from one building to eleven ; from five teachers to a faculty of 
fifty, and from five students to the present enrolment of one thousand. 

In 1912 the endowment reached three million dollars putting De Pauw 
in line for claims on the Rockefeller and Carnegie foundations. The new 
gymnasium known as the Bowman Memorial Building was dedicated in 
March, 1916, and marks the beginning of a new era in athletics for De Pauw. 
The institution is in Class A under the auspices of the Methodist Episcopal 
Church. The distinguished line of presidents, many of whom later became 
bishops in the church, shows the character of the institution and the quality 
of work done here. Lmder the present leadership of Dr. George Richmond 
Grose the old school is in its brightest era and the Music School, under the 
direction of Dean R. G. McCutchan. is keeping pace with all other depart- 
ments of the Universitv. 

De Pauw University is situated in Greencastle, Indiana, a city of four 
thousand inhabitants, forty miles west of Indianapolis. The campuses are 
six in number, and are situated near the center of the citv. West Campus, 
which was the original site, consists of four and one-half acres. This is the 
seat of West College, the original university building, and contains various 
lecture-rooms and the Gough Little Theatre. Middle College and the power- 
house are also located on these grounds. Center Campus contains eight and 
one-half acres, and is the seat of East College, in which the work of the 
College of Liberal Arts is chiefly done, the D. W. Minshall Laboratory, and 

Colleges in Which Alpha Chi Omega Has Chapters 69 

the Carnegie Library. On East Campus, a tract of four acres, are located 
Woman's Hall, the School of Music, and Simpson Hall, originally Art School, 
but now the Domestic Science Building, and the college tennis courts. South 
of the campus is situated the new $100,000 Bishop Bowman Memorial Gym- 
nasium, which contains the main gymnasium floor, social rooms, Y. M. C. A. 
and Y. W. C. A. rooms, swimming pool, shower and locker rooms, rooms for 
fencing, boxing, and wrestling, and cjuarters for the home and visiting athletic 
teams. On the South Campus, containing seven and one-half acres, are 
located Rosa Bowser and Florence Hall. McKeen Field lies just beyond the 
city limits on the west. University Park is a tract of seventeen acres, on which 
McKim Observatory is located. 

De Pauw University is noted for the ministers and missionaries it has 
furnished. Four of the former presidents of the university were made 
bishops of the Methodist Church : Matthew Simpson, Thomas Bowman, 
Edwin Holt Hughes, and Francis J. McConnell. Some of the noted De Pauw 
missionaries are: Verling W. Helm, J. Howell Pyke, and Mr. and Mrs. 
William A. Fockwood. There are Miss Oolooah Burner, a great Y. W. C. A. 
worker; Earnest C. Wareing, editor of the JVcstcrn Christian Advocate; 
Robert Zaring, editor of the Northwestern Christian Advocate; and Dr. 
Hillary A. Gobin. great preacher, teacher, and ex-college president; United 
States senators. James Harlan, Daniel W. Voorhees, Albert J. Beveridge, 
Newton Booth; Congressman, James E. Watson; Secretary of Navy, Richard 
W. Thompson ; great educator, William A. Wirt, Superintendent of the Gary, 
Indiana, schools; great lecturers, John De Mott, and John P. D. John; 
and Lemuel H. Murlin, president of Boston University. We have several 
great author-graduates, including John Clark Ridpath. the historian ; Mary 
Ridpath Mann; David Graham Phillips, the novelist; U'illiam R. Halstead, 
and Mrs. Julia Nelson Penfield, a great suffragist worker. 

The fraternities for women at De Pauw are: K A 0, 1870 ; K K F, 1875 ; 
A X O, 1885; A ^, 1888; A O IT, 1907; AAA. 1908; ATA, 1908; 
A Z, 1909. 

The fraternities for men are: B n, 1845 ; $ F A. 1856; 2 X. 1859; 
^ K *, 1865 ; A K E, 1866 ; $ A 0, 1868 ; A T A, 187 1 ; A Y, 1887 ; 2 N, 
1890; A X A, 1915; B $, 1915. 

The College Panhellenic was organized at De Pauw University in 1903. 
It is now composed of the eight fraternities of the university. K A 0, A X fi, 
A $, A O n, A A A, A r A, K K r, and A Z. The group being very well 
organized, it was possible, under the presidency of A X f) in the year 
1915-1916, that more significant work could be done. A great effort has been 
made to cooperate with the Dean of Women in the regulation of the chapter 
houses, and in the general college movements, as promulgated by the Women's 
Self-government Association, as well as in regulating the rushing season and 
in feeling a sense of responsibility in all women's interests. 

After a most successful rushing season Panhellenic turned to accomplish 
a distinctive constructive work. 

70 'I'liK MisioRv OF Ali'Ha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Tlic specific things which Panhelleiiic has done, aside from regulating 
a most successful short rush, are the revision of a constitution and the printing 
of it ; the adoption of uniform scholarship Ijlanks, and uniform house rules. 
A series of fraternity dinners were held every two weeks, each Panhellenic 
representative visiting each fraternity house with the representative of some 
other fraternity. The movement toward securing a college nurse originated in 
Panhellenic. and altliough nothing definite has been done, yet something 
along that line will be accomplished next year. Interesting articles from fra- 
ternity magazines and the general work of each organization and of National 
Panhellenic in general have been discussed and found most profitable. Talks 
from the National Officers of A T A and A $ and from others were appreci- 
ated. The energy of the organization has been directed toward raising intelli- 
gently the plane of fraternity life and interfraternity relationships. 

At De Pauw, there is "Old Gold Day," in the fall. The college color i.s 
old gold, and on this day we pay our due respects to it, which are to last the 
remainder of the college year. This day is given over to the men of the 
college, while May Day is given to the women. A special chapel is held at 
eight o'clock in the morning, the class football games are played, and the class 
pennants and the De Pauw pennant are raised to the floating breezes, on the 
college flag-pole. In the afternoon the Freshman-Sophomore scrap is held 
before the big college game. In the evening, a bonfire and sing is held 
before the vaudeville. At this time, each sororitv and fraternity give a fifteen- 
minute vaudeville stunt. 

May Day is a day for the college girls to be in prominence. There are 
the folk-dances on the campus green, the crowning of the May Queen, and the 
coed play, at night. 

Albion College (Beta) 

Albion College is located at Albion, Michigan, township of Albion, and 
County of Calhoun. The college campus proper contains eighteen acres, 
aside from the athletic field of sixteen acres. It is on rising ground, in the 
eastern part of the city, in one of the best residential districts. 

In the year 1833, Rev. Henry Colclazer, F.ev. Elijah H. Pilcher, and 
Benjamin H. Packard, M.D., resolved to inaugurate a movement for the 
establishment of an academy of higher learning in Michigan. Spring Arbor 
was chosen as a location and in the spring of 1835 the Legislature granted a 
charter under the corporate name of "'Spring Arbor Academy," locating the 
institution on the site of an old Indian village, in the town of Spring Arbor. 
In the spring of 1839 the charter was amended, locating the school at Albion 
and reconstructing the Board of Trustees. 

In November, 1843, the first building was completed and opened for the 
reception of students. Rev. Charles F. Stockwell, A.M., a graduate of 
Wesleyan University, w^as appointed principal. 

In 1849, the charter was amended by the creation of a Female College, 
so that the corporate name became "Wesleyan Seminary and Female Collegi- 
ate Institute." The institution was empowered to confer degrees on both 
men and women, the corporate name becoming "Albion College." 

Colleges in Which Alpha Chi Omega Has Chapters 71 

In 1907. the charter was amended giving the institution enlarged powers. 
The management of the institution is vested in a Board of Trustees, six 
elected by the Detroit Conference of the Methodist I^piscopal Church, six 
by the Michigan Conference, and six by the Society of Alumni. 

Great personages connected with Albion College are : Dr. Samuel Dickey, 
President of the College; Owen Lovejoy, Child Labor; Dr. Delos Fall, 
Educational Circles; Frank Fall, Bursar of New York University; Dr. E. H. 
Townsend, University of Illinois, Head of the Mathematics Department ; 
Professor Gordon, Head of (ieology Department, University of Tennessee; 
Dr. Roland Palmeter, known in Medical lines ; Arthur Price, President of 
Texas College; Arthur Westbrook, Head of Conservatory of University of 
Kansas ; Professor Moulton, Chicago University. 

The fraternities represented are : AX fi, 1887 ; A T, 1883 ; A H A, 1915. 
Men's fraternities are: A T ,n, 1889; 2 X, 1886; 2 N, 1895; ATA. 1876. 

Traditions for which the college is noted are the number of men and 
w^omen strong in the pedagogical world ; for orators and debaters, ministers 
and missionaries, Y. W. C. A. and Y. M. C. A. secretaries and social service 

Northwestern University (Gamma) 
On May 31, 1850, there met in the city of Chicago, at the office of Grant 
Goodrich, 109 Lake Street, nine men to consider the founding of a univer- 
sity in the vicinity of Chicago. They agreed that "The interests of Christian 
learning demand the immediate establishment of a university in the North- 
west." and appointed a committee to petition the General Assembly for a 
charter. January 28, 1851, Governor French signed the Act that incorporated 
''The Trustees of the Northwestern Lhiiversity." The name of the university 
has since been changed to Northwestern University. 

The corporation as at present constituted consists of thirty-six trustees, 
elected by the Board, and two elected by each of three annual conferences of 
the Methodist Episcopal Church, making a total of forty-two. The charter 
provides that a majority of the Board shall be members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, but that no particular religious faith shall be required of 
those who become students of the institution. Amendments have provided 
that other chartered institutions may become departments of the university; 
that all property of whatever kind or description belonging to or owned by the 
said corporation shall be forever free from taxation for any and all purposes ; 
that no spirituous, vinous, or fermented liquors shall be sold, under license or 
otherwise, within four miles of the location of the university. 

After considering several locations in the vicinity of Chicago, the trustees 
selected from the university a tract of land on the shore of Lake Michigan, 
twelve miles north of the heart of Chicago. Here in 1850 the first university 
building was erected and about this location has grown up the City of 
Evanston, a beautiful residential city of thirty thousand inhabitants. The 
professional schools of Medicine, Law. Pharmacy. Dentistry, and Commerce 
are situated in the city of Chicago. 














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Colleges in Which Ai.i'ha Chi Omega Has Chapiers 73 

The University Campus in I'>vanstoii has an area of about seventy-five 
acres and is beautifully situated on the sliore of Lake Michigan, two miles 
from the northern limit of the city of Chicago. On the South Campus are 
the buildings of the College of Liberal Arts, the College of Kngineering, 
Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston Academy, the School of Oratory ; and 
on the North Campus are the Ovmnasium. tlie Observatorv. and eleven fra- 
ternitv and college houses for nun. The School of Music, WiUard Hall and 
Chapin Hall, dormitories for women, arc on W'illard Hall Campus distant 
from the L'niversitv Canijius about three minutes' walk. Near Willard Hall 
Cam])us are the Moose House and Lniilv Huntington Miller House. The 
buildings of the Medical School aiul of the School of Pharmacy are in 
Chicago, between Twenty-fourtli and Twenty-fifth Streets on Dearl)orn 
Street. The Schools of Law, Dentistry, and Commerce are in the University 
Building, at the Corner of Lake and Dearborn Streets. 

Northwestern purchased in 1872 "The I^vanston Female College." That 
was the beginning of coeducation at Northwestern and the building became 
known as the W'illard Hall, in honor of Frances Willard. The dormitory 
accommodates about one hundred and twenty-five (125) girls. There are 
several other dormitories at Northwestern which are not owned by the 

The women's fraternities represented are : A $, A F, K K r. K A 0, F $ B, 
A X fi, n B a>, A A A, X n. K A, A O n, A F A, 2 A I, Z $ H, ^ B, Q Y, 
2 A F, H F, and M $ E. The men's fraternities are: 2 X,; 
«l> K 2, B n, $ K »I', A Y, $ A 0, A T A, 2 A E, S N, and * M A. 

Allegheny College (Delta) 

r)ld Allegheny, for a period of one hundred remarkable vears, has stood on 
the top of one of the beautiful foothills of the Alleghenies. Below and 
around it lies the city of Meadville, Pennsvlvania, situated in the valley of 
French Creek. From the tower of Old Bentley can be seen in the distance the 
beautiful and diversified panorama of tlie surrounding countrvside — the beau- 
tiful winding Cussewago, as it enters French Creek ; the deeply wooded 
ravines ; the fields of waving grain ; and in the distance. Round Top ; while 
near at hand the beauties of the campus liold the eve — the fine lawn shaded 
abundantly by the great old trees; and cut by the natural ravine. 

How' many faithful men have labored and striven to make this college 
what it is ! Li the year 1815, aroused by the ambition and energy of the young 
Timothy Alden, a Presbyterian preacher and teacher from New York, the 
citizens of Meadville, then a frontier town of four lumdred inliabitants, 
founded the present institution. The charter was conferred in 1817. The 
first large building. Bentley Hall, was built in 1820, in honor of the Rev. 
William Bentley. who left to the college his library valued at $3,000. Hard 
times now began to beset the bravely founded institution. The petition made 
by Alden to the Erie Presbytery, that they take Allegheny under their patron- 
age, was refused. At this time the state appropriation was also withdrawn. 
In 1831 Alden, broken-hearted, resigned, and for a time it looked as if 

74 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Allegheny College was to pass from existence. But the fates decreed other- 
wise, for in the year 1833, through the efforts of Homer J. Clark, the Pitts- 
burgh Conference of the Methodist Church took it under its patronage ; and 
the Rev. Martin Ruter was made president. Through the inextinguishable 
zeal and effort of the different presidents, the institution grew and flourished. 
At the beginning of the Civil War a company was organized to go to war from 
the college. Alleghenv was one of the first colleges in the country to take the 
forward step of admitting young women to the college. This was done in 
1870. This advancement has continued until now the college has a high 
standing, and twelve good buildings. In 1915 a great pageant was given, 
celebrating the century's work. 

Many men of worth and note have spent their college days within the 
portals of Allegheny. There have been judges, congressmen, bishops, clergy- 
men, doctors, lawyers, business men — men in every trade and profession of 
life. William McKinley, the much beloved president of our great common- 
wealth, spent a period of his college days within the shelter of its walls. 
A goodly number of bishops have received here their incentive. Noteworthy 
among these is Bishop James M. Thoburn. who spent the prime of his life 
as a missionary in India. Two bishops, William F. Oldham and Charles 
Bayard Mitchell, elected in 1916 by the Methodist General Conference, were 
graduates of Allegheny. Ida M. Tarbell, the world famous investigator and 
author, was among the first women students to attend the college. F. P. 
Howe, the immigrant commissioner ; Frederick C. Palmer, the war correspon- 
dent; A. W. Thompson; and Dr. Ernest A. Bell, all men of sterling worth, 
graduated from Old Allegheny. 

The women's fraternities at Allegheny are K A ©, 1881 ; K K T, 1888; 
A X ri, 1891 ; and ATA, 1912. The men's fraternities are : <^ K *, 1855 ; 
$ r A, 1860 ; A T A, 1863 ; $ A ©, 1879 ; 2 A E, 1887 ; A X P, 1914. A 
Panhellenic Association was formed by the women's fraternities in 1904. 

There are three honorary fraternities in the institution. $ B K was 
organized in 1901. In the year 1913 tAvo others were installed, A 2 P, and 
A X 2. 

Like all other institutions Allegheny has many traditions and customs. 
Perhaps the most important tradition is the great number of clergymen who 
have gone forth from the institution. There are many customs which pertain 
to the freshmen such as the green and yellow caps, rules for freshmen pub- 
lished by the college council, and the custom of freshmen remaining seated in 
chapel until the upperclassmen have gone out. One of the finest customs is 
the Annual Washington's Birthday Banquet. It is a big college dinner held in 
the gymnasium. All the classes vie with one another in stunts, costumes, and 
songs. Founders' Day, April 24, is always observed. In connection with the 
exercises of commencement week is "Class Day" and the farewell addresses 
to the buildings by the seniors. 

For over a century this college has struggled and striven in the midst of 
many difficulties, and at last has come out victorious. It is known everywhere 

Colleges in Which Alpha Chi Omega Has Chapters 75 

as a splendid institution for learning : the beauty of its surroundings and 
campus are unexcelled; it has inaii\- noted alumni and it is well represented in 
the Greek-letter world. 

The University of Southern California (Kpsilon) 

The University of Southern California is scattered throughout the city of 
Los Angeles, each department being on the site most advantageous for its 
work. The College of Law is situated near the Court House and large County 
Law Library. Fine Arts revels in the beauties of the Arroyo Seco in Garvanza. 
Medicine enjoys the advantage of the Angelus Hospital Clinic, one of the 
largest and best equipped in the West. The colleges of Dentistry and Music 
also are situated in opposite parts of the city. The University Campus 
proper, the gathering place of all the "Varsity Spirit," is in the southwestern 
part, within a block of l^xposition Park, where many of the famous exhibits of 
the world are displayed. Here are situated the Colleges of Liberal Arts, 
Pharmacy, Engineering, Theology, and Oratory, occupying, with the athletic 
field, gymnasium, and training quarters, a tract two large blocks square. 

The Liberal Arts building tvpifies the spirit of California. It is a gray 
plaster edifice, fast covering with vines, and surrounded by green lawns 
shaded with large trees. To the south there is a section planted entirely with 
California poppies, and in the spring this is one mass of golden bloom. 

The university was incorporated as a Methodist Episcopal Institution in 
1880. The policy of the trustees, however, so limited the lield of activities 
that financial difficulties rose, and it did not come into prominence in the 
educational world until 1900. when endowments were secured, the faculty was 
increased, and new departments added. Fhe policy of the administration has 
continually broadened, until now it is practically a nonsectarian institution. 
In 1910 the graduate school was given a signal honor by being recognized as 
on a par with similar schools of Stanford and the University of California. 
In this year also the State Board of Education accorded the privilege to the 
university of granting the State High School Teachers' Certificate to gradu- 
ate members. At present there are plans for a two million dollar endowment 
fund to be raised, and in case this is accomplished. University of Southern 
California will have a new campus, dormitories, and buildings. 

There are thirteen national men's fraternities in the university, and seven 
locals. 2 X was founded in 1889; * (local), in 1897; $ A (local), in 
1898; a>N A (local), in 1906; 2T (local), in 1910; K^ T (local), in 1912; 
Z K E (local), in 1912; A B T (local), in 1916; A X, in 1910; * P 2, in 
1896; 4>X, in 1910; A K K, in 1913: * A X, in 1907; * fi, in 1904; A 2 A, in 
1906; H*«I>, in 1914; TK A, in 1915; 2 I X, in 1916;^ A $, in 1907; $ A A, 
in 1911; and A $, in 1912. The honorary debating fraternity, A 2 P, 
was installed in 1915. 

Of the ten women's fraternities, five are local. A P (local) was estab- 
lished in 1895 : A X n. in 1895 : Entre Nous f local), in 1895 : B ^ (local), 
in 1902; Z T A. in 1910; $ M. in 1915; T * (local), in 1916; A T (local 
Fine Arts), in 1915; 4> A A. in I'M! : and X 2 ^. in H)14. Panhellenic: 

76 Till-; Hisi()R\ OF ,\lpha C"hi Omega Fraihrxity 

was organized in 1906 through the efforts of A X i7, then the only national 
fraternity. 'I'hrough their efforts, however, National Panhellenic rules have 
heen followed, and many of the difTiculties arising from so many local chap- 
ters have heen overcome. There have heen manv prohlems arising from this 
situation to he solved ; hut the gradual increase of nationals has lessened this 
considerahly. The Panhellenic organization has done much in coopera- 
tion with the Y. W. C. A. in charity work, and hy giving monthly candy 
sales sufficient money has heen realized to aid considerably a number of poor 
families of the city. In past years it has been the custom for the fra- 
ternity women to meet once a month at the various houses and sew for 
charity while discussing university problems. This has been supplanted this 
year by exchange dinners, when the girls of two fraternities meet once a month 
round the dinner table. This has brought the girls of the different frater- 
nities in closer touch with one another, and has been instrumental in bring- 
ing about a more harmonious feeling in Panhellenic. This vear, through 
their efforts, the administration of the university has recognized dancing as 
legitimate in the fraternity houses, and has appointed a competent dean of 
w^omen to chaperon these aft'airs. 

The University of Southern California has been noted in the Southwest 
as the Alma Mater of some of the brilliant professional and business men. 
Dr. Stabler of the College of Pharmacy has brought fame to the campus by 
his discovery of the bleaching process of walnuts, and also the means of 
transforming California oil into gasoline and distillate. The Spanish Depart- 
ment is growing rapidlv. and many of the recent missionaries for the South 
American fields have been trained in this institution. In the eastern states 
the university has been brought into prominence by our athletes, two of 
whom, Fred Kelly and Howard Drew, won the Olympic championships in 
1912. Both hold world records in their events, the 120-yard high hurdles, 
and 100 and 200-yard dashes. Track has been the varsity's strong point, and 
many of the coast records are held by University of Southern California 

( )f college and university customs there are many which are dear to the 
hearts of all the students. The duck pond and the hose stand above every 
freshman's head, and he follows steadfastly the ways of his predecessors. 
No "Frosh" can "queen" on the front steps or in the windows of the Liberal 
Arts Building. Every freshman man must be on hand to sweep the bleachers 
before the big games, and it is his duty also to gather the wood for the 
big bonfire for the rally before the California football game, when all 
underclassmen turn out for the annual "pajamarino." 

The first class event of the college year is the freshman-sophomore color 
rush, when the entering class tries to bring down the second year colors from 
the top of a greased pole, and tramp them in the dust. Then on Halloween 
comes the university party, when everybody is introduced into the mystic 
regions of the gymnasium, where the ghosts reign for that one night. The 
May Festival is another of the larger affairs of the college year. This is 
held under the trees of the campus, where the queen and her court are 

CoLLKCEs IN ^^'HICI^ Ai.i'iiA Cui Omk(3a Has Chapters 77 

entertained by the folk, dances of every country, given by the gymnasium 
classes in costume. 

The juniors first appear in jirominencc when they present the junior 
play, usually about the first of December. Then in tlie spring they have 
the Junior Circus, which has been very cleverly handled. The proceeds 
from these performances are used for the El Rodeo, the university yearbook, 
which is })ublished by that class. 

During the commencement week there is one day which is characteristic 
of the institution, on which the seniors hand down the traditions of the 
uni\-L'rsitv and class to the juniors, to be guarded by them during the coming 
vear. Then the two classes "burv the hatchet" from then on, and the two 
presidents smoke the pipe of peace. The "mystery bag," the contents of which 
no one knows, or ever will, is given for the juniors' safe-keeping, as well as 
the "dog-on-button." This is a small brass dog mounted on a silver pin, 
which goes to seniors during the year who are able to make a professor 
laugh out loud in the presence of another senior — no easy task to accom- 
plish. After these ceremonies the senior class plants some ivy around the 
Liberal Arts Building, symbolic of the class growth, but still clinging to 
the Alma Mater. From this the day takes its name of Ivy Day. 

The Lottie Lane Prize of the University of Southern California was estab- 
lished by Mrs. Charlotte A. Thompson as a memorial to her deceased daughter. 
The prize is an elaborate gold medal, and is to be presented each year at 
commencement to that member of the graduating class who shall have 
maintained the highest general scholarship throughout the whole college 
course. Students w-ho have taken more than four academic years to complete 
the course, and those who have received credit for work done elsewhere than 
in this university, are not eligible for this prize. Kpsilon was very proud 
indeed to have this medal awarded to Lucy Adams in 1915. 

Last, but far from least, is the hymn to Alma Mater. No game is won 
or lost, or no "jolly-up" complete without praise being sung to her who 
made all these traditions possible — 

"Our Own Dear U. S. C." 
Alma Mater of the University oe Southern Camfornia 
'Mid storied lands our college stands 
'Mid scenes oft traced in dreaming. 
Where golden sands with golden fruit 
And golden grain are teeming. 
But ne'er a spot though seeming fair, 
On mountain, shore, or lea. 
In keeping has such memories as 
The halls of U. S. C. 

We dwell "neath ever sunny skies, 
'Mid flowers ever springing, 
Where pleasing verdure never dies, 
And birds are always singing, 

78 The Hisiokv uk Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

'Mid whispers of eternal seas, 
That ever shall endure — 
Oh, U. S. C, our love for thee 
Unchanging is, and sure. 

Oh, dear old school, thy classrooms are 

To us new worlds revealing ; 

Thy rallying times have sent new life 

Into our being stealing; 

Thy ties have bound us each to each, 

And brightened all our days, 

And life means more, a boundless store, 

Since we have trod thy ways. 

And when the restless, hopeful years 

To other scenes may woo us. 

And joys and struggles of these years 

Are but a memory to us, 

Amid life's disappointing cares 

Our hearts will turn to thee. 

And for thy sake fresh courage take, 

Our own dear U. S. C. 

New England Conservatory of Music (Zeta) 

The New England Conservatory of Music, incorporated in 1870 by a 
special Act of the Legislature of the State of Massachusetts, claims 1853 
as the date of its origin, since in that year its founder. Dr. Eben Tourjee, 
introduced into America the conservatory system of musical instruction. 
In the year 1882, the growing needs of the institution led to the purchase 
of an estate on Franklin Square, which it occupied until the close of the 
school year 1901-02, when it became necessary to seek more ample accom- 
modation. With the opening of the school year 1902-1903, the Conserva- 
tory took possession of its new building on Huntington Avenue, corner of 
Gainsborough Street. 

This building is constructed on the most approved modern plans, is 
fireproof, and is especially adapted to the needs of a school of music. The 
material used in the exterior construction is steel-gray brick and Indiana 
limestone. On the first floor are the business offices, reception rooms, a few 
classrooms, the music store, and two auditoriums. The basement contains 
additional classrooms, the printing-room, and electric plant. 

The larger auditorium, Jordan Hall, is the gift of Mr. Eben D. Jordan, 
President of the Board of Trustees. It has a seating capacity of over one 
thousand, and its acoustic properties are universally recognized as excep- 
tionally fine. The equipment of the hall includes a fine concert organ and a 
large stage, especially adapted to orchestral and choral concerts and to 

Colleges ix ^\'HIL■H Alpha Cm Omega Has Chapters 79 

operatic performances. Here the conservatory orchestral and choral con- 
certs and the recitals of the faculty and advanced students are given. The 
hall is also frequently used by visiting artists for their public concerts. 
Among the many who have recently appeared here are Messrs. Busoni, Josef 
Hofmann, de Pachmann, Harold Bauer, l^rnest Schelling, Lhevinne, Kreisler. 
Thiebaut, Zimbalist, Bispham, Clement, and Slezak; Mmes. Teresa Carreno, 
Katherine Goodson, Misses Elena (jerhardt. Maggie Teyte, Julia Culp, and 
Kathleen Parlow ; Mr. and Mrs. Anton Witek, the Flonzaley Quartet, the 
Longy Club, the Cecilia Society, and the Apollo Club. 

The smaller auditorium, seating over four hundred, is used for lectures 
and pupils' recitals and for the dramatic and opera departments ; also as 
an assembly hall for social purposes. 

The second floor of the building contains the musical library and a 
large number of classrooms. The third floor is devoted to classrooms and 
to the organ department, for which the Conservatory provides unequalled 

Ten two-manual pipe-organs are installed in the practice-rooms for the use 
of the pupils in the organ department. Two large three-manual organs 
and one with two manuals are placed in the organ teaching rooms. With the 
large concert organ in Jordan Hall there are fourteen pipeorgans in use 
in the Conservatory. In the possession of such facilities for organ practice 
the Conservatory stands alone in the world. 

The Conservatory building is situated on Huntington Avenue, at the 
corner of Gainsborough Street, extending in the rear to St. Botolph Street. 
The main entrance is on Huntington Avenue, and there are also entrances on 
Gainsborough Street and St. Botolph Street. The building is directly in the 
art center of Boston, being located one block west of Symphony Hall and 
within a short walking distance of the Public Library, the Art Museum, 
the Boston ( )pera House, and other public buildings of iiUerest. Street- 
car lines connecting with the various railway stations and other parts of the 
city pass the building. 

It is primarily the aim of the New England Conservatory of Music to 
educate pupils who desire to make a serious study of music with a view to 
a professional career in some branch of the art. The art of music is so 
complex and its mastery so difficult, that it is not to be acquired by the study 
of one of its branches alone. The Conservatory, therefore, so arranges its 
curriculum that all pupils in its regular course who are studying to be 
teachers, singers, or performers on any instrument, shall pursue those 
theoretical branches which are most necessary in their particular 
together with their general instrumental or vocal practice. The Conservatory 
endeavors not onlv to give the pupil instruction ( theoretical and practical ) 
by the most able teachers and modern methods, but to surround him with a 
musical atmosjiliere which shall be at once a stimulus and a discipline; also to 
afl'ord him opportunities for teaching and for ]iublic ])erformance which 
cannot otherwise be obtained. 

80 The History of Alpha Chi Ome(;a Fraternity 

The Yocal and instrumental lessons of the school are given either 
privately or in classes of three (in the Elementary Grade only, in classes 
of four) ; the theoretical work (dictation, harmony, sight-plaving, etc.) is 
taught in larger classes. 

The regular course in all departments is divided into three grades: 
Elementary, Intermediate, and Advanced. 

University of Michioan (Theta) 

The campus proper of the University of Michigan comprises forty acres 
of land in the heart of the city of Ann Arbor, upon which are situated 
twenty buildings. Thirty-three other buildings occupy sites adjacent to 
the campus. Among the other properties of the universitv are the fol- 
lowing : Ferry Field, the men's athletic ground ; Palmer Field, the women's 
athletic grounds ; a ninety-acre arboretum and garden along the Huron 
River ; the Saginaw Forestry Farm, eighty acres of land one mile west of 
Ann Arbor ; and the Bogardus Engineering Camp and Biological Station, 
a tract of land including two thousand two hundred acres, in Cheboygan 
County, seventeen miles south of the Straits of Mackinac. Among the note- 
worthy buildings recently erected on the campus proper are Hill Auditorium, 
the Natural Science Building, the Chemistry and Pharmacy Buildings, and 
the Martha Cook and Newberry dormitories for women. 

The University of Michigan was founded in 1837 as the first state 
institution of any importance in the field of education. It is composed of 
nine departments : The College of Literature, Science, and the Arts ; the 
Colleges of Engineering and Architecture; the Law School; the Medical 
School; the Dental College; the College of Pharmacy; the Homeopathic 
Medical School ; the School of Nursing ; and the Ciraduate School. The 
total number of students enrolled during the year 1915-1916 was 7,214 
including the summer session registration. 

The men's fraternities and the date of their establishment at the Uni- 
versity of Michigan are as follows: X •*, 1845; A A $, 1846; A K E, 
1855 ; 2 '$, 1858 ; Z *, 1858 ; ^ Y, 1865 ; B @ n, 1845, reestablished, 1867 
$ K *, 1875; A Y, 1876; 2 X, 1877; ATA, 1874, reestablished, 1880 
$ A '©, 1864, reestablished, 1887; 2 A E, 1888; A X, 1889; A X, 1892 
K 2, 1892, reestablished, 1902; 2 N, 1902; $ T A, 1885, reestablished 
1902; Sinfonia, 1902; A T Q, 1888, reestablished, 1904; Acacia, 1904 
$ K 2, 1905; A 2 $, 1908; Z B T, 1912; 2 $ E, 1912; KB*, 1912 
A X A, 1913; $ X A, 1913; $ 2 K, 1915; A 4> A, 1909. 

The women's fraternities and the date of their establishment at the Uni- 
versity of Michigan are as follows: T $ B, 1882; A T, 1885; Sorosis, 
1886; n B $, 1888; K K T, 1890; A E I, 1890; A $, 1892 ; K A €), 1897, 
reestablished, 1893; A X O, 1898; M 4) E (Musical), 1904; X n, 1905; 
Westminster House, 1909; © ^ A, 1912; AAA, 1915. 

A local Panhellenic Association was established at Michigan in 1904 
through the efforts of members of K A © and T * B in particular. 
n $, an honorary society for rhetoric and sociology students, included, 

Colleges in Which Ammia ("hi ().mk(;a Has Chai'ikrs 81 

pre\'ious to 1902, four sororities, and was tlie only grouping of women's 
fraternities on the caminis. In 1902 the menil)ers recognized the inefficiency 
of such a limited number ami the society ceased to exist. In 1904 through 
the eflForts of some of tlie same girls the local Panhellenic Association, or 
Intersorority Association, as it is called, was organized, and now includes 
eleven fraternities: r ^ B. K A 0, A r, K K T, II B <I>, X O, 4> A, 
Sorosis, A <>, A A A, and A X 12. The presence of two local organizations 
in the association, however, make it slightly different from the regular 
local Panhellenic societies. It has been distinctly recognized that the Asso- 
ciation has aided in l)uilding up the splendid democratic spirit which now 
exists both between fraternities and between fraternities and nonfraternity 
girls. It has made rushing a much simpler and inexpensive affair in late years, 
and the common rules for all help to bind the chapters together. Many times 
opinions upon collegiate questions have been quickly and forcefully expressed 
by this body, thus making the fraternities take a more active part in 
university work. In former years the Association gave several social affairs 
each year, but they have been discontinued because there were already such 
a host of social events on the campus. The members have aided in various 
philanthropic movements and have supported all efforts to improve condi- 
tions for Michigan students. At the present time, one of Theta's girls, 
Josephine Randall, is president of the Intersorority Association. 

The University of Michigan is noted for its School of Law and its 
Medical and Engineering Colleges. P^verywhere on the campus there is an 
atmosphere of democracy which is emphasized and felt on the athletic field, 
in the classroom, and in the general make-up of the student body. In the 
process of construction is the $1,000,000 Michigan Union Building and the 
$75,000 Y. M. C. A. Building, both of which will help more than any- 
thing else to further this feeling in the future. Through the efforts of the 
Michigan Union officials, in conjunction with the faculty and the Student 
Council, many events that make college vears enjoyable are held, such as: 
the .spring contests between freshmen and sophomores, including the Tug of 
War. the Pushball Contest, and the Relay Races; Cap Night, when the 
freshmen throw their caps in the bonfire and traditionally become sopho- 
mores ; the Regatta on the Huron; the I nion Opera; the Senior Swing-out, 
and the convocations of faculty and students. Caps and toques designating 
the respective class and department are worn by the men students, gray 
representing the freshman class; red the sophomore; white the junior; and 
blue the senior. Many of the women's activities are looked after by the 
Women's League, and the junior and senior girls' plays are the most note- 
worthy achievements of the women along dramatic lines. The University 
V. M. C. A. and Y. W. C. A. are especially active, and each year raise 
among the students a sum of $4,000 for the support of a medical missionary 
and hospital in Buzrah, Arabia. 

82 Thl; Hisr()R\ ok Alpha Chi Omkc.a Fraterxitv 

University of Illinois (Iota) 

The location of the University of Illinois is in Champaign County, 
Illinois, 126 miles south of Chicago. The campus is just within limits of the 
City of Urbana and is bounded on the west by the City of Champaign. 
The land occupied by the university is 235 acres, besides an 865 acre farm. 
There are 95 buildings on the campus. 

The university was incorporated February 28, 1869, with the name of 
Illinois Industrial University under the control of a Board of Trustees. 
Dr. John Milton Gregory was appointed first regent of the university and he 
served until 1880. University opened March 2. 1868, with fifty students 
and a faculty consisting of tlie regent and two professors. In March. 1870, 
women were admitted. In 1870-71 twenty-four were enrolled. The univer- 
sity was given permission by the Legislature to confer degrees in 1879. 
The name of the institution was changed in 1885 to University of Illinois. 
The present enrolment is 6,427 — 4,973 men, 1,459 women. There are 
thirteen colleges in the university. 

Lorado Taft, sculptor; I. J. Burrill, professor emeritus, noted scientist; 
Edmund Janes James, President of University, are great names connected 
with the institution. 

The University of Illinois has two full military regiments, under the 
direction of a United States army officer. This is the largest student military 
post in the United States. Military training for the men is compulsory 
for two years. The Regimental Band of the University of Illinois numbers 
two hundred pieces and is by reputation the best student band in the world 
and one of the best bands in the United States. The athletics has alw^ays been 
a prominent feature in student affairs. Especially is the university noted for 
championship baseball, football, and basketball teams. The institution is 
very democratic and is distinguished from others only in its size and its 

The local Panhellenic Council consists of two delegates from each national 
woman's fraternity, one of whom, at least, is an upperclassman. This 
council meets once a month, and during rushing season once a week. Routine 
in office is determined bv the date of establishment of fraternities in the 

The purpose of the council is to fix pledge day. regulate rules for rush- 
ing, to promote better feeling among fraternities, to cooperate with university 

Men's fraternities: ATA, 1872; 2 X, 1881; .K 2, 1891; * K 2, 1892; 
<^ A ®, 1893; A T CI, 1895; 4> T A, 1897; 2 A E, 1899; B © n, 1902; 
2 N, 1902; * K ^, 1904; A K E, 1904; Acacia, 1906; A Y, 1905; ® A X, 
1908; 2 n, 1908; A 2 $, 1908; Z ^, 1909; ^ 2 K, 1910; * Y, 1910; 
A A<l>, 1912; TKE, 1912; $ K, 1912; X $, 1912; X*. 1912 ; Z B T, 1912; 
AX A, 1915; B $, 1915. 

Women's fraternities : K A ®, 1895 ; H B $, 1895 ; K K r, 1899 ; A X fi, 
1899; X n. 1900; A A, 1905; 2 K, 1906; A T. 1911 ; A O n, 1911 ; Achoth, 
1911 ; A A n, 1912; T $ B, 1913. 

COLI.KGKS IN W'hIlH AllMIA (ill ()MKi;a Has ("llAl'IKRS 83 

UxivERsnv OF Wisconsin (Kappa) 

The University of Wisconsin is located in the southern part of the 
state, at Madison. The university grounds, comprising 250 acres, are 
picturesquely situated along Lake Mendota. Most of the buildings are placed 
on the summit and slopes of University Hill, which rises about one hundred 
feet above the lake. The western portion of the grounds is more nearly 
level and is occupied by the experimental farm connected with the College 
of Agriculture. What is known as Lower Campus is a small tract to the 
east of the main hill, on a portion of which the state historical library, 
which houses the university library as well, stands. The athletic field, 
Camp Randall, contains forty-two acres, and in addition to these there is a 
farm of 160 acres used by the College of Agriculture. Twenty buildings 
are used for instructional purposes^ — many of them noted for their archi- 
tectural beauty. Two open-air theatres are now in the process of construc- 
tion, which promise to add to the beauty of the whole. 

In 1848 the Constitution of Wisconsin provided for the establishment 
of a state university at the state capital. In 1849 the Board of Regents 
began the work of organization. A preparatory school was opened in 
1849 under the direction of Professor Sterling. In 1850, Chancellor 
Lathrop, a graduate of Yale, was inaugurated. The first building (North 
Hall) was completed in 1851. Four years from that time South Hall was 
completed, and in 1861 Main Hall was ready for use. From 1859-60, 
Henry Barnard served as president. The legislature of 1866 reorganized 
the university and provided for and united with it the College of Agri- 
culture. In 1866, Dr. Paul Chadbourne was chosen president. In 1867, 
the legislature made the first annual appropriation for the support of the 
university, and since that time has responded liberally to its needs. The 
College of Law was established in 1868; the College of Engineering in 
1870; the School of Pharmacy in 1883; the School of Economics, Political 
Science, and Historv in 1892 ; the School of Education in 1897 ; and the 
School of Commerce in 1900. Following Dr. Chadbourne. came Presidents 
Twombly, John Bascom. T. C. Chamberlin, Charles Kendall Adams, 
Edward A. Birge. and Charles R. Van Hise. 

The following are the principal professors of prominence connected 
with the University of Wisconsin: Mr. C. R. Van Hise, president of the 
University and a noted geologist; Dean E. A. Birge, noted biologist and 
writer and inventor of biological things; Professor M. V. O'Shea. one of the 
greatest authorities in an educational line, and the author of several educa- 
tional books; Professor B. W. Snow, well-known physicist; Professor L. H. 
Dickinson, well known in the dramatic line ; Professor W. L. Westerman, 
author of Westerman's History of ]]^estrni Europe; Professor W. E. 
Leonard, lyric poet; Professor S. M. Babcock, inventor of the Babcock 
"Milk Test"; Professor W. T. Frost, bacteriologist; Professor L. 
Kahlenberg. well-known chemist and author of Kahlenberg's Textbook on 
Chemistry ; Professor E. B. Van Vleck, an authority on mathematics; Pro- 
fessor E. A. Ross, one of America's greatest sociologists ; Professor M. F. 

84 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

(niver. authority on hercditv and eugenics, and author of Being ]]'cU Born. 

Men's fraternities which have chapters at Wisconsin are twenty-three : 
$ A 0, 1857: B n. 1873; 4) K *. 1875; X ^, 1878; 2 X, 1884; A Y, 
1885-; ATA, 1888; $rA, 1893; A X, 1895; * Y, 1896; K 2, 1898; $ K 2, 
1901 ; 2 N, 1902 ; A A <l>, 1902 ; 2 A E, 1903 ; A K E, 1906 ; Acacia, 1906 ; 
A T a 1907; 2 $, 1908; K $ r (local), 1908; A 2 ^. 1909; Z *, 1910; 
X $, 1916. 

Women's fraternities at Wisconsin are: K K T, 1875 ; A V. 1880; T $ B, 
1885; K A 0, 1890; n B $, 1894; A $, 1896; AAA, 1898; X Q, 1902; 
A X n, 1903; A E A, 1904; A T A, 1905 ; Achoth (Eastern Star), 1915. 

Several dramatic productions are given each year. The two dramatic 
societies. Red Domino and Edwin Booth, combine their efforts and give one 
production a year. Then there are the class plays, the Haresfoot Club play, 
and the men's glee club concert. The junior class play is usually given the 
night before junior prom, the big social event of the year, and the senior 
class play is given at commencement time. Haresfoot, a club composed 
of men, presents a musical comedy, all the parts of which are taken by men. 
Both Haresfoot and the men's glee club take trips over the state. 

Wisconsin's junior prom is the large social event of the year to which 
nearly every Wisconsin coed looks forward with great anticipation. It is 
usually held in the large university gymnasium which is beautifully decorated 
for the occasion, and the best of dance music is provided. Each fraternity 
has a so-called box provided with comfortable chairs where the guests may 
sit between dances. In 1915, however, it was held in the splendid new 
State Capitol. 

Wisconsin has a good student band. Last summer it went on a western 
tour and played in many western cities, as well as at' the San Francisco 
Exposition. All men students are compelled to take military drill for 
two years, and each vear there is a sham liattle and government inspection 
of the troops. There is also a military ball every winter. 

Mortar Board is the senior women's honorary society which has. a three- 
fold purpose: to stimulate scholarship, to further interest in worthy endeavor, 
and to increase college activities. The members are chosen at the end of 
the junior, and the beginning of the senior years from those women of the 
university Avho rank highest in service, womanliness, and scholarship. The 
men's honorary society which corresponds to Mortar Board is Iron Cross. 

The May F^te is the event of the spring. There are the May-pole dance, 
various folk-dances, and solo dances, all of which are done by the coeds, but 
especially by the freshmen and sophomores. In the evening of the day of the 
May Fete they have what is called Venetian night, when there are fireworks, 
music, and illuminated floats on Lake Mendota. 

Not every college has the opportunity to have a crew as Wisconsin does, 
and although there has been no university crew for the last few years, the 
class crews are still in existence, and next fall there are hopes of having 
women's crews. 

Colleges in Which Alpha Chi Omk(;a Has Chaiters 85 

Syracuse University (Lamhda) 

Syracuse is the central city of the lunpire State and is approached from all 
directions by great railways. It is a beautiful city and rated in the census as 
one of the most healthful in the land. The university is situated on the 
heights in the southeastern part of the city, overlooking Onondago Lake and 
the Valley. The location is unsurpassed for its beauty of scenery. 

Syracuse University founded in 1870, is, in its academic department a 
continuation of Genesee College, which was at Lima, New York, from 1849 to 
1871; and, in its medical department, of (ieneva Medical College (1835- 
1872). The university was originally Methodist Episcopal, but is now 
undenominational. There are eight colleges : Liberal Arts, Fine Arts, Medi- 
cine, Law, Applied Science, Teachers, New York State College of Forestry, 
and the College of Agriculture. The graduate school gives opportunity to 
pursue work for advanced degrees. There are also The Library School, The 
School of Oratory, The Summer School, and The Training School for Nurses. 
All of the colleges and schools are open to both sexes. The total enrolment of 
students in the university is about 4,000. 

Some great personages connected with the university are : James Roscoe 
Day, chancellor ; John D. Archbold, president of the Board of Trustees, and 
donator of Stadium and Gymnasium; William H. Mace, professor of history, 
and author; William H. Berwald, professor of piano, and composer; Mrs. 
Russell Sage, donator of Teachers' College and College of Agriculture ; 
J. Fred Baker, professor of forestry. 

Men's fraternities at Syracuse are: A K E, 1871 ; A Y, 1873 ; Z *, 1875 ; 
* Y, 1875 ; <^ K ^, 1884 ; $ A 0. 1887 ; B ® n, 1889 ; «l» T A, 1901 ; 2 X, 
1904 ; A X P, 1905 ; 2 $ E, 1906 ; 2 N, 1906 ; K 2, 1906 ; 2 A E, 1906 ; A, 
1909 ; A T A, 1910; Acacia, 1911 ; Z B T, 191 1 ; 2 B, 1911 ; H K A, 1913; 
^ X A, 1913; 2 AM, 1913. 

The women's fraternities are: A <I>, 1872; T $ B, 1874; K K T, 1883; 
K A 0, 1889; n B 4>, 1896; AAA, 1896; A T, 1901 ; A H A, 1904; ATA, 
1904; 2K, 1905; M <J> E, 1905 ; A X Q. 1906; X fi, 1911 ; A O n, 1914. 

Local Panhellenic was founded in Syracuse in 1902. The association met, 
during its early history, once a year, to fix the date of pledge day. At present, 
five meetings are held during the year. Panhellenic became more progressive 
in Syracuse than it ever had been before, in 1913, under the work and influ- 
ence of Bernice Taylor, Alpha Chi Omega delegate. The following year 
Emma Skifif, Alpha Chi Omega, was president. Panliellenic is presided over 
in turn i)y each fraternity in the order of its establishment in Syracuse. The 
association requires three delegates from each chapter of the national frater- 
nities, one alumna, one senior, and one lowerclassman. Rules are made and 
enforced regarding pledge day and rushing. A schedule of interfraternity 
dinners is to be put in force next year (1916-17), whereby each fraternity 
sends a representative to another fraternity for dinner. 

Syracuse University is noteworthy for the large number of students it has 
sent to foreign fields, for its splendid school of music, and for it5 rccentlv 

86 1'he History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

organized schools of Forestry and Oratory. In athletics Syracuse ranks very 
high, holding one of the highest places among the colleges of the country. 

"First chapel" is an institution in our university. J^W students assemble 
this first morning of the college year and are addressed by Chancellor Day. 
Following first chapel is the annual salt rush between the freshmen and 
sophomores. Later the same classes engage in a lively encounter called the 
flour ru-sh. Throughout the year, rushes take place. Moving-up Day is the 
most exciting time of the whole year. All the classes move up amid much 
speech making and festivity which ends with a dance at night. Women's Day 
is another big event. It begins with a May Morning Breakfast held out of 
doors. All the morning is given over to tennis and track meets, and the after- 
noon to a beautiful pageant. 

Simpson College (Mu) 

In 1854, the citizens of Indianola erected a small school building, two 
blocks east of the square. This was both a public and a private school. In 
1860 the Western Iowa Conference adopted the Indianola Seminary as the 
conference seminary. "Old Blue Bird," at a cost of $4,300, was erected dur- 
ing the following year. It was called "The Des Moines Conference Male and 
Female Seminary." In 1867, the conference raised the school to the college 
grade and it was called "Simpson Centenary College," in honor of Bishop 
Matthew Simpson and of the centennial of American Methodism, which 
occurred that year. Various noble and worthy men have served as presidents, 
and the college has prospered in spite of times of depression. Its growth 
during the last four years may be shown by the fact that a fine new gymna- 
sium, the gift of Mr. Harry E. Hopper, costing $95,000 has been added to the 
equipment ; through the addition of several new chairs, and in the addition of 
$300,000 to endowment and equipment. 

Simpson College is located at Indianola, Iowa, about twenty miles south 
of Des Moines. Six trains a day each way make it easy of access via that 
city. The campus comprises about ten acres, shaded by many venerable, tradi- 
tional maples. Directly north of the campus is the Buxton Park, which aids 
a great deal in beautifying the campus and surroundings. There are eight 
buildings and a central heating plant. The gymnasium is situated directly 
facing the campus. The building of the Conservatory of Music is at the 
very northeast corner of the campus. The other college buildings are situ- 
ated at intervals facing the south. A large gateway, directly in front of the 
main building, and much shrubbery, gifts of classes, help in making the 
college campus the most attractive and beautiful part of the town. 

The following women's fraternities are represented : A A A, established 
1889; n B <I), established 1874; A X fi, established 1907. 

The men's fraternities are: A T fi, established 1885; K * (local), 
established 1902. 

The local Panhellenic is formed by the president of each fraternity, one 
other member from each fraternity, and one alumna." member from each fra- 
ternity. The purpose of this Panhellenic is to take up all matters concerning 

Colleges in Which Alpha Chi Omega Has Chapters 87 

all fraternities, as the scholarship standard for pledging, the date for pledg- 
ing of upperclassmen. and to enforce justice and fairness from all fraternities 
in regard to rushing and similar matters. Alpha Chi Omega in Simpson 
College ha!s always stood for honorable actioiL high scholarship, and high 
ideals. She has this same record in relation to the Panhellenic. 

University ok Colorado (Nu) 

The University of Colorado is situated in Boulder, about thirty miles 
nortliwest of Denver, the capital and metropolis of Colorado. Boulder is 
surrounded on three siiles b\- the foothills of the glorious Rockies. On the 
other side stretch wide plains, dotted with beautiful lakes, making it a rich 
agricultural district. It is among these surroundings, with the Rockies all 
about, that the university is located. 

Boulder itself is a delightful little city of about 10.000 inhabitants; due to 
the delightful climate, this number is almost doubled during the summer. 

The University of Colorado owes its origin to an act of the first territorial 
legislature of Colorado which became a law through the signature of 
Governor Gilpin in 1861. The site for the University in Boulder was the 
next proposition and this was settled by a gift of fifteen acres of land to the 
east of the city, donated by Mrs. Berkeley and Mrs. Widner. It was not until 
1875 that the trustees of the university were able to obtain enough money to 
erect a building. Ever since the main building was erected, the university 
has progressed. Through gifts and appropriations from the state of Colorado, 
many more buildings have been added and equipped, until now the campus 
is one of the finest for a university of the size and age of Colorado. 

George A. Carlson, the present governor of Colorado, is a graduate of 
the university and remains vitally interested in and connected with it. 

Livingston Farrand, president, has written books about the North Ameri- 
can Indians, and allied subjects in anthropology. 

Professor Lory, an alumnus,, is president of the State Agricultural College. 

Doctor Cockerel and Dean Hellems. both of the faculty, are prominent 
outside of their college work. 

In the University of Colorado there are twelve men's fraternities and 
seven women's fraternities: A X Q. 1907 : A A n. 1914 : X n, 1906 ; A A A. 
1910; A r, 1887 ; K K T, 1901 ; n B 4), 1884. 

The men's fraternities are: A T fi. 1901 : A 2 *, 1915; B n, 1900: 
ATA. 1883: K 2. 1916: $ A 0, 1902 ; ^ T A. 1912 : * K ^. 1914 : :^ X. 
1914; 2 N, 1902 : 2 * E, 1904: 2 A E. 1891. 

The local Panhellenic was established in the University of Colorado in 
1910, and since that time has grown and become a very efficient association. 

The Panhellenic Association is composed of three delegates from each 
chapter of the national fraternities in the University. One delegate is to be 
an alumna, another a senior, and the third a lowerclassman. They are elected 
by their chapters to .serve one college year. The dean of women is also a mem- 

88 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Meetings are held once a month. The ofifice of chairman is filled bv the 
senior delegates from each fraternity in the order of their establishment in the 

The purposes of this organization are to regulate the rules of rushing, to 
fix the date of pledge day, to cooperate with the university authorities and 
organizations in matters of general interest, and to regulate other matters of 
local Panhellenic interest. Connected with this organization is what is known 
to us as the "Penalty Board" composed of faculty members with the dean of 
women as chairman. All violations of the Rushing Contract are reported to 
the chairman and are punished according to the rules. Some of the penalties 
are the loss of the privilege of the fraternity to bid a girl for a certain 
length of time, or the forfeiture of one or two dances. 

All complaints made must be given to the dean in written form, and it is 
considered verv dishonorable for any fraternity to accuse another of unfair- 
ness in rushing unless the complaint is handed in writing to the Board of 
Penalties. These rules and regulations, which are among those found in the 
Constitution of the Panhellenic Association of the University of Colorado, 
make the organization and its work definite. \\'ith these rules it is carried on 
very smoothly and easily, and has proved to be a great benefit and success in 
the university. 

University of Nebraska (Xi) 

"Little they knew what wealth untold 

Lay hid where the desolate prairies rolled ; 
Who would have dared, with brush or pen. 
As this land is now, to paint it then?" 

It was the pioneer spirit which inspired the early settlers of this glorious 
State to reclaim the land and make it most fruitful, and to build substantial 
homes. It also inspired them to plan one of the best educational systems in 
the country. 

The University of Nebraska was founded by an act of the Nebraska 
Legislature, effective February 15, 1869, two years after the Territory became 
a State. The subsequent new Constitution of 1875 recognized the university 
as thus established and placed it imder the general control of an elective 
board of six regents. 

The grounds and l)uildings of the L'niversity of Nebraska are distributed 
among three groups : ( 1 ) The original campus, situated in the capital city 
of Lincoln, with its main entrance at Eleventh and R Streets, and contain- 
ing seventeen buildings, devoted to Academic, Law, Pharmaceutical, and 
Engineering instruction; (2) the University Farm, of three hundred twenty 
acres, two and a half miles northeast of the original campus, containing ten 
buildings, devoted to instruction in Agriculture and Home Economics; (3) 
the Medical College building in Omaha at Forty-second and Dewey Avenue. 
Adjacent to this campus and on land belonging to the State is the Child 
Saving Institute, the clinical facilities in which are under the control of the 

Colleges in Which Alpha Chi Omega Has Chapters 89 

The revenues of the university are provided for hy a tax of one mill upon 
the assessment roll of the State. In 1913 the State Legislature appropriated 
a three-fourths mill levy for six years for permanent development of the 
university, leaving the location to be determined i)y a vote of the people 
in 1914, at which election it -was voted to extend the present campus. As a 
result, a new Chemistry Building and Botany Building are now under way. 

Bv Statute, the university comprises tlic following colleges and schools: 
The Graduate College, including the Graduate School of Education ; The 
College of Arts and Sciences, including the schools of Fine Arts and Com- 
merce ; The Teachers' College, including the Teachers' College High School; 
The College of Engineering; The College of Agriculture; The College of 
Law; The College of Medicine; and The College of Pharmacy. 

Associated with each department are instructors and professors who have 
given the greater part of their lives to the building up of the university. 
Among these are many who have won national renown. 

Dr. G. W. A. Luckey, dean of the Graduate School of Education and 
head of the Department of Education, is a member of the National Council 
of National Education Association and one of the Nation's foremost educators. 

Samuel Avery, chancellor of the University, is a prominent member of the 
American Chemistry Society and is the author of Exercises in Chemistry. 
He is a popular lecturer on educational topics. 

Dr. Harley Alexander, professor of philosophy, is a noted author on 
philosophical subjects. He was the editor and contributor to Webster's 
Dictionaries, 1903-8, and is the associate editor of the Mid-west Quarterly. 

Professor Howard of the Political Science and Sociology Department is 
an eminent writer. He is the author of Local Constitutional History of the 
United States, contributor of many articles on modem English history and 
biography to Nciv International Encyelopa'dia. 

Dean Sherman of the Graduate College is the author of Analytics of 
Literature, JJ'hat is Shakespeare/ Elements of Literature, and the editor of 
Shakespeare's plays. 

Dean Bessey, who died in 1915, was known world wide as a botanist. He 
was connected with the university from its earliest days and established the 
biological department. 

There are thirty-one fraternities represented at the University of 
Nebraska. Among these, thirteen are national women's fraternities and are 
represented in the local Panhellenic Association. The first move toward such 
a local association was made in December, 1905, when Chancellor Andrews, 
desirous of gaining faculty supervision over the fraternities, established a 
Women's Interfraternity Council. By this organization much was gained in 
interfraternity relations, especially in the matter of scholarship. In 1913. 
however, the Council was abandoned and the present "Women's Panhellenic 
Association of the University of Nebraska" was established. Its purpose is 
"Supervision and regulation of matters of interfraternity interest." It has 
power to regulate house rules, rushing, build up fraternity scholarship, and 
break down the feeling existing between fraternity and non fraternity students. 

90 Thk History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 


While this h:)cal Panhellenic has only been in existence for three years, 
inestimable good has come from it. As a result of its efforts, an enviable 
condition exists between tlie different fraternities at Nebraska, scholarship 
has been improved, bouse rules regulated, and the fraternities have been 
made working factors of good to the college as a whole. 

This year the association has established three scholarship medals to be 
given in September to the freshman, sophomore, and junior girl with the 
highest scholastic average for the year. This means either a fraternity or 
nonfraternity girl. The medal will be in the form of a pin, lavalier, or some- 
thing of this sort which the girls will be glad to wear. 

The University of Nebraska has been favorably known for many years 
for the quality of its work in the training of teachers. The department of 
Education was established in 1895 and in 1914 the Graduate School of 
Education was organized. A distinctive feature in the training of teachers 
is the Teachers' College High School. Here one hundred and fifty youths of 
high-school rank are under the direction of the head of the Department of 
Educational Theory and Practice, a skillful and experienced principal, super- 
visors, and assistant instructors. 

Nebraska, lijce other schools, has its college customs. The first Saturday 
in December it is customary for the men of the university to hold their 
Football Banquet. This same evening, the girls hold a costume party at the 
Armory. At this time all bounds are broken, fraternity and nonfraternity 
girls mix alike and revel in Nebraska spirit and enthusiasm. At different 
times during the year, university "Mixers" are held. These are "all-univer- 
sity" dances held at the Armory with a small admission charge of fifteen 
cents and are under the supervision of the Dean of Women. 

February 15 is known in Nebraska History as "Charter Day" and is 
observed as a holiday and fete day by the students. This, together with Ivy 
Day, constitute the only holidays of the school year, except the regular Christ- 
mas and spring vacations. Ivy Day is celebrated as a big picnic day. The 
whole universitv wends its way to a picnic ground where rowing, dancing, 
etc., are enjoved. At this time the Innocents and Black Masques Societies 
choose from among the crowd the lucky juniors to fill their places the follow- 
ing year in the honorary senior societies. 

The last few weeks of school, crowded as they are, are marked by one big 
day in the senior's life — "Senior Sneak Day." It has become a custom, 
especiallv among fraternities, for each fraternity by hook or crook to find 
out when the ill-fated day is to be and to try in all ways possible to keep 
the plotting seniors at home. 

The men's fraternities at Nebraska are: A 2 ^, A T fi, A © X (local), 
B n, A X, A T A, A Y, K 2, $ A <«), $ r A, ^ K ^, n K <J>, 2 A E, 
2 X, 2 N, 2 $ E, Acacia, Silver Lynx (local). The w'omen's fraternities 
are : A X «, A A n, A O n. A <!). A E A, X Q, A A A, A r, A Z, r $ B, 
K K r, K A ©, n B $. 

Colleges ix Which Alpha Chi Umega Has Chapters 91 

Baker University (Omicron) 

Baker University is the oldest college in Kansas. On February 3, 1858, 
an organization known as the Kansas P^ducational Association of the Metho- 
dist Episcopal Church, was chartered by the Territorial Legislature of 
Kansas, with the privilege of locating an educational institution at or near the 
town of Palmyra, since called Baldwin City. The institution was chartered 
on February 12, 1858, and was named "Baker University," in honor of 
Bishop Osmon C. Baker, who held the first session of the Kansas-Nebraska 
Conference. In November of the same year the work of actual instruction 
was begun, with the Rev. W. R. Davis, D.D., as president, and has since been 
maintained without interruption. 

In attendance and strength of its college department. Baker is among the 
larger colleges of the Middle West. The school, at the present time, repre- 
sents in buildings, equipment, and endowment, an investment of $706,051. 
The support given by the Kansas Conference, in its annual gift to the budget 
of the college, is equal to the income of an additional endowment of about 
$180,000. Within the last two years a campaign for endowment has been 
completed by which pledges amounting to $590,000 were secured. 

While Baker University is not sectarian in its teaching or influence, it 
does believe that the best results are obtained when yoinig men and women 
receive their higher education under positive Christian influences and it 
jnaintains that the ultimate aim of scholarship is well-grounded Christian 

The university is located in Baldwin City, Kansas, on the Lawrence branch 
of the Santa Fe Railroad. The town, which is built around the college 
campus, is situated in the midst of a region remarkable for its beautiful 
scenery and famed in Kansas verse and story. The atmosphere of culture 
which pervades the town, manv of whose residents are connected with the life 
of the college, its conveniences and improvements give it many of the advan- 
tages of the large city without destroying the quiet charm of a smaller town. 
The campus contains about sixteen acres, shaded by trees. The buildings 
are conveniently located and afford facilities for the instruction of six 
hundred students. Among many jirominent persons connected with Baker 
University are Bishop Quayle, ex-Senator Joseph L. Bristow, and Paul Pear- 

Baker University educates many missionaries and ministers. One out- 
standing college custom is the different class organizations. There are four 
organizations, one for each class, as follows: Columbian Commonwealth, 
Senatus Romanus. King Arthur's Court, and House of Hanover. Each 
incoming freshman class takes the name of the outgoing senior class. 

The men's fraternities at Baker University are four: ATA. lOO.i : K 2, 
1903: 2 «I> E. 1910; Z X, 1905. 

The women's fraternities are: AAA. 1S95; -A X Q. 1908; Z T A, 1912; 
K f). organized 1916. 

The Local Panhellenic was fullv established in 1910. 

92 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

University of California (Pi) 

The principal seat of the University of California is located at Berkeley, 
a city of about 60,000 inhabitants, on the eastern shore of San Francisco 
Bay, directly opposite the Golden Gate. It is an hour's ride by train and 
ferry from San Francisco, and forty minutes' ride by electric car from the 
business center of Oakland. The site of the university comprises about five 
hundred and thirty acres, rising at first in gentle, and then in bolder slopes 
from a height of two hundred feet above sea-level to one of thirteen hundred 
feet. The outlook over the Bay and through the Golden Gate is very beauti- 
ful. The campus, itself — its famous Le Conte oaks, its shady walks, its 
fragrant flowers, and white granite buildings — presents a most attractive 
appearance. Besides this main seat, the university owns a farm of seven hun- 
dred and seventy-nine acres in Yolo County, where the School of Agriculture is 
situated. The School of Education conducts the University High School in 
Oakland under the Board of Education there. In the year 1893, the San 
Francisco Institute of Art and the California School of Design became afTfili' 
ated with the university — thus further enlarging it. Besides these, there 
is the New University Hospital and the California College of Pharmacy in 
San Francisco. The university consists of forty-three departments ; the total 
enrolment is 11,188. 

The history of California's organization is a rather complicated one, and 
came as a result of three movements, one originating in private initiative, one 
in state action, and one in federal action. In 1853 Rev. Henry Durant, 
graduate of Yale College, came to San Francisco, with the purpose of found- 
ing a university fully formed in his mind. In the same year under the 
auspices of the Presbytery of San Francisco and the Congregational Society 
of California, Mr. Durant opened the Contra Costa Academy in Oakland. 
In 1855 a college was incorporated under the name of the "College of Cali- 
fornia." The site of the college at first was five miles north of Oakland, but 
in 1867, was moved to Berkeley, where it now remains. As a result of con- 
gressional grants of lands, the college became disincorporated in favor of 
the organization of a State University. From that time it continued to grow 
in size and strength. In 1869 the legislature directed that no admission or 
tuition fees should be charged, and in 1870 that the university should be 
opened to women on terms of equality with men. Until 1887, the university 
depended for its revenue upon income from invested funds, and on biennial 
appropriations by the legislature. In that year the university's income was 
rendered more secure by the provision for an annual levy of an "ad-valorem" 
tax. Beginning in 1891, the university has constantly aimed to extend the 
benefits of its instruction farther and farther beyond its own confines. In 
1896, it decided upon a general building plan for the erection of univer- 
sity buildings. White granite or marble are the required materials. Summer 

Colleges in Which Alpha Chi Omega Has Chapiers 93 

schools in several dcpartiiK-nts were annually held I'ur a number of years up 
to 1899, when work was systematically organized and a summer school of 
general scope began. A marked feature of the summer session, and an 
important element of university policy in that regard, is the presence, as 
lecturers, of leading men from Eastern and European universities. The Con- 
stitution of the State provides for the perpetuation of the university, with all 
its departments. 

Every large university has many important personages connected with it, 
and California is no exception. The question is, who are the most important? 
One of the widest known of California's great men is its president, Benjamin 
Ide Wheeler. Henry Morse Stevens, head of the History Department, is also 
well known. George Malcolm Stratton, noted peace advocate, and one of the 
leading psychologists of the day, teaches at California. Jack London attended 
the university, as did James Hopper, the writer ; Frank Norris, the novelist ; 
and Rupert Brooke the young poet who has recently become famous. Hiram 
Johnson, Governor of the State, and Franklin K. Eane, Secretary of the 
Interior, were both members of the student body at one time, as was the late 
John M. Eshleman, Lieutenant Governor of California. William Randolph 
Hearst, who presented the Greek Theatre to the university, and his mother, 
Mrs. Phoebe A. Hearst, who provided for the erection of the Mining Build- 
ing, and Hearst Hall, are also well known. Mrs. Jane K. Sather provided 
funds for the erection of the Sather Campanile, a bell-tower of white granite 
and marble 302 feet in height, and also for the chimes which are placed in 
the tower. 

The following fraternities are represented in California: Z ^, 1870; 
X $, 1875; A K E, 1876; Ben, 1879; S X, 1886; $ r A, 1886; $ A 0, 
1886 ; 2 N, 1892 ; 2 A E, 1894 ; X ^, 1895 ; K A, 1895 ; A Y, 1896 ; A T A, 
1898; 4) K *, 1899; A T a 1900; © A X, 1900; K X 1901; * Y, 1902; 
^ K 2, 1903 ; Acacia, 1905 ; A A ^, 1908 ; $ 2 K, 1909 ; H K <I>, 1909 ; H, 
1910; 2 $ E, 1910; A X, 1910; H K A, 1912; 2 *, 1912; A 2 4>. 1913; 
2 n, 1913; X, 1913; A X A, 1913; A K A, 1914 ; A 2 ^, 1915. 

The following are women's fraternities: K A 0, 1890; T 4> B, 1894; 
K K r, 1897 ; A A A, 1900 ; n B <l>, 1900 ; A <i>, 1901 ; X fi, 1902 ; A T. 1907 ; 
A O n. 1907 ; A = A, 1909; A X Q, 1909; 2 K, 1910; A A n, 1913; A T A, 
1915 ; Z T A, 1915 ; A Z. 1915. 

About the year 1906, the local brancli of Panhellenic was formed. As the 
fraternities became more numerous, the power of the organization increased 
.and its influence was more strongly felt. The meetings are held on the first 
Wednesday of each month, at four-thirtv in the afternoon, for the purpose 
of regulating all matters pertaining to the fraternities. The A.ssociation has 
been successful in prohibiting mid-week dancing on the campus. Alpha Chi 
Omega sends two delegates to each meeting, one of them an upperclassman 
whose duty it is to report in fraternity meeting matters for deliberation and 
suggestion. Through its delegates the fraternity casts its vote on inii)ortant 

94 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

The uiiiYcrsity is noted partieulaiiy for two traditions. Dramatics play- 
a large part in the college life. With the Greek Theatre among the hills,, 
the natural scenery for outdoor performances, this seems but natural. The- 
two leading dramatic clulis, the English Club and the and Dagger 
Society, present plays during the year ; Treble Clef giYes an annual opera ; and. 
each spring the Partbeneia, a spring festiYal. is produced by the women of 
the uniYersity. California is also noted for its summer session. From 
the latter part of June to the of August, courses of both general and 
special interest are giYcn. The students comprise people from all parts of the- 

Among the many college custonxs of California, there are three which are- 
of particular interest, not only to college students, but to tbe outside world. 
One of these is the Pajamarino Rally, wdiich takes place in the fall. Then- 
the men of California are transformed into grotesque gnomes and witch-folk' 
by_ weird costumes of pajamas, plugs, and sombreros. A huge fire is built 
in the diazoma of the Greek Theatre, and around this gather the men of the- 
four college classes. Stunts are giYcn for amusement and entertainment, and 
talks are made by prominent alumnae and college leaders. One of the most 
important customs are tbe uniYersity meetings held CYery other FridaY morn- 
ing at elcYen o'clock in the Greek Theatre. At these meetings noted men 
from all parts of the world, who may happen to be in Berkeley are iuYited to- 
speak. By this the .students are afforded the opportunity of hearing interest- 
ing and instructiYe talks. Dear to the hearts of the students particularly, 
is the custom of the annual football game. This occurs at ThanksgiYing. 
time, and forms one of the greatest CYcnts of the college year. The Par- 
tbeneia is a spring festiYal presented by the women of the uniYersity. A 
pageant written by some w-oman of the college is produced on the beautiful', 
campus each year. 

Uniyersity of Washington (Rho) 

The UniYersity of Washington was founded in 1862 and occupied a 
campus in what is now the downtown district of the city of Seattle. The 
site is now occupied by modern office buildings of the Metropolitan Building 
Association. The one building of the old downtown campus housed the 
Seattle Pul)lic Library until 1907, when the building was dismantled and 
four of tbe columas were remoYed to the present campus and now^ stand 
guarding the walk leading to Denny Hall. Washington now occupies a great 
many of the old Alaska Yukon Pacific Fair buildings but permanent buildings 
are now being built to take their place. The registration is 3,225 not includ- 
ing summer session. 

Some great personages connected with the uniYersity are: Henry 
Suzzallo, president of the uniYersity, who is identified with progressive 
educational movements ; Edmond Stephen Meany, professor- of history, 
author, authority on Northwest History; J. Allen Smith, professor of 
political and social science, dean of Graduate School, international reputation 
as authority on subjects pertaining to economics, and am author ; Herbejt 

Colleges in W'liuii Ai.niA t'm ()mk(;a Has ('haimkrs 95 

Henry (lowen, F. R. (1. S.. 1'". R. S. A., jirofcssor of Driental History. Litera- 
ture, and Institutions ; Trevor Kinkaid, professor of zodloi^ry. special agent 
of the United States Deioartmeiit of Agriculture to la])an ; Robert Edouard 
Moritz, professor of mathematics and astronomy, and an author. 

The State University of Washington is most beautifully situated although 
in the midst of the city of Seattle. Its borders are lapjjed by l)otli Lakes 
Washington and Union and many are the paths through woodsy groves along 
these shores. Washington is usually conceded the most beautiful natural 
campus in the United States. 

Of all the numerous schools and colleges in which work may be obtained 
at Washington, perhaps the most uni{]ue is the School of Forestry. When a 
well-known lumberman asked a former President of the United States where 
he could best get further education along forestry lines, the President 
promptly replied. "At the University of Washington." Washington not 
only maintains a full forestry course but also gives what is called the 
Forestry Short Course, a six weeks' spring course in practical forestry open to 
anyone interested. This course is always very well attended. The Forestry 
School occupies the Forestry Building of the Alaska Yukon Pacific Exposi- 
tion, a building known for its beauty and symmetry to all those who were 
foftunate enough to visit Seattle in 1909. 

Perhaps the most distinctive and by far the most enjoyable day of the 
year at Washington is what is known as Campus Day. Plans are laid for days 
ahead as to the accomplishments which are to be the result. Professor Meany, 
the general for the day, appoints a complete staff even to a Red Cross Unit. 
The day is a happy combination of work and play. It is devoted to the 
improvement of the campus. Various squads are given different work to do. 
One year the engineering students installed the Light System over the campus, 
new walks are made through the woods, old walks are improved, benches are 
repaired, and everything is made spick and span. It is the girls' duty to 
prepare the lunch, always eaten in the open except in the case of inclement 
weather. "No collars and ties" is the rule of the day and even the luncheon 
speakers, usually the president and some of the regents of the college, are 
divested of these superfluities before allowed to speak. An afternoon of 
work follows enlivened by visits of the Lemonade Squad. In the evening 
a dance is held in the gymnasium which is the climax of the day. 

The w^omen's fraternities are fifteen in number: A T, 1903 ; r <I> B, 1903 ; 
K K r, 1905 ; n B 4>. 1907 ; A H A, 1907 ; K A 0, 1908 ; A P A, 1908 ; X Q, 
1908; AAA, 1909; 2 K, 1910; A X H, 1910; A $, 1914; Achoth, 1914; 
A Z, 1914; A O n, 1915. 

Men's fraternities represented at University of Washington are : 2 N, 
1896; * r A, 1900; <J) A 0, 1900; B n. 1901 ; 2 X. 1903; K 2. 1903; 
A T a 1906; 2 A E, 1906; ATA. 1908: A X. 1908; A Y. 1910: A K E. 
1910; Acacia, 1910; A 2 *. 1912; A X, 1913; n K A, 1914; * K >I'. 1914; 
H, 1915 ; * Y. 1916. 

96 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

University of Iowa (Sigma) 

The University of Iowa is situated on the east side of the Iowa River 
in the western part of Iowa City. From the west, one sees the green campus 
gently, rolling from a large hill to the river. The university occupies upwards 
of thirty buildings situated on a campus of more than fifty acres near the 
center of Iowa City. These buildings are grouped around the historic Old 
Capitol campus, which is connected with the medical quadrangle and hospital 
campus on the east, the law campus on the north, the engineering campus on 
the south, and the athletic and military grounds on the west. The general 
plan of the campus and buildings has been entrusted to capable architects 
and landscape gardeners, and systematic arrangement is being followed. The 
Iowa River has been dammed just below the university grounds, providing a 
water-front for the enlarged campus and good facilities for aquatic sports. 
The majority of the buildings are new and their number is increasing con- 
stantly in harmony with the growth of the institution. The Italian Renais- 
sance style of architecture has been adopted. 

An act of Congress, July 20, 1840, authorized the secretary of the 
treasury to set apart and reserve from sale lands in the territory of Iowa 
for the use and support of a university to be established when Iowa should 
become a state. In 1846 Iowa was admitted into the Union with a constitu- 
tion which provided that the general assembly should take measures to care 
for the lands granted and for the application of the income to support the 
University. In accordance with this provision the First General Assembly on 
February 25, 1847, passed an act establishing and locating at Iowa City a 
state university. The capitol building and the land upon which it stood were 
donated to the university in view of the contemplated removal of the seat of 
government from Iowa City. Delay in removing the capital prevented the 
opening of the institution until March, 1855. The organization of depart- 
ments began in the same year. The development of the uni^Trsity has been 
steady, and, since women have been on an equal footing with men from the 
beginning, the numbers of women students have increased annually until 
now there are 1284 (1916). Currier Hall, a magnificent dormitory, was 
opened in 1913, and accommodates 170 women. 

The men's fraternities are : B © n, $ K ^, A T A, ^ A 0, 2 X, 2 N, 
K 2, Acacia, 2 A E, A X, © H, ^ K, A T Q, ^ Z E, Cosmos Club, n O, * A A, 
^ B n, ■* P 2, N 2 N, $ A $, 2 A X, * n, H * ^, A 2 A, $ A X, 
A 2 P, T B n, $ A K, $ B K, 2 H. 

The women's fraternities are : n B $, K K T, A F, A A A, Achoth, A X O, 
A H A, A Z, A T B, A A n, r $ B. 

Governor Clark and Emerson Hough are graduates of Iowa. President 
Macbride of the University was recently made President over the Education 
Department in all the colleges of Iowa. Professors Trowbridge and Kay of 
the Geology Department are known for their great authority of that subject. 
Professor Bacon of the Mathematics Department is known for his great 
knowledge of Higher Mathematics. Senator Kenyon is another graduate of 
Iowa. Randall Parish, novelist, and the author of 0/d Gold is an Iowa man. 

Colleges in \\'hich Alpha Chi Omkga Has Chapiers 97 

Brenau College (Tau) 

Brenau is located at Gainesville — fifty miles from Atlanta — a city of ten 
thousand inhabitants in the part of northeast Georgia known as the Piedmont 
escarpment. The college campus is one of the most beautiful spots in 
Georgia. A large grove of shady oaks, under which is spread out a smooth 
green lawn of Kentucky blue grass; at the front a hedge of Amoor River 
privet ; at the rear a long line — some six hundred feet — of stately buildings, 
varied in architectural style and finish — and yet, a harmonious whole, pleas- 
ing to the artistic sense — this is Brenau as seen from the outside. Just in the 
rear of the college is the park, embracing approximately one hundred acres. 
The original forest character has been preserved as far as possible but walks 
and drives, rustic bridges, summer houses, and pavilions have been con- 
structed and in the center is Lake Lanier, naimed in honor of the South's dis- 
tinguished poet. Beyond this are the Brenau farm and golf links. 

Brenau College Conservatory is the outcome of an institution founded by 
Dr. W. C. Wilkes and a Board of Trustees in the year 1878 and known as 
the Georgia Baptist Seminary for Young Ladies. 

In 1886 Dr. Wilkes died and Prof. A. W. Van Hoose was elected presi- 
dent of the Board of Trustees. In 1893, Dr. H. J. Pearce purchased of Pro- 
fessor Van Hoose a one-half interest in the college property and for sixteen 
years the institution was conducted by Van Hoose and Pearce as associate 

In 1909 Dr. Pearce purchased the interest of Professor Van Hoose and 
during the year of 1909-10 had sole charge of the affairs of the institution. 

In 1910 Dr. Pearce sold an interest in the institution to Dr. T. J. Sim- 
mons who since that time has been associate president with Dr. Pearce. 

The name of the institution has been changed twice. In 1890. it became 
the Georgia Female Seminary, and in 1900 the name Brenau was adopted. 

Connected with Brenau are : Prof. Otto W. G. Pfefferkorn. Director of 
the Conservatory, who is widely known as .a concert pianist and also as a 
composer; Dr. E. H. Murphee, professor of science, who is a member of the 
Royal Academy of Arts and Sciences and inventor of the Resonator ; Dr. 
H. J. Pearce, president of Brenau, who is ex-president of the Southern 
Psychological Society and a very noted psychologist. 

The fraternities represented, with date of establishment of each, are: 
AXfi. 1911 ; A A n, 1910; A T A, 1913; A A A, 1914; 4> M, 1910; Z T A, 

Panhellenic Association of Brenau, composed of the following, ^ M T, 
B 2 O, A A n, Z T A, X 2. M <I> E, :S I X, A 2 A. H Y T, and 4> M, 
was founded May 30, 1911. At that time matriculation pledging was 
allowed, but during 1912-13. second-year pledging was adopted and 
tried until the fall of 1914 when it was changed to second term. 

Panhellenic is taking a very active part in fraternity affairs, and has made 
rules which have placed the fraternities on the higher scholarship basis. Any 
fraternity failing to make an average of 80 per cent is not allowed to pledge, 
(jirls must have twelve Carnegie units to be plcdgetl and fifteen to be initiated. 

98 The History of Alpjia Chi Omega Fraternity 

Since the establishint; of Panhellenic the numl)er of members has been 
reduced to six and are : A A n, A T A, A X O, A A A, Z T A, and * M. The 
offices are electiYe ancl Alpha Chi ( )me^a has held the secretaryship and 
presidency for t\vo years. 

The college customs of a ^voman's college are, of course, different from 
those in a coeducational institution. At commencement one of the most 
interesting events is the giving of the "crow's" by the graduates to the 
succeeding senior class. The exercises are given in the "crow's nest" and 
after they are over the senior class marches down and the junior class takes 
possession. On Sidney Lanier's birthday, memorial exercises are held in the 
park by the side of the lake named in his honor. 

A most enjoyable custom is the "turkey-trot" held at twelve o'clock at 
night on the tennis court. The girls slip out in spite of the vigilance of 
chaperons, form a long line and march through the streets with songs and 

On account of the fact that the students hail from such widely 
varied parts of the country, every year a celebration is held known as "State's 
Day" and each state club gives a stunt characteristic of their state. 

James Millikix University (Upsilon) 

A tract of blandly wooded country — more rolling acreage than one 
thinks of as prairie — is the home of Decatur College and Industrial School, 
the later-established member of the James Millikin University. The other 
member is Lincoln College of Lincoln. Ulinois, founded in 1865. Decatur's 
campus is ten acres of unusual natural beauty, inside the l:)0undaries of 
the town. 

In 1901 Mr. James Millikin offered a sum of money for the foundation 
of a university in Decatur, and this was accomplished by the aid of Decatur 
citizens and near-by synods of the Presbyterian Church. The initial enrol- 
ment of 712 in 1903 promised prosperity which has been realized in the 
continuing increase of enrolment and endowment. Dr. A. R. Taylor was 
president of the college until 1913, when Dr. George Emory Fellows became 
the executive. In 1915 President Emeritus Taylor returned to be acting 
head of the administration. The university has been benefited by numerous 
bequests and gifts, the most recent of which is one of $200,000 from Mr. 
Hobart Williams, made in May, 1916. The plant and equipment are 
considered unusually beautiful and efficient for a comparatively new organi- 
zation, and are being liberally augmented. 

The women's fraternities which have established chapters in Millikin are: 
n B $, March 29, 1912: AAA. May 25, 1912; Z T A, October 26, 1912; 
A X O, May 9, 1913. 

The men's fraternities which have chapters at Millikin are : K A X, 
April 23, 1904; 2 A E, 1911; T K E, April 17, 1909. 

The James Millikin University Local Panhellenic was established in 
the fall of 1913. n B $, A A A, Z T A, and A X (2 were represented. This 
organization, composed of two active members — a senior and a junior — -and 

Colleges i.\ \\'iikii Alpha Chi Omega Has Chai'ikrs 99 

one alummr member from eacli fraternity, meets once every month, for both 
business and some constructive entertainments, such as lectures along frater- 
nity lines. The chief work of our Panhellenic, so far, has been tlie making 
of the rushing rules, and the giving of a scholarship diiuier once a year. 
Practically every year a new system of rushing has been tried. In 1913 
the season lasted for four weeks of open rushing at the beginning of the 
fall term of school. In 1914 and 1915 the season lasted for two weeks, 
with a system of parties regulated both in immbers and expense. The 
preferential system was used, Imt after two years' trial it was found un.satis- 
factory. For 1916 tlie plan of a live weeks' season of closed rushing, the first 
week being given to Y. \V. C. A. is to be tried. The scholarship dinner i.s 
given by our local Panhellenic as a means of stimulating higher scholarship 
among Millikin girls, and especially the fraternity girls. To it are invited 
the two girls from each college class and the one from each sororitv making 
the highest general average for the first semester. The strengtli of our 
organization lies in our spirit of willing cooperation. 

Close corporation of interests with those of the community in which 
it is situated has distinguished the university and influenced greatly the 
spirit of its traditions. Its register has been filled chiefly from Illinois, 
although it lias been cosmopolitan enough to welcome many students of 
farther advent. This "springing from the soil" in the best sense, has produced 
a notable heartiness, interest in surroundings, and an up-reaching, though 
conservative, democracy. The Millikin Conservatory of Music, for example, 
which has made .such extraordinary advances in reputation and achievement, 
and has established itself a.s one of a few excellent training-places of its 
kind, has tried endlessly to make itself useful to Decatur and the towns and 
countrv near. It has managed unusual concerts and attractions, has 
cheerfullv accommodated innumerable suburl)an students, has offered certain 
free courses, opened music kindergartens, and as a result is flooded with 
the duties, as well as the rewards, of being an actual community center. 

The Decatur College and Industrial School has lived up to the latter 
half of its title in a thorough going degree. The manual arts and the 
branches of domestic economy have l)een strongly represeiited in the growth 
of the college, and the emphasis put upon them lias no doubt greatly advanced 
that growth. The pre-professional courses are strongly accented also in 
the university's make-up, and partly because of Millikin's well-rooted and 
wholesome democracy, it draws an ever larger number of lawyers, clergymen, 
and doctors-in-the-making for their preliminary years. 

The tradition of democracy has dictated the habitual showing of friend- 
liness in a thousand ways at Millikin. Its social life is not elaborate, but 
it is notably sincere. Tlure are a reception and exhibit for the Decatur 
public and a general recejjtion for new students, both gi\-en annually, and 
both conforming to Millikin's habit of (|uick interest in what is close to it. 
The college has acquired a reputation, also, for its generosity in harboring 
church assemblies, rural conventions, and the like, and for working loyally 
with Decatur municioal authorities for such institutions a.s a city biolosiisi 

100 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

and a city engineer. In return, Decatur people are ready in giving their 
names as patrons and patronesses of the university's many dramatic, social, 
or musical offerings. There are always lists of especially worth-while names 
for the May fete, of folk and interpretative dancing, the senior play, and 
the diploma recitals. On the President's birthday, the students give him a 
flower shower each year, and the glee clubs present annually after their 
home concerts, certain eagerly expected "roasts," "sings," and "serenades." 
One tradition which may never be overlooked at Millikin is that of rock- 
ribbed and everlasting rivalry with Illinois Wesleyan of Bloomington. The 
university's various organizations, of whatever nature, manage adroitly the 
weekly teas for all the college, which follow a custom, one of Millikin's 
most significant, perhaps, since it represents so completely the simplicity, 
democracy, and sincerity of the place. 

University of Kansas (Phi) 

The idea of a State University in Kansas dates from the early days 
of Kansas territorial government. Each of the constitutions adopted for 
the territory of Kansas during the period of its memorable struggle provided 
for the establishment of an institution of higher learning, to be supported 
by public funds. The last of these, which became, on the admission of 
Kansas to the Union, the constitution of the state, declares that "provision 
shall be made by law for the establishment, at some eligible and central 
point, of a State University, for the promotion of literature and the arts and 

By an act of Congress approved January 29, 1861, the day on which 
Kansas was admitted to statehood, seventy-two sections of land were set 
apart and reserved for the use and support of a State University. The 
state accepted the trust, and in 1863 the legislature selected the city of 
Lawrence as the location for the institution. One year later the legisla- 
ture passed an act organizing the university and giving to it the name 
of "The University of Kansas." A charter was immediately drawn up, 
and the government of the institution was vested in a Board of Regents, 
appointed by the governor. 

The board thus appointed held its first meeting on March 21, 1865, 
and decided to open a preparatory department as soon as the citizens of 
Lawrence should provide rooms for that purpose. This the citizens under- 
took to do, and by the middle of September, 1866, they were enabled, by 
the aid of gifts from various individuals and organizations, to erect the 
building now known as North College. The first faculty of the university 
had been elected by the Board of Regents in July of the same year, and 
on the twelfth of September the university was opened to the 3'oung men 
and women of the state. 

The legislature of 1913 established the Board of Administration of 
Educational Institutions, with full power to administer the affairs of the 
university, as well as other state schools, subject only to legislative enact- 

Colleges in W^hich Alpha Chi Omeua Has Chapters 101 

ments. This board consists of ihrt-e nK'ml)(.Ts to be appointud by the gov- 
ernor, not more than two of whom sliall lielong to one political party, and 
not more than one of whom shall be a graduate of any one of the institutions 
named. Not more than one member shall be from one congressional district. 
The term of office is four years. The board maintains a business office at 
each of the state educational institutions under its control, and also an office 
at the seat of government. 

The campus, comprising some 160 acres of hilltop and hill slope, has 
so far contrived to retain much of its natural beauty. The buildings follow 
the curve of the hill ; the walks take the line of least resistance ; the trees 
in North Hollow form a tangled mass much appreciated by birds and art 

Oregon Agricultural College (Chi) 

Oregon Agricultural College is located in Corvallis (Heart of Vallev), 
Oregon. This is a city of 6,000 inhabitants, situated at the head of naviga- 
tion on the Willamette. 

Oregon Agricultural College was in the beginning under the control 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, South. In 1868, as there were no 
state colleges in Oregon, the legislature of that year, which provided for 
the location of the land received under the Act of 1862, gave the interest 
on funds derived from the sale of the land to the Corvallis College. For a 
number of years none of the land granted was sold, and the legislature 
made small annual appropriations for the support of the school. The 
church voluntarily relinquished its claim on the funds of the college 
and the State assumed entire control of the institution in 1885. The legis- 
lature of that year provided for the "permanent location of the State Agri- 
cultural College at Corvallis, in Benton County," provided the citizens of 
said county would within four years erect on the "farm containing thirty- 
five acres in the immediate vicinity of said city known as the Agricultural 
College Farm, brick buildings for the accommodation of said State Agricul- 
tural College at a cost of not less than $20,000." During the summer of 1887, 
the Governor of Oregon laid the corner stone of the building, erected by 
citizens of Benton County. Now the institution owns, instead of the original 
thirty-five acres, three hundred and forty acres. Instead of one structure it has 
thirty-seven. A marked increase in attendance has also been shown, there 
being an increase of from ninety-seven to over four thousand students. 
Twenty years ago most of the students came from Benton and neighboring 
counties. Today, every county in Oregon, thirty-two other states and four- 
teen territories and foreign countries are represented. 

Some great persons connected with the historical facts of the in-stitution 
are: William Jasper Kerr, who is president of Oregon .Agricultural College, 
is a great educator. Besides being an instructor in many branches of 
education since 1885, he has been president of Brigham Young College 
(1900-7), and since then president of Oregon Agricultural College. He is 
a member of the Association of American Agricultural Colleges and Experi- 

102 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

ment Stations, first vice-president of the same from 1909-1910 and president 
from 1910-1911. He was also vice-president from 1909-1910 of the National 
Educational Association and a member of the National Council of Educa- 
tion, American Mathematical Society, American Academy of Political and 
Social Science, American Association for the Advancement of Science, Ore- 
gon Academy of Sciences and the National Society for the Promotion of 
Industrial Education. Arthur Burton Cordley, Phi Delta Theta, is a mem- 
ber of American Association for the Advancement of Science and the Ameri- 
can Association of Economic Entomologists. He is the author of a number 
•of bulletins and reports, and articles in horticulture and agriculture. He 
is now dean of the school of agriculture in this college. Henrietta Calvin, 
who was dean of Home Economics until 1915, is now the Home Pxonomics 
Specialist of the Bureau of Education, Department of Interior, Washington, 
D. C. She was connected with Manhattan Agricultural College in Kansas 
and Purdue University, LaFayette, Indiana, before coming to Oregon Agri- 
cultural College. It is due to her efforts that the Home Economics School 
is so large and well equipped today. 

The fraternities for men represented in Oregon are: A T O (national), 
1916; r Y (local), 1912; r T B (local), 1914; K 2 (national), 1915; 
K 2 N (local), 1911 ; <!> A 2 (local), 1916; 2 A E (national), 1915. The 
women's fraternities are: AX (local), 1914; A M (local), 1915; A X fi 
(national), 1915. 

University of Oklahoma (Psi) 

The University of Oklahoma is founded upon the authority of an act 
of legislature of the territory of Oklahoma, entitled, "An act to locate 
and establish the University of Oklahoma." The act provided that when 
ten thousand dollars and forty acres of land should be given to the territory 
by the city of Norman, the school should be located at that place. These 
requirements having been met, the University of Oklahoma was established 
at Norman in 1892. 

The law states the scope and purpose of the school as follows : 

"(6787) Sec. 9. The object of the University of Oklahoma shall be 
to provide the means of acquiring a thorough knowledge of the various 
branches of learning connected with scientific, industrial, and professional 
pursuits, in the instruction and training of persons in the theory and art 
of teaching, and also the fundamental laws of the United States and this 
territory in what regards the rights and duties of citizens. 

"(6788) Sec. 10. The college department of arts shall embrace courses 
of instruction in mathematical, physical, and natural .sciences with their 
applications to the industrial arts, such as agriculture, mechanics, engineer- 
ing, mining and metallurgy, manufacture, architecture, and commerce, and 
such branches included in the college of letters as shall be necessary to 
proper fitness of pupils in the scientific and practical courses of their chosen 
pursuits, and in military tactics ; and in the normal department the proper 
instruction and learning in the theorv and art of teaching in the common 

Colleges ix Which Alimia Chi Omkca Has Chapikrs 103 

schools; and as soon as tlie income of the university will allow, in sucli 
order as tlie wants ot' the i>ul)lic shall seem to require, the said courses in 
the sciences and their application to the practical arts shall i)e expanded 
into distinct colleges of arts, and shall embrace a liberal course of instruction 
in languages, literature, and philosophy, together with such courses or jtarts 
of courses in the college of arts as the regents of the unixersity shall jirescribe. 
"(6789) Sec. 11. . The university shall be open to female as well as 
to male students, under such regulations and restrictions as the board of 
regents may deem proper, and all able-bodied male students of the university 
in whatever college may receive instruction and discipline in military tactics, 
the retiuisite arms for which shall be furnished by the territory." 

'l"he first legislature of the state, in 1907, adopted the territorial law in 
the provisions t^uoted above, with such additions and changes in details as 
seemed necessary at the time. 

The university accepted students for the first time in the fall of 1892. 
In the spring of 1893 work was begun on the first building which was 
occupied the following September. During the first years the instituti(m 
was a universitv in name only ; a very large majority of the students were 
members of the lower classes of the ijreparatory school. 

David Ross Bovd was president of the university from 1892 to 1908. 
Arthur Grant Evans was president i)f the university from 1908 to 1911. 
Julien Charles jNIonnet was acting president during the school year 1911-12. 
Stratton Duluth Brooks became president of the university on May 1. 1912. 
The University of Oklahoma comprises the following colleges and 
schools : 

The Graduate School. 

The College of Arts and Sciences, including 
The School of Comiuerce and Industry. 
The School of Education. 
The School of Journalism. 
The School of Fine .\rts. 
The School of Law. 
The School of Medicine, including 

The Training School for Nurses. 
The School of Pharmacy. 
The College of Engineering, including 
The School of Chemical Engineering. 
The School of Civil Engineering. 
The School of Electrical Engineering. 
The School of Mechanical Engineering. 
The School of Mining (ieology. 
The University of ( )klahoma occupies a cami)us of one hundred and 
twentv acres. This includes, besides the original forty acres, twenty acres 
of land adjoining, given by the ]:)eople of Norman in 1902. and si.xty acres 
additional land lying contiguous to the original campus, which was obtained 
in 1914 in exchange for a section i)( land granted to the unix'ersity by Con- 

104 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

gress in 1907. By tliis exchange the university also secured a president's 
house and several lots adjacent to the campus. 

The foresight of the early administration of the university provided for 
the planting of an abundance of trees, which have now grown to such propor 
tions as to increase the natural beauty of the location. 

Two athletic fields have been establi.shed on the campus, one for the 
men and one for the women. The athletic field for the men, known as 
Boyd Field, contains a quarter-mile running track, two gridirons, and two 
baseball diamonds. Alongside the field is a grandstand with seating capacity 
for three thousand people. The entire field is enclosed by a permanent 
hedge. . 

Washington State College (Omega) 

The State College of Washington at Pullman, though a Land Grant 
College, took an early stand in requiring a high standard of admission which 
has for many years been 1 5 units. Repeatedly the graduates of this institution 
have been taking a master's degree in the greatest universities in the year suc- 
ceeding the bachelor's degree in the state college. This has been the first 
institution in the Pacific Northwest to establish the Cornell System of depart- 
mental election, and great development along that line has been made since. 

The technical departments, sciences, and liberal arts groups are all verv 
completely worked out. The library is unsurpassed, if equalled, by any in 
the Northwest in English and History. The ample endowment under state 
and national laws gives a safe guarantee of the growth and permanence of the 

The campus of the college is situated on an elevation which overlooks the 
town of Pullman and the rather fascinating and ever changing Palouse valleys. 
Thirteen buildings, all of which are in fine condition, and two of which have 
just been finished, are in use. The property of the institution is valued at 

A most interesting part of the college is the heating system. A heating 
plant on the campus furnishes the heat and light which is transmitted to every 
building through large underground tunnels. The system is very efficient, and 
many of the students get' practical experience in this plant. 

The football team, besides defeating every worth-while team in the North- 
west last year, defeated Brown University at Pasadena, California, on New 
Year's Day with a score of 15-0. With practically the same men a large turn- 
out, and more experience, this year even bigger successes are expected. The 
coach, W. H. Dietz, is a Sioux Indian, and a graduate of Carlyle. He has 
been successful indeed, and with his methods has won the loyalty and coopera- 
tion of his men. 

A marked democratic spirit exists in the Washington State College and 
is appreciated by the new students especially who are made welcome from the 
very beginning. It has been a commendable fact also that the usual problems 
arising from the existence of fraternities have been felt very little. As the 
town is so small there is very little to take away the interest of the student, and 

Colleges in Which Alpha Chi Omkoa Has Chapters 105 

so everyone is vitally interested in things that pertain to the college. The 
social affairs and athletics are especially wide awake and full of spirit. The 
whole atmosphere of the college, like that of all our western universities, is 
permeated with the spirit of the L^rcat West. 

"<)ut where tlie handclasp's a little stronger, 

Out where a smile dwells a little longer, 
That's where the West begins ! 

Out where the sun is a little brighter. 
Where the snows that fall are a little whiter, 

Where the bonds of home are a wee bit tighter. 
That's where the West ])egins ! 

Out where the skies are a little bluer. 

Out where the friendship's a little truer. 
That's where the West begins ; 

Out where a fresher breeze is blowing. 
Where there's laughter in every streamlet flowing, 

Where there's more of reaping and less of sowing. 
That's where the ^^'est begins. 

Out where the world is in the making. 

Where fewer hearts with despair are aching. 

That's where the "West begins ; 

Where there's more of singing and less of sighing. 

Where there's more of giving and less of l>uying, 
And a man makes friends without half trying. 

That's where the West begins!" 

Arthur Chapman. 



A fraternity, it is believed, is as strong as its alumnit ; its government, 
extension, journalism, wealth, and prestige depend upon them. All of the 
older fraternities, therefore, the mass of whose membership is beyond college 
halls, have extensive organizations of their alumnae. This is true as well of 
many newer fraternities who wisely seek to conserve their assets in alumnae 
influence from the beginning. Pi Beta Phi (as I. C.) formed an alumnae chap- 
ter in 1881, and, in 1892, a separate alumna? organization. In 1889, Alpha Phi 
established two alumnae chapters. In 1892, Delta Delta Delta, Kappa Kappa 
Gamma, and Gamma Phi Beta formed similar chapters, Kappa Kappa 
Gamma establishing a national alumuit organization in 1906. In 1893. 
Kappa Alpha Theta began its roll of alumnse chapters, Delta Gamma in 
1895, following with a second chapter in 1903, and Chi Omega founded 
its first alumna- chapter in 1900. Alpha Chi Omega provided for alumnae 
chapters in 1902, but did not establish them until 1906. 

The outcome has shown the wisdom of the practise. Through close asso- 
ciation the alumnae retain their sympathetic, well-informed interest in the 
fraternity. Their grasp of fraternity questions widens as their fraternity 
develops fresh problems. Their continued identification in interest with the 
welfare of the undergraduate members results in responsiveness to appeals 
for advice or, it may be, for funds from their respective active chapters, and 
makes chapters well knit, not only for the acquisition of desirable members 
and the enforcing of traditions of high scholarship and fine social standards, 
but even renders possible the ownership of dignified and tasteful chapter 
homes. National undertakings, such as scholarship funds, as well as local 
efforts, are financed with willingness. And, what is of vital importance to 
a well-governed fraternity, the intelligence of organized alumnae concerning 
fraternity conditions and policies renders them adaptal)le for national service, 
and solves the ever-present question of efficient and available material for 
national officers. 

The beginning of the organization of the alumnae of Alpha Chi (^mega 
may be traced directly to traditional chapter reunions. From the early 
nineties the older chapters began to hold annual reunions to which as many 
alumns as possible returned to visit the chapter and the college. Alpha and 
Beta, of course, are the pioneers in this splendid custom ; and it is noteworthy 
that no chapters equal, in enthusiasm and in elaborate preparations, the 
annual reunions of the oldest chapters. Upon her biennial reunion. 
Beta lavs the most emphasis. For this gathering she sends cordial invitations 
to every alumna, keeps open house throughout the day, usually giving both a 
luncheon and a dinner in the lodge. A program is given sometimes for the 
guests. Beta, moreover, celebrates more than one reunion each year. The 
annual reunion of Alpha, given by Beta Beta alumnae chapter, is held at 

The Alumn.k Association 107 

the Claypool Hotel. Indianapolis, and is a brilliant function. About a 
hundred persons attend the l)an(]uet. Delta's most characteristic gathering 
is an August outing at a convenient lake wliither both undergraduates and 
alumn;p repair for a gala time. A reunion in commencement also takes place 
near Meadville. Mu's ainiual assembling of alumnae is in the form of a 
house party during rommencemtnt, or immediately following, and serves to 
keep many alumntie in close touch with the college as well as with the chapter. 
These annual gatherings, wliicli are now customs of ]»ra<'ti('allv every chapter, 
have kept strong tlie tie which bound the abinma girl, in the early days, 
to her chapter and her university. 

Apart from any invitation from the active chapters, in the large and 
smaller centers of the United States, informal groups of alumna; members of 
Alpha Chi Omega early tended to gather occasionally for social or altruistic 
purposes. The advantage of organized alumnse association had long been 
fully understood by the Greek-letter world when Alpha Chi Omega laid 
plans, in an unhurried way, for alumnae organization several years before 
actual steps were taken toward its realization. The first duty of an alumna, 
it was thought, was to her own active chapter, and for twenty-odd years the 
main channel of relationship between the alumnae and the national organiza- 
tion was by way of the college chapter. Two facts, however, urged the need 
for independent alumnae organization : in increasing numbers, members were 
residing at great distance from their cnvn chapters, and finding close, per- 
sonal touch with them impracticable, desired association with those members 
of the fraternity in convenient proximity ; experiments had proved, more- 
over, that alumna? engaged in national work were more vitally interested 
than before in tlie progress of their individual chapters. As a result, there- 
fore, of pressure both from beyond and from within the national council, 
definite steps w'ere taken for organizing members beyond college halls. 

The first legislation in the matter was passed at the Evanston convention 
in 1902. This action provided for the chartering of alumna' chapters. In 
1904 a further step was taken in the decision l)y the national convention that 
alumnae chapters which should be founded were to be on the same footing in 
convention as the undergraduate cliapters through representation by a voting 
delegate. The following convention legislated that alumnae chapters should 
have a separate form of charter. In that year, 1906. two alumna^ chapters 
were chartered. Alpha Alpha at Chicago, and Beta Beta at Indianajiolis. 
in both of which centers alumna- had long met informally. Informal meet- 
ings preceded organization also in New York. Boston. Lincoln, Berkeley, and 
Seattle. The year after the founding of Alpha Alpha and Beta Beta. 1907, 
saw the establishment of (lamina Oamma in New York City. the 
continent, in 1908. Delta Delta Cliajjter was founded at Los Angeles. 1909, 
like 1906 and 1913. saw two new alumna^ chapters: Epsilon Epsilon at 
Detroit, and Zeta Zeta at Boston. In 1910 the revision of the charter made 
it possible for both active and alumna' chapters to use the same document. 
The Madison alumna' were granted a charter as I'.ta Kta Chapter in 191L 
Two years afterwards. 'I'heta Theta and Iota lota were founded at Ik-rkelev 

108 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

and Seattle, and were followed in 1914 by three groups. Kappa Kappa at 
Lincoln, Lambda Lambda at Grand Rapids, and Mu Mu at Kansas City. 

Alumnse organization had, by this time, become very popular ; as the 
establishment of twenty-two alumnte clubs during the three years of 1914, 
1915, and 1916, eloquently declares. During 1914 alumnit of Decatur, 111.; 
Eastern Oklahoma; St. Louis; Des Moines; Albion, Mich.; and Milwaukee 
petitioned for and were granted organization as alumnae clubs. This action 
followed upon the steps of the recommendation of the Council to alumna' 
in smaller cities and college towns that six or more alumna? should form 
alumnae clubs, the dues and duties of which should be lighter than those of 
alumnae chapters, and the legislation in 1914 that each alumnae chapter should, 
henceforth, first exist for one year as a club, hi 1915 eleven clubs were 
chartered at Omaha; Portland, Ore. ; Washington, D. C. ; Pittsburgh ; Greens- 
burg, Ind. ; Oil City, Pa. ; Atlanta, Ga. ; Boulder, Colo. ; and Terre Haute, 
Ind. The year 1916 added four more clubs to the roll: Pueblo and Denver, 
Colo. ; Galesburg, 111. ; and Greencastle, Ind. Two alumnae club petitions 
for charters as alumnae chapters are pending the 1917 Convention. 

This tremendous growth in alumnae organization may be traced to the 
recent policy of the Fraternity to unify its ranks for the sake of the accom- 
plishment of specific national aims. To this end the 1915 Convention estab- 
lished an alumnae association, and created in the Council the office of alumnae 
vice-president who serves as chairman of the alumnae association. To this 
office was elected an experienced member of the preceding council. Miss 
Lillian G. Zimmerman. The other officers of the Association are Mrs. R. G. 
Dunkle, treasurer, and Miss Vera Southwick, secretary. 

The requirements which the Association makes of affiliated associations 
are such as will enable the alumnae to follow closely not only the work of 
their own active chapters but likewise the national proceedings of Alpha Chi 
Omega, and the work of the Panhellenic movement. One meeting of each 
alumnae association is devoted annually to a study of the Constitution and 
Code; one to the Panhellenic movement; and throughout the year all asso- 
ciations labor definitely for at least one division of national work. What they 
have achieved separately along these lines will appear in the individual 
accounts of the alumnae chapters and alumnae clubs. Alumnae are urged to 
keep abreast of educational progress generally by taking part when convenient 
in the splendid endeavors of the Association of Collegiate Alumnae, college 
clubs, and city Panhellenic Associations. In the various branches of the last- 
mentioned movement, alumnie of Alpha Chi Omega have been concerned 
vitally both in their formation and in their administration. 

The scope and plans of the Alumnae Association are covered in the 1916 
report of the alumnae vice-president to the National Council, part of which 
we quote : 

"The general alumnae work covers an extensive field; a mere summary of 
what has been done during the past nine months includes the desire of the 
chairman firstly to extend alumnae interest by the addition of new clubs, 
secondly to strengthen those groups already organized, and thirdly to help to 

The Ai.umx.k Association 109 

broaden the outlook of all .groups not only to c-nihrace specific work for Alpha 
Chi Omega alone, but also to represent us in city Panhellenics, college cluijs. 
and the Association of Collegiate Alumme, and l)y field work to further the 
general interests of the Fraternity. That our activities have been broadened 
is evinced by the number of city Panhellenic offices held by our alumns 
groups. Fully one-third represent us in these by holding offices : Cleveland, 
Decatur, Mu Mu, Pueblo, Eastern Oklahoma, St. Louis, Theta Theta, Omaha. 
Atlanta, Pittsburgh, Portland. * * 

"Each alumnae group was asked to identify itself with at least one special 
branch of Alpha Chi Omega work chosen by the group. Several groups are 
to be commended for their interest along every Alpha Chi Omega activity, 
notably Theta Theta, Kappa Kappa, Eastern Oklahoma, Mu Mu, Portland, 
and Pittsburgh. Since the facts concerning the service of the difi'erent asso- 
ciations may serve as an inspiration to other groups, their activities are here 
enumerated. The Milwaukee and Eastern Oklahoma Clubs are furnishing 
guestrooms in the new homes of Kappa and Psi. Kappa Kappa and Albion 
are campaigning for life subscriptions to The Lyre, the latter for twentv-five. 
Kappa Kappa also maintains a scholarship for Xi and is endeavoring to 
prepare more girls in Xi for Phi Beta Kappa. Alpha Alpha and Delta 
Delta are working on convention funds. Those successful in gaining non- 
resident members are Portland and Pueblo. Extension work is done bv Iota 
Iota, Atlanta, and Gamma Gamma. Equipment work is cared for by Theta 
Theta. Diligent in helping to raise chapter building-funds are Eta Eta and 
Theta Theta. Four additional clubs, Galesburg, Pittsburgh, Cleveland, and 
Washington have pledged to the Reserve Fund. Theta Theta has pledged 
twenty-five dollars to the Scholarship Fund, and Milwaukee, ten dollars ; 
Kappa Kappa, Washington, D. C, and Gamma Gamma have signified their 
intentions of contributing their share toward the same. Zeta Zeta is active in 
French relief work. Omaha, Delta Delta, Iota Iota. Mu Mu, Des Moines, 
and Cleveland are interested in local charities. Milwaukee and Beta Beta 
give successful annual state luncheons to Alpha Chi Omegas in their respec- 
tive states. Those eleven interested in Panhellenic aft'airs are elsewhere 
enumerated. Epsilon Epsilon is to present a scholarship cup to the chapter 
making the greatest improvement during the year. * * 

"The number of alumna- paying dues in the four following ways (exclu- 
sive of the financial support which alumnae are giving toward building-funds), 
in alumnce chapters, in alumnae clubs, in non-resident fees for alumnae chap- 
ters and clubs, and in alumna; notes are about thirty-five per cent of the total 
alumnae membership." 

The Alumn* Association, as an organization, has published the 1916 
edition of the fraternity directory, and has assumed charge of the Scholarship 

Alumnae organization has been traced to its source in the traditional chap- 
ter reunions. There have been, in addition, a number of other forces which 
have affected vitally alumnie interest, and liave heli)i.d to make possible the 
broad existing svstem. 

110 Tin; History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Among these forces the publications of the Fraternity rank first. The 
Lyre, authorized ^vhen the Fraternity was but six years old, and issued three 
years later, has. from its first appearance, contributed, to an incalculable 
degree, to the maintenance of a living bond among the members. In The Lyre 
for March, 1897, occur these words in an editorial: "The inspiration which 
we receive from association in our respective chapters is intensified by the 
union of the chapters. The Lyre should be the connecting link which binds 
all who wear the Scarlet and ( )live." Such a link the magazine has ever been. 
It has published news of alumnte. and has presented accounts of their achieve- 
ments and their avocations. It has included in its pages expressions of their 
opinions on artistic and educational subjects. It has. persistently, and with 
news of their good friends for bait, persuasively campaigned for financial 
support. With the perfection of the system of the life subscription for all 
initiates, The Lyre will be a still greater power in cementing the relation 
between members and their fraternity. 

The Alumna Letter, issued in 1908, 1909, 1911, and. in different form, 
before the convention of 1912 and 1915. has done its share in informing 
the alumnae of the progress of Alpha Chi Omega. 

The Directory, published twice by the national treasury ai:id three times 
by The Lyre treasury, has been of greatest value. Though often incorrect in 
addresses because of an imperfect system in the keeping of the fraternity 
records, it has been a practical guide to the renewal of correspondence 
between many sisters and to personal calls from many travelers. 

The private journals, the Heraeum and the Ars^olid. since their first 
appearance in 1911 and 1913, respectively, have accomplished more than 
any other publication in awakening response from alumnte regarding the 
inner workings of the organization. 

The Songbook. first published in 1894. is the veteran among the publi- 
cations of Alpha Chi Omega. It has been published in four different editions, 
and is destined to run through many more before its service shall be ended. 
The Songs of Alpha Chi have kept warm in numberless hearts the sweet 
memories of fraternity associations, and sympathetic enthusiasm for fra- 
ternity progress. 

In 1911 the History of Alpha Chi Omega provided much data of 
value in convenient form. It is the present policy of the Fraternity to equip 
all new members with this volume, as well as with the other important pub- 
lications, to prevent the possibility of ignorance of or lack of appreciation of 
the significance and the traditions of the organization. 

One chapter. Iota (University of Illinois), issues a newspaper. The 
Eyeota, to her own alumnae. On the first page is the statement : "Published 
as best we can and whenever we can." It is a splendidly edited publication, 
and is overflowing with enthusiasm and interesting news. It contains about 
as much composition as an enterprising university newspaper. This is one 
of lota's methods of holding on to her alumnae. 

Lambda (Syracuse University) has a separate alumnae organization, with 
officers, and with duties toward the active chapter. This organization is 

The Alumx.k Association HI 

thoroughly businesslike and effirient. It has arromplished much, and has 
made possible for Lambda the ownership of a magnificent new home. 

Theta (University of Michigan). Kapjia ( Tniversitv of Wisconsin), 
Omicron (Baker University), Pi (University of Ualifornia), and Iota, all 
have effective, workable aluniniv organizations. All of these chapters, except 
Iota, work without a chapter publication. All chapters cooperate actively 
with the management of The Lyre in conserving the attachment of their 
alumnae to the national magazine. 

Another force which has contributed with great success to the enlistment 
of active alumna? affinitv has been the foundation of national funds for 
specific purposes. The Reserve Fund received contributions from numerous 
alumuit while most alumn;e chapters and most alumna* clul^s liave con- 
tributed. The Scholarship Fund is h\rgely an alumnie enterjirise. And the 
system of Alumnte Notes, managed by the Deputy to the National Treasurer, 
is of benefit not only to the active chapters, but to the alumnic. who are 
interested in the use made of their contributions. 

The Reserve Fund, which will be of increasing service in the building 
of chapter houses, and ultimatelv for an endowment for the Fraternitv. appeals 
deeply to the alumna' because of its practicability. By cooperation with the 
Reserve Fund and the Scholarship Fund, the alumms- members find it possi- 
ble to render large services of an attractive nature which they could not 
attempt to offer as individuals. 

Not merely through, and for the sake of financial support did the remark- 
able awakening of alumn;e interest tif the past decade manifest itself. It 
is to be seen most impressivelv in the development of the committee system 
of service. During the first years of the Fraternity, tasks were frequently 
assigned to a chapter to perform, and the appointment of needed commit- 
tees wa,s made within that chapter. Much of the work of committees was 
done at conventions. \\'htn the (irand Council was established in 1898 as 
the governing body of the Fraternity, the important committees necessary to 
the work of the organization were appointed, for a number of years, princi- 
pally within that body. Of the first official meeting of the Cirand Council, 
in 1903, Kate Calkins Drake says, in The Lyre several years later: "Much 
of the work to be finished was left to committees. From the work of 
came the first examinations, the revision of the initiation ceremony, some 
system of identification and afiiliation, and a successful struggle for proper 
recognition in Baird's Manual." These committees, we find, which Mrs. 
Drake designated, were suxt-n in numl)er. and all were Council members. 
But Avhile the Fraternitv was still in the first decade of the twentieth century, 
the volume of work was too vast for these committees of the Council. Com- 
mittees made up of alumnsi" and one member of the Council appear on the 
minutes, and occasionalh' alunnue who had no ofticial connection with the 
Council were commissioned for a large service. The amount of service 
rendered bv all these committees was prodigious : but it was not continuous. 

The staff of The Lyre constituted a standing committee of a khid. it is 
true, from earlv davs. Not until the beginning of the chartering of alumn.T 

112 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

chapters in 1906 did standing committees appear. In 1907 it was legislated 
that each chapter should elect an alumnte adviser. Since these officers stand 
in close relation to the National Council, and their duties are continuous, 
we may consider them as standing committees. In 1908 a committee for the 
revision of the Initiation Ceremony was appointed which developed into the 
Ritual and Equipment committee of the present. In 1908 the president 
appointed a committee on constitutional changes, which by 1910 had become 
the permanent committee on Organization and Laws. Like the one on the 
ritual, this committee had been preceded by a number of committees which had 
served briefly in the same cause. These two important committees mark the 
beginning of distinguished service by standing committees. They were both 
composed, as it is interesting to note, of members of Gamma Gamma Alumnae 
Chapter who could gather frequently and could work together with limitless 
resources at hand in the libraries of the metropolis. Mrs. Kent, Mrs. Green, 
and Mrs. Fall made up the former committee ; the personnel of the latter was 
Mrs. Fall and Mrs. Green, until 1914. In that year, however, the work for a 
new edition fell into the hands of two Council members, Mrs. Loud and Miss 
Armstrong, and after the convention of 1915, was consummated by Miss 
Griffith, the National Secretary. The stories of these two committees are simi- 
lar to those of others of our splendid list of standing committees. For, about 
the year 1910, the Twenty-fifth Anniversary of Alpha Chi Omega, the policy 
of Standing Committees appears unmistakable in several of the thirty-three 
committees announced at that convention. These committees work with the 
Council, often without a Council member among the appointees, or it may 
be, including all the members of an alumnae chapter. The availability of 
alumnae in organized groups for national service has been repeatedly demon- 
strated. The steady development of Alpha Chi Omega in many directions 
during the past decade may be explained by the co5peration of alumnae with 
the Council in this matter of committee service. The members of the Council 
still serve on many committees, and committee service still looms mountain- 
ous upon the horizon of Council work ; but no list of appointed committees 
now is constituted entirely of Council members. In fact. 154 alumnae are 
engaged in the national work of the organization today, in the following 
Standing Committees: Executive, Organization and Laws, Extension, Chap- 
ter Houses, Reserve Fund, Traditions Committee, Macdowell Studio, Alumnae, 
Finance, Publications, Official Supplies, Examinations, Lyre Finance Board, 
Ritual and Equipment, and Panhellenic Committees. The division of work- 
ers is : 

National Council 7 Traditions Committee 2 

Province Presidents 5 Supplies 1 

Lyre Staff 3 Examinations 2 

Alumnae Advisers 24 Ritual and Equipment 1 

Extension Board 61 Records and Archives 1 

Deputies 2 Custodian Badge 1 

Alumnae Organization . 3 Custodian Songbook 1 

Reserve Fund Committee 2 Deputy Songbook 1 

The Alumn.i-: Associatiox 113 

Scholarship Committee 3 Special Initiation Revision 2 

Vocational Committee 5 Local Convention Committee .... 3 

Initiation Revision 1 Alumnje Editors 23 

ToT.M I 54 

The time will come when every alumna who is willing to give ever so 
little time to the national work may be able to find, easily, congenial tasks. 
Such volunteer work will add enormously to the already significant volume of 
alumnit service, and will increase tremendously the power of the Fraternity. 

The Alumnae Association, we believe, has but begun its work. In the 
future what seems to us now a remarkable growth of alumnae service will 
seem a mere huml)le beginning. The newly created National Scholarship 
Committee and National Vocational Committee, both pregnant with possi- 
bility for the good of undergraduates and graduates alike, are entirely alumnal 
enterprises. The Scholarship Fund, as remarked above, is largely an alumnal 
interest. Extension work cries to be developed on all sides in new college 
fields, and among the alumnae. In a very few years we shall see, no doubt, 
an alumnae association with a self-supporting department of its own, with 
its own offices, and sessions of its own at national conventions of which the 
beginning was made in 1915. That day is already in sight, and it means far 
greater usefulness and prestige than Alpha (.'hi ( )mega has yet seen, even 
in prospect, in her thirtv-one years of happiness. 



Alpha Alpha Chapter was established May 23, 1906, as the Chicago 
Alumnae Chapter, the first of the chartered alumnse groups. The organiza- 
tion was effected through the efforts of Gamma alumnae, who for several 
years had maintained an informal alumnee association, assisted by alumna; 
of several other chapters. The bancpet in honor of the founding was held 
in the Woman's Clubrooms in Evanston, 111., May 23, 1906, and was pre- 
ceded by an enjoyable card party at which the Gamma alumnae entertained 
the local active chapter as well as alumnae from other chapters. At the busi- 
ness meeting that ensued, the charter officers were elected and plans were 
made for the year, including two business meetings and two musicales, besides 
monthly luncheons in Chicago. The schedule was changed in 1908 to four 
business meetings a year instead of two, and in addition, monthly gatherings 
at the homes of members. At the annual banquet of that year Madame 
Zeisler was guest of honor, "and gave a delightful informal talk." 
Characteristics of Alpha Alpha's history have been the annual elaborate 
banquet ; the two musicales each year, at times with Gamma Chap- 
ter and other resident and non-resident Alpha Chis as guests ; and summer 
"porch parties." Luncheons in Chicago tea-rooms have been given fre(]uently 
for the sake of convenience. In 1910 Madame Julia Rive-King was guest 
of honor at the annual banquet. The toast program of the banquet of 1913 
was unique and, at the same time, of intrinsic value. Each speaker gave a 
different phase of the significance of the coat-of-arms. Alpha Alpha has 
been present at the National Panhellenic luncheon in Chicago, and has often 
had occasion to meet National Officers of Alpha Chi Omega. In 1909 she 
entertained the entire Council, who were assembled in Evanston, at a "large 
formal reception, to which the faculty and all the fraternities were invited, 
in the rooms of the University Guild." Again in 1915, Alpha Alpha made 
plans to extend hospitality to the national officers and also to delegates to 
convention at a "send-off dinner." Of this function the chronicler records: 
"The 'Send-off' dinner proved an unusually enjoyable event, held as it was 
in the main dining-room of the Chicago and Northwestern railway station 
in Chicago at 6 :30 p. m., on June 23, just previous to the departure of the 
convention special train for California. Covers were laid for seventy-two 
at the various tables prettily decorated with our scarlet carnations and ferns. 
All who could not attend the convention enjoyed visiting with the members 
of National Council and the various chapter delegates and visitors before time 
for the 'special' to depart, thus giving us a slight glimpse of the personnel 
of the convention." Since her installation in 1906, Alpha Alpha has enrolled 
eighty-seven members. She has furnished a number of national officers to 
the Fraternity and of alumnae advisers for Gamma Chapter. Assistance at 
initiation and at social affairs has been rendered Gamma. By virtue of her 

A i.uM.N.E Chapters 115 

■cosmopolitan memhersliip. Alpha Ali)lia is a very representative chapter. The 
charter members were: Elizabeth Tompkins Bradstreet, Ora Bond Burman, 
Juliet Fauck Colwell, Theodora Chaffee, Myrte McKean Dennis, Grace 
Kricson, Marjorie Gralius, Tina Mae Haines, Cordelia Hanson, Emma 
Hanson. Blanche Huj^hes Hinckley, June Ogden Hunter, Mabel Jones. Irene 
Stevens Kidder, Mabel Dunn Madson. Ethel Calkins McDonald, Carrie 
Holbrook Miller, Lucie McMaster Niles, (iertrude Ogden, Ida Pratt, Marion 
Ewell Pratt, Grace Richardson, Elizabeth Scales, Katharine Scales, Cora 
Seegars, Mabel Harriet Siller. Mary Vose. Florence Childs Wooley, Lillian 
Siller Wyckoff, Ella Voung. 

Beta Beta Chapter, Indianapolis, Ind. Early in 1901 the resident alumnae 
of Indianapolis, Indiana, conceived the idea of entertaining the members of 
Alpha Chapter, who would come to the city at the time of the State Oratori- 
cal Contest. Mrs. Joseph Taggart ofiferetl her home, and a reception was 
held on the fourth Friday of Fel)ruary. Regular gatherings followed, meet- 
ings being held once each month. A program was usually rendered, after 
which a social time was enjoved. In January, 1906, a charter was granted. 
and Beta Beta Chapter was installed. The charter members were: jentn'e 
McHatton Barnett, Lillian Moore Cottingham, Bertha Deniston Cunning- 
ham, Helen Dalrymple Francis, Laura Adams Henry, Alta M. E-ogers, Flor- 
ence Thompson Taggart, Ella Hill Thomson, Edna Patton Wade, Lena 
Scott Wild, and Daisy Steele Wilson. The monthlv meetings have been held 
at the homes of the members, with an occasional luncheon in Avre's Tea-room 
or the Columbia Club. During the past year there has been an average attend- 
ance of fourteen. At each meeting the opening ceremonv is used, followed 
by the regular busines-s, after which a program is rendered. The meeting 
then becomes informal, and enjoys a social hour during which the hostess 
serves refreshments. During the past year — it being the Centennial year of 
the statehood of Indiana — they have been studying Indiana musicians, com- 
posers, and musical organizations. Two regular social affairs are held each 
year — a banquet, the fourth f>iday of Fei)ruary, the anniversarv of the 
organization, for the members of Alpha Chapter, at the Claypool Hotel. The 
second is a picnic in Jime at the country home of Mrs. Joseph Taggart, at 
whicli time the husl)ands and children are entertained. Some vears the hus- 
bands are entertained at an evening party. In point of attendance the last 
banquet, February 25, 1916, was the most successful ever held. The entire 
Alpha Chapter was present, also a number of girls came from over the state. 
There were ninety-three present. Beta Beta has assisted Alpha in a number of 
ways — in buying silver and dishes : also in helping to pay for their jiiano. They 
are now considering plans to raise money for the chapter house fund. Some of 
the members have alreadv pledged themselves for a definite amount. The 
Grand Council was entertained by Beta Beta in October, 1907. at which time a 
reception was held at the home of Mrs. J. R. Francis. Invitations were 
extended to all the fraternity women in the city, to meet the members of the 
Grand Council. A I'anhellenic orLranization was formed in the citv in the 

116 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

spring of 1914. Mrs. Daisy Steele Wilson was elected a member of the Board. 
During the past year Mrs. Maude Meserve Stoner has been the delegate from 
Beta Beta, and has been a member of the Advisory Board. In 1915, plans were 
completed to observe Hera Day by giving a recital at the Girls' Reformatory, 
in Clearmont. Indiana. The plans, however, were not carried out as their 
much-loved sister, Sadie Machlan Kiger, was buried on that day. Hera Day 
was observed March 1, 1916, by the members of Beta Beta giving a recital 
before the Parent-Teachers Association of School Number 45. The program 
consisted of a sketch by the president, Mrs. Mary Goss Cannon, stating the 
significance of Hera Day. Many of the members of Beta Beta are active in the 
church, artistic, and club life of Indianapolis, holding the highest offices in 
some of the largest and most prominent clubs ; some are also active in the work 
of the Daughters of the American Revolution. Beta Beta Chapter has 
received several national honors, and has been represented at five national 

Gamma Gamma Chapter, N eiv York City, was established November 6, 
1907, by the alumnae of New York City through the influence of Fay Barnaby 
Kent, Delta, and Nella Ramsdell Fall, Beta. The charter members were : 
Lillian Dodson Brown. Emma Crittenden, Daisy Snell Echlin, Sara Evans, 
Nella Ramsdell Fall, Jean Whitcomb Fenn, Virginia Fiske Green, Harriet 
McLaughlin Gunnison. Margaret Kellog Howard, Violet Truell Johnston, 
Fay Barnaby Kent, Olive Porter, Fern Pickard Stevens, Alta Moyer Taylor. 
Average membership is twenty. The chapter meets monthly. It is usually 
a social meeting, where all the members do their share with music, and so 
forth, to make the time enjoyable. As altruistic work, the members gave a 
concert in 1910, the proceeds of which was used for the Macdowell Studio 
Fund. Mrs. Kent was the first to propose the Macdowell Studio Fund, and 
through her ambition and enthusiasm inspired the chapters to assist in making 
the studio at Peterborough po.ssible. Gamma Gamma has always had an 
annual banquet for husbands and friends, and usually one or two informal 
parties. Until 1909 monthly meetings were held at the Martha Washington 
Hotel. Many afternoons are enjoyed at the homes of members. Gamma 
Gamma extended her hospitality to the National Council in meeting assem- 
bled in New York, in the summer of 1911, and again in 1914. She repre- 
sented the Fraternity as hostesses to National Panhellenic Congress in 1914, 
making possible what many considered the most comfortable and enjoyable 
of all Congresses. The comfort of the guests was largely due to the care 
shown by Gamma Gamma in planning for the Congress. Mrs. Fall was 
chairman of the local arrangements committee. Several members of Gamma 
Gamma assisted in the program of the open session at which a new Pan- 
hellenic song, written by Jess Northcroft, Zeta and Gamma Gamma, was 

Alumn.e Chapters 111 


Tune — ''There's a Tavern in the Town" 

Sisters in a common cause — common cause 
United by the highest creed and laws ; 
We're gathered here in strength and unity 
We meet to celebrate Fraternity. 

Cooperation is the plan — our plan ! 

"To reach the heights" and from them scan — to scan 

The world at large, and try to beautify 

All thought and action through Fraternity. 

To clasp a sister by her hand — her hand 

At home, or in some foreign land — foreign land 

And know that pressure means fidelity 

To truth, to virtue, and Fraternity. 

To raise the fallen, cheer the faint — cheer tlie faint ; 
To bravely fight without complaint — 
Until the world is leavened and made free 
By the spirit of Fraternity. 

Delta Delta Chapter, Los Angeles. California. Delta Delta Chapter was 
chartered in Los Angeles, California. September 25, 1908, Louise Davis 
Van Cleve, Epsilon. and Ja Nette Allen Cushman. Beta, being especially 
influential in bringing about its organization. All interested in the estab- 
lishment of an alumnae chapter were asked to meet in the committee room 
of the Y. W. C. A. building. This number consisted of members from chap- 
ters all over the Union, of married women and bachelor maids, of school 
teachers and housekeepers. Hence to establish an acquaintance and a common 
interest it was decided to begin the meetings as purely social gatherings. The 
first roll included the following names: Louise Davis Van Cleve, Ja Nette 
Allen Cushman, Ruth Dunning Young, Leila Skelton Brown, Glenna Shantz 
Mills, Myrtle McArthur, Faye Buck, Mabel Chalfin, Katherine Saunders, 
Blanche Gregg, Louise White, Hazel Hearne, Mauneena McMillan, Marie 
Smith, and Carrie Trowbridge. Convenience and pleasure soon established 
the second Saturday of each month as the date of the meetings. These soon 
formed the habit of beginning with a luncheon, sometimes in tea-rooms, some- 
times at the of the Epsilon girls, but most frequently at the 
homes of members, who were the hostesses of the day. The formal meeting 
followed. The ball of crochet, the embroidery hoop, the tatting needle, 
have always been very constant attendants. During the last year. 1915-1916, 
a most delightful part of the meetings has been the program given by 
fraternity talent, often supplied by Epsilon Chapter. The earliest out- 
side work a search of the history reveals is a subscription sent to the 
Macdowell Studio. Then interest tried to find local philanthropic work. 

1. John Rundall and Virginia Louise Ralph (son and daughter of Bess Rundall Ralph, F) ; 
2. Amv Lucille Frost (daughter of Amy Lusk Frost, A); 3. Harriet Love (daughter of ^Iaude 
Maxwell Love, A); 4. Philip Fall Miller (son of Florence Fall Miller, B) ; 5. William and Mary 
Katherine Kiger (son and daughter of Sadie Machlan Kiger, A); 6. Helen Weaver (daughter of 
Mabel Johnston Weaver, A) ; 7. Patricia Anne Lang (daughter of Margaret McCullock Lang) ; 
8. Charles Alexander Lister (son of Queenie Capps Lister, i) ; 9. Jane Dru Allen (daughter of 
Shellie Smith Allen); 10. Bonnie Jean Hook (daughter Adeline Litcomb Hook, P); 11. James 
Wilne Bryce (son of Mrs. Alexander Bryce) ; 12. George Walker (son of Mae Headly W^alker) : 
13. Janet and Henry Leonard Miller (son and daughter of Edith Leonard Miller, 0); 14. Horace 
Wilbar Walker (son of Mae Headly Walker); 15. Luann.e Aileen Kilgore (daughter of Ann 
Heller Kilgore, K); 16. Llizabeth Ebright (daughter of Marie Moorehead Ebright, O) ; 17. .\nn 
Eliza Withrow (daughter of Beulah Buckley Withrow, H) ; 18. Alice Jean Adams (daugliter of 
Alice Mustard Adams, Z); 19. Gretchen Elizabeth \"an Roy (daughter of Lina Bell Baum \'an 
Roy, B); 20. Peggy Cooper (daughter of Electa Lamb Cooper, 9); 21. Roman Henham Cone 
(son of Ethel Ford Cone. D; 22. Ruth Gertrude Prehn (daughter of Gertrude Magee Prehn, 
K) ; 23. Willard Watson and Elizabeth Jane Dixon (son and daughter of Alice Watson Dixon, V : 
24. Mildred M. Shaw (daughter of Josephine JNloore Shaw, B); 25. Suzanne; 26. Heber H. 
Dunkle (son of Stella MacFarlane Dunkle, Z) ; 27. Eleanor and Mary Madson; 28. Bob, Betty, 
and liillie Wade (children of Alma Patten Wade, A); 29. V\'illiam and Edwin Haseltine (sons 
of Florence Reed Haseltine, Z) ; 30. Hubert McKee Stearns (son of Sue Sivright Stearns, T). 

Alumx.k Chapters 119 

Attempts were made to render assistance to needy families, by supply- 
ing food and clothin,^-. In 1911. interest was fixed upim the Children's 
Hospital. An afternoon tea at the Log Cabin proved successful to the 
extent of a gift of ninety-two dollars. A year later, a musicale and 
reception at the Ebell Clubhouse enabled the purchase of a set of X-ray 
instruments, to be given to the same institution. Another year endowed 
a bed in the name of Alpha Chi Omega at the expense of two hundred 
fifty dollars, together with a promise of a gift of fifty dollars each 
year following, for the yearly upkeep of that bed. ( )ne of fhe most enjoyable 
activities has always been the annual Christmas shower to Epsilon Chapter. 
Not having any house of its own to furnish, the chapter takes delight in 
providing somewhat of happines.s to the younger sisters. Some pressing need 
or unhoped for luxury each year carries its love to Epsilon, as the cedar chest 
for initiation paraphernalia, the dining table and lesser articles of household 
comfort. The accompaniment of a Christmas tree with candles, and candy, 
and songs and much laughter, and babies, makes the Christmas party an affair 
to be looked forward to. September of 1914 saw one of the most memor- 
able gatherings of Alpha Chi Omega. Both Delta Delta and Epsilon, 
together with a proud array of honorary guests, were invited to spend the 
afternoon and evening at the beautiful home of Ellen Beach Yaw at Covina. 
An afternoon of ambles in the gardens, of visiting and chatter, of splendid 
delights to taste and see made the guests happy. Then a perfect day gave 
place to a most beautiful night with a balmy summer moon. In a setting 
of orange trees, with their background of majestic mountains, in the singer's 
sunken garden of an amphitheatre, members of the two chapters presented 
a little allegorical playlet with songs and dignified meaning, that was pro- 
nounced a gem of a performance. To Grace Sheperd, the authoress, belongs 
most of the credit for this successful bit of acting. When this was finished, 
Miss Yaw herself came singing from the midst of the trees, herself the god- 
dess of the groves, the nightingale of the valley, "Lark Ellen," as she is often 
called. Into the stillness of the silvery moonlight came trilling the notes of 
her Cuckoo Song, her Meadow Lark, and lastly, the Mad Scene from Hamlet. 
In 1915. Delta Delta had the pleasure of assisting Epsilon as hostess to the 
Convention of Alpha Chi Omega. Plans filled the minds and busied the 
meetings for so many months ahead, it seemed there was nothing to do, noth- 
ing to meet for, when the guests had finally come and gone, when the busy 
days of the glad hand and happy smile were done. "I can't realize that Con- 
vention is really a thing of the past," was on many a tongue for some time. 
If realization in the minds of the guests equalled the anticipation of the anxious 
hostesses, the Convention of 1915 performed its every function successfullv. 
In March of 1916, Delta Delta was accorded the pleasure of entertaining 
the honorarv members, Mrs. Macdowell and Ellen Beach Yaw. at the home 
of Rowena Huscroft. Mrs. Macdowell captured all hearts with the charm 
of her personality, the warmth of her smile, and hei accessibility. Her 
rendition of some of Macdowell's famous compositions WcS a rare treat. Miss 
Yaw favored the assemblatie with several of her familiar selections. This 

120 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

much of the history reveals concerning the local interests of the chapter. The 
dealings with more distant chapters is yet to be mentioned. Delta Delta 
assisted at the installation of Pi Chapter in 1909, sending Carrie Trowbridge 
and Ann Shepard as delegates. Delta Delta sent as convention delegates in 
1912, Olive Berryman ; in 1915, Leila Skelton Brown. 

Epsilon Epsilon. At the Convention of 1908, Ada Dickie Hamblen, 
Beta, and Frank Busey Soule, Iota, were appointed a committee to organize 
an alumnae chapter in Detroit, Michigan. Accordingly five enthusiastic 
Alpha Chis met at the home of Mrs. Hamblen on March 17, 1909. On 
March 24, 1909, twelve met at the "Copper Kettle" for luncheon and signed 
a petition for a charter for the Epsilon Epsilon Chapter. The charter was 
signed May 18, 1909, and Mrs. Soule served as the first president. The 
Convention of 1912 was attended by Ora Woodworth, official delegate, and 
Mrs. Mount. The Convention of 1915 was attended by Mrs. Reese Smith, 
in the capacity of official delegate ; Ora Woodworth, as official stenographer ; 
Grace Culver Roche ; and Ruth King. The charter members are : Myrtle 
Wallace Allen, Ada Dickie Hamblen, Grace Lynn Harner, Florence Wood- 
hams Henning, Mabel Allen Renwick, Bessie Tefft Smith, Frances Dissette 
Tackels, Florence Hoag White, Etta Mary Tinker, Frank Busey Soule, 
Winifred Van Buskirk Mount, and Ora Woodworth. The total membership 
is forty-four ; the present membership is twenty-six. The meetings, both 
social and business, are held on the second Saturday of each month, 
excepting July and August, at the homes of the various members. During 
last year a plan was inaugurated which made it possible for members to 
attend more regularly than otherwise and also aroused interest because it 
was "something different." On meeting day the hostess serves a one o'clock 
luncheon, Avhich, according to previous ruling, must be simple. After the 
luncheon a business meeting is followed by a social hour. This plan has 
several advantages : if some are not able to give up the entire afternoon, they 
can very easily leave at the end of the business meeting ; the hostess can 
visit with her sisters without having to think of serving refreshments; and 
all can leave in time to have dinner with their families. Of their altruistic 
work, Epsilon Epsilon says: "Each year just before Christmas we forget 
to be sufficient unto ourselves and, in fact, quite forgetting to be interested 
in each other think about those who are less fortunate than we. We usually 
delegate a committee to look up a family of goodly number, and supply them 
with warm new underwear." This chapter assisted Theta in the entertain- 
ment of the national convention in 1910 at the twenty-fifth anniversary of 
the Fraternity. She has had several national workers. 

Zeta Zeta Chapter. Boston, Massachusetts, was organized as an alumnae 
chapter at Young's Hotel, Boston, November 9, 1909. Through the efforts of 
Estelle McFarlane Dunkle and Evangeline Bridge, both of Zeta, a sufficient 
number of alumnae were found in the vicinity of Boston, and the charter was 
granted by the Grand Council in the spring of 1909. On November 9, 1909, a 

1. Warren Clayton Cook (son of Kva Clayton Cook, O) ; 2. Honald Case and Dorothy 
Elizabeth Gaylord; 3. Charles Richard Forman (son of lilanche Collins Forinan, I) ; 4. Sammy 
and Alvin Gillette (sons of Mary Dickie Gillette, B) ; 5. David Kellcy (son of Leone Lane Kclley, 
n) ; 6. John (jilbert Archibald (son of Carrie Aiton Archibald, Z) : 7. Margaret Holder 
(daughter of Margaret Brown Holder, T) : 8. Philip Fall Miller (son of Florence Fall Miller, B) ; 
9. Desiree Inez Clarv (daughter of Hazel Godard Clary, 1): 10. Myron Park Breckenridge (son 
of Edith Dermit Breckenridge, A); 11. James M., and .\lec M. Bryce (sons of G. N. Bryce, P) ; 
12. William, Barron, and John (sons of Lyda Hammond McCune, A); 13. Bobby and Betty Ewing 
(children of Irma Franklin Ewing, S) ; 14. John and Bradley Sheperd (children of Edith Bradley 
Sheperd, iB) ; 15. Richard Beck Bell (son of Helen Beck Bell, K) ; 16. Jane Drake (daughter of 
Kate Calkins Drake, B): 17. Jane .Shumway (daughter of r.eulah Kinzer Shumway, O); 18. Antin 
Oscar Wolfe, A; 19. \'irginia -Sigendale (daughter of .Myrtle .'Sheldon Sigendale, A); JO. Helnur 
Ward Jones (son of Selma Swenson Jones, .\); Jl. Daughter of Mrs. Thomas Cole: 22. Ruth 
Elizabeth Langdon (daughter of Imo Toms Langdon. .\ ) ; 23. Arthur Crafts Kaiser (son of 
Blanche Crafts Kaiser, Z) ; 24. Baxter and Jean Reynolds (son and daughter of Jessie Merchant 
Reynolds, A); 25. Lorinda Katherine Cottingham (daughter of Lillian Moore Cottingham, A); 
26. James M. Bryce; 27. Mary and James (;)gden (daughter and son of Bess Dean Ogden) ; 
28. Rachelle ^Marie Pinkham (daughter of Dorothv lUirdorf Pinkham, II): 2'). Maby Billings (son 
of Ellen Conrey Billings, M) : 30. Edward and Franklin Mayer (sons of Helen Eleanor Mayer, K) ; 
31. Bettv O. Menlev (daugliter of Bettv Tones Henlcv, A): 32. Caroline Norbcth Boyd (daughter 
of Caroline Parsons Boyd, A); 33. Natalie Jean Neff; 34. Grace Elizabeth and Achsah Gay 
Collins (children of Theodosia Maltbie Collins, P) : 35. Bobby and Betty Ewing. 

122 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

business meeting and luncheon were held in Young's Hotel, and the charter 
was signed. The charter members were: Estelle McFarlane Dunkle, Evan- 
geline Bridge, Sarah D. Morton, Gladys Livingston (Jlmstead, Blanche Ripley, 
all of Zeta, and May Allinson. Iota and Gamma Gamma. The total member- 
ship is twenty-three, and the average annual membership eight. The chapter 
is in close touch with Zeta Chapter which she assists socially and financially. 
The altruistic work for the period during the war has been some phase of 
war-relief. A French orphan has been adopted by the chapter, another 
by Mrs. Graff, and two by Zeta. Zeta Zeta has provided the Fraternity with 
the annual calendar of 1915 and 1916 for the benefit of an Atlantic Conven- 
tion Fund. 

Eta Eta Chapter. Madison, Wisconsin. Eta Eta, the seventh alumnae 
chapter, was organized on Friday, June 16, 1911. The installation was held 
at the Kappa chapter house at 430 Sterling Court. Mrs. Dennis, the 
national inspector, presented the charter. A business meeting was held, at 
which the duties and advantages of alumnae chapters were outlined by Mrs. 
Dennis. Conmiittees were appointed. After the business meeting, the 
installation banquet was held at which letters of greeting and welcome were 
read. The charter of Eta Eta was signed by Alice Alford, Hazel Alford, 
Margaret H'Doubler, Helen Jennings, Lucille Simon, Sarah Morgan 
(Mrs. W. T. Bell), Sarah Sutherland, Mae Theobald, and Edna Swenson 
(Mrs. F. Mayer), all of Kappa, and Florence Kelley (Mrs. 1). D. Basker- 
ville) of Gamma, and Liger Hoen Emery (Mrs. S. L. ) of Nu. It was 
planned to hold all meetings at the homes of the Eta Eta members on 
the first Monday evening of each month. Plans were made for the study 
of the constitution of the University of Wisconsin, at Madison, and of 
other universities where there are Alpha Chi chapters, for some social 
service work, and for helping Kappa with domestic matters and in 
rushing. After Eta Eta was organized on June 16, 1911, the members 
began the study of some prominent musicians and grand operas. But by 
the spring of 1912, their time was entirely taken over in preparation for 
the Convention which was held in Madison during June. In 1912-1913, 
the musical programs were given once a month continuing the study of 
grand operas. There were also several joint meetijigs with Kappa Chapter. 
During 1913-1914, the chapter drifted away from the musical programs but 
took up altruistic work instead and made plans for a hospital box on each 
Hera Day. In 1914-1915, the Reserve Fund was uppermost in all minds 
and Eta Eta devised dift'erent ways and means to help raise money. This 
last year they continued the money-raising to help Kappa with their new 
chapter house, in which all are greatly interested. Eta Eta has a total 
membership of thirty. In 1915-1916 the time of meetings was changed to 
Saturday afternoon so that they could be held at the Kappa chapter house. 

Theta Th^ta Chapter, Berkeley, California. During the fall of 1912, the 
desirability of forming an alumnae chapter of Alpha Chi Omega, was felt 

Ai.UMN.ii Chapters 123 

by the girls who had graduated from Pi Chapter, and who seldom had a 
chance for reunion. Mrs. \amu[ and .Miss Ikidge helped to furnish the neces- 
sary material. Finally on June 11, 1913. at a meeting held at the Pi chapter 
house, Theta Theta Chapter was duly installed by Mrs. Virginia Fiske (ireen, 
who came from Theta and Caninia (^amma Chapters. The first officers 
were as follows: Miss Rue Clifford, President; Mrs. McKay, Vice-president; 
Miss Lottie Bocarde, Recording Secretary; Mrs. Wni. Kelley, Corresponding 
Secretary; Mrs. S. J. Vogel, Treasurer; Mrs. L. W. Laj'ne, Historian; Miss 
Elizabeth Wolfe, Lyre Editor. Since that time the chapter has grown 
steadily and has passed three very successful years. The monthly reunions 
are held at the houses of the members ; sometimes they do charity work, discuss 
the National Panhellenic ciuestions, plav cards or sew. This year they have 
been delegated the duty of furnishing the eciuipment for installation of 
chapters. The membership of the chapter is drawn largely from Pi Chapter, 
though members from other chapters are most welcome. The meetings 
average fifteen in attendance. 

Iota Iota Chapter, Seaft/e. Washington. Iota Iota Chapter was installed 
in Seattle, Washington, March 8, 1913, by Ada Dickie Hamblen, Beta, .she 
being especially influential in bringing about its organization. On the after- 
noon following its organization, thirteen loyal altimnaj met at the home of 
Gertrude Niedergesaess Bryce, and gave a banquet in honor of the founding 
of the chapter, after which a short business meeting was held, and officers 
were elected for the year. The charter members of Iota Iota were: Mrs. 
Frederick Adams (Alice Mustard), Zeta ; Gertrude Babcock. Beta; Mrs. 
Henry Brown (Ethel Lilyblade). Gamma; Mrs. Alexander Bryce (Gertrude 
Niedergesaess), Rho ; Mrs. Thomas Cole (Jennie E. Rogers), Rho ; Mrs. 
Robert E. Evans (Leora Fryette), Kappa; Mrs. Charles Fenn (Jean Wliit- 
comb). Beta; Mrs. Edgar Fischer (Alice Reynolds), Theta; Z. Ray Galla- 
gher, Gamma; Mrs. Cornelius Hamblen (Ada Dickie), Beta; Marjorie 
Harkins, Rho; Mrs. Hickcox (Louise Stone). Zeta; Frances Edith Hindman, 
Rho; Mrs. James McCafferty (Nellie Allen), Alpha; Mrs. Wentworth Rogers 
(Vera Anne Cogswell), Rho: Mrs. George Starr (Gretchen O'Don- 
nell), Rho. The meetings are held on the last Saturday afternoon 
of each month, at the homes of the different members. Part of each after- 
noon is devoted to business, and the remainder given over to a program 
of social nature. Several national fraternity honors have been awarded to 
the chapter. The chapter has done many good deetls for the Fraternity. 
On January 24, 1914, Iota Iota pre^^ented Rho with an oak chair, and on 
the same day pledged twenty-five dollars to the National Reserve Fund. 
In June of the same year a recital to be given by Jean Whitcomb Fenn and 
Alice Mustard Adams for the benefit of the National Reserve Fund was 
planned. A scholarship cup for Rho was arranged for in Octolier of 1914. 
The following month Frances Waldo entertained the chapter with a demon- 
stration of Dunning's Method of Music. On Hera Day, 1915. a musical 
program was given at the Kenny Home for Old Ladies. The Scholarship 

124 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Trophy was awarded to the class of 1915 on October 2 of that year. In 
November ten dollars was pledged to the National Reserve Fund. It was 
planned in February, 1916, to send a report of each chapter meeting to 
non-resident members. In the spring of 1916, five dollars was sent to the 
Scholarship Fund of the alumnae association of the University of Washing- 
ton, and plans for a bazaar to be given for the benefit of the active chapter 
fund were discussed. 

Lambda Lambda. Grand Rapids, Michigaji. During the Christmas holi- 
days of 1912, all Alpha Chi Omegas known to be living in Grand Rapids 
were invited to meet at the home of Millie E. Fox. Plans were then made 
for regular meetings during the year. A petition for an alumnae chapter was 
sent to the National Council and granted. On February 7, 1912, Lambda 
Lambda of Alpha Chi Omega was installed at Grand Rapids, Michigan, by 
Mrs. Nella Ramsdell Fall, Yonkers, New York, at the home of Mrs. Ruth 
Birge Byers, the charter members being: Millie E. Fox, Beta; Mary Hyde, 
Theta ; Ruth Birge Byers, Gamma; Enid Holmes ElHs, Theta ; Ida Billing- 
hurst Hume, Beta; Josephine Moore Shaw, Beta; Pearl Frambes Shedd, 
Beta; Mame Hale Ward, Theta; Myrtle Watson, Beta; Hellen Hilliker, 
Theta; Lulu Fairbanks, Beta; and Lillian Elliott, Beta. A banquet was 
served in the evening at the Morton House to which husbands and friends 
were invited. Out-of-town Alpha Chis present were: Mrs. Nella Ramsdell 
Fall of Yonkers. New York; Mildred A. Moore of Rockford, Illinois; 
Lucile Schenck of Clinton, Michigan. The chapter now numbers thirteen 
members, and has been represented at one national convention. 

Mti Mil, Kansas City. Missouri. The Kansas City Star of September 20, 

1914, stated that "Mu Mu Alumni Chapter of Alpha Chi Omega was installed 
by Miss Lillian Zimmerman, National Treasurer, of Alpha Chi Omega, 
September 19, at the home of Miss Frances Gould, 2809 Charlotte Street. 
The officers are : President, Miss Clara Chesney ; Vice-president. Mrs. Spence 
Apple; Secretary and Treasurer, Mrs. J. W. Colley; Historian, Mrs. Alex- 
ander Haggart; Lvrr Editor. Miss Frances Gould; Warden, Miss May 
Jaggard.'.' The installation was performed with impressive dignity and the 
charter received with much pride by the fifteen charter members. Numerous 
congratulatory letters frOm the other chapters were read, and arrangements 
made for holding one meeting each month, on the first Saturday afternoon of 
each month. Mu Mu has held nineteen regular business meetings from the 
time of her organization up to the present writing, besides several social affairs, 
the first of which was a New Year's party for the active Alpha Chis and 
alumnae in Kansas City during the holidays. Miss May Jaggard was the 
hostess for this first party. A social affair of March 6, 1915, was a mis- 
cellaneous shower for the president. Miss Clara Chesney. On December 31, 

1915, Mu Mu entertained Marion Reid, Frieda Kornbrodt, Rosa Kornbrodt, 
Alice Warnock. Mary Bovard, and Mildred Jaggard at a Christmas Party 
at the home of Mrs. S. B. Apple. A formal spring party was given at the 

Ai.uMX.€ Chapters 125 

home of Mrs. J. W. Colley, at which time the liusbands and friends of the 
members were the guests. At the time of installation, Mrs. Alexander 
Haggart, Ottawa, Kansas, was serving on the standing committee on "Publica- 
tions." During her two years of e.xistence, Miss Louise Che.sney has served 
as instructor on the faculty of Jennings Seminary of Illinois. The biggest 
honor that has come to the chapter has been the presidency of the Kansas 
City Panhellenic Association, an oifice which is being filled with merit by 
Mrs. Fred Hoover. 



The alumnte club is a ])0])ular form of organization. There are twenty- 
three clubs at present, some of which have done splendid work along all lines, 
and have accomplished as much for the Fraternity as the alumnte chapters. 
The alumna? club is particularly valuable in college towns where the under- 
graduates desire the unified support and association of their alumnae sisters. 
Except for the smaller dues, and the lack of a paid convention delegate, the 
requirements of the club are as numerous as those of alumnae chapters. 
Another difference is that a charter for an alumnae club requires but six 
signatures, while that of an alumnae chapter requires tw^elve. The national 
work for clubs, like that for alumnae chapters, are the Reserve Fund and the 
National Scholarship Fund. After one year's successful existence as a club, 
a group may petition for an alumnae chapter provided the numbers are suffi- 
ciently large. Below is the roll of alumnae clubs with their date of organiza- 
tion : 

1. Decatur, September, 1914. 

2. Cleveland, Ohio, April 24, 1914. 

3. Eastern Oklahoma, November 28, 1914. 

4. St. Louis, Mo., May, 1914. 

5. Des Moines, Iowa. October, 1914. 

6. Albion, Mich., May, 1914. 

7. Omaha, Neb., May 5, 1915. 

8. Milwaukee, Wis., Fall of 1914. 

9. Meadville, Pa., April 5, 1915. 

10. Ann Arbor, Mich., January, 1915. 

11. Portland, Ore., April 15, 1915. 

12. Washington, D. C, April 27, 1915. 

13. Pittsburgh, Pa., November 13, 1915. 

14. Greensburgh, Ind., November 13. 1915. 

15. Oil City, Pa., November 20, 1915. 

16. Atlanta, Ga., November 23, 1915. 

17. Boulder, Colo., December 7, 1915. 

18. Pueblo, Colo., December 28, 1916. 

19. Terre Haute, Ind., November 29, 1915. 

20. Galesburg, 111.. March 14, 1916. 

21. Greencastle, Ind.. January 22, 1916. 

22. Denver, Colo., July 29, 1916. 

23. Twin Cities, November 1. 1916. 

Cleveland Aliiiuncr Club. Cleveland . Ohio. Due to the efforts and the 
enthusiasm of Mrs. Ruth Harlow-Osborne. Lambda, the Cleveland Alumnae 
Club was formally organized May 2 7. 1914. There had been two meetings 
previously. The first was a luncheon at a downtown tea-room and the next 

Al.lMN.E Cl.UBS 127 

with Mrs. Ray M. Colwcll. TIk' charter members were: Julia Fiiich- 
Colwell, Alpha; Beatrice Breckenridge-Cushman, Beta; Hazel Leach-dalli- 
more, Alpha; Mabel Dunu-Madson, (iamnia ; Ruth Harlow-Osborne, 
Lambda; Dorothy Price, (iamma; Mabel McHane-Schaffner. Delta. The 
club holds a meeting on tlie second Friday of each month at the iiomes of the 
different members. These meetings consist of a business session, a pro- 
gram, furnished by some one member, followed by a .social hour. During the 
summers the meetings take the form of porch parties and picnics at someone's 
summer home. The Cleveland Panhellenic was organized in the spring of 
1914. It now holds two meetings a year at a hotel or tea-room. This organi- 
zation is raising money for a scholarship fund to .send a girl through Western 
Reserve College. It is doing this by giving afternoon entertainments and 
teas and cliarging a small fee. Mrs. Norma Harrison-Thrower, Alpha Chi 
Omega, is chairman of this committee. Mrs. Mabel Dunn-Madson ga\-e one 
of the programs. The Cleveland Alumiia* Club has eleven members. 

Easfern Oklahoma AhimncB Club. In May, 1914. four loyal Alpha Chis 
met at the home of Jessie Richmond Shipley in Haskell. Three of them had 
never met before, since they all lived in different towns. It was decided at 
this first meeting to come together twice a vear in Muskogee. ( )n November 
28. 1914. occurred the first luncheon and election of ollicers. Kl Fleda Cole- 
man Jackson. Gamma, was elected president, Lucy Andrews Odell. Alpha, 
vice-president. Gladys Meserve Ranney. Iota, secretary, and Eula R. .Smith. 
Omicron. treasurer. At present the club has eleven members, and although 
they see each other l)ut seldom, it is an inspiration for them to renew active 
chapter days and to learn of the doings of the Fraternity at large. In March. 
1916. a Panhellenic was organized in Muskogee. The organizer and presi- 
dent is Mrs. Jackson. The club hopes to be able to hold its meetings on the 
day of the Panhellenic luncheons, thus meeting the sorority women of the 
eastern part of the state. 

Des Moines Alumnce Club, Dcs Moines". lou-a. It was during June. 1914, 
when several Des Moines alumna* of Mu Chapter were entertaining at an 
all-day picnic at Des Moines Golf and Tennis Club, in honor of the alumUcT 
and active members of Mu, that the idea was conceived of having a permanent 
alumnae organization of Alpha Chi Omega in Des Moines. During the sum- 
mer plans were made and committees appointed. In October. 1914. the 
Des Moines Alumnae Club had its first meeting. Rather an elaborate schedule 
was made for the vears 1914-1915 of business and social meetings, including 
one affair to which other fraternity women in the city were to be invited. 
Committees were at work during the entire year to enlarge the membership, 
the goal being to include as many fraternity sisters of Iowa as possible. The 
charter members numbered thirteen, including: Mrs. B. F. Clayton. Mu. 
Indianola ; Mrs. Grant Kimer. Mu. Indianola ; Miss Nelle Harris. Mu. 
Indianola ; Mrs. R. G. Harrison, Mu. Des Moines; Mrs. K. (i. Carney, 
Alpha, Des Moines: Miss Besse Patrick. Gamma. Dcs Moines; Mrs. John 

128 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Merrill Dudley, IMu, Des Moines; Miss Berdena Hughes, Mu, Fairfield; 
Miss Florence A. Armstrong, Mu, Indianola; Mrs. Leonard Smith, Mu, 
Ida Grove ; Mrs. Fred Barker, Mu, Jefiferson ; Miss Georgia Watson, Mu, 
Indianola; Mrs. Lloyd Humphrey, Mu, Des Moines. Many members of 
other chapters signified willingness to attend whenever possible. Notification 
of the time of meeting was sent henceforth to about thirty sisters. The meet- 
ings were held monthly from October, 1914, to May, 1915. Some charity work 
was done in the city ; and a pledge was sent to the Reserve fund. Grace 
Howe, Kappa, who was instructor in Domestic Science in the city high school, 
and Mildred Talmage, tiamma, who attended Drake University 1914-1915, 
were among the regular attendants. The season 1914-1915 was very success- 
fully planned and carried out, the members being brought closely together in 
fraternity work and also in a social way. It is with renewed interest and 
enthusiasm that the Club begins this year, 1916-1917. There are nine resi- 
dent members. 

Omaha Alumna' Club. Omaha. Nebraska, was established in 1915 as a 
social and philanthropic organization. The first Saturday of every month was 
chosen as the day for regular meetings. The first meetings were held at the 
homes of members, where plans were discussed for the establishment of a 
strong organization. In January a noon luncheon was given at one of the 
popular hotels. A matinee party followed. Regular meetings were held 
the rest of the year at the University Club. No real work has been attempted 
yet, but the friendships formed and problems worked out have proved helpful 
to the members. Mrs. Bess Rundall Ralph, Gamma, is president ; Mrs. Dale 
Pugh Hascall, Xi, is now Western Province president, and through her 
Omaha Club is kept in touch with other chapters. The present membership 
is sixteen. 

Milwaukee Alumna; Club, Milwaukee, IVis. For a number of years the 
Milwaukee alumnae met regularly at picnics and weekly bridge-parties, but they 
were not an organized club. In Sq^tember of 1915, seven Alpha Chis met at 
the home of Lillian Zimmerman, Kappa, for the purpose of organizing and 
applying for a club charter. The charter members were : Lillian Zimmer- 
man, Kappa; Meta and Ann Kieckhefer, Kappa; Ella Shirk Harris, Beta; 
Marie Tolleson Frey, Kappa ; Leah Deutsch Grell, Kappa ; Edna Swenson 
Mayer, Kappa; Vivien Verbeck Simmons, Kappa; Else Landeck Adler, 
Kappa. It was decided that the Club should meet the second and fourth 
Fridays of every month, and, not thinking it necessary to have the customary 
number of officers, only a Secretary-Treasurer was elected. Meta Kieckhefer, 
Kappa, was chosen for this combined office. During that year the members 
met as a Bridge Club and nothing of importance was done. In the fall of 
1916, they again started out as a Bridge Club, but soon decided to do some 
fraternity work. At our first business meeting the following officers were 
elected : president, Ann Kieckhefer. Kappa ; vice-president, Ella Shirk 
Harris, Beta ; secretary-treasurer, Consuelo Lasche, Kappa ; and Lyre editor, 

Alumn.e Clubs 129 

Ethel Wait, Gamma. Later Betty Ellenberger Griffin, Lambda, was appointed 
as Lyre editor. On November 27, 1916, we gave our first annual luncheon 
in the Colonial Room at the Hotel Wisconsin. After an auto ride whicli 
followed the luncheon Meta, Ann, and Hilda Kieckhefer entertained the 
visiting Alpha Chis at their home at tea, the assisting party being the resident 
Alpha Chis. Thirty-seven Alpha Chis from all parts of the state attended 
tlie lunclieon. For Hera Day work the Club made scrapijooks for the Mil- 
waukee Children's Free Hospital. In March. V)\(^. they began to have meet- 
ings at monthly luncheons down town in one of the grillrooms. Then came 
the news of Kappa's new house and the Alumna? Club decided to furnish a 
Milwaukee Alumnae Room, so that they might have a place of their own 
when they visited Kappa. A plate above the door will be engraved with the 
Club's name. A pledge was made at this time, also, to work for the Alpha Chi 
Scholarship Fund. The Club has enrolled fourteen members. 

Meadzille Alumnce Club, Mcaik'illc. Pa., was informallv organized at the 
home of Miss Anna Ray on March 8, 1915. A month later the petition for 
recognition as the Meadville Alumme Club of Alpha Chi Omega was signed 
by Anna C. Ray, Ruby Marsh Eldred, Arline Winslow Lane, Rebie Flood 
Irwin, Florence Irene Moore, Ethel Moore Miller, Mary Thorpe Graham, 
Blanche Garver Davenport, Mary Gibson Brock, (iertrude Sackett Laffer, 
Florence E. Harper. The first official meeting was at Anna Ray's, May 3, 
1915. The same month the Club entertained Delta at the home of Mrs. 
Manley O. Brown — one of Delta's charter members. In June the Club met at 
Mrs. Mary G. Brock's, where Allegheny's Centennial provided the paramount 
topic of conversation. A glorious reunion followed on July 10 at Mrs. Ruby 
M. Eldred's home. Mrs. Louise Lord Cappeau of Cincinnati, Miss Mary 
Lord of Denver, Mrs. Clara L. Study of Neodesha, Kansas, Mrs. Mary R. 
Philp of Oil Citv, and Mrs. Harriet Veith Robson of Ann Arbor, were 
present as visitors of the Club. On July 22, 1915, a six o'clock dinner was 
given at the Country Club in honor of out-of-town sisters. The Club enter- 
tained, also, in honor of Mrs. Fall, National Inspector, on May 5, 1916, and 
took the opportunity to .show hospitality to Delta at the same time. The total 
membership is twenty-four : the present membership, nine. 

Oil City .'lliiiniuc Club. Titus^-illc. Pa., was organized in November. 
1915, at the home of Mrs. Robert Philp. 'J'he following officers were 
elected : Mrs. Philp, president ; Mary Green, vice-president ; Rose Piatt, 
secretary, and Celia McClure, editor. The club includes all Delta alumna^ 
living in Oil City, Franklin, Titusville. Rouseville. The meetings are held 
every third Saturday. Because of its short existence the club has done very 
little except to keep in touch with the active chapter at Meadville, and to 
give assistance whenever needed. There are at present eleven members. 

The Oregon Alumna' Club. Portland. Orry^on. was organized in April, 
1915. Just before the installation of Chi Chapter. Mrs. Loud made a visit 

1. John Carey Percival (son of Rowena Hall Percival, E) ; 2. Dorothy Shedd (daughter of 
Pearl Frankes Shedd, S) ; 3. John Charles Alexander (son of Helen Boggs Alexander, S) ; 
4. Ruth Frances Billings and Felix ]\Ioore, Jr.: 5. Marion, Estelle, Jean, Plum, and Airs. McGill 
(daughters of Jean Robson McGill, A); 6. Mary Louise and Helen Shaw Walraven (daughters 
of Mabelle Leffingwell Walraven, A) ; 7. Lorimer Brown (son of Antoinette Snyder Brown, A) ; 
8. Donald Jones; 9. Elizabeth Rush (daughter of Marie Wood Rush, A); 10. Bernice Quinn 
Garrett (daughter of Bernice Quinn Garrett. I); 11. John Bvers (son of Ruth Birge Bvers, F) ; 
12. Ted Brainerd (son of Marie Bateman Brainerd, 2) ; "l3. Daughters of Dr. and Mrs. C. C. Tiffin; 
14. Aiarcella Rogers Cole (daughter of Airs. Cole, P) : 15. Son and daughter of Edith Kurtz Apple, 
O: 16. Enid Ellis (daughter of Enid Holmes Ellis. 6): 17. Elizabeth and Virginia Rush (daugh- 
ters of Marie \A'ood Rush, A); 18. Louise Mcintosh (daughter of Louise Durbin Mcintosh, A); 
19. Ruth Jane, Roberta, and Raymond (children of Ruth Rinehart Matter. I); 20. Elizabeth, 
Marion, Mildred, and Xorman (children of lola Harker Withey, K) ; 21. Robert Knox Rothschild 
(son of Flora Knox Rothschild, K) ; 22. Janet Ewell Pratt (daughter of Alarion Ewell Pratt, F) ; 
23. Romney Masters (son of Bess Masters, 11): 24. Josephine Dickie (daughter of Augusta 
Brockway Dickie): 25. Eleanor Oechsli (daughter of Loula Boicourt Oechsli, O) : 26. Baby Rock- 
well (daughter of Celia Conklin Rockwell, S) ; 27. Phyllis Oechsli with Amah (daughter of Loula 
Boicourt Oechsli, O) ; 28. William and Julie Stevenson (son and daughter of Evangeline Bridge 
Stevenson, Z) ; 29. Mrs. Gertrude Sackett and family; 30. Ruth Alabel Johnson (daughter of Nell 
Whitmore Johnson, 3); 31. Alary Virginia and Carrol T. Culley (son and daughter of Caroline 
Schmidt Culley, Z) ; 32. Barbara Ellen Cappeau (daughter of Louise Lord Cappeau, A) ; 33. Ruth 
Frances Billings and Lyman Conray Evans; 34. Kelly, Corinne, and Alargaret Woods (children 
of Lucile Kelley Woods, O). 

Alumn/e Clubs 131 

in Portland. At that time she discussed with tlie Portland Aljjha Chis, the 
possibilities of forming an alumn;c clul) to which any Alpha Chi Omega living 
in Oregon would be eligible. The girls were enthusia.stic over the plan and 
two months later the Club was a reality with Beatrix Andrews Hopkins, Iota; 
Beulah Buckley Withrow, Xi; Myrtle Harrison, Rho ; Ernestine Heslop, 
Nu; Leonora Kerr, Pi; Myrtle Wilcox Gilbert, Theta; (iertrude Nolan, 
Pi; and Mae SteusloiT, Chi. as charter members. Tlie Club soon numbered 
about twenty for girls from Portland, Salem, Corvallis, and other Oregon 
towns became members. Except during the summer vacations, however, there 
have never been more than .six members in Portland at one time. Since the 
organization of the club, meetings have been held on the third Wednesday of 
each month at the homes of the different girls. The regular business meet- 
ings have been followed by an hour or so devoted to social chat. Alpha Chi 
Omega songs and tea. Each year, in June, there has l)een a luncheon and 
musicale at the Hotel Benson in Portland. 'I'he plan is to have this an annual 
affair when a number of out-of-town members can be present. In this wav, 
all the girls can become better acquainted and take a more active interest in 
the club. During the summer there have been informal social gatherings and 
picnics. The club has tried to do its share in the work of the Portland Pan- 
hellenic. though with so small a representation, it has been impossible 
to do a great deal. The chief work of the Panhellenic has been to give a 
scholarship to some deserving woman at the University of Oregon. A college 
fete has been given each year to raise the funds. This year, several Alpha 
Chis were on committees and assisted in one of the booths. 

The District of Columbia A In in /m Club, Washington, D. C, was for- 
mally organized April 23, 1915, at the home of Mrs. W. F. Ham. Although 
the Alpha Chi Omegas had met together several times before this, no effort 
had been made to have regular meetings of any kind, until Myra Jones and 
Mary-Emma Griffith invited the other girls in tlie city to meet at a tea on 
Washington's Birthday, in 1915. This meeting was notable for the lack of 
attendance of Alpha Chi Omegas, only three responding to the invitation in 
person, notes being received from all the others regretting that absence from 
the city prevented attendance. This scattering of members is so characteristic 
of the residents of Washington, that it often is true that a meeting of the 
club one month will consist of members none of whom were at the meeting 
the previous month. The only delightful feature which the migratory nature 
of the population of Wa.shington brings is tliat scarcely a meeting passes that 
there is not an out-of-town visitor, with news of other Alpha Chi Omegas 
in the cities and colleges of the country. Since the organization meetings, 
monthly meetings have been held, with the exception of the summer months, 
at the beautiful home of Suzanne Mulford Ham, where an attractive room 
is called the "Alpha Chi Clubroom." The meetings so far have been purclv 
social "get-acquainted" ones, but during the next few years the club hopes to 
help with the work in the orphans' homes in the city. It plans, also, to assist 
in the national work of the Fraternity. Ten dollars has already been given 

132 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

to the Reserve Fund. The memliers are : Ethel Ford Cone, Dorothy Dashiell, 
Delta; Grace Dewey, Theta ; Beulah Dickert, Tau ; Eddie Dickert, Tau ; 
Mary-Emma Griffith, Lambda; Susanne Mulford Ham, Gamma; Myra H. 
Jones, Lambda; Katherine McReynolds Morrison, Alpha; Ethel Sloan, Xi ; 
George Th5nssen, Zeta : Florence Lamb Van Eseltine, Lambda ; Pearl 
AVaugh. Alpha: Non-resident. Alice Louise Baldwin, Zeta; Lillian Dodson 
Brown, Zeta; Achsah Wentz, Xi. 

Pueblo AlumncB Club. Pueblo, Colorado, was organized in January, 1916, 
and is made up of the following members: Helen McGraw, Nu, president; 
Alinda Montgomery, Zeta, vice-president ; Mary C. McNally, Iota, secretary- 
treasurer : Vera Flvnn, Nu. editor. The other members are: Mrs. Hedwig 
Breneman-Heller, Gamma; Emily Haver, Iota; Mrs. Esther Olson Stohrer, 
Nu : Mrs. Elizabeth Fugard Pressley, Nu. Non-resident members : Mrs. 
Kathryn Nelson Rothgeb, Iota, of Colorado Springs ; Mae Morgan. Nu, 
Canon City ; Kate Goben, Nu, Rocky Ford. Meetings are held immediately 
after Panhellenic luncheons once a month in one of the hotels. Several mem- 
bers are teachers either in high or grammar school ; one girl is living on a 
ranch with her brother ; two members are doing advanced work at colleges 
this year. There are sixty manbers of the Panhellenic in Pueblo. The 
Alpha Chi Omegas have always supported and helped this organization in 
every way. Mary C. McNally was vice-president for 1915-1916. Nearly 
every committee that is appointed has on it an Alpha Chi Omega. This 
Panhellenic has a luncheon on the first Saturday of each month, followed 
by an informal meeting. At present they are raising money to furnish a 
room in the new Y. W. C. A. 

Terre Haute AlumncE Club, Terre Haute, Ind. On the sixteenth of 
December, 1915, a few Alpha Chi alumnae met at the home of Mary Jones 
Tennant and over the teacups discussed a club. In February, 1916, an 
organization was formed with the following officers : Mrs. Fred Powell, 
president; Mrs. Richard S. Tennant, secretary; Mrs. Jas. M. Hoskim, trea- 
surer. It was decided to have a combined meeting and luncheon the third 
Wednesday of each month of the college year. The membership slowly 
increased until the present roll has been reached : Mabelle Forshee Blakes- 
ley, Effie Miller, Harriet Cutshall Jones, Ruth Cross Tobin, Shellie Smith 
Allen, Minnie Keith Hoskim. Nelle Williams Powell, Mary Jones Tennant, 
Irma Hand, Vern Jackson. Kathleen Logan. Owing to the social condi- 
tions of Terre Haute no college organization of any kind has ever been 
established before. 

Denver Alwnn^ Club, Denver, Colorado, was organized July 29, 1916, 
after existing informally since April of that year. The charter members are: 
Pearl Armitage Jamieson, Alpha; Shirley C. Lewis, Nu; Muriel Lough 

Ai.LMN.K Clubs 133 

Woods. Oniicron; Mildred McFarlaue, Nu ; Charlotte Boutwcll, Phi; Mrs. 
Walter Raymond Laryse, Nu. 

Twin Cities Almmuc Club petition was granted at the time this book was 
going to press, to be installed November 1, 1916, at the home of Nathalie L. 
Thompson, 2235 Langford Avenue, St. Paul, Minnesota. 



The present system of government of Alpha Chi Omega evolved through 
three well-defined stages. From 1885-1891, the legislative power of the 
organization was vested in Alpha Chapter as the Grand Chapter. From 1891- 
1898 general officers were elected from the chapters in rotation, and the 
legislative power rested in the National Convention. In 1898 the Grand 
Council (later called National Council) was inaugurated. 

Thirteen years were destined to pass before the original plan of govern- 
ment was materially altered to meet the demands of a growing and progres- 
sive organization. During that time, with the exception of a two-year period 
for Beta, 1896-1898, out of loyalty to and as a tribute to the mother chapter, 
Alpha was vested with the title of Grand Chapter. The duties and powers 
of this body differed materially from those of the present Grand Chapter (the 
National Convention). The convention which met preceding the assembly 
which established the present system of government decided "that Alpha be 
Grand Chapter always." This legislation not only speaks of the fraternity's 
confidence in the mother chapter, but testifies eloquently of the futility of 
legislating for eternity, for in 1904 the National Convention was christened 
the Grand Chapter. Under the guidance of the officers of Alpha the original 
Grand Chapter had legislative power until the first convention, 1891, after 
which year the name typified an honor rather than governing power. 

The first cabinet of general officers was elected at the initial convention. 
For seven years succeeding the first National Convention the assembly con- 
vened annually until 1898 with the exception of the years 1892 and 1895. 
During this period the government of the Fraternity was vested in the 
conventions, with advisory power divided between the general officers and 
Alpha as Grand Chapter. The official element of these conventions was 
composed of one delegate from each active chapter, each member having one 

In 1898 two decisive changes were wrought in the government sy.stem of 
the Fraternity, the creation of a Grand Council and the provision for biennial 
instead of annual conventions. From that year to the present the National 
Convention, or, as it was christened in 1904, the Grand Chapter, has con- 
stituted the supreme ruling power in Alpha Chi Omega. It is composed of the 
National Council, the Province President, and one official delegate from each 
active and alumnae chapter, each member having one vote. Official attendance 
on the part of the members of the Grand Council and the delegates is com- 
pulsory. Each chapter is permitted to send other delegates as alternates, 
but this does not increase the ntmiber of votes allowed each chapter. In 1908 
the voting privilege was extended to the ex-grand presidents, and in 1916 to 
the founders. The powers of the National Convention are stated in the Con- 
stitution as follows : 



"The National Coini'iitioii sliall lia\e jiowit to transact all business of the 
fraternity and to enact. sul)jecl to this Constitution, all laws, rules, and regu- 
lations necessary to promote the welfare of the fraternity; to provide for and 
define in the Code the duties of the chapters, chapter officers, and members of 
the fraternity; to jjrovide in the Code for the creation and disbursement of 
all revenues of the fraternity; tt) grant charters to and alumna; chapters 
subject to the rulings of the Coirstitution ; to suspend or revoke the cliarter 
of any chapter subject to the rulings of the Constitution; to establish the 

Maude Staiger Steinek, Theta 
Extension Vice-president, 1915- 

provinces of the fraternity; to elect the members of the National Council; 
and to amend this Constitution. A three- fourths vote of all voting members 
present shall be necessary." 

The National Council has continued to be the balance in the internal fra- 
ternity mechanism which has maintained a true adjustment in policies and in 
the countless matters which must be dealt with in the intervals between con- 
ventions. It is composed of seven officers elected from alummt of proved 
ability. b\- the National Con\-eiition. to the positions oi National President; 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

National First Vice-president or Alumn;e \'i(-e-president ; National Second 
Vice-president or Extension Vice-president; National Secretary; National 
Treasurer; Editor The Lyre; and National Inspector. 

During the interim between conYentions, the National Council is the 
supreme governing power of the Fraternity, and possesses "all the powers 
of the National Convention, except the amendment of the Constitution." It 
is thus the real administrative force of the Fraternitv. For five vears after 

Mary Emma Griffith, Lambda 
Exchange Editor The Lyre, 1910-1912 
Official Examiner, 1910-1915 
Xational Secretary, 1915 

the organization of the National Council, its business was transacted entirely 
through correspondence. As this method of procedure proved inadequate, 
the convention of 1902 ordered the convening of the Council in the inter- 
convention years, the time and place of such meeting to be detemiined by the 
Council itself. Since that time the Council has also met for conference 
immediately preceding conventions, which custom makes their meetings annual 

Aside from performing the duties naturally incumbent upon officers of 
their respective titles, the national officers are constantly occupied with a vast 

Govern MKNT 137 

amount of committee work of various descriptions. Naturally the President is 
an ex-officio member of all committees; for the past five years she has been 
chairman of the Reserve Fund Committee. The Vice-president is chairman 
of the Extension Committee, and while that officer has not always been the 
one to investigate and to install new chapters, the matter of extension and 
investigation is, to a great extent, in her hands. The Treasurer handles the 
finances of the Fraternity primarily, but two of these officers have also filled 
the position of business manager of The Lyre in addition to performing the 
regular duties. The present Treasurer has charge of the finances of the new 
History. The Grand Secretaries have frequently managed conventions as 
well as attended to the correspondence. At present the Secretary is also the 
Editor of The Argolid and Chairman of the Committee on Official Supplies. 
Secretaries have also acted in the capacity of Custodian of the Badge, now a 
separate ofiicer. The Inspector, in addition to her duties of visiting all the 
active chapters once in two years, has for years also been the delegate of Alpha 
Chi Omega to the National Panhellenic Conference and has done valuable 
committee work in that capacity. 

In the early days of the journal the Editor of The Lyre acted also as the 
Business Manager, but with the growth of the Fraternity as well as the 
growth of the journal, this has been an impossibility ; the .separate office of 
Business Manager was created, giving the Editor the needed time to devote 
to her literary work and to serve on numerous committees. The Editor of 
The Lyre is Editor, also, of The Heraeiim, for three years was Editor of The 
Argolid, and Editor of the Daily Convention Transcript. In 1911 she was 
Editor of The History of Alpha Chi Omega, and is the author of the present 

In 1915 a division of the work of the Vice-president was made to take care 
of the increasing duties accompanying the organization of alumnje members. 
One officer is termed the First Vice-president, and has charge of alumna; 
extension, alumnae organization, and is chairman of the Alumnae Association. 
She holds the chairmanship also of the Committee on Chapter Houses which 
supervises all house-building operations. The Second Vice-president has 
charge of expansion. 

When the 1904 Convention in Meadville created the office of Inspector 
in the Council, a new era dawned in the Fraternity,, and an important step 
was taken towards a closer understanding and cooperation between the 
National Council and the active chapters, and a firmer stand was made for 
high scholarship and for thorough business methods w-ithin the chapters. The 
Inspector, or a delegate appointed Hy her, visits each active chapter in the 
interim between the biennial conventions. During these visits she not only 
becomes closely acquainted with the active members of the chapter and 
inspects their books, records, and fraternity equipment to see how the business 
of the chapter is being conducted. l)ut she holds conferences with the Dean 
of Women, the Alumnae Adviser, the Chaperon, the mothers (when possible), 
and with various instructors, in order to learn the standing of the chapter in 
the college, and the scholarship of the individual members. When possible 
she meets with the local Panhellenic .Association. sometime.s addressing that 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Nella Ramsdell Fall, Beta 
Inspector, 1915 

organization, for, being the fraternity representative to the National Pan- 
hellenic Conference, she is well versed in the matters of vital interest to those 
bodies. At least once a semester a report from the Dean of Women and 
scholarship reports of the individual members of each chapter are sent by the 
chapter secretary to the Inspector. The results of her investigations are 
reported by her annually to the National Council, and biennially to the 
National Convention. The close relation existing between the chapters and 
the administration of Alpha Chi Omega has always been a source of gratifica- 
tion to the Council, and when in 1908 the system of official inspection was 
supplemented by the constitutional rec]uirement of Alumna? Advisers, the 
officers felt assured that an even closer and more personal communion had 
been secured. Formerly the office of Alumnae Adviser was optional with the 
chapters, being regulated by chapter policies, but now that it is required and 
is an annual elective one. to insure harmony and sympathy, the small local 
difficulties which confront any chapter, have been greatly minimized and 
a sound, cooperative, working basis established between active chapters, 
alumn;ie, and the National Council. 

Government 141 

Although the Alumna; Advisers form an advisory committee who work 
with the Inspector, conduct the annual fraternity examinations and post- 
initiation examinations, furnish reports to the Province Presidents at stated 
inter\a]s. secure the individual scholarship reports at least once each semes- 
ter, and act as alumnae representatives to the local Panhellenics, their duties 
are otherwise left to their discretion and good judgment. In a word, they act 
as sympathetic guardians to the chapters by whom they are elected and in all 
cases they are sincerely loved by the active members and are chosen to their 
positions because of their ability and loyal fraternity service. 

In 1912 the complex and voluminous duties of the National Council were 
simplified by the adoption, upon the acceptance of the revision of the Con- 
stitution, of the province system of Covernment. The fraternity had grown 
too large for a small number of officers to do satisfactorily the entire work of 
sup>ervision.. As may be seen easily from the accompanying map of the 
provinces, the United States were subdivided into logical groups or sections. 
This division was made with foresight as well as with practicality. No 
change in the provinces will need to be made for many years if at all. The 
divisions were made as follows : 

Pacific Province : Washington, California, Oregon, Idaho. Montana, 
Nevada, Utah, Arizona. 

Western : Nebraska, Kansas, Colorado, North Dakota, South Dakota, 
Oklahoma, Wyoming, New Mexico. 

Central : Iowa. Illinois, Wisconsin, Arkansas. Minnesota. Missouri. 
Eastern: Michigan, Indiana, Ohio, West Virginia, Kentucky, Virginia, 
Tennessee, North Carolina, Maryland. 

Atlantic : Pennsylvania, New York. Massachusetts, Ontario, Maine, 
Vermont, New Hampshire, Connecticut. Rhode Islantl. New Jersey, Dela- 

Southern: Georgia, Texas. Louisiana. Florida, Mississippi, Alabama, 
South Carolina. 

(The Southern Province is combined with the Eastern until three Chapters 
shall lie within the Southern Province.) 

The president for each province inspects "the chapters within her province 
once in two years in the year alternating with the visit of the National 
Inspector, or at any other time deemed advi.sable by the National Council" ; 
she keeps "a correct card index directory of her province" ; grades "the second 
and third-year examination papers of each chapter," cooperates with the exten- 
sion vice-president in matters of extension and alumnae work ; and forwards a 
detailed report to the National Inspector of the condition and welfare of 
the chapters within her province on the first of December and the first of 
April of each year. 

With the increasing development of the Fraternity has come the need for 
sectional meetings of chapters to decide upon matters of minor and local 
importance. Therefore it has been provided that such gatherings may meet, 
and at no far distant date there will be this additional opportunity for inter- 
chapter discussions. In the Code (Title VII. Clause 5) occurs the provision: 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Province Presidents 

Alice Watson Dixon, Gamma 
President Eastern Province, 1913-1914 

Grace Hammond Holmes, Delta 
President Atlantic Province, 1913-1915 

"The chapters in a province may hold a Province Convention at such 
time and place as they may agree upon provided said agreement be approv'ed 
by the president of that province. Each chapter shall make separate pro- 
vision for meeting the expenses of its delegate to said convention, but no 
penalty shall attain to any chapter for lack of representation in such conven- 
tion. No Province Convention may enact anv legislation to conflict with the 
Bond, Constitution. Code, or Ritual of this Fraternity." 

The results of the province system of government have been significantly 
satisfactory. The province pre.sidents stand in the close, personal relation to 
the individual chapters in wliich the council members wish to be but cannot be 
on account of distance and of the heavy burdens of their offices. 

As the province president through her own efforts and through the 
cooperation of the alumna adviser brings Council and chapter into closer 
understanding with each other, so in a more personal way, does the mysta- 
gogue bring to the individual member advice and sympathetic interpretation 
of the meaning of fraternity and its responsibilities and opportunities. A 
mystagogue is appointed for each pledged member from among the upper- 
classmen in the chapter. All details of a personal nature are referred by the 
girl, or by the chapter, to the mystagogue. Usually such matters need go no 
further ; and the new members attain adaptabilitv with the minimum of time 
and nerve expenditure. 

The chapter is, therefore, guided by its own members, by its alumna 
adviser, by its province president, as well as by the National Inspector, and 
the National Council. Each chapter officer has direct relations with a corres- 

3 > 




<-»■ 3 













< n 





n 03 
n 3 

3 ^• 

o o- 

< 5 

144 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

ponding national officer, that is, the president of a chapter cUscusses her prob- 
lems directl}' with the National President, the chapter treasurer's business is 
transacted with the National Treasurer. Harmony and the deepest interest, 
sweetened often by strong ])ersonal affection, characterize the intercourse 
between the National Council and the varioiLs chapters. Cooperation is our 

Mrs. El Fleda Coleman Jackson, Gamma 
President of Eastern Province, 1916 

Following is the list of Province Presidents, 1913-1916: 

Central Province: Mrs. Newton Roberts, April, 1913, 1914-1915; Mrs. 
Ellis Rhodes, 19 15-. 

Eastern Province: Mrs. Willard Dixon, April, igij; Mrs. Hatswell- 
Bowman, 1914-1915; Miss Frances Kirkwood, 1915-16; Mrs. Wayman C. 
Jackson, 19 16-. 

Western Province: Mrs. Thomas Mauck, April, 191 3; Mrs. Newton 
Roberts, 1914-1915; Mrs. Vincent C. Hascall, 1915-. 

Pacific Province: Mrs. Frederick M. Green, April. 1913; 1914-1915; 
Miss Anne Shepard, 19 15-. 

Atlantic Province: Mrs. Arthur Holmes, April, 1913, 1914-1915; Miss 
Anne McLeary, 19 15-. 

The finances of the Fraternity are managed by the National Treasurer, 
who is assisted by a Deputy Treasurer, and the Finance Board. The budget 



system is used in the handlinj,^ of national funds, and in the financial manage- 
ment of chapters. The National Treasurer has custody of all current moneys, 
and oversight of all minor funds of the l'"ratcrnity. She also has direct super- 
vision of all financial matters of active chapters. She receives monthly 
reports, on printed forms, of their expenditures, their receipts, and their 
liabilities. By wise direction in the use of the budget system she makes 
possible uniformly businesslike and discreet financial management in all the 
chapters.* Therefore we iind. at the outset, that careful .supervision and 


(To be filled out and returned to National Treasurer within two weeks after opening of college.) 



BUDGET FOR (year) 

No. members in cliapter No. members in house _ _ 

Room rent per member per month Board per member per | ^^t,,. 

Initiation fee (including $5 payment to Lyre) „ 

Dues per member per j '""""^ 


Outstanding indebtedness, if any, at beginning of college year? 

For what incurred? _ How is indebtedness to be met? 





1 Month 

1 Year || 

1 Month 1 


Room rent . 
Summer rent 


Active members 

Initiation fees . . . 

Alumn.Te clues . . . . 

Miscellaneous . . . . 


Extra meals 


Rent of house 





Furniture .... 


Insurance .... 
Chaperon . . . . , 



Telephone . . . . 
Miscellaneous . . 


Per capita tax 

Lyre subscriptions . . . . 




Other entertainment 

Cut in Lyre 

Cut in college annual 
Membership cards . . . 




Total .... 






1 Month 1 

Year 1 1 

1 .Month 1 


Groceries, meats 








Chapter Treasurer. 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

uniform methcKi which in a larj^^e organization are essential to orderliness, 
economv. and progress. 

The development of the financial system has been correlative with the 
growth and progress of other departments within the Fraternity. During the 

Myr.a. H. Jones, Lambda 

National Treasurer, 1915 

first two years of the existence of Alpha Chi Omega the finances were con- 
trolled and borne by Alpha Chapter. With the increase of chapters, installa- 
tion fees and annual chapter dues have been paid into the National Treasury 


A budget of chapter expenses in an estimate of the receipts and expenditures of the chapter 
for the following college year, computed in advance, as far as practicable, on a basis of the 
previous twelve months' figures. To obtain such an estimate the accounts for the previous year 
should be gone over carefully, and the expenses of the various items— fuel, light, water, etc. — 
totalled. Because of the general increase in prices, an advance of 10 per cent should be added 
to the totals of all variable expenses. (e. g., house rent is an exact expense; expense for 
fuel is variable.) A liberal allowance should be made for miscellaneous expenses, as these are 
usually greater than estimated. 

The per capita tax should be provided for in monthly or semester dues, and should not be 
made a special assessment. 

Amount of room rent to be charged should be computed on the basis of the estimate total 
expenditures under house expenses, divided by the number of girls in the house. 

Budget must be made out in duplicate by the chapter treasurer with the help of the chapter 
president at the beginning of the college year, and shall be voted on by the active chapter. One 
copy shall be retained by the chapter treasurer and one copy sent to the National Treasurer for 


for the general maintenance of the national organization. This fund provides 
for the immense volume of business carried on by the national officers, for the 
inspection and installation of chapters, for the railroad fare of the chapters' 
delegates to national conventions, and for the expenses of the national officers 
to their required assemblings, lentil 1908 the National Treasury also assisted 
in the financing of The Lyre, but at the convention of that year the Business 
Manager of The Lyre reported to tlie great satisfaction of the Fraternity that 
the magazine had become self-supporting. Since 1910, The Lyre has been able 
to return the courtesy of early assistance by loans without interest to the 
National Treasury, by the sharing of various items of expense, by the 
publication of the membership directory at the loss of o\er two luuulred 
dollars to The Lyre, and by contributions to national funds. These national 
funds, the Reserve Fund, I'he Lyre Reserve Fund, and the Scholarship Fund, 
have swelled in the last six years to workable amounts, and will become, 
eventually, a useful endowment for the work of the organization. Although 
they are very small, so far, compared to endowment funds, they have proved, 
through wise management, of great value in constructive enterprises. 

I'he chief sources of the revenue of the Fraternity are four: the per 
capita tax paid by active members ; the alumn;e notes paid for two years by 
nonactive members : a .slight profit on the sale of fraternity badges made in 
quantities by a sole official jeweler : and from gifts. The first-mentioned tax 
is paid in Februarv by all members in active chapters. Alumnae notes are a 
comparatively new source of income. In common with general fraternity 
practise. Alpha Chi Omega asks alumna' to contribute to the support of the 
organization for a short period, at least, alter severing active relatioD.s with 
their chapter. This support takes, with Alpha Chi Omega, the form of two 
notes for live dollars each, made out at initiation, and payable annually the 
two years after leaving the college. r)ne-fifth of this amount, or more if 
possible, goes to the Scholarship Fund, one-fifth to the Convention Fund, 
and the remainder to the Huilding Fund of the chapter of which the alumna 
is a member. The profit which accrues to the Fraternitv from the sale of 
all badges by one jeweler, instead of by three jewelers, is slight on each 
badge but considerable on the purchases of a year. This income goes into 
the Scholarship Fund. The gifts from individual members have been made 
for specific purposes, such as for the Reserve Fund, or the Scholarship Fund. 
The chapters and clubs have made gifts as groujjs for the Macdowell Colony 
Studio and for the Reserve Fund. Through these various avenues, the 
funds have come into the coffers of the national organization which, through 
sagacity and economy in administration, have made possible wide develop- 
ment of internal interests. 

Another imi)ortant feature of the fraternity governmeiu is the examination 
system. "Know your own fraternity, and your neighbor (ireeks" is the 
theme of the purpose of the system. The Official Fxaminer may seem at times 
a rather hard taskmaster with lier searching (juestions and lier effort to ascer- 

148 The History of Alpha Chi Ojmega Fraternity 

tain precisely what each member thinks upon matters of Panhellenic policy, 
and of college and fraternity relationship. Nevertheless, there is no member 
of the Fraternity ^vho does not find that the thought she \vas forced to give 
such questions has made her a better Greek and a more loyal alumna of her 

The examination system now in use consists of three sets of questions. 
In the .spring of each year, suggestions for study are sent to each alumnae 
adviser of each chapter, who in turn transmits them to the chapters. Every 
member of the Fraternity, except those who have been in the chapter for four 
years, is required to take one of these examinations. For the newly initiated, 
there is an elementary set of questions based on the history of the national 
fraternity and the local chapter, the National Panhellenic Congress, and the 
College Panhellenic, and questions of general collegiate interest. For the 
second-year member an examination has been prepared which rec|uires a very 
accurate and definite knowledge of the constitution and code of Alpha Chi 
Omega. Questions are asked on all phases of local and national policies. The 
third-year examination requires little statistical knowledge, but endeavors to 
make the members of the fraternity express their attitude on Panhellenic 
questions, scholarship in its relation to fraternities, the Interfraternity Con- 
ference, honorary and professional societies, and other matters of general 
interest to all college as well as all fraternity women. 

These outlines cover more detailed and more comprehensive matters than 
those of the early examinations. Wider intelligence in fraternity and educa- 
tional affairs has been required each year by the questions asked. The first 
uniform list of questions appears in the minutes of the Eighth National Con- 
vention (1902) in the report of the committee to prepare a list of questions 
"to be used for the examination of pledged girls before the initiation." The 
list of questions decided upon were the following twelve : 

1. What was the first fraternity founded in the United States? When? 

2. State in a g'eneral way the development of the fraternity system. 

3. What was the first sorority founded in the United States? Where? 

4. Name the national sororities in the United States and describe the 
pin of each. 

5. In what institutions in this state are these sororities represented? 

6. Name seven representative national fraternities. 

7. Name the national honorary fraternity and describe its badge. 

8. Where was Alpha Chi Omega founded? When? By whom? 

9. Name the chapters of Alpha Chi Omega Sorority in order of their 
establishment, and name the institution, city, and state in which each is 

10. Name the fraternities represented in this institution. 

Government 149 

11. Name the sororities reiircsented in tliis institution in the order of 
their establishment. 

12. In talking with a person unacquainted with or prejudiced against 
fraternities, what good practical reasons \vt)uld you give in favor of frater- 
nities? Give at least seven reasons. (The answer to be based upon the 
article in Baird's .1 /iii-rican Fraternities.) 

Prior to 1902, fraternity examinations in Alpha Chi Omega were optional 
with the chapters, the general custom being that of giving them only to 
pledged members immediately prior to their initiation. During the period 
from 1902 to 1908, official fraternity examinations were held annually for 
both pledges and active members. As the lack of necessity for requiring 
active members to take these examinations every year soon became apparent, 
the 1908 Grand Chapter ordered that a system of graded examinations be 
adopted, and appointed Alta Allen Loud and Mabel Harriet Siller to prepare 
the sets of questions. This plan provides for a preentrance examination to be 
given immediatelv before initiation, a second examination to be given in the 
second year of fraternity life, and another in the third year, the members 
active for four or more years to be exempt from further examinations. 

The questiotis are not confined to facts concerning Alpha Chi Omega, nor 
even to fraternity matters in general, but they include points of general 
collegiate interest which every fraternity member should know. The pre- 
entrance examination covers the organization and history of Alpha Chi 
Omega ; the second covers the constitutit)n, by-laws, ritual, and ceremonies ; 
while the third deals with policies, alumnae chapters, Panhellenic, and general 
fraternity and collegiate matters. 

For several years a committee of the National Council had charge of the 
examinations, but as this extra work proved too great a tax upon these officers, 
in 1909 the Council authorized the appointment of an official examiner. This 
office was held by Mary Ferine, B, in 1909-1910; by Mary Emma (Griffith, A, 
in 1910-1915; and by Bertha H. Reichert, 2, 1915. The examinations are 
conducted by the alumnje advisers of the respective chapters, who correct the 
preentrance papers (as these examinations are given at diverse times of the 
year) and send the other papers to the province president who corrects them 
and sends the grades to the Official Examiner. A report of chapter averages 
is published annually. 

The system of examinations is accomplishing its purpose. It is consummat- 
mg the desire of the national officers of tlie Fraternity that members shall know 
something about every member of the Panhellenic Congress, shall be alile to 
talk intelligently upon questions of general fraternity interest, and have a 
general knowledge of the various agencies connected with the educational 
advancement of women. 

Since the policy of Alpha Chi Omega on the ciuestion of extension is so 
well stated in the article written on that subject by Alta Allen Loud, in The 
Lyre for November, 1910, that contribution, with revision to bring it up to 
date, is quoted in this connection : 

150 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

As we near the completion of the first thirty-one years of our existence as a 
Greek-letter Fraternity, two questions present themselves to us. First, have we justified 
our right to live and used worthily the gift of Fraternity bestowed upon us in 1885? 
Second, have we grown wisely and well and has our policy of expansion been all that 
could be desired? 

To answer the first question would require a thorough investigation and a heart-to- 
heart talk not at all appropriate to appear on the pages of a journal read by those out- 
side our ranks. Yet without self-glorification, we who know the richness of the inner 
life of Alpha Chi Omega can sav to one another that this right has been deeply jus- 

To concern ourselves for a moment with question two: 

Among the older women's fraternities, two distinct classes may be found — those with 
large chapter rolls which endeavor to find a place in all the leading schools of the 
country, and a smaller number, characterized by a spirit of conservatism, whose chapters 
are found in comparatively few institutions, but these usually among the best. Among 
the younger fraternities some are following one lead, some another, although the present 
tendency seems to be toward a pretty rapid expansion, many apparently feeling eager 
to be counted among the pioneers. 

Of our twenty-three chapters, eighteen are in large universities, one in a conservatory 
of music, and four in denominational colleges. In all these institutions the Department 
of Liberal Arts is excellent, and with the exception of possibly two universities, a good, 
strong School of Music is in direct affiliation with the institution. In these two the 
music departments are comparatively young and stress is laid on the theoretical side. But 
in these and practically all other institutions in the country, the need of music is being 
felt more and more. Higher credits are given for that work and we 'believe that in the 
near future our leading educators will come to recognize the music department of as 
much vital importance to the schools as the departments of mathematics, science, and 
the .languages. 

Necessarily, because of our two-fold requirements, our growth, in the jiast, has Iteen 
a slow one. But for that gradual growth, we are indeed thankful. Had we granted all 
the petitions for charters that have come to us, our chapter roll would be a very long one. 
Many requests for membership have been refused, the majority never going beyond the 
National Council. 

Briefly stated, our method of extension work is as follows : the extension Vice- 
president acts as extension chairman, keeps on file a list of approved institutions, and 
cares for all correspondence and necessary work. With her in the work are associated the 
other members of the National Council and a large extension committee. If she deems 
it advisable, petitions, recommendations, class records, question blanks, photographs, 
et cetera, go the rounds of the Council. If further action is desired, a national officer, 
or someone selected bj' the Council, visits the petitioners and then reports either for or 
against them. If her recommendation be favorable, the matter is presented to the 
council members for their vote. Often petitioners are urged to wait, to organize them- 
selves into a local, with internal development as their aim. And it is surprising to see 
the changes and improvements that occur in one or two years in a group of earnest 
young women banded together with the definite purpose of securing a national sister- 

At the close of thirty-one years of our existence, twenty-three active and twelve 
alumnae chapters, and twenty alumnte clubs are our portion. That this growth has been 
a slow, steady one is proved by the fact that during the first ten years of our life but six 
chapters were chartered. Since 1895 seventeen more have been added, usually not more 
than one in a year. 

On the whole, we are well content with the progress made and with our extension, 
which to some outsiders and even to some in our own ranks, has seemed slow. Internal 
development, rather than a rapid extension, has been our aim, and we are thankful for 
the close, intimate relation that has thus been possible between chapters and officers. 
Constitution and Ritual have been revised, ceremonies added and changed, our initiatory 
work amplified, and many perplexing questions of national and chapter policy 'deter- 
mined. Now, while by no means satisfied, we can rest fairly well content with the 
elimination of many of the petty problems, and look forward with eagerness to a struggle 
with the larger questions of fraternal and Panhellenic interest. 

The future will bring us more chapters. We are ambitious for no stated number. 
We care naught for a lengthy chapter roll, per se. But wherever we shall find desirable 
types of young womanhood, in institutions that meet our requirements, we shall gladly 



consider them, believing in the strength of union, and the desirability of a well-distributed 
sisterhood. As our anniversary day draws near, we feel very grateful to the seven 
women who made Alpha Chi Omega possible for us, and we desire to develop inwardly 
and outwardly so as to express in the noblest sense the realization of their cherished 
ideals. We regard the gift of Fraternity as a sacred one and mean to be unselfish in 
the sharing of that gift, realizing that Fraternity bestows infinitely more upon any 
individual or group, no matter how worthy, than they can render the Fraternity. 

With the development of every part of the Fraternity, one sees distinct 
though gradual changes in the administrative policies. The duties of mem- 
bers of the council have increased tremendously; the correspondence alone 
of a council member is equal to that of a thriving business house. The 
powers of the body have been increased also, and are in every way equal to 
those of the National Convention, even to the granting of charters ; but it 
may not amend the constitution. As the administrative duties of the order 
have increased so greatly, the division of labor has multiplied remarkably. 
Instead of half a dozen women engaged in national work, there are now more 
than one hundred and fifty. The personnel of the administrative force 
changes less rapidly as the following table illustrates, even though the burdens 
of the officers are heavier than of vore : 

National Officers of Three or More Years' Service 

Vrs. in 




Cowger, Raeburn, A : 

Grand President, 1898-1900; 1900-02 

Grand Historian. 1902-05 
Tennant, Mary Jones. A : 

Inspector, 1905-07; 1907-09; 1909-10 

Grand Vice-president, 1906-07 
Wilson, Mary Janet, A : 

President, 1896-97; 1897-98 

Editor of Lyre, 1897-98; 1898-1900 
Drake, Kate Calkins. B : 

Grand President, 1902-05; 1905-07 
Loud, Alta Allen, B : 

Secretary, 1897-98 

Grand President, 1907-09; 1909-10; 1912-15; 
Dennis, Myrta McKean, r : 

Grand Treasurer, 1909-10 

Inspector, 1910-12 
Nafis, Mabel Siller, T: 

Grand Secretary, 1900-02 

Grand Historian, 1905-07; 1907-09; 1909-10 
Stanford, Mary, V : 

Treasurer, 1891-93 

President. 1893-94 



The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

National Officers of Three or More Years' Service 

Yrs. in 


No. Yrs 




Fleming, Gertrude Ogden, A : 


Treasurer, 1896-97; 1897-98; 1898-99 


Harper, Florence, A : 

Grand Treasurer, 1899-1900; 1900-02 



Hayne, Bertha Sackett, A : 

Grand Secretary, 1903-05 
Grand Vice-president, 1905-06 



Kent, Fay Barnaby, A : 

Grand Vice-president, 1909-10; 1910-12; 1912-15 
Seiple, Charlotte Weber, A : 

Vice-president, 1893-94 

Secretary, 1894-96 
Griffin, Edith Manchester, Z : 





Editor of Lyre, 1900-02 ; 1902-05 ; 1905-06 


Haseltine, Florence Reed, Z : 


Editor of Lyre, 1907-09; 1909-10 


Howe, Laura, Z : 

Grand Treasurer, 1905-07; 1907-09 



Greene, Virginia Fiske, ® : 

Grand Vice-president, 1902-05 
Grand Secretary, 1905-06 

Howell, Marcia Clark, © : 




Grand Vice-president, 1907-09 
Grand Secretary, 1906-07 


Zimmerman, Lillian, K : 


Grand Treasurer, 1912-15 


First Vice-president, 1915-17 
Armstrong. Florence A., M : 

Editor of Zj7r, 1910-12; 1912-15; 1915-17 




Crann, Lois Smith, M : 

Inspector, 1912-15; 1915-16 (Jan.) 
Ely, Birdean Motter, O: 



National Secretary, 1912-15 


The tendency is toward the retaining of proved officers in position for a 
long period of time. The trend is, to an extraordinary degree, on the part 
of all the persons in positions of responsibility, toward insistence that the 
Fraternity be a more powerfully beneficent force in the practical experience 
of individuals ; that the organized groups serve more widely the communities 
in which they live ; and that the entire national organization, in all its 
strength, its influence, and its prestige, be each year of greater help in the 
attainment of the ideal conditions of life. 



Alpha Chi Omega Conventions have provided the means by which the 
Fraternity has been enabled to advance, from the time when Alpha Chapter 
sent its first ■ delegates. Mary Janet Wilson and Anna Cowperthwaite, to 
Albion, to hold an informal conference with Beta Chapter upon important 
matters of mutual fraternity interest, thus paving the way for the first 
National Convention in the fall of that year, 1891, when the fraternity family 
consisted of three chapters. As our Conventions are studied from that time 
down to the last convention of twenty-one chapters, with its strict parlia- 
mentary procedure and its unprecedented attendance of ten to every active 
chapter, the realization deepens that were it not for the character, the loyalty, 
and the true womanliness of those who composed the early membership of 
Alpha Chi Omega, the larger and later development of the Fraternity would 
have been impossible. It is, therefore, with respect and deepened interest that 
attention is focused upon all the conventions in the history of Alpha Chi 
Omega and with true perception that the same enthusiasm, devotion, hard 
work, and ability have characterized each one. and have been as potential 
factors in determining the present success of the Fraternity, as they will be 
in moulding its future. 

First National Convention 

Alpha Chapter fittingly acted as hostess for the First National Conven- 
tion October 20-23, 1891. The homes of Anna Allen Smith and Ethel 
Sutherlin were thrown open to the business sessions which were conducted 
by Anna Cowperthwaite. Delegates from Alpha, Beta, and Gamma were 
present. The business of the first convention was largely concerning the 
perfecting of the organization of the Fraternity and although few were in 
attendance, much of importance was accomplished. 

Alpha was chosen as Grand Chapter, and, according to the usual 
method of fraternitv government at that time, final decisions were made by 
her between conventions. The chapter by which each national oifice should 
be held was first selected and the incumbent for the office then chosen. The 
officers thus elected were : 

General President, Ja Nette Allen, B. 

General Vice-president, Bertha Moore, A. 

General Corresponding Secretary, Jessie Fox, A. 

General Recording Secretary, Zannie Tate, A. 

General Treasurer, Mary Stanford, T. 

The ritual was ordered written in a separate book from the constitution 
and other less secret ceremonies. A pledging ceremony was formulated ; 
signs and syTnbols were discussed ; a salutation to the chair was decided upon ; 
and, in accordance with the custom of the age, a "courage test" was adopted. 

The subject of extension was as a matter of course, an important theme 
for consideration. The fields considered eligible for extension included 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

the great Avomen's colleges of the East into which no national fraternities 
have entered and probably never will enter, and also fields into which Alpha 
Chi Omega placed chapters at a much later date. Wellesley, Ohio Wesleyan, 
and Syracuse University were tentative propositions. The deliberations of 
the early conventions were full of caution, so that, whereas chapters were not 
established where they might well have been, but one was established where 
it oufirht not to have been. 

Ja Nette Allen Cushman, Beta 
General President, 1891-1893 

The question of publications which seldom concerns so youthful a frater- 
nity was taken up. seriously. A fraternity magazine was planned for, to be 
published as soon as the addition of two more chapters should increase the 
chapter roll to six. Beta, it w^as planned, should issue this publication. A 
songbook was definitely provided for by the effective method of requiring 
from each chapter four songs, set to music (one to be sacred) to be completed 
"before the close of the spring term." 

After discussion, nut cake was chosen as the fraternity cake. 

As a regular convention register was not employed until 1908, the atten- 
dance lists of the early conventions must necessarily be incomplete. 

Nation A l Con v k n iion s 



Delegates — Alpha, Mildred Rutledge. 

Beta, Ja Nette Allen, Lulu Keller. 
Gamma, El Fleda Coleman. 
Delta, not represented. 
Others Members Present — Doubtless all of Alpha active chapter of that 
time and their alumna; then living in (Ireencastle were present. 

The list of the active mcmliers of Alpha Chapter at the time of the 
1891 Convention is as follows: 

Pearl Armitage, Anna Cowperthwaite, Jessie Fox, Bessie Latimer, Laura 
Marsh, Bertha Moore. Carrie Moore, Zella Marshall, Mildred Rutledge, 
Daisy Steele, and Janet Wilson. 

The resident alumn;i? at tlie time were Anna Allen Smith and Ella Best. 

Social Features 

First Evening — Informal party at the home of Mary Janet Wilson. 

Second Evening — Convention attended, in a body, a musicale in which 
several Alpha Chis took ^rt, given under direction of Dean Howe. 

The Convention was also entertained at some of the fraternity halls, 
but the records are indefinite. 

Second National Convention 
The Second National Convention was held in Albion, Michigan, February 
22-24, 1893. Beta's fraternity hall (then on the top floor of the Administra- 
tion Building) was the meeting place. 

It was arranged that each chapter 
should send to convention a delegate and 
a grand officer, the expenses to be met as 
far as possible from the National Trea- 
sury. The following officers were elected 
for the year 1893-1894: 

( leneral President, Mary Stanford, F. 

( lencral Vice-president, Charlotte 
WebcT. A. 

( ieneral Corresponding Secretary, 
I. aura Marsh. A. 

Ccneral Recording Secretary, Eflfa 
Simpson, B. 

The constitution and initiation cere- 
monies were carefully reviewed with sug- 
gestions for improvements. The chair 
authorized Mayme Jennings, A. Mary 
Stanford. P. and Lulu Keller, B. to make 
up forms of resignation and expulsion of 
members. In case of the death of a mem- 
ber, mourning was arranged to be worn 
for two weeks by the chaitter to which the deceased had belonged. 

Mary Sta.nford, Gamma 

General Treasurer, 1891-1895 
General President. 1893-1894 

156 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraterxity 

Extension was discussed with reference to one of the western state univer- 
sities and several large eastern colleges. It was decided to "place chapters in 
conservatories of good musical standing as well as literary" centers. 

Gamma Chapter was appointed to publish the first edition of an Alpha 
Chi Omega songbook in pamphlet form. 

For the first type of pledge pin, "a very small Ivre stick pin with white 
enamel chapter head on it." was authorized. 

Matters of various interests were discussed : such as the frequency of 
conventions ; the representation of Alpha Chi Omega at the World's Fair 
in Chicago, Mary Stanford and El Fleda Coleman being instructed to make 
plans therefor ; the appointment of a committee to write an account of Alpha 
Clii Omega for Baird's Fraternily Record and for the World's Almanac. 
A pleasant interfratemity courtesy is brieiiy recorded thus : "A piano lamp, 
the gift of A T A's Epsilon to Beta, was found in the hall. 


Delegates — Alpha. Mrs. Best. Mayme Jennings. Ida Steele. 
Beta. Ethel Calkins. Lulu Keller. 
Gamma. Mary Stanford, El Fleda Coleman. 
Delta, Fern Pickard, Virginia Porter. 
Other Members Present — Doubtless all of Beta active chapter of that time 
and their resident alumnae were present. 

The active members at the time of the 1893 Convention were : 
Ja Nette Allen, Ethel J. Calkins. Clarissa Dickie, Gertrude Fairchild. 
Lulu Keller, June Kirke. Eusebia Davidson. Cora Harrington. Florence 
Woodhams, Effa Simpson, and Glenna Schantz. 
The resident alumnae were : 

Grace Brown. Blanche Bunday. Emma Crittenden. Belle Fiske. Georgiana 
Gale, Marion Howlett, Hattie Lovejoy. Kate Rood. Maude Snell. Daisy 
Snell, and Jennie Worthington. 

Social Features 

Second Evening — Musicale at the home of Ja Nette Allen, to Avhich the 
faculty, the Fraternity, and other friends were invited. 

Third Evening — Banquet at the Albion House. The Convention was 
also entertained informally by Delta Tau Delta in their fraternity hall. 
Favors: Pansy stick pins (Pansy — the Delta Tau Delta flower) were pre- 
sented to the guests. 

Third National Convention 

Evanston, Illinois, was the scene of the Third National Convention, 
February 28 to March 3, 1894, Gamma Chapter being hostess, and Mary 
Stanford, r, chairman. 

Beta became in rotation the Grand Chapter, and the election of officers 
resulted thus : 

General President, Charlotte Weber, A. 

General Vice-president, Mayme Jennings, A. 

National Conventions 157 

General Treasurer, Ella Strong, r. 

General Recording Secretary, Virginia Porter, A. 

General Corresponding Secretary, Irene Clark, B. 

The suggestion that the treasurer remain in the same chapter as Icmg as 
possible was offered with the intention of giving the finances a settled basis 
for growth. The motion carried that "the present treasurer. Ella Strong, r, 
keep her office." 

Special discussion was devoted to the initiation and installation ceremo- 
nies, and the system of membership card files was introduced whereby personal 
record of individual members could be conveniently maintained. 

The new price set for charters granted was twenty dollars. Discussions 
of desirable fields for extension resulted in the elimination of many colleges 
because of the fraternity's insistence on good musical opportunities as well 
as literary opportunities for study. A letter from Los Angeles was read 
and discussed regarding a chapter at the University of Southern California. 

Alpha was authorized to edit a fraternity journal, and (iamma announced 
the publication of the new songbook. 

The fact that Alpha Chi Omega was not represented at the World's Fair 
because of the report that "none of the fraternities were" impels us to compare 
the lack of intercourse in those days with the present close relation of every 
National Panhellenic Congress fraternity. 


Delegates — Alpha, Mayme Jennings. Laura jNIarsh. Minnie McGill. 
Beta, Hiattie I-ovejoy, Irene Clark. Cora Harrington. 
Gamma, El Fleda Coleman. 
Delta, Charlotte Weber. May Graham. 
Other Members Present — Gamma, Jeanette Evans. Ella Young, Athlena 
McCorkle, Marg-uerite Bolan, Florence Harris, Carrie Woods, Suzanne Mul- 
ford. Edith Jordan. Fannie Grafton. F.lla Strong. Blanche Skiff. 

Social Features 

Wednesday Evening — Informal gathering at the home of Miss Stanford. 
Wednesday Evening — Reception and musicale at the home of Miss Young. 

Fourth National Convention 

Delta Chapter in Meadville. Pennsvlvania. was hostess for the Fourth 
National Convention, April 8-10, 1896. The delegates convened in the 
fraternity room, and the business sessions were presided over by Margaret 
Barber, A, chairman, and recorded by Lulu Jolms. E. 

Epsilon and Zeta had l)een installed in the meantime and were repre- 
sented in the convention and given their share of responsibilities in the 
organization. The motion proffered that "Alpha be Grand Cliapter always" 
is illustrative of the impossibility of legislating for eternity in the light of the 
fact that the following convention superseded the Grand Chapter system 
of government by creating a Grand Council. It was moved and carried that 
"a list of subjects to be discussed at Convention be sent from each chapter 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

to the General Secretary and that she send a list to the different delegates 
before they leave their chapters that they may fully know the desires of 
their chapters." Following is the election of officers : 

General President, Mary Janet Wilson. A. 

General Recording Secretary, Ida Steele, A. 

General Treasurer, Gertrude Ogden, A. 

The non-musical cheer was improved, and in addition a new musical yell, 
formulated by Gertrude Rennyson. Z, was adopted. Both yells are still in 
popular use. 

The convention laid plans for installing chapters in different parts of 
the country. This extension work was, however, from necessity, left to indi- 
vidual chapters to carry forward in the absence of a central governing body. 
It is not surprising, therefore, that their really excellent plans "gang aft 

Zannie Tate Osgood 

Secretary, 1891-1893 

Effa Simpson Parmenter 
Secretary, 1893-1894 

Ida Steele Barrett 
Secretary, 1896-1897 

In the minutes of this Fourth Convention we find "Beta in favor of having 
a journal published periodically." Since the journal was again insisted upon, 
the convention took up the matter of financing a magazine, to be called The 
Lyre. Alpha was given authority to continue the work of publication and 
to decide upon the cover design and form. The burdens of the work were, 
nevertheless, wisely shared by all the chapters, a committee being "appointed 
in each chapter to take charge of journal work, both financial and literary." 
Gamma Chapter was also ordered to publish the second edition of the song- 

The matter of fraternity jewelry was investigated in all its details. There 
was even the minor consideration of choosing a design for social stationerv, 
and so a monogram was adopted "consisting of the Greek letters in center 
at top of page." 


162 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

The desire to substitute the l)roader term fraternity for sorority in desig- 
nating the organization was, for a time, thwarted. The business sessions 
closed with a vote of thanks extended to the different fraternities for sending 
flowers to the assembled convention. 


Delegates — Alpha, Ida Steele. 

Beta, Josephine Parker. 
Gamma, Lillian Siller, Florence Harris. 
Delta, Gertrude Ogden, Florence Harper, 
Epsilon, Lulu Johns. 

Zeta, Barbara Strickler, Gertrude Rennyson. 
Other Members Present — Gamma, Marguerite Bolan ; Delta, Jane Ogden, 
Susanna Porter, Fay Barnaby, Anna Ray, Flora Pendleton, Edith Moore, 
Sara Evans, Helen Edsall. 

The active members at the time of the 1896 Convention were: 
Florence Moore, May Graham, Fay Barnaby, Anna Ray, Bertha Sackett, 
Edith Roddy, Carrie Gaston. Zella Howe, Flora Eastman, Susanna Porter, 
Gertrude Ogden. Jane Ogden, Adelaide Wilson, Mary Lord, Flora Pendle- 
ton, Margaret Barber, Bertha Cribbs, Helen Edsall, Alta Moyer, Maud 
Maxwell, Lois McMullen. 

The resident alumnae were : 

Sara Evans, Lou Fair, Virginia Porter, Fern Pickard, Mrs. Dick, Effie 
Sherrod, Ada Lenheart, Evelyn Bright, Gertrude Sackett. 

Social Features 

Wednesday Evening — Reception and musicale. 
Thursday Evening — Reception at home of Mrs. Walter Harper. 
Friday Afternoon — Receptions by Kappa Alpha Theta and Kappa Kappa 
Gamma in their fraternity rooms. 

Friday Evening — Banquet at Commercial Hotel. 

Fifth National Convention 

The delegates to the Fifth National Convention were the guests of Alpha 
Chapter in Greencastle, Indiana, March 30-April 2, 1897. This time the 
sessions were conducted in Alpha's fraternity hall, and Mary Janet Wilson, 
president, took the chair with Ja Nette Allen Cushman as substitute. 

Promptness was urged upon the chapters in "responding to business 
letters." Officers elected were : 

General President and Editor of Lyre, Mary Janet Wilson, A. 

General Secretary, Alta Allen, B. 

General Treasurer, Gertrude Ogden, A. 

The convention placed the task of selecting a secret motto in the hands 
of Beta. 

Very businesslike arrangements Avere made regarding payment on Novem- 
ber 1, February 1, and May 1 of national dues and receipts for the same by the 
Grand Treasurer who should henceforth hold office for two years. The 


164 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Lyre was financially strengthened by the enforcement of subscription upon 
all active members. 

Here, too, the legislation was reversed which had temporarily allowed the 
entering of a conservatory of "good musical standing." Henceforth, as 
originally, chapters should be established only in institutions where a good 
college and a good conservatory are connected. 

The Fifth Convention moved and carried that "at least three jewels be 
required in the setting of the pin," exception being made "in the case of 
* * Deaconesses who desire plain pins." Three official jewelers were 
selected, and Alpha was appointed to copyright the badge. 

At this time the word sorority in the Constitution was changed to frater- 
nity. Delta received orders to make arrangements for a register of Alpha 
Chi Omega to be placed at Chautauqua. Thanks were sent to Kappa Kappa 
Gamma for the courtesy of flowers sent to the convention. 


Delegates — Alpha, Helen O'Dell, Mildred Rutledge. 
Beta, Alta Allen, Ada Dickie. 
Gamma, Mabel Harriet Siller. 
Delta, Susanna Porter. 
Epsilon and Zeta not represented. 
Other Members Present — Alpha, Pearl Shaw, Raeburn Cowger, Myrtle 
Wilder, Meta Horner, Louise Ullyette, Helen Birch, Anna Allen Smith, 
Estelle Morse, Alta De Vore, Eva Osborn, Lucy Andrews, Ida Steele, Helen 
Herr, Alberta Miller, Alice Heaton, Feme Wood; Beta, Ja Nette Allen Cush- 
man, Jessie Cushman. 

Social Features 

Tuesday Evening — Lorelei Club Concert. 

Wednesday Afternoon — Musicale at Music Hall. 

Wednesday Evening — Reception in Ladies' Hall. 

Thursday Afternoon — Reception by Kappa Alpha Theta. 

Thursday Evening — Banquet at Mount Meridian "Half Way House." 

Sixth National Convention 

The Sixth National Convention was held with Beta Chapter in Albion, 
December 1-3, 1898, delegates being present from all the chapters except Eta. 
As Beta had occupied her own lodge for three years, the convention now 
assembled there. The sessions were presided over by Ada Dickie who 
substituted for Mary Janet Wilson, National President, and Ina Baum 
recorded the minutes. 

The motion that conventions be held "every two years" passed and has been 
effective ever since. A most important decision was made "that the grand 
officers compose the Grand Council and be the governing body of the frater- 
nity." The Council, then, would consist of "Grant President, Grand Vice- 
president, Grand Secretary, Grand Treasurer, Editor of Lyre, and delegates 
from chapter with whom next convention is to be held." But a later motion 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

was passed "that there lie no chapter delegate in Grand Council." The elec- 
tion of Grand Council oiificers then resulted as follows: 

Grand President, Raeburn Cowger, A. 

Grand Vice-president, Winifred Bartholomew, ©. 

Grand Secretary, Ethel Eggleston, Z. 

Grand Treasurer, Gertrude Ogden, A. 

Editor of Lyre, Mary Janet Wilson, A. 
Hitherto every member had, wisely, been furnished with a copy of the 
constitution. It was now ordered that "each chapter have a typewritten copy 
of the constitution and by-laws which shall be read once every term." Mock 
initiations and courage tests, if used, were 
ordered on different nights from the for- 
mal initiation ceremony. 

The sentiment toward honorary mem- 
bership, which was, in the early days an 
accepted custom in fraternity circles, had 
been very conservative, and at this con- 
vention crystallized into legislation that 
Alpha Chi Omega "have honorary mem- 
bers of national repute only." Each 
chapter, it was decided, might have 
patronesses, who were "not to wear the 
pin or to have the privileges of the chap- 
ter." Associate members, too, were per- 
mitted them. 

Constructive measures were passed for 
the welfare of the fraternity magazine. 
The convention legislated that each chap- 
ter should "elect an associate editor who 
will compose the Editorial Board of The 
Lyre ; Alumnae and Exchange Editors to 
be elected from the chapter in charge of The Lyre. The motion carried that 
all future Alpha Chis be compelled to take The Lyre and all members be 
earnestly urged to subscribe." 

The chair appointed Beta Chapter to decide on the mysteries of the pin, 
subject to the Grand Council. Again the question of nomenclature for a 
women's fraternity arose and "it was decided that each chapter be allowed to 
call itself either fraternity or sorority." 

Delegates — Alpha, Raeburn Cowger, 
Beta, Ora Woodworth. 
Gamma, Ethel Lillyblade. 
Delta, Fay Barnaby. 

Epsilon, Stella Chamblin (Gamma), Riverside, Cal. 
Zeta, Mary Johnson. 
Eta, not represented. 
Theta, Winifred Bartholomew. 

Raeburn Cowger Obenchain, Alpha. 
Grand President. 1898-1902 


Grand Vice-president, 1902- 1905 
Gertrude H. Ogdex 

Grand Treasurer, 1898-1899 

I. MO Baker Bent 
Grand Secretary, 1907-1908 

Mayme Jennings Roberts 

Grand Vice-president, 1894-1896 
Editor The Lyre. i8q6 
Spicie Bell South 

Grand Vice-president. 1900-190J 

168 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Other Members Present — Alpha, Pearl Shaw. 

Gamma, Grace Richardson, Theodora Chaffee, Beulah Hough, Jane 

Theta, Virginia Fiske. 

The active members of Beta at the time of the 1898 Convention were: 

Lina Baum, Kate Calkins, Ada Dickie, Jennie Dickinson, Grace Dislirow, 
Dorothy Gunnels, Florence Hoag, Susie Ferine, Mary Ferine, Louise Sheldon, 
and Ora Woodworth. 

The resident alumnte members were : 

Alta Allen. Ja Nette Allen, Nellie Baum, Ethel Calkins, Irene Clark, 
Emma Crittenden, Clarissa Dickie, Fannie Dissette, Belle Fiske, Georgiana 
Gale. Elizabeth Perkins, Eva Pratt, Bessie Tefft, and Jennie Worthington. 

Social Features 

Thursday Evening — Reception at the home of Miss Bauni. 
Friday Afternoon — Reception by Delta Gamma in their lodge. 
Fridav Evening — Musicale. 

Saturday Afternoon — Tea given by Kappa Alpha Theta. 
Saturday Evening — Banquet in the chapter lodge. 

Seventh National Convention 

December 6-9, 1900, was the time appointed for the assembling of the 
Seventh National Convention with Zeta Chapter in Boston. Spicie Belle 
South, Z, took the chair in the absence of Raeburn Cowger, A, National 

The following women comprised the second National Council of Alpha 
Chi Omega: 

Grand President, Raeburn Cowger. A. 

Grand Vice-president, Spicie Belle South, Z. 

Grand Secretary, Mabel Siller. T. 

Grand Treasurer, Florence Harper. A. 

Editor of Lyre, Edith Manchester. A. 

A change was made in the initiation ceremony by the order for robes to be 
worn at the service. 

The Seventh Convention arranged that two-thirds of the expenses of the 
Grand President and Grand Treasurer to the convention be paid by the Grand 
Treasurer. She was also ordered to pay off the debt of The Lyre. 

A forerunner of The Heraeum was introduced when the order was issued 
that "a private bulletin, discussing matters that cannot be published in The 
Lyre, be started by Alpha, circulating through all the chapters." Lyre 
legislation consisted of fixing the subscription price of the magazine at one 
dollar per year, and arranging that "there be a paid editor, the remuneration 
to be decided by the Convention." A complete register of all memliers was 
ordered to be kept by Alpha. 

J. F. Newman presented a diamond-shaped pledge pin for consideration, 
and it was accepted as the authorized style. 

National CoxviixnoNS 



President, Racburn Cowgcr, Alpha (not present). 

Vice-president, Winifred Bartholomew, Theta (not present), 

Secretary, Elizabeth Eggleston, Zeta. 

Treasurer, Florence Harper, Delta (not present). 

Editor of Lyre^ Mary Jane Wilson, Alpha. 

Delegates — Alpha, Mary Wilson. 

Beta, Kate Calkins. 

Gamma, Mabel Dunn. 

Delta, Alta Moyer. 

Florence E. Harper, Delia 

Grand Treasurer. 1899-1902 

Zeta, Spicie Belle South. 
Theta, Virginia Fiske. 
Iota, Clara Gere. 
Eta, not represented. 
Other Members Present — Gamma, Theodora Chaflfee. 
The active members at the time of the 1900 Convention were: 
Girlie Bavvden, Blanche Best, Helen Collin, Lizzie Courtney, Bessie Chap- 
man, Elizabeth Eggleston, Fannie Heaton, Estella Hibbard. Nelle Jones, 
Edith Medara, Ethel Middaugh. Lilly Mork, Grace Phillips. Elizabeth 
Pittiman, Pearl Sherwood, Spicie Soutli, Maidie Watkin, and Laura Howe. 

National Conventions 171 

Social Features 
Wednesday Evening — Concert of Cecilia Society at Symphony Hall, 

followed by supper in Zeta's hall. 
Thursday Evening — Musical in Sleeper Hall, followed by a reception 
and dance by the Sinfonia Society of the Conservatory. 
Friday Evening — BaiKjuet in the chapter hall. 

Eighth National Convention 

Since Theta and Iota were of too recent establishment to be prepared for 
the entertainment of a convention, Gamma was privileged to act as hostess 
again, October 29-November 1, 1902, at Evanston, Illinois. Raeburn Cowger 
conducted the business sessions which were held in the University Guild 
Rooms in Lunt Library. Mabel Harriet Siller was then Recording Secretary. 

The Grand Council, hereafter, was ordered to meet in the years alternating 
with Convention as well as with that assembly. The office of Historian was 
an innovation to the Grand Council, and a subscription editor was added 
to The Lyre staff. Officers elected for the term from November, 1902, to 
January, 1905, were: 

Grand President, Kate Calkins, B. 

Grand Vice-president, Virginia Fiske, 0. 

Grand Secretary, Alta Moyer, A. 

Grand Treasurer, Laura Howe, Z. 

Grand Historian, Raeburn Cowger, A. 

Editor of The Lyre, Edith Manchester, A. 

Under this heading several momentous changes were made at the Eighth 
Convention. In the minutes of these sessions a few important reports of 
committees and officers were given in full. Thus the present wise method 
follqwed in The Heraeum was antedated in Alpha Chi Omega. A list of 
examination questions for pledged members before initiation was made out 
and accepted. This list appears above in the account of the development of 
the examination system in the chapter on government. For the initiated 
active members there was to be an annual examination upon the constitution 
and vital matters of Alpha Chi Omega, the questions to be sent by the Grand 
Council upon request of the chapters and the answers to be submitted to the 
Grand Council. Reports of the examination grades were to be pul)lished in 
The Lyre. The Grand Council should hereafter issue a certificate of mem- 
bership signed by the President and Secretary and by the local President and 
Secretary, each member to pay for her own card. An annual report from 
each chapter was required upon a uniform blank provided by the Council. 
Yet the most significant step was taken when, in order to enable chapters 
to invite students without requiring them to carry a course in music, the 
important decision was made that Alpha Chi Omega should call herself a 
musical-literary fraternity, and that both musical and literary members be 
required to have full freshman standing before they should be eligible to 

172 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

A move toward the systematizing of extension work was the appointment 
of "a committee on new chapters," composed of Kate Stanford, A, Marcia 
Clark. 0, and Mabel Dmm, r. In the future alumnae chapters as well as 
active chapters might be chartered and conducted under definite organization. 

The finances of the National Trea.sury were now in a sufficiently pros- 
perous condition to warrant the decision to contribute a fixed sum annually 
toward the running expenses of The Lyre ; and thus The Lyre became still 
more secure financially, a condition wdthout which it must have been unsuc- 
cessful literarily. A new edition of the songbook was ordered published. 

The first meeting of the Intersorority Convention had occurred five 
months before, but through a mistake Alpha Chi Omega had not been repre- 
sented therein. The date of the second session of this progressive body was 
set for the following May (1903), and so Alpha Chi Omega now elected Miss 
Mabel Siller, r, as its delegate. 

Thanks were extended by convention vote to the University Guild, the 
Dean of Women, the Dean of Music, for courtesies extended ; to Kappa 
Alpha Theta and to Kappa Kappa Gamma for hospitality; and to Alpha 
Phi, Delta Delta Delta, and Delta Gamma for flowers sent to the convention. 

' ' Attendance 

Grand President — Raeburn Cowger. 
Grand Vice-president — Spicie Belle South. 
Grand Secretary — Mabel Harriet Siller. 
Grand Treasurer — Florence Harper. 
Editor of Lyre — Edith Manchester. 

Delegates — Alpha, Kate Stanford, Grace Guller, Sara Neal. 
Beta, Nella Ramsdell. 
Gamma. Carrie Holbrook. 
Delta, Anna Ray, Florence Harper. 
Zeta, Edith Manchester. 
Theta, Marcia Clark. 
Iota, Imo Baker, Lillian Heath. 
Other Members Present — Beta, Mary Dickie, Mary Perine, Lina Baum, 
Lida Hardy; Gamma, Mrs. George Coe, Mary Stanford, Lizzie Stine Richie, 
Louise Atwood, Christine Atwood, Theodora Chaffee, Grace Ericson, Cor- 
delia Hanson, Emma Hanson, Ruth Inglis, Irene Stevens, Valeria Tyre 
Kindig, Florence Harris, Mabel Dunn, Marion Ewell, Ida Pratt, Grace 
Richardson, Elizabeth Scales, Katherine Scales, Cora Seegars, Leona Wemple, 
Ella Young, Lillian Siller WyckofT. Mabel Jones, Frances Meredith, 
Marie White, Marion Titus, Mary Marshall, Julia Marshall, Mary Master. 
Zeta, Spicie Belle South, Laura Howe, Hettie Elliot. 
Theta, Faith Butler, Arline Valette. 

Iota, Clara Gere, Charlotte Draper, Mary Busey, Bess Stevenson, Clara 



The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Social Features 

Wednesda}^ Afternoon — Receptions by Kappa Alpha Theta and by Kappa 
Kappa Gamma. 

Wednesday Evening — Musicale in Music Hall, followed by a reception 
to meet faculty and students. 

Thursday Evening — Dance at the Evanston Boat Club. 

Friday Afternoon — Thomas Orchestra Concert at the Auditorium, Chi- 

Friday Evening — Halloween supper at the home of Grace Richardson. 

Saturday Afternoon — Reception by Gamma Phi Beta. 

Saturday Evening — Banquet at the Auditorium Annex, Chicago. 

Ninth National Convention 

On November 2-4, 1904, Delta entertained the convention assembly for 
the second time. The meetings of this Ninth Convention, held in Delta's 
Fraternity Hall, were conducted by Kate Calkins, Grand President. 

Another significant office in the Grand Council was created, that of 
Inspector. The chief duties of the incumbent were to visit each chapter once 
in two years, and to act as official delegate of Alpha Chi Omega in the Inter- 
scrority Conference. Arrangements were made for official delegates to repre- 

Mabel Dun.v Madson, Gamma 

Grand Historian. 1905 

National Coxventions 175 

sent the alumna; chapters at conventions. Tlic following officers were elected : 

Grand President, Kate Calkins, B. 

Grand Vice-president, Bertha Sackett, A. 

Grand Secretary, Virginia Fiske, ©. 

Grand Treasurer, Laura Howe, Z. 

Editor of Lyre, Edith Manchester Griffin, Z. 

Grand Inspector, Mary Jones Tennant, A. 

Grand Historian, Mabel Dunn Madson, F. 

Subscription Editor of Lyre, Mabel Gere, I. 

The Convention appointed the Grand Council as a committte to revise the 
Bond, Constitution, and Ritual. It was decided that the constitution should 
be public and the ritual secret. As a precautionary measure, identification 
blanks Avere adopted for those who desired to procure badges. 

The motions carried that the fee for alumnae chapters and the expenses 
of delegates to Convention be paid. 

Lyre legislation took place to the effect that "active chapters send in sub- 
scriptions to The Lyre from alumna' members amounting in number to one- 
fourth the alumnae of the chapter." 

Consideration of the subject of an account of Alpha Chi Omega in Baird's 
edition of American College Fraternities resulted in appointing a representa- 
tive who should "be sent to interview Baird with regard to his manual." 

Delegates — Grand Council, Laura Howe. 
Alpha, Adah McCoy. 
Beta, Jessie Blanchard. 
Gamma, Frances Meredith. 
Delta, Clara Lord. 
Zeta, Blanche Crafts. 
Theta, Florence Bobb. 
Iota, Ola Wyeth. 
Kappa. Edna Swenson. 

Other Members Present — Beta. Nella Ramsdell, Margaret Mosher, 
Kathryn Granger. 

The active members at the time of the 1904 Convention were: 

Clara Lord, Millicent Moore, Alice McDowell, Vesta Leet, Mary Gibson, 
Mae SteiTner, Lydia Davenport, Florence Moore, Maude Miller, Amy Lusk, 
Ethel Moore. Ruby Marsh, Jess Crissman, Frances Harper, Ruth Swann, 
and Mrs. Ensign. - 

The alumnae members were : 

Anna Ray, Florence Harper. May Ciraham, Mrs. Irwin, Edith Roddy, 
Mary Roberts, and Agnes Church. 

Social Features 
Wednesday Afternoon — Reception by President and Mrs. Crawford at 
their home. 

Wednesday I'Lvening — Musicale at the College of Music. 

Thursday Afternoon — Reception by Dr. and Mrs. Flood at their home. 


National Conventions 177 

Thursday Evening — Reception at the home of Miss Harper. 
Friday Afternoon — Receptions by two Sororities. 
Friday Evening — Banquet at Saegertown Inn. 

Tenth National Convention 

Representing the nine active and two alumna- chapters, every delegate was 
present at the Tenth National Convention, November 1-3, 1906. Alpha, for 
the third time hostess, welcomed the visitors to her chapter house in Green- 

The important work of selecting a Grand Council of willing workers 
resulted thus: 

Grand President, Mrs. Edward R. Loud, B. 

Grand Vice-president, Mrs. Robert B. Howell, 0. 

Grand Secretary, Imo E. Baker, I. 

Grand Treasurer, Laura A. Howe, Z. 

Editor of Lyre, Mrs. William Wade, A. 

Grand Historian, Mabel H. Siller, V. 

Grand Inspector, Mrs. Richard Tennant, A. 

The work of revision of the Bond, Ritual, and Ctjnstitution, carried on by 
the Grand Council Committee, was accepted. In order that it should be 
necessary for the chapters with the liberal arts members in the ascendant to 
limit a part of their membership, to students carrying some musical courses, 
the following article of the constitution was adopted : 

"Any person of good character having finished a course in a secondary 
school, who is taking a regular course in music; * * in fine arts or in 
liberal arts * * (not to exceed ZZY/t) ', wdio is carrving * * twelve 
hours of work and has had the equivalent of regular freshman music work ; 
any person who is taking twelve hours work, three of which are in regular 
music courses; may be initiated into the Alpha Chi Omega Fraternitv." 

The system of (Jrand Council expense was much improved. 

An Assistant Editor for The Lyre was appointed and it was ordered that 
"each chapter be fined one dollar a week for every week that her material for 
The Lyre is overdue." Had the inconvenience of tardy material been as 
significant to the convention assembly as to the editor and printer, the 
motion might have read, "ten dollars a day 1" 

The convention adopted a uniform die for the l)adge and asked tlie 
Grand Council "to look into the matter of liaving a crest designed for the 
use of the fraternity." 

The report of the fifth Intersorority Conference was made bv the Alpha 
Chi Omega delegate, the Inspector, Mrs. Richard Tennant, and will be noted 
in the section of this book devoted to the Panhellenic movement. 

Notes of appreciation were ordered sent to Dr. Hughes, Mr. Black, and 
other members of the faculty, and to other fraternities for courtesies shown 
during the convention. 

National Conventions 179 


Grand President, Kate Calkins. 

Grand Secretary, Marcia Clark Howell (not present). 

Grand Treasurer, Laura Howe. 

Inspector, Mary Jones Tcnnant. 

Grand Historian, Mabel Harriet Siller. 

Editor of Lyre, Elma Patton Wade. 

Delegates — Grand Council, Laura Howe. 

Alpha, Edna Walters, Maude Meserve. 
Beta, Lulu Babcock, Mildred Sherk. 
Gamma, Romaine Hardcastle. 
Delta, Olge Henry. 

Epsilon, Mrs. Louise Davis Van Cleve. 
Zeta, Winifred Byrd. 
Theta, Edith Steffner. 
Iota, Jessie Mann, Kate Busey. 
Kappa, Hazel Alford. 

Alpha Alpha, Mrs. Myrta McKean Dennis. 
Beta Beta, Alta Roberts. 
Other Members Present — Alpha, Mildred Rutledge, Bertha Miller Ruick, 
Minnie M. Hoskins, Shellie Smith, Ada McCoy. 

The active members at the time of the 1906 Convention were : 
Mayme Winans, Sadie Machlan, Sylvia Christley, Maude Meserve, Edna 
Hamilton, Bernice Caldwell. Mary Carter, Mayme Guild, Fay Newlin, Ethel 
Starr, Pearl Fuller, Edna Walters, Lora Canady, Lilla Vermilya, Shellie 
Smith, Bess Price, Ava Guild. Ada Beeler, Catherine Elfers, Marie Wood, 
and Varinda Rainier. 

The alumnae living in Greencastle in 1906 were: 

Anna Allen Smith, Ella Curtis Hughes, Marie Hirt Watson, Sa^ah Hirt, 
Wilhelmina Lank, Elizabeth Lockridge. Helen Birch, Emma Miller, Clara 
Smith, and Janet Wilson. 
Gamma, Rachel Williams. 
Iota, Mamie Lewis. 

Social Features 

Wednesday Evening — Concert at Meharry Hall. 

Thursday Evening — Reception at the chapter house. 

Friday Morning — Chapel Service. 

Friday Noon — Luncheon at the College Inn. 

Friday Afternoon — Musical. 

Friday Evening — Banquet at Florence Hall. 

Eleventh Naiional Convention 

Certain legislative bodies stand out conspicuously as the scenes wherein 
momentous strides of progress have been accomplished. The Eleventh 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

National Convention wa^ one of these for Alpha Chi Omega. The sessions, 
held in lota's chapter house in Champaign, Illinois, November 26-30, 1908, 
were presided over by Alta Allen Loud, Grand President, with conscientious 
parliamentary observance so that much of importance was covered in short 
time. There were present delegates from fourteen active and three alumnae 

Helen Wright 
Grand Secretary, 1908 

Laura A. Howe 

Business ]Manager The Lyre, 


Grand Treasurer, 190S-1909 

Mary Jones Tennant 

Inspector, 1905-1910 

Among matters pertaining to government were the following discussions 
and decisions : Past Grand Presidents were to be allowed a vote in Grand 
Chapter meeting; "whenever expulsion of a member from the fraternity is 
recommended by the chapter involved," the matter was to be left to the 
Grand Council for action ; recommendations from the Chapter House com- 
mittee for the regulation of the life of chapter houses were submitted to those 
chapters concerned. The election of officers was conducted for the first time 
by the successful method of a nominating committee. 

Grand President, Mrs. Edward R. Loud, B. 

Grand Vice-president, Mrs. H. M. Kent, A. 

Grand Secretary, Mrs. Elmer Soule, I. 

Grand Treasurer, Mrs. Ralph Dennis, T. 

Editor of Lyre, Mrs. William E. Haseltine, Z. 

Grand Historian, Mabel H. Siller, r. 

Grand Inspector, Kate Calkins, B. 

Still more numerous were the important improvements and additions in 
connection with the traditions, ceremonies, and constitution. Most note- 
worthy was the legislation in which the percentage of possible liberal arts 
members not studying music nor having a musical education equivalent to 
qualify for freshman music courses w^as increased to fifty per cent. This 
action recognized by legislation what most of the chapters themselves had 

182 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

long recognized; namely, that the strength of Alpha Chi Omega lay primarily 
and necessarily in the liberal arts departments of the colleges rather than in 
the fine arts departments. Thus, by constitutional action, was established the 
ascendancy of the liberal arts over the fine arts in numbers, an ascendaaicy 
which had from early days been evident in a majority of the nine chapters 
represented. It was "made a constitutional requirement for the Inspector to 
secure an official report on the individual scholarship of each chapter annually, 
by March 1, and that chapter scholarship reports be secured at least each 
semester." A system of graded fraternity examinations was suggested and 
adopted in the following order : preentrance, first, second, and third year. 
Each chapter was ordered to keep a card-index directory and rollbook. The 
Grand Historian received instructions to prepare an Alumnae Letter, the 
expense of the same to be met by a chapter tax. A new chapter office was 
created, an Alumnse Adviser, who should be elected by each chapter to 
look after its interests and to conduct the fraternity examinations. Conven- 
tion credentials, report blanks, affiliation certificates, and a secret motto were 
adopted, and Custodians for the Badge and the Songbook were appointed. 
The holly tree was chosen as the fraternity tree. Colors were ordered to be 
worn on such occasions as the installation of a new chapter, initiation. 
Founders' Day, and the chapter anniversary. 

The entire railroad expense of the Grand Council to Grand Chapter and 
Grand Council meetings was ordered paid from the Grand Treasury. 

Lyre reports showed excellent financial and literary condition. It was 
made a constitutional requirement that any chapter failing to send chapter 
letter to The Lyre be fined therefor ; and that each active chapter "send 
annually to Editor of The Lyre the plate for group chapter picture to 
go in Lyre." The Editor of The Lyre was voted a salary, and was given 
the privilege of choosing her assistants. Instead of making each chapter 
responsible for twenty-five per cent of its alumnae Lyre subscriptions, the 
convention passed the requirement that each prospective member of Alpha 
Chi Omega pay upon initiation a five-year subscription in advance. Provi- 
sion was made for the compiling of the first edition of a History of the Fra- 

Thanks were voted to the official jewelers for gifts; to Dr. Moore and 
to the alumnae of Iota; to Kappa Kappa Gamma, Delta Gamma, Pi Beta 
Phi, Chi Omega, and other fraternities who had extended courtesies during 
the convention. 

President, Alta Allen Loud. 
Secretary, Helen Wright. 
Treasurer, Laura Howe. 
Inspector, Mary Jones Tennant. 
Historian, Mabel Harriet Siller. 
Editor of Lyre, Florence Reed Haseltine. 
Delegates — Alpha, Edna Walters, Mayme Guild. 

Beta, Florence Fall, Edna Newcomer. 

Gamma, Myrtle Jensen, Alice Watson. 

National Cuxventioxs 183 

Delta, Louise Chase. 
Epsilon, Katherine Asher. 
Zeta, Evangeline Bridge. 
Theta, Irene Connell. 
Iota, Ruth Buff urn. 
Kappa, Marguerite Bower. 
Lambda, Martha Lee. 
Mu, Ethel McFadon. 
Nu, Flora Goldsworthy. 
Xi, Lilah David. 

Omicron, Stella Morton, Grace Davenport. 
Alpha Alpha, Cordelia Hanson, Kate Calkins. 
Beta Beta, Helen Dalrymple Francis. 
Gamma (jamma, Virginia Fiske Green. 
Delta Delta, not represented. 
Other Members Present — Alpha, Maude Rose, Grace Cruller, Katherine 
Stanford, Nellie Dobbins Dresser, Elsie Patton, Fav Newlin. 

Beta. Ethel Lovell, Jessie Blanchard Flinn, Ada Dickie Hamblen, 
Jennie Worthington, Mary Perine, Cleora Miller, Bessie Shanley. 

Gamma, Rachel Williams, Esther Hinman, Relda Van Riper, Ruth 
Birge, Etta Brothers, Helen Baird, Nathalie Thompson. Florence Kelly- 
Winifred Webster, Carrie Patton. Florence Harris Kuhl. Lucile Morgan. 
Zeta, Sarah Morton. 

Iota, Grace Ewing, Susan Reed, Jessie Mann, Alta Chipps, Gladys 
Breckenridge, Rachel Jarrold, Elizabeth Swarthout, Pearl Swanberg, Marie 
Seebach. Mabel Stone, Elizabeth Wyeth, Ruth Kimball, Bertha Walters, 
Gladys Meserve, Mabel Bushong, Lucy Lewis, Mary Barker, Pearl Shipley. 
Elizabeth Rose, Kate Busey, Fay Le Neve, Ruth Rheinhardt. Rhoda Rhein- 
hardt. Sarah Bryan, Blanche Breckenridge, Cora Von Galder, Charlotte Baker, 
Harriet Garnett, Effie Wehrman, Mabel Chester, Ola Wyeth, May Brecken- 
ridge, Imo Baker, Mary Goss, Mary Busey Jutton, Jessie Freeman Campbell, 
Irene Burrill, Lela Barnard, Julia Hess, Mrs. Eunice Daniels, Mabel Haines, 
Helen Bryan, Clara Gere Huckins, Ina Gregg Thomas, Percie Garnett. Mrs. 

Kappa, Alice Alford. Margaret H'Doul)ler. Mary Cole, Alma Slater, 
Lillian Zimmerman. 

Nu, Bertha Howard. 
Xi, Harriet Bardwell. 
Omicron. Edith Bideau, Grace Davenport. 

Alpha Alpha. Lillian Siller Wyckoft' ('(iamma). Myrta McKean Dennis 
( Gamma ) . 

Beta Beta, Susan Perine (Beta). 

Social Features 

Wednesday Evening — Informal gathering of Alpha Chis at chapter house 
Thursdav Afternoon — Tea at home of Imo Baker. 

184 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Thursday Evening — Reception and dance at College Hall. 
Friday Afternoon — Model initiation at chapter house. 
Friday Evening — Musical at Morrow Hall. 
Saturday Afternoon — Tea at the home of Mrs. Kauffman. 
Saturday Evening — Banquet at Beardsley Hotel. 

Twelfth National Convention 

The Twelfth Biennial Convention of Alpha Chi Ome_ga was invited to 
meet with Theta Chapter at Ann Arbor, Michigan, in the year of 1910, but 
since faculty legislation did not allow conventions to assemble at any time dur- 
ing the college year, and fraternities did not follow the custom of offering their 
houses in vacation, and no other places among the homes of the chapter were 
available, it was unanimously decided to hold a summer convention in 
Detroit. Accordingly, on the twenty-ninth of August, 1910, the Grand Chap- 
ter assembled at the Hotel Tuller in that city for a period of live days, 
Theta and Epsilon Epsilon acting as joint hostesses. 

During that time the sessions were held in the assembly halls of the 
hotel, which remained throughout the convention the headquarters of the 
Grand Council, all delegates and many visitors. The success of this con- 
vention demonstrated the advisability of summer gatherings, and the matter 
of arranging for the Thirteenth Biennial Grand Chapter was therefore placed 
in the hands of an investigating committee within the Grand Council. 
While not obliged to enact as important legislation as its predecessor, the 
Twelfth Grand Chapter, guided by Alta Allen Loud, Grand President, 
successfully dispatched its program of business and added many essential 
features to the general welfare of the Fraternity. 

The most interesting, as well as important, matter of this convention, 
was the unanimous adoption of the beautiful initiation ceremony, presented 
by the Committee, Fay Barnaby Kent, Nella Ramsdell Fall, and Virginia 
Fiske Green, with the assistance of Theta and Beta Chapters. The Fra- 
ternity was also made richer by the acquisition of Hera as Patron goddess, 
an official flag, and the revised open motto, "Together let us seek the heights," 
a new charter form, new membership certificates, identification blanks for 
the purchase of badges, an honor pin for ex- Grand Officers, and instructions 
and model pages for chapter officers' work. 

For the first time the Grand Chapter discussed the question of the 
establishment of a Scholarship Fund, to supplement the one of the Alpha 
Chi Omega Studio, which was reported practically finished; the matter 
was placed in charge of a committee, as were many other movements of 
present and future interest. The subject of extension received its usual 
amount of interested attention. But one out of several petitioning groups 
was granted a charter, and this conditionally on a still further personal 
investigation by the Grand Council. To handle this large and important 
subject of extension properly, and to assist the Vice-president, a committee 
was appointed representing the various sections of the country. Another 
important feature of this Grand Chapter was the unanimous vote to grant 


186 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

limited legislative power to the National Panhellenic and the decision to 
go on record as favoring sophomore pledging. 

President, Alta Allen Loud. 
Vice-president, Fay Barnaby Kent. 
Secretary, Frank Busey Soule. 
Treasurer, Myrta McKean Dennis. 
Inspector, Mary Jones Tennant. 
Historian, Mabel Harriet Siller. 
Editor of Lyre, Florence Reed Haseltine. 
Delegates — Alpha, Harriet Lessig. 
Beta, Susie Newcomer. 
Gamma, Esther Semans. 

Delta, Wilhelmina Anderson, Ruth Dorworth. 
Epsilon, Anne Shepard. 
Zeta, Annie May Cook. 
Theta, Katherine Anderson. 
Iota, Lucy Lewis. 
Kappa, Hazel Peterson. 
Lambda, Myra Jones. 
Mu, Myrtle Schimelfenig. 
Nu, Ethel Brown. 
Xi, Verna Hyder. 
Omicron, Beulah Kinzer. 
Pi, Fay Frisbie. 
Alpha Alpha, Mary Vose. 
Beta Beta, Mrs. Elma Patton Wade. 
Gamma Gamma, Mrs. Nella Ramsdell Fall. 
Epsilon Epsilon, Etta Mae Tinker. 
Delta Delta and Zeta Zeta not represented. 
Other Members Present — Alpha, Estelle Leonard, Frances Bryson, Lois 
Nagle, Vera Trittipoe, Georgia Harris. 

Beta, Jeanette Freeman, Mildred Koonsman, Florence Fall, Augusta 
Eveland, Millie Fox, Beulah Taylor, Juliet Comstock, Marjorie Griffin, 
Gladys Griffin, Mabel Doty, Margaret Mosher, Kathryn Granger, Alta 
TresCj Madge Wilcox, Mildred Sherk, Josephine Parker Moore, Katherine 
Roode Goldsberry, Mary Mitchell, Cora Harrington, Clarissa Dickie Stewart, 
Daisie Newcomer, Edna Newcomer, Bessie Shanley, Alida Handy. 

Gamma, Helen Hardie, Grace Mitchell, Mary Alice Rice, Winifred 
Webster, Lucile Morgan. 

Delta, Mrs. Juvia O. Hull, Nella White Gamble, Louise Lord, Julia 
Jones, Edith Burchard, Marjorie Fowler. 

Zeta, Barbara Bates, Edna Boicourt, Hazel Wing. Edna Whitehouse, 
Leila Preston. 

Theta, Maude Staiger, Jessie Paterson, Hazel Carter. Vera Fox, Donna 
Savage, Nell Gallagher, Hazel Henderson, Mary Hyde, Helen Keys, Mrs. 

National Conventions 187 

Josephine Murfin, Mabel Renwick, Persis Goeschel, Alice Yaple, Flora 
Koch Nichols, Alice McGregor, Edith Steffener Stanka, Frances Hamilton, 
Julia Halleck, Louise Van Voorhis, Jane Harris, Nell Schuyler, Emma Free- 
man (pledge), Mrs. Alberta Daniel \'utzy. VAma. Schenk, Mrs. Mabel Rob- 
bins Sink, Mrs. James Henderson. 

Iota, Mary Barker, Llora Withers, Ida Mack, Blanche Breckenridge. 

Kappa, Else Laudeck, Ann Kieckhefer, Meta Kicckhefcr, Fay Vaughan, 
Lucile Simon, Irma Hellberg, Flora Knox. 

Lambda, Ethel McCoy, Adah Thomlinson, Millie Stebbins, Ruth Hutch- 
ins, Mary-Emma Griffith, Greta Gyer. 

Mu, Carrie McBride, Florence A. Armstrong. 

Nu, Mrs. Inger Hoen Emery. 

Omicron, Beatrice Fast. 

Alpha Alpha, Ethel Calkins McDonald, Kate Calkins Drake. 

Beta Beta, Maude Meserve Stoner. 

Gamma Gamma, Olah Hill. 

Epsilon Epsilon, Bessie Tefft Smith, Winnifred Van Buskirk Mount, 
Florence Woodhams Henning, Kusebia Davidson, Hortense Osmun Miller, 
Myrtle Wallis Allen, Maude Armstrong Hubbard, Harriet Veith Robson, 
Ora Woodworth, Cora Bliss Bresler, Grace Culver, Frances Dissette Tackels. 

Social Features 
Monday, August 29. 

8:00 P. M. Informal evening. Convention Hall. "Rush Party" and 
"Stunt Night" in charge of Theta Chapter. 
Tuesday, August 30. 

Boat ride to St. Clair Flats. 
Wednesday, August 31. 

4 :00 P- M. Automobile ride. 

8 :00 p. M. Convention Musical, Roof Garden, Hotel Tuller. 

Thursday, September 1. 

1 :15 P. M. Convention picture. 

3 :30 P. M. Chapter reunions. 

8 :00 p. M. Convention dance. 
Friday, September 2. 

8 :30 p. M. Convention banquet. 
Saturday, September 3. 

Trip to Ann Arbor. Visit to University and Theta Chapter House. 
Automobile ride. Lunclieon. 

Thirtf.kx 1 11 Xation.'\l Convention 
The Thirteenth Biennial Grand Chapter was entertained by Kappa and 
Eta Eta Chapters at Madison, Wisconsin, "on the shores of fair Mendota." 
from June 26-28, 191 2. Tlic meetings were held in the beautiful new women's 
building, Lathrop Hall. The outstanding business was the presentation 
of the revision of the constitution and code which had been thoroughly 

188 The Hisiorv gf Alpha Chi Omeda Fraternity 

made by the committee, Mrs. Fall and Mrs. (Ireen. This revision was put 
on trial until next convention and ordered j)rinted. With the further changes 
made by the Fourteenth Biennial, the constitution and code were thoroughly 
suited to the needs of the Fraternity. Another step of great importance was 
the change in purpose of the Scholarship Fund to the Reserve Fund to meet any 

Evangeline Bridge Stevenson 

National President, 1910-1012 

especial emergencies of the Orand Council or of active chapters. "A splendid 
spirit of cooperation was sliown from the moment the report of the com- 
mittee was presented." The recommendation was adopted, "and in almost 
as short a time as it takes to write of it. pledges to the extent of $315 
were secured — additional pledges soon swelled the amount to $327." 
Those "who helped make the Fund a possihilitv" were : Alta Allen Loud, 
Florence Reed Haseltine, Laura A. Howe, Evangeline Bridge Stevenson, Fay 
Barnaby Kent. Florence A. Armstrong, Winifred Van Buskirk Mount, Lois 
Smith Crann, Nella Ramsdell Fall, Elma Patton Wade, Frank Busey Soule, 
Estelle McFarlane Dunkle, Lillian Goulston MacMasters, Edna Walters, 
Birdean Motter Ely, Jennie Oechsli Haggart, Arminda Mowre, Edna Mowre, 

190 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Jean K. Ripley, Lucile Schenck, Grace Morgan, Rachel Williams, and Mar- 
garet Letzter. The convention surplus of $334.99 was turned over to the Fund 
by the delegates, and the increase in the annual per capita tax made possible an 
appropriation of a part of it for the Reserve Fund. The Committee announced 
that they had set the amount of $5,000 as a goal to be reached before the 
next convention. The purpose of the fund was stated to be loans to chapters 
for building and other purposes. Mu Chapter pledged her share in the 
profits of a recital to be given by Maud Powell in Indianola. It was under- 
stood that a Scholarship Fund would be established later. Mrs. Loud 
was persuaded to retain the chairmanship of the Reserve Fund. In order 
to familiarize initiates more thoroughly with the vows which they had taken, 
it was decided to hold a post-entrance examination on the ritual and cere- 
monies within two weeks after initiation. Uniform house rules were adopted. 
Action which should link together more closely in effort the Council and 
chapters was the establishment of a trophy to "be awarded yearly by the 
Fraternity under council supervision to the active chapter showing the 
greatest excellence in all fraternal relations." 

Four new charters had been granted since 1910: Rho at the University 
of Washington ; Sigma at the University of Iowa ; Tau at Brenau College, 
Gainesville, Ga. ; Eta Eta Alumnae Chapter at Madison, Wis. The publica- 
tion of the fraternity history, one of the first and the best of the histories 
of women's fraternities, was reported and welcomed. The Convention 
extended "a vote of sincere thanks to Miss Siller and Miss Armstrong, in 
particular, and to their able assistants, Mrs. Loud, Mrs. Dennis, Mrs. Hasel- 
tine, and Miss Vose, in compiling the History of Alpha Chi Omega." 
Appreciation was also expressed to Kappa Kappa Gamma and to Alpha Xi 
Delta fraternities for gracious courtesies extended during the convention. 

A raise in the per capita tax was made, a part of this tax "to constitute 
a convention fund, a part to go into the Reserve Fund," and a part for 
current expenses of the national organization. A special dispensation was 
made to hold the next convention three years hence, in 1915, in order 
that a greater number of members might attend a Pacific Convention, and a 
longer time might elapse for preparations to finance a coast assembly. Both 
the Berkeley Alpha Chi Omegas and the Los Angeles members strongly 
urged the Convention to accept their respective invitations. The retire- 
ment from the Council of four invaluable members made the work of the 
nominating committee a very responsible task. The inauguration of the 
province system of government, and the carrying into effect of the revised 
Constitution, a work which calls for large fraternity experience and wise 
generalship, caused the insistent call for Mrs. Loud to take up again the 
work of national president. It was a clear, irresistible call which would 
not consider the personal desires and preferences of Mrs. Loud, but sounded 
over and over the one word, Duty ; the delegates of active and alumnae chap- 
ters joined in a unanimous written petition to Mrs. Loud to consider the 
request favorably. To the great joy of the Fraternity, Mrs. Loud responded 
to the need for her, and took up the work of National President of the 

National Conventions 191 

Fraternity for which she had already p;iven whfjle-souled and e])<>rh-making 
service in the office from 1906-1910. 

The election of officers resulted as follows: President. Mrs. E. R. Loud; 
Vice-president, Mrs. Alfred Mount; Secretary, Mrs. ('. I"-. I-'.ly ; Trea-surer, 
Miss Lillian Zimmerman; Editor, Miss Florence A. Armstrong; Inspector, 
Mrs. H. C. Crann. Shortly after convention the resignation of Mrs. Mount 
was tendered as Vice-president, and Mrs. H. M. Kent, the incumbent of the 
office since 1909, was prevailed upon, in spite of family, to perform 
the duties of that office for still another term. 

A hundred and eighteen members were registered at Convention. The 
social pleasures included the convention banquet at which greetings were 
read from Alpha Phi, Kappa Alpha Theta, Pi Beta Phi, Delta Delta Delta, 
and Ida Shaw Martin; convention musicale; an automobile ride along 
Lake Monona; a launch ride on Lake Mendota ; a play by Kappa Chapter; 
a convention dance; and a picnic and matinee dance at Esther Beach. 
The following members were in attendance : 
President, Evangeline Bridge Stevenson. 
Vice-president, Nella Ramsdell Fall (for Mrs. Kent). 
Secretary, Helen A. Hardie. 
Treasurer, Winifred Van Buskirk Mount. 
Editor, Florence A. Armstrong. 
Inspector, Lois Smith Crann. 

Delegates — Alpha, Allene Nopper, Elkhart, Indiana. 
Beta, Lucile Schenk, Cass City, Michigan, 
(lamma, Bess Wiley, Edgerton, Ohio. 
Delta, Ruth Thomas, Meadville, Pennsylvania. 
Epsilon, Clara Stephenson, Los Angeles, California. 
Zeta, Sara Helen Littlejohn, Galveston, Texas. 
Theta, Helen E. Hilliker, Ann Arbor, Michigan. 
Tota, Jean K. Ripley. Chicago, Illinois. 
Kappa, Ann Kieckhefer, Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 
Lambda, Bernice Taylor, Spencerport, New York. 
Mu, Mary Shaw, Corning, Iowa. 
Nu, Ernestine Faus, Boulder, Colorado. 
Xi. Flora Boyles, Alvo, Nebraska. 
Omicron, Bertha Nusbaimi, Parsons, Kansas. 
Pi, Ethel Beard, Berkeley, California. 
Rho, Jennie Rogers, Waterville, Washington. 
Sigma, Margaret Kane, Iowa City, Iowa. 
Tau, Emma Partlow, Greenwood, South Carolina. 
Alpha Alpha, Hedwig Brenneman, Evanston, Illinois. 
Beta Beta, Margaret Wynn, Indianapolis, Indiana. 
Gamma Gamma, Nella Ramsdell Fall, New York, New York. 
Delta Delta, Olive Berryman, Los Angeles. California. 
Epsilon Epsilon, Ora Woodworth, Detroit, Michigan. 
Zeta Zeta, Evangeline Bridge Stevenson. Boston, Massa- 
Eta Eta, Sarah Morgan, Madison. Wisconsin. 

192 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Other Members Present — Alpha, Mayme Winans, Columbus. Indiana; 
Edna Walters, Logansport, Indiana; Mildred Walters, Logansport, Indiana; 
Vera Conn, Logansport, Indiana. 

Beta, Alta Allen Loud, Albion, Michigan ; Augusta EYcland, Mayville, 
Michigan ; Aletta Trese, Bay City, Michigan. 

Gamma, Margaret Letzter, EYanston. Illinois; Grace R. Mitchell, Mt. 
Carmel, Illinois; Ruth Saucerman, Rock Grove, Illinois; Luella Chapman, 
Fort Atkinson, Wisconsin; Rachel Williams, Seneca, Kansas; Bertha Har- 
baugh. Highland Park, Illinois; Helen Padgett, Otta\va, Illinois; Margaret 
Macpherson, EYanston, Illinois ; Jeanette Wilson, Reedsburg, Wisconsin. 

Delta, Margaret Sietz, Hamilton. Pennsyh-ania. 

Epsilon, Juanita Mennet, Los Angeles, California. 

Zeta, Florence Reed Hazeltine, Ripon, Wisconsin. 

Theta, Jean Watkins, Marion, Ohio. 

Iota, Ida Mae Shotwell, Evanston, Illinois; Grace Morgan, Urbana, 

Kappa, Leah Deutsch, Wausau, Wisconsin ; Helen Murray, Rensselaer, 
Indiana ; Ruth Morris, Oshkosh, Wisconsin ; Meta Kieckhefer, Milwaukee, 
Wisconsin ; Lillian Zimmerman, Milwaukee, Wisconsin ; Bessie Rood, Reeds- 
burg, Wisconsin ; Gladys Morrel, Escanaba, Michigan ; Flora Knox, Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin; Sally Torstenson, Milford, Iowa; Ella B. Jones, 
Oshkosh, Wisconsin ; Ida Mae Rush, Fort Wayne, Indiana ; Grace Currier 
Howe, Boscobel, Wisconsin; Gertrude Magee, Shawano, Wisconsin; Hazel 
Peterson, Rice Lake, Wisconsin; Gladys Sutherland, Madison, Wisconsin; 
Sidney Oehler, Lake Mills, Wisconsin ; Elda Riggert, Reedsburg, Wiscon- 
sin; Marguerite Martin, Madison, Wisconsin; Kadelia Jeune, Meridian, 
Wisconsin; Alma Slater, Escanaba, Michigan; Charlotte Crawford, Oshkosh, 
Wisconsin ; Lilah M. Webster, Independence, Iowa ; Mary Sayle, Madison, 
Wisconsin; Else Landeck, Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Mable Van Epps, Cam- 
anche, Iowa; Ann Reuth, Sun Prairie, Wisconsin; Edith Pennock, Bloom- 
ington, Wisconsin ; Vivian Verbech Simons. Milwaukee, Wisconsin. 

Lambda, Imo W. Toms, Lyndonville, New York. 

Nu, Bessie Todd, Maryville, Missouri. 

Xi, Reva Laura Russell, Flandreau, South Dakota ; Florence Malone, 
Lincoln, Nebraska; M. Cordelia Condra, Lincoln, Nebraska; Mandoline 
Bennison, David City, Nebraska; Jane C. Bishop, Lincoln, Nebraska; Marion 
E. Wliitmore, Valley, Nebraska; Mrs. Nell Whitmore Johnson, Valley, 
Nebraska ; Delia Robinson, Waterloo, Nebraska. 

Omicron, Ethel Ault, Baldwin, Kansas; Mrs. Jennie Oechsli Haggart, 
Ottawa, Kansas; Mrs. Birdean Motter Ely, Baldwin, Kansas. 

Rho, Emily Rogers, Waterville, Washington ; Edna L. Monroe, Billings, 

Sigma, Norma Ried Harrison, Cleveland. Ohio ; Florence Cook, Inde- 
pendence, Iowa. 

Tau, Montine Alford, Hartville, Georgia ; Willie Kate Travis, Atlanta, 
Georgia; Sara Lee Alford, Hartville, Georgia. 

r- n 

9 5 

I— I o c 

n 2 2 C' 

194 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Alpha Alpha. Cordelia Hansen. Chicago, Hlinois; Theodora Chaflfee, 
Evanston, Hlinois; Lillian Wycoff, Wilmette, Hlinois; Mabel Siller, Evans- 
ton, Illinois. 

Eta Eta, Josephine Heuer. Madison, Wisconsin; Margaret H'Doubler, 
Madison, Wisconsin ; Mae Theobold, Madison. Wisconsin ; Winifred 
Webster. Cresco, Iowa ; Sadie Sutherland, Madison, Wisconsin ; Inger Hoen 
Emery, Edgerton, Wisconsin ; Florence Baskerville, Madison, Wisconsin ; 
Mabel Kelley, Madison, Wisconsin ; Alice Alford. Madison, Wisconsin ; 
Hazel Alford, Madison, AViscoiisin ; Adeline Soren, Madison, Wisconsin; 
Lucile Simon, Madison, Wisconsin ; Helen Jennings, Madison, Wisconsin. 

Fourteenth National Convention 
The Fourteenth Biennial National Convention convened at Hotel 
Virginia, Long Beach, California, June 28-July 2, 1915. The convention 
special train had enabled the delegates from east of California to become 
acquainted, and discuss many questions of fraternity interest both with the 
Council and with each other. Business sessions moved much more quickly 
in consequence. From every point of view, the convention was the greatest 
in the history of Alpha Chi Omega. The attendance was the largest, since 
about 240 members were present, 234 of whom were registered. The Con- 
vention lasted live days, so that there was more time for the transaction of 
business. The work presented to the Convention bv committees in reports 
was more exhaustive than hitherto, and the ground covered quickly was 
thus very extensive. More petitions (19) were reported than at anv previous 
convention. The first convention newspaper (the daily Convention Tran- 
script) was published, carrying the news of convention throughout the land. 
A larger number of national officers (more than one hundred) had been 
accomplishing results for the Fraternitv than had been true at anv former 
biennial. The delights of natural environment, needless to say, far surpassed 
those of other gatherings. It was felt deeplv bv all that the spirit of loyalty, 
enterprise, and idealism manifested throughout the session, and the definite 
progressive measures continued or inaugurated by the convention meant 
greater usefulness and poM^er for the immediate future of Alpha Chi Omega. 
The Heraeum and The Lyre for November, 1915, and the daily Convention 
Transcript record from various points of view the details of the remarkable 
convention. Announcements of the special train, including the convention 
program, had been sent to all members of the Fraternity so that the interest 
in the assembly was widespread. 

The outstanding business was the broadening of our extension policy to 
include as eligible all first-class universities and colleges ; a budget for national 
council expenses was adopted : the scholarship requirement for initiation 
was placed in the hands of a committee to be adjusted in cases of great 
differences in the marking systems in the different universities by a National 
Scholarship Committee created for that purpose. The office of Alumnse Vice- 
president was created, and the work of the Extension Vice-president was 
restricted to extension work ; a sole official jeweler for badges was decided 
upon and J. F. Newman and Co. was appointed ; it was ordered that none 

National Conventions 195 

but initiated members of Alpha Chi Omega be allowed to wear articles 
bearing the Coat-oi'-arms. Initiates were reijuired to purchase a badge 
within a specified time after initiation, and also to purchase a history, a song- 
book, and a directory, together with a life subscription to The Lyre by annual 
installment. These requirements of initiates will render it very unusual 
for members of Alplia Chi Omega to be or to become uninformed and unin- 
terested in this fraternity. They will in time, it is believed, eliminate for- 
ever "out-of-touch" alumnre. 

As provided at the preceding biennial convention, a Scliolarship Fund 
w^as instituted and contributed to generously. A slight profit to the Fra- 
ternity on each badge purchased was made possible by the concentration of 
the manufacture of badges. This annual profit was devoted to the Scholar- 
ship Fund and will guarantee a steady increase to it. Other sources of 
income will in a short time be turned into the same channel. Other standing 
committees of significance which were created were the National Vocational 
Committee to assist members of the Fraternity ; and a Traditions Committee 
"to enforce the traditions of the Fraternity in individual chapters." 

A second edition of the Alpha Chi Omega History was authorized 
to be written "from a combined personal and statistical standpoint," to be 
published in the fall of 1916. Miss Armstrong, editor of The Lyre since 
1910, Avas "asked to serve as author of the second edition of the History 
with full authority vested in her." 

The principal need of the Fraternity, as reported by delegates and officers 
alike, Avas for wider alumnte organization. This need had been felt keenly 
since the passing of the first quarter century of fraternity life, during which 
period of development the greatest thought and care had been devoted to 
the undergraduate members. But with the enormous increase of alumna? 
membership the call for a further alumna- organization was too persistent 
to be ignored. The office of Alumnae Vice-president, wlio should form an 
alumnae association and foster alumnae organization, was created enthusi- 
astically. The rapid growth of this department of Alpha Chi Omega 
through the last decade is related elsewhere in the present volume. 

The election of officers resulted as follows : 

National President, Alta Allen Loud. 

National First Vice-president. Lillian G. Zimmerman. 

National Second Vice-president, Maude Staiger Steiner. 

National Secretary, Mary-Emma Griffith. 

National Treasurer, Myra H. Jones. 

Editor The Lyre, Florence A. Armstrong. 

National Inspector, Lois Smith Crann (succeeded shortly by Nella Rams- 
dell Fall). 

The report from four chapters who had taken definite steps toward 
chapter house ownership were of particular interest, as well as of ten others 
who were making plans toward the same goal. The following summary 
of the work of the years immediately preceding the Fourteenth Biennial 

N ATK )X A 1. Cox \ I-: N I'lON S 


was given as part of the address of the President at the oi)ening of the 

"Since the Madison Convention, two informal conferences of national 
officers have been held, immediately ["receding the National Panhellenic 
Congress sessions of 1912 and 1913. It was your president's privilege to 
attend the first of these, also to preside at the 1913 and 1914 council meet- 
ings. Besides the actual results accomplished, these meetings have proved help- 
ful in the cementing of the loyal friendships which exist among the national 
officers. In May, 1913. the inspector and president represented the Council 
at a special interfraternity conference called by Delta I psilon. The object 

Lillian G. Zimmerman, Kappa 

National Treasurer, 1912-1915 

Alumn:e Vice-president, 1915- 

Chairman Chapter House Committee 

of the meeting was admittedly to take definite steps for meeting the opposi- 
tion to fraternity and the result of the conference was the appointment of 
an Executive Committee of ten and the establishment of the Fraternity 
Reference Bureau. 

"It has been my pleasure to represent Alpha Chi Omega officially at the 
first and second conferences of presidents of the eighteen National Pan- 
hellenic Congress fraternities. These meetings were for the purpose of 
reaching a common understanding on many matters pertaining to the direc- 
tion of fraternities and the free discussions and exchange of thoughts were 
beneficial. That your president was chosen to prepare the program for and 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

preside over the sessions of the second conference was taken not as a personal 
tribute but as an appreciated recognition of the national organization which 
it is my privilege to represent. The result of this conference was the for- 
mation of the 'Code of Ethics' for the use of national presidents, the object 
of which is to bring about in all fraternities greater uniformity in official 
instructions to chapters, a higher sense of fraternal relation and responsibility, 
greater appreciation of the worth and rights of others and a more cheerful 
and loyal cooperation with university authorities. 

"It was a matter of regret that illness prevented my attendance at the 
1913 Panhellenic Congress session but the conferences of 1912 and 1914 

Lois Smith Crann 

Business Manager Lyre, 1910-1912 

Inspector, 1911-1915 

Chairman Panhellenic Congress, 1913-1914 

were found most inspiring. I should enjoy talking to you at length on the 
subject of Panhellenism and the opportunity it affords our chapters and 
individual members but I shall not encroach upon the report of our Pan- 
hellenic delegate. I do wish, however, in passing, to express my personal 
appreciation of our National Panhellenic representative, Mrs. Crann, who 
for the last three years served the Congress most efficiently as treasurer, 
secretary, and chairman. The members of the National Council were unduly 
favored in that all were able to attend the 1914 Congress in New York City. 
It was truly Alpha Chi Omega year in Panhellenism. Unusual difficulties 
attended this meeting, held for the first time in the East, and I desire to pay 

National Conventions 199 

tribute to the dignified, efficient leadership of Mrs. Crann, the Chairman of 
the Congress, and to Mrs. Fall and her Gamma Camma workers whose local 
management of the Congress made it, in the opinion of the delegates, the 
most successful meeting ever held. 

"It was my hope at the time of my inception into (jflice to visit every 
chapter in the fraternitv before our 1915 Convention. Tliis hope has not 
been realized but I have been fortunate enough to visit Beta, Gamma, Theta, 
Nu, Rho. Sigma. Upsilon, and Chi and I have also enjoyed the gracious 
hospitalitv of the women of (iamma Gamma and Epsilon Epsilon. 

"During the past three vears it has been my privilege to welcome three 
new undergraduate chapters, five alumnae chapters, and thirteen alumnce 
clubs, charters having been signed for Upsilon, Phi, and Chi, Theta Thefa, 
Iota Iota, Kappa Kappa, Lambda Lambda, and Mu Mu, while alumnje 
clubs have been organized at Decatur, Champaign, Eastern Oklahoma, 
Cleveland, Albion, Des Moines, St. Louis, Milwaukee, Ann Arbor, Mead- 
ville, Washington. Portland, and Omaha. There are very happy memories 
of Upsilon and Chi installations in which I was privileged to participate." 

"And now for a brief resume of the actual accomplishments of the last 
three years. 

"The fact that we have been able to add to our roll eight new chapters 
and thirteen clubs testifies to the steady, consistent growth of our fraternity. 
The membership in our alumn;t organizations has more than doubled and 
the unusually large number of petitions and informal requests for considera- 
tion which have reached the Executive Committee prove the value of the 
systematic, efficient extension investigation which has marked the last three 
years. An Extension Board authorized at our 1913 Council Meeting and 
composed of representatives from each state in the Union has been a power- 
ful aid both to our expansion work and to an awakening of interest on the 
part of our alumn;t women. A comparatively new feature of alumnae work 
is found in a steadily increasing list of nonresident members. It may surprise 
some of you to hear that we now have al)out one hundred women engaged 
in our national work. However, we need many more workers and your 
president believes that the time is now at hand that the work of the Council 
can no longer be accomplished bv the few officers guiding its destinies but 
that we must find at once within our alumnae ranks a number of capable, 
devoted women who will enlist for national work. 

"The province government is still in its infancy but already it has justified 
itself. We have been unfortunate in having only two province presidents 
able to do the necessarv traveling and inspection work of their office but all 
have done efficient desk work and have helped materially in bringing about 
a more careful oversight and loving understanding of our undergraduate 
members. It is the belief of your president, however, that in the future 
this province work should be given to young alumn;r who will be able to 
inspect or assist in the extension work when needed. 

"Four appointments of interest have been matle since the 1912 Conven- 
tion; that of Miss Meta Kieckhefer as deputy to the treasurer, Mrs. Steiner 

200 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

as deputy to the national vice-president, Miss Kathryn Morgan as keeper 
of supplies, and Miss Ann Kieckhefer as keeper of archives. Each of these 
women has rendered valuable assistance and as a result of their labors we 
have today a credital)le convention fund made possible by the collection 
of alumnae notes, a thorough extension investigation and recommendations 
for a definite expansion policy, a well-organized, workable system of oflficial 
supplies, and the archives of the fraternity safely stored and catalogued. 

"The work of systematization has been well carried on as is shown in the 
adoption of a uniform filing system, the publication of rushing rules and 
outline of study, the revision of chapter officers' instructions, a revised, 
graded system of examinations, the revision and publication of a book of 
ceFemonies and prescribed forms, the publication of alumnae by-laws, the 
adoption of a new seal, the adoption of uniform handbooks and the appoint- 
ment of the George Banta Pulilishing Company as our oiificial supplies 
firm. It has been the intention of the present Council to adopt thoroughly 
businesslike methods in the work' of our national organization. 

"1 always find difficulty in repressing my enthusiasm when speaking of 
our fraternity journal which, under the efficient management of our editor, 
has become a pul)lication of which we are very proud and which fully 
represents the standards of our fraternity. Since Miss Armstrong will not 
mention these things in her report, I take pleasure in telling you that frater- 
nity leaders constantly speak of T/w Lyre as one of the very best fraternity 
journals, while Mrs. Martin, editor of the Sorority Handbook, does not 
hesitate to pronounce it the very best journal published by a woman's 

"The Argolid has been inaugurated and four volumes have thus far 
appeared. This private journal has been helpful but its length and infre- 
quent appearance have militated against an enthusiastic welcome on the part 
of our members. The recent purchase of a mimeograph will enable much 
more frequent pul)lications of the Argolid and it is the hope of your presi- 
dent that it may be a monthly or even semi-monthly visitor next year. In 
this way it will be possible to keep our members informed as to the doings 
of the national workers and we believe that with such knowledge will come 
a greater interest and enthusiasm. 

"Two calendars have been published, by Kappa and Delta Chapters, 
respectively. A new songbook of which we are very proud and which we 
hope you will thoroughly test at this convention has been published and 
investigations regarding the feasibility of a new edition of our history have 
been made. 

"Financially — thanks to the splendid ability and untiring eflforts of our 
treasurer — Alpha Chi Omega is in the best condition she has ever known. 
With possibly two exceptions, every chapter will report entire freedom from 
indebtedness, a goodly number have creditable beginnings on house funds, 
and two of our chapters are to tell us of actual accomplishments in the 
matter of house ownership. 

Natioxai. C'oxne.ntions 201 

"The Lyre business manager will tell you of a splendid Lyre Reserve 
F'und, and the National Reserve Fund Committee has a happy report to 
make. In the matter of material possessions Al])ha Chi Omega has received 
a very low ranking; but while we have, indeed, been desirous of stressing 
the more vital things of fraternity, we are glad to report chapters and the 
national organization on a sound financial basis which will enable us to 
branch out and accom[)lish some of the broadening altruistic work which 
we have longed to do. 

"For the past three years the Council has worked incessantly for an 
intensive development of our members, and with this in view we have earnestly 
stressed three points: Scholarship, a loyal participation in college activities, 
and an earnest representation in the Christian life and work in the various 
institutions where we are represented. I am confident that the ruling as 
to the required participation in college activities and our deferred initiation 
with a definite scholarship requirement have furnished the necessary impetus 
to our younger girls and have brought us the kind of recognition we desire 
from student bodies and universitv authorities. The list of honor students 
for 1914-15 is most encouraging. It has been gratifying to learn of the 
growing interest in the Christian life of the school on the part of most of 
our chapters and I am sure you will rejoice with me when I tell you that 
during the three years just closed Alpha Chi Omega has had six Y. W. C. A. 
presidents and eighty-four members of V. W. C. A. cabinets. 

"The past three years have in the opinion of your president been the 
best in the history of the fraternity. Progress has marked every phase of 
the work. The work of mv ollice could not have been continued without 
the splendid support of my coworkers and the loyal response of our thirty- 
three chapters." 

The social features of the Convention were exceedingly delightful. They 
included a beach supper, chapter stunts, and a launch ride on the sea ; the 
Mission Play at San Gabriel ; an automobile tour through the environs of Los 
Angeles ; the Convention musicale followed by a reception ; the convention 
pageant by Doris E. McKntyre. at Bixbv's Park: tlie cliaptcr reunions: the 
convention dance ; and the convention ban(|utt. 

The members j^resent were as follows: 


President — Alta Allen Loud, Albion. Michigan. 
Vice-president — Fay Barnaby Kent, New York. New N'ork. 
Secretary — Birdean Motter Klv. Chicago. Illinois. 
Treasurer — Lillian /.innnerman. Milwaukee. Wisconsin. 
Editor — Florence A. Armstrong. Indianola, Iowa. 
Inspector — Lois Smith Crann. Davenport, Iowa. 
Delegates — Alpha, Margaret Robinson. Greensburg, Indiana. 

Beta, Esther Barney. May Darrow, Albion, Michigan. 

Gamma, Ruth Neal. \\'arsaw, Indiana; Florence Tyden, 
Evanston. Illinois. 

202 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Delta, Marguerite Beatty, Oil City, Pennsylvania ; Agnes Van 
Hoesen, Meadville, Pennsylvania. 

Epsilon, Ruth Eveland, Los Angeles, California. 

Zeta, Mildred Rutherford, Princeton, Minnesota. 

Theta, Adele Westbrook, Battle Creek, Michigan ; Alice Blod- 
gett, Duluth, Minnesota, 

Iota, Gretchen Gootch, Bellflower, Illinois. 

Kappa, Louise Hudson, Charleston, Illinois ; Floy Humiston, 
Madison, Wisconsin. 

Lambda, Pauline Griffith, Syracuse, New York. 

Mu, Phyllis Phillips, Indianola, Iowa. 

Nu, Mary McGehee, Denver, Colorado. 

Xi, Clara McMahon, Lincoln, Nebraska. 

Omicron, Hazel McClure, Baldwin, Kansas. 

Pi, Doris Mclntyre, Berkeley, California ; Coe McCabe, Ber- 
keley, California. 

Rho, Arlie Anderson, Bellingham, Washington ; Dora Fred- 
son, Shelton, Washington. 

Sigma, Pauline Peters, Tipton, Iowa. 

Tau, Lee Cheney, Lumber City, Georgia. 

Upsilon, Martha Redmon, Decatur, Illinois. 

Phi, Leonora Jennings, Winfield, Kansas. 

Chi, Geraldine Newins, Patchogue, New York. 

Other Members Present — Alpha, Marion Gallahue Hummell, Oxnard, 
California ; Vera Southwick, Atlanta, Georgia ; Louise Chesney, Kansas City, 
Missouri ; Maude Meserve Stoner, Indianapolis, Indiana ; Eva Nagle Sutton, 
LaFayette, Indiana ; Vera Dean, Indianapolis, Indiana ; Madeline Mattox. 
Aurora, Indiana. 

Beta, Ja Nette Allen Cushman, Los Angeles, California; Jessie Cush- 
man, Los Angeles, California ; Millie Fox, Grand Rapids, Michigan ; Bessie 
Tefft Smith, Detroit, Michigan ; Corabel Harrington, Jackson, Michigan ; 
Ora Woodworth, Detroit, Michigan ; Emma Crittenden, Brooklyn, New York ; 
Esther Merriman, Chicago, Illinois; Marion Rosecrans, Tecumseh, Michigan; 
Grace Culver, Detroit, Michigan ; Mrs. Earl Fellows, Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia ; Kathryn Granger, South Pasadena, California ; Glenna Schantz 
Mills, Los Angeles, California; Katherine Eggelston Smith. 

Gamma, Frances Hadcock, Stevens Point, Wisconsin ; Rachel Williams, 
Seneca, Kansas ; Hedwig Brenneman, Evanston, Illinois ; Hilda Kieckhefer, 
Milwaukee, Wisconsin; Bertha Harbaugh, Highland Park. Illinois; Leila 
Brown, Los Angeles, California ; Ruth Baker, Los Angeles, California ; Laura 
Turner Kelly, Winslow, Arizona ; Martha Bennett, Evanston, Illinois ; Bess 
Patrick McNamara, Los Angeles, California. 

Delta, Jene Robson McGill, La Mirada, California ; Jessie Tomb, Johns- 
town, Pennsylvania. 

Epsilon, Mildred Finch, Los Angeles, CaHfornia ; Henrietta Davies, Los 
Angeles, California ; Anne Shepard, Los Angeles, California ; Elva Murray. 

National Conventions 203 

Los Angeles, California; Rowena Huscroft, Los Angeles, California; Olive 
Berryman Brady, Los Angeles, California; Mary Bowen, Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia; Lou Bowen, Los Angeles, California; Luella Reeves, Los Angeles, 
California; Phoebe Joslin, Los Angeles, California; Delight Stevens Dodds, 
Los Angeles, California; Mrs. H. B. Potter, Los Angeles, California; Marian 
Moses, Los Angeles, California; Mary McGuire, Los Angeles, California; 
Ethel I'yler, Los Angeles, California; Converse Nau, Santa Ana, California; 
Marie Jackson, Los Angeles, California; Carrie Trowbridge, Los Angeles, 
California; Cayle Partridge, Los Angeles, California; Crace Shepard Clark, 
Los Angeles, California; Marie Buck, Los Angeles, California; Isabel Long, 
Los Angeles, California; Laura Long, Los Angeles, California; Myrtle Nauth, 
Los Angeles, California ; Mabel Chalfin, Los Angeles, California ; Clara 
Stephenson, Los Angeles, California; Lucy Adams, Los Angeles, California; 
Doris Coomber, Los Angeles, California ; Ruth Arnold True, Los Angeles, 
California; Marion Greene, Los Angeles, California; Mrs. Ethel Rinehart, 
Los Angeles, California; Sue Shenk, Los Angeles. California; Sylvia Tisch- 
hauser, Los Angeles, California ; Fern Bannister, Los Angeles, California ; 
Ellen Beach Yaw Goldthwaite, Los Angeles, California; Helen Beck Bell, 
Los Angeles, California; Mary Mapel, Los Angeles, California; Margaret 
Dalton, Los Angeles, California ; Mrs. Emma Petterson, Casa Verdugo, Cali- 
fornia ; Thankful Carpenter Way, San Bernardino, California ; Jessie Davis 
White, Pasadena, California; Mildred Lowther Candee, Pasadena, California; 
Jane Stanley, Santa Ana, California; Olive La Clair, Ontario, California; 
Anna St. John Barrett, Santa Rosa, California ; Fay Barkeleu, Ramona Acres, 
California; Mabel Farrington, El Monte. California; Eleanor Clemens, Pasa- 
dena, California; Grace De Lano, Pasadena, California; Maude Hawley, 
Phoenix, Arizona; Katherine Asher, El Monte, California; Edith Hcarne. 
Long Beach, California; Hazel Hearne, Long Beach, California; Katherine 
Stewart, Long Beach, California. 

Zeta, Amy M. Beach (Mrs. H. H.). Boston, Massachusetts; Estella 
Hibbard Osborne, Chicago, Hlinois ; Olive Cutter, Boston, Massachusetts; 
Jessie Northcroft, New York, New York; Edna Boicourt, Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia ; Mima Montgomery. Boston, Massachusetts ; Alinda Montgomery, 
Boston, Massachusetts; Josephine Durrell, Melrose, Massachusetts; Anne 
McLeary, New York, New York ; Annie May Cook, Arlington, Massachusetts ; 
Carrie Ormerod, Kingston, New York ; Blanche Brockelbank, Boston, Massa- 
chusetts ; Grace Phillips McGean. Cleveland. Ohio ; Edith Wells Bly, Ger- 
mantown, Pennsylvania. 

Theta, Laura Feige, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Ruth King. Escanaba, Michi- 
gan; Josephine Murfin, Ann Arbor, Michigan; Eliza Cranmer, Steubenville, 
Ohio; Maude Staiger Steiner, St. Louis, Missouri; Florence Staiger, Michigan 
City, Indiana; Florence Spence. Ann Arbor, Michigan; Leslie Smith, Pasa- 
dena, California. 

Iota, Marjorie June, Belvidere. Illinois; Frances Kirkwood. Lawrence- 
ville. Illinois; Maude Marks. Plvmouth, Indiana; Frances Marks. Plymouth, 
Indiana; Grace Morgan, L'rbana, Illinois; Eve Weilepp, Decatur, Illinois; 

204 Thk History of Alpha Chi Omkoa Fraternity 

Elizabeth T^unn, Tacoma, Washington ; Eleanore Rhode Mize, Santa Ana, 
California; Nelle Carroll Pfeiffer, Long Beach, California. 

Kappa, Ann Kieckhefer, Milwaukee, Wisconsin ; Meta Kieckhefer, Mil- 
waukee, Wisconsin ; Edith Pennock, Bloomington, Wisconsin ; Hazel V. 
Peterson, Rice Lake, Wisconsin ; Mary Sayle, Madison, Wisconsin ; Helen 
Murray, Rensselaer, Indiana; Hazelle Listebarger Hoffman, Pasadena, Cali- 

Lambda, Mary Emma Criffith. Washington, D. C. ; Paola Schilly, Syra- 
cuse, New York ; Frances Waldo, Seattle, Washington ; Isabel Dunkle, 
Harrisburg, Pennsylvania. 

Mu, Marv Bradford, Lidianola, Iowa; Nell E. Harris, Indianola, Iowa; 
June Hamilton Rhodes, Eagle Rock, California ; Elizabeth Phillips, Hender- 
son, Iowa. 

Nu, Helen McGraw, Pueblo, Colorado; Vera Flynn, Pueblo, Colorado; 
Claudia Steele, Eaton, Colorado ; Mollie Rank, Boulder, Colorado ; Merle 
Kabell, Vernal, Utah. 

Xi, Grace McMahon, Lincoln, Nebraska ; Dale Pugh Hascall, Omaha. 
Nebraska; Maudeline Bennison, David City, Nebraska ; Elsie Prewitt, Omaha. 
Nebraska; Ruth Whitmore, Valley, Nebraska; Isabelle McCorkindale Mathis. 
Odebolt, Iowa; Harriett Bardwell, Lyons, Nebraska; Hazel Teeter, North 
Bend, Nebraska; Lodecea Babcock, Scottsbluff, Nebraska; Mary Smith, York, 
Nebraska ; Ruth Randolph, Omaha, Nebraska ; Anna Ray Simpson, Long 
Beach, California. 

Omicron, Gertrude Hedge, Whiting, Kansas; Vera Payton, Clarinda, 
Iowa ; Mary Brown, Fall River, Kansas ; Zoe Kirkpatrick, Garnett, Kansas. 

Pi, Lulu Thornburg, Pasadena, California; Marjory Astatt, Los Angeles, 
California; Anna Logan, Los Angeles, California; Mildred Lantz, San Jose, 
California; Eda Long, Turlock, California; Elsie Williams, Martinez, Cali- 
fornia ; Bess Kentner, Medford, Oregon ; Rue CliiTord, Berkeley, California ; 
Bertha Galloway, Berkeley, California ; Estelle Dale, Berkeley, California ; 
Louise Keen, San Diego, California; Katherine Quinn, Los Angeles, Cali- 
fornia; Dorothy Pinkham, Los Angeles, California; Eugenia McCabe, Ber- 
keley, California; Leigh Foulds, Berkeley, California; Catharine Holt, Red- 
lands, California ; Helen Baker, Los Angeles, California ; Alice Crabb Boyd, 
Pomona, California ; Fay Frisbie, Berkeley, California ; Elsie Synoc ; Jessie 

Rho, Emily Rogers, Waterville, Washington ; Hazel Learned Sherrick, 
Port Townsend, Washington ; lone Learned, Port Townsend, Washington : 
Edna Hindman, Seattle, Washington; Agnes Hobi, Aberdeen, Washington; 
Edith Greenberg, Spokane, Washington ; Ethel Jones, Juliaetta, Idaho ; 
Gladys Wright, Seattle, Wa.shington ; Dorothy Graham, Seattle, Washington; 
Edith Hindman, Baker, Oregon. 

Sigma, Florence Cook, Independence, Iowa ; Bertha Reichert, Tipton, 
Iowa; Janette Royal, Des Moines, Iowa; Nan Worster, Algona, Iowa; Irene 
Miller, Algona, Iowa. 

Tau, Willie Kate Travis. Atlanta, Georgia. 

Naiioxai. Conventions 205 

Upsilon, Mary I'iniR-ll, Kansas, Illinois; I, aura W'eilepp, Decatur, Illi- 
nois; Mabel Hays, Long Beach, California, Marie Hays, Long Beach, Cali- 
fornia; Cora Irene Leihy, Decatur, Illinois. 

Chi, May Steusloff. Salem, Oregon. 

Special Features of Convetition 

Monday, 4 p. m. Exemplification of the Ritual hv Rho Chapter. 

Monday, 6 p. m. Beach supper, chai)ter stunts, and launch ride. 

Tuesday, 7 p. m. Mission Play at San Gabriel. 

Wednesday. 1 lo 6 p. u. Automobile tour through environs of Los 

Wednesday, 8 p. m. Convention musicale followed by informal reception. 

Thursday, 2 p. m. Convention pageant written by I)ori.s McEntyre, Pi, 
and produced by Pi Chapter, Bixby's Park. 

Thursday. 6 :30 p. m. Chapter reunions. 

Thursdav. 9 :00 p. m. Convention dance. 

Friday, 1 p. m. Convention picture. 

Friday, 7 p. m. Convention banquet in Cothic dining-room of the Hotel 

National Conventions of Alpha Chi Omega 

L The First National Convention. Greencastle, Indiana, October 20-23, 
1891. Hostess, Alpha Chapter. 

2. The Second National Convention, Albion, Michigan, Februarv 22-24, 

1893. Hostess. Beta Chapter. 

3. The Third National Convention, Evanston, Illinois. February 28- 

March 3, 1894. Hostess, Gamma Chapter. 

4. The Fourth National Con\-L'ntion, Meadvillc, Penns\l\'ania. Ajjril 8-H', 

1896. Hostess, Delta Chapter. 

5. The Fifth National Convention, (ireencastle, Indiana, March 30- 

April 2, 1897. Hostess, Alpha Chapter. 

6. The Sixth National Convention, Albion. Michigan. December 1-3. 1898. 

Hostess. Beta Chapter. 

7. The Seventh Biennial Grand Chapter, Boston. Massachusetts. Decem- 

ber 6-9. 1900. Hostess, Zeta Chapter. 

8. The Eighth Biennial Grand Chajitcr, Evanston, lllinoi.s. Octobc'r 29- 

November 1, 1902. Hostess, (iamma Chapter. 

9. The Ninth Biennial Grand Chapter. Meadville, Pennsylvania. Novem- 

ber 2-4. 1904. Hostess, Delta Chapter. 

10. The Tenth Biennial Grand Chapter, (ireencastle. Indiana, November 

1-3. 1906. Hostess, Alpha Chapter. 

11. The Eleventh Biennial Grand Chapter. Champaign, Illinois, Novem- 

ber 26-30, 1908. Hostess, Iota Chapter. 

206 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

12. The Twelfth Biennial Grand Chapter, Detroit, Michigan, August 29- 

September 2, 1910. Hostesses, Theta and Epsilon Epsilon Chap- 

13. The Thirteenth Biennial Grand Chapter, Madison, Wisconsin. June 

25-28, 1912. Hostess, Kappa Chapter. 

14. The Fourteenth Biennial National Convention, Long Beach, California, 

June 28-Julv 2, 1915. Hostesses. Epsilon and Delta Delta Chapters. 



As was stated in the ihapter on "(lovernment," the National Council 
was created as the governing body ci' tlu- Fraternity in 1898. This body 
meets annually, assembling as a part of the biennial Grand Chapter and 
holding also separate conferences in the alternating years. The following 
is an outline of the various Council meetings, w'ith places, dates, officers 
present, ]irincipal l)usiness transacted, and social features. 

Fiksr (ikAMi Cor.xcii. Meeting 

The First (irand Council meeting, which was the beginning of steady 
development in Alpha Chi Omega, was held in Albion, Michigan, August 
25-28, 1903. The principal matters under deliberation during the sessions 
at the home of Kate Calkins, were the revision of the constitution and ritual ; 
Alpha Chi Omega's rep)resentation in. and attitude towards, the Intersorority 
Conference; improvements in The Lyre; alumnse chapters; extension; and 
the surrendering of the Fta charter. 


President, Kate Calkins. 

Secretary, Edith Roddy (for Alta Moyer). 

Treasurer, Laura Howe. 

Historian, Raeburn Cowger. 

Editor of Lyre, Edith Manchester. 

Assistant Editor, Mary Ferine. 

Intersorority Conference Delegate, Mabel Harriet Siller. 

Social Features 

Tuesday Evening — Informal gathering at the home of Kate Calkins. 

Wednesdav Fvening — Dinner at the Beta Lodge. 

Thursday Fvening — Trolley ride with dinner at Battle Creek. 

Second Grand Council Meeting 

The Second Grand Council meeting was an informal one immediately 
preceding the Meadville Convention, November 1, 1904. The principal 
matters discussed pertained to constitutional and ritualistic rulings, and to the 
business of the Convention. 

President. Kate Calkins. 
Secretary, Bertha Sackett. 
Treasurer, Laura Howe. 
The social features were those of the 1904 convention. 

208 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraterxitv 

Third (Iraxd Council Meeting 

The Grand Council met for a second time in Albion. Michigan. Sep- 
tember 11-13, 1905, with Beta Chapter acting as hostess. At this time the 
Council considered such matters as a card index system for the directory of 
members ; the reestablishment of Epsilon Chapter ; charters for alumnae 
chapters, and the Intersorority Conference. It was here that Elma Patton 
Wade was appointed to succeed Edith Manchester Griffin as Editor of 
The Lyre. 


President, Kate Calkins. 

Secretary, Marcia Clark. 

Treasurer, Laura Howe. 

Historian, Mabel Harriet Siller. 

Inspector, Mary Jones Tennant (also Intersorority Delegate). 

Social Features 

Tuesday Evening — Progressive Checker Party at the home of Lina Baum. 
Wednesday Evening — Dinner at the Beta Lodge. 

Thursday Afternoon and Evening — Trolley ride to Battle Creek with dinner 
at Post Tavern. 

Fourth Grand Council Meeting 

The Fourth Grand Council meeting assembled in Greencastle, Indiana. 
October 31, 1906, immediately preceding the Convention. The minutes of 
these meetings, which were held at the home of Anna Allen Smith, record 
important decisions concerning forms of petitions for charters, many financial 
matters, constitutional changes, and charter forms, as well as many minor 
matters, aside from the usual routine work 

President, Kate Calkins. 

Vice-president and Inspector, Mary Jones Tennant. 
vSecretary, Marcia Clark Howell. 
Treasurer, Laura Howe. 
Editor of Lyre, Elma Patton Wade. 
Assistant Editor, Jennie McHatton. 
The social features were those of the 1906 convention. 

Fifth C^raxd Council Meeting 

From October 31 to November 2, 1907, the Fifth Grand Council met at 
Indianapolis, Indiana, Beta Beta Chapter extending cordial hospitality. The 
sessions were held at the home of Lena Scott Wilde, and were the means of 
much good to the Fraternity, as it was owing to the action of this Council 
that petition forms and scholarship reports were adopted ; that the require- 
ment was made that each active chapter should elect an alumna adviser ; 
that the charter was granted to Xi Chapter; that the publication of a 

Natio.nai. Cor.xciL Mi:i:ri.\(;s 209 

fraternity directory was authorized ; that the project of selecting a coat-of- 
arms was undertaken under the chairniaiishi]) of Alta Allen Loud, and that 
the appointment was made of J'dorence Reed JIaseltine as Editor of The 


President, Alta Allen Loud. 
Vice-president, Marcia Clark Howell. 
Secretary, Imo Baker. 
Treasurer, Laura Howe. 
Inspector, Mary Jones Tennant. 
Historian, Mabel Harriet Siller. 

Editor of Lyre, Elma Patton Wade (retiring), Florence Reed Haseltine 

Assistant Editor, Jennie McHatton (retiring). 

Social Features 

Thursday Evening — Halloween Party at the home of Dr. and Mrs. Thompson. 
Friday Evening — Theater Party. 

Saturday Afternoon — Reception at the home of Helen Dalrymple Francis, 
to the fraternity M^omen of Indianapolis. 

Sixth (iRAxo Couxcil Meeting 

The Sixth Grand Council meeting was held in Champaign. Illinois, 
November 24-25, 1908, following the usual custom of such a conference 
preceding the convention. At the sessions, which took place in lota's chapter 
house, the entire Grand Chapter program was carefully considered and 
special attention was paid to finances, a system of graded examinations, plans 
for the publication of a history of the Fraternity, better equipment for the 
w^ork of the (irand Officers, affiliation blanks, the report of the flag com- 
mittee, and of the recent publication of the Directory. 

President, Alta Allen Loud. 
Secretary, Helen Wright. 
Treasurer, Laura Howe. 
Historian, Mabel Harriet Siller. 
Inspector, Mary Jones Tennant. 
Editor of Lyre. Florence Reed Haseltine. 
The social features were those enjoyed by the whole Convention. 

Seventh (Irand Counch. Meeting 

The Seventh (irand C(nincil assembled in Evanston, Illinois, October 
27-29, 1909, with Gamma and Alpha Alpha Chapters as hostesses. Among 
the many matters that came before the se.ssions, which were held at the home 
of Mabel Harriet Siller, were the finished report on the coat-of-arms ; the 
chapter, membership, and visiting report forms ; the Alpha Chi Omega 

210 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Studio; the authorization of model books for chapters; the appointment 
of Mary Ferine as official Examiner, Ruth Buffum as Chief Alumna, Mary 
Vose as Custodian of the Songbook, and Myrta McKean Dennis as Business 
Manager of The Lyre; the authorization of a salary for the Editor of 
The Lyre ; and the decision reached for Alpha Chi Omega to adopt second 
semester or sophomore pledging if all the other fraternities would be bound 
by the same agreement. 


President, Alta Allen Loud. 
Vice-president, Fay Barnaby Kent. 
Secretary, Frank Busey Soule. 
Treasurer, Myrta McKean Dennis. 
Historian, Mabel Harriet Siller. 
Inspector, Mary Jones Tennant. 
Editor of Lyre, Florence Reed Haseltine. 

Social Features 

Wednesday Afternoon — Informal gathering after Gamma Chapter meeting 

in their chapter hall. 
Friday Evening — Reception to the members of the faculty and the fraternities 

in University Guildrooms. 
Saturday — Halloween luncheon at the home of Mabel Jones, followed by 

informal musical program and automobile ride. 

Eighth Grand Council Meeting 

The Eighth Grand Council meeting was held August 29, 1910, at Hotel 
Tuller, Detroit, Michigan, immediately preceding the Twelfth National Con- 
vention. Aside from the planning for the business of the Grand Chapter 
and the usual routine of committee reports, which embraced the adoption of 
the ofiticial flag, of Hera as patron goddess, of the new forms for the charter 
and membership certificates, petitions from local fraternities, and the matters 
of sophomore pledging and a higher scholarship standard received serious 


President, Alta Allen Loud. 

Vice-president, Fay Barnaby Kent. 

Secretary, Frank Busey Soule. 

Treasurer, Myrta McKean Dennis. 

Inspector, Mary Jones Tennant. 

Editor of Lyre, Florence Reed Haseltine. 

Historian, Mabel Harriet Siller. 

Social Features 

In addition to the social features which were enjoyed by the entire con- 
vention, on August 28, a luncheon was given by Winifred Van Buskirk Mount 
for the members of the Grand Council. 

National Council Meetings 211 

Ninth Grand Council Meeting 

The Grand Council went into session at the home of Mrs. H. M. Kent, 
508 W. 122nd St., New York City, June 27, 1911, and adjourned July 1. 
All the officers were present : 

Grand President, Evangeline R. Bridge. 

Grand Vice-president, Fay Barnaby Kent. 

Grand Secretary, Helen McQueen Hardie. 

Grand Treasurer, Winii'red Van Buskirk Mount. 

Editor, Florence A. Armstrong. 

Grand Inspector, Myrta McKean Dennis. 

Grand Historian, Grace Hammond Holmes. 

At this meeting the Honor Pin, the head of Hera in gold, was conferred 
upon Mrs. Loud, Mrs. Haseltine, Mrs. Tennant, Mrs. Soule, and Miss Siller, 
in recognition of past service as grand officers. To Newman was granted 
exclusive power to manufacture this pin. 

Effort was made to protect the Alpha Chi Omega copyright of the coat- 
of-arms, and to prevent the prohibited display of the lyre bird as an Alpha 
Chi Omega symbol for stationery or for decorative purposes. 

The President, Editor, Secretary, and Historian were empowered to pub- 
lish a secret journal, the need for which had long been felt. The alumnae 
letter, it was ordered, should be incorporated therein. 

Various recommendations of great importance, such as the adoption of a 
system of province presidents, were made to the committee on organization, 
and incorporated into the revised Constitution presented at the National Con- 
vention of the following year. The policy of entertaining convention by 
chapter groups was recommended to convention. 

Complimentary copies of the forthcoming History of Alpha Chi Omega 
were ordered to be presented by the Fraternity to the university libraries 
of institutions where there are chapters of Alpha Chi Omega. 

The Alpha Chi Omega Studio at the Macdowell Colony for artists was 
reported as nearing completion. The furnishing of the studio was discussed. 

An important feature of the session was the planning for a Coast Con- 
vention at the time of the Panama-Pacific Exposition. 

A pleasant social feature was a tea at which Gamma Gamma Chapter 
entertained the Council at the home of Miss Northcroft. 

Tenth Grand Council Meeting 

Just preceding the National Convention, the Grand Council held its ses- 
sion at the Kappa chapter house. Madison, Wisconsin. June 22-2^. 1912. 
The officers were all present except the Vice-president, Mrs. Kent : 

Grand President, Evangeline Bridge Stevenson. 

Acting A'ice-president, Nella Ramsdell Fall. 

Grand Treasurer. Winifred Van Buskirk Mount. 

Grand Secretary, Helen McQueen Hardie. 

Editor, Florence A. Armstrong. 

Grand Inspector, Lois Smith Crann. 

212 The History of Alpha Chi ()mega Fraternity 

It was decided that the Hcracum be published each year and sent to Lyre. 
subscribers, to contain Council and Convention minutes and the inspector's 
reports, that the alumn;e letter be sent out each two years (a few months 
before convention), and that these be financed by the Orand Treasury. 

The committee on chapter by-laws was ordered to turn its attention to 
uniform house rules, and the report of the committee on model accounts was 
recommended to Convention for adoption. Upon request, dispensations 
were granted to various chapters permitting them to reduce their percentage 
of musical membership because of their need, in university centers, for a 
more flexible basis of membership. 

Much time was spent upon the discussion of the new constitution to l)e 
presented to" the convention. 

One of the external changes involved in the new constitution was the 
nomenclature of officers henceforth to be known as "National" officers, instead 
of "Grand" officers, as formerly. 

Eleventh (jrand Council Meeting 

Preceding the installation of Upsilon Chapter at James Millikin Uni- 
versity, the Council held its sessions at 976 West Wood St., Decatur, Illinois, 
May 14-17, 1913. With the exception of Mrs. Kent all the Council officers 
were present : 

National President, Mrs. E. R. Loud. 

National Secretary, Mrs. C. E. Ely. 

National Treasurer, Lillian G. Zimmerman. 

National Editor, Florence A. Armstrong. 

National Inspector, Lois Smith Crann. 

At this meeting the Council authorized the publication of a second private 
organ for the presentation of such other additional private matters as are not 
provided for by The Heraeum. the frequency and financing of the publication 
to be left to the discretion of a committee consisting of the editor, treasurer, 
and president. 

Other publications authorized were a Handbook of Rushing Rules to be 
compiled by the Province Presidents with Mrs. Roberts as chairman; a new 
Alpha Chi Omega Calendar, the proceeds of which should go to the Reserve 
Fund; a book containing the ceremonies and prescribed forms; and Miss 
Armstrong was appointed to compose an Alpha Chi Omega symphony for 
publication. The chapters were requested to subscribe annually to Santa's 
Greek Exchange. 

Important steps were taken toward the further systematization of the 
ever increasing volume of the lousiness of the Fraternity. Mrs. Crann was 
appointed "to decide on a uniform system of filing" ; a committee was ordered 
to formulate a uniform system of report blanks; Miss Zimmerman was 
authorized to revise and distribute chapter officers' instructions ; uniform 
handbooks for the use of Council members were ordered ; and a standing 
committee of one was authorized "to have charge of all the official supplies 

Nationai. Council Meetings 213 

of the Fraternity." Stenographic htly) for Council members, particularly 
the Inspector, was authorized. 

In order to ujihold the standard of the r'raternity for high scholarship, 
it was recjuired "that the initiation of sopliomores and freshmen I)e deferred 
until scholarship records, ranking 80 or aI)o\-e, he made for preceding 
semester." And to insure hroadmindedness and college loyalty among the 
members, it was re(|uired that each active member "take part in at least two 
different lines of college activities." 

Responding to the need of nianv local chapters in tlieir work of ac(]uiring 
ownership of chapter houses, the Council decided thai a cha|ilcr house com- 
mittee from the Council should serve as an advisory committee with the local 
committees from the chapters, and formulate plans for financing the building 
of the houses desired. 

The Council desired very much to further the and activity of the 
alumna\ The formation of alumn;t clubs was, therefore, recommended in 
small cities or college towns. Such clubs were to consist of not less than six 
members, and to be organized after an informal petition lias I)een accepted 
by the Executive Committee of the Fraternity. A deputy to the National 
Treasurer was appointed to assist her with the matter of alumnie notes. 

A communication from the Delta Upsilon Fraternity was read requesting 
representation from Alpha Chi Omega at an interfraternity conference at 
Chicago, May 30, for the discussion of antifraternity legislation. Mrs. Loud 
and Mrs. Crann were cho.sen as Alpha Chi Omega representatives. 

Incidental to the Council meetings and the installation of Upsilon, 
numerous courtesies were extended, during the stay of the council, from fac- 
ulty members, from fraternities, and from resident and neighboring members 
of Alpha Chi Omega. One of the greatest of the pleasures of the week was 
a day spent with Iota Chapter and her alumnjE in Champaign. 

Twelfth Crand Council Meeting 

The Council meeting of 1914 was held following the National Panhellenic 
Congress at the McAlpin Hotel, New \'ork City. All C"ouncil members 
were present : 

National President, Alta Allen Loud. 

National Vice-president, Fay Barnaby Kent. 

National Secretary, Birdean Motter Ely. 

National Treasurer, Lillian G. Zimmerman. 

National Editor, Florence A. Armstrong. 

National Inspector. Lois Smith Crann. 

The Council, at this session, accepted, with regret, the resignation of Alice 
Watson Dixon, President of the Eastern and Southern l^rovinces. Mrs. 
Hatswell-Bowman was appointed as her successor. 

The Council Trophv, which had been won by Omicron Chapter in 1913, 
was awarded to Alpha Chapter. Appreciation and commendation were 
expressed, of the work of Mu and Zeta Chapters, which ranked high in gen- 
eral fraternity relations. 

214 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

It was recommended to Convention that a second edition of the Alpha 
Chi Omega History he published. A committee to compile and present 
preliminary information to 1915 Convention was appointed, to consist of Miss 
Armstrong, Mrs. Ely, Mrs. Nafis. The balance accruing from the sale of the 
first edition was ordered kept separate as a History Fund. 

Chapters were informed "that the present edition of the History is so 
nearly exhausted that the initiates will be excused from the History require- 
ment, and that at the time of publication of a second edition each active 
member not owning a copv of the earlier edition will be required to purchase 
a copy." 

Various committees on publications reported on their work. Among these 
reports was one on the Official Symphony recommending that the present 
Symphony, by Celia E. McClure, A, be adopted as official. This was done. 
The calendar committee reported that the calendar was taken care of by 
Kappa Chapter for 1913, and by Delta Chapter for 1914, funds to be used 
for the Reserve Fund. 

A new seal, designed by Mrs. Ely, was adopted as the Official Seal of the 

The matter of chapter house building was discussed thoroughly, and the 
recommendation made to the Reserve Fund Committee "that when a chapter 
petitioning for a loan has raised one thousand dollars or more toward a build- 
ing fund, an equal amount shall be loaned to them from the Reserve Fund." 
Regulations for loans, and for the compilation of instructions for house 
building were passed. 

After the results of exhaustive investigation had been reported, the Coun- 
cil voted to accept the invitation of Epsilon and Delta Delta to hold conven- 
tion the last week in June, 1915, at the Hotel Virginia, Long Beach, Cali- 
fornia, because of the greater adaptability of this city. The appointment of 
a joint committee on arrangements was ordered from Epsilon and Delta Delta 
Chapters, a local manager to be selected from this committee. 

The Chair appointed the following convention committees : 

Convention Publicity Committee, Miss Armstrong, Mrs. Kent. 

Advertising Committee, Mrs. Ely, Miss Armstrong. 

Finance Committee, Miss Zimmerman, Mrs. Loud. 

Special Convention Train Committee, Miss Zimmerman, Mrs. Loud. 

Convention Program Committee, Mrs. Crann, Mrs. Loud. 

The Council was delightfully entertained at dinner by Gamma Gamma 
Chapter at the Peg Woffington Coffee House, and enjoyed their hospitality 
also at an opera given by the Century Opera Company. This chapter had 
represented Alpha Chi Omega most efficiently and acceptably as hostess of 
the National Panhellenic Congress at its sessions throughout the preceding 

Thirteenth National Council Meeting 

The formal Council sessions of the Thirteenth National Council meeting 
were held on June 28, 1915, at Hotel Virginia, Long Beach, California. On 
the special train en route to California, numerous informal sessions of the 

Naiionai, Coi.xciL Mkktings 215 

Council were held, and a great amount of discussion pending action was 
finished. Problems of various cliapters were carefully discussed, with refer- 
ence, when desirable, to the delegate of the chapter concerned, wlio was on 
board the special train. Numberless conferences were held with delegates 
and alumnte. and between them, so that the business, both of National Council 
and of National Con\-ention. was facilitated greatly. 

The roll call at the Council session on June 28 showed full attendance: 

National President, Alta Allen Loud. 

National Vice-president, Fay Barnaby Kent. 

National Secretary, Birdean M otter Ely. 

National Treasurer, Lillian C. Zimmerman. 

National Editor, Florence A. Armstrong. 

National Inspector, Lois Smith Crann. 

The action of the Council, after the hearing of officers' reports, consisted 
of recommendations to the convention to follow : a budget system for Council 
expense; a life^subscription for initiates; the appointment of J. F. Newman 
as sole official jeweler of the Fraternity ; the purchase of a badge at initiation; 
the adoption of a uniform die for badge to be made in gold set with three 
pearls, three diamonds, or any desired combinations of these stones beside the 
three required jewels. 

The Council adjourned to meet with tlie National Convention the next day. 

Fourteenth National Council Meeting 

The National Council met at the Lambda Chapter, Syracuse, 
New York. June 20-26, 1916. All members were present as follows: 

National President. Alta Allen Loud. 

First Vice-president, Lillian G. Zimmerman. 

Second Vice-president. Maude Staiger Steiner. 

National Secretary, Mary-Emma Griffith. 

National Treasurer, Myra H. Jones. 

National Editor, Florence Armstrong. 

National Inspector, Nella Ramsdell Fall. 

At this session the resignation of Frances Kirkwood, Eastern Province 
President, was accepted with regret, and Mrs. W. C. Jackson was asked to 
serve in the office for the unexpired term. After the consideration of the 
reports of chapters. Alpha Chapter was awarded the Council Trophy. It 
was decided that in the future two or more nominations for alumnte advisers 
should be sent to the National Inspector for appointment. A formal 
petition from Alpha Theta Sigma, an eight-year old local at the Washington 
State College Avas granted. Other petitions were considered but not granted. 
A National Scholarship Committee and a National Vocational Committee 
were added to the list of Standing Committees. 



There is nothing in fraternity symbolism that holds more permanent 
memories of fraternity ideals and vows than their outward emblem, the badge. 
Into its selection, its component parts, its entire whole, have been breathed 
the hope, the love, and the loftiest aspirations of which young hearts are 
capable, and which, because grounded in noble essence, exert an influence 
that can outlive life. 

The beautiful badge of Alpha Chi Omega is a Greek lyre of gold, having 
three twisted strings spanned diagonally by a raised and slightly rounded 
scroll of black enamel bearing the Greek letters A X fl in gold. The badge 
may be jeweled or may be of plain or chased gold except that, siruce the 
ruling of the 1897 Convention, it must contain the three required jewels, one 
at each upper, outer corner and one in the center just below the strings, at 
the head of the triangular base of the lyre. The 1910 Grand Chapter 
restricted the choice of jewels to pearls or diamonds or a combination of 
both. This lyre may be accompanied by an attached pin in the form of a 
Greek letter to signify the chapter. The badge may be worn only by initiated 
members of the Fraternity, to all of whom the "Mysteries of the lyre" have 
a deep significance. 

The original badge of Alpha Chi Omega is in its integral parts identical 
with the one now constituting the official die. The differences are that in 
the first badge the size is larger than in the present pins ; the choice of 
jewels conformed to the taste of the owner ; the strings are plain, not twisted ; 
the scroll is flat and of gold, bearing the three Greek letters in black, just 
the reverse of the present scroll. 

In the interest of future uniformity and of a closer kinship of pins, the 
1906 Grand Chapter ordered an ofiicial die for the badge, and, further to 
safeguard its exact design and individuality, provided for the use of identifi- 
cation certificates which must now accompany all orders. The badge is made 
only by the official jewelers who receive the certificates through the Custodian 
of the Badge — an officer appointed by the National President. 

As the custom of pledging Greek novitiates with ribbons has survived 
even to the present time, it is evident that a pledge pin was not considered 
necessary in the early fraternity days. The small bow of scarlet and olive 
green served then, as it does now in many institutions, to proclaim its wear- 
ers "followers of the Queen," but in 1893 the less conspicuous and more 
dignified system of pledging with a pin was instituted, at which time the 
design selected consisted of a gold stick pin in the shape of a lyre bearing 
a white enamel chapter letter. As this design was not entirely satisfactory, 
the 1900 Grand Chapter adopted the pledge pin now in use — a small diamond 
shaped pin half of scarlet and half of olive enamel, bearing in the center 
an inlaid golden lyre. This pledge pin may be worn by any pledged member 
of the Fraternity. The custom of using pins instead of ribbons is constantly 
gaining favor among the fraternities and is, in some institutions, a Panhellenic 

InSIGMA AM) 1 1 KRAI, DRV 217 

The Honor Pin was adopted by the 1910 (jrand Chapter to be awarded 
as a token of appreciation Ijy Alpha Chi Omega to her retiring National Coun- 
cil Officers who liavc faithfully served one full term of office. Winifred Van 
Buskirk Mount and Fay Barnaby Kent (with whom the idea originated), as a 
committee, selected the design which they felt the most significant mark of 
honor, a tiny head of the Patron (loddess, Hera. This is a very fine produc- 
tion in solid gold of one of the old sculptures and is perfect in detail. On the 
back of the pin is engraved the name of the recipient, her special office on 
the Council, and the dates of its fulfillment. 

The plate on the next page illustrates the various official pins of Alpha Chi 
Omega. The lyres are planned to show three stages in the transition of the 
badge from 1885 to the present time. Figure 1 illustrates one of the first three 
badges made in 1885, being set with half-pearls and rubies; figure 2 
represents a pin made ten years later with half-pearls and three diamonds; 
while figures 3, 4, and 5 illustrate badges made in 1911 from the official 
die, showing the three sizes used and the forms of settings, 3 and 5 being 
jeweled with crown set pearls and the three required stones of diamonds, 
while figure 4 represents a pin of chased gold with diamonds as the three 
required jewels. 

Figures 6 and 7 illustrate two types of the pledge pin, and figure 8 
represents the honor pin. 

To Alta Allen Loud (Grand President), Mary Jones Tennant (Inspec- 
tor), Florence Reed Haseltine (Editor of The Lyre), Frank Busey Soule 
(Grand Secretary), and Mabel Harriet Siller (Grand Historian), the first 
Honor Pins were awarded with a deep sense of appreciation and gratitude 
for the energy they have given to fraternity work. They have since been 
presented to Myrta McKean Dennis (Grand Inspector), Winifred Van Bus- 
kirk Mount (Grand Treasurer), Helen M. Hardie (Grand Secretary), Lois 
Smith Crann (National Inspector), Birdean Motter Ely (National Secretary), 
and Fay Barnaby Kent (National Vice-president). Hereafter they will wear 
the head of Hera beside the lyre as a symbol of their unselfish devotion to 
Alpha Chi Omega and as a token of the love, regard, and appreciation of 
the sisters to these, her highly honored members. May the wearers of the 
Honor Pin always meet with special recognition and hearty welcome ! 

The coat-of-arms of Alpha Chi Omega, which was adopted by the 1908 
Grand Chapter, attests to the careful work of the committee appointed at 
the 1907- Grand Council Meeting, under the chairmanship of Alta Allen 
Loud, then Grand President. 

The following exposition of the coat-of-arms was given by Mrs. Loud 
in The Lyre, for January, 1910. 

Heraldry, in the restricted sense in which it interests us, may be defined as the art 
of blazoning or describing in proper terms armorial bearings. A coat-of-arms is com- 
posed of charges depicted on an escutcheon representing the old knightly shield. 

Particular symbols have in all ages been assumed by the various families of mankind, 
civilized and uncivilized. All good heraldry is symbolic. In the heraldry of a fraternity 
there are used only those symbols which express its ideals and which have a deep sig- 
nificance for its members. 

Badges, Pledge Pixs, and Hoxok Pin 

Insignia axd 


The rules for blazoning, or describinti; in the technical language of heraldry, a coat- 
of-arms, are remarkable for their jirecision, brevity, and conijileteness. The tirst thing 
to be mentioned is the colors or, as they are heraldically called, the tinctures of the 
field. Tinctures are either of metal, color strictly so called, or fur. The colors are 
denoted by lines — i. e., or heraldically speaking, gules, by perpendicular lines ; green, 
or vert, by diagonal lines. Next, the character of the partition lines when parted — i. e., 
chief, the upper part of shield, separated from the rest by a line; a fess, or horizontal 
band in the middle of the shield. Ne.xt follow the charges — everything contained 
on the field of an escutcheon being called a charge — their names, number, position, 
and color are given. Besides the heraldic devices dejiicted on the shield, there are the 
appendages, including whatever is borne external to the shield, such as the crest, and a 
scroll bearing a motto. These mottoes were originally the war-cries of the bearers. 

Heraldry, though arbitrary, is \ery exact, and the rules of blazoning are observed 
on all occasions with the most rigid precision. Repetitions are avoided and as few 
words as possible used. The following is the Blazon of the official coat-of-arms, presented 
by the committee, and approved and adojited by the Fraternity: 

Blazon of Alplm. C/ii Onicxa Anns 
(hiles — a fess vert — 

Of the first in middle chief an Open 
Book Or — in middle base a Sheaf of 
Wheat corded of the same. 
Of the srcond — three mullets — argent. 

A Lyric Bird — ppr. 

As described in Greek letters. 

For the benefit of those to whom heraldic description and technicalities are a foreign 
tongue, the following translation is given : 

220 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

The shield proper is red (gules — perpendicular lines) and divided by a fess or 
bar of olive (vert). At the top of the shield field ("of the first" meaning red) is an 
open book in gold (or), and at base point is a garb or sheaf of wheat in same color 
fastened with a knot. The fess or bar has on it three white (argent) stars (mullets). 
The crest of lyre bird is in its natural color (ppr). Below is the scroll, containing the 
Greek words of our revised open motto, 2i'OJroi'6aoo)|tiev xd avcoTaxa — "Together, let 
us seek the heights." The shield is square and is divided into three parts, the number 
three being significant in our Fraternity. 

Your committee has striven to given you a coat-of-arms absolutely correct from 
an heraldic standpoint, marked by the simplicity and dignity for which our Fraternity 
stands, and bearing those symbols known and honored by every wearer of the lyre. 
Shall we not then buckle on our armor, and like the knights of old, go forth to battle 
for Alpha Chi Omega, keeping her fair name untarnished, her standards high? 

The colors of the Fraternity selected at the time of the founding were 
scarlet and bronze green, but owing to the difficulty encountered in obtain- 
ing the correct shade of bronze green, the olive green was substituted during 
the first year of the Fraternity. 

Olive Burnett Clark writes of the selection of the colors as follows : 

"I suppose you have heard how we happened to decide upon our colors. We 
found them in the maple leaf, the October maple, beautiful with the tints of autumn, 
the scarlet and the bronze green — we found them the day after our first meeting, under 
a maple tree in the east college campus just opposite the girls' dormitory, where we 
girls were standing debating the many phases of the new Fraternity — little dreaming, 
however, of the place the future would hold for us." 

In a conversation at the time of the 1910 Convention in Detroit, Estelle 
Leonard gave an interesting account of the fomial selecting of the colors 
(October 19, 1885). She had been appointed to bring samples of various 
colors to the meeting, and after trying many combinations, the scarlet and 
bronze green were adopted. Doubtless this selection was the result of the 
conversation mentioned in the above paragraph. 

As the choice of a flower for a secret organization involves many con- 
siderations, it is a matter of deep satisfaction in Alpha Chi Omega that the 
founders incorporated into the insignia of the Fraternity, so beautiful, so 
significant, and so adaptable a flower as the red carnation, and with wise 
forethought, added as its accompaniment, the graceful smilax, with its mes- 
sage of hope. They not only typify the colors of the Fraternity, and at all 
times of the year lend themselves with cheery brightness to the joys and 
festivities, and even to the more solemn occasions of the Fraternity; but their 
symbolism reaches far deeper, in the ritual, and in the hearts of the members 
of Alpha Chi Omega. Alpha Chi Omega should never lack inspiration to 
reach the "Heights," from the legend of the red carnation and smilax alone. 

The Holly Tree, also eloquent of the scarlet and olive, as well as of 
many beautiful thoughts, was adopted bv the 1908 Grand Chapter as the 
Fraternity Tree. The symbolism of this tree is well expressed in two poems 
written respectively by Florence Fall (Beta) published in The Lyre for 
January, 1909, and by Lucv Loane (Delta) published in The Lyre for 
January, 1911. 

Insignia and Heraldry 221 

The Holly Tree 
Oh, the holly tree is the tree for me, 
With branches tossing merrily ; 

Its branches bright 

Bring gay delight, 
A merry tree is the holly tree. 

Oh, a loving tree is the holly tree. 
Crooning a lullaby tenderly, 

While the stars o'erhead 

Look down, and shed 
Their heavenly light on the holly tree. 

Oh, a holy tree is the holly tree, 

Its red stands for blood shed on Calvary, 

Its thorns for the crown 

From which blood trinkled down 
When it circled His brow, as He hung on the tree. 

Oh, the holly tree is the Christmas tree, 
And the message it brings to you and me 

Is of peace on earth, 

And a Savior's birth — - 
Oh. tlie tree for me is the holly tree. 

Florence Fall,, Beta. 

To the Alpha Chi Tree 
Oh 1 Holly Tree, we look on thee 
And lo — the Christmas cheer 
Thrills deep within our inmost heart 
And banishes each fear. 

Oh! Holly Tree, we look on thee, 
We see thy colors bright. 
They tell again of God's great gift 
On that first Christmas night. 

Oh ! Holly Tree, thy living green, 
A lesson — so 'twould seem — 
Imparts to us, " 'Tis always best 
To do — and not to dream." 

Oh ! Holly Tree, thy gleaming red 

Has counsel for us too — 

"Hope shines throughout the gloom," it says; 

"Strive on — forever true." 

Of God's great gift, of lessons true 
You tell us all the while. 
So we, when met with duties stern. 
Dream not — but hope and smile. 

Luc\ Evch'u Loanc. Delta 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraiernity 

Ever since Alpha Chi ( )mega enthusiasm was born in 1885 it has con- 
tinued to express itself in tangible forms by the acquisition of many fra- 
ternity emblems, none of \vhich have held a more prominent place in college 
rooms and in fraternity halls than the various Alpha Chi Omega flags. 
These flags have usually been expressions of personal taste in the adaptation 
of the colors, the Greek letters — A X fJ — and the lyre. As the Fraternity 
developed in uniformity, it was thought best to have an official flag, which 
would be individual, significant, and which would at the same time, conform 
to heraldic principles. Hence in 1908, a committee, consisting of Fay 
Barnaby Kent and Mabel Harriet Siller, was appointed to select such a 
flag. This committee studied the matter thoughtfully and carefully, sub- 
mitting to the Grand Council many drawings, both professional and amateur, 
with the result that a design drawn by Mabel H. Siller was selected and 
adopted by the 1910 Grand Chapter as the official flag of Alpha Chi Omega. 
This flag is a rectangle of olive green with a scarlet chevron extending 
from the center of the top to the two lower corners and bearing three olive 
stars with white tracing, while below the chevron on the olive field is the 
lyre-bird charge in scarlet. The flag is made to be suspended from a hori- 
zontal bar. 

Although the earlier members of the Fraternity no doubt had ample 
means of expressing their enthusiasm without a uniform "yell," the Conven- 
tion of 1894, realizing that fraternity ardor could best be vented by means 
of a universallv adopted cheer, accordingly selected the following one : 
Ah! Ah! Ah! Alpha Chi! 
Hio! Hio! Alpha Chi Omega! 
As a test of this "yell" showed the difficulty of vocalizing the first line 
with sufficient vim, the 1896 Convention revised it, presenting the one which 
is now in use and which for fifteen years has continued to raise echoes in 
every section of the country, in answer to Alpha Chi enthusiasm. 
Hi !' Hi ! Hi ! Alpha Chi ! 
Chio ! Chio ! Alpha Chi Omega ! 
The omnipresent musical spirit in Alpha Chi Omega also demanded 
a share in this happy means of expression for fraternity enthusiasm ; con- 
sequently the same Convention (1896) adopted a musical cheer which has 
continued to grow in favor with the years until it has become a popular 
feature of Alpha Chi gatherings. 






A-L-p-H-A- c-H-i Ai-pha-Chi 0-me-ga. 

S 1 o A 
S 0.3 

1 o -1 < 

o S ° I 

^ 1 1 I 


p '^ 2. 2 
p p -" 


p 3 " » 

^ > 

3 3 P > 

o Od t: 

>^? 2." z 

•=■ '^ 2. > 

p ~ir'2 "^ 

--•r^ 3 

c 5 ?; 

pi; >2 

, IK! — 3 
?^ S 
■^ — ^ 
P ~ 

o P 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

The national whistle of the Fraternity was first recorded officially May 
24, 1887, when a motion was passed that it should be inserted in the constitu- 
tion. This whistle which has summoned an Alpha Chi for the past twenty- 
five years and to which one never fails to respond, is as follows : 




When Alpha Chi Omega was founded the significance of the name 
selected was considered the secret motto. The matter of a separate motto 
was discussed at several conventions, but nothing was definitely determined 
until 1908, when the Grand Chapter adopted a distinctively secret motto, 
suggested by Florence Reed Haseltine, thus preserving forever the "Alpha 
Chi Omega," as the larger meaning of the name alone. 

At a meeting held May 24, 1887, Alpha Chapter selected the open 
motto, "Ye daughters of Music, come up higher," presented by Mary Jones 
(Mrs. Tennant). It became advisable later to consider an open motto 
which would be equally representative of the various elements composing 
the fraternity membership. As the open motto had become very dear within 
the Fraternity, it was considered best to retain its thought as far as possible. 
After much consideration, the matter was satisfactorily adjusted by the adop- 
tion in 1909 of the motto, "Together let us seek the Heights," suggested by 
Alta Allen Loud. 

Seal of Alpha Chi Omega 

It is the work of years to establish traditions, to gain a proper perspective 
of events and values. The early members of any organization are too much 
occupied with construction to linger in ac'miration of what lies close at hand. 

Insignia and Heraldry 225 

Rather is it given to tliose who succeed to the lieritage of their labors to 
pause in contemplation of tlieir achievements and reverently to do homage 
to the love, skill, and uncounted time which so generously have been given. 

Hence such customs as the celebration of l-'ounders' Day and chapter 
anniversaries, and the more quiet courtesy of anniversary letters from the 
Grand Council to the founders and to Dean Howe, grow in importance and 
significance with each passing year. Founders' Day is celebrated through- 
out the Fraternity by chapter letters to the founders, by alumnije reunions, 
programs, and reminiscences, and often by informal social affairs planned in 
honor of the day; chapter anniversaries are celebrated by special ceremonies 
and festivities of individual chapter choice, often including the exchanging 
of college pennants, chapter pictures, and letters among the active chapters. 
The colors of the Fraternity are worn by the active members on both these 
occasions as well as on the days of installation of new chapters. 

Other customs of recent years are the awarding by The Lyre annually 
of a prize for the best undergraduate article in the 'E/,X£7,Ta department of 
The Lyre : the annual presentation of llie Lyre Loving-cup to that chapter 
W'hich ranks highest in its Lyre relations, the decision resting upon literary 
excellence of contributions, and upon promptness and businesslike methods, 
the name of the winning chapter and the year being engraved upon the cup ; 
the presentation of a loving-cup by the National Council to the chapter enter- 
taining Grand Chapter, the cup to be retained until the following con- 
vention ; and the presentation of a loving-cup by the Fraternity to that chapter 
which ranks highest in fraternal relations. 

In 1909, Iota Chapter inaugurated the custom, which has since been 
followed bv some chapters, of awarding a loving-cup at the annual chapter 
reunion, to the freshman having the highest scholarship for that year. This 
cup also rotates from year to year, each time having engraved upon it the 
name of the honored freshman. 

Several of the chapters have the custom of holding annual reunions, 
usually at commencement time, when every effort is made to secure a large 
attendance. Mu's reunion takes the form of an annual house party during 
commencement. At these times banquets and other social affairs add to the 
natural pleasure of meeting with old friends amid the familiar college scenes. 

Aside from the beautiful and impressive initiation service the Fraternity 
has appropriate ceremonies including the pledging, installation of officers, 
opening and closing of cliapter meetings, anniversary, valedictory, memorial, 
and affiliation ceremonies. 



A fraternity is largely judged on the part of those outside of its meml)er- 
ship by the journal that it publishes, and for this reason it is important that 
this official organ, which reaches the major part of the Greek world, should 
represent the Fraternity at its true value. In this respect the development 
of The Lyre of Alpha Chi Omega has been parallel with the growth of the 

Alpha Chi Omega first formally considered the matter of a fraternity 
publication when there were but four chapters. At the lirst Convention in 
Greencastle (1891) a motion was carried that "the fraternity publication be 
put in the hands of Beta Chapter, the name of it to be decided during the j^ear 
and the publication to be introduced when Epsilon and Zeta Chapters shall 
have been established." As these chapters were not installed until four years 
later, the records contain no further mention of a journal until 1894. The 
minutes of the convention of that year record the passing of a motion authoriz- 
ing Alpha to undertake the publication of the journal, and specifying that all 
items should be sent to Alpha in April of that year, bv which motion it must 
be inferred that the ruling of the 1891 Convention, authorizing a publication 
when the chapters Epsilon and Zeta should be established, Avas set aside. 
Alpha at once transferred the responsibility of general management of the 
journal to one of her members, Mayme Jennings, as editor, assisted by Adeline 
Rowley and Zella Marshall, with the result that in June, 1894, Volume I, 
Number I of The Lyre made its appearance, the name being selected as that 
of the most significant emblem of Alpha Chi Omega. 

In this number the editor writes, "Since there were no explicit directions 
given at the Convention, I have followed what I felt to be the unexpressed 
wishes of all — that is, that The Lyre should be convenient and simple, though 
not elegant in form." But one number was published that year ; it contains 
historical sketches of the chapters, chapter letters, personals, an account of the 
1894 Convention, and programs of Alpha Chi Omega musicales. The forty 
pages of that number are of the same dimensions as in the present journal (six 
by nine inches) ; the cover design in pale blue is very simple, bearing the 
inscription : 

"Ye Daughters of Music Come up Higher." 



Alpha Chi Omega 

June, 1894. 

As there were at this time but four chapters, having an average existence 
of only five years, with a 'correspondinglv small membership, and as there 

'I'm: I.VKI-: 227 

was no obligatory financial support prtuided for tlic journal, it is not strange 
that the next issue of '/'//,• L.yrr hears the date of March, 1897, and that it is 
No. I, Vol. II. This numlier was luihlished vnider the management of 
Alpha Chapter, with Mary Janet Wilson as editor-in-chief, thus fulfilling 
the ruling made at the 1896 Convention, which provided for the publication 
of the journal by the mother chapter. This number of The Lyre followed 
the same general plan of composition as the first issue, differing only in having 
an olive instead of a blue cover, and in containing several articles of general 
musical and fraternitv interest l)v various contributors, and more advertise- 
ments. In this year (1897) it was decided to jJubUsh The Lyre quarterly, 
and it is a matter for sincere gratification that in spite of a crude and 
insufficient financial system, the deep loyalty and self-sacrificing efforts 
of the early editors carried everv number of The Lyre through to publication, 
with the exception of two issues, numbers 3 and 4 of Volume VIII. 

Mary Janet Wilst)n continued her successful work as editor until 1900, 
when with deep regret the 1900 Convention was obliged to accept her resig- 
nation, realizing that no greater example of the tireless, sacrificing work 
necessary to successful fraternity achievements, had come within its experi- 
ence. Motions were passed at once requiring better chapter support for the 
journal, and Edith Manchester (Zeta) was elected editor. A sum was 
appropriated from the (irand Treasury for the publication of the journal, 
the surplus to be retained by the editor as remuneration. With this provision 
and with the increasing circulation made possible by the growth of the 
Fraternitv. the editor and her assistant, Mary Ferine (Beta), appointed in 
1902, were able to furnish the Fraternity with a magazine constantly improv- 
ing in its many phases. More articles were added to the contents, an exchange 
department was instituted, the (]ualitv of paper and composition improved, 
and a general spirit of enthusiasm and loyalty pervaded the journal. There 
were still serious, continuous, and often discouraging difficulties to be over- 
come, and the spirit which' for five years held this staff to their task is but 
another instance of the inspiring devotion which enables the few to work 
willingly for the many. 

The (Jrand Council Meeting of 1905 regretfully accepted the resignation 
of Edith Manchester (iriffin and Mary Ferine, and elected to their respective 
positions Elma Fatton \\'ade and Jennie McHatton, both of Alpha Chapter. 
After a persistent circulation cam])aign had been conducted, the system of 
bookkeeping reorganized, and more ad\ertising secured, this staff was able 
at its termination of service in 1907 to transfer the i)ublication to another 
management in a better condition than it had yet attained. Only two years 
of service could be given to the Fraternity by Mrs. Wade and Miss McHatton, 
but it was a two years crowded with unceasing labor and growing efficiency 
for The Lyre. 

At the Grand Council Meeting of 1907, Florence Reed Haseltine (Zeta) 
was elected editor of The Lyre with power to appoint her assistants. The 
first of these appointments was that of Laura Howe, Grand Treasurer, as 
business manager. The Lyre continued under this efficient business manage- 
ment until the (Irand Council at its meeting in 1909, after accepting with 

Covers of The Lyre 

The Lyre 


much regret Miss Howe's resignation, appointed Myrta McKean Dennis, 
Grand Treasurer, to succeed her. During the three years that Mrs. Hasel- 
tine was editor, The Lyre showed a remarkable, steady development. To 
her, high tribute should be paid as a "Maker of The Lyre," for she raised 
the standard and the purpose of the jounial. Besides a marked improve- 
ment in the general composition of the magazine, with its size nearly 
doubled, a better quality of paper and type, and the addition of many illus- 
trations, there was evolved by the editor and the business manager a gratify- 
ing business system which has produced greater promptness, greater loyalty, 
and better business methods on the part of chapter editors and Lyre assistants. 
Chapter letters, personals, and alumna- articles have grown in interest and 
individuality. Active lovaltv anrl pride bave l)cen stimulated by competitive 

Edith Manchester, Zeta 
Editor The Lyre, 1905-1906 

Elma Patton Wade, Alpha 

tests of representation in the 'Ey/AsxTo; department. To her is due the crea- 
tion of the office of Chief Alumna, successfully held under her by Mary 
Ferine (Beta) and Ruth Buffum (Iota), through whose efforts the interest 
of many alumna; has been revived and their cooperation secured. The 
Exchange and Collegiate Departments have grown, and her editorials, show- 
ing the writer's strong character and personality, carried many a message 
to members of Alpha Chi Omega and were widely quoted by other fraternity 
journals. In the words of the present editor, "She succeeded in making 
The Lyre literary and artistic, as well as personal and practical — a journal 
of beauty and of great usefulness to the Fraternity." 

The Grand Chapter of 1910 was loath to accept the resignation of Mrs. 
Haseltine and Mrs. Dennis from their offices of editor and business manager, 
realizing that the positions would be hard to fill. The Fraternity elected at 
that time Florence A. Armstrong (Mu) as editor. The Lyre has shown a 


The HisroRv of Alpha Chi Omega Fraterxitv 

remarkable and steady growth. It has always been published m the same 
size, six by nine. From the iirst number containing forty pages it has 
increased to an average size of more than a hundred pages a number. 

The journal today is composed of the various following departments : 
'E/,A£/.Ta, containing articles contributed by active members; the Alumn;t 
Department, containing letters, news of alumnie. and special articles by 
alumnae in different lines of work ; the Editorial Department, which is 
always full of good ideas and brimming over with the loyalty of the efficient 
editor ; Chapter Letters : Personals, giving news items of active and alumnae 

Florence Reed Haseltine 
William Reed Haseltine Edwin Charles Haseltine 

members by chapters; Marriages and Engagements; "Ev6a Kat "EvOa, or 
Exchange Department, giving news of other fraternities; Collegiate News; 
Announcements. Besides the above-mentioned departments there are the 
comprehensive general articles upon topics of interest in fraternity and 
college life, usually written by prominent faculty and fraternity members. 
Since a fraternity is largely judged by its magazine, it is a source of 
general gratification and pleasure to all Alpha Chis to know that The Lyre 
has iustlv worked its way into its present place among the very best of the 
fraternity iournals. Sincere gratitude and appreciation are felt by the entire 
Fraternity for the loyal work of the editors and other members of the staffs 

The Lyre 


who have bent every effort towards this goal. Too much praise cannot be 
given to Florence Reed Haseltine for what she accomplished with her assis- 
tants, although The Lyre could not be the remarkably good journal that it 
is today if a strong fountUition liad not been laid by her predecessors in the 

For many years TJic Lyre was necessarily a financial burden, though a 
welcome one, to the Grand Treasury. Today it is self-supporting. Chapter 
support, both financial and literary, has been increased at the various conven- 
tions until now^ every initiate takes out a life subscription, while several 
alumnae chapters require Lyre subscriptions of their members. The manage- 
ment of The Lyre announced in the April, 1911, number that it was 
ready to oft'er life subscriptions (twenty dollars) to alumnit, thus saving 
the subscriber the trouble of annual renewal as well as considerable expense ; 
at the same time the management was saved the expense of obtaining renewals, 
while the interest from the accumulated fund makes the plan possible and 

Celia E. McClure 

Author of tlie Alpha Chi Omci/a 

practicable. In 1915 the lower rate of ten dollars for life subscriptions was 
adopted. The Lyre pays an annual salary to the editor and allows the busi- 
ness manager a certain per cent of all monev handled. 

Each year every active member is required to write an article of general 
interest for the 'Ey.AexTa, or Undergraduate Department, and a prize is 
awarded for the best article. Several articles are published in each number 
except November. These prizes, which have been offered since 1909. have 
been awarded, respectively, as follows : 

Winners of 


Ekiekta Prizes Ch 



Ruth Buffum 



Jane Harris 


Lucy Loane 



Myra H. Jones 



Celia E. McClure 



Esther Jov Lawrence 



Xante of Article Date of Issue 

Be Sunny Nov., 1909 

The Way to All-Roundness Apr., 1910 
An Allegory In Ritual 

Chapter Finance Apr., 1911 

A Fraternity Symphony Jan.. 1912 
Sharing ' julv, 1913 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Esther Kittredge n '17 The Half Hour of Music July, 1914 

Bess A. Will P Fraternalism and Paternalism 

July. 1915 
Isabelle Wineland A '17 Do Vou Know Your (iirls? July. 1916 

For seYeral years the prize has been a gold coat-of-arms pendent, a less 
elaborate prize than the early ones Init one that is held precious because of 
the honor which attaches to it. 

Since 1910 also a Lyre Loving-cup has been awarded to that chapter 
whose Lyre relations for the years have been most worthy both as to literary 
quality of contributions and to general efficiency in cooperation. Six awards 
have been made : Xi, 1910-11; Xi, 1911-12; Kappa, 1912-13; Delta, 1913- 
14; Zeta, 1914-15; Beta, 1915-16. 

The cover designs of The Lyre were at first very simple, containing little 
more than the lettering on the first numbers. There have been nine different 

Chapter Letter 


covers, some, however, varving only slightly from the others. For many 
years an olive cover bearing a small Grecian lyre in scarlet was used. With 
the January, 1908, number an attractive new cover design (the work of Mr. 
Haseltine) was adopted, composed of a Grecian temple bearing the letters 
A X O. With the number of January, 1910, a more elaborate and attractive 
design was selected, containing the new coat-of-arms and a (irecian design 
representing the artistic character of Alpha Chi (Jmega, the artist being 
John W. Norton, of Chicago. Mrs. Haseltine also showed great artistic 
judgment in selecting beautiful and appropriate designs for the headings 
of the different departments. 

Since the anniversary celebrating the rounding of the quarter-century 
mark for Alpha Chi Omega (1910), The Lyre, like every other department 
of the Fraternity, has progressed steadily. The editor, Florence A. Arm- 
strong, has continued in office throughout the period, and with the support of a 
loyal staff and of a great many alumnae, has been able to work out several defi- 
nite plans. The staff of The Lyre has seen few changes. In 1912 upon suc- 
cession to the office of National Inspector, Lois Smith Crann, who Had been a 



most cfru'ieiU business inaiia^eT from 1910-12, was followed by Xfll !"".. Harris, 
the present incumbent. The splendid work of these two assistants has seen 
the magazine reach a high plane of businesslike systematization and pros- 

Florence a. Armstrong 

Editor The Lyre 1910-1917 

parity. The office of exchange editor has l)een filled by three persons: Mary 
Emma Griffith. 1910-12. who retired because of illness; Kathryn Morgan, 
1912-16, who was relieved in order that she might devote her time exclusively 
to the office of Keeper of Supplies; and Margaret (irafius BirkhotT. 1916-. 
Miss Griffith and Miss Morgan were in close touch with educational work 
through their own profession of pedagogy. Mrs. BirkholT is a graduate 
of the University of Illinois and the wife of a Harvard ]:)rofessor. She, 
too, as a consequence, is in touch with current educational movements. 
Through the contributions of these exchange editors concerning educational 
and fraternitv questions. 77/(- Lyre has contained much timely information 
which has been appreciated by readers of Alpha Chi Omega and of other 
fraternities, (iladys Livingston (^Imstead served brilliantly as chief alumna 
from 1910-15. Her sketches of celebrated meml)ers of Aljjha Chi (^mega, 
and of her travels, are among the most sparkling of the contril)ution.s to T/ie 
Lyre during its history. In 1915, as Gladys Livingston Graff, she was 
relieved for work on the new history. Edna Boicourt succeeded her as 
National Alumnae Editor. Miss Boicourt had studied at Baker University, 
had graduated as a member of Zeta Chapter from the New England Con- 
servatory of Music, under Carl Baermann, and has since been prominent in 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

fraternity circles in Los Angeles both among the graduate and alumns 
members. She has a wide acquaintance, therefore, \vith alumnae throughout 
the United States. She cooperates with the alumnjE editors of The Lyre in 
building up the alumnae news department. 

Nell E. Harris 

Business Manager The Lyre, 1912-1917 

K.A.THKVN Morgan 
Exchange Editor, 1912-1916 

The Board of Alumnae Editors was established previous to the November, 
1913, edition which featured alumiiie news. The success of the issue was 
so pronounced that the November issue became thereafter a regular alumnae 
issue. For it the alumnae editors endeavored to secure news of every alumna. 
The Board of Alumnae Editors was founded to supplement the service 
rendered by the active chapter editors who were unable, with the tremendous 
increase of alumnte membership, to keep in touch with all these valued 
members. The office is filled by election of the active chapter upon rati- 
fication by the editor of The Lyre. In the phenomenal growth of alum- 
nae interest and service in the fraternity during the past few years, we see 
the fruits of the striving of these editors, as many other laborers, and to them 
we owe, as to the others who have served to the same end, a great debt of 

To every magazine the question of finances is a matter of serious concern. 
In 1908 The Lyre had reached, through the sagacity and indefatigability of 
the management, a self-supporting stage. In that year, as hitherto recorded, 
the National Convention passed a ruling, not unheard of among fraternities. 

The Lyre 


Gladys Livixgstox Graff Makgaket Grafius Birkhoff, Iota Edna Boicourt, Zeta 
Chief Alumna, 1911-1915 Exchange Editor, 1916- National Alumnx Editor, 1915- 

that each initiate should be required to subscribe to the magazine for one 
year after graduation besides during her undergraduate years. The law 
was arranged with foresight, moreover, to require, at initiation, the payment 
for the entire five years, to save trouble in collection, and to have the use 
of the amount, without shrinkage, during the period. The experiment was 
triumphantly successful. The list of alumnae subscriptions steadily increased. 
From the pul)lication of about 750 copies in July, 1910, the list lengthened to 
1,750 copies published in July, 1915. 

The rise in alumnae support was, however, not sufficient to meet the 
reasonable expectations of the management. Repeated subscription cam- 
paigns, in which the chapters faithfully and laboriously cooperated, raised, 
by means of the "Whirlwind Campaign" in 1913, the percentage of alumnae 
subscribing to 67 per cent. The editor's report in 1914 expressed dissatis- 
faction with the campaign method, however, in spite of its temporarily 
gratifying results, in the following words : 

"The Whirlwind Campaign was a success but at a startling expenditure 
of time, energy, and money. ( Much of this had devolved upon the members 
in college.) We need badly an automatic system of subscription — only a 
general life subscription will ever answer, and the editor hopes to see the 
day when every Alpha Chi Omega will be a life subscriber." 

The prizes of this campaign went to Mu (twenty dollars in gold) who 
achieved 100 per cent renewals, and to Beta, Zeta, and Iota, who received 
coat-of-arms spoons for especially good Avork. 

The life subscription offer (twenty dollars), begun in April, 1911, had 
led to but few remittances, although the plan itself of a life sub.scription 
system met with universal favor. The price was too high for general accep- 
tance, and the management longed to be able to oflfer a low rate with a large 
and steadily growing life subscription list to make safe the reduction in 
price, and to decrease the necessity of subscription campaigns. 

236 Thk History of Alpha Chi Omk(;a Fraternity 

The 1915 ("onYention, therefore, at the recommendation of The Lyre 
Finance Board adopted a system of life subscriptions for all initiates. The 
price of the subscription \Yas placed at ten dollars, or eleven dollars in three 
annual installments of five dollars, three dollars, and three dollars. Since 
the first payment of five dollars at initiation did not increase the fee already 
in force, and the succeeding annual payments of three dollars ^vere simple 
to manage, the remarkable advantage to the individual and to the Fraternity 
appeared in all its magnitude. The rates and terms to initiates were appli- 
cable also to alumnae. The measure was passed most enthusiastically by 
the convention, which pledged a large number of Individual life subscrip- 
tions on the spot, a number that was increased to one hundred before the 
next issue of The Lyre appeared. By this action The Lyre was benefited 
enormously, provided always, of course, that its funds shall be managed 
with care and foresight. The present management is of the conviction that 
The Lyre Reserve Fund, considerable and well invested as it is at the present 
time, should be increased annually at a reasonable rate and left untouched. 
The Lyre reported in 1915 a Reserve Fund (begun three years before) 
equal to the amount of its advertising receipts for the past three years. 
The editor had stressed persistently the possibility and advantage of a paying 
advertising department. Tlie Lyre, it was seen, was a valuable advertising 
medium, both for local and national advertising, and with the support 
of the chapters this fact has been demonstrated. The editor hopes and 
is working for the inauguration of syndicated advertising for all fraternity 
magazines, by which system the combined circulation of all N. P. C. magazines 
would make a strong appeal to conservative national advertisers. It would 
insure a high grade of advertising and increased revenue for all journals. 
Besides the conduct of The Lyre in general and in detail, on sound busi- 
ness principles, the policy of the management of The Lyre is distinct and 
progressive. Quoting frcnn an editorial from the Argolid headed "The policy 
of The Lyre," we disclose the well-defined purpose : 

"To be of constructive value, a fraternity must show a definite impress, 
powerfully made. This definite impress constitutes the character of the 
fraternity. The impress Avhich Alpha Chi Omega makes is altogether noble, 
spelling attainment, idealism, and service ; it must be the work of the frater- 
nity membership to increase the dynamic of a fraternity's inspiration, that her 
impress may be powerfully made, and may count for social progress. This 
is especially the function of the fraternity magazine. 

"To increase the dynamic of the inspiration of the fraternity is, then, the 
purpose of The Lyre, and the policy of the staff follows that direction, by 
several distinct roads. All these roads alike travel the region of good citizen- 
ship — college citizenship, and community citizenship. 

"The fraternity journal is a dual creature — half newspaper, half maga- 
zine; therefore our policy is dual. We stress news, because The Lyre is the 
sole correspondence between most of the members of the fraternity ; the 
prestige and expansion of Alpha Chi Omega depend directly on the attitude 
and cooperation of our members. If we are able to keep Alpha Chis in 
close touch with each other through all kinds of news of each other, we not 

The Lvrf, 237 

only give them nuirli happiness, but we keep them linked up with general 
fraternity interest and advance steps, through The Lyre. Hence, the page of 
Alpha Chi babies I It is the news department that alumna* most enjoy, and 
most regret if it is inferior. 

"In the matter of our attitude toward our fellow-Oreeks, and all fellow- 
students. The Lyre has a distinct duty ; a certain attitude is characteristic of 
a gentlewoman, in a fraternity or out of it. Fairness, sincerity, generosity, 
and loveliness are in our chapters everywhere ; they should characterize every 
member of every fraternity. The Lyre heli)s to bring Alpha Clii Omega 
nearer that standard. 

"There is the claim of the greatest dynamic in the whole life of this old 
world, the Christian religion. A college woman's career is a farce unless 
she has fairly considered that force. Every kind of college publication has a 
.share in the responsibility of presenting that claim to the college world, 
whicli is a world of choices and high resolves. 

"Increasing numbers of college women enter professional life; alumnic 
of professional experience can render us great service by pointing out the 
way. and the means. So we need vocational articles from every walk in life. 
Tlie college woman in ])rivate, as well as professional life has widening 
opportunities to make her community a better place to live in ; we need to 
know how to use those opportunities, to help meet civic issues. Social service, 
while now one of the i^rofessions, devolves largely upon the volunteer local 
worker, except in the more highlv specialized cities. Playgrounds, campfires, 
settlement and club work of all kinds need the college woman — therefore 
The Lyre should acquaint us with those of our sisters who are leaders in civic 
and social service, and should point us to our own ojjportunities. 

"Life all over the world is becoming more cosmopolitan ; our generation 
will face more international problems than any generation has yet met ; to 
be good citizens we must liave the international attitude, which will lead us 
into intelligent accjuaintance with world issues. The Lyre directs your 
thoughts occasionally to world conditions and world organizations ; if you 
have alumn;e engaged in some professional service across the seas, we beg 
of vou to keep the fraternity informed of their work." 

In its pages, the magazine depicts "personal achievements, and opinions, 
and experiences." and subjects of special interest to fraternity and college 
women generally. "Whatever is published." says the editorial, "we try to 
keep The Lyre dignified and in good taste." 

The Lyre is received by members in forty-six states of the Union and in 
Alaska, Nova Scotia, Canal Zone. Canada. Hawaii, Sumatra. Australia, 
Philippines, Siberia, Straits Settlements, China, and France. 

The present size of an issue is 1.800 copies. Two hundred and ninety-seven 
of these go to life subscribers. In time the entire fraternity membership will 
possess life .subscriptions. 77;c Lyre has long been, and will be. we trust, for- 
ever, a popular and well-beloved magazine. Scores of members contribute to 

Covers of National Panhellenic Congress Magazines 

The Lyre 239 

each issue. * Through the support and devotion of the many hundreds of its 
readers and contributors, "it has become," to quote from the President's 
address to the 1915 Convention, "one of the very best fraternity journals, a 
publication of which we are very proud and which fully represents the stan- 
dards of our fraternity." 

* From iC)io-igi6 but two chapters failed to contribute their regular chapter letters. 
Nu for January, 1912, and for January, 1915 ; and Phi for January, 1915. 



The Hcracum and The Argolid' are the private bulletins of the Frater- 
nity. The nomenclature of both is in harmony with the sentiment that Hera 
is the patron-goddess of the order. The meaning of the word "Heraeum" 
is "the secret precincts of Hera" ; of "Argolid," "from the headquarters 
of Hera." These names were selected, at the time of the establishment of 
each bulletin, by Miss Armstrong, editor of The Lyre and editor of both 
bulletins, with the help of Professor Joanna Baker, head of the Greek Depart- 
ment at Simpson College, and one of the early presidents of Alpha Chapter. 
Miss Baker also assisted the committee in the choice of the present open 
motto, "Together, let us seek the heights." 

The Heraeum, now in its sixth volume, was authorized in 1910, and 
established, as an annual supplement to The Lyre in 1900. It goes, therefore, 
without cost, to subscribers to The Lyre. The minutes of the National 
Council and the reports of committees, the minutes of the National Con- 
vention and the reports of committees constitute the contents of this maga- 
zine. The expense is borne by the National Treasury, except the cost of 
mailing which is carried by The Lyre. The work of editing The Heraeum 
is also performed by the editor of The Lyre. 

The Argolid is the private bulletin to which is consigned all private 
matter not included in The Heraeum, and all communications from national 
officers to chapters. It is issued bimonthly, or more often if necessary, by 
the National Secretary, who, since the 1915 Convention, serves as Editor 
of The Argolid. This bulletin is printed on the fraternity mimeograph, and 
the expense is borne by the National Treasury. Previous to 1915 half of the 
expense and the work of editing was provided by The Lyre. The value of 
The Argolid is very great. It furnishes a frequent private bulletin for the 
discussion of fraternity policies, and of Panhellenic problems, and it like- 
wise provides a means for national officers to communicate with chapters, 
alumnae chapters, and alumnae clubs thus eliminating a part of the enormous 
correspondence incumbent on a national officer. 

The publication in available form of Council and Convention minutes, 
and their distribution among all the interested members of the order makes 
for unity of understanding and compactness in effort which are invaluable. 
The publication of the reports of committees is most valuable as a matter 
of reference, and provides all readers of The Lyre, which some day will mean 
all members of the Fraternity, with a workable knowledge of the details 
of the business of the whole order. A file of tbe volumes of The Heraeum 
will be a current history of fraternity policies and legislation of utmost 
interest and availability. The writing of the present volume has been much 
facilitated by the accessibility of a mass of details in The Heraeum. 

Almost from the founding of the Fraternity there had existed a strong 
desire for significant songs of Alpha Chi Omega. The first formal record 

Tni: Ukrakim. Arcoiid. axd Sonchook 241 

of this sentiment is found in the minutes of the meetinj^^ of Alpha Cliapter, 
February 5, 1886, when a motion was i)asse(l that Florence 'IhcKiipson write 
the words and Kstelle Leonard the music of a fraternity song. The name 
selected for the composition was Alpha Prima. i'Vom time to time other 
songs were written by members of the earlv chapters but no definite plan 
for the collectiDU of tliese was made until the l''irst ('on\entioii. ]8'M, when 
the publication of a fraternity so-ngbook was discussed and foundations were 
laid, each chapter being required to furnish at least four original songs within 
the next year. The conxention of 1893 ai)i)ointed Oamma to publish a 
songbook and accordingly at the 1894 Convention that chapter reported 
that the first Alpha Chi Omega Songbook had recently been published in 
Evanston. Tliis simple little pamphlet contains eleven songs to be sung 
to familiar airs, no music being printed in the book. 

Althougli this collection of songs served its i)urpose as a foundation upon 
which to build, the need of a larger and better songbook containing music 
as well as words, soon became evident. Accordinglv the Convention of 1896 
appointed (iamma to ])ublish another edition of the songbook. but as the 
matter of collecting the songs proved to be a long task, it was iiot until 
1904 that (iamma Chapter published the second edition of the songbook. 
Mabel Dunn acting as chairman of the committee. This edition shows a 
very marked advance over the first one. being bound in an attractive, durable 
cover and containing thirty-one songs of excellent (|ualitv. twentv-six of 
which are set to original music. 

( )wing to the popularity of this book the edition was soon exhausted; 
consequently at the 1906 Convention a committee, with Mvrta McKean 
Dennis (Camma) as chairman, was apjjointed to publish a new edition of 
the songbook. The result of the careful work of this committee was the 
third edition of the songbook which was welcomed heartily by the 1908 Con- 
vention when Mrs. Dennis presented it for use during that convention. This 
volume, attractively bound in light and dark green, contains sixty songs, 
thirty-one of which are set to original music, and an original Initiation March. 
The songs, as in the previous editions, were contributed by both active and 
alumn;e memliers of the various chapters, practicallv all of the songs of the 
first two editions being incorporated in this edition. Considerable credit is 
due Mrs. Dennis for her painstaking work, from a musical as well as from 
a l)usiness standpoint. The re\ision of the music manuscript, and of the 
adaptation of the words of many of the songs to appropriate music, required 
a comprehensive knowledge of harmony such as she possesses. The successful 
financing of the edition is evidenced by the fact that all the money borrowed 
from the Xational Treasurv for tlie i)ub]ication was returned. Mrs. Dennis 
was appointed Custodian of the Songbook in 1908. but other duties made it 
necessary for her to resign the position the following year, and Mary R. Vose 
(Gamma) was then appointed her successor. 

242 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Lucile Morgan Gibson (Gamma) was appointed Custodian of Songbook 
in 1912. The subject of a new edition was broached in the spring of 1914. 
The National Council appointed Mrs. Gibson chairman, and approved the 
following names for the committee: Annie Woods McLeary, Zeta; Myrta 
McKean Dennis, Gamma (who later found it necessary to resign) ; Blanche 
F. Brocklebank, Zeta; and E. Fay Frisbie, Pi. All chapters were requested 
to send in the names of the fifteen songs in the third edition in order of 

Lucile Morgan Gibson, Gamma 

Chairman Fourth Edition of Songbook 

Custodian Songbook, 1912-1915 

their choice. From these lists every song receiving five votes was retained. 
There was a total of twenty-six songs chosen. Some of these, which formerly 
had no accompaniment, were harmonized, and several were transposed to 
bring them within range of the average voice. A competition was arranged 
for, open to all members, a ten-dollar prize for best original music and words, 
and a five-dollar prize for the best verses. The first prize was awarded to 
Gretchen O'Donnell Starr, Rho, for the song / Am an Alpha Chi, and the 
other prize was awarded to Lucile Lippitt, Delta, for the Invocation. 

The Heraku.m. and Songhdok 243 

The competition brought a number of original songs, many of which 
underwent a good many changes in harmony but in spirit remained as sub- 
mitted. Other songs were received through the direct solicitation of the 
committee. The fourth edition offers twenty-seven new songs all of original 
music and covering subjects such as banciuet. lovaltv, invocation, and toast 

The fourth edition comprises fifty-three songs ; forty-three of them are 
of original music. The edition was ready by April, 1915, and proved to 
be very popular. I'hree hundred and fifty books were sold by the time of the 
convention in June. Blanche F. Brocklel)ank, Zeta, was appointed Custodian 
of Songbook at that time. In some respects the Songbook is the most popular 
of the publications of the Fraternitv. 



The history of a national organization is of value, not alone as a matter 
of record for reference, but also as a volume of vital interest and as an 
incentive to strive more earnestly toward the goal of high ideals. 

Since the history of a fraternity is largely made up of the annals of the 
individual chapters, such records are eminently worthy of preservation, and 
for this reason historical sketches of the various chapters of Alpha Chi Omega 
have been printed in The Lyre in different years as follows : 
Vol. I, No. 1, June, 1894, Alpha, Beta, and Delta Chapters. 
Vol. Ill, No. 3, September. 1897, Alpha, Beta. Gamma, and Epsilon 

Vol. IX, No. 5, Alpha. Beta. Ganu/ia, Epsilon. Zeta, Thcta, Iota, Kappa, 
Alpha Alpha, and Beta Beta Chapters. 

In order to commemorate the twenty-fifth anniversary of the founding 
of the Fraternity, Volume XIV, No. 1, November, 1910, of The Lyre was 
published as an historical number. It contains personal reminiscences of 
Alpha Chi Omega covering five-year periods, written by alumnae ; interesting 
descriptions of the early days of Alpha, Beta, Gamma, and Delta ; letters 
from the founders ; greetings from Dean Howe, as well as reminiscences of 
the Grand Presidents, the Editors, and the Inspector, and a sketch of the 
policy of expansion of Alpha Chi Omega. 

Realizing the need of a national history of the Fraternity in book form, 
the 1908 Grand Chapter appointed "Mabel Siller, Grand Historian, to com- 
pile and to publish a history of Alpha Chi Omega with assurance of financial 
support and compensation and with the privilege of choosing her assistants." 
This History of Alpha Chi Omega, offered to the Fraternity in 1911, was 
the result of six years of work on the part of the author, the first three in gath- 
ering data for the historical records, and the last three in compiling and 
publishing this volume with the able assistance of the Editorial Board. 
It represents an earnest effort to give as comprehensive an outline as possible 
with the available material of the history of the steady development of Alpha 
Chi Omega during its twenty-five years of existence. 

Of this volume Alta Allen Loud said, in the Foreword : "To appreciate 
properly the work of our founders and to leave to our successors accurate 
records of what has been done, is a work of great importance. As a co-worker 
of the author for many years, I have had the pleasure of watching the 
launching of this, our first published History. The obstacles and discourage- 
ments have been many, but tireless energy and an infinite patience and per- 
severance have overcome them, and the comprehensive History which Miss 
Siller has given us is a monument to her unbounded loyalty and will for all 
time endear her to every member of our Fraternity. 

"The early records portray vividly for us the devotion and the earnestness 
of our founders, and as we read of their struggles and achievements, we are 
able to catch the spirit of the early days and are brought to a greater apprecia- 

Thk Hisiory 


tion of the gift that is ours — to a (k-epcr devotion to the principles set forth 
in our sacred Bond. 

"May this History ser\-e the purpose — acciuaint its readers with the found- 
ing of the Fraternity and its cherished traditions, bind together more closely 
our seventeen hundred members, make its ajjpeal to all. young and old. To 
the alumiKe. mav it bring fond memories and renewed loyalty. I'o the under- 
graduates, may it serve as an incentive to carry on with earnest jjurpose the 
work that is theirs. To all of us may it prove an ins|>iration to press on 
toward the higher, better things of life, and 'Together, seek the Heights.' " 

The first edition of the >listorv was exhausted in four years. It was the 
second fraternity history to be published by a woman's fraternity and had 

Mabel Sii.lek Nafis 
Autlioi" First Edition of The History of 
Alflui Chi OniC(/a 

been of great value, in libraries and in fraternity archives, for that reason. 
It was a beautiful volume and very valuable for reference as well as an object 
of pride. At the exhaustion of the edition, therefore, a committee was appointed 
in 1914 to investigate the matter of publishing a second edition. A report 
containing preliminary information was submitted to the 1915 Convention 
which authorized a second edition, to be a revision of the first edition "from 
a combined personal and statistical standpoint." Florence A. Armstrong, 
who had edited and published the first edition, "was asked to serve as author 
of the second edition with full authority vested in her." The five months of 
hard work which had been expended on the first edition as editor had paved 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Editorial Board of the History (Revised Edition) 

First row, left to right — Alta Allen Loud, Lucile Lippitt, Florence A. Armstrong, Mabel Siller 
Second row — Gladys Livingston Graff, Myra II. Jones, Mary Emma Griffith, Edna Boicourt. 

the way to a ready grasp of the problems mvolved in a revision. Six years 
of work as editor of the fraternity magazine, during all of which period 
research was made into the history of the past, had furnished a broad 
acquaintance with the personnel of the organization and the facts of its 
career. Personal acquaintance with twelve of the twenty-three institutions 
wherein the chapters were located simplified the task. The author was 
emboldened, therefore, because of these facts and the inspiring enthusiasm of 
the convention which asked it, to undertake the herculean task of a statisti- 
cal revision, and the incorporation of the personal feature which meant 
practically the writing of a new volume. The changes which have transpired 
since the first edition of the book are extraordinary. It is hoped that those 
who can do so will compare the statistics of 1911 with those of 1916. A con- 
stant comparison of the different periods in our history, particularly by 
decades, and the comparison of our history with that of our contemporaries, 
has increased the interest and admiration of the author for our national 
officers, our chapters, and our records. Perhaps it will be the same with the 

Through the courtesy of Mrs. Macdowell the second edition of the 
History was written largely in the Star Studio, at the Macdowell Colony, 
Peterborough, New Hampshire. Over the door of the studio is an artistic 
shingle bearing the three stars from our Coat-of-arms, and the Scroll upon 
which is inscribed Alpha Chi Omega. 1911. The second edition, written 
largely in these fitting and happy surroundings, is the result of earnest 
effort to present a clear picture of the early life, the problems, progress, ideals, 
and characteristics of the Fraternity, and to be a worthy successor of the 
first edition. 

Some ok the Aliiiok's Assistants 

First row. left to riijlit — Gretchen O'Donnell Starr, P; Lola R. Darrow, B; Alta M. Roberts, 

B B: Adah Cool, B; Josephine Warie, A. 
Second row — Irene Hastings, N: Louise Root, ^; Ethel Shaw, M; Floy Humiston, K. 
Third row — Faith Hauthorn, -\; Hea Iniel, P; Maida Crippen, P; Alice lilodgctt, 9: Ceraldine 

Newins. \. 
Fourth row — Dorothy Hurdorf Pinkham, A ^: Laura Weilipp, 1; Frances Marks. I; Gretchen 

Gooch. I: Katherine Saunders Potter, ^ ^. 
Fifth row— Pauline Griffith, A; Gladys Whelan, 9; Helen Callaghan, K; Kinily Northrup, 6; 

Clara Louise Appleby, A. _ . _ 

Sixth row— Esther Merriman, B; Regna King, M; Florence Currier, M: Cania Fritz, B. 
Seventh row — Mary Savle. K: Helen Schwab, 3; Margaret Robison, A; Lucile Lippitt, A. 

Dorothy Bonn, N. 



For the first time the convention, in 1915, supported a daily convention 
newspaper. On the night of the arrival of the special train, the delegates 
received at the time of their registration a copy of the daily Convention 
Transcript. Five editions were issued during the Convention, more than 
half of which were mailed to members not present. The issue contained 
accounts of each day's sessions, stories of the social functions of each day, 
humorous incidents connected with the assembly, articles of general frater- 
nity interest, news items of all kinds, and announcements. The Convention 

Staff of The Convention Transcript, 1915 

Left to right — Mrs. Rhodes, Miss Armstrong, Misses Stevenson, 

Green, Long. 
Misses Kirkwood, Marks, Harris. 

Transcript was considered one of the large accomplishments of the Biennial 
and is, probably, the beginning of a regular publication for the purpose 
of disseminating quickly the accounts of the Convention in the real spirit of 
the occasion. It makes possible, also, a more compact body of convention 
members since all present are readers of the daily. 

The daily Convention Transcript was issued by a staff consisting of 
Florence A. Armstrong, Editor-in-chief ; Clara Stephenson, Epsilon, Manag- 
ing Editor; Marion Green, Epsilon; June Hamilton Rhodes, Mu; Nell E. 
Harris, Mu; Frances Kirkwood, Iota; Frances Marks, Iota; Laura Weilepp, 
Iota; and Maude Staiger Steiner, Theta. The paper was of four pages — in 
size and style like a university daily newspaper. 

The early records of the Fraternity show that the names and addresses 
of all the members were kept separately by the various chapters, arranged 

The Daily Coxvextiox Transcript, Directory, and Calendar 249 

according to the years of initiation. As this method did not prove satisfactory 

the 1900 Convention provided for a register of all members of Alpha Chi 

Omega to be kept by Alpha Chapter. P>om these lists the editor of The 

Lyre compiled and printed in the journal a complete alphabetical directory 

by chapters of the names and addresses of all the members of Alpha Chi 

Omega, as follows: 

Vol. II, No. 2, June, 1897, Alpha — Zeta Chapters, inclusive. 

Vol. II, No. 2, June, 1897. Alpha — Zeta Chapters, inclusive. 

Vol. Ill, No. 1. March, 1898. Alpha — Zeta Chapters, inclusive. 

Vol. IV, No. 1, March, 1899, Alpha — Zeta Chapters, inclusive. 

Vol. V, No. 4, January, 1902, Alpha — Iota Chapters, inclusive. 

Vol. IX, No. 5. October, 1906, Alpha — Kappa Chapters, inclusive. 

Vol. XI. No. 1. October. 1907, Alpha — Mu Chapters, inclusive. 

Since this method of printing the names and addresses of the members 
proved inadequate, the Cirand Council Meeting of 1907 appointed the Grand 
Historian to compile and to publish a separate fraternity directory. Accord- 
ingly in July, 1908, the First Directory of Alpha Chi Omega was published 
in pamphlet form by Mabel Harriet Siller. This book contains the names 
and addresses of the Grand Council members then in office, a list of the 
active chapters (Alpha to Xi, inclusive) with addresses of the chapter houses 
or halls and the dates of installation of the chapters, and a list of the alumnae 
chapters (Alpha Alpha to Gamma Gamma, inclusive) with the dates of 
establishment, besides an alphabetical catalogue by chapters of names and 
addresses of all Alpha Chis. It also included a list of the honorar}^ members 
with their addresses. Two catalogues of members were printed in the first 
History of Alpha Chi Omega, one by chapters, including the chapters 
from Alpha to Sigma, inclusive, and containing the years of initiation, and 
addresses; the other an alphabetical list giving chapter only. 

Annual directories were pul)lished thereafter by The Lyre in 1912, 1913, 
and 1914; in pamphlet form in two cases, and in April, 1913, in the regular 
issue of the magazine. Since there was no provision for purchase of the 
directories, The Lyre lost heavily, although the advantage of an annual, care- 
fully compiled directory was of incalculable value to the Fraternity. In 
1916 the Alumnae Association took over the publication of a directory in a 
pocket edition as recommended by the editor of The Lyre; and provided to all 
new initiates, by constitutional requirement, a copy of the same. The 1916 
directory contained both a catalogue by chapters, and by geographical 
location. Its convenient size renders it of greater practical value than pre- 
ceding issues. 

The first ofticial Calendar of Alpha Chi Omega was presented shortly 
after the 1910 Convention, the committee in charge being Florence Reed 
Haseltine and Mabel Harriet Siller. The attractive cover design in tan and 
brown bore the coat-of-arms and the Greek letters A X 12, while the pages 
contained the dates of all the chapter installations, the significant national 
dates of the Fraternity, and blank spaces for chapter dates. This calendar, 
aside from being an artistic addition to the chapter halls, furnished an 

250 The Hisiorv ok Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

excellent reminder of the dates v.hen the annual tax. The Lyre material, and 
other matters of fraternity support, were due. 

The second Alpha Chi Omega Calendar was a daily memorandum pad of 
small size, for desk use, issued by Kappa Chapter. The cover was olive green 
tied with scarlet silk cord. The pages contained the fraternity dates of impor- 
tance. This was issued for 1913-14. The next calendar was a four-page 
calendar, published by Delta. It was in olive green, printed in gold. Each 
page contained three calendar months, and a poem by an Alpha Chi Omega 
as follows : 

A Fraternity Symphony, Celia E. McClure, A. 

Enter Spring, Margaret Barber Bo wen, A. 

The Sun and the Rain, Ellen Beach Yaw, E. 

The Holly Tree, Florence Fall Miller, B. 

The 1915-16 Calendar was published by Zeta Zeta Alumnse Chapter for 
the benefit of a Convention Fund. It was a brass desk calendar and paper- 
clip of great convenience. The Greek letters A X n were embossed on it. 
The calendar service was a perpetual one. The publication of the next 
year's calendar was granted to Zeta Zeta also. The design was made and 
painted by Olive Cutter, Zeta. It is a remarkably beautiful peacock device 
of special appropriateness because the peacock was the bird of Hera. Between 
two magnificent birds are the Greek letters A X Q,. These calendars have 
all been in good taste, and artistic in effect. 



Until 1914, the business of ordering the supplies used by the chapters 
and by the council members fell to the lot of the different national officers. 
As the Fraternity expanded, it was thought wise to have a committee attend 
to the purchasing and distributing of 
all the supplies. 

All orders are now written in 
duplicate, and signed by the Keeper 
of Supplies, on official order blanks. 
By having one person attend to al! 
the ordering it is much easier to keep 
a check on all bills. No bills are- 
paid without the approval of the 
Keeper of Supplies and the National 

While the work is not yet sys- 
tematized to the committee's liking, 
much has been done to simplify thf 

The stationerv used by the 
national officers may be ordered in the 
following sizes : 

Council letter heads embossed — 
8>^X11, Sy2Xiy4, and 8>^X5^. 

Envelopes printed address t^ 
order — Numbers 6^ and 10. 

Envelopes embossed — N u m b e r 

Correspondence cards (printc\i 
address only) . 

Province Presidents embossed letterheads Sy^yCW. 

The die (Gothic lettering) and stationery for the chapters are the same 
style as that used by the National Council. 
Other Supplies : 

Affiliation Certificates. 

Alumnae Chapter By-laws and Club By-laws. 

Filing Cards for Card Index. 

Printed Instructions for Card Index Filing. 

Initiates' Records. 

Annual Active Chapter MLMubcrship Report to 
and Records. 

Petition Forms for Cha])ter (active). 

Petition Forms for Chapter (alumna'). 

Kaiiikv.n Mok(;an, A'l 

Exchange Eflitor, 1912-1915 

Keeper of Supplies 

Keeper of the Archives 

252 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Petition Forms for Alumnae Clubs. 

Information for Petitioners. 

Information Required of Petitioners. 

Record of Petitioner. 

Alpha Chi Omega Finances. 


Membership Certificates. 

Official Order Blanks for Badges. 

Active Chapter Reports to National Convention. 

Alumnae Chapter and Club Reports to National Convention. 

Convention Vouchers. 

Convention Credentials. 

Report of National Vice-president to National Convention. 

Report of National Secretary. 

Report of National Treasurer. 

Report of National Editor. 

Report of Lyre Business Manager. 

Report of Keeper of the Records. 

Report of Panhellenic Delegate. 

Chapter Treasurer's Monthly Report and Instructions to same. 

Alumnae Note No. I. 

Alumnas Note No. II. 

Alumnae Adviser's Annual Report. 

Inspector's Annual Visiting Report. 

Order Blanks for Supplies. 

Chapter membership blanks for use of National Officers. 

The following are typed by the National Secretarv as needed : 

Form of Dismissal. 

Notification of Dismissal to be sent to active and alumnae chapters. 

Notice of Release of Pledge. 

While from a business standpoint, the various reports are most impor- 
tant to the chapter, still no two documents are dearer to the heart of every 
loyal Alpha Chi Omega than the charter and the membership certificates. 

The first charter was drawn up by Mary Jones and Estelle Leonard, and 
was adopted after slight revision in May, 1887. The original charter was 
lithographed on imitation parchment. The names of the charter members 
and of the general officers were signed by those members, and on the lower 
left-hand corner was affixed the gold seal with small pieces of scarlet and 
olive ribbon. 

This charter was not suitable for use by the alumnae chapters, so with 
the establishing of the first alumnas chapter in 1906, it became necessary to 
prepare a new form. Laura A. Howe, Edith Manchester, and Mabel 
Harriet Siller prepared this form, and while similar to the one used by the 
active chapters, it was more simple in design. 

Official Forms and Supplies 253 

As the fraternity grew, with the constant addition of chapters, both 
active and alumnae, it seemed wise to have a uniform charter for both chap- 
ters J. aura Howe was appointed a committee to select the design for such a 
charter. In 1910 the Grand Chapter adopted the charter now in use. The 
extreme simplicity of the design adds much to the dignity and beauty of 
the document. It is engraved on parchment, and bears the coat-of-arms at 
the top. The names of the charter members are embossed in uniform letter- 
ing and on the lower left-hand corner the gold seal and the colors of the 
Fraternity are affixed. 

Nothing can make an Alpha Chi Omega have the feeling of "belonging" 
quite so quickly as the Membership Certificate. Our first membership certi- 
ficates used at the installation of Beta Chapter, were termed "cards of 
admission to the Fraternity." This was in 1887, and no effort was made to 
have a more dignified certificate until 1902. Edith Manchester drew up the 
form which was used until 1908. This card was an attractive printed card. 
A lyre, the facsimile of the badge, embossed in white, adorned the top. The 
Grand President, the Chapter President, and the Grand Secretary signed 
these certificates. 

In 1908 the Cirand Chapter appointed Paura Howe to select a new 
form for the membership certificates. It was not easy to select a design 
which should meet all the requirements. However, the present form was 
adopted by the Grand Chapter in 1910. It is a beautifully engraved card, 
bearing the coat-of-arms in the upper left-hand corner. The name of the 
initiate, of the chapter, and the date of initiation is inserted in uniform letter- 
ing. A space in the lower right-hand corner is reserved for the signatures 
of the National President and Secretary. These certificates are ordered for 
the initiates on the fifteenth of April and November. 

It is impossible to estimate the cost of the supplies per year, since the 
prices vary from year to year. Whenever it is at all possible the supplies 
are ordered in large quantities. Various minor changes have been made in 
the Treasurer's Report Blanks, the Inspection Report Blanks, and in the 
Order Blanks for badges. 

As the new chapters are installed, and the old supplies are exhausted, 
it is the aim of the committee to have uniform books for all chapter records. 

Each Alumna Adviser and Province President is furnished with com- 
pletely equipped handbooks, containing everything of interest and value to 
her in connection with the work of her office. 


'^'IL^ /ii^^ 



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Present Membership Certificate 



The Scholarship Fund which was instituted at the last Convention had 
a two-fold purpose, and the vice-president states that to her personal knowl- 
edge at least eight girls in the Fraternity last year would have been eligible 
and worthy of a loan from such a fund had one existed. Its purpose is to 
help members of the Fraternity to finish their college courses. A second 
class of loan would have made fraternity life possible to other girls who had 
adequate funds for a university course, but not enough to pay fraternity 
dues and initiation fees. Accordingly a plan was devised whereby in the 
future both problems will be met. The convention pledges of $75, the 
individual and official jeweler rebates, and the proceeds of future alumnae 
notes, as well as all profits from the sale of the directories will constitute 
the nucleus of the Scholarship Fund. Individual members pledged gener- 
ously, so that in a very short time the sum of $564 had been raised. To date 
the amount expended totals $550 which has already been loaned to five 
selected girls. 

During the summer of 1908, through the efforts of Fay Barnaby Kent, 
a former pupil of Edward Macdowell. active steps were taken to raise the 
money to build a studio at the Macdowell Colony. One of Mr. ^[acdowel^s 
most cherished ambitions was to found an artists' colony, similar to the 
American academy at Rome on the farm at Peterborough, New Hampshire, 
which had furnished the inspiration for all of his later masterpieces. Into 
the development of this project he put much loving thought and the greater 
part of his savings. At his death Mrs. Macdowell deeded the property to the 
Macdowell Memorial Association which is endeavoring to realize the musi- 
cian's ideals. 

Only those possessing marked artistic talent or creative genius in any 
one of the fine arts are awarded scholarsliips by the committee. The artists 
live in the "Lower House," which was formerly the nucleus of the colony, 
and in three other houses. Isolated individual studios are provided free by 
special donation. Alpha Chi Omega, through the active cooperation of active 
and alumna? members, has erected one of these attractive little studios which 
bears the name of the Fraternity. 

Aj)plication for the Alpha Chi Omega Scholarship at Peterborough must 
be approved by the Fraternity Macdowell Studio Committee before being 
forwarded to Mrs. Macdowell who is a permanent member of the Scholar- 
ship Con)mittee. Failing a properly qualified Alpha Chi applicant, the 
studio may be awarded to any deserving artist. 

The Alpha Chi Omega Studio is most attractive, eighteen by twenty 
feet with a square colonial porch, tiled. The roof is of slate. There is a 
cordial fireplace, and a closet for cooking and for cooking utensils. A 
basket of luncheon is served at noon from Colony Hall where all the artists 
in the colonv repair for dinner in the evening. The studio is in the midst 

258 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

of a pine grove of splendid trees. Here one may retire for a complete 
day's work without fear of interruption. 

Last but by no means the least interesting is the wonderful growth of the 
Reserve Fund. Inaugurated in 1912, with a committee of three, of whom 
Mrs. Alta Allen Loud was the chairman, its purpose is to make possible the 
awarding of loans to chapters for house building and other legitimate pur- 
poses. The first thousand dollars was speedily raised, and the five thousand 
dollar goal to be reached by 1915 actually exceeded that sum by $261.08! 
The system pursued consisting of pledges from active chapters of $100, 
alumnae chapters, $25, and alumnae clubs, $10, was eked out bv generous 
subscriptions from individual members. 

The report of the Resers-e Fund Committee in 1916 says: 

"Again the Reserve Fund Committee desires to express its appreciation of 
the interest taken in and the support given to the fund. We are glad to 
announce that twelve active chapters have given the one hundred dollars 
asked. Rho Chapter has pledged one hundred dollars and has already given 
forty dollars of this amount in monthly payments, while four other chapters 
have contributed smaller sums. Those chapters which have not pledged 
have been struggling with financial burdens and it has not seemed wise to 
press the matter. Every alumnae chapter has pledged the twenty-five dollars 
asked, several have given more, and all but one have fully redeemed their 
pledges. This one will be paid in full before the 1917 Convention. Six 
alumnae clubs have paid ten dollars or more into the Reserve Fund Treasury, 
two have given smaller amounts, and two more have pledged ten dollars each. 
We earnestly hope that the coming year will bring pledges from those clubs 
which have not yet contributed, and that eventually every active and alumnae 
chapter and alumnae club may have a share in the building up of this fund. 

"The hopes of the Committee for a five thousand dollar fund for the 
1915 Convention were more than realized. We now ask for the support of 
Council, chapters, and all members of the Fraternity in our work toward the 
realization of our desire for an eight thousand dollar fund which is the goal 
set for the 1917 Convention." 

Zeta Chapter, New England Conservatory of Music, Boston, gives a 
chapter scholarship of eighty dollars annually to one of its members. The 
recipient is chosen, by election, on the basis of need and talent. The award 
of the scholarship is a matter of chapter action solely. Little is said on the 
subject by any member of the chapter either before or after its award. The 
funds for the scholarship are earned by the chapter at a Panhellenic function 
during the year at which all the fraternities raise money in some way accept- 
able to the committee in charge. Very artistic and successful devices are 
designed for the event. 



At the opening of the college year 1916-17, all rhajjters of Alpha Chi 
Omega reside in chapter houses except those four in institutions where frater- 
nity houses are debarred. Of these nineteen chapters, three have just entered 
into house-ownership, and are, for the first tiine, in possession of their own 
homes. A fourth has purchased a site, and will build soon. A fifth will be 
in her own new home in one year from date. Eight other chapters are pre- 
paring funds with wliich to build as soon as possible. vStill another owns a 
comfortable brick lodge which is used for fraternity purposes, but which 
cannot be occupied by the chapter members because of the faculty ruling. In 
brief compass, then, we can read that Alpha Chi Omega, as a wliole, believes 
that the time for chapter-house ownership has come to this Fraternity. In 
figures, the present possessions of the Fraternity in terms of chapter houses are 
as follows : 

Theta, University of Michigan, house built li\- chapter, corner lot. . . .$24,000 
Kappa, University of Wisconsin, house purchased, red brick, in new- 
fraternity district, Langdon Street 25,000 

Lambda, Syracuse University, house purchased, stucco and tile 25,000 

Omicron. Baker University, corner lot opposite university 2.500 

Beta, Albion College, brick lodge 4.000 

Total value $80,500 

In her report to the national Council in 1916. the Chairman of Chapter 
House Committee said : 

"The year just passed has registered an exceeding])- busy one for Alpha 
Chi Omega along house-ownership lines, and the acquisition of pledges 
toward the pa}TTient of same. ••' * 1916 sees us with an advance of about 
$19,000 over our conii)lete chapter financial status since 1912. * * The 
House Committee is convinced that the actjuisition of building funds is but 
a statement of a chapter's true general strength, especially in our older 
chapters, since it shows a spirit of cooperation for a definite desirable goal, 
and tile acquisition of suitable housing cjuarters on a basis of competition with 
other well organized fraternities. * 

"The ever-increasing high rentals for undesirable locations might well be 
put to better advantage, since very few houses are suitable for fraternity pur- 
poses, unless built especially for them. * * 

"The committee is happy to report that on April 24 Theta broke ground 
for her house the total cost of which is to be $17,750. Kappa is completing 

* * the acquisition of the Tennev home in Madison at a cost of $25,000. 

* =i= We are also happy to announce that Iota undoubtedly will begin 
building operations next May. tlie total cost of house to be $15,000; and that 
we are in hopes that a suitable location may be bought for Lambda during this 
Council Meeting, (^micron has purchased a building site for about $2,500. 

260 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

and hopes by 1919 to begin building operations at an estimated cost of $12,000. 
Since fraternities in Kansas pay no state taxes, they have a distinct advantage 
over most of our chapters. * * 

"We urge all chapters where house-ownership is permitted to keep their 
financial records absolutely clear from year to year, to add a definite sum 
monthly or yearly to their building funds, and to secure definite pledges from 
every initiate for future payment over a stated number of years. * *" 

With the help of the Reserve Fund, and under the direction of com- 
petent national and local building committees, the chapters have worked in 
a businesslike way for the attainment of comfortable and suitable homes of 
their own. Their alumnae have been willing to cooperate with such sane 
efforts, both by financial aid and by personal oversight in business matters. 
Katherine Anderson Mills has superintended personally every detail of 
Theta's house-building operations. She writes of the entire project thus: 

"To own our chapter house has been an air castle of Theta's for a great 
many years, even back in the days when I was active. To have our dreams 
come true at last scarcely seems possible. 

"It has been a comparatively short time that Theta has gone after her 
dream in an organized, systematic way. Some three or four years ago the 
active chapter appointed an Alumnae House Committee to work up the project 
in cooperation with the chapter. Quite a little was accomplished by this com- 
mittee in the actual collection of money, and in getting the project before the 
alumnae. A year ago last June the girls had the offer of a lot at such an 
attractive price, and in such a charming location on the corner of Olivia and 
Cambridge Road, that the Alumnae House Committee could not resist the 
temptation to borrow money of the National Council to add to their funds 
and invest. 

"With the buying of property the organization of the Alumnae House 
Committee dissolved into a Board of Directors for Theta Corporation, since 
the girls found it necessary to take out incorporation papers, at once, to hold 
property legally and incur indebtedness. Their Articles of Incorporation 
demanded that there be seven directors selected to carry on all business for the 
corporation. By-laws had to be constructed determining method of election 
of this same Board of Directors ; and for the purpose of designating how 
the affairs of the corporation should be conducted. The members taking out 
the corporation papers, and forming these first by-laws, decided that the 
Board of Directors should consist of four active members, and three alumnae 
members, selected for one, two, three, and four years ; that the treasurer of 
the sorority shall always be a member of the Board of Directors ; that the 
treasurer of the Board of Directors shall always be an alumna. 

"Plans for building the house were presented to this Board of Directors 
one year ago. They finally decided in February, 1916, to accept plans drawn 
up by Herman Pipp, of Ann Arbor, as the most satisfactory for a convenient 
fraternity home, and they immediately set about financing the building of a 
house estimated at $15,000 complete. 

"In February, the directors got out a circular letter showing the plans for 
the new home, and asking the alumnae to contribute, or buy notes of any 

Theta's New Chapter Home, University of Michigan 

262 The Hisiorv of Alpha Chi Omega Fraterxitv 

amount from $50 up. ( >ur notes were second mortgage bonds on the house 
bearing 670 interest, payable semiannually. A local bank contracted to loan 
$10,000 on first mortgage, and we hojjed to raise $5,000 among the 
by selling our notes. 

"By April the alumn;t and active girls had pledged the $5,000 in bonds, 
and we felt ready to go ahead. We are especially indebted to Miss Eusebia 
Davidson of Beta Chapter, Miss Marguerite Coley, and Marie Phelps for 
large shares of second mortgage notes, amounting from $500 to $1,000 each. 
The rest of the second mortgage notes were sold in $50 and $100 notes, mostly 
to active girls. The alumns subscribing for notes were : Jessie Paterson, 
$100; Fleeta Lamb Cooper, $100; Persis Goeschel, $50; Mildred Staebler, 
$50; Maude Bissel, $100; Mrs. C. O. Davis, $100; Maude Kleyn, $100; 
Emma Freeman, $100; Katherine Anderson Mills, $100; Vera Burkhart 
Hill, $100; Edith Leonard Miller, $50; Marion McPherson, $50; Helen 
McPherson, $50; Florence Staiger, $100; Elma McDevitt, $50. 

"Then there were donations of $50 or less by alumnae: Mrs. Hoff, Mrs. 
Kyer, Edith Miller, Mary Hyde Huntington, Isla Jones Hall. Many of our 
alumnae have promised to respond generously later on in donations of money 
and furniture, so we feel that Theta will be on a sound basis, financially. 

"The bank loaning money to us has been very kind in the privileges offered 
us. They promise that we may pay back our alumnae or second mortgage notes 
first. They gave us eight years or more in which to do this. Mr. Seyler, head 
of the Mortgage and Bonds Department of the German and State Savings 
Bank, was appointed as trustee for all second mortgages, to see that the 
interest is paid promptly, and the rights of the second mortgages are not 

"Mr. Freeman, father of one of the local alumnae, has done all of our 
legal business, drawn up the first and second mortgage notes, negotiated the 
loan from the bank, procured the Superintendent of Construction, and has 
had general charge of the supervision of the building, buying materials, and 
so forth. We have great confidence in his al)ility, for he constructed five 
houses of his own, aggregating in amounts from $70,000 to $80,000. We 
feel that we have derived great benefit from his experience. 

"It has been the writer's humble duty as treasurer of the Board of 
Directors, to collect the money and pay the bills each week. Though there 
has been quite a little more work attached to this position than anticipated, 
I feel more than repaid in the valued experience gained. 

Theta Chapter cordially invites you all to come and inspect our new home 
after December first, if any of you can conveniently do so." 

Katherine Anderson Mills. 

Following is a general description of the house. 

Exterior buff stonekote with crushed marble pebble dash, bottle green roof, 
white casements, red brick chimneys. Style of architecture, English. 

Interior in quartered oak on first floor, and (Georgia pine on second 
and third floors. Modern vacuum system throughout house, dumb-waiter lift 
to move trunks, vapor system of heating, modern shower bath on second 



and third tiuors. c-k-ctric Hoor pluL;' fur sludv iiurpuses in each bedroom, 
system of call bells for each floor. 

Lambda's new house was iiurchascd b\- the htlp of the jiersonal super- 
vision of the National rouncil, and the splciididlv organized work of the 
alumna' association of the chapter. The active girls have cooperated in 
every possible wav with the alumna'. Miss (JrifHth, to whom was given 
the actual task of making the purchase ot" the house describes the beautiful new 
home in the following words : 

"The house recentlv j)urchasetl b\- J>ambda ('ha|)ler at Syracuse University 
is located on College Place facing the canii)us, on what might well be called 

Rear L.\wn of Lambd.\'s House, Showing Pergola and Garage 

Taken from Side Poich. (T 'I' B House Just Rack of Garage.) 

'fraternitv block,' as at least ten of tlie fraternities ha\e their homes in this 
block. This is in one of the most beautiful sections of Syracuse, is very con- 
venient to the college buildings, and the liouse itself is probably the most 
beautiful chapter house in the city. 

The house is a three-story building of stucco of Elizabethan design. 
Well-planned grounds lie between it and the street, and a wide porch on the 
side overlooks the front lawn and the gardens and pergola in the rear. 
Window boxes, lattice work, and growing vines add a decorative touch to the 
exterior, and quaint stepping-stones along a raised terrace faced with brick 

264 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

lead the way to the porch from the front entrance. ( )n the first floor is a long 
hall, from which one may enter all the rooms of the lower floor. To the left, 
is the reception room with its dainty cream-tinted woodwork and its exquisite 
fireplace huilt of mosaics of Caen marble. Opposite this room, on the 
other side of the hall, is the long living-room. French doors lead from this 
room to the porch at the side, and another beautiful fireplace, modeled after a 
fireplace in Canterbury Cathedral, is the most attractive feature of the room. 
The living-room, as well as the library adjoining it. is finished in mahogany. 
In the library, bookcases line the walls. They are fitted with leaded glass 
doors, each one of which bears a dift'erent facsimile in colored glass of an old 
English bookplate. Glass doors lead from this room to the porch, the living- 
room, and the dining-room. The large dining-room at the end of the hall has 
a very pretty conservatory with walls and floor of mosaics of terra cotta. A 
well-planned butler's pantry and kitchen completes the first floor of the house. 
In the basement is a lieautiful chapter-room, finished in oak, with an attrac- 
tive fireplace and a huge drop-light of Tiffany blend glass and hammered brass. 

At the curve of the stairs leading to the second floor, one sees again the 
motive of the house expressed in the stained glass window, with its pictured 
representation of St. (ieorge and the dragon. On the second floor are the 
rooms for the girls, each one of which has several large windows, and the 
chaperon's room with its private entrance, porch, and bath. There are two 
other baths on this floor. On the third floor are more bedrooms, the house 
accommodating twenty girls altogether, and another bath. 

Although the house was not built for a fraternity, it is scarcely two years 
old and is well fitted for use as a fraternity home. Hardwood floors are laid 
throughout, the electric light fixtures are of hammered brass, and expense was 
not spared to add manv convenient features to the equipment of the house. 
The great care which has been given to details in the construction of the 
house, and the effort made by Mr. Ward, the architect, to create a harmonious 
whole have given the chapter at Syracuse a home which they are very happy 
to occupy." 

The home of Kappa Chapter was likewise a purchase so that the mem- 
bers were saved the endless work incident to building a new house. Mary 
Sayle, chairman of Kappa's history committee, writes of their home : 

"For some time past, Kappa Chapter has been considering house-ownership. 
Serious contemplation occurred in the spring of 1916, when a desirable propo- 
sition presented itself. Some of Madison's best homes are located on 
Langdon Street, a wide prominent street running parallel and immediate to 
beautiful Lake Mendota. It was on this street, that a wealthy man's home was 
placed for sale. Kappa Chapter heard of it and at first only had vain hopes 
of buying it. The chapter immediately appointed a committee consisting of 
Mary Sayle, chairman, and Floy Humiston, to investigate the proposition. 
They did so and came back airing glowing reports to the girls. The chair- 
man conferred with Lillian Zimmerman, one of our alumnae and chairman of 
the National Building Committee, and with Ann Kieckhefer, Kappa's al)le 
adviser. Both wt)men came to Madison to investigate the situation. After 

C'hAPI KR-HorsK ( )\VM:KSH I 1' 


much delil)erati()n ami extensive business sessions, Miss Zininitrnian and 
Miss Kieckhefer, as they have done in many affairs, made Kappa's house 
ownership more tlian a vain hope. It was in June that these al)le helpers 
presented, in reality, a home to Kapi)a. ( )ur new home is 146 Lan^don 
Street, the elegant and spacious home of the late D. K. 'I'tnney, a wealthy 
Madisonian. The house is one of dark red stone and brick, with large sleep- 
ing porches overlooking our large open lawn that extends to the banks of 
Lake Mendota. One can scarcely describe the beauty of the whole and we 
only ask you. wlien an opportunity affords itself, to come and see Kappa and 
her own home. 


"The main floor comprises a reception room with a fireplace, a parlor, 
living-room with a fireplace, a large library overlooking the lake, a dining- 
room, and kitchen. There are four bedrooms, a bathroom, and large hall on 
second fioor, and five bedrooms, bathroom, and liall on thirtl floor. All the 
rooms from top to bottom are richly finished. The large lawn to the lake will 
be the spot for many good times. The accompanying photographs and cuts 
will give you only a faint idea of tlie beauty of Kappa's new home. It is 
with great pleasure that Kappa takes this occasion to announce its house- 
ownership in the Alpha Chi Omega History." 

< ^ 


^ ts 

Chapter-house Ownership 267 

All three chapters which have entered iheir new homes, as well as all 
which are working toward honsc-ownership. are doing so under the direct 
supervision of their alunni;e and the ("ounril. This is extremely important in 
order that our chapters mav avoid the serious dangers that may attend such 
projects in the way of overburdening active members with financial cares, and 
the deterioration of standards for the sake of increasing the size of the chapter 
and its pecuniary assets. Alpha Chi Omega has approached the house-owner- 
ship project in an unhurried and careful wav. To illustrate the working of 
the relation between Chajjter and Council, we herewith apjiend the agreement 
used in the case of T>ambda Chapter. 

An agreement between the National Council of Al]>ha Chi Omega and 
Lambda Chapter (Syracuse University) under the terms of which $2,000 
from the Reserve P'und is loaned, with interest at 5 per cent, to the chapter. 

1. Rent shall be $190 per month for ten months, payable to the 
Treasurer of the Alumnae Association of Lambda Chapter, the $1,900 to pay 
all interest, taxes, insurance, and repairs, and $200 on the principal. 

2. No repairs shall be allowed except through an alumna? house com- 
mittee, one member of which shall be the president of the Alumnae Association. 

3. Each girl shall pay $13.50 a month room rent for nine months and 
$3 a week for board. 

4. The house must always contain not less than twenty girls ; a surplus 
number must be ready to move in should vacancies in the house occur. If a 
girl leaves and her place is unfilled, one-half of the room rent remaining 
for the year must be paid by the girl and one-half bv the active girls as an 
individual assessment, 

5. The board must pay for itself and make a profit. 

6. '"Dues shall be $1.50 per month for twelve months. 

7. The finances of the chapter shall be in charge of two treasurers, one 
of whom shall have charge of house and fraternitv expenses, and the other of 

8. Any surplus of summer rent over expenses (if the house is rented 
during the summer) shall be sent to the treasurer of the Alumna' Association 
to be applied on the principal, 

9. Any amount in excess of $100 remaining in the chapter treasury at the 
end of the college year after all expenses for that year have been paid shall 
be sent to the treasurer of the Alumn;e Association to be applied on the 

10. Each girl who is now an active member or shall hereafter become an 
active member of Lambda Chapter shall sign live notes of $10 each, or ten 
notes of $5 each, payable beginning with March 1 after she shall leave 

11. The Alumnae Association is to pay off $500 or more yearly, it being 
understood that improvements or repairs can not hamper the yearly pay- 
ments on principal. 

Chapter-house Owxershif 269 

12. The National Council reserves the right to order the sale of the 
property should the chapter fail in any of the above agreements. 


Chapter President, 
Chapter Secretary. 

The budget system, as described elsewhere, enables the chapter treasurer 
and the national treasurer to work together with the clearest understanding, 
and simplifies the local financial system. 

Another type of desirable proposition is one used frequently by several 
fraternities — the building of a new house by a business man according to 
the desires of and for the extended use of the chapter. When a chapter is not 
in a position to own its own home, this plan is a good one. Psi Chapter, 
University of Oklahoma, entered this vear (1916) a house built expressly for 
her occupancy. The homes of lota and Rho Chapters also were constructed 
for their convenience. 

The home designed by Alpha Chapter for its future erection is to be a 
Memorial Hall in honor of the founders, and is to contain a treasure-room 
for the storing of the valuable archives of the Fraternity. 



Through an aperture in a stone wall which borders one of the forest-roads 
of the Macdowell Memorial Association, lies the way to Macdowell's "Log 
Cabin." One passes from the road into the marshy path through golden-rod 
and tall grasses, under dense maple shrubs and old apple trees. Masses of 
ferns stretch into the distance on either side of the path. Boulders of 
moss-grown granite are strewn thickly among the trees. Through ferns and 
delicate ground-pine, which twines about rocks and roots of trees, one sees the 
rich brown pine-cones and needles. Centuries of seasons have drifted these 
into a soft mysterious earth-rug. It clings even to the gnarled roots of the 
colossal pines which are so aged and towering that only the topmost branches 
are green. The slender poplars rise as high as the firs. 

Through such wild beauty one begins his approach to the deserted 
cabin. After a short distance the wet path gives way to a narrow board-walk. 
This rather uncertain but dry bridge depends, as the case may be, upon 
boulders or logs. Through the dense wood it winds along, bordered by mosses, 
wild lilies-of-the-valley, and brilliant fungi, orange-colored, yellow, wine- 
red, or waxy-white. After rain there appear a few livid salamanders. Away 
on the horizon the sky, like a glittering sea, shines through the tangle of 

This woodland path is but a few steps from Hillcrest, the Macdowell 
home. By it Macdowell climbed to his "Log Cabin" which juts out from a 
steep hillside. On the high veranda of the cabin, facing Mt. Monadnock, 
Macdowell was close to the waving treetops, and could perceive melodious 
airs in the rustling of shimmering poplars, and in the deep whirring of 
swaying pines. Here he composed his greatest works. 

The Log Cabin, now so hallowed by great productions, was a gift to 
Macdowell from his wife, Marion Macdowell, who secretly designed it and 
supervised its erection. She had perceived that even in the music-room of 
Hillcrest which was superior to any workroom he had possessed in his 
harassed city-life, Macdowell could not achieve entire isolation and con- 
centration. "Perhaps," she says naively in her lecture-recital, "Perhaps 
his wife was too near !" To the studio in the deep woods she led Mac- 
dowell, and presented to him, as a surprise, the new workshop which her 
loving thoughtfulness had contrived. In the hearthstone before the enormous 
fireplace are engraved the words, "Edward and Marion, August, i8gg," 

These simple words in the "Log Cabin" connote, it would seem, impor- 
tant historical significance. For the studio in the forest was the inspiration 
not only of great music, but also, for the wide fostering of creative art, of 
an institution for which the name of Macdowell will eventually, perhaps, be as 
noted as for musical composition : The Macdowell Memorial Colony. And 
as Mrs. Macdowell designed and built the Log Cabin, so. after the death of 

The Macdowkll Colony Studio 271 

the composer, she erected, with the same wisdom and sympathetic enthusiasm, 
more than a dozen other studios, until a distinguished artists' colony came into 
full fruition. The following studios have been erected : 

1. The Bark Studio, given by Mrs. Macdowcll. in memory of Caroline 

Jumelle Perkins. 

2. The Barnard Studio, given by students in Barnard College. 

3. The Peterborough Studio, given by Mr. and Mrs. William H. Schofield. 

Mrs. H. A. Chamberlain, Mrs. Andrew S. Draper, and Miss Ruth 

4. The Chenev Studio, given bv Mrs. Benjamin P. Chenev and Mrs. Carl 


5. The Pine Studi(\ given bv some of Mr. Macdowell's students. 

6. The Star Studio, given by Alpha Chi Omega. 

7. The Louise Veltin Studio, given by the alumna- of the Veltin School. 

8. The Helen Ogden Wood Studio, given by Mrs. Frederick Trevor Hill. 

9. The Monday Music Club Studio, given by the Monday Music Clul) of 

Orange. N. J. 

10. The Myra McKeown Studio, given by the friends of Miss McKeown in 

Youngstown. Ohio. 

11. The Adams Studio, given by Miss Margaret Adams. 

12. The vSprague-Smith Studio, given by thirty-one of the pupils of Mrs. 

Charles Sprague-Smith. 

13. The Regina Watson Studio, given by Mrs. Frederic S. Coolidge, Mrs. 

William Loomis, Mrs. J. Rosenwald. Mrs. A. A. Sprague, Miss Cor- 
nelia (i. I-unt, Miss Margaret Lunt Mdultnn. Mr. August Blum, and 
Mr. Clarence M. Woolley. 

14. The George Alexander Chapman Studio, gift of Mrs. Alice Woodrough 

Chapman, supplemented by the proceeds of a memorial concert 

arranged by Joseph Regneas. 
The Macdowell Memorial Association was established in 1907 by friends 
of Macdowell to make possible to other creative artists the perfect conditions 
which Macdowell himself had discovered. For creative artists in general, in 
the words of Schauffler. like "American poets, despite their genuine love of 
town and their struggles to produce worthy lines amid its turmoil, have almost 
invariably done the best of their actually creative work during the random 
moments that could be snatched in wood or meadow, bv weedy marsh or rocky 

Ten years have passed since these ideal surroundings were bequeathed 
to the cause of American art. The decennial, 1917, a campaign-year for 
endowment for the colony, will declare to a sceptical public that one idealistic 
community in New England lias proved its practicability. Two elaborate 
pageants in 1910 and 1914 have been produced on the picturesque, outdoor 
pageant stage; annual musicales have acquainted many guests with original 
compositions of members, and have resulted often in recognition for the 
artist. The professional directorv of the association contains the names of 
more than sixty artists who have done creative work at the colony before 
the season of 1016. 'I1ic amount of artistic production of consequence 

272 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

accomplished in tlie colony will be understood more clearly by the public, we 
predict, when the John Alexander Memorial Studio shall have been completed. 
For in that studio, which is designed after a chapel in Switzerland beloved 
by both Macdowell and Alexander, there will be an annual exhibit for 
visitors, it has been specified, of the finished work of artists of the association 
and of others. Book-shelves, also, in the new Colony Hall, will contain per- 
manently volumes written by the authors of the colony. The principal part 
of the proposed colony-library will be two private libraries which have been 
bequeathed to the association. The section to be devoted to the works of the 
authors of the association will be of conspicuous interest, for the colony has 
been favored with the presence of many writers. 

The Star Studio has been occupied solely by literarv artists. Mr. Parker 
Fillmore, a writer of stories about children, one of the directors of the Mac- 
dowell Memorial Association, has returned to the Star Studio each season 
since its erection by Alpha Chi Omega in 1911. Belle McDiarmid Ritchey, 
a lecturer on poetry and a writer of stories for children under the nom de 
plume "Elizabeth Wier." wrote in the Star Studio for a part of one season. 
The writer occupied the studio for most of the season of 1916 throughout 
much of the composition of this volume. It is hoped that 1916 will be only 
the first of many seasons when Alpha Chi Omega may be represented in the 
Star Studio by a creative worker in one of the arts. 

The Macdowell Memorial Association is unprejudiced so far as the 
different arts are concerned. A number of distinguished composers, most 
fittingly, have worked in the studios, but they have been no more numerous 
than the poets. Painters and sculptors have found the colony as pregnant with 
inspiration for original composition as have the musicians and writers. That 
close association of the various arts, similar to what is found in the American 
Academy at Rome, was fruitful of good for all, Macdowell was convinced. 
The experiment of an artistic community based on that principle was of great 
interest to Alpha Chi Omega, because she, too, was grounded in the same 
belief. Shortly after the death of Macdowell in 1908, the National Council of 
Alpha Chi Omega decided, in council session, to propose to the Fraternity 
cooperation with the Macdowell Memorial Association in carrying out Mac- 
dowell's dream. To the Association Macdowell, shortly before his death, had 
deeded his wooded estate iiear Peterborough, New Hampshire, and the enter- 
prise was put under way as soon as possible. 

In 1909, therefore, a member of the National Council of Alpha Chi 
Omega, Fay Barnaby Kent, of New York, a former pupil of Macdowell's, 
was given charge of soliciting an Alpha Chi Omega fund for the erection of 
a studio at the colony. The chapters responded immediately and generously. 
In 1911, in consequence, the Star Studio, one of the most desirable studios 
in the colony, was ready for its first occupant. Like Mrs. Macdowell herself, 
Alpha Chi Omega in so doing builded better than she knew^ How little any- 
one grasped in the beginning the far-reaching importance to American art 
of these workshops in the wood ! 

The Macdowkll Coi.oxv Siudio 273 

As illustrations of it show, the Star Studio is in the heart of the forest. 
Giant pines conceal it completely from the road which passes Hillcrest a very 
few rods distant. Only when a traveller is near can he see from the path the 
green walls and the slate roof through the branches. Hut two other studios are 
in the same part of the wootl. 'l"he isolation and ([uiet are perfect. The only 
sound that enters the windows throughout the dav is the songs of the birds, 
and the music which constantly plavs in the treetops. a soft, rich melody which 
never intrudes. 

The chief charms of the studio within are the large fireplace and the 
huge north window. Lovely hangings of exquisite browns and greens are at 
the windows. The Hoor is of brick-red tile. Beside the large window sits the 
heavy table for writing. From the studio can be seen nothing but the dense 
forest and patches of sky through the thicket. Sunshine and rain alike lend 
new beauties to the vista. The sun brightens the lofty tops of trees which are 
dark with shade below. In Whistlerian terms the scene should be called, "A 
Study in Brown and (Ireen." The mottled, pulsing shadows on the pine- 
needles and on the brake, the flickering silver of the light-beams o!i the black 
moss-stained tree-trunks afford e\'er-changing charms. But the rain brings its 
own excitement and loveliness. For the trees sing wilder and more solemn 
strains in a storm, and the copse emits a radiant sheen through its veil of 

Such is the atmosphere about the Star Studio. But as each studio has its 
own marked individuality, so is the vista from each different from the outlook 
enjoyed by all the other artists. The general program of the dav, however, is 
the same for all. A basket of lunch is left at each studio at noon, so that the 
worker's day need not be disturbed. An early breakfast is served at different 
parts of the colony near the dormitories. In the evening most of the colonists 
dine at Colony Hall, and an occasional impromptu concert or reading fol- 
lows. The Sunday evening tea at Hillcrest with Mrs. Macdowell is the 
most delightful of the colonists' social pleasures. Then golden hours are spent 
in the music-room, redolent with memories of Macdowell, in the composer's 
own flower garden, or on the rambling piazza, overlooking the estate. 

Whether the colonists are at work or at play, there is manifest the spirit 
of contentment and of eagerness to achieve work worthy of their environment. 
Through contact with each other, all the workers find that their artistic hori- 
zon is broadened. All sections of the United States are represented: the East, 
the Middle West, and the Far West. A spirit of ai)preciation toward the work 
of their fellow-colonists warms the tone of the association. A banal clique 
spirit among artists well known to each other and mutually approving each 
other's efforts to the extent of depreciating what lies beyond their ken is a 
vitriol which would endanger the noblest community. The spirit of the Mac- 
dowell Colony is practically free from this menace not only because of the 
disinfectant power of the generous idealism of Mrs. Macdowell. the business 
manager of the association, but also because of the tradition of the as.sociation 
that encouragement of striving artists is more productive of results than depre- 

Thl Macdowell Colony Studio 275 

The struggles of the colony itself are regrettal)ly far from their end. In 
equipment $50,000 lias been given to the association. But the crying need of 
the present hour is for endowment to insure the permanency of the enterprise. 
The annual deficit has been met by the personal toil of Mrs. Macdowell whose 
lecture recitals have yielded, up to the present, $15,000 to the association. In 
the season of 1915-16, Mrs. Macdowell filled hfty engagements from Massa- 
chusetts to California. It was the i)rivilege of numerous Alpha Chi Omegas 
to lend their cooperation in this tour by their presence and by their influence. 
In Los Angeles Alpha Chi Omega held a reception for Mrs. Macdowell, and 
at Seattle a dinner was given in her honor. The Simpson College Chapter in 
1912 presented Mrs. Macdcnvell in recital, and other chapters and clubs will, 
no doul)t. have the the same pleasure and opportunity in the future. 

The members and friends of the Macdowell Memorial Association face, 
in their loyalty to the cause and their enthusiasm for its success, a stupendous 
task. The colony has rendered distinctive service to the unrecognized artist 
and to the famous one. It should be the work of the nation's art-lovers to 
render a service to the colony by encouragement and financial support. Alpha 
Chi Omega is happy to l)e able to cooperate in this, "the greatest art-movement 
in America." 




The impress of Greek culture upon Alpha Chi Omega is palpable. 
Grecian influence, as one easily may see, goes far deeper than the Greek-letter 
name and the initiation of members by secret mysteries. It is manifest in 
the very basis of the fraternity : its purpose, its ideals, and its requirements. 

Music among the Greeks, as everyone knows, was conjoined intimately 
with poetry, drama, ,and with general culture ; Alpha Chi Omega was con- 
ceived from a belief in a somewhat similar association. In the beginning she 
asked of all prospective members some musical culture. A general education,' 
also, has been expected consistently of its members who, even in the oldest 
chapters, often received their degrees from the liberal arts department as well 
as from the musical department. Often a member followed only a single 
course in music, or, as the case might be, the requisite musical study might 
have been made elsewhere previous to her membership in Alpha Chi Omega. 

In the denominational colleges, in which Alpha Chi Omega placed her 
early chapters, the small size of the student-body and the close affinity of the 
liberal arts and the fine arts courses, a condition very different from that in 
most American educational institutions, rendered possible and most desirable 
this union of the ;esthetic with the purely intellectual courses. The acquisition 
for membership of many of the most distinguished musicians in the 'colleges, 
and the giving by the Fraternity of concerts of high order, and of interesting 
amateur dramatic productions, combined to give to the earliest chapters, as 
they soon recognized, "an unique and enviable standing in the college and 
in the community." This prestige was enhanced further by the accession to 
honorary membership (a form of membership common in fraternity circles, 
in the early days) of the greatest creative and interpretative feminine musical 
artists in America. 

As was mentioned above, a liberal education was desired for members, 
and in but one instance, despite very numerous opportunities, was a charter 
granted to a separate school of music. The conservatory so honored, the 
New England Conservatory of Music, Boston, is the first school of music, in 
rank, in America, with broad and rigid literary requirements of its students. 
The chapter placed there has been a source of great happiness and honor to 
the Fraternity. There may come a time, let us hope, in the future of American 
education, when the general literary opportunities of other conservatories 
may be sufficientlv broad, and the material foundations sufficiently deep and 
strong, to warrant their winning, with honor to themselves and to the Fra- 
ternity, cJiarters of Alpha Chi Omega and of other National Panhellenic 
Congress fraternities. For music and the liberal arts supplement each other. 
In an organization with such a combination of aesthetic and intellectual 
ideals as Alpha Chi Omega, one is not surprised to find its first fellowship 

Influence of (Irecian Culture Ui'ox Alpha Chi Omkca 277 

established for the encourat^enient of creative art. Sliortly after the establish- 
ment of the Macdowell Memorial Association in memory of I'Mward Mac- 
dowell, the most gifted of American composers, Alpha Chi Omega built the 
Star Studio, at the Association's colony for artists at Peterborough, New 
Hampshire. The use of this studio is awarded annually, by the Association 
for creative work in one of the arts. Up to the present time (1916) it has 
been occupied by writers. In the Fraternity presents an applicant who 
is eligil)le to membership in the association, the standards of which are very 
high in creative achievement, a meml)er of Alpha Chi Omega may receive the 
fellowship. The Fraternity thus encourages creative art among lier own mem- 
bers, as well as among other young artists. 

Upon her entrance into the state-supported university, early in the second 
decade of her existence. Alpha Chi Omega passed into a new experience. 
The relation between the liberal arts and the fine arts courses, in such institu- 
tions, is much more loose, and much less important than in the small cultural 
college. The significance of the state institution in American education became 
so tremendous, from every point of view, that Alpha Chi Omega, flexible to 
the needs of her membership, responded to the changed situation, and slight 
adaptations and changes in her laws made it possible for a university chapter 
of Alpha Chi ( )mega to make, in its choices, the same emphasis, in regard to 
departments of study, which the board of control themselves were making in 
their api^ropriations for strengthening departments. Bv this same adaptation 
to educational conditions. Alpha Chi ( )mega is free to choose the finest type 
of universitv woman, whether she is educated musically or not. and may, if 
desiral)lfc. enter a college where there is no school of music. She persists. 
nevertheless, in her traditional devotion te) music and tlie cognate arts, and 
in her insistence on the ;esthetic element in a woman's education and life. 

Like the ancient Cireeks, the members of Alpha Chi Omega, from the 
smaller cultural colleges and the great universities alike, have done much to 
disseminate musical culture. I)uring the composition of this volume, the 
author has been told by four different musicians of note that the most signifi- 
cant and promising portent for the future of America as a great musical center 
lies in the understanding and appreciation of music cultivated by the public 
schools and particularly by the colleges with their increasingly efficient schools 
of music, artists' recitals, orchestras, glee clubs, bands, and musical festivals. 
The names of many members of Alpha Chi Omega appear on the lists of 
the faculties of these schools of music ; a few have established successful 
music-schools of their own ; manv have their own studios and do private 
teaching; while many either are. or have been, on the concert stage. Artist, 
teacher, or "creative listener" she mav be ; it makes no difference. .\n .\lpha 
Chi Omega may be engaged in chemical research, or in homemaking ; she is 
always ^ patron of the arts. 

In the songs of Alpha Chi Omega, (Grecian influence is evident both in 
their spirit and in their phraseology. ]''or example, in Maid of Grturc. by 
Margaret liarber Bowen, Delta, are phrases of Grecian significance: 

278 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

"I "svear a flowing Grecian gown 

With red and olive bands, 

I play a pearl-tipped singing-lyre 

With soul that understands." 
And in Who Would Be / by Carrie Alton Archibald, Zeta. are imaginative 
figures directly alluding to the traits of the Greeks : 

"O wlio would be a Grecian maid, 

A queen of arts, a queei; of hearts?" 
The song. She's Pledged to Alpha Chi, by Delta, pictures the pledging 
ceremonv in terms of classic rites : 

"(O Alpha Chi) 

You are the queen of all the Greeks. 

:ii: :^ * * * * * 

A maiden sweet we bring you now, 
Of loyalty to take the vow; 
We kindle here the sacred fire 
That burns in wearers of the lyre." 
In the majority of Alpha Chi songs the theme is of striving toward 
achievement which is parallel to the eagerness of the Greeks for self- 
improvement, and for attainment. In many songs is the sentiment that all 
initiates are bound in common devotion to a common ideal, as in Hail, Alpha 
Chi! by Annie Woods McLeary, Zeta : 

"The praises of Alpha Chi to sing, 

Our voices raise on high ! 

Her glorious name to the breezes fling 

W'hile we, as guard, stand by. 

For high ideals, for honor bright. 

For truth's unbroken sway. 

For friendship in love's armor dight. 

We herald her fame today. 

Hail to thy motto the best ever seen. 
Oh, may we ever heed its call. 
As onward we mount 
To seek the heights." 

Direct Grecian influence is visible also in the badge, a jeweled lyre, the 
instrument used conspicuously by the Greeks in lyrical or dramatic perform- 
ances. It is seen, too, in the names of the publications of the fraternity: 
The Lyre, which frequently contains articles of artistic, poetic, or dramatic 
interest; The Heraeum (pertaining to Hera), and The Argolid (from the 
headquarters of Hera). The names of chapter officers are Greek, as is also 
the secret motto of the Fraternity. 

Purely Grecian is the ritual of the Fraternity. The temple music is old 
Grecian. The robes have been carefully modeled after Grecian robes. The 
ritualistic equipment is stately and beautiful in its Grecian perfection and 

Influence of Grecian Culture Upon Alpha Chi Omega 279 

harmony of detail. And the rites themselves are almost unbelievably lovely 
and impressive through their imitation of classic mysteries. Preentrance and 
post-initiation examinations of each initiate familiarize her with the signiti- 
cance of the classic rites and terms, and, to some extent, with Grecian life 
and art. 

Through the ceremonies, and throughout the ideality of the Fraternity, 
breathes the Grecian passion for perfection. In the Greek festival-concerts 
"regularly held at various places, such as the Olympian in Elis, the Pythian 
at Delphi, the Nemean in Argolis, and the Isthmean at Corinth — occurred 
not only competitions in physical prowess, but equally strenuous rivalries in 
literary and musical art." Likewise the inspiring words, "Together let us 
seek the heights," impel the members of Al]»ha Chi Omega, as we all know so 
well, to excel, as in the (ireek festivals, in the physical, the intellectual, and 
the aesthetic. They form the inspiring motto of three thousands of members, 
engraved, as they are, upon the tiny scroll of the crest, and written deeply 
upon all our souls. To the urge given by Alpha Chi ( )mega idealism may be 
attributed, in part at least, the personal distinction, which, in some form, 
inside of college halls or bevond, has come to most members of Alpha Chi 

In the name of her patron Goddess, Alpha Chi Omega dedicates one day 
to sacrifice, as did the ancient Greeks whose worship of Hera was solemn and 
universal. In the early spring, singular festivals called "Heraea," were 
celebrated by wonderful processions to her temple, where ceremonies and 
games were held and enormous sacrifices made. The meat was distributed 
afterwards to the poor. On the first day of March (which is also the 
"Matronalia," Juno's great festival among the Romans), Alpha Chi Omega, 
too. lavs her gifts upon the altars of Hera, not with pomp and ceremony, but 
in actual deeds by her members, contributing to the welfare and happiness of 
others. As individuals, or as chapters, each particular talent is consecrated to 
this noble idea. Some members sing, play, or distribute flowers in hospitals; 
others give aid to the poor. Thus sunshine is poured into many hearts. The 
spirit of generous giving nowhere is lacking. March the first is a remarkable 
dav in the Calendar of Alpha Chi Omega. 

The custom of celebrating other anniversaries, as well as the Heraea, can 
be traced to the Greeks who observed many such days. Alpha Chi Omega 
honors the founding of the order each year on October 15, Founders' Day, 
by the transmission to the founders of messages of love and appreciation. 
Similar anniversaries for the individual chapters are celebrated, and appropri- 
ate home-coming of alumno?, in many instances, have memorialized the date. 
The ceremonies employed are, it is evident, such as are suitable and practicable 
to the chapters, and are as dear to the members as ancient ceremonies were 
to classic peoples. Symbols as well as ceremonies were cherished of old. And 
Alpha Chi Omega loves and reverences her symbols, as did the Greeks, for 
their rich connotation. In the lyre, the chief symbol of the Fraternity, there 
is meaning — in the Ivrc itself, in the inner lyre, the three required stones, the 
three strings, the scroll, and the triangle. The triangle, indeed, as used by 

IxFi.uExcE OF Grecian- re I rux Altiia Chi Omega 281 

the old Greeks is the inspiration of this fraternity symbol, and of the symbolic 
meaning of the number three as it exists throughout all our ritualism. We 
have the three stones, the three strings, the three stars, the three halls, the 
three golden keys, the three parts of the coat-of-arms. and the three degrees 
of the initiation service. 

Like the Greeks, Alpha Chi Omega seeks for physical, intellectual, and 
spiritual development of self. But she strives for far more. Alpha Chi 
Omega stresses unity in endeavor; harmony in relation to one's fellows; sym- 
phony in the totality of life. 

As in the case of the Greeks themselves, the classic myths have enriched 
our mental concepts. A survey of the mythology which has most ai^ected 
our traditions is here appropriate. Its setting is in that section of the country 
known as Thessaly, where rocks and hills are tumbled about in great con- 
fusion, crag climbing upon crag in an apparent attempt to scale the highest 
mountain of them all — that mountain placed, so the Greeks thought, in the 
center of the earth, its head a spire against the sky — Mount Olympus, the 
dwelling place of the gods. Here it was that the gods of the earth, of the 
sea, of the underworld, and of heaven met in council to take thought over 
the affairs of men. Homer describes it as — 

* * "the reputed seat 
Eternal of the gods, which never storms * 

Disturb, rains drench, or snow invades, but calm 
The expanse and cloudless shines with purest day ; 
There the inhabitants divine rejoice 

Its summit was veiled in mysterious clouds, the gateway of which was kept 
by goddesses known as the Hours, or Seasons. 

In the great hall of the Olympian king was everything that could bring 
happiness. The gods feasted on ambrosia and drank the nectar poured by the 
lovely Hebe, goddess of eternal vouth. Beautiful music delighted the ear, 
and learned debates the mind, for here were asseml)led the Muses — -patronesses 
of poetry, science, and music. They were nine in number : Clio, the Muse 
of history, the recorder of all great deeds and heroic actions ; Euterpe, the 
"Mistress of Song," and Muse of lyric poetry; Thalia, the Muse of comedy; 
Melpomene, who presided over tragedy, and Terpsichore, the light-footed of dancing; Erato, the Muse of love poetry; Polyhymnia, the Muse 
of sacred poetry; Calliope, Muse of epic poetry; and Urania, Muse of 
astronomy. All of them united at times in one grand song, under the leader- 
ship of their beloved Apollo who accompanied them on his lyre of gold. 

In the abode of the gods was. also, all manner of beauty to rejoice the 

eye, if Milton in his "Comus" has pictured it aright. He describes it as most 

joyous, a spot 

"Where day never shuts his eye 
Up in the broad fields of the sky. 

Along the crisped shades and bowers 
Revels the spruce and jocund Spring; 
The Graces and the rosy bosomed Hours 
Thither all their bounties bring. 

282 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

There eternal Summer dwells, 
And west winds with musk\ wing 
About the cedarn alleys fling 
Nard and cassia's balmy smells ; 
Iris here with humid bow 
Waters the odorous banks, that blow 
Flowers of more mingled hue 
Than her purpled scarf can show." 

Can we imagine any setting more exquisite? Let us briefly now consider 
those glorious deities .for whom this setting is the background. 

The Greeks believed in numberless gods and goddesses. Everything in 
nature had its special deity. Each tree had its guardian spirit and every 
spring, river, and lake its presiding genius. The vast spaces of earth and sky 
were peopled with invisible beings. But from all this host, ten, or as some 
writers claim, twelve, names stand conspicuous as belonging to the major 
divinities of heaven and earth. 

Foremost of them all was Zeus, the supreme ruler of the universe, whose 
name signiiies radiant light of heaven. He personified the sky and all the 
phenomena of the air. The Greeks conceived him as the cloud gatherer, the 
thunderer, the mighty one who lashed his enemies with the scourge of light- 
ning, and yet also as the giver of gentle rains and winds, and the guardian of 
the seasons. Clad in a storm cloud that resembled the skin of a gray goat, he 
was fearful to behold. Since he was greatest of the gods, it was always the 
loftiest trees and the grandest mountains that were sacred to him, while the 
eagle, w^hich builds its nest beyond eye-reach, was considered his special 

Zeus everywhere demanded uprightness, truth, faithfulness, and kindness. 
The story is told of how one day he assumed mortal form and visited the 
earth. Wearied with walking, he happened upon a little village where he 
sought shelter. At last on the outskirts he descried a tiny thatched cottage, 
the home of two kindly old people, Philemon, and his wife, Baucis. These 
good folk welcomed the unknown visitor and gave him the best of their 
homely fare. The great god delighted in their quaint hospitality and promised 
to fulfil any wish they might make. Their only desire was that the same hour 
might take them both from life. And their request was granted, for one day, 
after they had attained a great age, their places were found empty. At the 
same time before the door of a temple of Zeus, were discovered two lofty 
trees that had never before been seen. Their branches arched over the path- 
way and lightly intertwined, and as the leaves rustled in the gentle wind, 
thev whispered softly the names Baucis and Philemon. 

Second only in importance to Zeus himself was Hera, his sister-wife. As 
she is the patron goddess of Alpha Chi Omega a special account of her will be 
given below. 

Among the other deities of heaven existed no distinction in rank. Each 
will be named and a short account of his attributes as a god be given. 

Apollo was the ideal of fair and manlv youth. As god of the sun he 
brought in his wake the wanii spring, the lovely summer, and the abundant 
harvests. He Avarded off diseases and healed the sick. Through the Delphian 


284 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

oracle he was famed throughout the ancient Greek world as the master of 
prophecy. He was the god of music and poetry and as such the leader of the 
Muses. To one interested in music, this attribute of Apollo is perhaps the one 
of greatest interest. A little tale which Lowell has converted into a poem, 
"The Shepherd of King Admetus," illustrates in some degree Apollo's ability 
as a musician. He had been condemned by Zeus, as a punishment for some 
misdeed, to serve a mortal for the space of one year. He became the shepherd 
of King Admetus. While tending his flocks on the banks of the river Amphry- 
sus one day, he stretched some chords upon an empty tortoise-shell and 

* * "drew 
Music that made men's bosoms swell 
Fearless, or brimmed their eyes with dew." 

To his companions he was a shiftless youth who mused idly hour after hour — 

a youth 

"In whom no good they saw, 
And yet, unwittingly, in truth, 
They made his careless words their law." 

They laughed at him 

"Yet after he was dead and gone 
And e'en his memory dim. 
Earth seemed more sweet to live upon, 
More full of love, because of him. 

"And daj' by day more holy grew 
Each spot where he had trod. 
Till after-poets only knew 
Their first-born brother as a god." 

The last stanza of Shelley's "Hymn of Apollo" sums up most of the 
important attributes of this god. Here he sings : 

"I am the eye with which the universe 

Beholds itself and knows itself divine ; 
All harmony of instrument or verse, 
All prophec}', all medicine, are mine. 
All light of art or nature ; — to my song. 
Victory and praise in their own right belong." 

Artemis, goddess of the moon and of the chase, twin sister of Apollo, was 
always closely associated with her brother. As he was the ideal of manhood, 
she was the ideal of maidenhood, the embodiment of modesty, grace, and vigor. 
Her brother was god of the sun ; Artemis, the fair-tressed sister, was goddess 
of the moon. Its slender arc was her bow, and its beams her arrows. To her, 
in her capacity as moon goddess, Ben Johnson has written a hymn. 

"Queen and Huntress, chaste and fair 
Now the sun is laid to sleep, 
Seated in thy silver chair 

State in wonted manner keep : 
Hesperus entreats thy light. 
Goddess excellently bright. 

"Lay thy bow of pearl apart, 

And thy crystal-shining quiver; 
Give unto the flying hart 

Space to breathe, how short soever : 
Thou that mak'st a day of night. 
Goddess excellently bright." 

Influence of Grecian- Culture Upon Alpha Chi OiMEGA 285 

But during the day, when not l)usied with driving her silver chariot 
across the heavens. Artemis, equipped with bow and quiver and accompanied 
by her band of merry nymphs, followed the chase over hill and valley, 
forest and plain. The lovely huntress favored the mountain springs and 
woodland brooks wherein she and her maidens were wont to bathe. She 
covered the land with beautiful verdure. She was the patron of temperance 
in all things, the protectress of youth, and the guardian of civil rights. 
Keats addresses her as 

"Queen of the wide air ; thou most lovely queen 
Of all the brijjhtness that mine eyes have seen !" 

Athene was the goddess wlio sjjrang from the head of Zeus full grown, 
agleam with the panoply of war. and brandishing a spear. Shelley says : 

"From his awful head 
Whom Jove brought forth, in warlike armor drest, 
Golden, all radiant." 

• She was destined to enter valorously into many a fray ; for her, battles had 
no terrors, for she was the goddess of righteous war, lending her support 
wherever the cause was just. She rejoiced in martial music, in lightning and 
the thunderclouds. But she was not wholly given to warfare. She was 
gentle, fair, thoughtful. Her Latin name, Minerva, is connected with the 
Sanskrit. Greek, and Latin words for mind. She was the incarnation of 
wisdcm. the goddess of contemplation and of skill. 

Ares was the war god whom Homer descril)es as a renegade, most hateful 
of all gods. His name signifies Slayer, Avenger, Curse. He was never sated 
with strife and bloodshed, and always preferred the din of battle to all other 
music. No gentle deeds were ever expected of him ; the ancients never 
addressed loving prayers to him : rather they trembled with terror at the 
verv mention of his name. 

Hermes or the Hastener, as his name is thought to signify, was the 
messenger of the gods. As an infant he was c]uite unlike mortal children, for 
while still a babe, he sprang from his mother's knee, seized a tortoise shell 
Iving near, stretched strings across its cavity, and sweeping his fingers over 
them, produced strains of sweetest music, thus inventing the first lyre. 

Hermes was a beautiful god, ever in the prime of youthful vigor. He 

w-as switt as the wind, for on his ankles and low-crowned hat were wings. 

Keats describes him thus: 

"Foot-feather'd Mercury appeared sublime 
Beyond the tall tree tops ; and in less time 
Than shoots the slanted hail-storm, down he dropt 
Towards the ground ; but rested not, nor stopt 
One moment from his home ; only the sward 
lie with his wand light touch'd and heavenward 
Swifter than sight was gone." 

This deit\- was tlie first of inventors, the god of eloquence, of commerce 
and of science; tlie patron of travelers and rogues. 

Hephaestus, the god of fire and metallic arts, was the god who. the 
ancients believed, kept his workshops with their glowing forges under various 
volcanic islands. He was tlie l)lacksmith of the gods, the finest artificer in 

286 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

metal. He it was that wrought the shields and spears of the Olympians, the 

arrows of Apollo and Artemis and that fashioned the scepter of Zeus, and his 

mighty thunderbolts. He was a glorious god, good-natured, loved, and 

honored among men as the founder of wise customs and as the patron of 


"Those who labor 
The Sweaty forge, who edge the crooked scythe, 
Bend stubborn steel, and harden gleaming armor. 
Acknowledge Vulcan's aid." 

Hestia, the goddess of the hearth, was reverenced as the oldest and wor- 
thiest of the Olympian divinities. Before her shrine in city and state, the holy 
fire was religiously cherished. The flames were intended to represent the 
purity of the goddess. From her altars those of other gods obtained their fires 
and no new colony, no new home was duly consecrated till on its central 
hearth glowed coals from Hestia's hearth. 

Aphrodite, the goddess of beauty, love, laughter, and marriage, was 
born of the foam of the sea. As she was being wafted gently toward the 
shore, the beautiful Horae (the Seasons) stood ready to welcome her. In the 
words of Keats, 

"An ethereal band 
Are visible above : the Seasons four — 
Green-kirtled Spring, flush Summer, golden store 
In Autumn's sickle, Winter frosty hoar." 

With them were also the three Graces, waiting to bestow upon her every 
gracious gift. No sooner did she walk upon the earth but everywhere, at 
the touch of her feet, herbage quivered into flowers. To her influence was 
ascribed the fruitfulness of animal and vegetable creation. In her broidered 
girdle lurked "love and desire, and loving converse that steals the wits 
even of the ^^ise," for she was mistress of feminine charm and beauty. She 
lent to mortals fascination — a gift which to a few is a blessing, but which 
to many is treacherous, destructive of peace. 

The two divinities that are sometimes classed with the major divinities 
and sometimes not, are Demeter and Poseidon. 

Demeter was the goddess of sowing and reaping, of harvest festivals 
and of agriculture in general. She was assisted in her many duties liy her 
daughter Proserpina. One day Pluto, the ruler over the lower world stole 
Proserpina away and carried her to rule as queen of Hades. Demeter search- 
ing for her child neglected her daily duties. The rain no longer refreshed the 
flowers, the grain withered in the ardent rays of the sun, and the grass all 
perished. The whole earth mourned the loss of Proserpina. At last Zeus, 
moved by the many prayers petitioning her return, decreed that she might 
return to live on earth six months every year. At her coming, the skies became 
blue and sunny, flowers bloomed along her way, and the birds 
"Made melody in branch and melody in mid air." 
Demeter. happy once more, diligently attended to all her duties and blessed 
the earth with plenty. When at the end of six months, however, Proserpina 
was forced to leave, all nature again mourned her departure, till her return 
in the spring, while her mother hid in a cave, inconsolable. Gayley says, 

Inki.uenck of (iRKciAN CiM.TURE Upon Alpha Ciii Omkga 287 

'■'I'lierr can be little doubt that the storv nl I )emc'tcr and Proserpina is 
an allegory. Proserpina signifies the seed-corn which, when cast into the 
ground, lies there concealed — is carried off by the god of the underworld ; 
when the corn reappears. Proser|)ina is restored to her niotlier. S|)ring leads 
her back to the light of day." 

Poseidon, sole monarch of the ocean, governed all the waters upon the 
face of the earth. As god of the sea, he could by one word, stir up or calm 
the wildest storm, and cause the billows to roar with fury or subside into 
peaceful ripples. The symbol of his power was the trident or three-pronged 

Hera was the daughter of Cronus and Rhea. She was brought up, 
however, not by her parents, but by Oceanus and Tethys in the remote west 
beyond the sea. Here on a lofty mountain-peak, Zeus met her and wooed 
her, and here was celebrated their holy marriage. At this glorious event 
Earth decked herself in her fairest hues ; the crocuses blossomed, the hyacinths 
burst forth, and as a wedding gift a tree with golden api)les sjirang up. 
The cuckoo, the harbinger of spring, sounded his note and thereafter became 
sacred to the goddess. 

As the wife of Zeus, Hera, beauteous and majestic, now reigned as 
queen of the gods. White-armed, large-eyed, adorned with fair braids of 
hair, are epithets applied to her by Homer; he pictures her in lUiad as of 
giant size : 

"With one hand grasp earth that gives food to many, 
And with the other gra.sp the glistening sea." 

When she swooped from Mount Olympus she sped on the mountain peaks ; 
when she drove her chariot, her steeds sprang at each stride as far as a 
man in a high watch tower can look over the sea into the misty distance. 

Hera partook not only of the honors of Zeus, but she shared also his 
powers over heaven and earth. Like him she could wield the thunder and 
the lightning to rouse the storms. She could even hasten the sun in his 

As is befitting a queen, Hera had attendants from among the other god- 
desses. In her train were the three (iraces, godde.sses of charm who were 
present wherever beauty and nobility were found. Hebe, the goddess of 
youth and cupbearer of the gods, served her. Here, too, must be mentioned 
the Horae, the goddesses of the Seasons, whose special duty it was to open 
and shut the gates of heaven as the celestials passed in and out. They were 
three in number, Eunomia, Dike, and Irene, and represented Spring, Sum- 
mer, and Autumn. They and the Clraces were usually to be found together. 
The special attendant of the (jueen. however, was Iris, whose name denoted 
the many colored rainbow. Iris served, too, as a messenger, not only of her 
mistress, but also of the other divinities. So swift was her light through the 
air that she was seldom seen. Onlv her brilliant robe streaming out behind 
her betrayed lier passage from heaven to earth. Flaccus pictured her thus 
beautifully : 

"Like fiery chiuds, that flush with ruddy glare, 
Or Iris, gliding through the purple air; 
When loosely girt her dazzling mantle flows, 
An<I 'gainst the sun in arching colors glows." 

288 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

The many statues in honor of Hera serve to show that the ancients had 
an exalted conception of the Queen of Heaven, the "Goddess of the Heights" 
as she was known in some sections of Greece. She was the ideal of womanly 
virtue, to whom were due the highest respect and honor. She stands at the 
head of the family of gods as a mother — the guardian of marriage and of 
conjugal fidelity. Purity and loyalty were what she loved most to see. 
She was the most worthy of all the goddesses, and the most queenly. The 
principal places of worship for Hera, or Juno, as she was known among the 
Romans, were Mycenae, Sparta, Argos, Rome, and Heraeum. Other sanc- 
tuaries were scattered throughout the ancient world. She Avas also worshipped 
in the same temples as Zeus. Perhaps the most widely known celebration 
in her honor was the Matronalia, a festival which the wives held in Rome 
every vear on the first of March. This was attended with great pomp and 

Hera has been chosen the patron goddess of Alpha Chi Omega and in 
naming her such, the traits we wish to emphasize are her loyalty, her virtue, 
her noble dignity, her example both as mother and wife, and her all-round 
womanliness. She was regal, generous, and pure — well fitted to be a leader 
among the gods. 


"To see beauty even in the common things of life ; to shed the light of love 
and friendship round me; to keep my life in tune with the world that I shall 
make no discords in the harmony of life ; to strike on the lyre of the universe 
only the notes of happiness, of joy, of peace ; to appreciate every little service 
rendered ; to see and appreciate all that is noble and loving in another, be her 
badge what it may; and to let my lyre send forth the chords of love, unselfish- 
ness, sincerity. This is to be my symphony." — By Celia E. McClure, Delta 
of Alpha Chi Omega. 

In this "Symphony" of the Fraternity recurs frequently the figure of the 
lyre, as it does in all the symbolism of the order, and in all its traditions. This 
is true of the traditions concerning music, concerning scholarship, and all per- 
sonal distinction, regarding one's spirit of service, and the attitude toward 
things spiritual. The place of musical culture in education, now so generally 
conceded, was insisted upon by the founders and by the constitution. Alpha 
Chi Omega was never a "strictly musical" fraternity, as her rivals have ever 
been prone to remark superlatively in rushing ; nor professional, as Baird still 
classifies her as late as 1898 ; nor was she ever, or will she ever become that 
nonexistent phenomenon a "strictly literary" fraternity. There have always 
been in the organization representatives of all the arts. "The only diliference 
between the Alpha Chi Omega and other fraternities," writes Dean Howe to 
the author, "was, that music was the chief tradition of Alpha Chi Omega; and 
that some music culture, as well as literary culture, was expected of its mem- 
bers." Mrs. Loud, for many years on the National Council of the Fraternity 
as its president, and a member of the second oldest chapter in the Fraternity, 
describes well the beginning of the musical tradition as, "a rare devotion to 
a chosen art, a deep and earnest desire to make that art a recognized factor 
in American ideals." 

The oldest women's fraternities in the seventies were founded with the 
purpose, says Ida Shaw Martin, "of a protective league through which 
the members endeavored by united action to secure recognition for them- 
selves as a vital part of college life. Misunderstood in the classroom, shut 
out from participation in the literary and debating societies organized by 
the men, unrecognized in the social life that crystallized around the fraterni- 
ties, (they) were sadly in need of the moral support that the society could 
give." But in the eighties Alpha Chi Omega faced no such pioneer problems, 
and could add to the social bond existing in the fraternities about her, an 
aesthetic bond ; and for her pioneer contriliution she chose to aid in the 
advancement of art. 

The effect of the musical tradition in the life of the order was both 
unifying and cultural. There was, besides, the same emphasis upon uni- 
versity activities, the same mutual helpfulness in comradeship, the same 
appreciation of the fraternity as a source of social experience which had 

'I'radii IONS (IF inK Fraterxitv 291 

proved of such permanent value in the fraternity system evolved by men 
students and adopted by the women's fraternities founded in the seventies. 
Dean Howe, the founder and patron, writes of Alpha Chi Omega, "At its 
organization in 1885. it was a regular university fraternity, upon the same 
basis as the Kappa Alpha Theta, Kappa Kappa (iamma, and other fraternities 
of De Pauw University. I was very careful that from the fifst, every step 
should be taken in accordance with the accepted traditions and methods recog- 
nized bv other fraternities. I employed a regular fraternity man, a Beta 
Theta Pi, to lay out a Constitution and set of by-laws, such as were generally 
approved at that time. * * Not a step was taken that Avas not in harmony 
with the rules and regulations encumbent upon our other regular university 

Other fraternities, of course, included musical students in their member- 
ship. In fact the first degree of Bachelor of Music which De Pauw Univer- 
sity granted, in 1885. was to a member, says Dean Howe, of Kappa Kappa 
Gamma. And the School of Music enrolled "among its students, many mem- 
bers of other fraternities and sororities." But music was, from the outset, a 
beloved tradition with Alpha Chi Omega, and for the first years every initiate 
was required, by law. to include in her university schedule some music study, 
either in the theory or the practise of the art. This was soon found to be an 
inconvenient ruling, and was dispensed with. But music will be, forever, 
an inspiring influence to all Alpha Chis, potent in decreasing what the French 
call, la dure unintelligence des Ajnericaifis dii Nord. 

The means by which this influence is exerted varies in different environ- 
ments. Beta and Zeta Chapters have given, for many years, an annual public 
concert. Beta, indeed, in early days, charged admission, and furnished her 
lodge with the proceeds. But now both concerts are for invited guests. Zeta's 
concert is given in Jordan Hall, the auditorium where are presented many of 
the great artists and concerts. Alpha Alpha Chapter enjoys semi-annual musi- 
cales which are also of high merit indeed. Mu Chapter has presented in recital 
Maud Powell and Mrs. Macdowell, and has aided the Conservatory of Music 
in all its attempts at obtaining good musical talent. Pi Chapter was instru- 
mental in gaining a musical department for the University of California. All 
chapters are directed by the Traditions Committee in such study and in the 
support of such musical enterprises as seem best. Glee clubs, choral societies, 
orchestras, and bands, (juartets, artists' recitals, symphony concerts, and 
operas offer varied opportunity for the increase of musical training and appre- 
ciation. The section of this volume devoted to "Prominent Members" is elo- 
quent in its testimony, in a limited way, to the scope of such influence in the 
lives of both undergraduates and alumnae. "Fair Alpha Chi Omega, wherein 
harmonies abound" is as true in 1916 as on the day of its prophetic utterance 
by one of the founders in 1886. 

The spirit of the Fraternity, too. is a tradition of tremendous power. To 
analvze so subtle a thing in the best way possible we may define the Alpha Chi 
spirit as one of unitv. harmony, cooperation, and loyalty, with all their atten- 
dant developments. Of the unity to which Alpha Chi Omega points, the prize- 

292 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

winning song by Lucile Lippitt, Delta, is descriptive. It is for use as an 
opening song for chapter meeting, and persuasive in its traditional appeal. 

Hera, guardian of women, 
Grant us now we pray 
Strength to live this coming hour 
In the noblest way. 

If our wills be varied. 
Help us to restrain 
Heart and tongue and spirit 
For fraternal gain. 

Guide us then in seeking 
True fraternity 
May we blend as Alpha Chis, 
Chords of harmony. 

To the outsider it is the tradition of cooperation which is conspicuous, in 
college activities of every kind ; in the serious purpose of the college — scholar- 
ship ; and in community life in all places, in all parts of the earth. In common 
with all fraternities, the traditions of Alpha Chi Omega include, prominently, 
loyalty. The term is a broad one in Alpha Chi's conception of it, covering 
loyalty to one's God, and one's duty, therefore, to one's fellows ; loyalty to 
one's Alma Mater and her authorities ; and loyalty to the Fraternity, her laws, 
and her ideals. 

As a representative of many of the ideals of our traditions, Hera, the 
queen of the heavens in Greek mythology, was chosen. Her dignity, womanli- 
ness and efficiency make her an inspiring patron-goddess. In The Lyre for 
July, 1910, Mrs. Green says: 

"It seems eminently appropriate that x\lpha Chi Omega * * whose 
emblem is the Greek lyre to which the old myths were originally sung should 
have a Greek patron. The ancients were skilled in the art of music, and 
Orpheus, son of Apollo, the patron of music, was the first Greek lyrist. * * 

To arrive at a definite decision in the matter of patron * * there were 
a number of postulates as to the qualities and claims that must be possessed. 
First of all, the nationality must be Greek ; secondly, we deem it appropriate 
that a feminine deity should rule over the destinies of a distinctly feminine 
organization. Nationality and gender determined, it was a question of select- 
ing one out of the several available Greek goddesses. We were strongly in 
favor of a major goddess, and not being averse to aiming high, we desired one 
of the heavenly goddesses ; also one not previously appropriated by our sister 

About the name of Hera have gathered the expressions of the altruistic 
attitude of the members ; so far as spirit of service can be centered upon 
one day's activities. Alpha Chi Omega's great day of service is the Heraea 
on March the first, or Hera Day. 

Traditions of thk Fr.merxity 293 

Hera Day Spirit! What profnuiul siL,niitk-ance has the coming of the 
"Matronalia" to Alpha Chi Omegas young and old. As in ancient times when 
singular and wondrous spring festivals celebrated the Heraea with processions 
bearing gifts to Hera's temple, so now wings across the continent on March 
1, an unending procession of Alpha Chis intent upon distributing happiness 
to many for at least one day in the year. One day is scarcely correct for the 
"March first" spirit is contagious and likely to become a chronic habit. 

Alpha Chi Omega's altruistic work of past years cannot be accurately 
estimated, but the year of 1915-1916 affords a fair standard. Practically two 
hundred dollars in cash has been distributed to homes, hospitals, missions, 
Y. W. C. A. work, and War Relief Funds. Individual visits to poor, sick, 
and lonely have been paid in such a beautiful quiet spirit as to pass the 
eager chronicler almost unaware. Chapters are easier to follow, and 
there is much that is merry in their schemes and plans. Eager newsboys 
inquire anxiously if invitations are soon to be issued for their Christmas 
party; little foundlings gossip long over delicious dinners and candy hunts; 
old ladies earning a mere pittance barely sufficient to keep their frail bodies 
alive, are grateful for many a Hera Day breakfast ; and the inmates of one 
Old Folks' Home scarcely realize they have Hera to thank for new warm 
sweaters ; nor do the crippled or sick children consider greatly the source 
of new scrapbooks or of baskets containing daily gifts. 

Great temporary pleasure in all these, but one of the most interesting 
phases of the emanations of Hera Day spirit is the trend towards permanent 
constructive altruistic work. To illustrate, one chapter turned easily from 
celebrating Hera Day to devoting the entire month of March to good works. 
Interest in war relief measures was but a step removed from interest in 
war orphans, five or more of whom have been adopted for two years by 
three of the chapters. One children's hospital owes an X-ray machine, new 
porch, and a bed to an Alpha Chi chapter ; each March first sees a pledge 
to this hospital redeemed. This chapter has a definite, excellent, and steady 
purpose; not so the great majority, who are still groping though not at all 
blindly toward the same goal. The Y. W. C. A. offers in many cases excel- 
lent chances for constructive altruistic work, such as providing a two weeks' 
outing in one of the Association's camps which helps to revitalize deserving 
young girls. 

The far-reaching effects of the Big Sister movement are only just begin- 
ning to be appreciated. A Y. W. C. A. movement in its inception, it is a 
splendid system for interesting a group of young women to do concerted work 
and to feel individual responsibility, combining all the fascination of a 
Montessori game. A short resume of its mechanism will perhaps not come 
amiss here. The chairman, usually a Y. W. C. A. worker, selects from a 
group of our girls, let us say, as this is often the case, an as.sociate chair- 
man. She selects ten girls to act as captains, and they in turn choose ten 
coworkers. At the first meeting the tenement district or groups of families 
to be aided are decided upon, and the entire year's work mapped out, appor- 
tioned, and the details perfected. The most interesting feature of this move 

294 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

ment is the facility ^Yith \vhich it is shifted to serve totally dii^erent needs. 
It has proved equally successful in college life. With the same arrangement 
of chief and coworkers one university has solved the problem of caring 
for the incoming freshman class. Here, of course, it is imperative that the 
coworkers be well acquainted. The names of the season's freshmen are 
obtained from the high schools and distributed among the Big Sisters who, 
through visits and correspondence, expedite the selection of rooms, studies, 
and even clothing. All trains are met, the "freshies" helped to register 
and enroll, are piloted to classes, and lonesomeness and homesickness enter- 
tained away. The benefits of this system are twofold ; even greater to the 
Big Sisters than to their charges, for the training in helpfulness and responsi- 
bilitv will prove invaluable. It is a matter for congratulation that the Fra- 
ternity has such a large part in this work. Many of the chapters have 
arranged for free lessons to be given talented pupils, and contributed largely 
to loan funds and scholarships. 

It is interesting to note how the altruistic work radiates, from individual 
attempts, to constructive general efforts, thence to distinctly fraternity fea- 
tures, such as the splendid Scholarship Fund, the Macdowell Scholarship, and 
the Reserve Fund. 

A glance at the activities of other women's fraternities is interesting 
and instructive. Especially is it significant to note the spontaneous aid 
rendered by scattered alumnae — as in particular Pi Beta Phi's settlement 
school and hospital at (iatlinburg, Tennessee, which is largely supported 
by alumnae contributors. Chi Omega is foremost among fraternities in laying 
stress on civic work, and her alumnae are very prominent in public service 
activities. A special department in their quarterly journal is devoted to 
Education, Social, and Civic Service. Chi Omega also offers annually a 
prize for the best article on a subject related to Social Service Work. Further- 
more, the upperclassmen in each chapter are required to be identified with 
some form of such work. Delta Delta Delta maintains an emplovTtient 
bureau for the express purpose of supervising the training for and selection 
of vocational work, and Alpha Phi finds her interests largely run in the 
same direction. It is noticeable, too, that for the past five years the majority 
of women's journals have been issuing vocational numbers with the avowed 
purpose of opening the eyes of the younger girls to the possibilities of other 
professions than that of teaching. Although the majority of national fra- 
ternities encourage individual altruistic efforts, only two of them require 
any service of this kind. Scholarship funds are a favorite channel, apparently, 
and are participated in by Alpha Xi Delta and Sigma Kappa. Pi Beta Phi 
maintained for three years two undergraduate and one graduate scholar.ship, 
but has now substituted a graduate fellowship with a value of $500 which 
may be used either here or abroad. Kappa Alpha Theta has a fund used 
originallv for a traveling fellowship, and she is also a contributor to the 
support of the Collegiate Bureaus of Occupations. Two years ago Alpha 
Phi voluntarily contributed towards the endowment of Goucher College, 
Baltimore, which was in special need. 

Traditions of the Fraternity 295 

The altruism of fraternity groups enlists the interest of all other fra- 
ternities. In no other order, we believe, is there such an enthusiastic, wide- 
spread enjoyment of an altruistic custom as our Heraea. Enthusiasm, 
indeed, of a dignified, womanly sort is one of the l)est of the fraternity's 
traditions. And enthusiasm all must have who see the relation of the attain- 
ments of the past to the present ; who experience the beauties and glories 
of art; who appreciate the capacity of the human heart for friendship and 
its joys; who have entered in reality into the riches of the intellectual life; 
who have heard the vibrant call for service, and have felt the satisfaction 
in responding to it ; and who have learned the place of the spiritual in personal 
living. In a word, the traditions of Alplia Chi ( )mega guide its members 
into harmony with the fundamental greatness in life. 



One of the most fruitful and farsighted steps taken by the National 
Panhellenic Congress is the establishment, through a standing committee on 
City Panhellenic Associations, of organized groups of fraternity alumnae in 
American cities. More than fifty of these associations had been organized 
by 1915, and a few have been formed since. We shall in this chapter 
describe the work of the City Panhellenic Associations ; then that of the 
older college Panhellenic movement ; and finally trace the development and 
activities of the mother of both, the National Panhellenic Congress. 

During the incumbency of the first National Panhellenic Committee on 
City Panhellenics — Miss Eva Hall, Kappa Alpha Theta ; Miss Lillian 
Thompson, Gamma Phi Beta; and Miss Martha Railsback, Delta Zeta — 
fifty-one City Panhellenics were organized. To the National Panhellenic 
Congress of 1916 Miss Thompson presented a paper on "City Panhellenics 
and their Activities in 1916." For the reason that the material contained 
in that manuscript, though incomplete, was illuminating and significant to 
Alpha Chi Omega, who is taking keen interest in the movement, and is 
sharing in numerous centers in the responsilnlities of organization and leader- 
ship of Panhellenic associations, the paper is herewith, in part, reproduced. 
In the list of the associations, the star (*) indicates that Alpha Chi Omega 
is represented in the Panhellenic; the two stars (**) that she is holding 
or has held office in the association thus indicated. 

**Atlanta, Georgia. *Los Angeles. California. 

Baltimore, Maryland. Louisville, Kentucky. 

**Bay Cities, California. Mason City, Iowa. 

Bloomington, Illinois. Memphis, Tennessee. 

Bozeman, Montana. *Mt. Vernon, New York. 

Cedar Rapids, Iowa. ** Muskogee, ()klahoma. 

**Cleveland, Ohio. **Omaha, Nebraska. 

Columbus, Ohio. Nashville, Tennessee. 

Dallas, Texas. Peoria, Illinois. 

*Denver, Colorado. **Pittsburgh, Pennsylvania. 

**Des Moines, Iowa. ^Portland, Oregon. 

**Decatur, Illinois. -^Pueblo, Colorado. 

Elgin, Illinois. Richmond, Virginia. 

Eugene, Oregon. Spokane, Washington. 

*Indianapolis, Indiana. **St. Louis. Missouri. 

Jacksonville, Florida. Sullivan. Indiana. 

**kansas City, Missouri. =5=*Sycamore-De Kalb, Illinois. 

Lewiston, Idaho. Waterloo-Cedar Falls, Iowa. 

The share which Alpha Chi Omega- has taken in the City Panhellenic 
movement shows how real her interest is in keeping fraternity women in 

The Paxhellexic Movement 297 

touch with each other for the i,^ood of the fraternity cause and of the cause 
of higher education in general. 

In Kansas City, Alpha Chi Omega holds the presidency and rice- 
presidency, and has two other members on the Panhellenic Board. In Des 
Moines she holds the presidency. The following further offices are held : 

In the Atlanta Panhellenic, the vice-presidency. Alpha Chi Omega 
was the organizer of the association. 

Omaha Panhellenic. the vice-presidency. 

Oregon, Alpha Chis are on various committees ; have entertained the 

Des Moines, Alpha Chis serve on committees. 

Decatur, Illinois, president last year was an Alpha Chi; treasurer, this 

Cleveland, chairmanship of committee to raise money for an annual 
scholarship to a university. 

Pittsburgh, secretary, and assisted in organization of the association. 

Denver, Colorado, membership on Panhellenic Board. 

Sycamore-De Kalb, Illinois, Alpha Chi Omega has held an executive office. 

Muskogee, Oklahoma, organizer and president. The A.ssociation aims to 
raise an annual fund of $200. 

St. Louis, Missouri, organizer, president of 1915-1916. The members on 
the Panhellenic Board. 

Mt. Vernon. New York, Alpha Chi Omega is represented in the member- 

Bay Cities, California, assisted in organization ; treasurer. 

Not all the organizations reported and hence the list is incomplete. We 
quote Miss Thompson's comment upon her Avork : 

"To anyone who has had the pleasure of reading all the bright, interest- 
ing letters that came from these * * City Panhellenics, it seems clear 
that our college alumnae are a busy, friendly, useful set. They are doing 
many kinds of good work in a very simple and efficient fashion, and 
are. at the same time. enjo\ing each other and keeping in touch with the 
college world. There is an absence of red tape, strain, and fuss, tliat is 
refreshing. How much one wt)uld enjoy dropping in to see these sisters 
at work. How much community spirit and team-work they seem to have 
carried out of college and into the work-a-day world. No one who reads even 
these brief summaries can for a moment doubt that City Panhellenics are 
worth while, to their members and to the community." 

The activities of the City Panhellenic Associations fall into three kinds: 
social, philanthropic, and cooperation with some college. 

The associations whose meetings are solely social, because the members 
do altruistic work through other organizations, still make a valuable con- 
tribution to the cause of fraternitv. They "develop interfraternity friendli- 
ness, and keep in touch witli jiresent-day college and fraternity conditions." 

298 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Following is a list of the Panhellenics whose work is chiefly social, with 
a summary of their activities : 

Bozeman, Montana, enlivens its social meetings by sewing for a hospital. 
Des Moines, lotva, has a yearly banquet and a yearly business meeting. 
Elgin, Illinois, has monthly luncheons. Each fraternity entertains with 
a program. All active college girls back for vacations are guests and help 
the alumnae to keep in touch with present-day conditions in college. At 
Christmas they trim a tree as a gift for children of an orphanage. Some 
of their meetings are devoted to sewing for a sale, the proceeds of which go 
to charity. Once a year they have a banquet at the Country Club. 
Louisville, Kentucky, has purely social meetings. 

Mason City, loiva, has an annual luncheon at Christmas, a picnic in the 
summer, and devotes its monthly meetings to sociability and the exchange 
of college and fraternity news. 

Memphis, Tennessee, devotes itself largely to parties and luncheons, but 
finds time to take a membership in the Memphis Intercollegiate Association 
which gives a $300 scholarship each year to the girl who stands highest in 
the college entrance examinations. 

Sullivan, Indiana, studies fraternitv history and reads Banta's Greek 

Waterloo-Cedar Falls, Iowa, has its different members present the work 
and methods of their own fraternity. At Christmas it does philanthropic 

Those who are engaged in philanthropic work are accomplishing note- 
worthy results. 

Atlanta, Georgia, gives each year a scholarship to Tallulah Falls Industrial 
School (for mountain boys and girls) which includes all the child's expenses. 
It presented the school with a victrola. This last year the Belgian Relief 
Fund and the local Y. W. C. A. benefited by the gifts of this Panhellenic. 
Letmstoion, Idaho, takes care of a poor family. It is also making a study of 
rushing and of other problems of college life, with a view of helping the 
active girls at the University of Idaho and Washington State College. 

Mt. Vernon, New York, is chiefly interested in high school girls who are 
going to college. It issues this year a booklet giving the name and college 
of every fraternity woman in Mt. Vernon. Each one has written a signed 
article telling what her fraternity meant to her in college. In May the 
Panhellenic will give a tea to high school girls, and present each one with 
a booklet. They hope in this way to give parents and girls a "clearer, saner 
understanding of what college fraternities mean." They also give teas, 
theatre parties, and other social affairs about once a month. 

Nashville, Tennessee, devotes a good deal of time to the study of frater- 
nity conditions. It has papers read at each meeting by representatives of two 
fraternities; it investigates the activities of the National Panhellenic Con- 
gress, holds debates on fraternity versus antifraternity, and discusses articles 
in Banta's Greek Exchange. 

The Panhei.lenic Movement " 299 

Peoria, Illinois, supported last year an cniployniciit Inircau for high school 
students which was "fairly successful." It makes every effort to keep in 
high school girls who might wish to or be obliged to leave. 

Portland, Oregon, gives a college scholarship fund of $250 a year to 
some capable graduate of Portland High School. This is a gift, not a loan, 
and is to be used at the University of Oregon. To raise this money it gives 
a college fete, with dancing, booths, and a program. Tast year the fete 
brougln $315. The sum of $500 is to be given to the new Woman's Build- 
ing at the University of Oregon. 

Pueblo, Colorado, is helping the V. W . C. A. in the city. Their dues 
of a dollar a year go to that institution and they raised a further sum for it 
by a musicale. 

Richmond . I'irL^i/iia, has various activities. It does charity work at 
Christmas. It lielps the Travelers' Aid Society. It assisted the Woman's 
Vocational Bureau to give a Shakespeare Pageant. Every Thursday it has 
charge of the information bureau of the same society, and helps catalogue. 
A study of fraternity history from Martin and of present college conditions 
from B aula's Greek Excliange is carried on at meetings. 

Spokane, Washington, is giving money to the anti-tul)crculosis movement. 
Because of their interest a room in the Edgecliffe Tuberculosis Sanitarium has 
been named "The Panhellenic Room." They also subscribe for magazines 
to be sent to the sanitarium. 

Sycamore-De Kalb, Illinois, lends money to some girl who wants to go 
through the Normal School at De Kalb or through high school or college. 
It publishes a yearbook containing the year's program, the constitution, and 
a list of members. 

The remaining associations cooperate with some college. The lines of 
division are difficult to draw, because practically all the Panhellenics are con- 
tributing, directly or indirectly, to the well-being of colleges. 

Baltimore, Maryland, has been encouraging pleasant interfraternity 
relations at Goucher College. It oft'ers suggestions for improving rushing, 
and stands ready to help settle any difficulties between fraternities. 

Bloomington. Illinois, is helping Wesleyan College. It has given a 
scholarship vase to the fraternity having the highest average, and it sends 
a representative to the College Panhellenic if trouble arises. 

Cedar Rapids, loica. is connected with Coe College. It has given a 
silver coffee urn to be held in turn by the fraternities having the highest 
average. It is also encouraging simplicity in dress and in social life. 

Cleveland. Ohio, gives a scholarship at Western University, College 
for Women. 

Columbus. Ohio, works for Ohio State University. It gave a silver 
coffee urn to the chapter having the highest average to be held for a year. 
It held a Christmas shop sale at which it cleared $180. This money is the 
beginning of a loan fund for girls, and has already lieen lent. 

Dallas. Texas, is raising funds for a scholarship at the University of 
Texas. It was organized onlv this Jaiuiary, but hopes to have a girl in 

300 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

college in the fall. Some money has already been raised by bridge parties. 
At meetings papers are read on various Panhellenic matters. 

Denver, Colorado, is interested in the University of Denver, and in the 
University of Colorado. It has given a scholarship cup to both colleges. If 
this cup is held three years in succession by one fraternity, this fraternity 
may keep the cup. It contributes to the scholarship fund of the State Federa- 
tion of Women's Clubs. It is trying to arrange for a close connection 
between itself and the Panhellenics of the two colleges. 

Eugene, Oregon, is trying to solve the difficulties of rushing and to 
reduce the expenses of entertaining at the University of Oregon. 

Indianapolis, Indiana, devotes itself to Butler College. It gave a tea to 
all honor roll students and awarded a loving-cup to the fraternity with the 
highest average. It is also raising a scholarship fund for Butler. 

Jacksonville, Florida, is interested both in Florida State College and in 
Stetson University. It is supporting one girl by a scholarship at Florida 
State College. It expects to offer a scholarship cup at both institutions. 

Muskogee, Oklahoma, is just beginning its career this year, but already it 
is working to get a scholarship fund for the University of Oklahoma. 

St. Louis, Missouri, is interested in Washington University. It sent a 
representative to talk to the College Panhellenic on the importance of keeping 
strictly to the National Panhellenic Congress rule about high school sororities, 
and has helped the girls in various Avays by its interest. It is also working 
for the convalescent summer home for the St. Louis Children's Hospital. 

Pittsburgh-Philadelphia. Pennsylvania, just organized, is particularly 
interested in the unusual Panhellenic situation in the University of Pitts- 
burgh where four chapters have l)een installed within a year and where local 
College Panhellenic is consequently a very new organization. The City 
Panhellenic has elected a representative board advisory to the College Pan- 
hellenic, and offers a scholarship cup. 

The college Panhellenic associations have been formed, where two or more 
National Panhellenic Congress fraternities are represented, by the fraternity 
which was first established in the institution. The records of these associations 
have been as varied as the problems which faced them. Their general 
purpose has been the same, to regulate rushing, and to render the women's 
fraternities into a compact group for the handling of business of common 
interest. Their methods may fairly be represented by the appended published 
information of the Washington State College Panhellenic Association. 

Sorority Pledging Rules of the Panhellenic Association 

1. A sorority is a collegiate group of women drawn together by con- 
geniality and maintained by constant offices of love and service to the mem- 
bers of the group and to the college of whose student body they are a part. 
Ritual cements friendship, emphasizes mutual obligations, and fosters loyalty. 
The chapters endeavor to attract to themselves kindred spirits who have like 
ideals and would strengthen devotion to them by close companionship in a 

The Pamiki.i.kmc Movkment 301 

home life and love in chapter houses. Toleration, adjustment, consideration, 
all the virtues of socialized women, may come from such association. 

The sororities of Washington State College have put themselves on record 
as to be depended upon to further college welfare for all women in what- 
ever way opportunity may offer. 

Sororities choose to their membership freshmen who are enrolled in at 
least fifteen hours of academic work, also those above the freshman year who 
give promise of adding strength in character and scholarshii) to the group 
to which they are chosen. 

2. A number of regulations known as "Tht Interfraternity Compact" 
have been made by practically all the national sororities assembled in the 
National Panhellenic Congress. These rules, consequently, are binding upon 
the local Panhellenic of the State College of Washington. Among them the 
two following are of particular interest to new college women : 

"A girl who breaks her pledge to one fraternity shall not be asked to 
join another for one calendar year. 

"No fraternity represented in the National Panhellenic Congress shall 
bid a girl who has been a member of a so-called sorority or other secret society 
of similar nature in a high school, or other school of ecjuivalent standing, 
whether such society exists openly or secretly. This rule shall apply to 
any person who shall either accept or retain membership in such society 
after September, 1915." 

3. Invitations to membership in the ditferent sororities will be sent out 
on November 18 — Thanksgiving vacation. These invitations are calleQ 
"bids." and a girl is asked or "bid" bv a group. 

4. All of these invitations will be sent to a disinterested third party, 
the Dean of Women, Miss Rhoda White. She will notify every girl who has 
been asked to join either one or more groups, that she has received an invita- 
tion. She in turn will send to Miss White her choices, five, or less if she 
desires, and an invitation will be sent her corresponding with the first choice 

5. The sisters of members, or pledges of a sorority are not bound by 
delayed pledging, and may be i)ledged at the discretion of the chapter. 

6. No one girl can be entertained by any one sorority more than three 
times before pledge day. 

7. Entertaining is considered anything reiiuiring the expenditure of 

The Constitution and By-laws of the same association are also printed 
because of its representative character. 

302 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Constitution and' By-taws 
Pan/ieltenic Association of the State College of Washington 

Article I 


The name of this organization shall be the Panhellenic Association of 
the State College of Washington. 

Article II 


Section 1. The Panhellenic Association of the State College of Wash- 
ington shall : 

a. Make rules to govern the entertainment by sororities of girls whom 
they contemplate inviting to membership. 

b. Shall fix the date when sororities shall issue invitations to member- 
ship and receive pledges from prospective members. 

c. Regulate other matters of local Panhellenic interest. 

d. Encourage the chapters to take an active interest in all college activi- 
ties for the common good. 

Section 2. All acts and measures of the Panhellenic Association shall 
be subject to the approval of the president of the college. 

Article III 


Section 1. The Panhellenic Association of the State College of Wash- 
ington shall be composed of the chapters of national sororities at the college 
and of those local sororities admitted into the Association by the chapters 
of national sororities. 

Section 2. The Panhellenic Association shall be governed by a board 
of delegates chosen in the following manner : Each chapter shall choose 
three delegates, one of whom shall be a senior, if possible, one a junior, if 
possible, and one an alumna, or advisory member. Whenever possible the 
junior shall be reelected a delegate at the close of her first year of service. 

Section 3. These delegates shall be elected by their chapters to serve 
for one calendar year, beginning the first Monday of May. 

Article IV 


Section 1. The officers of the Panhellenic Association of the State Col- 
lege of Washington shall be a president, a vice-president, and a secretary- 

Section 2. The presidency of the Panhellenic Association shall be held 
first by the senior delegate from the oldest national chapter in the association, 
and then in succession by the senior delegate of the national chapters in order 
of installation, and of the local chapters in order of organization. The vice- 

The Paxheli.emc Movement 303 

presidency sliall devolve regularly upon the junior delegate of the chapter 
next in order to that whose senior delegate is president, and the secretary- 
ship shall likewise devolve upon the senior delegate of the chapter next in 
order to that whose junior delegate is vice-president. 

Section 3. The officers shall serve for a term of one year, the term of 
office beginning the first Monday of May. 

Article V 
Section 1. Regular meetings of the delegates of the Panhellenic Asso- 
ciation of the State College of Washington shall take place the first and 
third Mondays of each month. 

Section 2. Special meetings shall be called at the request of any chapter 
represented in the Panhellenic Association. 

Artic-Ze VI 


Section I. a. In meetings of the delegates of the Panhellenic Associa- 
tion of the State College of Washington, each chapter shall have one vote, 
to be cast by its senior delegate when present ; or by the junior delegate in 
the absence of the senior delegate, when properly authorized by the latter. 

b. The alumna delegate or advisory member has no vote. 

Section 2. Rules governing the entertainment by sororities of prospec- 
tive members, the issuance of invitations to membership and the acceptance 
of pledges must be passed by a four-fifths majority vote. 

Article VII 


Section 1. Any chapter in the Panhellenic Association of the State Col- 
lege of Washington breaking any of the rules of the Association, shall be 
reported by the local Panhellenic Association to the Grand President of the 
sorority of which the offending chapter is a member and to the National 
Panhellenic Conference. 

Articlr VIII 

Section 1. This constitution can be amended only by the unanimous vote 
of the delegates of the Panhellenic Association of the State College of Wash- 


1. No girl shall be asked to join a sorority until she has matriculated. 

2. No girl who has broken her pledge to one sorority shall be asked 
to join another until the expiration of one calendar year. 

vl04 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

3. No girl shall be initiated into any chapter who has not passed (i. e., 
registered for the courses, attended lectures, and passed satisfactory examina- 
tions) in at least fifteen hours per week of collegiate work, or who has failed 
in more than three hours of work. 

4. Any girl, pledged to a sorority, who leaves college before she is 
initiated, shall be considered released from her pledge at the expiration of 
one year's absence from college ; and in case she returns, any sorority is 
free to invite her into membership. 

5. Information of the Association rules shall be printed and the Dean 
of Women shall be requested to give copies thereof to each girl upon regis- 

6. The constitution and by-laws of the Panhellenic Association of the 
State College of Washington shall be printed and five copies shall be sent to 
each of the Grand Presidents of the national sororities represented in the 
local Panhellenic Association. 

7. Each chapter shall pay two dollars and fifty cents ($2.50) dues 
a semester to the Panhellenic Association. 

8. Chapters shall always announce any expected visiting delegate, and 
she shall be asked to address the local Panhellenic Association. 

9. The Panhellenic Association shall, in its meetings, be governed by 
Roberts' Rules of Order. 

10. The roll of members of the Panhellenic Association shall be arranged 
in order of installation as chapters of national sororities and of organization 
as local sororities. 

11. Any delegate who fails to attend any regular meeting of the Pan- 
hellenic Association, shall pay a fine of twenty-five cents, unless her written 
excuse for absence is received and accepted at the meeting from which she 
is absent. In no case shall a substitute be allowed to sit for an absent 

12. All bills owed by the Panhellenic Association shall be paid by the 
secretary-treasurer after having been allowed by the Association. 

The National Panhellenic Congress illustrates in a striking manner 
two important fact.s — that women of even rival interests can work together 
in harmony and to a purpose, and that fraternity women are desirous of 
bettering fraternity conditions in all their phases and in every possible con- 

Although an attempt was made in 1883 to establish a Panhellenic among 
the men's fraternities, and ten years later revived in the World's Fair move- 
ment, such an organization did not materialize imtil 1909, when the first 
Interfraternity Conference was held. The one accomplishment of this meet- 
ing was the appointment of committees to plan for a second conference the 
following year. 7'he second Interfraternity Conference, which met in New 
York City in 1910, framed a permanent organization and adopted a short 
constitution. As the number of eligible men's fraternities far exceeds the 
number of qualified women's fraternities and the problems confronting the 
former are even more serious and far-reaching than those which surround 

The Panhei,i.p:.\ic Movemf.nt 305 

the latter, it is a matter for pardonable ])ri(le. that for fourteen years the lead- 
ing women's fraternities have maintained a flourishing Panhellenic organiza- 
tion, eighteen national fraternities now being represented. 

The purpose of this organization, which was called the Intersorority 
Conference until 1908, when the name was altered to the National Panhellenic 
Congress, was the discussion of vital fraternity and collegiate problems 
by mature women, well versed in national fraternity affairs ; the recommend- 
ing to local Panhellenics and to the individual chapters the plans here evolved ; 
the creating of a saner, more wholesome tone in interfraternity relations, 
and hence the alleviating of many of the problems confronting the various 

Through the work of the National Panhellenic Congress the Greek- 
letter world has been made to think upon a number of important subjects, 
such as a sophomore pledge da\,-, the eliminating of rushing, the chapter house 
and chaperon cjuestion, honorable Panhellenic relations, and cooperation with 
deans of women and other college authorities. College chapters have been 
brought into practical cooperation. Steps have been taken to curtail the 
high school fraternity. And best of all malice and derogation have begun 
to disappear. 

The following is a condensed outline of the sessions of the National 
Panhellenic Congress, most of which have been held in Chicago. As the 
result of correspondence with other women's fraternities concerning the 
evils of rushing, Mrs. Margaret Mason Whitney, Grand President of Alpha 
Phi, 1900-02, called the first Intersorority Conference in Chicago, May 24. 
1902. These meetings have been held annually since that year, being presided 
over hv each fraternity in turn in the order of its founding. 

'l"he first Conference was composed of delegates from Pi Beta Phi, 
Kappa Alpha Theta, Kappa Kappa Gamma, Alpha Phi, Delta Gamma, 
Gamma Phi Beta, and Delta Delta Delta (Alpha Chi Omega through a 
mistake not being represented). A set of six motions was submitted to be 
considered bv the various fraternities as a basis of work ; sentiments on active 
fraternity conditions, such as rushing, pledging, and "lifting" were recorded 
and provision A\as made for amnial conferences to be called by the fraternities 
in rotation. 

Alpha Chi Omega and Chi ( )mega were members of the 1903 Conference. 
Two of the four motions submitted the previous year were accepted, those 
being the suggestion that local Panhellenic Associations be formed and an 
agreement by the fraternities not to pledge before matriculation. 

The 1904 Conference admitted Alpha Xi Delta and voted to admit Sigma 
Kappa provided she accept the Conference rulings. The purpose of local 
Panhellenics was defined and the Social Service Problem was discussed with 
the result that a standing committee was elected to have charge of this work. 
The Conference of 1905 admitted Alpha Omicron Pi. At this meeting 
a trial constitution was adopted, a national fraternity was defined as one 
having at least five chapters, all in institutions of collegiate rank, and a 
model constitution for women's leagues was considered. 


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The Pan HELLENIC Movement 307 

The 1906 Conference remodeled the 1905 constitution, worked out a 
model constitution for local Panhellenics, and condemned high-school sorori- 
ties. A report was given by the delegates who had been invited to convene 
with the conference of the Deans of Women in State Institutions. Mrs. 
Tennant was appointed a committee of one to correspond with visiting dele- 
gates of the various fraternities. 

The marked progress along the line of Social Service and the need of the 
cooperation of alumna- were the principal matters considered by the 1907 
Conference. This assembly placed itself on record as favoring a late pledge 
day, preferably in the sophomore year. 

The 1908 Conference changed the name of the organization to National 
Panhellenic Conference, suggested the organization of resident alumnae, and 
strongly urged sopliomore pledge day and .scholarship qualifications for frater- 
nity membership. 

The 1909 Conference received Zeta Tau Alpha and Alpha (iamma Delta 
who had been admitted during the year. The system of exchange of frater- 
nity journals \\as voted to be continued, and recommendations were made 
that there be no rushing before matriculation (which is defined as the day 
of enrolment of a student in college), and that there be no initiation of a 
pledge until ten hours of work is completed. Mrs. Tennant, who had been 
appointed to investigate the subject, gave a thorough report on chaperons. 

At the 1910 Conference the principal subjects discussed were the Deans' 
Conferences, chapter house chaperons and rules, the matter of extension of 
fraternities, local Panhellenic constitutions, legislatiye power for the Confer- 
ence, scholarship requirements for fraternity members, and social customs. 
Mrs. Tennant presented a comprehensive report of the committee on chaper- 

With the exception of the Conference of 1903 when Mabel Harriet Siller 
was the official delegate, and in 1902 and 1904 when through a mistake or 
a miscarriage of the mail, notification of ihe dates of the Conference came 
too late for the Fraternity to l)e represented, Mary Jones Tennant repre- 
sented Alpha Chi Omega at all of the Conferences 1905-1911. 

In the early history of the National Panhellenic Conference, only one day 
annually was required in which to transact the necessary business of that 
assembly, but for several years past, two days each year have been necessary 
for the consideration of the various problems that come before this body to 
be solved. 

On the second day of each meeting it is customary to hold a Panhellenic 
luncheon, which all fraternity women are cordially urged to attend. Talks 
or toasts on yital topics and a brief resume of the session of the Congress 
add keen interest to these occasions. At the 1909 luncheon Alpha Chi Omega 
held a place on the program, Mrs. Tennant giving an interesting toast. 1913 
Miss Armstrong responded to a toast (in the absence of Mrs. Loud), and in 
1915, Mrs. Greene appeared on the program. The beneficial results of this 
social side of the Congress are ol)vious, bringing all those who attend 

308 The Hisiorv of Alpha Chi Omec.a Fraternity 

into a harmonious relation of closer fellowship, developing greater knowledge 
of vital matters, nnjre hroad-mindedness, and a larger acquaintance and 
cooperation of fraternity women. 

The 1911 Conference changed its name to National Panhellenic Con- 
gress and adopted a constitution embodying the limited legislative powers 
wliicli had been granted it. These powers were : To make laws that pertain 
to its own government ; to admit at its discretion petitioning sororities ; to 
levy annual taxes ; to make iinal settlement of local Panhellenic difficulties ; 
and to have advisory power over local Panhellenics. An executive committee 
was appointed to have charge of business between sessions, and of a quarterly 

The three following Congresses are covered by the report of Alpha Chi 
Omega's delegate, Mrs. Crann, to the 1915 Convention. 

"The Panhellenic period elapsing since our Madison convention has been 
pregnant with affairs. The Congress has convened three times, twice in 
Chicago, and in November, 1914, in New York City. Upon this occasion 
Alpha Chi Omega was in the chair, closing her term of office for the year 
1913-14, our devoted alumna? of Gamma Gamma acting as hostesses, under 
the direction of Mrs. Prank Fall. The hospitality extended the Congress 
and the social features of the occasion were beautiful and perfect in every 
detail. Two special features were the conference of presidents, at which 
our National President presided, by desire of the Grand Presidents, and the 
open session which followed the Panhellenic luncheon. For the first time in 
the history of the Congress, a session was open to the general public, as well 
as to Greek-letter women of New York. Addresses on subjects of general 
fraternity interest and music followed by an informal reception by Gamma 
Gamma filled the afternoon. 

"Reports of business sessions, and details of programs reached you through 
The Lyre. Your entire council was present throughout the Congress, and it is 
pleasant to be able to tell you that both Mrs. Loud and myself, having kept 
very close to Panhellenic matters during the present term, realized among 
other fraternities at the New York Congress, a greater appreciation of Alpha 
Chi Omega's nationalism and standards than ever before. 

"The National Panhellenic Congress accomplished during 1913-14 what 
is expected to bring about the complete elimination of women's high-school 
fraternities (so called). The legislation originating with the Congress and 
endorsed by all Congress fraternities, makes ineligible for college fraternity 
membership any girl accepting or retaining high school membership after 
September, 1915. The final administration of this legislation, which involves 
pre-pledging investigation, is at present being worked out by the Panhellenic 
Congress and a final report may be expected from the 1915 Congress. 

"There is a clearly defined movement among Panhellenic officers to 
cooperate for the improvement of local Panhellenic conditions which are 
notoriously bad, or reported as inharmonious or offensive to college authorities. 
The first movement in this direction was the adoption in 1913 of Uniform 
Chapter House Rules, folloAved in 1914 by the Uniform Scholarship report 

The Pan HELLENIC Movement 309 

form. This latter means the securing of uniform scholarsliip reports for 
every Panliellenic fraternity girl, and greatly facilitates comparative rankings 
among chapters l)y university and by fraternities. 

"During the present year the National Panhellenic Congress Standing 
Committee on local Panhellenics is at work upon extensive investigation of 
criticized local Panhellenic situations, submitting findings to all Grand 
dents interested and with their cooperation drafting letters of advice and 
instruction to such local Panhellenics. 

"There is an increasing tendency to adjust local Panhellenic complaints 
and dissensions through the Grand Presidents of the fraternities involvT?d, as 
prescribed by the INational Panhellenic Congress Constitution. This is as it 
should be. and the number of such dissensions should rapidly, if the 
gravity of the antifraternity movement is understood by active fraternity 

"May, 1913, witnessed the first meeting of men's and women's fraternities, 
for the purpose of protection against antifraternity legislation. From this 
meeting there evolved the College Fraternity Reference Bureau supported 
by nine men's college fraternities, seven men's professional fraternities, and 
eighteen women's college fraternities. This organization, officered at present 
by Mr. Austin of Alpha Delta Phi, Mrs. Lardner of Pi Beta Phi, Mr. Cook 
and Mr. Levere of Sigma Alpha Epsilon, with an executive committee of ten 
members, maintains in Chicago, a library of fraternity matter, records of anti- 
fraternity legislation, and all available defensive matter; and secures and 
disseminates to its members news of legislative action." 

The 1915 National Panhellenic Congress which met at Berkeley, Califor- 
nia, August 11-14, found itself half old, half new, as just fifty per cent 
of the accredited delegates had previously served at from one to twelve con- 
gresses, but among the fifty per cent new, Mrs. Harsen, (jamma Phi Beta, Miss 
Hart, Phi Mu, and Miss Corbett, Kappa Delta, had attended previous con- 

The Executive Committet for 1914-13 were all present. The chairman 
presided for the second time, but in the ten-year interval, the Congress had 
more than doubled the number of accredited delegates and the number of 
visitors had increased from a chance one or two to full representation of 
several national councils. 

One of the most important acts of the T'ourtcenth Congress was the unani- 
mous approval of a recommendation to make Banta's Greek Exchange the 
official organ of the National Panhellenic Congress and therefore, as the 
minutes of the Congress will be printed in this issue, no further mention will 
be made of the business of the Congress. 

Two years ago in Chicago, the editors of the several fraternity journals 
met prior to National Panhellenic Congress, elected a chairman and secretary, 
enjoyed helpful discussions of common problems, adopted tentative plans for 
mutual benefit and agreed to meet again in two years. So at the call of the 
chairman, Miss R. Louise Fitch. Delta Delta Delta, the editors again met. but 
Miss Fitch, though in Berkeley, was unable to attend, and Miss Pearle Green, 

310 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Kappa Alpha Theta. secretary, was made chairman. At this session Miss 
Armstrong, Alpha Chi Omega, was appointed a committee to investigate syn- 
dicated advertising for fraternity journals. 

The National Panhellenic Congresses have already accomplished much 
good, and there is almost no limit to the beneficial results that may yet be 
attained by this organization in its relation to college life. Alpha Chi Omega 
has always taken deep interest in the Congress and in the results which it 
is trving to attain. 



Early in the history of Alpha Chi Omega, in 1886, at (jreencastle, 
Indiana, there was initiated the first of a series of celebrated musicians. Julia 
Rive-King. During the thirty-one years of the existence of the Fraternity, 
fifteen distinguished women have honored the organization in a similar man- 
ner : Adele Aus der Olie (Theta) ; Mary Cheney Beach (Mrs. H. H. A.) 
(Zeta); Mme. Teresa Carefio (Zeta) ; Mme. Marie Decca (Alpha); Helen 
Hopekirk (Mrs. Helen Hopekirk \\'ilson) (Zeta): Margaret Ruthven Lang 
(Zeta) ; Mrs. Mary Howe Lavin (Alpha) ; Mrs. Edward Macdowell (Zeta) ; 
Maud Powell (Mrs. H. Godfrey Turner) (Alpha); Mrs. Julia Rive-King 
(Alpha); Neally Stevens (Alpha) ; Mrs. Antoinette Szumowska Adamowski 
(Zeta); Adela Verne (Epsilon) ; Ellen Beach Yaw (Mrs. (ioldthwaite) 
(Epsilon) ; and Mme. Fannie Bloomfield-Zeisler (Alpha). Madame Zeisler 
was the second to be initiated, in 1888, and Mrs. Macdowell. the last of the 
fifteen artists, was taken through the mysteries on January 5, 1916, in Boston. 
The relation between the honorary members and the college members has been 
affectionate and helpful. There was much for college women to do in the 
eighties in the cultivation of an appreciation of the best music and of the 
greatest artists both in academic halls and in the general public. Musicians 
■of today attribute much of the remarkable development of the art of music 
in America to the interest and activity of college students. The more or less 
close relation of Alpha Chi Omega with these great musicians contributed, we 
feel, not only to the personal culture of Alpha Chi Omegas, but also to the 
raising of the aesthetic standards of the country. Brief sketches of those 
honorary members with whom the Fraternity was able to keep in touch down 
to the present time are included very properly in this account of the prominent 

Fannie Bloomfield-Zeisler 

Living quietly, for the most part, in the very commercial city of Chicago, 
which is fast becoming a better musical center, is one of the greatest 
pianists of the present day — one whom Alpha Chi Omega may well delight 
to honor — Mme. Fannie Bloomfield-Zeisler. 

There are perhaps a hundred creditable pianists in the world today, and 
this number may be narrowed to a half dozen or even fewer, who stand out 
from the others as the really great geniuses of the keyboard. Among these, 
by grace of her great gifts, intense ambition, and unflagging application, 
Mme. Zeisler surely belongs. 

Although born in Bielitz in the Austrian Silesia, she has chosen to make 
America her home, and owing to that trait peculiar to Americans of not 
valuing artists in full measure unless they dwell in a foreign land, she is 
perhaps, outside of the musical centers of New York, Boston, and Chicago, 
too little realized, and too little appreciated. 


The HisroRV ok Ai.i^ha Chi Omega Fraterxity 

Fannie Bloomfield-Zeisler 

As is usual in the case of genius, Mme. Zeisler's musical and pianistic 
gifts were manifested at a very early age, and when the brilliant Mme. 
Essipof and then wife of Leschetizky was making a concert tour of this 
country, the little Fannie Bloomfield was 
taken to play before her. Mme. Essipof 
recognized at once a musical genius, and 
advised further study under Leschetizky. 
Her advice was taken, and Fannie Bloom- 
field departed for Vienna, the home of this 
great piano pedagogue, where at the plastic 
age of twelve she fell into his hands, to be 
moulded into one of the greatest virtuosos 
of our time. 

Styled by him "my electric wonder," her 
touch has indeed that magnetic poAvtr 
which has thrilled and swayed and fasci- 
nated audiences the world over. Undoubt- 
edly her high rank even amongst the great 
is due to the fact that she has not been 
content with mere genius, Imt has been 
untiring in her zeal ancl ambition to bring 
it to the highest possible development. Five 
hard-working years were spent under Les- 
chetizky to make "fingers" as he termed it — fingers that would respond 
and give instant expression to the wealth of musical nature behind them. 
When launched upon the concert world she immediately dazzled, and her 
field each year has become broader, and her hold greater upon all musically 
knowing peoples. Her triumphs in Germany, where they know and recognize 
the truly fine in music very quickly, and as quickly condemn that which is 
not, have been perhaps greater than in any other country. 

Maud Powell 

Maud Powell ranks today with the greatest violinists, in which rank she 
is placed not merely by the concert-going public. It is with the musicians 
themselves that this woman finds especial favor. This is because of that 
element in her playing Avhich is the true exposition of the word musicianship. 
She has ever held herself aloof from the mere exploitation of the "tricks of the 
trade," with which she in the beginning could probably have filled her houses 
much more quickly than by steady devotion to the highest ideals. It is not 
a common occurrence that a musician upholds the highest and best in musical 
art always, and yet reaches the heart and sensibilities of their public, but this 
Maud Powell has achieved. One reads in her very face and presence the 
strength of character it has taken to do it ; and in her earnest mien, the devo- 
tion she has given to the cause. 

Her birthplace was Peru, Illinois ; her father a literary man of English- 
Welsh extraction, and her mother an Hungarian, also gifted musically. Her 

Prom i xkx t M km isers 


musical education was l)ejj;uii in Chicago while very young, and after four 
years of study there she was taken to Leijozig. At the end of the year she 
was awarded a diploma at the public examination held in the Owendhaus. 

and then proceeded to Paris, where, out 
of eighty applicants, she obtained one of 
the six vacancies in Dancla's class. While 
on a concert tour through England the 
great Joachim heard her. and invited her 
to 15erliii to become his pupil, her debut 
being made there in 1885 with the Bruch 
C minor Concerto. In the .same year she 
returned to New York to play under 
Theodore Thomas, and after a series of 
successful appearances for several years, 
she in 1892 toured Germany and Austria 
as representative American violinist with 
the New York Arion Society. The fol- 
lowing year she appeared in the same 
capacity at the World's Exposition at 
Chicago, and also read a paper, "Woman 
and the Violin," at the Woman's Musical 
Congress. She enjoys the distinction of 
being the first to interpret many of the 
greatest works for violin for the public, 
and of being one of the very few profes- 
sionals who actually earn their livelihood 
by concert work alone, without having 
resort to teaching. 

Maud Powell stands before us as an 
example of what may be achieved by American w-omanhood. 

Maud Powell 

M iiu\ J alia Rivc-Kiiii:: 

Much has been written about this celebrated artist, and the public in 
general is thoroughly familiar with her brilliant professional career. 

She was a pupil of Rubinstein. Reinicke. and Liszt, the latter having 
written her the following letter, which would alone proclaim her status, 
written as it was by the greatest pianist who has ever lived: 
Madam : 

The echo of your brilliant success often reaches me and I join heartily in 
the applause. I thank you most sincerely for the amiable attention you 
express to me by the dedication of your Polonaise Ileroique. It seems to 
command a pompous and martial instrumentation of numerous clarions and 
drums. Please accept, my dear Madam, my very humble homage. 

F. Liszt. 

Mme. Rive-King made her debut at the age of sixteen with the Gwendhaus 

Orchestra in Leipzig, achieving great success. Since her return to this 

country, she has record of over four thousand concerts and recitals to her 

314 Thk HisroKv ok Alpha Chi Omeiia Fraternity 

credit. Five hundred of these were with orchestra, two hundred heing under 
the baton of Theodore Thomas and over seventy with the New York Philhar- 
monic Orchestra. She has won recognition also as a composer and arranger 
of classical works. Her piano playing is chaste and unaffected in stvle, but 
underneath her placid exterior there glows a warmly musical nature, which 
betrays itself in the subtle insight and sympathy for the music. 

Mine. Antoinette Sziimoivsha 

Mme. Antoinette Szumowska. a charming Polish woman, is perhaps an 
exact opposite both in her musical make-up and in personality to her artist 
friend, Mme. Hopekirk. but the two are very good friends, nevertheless. 

Mme. Szumowska is not alone distinguished as an interpreter of Chopin, 
but for being the mother of two very beautiful children, Helene and Thaddeus 
by name, whom she always proudly exhibits to any resident Alpha Chis who 
mav come to call or to partake of a cup of tea with her at her invitation. 
Her husband is Mr. Josef Adamowski, the well-known cellist, for some time 
a member of the Boston Symphony Orchestra, now head of the cello depart- 
ment of the New England Conservatory of Music. 

Mme. Szumowska's tastes are decidedly domestic, and the time she can 
spare from her professional life as pianist and teacher is devoted to her 
family and her home. Her musical work so far has been chieliy as concert 
pianist, in recitals, with the Symphony Orchestras, and as a member of the 
Adamowski Trio. She has received the most commendation from press and 
public as an interpreter of the works of her countryman, Chopin. 

To Alpha Chi Omega she is ever a cordial friend, and her home has 
been the scene of many charming hospitalities extended to fraternity girls 
living in and near Boston. 

Mme. Helen Hopekirk 

Of attractive and picturesque appearance, and equally charming manner, 
is another of our fraternity's members — Mme. Helen Hopekirk, who as 
pianist, composer, and teacher has won great distinction. It was of her that 
Leschetizky once said : "She is the greatest woman musician I have ever 
known," and although hers is a nature averse to publicity, yet the rare and 
distinctive quality of her work has forced it upon her. 

She is a native of Edinburgh, Scotland, and although that country has 
never been noted for its output of genius in the musical line, still it can at 
least claim one of late years. 

Mme. Hopekirk graduated from the Leipzig Conservatory in 1879, then 
concertized for some years, and became the pupil of Leschetizky from 1887 to 
1891. She is now^ in the United States for the fourth time, and to the delight 
of the people of Boston and Brookline makes her home there. As a concert 
pianist she has appeared wdth all the great orchestras of America and Europe 
besides many piano recitals. As a composer, besides many songs of great 
beauty, perhaps her Concerto and Concertstiick for piano and orchestra ^re 

Some Faculty Alpha Chi Omegas 

Second rnirr° "8ht-Ger rude Johnson, K: Mima Montgomery, Z; Corinne Blount. \. 
TW.r ,.. TtT t''" '^^' ^ V -^'""'3"' ^-'"'«"- ^: Annie May Cooke, Z. 
Third low— Myrtle Biissey, M ; lona Peterman. T; Xell Brushingham-Starr, Z. 

316 The Historv of Alpha Chi Omega 

most noteworthy. As a teacher she is much sought after, and much adored by 
those she elects to become her pupils. Her musical tastes incline toward the 
works of the modern composers, particularly the modern French school, 
Debussy being an especial favorite. His compositions are very sympathetic to 
a nature so intrinsically poetical as hers, also the works of Macdowell, which 
she has ever been a pioneer in exploiting. In her very attractive home in 
Brookline she lives the quiet but intensely busy life of the very earnest musi- 

Mrs. H. H. A. Beach 

That one of the first American composers of note should be a woman is a 
significant fact, as it is well known that women have ventured into the creative 
field of music very little. But it is as a composer rather than performer that 
Mrs. Beach has achieved the widest renown, although she also excels in the 
latter art. 

Her maiden name was Amy Marcy Chenev, and she was born in Henniker, 
New Hampshire, in 1867, her ancestors being some of the earliest colonial 
settlers. She began to show musical tendencies when a mere baby, and when 
she was still very young, her parents moved to Boston, that she might have 
an education in keeping witli her gifts. When sixteen years old she made 
her first public appearance in Boston as a pianist, playing the Moscheles G 
minor Concerto. Then continued a round of appearances with all of the 
large orchestras, and recitals in all of the large cities, her programs later 
being made up entirely of her own compositions. In 1885 she married Dr. 
Beach, who was also well known in his own sphere of activity, and their mar- 
riage was an ideal one in every respect. 

Perhaps her songs are the best known of her works. They have had 
frequent perfomiance by all of the leading singers, and her setting of some of 
the Browning poems is especially popular. She has also composed much in 
the larger forms, such as concertos, suites, and other orchestral pieces, and 
these all show a master grasp of form, and a genius for melodic invention. 

After a sojourn of several years in Munich, Mrs. Beach returned to 
America at the outbreak of the Great War. She again resides in Boston, 
where in its exclusive social circles she is much sought, and in its musical 
sphere she is a leading attraction. There she appears every year in public as 
a pianist, and generally in a program made up for most part of her ow^n 
compositions. She plays with the Boston Symphony Orchestra, and in the 
various musical centers of America she appears in recital. 

Margaret Ruthven Lang 

Another woman whose success has been won chiefly in the creative side of 
music, and also a resident of Boston, is Margaret Ruthven Lang, a musically 
gifted daughter of musical parents. Her father, B. J. Lang, was long a 
leading factor in the musical life of Boston, and had much influence in shap- 
ing the musical growth of his daughter. Her mother was a good singer, 
though an amateur. 

Margaret Lang began the study of the pianoforte under one of her father's 
pupils, later continuing under Mr. Lang himself. She studied, too. the 



A'iolin in Boston and in Munich, and also composition in the latter place, 
later taking up orchestration in this country with Chadwick and Macdowell. 
She began writing music at the early age of twelve years, and lier compo- 
sitions in the larger forms have been 
unusuallv successful. The Dramatic Over- 
tarc Opus 12 was performed by the Bos- 
ton Symi)hony Orchestra under Nikisch 
given in Chicago by an orchestra of one 
hundred under Theodore Thomas at two 
concerts, and at a third by Bendix. Both 
of these compositions are in manuscript, 
and also a third overture, Totila. Other 
works composed later for orcliestra include 
three arias all of -which were performed, 
and other of her pretentious compositions 
are a cantata for chorus, solos, and orches- 
tra, a string cjuartet. and several composi- 
tions for violin and piano. She is the 

composer of the famous Irish Love Soiiii. 

1 . .1 r • 1 .Makgauet Rutiiven Lano 

and a great many other songs of wide- 

rspread popularity. It is through these songs, perhaps, that she is best known. 

Mme. Alls dcr OIic 

Madame Aus der Ohc. the distinguished Oerman pianist, is. at })resent, 
in Berlin. In 1915 the invitation was extended to her to play on the 
program of the Convention Musicale. The reply to the invitation is the most 
recent communication which the Fraternity has received from her : 

Alpha Chi Omega was so kind to send me an invitation to take part in 
the musical jirogram of the Convention of Alpha Chi Omega to be held 
at Long Beach, California, June 28 to July 2 of the present year. 

It would give me the greatest pleasure to take part in this jirogram and 
to come for this purpose to California. But it will not be possible, I am very 
sorry to say, as the imsafety of the sea at the present war-time makes it unfor- 
tunately impossible and too dangerous to cross the ocean at present. I send 
to Alpha Chi Omega my best wishes and cordial greetings, hoping that I 
may be present and play at a later meeting. 

With best love to all members who remember me, I am, 

\'ery cordially yours, 

Adele Aus DER Ohe. 

Mmc. Ellen Heach Yau' 
To the Alpha Chi Omegas in California Ellen Beach Yaw is well known, 
indeed. Her estate at Covina, just outside of Los Angeles, has been the 
setting for many delightful hours for them. All who w^ere at Convention 
in 1915 were favored with meeting both Madame Vaw and Madame Beach. 
The writer will never forget a happy afternoon at Lake Ellen Ranch. "On 
all sides orange groves, perfuming the air with fragrance, stretched as far 
.as the eye could reach until stopped by the ]>uri)le chain of the Sierra 


TiiK History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraterxity 

Ellen Beach Yaw 

Madres." Thus Miss Olmstead \vrote of Miss Ya\v's home in The Lyre of 
July, 1912. Her cordiality and hospitality are exquisite. And we cannot 
wonder, when we see the wonderful beauty of her home among orange trees 
and roses, that her life is a quiet, retired one. The 
following excerpt from a letter from Madame Yaw 
giYes an insight into her altruistic and personal 
preoccupations : 

"I never know what to say when people ask me 
about Ellen Beach Yaw. I could tell you about 
the ranch or my hill in which I am so interested. 1 
do not think there is any one living who enjoys 
the country more than I do. I do not care for the 
social life of the cities. I am interested in the boys 
at the Lark Ellen Home and enjoy my little visits 
there very much. 

"Have pleasant remembrances of the ten years- 
I spent in Europe and of my different teachers and 
friends. Dear Lady Meux who has now passed 
away was a fairy godmother to me. I spent all my 
vacations at Theobalds Park, one of her beautiful 
estates. I think she was the most generous woman 
I ever knew. She gave me most of my musical 
education. I enjoyed my grand opera experience 
in Europe, but I never loved anvthing so much as 
being at home in California with the flowers and the birds and the climate. 
* * My favorite song is The Sky Lark which I wrote myself. It has 
never been published and is the highest song ever written. I would like 
to say that high tones have their place in music just as much as low^ tones." 
Miss Yaw has written several songs and poems. Her song, California, 
is much loved. Her days are filled with charitable deeds and with sharing 
her artistic gifts. 

Of Miss Yaw's singing in her home to guests Miss Olmstead wrote, "Sud- 
denly a wonderful bird began to sing. Longer and sweeter grew the trills, 
now soft, now crescendo, followed bY silvery turns, scales, and cadenza as 
pure and perfect as a string of pearls. Higher and higher swelled the 
music, overpowering in its sweetness until finally it ended in a rainbow 
cascade of surpassing beauty. * *" 

"It is true, is it not," Miss Olmstead queried, "that you have the greatest 
range of any living singer?" 

"Yes," replied Miss Yaw, "and I discovered it in such a funny way. One 
day I was practicing and mv upper tones came so easily I thought I would. 
see where they w-ere. So I walked over to the piano and found I had sung 
an octave above high C I I studied in New^ York with Mme. Torpadie and 
in Paris I worked under Marchesi. One day while studying in New York 
I sang at a recital, and a critic on the ^ e-n: York Herald heard me, was so 
impressed with my phenomenal range, and made so much ado about my 

Prominent Members 31*> 

singing that the next thing I knew I was studying abroad. I made my French 
operatic debut at Nice in Hamlet and my Italian del)ut at Rome in Lucia. 

Mme. Yaw was born in New York, but has been for more than twenty 
years a Californian. 

Marian X evi ns-Mac dowc/l 

Born in New York of good American ancestry, Marian Nevins-Macdowell 
first evinced her rare musical gifts as a very young child. Later at the 
age of eleven, she commenced thorough systematic study with her aunt, Mrs. 
Roger Perkins, of Camden, S. C. who had come North to live, following 
the vicissitudes consequent upon the Civil War. 

Mrs. Perkins was an excellent musician and gave her niece the hue foun- 
dation for her later work in Europe where she journeyed at the age of 
eighteen for the specific purpose of studying with Clara Schumann. Arrived 
at Frankfurt, she learned that a year of advanced preparation with one of 
the daughters was required from all alike, before being admitted to Frau 
Schumann's classes. 

Being of a practical turn of mind she could see no value in that for 
herself, so acting upon the advice of Joachim Ratf, with whom young Edward 
Macdowell was then studying composition, she decided to take up further 
preparation with this American teacher. 

The subjoined facsimile letter of Mr. Macdowell written in reply to some 
American friend's questioning the practicability of Miss Nevins' lengthy 
sojourn abroad, explains one of the serio-comic incidents of their student 

a4 ^-y^ ^^.-^ >>'^^f ^yA/-^ 

7/u/, 7/f. Tut^f^' ' ^^,^^ra^ ryUA/'-^ '"^ 

jCcv— ^y ^Z/x //fLc^m,/ /'" '/»// 1/ /i /r <•/••<• .^ /, 

320 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Thus was established that close relationship of apt pupil and earnest 
teacher during a period of four years, when the time arrived for Miss 
Nevin's return home. Only then did both come into the conscious realization 
of what the mutuality of ideals and ideas had meant to them. Their 
marriage followed a year later, upon Mr. Macdowell's return to this country. 

Thus, though amply prepared for a brilliant concert career, Mrs. Mac- 
■dowell decided, much against her husband's wishes, to subordinate her 
own plans in order to give an undivided attention to Mr. Macdowell, 
arguing that the fostering of a great creative gift was an infinitely higher 
mission for her, than interpreting the works of others. 

But the priceless heritage has remained hers none the less, since, as 
•exponent of the Macdowell works, she stands unique and alone in the 
musical world today. After the death of Macdowell, as all the artistic 
world knows, the Macdowell Memorial Association, to which Macdowell 
had deeded his New Hampshire estate, established the artists' colony for 
which the composer had hoped. With faint faith in what seemed but 
a poet's dream the financially endowed Americans contributed slowly and 
charily of their means. Since the colony could not be self-supporting in 
the nature of the case, Mrs. Macdowell bravely rallied her frail physical 
powers and went en tour. No one was so well fitted to interpret Mac- 
dowell's music as she, and the country was eager to hear her. In her recital 
she told of Macdowell's Log Cabin Studio, 

"A House of Dreams Untold 
It looks out over the whispering treetops 
And faces the setting sun." 

And she related how the quiet and solitude of his forest workshop inspired 
the greatest of his compositions. She told of his yearning to share this ideal 
spot with other creative workers, and of the needs of the Colony. The annual 
deficit of the Colony Mrs. Macdowell has met by the returns from her recitals. 
Fifteen thousand dollars has been turned over to the Association from this 
source. Her work is heroic since Mrs. Macdowell is an invalid. The Colony 
should have adequate endowment. Many Alpha Chis have helped to create 
enthusiastic interest in Mrs. Macdowell's work, and she speaks of their 
cooperation with gratitude. 

College professors and instructors are numerous among the alumnae of 
Alpha Chi Omega. Two of the founders led the way in this field : Estelle 
Leonard was principal of the Music Department of Moore's Hill College, 
1889-1893, and in 1894 held the same position at Centenary College; Anna 
Allen Smith was instructor in pianoforte 1891-1897 at De Pauw University. 
Other members of Alpha Chapter who have been on the faculty of the De 
Pauw Music School are the following: Aldah Victoria McCoy (pianoforte) 
1907-1913; Ella G. Earp (associate member), Instructor in Pianoforte, 
1886; Orra P. John (associate member). Instructor in Pianoforte, 1886- 
1891; Lena Eva Alden (associate member). Instructor in Pianoforte, 1891 ; 
Alice Wentworth McGregor (associate member), Instructor in Voice, 1891 : 

Prominent Members 321 

Anna Dahl Dixon (associate member). Instructor in Voice, 1893; Gertrude 
French. Instructor upon Harp. 1893; Mary Janet Wilson, Instructor in 
Harmony, 1893-1910, and Librarian of Sheet Music, 1893-1916; Mildred 
Rutledge, Instructor in Pianoforte (Kindergarten work), 1907-1916; 
Marie Wood Rush, Assistant in Pianoforte, 1907; Jessie Guild Keep, Assis- 
tant in Pianoforte, 1900-1902; Verinda Rainier. Assistant in Voice, 1907; 
Ethel Clark, Instructor in Art School, 1907. 

Mrs. Mary E. Wilhite, Alpha, was a pupil of Dean Howe's at De Pauw. 
She was principal of the Music Department of Central Normal College, 
Danville. Indiana, for some time, but her health did not permit her to keep 
on with the work. She had a large private class in Danville for some time, 
until she moved to Indianapolis, in 1913. She now has a studio in Indian- 
apolis and teaches piano to a large number of pupils. Mrs. Wilhite is the 
organist of the Broadway Methodist Episcopal church. 

Among Beta Chapter alumnae are five college teachers. Alta Allen 
Loud graduated from Albion College both from the Liberal Arts Depart- 
ment and the Music School. From 1898-1903 she was teacher of Greek at 
Albion College. She was then married to Edward Reed Loud, Delta Tau 
Delta. Her life has been a full one. for she has served Alpha Chi Omega 
for many years with consecration and energy. She was National Secretary' 
1897-1899, and National President 1906-1910, 1912 to date. She has been 
the moulding power in Alpha Chi ( )mega throughout the period covered 
since the publication of the first Edition of the History of Alpha Chi 
Omega. Much of the extraordinary progress made in that time has been 
due to her wisdom and ability. This book, therefore, has been dedicated 
most appropriately to her. It is impossible, in a few words, to describe the 
labor and the skill with which Mrs. Loud has served as administrative officer 
of the Fraternity. The present condition of Alpha Chi Omega and the love 
which the organization bears her are her "monument" far more expressive 
than words. An outline of her activity shows the breadth of her interests. 
(From Leading Greeks) : She has "contributed to Lyre: Editorial Board. 
History of Alpha Chi Omega, wrote introduction; delegate to National 
Convention of 1897 at De Pauw; originator of present council system; 
Chairman Coat-of-arms Committee ; Chairman Endowment Fund Committee ; 
Delegate to National Presidents' Conference of 1911; Chicago (ireek Con- 
ference of May. 1913; teacher of Greek and German at Albion College. 
1898-1903; member of Eastern Star, Albion E. L. T. Club; president Albion 
Review Club ; vice-regent Chapter of Daughters of American Revolution." 

Mrs. Myrtle Hatswell-Bowman is a member of the faculty of the North- 
western School of Music in Evanston, Illinois. She gives instruction in voice. 
She^ is particularly efficient in the singing and teaching of bird songs. She 
has served the Fraternity in national work besides being alumna adviser for 
Gamma. She served as Province President of the Eastern Province, and 
assisted in. the installation of Upsilon Chapter at James Millikin University. 
Decatur. Illinois. She is a meml)er of Aloha .\lpha .'Mumniv Chapter at 

322 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Mrs. Martha Reynolds Colby has studied under eminent musicians in 
the United States and under Herr Hilf of the Leipzig Conservatory in 
Germany. She was for many years the head of the stringed instrument 
department in the Albion College Conservatory, and also spent a number 
of seasons in concert tour. She organized and trained the Colby String 
Quartet of Albion College. Her daughter, Martha, was the first daughter 
of a Beta girl to be initiated into this chapter. Martha graduated from 
Albion Conservatory in 1915, and is now attending the New England Con- 
servatory of Music in Boston. 

Miss Jennie Worthington, one of Beta's charter members and for several 
years her alumna adviser, was a member of the Alpha Chi Omega Quartet 
which did concert work. The other members were Cora Travis, Marion 
Howlett Garfield, and Jean Whitcomb Fenn. Miss Worthington graduated 
from both Albion and Boston Conservatories. She also studied Public 
School Music in Detroit and Chicago. For eleven years she taught piano and 
harmony in the Albion Conservatory. She served as organist and choir 
director of the Presbyterian Church for about fifteen years. She introduced 
music into the public schools of Albion and has been their onlv supervisor. 
The high school annually puts on some heavy number or cantata. 

Harriet F. Reynolds of Horton, Michigan, completed the course in piano 
at Albion College and then studied in Boston ; she then became a member of 
the Albion College Conservatory faculty. Mrs. Clarissa Dickie Stewart, of 
Battle Creek, Michigan, the daughter of President Dickie of Albion College, 
graduated from Albion Conservatory, and spent several years in advanced 
study at Detroit, Chicago, and New York. She later became an instructor in 
piano at Albion College Conservatory. She is well known in Battle- Creek 
as a pianist and accompanist. 

Gamma's alumnse to the numl)er of seven have taught at Northwestern 
University : Sadie Knowland Coe, Instructor in Piano ; Eleanor Kirkham. 
Instructor in Voice, 1904; Mabel Dunn Madson, Instructor in Piano, 1901- 
1903; Grace Ericson, Instructor in Piano; Myrta McKean Dennis, Instruc- 
tor in Piano, 1905-1909 ; Hedwig Brenneman, Instructor in Voice, 1908-1915 ; 
Mae Smith, Instructor in Piano, 1909. 

Mabel Harriet Siller Nafis held, for a number of years, the position of 
Assistant Registrar, College of Engineering, 1909-1913. Mrs. Nafis' frater- 
nity work has been extensive. She was a member of the National Council 
as Secretary 1900-1902, and as Historian, 1905-1911. At the end of her 
work as Historian there appeared the History of Alpha Chi Omega written 
by her, the second, we believe, of such volumes to be published by women's 

Mrs. Nafis' ivork M-as much wider, however, than either of her national 
offices denote. Only by reading carefully the full minutes of the national 
organization can one understand the scope of her service. She was Alpha Chi 
Omega's first delegate to the National Panhellenic Conferences (1903) ; she 
installed three chapters of the Fraternity, Nu (1907), Xi (1907), and Pi 
(1909). She has served on the standing committees, the Alumnae Committee, 

Prominkx i- Mkmukrs 


the Panhcllenic Committee, and, in an advisory relation, on the Editorial 
Board of the new History of Alpha Chi Omega ; and has served on twenty-five 
committees appointed by the National President to 1910. Such a volume of 
earnest work has made .Mrs. Nafis an important figure in the history of 
Alpha Chi Omega. 

Five of Delta's alumn;i? are among the facult\- members: 

In the fall of 1915 after ?. 
period spent in further study of 
French at Columbia Summer 
School. Louise Chase of Green- 
ville, Pennsyhain'a. was elected to 
the position of instructor of 
French at Allegheny College ixnm 
which she graduated in 1908. She 
was also on the facultv of the 
Pennsylvania College of Music 
during the school year 1914-15 as 
teacher of Violin. 

Theo White Jacobi, '98 : Mrs. 
Jacobi is a violinist of merit and 
has done much concert work. Her 
home was in Rochester but she is 
now teaching in Elmira College, 
Elmira, N. Y. 

Jessie Merchant Reynolds, '93 : 
A wearer of $ B K badge is Mrs. 
Reynolds. Not only in this did she 
bring honor to Delta but also in 
her position as instructor in French 
at Allegheny soon after she gradu- 
ated there. As the wife of the pastor of the Methodist Church of (iovans, 
Maryland, and as the mother of two wide-awake dear little children, Baxter 
and Jean, she finds her time strenuously occupied. 

Mrs. Juvia O. Hull, '91 : Delta's first honorary member, Mrs. Hull, 
was at the time of her initiation the Director of the Conservatory of Music. 
Ever since she has been in Meadville she has been prominent in the musical 
life of the town, having been for years choir director of the Christ Epis- 
copalian Church of Meadville and leader of the Oratorio Society. 

Mary Pinney, '92 : After teaching piano several years in the Meadville 
Conservatory of Music, Miss Pinney left in the spring of 1893 to try her 
lot in New York City. There she became engaged as organist of the First 
Church of Scientists. She is a fine musician and was a very popular teacher, 
hut after a short period of teaching in New York, gave it up for accompanying 
and organ work which she much preferred. It is interesting to note that Miss 

Louise Chase, Delta 

Teacher of French and N'iolin 
Delta History Committee 

Prominent Mi;mi?i:rs 


Pinney lived at the home of Mrs. Augusta Stetson in the house of the "Golden 

Epsilon Chapter has been fortunate in having several members on the 
faculty of the music school of the university. Carrie Adelaide Trow- 
bridge is a niember of the faculty of the College of Music of the University 
of Southern California, and has charge of the Normal Training Course for 
})iano teachers. Her concert work as accompanist and pianist has also won 
her much recognition, and her success as a teacher has been of a decidedly 
sul)stantial character, for not a few of her pupils have become successful 
teachers and soloists. She has charge of ilie l)ranch of the College of Music 
at Anaheim. 

Epsilon pupils of Miss Trowljridge's are engaged in professional work. 
Miss Jane Stanley, who graduated from the University of Southern Califor- 
nia, is a member of the faculty of a branch of the College of Music at Ana- 
heim. Miss Esther Davidson is a teaclier of piano of the University, as well 
as a well-known accompanist. 

Lillian Arnett, 1905, and Isabelle Curl, 1907, taught music in the Uni- 
versity; Doris Coomber is teaching history in the Liberal Arts Department. 

Zeta has numerous alumnae on college 
faculties. AUss Blanche Brocklebank has 
been teaching piano at Wellesley since 1912. 
Miss Mima Montgomery holds a similar 
position in the teaching of voice. Miss 
Brocklebank graduated from the New 
England Conservatory in 1912 as a soloist 
in the Piano Department. She has been, 
since that year, a member of Zeta Zeta 
Alumuic Chapter. She is also an assis- 
tant teacher of George Proctor at the New 
England Conservatory of Music. She has 
been Zeta's alumna adviser and is custodian 
of the Alpha Chi Omega songbook. 

Evangeline Bridge Stevenson for a num- 
ber of years was an instructor in the New 
England Conservatory. She is distin- 
guished in Alpha Chi Omega for her service 
as National President 1910-1912. She has 

been a mem])er of Zeta Zeta Chapter since 1909, and served as delegate 
to Convention in 1908 from Zeta, as delegate for Zeta Zeta in 1912. She 
graduated from New England Conservatory in the Piano Department as 
soloist. She was a pupil of the famous Carl Baermann. 

Alma Marti Olsen served on the faculty at Washburn College (Kansas). 
She graduated in piano at the New England Conservatory in 1905. 

Blanche Crafts Kaiser, teacher and soloist in violin, taught in Wesleyan 
College, Macon, Georgia, and later at Acadia Seminary, Wolfvillc. North 
Carolina, and at St. Mary's, Raleigh, North Carolina. She became concert 

Blanche F. ank, Zeta 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

mistress of the New England Conservatory Orchestra, and served on tht 
faculty of New England Conservatory in 1906-7. She went to Meadville to 
National Convention as delegate in 1904. While a student she won the 
Trustees' Scholarship. 

Winifred Byrd was in- 
structor in Olivet College, 
Olivet, Michigan. She gradu- 
ated from New England 
Conservatory in 1905 as 
piano soloist, winning, dur- 
ing her study there, the 
Spaulding Scholarship. She 
was Zeta's delegate to Con- 
vention in 1906. She has 
twice returned to Boston to 
study with Madame Hope- 
kirk, and was then a member 
of Zeta Zeta Chapter. She 
studied also with Carl Baer- 
mann, and with Madame 
Theresa Carreno. She is at 
present in concert work in 
New York. 

Annie May Cook was in- 
structor in the New Eng- 
land Conservatory 1909- 
1910. Since that time she 
has done private teaching. She served Zeta Chapter as alumna adviser 
1911-1915. She is known to many because of her representation of Zeta 
Chapter at the Detroit Convention, and her attendance at the Long Beach 

Olive Cutter graduated from the Violin Department of New England 
Conservatory and served as instructor of violin in that institution. She is 
a member of Zeta Zeta, and was present at the Long Beach Convention. 
She made the exquisite design for the Alpha Chi Omega Calendar for 1916. 

Josephine Freeman Haley taught at Western Union College, Le Mars, 
Iowa, 1907-8. She graduated from New England Conservatory in 1906 
as a teacher and soloist of the piano. 

In Winston-Salem, North Carolina, a very interesting work is being 
done by Nell Brushingham Starr, mezzo-contralto. Subsequent to her direc- 
tion of the vocal school in Salem College, the historic old Moravian institu- 
tion which has been identified for generations with the best in music, Mrs. 
Starr has continued her residence in Winston-Salem, and confined her concert 
work to the South. 

Winifred Byrd, Zeta 

Prominkx r Mi:.\iiiKRs 327 

In 'I'licta Chapter have been the foHowiiig instructors in tlie Sciiool of 
Music : 

Virginia Fiske, Instructor in Piano. 

Maude Kleyn, Instructor in Voice Culture. 

Florence Potter, Head of Public School Music, 1909-1910. 

Frances Hamilton. InslriKior in Piano. 

Leonora Allen, Instructor in \'oice Culture. 

Members on Faculty in the history oi" lota Chajjter are: 
Eunice Dean Daniels. Dean of Women, 1905 and 1906. and Instructor in 
Music School, 1909. 

Susan Reed, Ph.D., Instructor in History 1 )ei)artment. 1908-1910. 

Mary Breneman, Instructor in Music School, 1902. 

Mary Creene, Instructor in Music School, 1907. 

Florence Kirkup, Instructor in Music School, 1909-1915. 

Alison Marion Fernie, Instructor in Music School, 1899. 

Mary Allinson. As.sistant in Library. 

Elizabeth Bryan, Librarian of the University Liljrary, 1912 to date. 

Stella Galpin, Librarian of the I'niversity Library. 1914 to date. 

Ola Wyeth, Librarian of the I'niversity Library, 1906 to date. 

Rachel Baumgartner. Assistant in Zoology. 1914-1916. 

Members of Kappa Chapter on the faculty at University of Wisconsin 
during the history of the c hapter are : 

Alice Regan, Instructor in Piano. 

Margaret H'Doubler. Assistant in Physical Training Department. 

Gertrude Johnson, Head of the Department of Public Speaking. 

Ruth Morris, Assistant in Physical Training. 

Mary Sayle, Assistant in Biology. 

Russell MacMurphy Chase was. for some time. Instructor in Piano at 
the University of Wisconsin. She is now Director of the Macdowell Club 
Music School. Derry, New Hamjjsliire. She holds the position of lecturer, 
also, in the school and gives piaini talks on "Music in the Home," "Myths 
and Dances in Music," Wagner's "Flying Dutchman," "Lohengrin," "Mas- 
tersingers," "\'alkyrie and Siegfried," and "Macdowell Pageant." 

These piano talks have been given in Concord, Manchester. Nashua. 
Dover, Rochester, Laconia, Tilton. Somersworth, Penacook. Contoocook, 
Newmarket. Farmington, Derry, New Hampshire, and many places through- 
out the United States, including Chicago and the Universities of Wisconsin 
and West Virginia. Mrs. Chase is State President of the National Federation 
of Musical Clul)s. and is Chairman, as well, of the State Music Committee 
of New Hamjishire F\'deration of Women's Clubs. Of her work slie writes: 

"I started my school in Derry through the request of one friend to give 
her lessons, and you can see by the enclosed circulars to what size we have 

328 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraterxitv 

grown. I have discovered right here in Derry as much talent as I have ever 
found in mv teaching. This year I hope to accomplish something in this 
State by the cooperation of the Women's Clubs and the National Federation 
of Music Clubs, as I am Chairman of the State Music Committee of the 
former and State President of the latter." 

Eight Lambda Chapter members have served as instructors at Syracuse 
University : 

Marjorie Rose Wall, Latin Department. 
Mary Emma Griffith, English Department. 
Grace Aline Young, German Department. 
Alice Mickelson, Geology Department. 
Flora Anna Kaufhald, German Department. 
Imo W. Toms, German Department. 
Georgiana Pearson, Botany Department. 
• Ruth H'oople, History Department. 

Mu Chapter has a splendid array of faculty members including two deans 
of women, a physical director, and a professor of French. They are: 

Effie Silliman, Professor of Public School Music, l9Cl6-\3. 

Mrs. June Hamilton Rhodes, Director of Physical Education for Women^ 
1912; Dean of Women, 1914-1915. 

Alice Barrows, Instructor in Piano, 1903-1905, 1908. 

Myrtle Bussey, Instructor in Piano, 1905-08. 

Nellaby Finney, Instructor in A'^oice, 1915-1916. 

Lora>Hagler, Instructor in English, 1903-08; Dean of Women and Prin- 
cipal of Academy, 1908-11. 

Nell E. Harris, Secretary of Conservatory Faculty, 1906 to date. 

Florence Hier, Professor of French Language and Literature, 1914-16. 

Regna King, Secretary to President, 19 16-. 

Carrie McBride, Instructor in Voice, 1910-11. 

Florence A. Armstrong, Instructor in English at Lowa State College, 

Both Miss Barrows and Miss Bussey have opened schools of their own. 
Miss Hagler has become a religious work director in a city Y. W. C. A. 
Miss Hier taught French at Simpson College, 1914-16, where she was ini- 
tiated into Alpha Chi Omega. She then resigned her position at Simpson 
to accept an instructorship at the University of Iowa. Miss Hier graduated 
from Mt. Holyoke in 1910, and studied at the University of Paris 1912-13. 

Kathryn Vollmer, Mu, is Director of Music Department in State Normal 
College, Albion, Idaho, and Mabel Felt is teacher of piano in Hiram College, 

Vera Upton, of Xi Chapter, graduated from the University of Nebraska 
Conservatory in 1904 under Howard Kirkpatrick. She studied in New 
York under Oscar Saenger and John Dennis Mehan. She studied in Chicago 
under Carlton Hackett. She is now voice instructor in the Conservatory 

June Hamilton Rhodes, Mu 

Physical Director, Simpson College, 19 K 
Dean of Women, 1914-1915 

Kathryn Voi.i.mer, Mu 

Instructor in Piano, State Normal College. 
Albion, lilalio 

330 The Hisiorv of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

in Lincoln and soloist in the Christian Science Church and the Greek 

Miriam Little, Xi, is a teacher of the cello in the University Conservatory 
of Music. 

The following alumna^ of Omicron Chapter have served on the faculty 
of Baker University : 

Birdean Motter Ely, Instructor in Fine Arts. 

Eula Smith, Listructor in Voice. 

Helen Mayer, l^ean of Violin in Conservatory of Music. 

Leona Young is Pi's one faculty member. She is at present teaching in 
the Department of Chemistry at the University of California. 

At University of Washington, Edith Hindman, Rho, is Instructor in 

Norma Harrison Thrower. Sigma, Director for the Regent Photo Film 
Co., had charge of the Public Speaking at the University of Iowa 1910-1914. 
She graduated and did postgraduate work at Cumnock. Her work since her 
teaching at the University of Iowa is full of interest, and is well described 
in her own w-ords from a letter to the author. 

"After four vears at S. 11. I. when I felt I must have a change, I found 
myself planning a little recital tour, which would take me back through 
Iowa again the following winter. While there I staged and played Iphigenia 
in Iphigenia in Aitlis for The Iowa Federation of Women's Clubs which 
convened in Iowa City. We afterwards gave it in the City Park at com- 
mencement time and invited everyone from far and wide to come and 
sit on the hillside. Again it was a success. 

"I came back to Cleveland after that, and Avas married. Though I had 
a husband and household to plan for, I managed to read considerably in 
Cleveland. During the M'inter I gathered sixty children together, and in 
June we gave three performances of the Winthrop Ames version of Snow 
JJ'/iife and the Seven Dwarfs. I wish you might have seen it, Miss Arm- 
strong, for the naive charm of the little people's work was exceeding. The 
coach donated her services and the proceeds have started a fund for a Chil- 
dren's Playhouse and Little Theater. The Cleveland children pride them- 
selves on being the first to start their own fund. 

"Now I must tell you of my latest venture. With Director Weston of 
the Regent Photo Play Company I have completed a five reel picture of 
Sno-w White and the Seven Dwarfs. The Educational Film Company of 
New York were anxious to have it, and thirty-two copies of it are now being 
made. At present we are doing another picture, in which 1 am playing a 
part. There's a strong fascination about the work. 

"As chairman of the committee of Panhellenic appointed to raise one 
hundred and twenty dollars for a Cleveland girl's tuition to the College 
for Women, I am happy to say that my girl is registered. Most of the 


ft ^ 

n & 
a o 


o — 

332 The Hisiorn hf Alpha Chi ()mega Fraternity 

money I raised by giving the proceeds from an extra production of Siioic 

Sigma has two other members on the instruction "staff at Iowa, Nina 
Shaffer, Reference Librarian of the University Library, who was a charter 
member of Sigma, and at different times alumna adviser ; Agnes Flannagan, 
Sigma, who is first assistant to the Director of the School of Music. She 
teaches Piano, Ensemble, Harmony, and Counterpoint. Her piano class has 
grown steadily, and her work has received much favorable comment. 
For four years she was accompanist to the Iowa City and University Choral 
Society, a chorus of one hundred and twenty-five voices. She is beginning 
her sixth year of teaching in the University. In June, 1913, Sigma Chapter 
chose Miss Flannagan as their treasurer, and she still holds the office. 

At Brenau College four Alpha Chis have been faculty members : 
Grace Jean Sails, Instructor in Oratory Department. 
Margaret Brown Holder, Director of Theoretical Department, 
lona Peterman, Director of Pipe Organ and Instructor in Piano. 
Ruby McGaughey, Instructor in Piano. 

Two members of L^psilon are on the James Millikin University faculty: 
Anna McNabb, Instructor in the Conservatory of Music. 1912-14. 
Elizabeth Putnam, Instructor in Applied Art Department, 19 13-. 
Cora Irene Leiby is on the faculty of the University of Idaho. 

Chi Chapter is well represented on the faculty with Mrs. Kerr, wife of 
the president ; Mrs. Miriam Thayer Seeley, Director of Physical Education 
of Women ; Miss Bertha Davis and Miss June Seeley, Instructors in the 
School of Home Economics ; and Miss lerne Ahern, Instructor in the Chem- 
istry Department. 

One hundred and fifteen members of Alpha Chi Omega, we therefore no:e, 
have served or are serving as college professors or instructors. The list is far 
from complete, we are certain, but it is extensive enough to be of significance 
in revealing the large percentage of our membership who are working in 
academic lines. 

Two members of Alpha Chapter established conservatories of music and 
have become well known in Washington, District of Columbia, and Chicago, 
respectively, for their work in their capacity of musical leaders. Katharine 
McReynolds was president of Alpha in 1887. and thus she had the honor 
of initiating Madame Fannie Bloomfield-Zeisler. She received artist's and 
teacher's certificates from the Royal Conservatory, Stuttgart, Germany 
(1891-1895), and artist's certificate from the Stern Conservatory, Berlin 
(1899-1900). In 1895, together with Friiulein Fanny Koehle, she founded 
the McReynolds-Koehle Music School of Washington. D. C, which for 
nineteen years held high standing in the community. 

Promi xf.xi' Mkmmkks 


'I'hr scIiodI was closed in its twentieth year, in 1914, when Miss McRey- 
nolcls gave up her professional career to become the wife of Hon. Martin 
A. Morrison, Representative of the "Uh District of Indiana in the Congress. 

Several years previous to her marriage Miss McRtynolds became deeply 
interested in the work of winning from the public high schools of Washing- 
ton, D. C. recognition of music work done outside the schools with private 
music teachers. She worked tirelessly and single-handed at first, but gradually 
succeeded in interesting the school board, superintendents, teachers, private 
music teachers, parents, and pupils, until in September. l')13. lier efforts were 
rewarded by seeing the high schools of Washington. 1). C, offer a major 
credit for the outside study of nnisic. This iinio\-ation received general 
approval and its success was as.sured from the beginning. It has proved a 
boon to the talented pupil as well as to the private music teacher. 

Several years ago Miss McReynolds had the honor to be invited to become 
a member of the College Women's Club of Washington. I). ('.. and is one 
of the few of that body to enjoy a place on the list of those who have 
"distinguished themselves in the professions." In 1915 she became a mem- 
ber of the Congressional Club. In both of the above clubs she serves as mem- 
ber of their respective advisory boards. She is also a member of the Friday 
Morning Music Club, Washington's largest and m'ost important music club. 

While principal of the McReynolds-Koehle Music School, Miss McRey- 
nolds originated a preparatory method for the teaching of beginners in 
music and a Teachers' Training Course. 

Miss McReynolds was an ardent fraternity girl while an active member 
of Alpha Chapter, and recalls with pleasure the happy memories of those 
days. Especially prized is a summer 
spent long ago with our illustrious 
sister, Maud Powell, whose com- 
panionship proved a scource of in- 
spiration to the young teacher all 
down the years. 

Ethel Sutherlin Bergey gradu- 
ated from the De Pauw school of 
music while it was still managed by 
our patron, James H. Howe. She 
was a member of the De Pauw 
Symphony ( )rchestra, and a tutor in 
the school of music. Later she 
studied a year in Europe and spent 
some time at .Milan in o])cratic 
study. She has been accompanist in 
several operatic companies. Ethel 
Sutherlin Bergey was instrumental 
in the organization of Bergey's Chi- 
cago Opera School. She has given 
many piano recitals in Chicago and 
is well known in the music world. ErirEi. S. RERriEV, .■U/>Iia 

334 The Hisiorv ok Alpha Chi (^mega Fraternitv 

Of writers Alplia Chi (^mega has not a few. There are many members 
who have published works of various kinds, written as a by-product of a 
busy life ; several Alpha Chi Omegas, however, are professional writers. 
Among these members, all well known to the Fraternity through the pages of 
The Lyre, is Mary Masters Needham, Beta, magazine writer. Her article, 
"What a War-Nurse Saw," from The Independent, was republished in The 
Lyre. J. Olive Porter, Delta, author of The Ringmaster, is doing journal- 
istic writing in Menton, Paris. Several of her articles on the war have been 
quoted in The Lyre. Margaret Barber Bowen, poet, formerly of the staff of 

Margaret Barber Bowen, Delta 
Poet and Dramatist 

The Atlantic Monthly, has been good enough to contribute several short poems 
to The Lyre. She is now writing plays. Mabel Chalfin. Epsilon, has written 
several beautiful and successful songs, and has done many travel sketches. 
She travels widely and gathers her material from all parts of the world. 
Louise Van Vorhees Armstrong, Theta, is doing dramatic composition fn 
Chicago. Her plays are put on by the Art Museum there. 

Aside from these professional writers are about two score members who 
have published a considerable body of composition. Jean Whitcomb Fenn, 
Beta, wrote the Whitconib-Fenn System of Teehnic for Junior Grades. 

Mabel Keech, Beta, published Training the Little Homemaker by Kitchen 
Garden Methods. 

Promixk.nt Mkmukrs • 335 

Alta Allen Loud has conlrihutcd rrequeiitly to The Lyre, and has served 
on the editorial board of both editions of the History of Aipho Chi Omega. 
To the first edition she wrote the Introduction. 

Nella Ramsdell Fall has contributed to The Lyre, and assisted in the 
writing of the ritual of the Fraternity Fay I^arnaby Kent and Virginia 
Fiske Green. 

Florence Fall Miller has written several poems. 

Five members have filled the post of Fditor of The Lyre: Mary Janet 
Wilson, and Elma Patton Wade, of Alpha; Edith Manchester (iriffin, and 
Florence Reed Haseltine, of Zeta ; and Florence A. Armstrong of Mu. 
Miss Armstrong has written much for newspapers, and edited and wrote the 
first and second editions, respectively, of the History of Alpha Chi Omega. 
Mabel Siller Nafis wrote the first edition of the History of Alpha Chi Omega. 

Carrie Adelaide Trowbridge, Epsilon. is author of a set of seven Charac- 
teristic Pieces for Piano, and of Valse Melodigne. both published by R. ^^^ 
Neflfelfinger, Los Angeles. 

Estelle Leonard, Alpha, has published a volume of easy teaching pieces 
for the piano. 

Elizabeth Egleston-Hinman, Zeta, is the authoress of Naya. Published by 
Rand, McNally and Company. 

Margaret L'pcraft, Zeta, is the composer of several songs, published by 
G. Schirmer and Company, New York. 

Olga Brandenburg Currier. Zeta, composed Spring Quartette, songs, piano 
pieces, and cello pieces. 

Gladys Livingston (iraft", Zeta, former Chief Alumna The Lyre, con- 
tributed a brilliant series of sketches of Alpha Chi Omega artists to The 
Lyre; has written for Boston Transcript. X ew York Globe, and Des Moines 
Register and Leader. 

Margaret R. Lang has written numberless songs published by Arthur P. 
Schmidt. Boston. Leipzig. New York. Besides these she has written piano- 
forte solos. Part-songs, and Songs to order for G. Schirmer ; Messrs. Breit- 
kopf and Hartel ; John Church Co. ; C. C. Birchard and Co. ; Ginn and Co. : 
J. B. Millet : Silver. Burdett and Co., and others. 

Mrs. H. H. A. Beach has published songs and concertos. 

Maud Powell has written poems and violin pieces. 

Ellen Beach Yaw has written poems and songs. 

Virginia Fiske Green. Theta. has written poems, Alpha Chi Omega songs, 
and assisted in writing the beautiful ritual of Alpha Chi Omega. 

Susan Reed. Iota (Ph.D. Illinois), wrote Church and State in Massachu- 
setts, l6gi-iJ40. published in the LTniversity of Illmois Studies in the Social 
Sciences. (This monograph was reviewed in the American Historical Reviejv, 
January, 1916, and in the Xation. July 15. 1915.) She has published also an 
article, British Cartography of the Mississippi Valley in the Eighteenth 
Century, printed in the Mississippi J' alley Historical RevieK<, Septeml)er. 

May Allinson, Iota, is the author of the following works : Studies of the 
Health of Women Workers (ready for the press) ; Dress- ma king as a Trade 

Elizabeth Egleston-Hinmax, Zr.a 
Grand Secretary, 1898-1900. Author of Naya 

pRoMiNK.N 1 Members 

)3 ( 

jor Women, published by the Bureau of Labor Statistics. She was director in 
investigation and author in cooperation of the foHowing works : The Public 
Schools and Women in Office Service, published by Boston School Com- 
mittee : Women in the Hoot anil Shoe Industry of Massachusetts, published 
as a bulletin of U. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics; A Trade School for Girls, 
published by U. S. Bureau of Education; Industrial Efficiency of Girls 
Trained in Massachusetts Trade Schools, to be published as a bulletin of 
L'. S. Bureau of Labor Statistics. 

Inez Boyce, KLappa, is the authoress of The Relation of the Basis Diet to 
the Composition of Body Tissue as Affecting Arterio-Sclerosis, pulilished by 
Journal of Biological Chemistry. 

Marv Sayle. Kappa, wrote. The Reactions of Xecturus Maculosus to 
Stimuli Received Through the Skin, published by the Journal of Animal 
Behavior. (Harvard.) 

Several undergraduates have done 
original work of great artistic prom- 
ise : Katharine Kester of ( )micron ; 
Alice Blodgett of Theta ; and Doris 
AIcEntyre of Pi. author of the 
pageant When Love Took Up the 
Harp of Life. 

Zetha Hammer, Phi, '16, is at 
work in jounialism. 

Gretchen O'Donnell Starr, is 
author of Bibliography of the Geolo- 
gy and Geography of the State of 
Jl'ashington, pul)lished and distrib- 
uted by the State Geological Survey. 
Mrs. Starr is the only woman wdio has 
Avritten a Bulletin published by the 
State Geological Survey. Being the 
first bibliography written for ten 
years covering this subject, the Bul- 
letin has been in great demand by 
libraries and colleges. 

Numbers of the members of Alpha 
Chi Omega have won conspicuous suc- 
cesses musically. (For details of the 
work of many of them see The Lyre 

for April. 1913.) In the mention made above of Alpha Chi Gmegas on college 
faculties, and of writers, several musicians have been noted. Some of the 
others who have distinguished themselves in the musical world wt will men- 
tion, with regret that space cannot be given to relate the fascinating stories 
of their careers. 

Lucy Andrews Odell. Alplia. violinist, lecturer on art. translator of 
Armenian songs. 

DoKis E. McEmvke. /') 

\iithor of Greek Pageant, ll'lwii Lore look 
Up the Harp of Life 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraterxity 

Berta Miller Ruick, Alpha, soloist. 

Grace Brown, Beta, head of Piano Department in Michigan School for 
the Blind. 

Zilla Brigham Sand. Cleveland, organist and accompanist. 

Marie White Longman. Beta, contralto, Chicago. 

Kate Calkins Drake. Beta, concert singer, Texas. 

Elin Gustafson Turrentine. Beta, contralto, concertist. 

Eva Marzolf Tiney. Director of Music in Michigan Soldiers' Home, 
Grand Rapids. 

Alida Handy, Beta. Bay City, Michigan, organist and choir director. 

I5eri'a M]L[.eu Ruick, Alpha 

Delia Sprague, Beta. Kalamazoo, Michigan, contralto, soloist, and teacher. 

Zella Marshall, Gamma, Chicago, pianist. 

Marie White Clark, Gamma, Evanston. soprano. 

Mary Marshall and Julia Marshall. Gamma, pianist and violinist, respec- 

Myrta McKean Dennis, Gamma, pianist. 

Tina May Haynes, Gamma, organist and choir director. 

Vesta Lister, Gamma, soprano, song recitals. 

El Fleda Coleman Jackson, soloist, Oklahoma. 

Mabel Dunn Madson, teacher of music in Cleveland. 

Fay Barnaby Kent, Delta, organist and choirmaster of the church of 
the Ascension, Mt. Vernon, N. Y. 

P R( ) M 1 N E N T M E M U E RS 


Saka Fkancf.s Evans, Del/a 

Mrs. John Dick. Delta. 
Meadville, Pennsylvania, sopra- 
no soloist. 

Edith Wells Ely. Zeta. 
pianist in chamber concert work 
and s\mphony. 

Josephine Durrell. Zeta. 
Boston, violinist, organizer of 
Durrell String Quartette. 

Anne McLeary. Zeta. jjianist 
and organist. 

Helen Wegmann. Zeta. 
Portland. Oregon, violinist. 

Dicie Howell. Zeta. New 
York, soloist. 

(ieorge Thoensseii. Zeta. 
New York, soloist. 

Louise Daniell, Zeta. Hous 
ton. Texas, pianist. ac<'ompanist. 
soloist with orchestra. 

Alice Mustard Adams. Zeta. 
soloist. Seattle. 

Sara Frances Evans, Delta, contralto 
sdloist. Brooklyn, N. \'. 

May Thorpe drahani. Delta, chorus, 

Juvia (). Hull. Delta, chorus, vocal. 

Herlha McC'ord. Delta. Canton. Ohio, 
teaclier of voice. 

Charlotte Marhoffer (Iringer. Delta, 
[lianist and soloist. 

Aha Moyer Taylor, Delta, soprano 

Oertrude Ogden Fleming. Delta, so- 
prano soloist. 

Fern Pickard Stevens, Delta, vocal and 
piano teacher: accompanist. 

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Prominent Members 


Sara Helen Littlejohn, Zeta, 

Estelle M. Dunkle, Zeta, Bos- 
ton, organizer of Zeta Zeta Chap- 
ter; treasurer of Alumn;e Associa- 
tion ; pianist. 

Lillian Goulston McMasters, 
Zeta. pianist and teacher. Wmi 
Mrs. Jack Gardner Scholarship in 
Competition in 1903. 

Florence Larrabee, Zeta, New 
\'ork, concertist. 

Alice Reynolds Fischer. Theta. 
founder with her husband, Edgar 
S. Fischer, of Fischer School of 
Music, Walla Walla, Washington. 

Flora Withers, Iota, soprano 
soloist with orchestra in choral 
societies, teacher. 

Frances Waldo Fee, Lambda, 
teacher of piano in Seattle until 
her marriage to James Alger Fee. 

Xellaby Finnev, Mu, soprano 
soloist; won second place in Wales in Eisteddfod Contest. 

Genevieve Fodrea, Xi, violinist, Chicago. 

Clara Hill, Xi, Lincoln, N^ebraska, singer with Redpath-Horne 

Edith May Biddeau, Omicron, concert singer. 

Leila Nielsen, Pi, singer, California. 

Margaret McCulloch Lang, violinist, concertist, and preacher. 

Gertrude Guller, Upsilon, piano soloist and accompanist. 

Llora Withers, lola 

r Lvceum. 

The social workers in Alpha Chi Omega are: Ina Scherrebeck. Sigma. 
National Secretary Y. W. C. A.; Lora Hagler. Mu, Religious Work Direc- 
tory of Y. W. C. A.; Florence E. Cain, Alpha, who worked among mill 
girls in the mountains of the South ; Vera Bash, Delta, engaged in settlement 
work in Philadelphia : Mabel Keech, Beta, in settlement work in Philadel- 
phia; Betty Henley, Lambda, who was employed both in church and factory 
social work; Mary Vose, Gamma; May Allinson, Iota; Frances Kirkwood. 
Iota, did social service among the women of the mines of Birmingham; 
Alabama; Mildred Moody, Lambda, in charge of a branch of the work of New- 
York W. C. T. U., 1914-1916. and a national lecturer for W. C. T. I'.. 1916 ; 
Dorothy C. Thompson, Lambda, New York State organizer of Woman 
Suffrage, 1914-1916; Ethel J. McCoy, Lambda, vice-president of Sunday 
School work of the Southern Methodist Church in the state of Florida. 1913- 
1916. The work of most of these members has been described in detail in the 
issues of The Lyre during the past five years. 


Till: lIisix)Rv OF Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

IxA Sherrebeck, Sigf?ia; Lora, Mii ; Florence Cain, Alpha: Mildred Moodv, 

A resume of the undergraduate's distinctions epitomizes, in a way. her 
college career. College honors are significant — like college life, prophetic. 
The Fraternity is able, with some degree of fulness, to note the honors 
which come to active members ; would that alumna? might make possible a 
continuance of that knowledge. For the sake of reference, as well as to 
express appreciation of splendid college citizenship, the honors won by college 
members are here listed by chapters. 

Alpha Chapicr, Dc Pauw University 
Vera Cooper — Phi Beta Kappa, 1906. 
Edna Walters— President of Y. W. C. A., 1907. 
Maynie Walters — Vice-president Senior Class, 1910. 
Katherine Stanford — Vice-president Senior Class, 1905. 
Ava Guild — Student Volunteer, Vice-president, 1909. 
Harriet Lessig — Phi Beta Kappa, 1911. 

Florence Bell— Delta Mu Sigma (Honorary Musical), 1912-1913. 
Esther Marvin — Phi Beta Kappa, 1914; 

Tusitala (Honorarv Literary), 1914; 

Mirage Board, 1913; 

President Sodalitas Latina, 1914. 
Vera Conn — President Sodalitas Latina, 1914. 
Mary Robinson — Student Council, 1913. 
Bess Sanders — Mirage Board, 1915. 

President Panhellenic, 1915-1916; 

Vice-president History Club, 1915-1916; 

S. G. A. Executive Board, 1915-1916; 

Y. W. C. A. Sub-cabinet, 1915-1916; 

Student Council, 1915-1916. 

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344 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Margaret Robison — Mirage Board, 1915; 

Secretary Sodalitas Latina, 1915; 

Vice-president Senior Class, 1915-1916. 
Florence Bishop— Glee Club, 1914-1915. 
Ressie Jenkins — Duzer Du (dramatic), 1914-1916; 

Treasurer Duzer Du, 1916. 
Flossie Allen — Mirage Board, 1916; 

Y. W. C. A. Cabinet, 1913-1914; 

Student Council, 1914-1915; 

Glee Club, 1914-1915; 

Delta Mu Sigma, 1914-1916. 
Agnes Davis — Mirage Board, 1915; 

Orchestra, 1914-1915; 

Delta Mu Sigma, 1914-1915. 
Opal Goodrich— University Choir, 1913-1914. 
Emily Brewer— Duzer Du, 1914-1916. 
Evelyn Johns— Y. W. C. A. Cabinet, 1914-1915; 

Vice-president Suffrage League, 1914-1915. 
Icy Alice Frost — University Choir, 1913-1916; 

Student Council, 1914-1915; 

Glee Club, 1913-1914; 

Secretary S. G. A., 1915; 

President S. G. A., 1916; 

Mirage Board, 1916; 

Delta Mu Sigma, 1915-1916. 
Beatrice Herron — Student Council, 1915-1916; 

S. G. A. Executive Board, 1915-1916; 

Y. W. C. A. Sub-cabinet, 1915-1916; 

Mirage Board, 1916. 
Isabel Wineland— /?«/■/>' Staff, 1915 ; 

Glee Club, 1914; 

Y. W. C. A. Sub-cabinet, 1915-1916; 

Mirage Board, 1916. 
Nelda Weathers— Treasurer Y. W. C. A., 1916; 

President Civic League, 1916. 
Myrtle Strom— Orchestra, 1915-1916. 
Vivien Bard— Student Council, 1914-1915; 

Orchestra, 1915-1916; 

S. G. A. Executive Board, 1915-1916. 
Bernice Olcott — Orchestra, 1915-1916; 

Delta Mu Sigma, 1915-1916. 
Anne Rominger^Orchestra, 1915-1916. 
Enid Vandeveer— Glee Club, 1914. 
Marie Miller— Student Volunteer, 1915-1916; 

Prominent Members 345 

S. G. A. Executive Board, 1915-1916; 

President Women's Athletic Association, 1915-1916. 
Clara Sharp— /;<?// v Staff, 1916. 

Marguerite Varner — Secretary Student Council. 1916-1917. 
Charlotte Twineham — S. (J. A. Executive Board, 1916. 
Mary Winans — Phi Beta Kappa, 1916. 

Beta Chapter, Albioti College, Albion, Michigan 

Gertrude Babcock — V. W. C. A. President. 
Harriet Armstrong — V. W. C. A. President. 
Edna Newcomer — Class President; Student Senate, 1910-1911; Assistant 

Editor of Junior Annual; Y. W. C. A. Cabinet, 1910-1911. 
Ada Dickie — Class President ; Pleiad Staff. 
Jean MacDonald — Class President; Class Prophet. 1910. 
Aha Allen— Class President; Greek Prize, 1898; Pleiad Staff. 
Sue Graecen — Class President. 
Olah Hill— Class President. 
Edith Ketchum — Contributors' Club; Pleiad Staff; Tennis Champion; 

V. W. C. A. Cabinet. 1910-1911; Student Senate, 1910-1911. 
Florence Fall — Contributors' Club ; Secretary of Conservatory ; Class 

Prophet ; Tennis Champion. 
Margera Moore — Y. W. C. A. Cabinet. 1910-1911; Student Senate; Class 

President. 1910-1911. 
Nella Ramsdell — Senior Play. 
Ethel Lovell — Senior Play. 
Mary Perine — Tennis Champion. 
Harriet Love joy- — Pleiad Staff. 

Mildred Moore— Contributors' Clul). 1910-1911 : Student Senate. 1910-1911. 
Mabel Doty— Y. W. C. A. Cabinet, 1910-1911. 
Dana Randall— Student SeTiate, 1910-1911. 

Until 1907 Albion College had no honorary society nor honor roll. In 
that year Delta Eta Sigma, local honorary society, was established to which 
those who are elected to the honor roll belong. The honor roll consists of 
ten students chosen each year by the faculty for a high grade of work done 
in the literary department. Beta's members on it since 1907 have been: 
Yera Patterson. Frances Hickok. Glennie Weston. Esther Barney, Dorothy 

Gamma Chapter, Northwestern University 

Florence VLdiXxh— Syllabus Board, 1898. 

Mabel Siller — Syllabus Board. 1901; Secretary of Junior Class; Vice- 
president of Senior Class; Secretary-treasurer of Alumni Class. 

Myrtle Jensen — Syllabus Board, 1909; Sargent Oratorical Contest; Ambas- 
sador of Calethia Literary Society. 

Helen Hardie — Syllabus Board, 1909; Anonian Literar>- Society; Class 
Prophet, 1910. 

346 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Grace Fisher — Syl/abus Board ; President Freshman Class Music School. 
Alice Watson — Secretary Freshman Class Music School ; A Capella Choir, 

Jennie Fidlar — Treasurer Freshman Class Music School, 1908-1909. 
Hedwig Brenneman— 5.v//<7/;//.y Board, 1907-1908; A Capella Choir, 1907- 

Mae Smith— A Capella Choir, 1907-1909. 
Winifred Webster — Vice-president Junior Class Oratory School; Secretary 

and Treasurer Senior Class Oratory School ; Thalian Society. 
Jeanette Wilson — Editor-in-chief Oratory Syl/abus Board ; Thalian Society ; 

Eta Gamma Society ( Intersorority Oratory). 
Helen Baird— Syllabus Board, 1908-1909. 
Susan Sivright — Secretary Sophomore Class Music School, 1910-1911; 

Sophomore Committee for Torch Light Procession, 1911. 
Laura Turner — Syllabus Board, 1909-1910; Eta Gamma Society. 
Mabel Slane — Eta Gamma Society ; Thalian Society. 
Emily Upton — Eta Gamma Society; Thalian Play. 
Arminda Mowre — Eta Gamma Society; Syllabus Board, 1911-1912. 
Ruth Saucerman — Syllabus Board, 1910-1911 ; Calethia Literary Society. 
Lucile Morgan — Sergeant-at-arms Anonian Literary Society; Suffrage Play, 

1910; Junior Committee for Torch Light Procession, 1911. 
Esther Semans — Secretary Woman's League, 1909-1910; President Woman's 

League, 1910-1911 ; Second Cabinet V. W. C. A., 1909-1910; Class His- 
torian, 1911; Chairman Senior Social Committee, 1910-1911. 
Delia Anderson — ^A Capella Choir, 1911. 
Adeline Nelson — A Capella Choir, 1911. 
Elthea Snider — A Capella Choir; President Junior Class, 1917 (Music) ; 

Panhellenic Scholarship Banquet : V. W. C. A. Cabinet ; Laurean 

Literary Society. 
Phyllis Sayles — President Junior Class, 1916 (M^sic) ; Syllabus Board, 1918. 
Irma Brady — Secretary of Student Assembly. 
Catherine Macpherson — Hockey, Baseball, and Basketball Team; Syllabus 

Board, 1918. 

Delta Chapter, Allegheny College 
Jessie Merchant, Phi Beta Kappa, 1901. 
Clara Wheeling, Phi Beta Kappa, 1909; Y. W. C. A. Cabinet; Quill Club; 

Senior Six. 
Lucy Loane, Phi Beta Kappa ; Y. W. C. A. Cabinet ; Quill Club ; Classical 

' Club. 
June Shires— Y. W. C. A. Cabinet; Y. W. C. A. Secretary. 1910-1911. 
Mary Green— Scientific Club, 1909. 
Belle Layng — Senior Eight. 
Olga Henry — Vice-president, 1907-1908. 
Louise Chase— Junior Member, 1908-1909. 
Wilhelmina Anderson — Sophomore Member. 1909-1910. 
Belle Chase— Senior Eight, 1900. 
Olga Henry — Vice-president Student Government Board, 1907-1908. 



Anna Tarr, Delta 

Louise Chase — Junior Member Student Govemnient Hoard 1908-1909. 
Anna Tarr — Class Valedictorian, 1908- 

Lucy Loane — Secretary of Quill Club, 
Vice-president of Y. W. C. A. ; Vale- 
dictorian. 1910-1911. 
June Shires. Secretary of Y. W. C. A., 

Ruth Dorworth — President of Klee-o- 
Kleet ; Secretary of Quill Club, Assis- 
tant P^ditor of Kalihon : Vice-president 
of Girls' Athletic Association, 1911- 
June Shires — Vice-president of Student 

Government Board, 1911-1912. 
Irene Beatty— President of Student Gov- 
ernment Board ; Secretary of Klee-o- 
Kleet; Class Day Speaker, 1912-1913. 
Margaret Seitz — Junior Member Student 
Government Board ; Manager of Girls' 
Glee Club. 1912-1913. 
Lillian Xelson — Treasurer Girls' Athletic Association. 1912-1913. 
Margaret Seitz — President of Student Government Board; Secretary of Klee- 

o-Kleet, 1913-1914. 
Helen Thomas — Class Day Speaker. 1913-1914. 

.Althea Hunt — Phi Beta Kappa; Class Day 

Speaker. 1913-1914. 
Janet Ellis— Leader of Girls' (ilee Club. 1914- 

Rose Piatt — President of Klee-o-Kleet ; Kal- 

droii Editorial Board. 1914-1915. 
Edith Askev — Vice-president of Student Gov- 
ernment Board, 1914-1915. 
I.ucile Lippitt — Secretary of Quill Club : Presi- 
dent of La Petit Salon: Editor of the 
Literary Monthly. 1914-1915. 
(ieorgia Roberts — Campus Editorial Board, 

Marguerite Beatty — President of the Girls' 
.\thletic Association ; Vice-president of 
Klee-o-Kleet, 1915-1916. 
Ruth Allgood — Afanager of Girls' Glee Club, 

Althea Hunt, Delta, 1914 
•!> B K, Allegheny College 

Dortha Augove — Treasurer of La Petit Salon 
Government Board, 1915-1916. 

Vice-president of Student 


The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Georgia Carr — Campus Editorial Board, 1915-1916. 

Hildur Johnson — Junior Member of Student (iovernment Board, 1915-1916. 

Mildred Hazen — Phi Beta Kappa; President of La Petit Salon: Vice-presi- 
dent of Y. W. C. A.: Basketball Coach, 1916-1917. 

Martha Nebinger — Vice-president of Student Government Board ; Vice- 
president of Girls' Athletic Association, 1916-1917; Treasurer Y. W. 
C. A. 

Elizabeth Hendershot — Secretary of Tingley Biological Club, 1916-1917. 

Agnes Van Hoesen — Vice-president of Klee-o-Kleet, 1916-1917. 

Anna Clemson Ray, Delia 

Elizabeth Garver, Delia 
Director of Public Playgrounds, Meadville, Pa. 

Epsilon Chapter, University of Soi/t/ier/i California 

A steady improvement may be noted in Epsilon's growth and develop- 
ment since the time of its reawakening in 1905. From existence for mere 
enjoyment of each other's society, the chapter has growm to stand for high 
scholarship, honest Panhellenic dealings, and campus activities. Altruistic 
motives have also been visible. The chapter has endeavored to cooperate 
in any way possible which might be for the betterment and progress of the 
institution. Since competitive scholarship has been published Alpha Chi 
Omega has several times stood in the first rank of U. S. C. fraternities. 

The College Panhellenic at U. S. C. was organized through the efforts 
of this chapter, and its progress has been largelv due to Epsilon. 


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350 The History ok Ali'ha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Epsiloii was first represented in the Voung Woman's Christian Association 
in 1908. In that year Olive Berryman was appointed cabinet member and 
served until 1910. Phoebe Joslin served as secretary during 1909 and 1910. 
Other cabinet members have been: Mabel Farrington, 1910-1911; Alice 
Crabb, 1910-1911; Edna Sedweek. 1914-1915. Ruth Arnold served as 
secretary during 1911-1912. In 1916 Edna Sedweek was elected president. 

Adelaide Trowbridge was elected honorary member of Clionian Literary 

Anne Shepard, president of Athena Literary Society, 1909. 

During 1910 and 1911 Olive Berryman served as secretary of the 
Women's League, and Anne Shepard served as chairman of the Social Com- 
mittee. Mildred Finch served on the Social Committee during 1910-1911. 
In the same year Anna St. John served on the Advisory Board. In 1912 
the name of the organization was changed to Associated Women Students. 
Mildred Finch was elected president of the new organization in 1913. Dur- 
ing 1914-1915 Doris Coomber served as social chairman. In 1915-1916 
Isabel Long filled this office. 

There were no honor societies in Liberal Arts until 1912. At that time 
Torch and Tassel and Lance and Lute were organized. Torch and Tassel 
is a women's honorary society. Only women who have been prominent in 
college activities, and are of splendid character and achievement are eligible. 

Lance and Lute is an honorary dramatic society. The membership is 
drawn from the junior play cast. Only those who have shown marked ability 
are eligible. Mildred Finch was instrumental in establishing both of these 
societies and was a charter member of each. Other members of Torch and 
Tassel have been Lsabel Long. 1916. and Edna Sedweek. 1916. Anna St. 
John accepted an invitation to Lance and Lute in 1912. Isabel Long in 1915. 

In 1914 several faculty men. members of Phi Beta Kappa who were 
desirous of promoting higher standards of scholarship, organized the scholar- 
ship society of the University of Southern California. Lucy Adams was 
elected to this society in the same vear. 

Epsilon Chapter has been active in the musical life of the university. 
In 1906-1907 Hattie Holmes was a member of the Girls' Glee Club. Shortly 
afterwards the organization was di.ssolved and no active work was done in 
this line until in 1912, when Elva Murray was instrumental in forming a 
new Girls' Glee Club. Ruth Eveland. Anna Logan, and Mildred Tousley 
were active in the organization during the first year of its existence. Edna 
Cummins served as accompanist from 1912 to 1914. In 1914 the Tone 
Weavers' Club was organized at the College of Music. Jane Stanlev served 
as secretary and accompanist during 1914-1915. In 1915 the Women's Quar- 
tette of the College of Music was organized. Elva Murray was chosen as one 
of its members. 

For many years Epsilon Chapter has had leading parts in the dramatics. 
In junior play casts. Epsilon has been represented by Olive Berryman in 
1909, Anna St. John, in 1911 ; Mildred Finch, in 1912;'lsabel Long, in 1915. 

Prominent Members 351 

in Shakespeare Club plays. ICdith Heanie in 1910 took part in Chiiins. Mil- 
dred Tousley took leading parts in Twelfth Night in 1913, and in Much Ado 
About Nothing in 1914. In the sophomore play cast of 1912, Doris Coom- 
her and Marion (Ireene took prominent parts. Zemula Pope took the leading 
part in the freshman play in 1916. 

Epsilon has been prominent in journalism at the University of Southern 
California. On El Rodeo staff Epsilon has been represented by Katherine 
Asher, 1910; Anne Shepard. 1910; Olive Berryman. 1910-1911; Marion 
Greene. 1913-1914; Ruth l^veland. 1915-1916. On the Daily staff Clara 
Stephenson served as editor in 1912-1913. Other members of the staff were 
Elva Murray. 1913-1914; Joanna Nixon. 1915-1916; Albra Smart. 1916; 
Evelvn Burgess. 1915-1916. ( )live La Clair served on Xha Sophcuiicrc Courier 
staff 1909-1910. Anne Shepard was a member of the .luui<>r Courier stafT 

In 1914-1915 Jane Stanley was elected president of the Student Body of 
the College of Music. During 1915-1916 Ruth Eveland served as secretary 
of the Associated Students of the University. In 1915 the Big Sister move- 
ment of the university was started, having for its purpose the promotion 
of better feeling of friendliness and helpfulness between the upperclass girls 
and their freshman sisters. Isabel Long was appointed Chief Big Sister 
for 1916-1917. The President's Council was organized in 1916. It is com- 
posed of the most efficient and most representative college men and women 
of the university. Its purpose is to provide for the general welfare of the 
Student Body. Edna Sedweek was one of the first members to be appointed 
to this Council. 

The Modern Language clubs in the university are very active, wide-awake 
organizations. Epsilon has been well represented in all of these associations. 
In 1913 Ruth Flveland was elected to the office of vice-president of the 
German Club. Lucv Adams was also a member in 1913. 'Lhe French Club 
was organized in 1913. Ruth Eveland was elected to membersliij) in 1913. 
Laura Long accepted an invitation in 1915. Ruth Home is akso a member. 
During 1914-1915 Margaret Snowden was a member of the Spanish Club. 
Albra Smart was elected to membership in 1916. 

The women have always taken an active part in athletics, and Epsilon 
has been well represented. In 1908 Katherine .\sher was captain of the 
Women's Basketball Team. Anne Shepard was a member of the Basketball 
Team in 1909, and was elected captain in 1910. In 1913 the Girls' Walking 
Club was organized and Elva Murray was elected secretary. Marion (ireene 
acted as president of the club in 1913-1914. The Girls' Hockey Team was 
organized in 1912. Epsilon was represented in 1912 by Loretta Murphy; 
in 1913 by Bess Murphy and Doris Coomber. Marion (ireene was a member 
of the Tennis Club in 1913. and its vice-president in 1914-1915. Laura Long 
held this office in 1915-1916. 

Theta Chapter, C'niiersity of Michigan 

Katherine Anderson — Wyvern (Honorary Junior Society). 
Pearl Bowman — Omega Phi. 

352 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Alice Blodgett — Manager Women's League Pageant, 1915 and 1916; 

Ruth Butler— Glee Club, Stylus. 
Helen Bush — Glee Club. 
Irene Connell — Deutscher Verein. 
Eliza Cramner — Glee Club, Junior Girls' Play. 
Marie Dole — President Symphonic League, 1916-1917. 
Laura Feige — Wyvern, Mortar Board (Senior Honorary Society) ; Glee 

Club; Deutscher Verein; President of Y. W. C. A., 1914-1915. 
Vera Fox — -Deutscher Verein. 
Mandelle Germonde — Comedy Club. 
Persis M. Goeschel— Phi Beta Kappa. 1908. 
Mildred Guilford — Comedy Club, Cercle Fran^ais. 
Jane Harris — Phi Beta Kappa; Stylus; Deutscher Verein; Authoress of 

Junior Girls' Play, 1910. 
Beatrice Hopkins — Wyvern. 
Frances Hickok — Comedy Club; Omega Phi; Delta Sigma Rho : U. of M. 

delegates at Interstate Oratorical Contest at Iowa, ^vinning second 

Mary Hyde — Wyvern. 
Ruth King — Wyvern. 
Fleeta Lamb — Deutscher Verein. 
Edith Leonard — Junior Play. 

Irene McCormick — Cercle Frangais; Dramatic Club. 
Marian McPherson — Glee Club; Wyvern; Junior Play; Class Prophetess, 

1915; Chairman Senior Girls' Play. 
Hazel McCauley — Comedy Club; Vice-president Symphonic League. 
Adaline McAllister — Glee Club ; Cercle Fran9ais. 
Emily Northrup — Freshman Spread Committee; Junior Girls' Play. 
Jessie Patterson — Deutscher Verein; Cercle Fran9ais. 
Helen Robson — Glee Club. 
Margaret Reynolds — Comedy Club ; Freshman Spread Committee ; Deutscher 

Verein ; Wyvern ; Chairman Junior Girls' Play ; President of Women's 

League, 1916-1917. 
Josephine Randall — Freshman Spread Committee ; Deutscher Verein ; 

Wyvern; Mortar Board; Glee Club; Junior Play; President Pan- 

hellenic; President Y. W. C. A., 1916-1917. 
Lois Spraker — Y. W. C. A. cabinet. 
Maude E. Staiger— il//V/?/>7// Daily editorial staff, 1908-1909; Gargoyle 

editorial staff, 1909-1910. 
Beatrice Stanton — Phi Beta Kappa ; Deutscher Verein. 
Florence Scott — Omega Phi. 

Elmo Smith — President of Symphonic League, 1914-1915. 
Anne Thomas — Deutscher Verein. 
Louise Van Voorhis — Junior Play; Comedy Club; Stylus; Michigan Daily 

editorial staff, 1906-1909; Gargoyle editorial staff, 1909-1910. 

pRoMiNKNT Members 353 

Sarah Winter — Deutschcr Verein. 

Adele Westbrook — Vice-president Sophomore Class ; Chairman Freshman 

Spread Committee; Comedy Club; Junior Play Committee. 
Barbara Wild — Cercle Fran(;ais ; Freshman Spread Committee. 
Gladys Whelan — Wyvern ; Omega Phi ; Masques ; Comedy Club ; Glee Club ; 

Junior Play; V. W. C. A. Cabinet; Secretary of Junior Class, 1915-1916. 

Iota Chapter, Unirersity of Illinois 
Imo. Baker— Phi Beta Kappa, 1906; President of Y. W. C. A., 1904. 
Mary Allison — Phi Beta Kappa, 1908; Fellowship at Columbia University. 
Ruth Buffum— Phi Beta Kappa, 1909. 
Susan Reed — Phi Beta Kappa. 
Bess Rose — Senior Memorial Committee, 1910. 
Frances Kirkwood — Phi Beta Kappa, 1912. 
Elizabeth M. Dunn— Phi Beta Kappa. 1915. 
Ethel Todd— Secretary Y. W. C. A., 1914. 
Frances Marks — Phi Delta Psi (Honorary Senior, Scribblers'' Club. Woman's 

Society), 1915. 
Gretchen Gooch — ^Phi Delta Psi, 1915; Secretary Senior Class, 1916. 
Mary Ann Boyd— Phi Delta Psi, 1915. 
Ada Joseph — Mu Kappa Alpha, 1914. 
Florence Lindahl — President Sophomore lllini. 1917. 
Maude Marks — Mask and Bauble (Dramatic). 1914. 
Otela Knox — Mask and Bauble, 1911. 
Marjorie June — Secretary Senior Class. 1915. 

Kappa Chapter, Unirersity of W'iseonsin 
Fay Vaughan — Vice-president of Junior Class ; Leading part in The Road 

to Yesterday ; Red Domino; Senior Plav Committee; Prize for literary 

work on Badger stafif. 
Alma Slater — Editor-in-chief of Coed Sphinx: Theta Sigma Phi Honorary 

Journalistic Fraternity; Prize for literary work on Badger staff; Prize 

for Highest Score in Bowling. 
Edna Mowre — Staff of the Coed Sphinx: Edwin Booth Play. 
Margaret H'Doubler — Senior Play; Vice-president Sophomore Class: Bas- 
ketball; President Intersorority Bowling League; W. A. A. 
Gladys Morrell— Hockey 2. 3, 4 ; Basketball 2 ami 3. 
Flora Knox — French Play. 
Irma Hellberg — Junior Play; German Play; Executive Committee of Ger- 

manistische Gesellschaft. 
Winifred Webster — Edwin Booth Dramatic Society, in Play; Reader for 

L'niversity Extension Department: Reader for l^and and Orchestra 

May Jenkins — Senior Play: Badger Board. 
Marguerite Bower — Junior Play. 
Hazelle Listebarger — Girls' Glee Club. 


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Promi.nkn'i Mk.mhkrs 355 

Ann Kieckhefer — Theta vSigma Phi Journalism Fraternity; President. Secre- 
tary and 'I'reasurer of Wisconsin Panhellenic Association ; Senior Class 
Committee; Sophomore Bowling Team; W. A. A.; Junior Bowling 
and Basketball Teams; Swimming Honor; Junior Hockey Team; Coed 
Sphinx Board; Reception Committee for all-university Mixer; Chair- 
man of Reception Committee for Panhellenic Dance ; Student Council 
to Dean of Women; President Intersorority Bowling; Treasurer of 
Theta Sigma Phi. 

Bessie Rood — Glee Club 1 and 2 ; Red Domino Dramatic Clul) ; Red Domino 
Plays ; Vice-president Sophomore Class ; S. G. A. Board ; Treasurer 
S. G. A.; Judiciary Committee S. G. A.; Junior Play; Badger Board; 
Keystone; Board of Trustees of Junior Class; Mortar Board; Chairman 
of V. W. C. A. Music Committee; Edwin Booth and Red Domino Play. 

Ruth Morris — Bowling Team 1 and 3, Swimming Honors; Baseball, 1, 2. 
and 3 ; W. A. A. ; W-Sweater ; Basketball 2. 3. and 4 ; Hockey 2, 3. 4. 5 : 
W. A. A. Executive Board ; Badger Board ; Senior Entertainment Com- 
mittee ; Mortar Board ; Cap and Gown Quartet. 

Lilah Webster — (lirls' Glee Club; Theta Sigma Phi; Red Domino; Sopho- 
more Banquet Committee ; Edwin Booth Red Domino Play. 

Charlotte Crawford — Girls' Glee Club. 

Helen Murray — Social Committee Y. W. C. A. 

Mary Sayle — Junior Play; University Exposition Committee; Fellowship in 
Zoology; Graduate School Committee. 

Elda Riggert — Junior Play and Committee for Junior Play. 

Ella Jones — Phi Beta Kappa; S. G. A. Board; Senior Dance Committee. 

Kadelia Jevne — Girls' Glee Club. 

Hilda Kieckhefer — Red Domino. 

Mildred Caswell — Basketball Team 1. 3, and 4; Tennis Team 1 ; Freshman 
Swimming Team; Sophomore Hockey; Edwin Booth Play; Red Domi- 
no; Junior Plav Committee; Chairman of Publicity — Woman's Voca- 
tional Conference; W. A. A.; Junior Dance Committee; Union Vodvil ; 
Swimming Assistant; Senior Bowling Team; Varsity Bowling Team; 
Coed Cardinal : Coed Sphinx: Barnard Magazine ; Red Domino Play, 
1914; Senior Play; Senior Ivy-Ode Orator. 

Ruth McKennan — -Red Domino ; Sophomore Dance Committee ; Union Vod- 

Inez Boyce — Euthenics Clul). 

Isabel Grell — Freshman Hockey Team ; Basketball and Baseball 1 ; W. A. A. 

Esther Wessinger — Freshman Track. 

Nina Westigard — Indoor and ( )utdo()r Basketball Teams. 

Dorothy Findorff — Freshman and Sophomore Mixer Committees. 

Sidney Oehler — Class Traditions Committee; W. A. A.; Baseball Team; 
Bowling Team 1. 4; Swimming Honor; Red Domino; Glee Club: 
Castalia Literary Society; Sophomore Interclass Sports Committee; 
Theta Sigma Phi ; Hockey Team 2 ; V. W. C. A. Vice-president and 
Membership Committee; Vice-president Junior Class; S. G. A. Secre 

356 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

tary; Editor of the Woman's Number of the JJ'isroiisin Magazine; 
Mortar Board; Chairman Woman's Home-coming; Y. W. C. A. Nomi- 
nating Committee. 

Rosamund Crosby — Sophomore Swimming Team. 

Olive Morris — Part in Two Gentlemen of Verona. 

Floy Humiston — Baccalaureate Chorus ; Choral Union. 

Esther Joy Lawrence — S. G. A. Board. 

Nell Myers — Junior Mixer Committee. 

Louise Hudson — Circulating Committee for the Coed Cardinal. 

Marguerite Black — Choral Union. 

Beatrice Humiston — Red Domino ; Edwin Booth Red Domino Play ; Union 
Vodvil ; Sophomore Committee. 

Myra Harker — Choral Union Girls' Glee Club. 

Ruth Zillman — Freshman Basketball Team. 

Doris Rix — Freshman Basketball Squad. 

Ida May Rush — Edwin Booth Play ; Red Domino ; Sophomore Banquet 
Committee ; Junior Play ; Edwin Booth Red Domino Play ; Treasurer 
Red Domino. 

Lambda Chapter, Syracuse University, Syracuse, Neiu York 

Nellie R. Minott — Phi Beta Kappa, 1908; Eta Pi Upsilon (Senior Society), 

Olive Morris — College Annual: 1917 Onondagan Board; Executive Com- 
mittee English Club, 1907 ; Boar's Head Dramatic Society, 1906-1908. 
Ina Weyrauch — College Magazine ; Assistant Editor of Syracusan, 1909. 
Helen Cunningham — Treasurer Y. W. C. A., 1908-1909; Women's League 

Proctor, 1908; Class Executive Committee, 1906; English Club; 

Teacher of Bible Class, 1909; Class Basketball Team, 1905-1909; 

Territorial Conference Y. W. C. A. ; Silver Bay Conference, 1908 ; Eta 

Pi Upsilon (Senior Society), 1909. 
Ethel McCoy — Iota Tau (Sophomore Society), 1909; Territorial Conference 
Y. W. C. A., 1909; Delegate to International Student Volunteer Con- 
vention, 1910; Silver Bay Conference, 1908-1910; Chairman Missionary 
Committee Y. W. C. A., 1910-1911. 
Jessie Lansing — Eta Pi Upsilon (Senior Society), 1907-1908. 
Stella Crowell— Extension Committee of Y. W. C. A., 1908-1909; Executive 

Committee of Geology Club, 1908; Secretary-treasurer, 1909. 
Ruth Harlow— Intercollegiate Committee Y. W. C. A., 1909-1910; Eta Pi 

Upsilon (Senior Society), 1909. 
Myra Jones— Intercollegiate Committee Y. W. C. A., 1909-1910; Glee Club, 

Grace Young — Membership Committee Y. W. C. A., 1909-1910; Silver Bay 

Conference, 1909; Eta Pi Upsilon (Senior Society), 1910. 
Mary-Emma Griffith— Bible Study Committee Y. W. C. A., 1909-1910; 

Women's League Proctor, 1909; Class Basketball Squad; Silver Bay 

Conference, 1908; Iota Tau (Sophomore Society), 1908. 

Prominent Members 357 

Mildred Moody— Bible Study ( "onimittef, 1909-1910; Teacher of Bible 
Study Class, 1909; Teacher of Mission Study Class, 1910. 

Flora Kaufhold— Finance Committee of Y. W. C. A., 1909-1910 ; Silver Bay 
Conference, 1909; Second Honor in German Department, 1910. 

Millie Stebbins — Eta Pi Upsilon (Senior Society), 1911; Finance Committee 
Y. W. C. A., 1909-1910. 

Ruth Hutchins — Eta Pi Upsilon (Senior Society), 1911 ; Chairman Religious 
Meetings ■Committee Y. W. C. A., 1910-1911. 

Jane Wood — Winner of Third Prize in Women's League Song Contest, 1910. 

Mary Shafer — Women's League Proctor, 1910. 

Harriet Moore — Philosophical Club. 

Margaret Ellenberger— Class Basketball Team", 1910; Glee Club, 1910; 
Tennis Champion, Junior Class, 1910. 

Martha Lee — Silver Bay Conference, 1908. 

Jessie Lansing — Eta Pi Upsilon (Senior Society), 1908. 

Margaret Nau — Iota Tau (Sophomore Society), 1910; Glee Club, 1908. 

Louise Jewell — Iota Tau (Sophomore Society), 1911. 

Imo Toms — Boar's Head Dramatic Society, 1909-1910. 

Bessie Jones — Boar's Head Dramatic Society, 1911; Eta Pi Upsilon. 

Elizabeth PTlenberger— Iota Tau (Sophomore Society), 1911 ; Tennis Cham- 
pion, Sophomore Class, 1911; Women's League Board, 1913; Senior 
Class Tennis Champion; Tennis Championship of University, 1913. 

Greta Gyer— Glee Club, 1910-1911; Treasurer, 1910-1911; Silver Bay Con- 
ference, 1910; Y. W. C. A. Cabinet; Eta Pi Upsilon (Senior Society), 

Edna Langford— Glee Club, 1911. 

Norma Van Surdam — Glee Club, 1911; Pi Lambda Sigma (Honorary 
Library Fraternity), 1909. 

Margery Weyrauch— Class Basketball Team, 1911-1912-1913-1914; Iota 
Tau (Sophomore Society), 1911; Y. W. C. A. Cabinet Committee, 
1911-1912; Treasurer Women's Athletic Governing Board, 1913-1914; 
Captain Senior Basketball, 1914; Cup-winner at Indoor Track Meet, 
1913; Medal Winner at Outdoor Track Meet, 1913. 

Alice King — Pi Lambda Sigma (Library Fraternity), 1911 ; Graduated with 
Honor from Library School. 

Bernice Taylor— Small Cabinet Y. W. C. A., 1913; Women's Debate Club, 
1911 ; Women's League Board, 1913. 

Ruth Deavor — Sul)-chairman Membership Committee Y. W. C. A., 1911. 

Emily Hess — President of (ierman Club, 1914. 

Ruth Hoople— Silver Bay Conference. 1911-1912-1913: Delegate to Student 
Volunteer Convention at Cornell, 1913; Delegate to Quadrennial Student 
Volunteer Convention at Kansas City, 1914. 

Alice Smith — Intercollegiate Committee Y. W. C. A., 1913 ; Kappa Pi Sigma. 

Marion Angel— Class Basketball Team, 1912-1913-1914; Silver Bay Con- 
ference, 1913; Glee Club, 1912 ; Small Cabinet Y. W. C. A., 1915 ; Eta 
Pi Upsilon (Senior Society), 1915; Delegate to Y. W. C. A. State 
Convention held at Buffalo, 1915. 

358 Thk HisroKN of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Natalie Field — Kxtcutive Committee of Senior Class, 1915. 

Rhea Mills — Large Cabinet Women's League. 

Dora Ruland — Eta Pi Upsilon (Senior Society), 1915; Large Cabinet Y. W. 
C. A., 1915; Silver Bay Conference, 1912; Treasurer Women's League, 
1914; Tennis Representative, 1913; Basketball Representative, 1914; 
Captain Sophomore Basketball Team, 1912; Sophomore Executive Com- 
mittee, 1912; Track Representative, 1915; Tennis Championship, 1912; 
Cup-winner Women's Athletic Contest, 1915; Freshman Basketball 
Team, 1911. 

Laura Spooner — University Chorus, 1911-1912; Executive Committee 
Classical Club, 1913. \ 

Ethel Mead— Glee Club, 1911-1912-1913; Boar's Head Dramatic Society, 
1913; Zeta Phi Eta (Oratorical Fraternity), 1912-1913-1914; Iota Tau 
(Sophomore Society), 1912. 

Agnes Allchin — Tennis Championship of University Women, 1915-1916; 
Tennis Championship of Class, 1913-1914-1915-1916; Glee Club, 1914; 
Eta Pi Upsilon (Senior Society), 1915. 

Dorothy Oakley — Phi Beta Kappa, 1916; Eta Pi Upsilon (Senior Society), 
1915; Kappa Pi Sigma (Honorary Pedagogical Fraternity), 1915; 
Assistant Editor of The Orange (daily paper) ; May Queen, 1916. 

Beatrice Oakley — Large Cabinet Y. W. C. A.; Delegate to Silver Bay, 1914. 

Gertrude Liedtke — Iota Tau (Sophomore Society), 1913; Track Repre- 
sentative on Women's Athletic Governing Board, 1914. 

Beulah Mider — Class Executive Committee, 1913-1914; Basketball Sc]uad, 

Pauline Griffith — Vice-president Consumers' League, 1915; Pi Lambda 
Sigma- (Library Fraternity), 1913. 

Hulda Liljestrand — University Chorus, 1915-1916. 

Dorothy Thompson — Kappa Pi Sigma (Honorary Pedagogical Fraternity), 
1913-1914; Delegate to Student Volunteer Convention, 1913; Delegate 
to Silver Bay, 1913. 

Helen J. Arnold — University Chorus, 1914-1915. 

Ruby Bentley— Y. W. C. A. Committee, 1914-1915. 

Ruth Collins— Glee Club, 1915-1916. 

Helen Weyrauch — University Chorus, 1914-1915; Composed Junior Class 
Song, 1915. 

Mildred Potter — University Chorus, 1914-1915-1916; Freshman Basketball 
Squad, 1914; Large Board of Women's League, 1915-1916: Senior 
Basketball Squad, 1916. 

Lucretia Flansburgh — ^lota Tau (Sophomore Society), 1914; Class Execu- 
tive Committee, 1913; Large Cabinet Y. W. C. A., 1916. 

Marion Duxbury — Junior Class Basketball Squad ; Track Representative, 

Emma J. Axon — Iota Tau (Sophomore Society), 1915. 

Elma Nau — University Chorus, 1914-1915; Pi Lambda Sigma (Honorary 
Library Fraternity), 1914-1915-1916. 

PROMIXKN I Mf.mbkrs 359 

Etta Smith — Iota Tau (Sophomore Society), 1915; Circle Chairman of 

Freshman Class, 1914. 
Irene Schuyler — Sophomore ()ratorical Contest. 1916; Oriini^e Reporter, 

1915-1916; Iota Alpha Mu (Junior Society). 1916. 
Josephine Meek — Iota AljjJia Mu (Junior Society), 1915; Eta Pi Upsilon 

(Senior Society), 1916; \'ice-president of Women's League, 1916; 

Small Board Women's League, 1915-1916; Mandolin Clul). 1915-1916. 
Isobel Dunkle — President Fine Arts "Modern Art Club." 
Clara Louise Appleby — University Chorus, 1914-1915-1916. 
Anita Wright — Boar's Head Dramatic Society. 1916; Member of Maskers 

(Honorary Dramatic Society). 1916. 
Ethel Hoffman — Member of Illustrators' Club. 
Marion Stupp — Captain Class Basketball Team, 1916-1917; Delegate to 

Student Volunteer Convention, 1916; Sophomore Track Manager. 1916. 
Marion Schwartzman — University Chorus, 1916. 
Edith Nash — Iota Tau (Sophomore Society). 1916. 
Favthe Santway — Class Basketball Scjuad. 1916. 

Mu Chapter. Si)npsoii C(>//i\i,u\ Indianola, Iowa 

Nell E. Harris — President of Simpson Music Club, two years ; Secretary of 
Simpson Conservatory. 1916. 

Carrie MacFadon— Librarian, 1907-1908; Cantata Soloist. 1910; Secretary 
of Y. W. C. A., 1906; President of Y. W. C. A., 1907; Delegate to 
Nashville at National Convention of Student Volunteers ; Delegate to 
Geneva at Y. W. C. A. Convention ; President of Zetalethean Literary 

Lena Dalrymple — Zetalethean Secretary. 1905-1906; Vice-president Zeta- 
lethean 1908; Class Secretary. 1906-1907; Assistant in German. 1907- 
1908; A.M. (Iowa). 

Mayme Silliman — Secretary of Y. W. C. A. ; Vice-president of Y. W. C. A. ; 
Member of Champion Basketball Team ; Delegate to Y. W. C. A. 
Summer Conference; Member of Student Council. 1907-1908: Consul 
and Treasurer of Zetalethean Literary Society. 

Ada Schimelfenig — Class Secretary, 1907. 

Mvrtle Bussey — Simpson Concert Company. 1910; Soloist in May Festivals 
of Glee Club ; Accompanist for Elijah and Redemption. 

Florence A. Armstrong — Champion Basketball Team. 1905-1906; President 
of Zetalethean Literary Society. 1905; Zetalethean Play; Delegate to 
Geneva twice; Treasurer of Y. W. C. A.. 1905-1906; Intersociety 
Debate; President Radclitle College Poetry Club. 1916; A.M. (Rad- 

Ethel MacFadon — (Uee Club. 1909-191 1 ; Soloist in Creation, 1906. Messiah, 
1907, St. Paul, 1908, S-uuin and Skyland. 1909, Aida, 1910 ; Junior Class 
Play, 1909; Secretary V. W. C. A.. 1909; Zenith Board. 1910. 

Margaret Schimelfenig — Vice-president \'. W. C. A., 1909 ; Delegate to 
Geneva; Annual College Honors. 1908-1909. 

360 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Fernandez A. Ogg — Assistant in English. 1907-08; Roman Oratorical Con- 
test, 1908. 

Lois Smith — Assistant in German, 1904-1905; Senior Play Committee. 

Carrie McBride — Secretary of Glee Club, 1910; Instructor in Voice, 1910- 

Ethel Mott — Champion Basketball Team Captain, 1907. 

Mabel Fett — Conservatory Accompanist, 1907; College Council, 1907; Presi- 
dent of Championship Glee Club. 1911-1912; Piano Soloist of Glee 

Mildred MacFadon — Secretary of Class, 1907-1908; Zetalethean Consul, 
1910-1911; Zetalethean Critic. 1911-1912; Zetalethean Membership 
Committee; Zenith Board, 1910; "Queen of the Lists." 1910; "Portia" 
in Senior Play, 1912; "Beatrice" in Senior Play, 1912; Secretary Glee 
Club, 1910-1911; Secretary Oratorio Society, 1909. 

Myrtle Schimelfenig— Y. W. C. A. Cabinet, 1909-1910; Student Council. 
1909-1910: Zenith Board. 1911: Annual Scholarship Honors, 1908- 

Grace Ogg — College Debating Team : Annual Scholarship Honors, 1908- 

Besse Snell — Student Council, 1909. 

Leila Watson — Vice-president of Alpian. 1909. 

Carrie McBride — Instructor in Voice. 1910-1911: President of Glee Club; 
Glee Club Manager. 

Georgia Watson — Secretary of Student Council. 1908-1909; Freshman Play; 
Alpian Play ; Glee Club. 

Grace Dre\v — Contralto Soloist of Glee Club. 

Orace Thomas— Zt';»Y/z Board, 1910-1911. 

Ina Morley — Class Secretary. 1910-1911; Freshman Play: Sophomore Play; 
"Elaine" in Launeelot and Loraine Pageant ; Glee Club ; Student Coun- 
cil, 1910-1911; Part in two Zetalethean Literary Society Musical 
Comedies; President of Zetalethean, 1914; Senior Basketball, 1914- 
1915; Secretary of Forensic League. 1914-1915; Y. W. C. A. Cabinet, 
1914-1915; Junior Class Play, 1914. 

Edith Berdina Hughes — Secretary Glee Club. 1910-1911 ; Solo part in Can- 
tata Ruth; Glee Club Contest. 1911 ; Assistant Dean of Women, 1910- 

Kathryn Vollmar — Vice-president Glee Club. 1910-1911; Accompanist for 
Glee Club, 1911-1912; Student Council. 1910-1912; President of Music 
Club, 1910-1912. 

Mary Shaw — Alpian Literary Society Debate Team, 1910; Freshman Debate 
Team, 1910; Annual Honors. 1910-1911, 1911-1912; Alpian Play, 
1911; Editor of College Annual. 1912-1913; Y. W. C. A. Cabinet, 1912- 
1913-1914; Alpian Debate Team. 1912, 1913; Alpian President, 1914; 
College Council, 1912-1913. 

Lida Tennant — Y. W. C. A. Cabinet, 1910-1911; Buxton Oratorical Prize; 
Zetalethean Critic, 1911-1912 ; Simpsonian Staff, 191 1-1912 ; Y. W. C. A. 

"1 ^fS "' 

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362 TiiK History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

President, 1914-1915: Intercollegiate Debate, 1910-1911, 1913-1914, 

1914-1915; Zetalethean President, 1915; Annual and Departmental 
Honors, 1914-1915. 
Grace Vollmar— Y. W. C. A. Vice-president, 1913-1914; Treasurer of Zeta- 
lethean, 1913-1914; President of Mecca\vees (Girls' Athletic Society), 

Anna Egli— President of Glee Club, 1913-1914; Junior Play. 
Grace Van Vlack— Y. W. C. A. Cabinet, 1912-1913-1914; Intersociety 

Debate (Zetalethean), 1911-1912-1913; Intercollegiate Debate, 1914. 
Alberta Fox — Associate Editor of Zenith Board, 1913-1914; President of 
Alpian Literary Society; Athletic "S" in Basketball, 1915; President of 

Classical Seminar; Vice-president of Meccawees, 1914-1915 ; In Classical 

Play, The Captives. 
Emma Harned — Junior Play; Alpian Play, 1909, 1912; Annual Honors, 

Florence Ros.s — Junior Play, 1913; SuperYisor Public School Music, 1914- 

Mary Bradford — Leading Lady in Dramatic Club ; Sophomore Play ; Secre- 
tary of Scientific Association. 
Irene HarYey— Ze«/M Board, 1912-1913; Y. W. C. A. Cabinet, 1910-1911- 

1912-1913; Won West Oratorical Contest, 1912; Intersociety (Alpian) 

Oratorical Contest, 1912; Intersociety Debate, 1913; Intercollegiate 

Debate, 1914; Simpsonian Staff, 1913-1914. 
Eleanor Jones — Intersociety (Zetalethean) Debate, 1914; Honors in Ethics, 

1914-1915; Athletic "S" in basketball, 1913-1914; 1914-1915. 
Nina King— College Zenith Board, 1913-1914; Class Basketball. 
Bernice Haseltine— English Seminar, 1912-1914; College Annual Board, 

1912-1913; Y. W. C. A. Cabinet, 1911-1914; Alpian President, 1913; 

Intercollegiate Debate, 1914. 
Regna King — Intercollegiate Debate, 1913-1914; Class Basketball, 1913- 

1915; Intersociety Debate, 1913-1914; Senior Play, 1916; President of 

Forensic League, 1915-1916. 
Margaret Wright— Student Council, 1912-1913; Annual Honors, 1913-1914; 

Class Basketball, 1913-1914. 
Edna Jepsen — Junior Play ; Freshman Play. 
Julia Watson — Class basketball. 
Vera Schofield — Chorister of Alpian. 
Norma Agan — Senior Play. 
Mildred Mott— Reader for Glee Club, 1913-1915 ; First Prize in "Glee Club 

Write-up" Contest; Girls' Simpsonian Staff; Secretary of Y. W. C. A., 

1913-1914; Zenith Board, 1916. 
Leah Brown — Student Council. 
Elizabeth King — Intersociety debate, 1915. 
Vera L. Merritt — Fraternity Editor of Zenith. 1915-1916. 
Phyllis Marie Phillips — Treasurer of Simpson Orchestra. "Flora" in Greek 

Pageant; First Violinist in College Orchestra, 1915-1916. 

Prominent Members 363 

Ethfcl Lyman — First Violinist in College Orchestra, 1914-1915. 

Elsie Boss — V. W. C. A. Missionary Committee. 

Mildr.ed Keniicdv— Class Editor of Zeuith. 1915-1916. 

Ethel Shaw— V.' W. C. A. President, 1916-1917; Student Council, 1915- 

1916; Forensic League, 1915-1916. 
Florence Currier — Manager of Y. W. C. A. Geneva Club, 1916-1917; 

Woman's "S" Club, 1915-1916. 
Minnie Murphy— Intersociety (Alpian) Debate, 1914-1915-1916. 
Nev^a Hardy — Oratorical Contest (Alpian), 1915. 
Grace Dryden — Accompanist for Operas, 1915-1916. 
Fannie Pickard — President Alpian Literary Society, 1915; Simpsonian Staff, 

1915-1916; Editor Girls' Simpsonian, 1916; Senior Class Play, 1916; 

Class Basketball, 1912-1913-1914-1915. 
Ruth Jackson— Student Council. 1915-1916; Woman's "S" Club, 1915; 

Sophomore Basketball Team, 1915-1916; College Honors. 1916. 
Nellaby Finney — Leading part in Pirates of Penzanse. 

O micron Chapter, Baker University. Baldwin. Kansas 

Edith Biddeau — Student Council ; Bohemian Girl. 
Mrs. Clyde Coffman — Junior Play. 

Blanche Davenport Johnson — President Y. W. C. A. ; Y. W. C. A. Cabinet. 

Ivy Riley Farrar — College Delegate to International Convention of Student 

Volunteer Association, Nashville, Tennessee; President V. \V. C. A.; 

Y. W. C. A. Cabinet. 
Zula Green — Junior Play. 
Ethel Kregar — Student Council ; In operas. 

Laura Nicholson McWilliams — President of Clio Literary Society. 
Evelyn (iould Odom — President of Clio Literary Society. 
Oma Smith Cooke — Junior Play. 

Cora Ault — Y. W. C. A. Cabinet; President of Clio; Honorary Fraternity. 
P^thel Ault — President of Clio; Junior Play. 
Beatrice Fast Ransom — Student Council ; Honorary Fraternity. 
Ethel Meyers — Student Council. 
Jennie Osborne — President of Clio. 
Ina Steward — Treasurer of \ . \\ . C. A. ; Secretary of V. W. C. A. ; President 

of Clio. 
Anna Church Colley — President of Clio; Secretary of Y. W. C. A. 
Mary Anderson — President of Y. W. C. A. 
Verna Oeker — First Place in Neff Prize. 
Katharine Kester — Manager of Clio play. 
Helen Anderson — First Place in Neff Prize Contest ; Greek Play ; Y. W. C. A. 

Cabinet ; Honorary Fraternity. 
Ruth Benham— President of W. S. ( ). A. : Junior Play; Y. W. C. .\. Cabinet. 
Ruth Roseberry — Y. W. C. A. Cabinet, 
firace Fitzgerald — Junior Play. 
Gertrude Hedge — Junior Play. 

364 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Mary Fay Brown — Y. W. C. A. Cabinet; Junior Play. • 

Hazel McClure— Y. W. C. A. Cabinet. 

Lyda Houston — Student Council. 

Flora Kraft— Y. W. C. A. Cabinet. 

Geneva Benjamin — Yice-president Y. W. C. A. : President Clio. 

Vera Payton — President of Clio; President of W. O. A.; President French 

Mary Smith— President of Clio ; Y. W. C. A. Cabinet. 
Opal Williams — First Place in Nefif Prize; Student Council. 

Pi Chapter, University of California. Berkeley, California 

Dorothy Burdorf — Phi Beta Kappa. 

Elsie Williams — President Women's Orchestra, 1910-1911. 

Fern Enos — Prytanean Honor Society. 1911; Senior Advisory Committee; 
Women's Day Pelican Assistant. 

Margeret Creighton — President Women's Orchestra, 1911-1912. 

Gertrude Rice — Sophomore Election Committee for Blue and Gold Staff. 

Gladys Bartlett — Treble Clef ; Senior Advisory Committee. 

Ethel Jordan — Business Manager Woman's Day Occident ; President Senior 
Women; Prytanean Honor Society; Chairman Senior Women's Hall; 
President University Branch of Equal Suffrage League. 

Mildred Jordan — Assistant Woman's Day Occident; Prytanean Honor Soci- 
ety; Senior Advisory Committee; Blue and Gold Staff, 1912. 

Katherine Asher (Epsilon) — Prytanean Honor Society; Captain of Basket- 
ball Team, 1910-1911; Senior Advisory Committee. 

Fay Frisbie — Assistant Woman's Day Occident; Associate Editor Blue a?id 
Gold, 1913; Junior-Senior Advisory Committee; Treble Clef; Prytanean 
Honor Society; Welfare Committee; Chief Proctor of Senior Women's 
Hall ; Beta Kappa Alpha Honor Society. 

Kathleen Kerr — Senior Advisory Committee. 

Elsie Stoddard — Senior Advisory Committee. 

Minerva Osborn — Blue and Gold Managerial Staff, 1912; Captain Senior 
Advisory Committee ; Student Welfare Committee. 

Frances Jacklin — Varsity Tennis Team, 1912, 1913; Captain Varsity 
Basketball Team, 1912, 1913; Class Champion in Tennis. 1912. 

Leigh Stafford — Prytanean Honor Society ; Mask and Dagger Dramatic 
Society ; English Club ; Vice-president Associated Women Students, 
1910-1911; Senior Advisory Board. 1910-1911; Leading Role, CEdipus 
Tyrranus, Mary Stuart, Winter's Tale, Junior Farce ; Chairman Senior 
Building Committee. 
Florence Cook— Treble Clef, 1912. 
Hazel Pfitzer — Junior-senior Advisory Committee, 1913-1915; Chairman 

Associated Women Students' Election Board. 
Leila Nielson— Treble Clef, 1912 ; Mandolin and Guitar Club, 1912. 
Lucile Batdorf — Prytanean Honor Society, 1915; Chairman Welfare Com- 
mittee, 1915. 

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366 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Eugenia McCabe — Captain Senior Advisory Committee, 1915. 

Portia Collom— Treble Clef, 1912. 

Frieda Hofmann — Treble Clef, 1913. 

Leona Young — Alchemia (Chemistry Honor Society), 1912; Junior Women's 

Tennis Champion, 1913-1914; Intersorority Tennis Doubles Champion, 

1914: V. W. C. A. Cabinet, 1914-1915. 
Fern Wildey— Treble Clef, 1913. 
Ruth Burr^Alchemia (Chemistry Honor Society), 1913; Y. W. C. A. 

Cabinet, 1913-1914; Senior Advisory Committee, 1914-1915. 
Mildred Lantz — Senior Advisory Committee, 1914-1915; Y. W. C. A. Social 

Ruth Crandall— Treble Clef, 1913. 
Eve McCabe — Alchemia (Chemistry Honorary Society), 1914; Secretary 

Associated Women Students, 1915. 
Bertha Galloway — Mandolin Club ; Vice-president Associated Women 

Students, 1916-1917; Role "Calpurnia" in Julius Ccesar, English Club 

Play, 1916. 
Louise Keen — Social Chairman Y. W. C. A., 1915-1916; Treasurer Y. W. 

C. A., 1916-1917 ; Captain Senior Advisory Committee, 1916; Prytanean 

Honor Society, 1916. 
Hazel Murray— Treble Clef, 1915. 
Katherine Crossley — French Honor Society; Charter Member of "Cercle 

Esther Kittredge — Alchemia (Chemistry Honor Society), 1914; Woman 

Editor Daily Calif ornian . 1915; Istic Club (Women's Journalistic 

Society) . 
Doris McEntyre — Leading Roles Julius Ca-sar. Parthenia, 1916; Cast Junior 

Farce ; Junior Advisory Committee ; Captain Senior Advisory Committee. 
Penelope McEntyre — Associated Women Students' Committee for Revision of 

Constitution ; Junior Advisory Committee. 
Marjorie Atsatt — Prytanean Honor Society, 1915; President Y. W. C. A., 

1915-1916; Welfare Committee, 1915-1916. 
Mary Lee— (Epsilon) Manager of Y. W. C. A. Paper, 1916-1917. 
Gladys Windham — Associate Editor Daily Calif ornian, 1915-1916; Woman 

News Editor, 1916-1917; Istic Club (Women's Journalistic Society), 

Edith Meyer — Women's Varsity Crew, 1916-1917. 
Lodema Shurtleff — Senior Advisory Committee. 

Rho Chapter. University of ]J'asliiiii;toii . Seattle. Washington 

Vera Cogswell Rogers— Deutscher Verein, 1907-1910; Y. W. C. A. Social 

Committee. 1909. ' 

Ethel Jones — Basketball Team, 1910. 
Emily' Rogers— Y. W. C. A. Social Committee, 1909-1910-1911; Chairman 

of Women's League Executive Committee. 1910-1911. 

Prominent Members 367 

Edith Greenberg — Amateur Night Cast, 1909 ; V. W. C. A. Finance Com- 
mittee, 1910; Junior Representative Women's League Executive Com- 
mittee, 1910. 

Gretchen O'Donnell Starr — Captain Champion Crew, 1909-1910; Country- 
Fair Committee, 1909-1910; Coach of Women's Rowing, 1910; Cham- 
pion Hockey Team, 1910-1911-1912; Champion Basketball Team, 
1910-1912; Associate Editor of Tycc, 1911; Vice-president Women's 
League, 1911; Junior Day Committee. 1911; President Spanish Club, 
1911 ; Associate EcHtor Junior Daily. 1910; Mocking Bird Cast, 1912; 
Women's "W." 

Edith Hindman— Secretary Pharmacy Club. 1908-1909; V. W. C. A. Social 
Committee, 1908-1909; Sigma Xi ; Iota Sigma Pi. 

Theodora Maltbie Collins— Band, 1909; Mozart Club, 1909; Orchestra, 
1910; Associate Editor of Tyee, 1910-1911. 

Marjorie Harkins — Champion Hockey Team. 1910-1911; Champion Crew, 
1910-1911 ; Champion Basketball Team. 1910-1911-1912; Mikado Cast; 
Women's "W." 

Jennie Rogers Cole — Pharmacy Club; Campus Day Committee. 1910; 
Y. W. C. A. Social Committee, 1910. 

Gertrude Niedergesaess Bryce — Phi Beta Kappa. 

Bess Storch— Champion Crew, 1909-1910-1911. 

Hazel Learned Sherrick — Captain of Crew, 1910; Sophomore Representative 
of Women's League, 1910-1911; Hockey Team. 1910-1911; Captain 
Basketball Team, 1910; Basketball Team. 1910-1911; Secretary 
Women's Athletic Association. 1911; Junior Representative Board of 
Control, 1910-1911 ; Women's "W" ; President Junior Girls' Club; Tolo 

Minnie McGinnis Shinn— Crew. 1908-1909. 

Linna Paulev Smith — V. W\ C. A. Membership Committee, 1911; Hockey 
Team, 1911. 

Agnes Hobi— Dramatic Club; Hockey Team. 1911-1912-1913; Basketball 
Team, 1911-1913; Captain Junior Hockey Team. 1913; Chairman 
Dramatic Club Play Committee; Lottery Man Cast; Dawn of Tomorrow 
Cast ; Red Domino ; Dramatic Club Skit ; Melting Pot Cast. 

Alice Anderson — University Daily Staff. 1911 ; President Junior Girls' Club; 
Senior Representative on Women's League Executive Board ; Tolo Club. 

Edna Pusey — College Musical Recital ; Y. W. C. A. Finance Committee ; 
Mocking Bird Cast; Chairman V. W. C. A. Student Volunteer Con- 
vention, 1914. 

Myrtle Harrison — Cajjtain Sophomore Hockey Team. 1912-1913; Basket- 
ball Team. 1912 ; Iota Sigma Pi ; Secretary Iota Sigma Pi. 

Dora Fredson— Baseball Team, 1913; Basketball Team, 1914-1915. 

Grace Anderson— Baseball Team, 1912-1913; Hockey Team, 1912-1913; 
Women's Athletic Association. 

Donna Brainerd — Y. W^ C. A. Finance Committee. 

May Ottesen — Vice-president Pharmacy Club. 1914. 

368 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Inez Crippen — Y. W. C. A. Social Service Committee ; Y. W. C. A. Vesper 

Service Committee. 1916; Chairman Y. W. C. A. Restroom Committee. 
May Burke— Basketball Team, 1912-1913. 
Laura Olschewsky White — Hockey Team, 1912; Basketball Team, 1912- 

Alma Kittilsby — Crew, 1912-1913; University Daily Staff; Princess Bonnie 

Arlie Anderson — Y. W. C. A. Visitation Committee, 1915-1916; President 

Tolo Club. 
Maida Crippen — Y. W. C. A. Finance Committee ; President English Club, 

1916; Y. W. C. A. Social Committee, 1915. 
Dea Imel — Crew, 1915. 
Charlotte Wright— Basketball Team. 1913-1914-1915; Y. W. C. A. Finance 

Committee, 1914; Crew, 1916. 
Gudrun Kittilsby— Basketball Team, 1913-1914-1915; Varsity Basketball 

Team, 1913-1914. 
Margaret Wilson — Y. W. C. A. Missionary Committee, 1914. 
Winifred Larrison — University Daily Staff, 1915-1916; Secretary English 

Club, 1915. 
Helen Stewart— English Club Play; Mask and Quill; Baseball Team, 1916. 
Goldine Umbarger — Hockey Team, 1915. 

Sigma Chapter, University of Iowa, loiva City, loiva 

Marie Bateman — Staff and Circle, 1912 (Honorary Society for Senior Girls) ; 

Readers' Club; Y. W. C. A. Cabinet. 
Myrtle Moore — President Girls' Glee Club; Choral Society; Musical Editor, 

Hawkeye; Soloist at University Band Concert, 1911. 
Grace Overholt — Erodelphian Literary Society. 
Bertha Reichert — President Hesperian Literary Society; Greater University 

Committee; Readers' Club; Y. W. C. A. Cabinet. 
Ina Scherrebeck— Phi Beta Kappa, 1909; Y. W. C. A. Cabinet; General 

Secretary of Y. W. C. A., 1910-1912. 
Nina Shaffer — President Iowa City Library Club; Hesperian Literary 

Society; Cosmopolitan Club. 
Mae Williamson— Y. W. C. A. Cabinet; Dramatic Club, 1911-1912. 
Margaret Kane — Secretary of Polygon, 1912. 
Alice Rogers — President of Staff and Circle, 1913; President of Hesperia, 

1913; Y. W. C. A. Cabinet, 1912. 
Florence Cook — Senior Class Play, 1912. 
May MacElroy — University orchestra. 

Lena Dalrymple (Mu) — Accompanist Glee Club, 1911-1912. 
Bess Martin — Phi Beta Kappa; President Erodelphian Literary Society; 

Y. W. C. A. Cabinet; Staff and Circle, 1913. 
Janette Royal — Staff and Circle, 1915; Erodelphian President, 1915; Y. W. 

C. A. Cabinet. 
Agnes Flannagan — Graduate recital, 1912. 

Prominent Members 


Ruth Gundcrson — President of Staff and Circle, 1914; Vice-president of 
Erodelphian Society, 1913; V. W. C. A. Cabinet, 1913; President of 
Women's League, 1913-1914. 

Hazelle Listebarger — Girls' Minstrel; Creek Play. 

Naomi Gunderson — President of Staff and Circle, 1915; President of Pan- 
hellenic, 1915; Polygon Literary Society. 

Edna Stark — Pandean Players (Dramatic Club). 

Pauline Peters— Greek Play, 1913. 

Ruth Daniel — Pandean Players. 

Mav Brinkman — Pandean Plavers. 

Nina Shaffer, Sigma 
University Librarian 

Mabel Elwood — Marshall Law (Honorary Law Society). 

Mary Gates — President of (ieneva Club. 

Dorothea Paule— Staff and Circle. 1916-1917; Y. W. C. A. Cabinet, 1916. 

Katharine Dignan — Staff" and Circle, 1916-1917; President of Hesperian, 

Mary Stuart Isett — (ireek Play. 1915. 
Erla Messerli — President Hesperian. 1915; Greek Play. 
Florence Messerli — Polygon. 
Gladys Kirk — University Players; Secretary of Octave Thanet Literary 

Marie Hauck — Polygon. 
Grace Roberts — President of Towa Women's Athletic Association. 

370 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

Tail Chapter. Bn-nau College. Gahics7'illc, Georgia 

Montine Alford— (Jrand C'ouiuil, 1911-1912. 

Willie Hamilton— (Jrancl Council, 1911-1912. 

Iler King— President Cushman Club, 1912-1913; Grand Council, 1911-1913. 

Faye McGee— Grand Council. 1911-1913. 

Constance Miller — Vice-president Northern Club. 1910; Vice-president 
Brenau Choral Society, 1910. 

Opal Overpack — Grand Council, 1910-1912; Executive Committee of 
Orpheus Club, 1911-1912. 

Emma Partlow- — (irand Council, 1909-1911. 

lona Peterman — Executive Committee Orpheus. 1910-1913; Class Editor, 
1911-1913; Grand Council, 1911-1913; Assistant Piano Teacher, 1913- 
1914; Piano Teacher and Assistant Pipe-organ Teacher, 1914-1915, 
1916-1917; Pipe Director, 1915-1916; Member of Mu Epsilon, 1915- 

Jurelle Little — President Sophomore Class, 1912; Member of Y. W. C. A. 
Cabinet, 1913-1915: Business Manager of Annual, 1912-1913; Business 
Manager of Journal, 1912-1913; Executive Committee Grand Council, 
1913-1915; President Junior Class, 1913-1914; Assistant Editor of 
Journal, 1913-1914; President Phi Beta Sigma, 1914-1915; President 
Panhellenic, 1914-1915; Editor-in-chief of Annual, 1914-1915. 

Lucy Basset — Vice-president (irand Council, 1913 ; Member of Executive 
Committee of Grand Council, 1915 ; Exchange Editor of Journal, 1914- 

Laura Harris — Grand Council, 1912-1915 ; Member of Executive Committee 
of Grand Council, 1914; Vice-president Y. W. C. A., 1913-1914; Sec- 
retary Athletic Association, 1912-1913; President Literary Societv, 1913- 
1914; Editor-in-chief of Journal, 1913-1914; Vice-president of Phi 
Beta Sigma, 1913-1914; President Philomathesian Society, 1914-1915. 

Mae Saunders— Grand Council, 1914-1915. 

Harriett Watson — Business Manager Annual, 1914-1915 ; President Domestic 
Science Department, 1914-1915. 

Lee Cheney — Member of the Y. W. C. A. Cabinet, 1915-1916; Literary 
Editor of Annual, 1915-1916; President Honor Board, 1915-1916; 
Grand Council, 1915-1917; Elected Phi Beta Sigina, 1916; President 
Y. W. C. A., 1916-1917 ; Board of Managers of Alchemist. 1915-1916; 
Executive Committee of Grand Council, 1916-1917. 

Rubye McCjaughey — Grand Council, 1915-1917; Treasurer Honor Board, 
1915; President Grand Council, 1915-1916; Assistant Piano Teacher, 
1915; Board of Managers of Alchemist. 1915-1916; President of Mu 
Epsilon, 1916. 

Evelyn Du Bose — Exchange Editor of Journal. 1915-1916; Vice-president 
of Senior Class, 1916-1917. 

Marion Pruitt — Grand Council, 1915-1916; Treasurer and Secretary of 
Senior Class, 1915-1916. 

Eunice Sheffield— Art Editor of Annual, 1914-1915. 

Prominent Members 371 

Vida Wheeler — Treasurer of Y. W. C. A., 1915; President (jf Freshman 
Class, 1914-1915. 

Nina Beck— Grand Council, 1914-1915. 

Klizabeth Adams — Vice-president of Freshman Class, 1915-1916; Grand 
Council, 1916-1917 ; Reporter on Alchemist Stafif, 1916-1917; Editor of 
Sophomore Class, 1916-1917. 

Susie Bethune — Member of Mu Epsilon, 1915-1917. 

Margaret Brister — Grand Council, 1915-1917. 

Virginia Brister — Editor of Freshman Class, 1915-1916; President of Sopho- 
more Class, 1916-1917. 

Louise Carson — Grand Council. 1915-1917 ; Member of Executive Committee 
of Students' Union, 1916-1917; Editor of Alchemist, 1916-1917; Mem- 
ber of Executive Committee of Grand Council, 1916-1917; President 
of Honor Board, 1916-1917. 

Lucile Hattaway — President Junior Class, 1915-1916; President Senior 
Class, 1916-1917. 

Velma Smith — Member of Mu Epsilon. 

Louise White — President Town Girls' Association, 1915-1916; Member of 
Phi Beta Sigma, 1915-1917. 

Christine Edwards — Assistant Editor of the Journal, 1916-1917 : Member of 
Zeta Phi Eta, 1916; Secretary of Honor Board, 1916-1917. 

Upsilon Chapter, James Millikin University, Decatur, Illinois 

Kappa Society is the High Honor Society in James Millikin University, 

and only those having an average of 92 or over are eligible. Upsilon's list 

of Kappas includes: Flora E. Ross, Effie Morgan, Laura Kriege, Ada Ross, 

and Fay Fisher. 

Fay Lynton Fisher — Editor-in-chief of 1914 Millidek; Winner of Milli- 
kin Club Oratorical Medal and Illinois Equal Suffrage Association 
Oratorical Prize, 1913. 

Laura Olivia Kriege — President Y. W. C. A., 1912, 1913 ; President Deutscher 
Verein, 1910-1911; Editor-in-chief 1913 Millidek. 

Marv Pinnell — Girls' Glee Club, 1911-1913; President Domestic Science 
Club, 1915. 

Lelia Haggett— President Art Club, 1914-1915. 

Rowena Bell Hudson — Vice-president Junior Class, 1913-1914; Winner 
Intersociety Contest Story, 1913; Class Ivy Orator, 1916. 

Ada Ross — President Pi Mu Theta, 1915-1916; Member Student Council. 

Martha Redmon — Winner Freshman-Sophomore Contest Reading, 1914. 

Louise Parks — President Domestic Economy Club, 1916; A Winner of 
Girls' Interclass Tennis Doubles, 1916. 

Frieda Smith — President Sophomore Class, 1916 ; Member of Student Council. 

Mary Redmon — Dandelion Queen. 

372 The History of Alpha Chi (^mega Fraternity 

Phi Chapter. Uni'i'crsity of Kansas. Lawrence . Kansas 

Elizabeth Flecson — Scholarship University of Illinois, 1914-1915; Athletic 
Board, 1913; Y. W. C. A. Cabinet, 1912; W. S. G. A., 1912; Sigma 
Xi, 1915. 

Claribel Lupton— Torch, 1912-1913; President W. S. G. A., 1912-1913. 

Rachel Baumgartner — Scholarship University of Illinois, 1914-1915-1916. 

Ottie McNeal— Quill Club. 1912, Theta Sigma Phi, 1912. 

Winona McCoskrie— Secretary Law Class, 1910-1911-1912-1913; Jurispru- 
dence Club, 1912-1913; May Queen, 1912-1913. 

Marie Nelson— Quill Club, 1913. 

Helen Stout— Glee Club, 1913. 

Leonora Jennings — Y. W. C. A. Cabinet. 

Zetha Hammer — Editor Daily Kansan, 1916; Theta Sigma Phi. 

Josephine Stimpson — Vice-president Fine Arts, 1915. 

Mary Nicholson— Y. W. C. A. Cabinet, 1915-1916. 

Maureen McKernan — Theta Sigma Phi; Kansas Board; Secretary W. S. 
G. A., 1916; Leading role senior play, 1916; Dramatic Club. 1916; 
Quill Club, 1916. ' 

Agnes Hertzler — Y. W. C. A. Cabinet, 1916; Big Sister chairman, 1916. 

Ethel Ulrich — Torch, 1914-1915; Pi Gamma Sigma. 

Elizabeth Ulrich — Vice-president W. S. G. A., 1916; Chairman Commence- 
ment Committee, 1916. 

Gertrude LaCoss — On Cast Chimes of Norniandx . 1915. 

Isabel Searles— Delta Phi Delta, 1915-1916. 

Josephine Jaqua — Phi Beta Kappa, 1915; Pi Gamma Sigma Torch. 1915; 
Y. W. C. A. Cabinet, 1913-1914-1915. 

Salome Langmade — In Cast Chimes of Normandy ; College Play. 1915. 

Jane Weaver— Quill Club, 1915; Dramatic Club, 1915. 

Bess Murphy — Dramatic Club, 1915 ; Quill Club. 

Margaret McElvain — Theta Sigma Phi, 1915-1916; Treasurer Senior Class, 

Alice Bowlby— Theta Sigma Phi, 1915-1916; Kansan Board, 1916. 

Lena Pittenger — In Cast, Chimes of Normandy. 

Chi Chapter, Oregon Agricultural College, Corvallis, Oregon 

Grace Kinnison — Assistant Editor Junior Annual, 1915-1916; College 
reporter, 1914-1915; Honorable mention for scholarship, 1914-1915; 
Secretary Student Body, 1916-1917; Assistant Manager Co-ed Barome- 
ter, 1915-1916; Society Editor Barometer, 1916-1917. 

Florence Berchtold — Advisory Board, 1915-1916; Class Secretary. 1916- 
1917 ; Mask and Daggar. 

Mildred Crout — Vice-president Home Economics Club, 1915-1916: Junior 
Representative, Executive Board Women's League, 1916-1917. 

Faith Hanthorn — Y. W. C. A. Cal)inet, 1916-1917; Barometer Reporter, 
Women's Athletic Association; Barometer Staff, 1917. 

Eleanor Hall — Madrigal. 

Prominent Memhkrs 373 

Lynette Kerr — Madrigal. 

Everette Kingsley — Carnival Queen attendant, 1916. 

Hazel Seeley — President College Orchestra, 1916. 

Grace Woodworth — Madrigal; President Sophomore Class, 1914-1915; 
President Woman's Athletic Association, 1916-1917; Honorable Men- 
tion, Scholarship, 1914-1915. 

Gladys Woodworth — Junior Play Cast, 1916. 

Psi C'/i(j/>f(-r, Unhu-rsity of Oklahoma, \oniiaii. Oklahiniia 

Ruth Snell — (ilee Club; Philogean ; Knchilados. 

Dorys Hollenbeck — Theta Sigma Phi; Editor of the University Magazine; 
Secretary Grub Street Club ; Philogean. 

Lucy Clark — Woman's Council, 1915-1916. 

Minnaletha Jones — University Operatic Quartet ; Leading part in // 

Gladys Hollenbeck — President ^^'oman's Athletic Club; Winner of Univer- 
sity Beauty Contest. 

Jessie Stiles — Secretary Senior Law Class, 1916. 

Carrie \\'ill Colfman — Harmony Medal, 1915; President Eurodelphian. 
1915; Woman's Council, 1916-1917; Vice-president V. W. C. A., 1916- 

Omega Chapter, Washington State College, Pullman, Washington 

Jennie McCormick — Y. W. C. A. Vice-president, 1915; Gamma Tau 

(Woman's Honorary fraternity), 1915; Woman's League Council; 

Woman's Athletic Association honor, 1914. 
Irene VzXmQX— Chinook staff, 1915; Y. W. C. A. Cabinet, 1916; Board of 

Control of W. A. A., 1916; Woman's League Council. 1916; President 

Panhellenic, 1916. 
Hellen Holroyd— Y. W. C. A. Cabinet, 1916. 

Dorothy Alvord — Polyhemian Sextette. 1914; Double Quartette. 1916. 
Beulah Kelley — College Quintette; College Orchestra. 
Elizabeth Henry, 1919 — Woman's Athletic Association Board of Control, 

1916; Woman's Athletic Association honor. 1915; Y. W. C. A. Reporter 

to Evergreen. 



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The history of a fraternity during the jiast thirty years is a cross section 
of the American development of the education of women. When Alpha Chi 
Omega was founded, the education of girls had become important ; but the 
experimental stage was not yet passed. "One of the most interesting inquiries 
that has arisen," writes the American Commission of Education in 1884. 
" * * is that of the effect of college education upon their health !" 
Bryn Mawr College was but founded in 1885; Harvard had issued one certi- 
ficate of final examination to a woman; and the University of Illinois was 
just changing its name from the Illinois Industrial University. One of the 
degrees conferred upon women was M.P.L.. Mistress of Polite Literature. 
At the present time there are six hundred colleges in the United States, sixty 
per cent of which are coeducational. Women have won so many Phi Beta 
Kappa keys in competition with men students that the administration of the 
Fraternity is alarmed lest it become a woman's order. The higher education 
of women is now of equal imptirtance and (]uality with the higher education 
of men. 

The college lias become, in the meanwhile, a force in the artistic develop- 
ment of the nation. In 1916 America is no longer the most public schooled 
and the least cultivated country in the world. Our musicians, both composers 
and interpreters, are now to be reckoned with in the art of music. The same 
is true in painting, in the writing of history, philosophy, science, drama, 
poetry, and the short story. Sculpture has made remarkal)le progress during 
the past decade. And the life intellectual has been far more nearlv approached 
by the nation during the life of Alpha Chi Omega. 

At the conclusion of a book of this kind it is only logical to utter the 
query, "What of it?" It impresses the writer that Alpha Chi Omega, as a 
part of the great fraternity movement, has had a real share in the educational 
and artistic progress of the country. About 500,000 students have become 
members of fraternities, including leaders in every art and in everv profession. 
More than 3,000 chapters have been established. About $14,000,000 worth 
of property in real estate is held by these organizations. Their total wealth 
is probably $20,000,000. Through their discipline of these 500,000 influen- 
tial persons in matters of intellectual, moral, and social standards, the frater- 
nities have contributed, beyond words, to the cultivation and charm of the 
educated class. In the opinion of many thoughtful people the fraternity 
doubles the value of a college course to the student because of this discipline. 
The women's fraternities are working on a system of scholarships which will 
be equivalent to an educational endowment of $14,000,000. Two great state 
universities, Wisconsin and Kansas, have extension courses in their Fine Arts 
Colleges as well as in their Liberal .\rts and Science Departments. Arthur 
Nevin, of the latter institution, is professor (^f music, lecturer, and choral 

376 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

director to as many communities as he can reach in his week's work. The 
same artistic education is giYen to the citizens of Wisconsin. And the deYelop- 
ment of Fine Arts Schools in the universities is, artistically speaking, one of 
the most hopeful of the characteristics of the period of our study. 

A perusal of this volume shows, it seems, that Alpha Chi Omega has 
made, in the lives of her own membership and through the influence of their 
practice, a concrete, tangible contribution to the aesthetic culture of the 
nation. From a person not a member of Alpha Chi Omega a comment was 
made (to another person not an Alpha Chi Omega) which aptly phrases this 
same opinion. "The one thing that has impressed me about Alpha Chi 
Omega," runs the unknown commentator, "is that the common interest in 
music makes for * * a unity of feeling that other organizations 
seem to lack. I have noticed this at my own universitv, and have been inter- 
ested in seeing that the musical talent in Alpha Chi Omega is made a force 
in the community. Their singers give up time to church work, and alwavs 
seem willing to help in any place at any time. When their members go out 
of college they invariably become connected with those organizations which 
make for a better community." 

This unifying force is perceived clearly bv the undergraduates themselves, 
and, it goes without saying, by the alumnae. It is the enthusiasm for art and 
something of an understanding of its place in life which the founders hoped 
to advance and which the traditions of the Fraternity have perpetuated. It 
is a fragrance left by the eight college generations of Alpha Chis. And it is 
a phase of the contribution of the Fraternity to the nation that Alpha Chi 
Omega has assisted, in some degree, in nullifying Matthew Arnold's state- 
ment, of the eighties, that in the United States "the born lover of ideas and of 
light could not but feel that the sky over his head is of brass and iron." 

The unifying force of their ideals has partly eliminated, in the members 
of Alpha Chi Omega, that disruptive element which has seemed to cling to 
things Grecian. They have positive tendency toward cooperation and har- 
mony which has made the Fraternity, generally, desire peace and union among 
contemporary fraternities. This tendency has made it inevitable that Alpha 
Chi Omega should be cooperative, in Panhellenic relations, rather than com- 
bative ; courteous rather than malicious ; an arbitrator rather than a foe. 

Embedded in the same ore with the unifying element which has charac- 
terized our sisterhood is absolute fairness in Panhellenic relations. Fairness 
is a costlv process in the Greek world, but less so than its reverse. It strikes 
the undergraduate, when hard pressed in rushing, that "absolute fairness" 
is impossible under some circumstances ; and she thinks that, if it wans in 
the end, as she is taught, the end is certainly slow in coming. That trait, 
however, which Mrs. Crann has called the fastidious fairness of the college 
woman, stands firm when backed by fraternity tradition. 

The spirit of cooperation is revealed in the part played in the community 
life of the college. The endless array of undergraduate honors in college 
activities is possible by but one road — colleagueship. According to national 
ruling, in fact, each member must partake in two college activities. Genuine 

Thk ("oxiRiHu riox OF Ammia ("ill ()mk(;a to Amkricax Life 377 

academic citizenship is the result. But the same kind of a league with the 
faculty is insisted upon bv the laws of the order. There is constant super- 
vision of the class work of each nifmber on the part of the chapter, the 
alumnie adviser, and the national inspector. A certain amount of work must 
have been completed at a certain grade l)efore a student may be pledged, 
or initiated. \Vork of a grade determined upon by the Fraternity must be done 
by all initiated members. The outcome of consistent supervision, of rc^iuire- 
ments, of encouragement, and of hel]) for upperclassmen is un(lenial)ly power- 
ful. In the past five years, since the fraternity supervision of scholarship 
has become more potent, nineteen reports have been received of Alpha Chi 
( )mega chapters which have ranked first in scholarship among the fraterni- 
ties in their institutions. In manv instances the relative ranking of chapters 
has gone up by leaps and bounds. Aljdia ("hi (3mega, indubitably, has made 
for higher standards of scholarship in the college life which she touches. 

In the wdiole life of the university she fosters unswerving loyalty to the 
institution ; enthusiastic support of its recjuirements ; and a general attitude 
of responsil)ility towards its concerns. No more staunch and loval students 
share the duties toward Alma Mater than Alpha Chi Omegas. Loyalty to 
their God, to their College, to their Fraternity, she nurtures by her precepts. 

^\'ith tliis last token, lovaltv to frateriiit\-. we sliall conckule our story. 
Of tlie jiersonal meaning of fraternity the world liears most. 'I'he friendlv 
association of personalities is the basis of all fraternity; the benefit from the 
interaction of congenial 'and diverse characters is its unforgettable boon. 
Fraternity, moreover, in the words of Alice Freeman Palmer regarding college 
life, "makes the world a friendly place." A cosmopolitan sympathv follow^s 
a cosmopolitan friendliness. Asked. "What has your fraternity meant to you," 
a superb athlete replied: "I think that the biggest thing lies in the bond of 
union I feel with all other Alpha Chis over the country, especially since I 
have been out of college. It has helped more than anvthing to keep me filled 
with hope and for everything I have been doing." Another 
replied, "A broadening of purpose in life, a democratic spirit." A third 
confesses, "Alpha Chi Omega is helping me more and more all the time to 
be a part of the busy life of the world. Naturally. I am inclined to live 
largely within myself, and not to make many friends. Being brought into 
such close touch Avith so many girls has helped me wonderfullv in bringing 
me out of myself, and in bringing me to see the interests of others." A differ- 
ent point of view which yet stresses the same advantage is that of an eastern 
college woman who received her doctor's degree from a coeducational univer- 
sity. Alpha Chi Omega meant, in her own words, "a delightful chance to 
have the friendship of a type of undergraduate whom I could not have known 
in any other way, and to study the problems of the college girls of various 
types of institutions, while it has ofi'ered alwavs a splendid opportunitv for 

Personal friendships are not. bv anv means, the sole good accruing from 
fraternity membership. They are not the gift which leads most surely to pro- 
fessional or artistic advancement. Thev are not scholarly distinctions. But, 

378 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 

nevertheless, memories of friends ami bonds of friendship are, to the hundreds 
of thousands of members of college fraternities, the priceless asset. The 
development of the aesthetic sense, of the power to cooperate, of the quality 
of leadership, of intellectuality, of idealism, are all involved, more or less, 
in our magic gift of fraternity. But the human friendships, as Aristotle 
says, are "most necessary for life. * * For where is the use of all 
the good things in the world if there be taken away the doing of kindnesses?" 
Fraternity is rich in weal, "like the pomegranate, full of many kernels." It 
is praised most, notwithstanding, for its enduring friendships. The reason 
for this is, I believe, that friendships, in reality, are the deep roots of the 
spirit of good will, harmony, unity, and courage — that spirit which is the 
recognized flowering of the fraternity, and is its greatest contribution to the 



The National Officers are elected at the closinjr session of each Grand 
Chapter, but, in order to facilitate matters for the successors, the retiring 
officers continue their duties for two months after convention. As is stated 
in the chapter on Government, during the early years of Alpha Chi Omega, 
Alpha, except for a term of two years for Beta, was Grand Chapter. Thus 
Alpha's officers were really the general officers of the Fraternity until the 
First Convention elected the first National Officers. 


October, 1891 -February, 1893. 

President. J a Nette Allen. Beta. 
Vice-president, Bertha Moore, Alpha. 
Corresponding Secretary, Jessie Fox, Alpha. 
Recording Secretary, Zannie Tate, Delta. 
Treasurer, Mary Stanford, Gamma. 

February, 1893-March, 1894. 

President, Mary Stanford, Gamma. 
Vice-president, Charlotte Weber, Delta. 
Corresponding Secretary, Laura Marsh, Alpha. 
Recording Secretary, Eflfa Simpson, Beta. 

March, 1894-April, 1896. 

President, Charlotte Weber, Delta. 
Vice-president. Mayme Jennings, Alpha. 
Corresponding Secretary, Irene Clark, Beta. 
Recording Secretary, Virginia Porter, Delta. 
Treasurer, Ella Strong, Gamma. 
Editor of Lyre, Mayme Jennings, Alpha. 

April, 1896-April, 1897. 

President, Mary Janet Wilson, Alpha. 
Secretary, Ida Steele, Alpha. 
Treasurer, Gertrude Ogden, Delta. 

April, 1897-December, 1898. 

President, Mary J. Wilson, Alpha. 
Secretary, Alta Allen, Beta. 
Treasurer, Gertrude Ogden, Delta. 
Editor of Lyre, Mary \\'ilson. Alpha. 

December, 1898- December, 1900. First Grand Council. 
Grand President. Raeburn Cowger, Alpha. 
Grand Vice-president, Winifred Bartholomew, Theta. 

380 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraiernity 

Grand Secretarv. I'^thcl l^lizabeth Egleston, Zeta. 

Grand Treasurer, Gertrude Ogden, Delta (1898-1899) ; Florence Har- 
per, Delta (1899-1900). 
Editor of Lyre, Mary J. Wilson, Alpha. 
December, 1900-November, 1902. 

Grand President, Raeburn Cowger, Alpha. 
Grand Vice-president. .Spicie Belle South, Zeta. 
Grand Secretary, Mabel Harriet Siller, Gamma. 
Grand Treasurer, Florence Harper, Delta. 
Editor of Lyre, Edith Manchester, Zeta. 

November, 1902- January, 1905. 

Grand President, Kate Calkins, Beta. 

Grand Vice-president, Virginia Fiske, Theta. 

Grand Secretary, Alta Moyer, Delta (1902-1903); Bertha Sackett, 

Delta (1903-1905). 
Grand Treasurer, Laura Howe, Zeta. 
Grand Historian, Raeburn Cowger, Alpha. 
Editor of Lyre, Edith Manchester, Zeta. 

January, 1905-January, 1907. * 

Grand President, Kate Calkins, Beta. 

Grand Vice-president, Bertha Sackett. Delta (1905-1906) ; Mary Jones 
Tennant, Alpha (1906-1907). 

Grand Secretary, Virginia Fiske, Theta (1905-1906); Marcia Clark, 
Theta (1906-1907). 

Grand Treasurer, Laura Howe, Zeta. 

Grand Historian, Mabel Dunn Madson. Gamma (1905); Mabel H. 
Siller, Gamma (1905-1907). 

Editor of Lyre, Edith Manchester (iriffin, Zeta (1905-1906) ; Elma Pat- 
ton Wade, Alpha (1906-1907). 

Inspector, Mary Jones Tennant, Alpha. 

January, 1907-January, 1909. 

Grand President, Alta Allen Loud, Beta. 

Grand Vice-president, Marcia Clark Howell, Theta. 

Grand Secretary, Imo Baker, Iota (1907-1908); Helen Wright, Iota 

Grand Treasurer, Laura Howe, Zeta. 
Grand Historian, Mabel Harriet Siller, Gamma. 
Editor of Lyre, Elma Patton Wade, Alpha (1907); Florence Reed 

Haseltine, Zeta (1907-1909). 
Inspector, Mary Jones Tennant, Alpha. 

January, 1909-November, 1910. 

Grand President, Alta Allen Loud, Beta. 
Grand Vice-president, Fay Barnaby Kent, Delta. 

Appendix: 381 

Graiul Secretary, Frank Ikiscy Soulc, Iota, 
(jrand Treasurer. Myrta McKean Dennis. Gamma, 
(jrand Historian, Mabel Harriet Siller, damma. 
Editor of Lyre. Floreme Reed Haseltine, Zeta. 
Inspector, Mary Jones Tennant. Alpha. 

November, IV 10- November, 1912. 

Grand President, Evangeline R. Bridge, Zeta. 

Grand Vice-president. Fay Barnaby Kent, Delta. 

Grand Secretary, Frank Busey Soule. Iota (1910-1911) ; Helen Hardie, 

(iamma (1911-1912). 
(irand Treasurer, \\'inirre(l \'aii ISuskirk Mount, Zeta. 
Grand Historian, Grace Flammond Holmes, Delta. 
Editor of Lyre, Florence A. Armstrong, Mu. 
Inspector, Myrta McKean Dennis, (iamma. 

November, 19 12- November, 1915. 

\ National President, Alta Allen Loud, Beta. 

National Vice-president, Fay Barnaby Kent, Delta. 

National Secretary, Birdean Motter Ely, Omicron. 

National Treasurer, Lillian (i. Zimmerman, Kappa. 

Editor of Lyre. Florence A. Armstrong, Mu. 

Inspector, Lois Smith Crann, Mu. 

November, 19 15- November, 1917. 

National President, Alta Allen Loud, Beta". 

First National Vice-president, Lillian G. Zimmerman, Kappa. 

Second National Vice-president, Maude Staiger Steiner, Theta. 

National Secretary, Mary-F"mma (iriffith. Lambda. 

National Treasurer, Myra H. Jones, Lambda. 

Editor of Lyre. Florence A. Armstrong, Mu. 

Inspector, Nella Ramsdell Fall, Beta. 

382 The History of Alpha Chi Omega Fraternity 



October 15, Alpha Chi Omega organized; December 16, first picture 
taken ; October 19, Mr. J. G. CampbeH, Beta Theta Pi, asked to help 
formulate fraternity constitution ; voted that a Greek Society be formed 
similar to the Greek fraternities of the College of Liberal Arts ; name 
Alpha Chi Omega adopted ; colors chosen : red and bronze green ; 
December 5, constitution adopted. 


February 5, committee appointed to rewrite constitution and form of 
initiation; February 26, Alpha Chi Omega formally introduced by 
Dean Howe; first song. Alpha Prima, adopted; October 15, first anni- 
versary banquet ; April 9, revised constitution adopted. 


April 23, dues of new chapters decided ; charter cost decided ; size of 
charter membership decided; May 15, charter form adopted; May 24, 
open motto chosen, initiation ceremonv adopted and added to, whistle 
chosen; May 27, installation of Beta; June 4, jubilee meeting to 
celebrate Beta. 


February 8, scholarship qualifications for membership determined. 


November 12, Gamma Chapter installed; investigation of Allegheny 
College by Gamma. 


January 29, Delta Chapter installed ; October 20-23, First Conven- 
tion at Greencastle ; authorized publication of fraternity journal ; 
voted Alpha Grand Chapter. 


February 22-24, Second Convention at Albion; first songbook published 
by Gamma. 


February 28-March 3, Third Convention at Evanston ; non-musical 
cheer adopted ; Beta voted Grand Chapter ; Alpha voted to publish 
fraternity journal; June, Volume I, No. 1, The Lyre. 


October. Beta's new lodge occupied; June 16, Epsilon Chapter estab- 
lished; December 15, Zeta Chapter established. 


April 8-10, Fourth National Convention; revision of cheer; Alpha 
elected Grand Chapter, continuing Lyre; Gamma authorized to pub- 
lish second edition of songbook. 


March 30-April 2, Fifth Convention, three jewels required in badge ; 
Lyre to be published quarterly, Volume II, No. 1, The Lyre. 

Appendix 383 


June 16, Eta Chapter established at Hiuknell I'liiversity ; November 
19, Theta founded; Kpsilon became temporarily inactive; December 
1-3, Sixth National Convention; Crand Council created as supreme 
governing power ; Biennial Conventions provided for. 


Alpha Chapter moves into chapter house, 408 Elm Street, Eta Chapter 
inactive: December 8, Iota founded. 


Modification of design of pledge pin to present design ; December 6-9, 
Seventh National Convention, Boston. 


October 29-November 1. Eighth National Convention, Evanston ; provi- 
sion made to charter alumnit chapters; office of Crand Historian added 
to Council ; Council ordered to convene annually ; new edition of song- 
book ordered ; May 24, First Interf raternity Conference ; November, 
Mabel H. Siller elected to represent Alpha Chi Omega at next Inter- 
sorority Conference ; annual examinations for active and pledged mem- 


August 25-28, first Grand Council meeting; Alpha Chi Omega enters 
Intersororitv Conference; December 18. Kappa founded. 


November 1, Second Grand Council meeting. Meadville ; Noveml)er 
2-4, Ninth National Convention, Meadville ; office of Inspector added 
to council ; separation of constitution and ritual ; alumnie chapters to 
be represented in convention by official delegates ; adoption of identifica- 
tion blanks ; Eta charter recalled. 


Third Grand Council meeting; October 30, reestal)lislinK'nt of Epsilon 


May 23, Alpha Alpha established at Chicago; October 31. Fourth 
Grand Council meeting; November 1-3. Tenth National Convention, 
Greencastle ; thirty-three and one-third of members may be Liberal or 
Fine Arts ; twelve liours per week required. 


October 31 -November 2, Fifth Grand Council, Indianapolis; petitions, 
forms, and scholarship reports adopted, each active chapter required 
to have alumna advisers ; charter granted to Xi ; fraternity directory 
authorized; Florence Reed Haseltine elected editor; May 13. Mu 
founded ; September 6, Nu founded. 

September 17. Omicron founded; September 25. Delta Delta founded; 
Lyre announced to be self-supporting; November 24-25, Sixth Grand 

384 The Hisiorv op^ Alpha Chi (!)mega Fraternity 

Council, Champaign: first directory of Alplia Clii Omega published; 
November 26-30, Eleventh National Convention. Champaign; mem- 
bers may be chosen without musical training to the extent of half of 
the chapter ; per capita tax required to National Treasurer ; graded 
examination question system adopted ; five-year Lyre subscription for 
initiates substituted for clause requiring per cent of alumnae substitutes ; 
salary voted editor; adoption convention credentials; report blanks and 
affiliated certificates ; card index directories adopted ; new charter, cus- 
todians for badge and songbook ; provision for compiling and editing 
a History. 

May 18, Epsilon Iilpsilun, Detroit, established; October 27-29, Seventh 
Grand Council ; voted to estal)lish Alpha Chi Omega fellowship in form 
of studio ; model books for chapters ; official examiner appointed ; chief 
alumna created ; Pi Chapter established. 






Twenty-fifth anniversary; August 29-September 2, twelfth National 
Convention, Detroit; adoption of new initiation service; Hera, Patron 
Goddess; limited legislative power granted to National Panhellenic 
Conference ; charter granted Rho ; committee appointed to establish 
Scholarship Fund ; jewels in badge restricted to pearls and diamonds ; 
secret journal authorized; fraternity flag adopted; voting power at 
conventions extended to founders ; revised charter for both active and 
alumnae charters adopted. 

June 13. Sigma established; June 16, Eta Eta Chapter established; 
June 27, Ninth Grand Council meeting, New York; November, 
Alpha Chi Oiiwga History published; Tau Chapter installed, Novem- 
ber 24. 

June 21-24, Tenth Council Meeting; Heracuni ordered published each 
year; June 25, Thirteenth National Convention; Scholarship Fund 
changed to Reserve Fund ; post-entrance examination on ritual and 
ceremonies provided ; trophy provided for chapter showing greatest 
excellence in all fraternal relations. 

January 11, Theta Theta established; March 8, Iota Iota Chapter, 
Seattle, established ; May 9, Chi Chapter installed; May 14-17. Eleventh 
Council meeting, Decatur; The Argolid authorized; uniform filing sys- 
tem recommended ; uniform supplies adopted ; each active member 
required to take part in two activities ; alumnae clubs recommended for 
small cities or college towns. 

February, Kappa Kappa Chapter, Lincoln, and Lambda Lambda Chap- 
ter, Grand Rapids, established; September 15, Phi Chapter estab- 

Appkndix 385 

lished; September 19. Mu Mu Chapter established; October 19-21, 
Twelfth Council Mi-etini;; new seal adopted as official seal. 


June 28. Thirteenth Council Meeting; June 28-July 2, Fourteenth 
National Convention. Los Angeles; new edition of Alpha Chi Omega 
History ordered and Florence A. Armstrong appointed author; first 
daily convention newspaper. The Coirecntion Transcript ; life sub- 
scriptions to The Lyre recjuired of initiates; fretjuent multigraphed 
issues of Argoliii authorized; nineteen petitions reported; membership 
clause of constitution changed to eliminate numerical balancing of 
representatives from various arts ; traditions committee founded ; pur- 
chase of history, songbook, and directory required of initiates, budget 
plan for council expense adopted ; sole official jeweler appointed ; 
decided that only initiated members wear coat-of-arms and ( ireek let- 
ters of Alpha Chi Omega. 

January 14, Psi Chapter established; June 19-26, Fourteenth Council 
Meeting at Syracuse; Omega Chapter installed, September 20, 1916. 






Active chapters, geographical distribution 7>1 

per capita tax 147, 190 

supervision ...141, 14_', 144, 145, 376, 377 
See also chapters named. 

Affiliation certificates, adoption of 182 

Albion Alumn.e Club, establishment 108 

work 109 

Albion College (.Mich.), establishment .. 70 

fraternities at 71, 374 

historical sketch 70, 71 

standards 47 

statistics 72 

Alexander, William H., on value of musi- 
cal training 

Allegheny College (Pa.), admission of 

women to 


fraternities at 74 

historical sketch 73, 74 

statistics 72 

Allen, Anna. See Smith, .Anna Allen. 

Allinson, May, work of 335, 337 

Alpha Chapter, alumnae reunions 106, 107 

as Grand Chapter 134 

charter members 34 

See also Founders of A X 0. 

college honors 342, 344, 345 

entertainment of convention by 

153, 162, 177 

establishment 34 

group picture of (1885) 10 

historical sketch 34 

home, view showing 34 

house ownership plans 269 

prominent members 

320, 321, 335, 337, 338, 341 

scholarship record 33 

Alpha Alpha Chapter, charter members .. 115 

establishment 107, 114 

historical sketch 114 

work 109, 114, 209, 291 

Alpha Chi Omega, adoption of name .... 16 

conservatism 4, 33 

early policies 9, 11, 12 

founding of 2, 18 

ideals, significance of ..291, 292, 376, 377 

nature of 11, 12 

organization of 5, 8, 9, 16. 33 

Panhellenic relations 376 

present scope 31, 33 

purposes 12, 18 

wealth 64, 67 

Alpha C.amma Delta, wealth of 67 

Alpha Omicron Pi, wealth of 67 

Alpha Phi, altruistic work 294, 295 

alumnce organization 106 

date of founding 2 

early years 4 

wealth 67 


.\lpha Xi Delia, altruistic work 294 

wealth 67 

.\ltruistic work of A X i2. See Hera Day, 
and chapters named. 

.\lumn;e, national officer for, establishment 

of 137, 194 

participation in national work ....111-113 

.\kimn;e Adviser, authorization for 182 

duties 141 

establishment 112, 138, 208 

importance 138 

.\lumn.-e Association, scope and plans . . . 

108, 109, 113 

work of 109 

.'\lumna; by-laws, publication of 200 

.Mumnse chapters, establishment 107, 108 

geographical distribution, map show- 
ing 32 

requirements 108, 126 

See also alumn.-c chapters named. 

Alumns clubs, establishment 108, 213 

geographical distribution, map show- 
ing 32 

list 126 

requirements 108, 126 

value 126 

See also alumnae clubs named. 

Alumnx letter, authorization for 182 

value 110 

Alumnx notes, collection of 213 

purpose and use 147 

value Ill 

Alumnx organization, development 

106, 107, 108, 199 

factors affecting 109-112 

needs 107, 195 

value 106 

See also Alumnx Association; and 
alumnx chapters and clubs 

Argolid, scope and value 110, 200, 240 

selection and meaning of term 240 

Armstrong, Florence A., photograph .... 233 

term of service 152 

work of 112, 195, 229, 232, 245, 335 

.\rmstrong, Louise V'an Vorhees, work of 334 

Asbury University. See De Pauw Univer- 

.\tlanta Alumnx Club, establishment .... 103 

work 109 

.'\us der Ohe, .Xdele, letter from 317 


P>adge, description 215, 216, 217 

figures showing 218 

Grecian influence on 278 

manufacture and sale 

147, 164, 184. 194, 195. 216 

symbolism 279. 281 

Baird, \\'illiam, on nature of Alpha Chi 

Omega 11 

Baker University (Kan.), establishment 91 

fraternities at 91, 374 

historical sketch 91 

statistics ' 72 

Beach, Mrs. H. H. A., biographical sketch 316 

work 316, 335 

Bergey, Ethel S., biographical sketch 333, 334 

photograph 333 

Beta Chapter, altruistic work 35 

alumnas reunions 106 

charter members 19, 34 

college honors 34S 

establishment 18, 20-22, 34 

entertainment of convention by ..155, 164 

group pictures of 23, 24 

historical sketch 34, 35 

lodge of, value of 64, 259 

view showing 35 

prominent members 

321, 322, 334, 335, 338, 341 

Beta Beta Chapter, charter members .... 115 

establishment 107, 115 

work 115, 116 

Boicourt, Edna, work of 233 

photograph 235 

Boulder Alumnx Club, establishment .... 108 
Bowen, Margaret Barber, photograph . . . 334 

work 334 

Bowman, Myrtle Hatswell, work of 321 

Boyce, Inez, work of 337 

Brenau College (Ga.), establishment .... 97 

fraternities at 97, 374 

historical sketch 97, 98 

Panhellenic association at 97, 98 

statistics 72 

Brocklebank, Blanche, work 242, 243, 325 

photograph 32S 

Budget, active chapter, form for 145, 146 

Buffum, Ruth, work of 229 

Burkhoff, Margaret Grafius, work of .... 233 
Burnett, Olive. See Clark, Olive Burnett. 

Byrd, Winifred, photograph 326 

work 326 

Calendars, fraternity, publishing of .... 

200, 214, 249, 250 

California, University of, admission of 

women to 1 

establishment 92 

fraternities at 93, 374 

historical sketch 92-94 

Panhellenic association 93 

statistics 72 

Campbell, James G., work of 5, 18 

Chalfin, Mabel, work of 334 

Chapter-house committee, appointment of 213 

Chapter-house life, value 29 

Chapter-house ownership, advantages ..66, 67 

growth of 66, 67, 195. 200, 259 

loans for 214 

plans for 260, 267, 269 

Chapters. See Active chapters; Alumnae 

Charters, description 252, 253 

figures showing 254, 255 

Chase, Louise, photograph 323 

work 323 

Chase, Russell MacMurphy, work of 327, 328 

Cheer of fraternity 222 

Chi Chapter, charter members 60 

college honors 372, 373 

customs 60 

establishment 27 , 58 

home, views showing 59 

prominent members 332 

scholarship record 33 

Chi Omega, altruistic work 294 

alumnae organization 106 

wealth 67 

Childe, Nellie Gamble, biographical sketch 14 
photograph 6 

Children of A X fi, photographs ..118, 121, 130 

Chronology of fraternity 382-385 

Clark, Burnett Olive, biographical sketch 12, 13 

on selection of colors 220 

photograph 6 

Cleveland Alumnx Club, charter mem- 
bers 127 

establishment 126 

work 109, 127 

Coat-of-arms, adoption 217 

authorization for 209 

description 217, 219, 220 

figure showing 219 

restrictions regarding use 195 

Coeducation at western colleges 27 

development 1, 2 

extent of 375 

relation of fraternity system to 2, 3 

Colby, Martha Reynolds, work of 322 

College activities, representation in, legis- 
lation regarding 213 

College Fraternity Reference Bureau, pur- 
pose of 309 

Colleges, western, as field for fraternity 

extension 27, 28 

coeducation at 27 

development 2, 27 

dormitory equipment at, lack of ... . 29 
preparatory work 2 

Colorado, University of, establishment ... 87 

fraternities 87, 374 

historical sketch 87 

Panhellenic association 87, 88 

statistics of 72 

Colors of fraternity, adoption of 16, 220 

Commissioner of Education, on education 

of women 1 

Committee work, participation of alumnae 

in Ill, 112 

Committees, standing, development of, 111, 112 

Conservatories, extension in, legislation 

regarding 156, 164 


Constitution, early, writing of 5 

revised, adoption of 187, 188 

revision of -"7 

Convention credentials, adoption 18- 

Convention Transcript, publishing 194 

scope -48 

staff 248 

Convention, national, as governing power 

of fraternity 134 

constituents 134 

list 205, 206 

powers 135 

time of holding 164 

value 153 

voting members 134 

Conventions, National: 

1st, attendance 155 

business 153, 154 

officers elected 153 

social features 155 

2nd, attendance 156 

business 155, 156 

officers elected 155 

social features 156 

3d, attendance 157 

business 157 

group pliotograph 158 

officers elected 156, 157 

social features 157 

4th. attendance 162 

business 157, 160 

group photograph 161 

officers elected 160 

social features 162 

5th, attendance 164 

business 162, 164 

group photograph 163 

officers elected 162 

social features 164 

6th, attendance 166, 168 

business 164. 166 

group photograph 165 

officers elected 166 

social features 168 

7th, attendance 169 

business 168 

group photograph 170 

social features 171 

Sth, attendance 172 

business 171. 172 

group photograph 173 

officers elected 171 

social features 174 

9th, attendance 175 

business 174. 175 

group photograph 176 

officers elected 173 

social features 175. 177 

lOfh, attendance 179 

business 177. 1 79 

officers elected 177 

group photograph 178 

social features 179 


nth, attendance 182, 183 

business 180, 182 

group photograph 181 

officers elected 180 

social features 183, 184 

I2th, attendance 186, 187 

business 184 

group photograph 185 

social features 187 

13th, attendance 191, 192, 194 

business 187-191 

group photograph 189 

officers elected 190 

social features 190 

14tb, attendance 201-205 

business 194, 19S 

group photograph 196 

officers elected 195 

social features 205 

See also Provinces. 

Cooke, Annie May. photograph 315 

work 326 

Council Meetings, attendance 207-213, 215 

business 207-215 

social features 207-210 

Council Trophy, establishment of 190 

Cowger, Raeburn. See Obenchain. Rae- 

burn Cowger. 
Crann. Lois Smith, as N. P. C. repre- 
sentative 198, 199, 308 

on accomplishments of N. P. C. ..308, 309 

photograph 193 

term of service 152 

Cunningham. Bertha Peniston, biographi- 
cal sketch 13, 14 

photograph 6 

Currier. Olge Bradenburg, work of 335 

Cutter, Olive, calendar designed by 250 

work of 326 


De Pauw University (Ind.). admission of 

women to 68, 69 

establishment 68 

fraternities at 69, 374 

liistorical sketch 68-70 

Panhellcnic Association at 69, 70 

statistics of 72 

women's fraternities founded at ... . 2 

Decatur Alumn.-c Club, establishment .... 108 

Delta Chapter, alumnx reunions 106, 107 

charter members of, photograph .... 25 

college honors 346, 347, 348 

entertainment of convention ....157, 174 

establishment 26, 36 

fraternity hall of, view showing .... 37 

historical sketch 36, 37 

prominent members 323, 334, 338. 339, 341 

Delta Delta Chapter, charter members .. 117 

entertainment of convention by 194 

establishment 107, 117 

historical sketch 117, 119 

work 109, 117. 119 


Delta Delta Delta, altruistic work 294 

alumii;c organization 106 

wealth 67 

Delta Gamma, alumn;e organization 106 

date of founding 2 

early policies 4 

scholarship fund 66 

wealth 67 

Deniston, Bertha. See Cunningham, 
Bertha Deniston. 

Dennis, Myrta McKean, as business 

manager of Lyre 229 

committee work of 241, 242 

photograph 193 

term of service 151 

Denver Alumnae Club, charter members 132, 133 

establishment 108, 132 

Des Moines Alumnie Club, charter mem- 
bers of 127, 128 

establishment 108, 127 

work of 109, 128 

Directory, publishing 209, 249 

requirements regarding purchase .... 195 

value 110 

District of Columbia ^Mumnx Club, estab- 
lishment 108, 131 

work 109 

Drake, Kate Calkins, on early committee 

work Ill 

term of service 151 

Du Bois, Amy. See Rieth, Amy Du Bois. 

Dunkle, Estelle, alumnae work of 108 

Dunn, Mabel, work of 241 


Eastern Oklahoma Alumna; Club, estab- 
lishment 108, 127 

work 109 

Eklekta prize, awards of 231, 232 

Ely, Birdean Motter, design of seal by 214 

term of service 152 

Epsilon Chapter, charter members 37 

college honors 348-35 1 

entertainment of convention by 194 

establishment 37 

historical sketch 37, 38 

home, view showing 38 

prominent members 325, 334, 335 

scholarship record 33 

Epsilon Epsilon Chapter, charter members 120 

entertainment of convention by 184 

establishment 107, 120 

work 109, 120 

Eta Chapter, charter members 39 

charter withdrawn 39 

establishment 39 

Eta Eta Chapter, charter members 122 

entertainment of convention by 187 

establishment 107, 122 

work 109, 122 

Examinations, fraternity, early list of 

questions 148 

legislation regarding 171, 182, 190 


purpose and scope 147, 148, 149 

requirements 149 

value 149 

Expulsion, legislation regarding 155, 180 

Extension, convention discussion 

153, 154, 156, 157, 160 

early plans 21, 22 

in Mississippi Valley, map showing 30 
into state institutions, significance of 

27-30, 277 

legislation regarding 156, 164, 172, 184, 194 

methods of 150 

Extension Board, value of 199 

Extension policy, adequate, requirements 

for 21 

discussion of 150 

Fall, Nella Ramsdell, committee work of 

112, 184, 188, 335 

photograph 138 

Fenn, Jean Whitcomb, work of 334 

Flag, fraternity, adoption of 184 

description of 222 

of women's fraternities, figure show- 

ing 223 

Flannagan, Agnes G., photograph 324 

work 322 

Fleming, Gertrude Ogden, term of service 152 

Flower of fraternity 220 

Foulds, Leigh Stafford, in Greek pageant 280 

Founders' Day, observance of 225, 279 

Founders of A X S2, named 7, 18 

photograph 6 

See also founders named. 

Fraternities, contribution of 375 

men's, early purposes 3 

origin 3 

relation to coeducation 3 

wealth 375 

women's. See Women's fraternities; 
and fraternities named. 

Freeman, Alice, educational work 2 

Funds of A X fi 64 

See also Lyre Reserve Fund; National 
Reserve Fund; Scholarship 


Galesburg Alumnae Club, establishment . . 108 

work 109 

Gamble, Nellie. See Childe, Nellie 

Gamma Chapter, charter members 36 

photograph 25 

college honors 345, 346 

entertainment of convention by 156, 171 

establishment 18, 22, 36 

historical sketch 36 

prominent members 322, 338, 341 

Gamma Gamma Chapter, charter members 116 

establishment 107, 116 

work 109, 116, 214 

Gamma Phi Beta, alumnx organization 

date of founding 

early years 

scholarship fund 


"General" fraternity, meaning of 

Gibson, Lucile Morgan, committee work 


Government of Alpha Chi Omega, stages 







also Conventions; National 
(iraff, Gladys I-ivingston, work 23i 


Grand Chapter, duties and powers 

Sec also Convention, National. 
Grand Council, establishment 134 

ex])enses, legislation regarding ..168 

meetings. See Council Meetings. 

Sec also National Council. 
Greek culture, influence of, on .\ X Q .... 

Greek divinities, attributes of 28 

Greek myths influencing A X Q 28 

• ireek pageant (Convention 1915), scene 

from, view of 

Green, \"irginia Fiske, committee work 
of 112, 184, 188, 

on selection of patron goddess 

photographs 143. 

term of service 

Greencastle Alumn.T Club, establishment 
Greensburg .\lumn:c Club, establishment 
Griflin, Kdith Manchester, photograph . . . 

term of service 

work of 227 

Griflith, Mary Kniiiia, photograph 

work 112. 149, 

Grooms, Bessie. Sec Keenan, Bessie 

, 335 



, 164 





Haley, Josephine Freeman, biographical 

sketch 326 

Harper, Florence E., photograph 169 

term of service 152 

Harris, Nell E., as business manager of 

F^yre 233 

photograph 234 

Hayne, Bertha Sackett, term of service 152 

Ilazeltine, Florence Reed, as editor of 

Lyre 209, 227, 229 

committee work of 224, 249 

photograph 230 

term of service 152 

Hera as patron goddess, adoption of 184, 292 

attributes of 282, 287, 288 

head of 283 

Hera Day, observance 39, 40, 42, 45, 49, 

55, 116, 122, 129, 279, 292 

spirit, growth of 293 

Iferaea, Greek festival of 279 

Heraeum, Mount Olympus, view of 289 

Hcraeum, authorization for publishing 

forerunner of 

scope and value 110, 

selection and meaning of name 

Ilier, Florence, biographical sketch 


Hinman, Elizabeth Eggleston, photograph 


History of fraternity, authorization for . . 
182, 195, 214, 

editorial board 

place of writing 

requirements regarding purchase 195, 

value 110, 

Honor pin, adoption 



figure showing 


Honorary members, biographical sketches 

legislation regarding 

Sec also honorary members named. 
Hopekirk, Helen, biographical sketch .... 
House ownership. See Chapter-house 

Howe, James Hamilton, on organization 

of A X n 

on musical traditions of A X fJ 8, 9, 


work of 

Howe, Laura A., as business manager of 

committee work 252, 


term of service 

Howell, Marcia Clarke, term of service 
Hull, Juvia O., biographical sketch 


HIinois, University of, admission of 
women to 


fraternities at 82, 

historical sketch 

Panhellenic association 


Inspector, establishment of office ....137, 
Interfraternity Conference, organization 

representation at 197, 

Intersorority Conference, representation 
in 172, 

See also National Panhellenic Con- 
Iota Chapter, altruistic work 

alumn.c organization 

charter members 

college honors 

entertainment of convention by .... 

establishment 27, 30, 


, 240 

, 244 

8, 9 




5, 18 










historical sketch 41, 42 

home of, views showing 41, 42 

loving-cup award by 225 

newspaper published by 110 

prominent members 227, 3.^5, 341 

Iota Iota Chapter, charter members .... 123 

establishment 107, 123 

work 109, 123, 124 

Iowa, University of, establishment 1 , 96 

fraternities at 96, 374 

historical sketch 96 

statistics 72 


Jacobi, Then White, biographical sketch 323 
James Millikin University, establishment 

of 98 

fraternities at 98, 374 

historical sketch 98, 99, 100 

Panhellenic association 98, 99 

statistics 72 

Jennings, Mayme, as Lyi-c editor 226 

Jones, Mary. Sec Tennant, ^lary Jones. 


Kaiser, Blanche Crafts, biographical 

sketch 32S, 326 

Kansas, University of, establishment ....1, 100 

extension courses at 375 

fraternities at 374 

historical sketch 100, 101 

statistics 72 

Kappa Alpha Theta, altruistic work .... 294 

alumnre organization 106 

date of founding 2 

early chapters 4 

magazine 4 

scholarship fund 66 

wealth 67 

Kappa Chapter, altruistic work 45 

alumnae organization Ill 

calendar published by 250 

college honors 353-356 

entertainment of convention by .... 187 

establishment 27, 30, 43 

historical sketch 43 

home, description of 265 

details regarding purcliase . . . .264, 26S 

value 64, 259 

views showing 43, 265, 268 

prominent members 327, 337 

trophies won, view of 44 

Kappa Kappa Chapter, establishment .... 108 

work 109 

Kappa Kappa Gamma, ahunn.e organiza- 
tion 106 

date of founding 2 

early policies 4 

scholarship fund 66 

wealth 67 

Keech, Mable, work of 334 

Keenan, Bessie Grooms, biographical 

sketch 14 


photograph 6 

Keeper of Archives, appointment 200 

Keeper of Supplies, appointment 200 

Kent, Fay Barnaby, committee work 112, 184, 

217, 222, 257, 272 

photograph 193 

term of service 152 

Lambda Chapter, alumn.c organization .. 110 

charter members 45 

college honors 356-359 

Council agreement with 267 

establishment 27, 45 

historical sketch 45 

home, description of 263, 264 

details regarding purcliase 263 

value 64, 259 

views showing 46, 263, 266 

prominent members 328, 341 

Lambda Lambda Chapter, charter mem- 
bers 124 

establishment 108, 124 

Lang, Margaret Ruthven, work of ..316, 317 

Leonard, Estelle, biographical sketch .... 15 

photograph 6 

work 220, 252, 335 

Liberal arts, study of, increased tendency 

toward 29-31 

Lijipitt, Lucile, prize winning song of .... 292 

"Literary" fraternity, meaning of 3 

Loane, Lucy Evelyn, on the Alpha Chi 

tree 221, 222 

Loud, Alta Allen, committee work 

65, 112, 149, 190, 217, 224, 258, 335 

convention address 197-201 

description of coat-of-arms by 217, 219, 


on extension policy 150, 151 

on literary requirements of New Eng- 
land Conservatory of Music .. 11 

on musical traditions of A X fl 290 

on value oi A X Q History 244 

photograph Frontispiece 

term of service 151 

Lyre, as factor in alumn,-e organization 110 

cover designs 226, 232 

figure showing 228 

departments 230 

development 226-239 

directories printed by 249 

financial support 147, 164, 172, 

231, 234, 235, 236 
high standard of, recognition of 200, 230, 


historical number 244 

legislation regarding 160, 168, 175, 177, 


life subscription plan 195. 235, 236 

loving-cup, awards 225, 232 

policy 236, 237 

prize awarded by 225, 231, 232 


Reserve Fund uf (>(<, 147, 2,16 

selection of name 226 

subscription list, scope of 2i7 


McClure, Ceiia E., fraternity symphony 

by 214, 290 

photograpli 231 

Macdowell, Marian Xevins, biographical 

sketch 319, 320 

work 270, 271, 275 

.Macdowell Memorial Colony, financial 

needs 275 

life at 273 

location 270 

personnel, restrictions regarding .... 257 

scope and value 271-273 

studios of 271 

See also Star Studio. 

McEntyre, Doris, photograph 337 

work 280, 337 

McHatton, Jennie, as assistant editor of 

Lyre 227 

McLeary, Anne Woods, committee \vork 242 

photograph 140, 340 

.Magazine, early plans for 154, 157, 166 

See also Lyre. 
.Manchester, Edith. See Griffin, Edith 

Martin, Ida Shaw, on early problems of 

women's fraternities 290 

Meadville Alumn;c Club, charter members 129 

establishment 129 

Membership certificates, adoption of .... 171 

description of 253 

figures showing 256 

Membership requirements, early 8, 9, II 

legislation regarding 31, 171, 177, 180, 212 
Michigan, University of, admission of 

women to 1 

establishment 80 

fraternities at 80, 374 

historical sketch 80, 81 

Panhellenic association at 80, 81 

statistics of 72 

Miller, Florence Kail, on the holly tree . . 221 
Millikin University. See James Millikin 

Mills, Katharine Anderson, on chapter- 
house ownership by Theta .... 260 
Milwaukee .\lumn,-e Club, charter mem- 
bers 128 

establishment 108, 128 

work 109, 129 

Mississippi Valley, development of 27 

extension in, map showing 30 

Morgan, Kathryn, as e-\change editor of 

Lyre 233 

photograph 234, 25 1 

Morrison, Katharine McReynolds, bio- 
graphical sketch 322, 333 

photograjih 331 


Motto, oi>en, adoption of 20, 184, 224 

secret, adoption of 162, 182, 224 

.Mount, W'inifreil Van JSuskirk, commit- 
tee work of 217 

photograph 193 

.\lu Chapter, alumn;e reunions 107, 225 

charter members 47 

college honors 359-363 

establishment 27, 45 

historical sketch 45, 47 

prominent members 328, 335, 341 

scholarship record 33 

.Mu .Mu Chapter, establishment 108, 124 

work 109 

Musical culture in A .X 9. 276, 277 

influence of 290, 291 

influence of .\ .\ f2 on 290 

Musical requirements, legislation regard- 
ing 31. 171 

Musical training, educational value of .. 9, 11 

Mystagogue system 142 


Nafis, Mabel Siller, biographical sketch 322 

committee work of 149, 222, 249, 252 

photograph 245 

term of service 151 

work 244, 249, 335 

National Convention. See Conventions, 

National; and Grand Chapter. 

National Council, committee work ..111, 112 

constituents 135, 136 

deputies to 199, 200 

meetings of 136 

See also Council Meetings. 

officers of, duties 137, 138, 144, 145 

list of 379-381 

terms of office 151, 152 

powers and duties 136, 151 

See also Grand Council. 
National Panhellenic Congress, accom- 
plishments 308, 309 

conferences 305-310 

fraternities in, journal covers .... 238 

powers 308 

purpose and significance 304, 305 

representation at 197, 198 

See also Intersorority Conference; 
Panhellenic Associations. 

National Treasury, annual receipts 64 

disbursements of 146, 147 

funds for 145 

I)ayment of dues to 162 

National \'ocational Committee, establish- 
ment of 195 

value of 113 

Nebraska, University of, establishment 

of 1, 88 

fraternities at 90, 374 

historical sketch • 88-"0 

Panhellenic association at 89, 90 

statistics of 72 


Xeedliiini, Mary Ma>ters. work of 334 

Xc'vin, Artliur, work of i7S, 376 

Now I'lnglaiul Conservatory of Music, 

eqiiipincnt of 78, 79 

establishment of 78 

fraternities at 374 

historical sketch 78, 79 

literary requirements of 11, 276 

purposes of 79 

statistics of 72 

Xorthcroft, Jess, Panh.ellenic song by ... . 117 
Northwestern University (111.), estab- 
lishment 71 

fraternities at 7i, 374 

historical sketch 71, 73 

statistics of 72 

Nu Chapter, charter members 4S 

establishment 27, 48 

historical sketch 48 

home of, view showing 47 


Obenchain, Raeburn Cowger, photograph 166 

term of service 151 

Oil City Alumnre Club, establishment ... 108, 


Oklahoma, I'niversity of, establishment 102 

fraternities at 374 

historical sketch 103 

statistics of 72 

Olmstead, Gladys Livingston. Sec Graff, 
Gladys Livingston. 

Olsen, Alma Marti, sketch of 325 

Omaha Alunins Club, establishment 108, 128 

work 109 

Omega Chapter, charter members .... 61 

college honors 373 

establishment 27, 61 

historical sketch 61 

home, view showing 62 

Omicron Chapter, alumn.e organization .. Ill 

charter members 50 

college honors - 363, 364 

establishment 27, 50 

historical sketch 50, 51 

home of, view showing 50 

lot owned by, value of 64, 259 

prominent members 330, 337, 341 

scholarship record 3i 

Oregon Agricultural College, establish- 
ment 101 

fraternities at 102 

historical sketch 101, 102 

statistics of 72 

Oregon Alumnre club, charter members 130 

establishment of 129 131 

Organization and Laws, committee on, 

appointment of 112 

Osgood, Mary Satterfield, on installation 

of Gamma Chapter 22 


PanlR-lIunic a^sociations, city, growth . . . 296 

list 296 

representation of A X il in ..296, 297 

work 297-300 

college, pledging rules 300, 301 

constitution and by-laws 302-304 

See also Interfraternity Conference ; 
Intersorority Conference ; Na- 
tional Panhellenic Congress. 
Patronesses, privileges of, restrictions of 166 
Ferine, Mary, as official examiner .... 149 

Lyre work of 227, 229 

Petition forms, adoption of 208 

Phi Chapter, charter members 58 

college honors 372 

establishment 27, 58 

home of, view showing 58 

prominent members 337 

Pi Beta Phi, altruistic work 294 

alumnre organization 106 

early years 4 

scholarship fund 66 

wealth 67 

Pi Chapter, altr.uistic work 52 

alumns organization Ill 

charter members 51,52 

college honors 364, 366 

establishment 27,51 

historical s,ketch 52 

home of, view showing 51 

prominent members 330, 337, 341 

scholarship record 33 

Pinney, Mary, biographical sketch .... 323 
Pittsburgh Alumnx Club, establishment 108 

work 109 

Pledge pin, adoption 156, 168 

description 216 

figures showing 218 

restriction regarding 216 

Pledging ceremony, formulation of 153 

Porter, J. Olive, work 334 

Portland Alumnre Club, establishment 108, 131 

work 109, 13 i 

Powell, Maud, biographical sketch 312 

photograph 313 

work 335 

Province government, adoption 141, 142, 190 


value 199 

Province presidents, duties 141 

list 144 

Provinces, conventions of 141, 142 

establishment 141, 190 

geographical distribution 141 

map showing 139 

Psi Chapter, charter members 60 

college honors 373 

establishment of 27, 60 

home of 61 

view showing 60 

Pueblo Alumnae Club, establishment 108, 131 
work 109, 132 


Uced, Susan, work of 335 

Uficlifit, HiTtlia, as (]rtii.ial f.\ainiii<.M- .... 149 

Reserve Fund, (.'Staljltsliincnt 64, ().S, 188 

growth 65, 147, 188, 

190, 258 

loans from 214 

management 65 

I)urposc ()5, 1 90 

value of, in aluninx- organization ... Ill 
See also Lyre Reserve Fund. 

Reynolds, Harriet F., biograiihical 

sketch 322 

Reynolds, Jessie Merchant, biographical 

sketch 323 

Rho Chapter, charter members 53 

college honors 366-368 

establishment 27, 52, 53 

historical sketch 53 

home of, view showing 53 

prominent members 330, 337 

Rieth, Amy Du Bois, biograi)hical sketch 14 

photograph 6 

Ritual, Grecian influence in 278, 279 

revision of 184, 207 

Ritual and Equipment Committee, ap- 

l)ointment of 112 

Rive-King, Julia, biographical sketch .... 313 

initiation 1 7 

Rushing Rules, publication of 200, 212 

St. Louis Alumnx Club, establishment 

Sayle, Mary, work of 

Schauffler, R. H., cited 

Scholarship, high, chapters attaining .... 

legislation regarding 182, 194, 

maintenance of 

Scholarship Committee, value of 

Scholarship Fund, advantages 

establishment 65, 184, 

maintenance 65, 66, 147, 195, 


value, in alumn;e organization 

Scholarship reports, adoption of 

Seal, official, adoption of 214, 

figure showing 

Secret journal, authorization for publi- 

See also Argolid, Heraeum. 

Seiple, Charlotte Weber, term of service 

Sigma Chapter, charter members 

college honors 368, 

establishment 27, 

historical sketch 

home of, view showing 

prominent members 330, 

scholarship record 

Sigma Kappa, altruistic work 


Siller, Mabel Harriet. See Nafis, Mabel 

Simpson College (Iowa), establishment 

















fraternities at 86, 375 

historical sketch 86 

I'anlu-llenic association at 86, 87 

standards 47 

statistics of "2 

Smith, Anna Allen, biographical sketch 12 

photograph 6 

.Songbook, authorization for 156, 172 

development of 241-243 

early plans for 154 

publishing of 157, 200 

rcriuirements regarding purchase .... 195 

value of 110 

Songs, A X n, Greek influence on ....277, 278 

early, writing of 1", 21 

Southern California, I'niversity of, 

establishment 75 

fraternities at 75, 374 

historical sketch 75-77 

Panhellenic association 76 

statistics of 72 

■South wick, \'era, alumna; work of 108 

Stanford, Mary, photograph 155 

t«rm of service 151 

Star Studio, description 246, 257, 258, 273 

occujiants 272 

vise, award of 277 

view of 274 

.Starr, (iretchen O'Donnell, work 337 

Slarr, Nell Brushingham, biographical 

.sketch 326 

photograph 315 

.Stevenson, Evangeline Bridge, biographi- 
cal sketch 325 

I)hotograph 188 

.Supplies, fraternity, list of 251, 252 

systematizing of 212, 251 

Symphony of fraternity 212, 214, 290 

Syracuse University (X. Y.), establish- 
ment 85 

fraternities at 2, 85, 374 

historical sketch 85, 86 

Panhellenic association at 85 

statistics of 72 

Szumowska, .\ntoinette, biographical 

sketch 314 

Tail Chapter, charter members 

college honors 370, 

establishment 27, 

historical sketch 55, 

h.ome of, views showing 55, 

prominent members 

scholarship record 

Tennant, Mary Jones, on installation of 

Beta Chapter 


term of service 

work of 224, 252, 

Terre Haute Alumn.x Club, establish- 
ment 108, 

Theta Chapter, altruistic work 40, 





aliiniiia; organization Ill 

charter members .19 

college honors 351-353 

entertainment of convention l)y .... 184 

establishment 27, 29, 39 

historical sketch 39, 40 

home of, description 262 

figure showing 261 

value 64, 259 

house ownership by, details of plan 

for 260, 262 

prominent members 2:27, 334, 335, Z2i7 , 

Theta Theta Chapter, charter members 123 

establishment 107, 122, 123 

work 109. 123 

Thrower, Norma Harrison, work of .... 330 

Traditions of A X fi 290-294 

significance of 295 

Traditions Committee, establishment of 195 

Tree, fraternity, adoption of 182, 220 

Trowbridge, Carrie Adelaide, photograph 331 

work 325, 335 

Twin Cities Alumnx Club, establishment 133 


Upcraft, Margaret, work of 335 

L^psilon Chapter, altruistic work 57 

charter members 56 

college honors 373 

establishment 27, 56 

historical sketch 57 

home of, view showing 57 

prominent members 332, 341 

Upton, Vera, biographical sketch .... 328, 330 

photograph 324 


Wade, Elma Patton, as Lyre editor 208, 227 
photograph 229 

Washington, University of, establishment 94 

fraternities at 95, 374 

historical sketch 94, 95 

statistics of 72 

Washington State College, description 

of 104, 105 

fraternities at 374 

historical sketch 104 

Panhellenic association of, constitu- 
tion and by-laws 302-304 

pledging rules 300, 301 

statistics of 72- 

Whistle of fraternity 224 

Wilhite, Mary E., biographical sketch . . 321 


Wilson, Mary Janet, as Lyre Editor .... 227 

jihotograpli 21 

term of service 151 

Wisconsin, L'niversity of, admission of 

women 2 

establishment 83 

extension courses at 375 

fraternities at 84, 374 

historical sketch S3, 84 

statistics of 72 

Women, higher education of, develop- 
ment 1, 2, 375 

Sec also Coeducation. 
\\'omen's fraternities, in 1885, general 

condition 5 

institutions entered by 3, 4, 5 

number of members of 5 

purposes of 3, 290 

iclation of, to coeducation 2 

Worthington, Jennie, biographical sketch 322 


Xi Chapter, charter members 49 

establishment 27, 49 

historical sketch 49, 50 

home, view showing 48 

prominent members 328-330, 341 


Yaw, Ellen Beach, biographical sketch 

of 317, 318 

photograph of 318 

work of 335 


Zeisler, Fanny Bloomfield, biographical 

sketch 311, 312 

initiation 20, 21 

photograph 312 

Zeta Chapter, entertainment of conven- 
tion by 168 

establishment 11, 39 

historical sketch 39 

prominent metnbers 325, 326, 335, 339, 341 
scholarship given by 258 

Zeta Zeta Chapter, charter members .... 122 

establishment 107, 120 

work 109, 122, 250 

Zimmerman, Lillian G., alumnx work 108 

on value of scholarship fund 66 

photograph 197 

term of service 152 


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