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Full text of "History of the American Negro and his institutions;"

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I HISTORY OF THE | 

I AMERICAN NEGRO AND HIS | 
I INSTITUTIONS I 



GEORGIA EDITION 



EDITED BY 

A. B. CALDWELL 



ORIGINAL EDITION 
ILLUSTRATED 



I 1917 \ 

I A. B. Caldwell Publishing Co. | 

I ATLANTA, GEORGIA \ 

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—i 



ASTOR.LENQX . 



Copyright, 1917, 
A. B. CALDWELL PUBLISHING CO. 



PREFACE 



This first volume of Tlie History of the American Negro and 
Hig Institutions, Georgia Edition, is not complete and exhaus- 
tive. It is merely a beginning and is offered to the public with 
the hope that it may prove of genuine interest and helpfulness, 
especially to those ten million American citizens who have more 
or less of African blood, and whom we know as Negroes. They 
are a very vital part of our civic life ; and coming out of genera- > 
tions of slavery, which was itself preceded by a long period of ' 
mental and moral darkness, they have during their first half 
century as free American citizens undergone changes and de- 
velopments of which comparatively little is known except in the 
most fragmentary way, even by their closest white neighbors; 
and^Iie~Negroes themselves have had no means of acquiring any 
comprehensive knowledge of the achievements of theit race. 
There has heretofore been no publication covering this field 
in a large way, though it is one of vital concern to the whole 
American nation in general and the Negroes in particular, and 
affords much material of the most thrilling interest to the student 
of human nature and of human history. It is a story of heroic 
struggle crowned with noble achievement. Perhaps no other' 
phase of American life presents as much fine story-material as 
does the experience of the American Negro since Emancipation. 

It is true that, daily and hourly, the press of the country 
grinds out matter of one kind or another pertaining to the 
Negro. Much of this is characterized by shallowness and levity, 
and deals in an exaggerated way with their crimes and foibles ;\ 
while that which deals with the achievements and accomplish- 
ments o't the better and more successful element of the race 
passes almost unrecorded and without notice. 

We are not unmindful that there have appeared from time to 
time important publications from the hands of capable writers 
which are true to life and of incalculable value ; but they touch 
only here and there the broader field which in this work we are 
endeavoring to cover with some thoroughness. 

We undertake to tell in the biographical department of in- 



dividual struggles and triumphs, as the most tangible, concrete 
examples of their life and work. These biographies are written 
from an appreciative point of view. Our effort has not been to 
criticise nor to find fault. Rather it has been our effort to find 
what is worthy and what is best, and by sympathetic treatment 
make a work which will be a source of helpful inspiration to 
the present and succeeding generations. At the same time truth 
has been prized more highly than a good story, and the biogra- 
phies have been made as accurate and as true to life as possible. 
It is not improbable that here .and there errors may have crept 
in, and we cannot vouch for the entire correctness of every 
statement where we are dependent upon others for facts. Nor 
do we expect every one to agree with all we say, since different 
men see things differently. We do believe, however, that with 
the care that has been exercised in the preparation of this 
volume, we have approached near enough to accuracy to make 
the work one of real value and creditable to all who are identified 
with it. 

As the title indicates, it is contemplated that the completed 
work will cover the entire American field in all its important 
phases, one or more volumes being devoted to each state where 
there is sufficient Negro population to warrant it, and the other 
states being grouped. We have endeavored to set a high stand- 
ard in this, the first (Georgia) volume. 

We wish to tender our most cordial thanks to that long list 
of colored men and women, too numerous to mention here by 
name, who by their hearty co-operation have made it possible 
to build a work of this character. 

THE PUBLISHER. 



CONTENTS 



Adams, John Henry 92 

Alexander, William G 615 

Allen, George Wesley 64 

Allen, Peyton Austin 34 

Alston, Matthew Monroe 460 

Anderson, Henry Harrison 219 

Atwatek, Anak Thomas 273 

Barco, Edward Burl 238 

Bell, Luther H. A 465 

Bivins, Willlvm Grant 215 

Blanton, N. E 145 

Black, Nathan Lane 676 

Bonner, Coleman L 536 

Borders, Noah 342 

Bouey, Forrest Lee 194 

BowEN, John W. E 81 

Bracy, Dock 127 

Branch, Richmond V 374 

Bridges, Fr^vnk Randall 450 

Brinson, Eugene J 37 

Brinson, Marcellus F 271 

Broughton, John B 413 

Brown, Cyrus 267 

Brown, Dillard H 67 

Brown, John Henry 188 

Bryant, Alonzo William 617 

Bryant, Peter James 331 

Bullard, Charles A 463 

Burns, Andrew A 564 

Butler, Joel Landrue 22 

Byrd, William 440 

Cain, Commodore 1 142 

Cannon, Danile W. . . ' 31 

Cannon, William S 96 

Cantrell, Joseph 1 535 

Carson, John W 553 

Carter, James E 575 

Carter, Raymond H 322 

Carthan, Taylor 525 

Gartwright, W. C 598 

Gary, Alice Dugged 175 

Clark, Alexander E 371 

(Jlark, Noah Webster 632 

Cobb, Andrew J 243 

Cobb, Mrs. Helena B 246 

Combs, Oswell A 438 

Cook, Nathan 249 

Cottrell, Samuel D 528 

Crawford, Doc Dugas 279 

Creagh, Joseph James 478 

Crolley, John 276 

Cunningham, Geo. A 523 

Daniel, Robt. Toombs 323 

Datcher, William 113 

Davis, Benjamin J 441 

Davis, Samuel G 482 

Dawson, Sampson S 511 

Dickson, William Harrison 51 

DoRSEY, John Franklin 529 

Douglass, Dennis F 545 

Doyle, Newton Alex 293 

Drew, Wesley Wm 165 



DuGGED, William H. S 178 

DwELLE, George Henry 18 

DwELLE, Georgia 378 

DwELLE, Thomas Henry 121 

Elder, Thomas Jefferson 533 

English, James W 559 

English, Robert 491 

Epton, John Belton 577 

Evans, Pheolian A 202 

Farmer, William Edward 380 

Fambro, John L 217 

Fitzgerald, Charles H 621 

Fleming, James Robert 584 

Flemister, Henry Lewis 259 

Flipper, Joseph Simon 11 

Floyd, William W 423 

Fountain, William A 428 

FoBBEs, William Ryley 514 

FoRTSON, Henry Early 108 

Gaines, Carlton Wilson 494 

Gallimore, Donald W 573 

Gordon, Frederick M. . 489 

Granberry, Isaiah 236 

Greatheart, Patrick W 446 

Green, Eustace Edavard 15 

Gregg, Franklin 70 

Griffith, Rort. H 505 

Hadley, James A 604 

Hall, John Henry 385 

Hall, Louis Emory 497 

Hall, Samuel D 383 

Hamilton, Alexander D 86 

Harper, L. H 649 

Harper, Luther S 554 

Harris, Judia Jackson 642 

Harbison, Granville W 667 

Henry, James M. J 506 

Hill, Lyndon Marcus 307 

HiNES, James Thomas 399 

Hines, William A 315 

Holland, Richard Allen 624 

Holmes, R. R 344 

Holmes, William A 567 

Holsey, Charles Wesley 449 

HoLSEY, James Henry 283 

Holsey, Lucius H 433 

HoRNSBY, Walter S 124 

HoRTON, John Henry 426 

HosKiNs, Chas. F 77 

Hubbard, William M 562 

Hudson, Harrison 626 

Hudson, William R 347 

Hughes, Jere F 457 

Hughes, William L 487 

Humbert, Samuel Scipio 328 

Hunter, James M 591 

Hunter, Miles ^^^ 

Jackson, John Warren 303 

Jackson, Mary C 359 

Jackson, Newsome D 265 

James, Sanford F 395 

Jenkins, Jabez 483 

Johnson, Charles J 58 

Johnson, Calvert P 636 

Johnson, Edavin Posey 169 

Johnson, Henry Hal 589 



Johnson, James Solomon "^^ 

Johnson, Joe Thomas ^t 

Johnson, Phillip Dowell *^^ 

Johnson, Roman J ^r*^ 

Johnson, William G *^^ 

Jones, Blanton J 

Jones, Ralph E "iyl 

Jones, William Warren ^/^ 

Jordan, John Henry ^*^ 

Jordan, Louis W. P *°^ 

JOSEY, T. W ^*^ 

JOYNER, David 

Keith, Perry A ^"^ 

King, Griffin D "^^^ 

lis 
Lemon, George W. ^^^ 

Lennon, George H t.^' 

Linton, Thomas Joseph ^^'^ 

Lovejoy, John D ^^^ 

Lumpkin, Thomas A *^ 

Lynch, Samuel E ' 

Mack, Isaiah "'^^ 

Maddux, Jacob B ' 

Madison, James W " ;; 

Manning, Cornelius M ^^^ 

Marshall, Shadrach R ^^^ 

Mathis, Amos A TIt, 

Maxwell, Anderson ' " 

Means, Samuel G ^q^ 

Miller, David L *^^ 

Miller, James Berry " 

Moncrief, Robert ^ 

Moon, DeLove Willis ^^^ 

Moon, Hampton C" ^°° 

Moon, Margaret M -^Tl 

Moon, Rort. IjOuis ^g. 

Moore, Chester A "^ 

Moore, John Henry ^^^ 

Moore, Miles P ^„„ 

Morris, James D ^ 

Morris, Major • _„„ 

Moses, Norton 

McAfee L. D r^l 

McCoy, Albert B ^'j'* 

McGraw, Joseph C *^i 

McKiNNEY, Addison R ^' 

McLendon, William A 

Nabrit, James M. • g^ 

Nichols, Reuben B ^ 

Norman, Grafton S " 

NucKELS, Absolom D 

Pace, Harry Herbert "^ 

Page, Phillip G 22_ 

Paschal, Riley K ^„ 

Penn, Alexander ^^ . 

Peters, Stephen A t' ^^ 

Pharrow, Robert E ,^ 

Phillips, Geo. W. F j!'^ 

PiNKSTON, German R ' ' 

Ponton, Mungo M ^.^ 

Posey, Charley . . ^^^ 

Proctor, Henry H ^,^1, 

PUGHSTEY, DOLPHUS V "g-, 

PuLLiNS, William 

T-. A T> ..... 673 
Raiford, a. R PP< 

Reddick, Major W ^ ._ 

Reddick, Richard M 



Richardson, Elijah R 55o 

Robinson, John Henry 308 

RosEBOROUGH, Sandy D 405 

Russell, William S 298 

Russell, Samuel Mack 75 

Sams, James Oliver 192 

Saunders, John T 521 

Scarlett, Henry (" 409 

Scarlett, Styles M 501 

Sessoms, F. D 646 

Sheffield, Jackson K 61 

Shropshire, Lunie 628 

Simmons, Square S 234 

Sims, David H 150 

Slade, Willis O 572 

Smith, Henry M 349 

Smith, Lewis H 180 

Smith, William J 253 

Smith, William Jefferson 362 

Snellings, Randall S 49 

Snow, Daniel S 609 

Solomon, James D 101 

Staley, Alfred S 476 

Strickland, Eddie 161 

Strickland, William (' 300 

Taliaferro, John R 352 

Thomas, Edgar G 355 

Thomas, Jefferson T 498 

Thompson, Eugene ,T 256 

Thompson, Judge Marshall 612 

Thompson, Louis 471 

Thompson, Nathaniel T 630 

Tolbert, Uriah P 153 

Towns, .Tames F 474 

Traylor, .Joseph H 224 

Turner, Henry M 480 

Tuggle, William H 54 

Turner, .John H. N 595 

Usher, Jerry M 620 

Veal, Charles T 365 

Vincent, Harrison 311 

Walden, Austin Thomas 326 

Walker, Charles T 683 

Walker, Harold 27 

Walker, .Tames 469 

Walker, Robert W 580 

Walker, Solomon W 130 

Washington, General P 569 

Watkins, ,Tohn P 46S 

Watson, S. E. J 679 

Watson, Van A. O 650 

Watts, Monroe W -32 

Webb, Adolphus D. . l'^3 

Wheeler. ,Tohn L 229 

White, Robt. W 186 

Wiley, Cyrus G 638 

WiLKERsoN, Andrew J 116 

Williams, Adam D. . . 210 

Williams, Charlie 530 

Williams, .Toshtja Sloan 518 

Williams, Rort. Benjamin 339 

Williams, Willis J ^^ 

Wilson, Allen A 16' 

Wilson, Nank HI 

Wright, Noah Bell 548 

Yarbrough, Annie 5^6 

Young, Henry Clay 207 



i i^UiiUU Li^KARY 



JOSEPH SIMEON FLIPPER 



IT is given to the world in any race or any generation to 
have only a limited number of those men who by reason of 
their extraordinary force of character and superior ability 
stand out like mountain peaks, towering above their fellows; 
and weild a commanding influence over many thousands. The 
Negro race in America is not without such men, and perhaps 
a larger number of them than most men have imagined; and 
among them is Bishop Joseph Simeon Flipper, D. D., LL. D., of 
Atlanta, Ga. 

We do not mean by this men of mere pretense and bombast 
and assumed superiority, from which our subject is as free as 
can be imagined, and which only serves to belittle great men 
and make small men ridiculous. In fact, the Bishop's con- 
sciousness of his own lofty and unselfish motives and unim- 
peachable integrity, and the physical and mental powers witli 
which he is endowed, backed by a sense of Divine support, 
make him one of the most utterly independent characters of 
whom we have any knowledge, irrespective of racial or other 
considerations. 

Our subject is a native of Atlanta, Ga., where he was born 
Feb. 22, 1859, being second among the five sons of Festus 
Flipper, Sr., and his wife Isabella (Buckhalter) Flipper. His 
father was a shoemaker. 

Joseph obtained his first schooling in the old Bethel A. M. 
E. Church, on Jenkins street, in Atlanta, under the auspices of 
the American Missionary Association. When later the Storrs 
School was built on Houston street, he entered that and finish- 
ed the course of studies there, and was among the first students 
to enter Atlanta University in 1869. Here he had reached the 
junior year in 1876. On the 9th of July, 1876, he left Atlanta and 
taught a public school term in Thomaston, Upson county, dur- 
ing which time his parents moved to Thomasville. After the 
close of his school term at Thomaston and a few months spent 
in Macon in 1877, he proceeded to his parents' home at 



12 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

Thomasville, where he arrived March 29, 1877, and began 
teaching his second school at a point twelve miles out from 
that place. It was here that he^ -was converted and joined the 
;A. M. E. Church, under the pastoral charge of Rev. S. W. 
■Prayton. He was elected Captain of a company of the State 
Militia known as the Thomasville Independents, and received 
his commission from Governor Alfred H. Colquitt, in 1879. 
During that year he taught a school at Grooverville, Ga., where 
he was licensed as an exhorter and local preacher, and was 
recommended to the Annual Conference of the A. M. E. Church 
for admission, and was admitted into the Conference when it 
convened the next year, 1880, at Americus, under the presi- 
dency of Bishop Jabez P. Campbell. His first appointment was 
to the pastoral charge of Grooverville circuit, in Brooks county, 
from which he had been recommended to the Conference. He 
again taught a term of the public school here, and later, for 
the first and only time in his life, became a candidate for public 
office. Mr. Flipper was an ardent Republican. The Democrats 
were in the majority in the county, but had become divided, 
so that there seemed a chance of Republican success, and as no 
one else Avould offer, and he regarded the absence of a candi- 
date a reflection on his party, he entered the race for the 
Legislature two weeks before the election, and was defeated 
by about two hundred votes. In 1881, he was appointed by 
Bishop Dickerson to the pastoral charge of Boston circuit, 
jhomas county, where he again taught the public school. In 
J882 the Georgia Annual Conference met at Thomasville, and 
ISlr. Flipper was elected secretary of that body, and was highly 
complimented for his efficiency by Dr. J. 0. A. Clark, of the M. 
E. Church, South. At this Conference Mr. Flipper was ap- 
pointed to the pastoral charge of Darien station and was 
elected a trustee of Morris Brown College. At the next session 
,f the Conference, he was transferred from the Georgia Con- 
jcrence to the ]Macon (Georgia) Conference, Avhich was organ- 
ized at that time. The first session of this new Conference was 
held at Sandersville, and .Mr. Flipper was chosen reporter for 
the Conference. At the close of the session he was sent back 



GEORGIA EDITION 13 

to the Georgia Conference to Poplar Springs and Cook's 
Chapel circuit, to be transferred to Nashville, Tenn., but gave 
the appointment back and did not go. lie returned to Darien, 
where upon invitation, he delivered an oration on the court- 
house square, presenting a beautiful silk flag to the Darien 
Volunteer Guards. He then removed to Thomasville and en- 
gaged in teaching school in 1883 at Cairo and Whigham. In 
1884 he attended the Conference at Valdosta, and Avas assigned 
to Bethel A. ]M. E. Church at Quitnmn, to which he was re- 
appointed the following year. This church earnestly desired 
that he be returned for a third year; but Bishop James A. 
Shorter transferred him to the North Georgia Conference and 
stationed him at Bethel A. M. E. Church, Atlanta, so that after 
ten 3^ears' absence from the city of his birth and education, 
he was returned there to the largest church of his connection 
in the city and State, and of which church his own mother v/as 
a member. It was here that one of the incidents occurred that 
serve to illustrate his independent spirit. It had been the 
custom of Bethel church to Avelcome its new pastors by a 
"house-warming" and pound party Avhich, being largely at- 
tended by the members and friends of the flock, provided many 
small donations for the beginning of the pastor's house-keep- 
ing. On this occasion, with the coming of so able and so 
popular a pastor, the custom was observed with perhap#more 
than usual enthusiasm. With due dignity, Dr. Flipper in- 
formed the assembled guests that he had come there to serve 
them for a specific salary, and that he would expect that 
salary to be paid; but that he did not need the donations of 
the pound party. 

Dr. Flipper continued with Bethel church for four years, 
where as usual his pastorate was eminently successful, and 
the church continued to prosper. In 1889, he became pastor of 
the church at Atliens, Ga. In 1892 he was appointed by Bishop 
A. Grant Presiding Elder of the Athens District, in which 
capacity he was continued for three years ; in 1895 was ap- 
pointed pastor at Allen Temple, Atlanta, where he served four 
years, and in 1899 pastor at St. Paul, Atlanta; in 1903 Dean 
of Turner Theological Seminary. Atlanta, which position he 



14 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

held for one year. In 1904 he was elected by the board of 
trustees of Morris Brown College as president of that, the 
leading educational institution of his denomination in the 
State. Here he remained four years, until his election as 
Bishop, which occurred at Norfolk, Va., in 1908. The years 
since that time have been devoted with zeal and ability to the 
duties of this high office, for which he was so eminently fitted. 
Prior to this time, in 1900, at Columbus, Ohio, he had been 
elected chairman of the Episcopal Committee of the General 
Conference, and again at Chicago in 1904. This is the most 
important committee of the General Conference, as it passes 
upon the moral, religious and official character of the Bishops 
and assigns them to their Episcopal Districts. From 1904 to 
1908, he was a member of the General Conference Financial 
Board. 

On February 24, 1880, Dr. Flipper was married to Miss 
Amanda Slater, daughter of Eliza Slater, They have three 
children: Josephine G., Nathaniel F. and Carl F. Flipper. 

Bishop Flipper, as has already been stated, is a Republican 
in politics, and is affiliated with the Odd Fellows and Masons. 
He is an occasional contributor to various journals, inr-luding 
the Christian Recorder, the Southern Christian Recordci a ad 
the Western Christian Recorder. 

It goes without saying that with a man lik3 Bishop Flipper, 
the Bible is The Book, though he has been a wide, but discrimi- 
nating reader, and has next to the Bible found books on 
philosophy, science and history most helpful. 

Of the two degrees which Bishop Flipper bears, that of 
Doctor of Divinity was conferred by Allen University, Colum- 
bia, S. C, in 1893, and that of Doctor of Laws by Wilberforce 
University, "Wilberforce, 0., in 1909. 

He is a stockholder in the Standard Life Insurance Com- 
pany, the only old-line insurance company owned and con- 
trolled by Negroes, and holds the first policy, for three thous- 
?nd dollars, issued by the company. He is a stockholder and 
director of the Atlanta State Savings Bank, also a stockholder 
in The Independent of New York City. He is a member of the 
Southern Sociological Congress, a member of the National Geo- 



GEORGIA EDITION 15 

jrraphic Society, of Washington, D. C, a trustee of the World's 
Christian Endeavor, President of the Sunday School Union 
Board of the A. M. E. Church, which prints and has control of 
all the Sunday School literature of the church. 



EUSTACE EDWARD GREEN 



AMONG the forceful leaders of the Negro race in Georgia, 
who has made his influence felt not only in his own state 
and in the medical profession, to which his principal 
attention has been devoted for a number of years, but in other 
lines and in other states as well, is Eustace Edward Green, A. 
M., M. D., of ]\[acon. He was born at Wilmington, N. C, Febru- 
ary 3, 1845, son of ]\Iary Ann (Simpson) Holmes. His paternal 
ancestry was Scotch, or of Scotch extraction. 

His first educational training was obtained at the Parochial 
''Presbyterian) School in his native city of Wilmington. Later 
he entered Lincoln University, Pennsylvania, from which he was 
graduated with the A. B. degree in 1872, and from which he 
also received the A. M. degree in 1875, later taking a course at 
Howard Medical College, at Washington, D. C, from which he 
graduated with the M. D. degree in 1886, and immediately 
entered upon the practice of his profession at Macon, Ga., where 
be still resides. In the meantime, however, he had taught some at 
lioth Lincoln and Howard Uinversities. By this and other means 
be had found it necessary to work out almost his entire educa- 
tion through his own efforts; and in the light of that fact the 
thoroughness with which he did it is all the more creditable, and 
stamped him even that early as a man of such force and ability 
that large things might be expected of him, such as have mater- 
ialized in the succeeding years. In shaping his early life, he 
regards his mother and stepfather as the predominating in- 
fluences. Since he entered upon the practice of his profession, a 
large share of his reading has of course been devoted to medical 
work, by means of which he has sought to enhance his equip- 



16 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

ment and keep abreast of the times. The Bible he places as 
paramount, and its influence has been largely manifest in his 
(•areer. He is also fond of American history and choice English 
literature. He has also travelled extensively in the South, West 
and Northwest. 

Before coming to Georgia, he had spent sixteen years in 
public school work in North Carolina and South Carolina; and 
while teaching in the latter state was for a time a member of the 
County Board of Examiners for Newberry county. He also 
served for two years as Deputy Clerk of the Court of General 
Sessions and Common Pleas, Laurens county, South Carolina, or, 
as it is perhaps better know^n, the Superior Court ; and in North 
Carolina he was a member of the Legislature in 1882-1883. 

On July 1, 1879, Dr. Green was married to Miss Georgia 
Cherry, of Tarboro, N. C, daughter of Henry and Mary A. 
Cherry. They have four children : Dr. Charles F. Green, born at 
Wilmington, N. C. ; Eustace E. Green, Jr., now a student in 
Cornell University, Ithaca, N. Y. ; Cornelius H. Green, Macon, 
Ga., and Mary L. Green, now in her second year at Haynes 
School, Augusta, Ga. ; so it may be seen that Dr. Green is giving 
his children the benefit of the best educational advantages. 

Something may be judged of his success and standing and 
the esteem in which he is held by his contemporaries in 
his chosen profession by the following facts ; namely, that he has 
twice been president of the (Colored) Georgia Medical Associa- 
tion, and also presided at the organization in Atlanta, Ga., of the 
National I\Iedical Association. He is a man of strong religious 
sentiment, and stands high in the councils of the Presbyterian 
church, having represented his presbytery in three General 
Assemblies. He was chosen Moderator of the Atlanta Synod at 
Macon in 1910. He operates a successful drug store in ]\Iacon, 
carrying a good stock and has acquired other valuable property. 
His suggestions as to the best methods of promoting the welfare 
of the people of his race in the state and nation, are interesting 
Hud worthy of careful thought. He puts it about this way: 
"Good character, square dealing with all people, strict attention 
to business. Christian education, and a goodly portion of this 
world's goods honestly acquired." These principles have been 




EUSTACE EDWARD GREEN 



18 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

successfully wrought out in his own life. The accumulation of 
a fair amount of property by the means stated is within the 
reach of most men, and few will question its desirability for all. 
Fortunately, the character, which he places first of all, and its 
consequent honorable dealing with all men, is within the reach 
of all. 

Dr. Green is rounding out a well spent life, with the prospect 
of some years yet of effective work for the betterment of physi- 
cal, moral and religious conditions among his people; and the 
influence of such a life will live through many generations. 



GEORGE HENRY DWELLE 



IT is a great thing to have known the people of three genera- 
tions, and to have marked the progress and the changes 
brought about by the lapse of more than four score years. 
Such, however, has been the experience of Dr. George Henry 
Dwelle, now in his eighty-third year. 

The simple narrative of his life would fill a book, and the 
sketch which can be made here must concern itself mainly with 
the recital of the simple story of the life of a man who now past 
eighty-three looks no older than a man of sixty, and whose mental 
powers are still unimpaired. 

He was born in Columbia county on January 26, 1833. His 
father was a white man, C. J. Cook. His mother was ^lary 
Thomas, but was living at the time of Dr. Dwelle 's birth with 
a family by the name of Dwelle, whose name was given to the 
Negro boy. It sounds strange and far away, especially to the 
young people of this generation, but our subject remembers hav- 
ing been sold twice, first when a small boy he was carried by his 
master to Columbus, and later to Alabama. Changes in his mas- 
ter's circumstances rendered it necessary for him to sell his 
slaves, and out of consideration for those who had formerly 
lived in Augusta, he sent a number of them back to Augusta to 
be sold. George and his mother were bought by George's father 




GEORGE HENRY DWELLE 



20 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

C. J. Cook. After Mr. Cook's death they were again sold by 
the estate and bought for fifteen hundred dollars by a man who 
was really his uncle. He was a capable, industrious hand, and 
was given an opportunity to work out his freedom, and had paid 
thirteen hundred dollars on the fifteen hundred which his 
master was charging him for himself at the time of Emancipa- 
tion. It is needless to say that the remaining two hundred was 
never paid. 

Prior to the war, two Englishmen conducted a clandestine 
school for Negroes in Augusta, and at this he learned at night 
as opportunity offered. He could read and write at thirteen, 
and after he was a grown man, and even after his marriage, he 
went to the public school. He seems never to have ceased to 
learn. He was a carriage maker by trade, and during the war 
worked for a while at the arsenal in Augusta, making caisons 
and gun carriages. Later he was transferred to an establish- 
ment making accoutrements for the infantry, such as cartridge 
belts, scabbards, etc. 

He was converted and joined the Springfield Baptist church, 
of Augusta, in 1855, at the age of twenty-two. He was baptized 
the following January, and has from that day to this been a 
member of the same church. 

In the late sixties he was more or less active in politics, and 
did considerable campaign work, which he found so unprofit- 
able and unsatisfactory that he determined not to meddle with 
politics again. 

In 1874 he w^as licensed to preach, and ordained by his own 
home church. Entering upon the active ministry, his first pas- 
torate was in Sumter county, where he supplied Livingstone 
Pond, Shady Grove and Spring Hill churches. Later he was 
called to Albany, where he remained for four years, and while 
on that field built the Eureka Baptist church. From Albany he 
was called to the pastorate of the Springfield church, Augusta, 
where he remained for twenty-seven years, being the ninth 
pastor of that great congregation, now numbering more than 
eleven hundred, being one of the oldest and most important 
Negro congregations in the South. They worship in a brick 
building which cost twenty-three thousand dollars, and which 



GEORGIA EDITION 21 

was erected during his pastorate. His intelligence and activity, 
his untiring energy and purity of character, have marked him 
as a leader of his race in Georgia, and for fifty years he has 
been so recognized by his own and the white people. In his 
work as a missionary and as a preacher, he has been heard 
in every part of the State. As secretary of the Missionary 
Baptist Convention, and later as president of the General Bap- 
tist Convention for nine years, and as clerk for sixteen years 
of the Ebenezer Association, which was the first association of 
colored churches organized im Georgia, he is thoroughly 
familiar with everj- phase and every department of the de- 
nominational work. Thoroughly missionary in spirit, ardent 
advocate of temperance, friend of education and a champion 
of clean morals, he has endeavored by precept and example 
to lead his race in every good word and work. 

It goes without saying that he has been a good preacher; 
but more than that, he has been a great pastor, laying solid 
foundations and doing constructive work among his people, 
and living before them a clean and spotless life every day. 
When he retired from the pastorate in 1912, he was presented 
with a remarkable memorial from the most prominent white 
citizens of Augusta, expressing their sincere regret at the loss 
of such a leader, and commending most heartily the work 
which he had done in their midst. 

It should not be a matter of surprise to learn that of the 
books he has read, he puts the Bible first in importance and in 
its influence on his life. After this, he has found religious and 
doctrinal books most helpful. 

Dr- Dwelle has been married three times: first to Emma 
Barefield, second to Eliza Dickerson, and third to Mrs. Rena 
(Davis) Watts. The second wife bore him four boys and one 
girl, all of whom were given the advantages of a college educa- 
tion. They are George B., who is now with a Columbia, S. C, 
hotel; John H., a Baptist minister at Braddock, Pa.; Thomas 
H., pastor of the Union Baptist Church, Augusta ; Edwin L. 
with the Pullman Car Company ; the only daughter, a sketch 
of whom will be found in this volume, Dr. Georgia Dwelle- 
Howell, is a practicing physician in Atlanta, with whom her 



22 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

father resides, at 94 N. Boulevard, since his retirement. At 
the time of his marrage to his last wife, who was a widow, she 
had one young son, George F. Watts, whom he reared and 
educated, and who is now a practicing physician at Plainfield^ 
N. J. 

In 1890, Dr. Dwelle conducted a Centennial meeting at 
Springfield Baptist Church, which was one of the largest and 
most successful meetings ever held by Negro Baptists in the 
South, leading Negro ministers from many states being in at- 
tendance for one week. Wherever he has gone, he has tried to 
live a correct life before his people, and the lead to better 
things. He has tried to set his people an example, as well as 
to preach to them. While he has not made the gathering of 
material things about him the end of life, he has by economy 
and industry saved a competency. He owns and rents several 
houses in Augusta, one in Americus, and another in Atlanta. 

Dr. Dwelle has long had the confidence and esteem of the 
white leaders of the State, as well as of his own people, and 
his reminiscences about them and their religious work is a 
story which ought to be told more fully than the limitations 
of space will here permit. 



JOEL LANDRUE BUTLER 



THE sul).ject of this sketch was born Dec. 22, 1876, in 
Barber County, Alabama. At the age of six he moved 
with his father and mother, Rev. H. R. Butler and M. A. 
Butler to Oswichee, Ala., where his father purchased a small 
plantation. At an early age his grandmother Mollie Butler put 
him to work on the farm ; he grew very slowly and was called 
the runt of the family. 

At seven he was sent to a three-month public school taught 
by Miss Jennie Biggers a white woman from New York who 
was in charge of one of the county schools for colored people. 
His teacher took great pains with little folks, and as such, he 
learned his letters or alpha])Pt in on(> day. In 1885 the Mission 




JOEL LANDRUE BUTLER 



24 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

Board moved his teacher, ordering her to Boston, Mass. In the 
fall of 1886 he attended the same school under Prof. R. B, 
Henseley, and Miss Sarah Yarber, of Columbus, Ga. "When he 
was fourteen years of age his parents moved to Girard, Ala- 
bama, where they purchased another home at great sacrifice, 
and where their children would have better schools. He 
entered the Girard Peabody public school in the winter of 
2890, under Principal G. W. Allen, A. M., D. D., the present 
Editor of "The Southern Christian Recorder." He was per- 
mitted to remain in school until he completed the fifth grade. 
From here he was taken to Jerryton and Enon, Alabama, and 
put to work on the farm. 

On August fifteenth 1892, he was converted and renewed 
his relation with the A. M. E. Church, at Hardway, Ala., where 
his father Rev. II. R. Butler was pastor. 

In 1897 he, with his brother Daniel L. Butler and the family, 
moved back to Oswichee, Ala., to take charge of the farm. In 
May 1898, he was licensed to preach by Rev. H. C. Calhoun, 
D. D, In July of the same year he was given charge of the 
Barnacre Mission, one mile from the Chattahoochee River 
banks. In 1899 Bishop C. S. Smith, IM. D. D. D., who was at 
that time Editor and Secretary of the A. M. E. Sunday School 
Union, Nashville, Tenn., gave to the A. M. E. connection five 
scholarships. One of them was given the Alabama conference 
to dispose of. Among the many young men that entered the 
contest, was Rev. J. L. Butler. He was in poor circumstances 
and could not meet the conference, having lost his father in 
June of the same year. His cause was championed by the Rev. 
N. Davidson, D. D., the silver tongued orator of the confer- 
ence. After much debating the conference took a vote and the 
Alabama scholarship known as the "C. S. Smith-Elizabeth 
Turner scholarship" was awarded to Joel Landrue Butler, of 
Oswichee, Ala. 

In October 1899 he was ordered to leave for Morris Brown 
College, Atlanta, Ga. to begin his studies for the ministry. He 
did not have sufficient means to leave home with, and his 
mother was laboring to settle his falher's debts, so his only 
chance was to try to secure means by day labor. He hired 



GEORGIA EDITION 25 

himself to one Mr. James Wooldrich a saw mill man to drive 
an ox wagon. He worked hard day and night making extra 
time, and in the mid-winter, a young man with long hair and 
roughly clad entered the president's office at Morris Brown 
College and said to President James H. Henderson: "Doctor, I 
am Joel L. Butler, from Oswichee, Ala. I am here to take up 
the scholarship given the Alabama Conference by Dr. C. S. 
Smith," (handing the president an envelope). "Here is a 
message he sent you." 

On the next day he entered the president's office and the 
president sent him to Dean M. M. Ponton, the ex-president 
of Campbell College, Jackson, Miss. After the examination, 
the Dean told him he did not know enough to study Theology, 
and sent him to the grades, allowing him to study the plain 
English Bible and Blaikies History of the Bible. For four and 
a half years he studied night and day, receiving private 
lectures from Drs. J. S. Flipper, E. W. Lee, H. D. Canady, E. 
R. Carter, J. W. E. Bowen and Bishop H. M. Turner. In 1903 
he finished the divinity course with honors, along with Pres. 
W. A. Fountain, S. T. B., Ph. D., G. L. Cooper, J. H. H. Frank- 
lin, E. R. Williams, T. W. Green, John Cooper, A. L. Harrison 
and others. 

In 1903 he entered the pastorate in Georgia and became a 
member of the Atlanta Conference, at Covington, Ga. ; was 
ordained a deacon Nov. 15, 1903 at Big Bethel A. M. E. Church, 
Atlanta ; ordained an Elder Nov. 12, 1904 at Monticello. 

At a regular meeting of the Trustee board of Morris Brown 
College May 30, 1907, the degree of "Doctor of Divinity" was 
conferred in him over his protest, he being then only twenty- 
seven years of age. 

He has pastored the folio-wing charges: Barnacre Mission, 
Ala.; Mt. Zion Mission (Pandhandle), Atlanta; Lovejoy Circuit; 
Bluff Springs Circuit, where he remained for the full quadren- 
nium, being the only pastor in 35 years to remain on the circuit 
four years; Turner's Chapel Station, Marietta; Pierce's Chapel 
Station, Athens, one of the most cultured congregations in the 
South ; and is now in his fourth successful year as pastor of St. 
Pauls church, Rome. 



26 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

Since 1903 he has received into the church (619) members; 
and has raised $15,938.70. Rev. Butler has left his foot-prints 
every where he has pastored. At ]\It. Zion he seated the 
church, and put in the pulpit. At Lovejoy he paid all the 
indebtedness, ceiled the parsonage, and furnished it from 
kitchen to front. At Bluff Springs he bought two acres of 
land and added to the plot owned by the church, remodeled 
two churches, the parsonage, and built one church from the 
ground, completing it in thirty-four days. At Marietta he paid 
the church out of debt and built the best parsonage in North 
Georgia owned by colored people, at cost of $1,500.00. Since 
1903 he has received into the church more than seven hundred 
members and has raised more than twenty thousand dollars. 

Dr. Butler was one of the ministerial delegates of the North 
Georgia Conference to the General Conference of 1912 held at 
Kansas City, ]\Io. 

From this outline it will be seen that Dr. Butler, though 
still a young man, combines those qualities of leadership which 
must make for him an even larger place among the people 
whom he seeks to serve. He has the ardor and enthusiasm of 
an evangelist, but is at the same time a man of executive 
ability, and knows how to organize his forces so as to get the 
best results. In politics he is a Republican, though not active, 
and among the secret orders is identified with the ^Masons and 
the Odd Fellows. He makes occasional contributions to the 
religious press, and is frequently in demand on anniversary 
occasions and as an assistant to his brethren in evangelistic 
work. He has gathered about him a well-selected library, and 
is an extensive reader, placing, of course, first of all the Bible. 
After that he has found the Homiletic Review and sermons by 
living men most helpful. The accompanying engraving repre- 
sents him at the age of thirty-three. 

On March 10, 1894, he was married to Miss ^Maggie Harper, 
a daughter of Wash and Mamie Harper, of Sparta, Ga. She 
was a teacher before her marriage to Dr. Butler. They have 
three living children : Deborah, Joel L., Jr., and Naomi. 



HAROLD WALKER 



HAROLD WALKER, an enterprising young business man 
of the thriving little city of Dalton, has not found it 
necessary to leave his native town to work out a success 
in life. He was born at Dalton June 26, 1886. 

The success which he has attained, however, has not been 
without struggle. His mother, whose maiden name was Emily 
iMatilda Powell, now dead, was left a widow with a number of 
children to support, so that young Harold was frequently kept 
from school to assist her in earning a livelihood for the family. 
Fortunately, the mother was a Christian and the home, though 
humble, was pleasant and happy for the children. 

The boy, not discouraged by the difficulties by which he was 
confronted, early realized the advantages of securing an educa- 
tion, and made the most of his time at school. He finished the 
public school course at Dalton in ]\Iay, 1902. The following 
year he was engaged in T. C. Paschal's tailor shop, doing clean- 
ing and pressing. He reamined here for five years ; and after 
Paschal's removal from Dalton, Mr. Walker became general 
manager of Ray's tailoring establishment. In this way he 
gained a thorough working knowledge of every department of 
the business from the ground up, and later opened up a busi- 
ness of his own, which has been successful from the beginning. 

On February 22, 1907, he was married to Miss Fannie Mae 
Graham, a daughter of Steve and Lucy Graham, of Dalton. 
They have two children — Harold Steven and Lucy Mae Walker. 

Mr. Walker is a member of the A. ]\I. E. Church, Odd Fellows 
and Masons. 

He lives in a comfortable home, and is regarded as a good 
citizen of Dalton. He thinks the best interests of his race may 
be promoted by developing in his people the fundamental 
things of Christian character, industry, economy and building 
of homes. 




i:a::o:.d walker 



REV. ALEXANDER PENN 



REV. ALEXANDER PENN, a Baptist minister of Powder 
Springs, Ga., better known as Aleck Penn, is a fine 
example of the self-made man. He was born in slavery 
i-bout sixty-eight years ago, and remembers very distinctly 
many scenes from the War Between the States. His father was 
his owner, a white man living in Coweta county. His mother's 
name was Margaret. Beyond his mother, he knows but little of 
his ancestry. 

Before and after emancipation, he worked on the farm. He 
was taught to read and write by his white people and went 
to the Baptist College, Atlanta, one term. 

Two years after the close of the war, he was happily con- 
verted at his home in Fayette county. This experience and 
his call to the ministry, which came nearly ten years later, 
stand out in his life and memory as land-marks. Having been 
ordained to the full work of the ministry by the Bethlehem 
church in Cobb county, he served that congregation as pastor 
for three years. 

Since that time his life has been devoted to his ministry, 
and his success has been remarkable in every respect. The 
length of his pastorates, the progress and development of his 
churches, and the steady growth of his congregations have 
marked his ministry almost from the beginning. He has not 
hesitated to break away from the traditions of his church or 
his people when good sense and Bible truth seemed to point the 
way. Thoroughly missionary in spirit and in practice, he has 
stood as a leader among his people for a generation. Though 
not a school man, he is a clear and independent thinker and 
knows how to use his books. He is a believer in development 
from within, and nothing delights him more than to take some 
backward boy or girl and by patient guidance bring out the 
best there is in such an one. In fact that is his policy with 
reference to churches as well as folks. 

Some of his other pastorates follow : Zion Hill, Douglasville, 



GEORGIA EDITION 31 

twelve years; Mars Hill, Dallas, twelve years; Vinings, thirty 
years; Friendship, Powder Springs, twenty seven years; Mt. 
Zion, near Hiram, twenty-two years. His worth as a leader 
was early recognized, and, for twenty-seven years, he has been 
the wise and faithful moderator of the Friendship Association. 
During his long and useful ministry he has baptized thousands 
into the membership of the church and has sought to train them 
for service. 

He is a^ ardent advocate of education and believes that the 
best interests of his race are to be promoted by religion and 
education — especially industrial education. 

Rev. Penn has not taken any part in politics nor has he 
identified himself with the secret orders. He enjoys the dis- 
tinction of never having gone on an excursion and never 
having seen a game of base ball. 

He is a constant reader of carefully selected books. By 
industry and economy he has reared and educated a big family 
and owns a comfortable home in Powder Springs where he is 
regarded as a good and useful citizen by both races. 

He was married about forty years ago to Bunchie ]\Iiles. 
Of the ten children born to them, eight are living. They are 
Bose, Sallie, Margaret, Mark, Henrietta, John, Luke, Aleck. 



DANIEL WILLIAM CANNON 



REV. DANIEL WILLIAM CANNON, D. D., Educational 
Secretary of the General Missionary Baptist Convention, 
of Georgia, is a native of Coweta county, where he was 
born on July 28, 1874. Dr. Cannon was reared by his grand- 
parents, Aquila and Sallie Ann Cannon. Back of them he 
knows nothing of his ancestry. 

As a boy he attended the public schools of Turin, Ga., work- 
ing on the farm till he was a grown man. At the age of 
seventeen he was converted and joined the China Grove 
Baptist Church, at Turin. Almost immediately he felt called 
to the work of the ministry, and the following year he was 



32 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

licensed to preach by his home church. With the call to 
the ministry came the realization that he must equip himself 
for that important work. By hard work and close economy, 
he gathered sufficient funds to enter Atlanta Baptist (now 
Morehouse) College, from which he was graduated in 1898. He 
did not permit his struggle, however, to dampen the ardor of 
his youth or to deprive him of the pleasures of boyhood. He 
was a great baseball player, and took a leading and active 
part in the amusements of his playmates and fellow-students. 
He acknowledges with gratitude the influence upon his life of 
his grandmother's prayers, as he heard her pray for his suc- 
cess. 

Having completed his college course and receiving his ordina- 
tion in 1898, he entered upon the active work of the pastorate in 
1899 at Social Circle, where he remained for about fifteen 
months. From that time forward his progress has been rapid, till 
now he is recognized as one of the leaders of his denomination in 
the State. From Social Circle he was called to the church at 
Eatonton, where he remained only a little more than a year, 
when he resigned to accept the pastorate at Albany, which held 
him for three years. From Albany he went to Darien for nine- 
teen months. Already he had attracted the attention of some of 
the larger congregations, and on being called to Beth Eden 
Church, Savannah, resigned the Darien work for the Savannah 
work. Here he wrought and labored for five and a half years, at 
the end of which time he was chosen Educational Secretary of 
the State Convention. His work takes him to every part of Geor- 
gia, and brings him in touch with the most progressive and in- 
telligent men of his race. He is a close observer, and is re- 
markably well informed, not only concerning educational and 
religious conditions in the State, but the afi'airs of his people 
generally. He is an extensive reader, his preferences running 
to biography, history and theology. On May 17, 1914, the 
honorary degree of D. D. was conferred on him by Selma 
University, of Alabama. 

While in the Savannah pastorate, he organized the Berean 
Baptist Academy, under the auspices of the Berean Associa- 
tion, and was its president for three years. The school was 




DANIEL WILLIAM CANNON 



34 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

launched in his church with sixteen scholars and two teachers. 
It now has a faculty of five, with an average enrollment of 
two hundred and twenty-five. 

On April 25, 1905, Dr. Cannon was married to Miss Jose- 
phine B. Rogers, daughter of Albert and Fannie Rogers, of 
Savannah, and a graduate of Haven Home School. Of the 
three children born to this union, one now survives, Hilda 
Louise Cannon. 

Dr. Cannon also occupies the responsible position of sec- 
retary of the General State B. Y. P. IT. Convention, and is 
a member of all the State boards of his denomination. 
Among the secret orders he is identified with the Odd Fellows, 
and is at this time president of the Alumni Association of 
Morehouse College. He believes that the best interest of his 
race is to be promoted by industry and honesty on their part, 
and by fair dealing on the part of the white race. Dr. Cannon 
has fairly won his way from a place of obscurity to that of 
leadership by steady work and faithful service. He owns a 
comfortable home on Tattnall street, Atlanta. 



PEYTON AUSTIN ALLEN 



PEYTON AUSTIN ALLEN, attorney and counsellor at law, 
of Atlanta, Ga., is a good illustration of what application 
and perseverance, coupled with energy and capacity, can 
accomplish. 

Born at Blackshear, Pierce county. May. 1867, a short time 
after the close of the war, Mr. Allen's boyhood covered those 
troublous times known in Southern history as "Reconstruc- 
tion days." His father was Peyton Austin Bowden, but the 
boy took the surname of his stepfather, Joseph Allen, instead 
of that of his own father, whom he does not remember ever 
having seen. His mother, Elsie Allen, has since passed away. 
Young Allen was given what opportunities the public schools 
of Blackshear at that time offered, and later entered Atlanta 
University, where he pursued the literary course. His pathway 




PEYTON AUSTIN ALLEN 



36 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

to learning, however, was beset with difficulties. During much 
of the time he worked on a turpentine farm during the day 
and studied at night ; and after entering college his summers 
were spent in teaching or other work to enable him to pay 
his way through. 

In 1888 or '89, he began his work as a teacher at Perry, Ga.,. 
in which important profession he continued for nearly twenty 
years. Such was his success at Perry, that he was called to 
the principalship of the Mitchell Street School in Atlanta, 
where he remained for two years. From Atlanta he moved to 
Newnan, where perhaps his best work as a teacher was done. 
He remained at Newnan for fifteen years, and saw many of the 
young people who grew up under his tuition successful men 
and women. The character and capacity of the man is in- 
dicated by the fact that while teaching he pursued a corres- 
pondence law course with such good results that in 1899 he was 
admitted to the bar in Atlanta, though it was several years 
later, in 1906, before he took up the active practice. He con- 
fines himself to civil practice, and has made for himself an 
enviable place in his profession just as he did in the profession 
of teaching. 

On June 25, 1907, he was married to Miss Willie Maud 
Reese, of Summerville, who is a daughter of William Coleman 
Reese and Fannie Reese. They have four children : Elsie Mae,. 
Peyton Austin, Muriel Joyce Burnett and Fannie Louise Allen. 

In his reading and study, Mr. Allen has found, apart from 
his professional work, that history and biography have been 
most helpful. In politics he is identified with the Republican 
party, but has not been an office-seeker. He is prominently 
identified with the religious and fraternal organizations; is a 
member of the Congregational church, with which he has been 
identified for a number of years; is a K. P., Odd Fellow, 
Mason; also a member of the Knights of Tabor and the Good 
Samaritans. It is at once a compliment to his standing in these 
organizations and to his legal ability, that he has been retained 
as counsel by several of them. 

Professor Allen has at various times contributed to the 
public press along general lines. He has not allowed his pro- 



GEORGIA EDITION 37 

fessional work as a laAvyer to interfere with his interest in the 
educational development of his people, and regards their edu- 
cation and industrial training as one of the most important 
questions before our people. He sees what some other men of 
both white and colored races are beginning to see, that most 
of our other problems will solve themselves if we can but de- 
velop an intelligent, industrious, home-owning, home-loving 
citizenship. 

Mr. Allen resides at 152 Beckwith St., Atlanta. He has 
accumulated good property and is one of the substantial tax 
payers of Fulton county, having property listed for taxation at 
more than six thousand dollars. 



EUGENE JEFFREY BRINSON 



DR. EUGENE JEFFREY BRINSON, of Americus, is a 
native of Terrell county, having been born near Daw- 
son, July 1, 1872. His parents were Abram and Amanda 
(Lee) Brinson. His father was a carpenter by trade, and his 
mother was her master's cook. 

Our subject was entered in the public schools of Dawson 
when he came of school age, and enjoyed such opportunities as 
were afforded by the schools of that time till he was twelve 
years old. After that his father could not assist him financially, 
so he found it necessary to work his way through college, and 
later earn his way while taking his medical course. He was 
the youngest son in a big family of eight children, and the boys 
coming on before him had been allowed to go to college when 
they had reached maturity, and the next youngest son would 
take the place on the farm of the one going away to school. 
Being the youngest son. however. E. J. Brinson had no one to 
take his place on the farm ; but he refused to be discouraged by 
this, and helped to educate his youngest sister. He had made 
good progress while in the public schools, and by an arrange- 
ment with the principal of the Dawson Public School continued 
his study, reciting three times a week at night. In this way he 



38 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

was able to pass the teacher's examination and secure a teacher's 
license. He taught one year in Terrell county and four years 
at Church Hill, in Webster county; and this helped out materi- 
ally in his expenses at college. He first went to Howard Normal, 
at Cuthbert, and later to Central Tennessee College, at Nash- 
ville, Tenn. Having determined to make a doctor of himself, 
he entered Meharry College, but had only sixty-five dollars for 
the first year, so it was necessary for him to take on some extra 
work. He secured a place as watchman about the building and 
grounds, and during his second year was assistant to the Pro- 
fessor of Chemistry, and was the first sophomore to be permitted 
to take up that work at IMeharry. During his third and fourth 
years at the medical college, he had charge of a drug store, by 
means of which he earned board and room rent. This requiredT 
his attention from six o'clock in the morning to ten, and again 
from five in the afternoon to ten at night. He was under con- 
tract to scrub the floor, burnish the fixtures, and wait on the 
customers during these hours ; and between ten p. m. and 6 a. m. 
to get up and wait on every customer that made a noise at the 
door. By reason of the fact that morphine and cocaine were 
sold indiscriminately, there were many nights when he failed 
to get a full uninterrupted hour of sleep because of the dis- 
turbance of the cocaine "sniffers" and morphine users that were 
prevalent in that part of the city. He learned that the pro- 
prietor of the store would often send people there at late hours 
of night to see if he were there, and also to see if he would get 
up and wait on them. Without neglecting his customers, he 
would keep a book open on the counter and snatch passages of 
the text as he passed, and after closing the store at night would 
study till he f^ll asleep with his lamp before him. Notwith- 
standing these large demands on his time and energies outside of 
his school work, he led his class, won the prize on Theory of 
Medicine, and graduated with first honor, being valedictorian 
of the class of '98. and receiving the M. D. degree in that year. 
The next day after the commencement exercises were over at 
Meharry. he pawned his watch for $12.50 to pay his railroad 
fare back to Georgia, and on his way down spent his last quarter 
at Smithville for dinner, and so began his professional career 




EUGENE JEFFREY BRINSON 



40 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

without a cent. Ou .March 26, 1898, he passed the State Board 
and led in the examination before that body, tliere being sixty- 
six men examined, mainly white. After practicing for four 
years, he took the examination before the Pharmacy Board in 
1902, and while never having taken a course in pharmacy passed 
creditably the State examination. On May 11, 1898, he began 
the practice in Americus, where he has since resided and fol- 
lowed his profession as a general practitioner. 

While not active in politics, he is a Republican ; is a member 
of the A. M. E. Church, and is identified with the Odd Fellows, 
Masons and Knights of Pythias. He is medical examiner for 
the numerous lodges in and around Americus, and is Division 
President of the Eighth Division of Odd Fellows. He is Assist- 
ant D. G. ^I. E. of the G. U. 0. of 0. F., Jurisdiction of Georgia, 
and Director of the Bureau of Health. He thinks the things 
which his people most need are the fundamental things to be 
had only through home training and a religion that refines the 
character, elevates the mind, purifies the thought, and makes 
noble the conduct ; and that when this point is reached, intem- 
perance and immorality, two great curses, will cease to degrade 
and destroy his people. Dr. Brinson is a forceful speaker, and 
is frequently heard with pleasure at meetings of the medical 
associations and other gatherings among his people. Among his 
ablest addresses was that delivered at the laying of the corner- 
stone of the hoys^ dormitory before the faculty and students 
of Morris Brown University, Atlanta, May 27. 1913. He has 
invested his earnings in Americus real estate and renting prop- 
erty, owning several houses at this time. 

On December 3, 1900, he was married to ]\Iiss Ellen Neil, a 
daughter of Edward and Nancy Neil, of Americus. 

Long before the war his paternal grandparents were sold from 
Georgia to Louisiana, while the father, then a mere boy, was 
left in Georgia. Years after the war. Dr. Brinson 's father 
having beard that his mother was still living, visited her in 
Louisiana. She wns then nenrly a hundred years old, but recog- 
nized her son, who spent so^^-'e time with her. and visited her 
again before she passed awrv. 



GEORGIA EDITION 41 

Dr. Brinson has a brother who is a pharmacist, and still 
another who is now Presiding Elder of the C. INI. E. Church, 
Columbus District. 

Though struggling with difficulties as a boy, and confronted 
with obstacles, Dr. Brinson has worked out for himself a measuri 
of success of which no man need be ashamed. He is a successful 
physician, a good citizen, and reflects credit upon his parents 
and upon his race. 



CHARLEY POSEY 



AMONG the substantial farmers of Cobb county is Charley 
Posey, who stands high with the best people of both races. 
He is a native of South Carolina, having been born at 
Edgefield, February 22, 1855. The following year he was 
brought to Campbell county, Ga. His father, whom he never 
saw, was Lewis McCullough. His mother was Jane Posey, and 
as was customary in slavery times, the boy took the mother's 
name. Jane Posey, who is still (1915) alive and active at the 
age "of ninety, was brought South from Eichmond, Ya., when a 
small child. 

At the close of the Avar the Poseys moved to Cobb county, 
where Charles grew up on the farm. At an early age he was 
converted and joined the Baptist church of which he has been a 
faithful and active member for a number of years. The esteem 
in which he is held by his church and denomination is indicated 
l)y the fact that he is Treasurer of the Friendship church and 
Superintendent of the Sunday-school and that for twenty-five 
years he has been Treasurer of the Friendship Baptist Associa- 
tion. 

He was denied all but the most meagre educational advantages, 
but he learned to read and write. The Bible is his favorite book. 

On May 7, 1874, he was married to Rosa Lester, a daughter 
of Fed and Margaret Lester. They have no children, but have 
adopted two whom they are bringing up. 

Mr. Posey has devoted his life to farming. He owns a good 




CHARLEY POSEY 



GEORGIA EDITION 43 

home and forty acres of laud on wliieh he makes a comfortable 
living. In politics, he is a Republican, and is a member of the 
Cobb county Executive Committee. He has not identified him- 
self with any of the secret orders. 

Perhaps the most important interest in a religious and educa- 
tional way, is the Industrial School of the Friendship Association 
at Austell. He has given liberally of his time and money to the 
establishment of this institution and has been tlie moving spirit 
in the erection of the Boy's Building. 

]\Ir. Posey represents a class now fast disappearing. Born in 
slavery and growing up during war and reconstruction times he 
could get but little education, but by hard work, common sense 
and honest dealing he has made for himself an honored place 
in his section. 



THOMAS ANTHENLANTHA 
LUMPKIN 



THOMAS A. LU:\rPKIN, of ]\Iacon, is one of those pecu- 
liar cases found occasionally in Georgia. He is part 
Negro, part Indian and part Caucasian. Some of the most 
successful business and professional men of the race in Georgia 
carry these three strains of blood. 

He was born at Rome, Ga., November 27, 1858, and was thus 
a small boy at the time of the War between the States. His 
parents were Joseph Y. and Ellen Lumpkin. His father was 
for years head waiter at the Crutchfield House, in Chattanooga. 
His strain of Indian blood comes to Mr. Lumpkin through his 
grandmother, who was part Negro and part Indian. 

Young Lumpkin secured his first start at an education by 
attending night school in Floyd county. Later the family 
moved from Floyd to Brooks county, where he worked on the 
farm and studied at night. The overseer's daughter would 
hear his lessons. At this time he had to support his mother, 
who was in poor health for more than a year, and was working 



44 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

for a wage of twenty-five dollars per year. He put in all his 
working hours at work and study. In fact, he paid little atten- 
tion at that time to Sunday ; and during one summer, working 
for himself on Sunday with an ox made a bale of cotton which 
sold in that year at eighteen cents per pound. He attended 
church once a month. As he grew up, his earning capacity 
increased. In 1873 he was able to enter Clark University, 
though he did not complete the course, his widowed mother 
needing his support. During this time he worked with Dr. 
Joseph Alexander and later was janitor at the Revenue office in 
Atlanta. At one time he lived in Polk county for two years, 
where he found life rugged and rough enough. He then went 
back to Valdosta. During his stay in South Georgia, he taught 
two terms in Lowndes county, near Valdosta. After that he 
began his apprenticeship as a carpenter in Chattanooga. That 
was in '78. In three years he was a full-fledged carpenter, and 
coming to Macon in 1881 entered upon the work of his trade, 
which has merged into that of contracting and house-building, 
by means of which he was enabled to do a profitable business 
and gather about him considerable property. 

Soon after coming to ^Macon, he was impressed with the op- 
portunity of organizing a benevolent society among his people, 
and in 1883 launched the Grand United Order of the "Wise Men 
of the East of America, of which he is the Supreme Grand 
Chief. Under his direction the order has grown from nothing 
to a membership of nearly three thousand in Georgia, and a 
total membership of about fourteen thousand in the South. 

iMr. Lumpkin has worked out for himself and for his order 
a large measure of success. He has considerable holdings of real 
estate in Florida, through marriage; runs two plantations at 
River Junction in that state, and is proprietor of the hotel at 
that point. On these places he grows long staple cotton and 
tobacco. He also carries on a farm in Bibb county which has 
reached a high state of improvement and cultivation. He is 
constantly adding to his holdings both of farm property and 
city real estate. He is a good judge of values, a conservative 
business man. and a leader of whom his race may well be proud. 




THOMAS ANTHENLANTHA LUMPKIN 



46 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

He is president of the Crown Loan & Realty Company, of 
Macon. 

Mr. Lumpkin is a member of the A. M. E. Church. Among 
the secret orders he is identified with the Free and Accepted 
Masons, and is in possession of the Fourth Rights degrees in 
the Knights Templar. In the former he has reached the thirty- 
third degree, and is a Mystic Shriner; is a Past Patron of the 
Eastern Star, and Past Grand Master of the Odd Fellows, 
though not now active in the last-named organization. He is 
Past Chancellor of the Pythians, and has the rank of Major in 
the U. R., First Georgia Brigade. In every organization with 
which he has been identified, he has made himself an important 
factor. He believes that the best interests of his race are to be 
promoted by the various fundamental things, such as honesty, 
truthfulness and virtue. 

Mr. Lumpkin has been twice married : first to Estella McColom 
of Quitman, in 1879. Three children were born to this union: 
Lovely Virginia, Ella May and Emma. After the death of the 
first wife, Mr. Lumpkin was married a second time to Mrs. 
Carrie Beech, a widow, of River Junction, Fla. This was on 
March 4, 1903. There are no children by this second marriage. 



SAMUEL ELISHA LYNCH 



SAMUEL ELISHA LYNCH is a native of Paulding county, 
residing two miles south of Dallas, on the place where he 
was born September 5, 1874. His father, Thomas Lynch, 
was a farmer. His mother's maiden name was Amanda 
Roberson. Both his grandparents were white, the paternal 
grandfather being, of Dutch and Irish extraction and the 
maternal grandfather of Irish and Scotch descent. His father's 
mother was Mahaley Gray; his mother's mo+her, Huldy Rober- 
son. 

His early educational advantages were limited to the pviblic 
school, and even this he was not permitted to attend regu- 
larly. When old enough to work, he took the money earned 




SAMUEL ELISHA LYNCH 



48 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

during vacation and hired a hand to take his place on the 
farm in order that he might keep up with his classes. Even 
then the school term was limited to three months. Neverthe- 
less his parents instilled in him correct principles of living^ 
which he has found an abiding influence in his life. 

He entered Atlanta Baptist (now ]\Iorehouse) College^ 
graduating in 1897. Since his young manhood he has been 
known in North Georgia as an orator of ability and is in great 
demand on public occasions where a ready speaker is required. 
Beginning his career as a teacher in 1892, he taught from 
place to place in Paulding, Campbell, Morgan, Putnam, Walton, 
Oconee and Carroll counties until 1901. On November 28, of that 
year, he was married to Miss Bessie Lee Stokes. In the same 
year he was chosen principal of the Dallas Public School^ 
which position he has held for fourteen consecutive years. He 
also settled down to farming about the same time, and has 
purchased and now lives on the place M'here he was born. He 
has built for himself and family a comfortable home, and owns 
good real estate- 
Prof. Lynch is a Republican in polities. He is a member of 
the Baptist church, and is active in Sunday-school work, being 
superintendent of his local school and for nine years vice- 
president of the Sunday School Workers Convention of Geor- 
gia. He is connected with the York ]\Iasons. He believes the 
best interests of the race are to be promoted by church mem- 
bers living up to their professions ; by more attention being 
given to homes and health, and by a spirit of co-operation 
among the leaders. 

Mr. and ]\Irs. Lynch have had six children. Those living 
are William Howard Taft. Thomas Franklin and Bertha Pau- 
line Lynch. 

Mr. Lynch has made good under conditions which would 
have defeated a less courageous man. and is held in high 
esteem by the best people of Paulding county of both races. 



REV. RANDALL SAMUEL 
SNELLINGS 



REV. RANDALL SAMUEL SNELLINGS, a Baptist 
minister now (1916) residing at LaGrange, is entitled 
to a place among the worthy representatives of his race. 
He was born in Burke county, twelve miles from Waynesboro, 
in April, 1864, — that is, a little more than a year after Presi- 
dent Lincoln's Emancipation Proclamation, and just about a 
year before that proclamation became effective in Georgia. His 
parents, Gilbert and Harriet Snellings, were therefore both 
slaves till sometime after his birth. His mother is still living. 
Of course, beginning life at that time, he shared much of 
the poverty and hardships common to the Negro boys of that 
period. Since his earliest recollections, however, he has had 
the laudable ambition to make his life worth while, and he has 
never lacked energy. Working on the farm as a boy, he 
eagerly availed himself of such educational opportunities as 
were from time to time offered in the Haven Normal School at 
Waynesboro, which he attended three terms. In 1883 he 
entered the Atlanta Baptist College, completing the course 
three years later (1886). The means for this college course 
were acquired by teaching and farm work. In the meantime, 
he was greatly impressed and helped by the life and example 
of the president of the College, Dr. J. T. Roberts. Nor has he 
forgotten the helpfulness of the earlier influence of his Chris- 
tian home. 

Converted in 1882, he was four years later licensed to. 
preach by the Friendship Baptist Church, of Atlanta, and was. 
ordained by the First Baptist of LaGrange in 1888. His first 
pastorate was at Palmetto, and continued five and a half 
years; his next was at ]\It. Zion, in Troup county, and con- 
tinued eight years. At Sandersville he preached monthly for 
nineteen years. Of Mt. Olive Church in ]\Iacon, he was pastor 
five years. Thus it will be seen that his work wears well, and 
he has endeavored to do permanent and enduring work. He 




REV. RANDALL SAMUEL SNELLINGS. 



GEORGIA EDITION 51 

now has three churches: Branch Hebron, at Odessadale; Ho- 
gansville and Corinth. He resides at LaGrange. 

On December 26, 1888, he was married to ^liss Fannie 
Elizabeth Williams, of LaGrange, daughter of Rev. Anthony 
and Kittie Anne Williams. Of the nine children born to them, 
eight are yet living, as follows: Ella Roberta, Hattie May, R. 
S. Jr., Herman, Conrad, Fred Douglas, Martha and Bessie. 
The one who died was named Kittie Lee. 

Reference has been made to Mr. Snellings' work as a teacher. 
He taught two terms in Burke county, one in Douglas, three in 
Heard and one in Troup. He is a member of the Execu- 
tive Board of the Western Union Baptist Association; in 
politics is a Republican, though not active, and among the 
secret orders is identified with the Masons. He writes occas- 
ionally for the press. By rigid economy and careful manage- 
ment, he has managed to accumulate a moderate amount of 
property. 

As regards the w^elfare of his race, he realizes that they are 
suffering for two. things : First, he places moral training, as of 
prime importance, and next to that, capital for the handling 
of their business. In his reading he gives the Bible first place, 
and next to that theological literature and Shakespeare. 

In the lessons which Mr. Snellings is teaching by precept 
and example, he is realizing his lifelong ambition to live a life 
worth while. 

While pastoring at Palmetto, he built a church worth seven 
hundred dollars; at Sandersville he built one worth three 
thousand, and at Odessadale, where he is now pastoring, built 
one worth thirty-five hundred. 



DR. WM. HARRISON DICKSON 



DR. WILLIAM HARRISON DICKSON, of McDonough, 
is a native of Michigan, having been born at South Rock- 
wood, in that state, September 18, 1882. His parents 
were Franklin S. and Esther (Moore) Dickson. Through his 
maternal grand-mother he inherits a strain of Indian blood. His 




DR. \VILLIAM HARRISON DICKSON. 



GEORGIA EDITION 5;^ 

paternal grand-mother was a slave owner, while his paternal 
grand-father was a Spaniard. It will thus be seen that Dr. 
Dickson represents in his own person three races. 

As a boy, Dr. Dickson attended the public schools of Lansing 
and was graduated from the Lansing High School in 1901 
From early boyhood he had considered it settled that he was t( 
be a lawyer and so when ready for college shaped his course ii. 
that direction. Having earned sufficient means by hotel work, 
he entered ^Michigan University at Ann Arbor, where he pur- 
sued the Law Course for two years, working during vacations- 
and at leisure hours with a view to completing his law course. 

His observations, both in the West and the East, however, led 
him to the conclusion that the law, so far as the colored man was 
concerned, was already overcrowded and he finally abandoned 
the law. 

On June 8, 1904, he was married to Miss Cora Alraeda Jones,, 
a daughter of Thomas and Gladys Jones, of Lansing, Mich. Dr. 
Dickson frankly admits that it was largely through the inspira- 
tion and encouragement of his wife that he was induced to take 
up the study of medicine with a view to establishing himself in 
something permanent and he attributes not a little of his success 
to her cordial support and co-operation. 

Preferring a high-class school to any other, he again entered 
Michigan University, this time for the medical course, which he- 
completed with the degree of :M. D., in 1911. Immediately on 
completion of his course, he began the practice at Ann Arbor, 
but later moved to Chicago. After a short stay in Chicago, he- 
went to Omaha and then back to Chicago. Though he had not 
been south of INFason and Dixon's line, he decided to cast his lot 
in the South, and in 1914, located in McDonough, Ga., where he 
is steadily building up a good practice, and enjoys the respect 
and confidence of both races. His relationship with the white 
physicians of the city are cordial and helpful. 

In politics he is a Republican. In addition to his College 
Fraternity, he is a Mason of the rank of Knight Templar, also a 
Pythian. He is local medical examiner for a number of the- 
secret and benevolent orders. 



54 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

He believes in co-operation, education and a better moral 
stamina. 

Dr. and Mrs. Dickson have one child, Algernon Jones Dickson. 



WILLIAM HENRY TUGGLE 



WILLIAM HENRY TUGGLE, D.D., the late pastor of 
the INIt. Zion or Second Baptist Church, of Atlanta, 
was a living example of the fact that it is not neces- 
sary for a young man to sow a crop of wild oats before entering 
upon the serious business of his life's work. He illustrated in 
his own life the advantage of getting an early start at right 
living. 

He was born at Madison, Ga., August 25, 1870, and while he 
lived to be only a little more than forty years of age, during his 
career as a preacher, baptized more than eight thousand persons, 
and conducted revival services in every part of America. While 
this is perhaps the most spectacular part of his work, yet he 
was most successful as a pastor, and wore w^ell with his people, 
thougli he was accustomed to speak plainly to them, and enjoyed 
the distinction of having been recalled again and again to 
churches he had formerly served. Heeding one of these calls, he 
was at the time of his death, serving for the second time as pas- 
tor of the Second Baptist Church. 

His parents were IMary and Charley Tuggle, both slaves. The 
father died when the boy was young, and it is easy to see that 
the hand of a devoted inotlier must have had much to do in shap- 
ing the life of the young boy. The mother, by-the-way, is still 
living, and was during his later years the honored and beloved 
inmate of the liomc of her only son, of whom she was justly 
proud. 

Young Tuggle attended the Cox Hill Chapel School, con- 
ducted by L. W. B. Jordan, Madison, and pursued his studies 
through the eighth grade. His higher education was secured, 
so far as the schools are concerned, at the Atlanta Baptist Col- 
lege, of which Dr. Graves was the president at that time. Dr. 



GEORGIA EDITION 55 

Tuggle was a student and a close observer of men and of condi- 
tions, as well as of books, all his life. In 1901 the degree of 
D.D. was conferred upon him by Nassau College. 

He was converted at the early age of eight years, and bap- 
tized by Rev. Samuel Cochran. His ability and the confidence 
of his elders may be judged from the fact that he was superin- 
tendent of a Sunday School with three hundred members when 
he was only thirteen years of age. Even before his conversion, 
and as early as the age of six, he felt that he should be a preach- 
er, and the subsequent years have demonstrated that he did not 
mistake his calling. He was ordained to the full work of the 
ministry in 1889. His first pastorate was the Spring Hill Bap- 
tist Church at Monticello, where he remained for only four 
months, when he was called to the Sand Hill in Putnam county. 
For four years he pastored large country churches in Putnam 
and adjacent counties, and during this four years of work, even 
when young in the ministry, baptized more than one thousand 
converts. His work attracted attention in large centers, and in 
the fall of 1893, he was installed as pastor of the I\It. Zion Bap- 
tist Church, of Atlanta, where he remained for seven and a half 
years, doing splendid work. At the end of that time he re- 
ceived a call to Trinity Baptist Church at Jacksonville, Fla., 
where he remained for one year. Then he returned to Atlanta 
and took charge of the work of the Trinity Tabernacle, remain- 
ing in that position three years. In 1904 the Friendship Bap- 
tist Church, of Pittsburgh, Pa., extended him a call, which he 
accepted, and he remained there two years. They yielded him 
reluctantly to Atlanta again, and since his leaving Pittsburgh, 
have extended to him no less than five different calls. Return- 
ing to Atlanta in 1906, he took up the broken threads of the 
work of the Second Baptist Church, where he found them wor- 
shipping in a rented house, with a mere handful of only about 
twenty-five members, and struggling with an old debt of three 
thousand dollars. With his usual energy he went to work at 
what must to many have seemed a hopeless task. The year? 
have shown the wisdom of his faith and courage ; for now the 
church has a membership of seventeen hundred, a new house 
has been built at an expense of nearly nine thousand dollars, the 




WILLIAM HENRY TUGGLE. 



GEORGIA EDITION 57 

old debt has been paid off, and every department of the church 
work is in a flourishing condition. 

Dr. Tuggle preached to his people plain unvarnished Gospel, 
kept in close touch with his young people and the Sunday 
School, and tried to apply to the work of his church the methods 
which had brought success in business lines. While not a vigor- 
ous man physically, he show^ed himself capable of a great deal of 
work and long sustained effort. As a boy when getting his edu- 
cation, he would frequently work at his tasks all day long, but 
would manage to get to his books by eight o'clock or half past, 
and would hold himself steadily to his studies until late at night, 
notwithstanding the fact that he knew he would have to be up 
at four in the morning. He can hardly be said to have been 
ambitious except for his work, as a man of his abilities could 
have succeeded at almost anything. The years taught him pa- 
tience, and like the apostle of old, he had even learned to rejoice 
in his afflictions if they might but further the cause which he 
represented. He was an old-line Republican in politics, but 
apart from exercising the franchise, did not take any active part 
in campaigns. 

He had been twice married. He was first married to Miss 
Ollie Coleman, of Eatonton, in 1885. They had four children, 
three of whom survive. These are Miss Annie Belle Tuggle, a 
teacher in the Atlanta Public Schools; W. H. Tuggle, Jr., and 
Esther Francis Tuggle. In 1904 his first wife passed away. 
Later, Dr. Tuggle was married a second time in Pittsburgh, to 
Miss Sarah King, of Atlanta. There have been seven children 
by the second marriage, none of whom survive. 

Dr. Tuggle has made for himself a large place in the denomi- 
nation. He was a member of the Executive Board of the Geor- 
gia State Convention ; a trustee of the Central City College, of 
Macon; president New Hope District Sunday School Conven- 
tion; trustee of Jeruel Normal School, at Athens, and a mem- 
ber of the executive board of Jeruel Association. He was also 
a member of the sub-board of Foreign ^lissions of the National 
Baptist Convention. 

His church gave him leave of absence one Sunday in the 



58 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

month, on which day he preached at Randolph Baptist Church, 
eight miles in the country from Union Point. He was an oc- 
casional contributor to the religious press. 

He departed this life Tuesday evening, February 17, 1914, at 
5:30 o'clock. 



CHARLES JOSIAH JOHNSON 



THE American Negroes are truly to De congratulated upon 
the quality of leadership being developed among their 
citizenry. This applies to honest, earnest, God-fearing 
and public-spirited men who are engaged in various lines of 
activity, industrial, commercial and professional, and in the 
multiform varieties of these occupations. 

Such a man is Charles Josiah Johnson, attorney at law, Macon, 
Ga. He was born at Unionville, a suburb of Macon, March 24, 
1876, son of Charles Johnson, a farmer and truck gardener, 
and Susan (Baker) Johnson. His paternal grandparents were 
Julius and Martha Johnson ; his maternal grandmother, Ellen 
Baker. Mrs. Baker later became IMrs. Douglas, after the death 
of Mrs. Johnson's father. 

Mr. Johnson's early educational training was obtained in 
Macon, first in the Green Street Public School and then in 
Ballard Normal School. Later he entered Walden University 
(formerly known as Central Tennessee College), at Nashville, 
Tenn., from which he was graduated with the A.B. degree in 
1899. His law course was taken at the Howard University Law 
School, Washington, D, C, from which he received the degree 
of LL.B. in 1913. He worked his way through college from be- 
ginning to end — six years at Walden and three at Howard, or 
nine in all. This was a long period of privation and hardship ; 
but he showed superb courage through it all and won out, and 
left the college halls with a liberal education and well equipped 
for his life work. He had sometimes in those days even 
"batched" on thirty-five to forty cents a week. The inspira- 




CHARLES JOSIAH JOHNSON. 



60 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

tion for that task of thorough equipment for his life work, he 
attributes in a large measure to his public school teacher, Prof, 
H, J. T. Hudson ; while in shaping his character his parents 
and home influences were the controlling factors. Such psysical 
culture and athletic training as he had were obtained "in wield- 
ing the hoe and the axe and marching behind the plow," as it 
was necessary for him to utilize his physical energies in winning 
his way forward. His tastes in reading since leaving college 
are indicated by some of his favorites, such as the Bible, Para- 
dise Lost, Pilgrim's Progress, Uncle Tom's Cabin, In His Steps, 
Quo Vadis, Shakespeare, Longfellow and Paul Lawrence Dun- 
bar's poems. 

As one of the means in supporting himself at college, he taught 
one term in the rural schools of Tennessee, and six terms in 
Christian county, Kentucky. For the last eight years he has 
been engaged in the practice of law at the Macon bar. He was 
first admitted to the bar in Kentucky, but began the active prac- 
tice in Macon. In beginning his chosen profession, he did not 
escape the "starvation period" which is familiar to most young 
attorneys ; but such were his diligence and abilities that he 
gradually rose to his present footing of a comfortable livelihood. 
He practices in all the courts of his home city, and in the 
Supreme Court. 

On June 27, 1911, he was married to ]\Iiss Lizzie Julia Jones, 
daughter of Major and Julia Jones, of IMacon. 

Mr. Johnson is a Progressive in politics, and religiously is 
a consistent, active and valued member of the M. E. Church. He 
is secretary of the Colored Y. M. C. A. of Macon, and class leader, 
steward, trustee and Sunday-school teacher and superintendent 
of his church. 

Asked as to his idea of the best method for promoting the 
welfare of his race in the state and the nation, he replied: 
"Christian civilization is the panacea for the ills of our race in 
America. It is needed by both races. From long observation 
of the shortcomings of our people, I am inclined to think that 
they are about as woefully in need of the i-efining influence of 
Christian education as the white race is." 

As a speaker, ^Ir. Johnson is polished, logical and eloquent. 



GEORGIA EDITION 61 

His address on "The Pilgrimage of a Race" delivered at the 
Emancipation Celebration in Macon on January 1, 1910, at- 
tracted very favorable attention from thinking men of both 
races, and has been published in pamphlet form. 

Though he has not acquired large wealth, Mr. Johnson is a 
man of good business capacity, conscientious in meeting his obli- 
gations, and is investing his earnings in Macon property. 



JACKSON K. SHEFFIELD 



JACKSON K. SHEFFIELD, of Everett City, Glynn county, 
Georgia, is one of the most striking examples of the success- 
ful Negro business man in Georgia. He has made a success 
in industrial lines of which any man might well be proud. 

He was born in slavery, on October 26, 1858, near Everett 
City, where the whole of his life has been spent. His father, 
Jackson Sheffield, was a farmer and a carpenter. His grand- 
father was a capable man, though a slave, who was accustomed 
to hire his own time, so that the burden of slavery rested 
rather lightly on him as compared with many others of his race. 
Jackson Sheffield 's mother 's maiden name was Susan Armstrong. 
His paternal grandfather's parents were George and Huldah 
Sheffield, and his maternal grandparents were Robert and Eliza 
Armstrong, of Wayne county. His grandmother Armstrong 
was a very powerful woman in every respect. She lived to a 
ripe old age, and inspired many of her descendants to lead 
useful and active lives. An earlier ancestor distinguished him- 
self by rearing eighteen boys and nine girls. 

Coming of school age during the war and handicapped by 
oonditions which prevailed just after the war, young Sheffield 
was denied the opportunities of an education, except such as he 
acquired for himself around the camp fire and on the timber 
raft. He worked with his father till he was twenty-one years 
of age, and by the time he was ready to begin business for him- 



62 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

self had established a reputation as a hard worker and honest 
man. 

On October 2, 1879, he was married to Miss Carrie AVilliams, 
a daughter of Delphia Taylor, of Glynn county. He met and 
courted his wife on the place where they now live, which is 
known as "the Hooker place." He first bought a small tract, 
and after building his home on it was able to pay for it by 
legging and rafting timber down the river to Darien. He has 
been engaged in this work for at least thirty years, and has 
irradually increased his real estate holdings, purchasing land 
in increasingly larger lots. He began buying in hundred acre 
lots, but later bought in lots of a thousand acres at a time. He 
owns large bodies of wild and timber land, having a frontage 
of nearly twelve miles on the Altamaha river. The first turpen- 
tine still operated in Georgia was set up on the place he now 
owns, near his present residence. In 1906 he began sawmilling, 
and operates a mill with a capacity of twenty thousand feet a 
day. He owns his teams, and has a considerable number of 
cattle and hogs. Gradually he is putting much of his land 
under fence. At one time after making heavy purchases of land 
with borrowed money, he logged and rafted twenty-one thousand 
dollars' worth of timber in less than two years. He lives in a 
comfortable home, where he has modern accommodations, includ- 
ing artesian w^ater and telephone connection with the city. 

Mr. and !Mrs. Jackson Sheffield have only one child, a daugh- 
ter. She is a graduate of Clark University, and married Dr. C. 
F. Hoskins, a prominent dentist of Brunswick, whose sketch 
{;ppears elsewhere in this volume. 

Mr. Sheffield is a Republican in politics, and was for a long 
time chairman of the Glynn County Republican Executive 
Committee, and has frequently attended the State Conventions. 
He is a member of the M. E. Church, being steward, trustee and 
superintendent of the Sunday-school. Among the secret orders 
he is a Pythian and a ]\Iosaic Templer of America. Some 
measure of the success of his years of toil and effort may be 
judged from the fact that he now owns more than twelve 
thousand acres of land, and is worth more than one hundred 




JACKSON K. SHEFFIELD. 



64 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

thousand dollars. Though himself denied the opportunities of 
an education, he is an ardent believer in and supporter of the 
right sort of education. He believes that the best interests of the 
race are to be served by better and more efficient preachers and 
teachers, and strikes at the very heart of things as they relate 
lO his race, and for that matter any other race, when he says the 
things needed are "truth, honesty and stiek-to-it-iveness." 



GEORGE WESLEY ALLEN 



REV. GEORGE WESLEY ALLEN, D. D.. one of the most 
widely known ministers of the A. M. E. Connection, has 
had a varied experience in educational and religious 
work, and is now editor of the Southern Christian Recorder, 
an official organ of the A. M. E. Church, with headquarters at 
Columbus, Ga., though the larger part of his life has been 
spent in Alabama, and the paper is printed at Nashville, Tenn. 

He was born in Russell county, Alabama, about the year 
1854, and was thus a small boy at the outbreak of the War 
between the States, which he remembers distinctly. His 
parents were George and Margaret Allen, both slaves. His 
mother is said to have been a daughter of her master, and was 
at an early age sold to the Aliens. She was a woman of strong 
Christian character and some education. Dr. Allen recog- 
nizes with gratitude the debt he owes to the influence of his 
Christian mother. 

Dr. Allen's teaching has been in the hands of white people, 
as he never had a colored teacher, but depended on private 
instruction for the well-balanced education which he has. His 
first teacher was his former young master, Mr. W. B. Allen. 
He then attended the public school taught by Crowder. 
Later he was instructed by Mrs. W. B. Butt, and this Avas fol- 
lowed by work under the direction of Prof. M. M. Allen, Prof. 
D. M. Banks, I\Ir. John H. Crowell, and Prof. 0. D. Smith, Pro- 
fessor of Mathematics in what was then known as Alabama M. 
& M. College at Auburn, Ala. 

When a boy in his 'teens he was converted, in 1867, and 




GEORGE WESLEY ALLEN. 



66 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

even as a young man felt a call to the ministry, though it was 
several years before he entered into the active work of the 
ministry, as he was determined to complete certain higher 
branches in the college course before resuming such work as 
would hinder him. 

For thirty-two years, he was a teacher in Alabama, and 
made for himself a prominent place in the teaching profession 
of that state. For fifteen years he taught in the public schools 
of Bullock county, and was for seventeen years principal of 
the Girard City Schools. It was while here that his teacher's 
certificate was secured for the highest grade issued by the 
state, and he won a first-grade life certificate as teacher in 
Alabama. He pastored some mission charges while serving 
as principal of Girard City Schools ; was licensed to preach in 
1880. 

In 1890 he joined the Conference at Opelika, Ala., and enter- 
ed upon the active vrork of the ministry; his next pastorate 
being at Phoenix City, which he served for four years. By 
that time he had fairly won his promotion to the Presiding 
Eldership, and was by Bishop H. M. Turner put in charge of 
the Montgomery District, which he held for the full quadren- 
]iium. After four years of service on that district, he was 
appointed Presiding Elder of the Union Springs District, 
which he served only five months, being elected, in 1901 by the 
General Conference, Editor of the Southern Christian Re- 
corder. This position he has since held with credit to himself 
and satisfaction to the church. His paper has a wide reading 
in his denomination, besides many others of both races, and 
through its pages he has a larger congregation than he could 
ever have had as pastor or Presiding Elder. 

While residing in Bullock county, Alabama, he took an 
active part in politics, earlier in his career, and in 1874 was 
elected, and served for two years in the Alabama Legislature, 
as a law-maker of his state. He has the honor of introducing 
the bill which incorporated the thriving city of ^Midway, Ala., 
and others. 

Fo : a numlier of years he has attended the General Con- 



GEORGIA EDITION 67 

ferenee of his denomination, and is a prominent figure in the 
Annual Conferences. 

On ]\Iarch 2, 1876, he was married to Miss Phoebe Harvey, 
of Barbour county, Alabama. They have eight living chil- 
dren : Griffin A., a practicing physician at Columbus, Ga. ; 
William W. and James L. Allen, operating a shoe store at 
Columbus ; John S., in the railway mail service ; A. Joseph and 
Nimrod B., students in Yale University ; INIarion A. and Bertha 
Lee, students in Atlanta University. 

In 1899 the degree of D. D. was conferred upon him by 
Payne College, and in 1915, by Wilberforce University. Among 
the secret orders, he is identified with the Pythians and 
the Masons. He considers co-operation a prime need of his 
people, and believes this can be had without antagonizing the 
other race. Dr. Allen is not only a successful editor and 
minister, but is also a capable business man. He owns con- 
siderable property in Alabama, where he conducts profitable 
farming operations, as well as investments in Columbus, Ga., 
and Girard. Ala. 



DILLARD HOUSTON BROWN 



DR. DILLARD HOUSTON BROWN, a prominent dentist 
now^ residing at Newnan, is a native of Bold Springs, 
Franklin county, where he was born September 7, 1871. 
He is a son of William and Janie (Wilburn) Brown, both 
slaves. His maternal grandparents were Ben and Harriet 
Wilburn, and his paternal grandparents John Norman and 
Rebecca Brown. As a boy he attended the country schools of 
Franklin county till he was able to enter the fifth grade of 
the grammar school of Atlanta University. Here he worked 
through a couple of grades, and later entered Payne Institute, 
Augusta, where he remained till 1896, when he was in his 
senior year. In 1901 he entered Knoxville College for three 



68 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

years, and in 1905 matriculated for his dental course, which 
Avas completed in 1909, with the degree of D. D. S. 

This is a mere outline of his educational career, and reads 
as though it had been accomplished without any particular 
effort. Such is far from the case ; for young Brown had to 
struggle from the very beginning to fit himself for his life's 
Avork. As a boy and A'oung man he labored at all sorts of jobs, 
and as soon as he was sufficiently advanced began teaching in 
order to get money to continue his education. There was the 
hard Avork of the summer time and the teaching after crops 
were done, and all that he might spend a fcAV months at school. 
EA'en then it Avas impossible for him to complete his course 
without seA'eral breaks. While at KnoxAnlle his money gave 
out, and he entered the Pullman service, in Avhich he remained 
for parts of several j^ears. This took him to every part of 
America, and being an intelligent man he observed conditions 
for himself, Avhich Avas at once a satisfaction and a help to 
him in after years. He Avas a popular student while in college, 
and took an actiA'e part in college athletics, especially baseball. 
He recalls Avith gratitude the Christian home in which he 
was brought up, and attributes to that influence his best ideals 
in life. His father was a minister. Since leaA^ng college, Dr. 
BroAAm's principal reading has been along the line of his pro- 
fessional Avork, though he is very fond of history. 

On the completion of his course, he took up the practice 
of dentistry at Marietta in 1909, Avhere he remained till 1913, 
when he removed to the more promising field of NeAvnan. 
Wherever he has gone, his relationships Avith his Avhite neigh- 
bors have been cordial and helpful. He is a genial man, of 
extensive and Avide experience, Avho believes thoroughly in 
fundamental things of character, justice and right living. In 
politics he is a Republican. He is a member of the Congrega- 
tional church and a ^Nlason. 

On November 6, 1896, he Avas married to Anna Rebecca 
Robinson, a daughter of George and Caroline Robinson, of 
Augusta. They have had eight children. Those living are ; 
j\fae Beatrice, Lois Robinson, Anna Geneva, Edna Caroline 
and Dillard Houston, Jr. 




DILLARD HOUSTON BROWN. 



FRANKLIN GREGG 



REV. FRANKLIN GREGG, an able teacher and preacher 
now located at Newnan, Ga., is a native of Sumter county, 
South Carolina, where he was born April 20, 1881. His 
parents were Junius and Henrietta (]McCoy) Gregg. They 
were both slaves. His paternal grandparents were Neptune 
and Betty Gregg. His maternal grandparents were Butler and 
Eliza :\IcCoy. 

As a boy, young Gregg attended Kendall Institute, at Sumter, 
S. C., but took his classical and theological courses at Lincoln 
University, Pennsylvania. He finished his literary course, receiv- 
ing the degree of A. B. in 1905 ; three years later, the theological 
course and the degree of S. T. B. From the very beginning he 
was handicapped in getting an education on account of insuffi- 
cient means ; but he did not permit this to stand in his way. With 
pluck and perseverance he overcame the obstacles as he was eon- 
fronted by them, and while in college spent his summer vacations 
working in hotels in order that he might return to school in the 
fall. He had one tremendous advantage, and that was the fact 
that he was brought up in a Christian home, where his godly 
parents and his associates had much to do with giving tone and 
direction to the life of the boy and the young man. Working 
with his father on the farm till he was almost a grown man, he 
laid the foundations of physical strength and health which have 
stood him in good stead under the pressure of hard work which 
the years have brought. 

After his graduation in the spring of 1908, he was called to the 
Mt. Vernon Presbyterian Church, at Palatka, Fla., and commis- 
sioned by the Board of Missions for Freedmen to take charge of 
their school at Palatka. The next three years were busy, success- 
ful years for the young preacher and teacher. At the end of 
that time, he was appointed to the presidency of McClelland 
Academy, at Newnan, Ga. An account of that institution, 




FRANKLIN GREGG. 



72 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

together with the work he has accomplished there, will be found 
in another part of this volume. 

In polities Mr. Gregg is a Republican. The only secret order 
he is identified with is the Royal Benefit Society, of Washington, 
D. C. 

About the time he returned to Georgia, June 21, 1911, he 
was married to Miss Lucinda Anderson, a daughter of John F. 
iind Sarah C. Anderson, of Macon. 



JAMES BERRY MILLER 



REV. JAMES BERRY MILLER, D. D., pastor of the Rose 
Hill i\Iemorial Baptist Church, Columbus, Ga., has 
struggled up through difficulties to a place of promin- 
ence among his people and a place of leadership in his de- 
nomination. 

He was born at Columbia, Maury county, Tennessee, July 
14, 1863. His parents, Alexander and Elizabeth JMiller, were 
both slaves. Of his grandparents he knows little except that 
they came from Virginia. 

Coming of school age just after the war, he found no little 
difficulty in obtaining the education he so much desired. He 
attended the Columbia city public schools as a boy, and Roger 
AVilliams University, of Nashville, for his higher education. 
He found it necessary to work his way through college, and 
after having reached the point where he could secure teacher's 
license, earned a considerable part of the money by teaching 
in Maury county. 

He was converted at the age of twenty-six, and almost im- 
mediately felt called to the work of the ministry. He was 
licensed to preach by the Mt. Bethlehem Baptist Church, South 
Pittsburg, Tenn., and w^as ordained to the full work of the 
ministry by the same church in 1892. His first pastorate was 
at Bridgeport, Ala., which he served from '92-6. He was then 
called to Chattanooga and developed a large and prosperous 
work at the Monumental Baptist Church, which he served for 




JAMES BERRY MILLER. 



74 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

three years, at the expiration of which he was appointed Slate 
Sunday School Colporter by the Tennessee Baptist State Con- 
vention, at Knoxville in 1898. He remained in this field till 
1900, when he accepted a call to the First Baptist Church, of 
Huntsville, Ala., which he served for two years. From Hunts- 
ville he went to Pratt City and built the First Church there. 
From Pratt City he was called to the Metropolitan Baptist 
Church of Columbus, Ga., in 1909, which greatly prospered 
under his administration. In 1913 he resigned the pastorate 
of the Metropolitan Church and established the Rose Hill 
Memorial church, which now has a membership of nearly two 
hundred. In addition to this he also serves New Hope Church, 
at "West Point, Ga., and Rehoboth, at Langdale, pastoring in all 
about thirteen hundred members. 

In recognition of his attainments, the degree of Doctor of 
Divinity was conferred upon him by Guadaloupe College in 
Texas in 1910. In his reading he gives, of course, special atten- 
tion to the Bible and sacred literature, keeping up with current 
events through the leading magazines and papers. 

He is also a member of the Finance Committee of the 
National Baptist Convention that meets annually in different 
parts of the United States. As an evangelist he has visited 
all parts of the United States. No accurate account has been 
kept of the number of converts under his ministry, though 
the number would mount up into the hundreds — perhaps 
thousands. In politics he is a Republican, and among the 
secret orders holds membership in the Odd Fellows and 
Masons. 

On November 17, 1878, he was married to ^liss Sarah 
Frierson, of Tennessee. Their only son, Clifford Leonard 
Miller, is now pastor of the Union Congregational Church of 
Newport, R. I. Subsequent to the death of his first wife, Dr. 
Miller was married a second time, on September 15, 1913, to 
Miss Prenalla Gibson, who was reared in LaGrange, Ga. 

Dr. IMiller has been a busy, progressive pastor since enter- 
ing upon the ministry, and has built and improved a number 
of church houses. Even during his first pastorate he built a 
church at Bridgeport, Ala., while the JMonumental Church at 



GEORGIA EDITION 75 

Chattanooga is really a monument to him. A splendid work 
was also done at Pilgrim's Rest, Victoria, Tenn. ; Rising Star, 
Ijewisbnrg, Tenn., and the church at Huntsville, remodelled 
while he served it. The ^letropolitan Church property at 
Columbus was improved to the amount of at least ten thousand 
dollars under his pastorate, and fully two hundred members 
added to its membership. So it will be seen that though born 
a slave and having behind him an ancestry of some generations 
of slavery. Dr. Miller has to his credit a large record of achieve- 
ment. He resides at 423 Fourteenth street, Columbus. 



SAMUEL MACK RUSSELL 



DR. SAMUEL M. RUSSELL, of Atlanta, is a native of 
North Carolina, having been born at Charlotte about 
the year 1876. He is a son of Hampton and Hannah 
Russell. His father was a slave; his mother was free. His 
father was a carpenter by trade, which trade he taught the 
son at an early age, and this enabled the boy to do many things 
in life which otherwise he would not have been able to accom- 
plish. 

As a boy he attended the public schools of Mecklenburg county, 
and when he had finished the public school course entered the 
preparatory department of Biddle University, at Charlotte. He 
finished this course in 1898, and when ready for college entered 
Lincoln University in Pennsylvania for his literary course. His 
progress as a student was creditable to him, and the degree of 
A. B. was conferred upon him at the end of the course. While 
in college he gave considerable attention to college athletics, 
especially football and baseball, and was popular among his 
fellow-students. 

Having decided to take up the profession of medicine as his 
life-work, he began his course at Shaw University, Raleigh, 
N. C, but finished at the Knoxville Medical College, which 
institution has since been merged with Meharry College. He 




SAMUEL MACK RUSSELL AND WIFE. 



GEORGIA EDITION 77 

fanished the medical course and received his M. D. degree in 
1908. While pursuing his studies as a medical student, he found 
it necessary to work at his trade during the summer months 
to earn tuition. 

Completing his course in 1908, he began the practice of medi- 
cine at LaFollette, Teuu., the same year, but remained there 
only one year, when he removed to Greenville, Tenn. In 1910 
he made another move, which brought him to Atlanta, where 
he has since resided and followed the practice of medicine and 
surgery. 

On April 24, 1910, he was married to ^liss Dora Hamp, from 
Greenville, S. C. 

He has accumulated property and is comfortably fixed, and 
lives at 70 Henry street. Though not active as such, he is a 
Republican in politics. Among the secret orders, he is identi- 
fied with the Odd Fellows and Masons, being Medical Examiner 
for the Masons. He is also Medical Examiner for the Inde- 
pendent Benevolent Order. Dr. Russell has for years been 
active in religious work ; is an elder of the Radcliffe Memorial 
Presbyterian Church, and is prominently identified with the work 
of the Sunday School aiid the Y. ]\I. C. A. He believes that 
the best interests of the nation, as well as his own race, are to 
be served by the spread of Christianity, coupled with education : 
and one can scarcely think of a more fundamental program for 
the development of any race or nation. Apart from his pro- 
fessional reading, which of course claims his first attention, he 
has found history most helpful. Just entering on the prime of 
manhood, Dr. Russell gives promise of a career of usefulness 
to himself and to his race. 



CHARLES FELIX HOSKINS 



WHATEVER some may have thought about opportuni- 
ties or lack of opportunities for the Negro in the South, 
the fact remains that a large number of them, without 
.^topping to debate the question at all, are in many different 



78 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

lines of endeavor moving right on and up to success in a large 
way. Difficulties? Well, yes, everybody has them; but these 
modern progressive sons of Ham are not being conquered by 
them, as is proved beyond question by the record of many 
thousands of them, including the popular Secretary of the 
Georgia I\Iedical, Dental and Pharmaceutical Association, 
Charles Felix Hoskins, D. D. S., of Brunswick. 

And his progress has been brilliant and rapid ; for he is yet 
in his early thirties, having been born at Columbus, Ga., July 
1 3, 1880. His parents were John H. Hoskins, who was a brake- 
man on the railroad, and Alice Rosena Riley. His maternal 
grandparents were Joseph and Maria Riley. 

His literary education was obtained at the Hazel Street 
School of Macon; Risley Public School, Brunswick; Ballard 
High School, Macon ; Tuskegee Institute, Tuskegee, Ala., Georgia 
State College, and Lincoln Institute, at Jefferson City, Mo. He 
graduated from the latter in 1903, and six years later received 
his diploma and D. D. S. degree from Meharry College, the 
medical department of Walden University, at Nashville, Tenn. 
But notwithstanding his extensive schooling, he did not have 
easy sailing; for as he went along it was necessary for him to 
earn most of the wherewithal for his l)oard and tuition and 
other expenses. At Tuskegee he worked on a farm, brickyard, 
lumberyard, in the shoe-making department, and in the office of 
the distinguished president of that institution. Dr. Booker T. 
Washington. At the Georgia State College, he worked in the 
shoe-making department and as librarian and postman. At 
Lincoln Institute he was instructor of shoe-making, wdiile a 
student in the scientific department. At Walden University, or 
Meharry College, he waited on students of Vanderbilt University 
for his meals, and worked at his trade of shoe-making during 
spare hours, and during vacation worked at the Hammond Stock 
Yards in Chicago, and while waiting for a position in the Pull- 
man service served dinner meals. But all his more serious occu- 
pations did not prevent his participating to some extent while at 
college in those sports which are so dear to the boy's heart, such 
as tennis, football, baseball, etc. 

After completing his dental course in 1909, he immediately 




CHARLES FELIX HOSKINS. 



80 HISTORY OB' AMERICAN NEGRO 

began the practice of his profession in Brunswick, Ga. For one 
so well equipped and so intelligent and enterprising, it might be 
put down as a foregone conclusion that he would succeed; but 
doubtless the rapidity and apparent ease with which that success 
has come has been a source of some surprise even to himself. In 
1911 his profession recognized his worth by electing him secre- 
tary of the Dental Section of their state organization, the Geor- 
gia Medical, Dental and Pharmaceutical Association, and he was 
one of the most prominent participants in what was perhaps the 
most successful meeting in the history of that organization, held 
at Columbus, Ga., in IMay, 1913, where his discussion of diseases 
of the antrum, using as his sub-topics superation, mucous and 
engorgements, syphilitic ulceration, and necrosis of walls, was 
enthusiastically received. 

In addition to his professional work, Dr. Hoskins finds 
recreation and profit in farming. In his reading, books bearing 
on his chosen work of course have an important part, in addition 
to which he is partial to the Harvard Classics and The Book 
of Knowledge. He is a Republican in politics. Episcopalian in 
religion, and among the secret orders is a member of the Masons 
and Knights of Pythias. He has travelled extensively in the 
United States and Canada. 

Dr. Hoskins believes that the best interests of the Negro in the 
state and nation would be served by more and better schools, 
both in the rural districts and in the cities, with more efficient 
teachers; and also by having intelligent preachers who are 
thoroughly qualified to instruct their people. While great 
progress has already been made along these lines, every one 
familiar with existing conditions must realize that there is room 
for more. 

One of the most recent as well as one of the happiest events 
in the life of Dr. Hoskins, was his marriage on September 18, 
1918, to Miss Alice Agatha Sheffield, daughter of Jackson K. 
and Carrie (Williams) Sheffield, Glynn county, near Everett 
City. We quote in part from the account of the wedding pub- 
lished in the Savannah Tribune: ''The ceremony was witnessed 
by only a few friends and close relatives, a party of whom in 
automobiles and other vehicles, was led from Brunswick bv Dr. 





C&u 



/ 



GEORGIA EDITION 81 

Hoskins in his big red forty-horse power car. * * * The friends 
and relatives returned to their respective homes, believing the 
marriage of Dr. and ^Irs. Hoskins destined to be the happiest of 
unions, especially in consideration of the general equanimity of 
1heir respective dispositions and the very high standard of 
character by which they are justly and popularly known. 
Though an heiress of a very large estate, Mrs. Hoskins, in keep- 
ing with her unusual intelligence and business tact, is always 
very gentle and unpretentious. Dr. Hoskins is fortunate in 
having for his helpmate one who by her gentle and kindly 
nature will win friends for him and by her intelligence and 
1 usiness ability will help forward his splendid dental practice, 
the wonderful success of which has not in the least marred hi^ 
i-traightforward manliness, his unassuming ways, nor his jovial 
nature. ' ' 



JOHN WESLEY EDWARD BOWEN 



JOHN WESLEY EDWARD BOWEN easily ranks among 
the leading educators and theologians of his race. His 
parents were Edward and Rose (Waters) Bowen. His 
paternal grandfather was also named Edward. His great- 
grandfather John Bowen was born a slave, but early purchased 
his freedom. He lived in Washington, D. C. All of John 
Bowen 's paternal ancestors as far as known lived in and around 
that city. His mother was born in Lexington, Ky. Anthony 
Bowen, an uncle of J. AY. E., was among the first to agitate for 
free public schools for colored youth in Washington, and the 
first public school for colored youth in the District of Columbia 
v.-as named in his honor — the "Anthony Bowen Public School'* 
— which is still in operation. 

John Wesley Edward Bowen was born at New Orleans Decem- 
ber 3, 1855; has devoted his life to religious, educational and 
literary work. Hib father being a contractor and a man of 
some means, the boy was able to pursue his education without. 



82 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

the interruptions so frequent among the younger men of his 
race during the '70 's and '80 's. A mere outline of his school and 
college work will indicate that he left no opportunity to fit 
himself for his life's work unimproved. He was graduated from 
the University of New Orleans in 1878 with the degree of A. B., 
and received the degree of A. M. from the same institution in 
1884. In 1885 he was graduated from Boston University with 
the degree of B. D., and the following year won his Ph. D. 
degree from the same institution, specializing in metaphysics, 
ethics, philosophy and Hebrew. He was the first colored man of 
the M. E. Church to win the Ph. D. degree, and the only colored 
man on whom that degree has been conferred by the Boston 
University. Later the degree of D. D. was conferred upon him 
by Gammon Theological Seminary, over which he now presides. 

On the completion of his course at New Orleans University in 
'78, Dr. Bowen was made Professor of Latin and Greek at 
AValden University, where he remained till '82. From '82 to 
'87 he was in Boston University. During a large part of that 
time he was active in the work of the ministry, being stationed 
at Revere Street M. E. Church. 

Dr. Bowen has made a remarkable record as preacher and 
pastor. He was converted at the age of seventeen, and soon after 
felt called to the work of the ministry, and has served a number 
of the leading churches of his denomination, as well as being 
identified with some of the leading institutions of the race, both 
North and South. After the completion of his work in Boston, 
he was transferred to Newark, N. J., as pastor of St. John's 
Church, where he remained for three years. At the end of that 
time he was transferred to the Washington, D. C, Conference, 
and placed in charge of the very hard but important station, 
Centennial Church, at Baltimore. While on this work he con- 
ducted a most remarkable revival lasting for twenty-three weeks. 
During all this time he preached twice a day on week days and 
three times on Sunday, adding a total of seven hundred thirty- 
five to the membership of the church and clearing up a heavy 
indebtedness on the church property. At the end of two years 
in Baltimore, he was assigned to Asbury Cliurch in Washington, 
which he served for three years. Here a new property was 



GEORGIA EDITION 85 

bought and the work marked by two hundred and thirty con- 
versions. 

In 1892 Dr. Bowen was made Field Secretary of the Foreign 
Mission Society of his church, and after serving one year in this 
capacity was elected to the chair of Historical Theology at Gam- 
mon Theological Seminary, Atlanta, and secretary of the Stewart 
Missionary Foundation for Africa. In 1906 he was made presi- 
dent of that institution, and in addition has been University 
Pastor of Clark University for seven years. He has enjoyed 
the distinction of being the only colored man who has ever 
been secretary of the Committee on Episcopacy of the General 
Conference. This position he has held for two quadrenniums. 
He was a mem])er of the General Conference of his church for 
the years 1896, 1900, 1904 and 1908. In three General Con- 
ferences he received very large and flattering votes for the 
Episcopacy, and in 1896 ran ahead of strong white men for the 
office of Bishop. Wilberforce University conferred upon him 
the degree "LL.D." in 1914. 

Dr. Bowen is a fluent speaker and a forceful writer, whose 
work is marked by accuracy and precision. In addition to the 
numerous contributions to magazines and periodicals, he has 
brought out several important books, among which may be men- 
tioned "National Sermons," "Africa and the American Negro," 
"Appeal to Caesar" (being an appeal for Negro Bishops), "The 
United Negro," and other monographs and articles on religious 
?nd educational subjects. He is now engaged in writing two 
historical and one theological work. In addition to this, he does 
considerable work for others along the line of revising and edi- 
torial work. In this field his wide experience, careful training 
and habits of accuracy stand him in good stead. He is in de- 
mand as a lecturer at the chatauquas and other public gather- 
ings. Among the secret orders he is identified witli the Masons. 
He is a member of the American Academy of Political Science ; 
the Negro Academy; the Burbank Scientific Association, and 
the American Historical Association. He was also for one year 
an Examiner in the American Association of Hebrew. 

On September 24, 1886, he was married to Ariel S. Hedges, a 
daughter of Rev. Charles S. and Harriet Hedges. Subsequent 



86 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

to her death he was married a second time to Miss Irene Small- 
wood, of Atlanta, a graduate of the Buffalo (N. Y.) Kinder- 
garten School, and a successful teacher at Calhoun, Ala. Of 
four children born to them, three are living. They are Irene, 
John and Juanita, all of whom have been given a college educa- 
tion. The daughter Irene graduated at Wilbraham Academy, 
Wilbraham, Mass., and attended the New England Conservatory 
of Music, Syracuse University and Fisk University. The son, 
John, after winning scholarships at Philips Exeter Academy, 
Exeter, N. H., and graduating with cum laiide at Wesleyan 
University, Middletown, Conn., entered Harvard University, 
won his master's degree, and is now completing his Ph.D. course 
in that institution. He was elected in May, 1914, a Fellow of 
the American University, Washington, D. C. He is the first 
and only colored young man to have won this honor. A good 
stipend goes with this honor to complete his "Ph.D." course in 
Harvard. 

While a resident of Baltimore and Washington, Dr. Bowen 
was elected Professor of Systematic Theology in Morgan Col- 
lege, Baltimore, 1888-1901, and during the year 1902 became 
Professor of Hebrew in Howard University, Washington, D. C. 
His present official title is vice-president of Gammon Theological 
Seminary and Professor of Church History and Religious 
Education. 



ALEXANDER DANIEL HAMILTON 



ALEXANDER DANIEL HAMILTON, a prominent con- 
tractor and business man of Atlanta, is a native of Ala- 
bama, having been born in the old town of Eufaula on 
the Chattahoochee River November 24, 1870; so it will be seen 
that he is now a man in his prime, in his early forties, but has 
already attained a large measure of success in his chosen call- 
ing. He is a son of Alexander Hamilton and ]\Iartha Ann 
(Coker) Hamilton. His father was himself a builder and con- 
tractor, beginning as assistant to his father and entering the 




ALEXANDER DANIEL HAMILTON. 



88 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

firm of A. Hamilton & Son about 1890. This firm name was 
retained until after his father's death on IMay 26, 1911. 

On November 9, 1892, Mr. Hamilton was married to Nellie 
Marie Cook, a daughter of Benjamin and Anna Cooke, of At- 
lanta. They have seven children. These are Alexander D. Jr., 
Eunice Evelyn, Theron Bertram, Henry Cooke, Marion Murphy, 
Nellie Marie and Joseph Thomas Hamilton. All these are being 
given good educational opportunities. 

Our subject laid the foundation of his education in the public 
schools of Atlanta, to which city the family had moved when he 
was still a small boy. After finishing the public school course, he 
spent three years at Atlanta University, and would be called a 
liberally educated man. Apart from the literature dealing with 
his line of work, especially architecture, he has found most help- 
ful the Bible and the standard works. Like so many other good 
men, he puts the Bible first. He reflects great credit upon him- 
self and upon his parents and home, when he states that the 
most valuable influences in the shaping of his life came from 
home and parents. His work and pleasure have taken him 
to almost every part of the United States east of the Mississippi 
river, so that he has a good general working knowledge of the 
country. In politics he is a Republican, in religion a member 
of the Congregational church. He is affiliated with both the 
Masons and the Odd Fellows, and ranks as a Thirty-Third 
Degree ]\Iason. He commends to others those qualities which he 
has worked out so successfully in his own experience. They 
are education, the acquiring of property and moral training. 

The value of a citizen like Mr. Hamilton, who earns his own 
living, establishes a home, rears a family, is a real asset to any 
community which cannot be estimated in dollars and cents. 



WILLIS JAMES WILLIAMS 



REV. WILLIS JAMES WILLIAMS, pastor of Bethel A. 
M. E. Church, Fitzgerald^ Ga., was born November 1, 
1872, in Baldwin county, and is a son of Willis and 
Margaret (Adams) Williams, his father having been a native 




WILLIS JAMES WILLIAMS. 



90 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

of Virginia and his mother a native of Alabama. His father 
was a farmer by occupation. 

Young Williams received his preliminary educational train- 
ing at Eddy High School, in Milledgeville, and from private 
teachers, and later todk a course at Turner Theological 
Seminary, of INIorris Brown University, in Atlanta. He was 
converted in 1892 and joined Wesley Chapel (A. M. E. Church) 
at Milledgeville, April 11, 1893. In 1901 he was licensed to 
preach, and the next year joined the Conference at Augusta, 
and was assigned to a mission without a single member — 
Midway, in Baldwin county. After one year there, he was 
sent to Jewell's Mission for one year, followed by one year at 
Clarke's Mission, St. Luke's circuit one year. Crump's Chapel 
(Macon station) two years. Bethel station (Barnesville) two 
years, St. Philip's (Atlanta) four years, thence to Fitzgerald, 
where he is now in his third year. There has been steady 
growth in the membership of the church at that point and a 
large amount of money has been raised since his pastorate 
there began. His progress has been gradual but steady, and 
by faithful application he has made continuous advancement. 
Bethel station is the leading church in the Fitzgerald District, 
with nearly three hundred members. As a faithful pastor, he 
linds quite enough to keep him busy during evei"y hour of 
every day, and has thoroughly systematized his work in order 
to get the best possible results from his time. At 7 :00 a. m. 
he goes to his study; about 8:30 to breakfast, returning to his 
^■tudy about 9 :15 and remaining to 1 :00 p. m., after which he 
visits until 5 :00. He finds that this systematic division of his 
time helps him greatly in the discharge of the varied duties 
that devolve upon him as pastor of a flock of nearly three 
hundred members, to each of whom he endeavors to give a due 
share of personal attention, while keeping in close touch with 
all the varied interests of the church and everything that 
pertains to it. 

]\Ir. Williams is a member of the Ministers' Union and of 
the Alumni Association of Morris Brown University. His 
reading is along lines that tend best to fit him for the work 
of his great calling ; in fact, almost his whole time and energy 



GEORGIA EDITION 91 

are bent to the one end of making that work the best possible 
«neeess. 

Mr. "Williams believes that the best interests of Georgia 
may be served by giving each man in the state a man's chance. 
He considers the questions of finance and the tariff among the 
most important now occupying the attention of the country, 
and of course regards the moral, educational and religious 
welfare of the people as matters of prime importance any- 
where and always. 

Mr. Williams was married on June 22, 1896, to ]\Iiss Leila 
Ellen Parks, of :\Iilledgeville, Ga. They have one daughter, 
Leila Ellen Williams. 

Mr. Williams is a member of several important committees 
of his church, including the Trustees of Morris Brown 
University, and the Executive Committee of that Board; the 
Dollar Money Committee, and the Fourth Year Committee. 
He is also a member of the Semi-Centenary Committee, hav- 
ing charge of the celebration of the fiftieth anniversary of the 
organization of the A. M. E. Church in Georgia, and the 
following secret orders: G. U. 0. of 0. F., Knights of Pythias, 
Masons, M. A. C, and C. A. S. 



PHILLIP GAMMA PAGE 



THE story of the life of Phillip Gamma Page, of Jackson, 
Ga., is one of peculiar interest. He is a iiative of 
Africa, having been born on the West Coast prior to 
]870. As a small boy he was accustomed to frequent the Mis- 
sion trading post at Bassaw, where he attracted the attention 
of a former sea captain, who kept a store at that point. Later 
the captain induced the boy to accompany him to America, 
when he was about six or seven years of age. On reaching 
America he was put to school in Brooklyn for a couple of 
years. Following this, he attended the public school in Con- 
necticut for three years. Mrs. Spelman interested herself in 
his progress, and under the auspices of the American Mission- 



92 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

ary Association he was later sent to Atlanta University. Here 
he was converted and joined the Congregational church. He 
left school in his junior year, and began teaching at Shady 
Dale, in Jasper county. He identified himself with the Baptist 
church, and in 1905 moved to Jackson and became principal of 
the Jackson Public School. In 1913 he was elected head of 
the New Macedonia associational school, which has reached 
its highest efficiency under his management. Prof. Page is 
regarded as a capable and trustworthy teacher, and has built 
up his school to an enrollment of one hundred forty. 

Among the different lines of reading, his own preferences 
run to history. He has not taken any active, part in politics, 
being a man of one profession, and that teaching. He was 
formerly identified with the Pythians. He is an ardent advocate 
of industrial training for his people, and is himself a striking 
illustration of what a man direct from Africa can do when 
properly directed. 

On January 19, 1908, he was married to ]Miss Josephine 
Hunter, of Jackson, Ga. They have no children. 



JOHN HENRY ADAMS 



WHOEVER thinks we are the product of our environ- 
ment, should study the biographies of men like John 
Henry Adams. Born and reared in slavery, denied 
the opportunities of early education, and later learning to 
write by shaping the letters in the sand at his South Georgia 
home under the direction of a white boy, he has notwithstand- 
ing all these handicaps made for himself a prominent place as 
a religious leader of his race in Georgia. Those who know him 
best class him with the leading preachers of his race. 

He is of a practical turn of mind, thinks clearly, expresses 
himself simply and fluently, sticks close to the Old Book, and 
seeks to train his people in the fundamental things of good 
morals, perfect honesty, and a religion which works itself out 
in the every-day life of his people. 




JOHN HENRY ADAMS. 



94 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

He was born near Newton, in Baker county, on May 10, 
1846. His father^ Obadiah Adams, was his master. His 
mother, Ann Adams, was a slave, and is still living at the ripe 
old age of a hundred and two. The longevity of his mother's 
family is remarkable. His grandmother lived to be ninety- 
eight, his great-grandmother a hundred and fourteen, and his 
mother's sisters all lived to be more than a hundred. 

Mr. Adams was converted as a young man, and joined the 
white Methodist church in 1859. In 1866 he felt called to the 
work of the ministry and was licensed at Lumpkin, Ga., in 
1866. In 1881 he was ordained Deacon at Savannah and four 
years later was made an Elder at Albany. 

His first pastorate was at Georgetown in 1877, where he re- 
mained for four years. Feeling the lack of equipment, ]ie 
arranged with Colonel Jordan, a lawyer of that town for 
private lessons at night, and kept this up for the whole of his 
pastorate at Georgetown. In fact, it may truthfully be said 
Ihat Dr. Adams has been a student since his Emancipation, 
though at that time he could barely write his name. 

His next pastorate was at Shellman, where he remained for 
four years; and it is interesting to note that on both the 
Georgetown and Shellman circuits he built four churches 
and took in at Georgetown 364 members and at Shellman 288. 
While on the Shellman work he continued his studies under 
Prof. Henderson, of Cuthbert. He was successful as a preacher 
from the beginning, so that by this time the larger fields began 
to open up to him, and he was transferred to St. James 
station Savannah for three years, where he took in nearly a 
thousand members during his pastorate. From Savannah he 
was sent to Thomasville for two years, where he was fortunate 
in locating another teacher, in the person of Prof. Rice. While 
on this work he added two hundred members to the church 
and paid off the debt. From Thomasville he went to Albany 
for a pastorate of one year, where he still kept up his studies 
under the direction of the white Presbyterian minister. Here 
he finished the brick church and paid it out of debt and took 
in 176 members. He was then sent to St. Paul, Atlanta, where 
he paid oft* the indebtedness, with the exception of four 

) 
/ 

I 
I 



GEORGIA EDITION 95 

hundred dollars, and added two hundred members to the 
church. From Atlanta he went to Athens for a pastorate of 
two years^ and added two hundred and eight members, and 
freed the church from debt. The next year found him in 
ilarietta, where a hundred and seventy-five members were 
added to the church ; and from Marietta he went to Monticello 
for two years, 1896-7, where his work was greatly blessed by 
the addition of two hundred and fifteen members and the 
church freed from debt. In 1898 he was promoted to the 
Presiding Eldership, and placed in charge of the Albany Dis- 
trict for three years. He was then transferred to the Macon 
Conference, 1902, and given the Eatonton District for two 
years. In 1903 he was assigned to the Thomaston station, 
where in two years he paid off the debt, built a brick church 
and added 120 members. He was again assigned to the Pre- 
siding Eldership and given the Newnan District, then the 
Covington District, and finally finished out ten years of service 
as Presiding Elder on the Monticello District. Following this 
was a short pastorate at Conyers, and another at Sandersville. 
From Sandersville he came to Barnesville, where he is now 
stationed. 

This mere outline will give some idea of the ceaseless activi- 
ties of this man of God. Had he been ambitious for himself, 
he might have pushed himself to the very forefront of his 
denomination and landed on the bench ; but he has rather 
sought to lead his people than to promote his own interests. 
He is a quiet man, but deals frankly and plainly with his 
people, and interests himself in whatever makes for their 
progress along right lines. 

In 1873, the Negroes of Pulaski and Coffee counties organ- 
ized a colony and migrated to Liberia. This was placed under 
the leadership of Dr. Adams, who accompanied the colony to 
Liberia and remained for two years, returning in 1875. The 
trip was made on a sailing vessel, and the opportunity of 
preaching to his people was frequently improved. He was also 
active in a religious way while in Liberia, though the colony 
did not prosper, many of the members returning to America 
and others passing away in that country. 



96 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

Dr. Adams attributes much to the example and teaching of 
bis Christian mother, and among all the books places the 
I5ible first. He has preserved many of his strongest sermons 
and addresses, and some of these have had wide reading. It is 
to be hoped that the most popular of these may be gathered in 
book form. 

Dr. Adams has been twice married : first to Miss Mittie 
Rouse, of Houston county. Of the children born to them, 
Obadiah is dead. John is an artist and a writer, who con- 
ducts a book store at Jacksonville, Fla. Wellington is a 
musician and a teacher of piano, Washington, D. C. ; Mittie 
Ann, now Mrs. Anderson, is a graduate of INIorris Brown Uni- 
versity and a teacher in the city schools of Griffin; David 
Wesley, who spent several years in the U. S. Army, is still in 
the government service. While on the Eatonton District his 
wife died. 

On December 10, 1903, at the close of his work on that dis- 
trict, he was married a second time, to Miss Laura Tompkins, 
of Eatonton, who is also a teacher and an influential mission- 
ary worker. They have five children: Laura, Christine, Julia 
Nettie, Spence and McNeal Adams, the other two being dead. 

In recognition of his work as a preacher and a worker in the 
church, the degree of D. D. was conferred upon him by Morris 
Brown University in 1911. The same degree was in like man- 
ner conferred upon him by Bethany College, N. C. in 1893. 
Among the secret orders, Dr. Adams is identified with the 
Masons and the Odd Fellows. He has wisely invested his 
savings in real estate, and now owns property in Conyers, 
Athens, Americus and Cochran. 

Note. — Dr. Adams died August 1, 1915. 



WILLIAM SHERMAN CANNON 



T WOULD seem that the late '60 's was a very unpropitious 
time in which to begin life. The South was rendered bare 
by the ravages of the most dreadful war in history. The 
white people were poor, and the Negroes, though free, were 



I 



GEORGIA EDITION 99 

poorer still. Race feeling was running high, and race preju- 
dice was finding expression in new and different ways. 

It was, however, into such a scene and such a time that the 
subject of our sketch, William Sherman Cannon, was born at 
Cross Hill, S. C, on July 11, 1868. His father, Mercer Cannon, 
was a blacksmith, which indicates that he was a man of more 
skill and ingenuity than the ordinary field hand. His mother 
was Fannie Young. His parents were brought to Georgia in 
1858, and settled at Cartersville. Five years later, however, 
in '63, which was in the midst of the War between the States, 
they were taken to South Carolina, where our subject was 
born. Mercer Cannon was born in Baltimore, while Fannie 
Young was a native of Petersburg, Va. Both were sold from 
Iheir relatives at a tender age, the father being twelve and 
the mother ten. They were brought South, and neither ever 
heard of their relatives again. So it will be seen that Mr. 
Cannon knows nothing of his ancestry back of his father and 
mother. 

Soon after the war schools were established for the educa- 
tion of the Negro in various parts of the country, and among 
others, Claflin University, at Orangeburg, S. C. Here young 
Cannon attended school and laid the foundations of his edu- 
cation. Later he spent sometime at Knoxville College, and 
later still studied at Morris Brown College, Atlanta. He left 
school, however, in the second year of his college preparatory 
course, and in 1888, at the age of twenty, began teaching 
school. 

After eight years in the educational work, he organized 
the Independent Benevolent Order, the story of which is told 
in another chapter in this volume. Mr. Cannon has since the 
organization been secretary and treasurer of the order, and 
has pushed the work to such advantage that though still young 
as an organization, it is now worth more than fifty thousand 
dollars, and has a membership of more than fourteen thousand. 
Born on a farm, young Cannon laid broad and deep the 
foundations of his success during the first twenty-one years of 
his life, which were devoted to farm work, thus giving him a 
strong and vigorous body. Later, after he began teaching, a 



100 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

part of each year was devoted to the carpenter trade, at which 
he became quite skillful. 

In May, 1894, Prof. Cannon moved to Troup County^ and 
was really the founder of a small town on the A. & W. P. 
Railroad in that county, which was named Cannonville for 
him. He was made post master here in 1901, and served for 
four years in that capacity. 

In ]\Iarch, 1894 he was married to Lula B. Lathan, who 
was a daughter of Ike and Harriet Lathan, of Marietta, Ga. 

With the progress of his educational work, !Mr. Cannon 
prospered, and later, with the development of the order which 
he had organized he accumulated means, and is now a man of 
considerable wealth. 

Three children have come to bless his home. They are H. 
Ethel, William S. Jr. and A. Lorena Cannon. 

The progressive attitude of the man may be inferred from 
the fact that each of these children is being given a college 
education. Ethel is a graduate of Atlanta University ; the 
boy is in the college course at Fisk University, while the 
youngest girl is a student at Fiske University. 

Mr. Cannon has not confined his reading and thinking 
.merely to matters which relate to the day's work, but has 
given serious consideration to the problems of his people. He 
favors the colonization of the Negro on the same basis as the 
Indian has been colonized, in order that he may rise to the 
highest state of manhood independently of an antagonistic 
environment. 

One may judge of Mr. Cannon's social characteristics by the 
fact that he is a member of the Odd Fellows, Masons, Knights 
of Pythias, and as stated above, was founder of the Independ- 
ent Benevolent Order and is Supreme Grand Master of that 
order and a member of the Supreme Circle. He is a member 
of the A. M. E. Church, and in politics is a Republican, sub- 
scribing heartily to the doctrines of eX-President Theodore 
Roosevelt. With all his other duties, he finds time to edit a 
semi-monthly paper, called "The Truth." 

As the years have come and gone, INIr. Cannon has seen his 
projects prosper and his fortunes grow and his family develop 



GEORGIA EDITION 101 

about him. He is one of the forceful, substantial, prosperous 
men of his race, whose example is worthy of emulation. By 
his energy and capacity, coupled with sterling character, he 
has won success where many another man would have failed. 
The fact that he had nothing to begin with makes it all the 
more creditable that he has worked out a large measure of 
success; and still in middle life, there remain years of good 
service to him. 

He is a thorough believer in practical education of the 
Negro children, the buying of farm land and building of 
homes, and the saving of money. Of course, his most lasting 
monument will be the organization of the Independent Be- 
nevolent Order, of which he is an important officer. 



JAMES DAILEY SOLOMON 



JAMES DAILEY SOLOMON, who lives between Locust Grove 
and McDonough, in Henry county, is one of the prosperous 
farmers and one of the leading colored men who own land in 
that section. 

He was born in Jones county just after the close of the war, 
January 18, 1873. His father was John Augustus Solomon and 
his mother before her marriage was Janie Glowers. On his 
father's side his grandparents were Alfred and Betsey Solomon, 
on his mother's side, Saul and ^lary Glowers. 

Dailey Solomon was married February 12, 1896, to Miss 
Pearlie Vandergriff, who was a daughter of Jake and Memmie 
Vandergriff, of Henry county. To this union have been born 
eight children. The seven living are : Garfield, Roosevelt. Reel- 
mond, William, John Thomas, Minnie Ruth, and Johnnie ]\Iay 
Solomon. He is giving to these the education of which he was 
himself largely deprived, his opportunity for schooling being 
limited to the local school. 

As a boy and young man Dailey Solomon worked on the farm 
and was known as a quiet, steady boy. He always avoided any- 
thing like rowdyism and has never been called in court on his 
own account, or even as a witness. After his marriage in '96, 




JAMES DAILEY SOLOMON. 



GEORGIA EDITION 103 

he began farming for himself and buying land. He now lives 
in a comfortable home on a well equipped farm and is one of 
the well-to-do men of Henry county. He owns 153 acres of land 
and makes an average of about forty bales of cotton a year. He 
owns property to the value of at least seven thousand dollars. 

"While a busy man, he finds some time to read and places the 
Bible first. He is a member of the Baptist church, in which he 
is a deacon and a Sunday-school teacher, and is identified with 
the I. B. 0., being treasurer of his local lodge. 

He thinks a crying need among his people is better educational 
training, more true religion, and better leaders. 



JAMES DOUGLAS MORRIS 



y^R. JAMES DOUGLAS MORRIS, of Cuthbert, is a native 
I I of Farley, Ala., where he was born November 19, 1884. 
His parents, Henry and Lou (Lindsay) Morris, were born 
just about the close of the war, so that Dr. Morris belongs to the 
new generation. His grandfather was Alfred IMorris, and his 
great grandfather was known as Caroline Morris, having been 
born in North Carolina, and sold into Alabama soon after that 
state was opened up to settlement by the white people. 

Young Morris attended the public schools of Alabama, and 
when sufficiently advanced entered the A. & M. College at 
Normal, Ala., for the Normal course. He completed this course 
in 1906. He worked on the farm till grown to manhood, and 
after that in the iron works, and later in the mines for five years. 
It was by hard work of this sort that he earned the money with 
which to complete his education. He was near nineteen years 
old before he earned money for himself, and was then inclined 
to travel around for a while, but was induced by his father to 
try to make a man of himself. He was also greatly helped and 
inspired and taught self-confidence by the superintendent of his 
Sunday-school, who brought him out and made him an assistant 
superintendent at the very early age of twelve years. Thus early 
taught self-reliance, as well as taught to work, he managed to 




JAMES DOUGLAS MORRIS. 



GEOKGIA EDITION 105 

enter Meharry College later, and was graduated from that insti- 
tution with the degree of M.D. in 1911. Something of his pluck 
may be gathered from the fact that he entered college with only 
twenty-four dollars. During the vacation period of the last two 
years in college, he was in the Pullman service, and in that way 
saw a great deal of the country. 

In August of 1911 he located at Cuthbert and began the prac- 
tice of medicine and surgery. On July 29th of the following 
year, he was married to Miss Bennie Dolphin. She w^as educated 
at the A. & M., Normal, Ala., and taught one year in Oklahoma 
before their marriage. 

Dr. Morris is the only colored physician in Randolph county, 
and has already made for himself a prominent place in the 
business and social life of that section. He is identified with the 
various medical societies to which he is eligible, and in politics 
is a Republican, though not active. He is a prominent member 
of the A. I\I. E. Church, though his duties preclude his taking 
any official position in the church. Among the secret orders he 
is a meml)er of the Pythians and ]\Iasons. He believes the thing 
which will contribute most to the progress of his people in Geo- 
gia is that practical sort of instruction along all lines which will 
enable them to adapt themselves to their environment. Dr. 
Morris' relationship with his white neighbors is cordial and 
helpful. This is true of the members of his profession as well as 
the laity. He owns a small tract of land near the city and has 
before him a promising future. 



JOHN DOSSON LOVEJOY 



REV. JOHN DOSSON LOVEJOY, now of Griffin, Ga., Dis- 
trict Superintendent of the Griffin District of the IMetho- 
dist Episcopal Church, was born at Greenville, Novem- 
ber 28, 1863. His father was George Washington Lovejoy, a 
carpenter, and his mother's maiden name was Elizabeth Render. 
They were all, of course, slaves, though John D, was born 
nearly a year after President Lincoln's Emancipation Proclama- 




JOHN DOSSON LOVEJOY. 



GEORGIA EDITION 107 

tion, and within a year and a half of the time that Emancipation 
became generally effective. On the paternal side his grand- 
parents were Banister and Martha Fench, the latter coming 
from Virginia. His maternal grandparents were Daniel and 
Ann Eender. These grandparents, as was the case with a large 
number of the "before the war" Negroes and some of a later 
period, lived to a ripe old age. 

John's education was obtained in the common country public 
schools, then known as "government schools." — supplemented, 
of course, by later reading and home study. The school session 
lasted only about three months during the year ; and in the 
meantime he had to work hard to help support the younger 
children of the family. The home training and influences were 
good. Outside of the Bible, his preferred reading in recent 
years has consisted of the Harvard Classics. 

When he was nineteen years of age, his father gave him of 
his slender means, five dollars on which to begin life for himself. 
He frankly says that the way has not been easy, and his pro- 
gress has often seemed to him slow ; and yet steady, faithful, 
persistent effort has not been ineffective, and gradually he 
has seen the slowly accumulating results of his efforts 
both in a widening influence and in the accumulation of prop- 
erty, until now he occupies a position of considerable responsi- 
bility in the church and in the York Masons, and is recognized 
as a very substantial citizen in good standing. 

For twenty-eight years he worked at the carpenter's trade and 
ran a grocery store at Greenville ; though now his church duties 
require practically all his time. 

He was converted at an early age, and immediately felt called 
to the work of the ministry. Being licensed to preach in the 
same year, he joined the Conference in 1893. His first pastorate 
was Thomaston IMission, and continued four years. Two years 
after beginning at Thomaston, the Barnesville work was added. 
He then w^ent to Cartersville one year, Elberton two years, 
Gainesville ten years, and Griffin two years as pastor. In 1910, 
he was promoted to the superintendency of the Griffin District. 
Among the visible results of his work since entering the minis- 
try, may be noted the addition of over fifteen hundred members 
to the church, and a church building erected at Thomaston, one 



108 fflSTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

on the Barnesville circuit and one at Gainesville ; also a par- 
sonage at Cartersville and one at Griffin. 

On May 9, 1891, he was married to Miss Lula Tart, daughter 
of Allen Bowden and Sallie B. Tart, of White Sulphur Springs. 

In politics he is a Republican. Among the secret orders, he 
is a member of the Knights of Pythias, and is State Grand Mas- 
ter of the F. A. A. York Masons. 

As for the things that will be most conducive to the welfare 
of his race in the state and nation, he states briefly what may 
be universally recommended — "Self-denial and a closer walk 
with God." 



HENRY EARLY FORTSON 



REV. HENRY EARLY FORTSON, a Baptist minister of 
Hartwell, Ga., is a striking illustration of self-made men 
who have risen from places of obscurity to position of 
leadership in the Negro race since Emancipation. Denied the 
opportunities of an education, but with a sincere desire to learn, 
as well as a burning zeal for his people, he has forged ahead till 
now he stands at the head of four of the leading Baptist churches 
in his section of the state. 

He was born in Elbert county October 6, 1868, near Broad 
River. His parents were Henry A. Fortson and Matilda Jack- 
son. His grandmother's name, on his mother's side, was Ann 
Allen, and her mother was brought from Virginia to Georgia and 
sold at public auction. His maternal grandfather was John 
Jackson. 

Henry Fortson was brought up on the farm. Speaking of 
what education he secured, he says it was by w^orking half day 
and going to the county school the other half, and by the aid 
of pine knots and interrogating others about things he did not 
know. 

He was converted at the age of eighteen and joined the Spring- 
field Baptist Church in Elbert county. Early feeling called to 
the work of the ministry, he was licensed and ordained by the 




HENRY EARLY FORTSON. 



no HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

same church. He also felt the desire to help his own people 
especially, and with this end in view began teaching school. In 
this, however, he was not satisfied, for the reason that he felt 
constantly the call to the ministry. About this time he was 
called to the pastorate, but, filled with a sense of unworthiness, 
refused to go until 1901. In that year he entered heartily into 
the work of the ministry, and since that time has found life 
happier and more successful. His first pastorate was at Rock 
Branch, which he served eleven years. He has also served Oak 
Grove thirteen years; First Baptist Church at Hartwell ten 
years; Maple Spring ten years; Antioch two and a half years, 
and Lavonia. 

Reverend Fortson is a man of one calling, and since finding 
his place devotes himself fully to the work of the ministry. He 
takes no part in politics, and is not identified with any of the 
secret orders. When asked for a suggestion as to how the best 
interests of his people might be promoted, he remarked: "In- 
dustrial education, I think, is the greatest need of my people 
in this section of the state. I believe, too, that interest in the 
improvement of my people by good white citizens and encour- 
agement of the leaders of our race, would tend greatly to our 
uplift." He places the Bible first in his reading; is also fond 
of history, especially the history of the races, and draws freely 
on the encyclopedias of science. He owns his home property, 
valued at about four thousand dollars. 

On February 1, 1884, he was married to Miss Dora M. Oliver, 
M^hose parents were John Oliver and Cynthia "Wilkins. They 
have five children : Queenie Esther. Hosea Holmes, Eula May, 
Henry Lovett and Jewel Salena. 

Mr. Fortson is vice-moderator of the Savannah River Associa- 
tion and chairman of the Executive Board of the same body. He 
is also a trustee of the Savannah River High School, and is an 
active worker in the Sunday-school field. He owns a small farm 
which occupies that part of his time not devoted to the ministry. 



NANK WILSON 



AMONG the intelligent and substantial citizens of the 
thriving little town of Decatur, Ga., is Nank Wilson, 
who has built up a prosperous and growing business in 
furniture and groceries. He was born July 17, 1875, in Atlanta, 
where he grew up. His parents were both slaves prior to 
Emancipation, his father, William Wilson, having belonged to 
Mr. Joseph Felker, of Monroe, Ga., and his mother, Fannie 
Craig, to Mr. Bob Craig, of Lawrenceville. His grandparents 
were Perry and Bell Cleveland, who were owned by Mr. Bob 
Cleveland, of Gwinnett county. 

Young Wilson obtained his education at the Gate City Color- 
ed School in At-lanta, during such time as he could spare from 
the arduous labors which devolved upon him in the support of 
himself and his mother, by shining shoes, selling papers, and 
other work. He feels that to a Christian mother more than 
anything else he owes the molding of his life. His mother 
died in 1909. 

After leaving school, young Wilson accepted employment with 
the Union Mutual Insurance Association, for which he became 
a traveling representative in the principal towns and cities of 
Georgia, but was promoted to Sick Claim Paymaster, and from 
that to State Superintendent ; but resigned in 1906 to engage in 
the furniture business at Decatur, to which he added a grocery 
business in 1908, and has been successfully conducting both 
since. 

On June 9, 189'6, he was married to Adelle M. Brooks, 
daughter of Jethro and Isabella Brooks, of Charleston, S. C. 
They have seven children : Julian, Isabella, Lewis N., Alvin B., 
Charles F., Edwin A. and Edna Mae. The two oldest of these 
are students in Atlanta University; the next three in the public 
schools of Decatur. 

Mr. Wilson is a Republican in politics, and has served as a 
delegate in several local conventions. He is a member of the A. 
M. E. Church of Decatur, and has been the capable superin- 
tendent of its Sunday-school for fourteen years. He is a steward 




NANK WILSON. 



GEORGIA EDITION 113 

and trustee in the church, and a trustee of the public school. 
In his reading he places the Bible first, but has also found in- 
teresting and helpful, among other things, the "Royal Path of 
Life," the writings of Dwight L. Moody and the novelist James 
Fenimore Cooper ; for while preference is given to serious works, 
he does not exclude those which furnish entertainment and 
recreation. He has travelled some in the Southeastern states, 
and as far north as Ohio, Indiana and Illinois. He is Senior 
Chancellor Commander Knights of Pythias Lodge No. 202, at 
Decatur. 

Like every other true Christian of whatever race, color or 
previous condition, Mr. Wilson delights to acknowledge one 
I\Iaster — Christ — whom he earnestly endeavors to serve in his 
church and Sunday-school work and in his daily life. He is a 
Christian business man who has made a success of both his 
business and his religious work. He owns a good home in 
Decatur. 



WILLIAM BATCHER 



DR. WILLIAM DATCHER is a successful practicing phy- 
sician and surgeon of LaGrange, Ga. He was born 
near Honea Path, S. C, on August 17, 1859, son of 
Charles and Rachel Datcher, both slaves. His maternal grand- 
father was Ned Key. By the time he had reached school 
age. Emancipation had become effective. He attended at inter- 
vals, the public schools of South Carolina, and later spent three 
v^ears at the Brew^er Normal Institute at Greenwood, S. C, go- 
ing next to Claflin University, at Orangeburg, where he fin- 
ished in 1886, in the Normal Department. He then went to 
Richmond Theological Seminary for one year, after which he 
took the first year of the medical course at Leonard Medical 
College, at Raleigh, N. C, going from there to Meharry Col- 
lege, at Nashville, Tenn., graduating in 1898, and began his 
twelve years of successful practice at West Point, Ga., con- 
tinuing thereafter with increasing success at LaGrange, his 




WILLIAM BATCHER. 



GEORGIA EDITION 115 

present location, where he has the confidence and esteem of 
his friends among the people of both races. Notwithstanding 
his thorough educational training, all the assistance he had 
from his father was five dollars. The rest he worked out 
himself as best he could. Teaching was the principal means 
by which he accomplished this, after he was sufficiently ad- 
vanced. In fact, he began teaching near his home when a 
mere boy, even before he could pass the examinations required 
in the public school system. For four or five years he taught in 
South Carolina, and after that taught a dozen years or so 
in Georgia, at Carnesville, in Newton county, at Washington 
and in Troup county. 

He is a member of the Baptist church, and an active church 
and temperance worker. He preaches occasionally, and is 
a prominent member of the Western Union Baptist Association, 
where he is often placed on important committees. He is ro- 
Inist and vigorous in body and a man of active mind. The 
formation of his character and ideals he attributes in large 
measure to the Christian home in which he was reared. In the 
pursuit of an education, he received the first strong impulse 
from a schoolmate who has since passed away. He has traveled 
some in several states. Is actively identified with the Republi- 
can party, being chairman of the Executive Committee of the 
Fourth Congressional District. He was elected a delegate to 
the last National Convention, at Chicago, but did not attend. 
Among the secret orders, he is affiliated with the Odd Fellows, 
]\Iasons, Good Samaritans and Household of Ruth ; and was for- 
merly a Knight of Pythias. He has accumulated some 
property in LaGrange. He believes that nothing would be 
more effective in advancing the welfare of his race in this 
country than industrial education and the nation-wide pro- 
hibition of the liquor traffic. 

On January 30, 1900, he was married to Miss Adella Eu- 
banks, daughter of Richard and Fannie Eubanks, of Whites- 
ville, Ga. They have six children : Maceo. Christianita, Horace. 
Fannie, Ralph, Clattie May. and a pair of twins, Helen and 
Dorothy Datcher. 

It is interesting to mention a case of anterior and posterior 
trephining performed by Dr. Datcher in 1906, resulting in re- 



116 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

markable success and recovery after the patient had been aband- 
oned by other eminent physicians. He has performed many other 
operations with equal success. 

He has a genial disposition, and always enjoys a hearty laugh 
with his friends and patients. 



ANDREW JACKSON WILKERSON 



AMONG the unpretentious but intelligent and efficient men 
occupying the position of Presiding Elder in the A. M. E. 
Church in Georgia, is Rev. Andrew Jackson Wilkerson, 
of Greensboro. He was born at Cuthbert, in this state, sixty- 
one years ago, or on April 27, 1853. His mother was Mary Horn. 
He never saw his father, but learned from his mother that he 
was a brick-mason named ]\Ioses Patterson. Both his parents 
were slaves from Florida. From Cuthbert, Ga., his mother 
moved with him to Barber county, Alabama, where he was 
reared and educated in the graded schools. He still has a 
brother, Henry Bryant, at Dothan, Ala. 

After the war he was hired to his former master till eighteen 
years of age. He was then married, and he and his wife at- 
tended school together. 

About the same time he was converted, and soon felt the call 
to the ministry. In December, 1875, he returned to Georgia, 
and was licensed to preach in 1880, receiving his first appoint- 
ment to Dallas, where he remained for five years, followed by 
four years at Ringgold, four at Kingston, four at Cartersville, 
four at Washington (Ga.), and three at Dawson. He was then 
appointed Presiding Elder, first of the Rome District, where he 
was continued for three years, and then sent to the Washington 
District, where he is now (1914) serving his third year, with 
headquarters at Greensboro. 

While this record is brief, it will be seen that his ministerial 
service has covered a period of thirty-eight years ; and the in- 
creasing importance of the positions to which he has been ap- 
pointed, and particularly that which he now holds and to which 
he has been repeatedly appointed, indicate a highly creditable 




ANDREW JACKSON WILKERSON. 



n8 HISTORY OF AMFHICAN NEGRO 

record. At least a dozen churches have been built or repaired 
on his various charges. He attended the General Conference at 
Kansas City, and is a life trustee of Morris Brown University. 
He is a practical jeweler, and by that means helps to finance 
himself while carrying pn his church work. 

On January 21, 1871, Mr. Wilkerson was married to INliss 
Barbara Anderson, of Clopton, Ala. They had an only child, 
Missouri JMizell, who is the mother of fourteen children. She 
passed away on February 14, 1914. 

Mr. Wilkerson is a Republican in politics, and is a member 
of the Odd Fellows and Masons. He believes that Christianity 
and education are the two things most needed in Georgia, and 
which will conduce most to the real and solid prosperity of the 
whole country. He is particularly impressed with the need of 
improvement in the rural schools, and of more real Holy Ghost 
preaching. 

Since the foregoing was written, Mr. Wilkerson has passed 
away, in iMay, 1915, while in his fourth year on the Washington 
District. 



GEORGE WILLIAM LEMON 



AMONG the successful business men of the negro race of 
Georgia, who began with nothing, and who, by their 
energy and honest dealing, have made a financial 
success, is George William Lemon, of McDonough. What is 
more, he has made for himself and family, a good name 
among both his own and the white people. This was no 
accident. It was the result of hard work, right living and 
good business judgment. 

Mr. Lemon's parents were Augustus H. Lemon, a carpenter, 
and Curlie Groves. His grandparents on his father's side, were 
A. A. Lemon, a white man, and Classic Lemon. His grand- 
parents on his mother's side, were William S. and Caroline 
Groves. George Lemon was born October 6, 1869, and it must 
be remembered that during the years when he reached boyhood 
and manhood, the opportunities for a negro boy without means. 




GEORGE WILLIAM LEMON. 



120 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

were very limited indeed. He managed, however, to attend a 
public school and later spent a part of two years at Clark Uni- 
versity. He reads and writes and makes his own business calcu- 
lations. 

His principal business has been that of a groceryman and a 
farmer. He owns his own home in McDonough, as well as two 
small farms of eighty-five acres, which he rents. He began 
without a cent of capital. A local merchant, who knew him^ 
gave him a few dollars' credit. He met his bills promptly and 
was able to buy larger bills until at the end of the first year he 
had saved one hundred and fifty dollars. With this he entered 
the larger market of Atlanta and by making connections with 
the well-known firm of McCord-Stewart Grocery Co., where he 
was known as a reliable man, he was able to secure such things 
as he needed. Here, again, he made good, and by his promptness 
and business-like methods of handling his bills, established him- 
self with the houses with which he did business, till now he gets 
whatever he wants and has never had an order turned down. 

George Lemon believes in and advocates some fundamental 
things which are good, not only for his race, but for all people, 
everywhere. He believes in economy, industry and sobriety, 
and thinks if these are practiced that other important things, 
such as home- owning and education will soon follow. 

He is a member of the M. E. Church, of which he is a steward 
and trustee, and was for years superintendent of the Sunday- 
school, which place is now" being held by his eldest son. In 
politics he is a Republican, being Secretary of the Henry County 
Committee. Though not now active, he was formerly identified 
with the Odd Fellows and the Masons. His favorite lines of 
reading are the Bible and History. He has traveled extensively 
in the South, the ^Middle West and in Canada. 

On December 25, 1888, he was married to Lady Tecumseh 
Wyatt, a daughter of George W. Wyatt and Georgia Wyatt. 
They have nine children to whom he has given the educational 
advantages which he himself lacked. They are, Lorenzo A, a 
successful tailor and merchant ; Kelly G. ; Annie Ruth, now 
Mrs. Towns; Willie Shaffer; Blanche; Lucile; Robert L. ; 
Sidney W. ; and Frank. Both Mr. Lemon and his wife carry 
old line life insurance. 



THOMAS HENRY DWELLE 



AMONG the colored people of Georgia, perhaps none have 
shown more ability or made a more honorable record than 
the Dwelle family of Augusta and Atlanta, of which Rev. 
Thomas Henry Dwelle, A.M., of the former city, is a worthy 
representative. He was born in Americus on August 19, 1878, 
son of Rev. George H. and Mrs. Eliza (Dickerson) Dwelle. A 
sketch and portrait of his father appears elsewhere in this 
volume, as does also that of his sister, Georgie Dwelle-Howell, 
M.D., and to them the reader is referred for additional informa- 
tion in regard to the family history. 

Upon reaching school age. Prof. Dwelle was placed by his 
parents in the public schools of Augusta. After completing the 
seventh grade, he entered Haynes Normal Industrial School, 
and later took courses at Lincoln University, graduating from 
the regular literary department of that institution in 1899 with 
the degree of A.B., and four years later, or in 1903, from the 
Seminary, with the degree of S.T.B. Still later, in recognition 
of his superior learning and abilities, he received the A.M. de- 
gree from the same university. 

When asked as to whether he had difficulties to overcome in 
acquiring an education, he replied: "The story is too long and 
intricate; but through many and varied sufferings the Divine 
Hand led on to better things." A man whose religious life is 
sincere and intense, his abiding faith in the leadership of that 
Divine Hand has never failed him, nor has he shrunk from fol- 
lowing where it led; and his life of faith and consecration is 
rich in its good fruitage. The formation of his character and 
ideals, he attributes in large measure to the influence and train- 
ing of his father and his teachers. As a boy he was fond of 
boyish sports, such as boxing, football and foot-racing. He has 
traveled extensively throughout that portion of the United States 
east of the Mississippi and in the Dominion of Canada and 
visited the Pacific coast once. He is a widely-read man, and 
fond of all lines of substantial reading, Avith the emphasis pre- 
eminently upon the Bible. Converted at the age of eight, it 




THOMAS HENRY DWELLE. 



GEORGIA EDITION 123 

was not until after he reached manhood and was preparing 
for the medical profession, that he felt and yielded to a call 
to the ministry. 

After his graduation from the seminary in 1903, he first taught 
for a time at Thomson, Ga., where he was principal of the col- 
ored public school. After three successful years in that work, 
he entered the ministry of his (the Baptist) church, and was 
called to the pastorate of Gumming Grove Church in his home 
city of Augusta. For five years he has been pastor of the Union 
Baptist Church, in the same city, where the work has prospered 
under his hand, and for six years he has been moderator of the 
oldest colored Baptist Association in Georgia, the Ebenezer. For 
two years lie has been president of the Colored Civic League of 
Augusta, being the first to occftpy that position of usefulness 
and honor. 

Dr. Dwelle has been twice married: first to Miss Lessie A. 
Braboy, of Screven county. By this marriage there were three 
children, two of whom, Christina Cornelia and Georgia Henri, 
survive. Subsequent to the death of his first wife, Dr. Dwelle 
contracted a second marriage, with Mrs. Ella Blackburn, daugh- 
ter of John and Sarah Jennings, of Augusta. This second wife 
has one son by her former marriage. Armour Jennings Black- 
burn. 

Politically, Dr. Dwelle was formerly a Eepublican. Upon the 
formation of the Progressive party in 1912, he became identified 
with that, actively assisting in its organization and making a 
speech in the State Convention in Atlanta. He does not, how- 
ever, slavishly follow the dictates of any party, but reserves 
the privilege of forming his own conclusions and party affilia- 
tions after careful thought and investigation, and is now observ- 
ing the course of events with a view to intelligent action in the 
future. 

He was made a Mason in Oxford, Pa., (the seat of Lincoln 
University), in 1902, and has acted temporarily as Worshipful 
Master, and as chairman of the committee to secure charter for 
a new lodge. 

Dr. Dwelle believes that a close application, both in faith and 
practice, to the fundamental teachings of God's word will satis- 



124 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

factorily settle the problems of any individual or collection of 
individuals; and that this, therefore, is the thing most to be 
commended to the people of his own race, as well as all other 
races of mankind ; and his life work is being directed accord- 
ingly. 



WALTER SPURGEON HORNSBY 



MINISTER'S son, newsboy, salesman on a vegetable wagon, 
schoolboy and janitor, butler, coachman, wagon-painter, 
— then one of the organizers of an industrial insurance 
company, which under his management becomes one of the 
large factors in the development of his race, reaching in sixteen 
years a total membership of fifty-eight thousand, with an annual 
income of more than a quarter of a million dollars and a reserve 
fund of si:;^ty thousand, — such in brief is the romantic career of 
one of the dark sons of America and of the South in this land 
of opportunity. 

Mr. Hornsby was born at Blythe, Ga., on February 22, 1882. 
His father, Rev. Thomas J. Hornsby, was a Baptist minister of 
ability and character, who exerted an extensive influence in his 
section of the state, and whose wife, the mother of our subject, 
was Charlotte (Campfield) Hornsby. They were both slaves 
till the close of the war of the 'sixties, and T. J. Hornsby 's 
parents were Samuel and Rachel Hornsby, also slaves. 

W. S. Hornsby was educated at Nellie ville Academy, Haines 
Normal and Industrial Institute and Walker Baptist Institute, 
graduating from the last named in 1901. Though his father was 
successful and prominent as a minister, he was not wealthy, and 
young Walter w^as obliged to assist in meeting the family ex- 
penses by working out between school hours, so that the only 
time left for his studies outside of school was at night. Perhaps, 
however, that was itself, in a sense, an important part of his 
schooling. He also recognizes the great value of the training and 
influence of the Christian home, schools and associates. Dur- 




WALTER SPURGEON HORNSBY. 



126 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

iiig the entire time spent at Walker Baptist Institute, he served 
as janitor. 

An outline of his early activities in a business way having al- 
ready been given, it is hardly necessary for our purpose here 
to go into that further ; though the mere reading of that outline 
can hardly give any adequate conception of the staying qualities, 
the energy and resourcefulness necessary to win his way througli 
these various vicissitudes to ultimate success. It was in 1898- 
that the Pilgrim Health and Life Insurance Company was or- 
ganized, and from that point his history becomes in a large 
measure the history of that enterprise, a sketch of which will be 
found in this volume. Along with its extensive growth and 
widespread faith in its strength, integrity and success, there 
has always been confidence in the men back of it, and it is to 
that as well as to the wisdom in management that its success has 
undoubtedly been due. 

Mr. Hornsby is a Baptist in religion, and is eminently active 
in his church life as he is in the great business which he directs. 
Besides being a trustee of his church, he takes an active part in 
every department of Christian work in his city, and is always, 
prominent in every movement that makes for the betterment and 
uplift of his race. He is a Republican in politics, having been 
secretary of the Republican Convention of his Congressional 
district. Among the secret orders he is affiliated with the 
Knights of Phythias, G. U. 0. of 0. F., and A. F. and A. M. 
He is a past officer in the Knights of Pythias. His suggestions 
as to how the best interests of the race may be promoted, are 
characteristic of the man, and involve nothing of which he has 
not demonstrated the value in his own life and experience. He 
says: "By unity of effort, faith and confidence in God, thrift, 
industry and education." 

On December 25, 1912, Mr. Hornsby was married to ]Miss Mary 
Ann Dugas, daughter of Francis Mitchell and INIary Jane Dugas, 
They have two sons, Walter Spurgeon, Jr., and Thomas Dugas; 
Hornsby. 



DOCK COLUMBUS BRACY 



REV. DOCK COLUMBUS BRAC7, a successful Baptist 
minister residing at Buckhead, in Morgan county, though 
born a slave and confronted by many discouraging con- 
ditions, has won success both as a minister and a farmer, and 
may properly be classed as one of the substantial public-spirited 
citizens of the community. His father, Abram Bracy, was a 
Baptist minister before Emancipation, and his mother, Epsy 
(Daniel) Bracy. They lived near Eatonton, and it was here on 
June 11, 1859, that Dock Bracy was born. 

On account of prevailing conditions after the war, the boy's 
educational opportunities were very limited indeed. His 
parents, just emerging from slavery, were not only very poor, 
but being themselves unlettered did not recognize the value of 
an education for the boy. Notwithstanding these adverse con- 
ditions, he made good use of his odd moments, noon hours and 
night schools. 

He was converted at the age of seventeen, and immediately 
felt called to the work of the ministry. This call changed the 
whole course of his life ; for with it came the realization that 
he must fit himself for his life work. He did not hesitate, but in 
1885 sold all he had and went to Atlanta to enter Atlanta Bap- 
tist College. This was done in the face of the fact that he had a 
wife and two children at the time, while his parents and friends 
told him frankly that he was playing the fool. He remained a 
student at the Baptist College for six years. In 1891 his health 
failed and he had exhausted his money, so he was forced to leave 
college without completing the course. Since that time he has 
justified the effort and expenditure he then made. 

It was during the vacation period of 1889, when he was earn- 
ing money by teaching a summer school in Putnam county, 
that he was called to take charge of a large church known as 
Jefferson. He has served that church continuously from that 
day to this. Later he was called to Sanders Chapel, which he 
has served for seven years. From this it will be seen that he 




DOCK COLUMBUS BRACY. 



GEORGIA EDITION 129 

has good wearing qualities and grows in the confidence of those 
who know him best. Ebenezer Baptist church at Athens he 
served one year. At Jefferson a good building has been erected 
under his pastorate. Other improvements in that neighborhood 
under his leadership include a good two-story school house. At 
Smyrna, another of his pastorates, where he has served seven- 
teen years, both a church and school building have been erected. 
He does not content himself with merely preaching to his peo- 
ple, but appreciates the value of pastoral work, and is a con- 
stant adviser and helper of the people whom he serves. 

On January 5, 1882, he was married to ]\Iiss Ella Terrell, a 
daughter of Asbury and Susan Terrell, who were reared as 
slaves. Of the nine children born to them, the following now 
survive: Dock, Jr., Paul S., Susie E., Hattie M. and Ella L. 
Bracy. 

In attending conventions and in the course of his other relig- 
ious work, as well as for comfort and pleasure, Mr. Bracy has 
travelled rather extensively. Such time as he has found for 
reading has been devoted to the Bible and miscellaneous good 
books and papers. For a number of years he taught school in 
addition to his ministerial work, and he also operates a success- 
ful farm. He is a man of good practical common sense, who 
gives careful attention to the details of his own varied work, 
£ind takes a deep interest in all that concerns the welfare of his 
neighbors. He votes with the Republican party, but is not other- 
wise active in a political way. He is Worthy Master of his 
Masonic lodge, a member of the Brethren and Sisters of Be- 
nevolence and of the Woman's Mission Clubs of his churches, 
and, to use his own expression, "a strict member of the Sunday- 
school," which no doubt has a great deal to do with the success 
he has had in his churches. 

Asked as to how in his opinion the welfare of his race in the 
state and nation might be promoted, he puts first and last, good 
strong men of sound morals. He says they need education, and 
they need money and other property ; but if given that kind of 
men there is no other need that cannot be supplied. 

Notwithstanding his disadvantageous start in life, and the 
fact that twenty-nine years ago he sold all that he had and 



130 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

spent six years at college in preparation for the great work of 
proclaiming the glad tidings of Salvation, such have been his 
energy and his efficiency along various lines since that he has not 
only accomplished much for others, but is also himself the 
owner of property assessed at three thousand dollars and worth 
more. He is conscientious and punctual in the discharge of his 
business obligations. 

He is a member of the Executive Board of the State Baptist 
Convention, and chairman of the Executive Committee of the 
Madison Association, of which he has been moderator for 
thirteen years. i\Iore than two thousand souls have been added 
to the church through his ministry. 



SOLOMON WILLIAM WALKER 



TRULY a remarkable record is that made by Solomon 
William Walker, a prominent young insurance man of 
Atlanta, Ga., who, born near Waynesboro, in Burke 
county, on November 15, 1877, and early orphaned by the death 
of both parents, has already to his credit a record of success and 
achievement which would do credit to a man much older and with 
a much more advantageous start in life. But after all, early 
adversities and difficulties seem often to constitute the best of 
training schools, since they bring out the best qualities in a man, 
which might not otherwise be developed. He learns economy ; 
he learns not to tlincli in the face of difficulties, nor shrink from 
steady, persistent hard work; and these, with rugged honesty, 
constitute, after all, some of the best elements of ultimate and 
enduring success. 

S. W. Walker's parents were Rev. Henry Walker and Martha 
A. (Hornsby) Walker. His father was a farmer and pastor of 
the Spring Hill Baptist Church, of which his maternal grand- 
parents, deacon Samuel Hornsby and Rachel Hornsby, were 
members. 

To begin with, his parents were poor. Then his father died 
when he was yet but a child, and his mother moved with him to 




SOLOMON WILLIAM WALKER. 



132 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

\ugusta. She also died soon afterward ; so it devolved upon him 
10 earn a living for himself, and obtain such education as he 
could while doing so. He managed, however, to obtain a fair 
education at the Nellieville Academy and Walker Baptist Insti- 
tute. He secured a job grazing cattle for a dairyman at a dollar 
and a half a week and board, and later took up work for the 
Kernighan Brick Company as wheelbarrow boy. Next he be- 
came driver of a grocer 's delivery wagon ; and impossible as it 
may seem, it was while thus engaged that he began his successful 
career as an insurance man, organizing in 1898, the Pilgrims' 
Benevolent Aid Association, which is now known as the Pil- 
grims' Health & Life Insurance Company, and handles the 
largest volume of sick benefit business of anj^ company in Geor- 
gia, operated by white or colored, except the Industrial Life & 
Health Company, of Atlanta, of which Mr. John N. ^IcEachern 
(white) is president. Later he joined the United States Army, 
Forty-Eighth Volunteer Infantry, in which he served as a cor- 
poral from 1899 to 1901. As a soldier he went to the Philippine 
Islands, spending a while on the way at each of the following 
cities: Atlanta, Ga. ; Cincinnati, 0.; St. Louis, ^lo. ; Kansas 
City, Mo. ; Ogden, Utah ; San Francisco. Cal. ; Nagasaki and 
Yokohama, Japan. After spending eighteen months in the 
Philippines he returned to America, and upon the expiration of 
his enlistment resumed his insurance work for the same com- 
pany, and was its first special business writer. Later he was 
made its first traveling representative, in which capacity he 
traveled throughout the state, establishing many branch offices 
or agencies. Later still, he became General Superintendent of 
the company, and is now manager of the Atlanta branch, where, 
in less than eight years' time, he has built up a collectible debit 
of more than one thousand dollars a week. In addition to this 
remarkable record, he was the founder and is now president of 
the Atlanta Business Investment Company. He is also a direc- 
tor, as well as District ]\Ianager of the insurance company with 
which he is identified. He is prominent in fraternal circles, be- 
ing Chancellor Commander of the Pacific Lodge Knights of 
Pythias, and a member of the Refuge Lodge of i\Iasons, and of 
the Pilgrim Health & Life Lodge of Odd Fellows. 

On November 27, 1901, ]\Ir. "Walker was married to Julia ]\L 



GEORGIA EDITION 133 

Donuigan, daughter of Fannie (Owens) Donnigan. They have 
three children : Alvetioiis J., James H. and Agnes L. Walker. 

Mr. Walker is a Republican in politics, though he has not 
found time for active participation in party affairs. In religion 
he is a Baptist ; and being the son of strong Christian parents, 
it is not strange that their influence has remained with him, and 
that he is active in religious work. From what has already been 
said of his success as a business and insurance man, it is hardly 
necessary to add that he has become a substantial property 
owner. He believes that if the Negroes are given good schools, 
with competent teachers, and an equal chance with other men, 
they are abundantly able to take care of themselves. 



HENRY HUGH PROCTOR 



REV. HENRY HUGH PROCTOR, D.D., pastor of the First 
Congregational Church of Atlanta, has long been recog- 
nized by the people of both races as one of the vital 
religious forces of that city, though he is not yet an old man 
by any means, having been born December 8, 1868, at Fayette- 
ville, Tenn., son of Richard Proctor, who was a carpenter, and 
Hannah Weatherly. His paternal grandmother was Mary 
Weatherly and his maternal grandfather Allen Weatherly. As 
definite genealogical records of the people of his race were seldom 
kept until recent years, he is unable to trace his ancestry beyond 
the names given; but judging from his own life record, there 
must have been potential forces back of him, whether or not 
there was ever afforded opportunity for their development in a 
large way. 

Converted at the age of twelve, he very early became active in 
religious work, and when nineteen decided to enter the ministry. 

Dr. Proctor, as a boy. attended the public schools of his native 
town of Fayetteville. Tenn., and later entered Fisk University, 
from which he was graduated in 1891 with the degree of A.B.. 
Having felt called to the work of the ministry, he took a theologi- 
cal course at Yale University, from which he w^as graduated with 




HENRY HUGH PROCTOR. 



GEORGIA EDITION 135 

the degree of B.D. in 1894, and the D.D. degree was conferred 
on him some years later by Clark University, Atlanta, in recog- 
nition of his attainments in learning and the efficiency he had 
manifested as a minister of the Gospel. The years during which 
his education was being acquired, however, were not devoted 
exclusively to books, faithfully as they were studied and thor- 
oughly as they were mastered ; but as he started without means, 
it was necessary for him, while acquiring an education, to pro- 
vide by his own efforts the means for obtaining it. This was 
done by various methods, according to varying circumstances, 
and included teaching, working at the printing trade, singing, 
and hard manual labor. In other words, he had the energy and 
the courage to take hold of the best that offered, whatever that 
was, provided only it was useful and honorable and afforded an 
opportunity for earning a livelihood and equipping himself for 
his life work. His physical training was fortunately not neg- 
lected ; for in addition to that which naturally resulted from the 
manual labor which he did, due attention was given to physical 
culture by training in the Yale gymnasium. Among the forces 
vi^hich contributed mainly to the shaping of his early life, and 
whose influence yet continues, he attributes fifty per cent, to 
his parents, twenty-five to home life, twenty to school and five to 
associates. That is a statement which it is worth while for all 
parents to consider. In his reading since leaving college, he has 
found most helpful works along theological, philosophical and 
sociological lines, to all of which much discriminating thought 
has been given, as has been manifested by the practical results 
of his life work. 

Since beginning his active life work. Dr. Proctor has held one 
pastorate only, that of the First Congregational Church, Atlanta, 
to which his entire time has been given. This work has pros- 
pered and developed marvelously under his able and conse- 
crated leadership ; and the very fact of his long continuance with 
the one congregation has given him a thorough insight into its 
conditions and needs, a thorough acquaintance with his forces 
and a thorough grasp of the situation such as would not other- 
wise have been possible, as it has also won for him the deep and 
abiding confidence and esteem of the people with whom he labors, 



136 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

and thereby helps to insure their hearty co-operation. Under his 
pastorate, the church has developed from one of the moderate- 
sized old-line sort to a great modern institutional church, and 
the large new church building M'hich its growth has necessitated, 
located at the corner of Houston and Courtland streets, is an 
ornament to that part of the city. The auditorium has a seat- 
ing capacity of one thousand people and is open for any meet- 
ing for the uplift of the community. In addition to the regular, 
thoroughly organized and progressive church and Sunday-school 
work, missionary and young people's societies, etc., the varied 
scope of the work includes a library and employment agency, 
and also a working girls' home at 185 Courtland street. In 
fact, the pastor has had the wisdom to recognize the need of so 
instructing, training and developing his people as to best fit 
them for the duties and responsibilities of up-to-date Christian 
citizenship ; and he recognizes the fact that Christian religion of 
the right sort must permeate and work through our everyday 
life. 

On August 16, 1893, Dr. Proctor was married to Miss Addie 
Davis, daughter of Dock and Harriet Davis of Nashville, Tenn. 
Of the six children born to them, live are now living, as fol- 
lows: Henry, IMuriel, Lillian, Roy and Vashti. The family 
resides at 183 Courtland street. 

Doctor Proctor has traveled extensively, having visited not 
only all parts of America, but also many countries of the old 
world in his fifteen thousand miles of travel there, including 
Spain, England, France, Italy, Africa, Palestine, Greece, Tur- 
key, Switzerland, Germany, Belgium and Holland. With his 
habits of careful study and close observation, this has materially 
broadened and deepened his knowledge of human conditions and 
increased his efficiency in dealing with human problems. As a 
result he is much in demand as a lecturer on present day race 
conditions and on his travels abroad, having spoken frequently 
as preacher, or lecturer, from some of the most historic platforms 
of the North and East, where he is well-known by cultured 
audiences. 

His work in Atlanta has been recognized and commended by 
the leaders of l)Oth races in America who are men of international 



GEORGIA EDITION 137 

fame, many of whom have been heard from the platform of this 
justly celebrated church. Among these might be mentioned 
Dr. Booker T. Washington, Ex-Presidents Roosevelt and Taft^ 
and many others. 

So far as his own race is concerned, Dr. Proctor says that 
"from the inside their interests can best be advanced by work 
and worth; from the outside, by justice and sympathy." 

With both pastor and church developed to their present de- 
gree of efficiency, there is every reason to believe that their 
future will be one of large helpfulness indeed. 



GEORGE HENRY LENNON 



REV. GEORGE HENRY LENNON, like a number of other 
citizens of Georgia, is a native of North Carolina, hav- 
ing been born at Wilmington on ]\Iarch 14, 1866. His 
parents, Benjamin and Martha Jane Lennon, were both slaves. 
His paternal grandfather was Henry Swindell, whose mother 
was named Hannah. His grandmother on his mother's side 
was Hannah Richardson. 

Mr. Lennon has been married twice : first on January 2, 1894, 
to Miss Gaddie F. Tillman, of Appling county. By this mar- 
riage there is one son, Edgar Franklin, now a student at Me- 
harry Medical College. After the death of his first wife he was 
again married, on May 30, 1906, to Mrs. Martha Jane Hunt 
Samuel, a daughter of John and Laura Samuel, of Rome, Ga., 
and by this marriage there are two children — Mason Cuyler 
Benjamin and George Henry, Jr. 

Reverend Lennon 's family moved away from Wilmington 
about 1866. He attended school as a boy at Dorchester Acade- 
my, in Liberty county, Georgia, after the family moved to 
Georgia, and later attended the Way cross High School, and after 
entering the ministry spent a part of three years at the State 
.Industrial College at Savannah. Later he entered Gammon 
Theological Seminary, where he remained from 1902 to 1905, in 
order to better fit himself for the work of the ministry. 

At the age of nineteen he was converted, and soon after felt 
called to the work of the ministry. 




GEORGE HENRY LENNON. 



GEORGIA EDITION 139 

The problem of getting an education, however, was a serious 
one, as he was the only boy among five children, and could not 
easily be spared from the work of earning a living, and when 
this was done there was little or nothing left to apply to his edu- 
cation. The boy felt, however, that he must equip himself for 
his life's work, and refused to be discouraged, and kept up the 
struggle which brought with it success, and incidentally much 
valuable experience which has enabled him to sympathize with 
and help others. He attributes much of his success in life to 
the influence of his parents and the associations of the schools 
he attended. 

As a young man he engaged in merchandising at Waycross, 
and since entering the ministry has given himself fully to that 
work. His first pastorate was at Baxley, Ga., in 1898, and the 
next year he joined the Conference. Prior to that time, from 
1895 to 1898, he was a contractor in crude naval supplies, and 
for the next six years was dealer in general supplies. Long be- 
fore he had felt called to the work of the ministry, and was by 
this time convinced that he must surrender to the call ; so in '97 
he was licensed to preach, and as stated above, began in an 
humble way at Baxley, Ga. His progress has been steady, and 
has been marked by rapid advancement in his church, till at this 
time he is District Superintendent of the M. E. Church for the 
LaGrange District. From 1910 to 1913 he was Secretary of the 
Savannah Annual Conference. 

In politics he is a Republican, though not active. In his read- 
ing he has found the Bible the most helpful of all the books. 
Next after this he would put history. When asked for some 
suggestion as to how the best interests of the race might be pro- 
moted, he said: "Let the best and most wholesome influences 
be exerted over the children. Bring them under the influence 
of Christian schools and colleges, and as far as possible elimi- 
nate the evil influences." 

Reverend Lennon is a good business man as well as a suc- 
cessful minister ; and while as a minister his earnings have not 
been large, still he has managed from year to year to make some 
investments where he has been located. 



JOHN HENRY JORDAN 



THE late Dr. John Henry Jordan, whose successful and 
brilliant career as a doctor was cut short by an untimely 
accident in his early forties, w^as a native of Troup county, 
having been born near Hogansville, March 11, 1870. He was 
burned to death by an explosion of his automobile on September 
16, 1912, in his forty-second year, when he had reached the prime 
of splendid manhood, and had built up a great practice, by means 
of which he was constantly enlarging the circle of his influence. 
He was buried at Newnan. 

His parents were Berry and Isabella (Young) Jordan. Back 
of these, the paternal grandparents were Tom and Lula Jor- 
dan, and the maternal grandparents, who came from Virginia 
to Georgia, were Ned and Dolly Young. These were all slaves. 
As a boy, John H. Jordan attended the LaGrange Academy 
for his elementary education. Not satisfied with this, he de- 
termined to go to college, and finally to enter the medical pro- 
fession. The outlook was not encouraging. He not only lacked 
the means, but his father, who did not understand the higher 
education, did not believe in it. Hence the boy could count on 
no encouragement or assistance from that source. Nothing 
daunted, however, by these untoward circumstances, the young 
man forged ahead, and saved enough out of his own earnings to 
enter Clark University. When sufficiently advanced with his 
literary course, he entered Meharry College for his medical 
course. By hard work, rigid economy and steady perseverance, 
he was able to complete his course in 1896, with the degree of 
M.D. He kept himself in good trim physically, giving consid- 
erable attention while in college and later to athletics and phy- 
sical culture. After his graduation, he began the practice in his 
home town of Hogansville, where he remained for about two 
years. From the very beginning of his work as a physician and 
surgeon, he kept in touch with the latest and best in his pro- 
fession, and was a constant reader of works on medicine and 
surgery. He seemed to take to surgery intuitively, but was by 
no means content with this natural aptitude, but spared no effort 




JOHN HENRY JORDAN AND FAMILY. 



J 42 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

to make himself proficient. His general medical practice was. 
also most successful. After two years of growing practice at 
Hogausville, he recognized the promising field which Newnan 
offered, and moved to that thriving city in 1898. Soon after this^ 
on September 22, 189'8, he was married to Miss Molly E. Ramsey^ 
a daughter of Dr. and Mrs. Edward Ramsey, of Houston, Tex. 
Mrs. Jordan was reared by her grandparents in Atlanta, and 
educated at Clark University. Before her marriage she was a 
teacher. They had two children; one, Edward P. Jordan, who 
appears in the accompanying picture, survives. 

Dr. Jordan 's wisdom in moving to Newnan was at once demon- 
strated. His practice grew at such a rate that in 1905 he estab- 
lished a sanitarium, the only one of its kind in his part of the 
state. With the growth of his practice, he wisely invested his- 
earnings in real estate, and at the time of his death was pros- 
perous and well-to-do. 

He was a public-spirited man, and an enthusiastic supporter 
of every progressive movement of his race. His relationship 
with his white neighbors was cordial and mutually helpful. He 
was the moving spirit in the building of a tabernacle at Newnan 
for the use of his people on public occasions, and at the time of 
his death had in mind a plan for the establishment of a public 
library for their use. He was identified with the different medi- 
cal societies, and was also a member of the Pythians. He- 
joined the Methodist church at his old home when quite a 
young man and, although he never did move his membership, 
he was a faithful attendant and helper in the Methodist 
church at Newnan. 



COMMODORE IRVING CAIN 



DR. COMIMODORE IRVING CAIN, a leading physician of 
Rome, is a native of Orangeburg, S. C, where he was 
born Nov. 20, 1861. His parents were Albert and Caro- 
line (Carnes) Cain, both slaves. His father was taught to 
read and Avrite by his young master, and after the war be- 
came a teacher. In this way the boy had advantages which a 




COMMODORE IRVING CAIN. 



144 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

great many of his neighbors did not enjoy. After the war, 
when he came of school age, he attended the public schools of 
South Carolina for a short while, and later entered Claflin 
University, at Orangeburg, thus preparing himself for the 
work of a teacher ; and it was by this means he earned money 
to continue his education and to take the medical course at 
Meharry College, which he completed with the degree of M. 
D. in 1891. 

Not content with taking the first school offered, he sought 
the best schools and those that paid remunerative salaries. As 
a result his teaching was scattered over several estates, in- 
cluding North Carolina, South Carolina, Mississippi, Florida 
and Arkansas. Apart from the money which this enabled 
him to earn, it gave him much practical experience which has 
been of value to him in later years. 

In politics he is a Republican, and has been prominent 
locally in the counsels of his party, being chairman of the 
County Executive Committee, and occasionally representing 
the county at the State Convention. He is a member of the 
M. E. Church, and is identified with the Odd Fellows, Masons 
and Knights of Pythias. For six years he was Grand INIedical 
Examiner of the state for the Odd Fellows, and has held 
various official positions in the other secret orders. He does 
a general practice in medicine and surgery, which has grown 
steadily with the years and with the increasing appreciation 
of his skill on the part of his home people. In another respect 
he has set his people a worthy example, in that he owns a com- 
fortable home, and in addition to this has considerable rent- 
ing property. He maintains a modern, up-to-date office on 
Broad street. 

On December 29, 1892, he was married to ^Miss Mattie J. 
McHenry, daughter of Jackson McHenry, of Atlanta. Mrs. 
Cain is a graduate of Atlanta University, and taught five years 
in the Gate City Public School prior to her marriage. They 
have three children : Randolph E., C. I. Jr. and Lillian. 

Dr. Cain is an extensive reader of general literature in ad- 
dition to his professional reading, and is also very fond of 
science. He ranks as one of the leading citizens of his race in 
North Georgia. 



RICHARD MERRITT REDDICK 



IT is gratifying to note the increasingly large number of com- 
petent men of the race who, within the last ten years, have 
taken up professional work. All along through the years the 
ministry has claimed some of the brightest lights of the race, 
but it is only within recent years that the other professions, 
requiring technical skill and learning, have begun to fill up more 
rapidly. 

Among the younger men of Georgia, who are making their 
mark in their chosen profession, is Dr. Richard Merritt Reddick, 
of Atlanta. He was born in Randolph county, June 22, 1883, 
and is therefore now only a little more than thirty years of age. 
His parents were James and Mary Ann (Munger) Reddick. 
His father was a farmer. Prof. M. W. Reddick, the well-known 
educator, of Americus, is a brother of Dr. Reddick, as is also 
Mr. J. L. Reddick, formerly a store-keeper and ganger of 
Savannah, but now a farmer and teacher. 

After attending the public schools, Richard entered the 
Americus Institute, and later was matriculated at Meharry 
Medical College, Nashville, Tenn. He finished his dental course, 
however, at Howard University, Washington, D. C, from which 
he received the degree of D.D.S. in 1909. In pursuing both his 
normal and professional courses of instruction, it was necessary 
for him to earn the money for his expenses by work during odd 
hours and summer vacations. These summers were in part 
filled by dining car service. 

Upon completing his dental course in 1909, he located in At- 
lanta, where he has since followed his profession, building up a 
good practice. 

On December 22, 1910, he was married to Miss Ethel Lee 
Reynolds, daughter of William 0. and Mattie Reynolds, of 
Cuthbert, Ga. 

Dr. Reddick knows but little of his ancestry back of his 
parents, both of whom were slaves. There were large families 
on both sides. His father died in 1899, and his mother, who is 




RICHARD MERRITT REDDICK. 



GEORGIA EDITION 147 

widely kiiowu for her charity and industry, is still living 
(1916^ 

Dr. Reddick is a Republican in politics, and is a member of 
the Friendship Baptist Church, in which he is a member of the 
board of deacons. His activity in religious work is indicated 
by the fact that he is a director of the National Metokas, an 
organization of young Men's Bible Class, as well as president 
and teacher of the ^Metoka class of Friendship Sunday-school. 
He is also identified with the colored Y. M. C. A. of Atlanta. 
Professionally, he is connected with the state and city asso- 
ciations of dentists, and is a director of the Atlanta Business 
& Investment Company, engaged in real estate and develop- 
ment work. Like so many others of his race and of every 
race, he has found books of historical sketches and biography 
especially helpful and inspiring. He keeps in touch with the 
times through the magazines and daily papers and up-to-date 
in his profession through the dental magazines and profes- 
.sional literature. 



JOE THOMAS JOHNSON 



REV. JOE THO:\IAS JOHNSON, a prominent minister of 
the Colored Baptist Church, now residing at Athens, Ga., 
was born at Stephens, Oglethorpe county on May 6, 1870, 
of parents who had been slaves to within a few years of that time. 
His father was York Johnson, a farmer, and his mother Laura 
(Bell) Johnson. His grandparents were, on the father's side, 
Baltimore and Caroline Johnson, and on the mother's, Bennet 
Bell, a farmer, and Dorcas Bell, a cook. 

Among the qualities that have contributed so largely to Mr. 
Johnson's success and usefulness, are the courage and determi- 
nation which were early exhibited in such a marked degree in his 
pursuit of an education under great difficulties resulting from 
lack of financial resources. He was graduated from Jeruel 
Academy in 1893 and attended Atlanta Baptist College in 
1897-8. During the summer vacation he would work hard 




JOE THOMAS JOHNSON. 



GEORGIA EDITION 149 

and save all he could; but even with the most rigid economy 
the funds would not last through the year. From February 
1st to May 22nd, 1890, he lived on bread and molasses; and 
from January to May of the next year the cost of his rations 
was only eleven dollars. By that time, however, he had 
reached the point where he could secure license to teach 
in the public schools, and his increased earnings made the 
way somewhat less difficult, though none too easy. In the 
meantime he had been content to eat food cooked twice a 
week, on Mondays and Thursdays, and without lard or 
other grease of any kind, so that its toughness often had to 
be overcome by soaking in water before it could be eaten. At 
the time no one but himself and "old Mamma- Howard" knew 
the character of his rations. His parents and home life, school 
and associates, have all exercised a large influence in the forma- 
tion of his character and ideals. He finds standard theological 
reading the best help in his ministerial work. 

His early work after he reached the point where he could 
secure license, consisted of teaching. He then farmed for a 
while, but in recent years has been giving most of his time to the 
ministry. He was ordained January 2, 1908, at the request of 
St. Mary Baptist Church, East Athens. Nine months afterward 
he was called to the pastorate of the Hill's First Baptist Church 
at Athens, whose former membership of seven hundred had 
dwindled to thirty-eight, and over whom there hung a debt of 
$4,472.70, besides accumulated interest. With firm purpose and 
unwavering trust in the Lord, they assumed the responsibility 
and went energetically to work. Within thirty-nine months they 
had made the final payment on the debt, and the membership 
had been increased to near four hundred. It is now near five 
hundred. His pastorate of that church still continues, and dur- 
ing these five years the church has been remodeled at a cost of 
twenty-five hundred dollars, and the current expenses have been 
met, in addition to clearing off the debt already referred to. 
The membership is in good condition, happy and hopeful, and, 
as he expresses it, "proud of their opportunities to work," which 
is truly something in which to rejoice in so noble a cause. 

On March 5, 1894, he was married to Miss Janie Lovania 



]50 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

Smith, daughter of Howell and Kittie Smith, of Watkinsville, 
They have nine children, as follows: Corene L., Joe Thomas, 
Jr., Alfred Roosevelt, Irvin Hatterson, Escus Howell, Leslie 
Taft, John Hubert, Monroe David and Katherine Ruth John- 
son. He is of course taking care of their educational interests. 

Mr. Johnson has traveled some in the South and Middle West. 
In politics he is a Republican, and is a member of the State 
Central Committee. Among the secret orders he is affiliated 
with the Knights of Pythias and Good Samaritans. For the 
people of his race in this state and country, he would especially 
recommend business tact and more skill for labor, then rigid 
economy. While following unwaveringly that early formed pur- 
pose, to develop and use his God-given powers in making the 
world better, he has yet by the careful handling of his resources 
and the exercise of that economy which he recommends, suc- 
ceeded in acquiring a comfortable home, with other property. 
He still maintains a farm, and is sometimes spoken of as "the 
cotton king of Clarke county" — runs three plows and makes 
fifteen bales to the plow. 

He is a member of the board of trustees of Jeruel Academy, 
participates in evangelistic work, and has served as vice-presi- 
dent of the State Baptist Convention. His life record is one 
which should be full of helpful inspiration to boys and girls 
desiring to make a life worth while. 



DAVID HENRY SIMS 



REV. DAVID HENRY SIMS, Vice-President and Prin- 
cipal of the Normal Department of Morris Brown 
University, is a native of Alabama. He was born 
at Talladega in that State, on July 18, 1885, and is a son 
of Rev. Felix R. Sims, a minister of the A. M. E. Church. 
His mother's maiden name was Emma E. Grifi&n. His 
grandparents lived at Silver Run, Alabama, and were 
slaves. After Emancipation they bought and paid for six hun- 
dred acres, and through their thrift and industry were able to 




DAVID HENRY SIMS. 



152 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

give to the father of our subject a liberal education at Talla- 
dega College. 

Dr. D. H. Siins finished his preparatory course at the Georgia 
State Normal College, after which he matriculated at the college 
at Oberlin, Ohio, winning the three years merit scholarship and 
graduating with the degree of A.B. He had from Oberlin Semi- 
nary the degree of B.D. While in college he took an active 
part in athletics, such as football, baseball and running, and 
was also an active participant in the work of the Y. M. C. A. 
He was the first colored man to win his letter in track 
athletics at Oberlin. To help pay his way through college, he 
turned his hand diligently to a number of different things, 
including hotel work, laundry agency, house cleaning, and 
chaplaincy for boarding house. 

After the completion of his course in the seminary, he entered 
at once upon the ministry in Ohio. That was in 1909, under the 
late Bishop William B. Derrick. His first pastorate was in 
Painesville, Ohio, where he started the building of a new church 
house. Later he was assistant pastor of the Rust M. E. Church, 
Oberlin, during 1910-11. By this time he had made for him- 
self an enviable place in the denomination, and was made pas- 
tor of the Union A. M. E. Church at Narragansett Pier, R. I., 
where he remained till 1912, and where he had a congregation of 
aboiit two hundred and fifty, and the cordial co-operation of the 
white people. In 1912 he was called to Morris Brown Univer- 
sity, Atlanta, where he now holds the chair of Greek Exegesis 
and German and is Principal of the Normal Department, and 
University Pastor. 

He places the Bible first in the list of inspirational and help- 
ful books. After this he has found most helpful work along the 
lines of theology and sociology, and has also specialized in 
biology, physiology and chemistry. He makes frequent contri- 
butions to the press, and is recognized as one of the most 
thoughtful and logical of the younger men of his generation. 
He considers among the most important national questions of 
the day, the tariff and government control of public utilities. 



URIAH POSEY TOLBERT 



REV. URIAH POSEY TOLBERT, D.D., Presiding Elder 
(1916) of the Rome District, resides near Rockmart, and 
is recognized in that thriving little city and the adjacent 
country not only as an able preacher and administrator of the 
affairs of his church, but as an able business man as well. His 
attitude toward life, as well as his example, is worthy of imita- 
tion. He himself sums it up in a single paragraph when he says : 
"When I was married in 1877, I sought the Lord. My wife 
and I asked him to guide us through life, and to take charge of 
us and all that we might accumulate. Then with a steady and 
industrious hand w^e pushed forward with 'Honesty' as our 
motto." That it is possible to succeed on this basis has been 
shown by the career of Dr. Tolbert. 

He is a native of Carroll county, where he was born Septem- 
ber 21, 1857. He was freeboru. His father, I\Ir. Tolbert, was a 
gold miner and a farmer. He died during the war — in 1863 — 
and the son does not remember him. The mother was Christiner 
Ridge, who came to Georgia from North Carolina, having been 
born in Raleigh in 1825. She still survives at the age of nearly 
ninety, and is hale and active. She lives with her son. Dr. 
Tolbert through his more remote ancestors on his mother's side, 
is related both to the white and Indian races. 

In 1865 the family moved to Atlanta, and young Tolbert at- 
tended school while residing there. Four years later, in '69, 
another move was made to Rome, and here again the boy went 
to the public school, as he did at Rockmart, when still another 
move was made to that town in 1870. He was, however, deprived 
of the opportunities of a college education ; but this has not pre- 
vented his being a student all his life. 

On March 1, 1877, he was married to INIiss Mary Frances 
Wilson, a daughter of John and Lucinda Wilson, of Polk county. 
They have eight children: Noah Webster, Mattie L., Ulisses 
Stanly, Charlie Hugh, Katie May, Maggie Terese, Posey Mc- 
Kinley and Bessie Ernstin. These are being given the educa- 




URIAH POSEY TOLBERT. 



GEORGIA EDITION 155 

tional advantages which Dr. Tolbert himself lacked in his 
youth. 

He was twenty years old at the time of his marriage, and 
about that time went into business for himself, beginning as a 
farmer and small merchant at Rockmart. Fortunately, about 
the same time he was converted and joined the A. M. E. Church 
at Rockmart. He was active in the work of the church, but it 
was not until more than ten years later, in 1888, that he yielded 
himself to the call which he felt to the ministry. He was 
licensed in that year, and two years later, in 1890, was admitted 
to the Conference, and began his work as a preacher in Polk 
county. His first pastorate was Grady ]\Iission, where he re- 
mained one year. The following year he served on the Franklin, 
Ga., Mission, and was then sent to the Tallapoosa circuit for two 
years. The Powder Springs circuit held him for the next four 
years, after which he was assigned to the Rockmart station, to 
his old home church. At the end of a three-year pastorate here, 
he was made District Missionary for the Rome District for one 
year. He was then assigned for one year to the Seney circuit. 
From this work he was promoted to the Presiding Eldership 
of the LaGrange District in 1901, where he was in full charge 
for four years. After that he presided over the Tallapoosa 
District for two years, and the JMarietta District one year. Then 
returning to the pastorate he was stationed at Cartersville for 
three years. He has now been Presiding Elder of the Rome 
District for five years. His pastorates have been marked by 
steady improvement in the churches which he has served; but 
perhaps the distinguishing feature of his work as a pastor has 
been the building of churches. Under his direction a five thous- 
and dollar church was built at Cartersville ; the Rockmart church 
was completed and was improved to the extent of a thousand dol- 
lars; a church was built at Dallas, another at Powder Springs, 
still another at Miller's Grove, while new churches were also 
erected at Franklin, Tallapoosa and Grady. Counting the church 
sites and buildings erected during his pastorates, the value of 
church property in the churches which he has served, increased 
during his pastorates twenty-two thousand, seven hundred 
dollars. 



156 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

In an effort to secure an education, he would work in the day 
time and stury at night under the direction of a white teacher. 
He recognizes the influences on his life of his home surroundings, 
school and associates. Though a very active man in business, 
he makes considerable time for reading still, and has found most 
helpful books of theology, common law and the lives of great 
men. 

As a business man, he has made an enviable reputation at 
Rockmart, where his efforts have included real estate, merchan- 
dising, farming and banking, in addition to the ministry. He 
is with the Progressive party, and is also united with the Masons, 
Odd Fellows and a number of benevolent societies. His sugges- 
tions as to how the progress of the race may be promoted, are 
simple and yet fundamental. He says: ''Through education, 
industry and character." 

Early in life Dr. Tolbert saw the advantage of working for 
himself rather than for the other fellow, and the desirability of 
owning his own home and something in addition. Year after 
year, he has not only made ends meet, but has seen his holdings 
grow, until he now holds free of all encumbrances a thousand 
acres of excellent Polk county lands, where he carries on exten- 
sive farming operations. He is also the largest share-holder in 
one of the financial corporations of Rockmart, and in addition 
owns considerable town property, and is the principal owner of 
a weekly newspaper, The Rome Enterprise, published in that 
city. He owns and operates a rural telephone system, which not 
only connects different parts of his own farm, but reaches and 
accommodates his neighbors. His hospitable home is located in 
a beautiful valley, where he is held in high esteem by his 
neighbors, both white and colored. With his increasing wealth 
and prominence, he has grown in liberality, and may be counted 
on to do his part in every good word and work. Sometime ago 
he donated to the A. IM. E. Church a hundred acres of land on 
which to establish a home for worn-out itinerant ministers. 



NAPOLEON EPPS BLANTON 



PROF. NAPOLEON EPPS BLANTON, a prominent edu- 
cator of Griffin, Ga., was born at Griffin about sixty years 
ago, on June 3, 1855, and now has behind him a record 
of more than a third of a century as a successful teacher, in 
which capacity he has served his people not in a spectacular, but 
in a very useful way, and has had part in the educational train- 
ing of some thousands of boys and girls. 

It will be seen that he was born just a few years prior to the 
close of the slavery period, and as near as the facts can now 
be ascertained, it seems that both his father and his mother were 
brought from Virginia to Georgia in a speculator's drove to be 
sold. His father, William Thornton Blanton, was a Baptist min- 
ister, and had worked at a tobacco factory near Orange Court 
House in Virginia. His mother's maiden name was Brenda 
Johnson. For reasons which will be apparent from the fore- 
going, he knows little beyond this with reference to his ances- 
try or their kin, except that his mother had an uncle named 
Horace Johnson. 

With the coming of freedom and the close of the war between 
the states, he entered Excelsior High School at Griffin for his 
early education, and after finishing the course there spent three 
years each in Atlanta University and Clark University, stopping 
just short of graduation on account of illness in 1880. In the 
meantime his father had died in 1870, and it became necessary 
for young Napoleon to assist in supporting his mother. He 
hired to his former owner, Mr. Miles G. Dobbins, whom he 
describes as "a great and good man," in the mountains of 
North Georgia, where he saved by hard work and great sacrifice 
enough money to enter Atlanta University, but was forced to 
walk from Cartersville to Marietta to save money enough to buy 
a hat. He admits that the way was dark and dreary on account 
of his limited resources; but the aspiring youth saw no Alps 
between him and his vision of a liberal education and a life of 
usefulness beyond the long and tedious period of preparation. 
The regular terms of the country public schools in those days 




NAPOLEON EPPS BLANTON. 



GEORGIA EDITION 159 

lasted only sixty-five days, and by teaching in these during 
the summer he helped to pay his way through college. He 
feels that the influence of parents and home associations were 
the largest and most helpful that entered into his early life, and 
looking back through the years he acknowledges his indebtedness 
to them with gratitude. A man of intense piety, his preferred 
reading has been along religious lines, especially such works as 
Bunyan's Pilgrim's Progress and Spurgeon's Sermons. 

Prof. Blanton has done constructive work along the line of 
establishing schools and building school houses, as well as doing 
regular work in the school room. At Griffin, he was the second 
principal of the Cabin Creek High School, which he served for 
three years. He taught for nine years as principal of Excelsior 
High School, which he had attended in his boyhood. He has 
also been principal of Glenn Academy, at Barnesville and. at 
Forsyth, and has taught at Hampton, Milner and Brooks, and 
erected school buildings at Hampton and Milner. 

He has been blessed with good health, and a cheerful, opti- 
mistic spirit, has acquired some property, and is a leader in the 
temperance organizations in his section, frequently lecturing on 
temperance and kindred topics. In politics he is a Republican, 
and has for twelve or fifteen years been chairman and secre- 
tary of the Republican Executive Committee of Spalding county. 
He is a member of the Baptist church in which he is a deacon, 
and has for about twenty-five years, been clerk of the Cabin 
Creek Baptist Association, the largest association of his church 
in the state from a financial standpoint. He is a member of the 
Georgia Grand Lodge Knights of Pythias. In discussing the 
needs of his race in the state and nation and those things that 
will best promote their welfare, he says: "First, we need an 
unadulterated religion ; second, we must educate and encourage 
a strong moral character, procure homes, etc., and go into busi- 
ness as other races." 

On December 25, 1882, he was married to Miss Ella Mitchell, 
daughter of Shedrick and Susie (Jones) Mitchell. They have 
four children : William Thornton, Napoleon Epps, Jr., Sarah 
Fannie, and James Robert Blanton. 



EDDIE STRICKLAND 



DR. EDDIE STRICKLAND is a well-equipped and promis- 
ing young colored dentist of Covington, Ga. He was born 
at Suwanee, Ga., Dec. 18, 1880, son of George Wash- 
ington Strickland, a farmer, and his wife, Laura (Langley) 
Strickland. He is a brother of Prof. William C. Strickland, a 
sketch of whom appears elsewhere in this work, and to that 
the reader is referred for a fuller sketch of the family history. 

During his boyhood, young Strickland worked on his father's 
farm. He had little schooling before he was twenty-two years of 
age, when he entered Clark University, in Atlanta, working dur- 
ing the sessions at whatever offered to pay his board, and con- 
tinuing his activity on his father's farm during the summer 
vacations. For his professional course, he went to Meharry 
College, Nashville, Tenn., from which he was graduated in 1913, 
with the degree of D.D.S., and on September 1st, of that year, 
entered the practice at Covington, Ga., where he has a good 
field and his start has been most encouraging. 

In his reading. Dr. Strickland is especially fond of history. 
He takes no active interest in politics, but is a consistent member 
of the Methodist Episcopal Church, which he joined when eigh- 
teen years of age, and in which he is now a stev/ard and Sunday- 
school teacher. Among the secret orders, he is affiliated with 
the York INIasons and the Good Samaritans. He believes that 
thorough honesty is the wisest policy viewed from a business as 
well as moral standpoint, and attributes mainly to his reputation 
for straightforward, honorable dealing, such success as he has 
had. Those who know him believe that his future is full of 
promise ; and with his high ideals and unquestioned energy and 
intelligence, there seems no room to doul)t it. 

His ideas as to what will best promote the welfare of his race 
in the state and nation, are striking and characteristic, and well 
worthy of thoughtful consideration. He outlines these as fol- 
lows : First, a truer and deeper conception of the Christ life ; 
second, "to know the value of a dollar," or economy and busi- 
ness judginent ; third, improvement in the home life; fourth, the 
abolition of strong drink. 




EDDIE STRICKLAND. 



ROBERT EDWARD PHARROW 



ROBERT EDWARD PHARROW, who is perhaps the best 
known Negro contractor and builder in America, is in 
many respects a unique character. There are numerous 
monuments to him personally, and incidentally to his race, in 
the various buildings which he has erected in the different cities 
in the South. Looking at any one of these larger buildings, one 
is naturally inclined to inquire about his schooling and about his 
technical training for the splendid work he is doing ; and next 
after the fine record he has made, one is perhaps more surprised 
at the fact that apart from the public schools which he attended 
in his boyhood, he had no professional or technical training for 
his work. It is a creditable thing for a man who has opportuni- 
ties to improve them and march on steadily to success ; but it is 
a very much finer thing for a man who has no opportunities who 
yet has courage to create his opportunities and then snatch suc- 
cess from the very teeth of difficulties. Such is the story of 
Robert Edward Pharrow^. 

He was born at Washington, Wilkes county, on March 8, 1868, 
and is a son of Isom and Isabella Pharrow. The boy worked 
on the farm ; and only those who have done the drudgery of 
farm work will understand when it is stated that he did every 
class of farm work, chopped cord wood and split rails for a 
living. At the age of fifteen he went to Augusta to work. That 
was in 1883. and after an apprenticeship of only three months 
he began his life work as an architect and builder. Five years 
later, June '88, he moved to Atlanta, where he has since resided. 
It is not necessary to make a list of buildings he has erected in 
this and other cities, but it may not be out of place to mention 
a few. He designed and built the dormitory of Morris Brown 
College, built Sale Hall at the Baptist College, the splendid Con- 
gregational church at the corner of Houston and Courtland 
streets; the Odd Fellows Building, which was erected at a cost 
of more than one hundred thousand dollars, which stands today 
as a monument to him and to his race. He built the forty 
thousand dollar church for St. Philips A. M. E. congregation in 




ROBERT EDWARD PHARROW. 



164 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

Savannah. At Anniston, Ala., he erected the one hundred thou- 
sand dollar United States Post Office building, secured on a com- 
petitive bid. In addition to these, he has done quite a lot of 
work in Birmingham, Ala., where he erected the Central Ala- 
bama College, which cost twenty-five thousand dollars, and Miles 
Memorial College at a cost of thirty thousand dollars, also the 
Pythian Temple and the Masons' building, as well as the JMiller 
Memorial church. His work, however, has not been confined to 
buildings of public character ; but he has to his credit in Birm- 
ingham and in Atlanta, as well as other towns, numerous beau- 
tiful residences, which are a credit to him and at the same time 
the pride of their owners. 

Mr. Pharrow has been twice married. His first marriage was 
on April 7, '92, to :\Iiss :\Iartha L. Harris, of Atlanta. They 
had one daughter, Lillian Estella. Subsequent to the death of 
the first wife, IMr. Pharrow was married a second time to ]\Iiss 
Raven Gary, of Savannah, to whom he was wedded on April 24, 
1912. Mrs. Pharrow 's parents were William and Ophelia Gary. 
She was educated in the Savannah Schools and Howard Univer- 
sity. 

He is a Mason, Odd Fellow and Pythian ; also a member of the 
Supreme Circle. He is identified with the A. M. E. Bethel 
Church, and was formerly superintendent of the Sunday School. 
He is a Republican in politics; and while he has not himself 
sought office, he takes an active part in the deliberations and in 
the work of his party. Mr. Pharrow is a busy man, and apart 
from current literature has comparatively little time for reading ; 
yet he is very fond of United States history. His wide acquain- 
tance among the business people of his own and the white race, 
his business ability and his large means, have opened to him 
other avenues of usefulness and opportunity. Recently he was 
made the head of the Atlanta Board of Trade. He is a director 
of Atlanta State Savings Bank ; secretary, treasurer and director 
of Morton Realty Company, and was until recently vice-president 
of the Union Mutual Association. 

Still in the vigor and prime of manhood, he has the promise 
of years of successful work ahead, and is a splendid illustration 
of Avhat pluck and energy and perseverance may accomplish even 
in the face of prejudice and difficulties. 



WESLEY WILLIAM DREW 



WESLEY WILLIAM DREW, a leading citizen and 
prominent freeholder of Summerville, Chattooga 
county, is a native of Alabama, having been born at 
Gaylesville, January 29, 1859. His mother was Mariah Coby, 
a slave who came from South Carolina to Alabama before her 
son was born. Coming of school age during the war, and his 
boyhood and young manhood days corresponding with Recon- 
struction times, he was denied the opportunities of even an 
elementary education, and had to ' ' pick up, ' ' as he says, what he 
secured. He acknowledges, with gratitude, the influence of his 
good mother, who did the best she could. His life as a boy and 
a young man was hard enough, being fully occupied with the 
matter of making a living. He learned the barber trade at 
Gadsden, Ala., and says it was there he found the need of 
friends; and his wide circle of friends today shows how closely 
he has bound them to himself. He also learned another lesson 
as a young man ; and that was, that if he cared for his business 
his business would care for him. 

In 1883 he removed to Summerville, Ga., where he has since 
resided. Here he purchased a home, and has continued to in- 
crease his holdings of real estate in both Georgia and Tennessee, 
till now he ranks as one of the leading citizens of the county. 
He owns real estate in the city of Chattanooga. 

On May 25, 1884, he was married to Ludie Jessie Knox, a 
daughter of Hannah and Jesse Knox, of Walker county. They 
have no children, but reared John L. Johnson, now a prosperous 
business man of Summerville. 

Though not active in politics, he classes himself as a Republi- 
can, and is a member of the M. E. Church, and was for twenty- 
seven years Superintendent of the Sunday-school. He is not 
identified with the secret orders. He places the Bible first among 
all the books, and when asked for some suggestion as to how the 
best interests of the race might be promoted, promptly responded 



GEORGIA EDITION 167 

with what has evidently been the motive of his own life, "Be 
true to God and man." 

"When one takes into consideration the lack of opportunities 
and the hard days during which he grew up, it will be seen 
that Mr. Drew has won a large measure of success, and is a 
worthy example to the young people of the race. 



ALLEN AUGUSTUS WILSON 



REV. ALLEN AUGUSTUS WILSON, of Decatur, Ga., is a 
quiet man who is doing very effective work among his 
people in that thriving town. He is a native of Dalton, 
where he was born February 1, 1875. His parents were Vince 
and Nancy Wilson, both having been slaves. 

Our subject laid the foundation of his elementary education 
in the public schools of Dalton, and took his collegiate course at 
Biddle University, graduating in 1903 with the degree of A.M. 
He followed this with a theological course, which was completed 
and which led to the degree of B.D. in 1906. While in college 
his work as a student was marked by steady progress, and he 
engaged hearlily in other activities of the student body, and was 
a leader in athletics, being president of the Athletic Association 
for four years. Perhaps he would place his school life as one of 
the strongest influences that have helped to shape his career. He 
was fortunate in having for a teacher a godly man, who was 
also his pastor, and at the age of twenty-three he decided to enter 
the work of the ministry. For four years he was employed by 
the great Frick establishment at Pittsburgh as janitor, and made 
the most of his opportunities while in that great but wicked city 
by doing such missionary work as his time permitted. 

Coming to Decatur, Ga., in 1906, he entered heartily into the 
work there, and in addition to his work as a minister, has eon- 
ducted the school, in which he is ably assisted by his wife. 
While his work at St. James Church, Decatur, does not include 
as many members as some of the other denominations, still it is 
hard to find a man in this section who is making more of his 




ALLEN AUGUSTUS WILSON AND FAMILY. 



GEORGIA EDITION 169 

opportunities and doing more effective service along religious 
and educational lines. 

He is an ardent advocate of industrial education, and believes 
that not only his own people, but all people, should be equipped 
for earning a living and making their way in the world without 
being a burden to society. He has found biographical studies? 
most helpful, and would perhaps put that line of reading first. 

On September 9, 1907, he was married to Miss Cora Lineberger, 
of Charlotte, N. C. Mrs. Wilson is a graduate of Shaw Univer- 
sity, of Raleigh. They have had three children, two of wliom, 
Verner and Cora Lee survive. 



EDWIN POSEY JOHNSON 



THOUGH BORN IN SLAVERY and beginning life with 
the handicap of the lack of educational and other ad- 
vantages, Rev. Edwin Posey Johnson, A.B., D.D., of 
Atlanta, has succeeded since his Emancipation, not only in com- 
pleting an entire college course and supplementing that with 
extensive reading and research since his college days, but has as 
a minister of the Gospel, as a teacher and as a missionary of the 
Georgia Baptist Convention, come into helpful touch with thou- 
sa,nds of his race in the State. 

Dr. Johnson was born at Columbus, February 22, 1849. His 
parents, William Warren and Caroline (Posey) Johnson, be- 
longed to the Nelsons, but were permitted to retain the family 
name Johnson. Beyond that he knows little of his ancestry, ex- 
cept that his maternal grandfather, Edwin Posey, was a Mis- 
sionary Baptist preacher. 

When five years of age he was taken to Albany, and was still 
in that city when set free by the close of the war. A boy six- 
teen years of age when freedom came, he learned to read the next 
year in a little school in an alley. The following year he hired 
himself to a farmer ; would work during the day and walk a mile 
and a half to school each night. This school was taught by 
Mrs. Lucv E. Case, who was later matron of Atlanta University. 




EDWIN POSEY JOHNSON. 



GEORGIA EDITION 171 

He learned to count and mastered the simpler processes of 
arithmetic with grains of corn and small stones. The young 
man, now almost grown, determined, as he puts it, "to either get 
a college diploma or a coffin." Accordingly he entered Atlanta 
University in 1873, having saved a hundred and fifty dollars by 
hard work and close economy. By working as engineer while 
in college, he made this amount go further than it would other- 
wise have done. The following year (1874) he was converted 
under the ministry of Rev. George Walker, and soon felt called 
to the work of the ministry. With a courage that would not 
recognize the possibility of failure, he worked away at his col- 
lege course, which he completed in 1879 with the degree of A.B. 
He was then thirty years old, and on July 13th, of that year, 
was ordained State Missionary by the authority of his denomi- 
nation. 

While in college, he taught school during vacation times, prin- 
cipally in Henry county. 

After serving the denomination for one year as State ]\Iission- 
ary, he located at Hawkinsville, where he remained for six years, 
preaching and teaching. He taught a day and night school, 
and built a new school house, and has had the pleasure of 
living to see many of his early pupils enter upon lives of useful- 
ness. He spent the terms of '84 and '85 in Atlanta, as principal 
of the Mitchell Street School. 

While his work as an educator has been of a high order, it is 
as a minister of the Gospel that he is most widely known. His 
first pastorate was in Houston county, near Hawkinsville, in 
1887. The following year he was called to the Calvary Baptist 
Church, at Madison, Ga., and remained there for eleven years. 
While on that work he was elected the first principal of the 
Colored Public School of Madison, and made many friends for 
himself and for the work, not only among his own people, but 
among the white people as well. Several hundred people were 
added to the church during this pastorate at Madison. 

In 189'9 he was called to take charge as General Manager of 
the New Era Institute work, under the joint auspices of the 
Baptist Home Mission Society, Southern Baptist Convention, 
and Georgia Baptist Convention. He worked in this capacity 



i72 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

for three years, which took him to every part of the state, con- 
ducting institutes and training leaders, and touching in a help- 
ful way the educational life of his people. 

Dr. Johnson believes in thorough work, as is evidenced by the 
fact that when called to the high and holy work of the ministry, 
he took sufficient time to prepare himself for it, rather than rush- 
ing into it as so many do with lack of preparation. In 1906, in 
recognition of his scholarship and attainments, the degree of 
Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him by the Atlanta Bap- 
tist (now Morehouse) College. 

On December 26, 1882, he was married to Miss E. A. Key, 
daughter of G. W. and Celia Key. 

In 1902 he was called to the pastorate of the Reed Street Bap- 
tist Church, of Atlanta, one of the important Negro congrega- 
tions of the Baptist denomination in that city. He is on the 
faculty of Morehouse College, where he teaches Pastoral Theol- 
og,y, Psychology and Homiletics. He is a trustee of Spellman 
Seminary, and is secretary of the board. He is chairman of 
the Educational Board of the State Convention; secretary of 
the Reformatory Board, treasurer of the Missionary Board, and 
is trustee of numerous educational and religious organizations, 
not only in Atlanta, but throughout the State. 

Dr. Johnson's work over the State has enabled him to observe 
conditions as they exist, and he is greatly impressed with the 
need of better rural schools for both races; the encouragement 
of the country churches, which labor under great disadvantages. 
In his reading he has found the Bible the most helpful of all 
the books, next to which he places the books on sacred literature. 
In politics he is a Republican. He is actively identified with the 
work of the Y. M. C. A., and is an occasional contributor to the 
press. He has taken great interest in the Sunday School and 
B. Y. P. U. work, to lioth of which he has rendered valuable 
service. 

In fact. Dr. Johnson is keenly interested in everything affect- 
ing the welfare of both races; but the central idea in his life 
and work has been the carrying of the Gospel to those who have 
it not, and the development and training of the young for worth- 
ier, happier and more helpful lives. 



ADOLPHUS DAVID WEBB 



WITH the motto, brief but full of meaning, "Work 
hard, fear God and live right," Adolphus Webb, a 
colored merchant of Macon, Ga., has won his way to 
substantial and growing success and the confidence of his num- 
erous friends, white and black. 

He was born in Crawford county in 1864, day and month 
unknown. He is a son of Van Buren Webb (farmer) and 
Georgia Ann Webb, both slaves. He knows little of his ancestry 
further back, but his mother's parents were Hural and Harriet 
Webb. 

His school advantages were limited, but he eagerly availed 
himself of such opportunities for learning as were within his 
reach. Many a day did he work on the farm all day, and then 
study at night by the light of a pine or "lightwood" splinter 
stuck in the neck of a bottle. His father had a large family 
and was not able to send his children to school, though Adolphus 
says gratefully that "he did all he could and I love him for what 
he did do." He thus worked on his father's farm until he be- 
came of age, when his father gave hint a suit of clothes and 
twenty-five dollars in money. He went to Macon and entered 
Lewis High School ; and when the money gave out he went 
back home and hired himself out for nine dollars a month, which 
was then the usual price of a farm hand. In addition to that, 
by exceptional diligence, he managed to cultivate an extra patch 
of ground for himself, and so saved enough in four years to go 
to ^lacon and open up a small mercantile business, in 1889. The 
first year's business showed no profit; the second year it im- 
proved, and then he made good right along, and is now well-to- 
do, paying ta^'es on property amounting to thousands of dollars ; 
and better still, he has a reputation for honest, fair dealing, 
and for protecting all his obligations in a business-like way. His 
business was located at No. 421 Cotton Avenue. His store is 
now at Fourth and Middle streets. 

On January 17, 1901, he was married to Miss Hattie Barfield, 
daughter of Mat and Louise Barfield, of Macon. 




ADOLPHUS DAVID WEBB AND WIFE. 



GEORGIA EDITION 175 

He is a Republican in politics and is affiliated with the Masons, 
The brevity, the forcefulness and the meaning of his motto 
as set forth at the beginning of this sketch, are all thoroughly 
characteristic of the man — honest, earnest, business-like. God- 
fearing, successful, — a credit to his race, and a man such as is 
of value to any community. 

Though not a member of the church, Mr. Webb is a student of 
the Bible, and seeks to honor God in his life and in his dealings 
with his fellowman. 



ALICE DUGGED GARY 



MRS. ALICE (DUGGED) GARY, who has made for her- 
self an enviable record as an educator, and who has been 
a pioneer not only in educational work, but in the work 
of civic and economic betterment among her people, is a native 
of New London, Ind., but was reared in Kalamazoo, Mich. She 
is a daughter of John Richmond and Josie Ann (Gilliam) 
Dugged, both of whom w^ere freeborn. Her father was a harness- 
maker and a school teacher, so that the subject of our sketch 
had the opportunities of being brought up in a home where the 
importance of education was understood and emphasized. The 
Duggeds were from Virginia, while her mother's people, the 
Gilliams, were from South Carolina. The paternal grandfather 
was an Indian, and the maternal grandfather an Englishman. 

As a girl, Mrs. Cary enjoyed the advantages of the best schools 
of Michigan, where she took her literary course. At Wilberforce, 
Ohio, she studied Pedagogy, and later entered Harvard Univer- 
sity for pedagogical training. She bears with honor the degrees 
of A.M. and M.Pd., — the former from Morris Brown and the 
latter from Wilberforce University. 

After completion of her course, she began teaching in Kansas 
City in 1882. The following year she was elected to teach in 
the Lincoln High School, Kansas City, Mo., and later promoted 
to the position of assistant principal in the same school. In 
1886 she was made First Principal of Morris Brown College, 
since which time she has held in that institution the chairs of 




ALICE DUGGED GARY. 



GEORGIA EDITION 177 

Pedagogy, Literature and Economics. She was the first colored 
woman to be made principal of a colored school in the city of At- 
lanta, which position she has held for seven years. Her rank 
as an educator may be inferred from the fact that for eighteen 
summers she has been the conductor and secretary of the Pea- 
body Institute in Georgia. Another interesting thing to her 
credit is the fact that the first free kindergartens in the South 
were established by Mrs. Gary, aided by Mrs. John King Ottley, 
a noted white lady of Atlanta. Schools were opened in Atlanta, 
Macon and Charleston. In Charleston the association and school 
bear her name. That city contributes annually toward the main- 
tenance of these schools. 

Mrs. Gary is equally active in her church, and has served as 
president of the Atlanta Conference (A. M. E. Church) Mission- 
ary Association, which position she held for twelve years. She 
is also president of the State Federation of Colored Women's 
Clubs; president of the Civic League No. 2 of Atlanta, and 
First State President of the W. C. T. U. 

Her suggestions as to how the best interests of the state and 
nation may be promoted, place her in line with the best thought 
'of the day. As to her people, she says: ''Give the Negro 
population a better chance along all lines of endeavor, and in 
general, abolish the chain gangs ; furnish parks and play 
grounds and baths ; abolish disease-breeding tenement houses ; 
provide schools for all children and have fewer arrests for 
minor offenses." 

She is a frequent contributor to the press, both secular and 
religious. Perhaps her strongest work in this connection has 
been along the line of child welfare. Nor does she merely 
theorize about matters of this sort. Her life has been one of 
devoted service to her people. She works actively in con- 
nection with the Associated Charities, Anti-Tuberculosis Asso- 
ciation, Juvenile Court City Warden, and wherever opportun- 
ity to serve may be found. She is a friend of the Negro news- 
boys, and each year sees that they are provided with a Christ- 
mas dinner. This has been kept up for nine years. 

On June 18, 1885, she was married to Rev. J. A. Gary, at 
Wilberforce, Ohio, at the home of Bishop Arnett, by Bishops 
Turner, Shorter and Brown. 



WILLIAM H. SEWARD DUGGED 



REV. WILLIAM H. SEWARD DUGGED and his sister, 
Mrs. Alice Dugged Gary, were born in New London, 
Ind., of the same parents. He was the youngest child. 
He distinguished himself as a writer, orator, teacher and as a 
minister of the Gospel, He was educated in the best schools 
of the North and at Wilberforce, Ohio. Before he entered the 
ministry he held several prominent and responsible positions. 
He was clerk in the Atlanta postoffice, principal of schools in 
Kansas and Georgia, Professor in Morris Brown University, 
and Turner Theological Seminary in Atlanta, and was presi- 
dent of Payne University, Selma, Ala. 

He was ordained for the ministry by Bishop H. M. Turner 
and for years succeeded as a pastor, being loved by his con- 
gregations as well as the entire ministry. He was considered 
one of the most brilliant young men in the ranks, and was 
known as "The wonderful fisher of men," as he seldom, if 
ever preached a sermon but that some one joined the church. 
Many men owe their conversion to his influence. He was of a most 
sunny and cheerful disposition and always had a kind word for 
every one. His ideals were ' ' As chaste as ice, as pure as snow. ' ' 
His deep reverence for God and all things pure is shown in his 
original compositions of religious songs and sermons. These 
have found ready sale. "The Negro Soldier," "The Hidden 
Hand," "The Black Baby," and "Winter" were very popular. 
The last three years of his life, he was secretary to the historian 
of the A. M. E. Church, Bishop H. I\I. Turner, and did most of 
the research and statistical work which was highly compli- 
mented by the General Conference in 1912. He loved his 
mother devotedly and Avhen she was taken away his grief was 
inexpressible. Two years later. December 23, 1912, he passed 
peacefully away at the Bradley street home, and on Christmas 
day was laid beside his mother in Southview Cemetery, At- 
lanta, leaving his sister, the only remaining member of the 
family. His life is worthy of emulation and unbounded praise. 




WILLIAM H. SEWARD DUGGED. 



LEWIS HENRY SMITH 



REV. LEWIS HENRY SMITH, D.D., of Macon, Ga., Pre- 
siding Elder of the Macon district of the A. M. E. Con- 
ference, Secretary and Treasurer of the Georgia A. M. E. 
Conferences' Educational Moneys for the Morris Brown College, 
and member of the General Educational Board of the A, M. E. 
Church, is one of the able men of that denomination, whose de- 
voted and efficient service in its behalf has won wide recognition 
and resulted in the suggestion of his name in connection with the 
Bishopric. 

Dr. Smith was born in Talbot county, Ga., June 11, 1853, son 
of Joseph and Ann Smith, all being slaves. His father, Joseph 
Smith, was born a slave in Talbot county. Joseph Smith's father 
was named Solomon, and they both ''belonged" to a I\Ir. Charles 
SmitE. Lewis' mother, Ann Smith, was sold from her parents 
and husband, with her one-year-old child, in Richmond, Va., 
To slave dealers, and brought to Macon, Georgia, in the year 
1844, and brought there by ]\Ir. Charles Smith, who owned 
Joseph and Solomon. These were all born in America; 
but Dr. L. H. Smith's mother often told him that an African 
king was her grandfather; nor does this seem at all improbable 
in view of the latent abilities which our subject developed in the 
days of freedom, though still under great difficulties. Joseph 
Smith served his master faithfully until captured by Union 
soldiers, when he enlisted with them and served until honorably 
discharged at the close of the war. 

Taught by his Christian mother, L. H. Smith, in 1859, at the 
early age of six years, accepted Jesus Christ as his Redeemer 
and joined the church, As a rule, the slaves were not allowed 
to study or handle books of any kind; but when he was nine 
years old his master ordered him to care for the sheep ; and ever 
of a thoughtful turn of mind, this gave him a prized opportunity 
for meditation which proved of value to him. Upon gaining his 
freedom at the close of the war, he worked during the day and 
studied as best he could at night and on Sundays, sometimes 
with, but more often without a teacher. In 1866 a plantation 



GEORGIA EDITION 183 

school was opened by a Southern Christian white man ; and Lewis 
availed himself of the benefits of this while it lasted ; but the ex- 
slave-masters compelled the closing of this school within a month. 
It has ever been characteristic of Dr. Smith, that whatever he 
undertook, he went at it in earnest ; and when he accepted Chris- 
tianity and joined the church, he did not do so with the idea of 
''sailing to heaven on flowery beds of ease," but early began 
active church work, and at the age of seventeen was a teacher 
and superintendent of the Sunday-school of his home church. 
He also served this church as steward, exhorter and local 
preacher until July, 1874, when the pastor, Eev. Zechariah Arm- 
strong, passed away, and the church in which he had been reared 
and which he loved so well, unanimously accepted him as 
pastor to fill the six months of the unexpired pastoral year. 

The foregoing facts are gleaned in part from The Atlanta 
Independent. The Western Christian Recorder gives so clear 
and concise a history of his church work that we quote from it 
at some length. After commenting on his eminent fitness for a 
place on the Episcopal bench, it proceeds as follows : 

"He made his report to the Georgia Conference which met at 
Albany in the month of January, 1875, and was there admitted 
on trial into the traveling connection of the A. M. E. Church. 
The records show that 'he has not lost a day's march.' His 
first appointment was Guyton circuit, where he served faith- 
fully and acceptably that year, and brought up a good report. 
His second appointment was Mobley Pond circuit. He remained 
there two years (1876-7), during which time more than seventy- 
five persons were happily converted and united with the church. 
1878-9 found him at Darien station, where he worked hard, 
built up a large congregation, met all current expenses and made 
a good report to the Conference. 1880-81, he was the popular 
pastor of Bainbridge station. The souls brought into the fold 
of Christ, the much good accomplished during these two years 
by this great man of God will only be known in the great day 
when the light of eternity shall have flashed on his record. 
During the years 1882, '83, '84 and '85 he pastored Eatonton 
station. The church at Eatonton was not only wisely managed 
and left in splendid moral and spiritual condition for his sue- 



384 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

cesser, but a new church buildmg costing nearly $4,000, was 
constructed, and $3,000 of the debt paid. In 1886 he pastored 
the Augusta station, and left the church in a live state. The 
years '87 and '88 he served the Augusta district as Presiding 
Elder; the district was managed well and good reports made. 
The years '89, '90, '91 and '92 he pastored the Steward Chapel, 
Macon. The record of that church shows that its moral, spiritual, 
social and financial status justly and richly received the good- will 
and admiration of all. It was during those four years that a 
portion of Steward Chapel was taken down and rebuilt at a cost 
of $10,000, and only $4,000 of it remained as a debt to be paid 
by succeeding pastors. During the years '93 and '94 he pre- 
sided over the Macon district, managed it well and properly 
cared for the churches, pastors and every department of the 
general work. In 1895 he was again appointed to serve Steward 
Chapel to reduce its indebtedness and satisfy creditors. The 
year's work was, by God's help, well done, and a most excellent 
report was made to the Annual Conference, which presented 
a five hundred dollar bill as the year's dollar money from 
Steward Chapel. From '96 to '99 he pastored at St. Philips 
station. Savannah. It was during his first year's pastorate there 
that the too heavily topped steeple of St. Philips Church was 
blown down, and crushed the building to the earth, completely 
demolishing it. He and his faithful congregation rented a hall 
for service, and cleared out the debris of the demolished build- 
ing preparatory to its rebuilding. During those dark and dreary 
days the trustees of the M. E. Church South, seeing the hard 
struggles that pastor Smith and his faithful congregation were 
making, offered to sell them their church and parsonage on 
Charles and West Broad streets. He wisely accepted their 
offer and acting in accord with the resolution of his officers and 
members, succeeded in buying that property for $6,000, though 
the trustees had paid $8,000 for it six years prior to that time, 
and the same property cannot now be bought for $16,000, though 
not further improved. But in addition to the $6,000 on the new 
property, Dr. Smith and his congregation had to assume a debt 
of $1,800 remaining against the old church property that was 
demolished. His four year's pastoral work in Savannah were 



GEORGIA EDITION 185 

well done, leaving a debt of only $3,000 and the ehnrch in 
splendid working condition. In 1900 he was Presiding Elder 
of the Milledgeville district; from 1901- '04 he presided over 
the Forsyth district, and again from 1905- '07 over the Mill- 
edgeville district; in 1908 over the Augusta district." 

He next became Presiding Elder of the ]\Iacon district, and 
still holds that position. 

Though seldom having an instructor, Dr. Smith has continued 
a diligent student throughout life, improving every available 
opportunity for reading and study. From time to time as cir- 
cumstances rendered it practicable, he has availed himself of the 
benefit of a private instructor, and he has also utilized corres- 
pondence courses. During his Savannah pastorate he studied 
Hebrew under a Jewish Rabbi. Of course, he has always given 
first place to the Bible and aids to its study, and has also found 
very helpful biographies or histories of men and of- nations, 
scientific treatises, good magazines and newspapers, etc. He is 
himself a frequent contributor to the religious and secular press 
along Christian, social and economic lines, and is the author 
of a book entitled "Earnest Pleas." 

He has voted the Republican ticket, but has not found time 
for active participation beyond that. 

Dr. Smith was one of the delegates who attended the Ecumen- 
ical Conference which met in 1890 in Washington, D. C. He 
has attended several General Conferences and participated in 
their deliberations. The degree of D.D. was conferred upon 
him by Morris Brown College in 1898. 

On September 18, 1873, Dr. Smith was married to Hester 
Savannah Love, daughter of Henry and Dianah Love, of Pratts- 
burg, Talbot county, Ga., where he was reared. Her father was 
the community wheelwright and cabinet maker. Of the ten 
children with which this union has been blessed, eight are yet 
living, as follows : Minnie L., Mattie J., Lewis H., Jr., Beta A., 
Lovia T., Roberta F., Nathaniel G., and James LeRoy. 



ROBERT WASHINGTON WHITE 



REV. ROBERT WASHINGTON WHITE, one of the vice- 
presidents of the General State Baptist Convention and a 
leading pastor of Northeast Georgia, lives in Elbert 
county, where he was born June 6, 1867. His father, Larkin 
White, is a local Baptist preacher and is still living (1914). 
His mother was Angeline (Rucker) White. He knows nothing 
of his ancestry on his father's side, but his mother's father was 
Nace Rucker. 

Reverend White's educational advantages were limited, though 
he attended the public schools of Elbert, and spent some time 
in Jeruel Academy in Athens. Brought up and taught hard 
work on the farm, he believes in that sort of training for the 
young people of his race today, coupled with liberal education. 

At the age of eighteen he was converted, and six years later, 
after his marriage, felt called to the work of the ministry. He 
was licensed and ordained by the Carlton Grove Baptist Church, 
and entered upon his first pastorate at Hall Grove Church in 
Elbert county. Since that time he has served acceptably Shady 
Grove, near Tignalls ; Pole Branch ; Reaves Chapel, Washington, 
Ga. ; New Salem, and the First Baptist Church at Elberton. Dur- 
ing his pastorate he has built four new church houses, and hun- 
dreds of members have been brought into the church through his 
ministry. 

On December 27, 1887. he was married to Miss Laura Fortson. 
They have eight living children, as follows : Willie L., Celestea 
E. (Mrs. Thornton), Madgie, Annie, Samuel L., Robert W., Jr., 
Georgia and Julian B. White. 

Mr. White is a staunch friend of education, and has given his 
own children the opportunities which he himself lacked. He 
owns his home and a hundred-and-fifty-acre farm near Elber- 
ton, and believes that many of the problems confronting his race 
are to find their solution when his people come to own their 
homes and accumulate property. 

Mr. White is vice-president of the General State Baptist Con- 
vention ; also a member of the Executive Board. He is Modera- 




ROBERT WASHINGTON WHITE. 



:88 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

tor Third Shiloli Association, and a trustee of the Third 
Shiloh Normal School, at Washington, and chairman of the 
Sunday School Convention Board of the Third Shiloh Conven- 
tion. He remembers with gratitude the influence of his early 
Christian home and has tried to live before his people a life 
which would be in harmony with his preaching. 

He is a man of good business capacity, and is the owner of 
valuable town property, consisting of a house and several lots. 

But his religious work deserves further mention. From youth 
up, he has been a close student of the Bible. He is a forceful 
speaker, and is in demand for evangelistic work, often being 
called on to assist such pastors as Dr. P. J. Bryant, of the Wheat 
Street Church in Atlanta; Rev. J. W. Whitehead, in Augusta; 
Rev. J. W. Ward, at Covington, and others. He taught Sunday- 
school for thirteen years and traveled as Sunday-school agent 
for seventeen years. He has baptized nearly a thousand mem- 
bers into his country churches, and once baptized thirty-seven 
candidates in just seventeen minutes. He has had calls to the 
pastorate of important churches in the larger towns and cities, 
but these he has always declined, preferring to continue his 
work in the country. 



JOHN HENRY BROWN 



REV. JOHN HENRY BROWN, A. M., who has been at the 
head of Jeruel Academy, Athens, since 1886, and has 
held several important pastorates, is a native of Dooly 
county, Ga., where he was born November 25, 1859. He was 
reared on a farm at Grovania. His father was a white man. 
His mother was Mary Brown, a slave. His maternal grand- 
parents were Hardy and Mary Brown, both slaves. 

Young Brown was an ambitious boy, though his early 
educational opportunities were limited to the country schools 
of Houston county, which were poor enough ; but they gave 
him a start along the right line, and he was ambitious enough 
not to be discouraged by obstacles and difficulties. As a 
young man he divided his time between the school room and 
the farm till such a time as he could earn sufficient money to 




JOHN HENRY BROWN. 



■90 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

attend what was then the Atlanta Baptist Seminary, now 
Morehouse College. He entered that institution in 1880, and 
even then it was necessary for him to piece out his meager 
means by serving a part of the time as janitor in office build- 
ings. He finished the course in 1885, and later the same 
institution conferred upon him the degree of A. M. 

From the very beginning he has been a successful teacher. 
?Te saw the necessity of properly equipping himself for that 
work, and would not be turned aside from his ambition to get 
a college education. At the age of twenty-one he was con- 
verted, and after he had for some years been in educational 
work, felt specifically called to the work of the ministry also. 
So in 1903 he was ordained to the work of the Baptist ministry 
by the Ebenezer Baptist church, Athens, 6a. In January 1886 
he was elected to the presidency of Jeruel Academy at Athens, 
which was then held in the church building of Landrum's 
Chapel and had an enrollment of forty scholars. Under his 
administration the enrollment has gone as high as three 
hundred twenty-five, and the institution owns property valued 
at thousands of dollars. A fuller account of the work of the 
mstitution will be found in another part of this volume. He 
has also held other important positions, such as president of 
County Teachers' Institutes; Recording Secretary of the 
General State Baptist Convention, and is pi-ominently identi- 
fied with the work of the State Convention. 

Next after the Bible, Prof. Brown has given more attention 
to books on teaching and pedagogy than perhaps any other 
line of reading. Apart from his work as an educator, he has 
since entering the ministry been a successful pastor. He 
served the Baptist church at Watkinsville for six years, and 
the First Baptist Church at Athens for two years. This he 
found it necessary to resign on account of the pressure of his 
time. At this time he is serving the Elberton Baptist Church, 
where he has been for six years, and the Hartwell church, 
where he has been for three. Both his educational and his 
ministerial work have impressed upon him the importance of 
better training for service, as well as the better organization 
©f the religious and educational forces of his people. 



GEORGIA EDITION 191 

Prof. Brown is an affable man, of pleasing manner, who has 
not only made friends for himself, but for his institution, and 
through those whom he has trained has rendered a large ser- 
vice to his denomination and to the cause to which he has 
devoted his life. He is a man of clear vision, and believes 
more in character than he does in either numbers or noise. 
His work at Athens is his best monument. 

On February 27, 1887, he was married to Miss Betty Ij. 
Newberry, a daughter of Violet and Charlie Newberry, of 
Houston county. They have six children: Carrie E., Charles 
H., Virginia H., Hermon N., Perry McKinley and Virgil R. 
Brown. 

Though not active in politics, he classes himself as a Repub- 
lican, and among the secret orders is identified with the 
Knights of Pythias. He owns and occupies an attractive home 
adjacent to the school, thus setting his people another worthy 
example. 



BLANTON JULIUS JONES 



REV. BLANTON JULIUS JONES, one of the rising young 
ministers of the C. M. E. connection, was born in Wilkes 
county, February 8, 1883. His parents, Elex and Malinda 
(Roberson) Jones, who are both still living, were born just after 
Emancipation, so that Reverend Jones belongs to the new genera- 
tion. His grandfather was Lucius Jones, a slave. 

Young Jones was converted at the age of twelve and joined 
the St. James C. M. E. Church, at Washington, and when only 
fifteen years of age felt called to the ministry. As a boy and 
young man, he was active in church and Sunday-school work, 
and early determined to get what education he could, in order 
to fit himself for the work of life. He attended the public schools 
of Wilkes county, and later entered Hodge Academy, at Wash- 
ington, and continued his studies until 1911. While in school 
he worked in the printing office to help pay his way. He earned 



192 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

his first money as a cook in the hotel, and applied this toward 
his education also. 

In 1909 he was licensed to preach, and joined the Conference 
at Jackson in 1912. He was assigned to the Crawfordville cir- 
cuit as his first regular pastoral work, and in 1913 was pro- 
moted to the Hawkinsville station, where he now (1914) resides. 

He is a Republican in politics, of the Progressive type, and 
has been rather active in the local counsels of his party. In his 
reading he places the Bible first and history next. He is not 
identified with the secret orders. 



JAMES OLIVER SAMS 



JAMES OLIVER SAMS, a substantial and prosperous farmer 
of Floyd county, lives near Cave Spring. He is a native 
of Georgia, having been born a couple of miles from Fay- 
etteville, in Fayette county, during the war, on February 27, 
1863. His parents, Joseph and Delia Sams, were both slaves, 
though both his grandfathers were white. 

Growing up during and just after the war, he was denied the 
opportunities of an education, though he has managed to pick 
up enough to read and write and conduct his business success- 
fully. His boyhood days, till he was fourteen years of age, were 
spent in Fayette county. Later the family lived for four years 
at Hampton, in Henry county, and when he was eighteen years 
old, he moved to Rome, where he lived for two years. From 
Rome he went to Chattanooga, where he remained for six years. 
At the end of that time, he decided to move to the country, and 
returning to Georgia, bought lands in Chattooga county, where 
he lived for four years. V^ith a growing family on his hands, he 
realized the importance of establishing a permanent home and 
settling down, and came over to Floyd county and located near 
Cave Spring. Here he has been remarkably successful. Begin- 
ning on rented land, he has gradually accumulated land of his 
own, till now he owns five hundred acres of splendid farming 
land. Last year he ran seventeen plows, made a hundred and 




JAjVIES OLIVER SAMS AND FAMILY. 



194 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

twenty-seven bales of cotton, and is this year (1914) threshing 
five or six hundred bushels of small grain, besides his corn and 
other crops. He commands the respect and co-operation of his 
own and the white people alike, and is giving to his children the 
educational advantages which he himself did not have. 

He was married on February 17, 1890, to Miss Elviry Ware, 
of Chattooga county. They have twelve children, as follows: 
Clemmie, Orrie, Pallie, Delia, Joseph, Sarah, Tressie, Julia, 
Robert, Abbie, Madie and Charles Columbus. The whole family 
is represented in the accompanying picture. 

Mr. Sams has not been active in political matters, but has taken 
an active stand in the M. E. Church, of which he is a prominent 
member. In this body he is a steward and a trustee, and was 
for a number of years superintendent of the Sunday-school. 
Among the secret orders, he is identified with the Masons, and 
is treasurer of his lodge. He is a striking example of what an 
intelligent man, who is not afraid to work, can do on Georgia 
soil, and he commends to his race the thing which has made him 
successful. He sums it up in a few words when he says that the 
thing his race most needs is, to go to work. 



FORREST LEE BOUEY 



REV. FORREST LEE BOUEY, a prominent minister of 
the C. M. E. Church, now (1914) pastor at Americus, was 
born at Ridge Spring, S. C, January 8, 1870, son of 
Augustus Bouey, a carpenter, and Leah (Lowman) Bouey. His 
paternal grandfather, Louis Bouey, formerly of Richmond, Va., 
who was of French descent, was sold to John Baston, of Rich- 
mond county, Georgia. His grandmother was from Petersburg, 
Va., and was also sold into Georgia. His father was born in 
Georgia, and sold into South Carolina, to "William >Merritt. Thus 
it will be seen that Reverend Bouey is of French-African de- 
scent. A distinguished relative who deserves mention in this 
connection, was an uncle, the late Rev. H. N. Bouey, D.D., the 
well-known Baptist missionary, who died on the mission field at 




FORREST LEE BOUEY. 



196 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

Cape Mount, West Coast of Africa, December 15, 1909, and rests 
beside his two sons on Lake Peasue. 

Young Bouey attended first the common school at Ridge 
Spring, S. C, and later the Western College of Missouri, from 
which he was graduated in 1894 with the B.S. degree. The 
funds for his college expenses were earned by himself in farm 
work and domestic service. While at college recreation was not 
neglected, and he took an active part in playing ball. 

Among the influences which have had much to do with shaping 
his career and ideals, were those of a Christian home, Christian 
school, and his uncle, Rev. H. N. Bouey, D.D., the noted min- 
ister and missionary mentioned above. F. L. Bouey was con- 
verted at the age of fourteen, and two years later felt the call 
to the ministry. He took an active part in Sunday-school work; 
was ordained an elder at Washington Aveiiue Church, Spring- 
field, Mo., August 20, 1893, and joined the South Carolina An- 
nual Conference under Bishop R. S. Williams, D.D., at Spartan- 
burg, S. C, November 26, 1897. His first pastorate was at 
Springfield, Missouri. He next went to South Carolina, 
and was at Sumter one year, Spartanburg two years and Troy 
one year. He was then transferred to the Virginia Conference 
and sent for two years to South Boston, Ewington one year. 
Front Royal and Strasburg three years, and spent another 
year as principal of the Lawrenceville public schools. He was 
then transferred to the Alabama Conference and sent for one 
year to Selma ; thence to the Georgia Conference, and assigned 
for two years to Dublin, and in 1913 to Americus, his present 
work. At Lawrenceville, Va., he built a new church at a cost 
of thirty-five hundred dollars, and at Selma, Ala., remodeled the 
church building at a cost of twenty-five hundred. He is a capable 
organizer and teacher, and has proved effective wherever he has 
gone. 

On April 7, 1895, he was married at Allendale, S. C, to Miss 
Aldridge Gardner, daughter of James and Lucretia Gardner. 
Of the three children born to them, none survive. 

Politically he is a Republican, but takes a voting interest only. 
Among the secret societies, he is affiliated with the Odd Fellows 
and Masons. He takes an active interest in all that concerns the 
welfare of the colored race, and is compiling some facts along 



GEORGIA EDITION 197 

that line and gathering specimens of sermons and lectures. He 
puts a great deal in a word when he says that that which will do 
most to promote the welfare of his race in the state and nation is 
"Moral Stamina." He says: "I believe that in the providence 
of God, America and the Anglo-Saxon civilization will ultimately 
restore Africa and the African to their former high state of 
civilization and the favor of God. I verily believe that the 
Southern white man is the Negro 's best friend in his uplift. 



ADDISON REYNOLDS McKINNEY 



THAT REV. ADDISON REYNOLDS McKINNEY has the 
abiding confidence of those who know him best, is indi- 
cated by his long pastorates and the further fact that he 
has occupied the position of moderator of the Savannah River 
Association continuously since 1897 — seventeen years. 

He was born in slavery, on January 1, 1859, on a farm in 
Burke county, Georgia, near Waynesboro, son of Backus and 
Amelia (Cooper) McKinney. His grand-parents were Kent and 
Kittie McKinnie and Buck and Sarah Cooper. 

Unable for lack of means to secure a complete college educa- 
tion, he yet managed to attend for a while the Haven Normal 
Academy at Waynesboro, and later Jeruel Academy at Athens, 
following these partial courses by correspondence lessons and 
reading, so that notwithstanding the absence of advantages en- 
joyed by many he has become quite well informed. He finds 
especially helpful works of a religious nature, such as those of 
Spurgeon, Talmage and Moody. 

He was converted at the age of 26 and joined the Fellowship 
Baptist church at Munnerly, Ga., in 1885. The following year 
he felt called to the work of the ministry and was licensed and 
ordained by his home church to the full work of the Gospel 
Ministry. 

On November 24, 1886, Rev. McKinney was married to Miss 
Mollie Rucker, of Elbert county, a daughter of Henry and Phoebe 
Rucker. They have seven living children: George, Lela May, 




ADDISON REYNOLDS McKINNEY, 



GEORGIA EDITION 199 

Cynthia Marvin, Addison Reynolds, Jr., James and John, twins, 
and Judson Haden McKinney. 

His first pastorate, beginning in 1887 and continuing for five 
years, was at Rock Branch church, twelve miles from Elberton. 
He has also served the following churches: Springfield, one 
year; Royston Grove, three years; Holly Springs, twenty-three 
years ; Cedar Spring, thirteen years ; Sardis, twelve years ; Bethel 
Grove, seventeen years; Holly Creek, five years, and Vance's 
Creek, five years. 

He is now pastoring four churches: Holly Springs, near 
Bowman; Bethel Grove, Heardmont; Holly Creek, and Vance's 
Creek. The Holly Springs Church he has held for twenty-three 
years, and the Bethel Grove for seventeen. In 1897 he was 
elected moderator of the Savannah River Association, which posi- 
tion he still holds. He also serves in several important capacities 
in connection with the General State Baptist Convention, being a 
member of the Executive Board of Managers of Reformatory, of 
the Mission Board and of the Educational Board. As will readi- 
ly be seen, he has had quite enough to keep him pretty fully 
occupied, and he has found no time for politics. Among the 
secret orders he is identified with the Masons and Knights of 
Pythias, being Worshipful Master in the former. He has culti- 
vated habits of thrift and economy from his 3'"0uth up, and has 
succeeded in acquiring a good home at Elberton, Ga., and other 
valuable property, so that even in material things he now ranks 
as a man fairly well-to-do. Altogether he has wrought out a 
truly creditable record of achievement. 

Mr. McKinney is general manager of the Savannah River 
High School at Hartwell, Ga. He attends both the State and 
National Conventions of his denomination. 



REUBEN BENJAMIN NICHOLS 



JUST after the close of the war, on July 15, 1865, there was 
born a Negro boy in Gainesville, Ga,, who has worked out a 
splendid measure of success, and whose life has been an 
example worthy of emulation by his people. His father was 




REUBEN BENJAMIN NICHOLS. 



GEORGIA EDITION 301 

Henry Nichols, a farmer, and his mother's maiden name was 
Hester Keith. His maternal grandmother was Harriet Keith. 
His grandfather on the mother's side was a Baptist minister of 
the old slave type. 

Young Nichols was raised by his grandparents, and had but 
limited means for securing the education he so much desired. 
The family having moved to Chattooga county when the boy 
was thirteen, he attended the Holland graded school, and by hard 
work and patient perseverance, the boy advanced to a point 
where he could secure teacher's license. This necessitated close 
application in addition to his regular tasks, so that he was fre- 
quently forced to study by the light of a pine knot fire. 

From the first he was successful as a teacher, and followed 
that business for fifteen years. His first school was at Broom- 
town, Ala. For thirteen years he taught at Holland, Ga., and 
built a school-house at that point. He is, and has been, an 
extensive reader, and has found most helpful the literature 
about his own race, especially the biographies of great leaders 
like Booker Washington. 

On February 12, 1885, he was married to Miss Eliza J. Adams, 
a daughter of John Nelson and Susan Adams, of Holland. They 
have had twelve children. Their names are as follows: John 
Nelson, Moses Henry, Luvenia, Reuben B., Jr., Susie Mae, George 
Hobart, Rachel, Worda, Oteele and Onnie. 

After teaching for fifteen years, Prof. Nichols decided to 
devote his whole time to his farming interests, and so beginning 
at the age of thirty-five, he has since followed that occupation, 
and has accumulated a splendid property of four hundred acres, 
valued at at least six thousand dollars. One year (1913), he 
grew one hundred and four bales of cotton, fifteen hundred 
bushels of corn, and other things in proportion. 

He is interested in every movement which looks to the better- 
ment of conditions among his people. In politics he is a Republi- 
can, and is now a member of the Central Committee. He is 
connected with the Baptist church, and has for thirty years 
been secretary of his Association, the First North Georgia. In 
his own church he is a deacon and superintendent of Sunday- 
schooL Among the secret orders, he is identified with the Odd 



202 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

Fellows, the Masons, and the Independent Benevolent Order, — 
in each of which he has held various official positions. 

So the little orphan boy has made of himself a worthy citizen, 
and has pointed the way to other boys of meager opportunity. 
He is educating his children, and two of his daughters are now 
teaching. 



PHEOLIAN ARTHUR EVANS 



THOUGH only in his thirty-fifth year, Prof. Pheolian 
Arthur Evans, Principal of the Savannah River High 
School, at Hartwell, Ga., has already won his way to a 
creditable place both as a citizen and an educator. He was born 
June 15, 1879, at White Plains. His parents, Alexander and 
Elizabeth (Howell) Evans, are still living on their farm. The 
grandparents on the paternal side were John Evans (white), a 
large planter, and Katie Latimore, a slave; the grandfather on 
the maternal side was Arnold Howell, a minister of the Baptist 
church, who at the time of his death, in 1886, was pastoring 
four of the largest churches in Middle Georgia. 

After attending for a while the public schools of Sparta and 
White Plains, young Evans entered Morehouse College, Atlanta, 
completing the Academic course in 1902, and in 1906 graduat- 
ing from the College department with the degree of A. B. In 
securing his education he was in a large measure dependent on 
his own efforts, and while in college often found it necessary 
during the winter to leave school and teach in the country for 
two or two and a half months; then during vacation periods he 
would go back to the farm and help to get the crops under way, 
then teach a country school again and re-enter college in the 
fall. Still by ceaseless industry he managed both to keep up with 
his classes and to defray expenses, and made an all-around 
creditable record. In shaping his life and ideals, he attributes 
a large measure of influence to his parents, to his home life, 
schools and associates, the measure of their helpfulness and the 




PHEOLIAN ARTHUR EVANS. 



204 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

inspiration derived from them being perhaps in the order 
named. During his student days he was very fond of athletics, 
and is still devoted to tennis — a very rational and helpful form 
of sport. 

Reference has already been made to his early work as a 
teacher. His first school began in 1898 at White Plains, in a 
little log cabin, with twelve pupils and a salary of twelve dollars 
per month. After his graduation in 1906, he filled for six years 
the chair of English in Walker Baptist Institute at Augusta. 
He was then elected to his present position as principal of the 
Savannah River High School at Hartwell, which under his 
efficient management has grown from an enrollment of about 
sixty to one hundred and fifty. 

In his choice of reading, Prof. Evans shows a thoughtful 
turn of mind and a classic taste, the preference being given to 
such works as the Bible, encyclopedias, Shakespeare's plays, 
Emerson's and Carlyle's essaj'^s. He has travelled extensively 
in the South and East. Though a public-spirited man, he takes 
little interest in politics. 

At the age of twelve he was converted and joined the Baptist 
church, was licensed to preach in 1910, and ordained in 1913, 
to the full work of the ministry at Elberton, Ga., by the minis- 
ters of the Savannah River Association, upon request of his 
church at White Plains. 

Among the secret orders he holds membership in the Knights 
of Pythias and Odd Fellows, being a Past Noble Father in the 
latter and Past Chancellor in the former. He believes that 
among the greatest needs of his race are better equipped schools 
and more efficient teachers. He says very truly, "Many of my 
race have false ideas of religion and morality, and ignorance is 
the cause of it." He deserves commendation for his efforts in 
behalf of the uplift of his people, and it is to be hoped and be- 
lieved that his labors may meet with increasing success. 

On September 9, 1908, he was married to Miss Daisy Lee 
Rouse, daughter of Robert Wallace Rouse and Elizabeth Rouse. 
They have three children — Ernestine Elizabeth, Azelma Lee and 
Artholian Cossette Evans. 



JOHN HENRY MOORE 



REV. JOHN HENRY MOORE, D.D., a Baptist minister 
of Griffin, Ga., stands at the front of his denomination in 
that part of the state. He was born in the adjacent 
county of Meriwether, on February 10, 1870. His father was 
Boston Moore, a farmer, and his mother was Bettie Thrash be- 
fore her marriage. 

Young Moore was brought up on the farm, and was accus- 
tomed to the hard manual labor of the farm until he reached 
manhood. 

From boyhood he felt that he must ultimately enter the min- 
istry. He was converted at the age of sixteen, and joined the 
Baptist church. It was about two years later, however, before 
he definitely decided to take up the work of the ministry, al- 
though he had long felt that he must preach. With the call to 
the ministry came the realization that he must prepare him- 
self for his life's work. Accordingly he entered Atlanta Baptist 
(now Morehouse) College, where he took the academic and theo- 
logical courses. Later he spent one term at Chicago University. 
An interesting sidelight on the character of Dr. Moore's work 
and his personal popularity, is the fact that he is still serving 
the Macedonia Baptist Church, at Pomona, Ga., which was his 
first pastorate, and on which he entered nearly twenty years 
ago. That he wears well with his churches, is evidenced by the 
fact that for eighteen years he has been serving as pastor the 
Eighth Street Baptist Church, which has a membership of about 
seven hundred. He has been with the Shiloh Baptist Church, of 
McDonough for seventeen years, and for ten years has been 
pastor of Mt. Sinai, at Barnesville. 

Soon after entering the ministry he was elected moderator of 
the Cabin Creek Association, which he has served continuously 
in that capacity till the present time. Realizing the need of 
better educational facilities in his association, he began even as 
a young man, the agitation which resulted in the establishment 
of the associational school at Griffin, in which he taught for two 
years, and which has been such a large factor in the development 




JOHN HENRY MOORE. 



GEORGIA EDITION 207 

of the work in that association. Though not now a teacher in the 
institution, he is actively identified with its management as 
president. 

For a number of years he has been a prominent factor in the 
work of the State Baptist Convention, of which he was vice- 
president under the administration of Dr. W. G. Johnson, whose 
declining strength in recent years made it necessary for Dr. 
Moore to assume in a large measure the work of the presidency. 
He has been a regular attendant at the National Baptist Con- 
ventions and other similar gatherings. 

Though a member of the various boards and committees, he 
has not allowed these duties to conflict with the faithful work 
of a pastor of four large churches, which have steadily grown in 
membership and strength under his administration. They are 
all of brick, and have been built by him, and are all out of debt 
but one. 

In politics Dr. Moore is a Republican, and is a member of the 
Odd Fellows. 

He owns property in both Meriwether and Spalding counties, 
and his home place on the outskirts of Griffin is an attractive 
residence in the midst of a small farm, where he devotes his spare 
time to farming. 

In his reading he puts the Bible first, and after that Pilgrim's 
Progress and Drummond's Natural Law in the Spiritual World, 
Mathew Henry's Commentaries, Milton's Paradise Lost, Dun- 
bar's Poems, American Magazine, etc. 



HENRY CLAY YOUNG 



HENRY CLAY YOUNG, of Augusta, president of the Pil- 
grim Health & Life Insurance Company, is a self-made 
man in the best sense of that term, and is a striking illus- 
tration of what can be accomplished along financial and commer- 
cial lines by a man who is not afraid to w^ork, and who has the 
courage to economize. The simple story of his life and work 
ought to be an inspiration not only to the young men of his own 
race, but to all struggling young men everywhere. 




HENRY CLAY YOUNG. 



GEORGIA EDITION 209 

He was born near Keysville, in Jefferson county, on August 
22, 1864. It will thus be seen that his boyhood days covered that 
hardest period in American history, known as the Reconstruc- 
tion days. His parents, Alfred Young and Mary Boardham, 
were both slaves prior to Emancipation. His father, who could 
barely read, was a Baptist preacher. His maternal grandfather, 
Rev. Joseph Walker, was a member of the justly celebrated 
Walker family of Augusta. He was bought and set free by the 
colored people in order that he might give himself to the work of 
the ministry. 

H. C. Young was denied the opportunities of an education, 
with the exception of about six months when he attended the 
Brinson school in Jefferson county, which was taught by a North- 
ern man. It would not be correct, however, to imagine, that his 
education ceased when he stopped going to school. He was 
ambitious to learn and accumulate some property, and has all 
his life long been a student of men and affairs, and ol books more 
or less. Among all the books, he has found the Bible most help- 
ful. 

He worked on a farm till he was a grown man, and then went 
to Columbia county for a short time, but realizing the lack of 
opportunities in that section, moved to Augusta in 1882. Here 
he engaged in all sorts of manual labor for four years, but was 
unable to save any money while working for the other fellow. 
In 1886 he borrowed ten dollars from his sister, and with this 
insignificant capital opened up a wood shop and peanut stand. 
Modest as was this beginning in business for himself, it has 
grown and grown till now he is properly regarded as one of the 
leading business men of his race in the state. His peanut stand 
has grown into a large store, where he handles general merchan- 
dise and groceries, and his capital of ten dollars has grown into 
the thousands. 

With the growth of benevolent societies among his people 
he and friends of his in Augusta formed organizations which, 
when the State required a cash deposit of five thousand dollars 
were merged into the Pilgrim Health and Life Insurance Com- 
pany. Since that time the Pilgrim has done a safe business, 
which has given it a name for stability and prompt servic* all 



310 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

over the state. From this small beginning the business has 
grown with the years till in 1913 it lacked only a few thousand 
dollars of reaching the quarter-million-dollar mark. It was all 
the more complimentary to Mr. Young that he should be called 
to the presidency of a concern of this sort in view of the fact 
that he had had no previous experience in the details of insur- 
ance business; but his business ability and financial capacity 
were recognized, and the success of his company has demon- 
strated that no mistake was made when he was placed at the 
head of it. 

In politics he is a Republican, and is chairman of the Republi- 
can Executive Committee of Richmond County. He is an active 
and influential member of the Tabernacle Baptist Church, of 
which he is a deacon and the treasurer. He is also a member 
of the Tabernacle Christian Association of the Deacons' Union 
Relief Association, and is treasurer of the Walker Baptist 
Association. He is a member of the board of trustees of the 
"Walker Baptist Institute and of the Y. M. C. A. He is also 
identified with several other business organizations. He is a 
member of the board of directors of the Penny Loan & Savings 
Company ; is a member of the board and treasurer of the Negro 
Fair Association, and is president of the Augusta Realty Com- 
pany. 

Mr. Young has been twice married : first, to INIiss Fannie 
Griner, on October 2, 1889. They had one child, which died. 
On September 2, 1913, he was married to Miss Lizzie Chapplear, 
a daughter of Max Chapplear, of Columbia county. 

Mr. Young's philosophy of life is very simple, and his idea 
of what is needed for the progress and development of his race 
is summed up in a few words. He says: "They should stop 
frolicking, save something, and get an education." 



ADAM DANIEL WILLIAMS 



ADAM DANIEL WILLIAMS, pastor of the Ebenezer Bap- 
tist Church, Atlanta, deserves mention in any work deal- 
ing with the history of the progress and development of 
the Negro people in Georgia since the war. He was born Janu- 




AI;A.\1 DANIEL WILLIAMS. 



212 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

ary 2, 1863, the day after President Lincoln issued his Emanci- 
pation Proclamation. He is a native of Penfield, Green county, 
Ga., the seat of Mercer University at the time of his birth. His 
parents were Willis and Creecy Williams. When one considers 
the position which Mr. Williams occupies in the community and 
in his denomination at large, and then reflects on the lack of 
opportunities he had during his boyhood and young manhood 
days, and the obstacles which he had to overcome, his success 
seems more like a page from the story books or like a romance, 
than the true history which it is. 

He early learned to work with his hands, lived on the farm, 
doing all sorts of manual labor, till he was a mature man. He 
went to school only three weeks, all told, before he was thirty 
years old, and frankly admits that he missed one day out of the 
three weeks. An older sister, whose service he acknowledges 
with gratitude, taught him to read. Nor was he without white 
friends. His family lived on the place of Mr. R. L. Burgess, 
whose daughters attended school regularly, and young Williams 
was accustomed at night to follow them in their lessons — in fact, 
to go over the lessons with them. Thus he learned to read, and 
secured a knowledge of other branches, and made some prog- 
ress in Arithmetic. Later Mr. Burgess' oldest daughter set him 
a copy and started him to writing. He remembers and recalls 
with pleasure how they used to spell out of the Blueback Speller 
while one of the girls acted as teacher. 

Many a boy with such meager opportunities would have de- 
spaired of securing an education ; but young Williams read what 
books he could secure, and in 1884, when twenty-one years of age, 
he was converted and baptized in August of that year by Rev. 
Parker Paulain. He took an active part in the work of the 
church, and soon felt called to the Gospel ministry, and was 
licensed to preach in April, 1888. He did considerable local 
work in the Baptist church ; and such was the character of this 
work that he was soon in demand as a regular pastor. He was 
regularly ordained, and in September '93 accepted a call to the 
Springfield Baptist Church, on Orme street, in Atlanta, and in 
the following March resigned that charge and accepted the call 
of the Ebenezer Church, which was at that time located on Air- 



GEORGIA EDITION 233 

line street, and was a body of only seven members, with no 
church building at all. He began at once to organize his forces, 
with a view to erecting a place of worship. In the meantime he 
had been serving churches in or near Covington ; but finding the 
demands on his time in Atlanta so heavy, he resigned these 
charges and gave his whole time to the work at Ebenezer. A lot 
was purchased on McGruder street, and when the quarters here 
were outgrown, a house of worship at Bell and Gilmer streets 
was secured. From the small beginnings on which he entered at 
that time, the church has grown until it now has a membership 
of more than 700, with a fine Sunday-school and a splendid B. 
Y. P. U. ; also a Woman's Missionary Club, a Reformatory Circle, 
and a Literary Club. He and his congregation are now improv- 
ing a splendid property at the corner of Jackson street and 
Auburn Avenue, which looks to the expenditure of $25,000. Not 
only has pastor Williams been able to gather around him large 
numbers, but he has led his people into fields of larger useful- 
ness, so that now his church is one of the most liberal contribu- 
tors to missions and every other department of church work in 
the State Convention. He is active in evangelistic work over the 
state. 

Realizing something of his lack of preparation for the real 
work of life, he in 1894, after he was thirty years of age, entered 
the Atlanta Seminary (now Morehouse College), and was gradu- 
ated from the Theological Department four years later. The 
secret of his success is illustrated by just this action. He con- 
tinues to grow. He is not afraid to try new things if they ring 
true and are scriptural. 

Mr. Williams has been an extensive reader, especially of relig- 
ious and theological books, though he has found biography espe- 
cially inspiring and helpful. While voting the Republican ticket, 
he has not taken an active part in politics, devoting himself 
entirely to his religious work. 

On October 29, 1900, he was married to Jennie C. Parks who 
was a daughter of William and Fannie Parks, of Atlanta. They 
have had three children, one of whom, Alberta Christine, a 
girl of ten, survives, the other two having passed away. 

He affiliates with the Odd Fellows, the Knights ©f Pythia?, 
and some of the insurance orders of his race. 



214 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

The work which he has done in his own pastorate has been 
recognized by the denomination, and on account of his splendid 
executive ability he has been made chairman of the Executive 
Board of the State Convention, which place he has held for six- 
teen years. For fourteen years he has been chairman of the 
Finance Committee of the same organization, and vice-chairman 
of the Board of Managers of the Reformatory for seven years; 
also chairman of the Board of Missions. He is Georgia's repre- 
sentative in his denomination on the Foreign jNIission Board, and 
has been for twelve years. He is a regular and faithful attend- 
ant of the State and National Conventions ; was president of the 
Atlanta Baptist Ministers' Union for five years, and is at tliis 
time Moderator of the Atlanta Association. 

He has traveled extensively in America, and is devoting his 
splendid powers of body, mind and heart to the development 
of his people. He believes that their larger usefulness is to be 
attained by that sort of education which fits them for the prac- 
tical duties of life. He is not averse to higher education, but 
thinks that if we can develop a good home-loving, property- 
owning, intelligent citizenship, the matter of higher education, 
as well as numerous other perplexing problems, will take care 
of themselves. In this, he is in line with the best thought 
of his generation on this subject. 

Mr. Williams is a forceful and impressive speaker, a good or- 
ganizer and leader, a man of vision and brilliant imagination, 
which he sometimes finds it necessary to curb. 

He resides at 383 Auburn Ave. 

Mr. Williams' business record has been rather remarkable for 
a man of his calling. Coming to Atlanta on the day he was 
thirty years old with ten cents in his pocket, he has accumulated 
property to the value of fifteen thousand dollars. This property 
includes a comfortable and attractive residence at the corner of 
Auburn Avenue and Hilliard street. At the corner of Auburn 
Avenue and Jackson street, he has purchased for his church a 
lot at a price of five thousand seven hundred and fifty dollars, 
on which a church building will be erected at a cost of twenty- 
five thousand dollars. 



WILLIAM GRANT BIVINS 



IN the section of which Griffin is the center, there is perhaps 
no more popular colored man than Rev. William Grant 
Bivins, the pastor of the First Baptist Church of that city. 
The simple story of his life will reveal the source of his popu- 
larity, as well as his usefulness to the people whom he has been 
called to serve. 

He is a native of Griffin, where he was born April 18, 1869. 
His parents, Jerry and Charlottie (^IcMichael) Bivins, were 
both slaves. His maternal grandfather was Jerry McMichael, 
and was considered a great preacher and a good man in the days 
of slavery. His grandmother, Sarah Bivins, who was a native 
of Virginia, lived to the ripe old age of one hundred and eleven 
years. 

Young Bivins attended the city school at Griffin as a boy, and 
made a very creditable record as a student. In fact, his work as 
a student has not yet ceased. By careful study and extensive 
reading, he keeps abreast of the times, so as to serve his people 
effectively. That part of his education, however, which he 
secured in the school room, was not had without a struggle. 
Lacking the means to go to college, it required many years of 
patient toil and steady perseverance to accomplish the work he 
had set out to do. 

Almost from childhood he felt called to the work of the min- 
istry. His home influence had been most happy in some respects. 
His mother was a Christian woman and was a model; and his 
father being a religious man, he grew up under influences which 
were favorable for the making of character, as he was not allowed 
to keep bad company. At the age of sixteen he was converted, 
and soon became active in the work of the denomination. In 
fact, he entered almost immediately upon the work of the min- 
istry at Griffin. He began with twelve members in an old house, 
but remained there only a few months, when a new church was 
built. After five years of work in that field, he took up other 
work, and was later called to the Milner Baptist Church, where 
he has served most acceptably for twenty years. The highest 




WILLIAM GRANT BIVINS. 



GEORGIA EDITION 217 

compliment, however, which has ever been paid him came when 
he was called to the pastorate of his own home church where 
he was best known, and where for ten years he has gone in and 
out before his people, ministering to them in spiritual things. 
During this time he has built a twenty thousand dollar church 
house; and there are few churches of any denomination in the 
state in better condition than the First Baptist Church of Griffin. 
He is president of the National P. B. S. of L. Society, which is 
one of the best of its kind in the State. 

This is a mere outline of his activities. One is not surprised 
to learn that he places the Bible first in his reading, but has 
found very helpful books on theology, Milton, John Bunyan, 
Wonders of Providence, Josephus, McHenry, and other works of 
a kindred nature. He votes with the Republican party, but is 
not active in political matters. He is a firm believer in Chris- 
tian education, and in his own association is one of the leading 
spirits directing the educational work among the young people of 
his race. He is much in demand on public occasions, and is 
always engaged about the Master's business. He is a fine illus- 
tration of what a man can do who is ambitious to make a life, 
rather than a mere living. 

After he had entered the work of the ministry, he felt so 
keenly the need for better preparation, that he took a course at 
the Atlanta Baptist College, from which institution he was 
graduated in the year 1907. He owns a comfortable home on 
Second and Eighth streets, Griffin, and other property else- 
where, and has thus set his people another worthy example. 

After pastoring for twelve years the First Baptist church at 
Griffin, Ga., he was called to the St. John Baptist church, Mem- 
phis, Tenn., in 1915. He accepted the call and is doing some 
efficient Christian work at that church and place. 

JOHN LEE FAMBRO 



AMONG Georgia Negroes who after acquiring an educa- 
tion by their own determined efforts, have by the same 
means become fairly successful in a business way and 
are now recognized as substantial citizens, is John Lee Fambro, 



218 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

of Macon. He was born at Barnesville, Ga.', July 10, 1872. 
His father, John Lee Fambro, who died while our subject was 
still a small boy, was a slave of the Fambro family of Monroe 
county. His mother, Lucia Fambro, yet living, was a slave of 
the Howes, of Pike county. His paternal grandfather was 
Rev. Charles A. Fambro, a Methodist preacher. 

Young Fambro obtained his education principally in the 
public schools of Barnesville and at Haines Institute, Augusta, 
though he did not complete the course. As his father had died 
leaving his mother quite poor and with four small children 
dependent upon her support, it became necessary for the boy 
to begin work at a very early age. His education was limited 
to what could be secured by his own efforts. Even while in 
school, he hired himself out during the part of the day that 
he was not in the school room, and also for three years while 
working all day attended school at night. Naturally under 
these circumstances his health was not endangered for lack of 
exercise; but, like most boys, he was fond of baseball, and 
managed to give some time to that sport. Since his school 
days, the reading in which he has been most interested con- 
sists of literature pertaining to the Negro race and the cur- 
rent magazines. 

For a number of years he was engaged in railroad work as 
a porter. For the last ten years he has been in the industrial 
insurance business at Macon where he represents the Pilgrim 
Health Life Insurance Co., of Augusta, and has been quite 
successful. 

In politics he is a Republican and in religion a Baptist, 
being a deacon and a teacher in the Sunday-school of the First 
Baptist Church of Macon. He is a member of the I\Iasons, Odd 
Fellows, Knights of Pythias and Wise Men of the East. 

On November 1, 1893, he was married to Miss Maggie B. 
Butler, daughter of John B. and Isabella Butler, of Augusta. 
They have four children: Georgia S., John L., Jr., Thomas S. 
and Charles A. Fambro. 

He believes that the best interests of the people of his race 
will be served by education, unity and co-operation in business. 
He believes that by proper co-operation among them, and 



GEORGIA EDITION 219 

loyalty to their own business enterprises and institutions, they 
will soon be able to attain a degree of success unsurpassed by 
the people of any race. No one Avho is at all familiar with 
their progress during the last fifty years can for a moment 
question their ability to achieve great things with the sort of 
intelligent co-operation which he advocates. 



HENRY HARRISON ANDERSON 



AMONG the vigorous, forceful men in the Baptist ministry 
of the colored race in Georgia must be mentioned Rev. 
Henry Harrison Anderson, who resides in Newnan, but 
whose work covers several points in the State. He was born at 
the Irish settlement in Laurens county, S. C, on November 7, 
1865. His father, John S. Anderson, was a white man and an 
Irish- American. The son bears in his features striking charac- 
teristics of his father's people. His mother was Emma Ander- 
son, a slave and her parents were Moses Choice and Lucinda 
Anderson, also of South Carolina, and both slaves. 

Young Anderson had hard enough time to secure his edu- 
cation. He was converted at the age of ten years, and felt 
that he must fit himself for something more than merely the 
making of a living. He worked on the farm and began his 
education at Brewer Normal Institute. When he had advanced 
sufficiently in school, he added to his earnings as a laborer by 
his work in the school room, and taught all together two 
years in South Carolina and twelve years in Georgia. His first 
school was at Golden Grove, and his first work in Georgia was 
at Cooksville. In addition to this, he also taught near 
Madison, Fla., one year. 

About the age of twenty-four he felt definitely called to 
the work of the ministry, and determined that he must better 
fit himself for that important task; so he went to Atlanta 
University, where he remained for four years, till 1887. He 
then took the Divinity course at the Atlanta Baptist (now 
Morehouse) College, graduating with the degree of B. Th, 




HENRY HARRISON ANDERSON. 



GEORGIA EDITION 221 

For a number of years he has confined his efforts exclusively 
to the ministry. His first pastorate was Friendship Church, in 
Coweta county, where he remained for nearly four and a half 
years. For seventeen years and one month he supplied the 
A^ernon Grove Baptist Church in Campbell county, resigning 
in 1914. So it will be seen that he is a man who wears well. 
His work soon brought him to the attention of some of the 
larger churches, and he was called to the First Baptist Church, 
Newnan, which he served for thirteen years and four months, 
materially adding to the membership and resources of the 
church while serving as its pastor, building and paying for the 
handsome brick church in which the congregation now 
worships. Later he was called to the Gainesville Baptist 
Church, which under his leadership has experienced great 
growth and prosperity. Already the membership has greatly 
increased, the house of worship has been improved, and the 
outlook for that work was never more favorable. Prior to 
going to the work at Newnan, he served the people at Mt. 
Nebo for two years. 

Dr. Anderson is an organizer and believes in putting his 
forces to work. He does not neglect the evangelistic side, but 
at the same time he is not content to merely bring larger num- 
bers into the church without training them for service. This 
perhaps in a large measure accounts for his successful pas- 
torate. He enlists his young people, and, in fact, every one 
whom he can put to work ; and the result is always the same — 
a happy growth in the congregation which he serves. He has 
baptized more than a thousand members. 

In politics he is a Republican, and among the secret orders 
he is identified with the Masons and Pythians. He has set his 
people a worthy example in another respect, in that he has 
accumulated considerable property, being interested in the 
Coweta Grocery Co., of which he is president, and owns a com- 
fortable home and other real estate in Newnan. His home is 
one of culture and refinement, and his children are being given 
a college education. On December 22, 1892, he was married to 
Lula B. Jones, of Culloden, Ga., who was a daughter of Tammie 
Jones. They have four children : Tammie E.. who was 



222 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

graduated from Benedict College, Columbia, S. C, in 1914; 
H. H. Jr., now at the Baptist College, Atlanta ; Lilla^ and John 
William. 

Dr. Anderson's position in the denomination has been rec- 
ognized by his appointment to some of the leading boards and 
official positions in his own association and the State Conven- 
tion. He is chairman of the Executive Board of the Western 
Union Association, vice-president of the B. Y. P. U. State Con- 
vention, and a member of the State Executive Board. He is 
also a member of the Reformatory Board and a member of the 
State Mission Board. He believes in Christian education, and 
in training for work and for service in the world. 



JAMES WALTER MADISON 



IT is a good thing to see the current of a man's life gather 
strength and volume as it goes on. This is illustrated by 
the life and work of Dr. James Walter Madison, of At- 
lanta. 

Born on September 10, 1867, only a little more than two years 
after the close of the War between the states, he early learned 
to rely on himself and work for what he wanted. His father 
dying while our subject was still young, he was nobly seconded 
and aided in his efforts by his widowed mother, whose assistance 
he gratefully acknowledges. His father, who was a slave, was 
sold from Virginia into Georgia. After Emancipation, he took 
the name of his old master in Virginia, Madison. His wife, the 
mother of our subject, was Amanda Wimbish, and her father 
was Elbert Wimbish. 

Young ^Madison laid the foundation of his early education in 
tke public schools of Atlanta. Later he entered the Atlanta 
University. He took his medical course at Meharry College, the 
medical department of Walden University, Nashville, from 
which he was graduated with the degree of M. D. in 1897. His 
course as a student was marked by steady progress and faithful 
work. Though not a professional athlete, he was of vigorous 



GEORGIA EDITION 223 

body and took part in local college athletics, and has found 
that the work has stood him in good stead since. Having worked 
his own way through school, with the assistance of his mother, 
he is impressed with the vital importance of so improving our 
public school conditions that they may minister more largely 
to the needs of our people, white and colored. 

He taught school at different times, beginning in the rural 
districts, and was for four years principal of the school at East- 
man, Ga., holding a permanent State certificate which is the 
highest recognition given by the State to a public school teacher. 
He has never lost interest in the educational work, and had it 
been sufficiently remunerative, would perhaps never have left it. 
In the summer of 1907 he began the practice of his profession 
in Atlanta, since which time he has conducted a general prac- 
tice, and has met with the hearty co-operation of his people. 

Dr. Madison has been married twice: first to Miss Hattie 
Jones, of Atlanta, who was a daughter of Stephen Jones. He 
has one child by that marriage, James Walter, Jr., now a boy of 
thirteen years of age. This boy's mother died when he was 
only two years old. 

On June 23, 1908, Dr. Madison contracted a second marriage, 
when he was united with Anna Leon Brown. There are two 
children by this marriage — John Brown ]Madison and Julia 
Amanda Madison. JNIrs. Madison before her marriage was a 
teacher of drawing and art in Alabama, and like her husband 
has not lost interest in things which engaged her attention early 
in life. She uses her knowledge to beautify their own home, and 
in the same way has made herself popular with her neighbors, 
both white and colored. The Madison home is one of culture 
and refinement. The Doctor and his Mdfe both enjoy the 
standard poets, which they not infrequently read together. 

Dr. Madison is a Republican in politics, and a member of the 
Congregational church. Among the secret orders, he is a mem- 
ber of the I\Iasons and Knights of Pythias, and is identified 
through his profession with the Georgia, Tri-State and National 
Medical associations. 

Dr. Madison and his family reside at 342 McDaniel St. 



JOSEPH HENDERSON TRAYLOR 



I 



OSEPH HENDERSON TRAYLOR is a modest man, and 
would tell you that there is little of interest attaching to 
his life. Yet he is one of the finest examples of the self- 
made man, and enjoys the distinction of having made a school 
teacher of himself without having previously gone to school, as 
later he made a first-class carpenter and building contractor of 
himself without having served an apprenticeship. 

He was born in slavery on December 4, 1854, and remembers, 
as a small boy, having seen the soldiers at drill. His parents 
were Joe Traylor and Bethenia Bailey. As a small boy he 
attended a Sunday-school in his neighborhood which was run by 
Henry Davenport, and thus learned to read and write a little. 
After that he always carried a book in his pocket, and thus 
utilized his spare moments in educating himself. 

On November 6, 1875, he was married to Mattie Davenport, of 
Harris county. She bore him five children in all, of whom only 
one is now living. 

For a while in 1877 he worked for thirty-five cents a day. 
When crops were done he got a job of making shingles, a task 
he had never done before. A white man coming along after the 
blocks were sawed carelessly laid off a block, so that it became 
a guide to Traylor for bolting. 

In the same year he moved to Newton county and began farm- 
ing near Covington, teaching school after crops were done, and 
was considered a very successful teacher. In the fall of 1883 he 
decided that Atlanta furnished better openings for study and 
work, and so moved to that city. He took work as a drayman, 
and later was keeper of the grounds at Clark University. Here 
he studied at night, and thus worked through the literary course 
in two years. Beginning thus at the low wage of fifteen dollars 
a month and boarding himself, he made a living for his family 
and kept up his studies. In 1885 his wife died and a little 
later his boy passed away, leaving him the care of the two small 
girls. Heartbroken and saddened, he was yet undiscouraged, 
and determined to give the girls an education at any cost. In 




JOSEPH HENDERSON TRAYLOR. 



326 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

'85 he taught in Floyd county, and in '86 in Cherokee county, 
Alabama, and in Chattooga county, Georgia. Then he went 
back to Troup county, all the time keeping his girls in school. 
In 1888 he went to West Point, where he was hired by Mr. 
Lanier as carpenter at a dollar a day, though it was the first 
carpentry work he remembers ever doing. Such, however, was 
the character of his work that his wages were soon raised to a 
dollar and fifteen cents and later to a dollar and twenty-five. 
Later he returned to Atlanta and went to work at a dollar and 
twenty-five cents a day. About this time he made connection 
with Mr. Benson, with whom he remained for six years. He 
helped to build the Fulton plant, and as the work progressed 
was put in charge of the whole carpenter force, which he handled 
to the satisfaction of his employer. Later when this work was 
completed and his employer was building flats, he cut Traylor's 
wages, thinking he was unfit for that sort of work ; but he stuck 
to his job and demonstrated his worth, so that his former wages 
were restored, and he remained with his employer until a 
partnership was formed and a change in plans made it necessary 
for him to seek other employment. About that time Mr. C. C. 
Cater wished a new house built, and Mr. Traylor won the 
contract on a competitive bid. This was his first effort at house 
building on his own account; and so well was the task done 
that Mr. Cater paid him ten dollars extra for his plans and 
made him a present of twenty dollars when the job was com- 
pleted. Later he built other houses which brought him favorably 
before the public. He erected the handsome home of W. D. 
Manley at 65 East Fourteenth street ; also the extensive country 
place of W. S. "Witham on Peachtree road. Among the public 
buildings he has erected might be mentioned the Fort Street 
Methodist Church and the West Hunter Street Methodist Church. 
He has just completed on Bell street the new quarters of the 
Independent Benevolent Order. 

Notwithstanding the fact that he has been a very busy man, 
he has found time to read extensively, is a lover of history, and 
keeps up with the current newspapers. In polities he is a Repub- 
lican, in religion, a member of the M. E. Church. Among the 
secret orders he is identified with the Masons, Odd Fellows and 
L B. 0. 



GEORGIA EDITION 2?7 

In November, 1890, he was married a second time to Eliza 
Mason. By this marriage there are five living children : Sarah, 
Joseph, Jr., Annie, Amitor and Luther. 

Of the children by the first wife, only one, Emineva, survives. 
She is a most successful teacher. Her sister Luvenia, who was 
also a graduate of Clark University and a successful teacher, 
died July 15, 1913. 



RILEY KING PASCHAL 



REV. RILEY KING PASCHAL, who for fifteen years has 
been the popular pastor of the Friendship Baptist Church 
of Columbus, was born just across the line, at Eufaula, 
Ala., on December 7, 1868. His father, Riley K. Paschal, was 
a mechanic, and his grandfather was an Irishman. His mother 
was Ellen (Green) Paschal. Both parents were slaves. 

Young Paschal early aspired to an education, but the out- 
look was not at all inviting. His parents were poor, and his only 
opportunity to get an education was to work in a brickyard 
during the day and attend school at night. This school was 
taught by Miss Lilly Drewry. 

At the age of fifteen years he was converted and joined the 
First Baptist Church of Eufaula. Almost immediately he felt 
called to the work of the ministry, but did not begin preaching 
for some years. For a while he drove a buggy for a white doctor, 
and later entered the hotel service at Eufaula, and at about 
eighteen years of age came to Columbus in the same capacity. 

On Nov. 20, 1896, he was married to Miss Katie Lucy Woods, of 
Columbus. She has been a helpmeet for him ; has not only been 
a source of great inspiration, but of practical help in his pastoral 
work. After his marriage, when he had entered the ministry, 
he realized that he must have better equipment in order to make 
of himself a worthy leader. He entered Atlanta Baptist (now 
Morehouse) College, in 1897. * 

This cut off his earnings, but with commendable self-sacrifice, 
his wife entered heartily into his plans, and being a capable 




RILEY KING PASCHAL. 



GEORGIA EDITION 229 

seamstress, took care of the situation at home and enabled him to 
remain in school for two terms. He was ordained by the Friend- 
ship Baptist Church of Columbus, and called to the church at 
Chipley, Ga., where he remained for one year. At the end of 
that time he was called back to his home church, which he has 
supplied continuously since. The congregation at that time 
occupied a cheap house of worship, which has been displaced by 
a more substantial church building worth at least four thousand 
dollars. The membership has grown to about four hundred and 
fifty. He gives his fourth Sundays to Solemn Grove Baptist 
Church near Chipley, devoting the rest of his time to the Colum- 
bus pastorate. 

The honorary degree of D.D. was conferred upon him by a 
Chicago institution. He is a member of the Odd Fellows, Masons, 
Pythians, and believes that the greatest need of his people is a 
moral awakening and a religion which relates itself to the 
everyday business life of the folks. When Dr. and Mrs. Paschal 
were married, they were practically penniless, but now own a 
comfortable home on Eighth street in Columbus. They have 
had five children, only one of whom survives. Her name is 
Juanita. Next after the Bible, Dr. Paschal's preferred line 
of reading is biography. 



JOHN LEONIDAS WHEELER 



JOHN LEONIDAS WHEELER, the present State Agent of 
the North Carolina Mutual, is a native of Nicholasville, Ky., 
where he was born July 8, 1869. His mother, Phoebe 
Wheeler, was a slave before Emancipation. Her parents were 
Lucius and Winnie Wheeler, also of Kentucky. 

John L. Wheeler was put to school at Nicholasville when he 
was of school age, and proved to be an apt student. Such was 
his progress that even from the public school he was able to take 
up the work of teaching. Already he had determined to secure a 
college education, and through his work as teacher earned money 
which enabled him to go to Wilberforce, Ohio, to college, in 




JOHN LEOXIDAS WHEELER. 



GEORGIA EDITION 231 

1889, beginning in winter term of 1890. The next year he won 
a half scholarship, which was of great assistance to him, and 
then for six years earned his board by cooking, and augmented 
this by work at hotels during the summer. His application 
as a student may be inferred from the fact that when, in 1897, 
he was graduated with the degree of A.B., it was at the head of a 
class of twenty-eight. In the fall of that year, he accepted 
a place in the faculty of Kittrell College, North Carolina, where 
he remained for ten years, and where he rose from the position 
of a teacher in the institution to the presidency, which position 
he held for four years. His work became well known in that 
part of the old North State. 

On September 25, 1901, he was married to Miss Margaret Her- 
vey, a daughter of John and Jennie Hervey, of Kentucky. She 
too was an alumnae of Wilberforce, and with her husband, did 
good work as a teacher of sewing at Kittrell. They now have 
three children : Ruth Hervey, John Hervey, and Marjorie Janice. 
In 1908, Prof. Wheeler resigned his position at Kittrell Col- 
lege, and took up insurance work through his connection with 
the North Carolina Mutual. He was assigned to the Raleigh 
district as superintendent, where he remained for a year and a 
half, after which he was called to the record department of the 
home office at Durham. His thorough equipment and his inti- 
mate knowledge of both the field and the office work, made him a 
valuable man for a larger field ; so in 1913, he accepted the State 
Agency for Georgia in his company, where he succeeded Prof. 
W. B. Matthews. The work has gone forward under his direc- 
tion. 

Though not active in politics, he calls himself a Republican, 
and is a member of the Bethel A. M. E. Church. For years 
he has been active in the work of the church and Sunday-school, 
and while at Durham, was superintendent of his Sunday-school 
there. He is a K. P. and was Master of the lodge at Durham. 

Notwithstanding he had to work his own way through school, 
he came out of college with more than he started, and by economy 
and wise investment has accumulated some property. He owns 
real estate in Durham, N. C, in Ohio, and in New York. 

Prof. Wheeler is a representative of a type of the intelligent, 
cultured, progressive Negro of the present generation, of which 
too little is known. 



MONROE WILLIAM WATTS 



REV. MONROE WILLIAM WATTS, a leader in the Bap- 
tist denomination in his part of the state, and moderator 
of the New Macedonia Association, resides at Barnesville. 
He is a native of Monroe county, having been born a slave, near 
Forsyth, on July 28, 1858. His parents, George and Nettie 
Watts, were both slaves. His paternal grandfather was George 
Watts, and his maternal grandparents were Joe and Sara Watts. 

Our subject was married on December 25, 1879, to Ellen Fam- 
brough, a daughter of Hiram and Lucy Fambrough, of Monroe 
county. They have had six children, four of whom are living. 
These are Lizzie, Rachel, Mariah and Ellen. 

M. W. Watts secured what education he has, so far as the 
schools go, in the country schools, and the rest he has dug out 
for himself, and has reached his present place of leadership in 
his denomination in spite of his early lack of educational oppor- 
tunities. He was converted in May, 1880, and soon felt called to 
the work of the ministry. He feels keenly the lack of early prep- 
aration and the opportunities which are now in easy reach of 
so many; and yet he has not allowed these difficulties to stand 
between him and good work. 

Brought up in a Christian home, he was a popular lad, and has 
had the knack of making friends wherever he has gone. His 
first pastorate was in Monroe county, where he began preaching 
in 1880. Since that time his work has taken him over several 
of the adjacent counties, and during his ministry he has pastored 
nine churches, as follows: Brown Chapel, nine years; Laodicea, 
eight years ; Tessie Hall, eight years ; China Grove, eight years ; 
Indian Springs, Rock Creek, twenty-seven years; Thomaston, 
nineteen years ; St. Timothy, eight years ; Barnesville, two years. 
Church buildings have been erected under his pastorates at 
Brown Chapel, Rock Creek, Thomaston and Barnesville. 

In the organization of the work of the denomination, he holds 
appointments on the following boards: Board of trustees of 




MONROE WILLIAM WATTS. 



234 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

Central City College, Macon; board of trustees of New Mace- 
donia School; Executive Board of State Baptist Convention. 

He owns a comfortable home at Barnesville, and from this as 
a center works out among the churches, now giving his whole 
time to the work of the ministry. 



SQUARE STEPHENS SIMMONS 



SQUARE STEPHENS SIMMONS is a successful educator, 
prosperous farmer, and a prominent secret order man of 
Douglas county, residing near Lithia Springs. He was 
born in the same county, on July 28, 1875. His parents, Ned 
Simmons and Cicely (Ellison) Simmons, were both slaves. His 
father, a prosperous farmer, still lives in Douglas county. His 
maternal grandfather was Jack Bowen, while his paternal grand- 
father was Col. Griffin. 

Prof. Simmons had great disadvantages to overcome in getting 
an education. He would work on the farm and go to school 
in the short winter terms, and then help to make a crop and go 
to school some more, always studying hard at home when he 
had the opportunity to do so. Being the oldest boy of the family, 
much of the responsibility of the home fell upon him ; but after 
he reached a point where he could teach school, he found it a bit 
easier to make his way, on account of the money he could earn 
in that way, though his path was then by no means an easy 
one. He would come directly from his work as a teacher and the 
very next day begin a crop. For fourteen years he did not 
have an idle week — in fact, seldom took as much as a day off 
for hunting. 

He entered Clark University in 1898, and did good work as a 
student, leaving the institution in 1902 without having gradu- 
ated. He helped his father to buy and pay for a farm, and when 
that was done, bought a place for himself and began paying for 
it. He has gradually added to his holdings of real estate, until 
he now has lands valued at at least five thousand dollars. 

Prof. Simmons was converted at the age of sixteen, and since 




SQUARE STEPHENS SIMMONS. 



336 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

that time has been promineut in the religious life of his church 
and the community. He is a member of the M. E. Church, of 
which he is a steward, class leader, and superintendent of the 
Sunday-school. He is president of the Sunday-school and Ep- 
worth League conventions of the Rome District. 

He is a Republican in politics, and while not himself seeking 
office, has been active in the counsels of his party. He has been 
chairman of the Douglas County Republican Executive Com- 
mittee for twelve years. 

Prof. Simmons' first work as a teacher was at Chapel Hill. 
His next school was at Douglasville, where he remained for two 
years. He then taught for two years in Cobb county, near 
Marietta ; later at Austell, and had the school at Lithia Springs 
for six years, Dallas for two years and Mt. Carmel for five years. 

On February 5, 1905, he was married to Miss Hattie May 
Parks, daughter of Cicero and Harriet Parks, of Douglas county. 

Among the secret orders. Prof. Simmons is identified with the 
York Masons, and has been prominent in the work of that organi- 
zation. He served as Grand Master of the York Masons in 
Georgia for four years. Under his administration the order 
took on new life, almost doubling its strength numerically and 
financially. 

Prof. Simmons is a real asset to his community and to his race, 
for the reason that he has led the way and has shown how a 
boy with meager opportunities may succeed in educating him- 
self, gaining property and building a home. 



ISAIAH GRANBERRY 



ISAIAH GRANBERRY, one of the most substantial and 
progressive business men in the city of Atlanta, is a native 
of Georgia, having been born at Hamilton, in Harris 
county, on February 26, 1872. His parents. Orange and Louisa 
Granberry, were both slaves. After emancipation his father 
followed the work to which he had been trained as a slave, and 
was a farmer and a blacksmith. 




ISAIAH GRANBERRY. 



238 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

Isaiah's educational opportunities were limited to the public 
schools of Hamilton; but he was brought up in a pious home 
by parents who trained him to the best of their ability. It is 
significant that Mr. Granberry places the Bible first among the 
helpful books he has read. 

In 1898 Mr. Granberry moved to Atlanta, and being of an 
industrious turn soon found employment and has been a steady 
worker at one thing after another ever since. He is a skillful 
workman, and has been engaged in doing brick, cement and 
carpenter work, which he followed until 1908, when he went into 
the mercantile business. He began in a small way on West 
Mitchell street, and from that beginning has developed an ex- 
tensive grocery business, ice cream and soft drink stand, a 
popular restaurant, and other interests, which place him among 
the enterprising business men of his race in Atlanta. He has 
two places of business on West Mitchell street, and resides at 
19 Davis street. 

He has devoted himself almost entirely to his business, and 
while he would be classed as a Republican in politics has taken 
no active part in political matters for several years. The only 
secret order with which he is identified is the Odd Fellows. 

On April 18, 1891, he was married to Miss Ida Jones, a daugh- 
ter of Henry and Nancy Jones. Four children have been born 
to them, two of whom are living — James and Elmore. 

Mr. Granberry would commend to others those traits and 
principles which have brought success in his own life. They 
are : education, industry and honesty. 



EDWARD BURL BARCO 



THE story of the struggle and the progress of the Negro 
race in the South in the present and the last generation 
is one of the finest chapters in the history of our nation. 
Sometimes this struggle has been rendered all the more difficult 
on account of some physical disability. This is true in the case 
of Prof. Edward Burl Barco, who lost his right arm when a child 
on account of a severe burn, but who, notwithstanding this dis- 



240 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

advantage is recognized as one of the State's leading colored 
journalists and educators. 

He is a native of Florida, having been born at St. Marks in 
that State on Oct. 8, 1866. His parents John and Dilcy Barco 
were both slaves. His maternal grandparents were Ned and 
Julia Lucky, of Fulton county, Ga. Ned Lucky was an enter- 
prising man and purchased his freedom long before emancipa- 
tion. On his father's side his grandfather was an Indian by the 
name of Barco and his grandmother Nancy Weaver. The Barco 
family moved from Florida to Bainbridge, Ga., then to Atlanta, 
in 1880, when our subject was about thirteen years of age. 

The boy was placed in Storr's school where he was able to 
maintain himself by doing all sorts of odd jobs. His progress 
in his books was steady and satisfactory and after a few years 
of effort he was sufficiently advanced to teach school himself. 
His first school was in Jasper county. During his whole career 
as a student he was compelled to make his own way. This how- 
ever did not discourage him, and he never scorned any honor- 
able task by which he could earn money to pursue his course. 
Though young and inexperienced his work as a teacher gave 
satisfaction and enabled him to enter Atlanta University, where 
he remained for four years, teaching during the summer months 
and returning to college in the fall. 

He taught for awhile at Flovilla and was head of the school at 
Lumber City for five years. After that he was Supt. of the 
Cordele city school for eight years. He then moved to Atlanta 
and was for awhile identified with the Atlanta Independent and 
on the establishment of the American Citizen was on the edi- 
torial staff of that paper till its publication discontinued. He 
then returned to the school room and was for one year at the 
head of the Douglasville public school. The next year he was 
elected Principal of the Jackson city school where he is now 
(1915) in his fourth year. 

Professor Barco is an active member of the C. M. E. church 
and in close touch with all the interests of the denomination. 
He has held every office in the gift of the local church and three 
times has been a lay delegate to the general conference, visiting 
Memphis in 1894, Nashville in 1902, and Memphis again in 1906, 



GEORGIA EDITION 241 

In politics lie is a Republican, but has found comparatively 
little time to devote to politics on account of his religious and 
educational activities. Among the secret orders he is identified 
with the Odd Fellows and the Pythians, being especially active 
and prominent in the ranks of the Pythians. 

He is a broad minded citizen of education and culture and 
believes in the future of the race. He thinks that the greatest 
immediate needs of the race are education and property. 

On April 30, 1890, Professor Barco was married to Miss Mary 
Elizabeth McPhail, a daughter of a white man by that name 
and Virginia Hughes. They have four children living. They 
are Edward Burl, Jr., James W., Theresa, and Theodore Roose- 
velt Barco. 



ABSALOM DAVID NUCKELS 



REV. ABSALOM DAVID NUCKELS, a member of the 
Missionary Baptist Church and a farmer, lives near 
Statham. He was born in Forsyth county, March 19, 
1867. His parents are Absolom and Polly (Tate) Nuckels, and 
both of them were slaves. 

The parents being poor the boy's educational opportunities 
were limited to the country public schools, and his environment 
was not such as to impress him with the importance of improving 
even the limited opportunities he had. 

He was taught to attend Sunday School and Church and grate- 
fully acknowledges the value of the early training. 

When he grew to young manhood he was engaged in railroad 
work and was for a number of years with the L. & N. at Bir- 
mingham, and helped to lay the steel on the Georgia Pacific. He 
has travelled about over the South quite a good deal. 

In 1893 he returned to Jackson, now Barrow county, where 
he has since resided. "When about twenty-five years of age he 
was converted and joined the Barber's Creek Baptist Church 
which later ordained him to the full work of the ministry. He is 
now pastor of Stoney Hill Baptist Church, which he has served 
for eight years, and is a member of the Executive Board of his 




ABSALOM DAVID NUCKELS AND WIFE. 



GEORGIA EDITION 243 

Association. In politics he is a Republican. He is also a Mason 
and Chaplain of his local lodge. 

On November 23, 1894, he was married to Miss Sarah Edwards. 
His wife is active in the work of the Sunday School and the 
Woman's Missionary organizations. 



ANDREW JACKSON COBB 



REV. ANDREW JACKSON COBB, A. B., D. D., for years 
one of the leading lights of the C. M. E. connection in 
Georgia, was a native of the sister state of Alabama, 
where he was born May 10, 1865. 

His parents were Erasmus May and Elizabeth Hall, both 
slaves. They were sold apart just before the close of the War, 
and the boy, who arrived just after the close of the War, took 
the name of the former Master, William Cobb. His paternal 
grandparents were John and Susie May. The grandfather, 
John May, lived to the ripe old age of ninety-six, and the grand- 
mother to the remarkable age of a hundred and four. 

As a boy young Cobb lived on the farm, and at an early age 
was called on to assist in the support of his mother. 

She moved with the family from Oakman to the farm of E. W. 
Miller and Robert Palmar, and later to Jasper, Ala. He had 
aspirations for an education, though the difficulties in the way 
seemed almost insurmountable. His eagerness, liowever, to 
learn induced him to enter the night school at Jasper, taught 
by Mrs. J. A. Goodman, a white lady, who gave him his first 
lessons. Here he pursued his studies after the day's work. It 
was to his advantage that he had a good mother, and a good father 
before the death of the latter, and that his home life was peaceful 
and agreeable. He was converted and joined the church in 1871 
when a mere child and soon felt called to the work of the min- 
istry. In March, 1882, when he was seventeen years of age, he 
was licensed to preach and four years later was admitted on trial 
into the travelling connection of the Alabama Conference, and 
sent to the Detroit Circuit. During that year his work was such 
as to convince the conference of his worth, and in the fall of 1887, 




ANDREW JACKSON COBB AND FAMILY. 



GEORGIA EDITION 245 

he was sent by the conference to Paine College, from the Normal 
department of which he was graduated in 1892. Three years 
later, in June, '95, he was graduated from the College depart- 
ment with the degree of A. B. and spent the balance of that year 
at Tuscumbia Station. He was then transferred to 
Georgia, and was at the West Mitchell Street Station, At- 
lanta during '96 and '97. The next two years found him on the 
Barnesville work. From 1900 to '02, he served the Marshall- 
ville Station. In 1903 he was at Trinity Station,- Milledgeville. 
In the fall of that year he was promoted to the Presiding Elder- 
ship of the Dublin District which he served for the full quadren- 
nium, going to the Milledgeville District in 1907, and remaining 
on that work till 1910. In 1910 he was elected Editor of the 
Christian Index, published at Jackson, Tenn. Here he remained 
till ]May, 1914. His work as an editor brought peace to the 
troubled ranks of the denomination and he was for that reason 
known as the "Pacificator." In 1914 he was appointed Presid- 
ing Elder of the Macon District which he served till the time of 
his death. 

Dr. Cobb was twice married. On October 30, 1895, he was 
married to Miss Lizzie Key, a daughter of Rev. J. H. Key, of 
the Alabama Conference. In less than a year Mrs. Cobb was 
called to her reward. Three years later, on Dec. 19, 1899, he 
was married to Miss Helena Maud Brown, the story of whose life 
and work will be found in this volume. 

Dr. Cobb travelled extensively over the United States and his 
voice was heard in almost every state in the Union. He was a 
man of wide experience and was in demand on anniversary and 
other occasions as orator and preacher. The degree of D. D. was 
conferred on him by Paine College. 

In politics. Dr. Cobb was a Repiiblican and while in Alabama 
was rather active in the work of his party, being secretary of 
the Alabama Republican State Convention and a campaign work- 
er in 1894. Among the secret orders, he was identified with the 
Pythians and the Mosaic Templars. He cultivated a friendly 
relationship between the races, and at the same time emphasized 
the spirit of co-operation, race unity and mutual helpfulness 
within his own race. 



246 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

Dr. Cobb was a member of the Board of Trustees of the Helena 
B. Cobb Institute, the General Missionary and the Church Ex- 
tension Boards of his church. 

His incessant labors told on his health, but he could not be 
induced to give up his work. While attending a Missionary Con- 
vention at Macon in the summer of 1915, he was stricken and re- 
turning to his home at Barnesville, passed to his reward on Sept. 
7, 1915. He was mourned alike by the best people of both races. 
He lies buried at Barnesville. 



MRS. HELENA BROWN COBB 



MRS. HELENA BROWN COBB was born in the south- 
western part of ]\Ionroe county, two and a half miles 
from Smarr, Ga., Jan. 24, 1870. She is the only daugh- 
ter of Jonah and Louvinia Brown. Mrs. Brown is a very strict 
Christian woman and gave her daughter, Helena, to the Lord 
in early age. Her parents were very careful to train their 
daughter in the way she should go. As a result of this early 
training, she desired to be a Christian as soon as she grew to 
know right from wrong. She always prayed for a pure heart, 
an upright life and a helpful spirit for the less favored ones 
around her. 

Mrs. Cobb received her elementary training in Monroe and 
Pike counties. In the fall of 1883, she entered Storr's School, 
Atlanta, and two years later matriculated at Atlanta Univer- 
sity. On ]\Iay 28, 1901, she was graduated from that institu- 
tion with high honors. Her graduating address was "Beyond 
the Alps Lies Italy." The young woman just ready to start 
the work of life, recognized the difficulties, but saw also the 
ever widening fields of opportunity beyond. She has carried 
this idea Avith her into her life work. For nearly a quarter of a 
century she has been numbered among the foremost educators 
of her race in Georgia. For six years she was principal of the 
public school at Milner and for one year assistant principal of 
the public school at Columbus. She taught acceptably for 



248 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

seven years in the Haines Normal and Industrial School, Au- 
gusta. From Augusta she went to the Lampson Normal School 
at IMarshallville, over which she presided for three years. 

^Irs. Cobb loves the school room and believes her calling is the 
training of the young. She has also done a deal of mission- 
ary work in this and other states. In fact, she has a fitness 
for this sort of work as well as the schoolroom. During the 
first session of the Central Georgia Conference which met in 
]\Iilledgeville, Nov. 29, 1902, in her absence she was unanimous- 
ly elected by the Conference as President of the Woman's Home 
Missionary Society. She began at once to lay plans by which 
the brethren and missionary ladies of the church might be 
stirred to put forth greater efforts along missionary lines. Out 
of this planning and work came the "Woman's Inter-Confer- 
ence Convention" and a general awakening of the whole church 
to do educational and missionary work. 

Mrs. Helena B. Cobb before she was married, was Miss Helena 
Maud Brown. On Dec. 19, 1899, she was united in marriage 
to the Rev. Andrew J. Cobb, A. B., D. D., with whom she lived 
happily until the death angel summoned him from labor to re- 
ward, Sept. 7, 1915. 

One who knew her well wrote: "Mrs. Helena Brown Cobb has 
shown herself a woman of deep consecration — a woman of great 
executive ability and undaunted perseverance. In her mind 
originated the great 'Inter-Conference Woman's Missionary 
Convention' which has raised thousands of dollars for our mis- 
sionary work and institutions of learning in Georgia and Flor- 
ida. In 1914 she was elected Inter-Conference Lecturer of the 
Inter-Conference movement; also its Chief President, which 
position carried her over the States of Georgia and Florida. 

"In 1904, at the suggestion of Bishop L. H. Holsey, D. D., a 
Magazine was brought into being, known as the "Woman's 
Missionary Age" and Mrs. Cobb was elected its Editress-in- 
chief. At the General Conference which met in Memphis. Tenn., 
May, 1906, the Age was adopted as the official organ of the Wom- 
an's Missionary Society of the C. "SL E. Church and Mrs. Cobb 
was elected its first Editress-in-chief without opposition. Her 
writing and general management of the Age gave it a wide 



GEORGIA EDITION 249 

circulation throughout the country. jMrs. Cobb is also an 
author of a very interesting pamphlet, known as 'Our Women, 
A sketch of Their Work.' While Mrs. Cobb lays no claim to 
oratory, yet she is in great demand to address audiences every- 
where. She is one of the best and most practicable speakers 
among our women of today. Out of her work has grown the only 
girl's school we have in our Church which bears her name. The 
Helena B. Cobb Industrial Institute. The Institution was 
opened in 1908. Mrs. Cobb has been its President from its very 
beginning. The school is unique in that it is the only school of the 
kind owned and operated purely by colored people in the South. 
Its enrollment each year runs up to near 200. It is a great 
school and is doing a great work for a needy people. J\lrs. Cobb 
is also often called upon to contribute articles to leading publi- 
cations of the race and to assist in many other ways in race 
uplift. If goodness is the passport to greatness, then ]\Irs. Cobb 
is great for she is good." 



NATHAN COOK 



NATHAN COOK a farmer and Baptist preacher is a native 
of Coweta county where he has resided all his life. He 
was born just at the close of the war, April 8, 1865. His 
parents, Robert Cook and Emily Wilcox were both slaves. His 
father's mother, Celia Cook, lived to the ripe old age of a hun- 
dred twenty-one. Through this grandmother, he is related to 
the Cherokee Indians. As will be seen from the picture, he has 
some strong Indian features. Nathan's mother died when he 
was only five years of age. 

His schooling was confined to the public schools of Coweta 
county. After he had grown to manhood he was converted and 
joined the Macedonia Baptist church. Later feeling called to 
the work of the ministry, he was licensed and ordained by the 
same church. Though not now in the active pastorate, he has at 
different times pastored the following churches: Rock Springs, 
Sardis and Springfield. He is active in the work of his de- 




NATHAN COOK. 



GEORGIA EDITION 251 

nomination and is Supervisor of the Baptist school at Sim's 
Chapel which is near his home and which is under the auspices 
of the Western Union Baptist Association. 

On November 23, 1891, ]Mr. Cook was married to ]\Iiss Beulay 
Tallie a daughter of Lit and Mar}^ Ann Tallie. They have eight 
children : Isaiah, Yorkesee, Robert, Nathan, Mary Ann, Arthur, 
Charlie and Odessa Cook. 

;iMr. Cook's favorite reading is the Bible. He owns a small 
tract of land. In addition to this he rents a place and carries 
on considerable farming operations, making an average of about 
twenty-five bales of cotton a year. In politics he is a Republi- 
can and among the secret orders is identified with the Masons. 
He is an ardent advocate of religious and industrial education. 



CHESTER ARTHUR MOORE 



REV. CHESTER ARTHUR MOORE is one of the most 
enterprising and successful young men of the A. M. E. 
connection in Georgia. The simple story of his early 
struggles for an education ought to be an inspiration to every 
poor boy who reads it. 

He was born Sept. 16, 1884, on the farm of Dock Hagan near 
Statesboro in Bulloch county, with whom his fatlier lived as a 
tenant farmer for more than forty years. His parents were 
Richard and Elizabeth (McCall) Moore. The mother's parents, 
Thomas and Ann McCall, were brought as slaves from Virginia 
to Georgia. The home of the Moores was an humble home, a 
home of poverty, a home without books and but little of culture. 
But it was a Christian home in which the boy was taught to be 
honest and brought up with a reverence for sacred things. The 
parents knew^ but little of the value of education but they feared 
God. 

The boy availed himself of such opportunities as the short 
term public schools offered. He would frequently plow in the 
day time and study by the light of the fire by night. At the 
age of twelve he was converted and joined the ]Mt. Zion A. M. E. 
church. In 1900 he was licensed as an exhorter by Rev. S. E. 
Powell of the West Savannah District. Four vears later he re- 




CHESTER ARTHUR MOORE. 



GEORGIA EDITION 253 

ceived his local license and in 1905 joined the Georgia Annual 
Conference at Quitman, being ordained Elder at Griffin in 1909 
by Bishop C. S. Smith. His first appointment was to the Modoc 
Mission where he found four members and left thirty-five, after 
a pastorate of one year and nine months. He also built a church. 
In 1906 he was ordained Deacon at Waycross and assigned to the 
Scarboro Circuit where he remained for two years, repaired both 
churches and took in seventy-five members. Feeling keenly the 
need of better preparation for his life work he requested the 
Bishop to transfer him to Atlanta. This was granted and he was 
assigned to the East Point Station which enabled him to take 
up the Theological course at Morris Brown University. At East 
Point a new lot was purchased at a cost of $530.00 and a church 
built at an expense of nearly two thousand dollars. He remained 
on that work three years. 

On Nov. 23, 1911, he was married to Miss Susie Lillie New, a 
daughter of Watson and Catharine New of Troy, S. C. They 
have had three children, two of whom survive. They are Naomi 
Elizabeth and Joseph Simeon Moore. 

It was in that year that Mr. Moore was assigned to Shady Dale 
Station where he remained four years adding to the church over 
a hundred members and raising a large part of the church debt. 
At the end of the quadrennium in 1915, he was sent to Newnan 
where the work is prospering under his hand. 

He is a great revivalist and delights in soul saving. More than 
five hundred members have been brought into the churches 
under his pastorates. His favorite reading is the Bible and 
sacred literature. Among the secret orders he is identified with 
the Pythians and the Good Samaritans. He believes in indus- 
trial education. 



WILLIAM JACKSON SMITH 



WILLIAM JACKSON SMITH, a prominent Baptist 
minister and the leading farmer of Coweta county, is 
one of the wealthy men of his race in Georgia and a 
splendid illustration of what can be accomplished through hard 
work, good character and the grace of God. 




WILLIAM JACKSON SMITH. 



GEORGIA EDITION 255 

He was born in Coweta county during the war, March 16, 1863. 
His parents Jack and Eliza Smith were both slaves. His paternal 
grandparents were Jordan and Fannie Smith. His maternal 
grandmother was Isabella Smith. 

Coming of school age just after the war when times were hard 
and schools were poor young Smith found it hard 
enough to get an education. His services were needed on the 
farm, but he attended the Newnan public school, and later the 
6th District School. After entering the ministry he spent three 
terras at Atlanta Baptist College. He acknowledges with grati- 
tude the influence of his father and mother on his life and re- 
members now that even as a boy he had an aml)ition to do 
something for his race. At eighteen he was converted and 
joined the Ebenezer Baptist Church. Five years later he felt 
called to the work of the ministry and in 1890 was ordained and 
called to the pastorate of his own church. His influence has 
grown until now there is no more popular man in his associa- 
tion than Rev. W. J. Smith. He can be counted on for every 
good word and work. 

His career as a farmer and a business man is interesting. On 
January 22, 1887, he was married to :\Iiss Scilla Winn, a daugh- 
ter of Hennie Winn of Coweta county. He remained with his 
father until he was twenty-three, when with his wife and three 
children he moved away from his father and began farming 
for himself. At this time he had only $3.00 and during the 
first year had to contend with many difficulties. Members of 
the family were sick during the summer and he found at the 
end of the season that he was $40.00 in debt. This his landlord 
was willing to carry over until the next Fall at 10 per cent. 
The following year things took a turn for the better, however, 
and he came out at the end of the year with 10 bales of cotton, 
300 bushels of corn, 50 gallons of syrup, 100 bushels of potatoes 
and 1,800 pounds of meat. In addition he had purchased a cow 
and his entire indebtedness for that year was only $75.00. After 
paying this amount and the debt from the previous year he had 
a handsome balance in the bank, and that bank account has been 
growing steadily ever since. The third year he ran a three horse 
farm and added $1,000 to his bank account. The fourth year he 



256 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

increased his capacity to five plows and added $1,600 to his 
balance at bank. He then began to buy land and has steadily 
increased his holdings which now amount to 1,000 acres of good 
farming land in Coweta county, appraised at $45.00 per acre^ 
but which could not be bought at that figure. In addition to 
his real estate he has his farm well stocked, runs a ginnery and 
carries on a business which would be a credit to any man any- 
where. Beginning as he did without capital, his present holdings 
are appraised at $73,000 at the lowest valuation. It would be 
only fair to say that Mr. Smith is easily worth more than 
$100,000. 

He has not allowed his business activities to interfere with his 
work as a minister. He is now pastor of the first church to which 
he was called twenty-five years ago. In addition to this he serves 
the Baptist Church at Moreland and the Mt. Olive church at 
LaGrange. These three churches have a total membership of 
between four and five thousand. Since entering the ministry 
Mr. Smith has baptized nearly three thousand persons. 

The results gained by Mr. Smith on his own farm have con- 
vinced him of the importance of industrial education and this 
coupled with religious training he regards as the thing best 
adapted to the promotion of the interests of his people. 

Of the twelve children born to Mr. and Mrs. Smith ten are 
living. They are: Eliza Jane, Andrew, Willie Ophelia, Rufus, 
Delia, Grady, Allie May, Lora, Mary Ella and Sullivan Smith. 

INIr. Smith has much land on which he grows a bale of cotton 
to the acre. Most of his land is worked by tenants and falls be- 
low that average. He is an extensive traveler in America, having- 
visited everv State in the Union. 



EUGENE JEPHTHAH THOMPSON 



REV. EUGENE JEPHTHAH THOMPSON, principal of 
the Northwestern High School, at Monroe, is a native of 
Shelbyville, Tenn., where he was born March 4, 1869. 
His father was Emanuel Thompson, a carpenter by trade. HiS' 
mother's maiden name was Caroline Lipscomb. 

Prof. Thompson was married on May 28, 1910, to Miss Flor- 




EUGENE JEPHTHAH THOMPSON. 



258 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

ence Badger Rhodes, a daughter of Gralph and Ida Rhodes, of 
Gainesville, Ga. Before her marriage Mrs. Thompson was a 
teacher in the city schools of Gainesville. They have one child, 
a boy, Eugene Jephthah, Jr. 

As a youngster. Prof. Thompson attended the Shelbyville 
public school, and later Turner's High School, at the same place. 
From early life, however, he had a hard struggle in his efforts 
to get an education. He says: "Being the youngest of eleven 
children, and my mother having died when I was but four years 
of age, and my father not knowing the advantage of an educa- 
tion, it fell to my lot to care for myself in this respect. My 
father bought me but one book in his lifetime. This was :Mc- 
Guffey's First Reader. All the rest of my books I bought by 
jobbing around before and after school. After I was ten years 
of age, it was necessary for me to clothe and feed myself, which 
I found a most difficult task. In after years, when at public 
high school, I secured my board by waiting on tables half an hour 
each meal, and provided for my clothing during vacations and 
by working at odd times while in school, shining shoes and doing 
other odd jobs." 

He began his work of teaching in Robertson county, Texas, 
in the fall of 1891. 

At the age of sixteen he was converted and joined the Baptist 
church. He early felt called to the work of the ministry which 
he resisted till 19'05, when he was licensed to preach by the 
Wheat Street Baptist Church of Atlanta, Ga., and was by the 
same church ordained in 1908. 

After entering the ministry he took the academic course at 
Atlanta Baptist College and later the theological course, 
finishing with the degree of B. D. in 1908. He has served 
as assistant pastor of "Wheat Street one year and pastor 
of St. John's at Gainesville two years. From Gainesville he was 
elected to his present position. Both as a teacher and a preacher, 
he has sought to be efficient rather than sensational and in his 
educational work has been gradually promoted from the rural 
schools to the head of an institution. His school duties now 
preclude regular pastoral work, but he still preaches as occasion 
offers. 

Among the secret orders, he is identified with the Pythians. Odd 



GEORGIA EDITION 259 

Fellows and Good Samaritans. His preferred reading includes 
the Bible, history and English and American literature. He 
believes that the best interest of the race is to be promoted 
only on the basis of an intelligent Christian brotherhood. 

The Northwestern High School of which he is now the Prin- 
cipal is owned and controlled bj' the Northwestern Baptist Asso- 
ciation. It was begun in 1910 and opened Jan. 6, 1913. The 
enrollment for the first year was eighty-six. The enrollment for 
the school year 1913-1-1 was two hundred and seven. The plant 
has a total value of forty-five hundred dollars and is located on 
tlie outskirts of Monroe. 

Prof. Thompson is General Missionary for the Northwestern 
Association. He is a man of good business ability. From 
1911-13 he was District Manager of the Union Mutual Insurance 
Co., at Fort Valley. He owns property at his old home, Shelby- 
ville, Tenn. 



HENRY LEWIS FLEMISTER 



PROF. HENRY LEWIS FLEMISTER, of Madison, has 
demonstrated what a man of character can do by persist- 
ent effort and hard work. He is a native of Jasper coun- 
ty, having been born at Monticello on ]May 2, 1862. His parents, 
John Flemister and Matilda (Bass) Flemister, were both slaves. 
His father, who was a shoemaker by trade, is still living (1914) 
at a ripe old age. Prof. Flemister 's maternal grandfather was 
a white man. His father's mother has a strain of Indian blood, 
and his paternal grandfather was also white. 

His parents had a large family of children to be brought up. 
When Henry was of school age he started to the public school 
at Monticello. A year later, however, the family moved to 
Madison, and the boy continued to go to school off and on, 
though his studies were frequently interrupted by the necessity 
of helping out at home. As a matter of fact, he did not get 
much education till he was of age. Failure of health necessited 
his father's giving up his trade and taking up farming. All 





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HENRY LEWIS FLEMISTER AND FAMILY 



GEORGIA EDITION 261 

hands had to work early and late. The hardships of this period 
of his life, together with the heroic struggle of his father to sup- 
port a large family, impressed the youth with the importance 
of doing something more than merely making a living. One 
thing, however, he remembers with gratitude ; that is, the Chris- 
tian influence of his home. He recognizes the helpful influence 
of the Sunday-school which he attended as a boy. When he had 
grown to manhood, he determined to continue his studies in 
order to better equip himself for the work of life, and entered 
the Baptist College, Atlanta, where he took the full normal 
course. When he had reached the point where he could secure a 
teacher's license, he engaged in teaching during the summer 
months, and this helped out and made his way easier. Later he 
was in the Pullman service for a number of years, which took 
him to every part of the country and gave him a helpful and 
comprehensive view of the whole of America. Among his 
studies he would perhaps class history and mathematics as his 
favorites. For the last eight years he has been the efficient prin- 
cipal of the Madison Colored Public School, and has under him 
six teachers and an enrollment of three hundred and four 
scholars. Altogether he has been in the Madison school for 
fourteen years. His teaching, however, was interrupted by a 
residence of four years in Ohio, where he followed hotel work 
largely. 

On February 23, 1892, Prof. Flemister w^as married to Miss 
Rosa Lee Gilbert, daughter of Albert Gilbert and Jane Gilbert, 
of Eatonton. They have had thirteen children, twelve of whom 
survive. Their names are as follows : Sumner L., Deanie E . 
Payne D., ^larguerite, Henry K., ^latilda R., Alice, August Z., 
Clifford L., Mattie B., John T. and Thomas Nesbitt and Janie 
A. 

Prof. Flemister is a very busy man as his activities are not 
confined to his school work. In addition to this he runs a farm 
successfully, and does some real estate work about town to 
enable him to earn an additional honest dollar. He has helped his 
oldest son through college, and keeps the other children in 
school. He is a member of the A. M. E. Church, superintendent 
of the Sunday-school, and steward. Long ago he realized the Im- 



262 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

portance of owning a home, and occupies a comfortable place 
just on the edge of the thriving little city of Madison, also owns 
two hundred and two acres of farm land 4 miles from the town. 
He believes in the gospel of work, and sees for his people won- 
derful opportunities in the Southland if they can be induced to 
work and economize as they should. 



PERRY ALEXANDER KEITH 



PERRY ALEXANDER KEITPI, a leading business man of 
his race in Atlanta, was born in Meriwether county Decem- 
ber 2, 1875. His parents, Thomas and Melissa (Dunkins) 
Keith, were both slaves. The mother passed away when her son 
was three years old. 

When young Keith was of school age he was put to school 
in Meriwether county, and later, when the family moved to 
Coweta county, he attended school at Grantville. Though recog- 
nizing the advantages of a college education, he did not see his 
way clear, from lack of means, to take a college course. In fact, 
it was necessary for him to work his own way even through the 
lower grades which he did master. He worked on the farm dur- 
ing the summer and fall, and when he was about twenty years 
of age came to Atlanta and began work in a lumber yard. Later 
he ran a private dray for $4.25 per week. Still later, for four 
years he ran a public dray, and found this more profitable, as 
he was never able to make more than a dollar a day while work- 
ing for the other man. Recognizing the growing importance 
of the city, and the lack of accommodations among his own peo- 
ple, he formed a partnership in 1900 with D. J. Owens, and 
opened up a restaurant at No. 8 Ivy. The venture was success- 
ful from the beginning ; but two years later his partner 's health 
failed, and he bought him out and has since run the place alone. 
With the growth of his means he added other enterprises, and for 
five years conducted a picture gallery in the Rucker building. 
He also opened up a barber shop at No. 7 Ivy, which is still a 
prosperous enterprise. He is a good business man and careful 




PERRY ALEXANDER KEITH. 



264 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

of his investments. He was one of the original organizers of the 
Atlanta State Savings Bank, in which he is still a large stock- 
holder and a director. 

One of his first cares was to establish himself in a home. He 
purchased the house and lot at 245 Chestnut street, where he now 
resides, besides owning other property on Chestnut, Bradley, 
UrifBn, Vine and Spencer Streets. He also owns a valuable 
tract of twenty acres at Hapeville. He thus sets his people a 
good example in economy and wise investment. 

He has been twice married : first on November 19, 1903, to 
Miss Lucile Collier, of Barnesville. They had one child,. Luther 
Caesar. After his first wife's death, Mr. Keith was married a 
second time to Miss Annie Williams, of Atlanta, on December 6, 
1906. By this marriage there are three children: Perry A., 
Marie and Randolph Napoleon. 

In politics Mr. Keith is a Republican, though he has not been 
active beyond exercising his right to vote. He is an active mem- 
ber of the West Hunter Street Baptist church, and is identified 
with the Masons, being treasurer of his lodge. His present wife 
is a college woman, having been educated at a Catholic institu- 
tion, Richmond, Va., and engaged in teaching before she was 
married to Mr. Keith. He puts the Bible first among the books 
he has found valuable and helpful, but is also very much inter- 
ested in history. He is an enterprising and intelligent man, a 
credit to his city and a good example to his race. 



NEWSOME DALPHRES JACKSON 



NEWSOME DALPHRES JACKSON, of Atlanta, has 
tried to live up to the Bible injunction which, says 
"Whatsoever thy hand findeth to do, do it with thy 
might." He has shown himself a capable man in several lines 
of endeavor, through which he has earned a competence, and 
now lives in his own home facing the beautiful grounds of Mor- 
ris-Brown University. Deprived of the advantages of an educa- 
tion, he yet managed to secure a suificieut schooling to handle 




NEWSOME DALPHRES JACKSON. 



266 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

the ordinary business transactions of life, though he is an ardent 
supporter of industrial training and higher education and has 
put all his children through college. 

He was born in Jackson county, Georgia, on April 3, 1863, 
and is a son of Dennis and Sinie (Bankston) Jackson, His 
father was a slave, and soon after the war removed with his 
family to Atlanta. The young boy was entered at Storr's 
School; later pursued the preparatory course at Atlanta Uni- 
versity through the fifth grade. Almost as far back as he can 
remember, he was accustomed to work at whatever came to hand, 
assisting in the support of his aged grandmother and younger 
brother. Altogether, he has seen twenty-seven years of railroad 
service, sixteen of which was in the employ of the Atlanta & 
West Point as a fireman on their fastest passenger trains. No 
man on the line kept his engine in better condition or rendered 
more efficient service than fireman Jackson. Naturally he stood 
well with the officials, because he knew his business and attended 
to it. Prior to his engagement with the Atlanta & West Point, 
he ran on the Northeastern road, where for one year he was in 
the mail service, and five years on the Georgia Pacific. In 
1906 he secured leave of absence for three months, but decided 
not to return to railroad work. In that year he opened a retail 
grocery store at the corner of Cain and Butler streets which 
he conducted for four years. At the end of that time he sold 
out the grocery business, and has since been identified with 
Morris-Brown University as engineer and general superintend- 
ent. In addition to these activities, he is a skilful carpenter, 
a good painter, which was his father's trade, and handles all 
the plumbing and other work of that sort which is to do about 
the college. He is a first-class bricklayer. So it will be seen 
that Mr. Jackson could hardly be put in a situation where he 
would not be able to earn his own living. 

Perhaps the thing which will stand as his monument in Geor- 
gia, however, is his identity for sixteen years with the Knights 
and Daughters of Tabor. He was the founder and organizer of 
the order in Georgia, in 1894. When he retired from the work 
in 1910, there were more than four thousand members in the 
state, over sixteen hundred of which were in Atlanta. His busi- 



GEORGIA EDITION 267 

ness abiUty may be judged by the fact that all claims were paid 
and a balance of over three thousand dollars in the treasury. 

Mr. Jackson has been twice married; the first time to Janie 
Strickland, of Athens. There were seven children born to this 
union, four of whom survive. These are Maud (Mrs. Beasley), 
Minnie (Mrs. Hammel), Cassie (Mrs. Brown) and Annie May 
(Mrs. Sewell) . The mother of these girls passed away in 1900, 
and four years later, on October 4, 1904, Mr. Jackson was mar- 
ried to Georgia Long of Newnan. 

Mr. Jackson is a patient, all-around practical sort of man, 
who believes in obedience to the law of any organization with 
which he may be identified, and who is always willing to do his 
part. He believes that his own race must work out its own salva- 
tion, not so much by leaning on others as by developing confi- 
dence and ability in itself. He is an active Mason and Odd Fel- 
low, and a member of Bethel A. M. E. Church. He is a fine ex- 
ample of what an industrious, economical man can do; for in 
addition to rearing and educating his family, he has accumu- 
lated good property, not only in Atlanta, but also in New- 
nan, LaGrange and Carrollton. 



CYRUS BROWN 



REV. CYRUS BROWN, the pastor of Macedonia Baptist 
Church and IModerator of the New Hope Missionary Bap- 
tist Association, both of which positions he has held for a 
number of years, is a native of Athens, Ga., where he was born 
in 1854. The destruction of the family records makes it impos- 
sible to tell the exact date. He w^as a small boy during the war, 
and remembers the cannonading of Atlanta and Sherman's 
march through the State. His father, Lee Brown, was a shoe- 
maker, which trade the son learned and followed till he entered 
the active work of the ministry. His mother's name was Martha, 
and was brought from Virginia to Georgia when a child. Beyond 
his parents he knows nothing of his ancestry. During the days 
of slavery his father bought his own services, and for the rest of 




CYRUS BROWN. 



GEORGIA EDITION 269 

the time was free to work at his trade for himself and his family. 
He died the second year after the war, and Cyrus remembers 
and has been influenced throughout his life by the parting re- 
marks of his father on his deathbed. The man had not previous- 
ly been a Christian, but came into the Kingdom during his last 
illness, and just before passing away called Cyrus to his bedside, 
and placing his hand on his head, said: "My little son, learn to 
pray;" and from that day through all the troublous years that 
have followed, Cyrus Brown has been a man of prayer. Another 
influence which helped to shape his life and give direction to it 
Avas the character of the men who were preachers and leaders 
of his race in Athens. He remembers especially Dr. Lane, of 
the Presbyterian church, and more particularly Reverend Hill 
of the Baptist church. 

He was converted at the age of twelve, and barely remembers 
joining the church. From the beginning his people had large 
expectations for the boy. He had scarcely reached the age of 
fifteen before he felt called to the work of the ministry, but did 
not at once yield himself to the promptings of the spirit. He 
did, however, become a leader in the prayer meetings, and thus 
felt his way; but there was a measure of discouragement as he 
listened to the educated and accomplished men who preached to 
them, as he felt that he could hardly attain to their standard. He 
had yet to learn that the career of the minister, like that of the 
Christian life, is a growth ; "first the blade, then the ear, then the 
full corn in the ear." He was faithful, however, in his church 
duties, and at an early age was made clerk of his church. On one 
occasion when one of the older brethren was exhorting the young 
men, he announced that they had in the congregation a young 
man who ought to be licensed to preach, and became so direct in 
his remarks that the young men were all attention, trying to 
identify the young man who inspired the remarks. Cyrus Brown 
was as much surprised as any of them when his own name was 
mentioned, and when the brother moved that he be licensed to 
preach. This was in 1880; and although Cyrus protested,^ in 
December of the same year he was called, without any applica- 
tion on his part, to the pastorate of a neighboring church near 

Athens. 

In the meantime, on February 17, 1876, he had been married to 



270 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

Miss Eliza McLester, of Jackson county. They lived in their 
own home. Cyrus was making a good living, as he was one of the 
best slioemakers in his city; but the idea of preaching clung to 
him in such a way that after the call to the church came, he pack- 
ed up his tools in 1881, closed his shop, and took the little church 
of fifteen members; and since that time he has given himself 
wholly to the work of the Gospel ministry. He was successful 
from the beginning. In eight months he had baptized one hun- 
dred people and built a new church house. In the following 
November he was called to St. James Church. Realizing the 
need of better preparation for his work, both he and his wife 
lived in Atlanta, going back and forth to his appointment. He 
held on to that work for five years, and became a leading and 
dominant figure in the work of the Ebenezer Association, in 
which he was a prominent missionary and Sunday-school worker. 
In 1888 he was called to the pastorate of the Macedonia Baptist 
Church in Atlanta, which had then between two and three hun- 
dred members. Coming into the work in Atlanta, he also ac- 
cepted a monthly pastorate at Acworth which he held for six- 
teen years ; but for the last ten years has given his time entirely 
to the work at ^lacedonia. Such are the methods of his work 
that he has become one of the most popular ministers of the ' 
association. His own church has grown in numbers and im- 
portance with the years, so that it now has a membership of 
nearly a thousand ; and the pastor has grown in popularity, and 
has, as mentioned above, been the presiding officer of the New 
Hope Association since 1904. 

Reverend Brown has gathered about him a good library, and 
is a well informed man; but he is pre-eminently a man of one 
book, and that book is the Bible. Apart from working up his 
sermons and the systematic study which he does, he makes it a 
rule to read the entire Bible through twice each year; and his 
effort is to apply it to the lives of his people. In politics he is 
a Republican, but has not identified himself with the secret or- 
ders. In fact, he rather prides himself on the fact that the 
church is the only organization he ever joined. 

His wife passed away on ]\Iarch 28, 1912. He lives in his own 
home at 62 Rock street. 



MACELLUS FRANKLIN BRINSON 



REV. MARCELLUS FRANKLIN BRINSON, a prominent 
Presiding Elder of the C. M. E. Church in Georgia, was 
born just after the close of the war — November 19, 1868, 
in Terrell county. Up to within about one year of that time, his 
parents had been slaves. His father's name was Abram Brin- 
son, and he was a carpenter by trade. His mother's name was 
Amanda (Toombs) Brinson. His maternal grandfather was a 
white man, and a distinguished statesman and Confederate gen- 
eral. 

" Upon reaching school age, young Brinson entered the public 
schools of Dawson, and later took a partial course at Clark 
University, reaching the junior year. His father was a farmer, 
as well as a carpenter, and during his early years Marcellus 
aided his father in the work of the farm. After entering col- 
lege, it was necessary for him to work his own way, which he 
did by teaching during the summer months and by means of such 
other work as came to hand. His first work as a teacher was at 
Dawson in 1887. Having been converted at the age of eighteen, 
.and licensed to preach at Dawson in 1886, he entered the travel- 
ing ministry at Macon in 1893. He was first sent to Tallahassee, 
Fla., where he remained three years. Returning to Georgia in 
1896, he pastored at Vienna one year, Americus two years, and 
First Church in Macon three years. Such was the record made 
during these nine years, that he was then promoted to the Pre- 
siding Eldership and assigned to the Fort Valley District for 
four years, since which he has been on the Columbus District, 
though still residing at Fort Valley, where he owns a good home 
and other property. He is a man who stands well as a minister, 
as a citizen, and as a man of affairs. He is a brother of the bril- 
liant Dr. E. J. Brinson, of Americus, a sketch of whom appears 
in this volume. 

On February 26, 1892, he was married to Miss Josephine Mc- 
Crary, daughter of William and Jane McCrary. Of the six 
children born to them, two only are now living (1916), Arthur 
Sylvanus and Marion Amanda Brinson. 




MARGELLUS FRANKLIN BRINSON. 



GEORGIA EDITION 373 

Dr. Brinson's preferred reading is along the line of sacred 
literature. He has travelled over most of the Southern and ]Mid- 
dle Western States. He has the degree of Doctor of Divinity 
from Campbell College, Jackson, ^Miss. He is a member of the 
Masons, Odd Fellows and Knights of Pythias. He believes that 
education, accumulation of property and a square deal, are 
things of prime importance to the welfare of the Negro in Geor- 
gia and the nation. 

Some of the visible results of Dr. Brinson's work are: A 
church built in Columbus at a cost of nine thousand dollars; a 
church built in Dooly county and a church remodeled and 
parsonage built in Tallahassee, Fla. A church built at Green- 
ville, Ga., and one remodelled at Macon. He is secretary of the 
Board of Trustees of Holsey Academy, at Cordele; was first 
assistant secretary of the General Conference held at St. Louis 
in 1914 and was the only Georgia man to preach at that Confer- 
ence. He has been the Bishop's private secretary at several An- 
nual Conferences. Dr. Brinson is in demand as an orator on 
anniversary and other public occasions, and has in contemplation 
a book of sermons and addresses. 



ANAK THOMAS ATWATER 



ANAK THOMAS ATWATER, editor of The Rome Enter- 
prise, the only weekly paper for colored people in his 
part of the state, is a native of Upson county, Ga., where 
he was born August 21, 1872. His parents, D. C. Atwater and 
Amanda (Ragland) Atwater, both of whom are still living, were 
slaves and reside at the family home in Jackson, Ga. Hisjfather 
is a superannuated minister of the A. M. E. Church. His 
paternal gandfather was Luke Walker, and his maternal grand- 
father was Isaac Ragland, who was brought from North Carolina 
to Georgia. 

Our subject had but meager opportunities for getting an educa- 
tion, as his father's work as an itinerant minister kept him on 
the move. The boy early aspired, however, to make more than 




ANAK THOMAS ATWATER. 



GEORGIA EDITION 275 

a mere living as he went through the world. He was ambitious 
to make a life, and realized the necessity of a better education 
than that offered by the rural public schools; so he determined 
to go to college, and was able by dint of hard work and care- 
ful economy to enter Atlanta University in 1891. Here he 
finished the grammar and college preparatory courses, and be- 
sides took other studies in the college department leaving school 
in 1898. Later he took the Teacher's Professional Course of one 
year at Danville, N. Y. These things were not accomplished 
on his part, however, without hard work, patient endeavor and 
rigid economy. During vacation he would sell books, teach a 
summer school, or do anything which offered an opportunity 
to earn an earnest dollar. Even while in school he worked at 
boarding houses and in other capacities, and thus made his way 
as he went. 

In 1899 he was chosen principal of the East Rome Industrial 
School, which has since been merged into the public school, 
but which as a separate institution did splendid work. By per- 
severance he was able to erect and pay for a large two story 
school building without one dollar from any public fund. 

In 1904 he established a weekly paper at Rome, which he 
called The Rome Enterprise, and which he has successfully con- 
ducted for the last ten years. His former newspaper experiences 
had been limited to his connection with the school paper while 
in college, and to the publication of a small paper at Jackson 
for a few months. He now has a circulation of about 2500, and 
has reached a point where he contemplates putting in his own 
plant. In addition to this he sells insurance and real estate 
in his city, and has from time to time issued other publications 
in addition to his paper, among which may be mentioned a City 
Directory of the colored people and Farmer's Fair of Rome. In 
1910 he was the Census Enumerator for the first and sixth 
wards of Rome. His work has naturally brought him to the 
front in political circles, and he was for eight years secretary 
of the Republican Executive Committee of Floyd County. In 
1912 he was a Roosevelt delegate to the National Republican 
Convention. 

He has not allowed his other interests, however, to crowd out 



276 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

the religious interests of his life, but is an active member of the 
A. M. E. Church, and was for a number of years superintendent 
of the Sunday school and a steward of St. Paul A. M. E. Church. 
He represented the North Georgia Conference at the General 
Conferences in 1904 and 1908 at Chicago and Norfolk respec- 
tively. Among the secret and benevolent orders, he is identified 
with the Mosaic Templars; and in still another respect has set 
a good example to his people, in that he owns his home and is 
steadily accumulating property. In fact, he believes with many 
others, that one of the fundamental needs of his race today is 
economy in its broadest and best sense. 

He has won his present place of leadership by hard work and 
perseverance and has sought to build on the solid basis of char- 
acter. 

On June 28, 1906, was married to Callie D. Bryant, a daugh- 
ter of Amanda Bryant, of Raleigh, N. C. Mrs. Atwater is a 
graduate of Scotia Seminary, Concord, N. C. 



JOHN CROLLEY 



^-|-^HE story of the life of the Reverend John Crolley and his 
I good wife Mary, should be an inspiration to all those who 

-*- are trying to improve their time and build a life rather 
than make a mere living. Their lives have been fruitful of good 
works in many parts of Georgia, and they have brought up a 
family which is a credit to them and an honor to their race. 

John Crolley was born about April 1, 1848, at Monticello, Ga. 
His parents were Elek and Georgiana (Broadus) Crolley. His 
father was a skilful blacksmith, and John was brought up to the 
same trade, which trade he followed even after his emancipation. 
The strong, vigorous body which he developed in the days of his 
slavery as a blacksmith, has stood the strain of the years remark- 
ably well, and now at the age of sixty-five he is vigorous and well 
preserved. He has in his veins also a strain of white blood, his 
grandfather having been an Irishman from Dublin, Ireland. Mrs. 
Crolley was also a slave, and was sold on the block at McDonough, 




JOHN CROLLEY AND WIFE. 



278 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

Ga., at the age of five years. Later she was again sold. She was 
converted as a child, when she knew no Scripture but the Lord's 
prayer taught her by her mother. She and John Crolley were 
married September 11, 1876. Her maiden name was Mary Willis- 
Cobb Tie. Her parents were Dr. Tie, of McDonough, and Ange- 
lina Tie. They have had fifteen children. The following are 
living: Cornelia (Mrs. Walker), whose husband is Presiding 
Elder of the A. M. E. Church at Selma, Ala. ; Georgia (I\Irs. Dr. 
Oliver) ; Richard, who holds an important business position in. 
Chicago; Rev. Nervey J., now a minister at Rome; Mrs. H. A. 
Clarke, of Savannah; Mrs. Mamie Brown; ]Mrs. Dr. Wallace; 
Walter, of Savannah ; Edward, New York ; Gammon, Greenville, 
S. C. Space will not permit an account of the activity of all 
these, but they represent a family which has been brought up "in. 
the nurture and admonition of the Lord." 

After Emancipation, John Crolley worked at his trade and 
attended school at Lexington, N. C. Later he took a course at 
Lincoln University, graduating with the degree of A. B. in 1874. 
This all had to be done through his own personal efforts ; but he 
was led on by the importance of the work to which he had been 
called. He was converted at the age of about twenty-one, and 
soon after felt called to the ministry. 

His work in Georgia has been fruitful. His first pastorate was- 
at Gainesville, where he remained for three years. From Gaines- 
ville he went to Duluth, and from there to Polk county. In the 
earlj' '80 's he moved to Atlanta ; and while he has held important 
pastorates at other points since, has been more or less identified 
with the city of Atlanta from that time. Here he has educated 
his children, and at 659 Capitol Avenue owns a comfortable and 
substantial home. He built the first church at Warren Chapel, 
and may be called the father of that great work, now presided 
over so ably by his son-in-law, Dr. Oliver. He also built the- 
East Atlanta church and Ashbury church at Savannah, where 
he remained for three years. Everywhere the work prospered 
under his hand. In fact, hardly a year in his ministry has passed 
that he has not built or repaired some house of worship. Thous- 
ands have been brought into the folds of the church under his: 



GEORGIA EDITION 279 

ministry, and it is not unusual for him to have more than a hun- 
dred additions at a single revival meeting. 

In all his work he has been ably seconded by his good wife; 
but the w'ork to which she has devoted most attention has been 
prison work. She is a well-known figure at the police barracks 
and the prisons of Atlanta, where for years she has gone with 
regularity to minister to the needs of the weak and fallen, doing 
an important work which many others of loud professions have 
failed to do. 

Reverend Crolley has been an extensive traveler in America, 
and has been practically over the United States. In his reading 
he puts the Bible first, but is a constant reader of other books per- 
taining to Christianity. In politics he is a Republican, and 
among the secret orders is a Mason. He commends to his race 
those things which have made his own life successful: First, 
good religion ; second, the securing of homes. No one who 
knows John Crolley doubts that he has the good religion ; and 
as stated above, he lives in a comfortable home, where 4iis chil- 
dren have been reared and educated. 



DOC DUGAS CRAWFORD 



I 



UST before the close of the War between the States, in 
March, 1865, a son was born to Salina Crawford, who then 
lived in Tallapoosa county, Alabama. His ancestry is very 
much involved, as there flows in his veins a strange mixture of 
white, Indian and Negro blood. His master was his father, and 
while prominently connected is said to have been a drunkard 
and profligate. The maternal grandmother of D. D. Crawford 
was Patience Crawford, who was two-thirds Cherokee Indian, 
while his maternal grandfather, John Dunn was a mulatto who 
was also part Indian. It is said that the Crawfords were kind 
masters, but the Dunns were not, and as John was high-spirited 
and would not take a whipping much of his time was spent 
hiding in the woods. Finally he was caught and put to work in 
the field on a hot summer day, and not permitted to go for water 




DOC DUGAS CRAWFORD. 



GEORGIA EDITION 281 

for fear he would run away. After dinner he went to the spring 
and it is supposed drank too much water. Some days later his 
remains were found in a nearby swamp. 

Young Crawford's mother died when he was thirteen years 
of age, and the boy had to work on the farm to support himself 
at five dollars per month. Thus deprived of the advantages of 
early education, he studied by firelight at night, with no one 
to assist him. He continued to struggle unaided till he was 
twenty, when he entered college and completed the course in six 
years. He honors the memory of his mother by stating that 
in the thirteen years she was with him her character and teach- 
ings were the most potent factors in shaping his life. At the 
age of twenty he entered the Atlanta Baptist College, from 
which he was graduated in 1889. In 1910 the same institution, 
recognizing his attainments, learning and accomplishments, 
conferred upon him the degree of D. D. Prior to his gradua- 
tion, however, he taught school during vacation periods, his first 
school having been near West Point, Ga. He was converted at 
the age of ten, and says that since five years of age he has been 
conscious of his call to the ministry ; so he determined to better 
equip himself. We have seen with what effort he worked his 
way through college; but after the completion of his education 
his progress and promotion in the denomination were rapid. 

His first pastorate was Bay Springs Church, near Sanders- 
ville, in 1892, since which he has been an active minister in the 
Missionary Baptist church. He was for twelve years Educa- 
tional Secretary for the General State Baptist Convention, the 
duties of which position took him to every part of the State, so 
that he is well known by the brotherhood, among Avhom he is 
quite popular. 

Among the books, he places the Bible first, and has found 
such other books as Pilgrim's Progress and Milton's Paradise 
Lost helpful. His principal reading is along the line of Chris- 
tian literature. In politics he is a Republican, and at times has 
been more or less active in the councils of his party, and has 
sometimes been heard on the stump. 

On April 23, 1891, he was married to Miss Ella M. Kelley, a 
daughter of Reverend Emmanuel and Laura Kelley, of Nor- 



282 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

cross. They have six children: Ruby Salina, Ella lona, Doc 
Dugas, Jr., Salome, Charles Alvin and Thelma Hope Giles. 

When asked for suggestions as to how the best interests of 
the race might be promoted, he replied: "Stop agitation, settle 
down to business. Develop strong leaders and a high regard 
for religion." 

Dr. Crawford has set his people a good example by purchas- 
ing a home. "While bringing up and educating a family on 
an income that has never been large, he has yet by economy and 
thrift established a comfortable home at number 20 Chestnut 
street, one of the most desirable sections of the city. His stand- 
ing in the Baptist Convention of Georgia may be judged from 
the fact that he is Statistician of the Convention ; Corresponding 
Secretary of the G. M. B. C. of Ga., one of the regular lecturers 
of the Annual Bible Conferences of Atlanta. 



JAMES HENRY HOLSEY 



DR. JA]MES HENRY HOLSEY, of Atlanta, is a son of 
Bishop Holsey, of the Methodist church, one of the ablest 
and most distinguished of his race in Georgia. A sketch 
of Bishop Holsey will be found in this volume, and gives detail- 
ed information about the ancestry of Dr. J. H. Holsey, who was 
born at Sparta, Ga., on May 22, 1870. His mother's maiden 
name was Harriet Anna Turner. After Bishop Holsey moved to 
Augusta with his family, his son attended the Wear High School, 
and in 1883 took the literary course at Clark University, in At- 
lanta, where he helped pay his way by brick masonry. Having 
decided to take up dentistry as his life work, he matriculated in 
the dental department of Howard University, Washington, D. 
C, from which he was graduated with the degree of D D S in 
1890. 

Returning to Georgia, he began the practice of his profession 
in Augusta, where he remained for three years. After becoming 
thus established in his work, he was married to Miss Mattie B. 
Stafford, a daughter of John and Jane Stafford, of Macon, Ga. 




JAMES HENRY HOLSEY. 



284 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

They have had one child, a daughter, now dead. His wife be- 
ing in delicate health, they moved to Dallas, Texas, on her 
account, where he continued the practice of his profession for a 
term of eight years. At the end of that time he removed to At- 
lanta, where he has since been established. The industry and 
energy practiced and inculcated by the father have been passed 
on to the son. It will be seen from the sketch of the older Holsey 
something of the struggles he was undergoing while his children 
were young. Dr. J. H. Holsey, neither as a boy nor as a settled 
professional man, has ever been afraid of work. While taking his 
dental course at Washington, he was a messenger in the Treasury 
Department, which position he resigned on the completion of his 
course. 

There is nothing sensational in the career of a man w^ho with 
pluck and perseverance and patient toil wins his way up through 
difficulties to the top of his profession ; and yet that is the sort 
of man which is the ornament and the richest fruitage of any 
race or people. Such a life, in fact, is the best example to the 
young men of the race. 

Dr. Holsey, following the example and training of his father, 
is a member of the Methodist church. In politics he is a Re- 
publican and is interested in local and State politics. He was at 
one time delegate to the State Republican Convention at Austin, 
Texas. Among the secret orders he is identified with the 
Masons, Elks and Odd Fellows. He is also a member of the 
various organizations supported by his profession, and is vice- 
president of the Colored ]\Iedical, Dental and Pharmaceutical 
Association of Georgia. 

These years of patient endeavor and efficient work on the part 
of Dr. Holsey have not been without their reward. They have 
placed him at the head of his profession in the State. 



STEPHEN ALEXANDER PETERS 

TRUE success in life is not a matter of chance or luck. It 
is based on character, and is the result of right living, 
careful preparation for one's life work, coupled with 
industry, energy and perseverance. These things are exempli- 




STEPHEN ALEXANDER PETERS, 



286 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

fied in the life and work of Dr. Stephen Alexander Peters, of 
Atlanta. 

^•.He was born at Athens, Ga., October 5, 1876, and is the son 
M Preston B. and Frances (Gaines) Peters. His father was a 
minister of the A. M. E. Church, and after Emancipation a 
teacher at Columbus, Ga. The elder Peters was born at Wash- 
ington, Wilkes county, Georgia. The mother of our subject is a 
niece of the late Bishop W. J. Gaines, whose sketch appears in 
this volume. 

The foundation of Dr. Peters' education was laid in the 
public schools of Atlanta and Columbus. Later he entered 
Storr's School, Atlanta, and after being prepared for college 
entered Atlanta University, from which he was graduated with 
the degree of A. B. in 1897 before reaching his majority. Three 
years later he received the degree of B. D. from Gammon 
Theological Seminary. In that year (1900) he was elected 
Professor of Latin and Greek at Bennett College, Greensboro, 
N. C, where he rendered acceptable service for four years. 
Having chosen medicine as his life work, he entered the Meharry 
College in 1904, and while taking his medical course was also an 
instructor in Walden University and Meharry Medical College, 
till 1907. when he received from the latter institution his degree 
of M. D. His whole course as student and professor was marked 
by industry, energy and steady progress. While a student in 
Atlanta, he learned the tailor's trade, and in this way earned 
money to complete his college course. 

Dr. Peters' maternal grandfather, Stephen Gaines, was a 
slave of Gabriel Toombs, Washington, who was a brother of 
the celebrated Robert Toombs. He married a girl by the name 
of Josephine, of Athens, and to them were born ten children. 
A brother of his grandmother was William Finch, a pioneer 
Negro citizen and tailor of Atlanta, and at one time a member 
of the City Council of Atlanta. Dr. Peters' father was graduat- 
ed from Atlanta University in 1881 with the degree of B. S. 
when his son was five years old. He was called to the principal- 
ship of the City School of Columbus, Ga. His mother was 
graduated from Knox Institute, Athens, and assisted her hus- 
band in public school work in Columbus. So it will be seen 



GEORGIA EDITION 287 

that Dr. Peters comes of an ancestry of more than ordinary in- 
telligence and training, and in addition to his schooling he had 
the advantage of living in a home of culture and intelligence. 

Apart from the literature of his profession, Dr. Peters has 
been an extensive reader, and has found most helpful the classics, 
history and biography. 

On June 14, ISO'S, he was married to j\Iiss Johnnie Beatrice 
Mitchell, a daughter of William and Belle Mitchell, of Atlanta. 
They have one child, a son, Stephen Alexander Peters, Jr. 

Dr. Peters is a Republican in politics. His political activi- 
ties, however, have been confined to the exercise of the franchise, 
as he has not desired nor sought office. 

He sees in present conditions the need of more education for 
all the people, and a more equitable administration of the laws 
of the state and nation, irrespective of race, creed or condition. 

Dr. Peters' father died when the boy was only nine years old; 
four years later he lost his mother ; so it was necessary for him 
to get an education mainly by his own exertion. He early learn- 
ed the lesson that to succeed it was necessary to be prepared for 
his work, and then work hard, and as he puts it, "keep ever- 
lastingly at it." No worthy task which he found was unimpor- 
tant to him, since it helped him to the end he had in view. 

He married at the age of twenty-one, and gratefully acknow- 
ledges that in a large measure the success he has attained is due 
to the willing sacrifices and safe counsel of his wife. Together 
they have wrought, overcome obstacles, achieved success. They 
have accumulated a competency, and now in the vigor of man- 
hood and womanhood are doing their part as citizens, members 
of the church and other organizations of the race, to make the 
lives of others richer and more abundant. 

Dr. Peters' success as a teacher may be inferred from the fact 
that while teaching at Bennett College he was offered the prin- 
cipalship of the Huntsville Academy, which has since grown 
into the Central Alabama College, of Birmingham. Mrs. Peters 
was also a teacher part of the time that the Doctor was taking 
his medical course. His effectiveness as a speaker and a worker 
for his people, is evidenced by the fact that for four years he 
travelled through the North and East, assisting in the raising 



288 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

of funds for Fort Valley Industrial School, a history of which 
will be found in this volume. 

Dr. Peters and his family are members of the Methodist 
Episcopal Church, and he is affiliated with the A. U. Club of 
Atlanta, and is also a Mason, K. P., Odd Fellow, and is identified 
with the Y. M. C. A. work, and a member of the No Name Social 
Club. Only occasionally has he found time to write for the 
press. 

He resides at 194 Piedmont Avenue. 



DOLPHUS F. PHUGHSLEY 



Among the successful dentists and well-to-do citizens of 
the little city of Americus, Georgia, is Dolphus Ferdi- 
nand Pughsley, D. D. S., who was born at Swainsboro, 
Ga., Aug. 31, 1884. His parents were Henry B. and Lucy 
(Coleman) Pughsle.y. His father was a carpenter. About his 
grandmothers he does not know, but his grandfathers are said 
to have been w^iite, so that he is not of unmixed African 
blood. 

His literary education was obtained in the public school at 
Swainsboro and in Morris Brown University. In 1906 he 
graduated with the degree of D. D. S., from Meharry Dental 
College, at Nashville, Tenn., and entered upon the practice of 
his profession at Americus where he was immediately success- 
ful and soon acquired a large practice. It must not be thought 
that Dr. Pughsley 's path was minus financial thorns. While a 
boy he worked hard on his father's farm and as a young fel- 
low later on taught during vacations to put himself through 
school. Since practicing he has also spent some time both at 
Columbia University, New Y'ork, and the University of Chi- 
cago, in special study. 

When Dr. Pughsley 's decided to go to Americus he had only 
the railroad fare to take him there but such have been his dili- 
gence and popularity that he now has not only his large and 




DOLPHUS FERDINAND PUGHSLEY. 



290 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

established practice, but has a valuable two-story brick build- 
ing in the heart of the city and several other houses rented, in 
addition to his own beautiful home on Forsyth Street and a 
fine automobile. 

On march 31, 1907, he was married to Mrs. Dessie Laster, 
daughter of Milton and Laura Allen, of Griffin. Mrs. Pugh- 
sley is a graduate of Washington City High School. An only 
child is dead. 

Dr. Pughsley has been kept so constantly busy since the 
beginning of his professional work that he has had little time 
for reading outside of the literature bearing on his profession. 
He has, however, travelled extensively in the North, East and 
Canada. He is a Republican in politics and is a member of 
the A. M. E. church, which he has served in the capacity of 
steward. He is identified with the Odd fellows, Knights of 
Pythias, in both of which he holds distinguished positions. He 
has also held the offices of President and Treasurer of his Den- 
tal Association. 

This is a brief and simple record but Dr. Pughsley 's life 
and achievements thus far speak eloquently for themselves, 
and indicate something of the enlarging possibilities of his fu- 
ture. 

He believes the Negroes can best serve the interests of their 
race by educating their children and insisting upon properly 
qualified preachers and teachers. 



JAMES SOLOMON JOHNSON 



There is at least one professional field that seems to offer 
exceptional opportunities to the capable Negro, and 
that is dentistry. Among the white people this pro-; 
f ession, as well as nearly all others, is over-crowded ; but it is 
not yet so among the Negroes, as it is only within recent years 
that any considerable number of them have entered this pro- 
fession, and the demand among them for dental work is yet in 




JAMES SOLOMON JOHNSON. 



292 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

excess of what can be performed by men of their race. Not- 
withstanding these facts, however, it still requires much the 
same qualities to attain success in this as in anything else. It 
calls for the careful, painstaking and somewhat expensive 
preparation before the profession can be entered, and intelli- 
gent hustling afterwards; and that is the way James Solmon 
Johnson, D. D. S., of Cuthbert, is making it go. 

Though Dr. Johnson has lived in Georgia since he was a 
small boy, he is a native of Florida, having been born at Mar- 
ianna November 25, 1873. His father was Mitchell Stribling, 
a white man from Milwaukee, Wis. His mother, who was a 
slave, was named Emma. 

When the boy was four years of age, he was taken to Ran- 
dolph county, Georgia, and raised by his grandmother, who 
died in 1911. He grew to young manhood on the farm, at- 
tending occasionally the country schools. When a young man 
he opened up a barber shop (for white folks) at Coleman, and 
later added a shoe shop. In this way he was able to make a 
comfortable living and save some money. He was ambitious to 
travel and wanted to see the country. Observing the work of a 
travelling dentist he determined to take up that line of work, and 
so closed out his other lines of business at Coleman, supplied 
himself with an outfit, and with very limited knowledge of 
either his instruments or any of the other requirements of a 
dentist, began the painless extraction of teeth. He frankly ad- 
mits that however painless the operation may have been to his 
first patient, it greatly frightened him. Later through the 
kindness of a white dentist, Dr. E. C. Coleman, of Ft. Gaines, 
Ga., he learned much of the practical side of the profession, 
and did years of profitable practice in Randolph and adjacent 
counties and even in other states, before ever having seen a 
dental college. This naturally developed some complaint on 
the part of the professional dentists, so that in 1905 Dr. John- 
son entered the Dental Department of Meharry College, com- 
pleted the course and secured his degree in 1910. Returning 
to Georgia, he took the State examination, and was the only 
colored dentist to pass the Board that year. He then located 
permanently in Cuthbert, where he keeps an attractive office. 



GEORGIA EDITION 293 

and since that time his progress has been even more rapid 
and satisfactory than before. He has attracted to himself a 
large and lucrative practice, including both white and colored. 

Dr. Johnson certainly made his way from nothing to the 
worthy position he now occupies unaided and alone, for he 
did not marry until after his success was well assured. He 
has given no attention to politics, but is a member of the A. 
M. E. church and is identified with various secret orders. He 
has travelled extensively through the South and is a close stu- 
dent of literature pertaining to the advances made in his pro- 
fession, as well as a wide reader. He now owns a plantation 
of 350 acres near Coleman and ten acres within the corporate 
limits of Cuthbert, property of considerable and constantly 
increasing value. 

He is strong in the opinion that other boys can achieve the 
same relative success provided they will "learn the value of 
a hundred cents in the dollar," and "not look so hard for the 
clean end of the chunk. ' ' That is, if they are faithful in busi- 
ness matters, economical and industrious and not over-nice 
about the w^ork thev do, so long as it is useful and honorable. 



NEWTON ALEXANDER DOYLE 



THE story of Dr. Newton Alexander Doyle, of Gaines- 
ville, is full of interest, and should prove an inspiration 
to those who love to win their way in the world by their 
own efforts. 

He is a native of South Carolina, having been born at Madi- 
son, Oconee county, September 23, 1873, his parents, Benja- 
min Franklin and Martha Jane (Pool) Doyle. Each parent 
was half white, the father being a son of his master, James 
Doyle, as the mother was in like manner a daughter of her 
master, Clayborne Pool. The home in which Dr. Doyle was 
brought up was not one of wealth, but it was a Christian home, 
and he acknowledges with gratitude his indebtedness to the 
example and teachings of Christian parents. 




NEWTON ALEXANDER DOYLE. 



GEORGIA EDITION 295 

When he came of school age, he went to the public schools, 
assisting his father on the farm between times. He was pre- 
pared for college at Seneca Institute, Seneca, S. C, and after 
he reached a point where he could teach, was able to supplement 
his earnings on the farm by his meager teacher's salary, which 
was only sixteen dollars per month the first term. 

From early boyhood he was ambitious to be a doctor, and 
bent every energy in that direction. Finding work on the rail- 
road would be more profitable and steady than teaching, he 
turned his school over to a friend and joined the trestle force 
on what is now the Southern Railway. Here he earned a dollar 
and a quarter per day and saved his money. Another season 
he hauled lumber, and thus with labor and teaching carried 
himself well along on his medical course at Shaw University, 
Raleigh, "N. C. Late in his course he found it necessary to bor« 
row some, and earned nearly a hundred dollars practicing medi- 
cine before his graduation. In his senior year he passed the 
Georgia State Medical examination, and on April 12, 1906, was 
awarded his M. D. degree. Having decided to locate at Gaines- 
ville, he at once took up the practice there, owing at the time 
three hundred dollars. In a year he had paid off his indebted- 
ness, established a practice and accumulated a little money. 

On June 26, 1907, he was married to Miss Ella Stokes, a 
daughter of Henry and Charity Stokes, of Wilson, N. C. Prior 
to her marriage she was a teacher. They have three children : 
Geraldine, Christine and Leonora. 

Apart from his professional reading. Dr. Doyle is very fond 
of history. In politics he is an old line Republican, and was 
formerly secretary of the Hall County Republican Committee. 
He is a member of the Baptist church, in which he is a deacon. 
He is identified with the Odd Fellows and Knights of Pythias, 
and in each of these organizations has occupied every official 
chair. He is also connected with the different medical societies. 

In still another matter he has set his people a good example, 
in that he has bought a comfortable home. He resides at 60 
Athens street, Gainesville, Hall county, Ga. 




WILLIAM PULLINS. 



WILLIAM PULLINS 



BARELY at the noon of life the subject of this sketch has the 
double good fortune of enjoying present success, while 
pursuing the brilliant future predicted for him by his 
friends and which his own past achievements and his ability 
virtually insure. 

William Pullins was born in Callioun county, December 28, 
1885. His parents, Lee and Mary (Lif ridge) Pullins had both 
been slaves. The father is nearly white. He was married June 
2, 1909, to Miss Ida Young, daughter of E. J. Young, of North 
Carolina. They have no living children. 

Such fragmentary rudiments of an education as young Pullins 
received in boyhood were obtained at the Calhoun county 
schools. At fifteen years of age he started out for himself, 
laboring on public works, in saw mill and turpentine camps and 
picked up the art of painting. Becoming skilled at the latter 
he was enabled to put himself through Morehouse College, graduj- 
ating from the Academic department and taking the first year of 
college in 1908. He immediately launched out upon the difficult 
seas of journalism at Live Oak, Florida in 1909, establishing the 
Southern Standard and publishing it for three years in that 
place, thence removing the publication to Macon, Georgia, where 
Mr. Pullins now resides and is building up a solid success as an 
influential editor and good citizen. His journal is the official 
organ of the Knights of Pythias, in which order he occupies a 
position of prominence and power. Mr. Pullins conducts a very 
profitable job printing business, and owns property in Macon. 
All this has been accomplished entirely without assistance for he 
began as poor and obscure as any colored boy in Georgia, though 
he had the example of good parents, still living. His father was a 
Baptist preacher and Mr. Pullins himself is of that religious 
affiliation. He also belongs to the Odd Fellows and is a Republi- 
can in politics. His favorite reading is history and poetry. 

Among the younger leaders of his race none is more earnest in 
his desire to serve its best welfare and none has brighter prospect.* 
for doing so through molding public sentiment editorially and 



298 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

by capacity for organizing his people into harmonious and co- 
operative associations. Mr. PuUins is convinced that the most 
valuable thing for colored people is training in their youth so 
they will be equipped for making honest, independent liveli- 
hoods and on that firm foundation build progress. 



WILLIAM SHERMAN RUSSELL 



WILLIAM SHERMAN RUSSELL is an intelligent 
citizen and successful carpenter and contractor of Ac- 
worth, Ga. He was born about three and a half miles 
south of Covington in Newton county on October 15, 1864; so 
that though born in slavery, it was within a few months of the 
close of the slavery period. His father was Daniel Henry 
Russell, a blacksmith, and his mother Emeline (Johnson) Rus- 
sell, both slaves. His grandparents on the father's side were 
Arthur McGhee Russell and Sabina (Ivans) Russell; on the 
mother's side, Washington Whatley Luckie and Pheby (John- 
son) Luckie, all slaves. 

From 1872 to 1879, he attended a country school three months 
in the year in Newton county, and recalls that the chief diffi- 
culty he encountered in making progress in his studies was to 
avoid forgetting in the intervening nine months what he had 
learned in the three. He did make progress, however, and the 
fact that he acquired some literary taste is shown by his fond- 
ness for Shakespeare, Josephus and history. He places the 
Bible first of all, and keeps up with current events through the 
daily newspapers. The formation of his character and ideals 
he attributes mainly to his good Christian parents and good 
associates. 

He learned blacksmithing under his father and from that be- 
came operator of a portable engine, but for the past twenty-five 
years has been a carpenter and contractor in Acworth. There 
he erected the C. M. E., the A. M. E. and Baptist church build- 
ings and residences for a number of prominent citizens. He is 
not only conscientious in his work and a careful observer, but 




WILLIAM SHERMAN RUSSELL, 



300 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

also a student of the literature of his trade. He says in regard 
to this part of his career there is not much to tell ; that he simply- 
set out to master his trade and not knowing nor caring about 
obstacles he is still going up and the higher he goes the more 
room he has. That is doubtless very good philosophy but it 
nevertheless takes strong qualities to meet and overcome the 
obstacles. , 

On November 12, 1902, Mr. Russell was married to Miss Ella 
A. McKinley, daughter of John McKinley, of Atlanta. 

In politics he is a Republican and is more or less active in the 
counsels of his party, having for a number of years served as 
member of the County Executive Committee. He is a mem- 
ber of the Baptist church and of the United States Health and 
Life Insurance Company. 

Some more good philosophy is found in his outline of how, 
in his opinion, the welfare of his race can best be promoted: 
"We must be industrious and prompt; do what we promise to 
do or tell the reason why. "We must build ourselves up among 
our neighbors; do an honest day's work; be law-abiding, sober 
and moral; help uphold the law; stand together for the right; 
make friends and keep them." 



WILLIAM C. STRICKLAND 



PROF. WILLIAM C. STRICKLAND, one of the younger 
educators of Georgia, has made a creditable record and 
won an enviable reputation as a man of character and 
fair dealing. He was born at Suwanee, in Gwinnett county, 
August 12, 1879. His parents were George Washington and 
Laura (Langley) Strickland. Both had been slaves and his' 
father farmed. His grandparents were Joe and Mary Strick- 
land on the paternal side, and Archie and Betsy Langley on the 
maternal. Reared in slavery, they were without book learning 
but were of good character and lived to a good old age, ranging 
from seventy to ninety years. 

The rudiments of Prof. Strickland's education were obtained 




WILLIAM CLARENCE STRICKLAND. 



302 HISTOEY OF AMERICAN NEGEO 

in the public schools of Suwanee, from which he went to Clark 
University, Atlanta, graduating with degree of A, B. in 1909. 

Extreme self-denial was necessary to enable him to complete 
his college course, and energy as well. He worked hard, cutting 
wood and going errands, and lived on scanty rations. One 
week he had only bread and water. During the last five years, 
1897-02, he did his own cooking, but he stuck to the task he had 
set himself until he reached the goal and since leaving college is 
manifesting the same energy and force of character in his life 
work. He has made an auspicious start, and it is believed will 
inevitably win gratifying success. In the formation of his 
character and ideals he recognizes the value of influences alike 
of the home life, parents, schools and associates. In reading, 
he is especially fond of history and books having a strong moral 
and religious tone. 

He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church and is a 
Republican in politics. In addition to his work as a teacher, he 
is Field Secretary of the B. S. and D. of H., an organizer for 
the Independent Order of Woodmen and prominent in the 
work of the Good Samaritans. He belongs to other secret 
orders. He has achieved marked success as a book salesman 
and is a competent farmer. 

On August 7, 1912, he was married to Miss Ethel Nannette 
Jackson, daughter of Rev. James and Nancy Jackson of 
Savannah. She is a graduate of Clark University. 

Prof. Strickland has faith in the future of his race if they 
be but given justice in all things and a fair chance. 



WILLIAM A. McCLENDON 



REV. WILLIAM ANDERSON McCLENDON, one of the 
younger ministers of the A. M. E. connection, was born 
at Columbus on February 19, 1880. His father, Ander- 
son McClendon, was a carpenter by trade and a Baptist deacon. 
His mother's name was Rose. Back of them he knows but little 
of his ancestry. 

As a boy, he attended the public schools of Columbus and 



GEORGIA EDITION 303 

later night school at the Y. M. C. A. He learned the carpenter 
trade under his father and is himself a practical workman. At 
the age of seventeen he was converted and joined the A. M. E. 
Church. He was licensed two years later. Having decided to 
take up the work of the ministry he then entered the Theologi- 
cal Department of INIorris Brown University for the full four 
years. 

After being licensed, he supplied the Waverly Mission one 
year, when he was promoted to the EUerslee circuit where he 
remained for two years. From this circuit he was sent to Rice's 
mission one year. He joined the Conference at Bainbridge in 
1904 and his first Conference assignment sent him to Cusseta. 

On coming to Atlanta he was assigned to the Jackson End 
Mission and next year the Dover Street Mission. His first 
station was the St. James Station where he remained for two 
years and was then transferred to the Stone Mountain Circuit 
temporarily, but the next year was stationed at Barnesville 
where he remained for two years. From Barnesville he was sent 
to Warrenton Station which he held for three years and from 
Warrenton was appointed on his present work at St. Paul's, 
Atlanta. The circuits and stations to which he has been assign- 
ed have thriven under his direction and in several instances the 
church property has either been improved or freed from debt. 
He is a member of the Finance Committee of the Atlanta Con- 
ference, also a member of the Board of Trustees of Morris 
Brown University. In 1915 he was elected delegate to the 
General Conference of 1916. He belongs to the Odd Fellows, 
Pythians and Masons. He owns property at Barnesville. 

On November 27, 1911, he was married to Miss Mattie B. 
Owens, of Barnesville, who was educated at Spellman Seminary 
and was a teacher before her marriage. 



JOHN WARREN JACKSON 

IT is a far cry from a position of the most abject poverty 
at the end of the War between the States to a place of re- 
sponsibility and leadership among his people. Yet such 
has been the career of Rev. John Warren Jackson, D. D., pastor 




iiEV. .j(j,;:. .. Aiaii::x jackson. 



GEOKGIA KDiTlUX 305 

of the Liberty Baptist Church of Atlanta. It has taken patient 
effort and hard work, eoupled with perseverance and the grace of 
God to bring him to his present place. 

He was born at Whitesville, in Harris county, August 1, 1865, 
only a few months after the close of the war. His father, who 
had been a slave of the Billingsley family, escaped from slavery 
when "Wilson's army was in that part of the state, and enlisted 
as a soldier, and was mustered out at the close of the war, taking 
the name of Jackson instead of that of his former master. 
Young Jackson's mother was named IMary, and was a slave of 
the Truit family. She was entirely without means at the close 
of the war, and having other children, John was passed on to the 
Simmons family to be raised. Later, ]\Iatilda Simmons, who had 
charge of him, married an Atlanta man, and when John was 
seven years old moved to Atlanta. It was here in the public 
schools that he laid the foundation of his education. Later he 
attended Atlanta Baptist Seminary, now ^Morehouse College, but 
did not remain until graduation. In 1881, at the age of sixteen, 
he was converted at a meeting at the Congregational church, and 
in the following year connected himself with the Zion Hill 
Baptist Church. He was from the beginning active in the work 
of the church, and was later made a deacon, clerk of the church, 
and superintendent of the Sunday-school. Working during his 
boyhood as a laborer, he later stood the Civil Service examina- 
tion, and was a mail carrier in Atlanta up to the time of his 
entering the ministry. At various times he taught in the coun- 
try schools, and thus gained an intimate knowledge of the ad- 
vantages and of the needs of his people educationally. He 
was licensed to preach by the Zion Hill Church in 1889, and 
was in December of the following year ordained to the full 
ministry. 

He did not, however, enter upon the regular pastorate until 
1892, when he was called to the Eufaula Baptist Church, with 
a membership of about four hundred. Here he remained for five 
and a half years. Such were the blessings upon his work that 
when he left Eufaula the church had a membership of more 
than eight hundred. 

It was while in Eufaula that he established the Eufaula Bap- 



306 HISTOKY OF AMERJCAX NEGRO 

tist Academy, a secondary denominational school which is still 
running. Prom the very beginning Dr. Jackson has been an 
ardent advocate of education among his people. While he has 
not enjoyed the advantages which some of the other leaders have 
in the way of college training, still he is recognized as an edu- 
cational leader. Perhaps there is no better evidence of this than 
the fact that he is in such constant demand as a preacher of com- 
mencement sermons, and the fact that he has been identified 
with the educational work of his denomination wherever he has 
gone. 

In 1897 he was called to the Friendship Baptist Church, of 
Cuthbert, where he remained four years. Here again he was 
actively identified with the educational interests of the town, and 
kept in touch with the political activities of his people, and was 
a delegate to the Republican State Convention. After four years 
of service at Cuthbert, he was called to the Roanoke Baptist 
Church, of Hot Springs. Ark., where he immediately took rank 
as one of the leading preachers of his denomination and was 
made statistical secretary of the Arkansas Convention. After 
more than seven years of service in Arkansas, he was called to 
Atlanta as the first pastor of the then newly organized Liberty 
Baptist Church, with a membership of one hundred and twenty- 
nine. In the four years he has been with that church, it has 
grown to a membership of nearly four hundred, and is active 
in every department of the church work. In 1904 he received 
the honorary degree of D.D. from Guadalupe College, Seguin, 
Texas. 

On June 22. 1887, he was married to Miss Ida E. Bird, a 
daughter of David and Louisa Bird, of Atlanta. Six children 
have been born to them, four of whom are still living. They are : 
John W. Jr., now a mail carrier at Hot Springs, Ark. ; Antoi- 
nette B., a student at Spelman Seminary ; Lucius F. M., and 
Cornelius Arthur Jackson. 

Dr. Jackson is a member of the Masons, Odd Fellows and K. 
P's., in which ordei-s he has already held various official posi- 
tions. 

If one is inclined to wonder at the accomplishments of a man 
who began life with the utter absence of opportunities, it must 



GEORGIA EDITION 307 

be remembered that Dr. Jackson has been a student all his life. 
He has collected around him a carefully selected library, which 
is for service rather than for ornament. 

Since coming to Georgia he has taken an active part in the 
work of his denomination, and is now recording secretary of the 
State Education Board, and holds a similar position in the 
Atlanta Baptist ]\Iinisters' Union. He is in constant demand 
for evangelistic work, and spends considerable time each year 
assisting the pastors of his denomination out in the State. 

Dr. Jackson resigned the pastorate of Liberty church Jan- 
uary, 1914, to accept appointment as District Missionary for 
Georgia. This work is supported jointly by the Mission Boards 
of the National Baptist, the General Missionary Convention of 
Georgia, and the Southern Baptist Convention (white). His 
duties are to conduct Bible and missionary institutes and thus 
help the less fortunate ministers in their literary and theological 
preparation. 

In the recent movement which united the two Baptist Con- 
ventions, he was one of the commission of thirty who drafted 
the constitution and by-laws and re-organized the work of the 
denomination in the State, serving in the capacity of Secretary. 
His work on the field is highly satisfactory. 

His observations have led him to the conclusion that we are in 
sad need of reform along the line of the divorce evil, and that 
we yet have much to learn and more to practice in the science 
of eugenics. If he may be said to have a hobby, it is perhaps 
on the matter of education. He is an extensive, though discrimi- 
nating, reader, and after the Bible would perhaps put church 
and secular history and English literature as the books which 
he has found most helpful. 



LYNDON MAR CUS HILL 

AMONG the promising young physicians of Atlanta, is 
Lyndon Marcus Hill. He was born October 25, 1880, in 
Atlanta, where he has resided all his life. He is a son 
of Andrew and Lula Leigh Hill. His father is a stationary 
engineer. 



308 IILSTOIJY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

Dr. Hill, after attending the public schools of Atlanta, took his 
literary course at Clark I'nivorsity, from which institution he 
has the degree of H.S. After the completion of his literary 
course, he entered Meharry Medical College, graduating with the 
degree of i\LD. in 1911. 

Returning to his home town, he at once began the practice of 
medicine, which profession he has since followed. He is a 
Republican in politics, and a member of the jNIethodist church. 
He is also identified with the Idlewild Social Club and ,the 
Tennis Club of Atlanta. 

He comes to his work well equipped in body and mind to serve 
his day and generation. His qualifications as a physician are 
enhanced by one year spent in the study of pharmacy at the 
University of Michigan. 



JOHN HENRY ROBINSON 



REV. JOHN HENRY ROBINSON, a faithful minister of 
the A. M. E. connection in Georgia, has made for him- 
self a large place in the activities of his denomination 
in the State. He is a native of Georgia, having been born at 
Athens, February 4, 1870. His father, William Robinson, was 
a local Methodist preacher, his mother's name was Phyllis. 
l>oth parents being Clu-istians, he was brought up under the 
influence of the church and Sunday School and considers that 
early home training one of the best and most helpful influences 
that has come into his life. 

As a boy he attended the pul)lic schools of Athens and later 
entered Knox Institute of that city where he remained for 
three terms and Jeruel Academy four terms. 

At the age of fifteen he was converted and at once became 
active in the work of the church and Sunday School. Aliout 
five years later h(> felt called to the work of the ministry and 
was admitted to the Conference at Athens in 1894. Feeling the 
need of better preparation along the line of his life work, he 




JOHN HENRY ROBINSON. 



310 UlSTOliY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

entered the Theological Department of Morris Brown College 
from which he was graduated in 1906. His first appointment 
was to the Athens Mission. From this he went directly to the 
Elberton Station for a year. Then followed one year at Jeffer- 
son, three at Watkinsville, two at Athens Station, one at Cedar- 
town, two at Rockmart, one at Dalton, four at Kingston, two 
at Acworth, one at Marietta, one on the Rome Circuit, and at 
this writing (1915) has been on the work at Conyers one year. 
Mir. Robinson has in all his work kept in close touch with the 
white ministers whom he has found helpful and sympathetic. 

Elder Robinson is an active man in the pastorate. He de- 
votes considerable time each year to assisting his brethren in 
their evangelistic w^ork and has been the means of bringing 
large numbers into the church. He is not content, however, 
with merely bringing them in, but seeks to train them for 
service. 

Next after the Bible, he has found the Pilgrim's Progress 
and Clarke's works his most helpful books. He is a Trustee of 
Morris Brown College and a member of the Committee on 
Fourth Year. He attended the General Conferences which met 
at Norfolk and Kansas City, and in 1913 was a delegate to the 
Young People's Congress, Atlanta. 

For a number of years, he taught school in connection with 
liis ministerial work, and after having taught in Clarke county 
was engaged in the city schools of Elberton and while located 
at Kingston was Principal of that school. He is President of 
his Sunday School Convention and is also active in the work 
of the young people. 

On November 6. 1888, he was married to Miss Sallie Daven- 
port, of Augusta. She was educated at Augusta Payne College. 
Four children have been born to them. They are John Henry, 
Amelia, who is now a teacher. Shephard. Principal of the Indus- 
trial Department of the Academy for the Blind at Macon. He 
is a brilliant musician. The youngest child is McNeil Turner 
Robinson. 

Among the seoret orders. Mr. Robinson is identified with 
the Masons and tbo Odd Follows. 



HARRISON VINCENT 

REV. HARRISON VINCENT, the popular Moderator of 
the Western Union Baptist Association, lives near Stat- 
ham in Barrow county. He was born soon after the war 
in March, 1867, in that part of Clarke county which is now 
Oconee. His parents were Peter and Minerva Vincent. His 
grandfather was Jacob Vincent. 

As a boy he attended the public schools of Oconee county. 
He was converted in 1885, and joined the Barber's Creek Bap- 
tist Church, of which he is now pastor. He immediately felt 
called to the work of the ministry and was ordained the follow- 
ing year. Since that time he has served at the following 
churches: Smith's Chapel, V^alton, Buford, Appalachee 
Shoals, Fellowship, Good Hope, and Barber's Creek. He is now 
(1916) preaching at the last four, having been at Fellowship 
for 22 years, at Good Hope 18 years, and at Barber's Creek 
20 years. The four churches have a combined membership of 
more than 1,200, and Mr. Vincent has baptized over 1,000 dur- 
ing his ministry. Several new churches have been erected 
under his pastorate. They are Smith's Chapel, Tanner's 
Bridge, Good Hope, Fellowship and Barber's Creek. 

In addition to being Moderator of the local association he is 
also member of the Executive Board and is one of the Trus- 
tees of the Normal High school at Gainesville. 

In February, 1882, Mr. Vincent was married to Miss Emma 
Ivey, of Jackson county, a daughter of Wesley and Carolina 
Ivey. They have eight children: Myrtle, Peter, Harrison, Jr., 
Valvin, Frances, Bertha, Lilly and Maggie Vincent. 

In addition to his work as a minister Mr. Vincent is a success- 
ful business man and an extensive farmer. In 1884 ha moved 
to Jackson county, working on halves. In 1889 he bought a 
horse and rented land. Four years later he bought forty-five 
acres of land and has steadily increased his holdings until he 
now owns a plantation of 468 acres. On this he runs six plows, 
averaging about 8 bales to the plow and rents the balance of the 
place. He has his farm well equipped and lives in a comfort- 
able home which was built in 1903. 




HARRISON VINCENT. 



GEORGIA KDITIOX :u;} 

111 iiolitics he is a Republican and is identified with the 
Masons and was formerly an Odd Fellow. His favorite read- 
ing is the Bible, after that the denomination and race papers. 
Mr. Vincent is an active, energetic man, "Faithful in business, 
fervent in spirit, serving the Lord." He has not only won suc- 
cess for himself but is a worthy example to the young people of 
bis race. 



RALPH EUGENE JONES 



ONP] of the most popular and successful Negro dentists in 
Georgia is Dr. Ralph Eugene Jones, A. B., D. D. S., of 
Dawson. lie was born at Dalton on December 25, 1876, 
son of Rev. Allen Augustus Jones, a Presbyterian preacher, and 
Maggie M. (Bomar) Jones. His maternal grandparents were 
C. E. and Maliuda Bomar, and w^ere slaves, as were his parents 
prior to the war. 

The rudiments of his education were o])tained at Brainard 
Institute, Chester, S. C, after which he entered Biddle Univer- 
sity, at Charlotte, N. C, from which he was graduated in 1900 
with the A. B. degree. His professional course was at Meharry 
Medical College, Nashville, Tenn., where he won the D. D. S. 
degree in 1904. Through both the literary and the professional 
college he had to work his own Avay : but, notwithstanding that 
fact, he persevered, and after making an excellent record at 
those institutions entered upon his life work admirably equip- 
ped. He has never given much attention to athletics or physical 
culture, but is a firm believer in both, as he recognizes the great 
importance of a sound and strong body. No doubt special train- 
ing of this sort was less urgent in his owm case than some others, 
as his hustling to earn a livelihood and the wherewith to meet 
his college expenses doubtless kept his blood circulating and 
developed strength of muscle. 

Upon obtaining his dental diploma nine years ago, he located 
at Dawson, Ga., where by reason of his qualifications and his 
pleasing manner and fair dealing, he was immediately success- 




RALPH EUGENE JONES. 



GEOKGIA EDITION 315 

ful, and has built up a large practice, accumulated consider- 
able property, and won a high place in the esteem of the people 
of both white and colored races. He himself feels that the 
foundation for the character which is always the mainstay of 
the best success was laid in his early home under the direction 
of his Christian mother and father, and that his school associa- 
tions were also helpful. 

In his reading, he has given the preference to books treating 
of his profession, desiring to keep thoroughly informed and 
abreast with the advances of dental science. Outside of that, he 
has kept informed in regard to current affairs through the news- 
papers and magazines. He has added to his pleasure and cul- 
ture by traveling throughout the Southeastern States, as far 
westward as the Mississippi and beyond. Before entering his 
present profession he engaged in teaching, which is itself a valu- 
able training. 

On December 20, 1905, he was married to Miss Gertrude 
Roseborough, a daughter of Rev. S. D. Roseborough, D. D., of 
Cuthbert, whose biography appears in this volume. Two chil- 
dren were born to this union — Roseborough Eugene and 
Wyolene Earnestene Jones. 

Dr. Jones is a Republican in politics and a Presbyterian in 
religion. Among the secret orders he is identified with the Odd 
Fellows and ]\Iasons, in which he formerly held official positions ; 
but his professional work soon grew to such an extent that for 
the last several years he has been compelled to decline official 
responsibilities of all sorts. He believes that the interests of his 
race in the State and nation will be promoted by securing rep- 
resentatives of ability who are loyal to their (the Negroes') 
interests. 



WILLIAM ASLIN HINES 



JUST at the close of the war — on the Christmas of 1865 — 
a child was born to the strange, new conditions of his race 
and like nearly all other children of that era was born to 
a heritage of peculiar poverty. The Negro people had no wealth 



GEORGIA EDITION 317 

or institutions of their own, and although they liad just the 
same as ever the labor of their hands, how was it to be profitably 
utilized when those foi- whom tli(\v had worked in slavery were 
now impoverished ? 

If this small baby could have thought at that time of what 
were his probable chances in life, he undoubtedly would liave 
seen nothing ahead but starvation. That would have been the 
only thing, consistent with logic, to see. But fortunately the 
baby did not worry; and as he got old enough to realize his 
relation to life, he didn't worry either, but went ahead hustling. 
And today, William Aslin limes, that once lielpless baby of 
people made helpless by war. is lord of an estate that in some 
sections of the world would seem jM-incely — as indeed it will 
l)e in our own country in the future, while even now it is a most 
attractive holding. His parents were Ned and Amelia Hines. 
His mother was the daughter of Scott Beasley and his father 
was the son of Ned and Caroline Hines. They were all slaves. 
His grandfather was an old-time preacher, however, and the 
boy inherited the solid virtues of honesty, industry, modesty 
and self-respect from ancestors who did their best in the fear 
of the Lord. 

Mr. Hines has made a conspicuous success of a task in which 
all too many, even those with far better chances, utterly fail. 
He began farming at the age of twenty-two years. Previously 
he had been a farm laborer, getting only seven dollars a month 
wages. Now he began to work on shares. This he did for two 
years, meanwhile buying a mule. The next year he paid stand- 
ing rent and then began to buy land of his own. 

It is scarcely necessary to remark that those who have no help 
at the outset— who must buy land on credit, and then have all 
stock, tools, improvements and equipments still to buy, have 
a severe test of their endurance in sticking to farming. How 
well he met that test is evidenced by the fact that, without 
any other business or profession to rely upon, he now owns 
IO6I/2 acres of fine land on a good rural route near Madras, Ga. 
He raises ten bales of cotton to the plow and runs tw^o plows. 
Very wisely this excellent farmer does not try to put all his 
land into cotton. He diversifies, raises his home supplies, and 



318 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

practices the best methods of constantly building up his land, 
making the soil stronger and richer through ploughing under 
certain crops, letting it rest, and so forth. 

Meantime, for he was married November 23, 1882, to Miss 
Mary B. McGee, daughter of Sanford and Carry (Early) IMcGee 
of Troup County, he has raised four children who are creditable 
citizens. Their names are Thomas Jefferson, Ira Luther, Ola 
Florence (Mrs. Reid), and James Edward Ilines. 

Mr. Hines received a common school education in the country 
schools of Troup county and attended Clark University, though 
not long enough to graduate from that institution. He received, 
however, training sufficient to have been an assistant teacher if 
he had wished to do so, but he was eager to win an independence 
on the farm. 

In politics he is a Republican but not active. He takes promi- 
nent part in all the work of his church — the A. M. E. of which 
he is a steward. He belongs to the Odd Fellows and to the 
K. P's., and commands the respect of the entire community in 
which he resides. 

Through education and the influences of religion Mr. Hines 
believes the best interests of his race are to be promoted. He 
finds in the Bible his most helpful reading. 



GRIFFIN DAVID KING 



AMONG the successful educators and insurance men of 
the State is Prof. Griffin David King, of jNIacon. All his 
lifelong he has been a hard working, resourceful, enter- 
prising man. He was born during the war, September 24, 1862, 
at Burns, in Twiggs county. 

His father, David King, was a farmer. His mother's maiden 
name was Louisa Peck Ashley. His paternal grandfather was 
James King and his maternal grandfather Ephriam Ashley. 
The latter, although a slave, hired his time and was so indus- 
trious and honest that he commanded the respect of all the 
wliite people who knew liim and was loved and revered by his 




GRIFFIN DAVID KING. 



320 IIISTOKV OF A.MEHU'AX XEGKO 

own race. He preached and founded the ^Vlaiion 13aptist 
church in Twiggs county and was deacon thereof for many 
years. His first wife, Sylvia, was Prof. King's grandmother. 
She died before he was born but the grandfather lived until 
1882. 

Prof. King was married April 26, 1890, to j\Iiss Malvinn, 
Flagg, a daughter of William and Mary Ann Flagg, of Twigg 
county, Georgia. They have no children, but have adopted, 
reared, and educated the children of some relatives. 

As a l)oy. young King attended the public schools of ]\Iarion 
and later entered the LcAvis, now the Ballard, high school of 
j\Iacon. Even as a youth he was ambitious and after the death 
of his father, hired himself to a neighboring colored man for 
$40.00 a year, with the understanding that he was to go to 
school three months of each year. He began this at sixteen 
years of age and kept it up until he was eighteen. He had then 
finished the seventli grade and was anxious to go to Macon to 
the high school. With the consent of his mother he took work 
in a sawmill, where he could earn more money ; but the firm by 
which he was employed failed, owing him about thirty dollars 
which represented his savings for quite a Avhile. Undiscour- 
aged, however, he looked up another sawmill and secured work 
with the "floating gang." 

PJight at this point we see the stuff of which young King was 
made. iNlost of these sawmill hands were densely ignorant and 
aside from doing the rough work had no discipline. They were 
away from the influences of home, school, church, or organized 
community life. King was told that he would soon be like the 
rest under this demoralizing influence. However, he was put 
in as substitute for a man Avho had been called home, and did 
his work so satisfactorily that he was retained in that one place 
instead of drifting about. While working, he constantly kept 
n book by him ; and without neglecting his duties, would snatch 
a passage occasionally from the open volume. And in this baek- 
v,oods place he started a night school and organized a debating 
society — so, instead of being himself demoralized, he created in 
his associates a desire to learn and brought about a wondeil'ul 
improvement. King saw no reason why men who did this hard, 



GEORGIA EDITION 321 

manual labor should be left in a state of neglect on the mental 
and moral and spiritual sides. And conversely in his later work 
as a trained, instead of an amateur, teacher he was one of the 
first to successfully promulgate and demonstrate the value of 
industrial training in conjunction with books so that the -^hild 
may become a more efficient and useful member of society, as 
well as better able to make his own way. 

Prof. King continued at the sawmill until he saved money 
enough to enter Lewis High School where he made the eighth 
grade, and the following spring began teaching. He had plan- 
]ied to return to school after his own school was out but acciden- 
tally shot himself and, before he was well, lost his mother. His 
next work was in Houston County, where the school ran three 
months at that time. Desiring a longer term, he arranged with 
his patrons to send the older children during the early months 
of the year and again after the crops were done, retaining the 
younger children all the while. He enabled his patrons to pay 
the extra tuition by renting an adjoining piece of ground, which 
he planted to cotton and allowed them to cultivate. With the 
money thus earned, he Avas able in the fall of '87 to enter 
Atlanta Baptist, now Morehouse, College. 

He acknowledges, with gratitude, the good influences of 
his early home life. While his home was one of poverty it 
was one in which he was taught correct jDrinciples and right 
living. 

His career as a teacher has been interesting. In addition 
to the schools already mentioned, he taught at Fort Valley and 
at Davis Hill, near Perry. After finishing the Normal course 
at Morehouse College, he taught one term in Oglethorpe Coun- 
ty and then returned to Macon and began at the Bloomfield 
School, which was the smallest and poorest paid school in Bibb 
County. Such was his work, however, that he was promoted 
to the principalship of the Unionville School, at that time the 
head of the Country colored schools of Bibb County. Here he 
taught for nine years and resigned to accept the principalship 
of the IMontrose School, of Laurens County, and in 1902 was 
elected principal of the Pleasant Hill School, at Macon, sue- 



322 HISTORY OF AMEHK'AX XEGEO 

ceeding Prof. II. J. T. Hudson. He taught here one year and 
then entered business lines. 

Taking up insurance work in 1903, he forged rapidly ahead, 
until he is now recognized as one of the most capable indus- 
trial insurance men in Cieorgia. This position has by no means 
been reached without a struggle and the way has been made 
all the harder by obstacles put in his path by unprincipled 
competitors. Through it all, however, he has held tirmly to 
his purpose of making a success and that he has succeeded 
is evidenced not only by the position which he holds, but by 
the esteem in which he is held by the organizations Avith which 
he is identified. 

In politics, he is a Republican and secretary of the Bibb 
County Committee. Since his twelfth year he has been an ac- 
tive member of the Baptist church, and for years has been 
a deacon and Sunday School worker. He is a leader in the 
B. Y. P. U. and Y. M. C. A. Among secret orders, he is identi- 
fied with the Odd Fellows and the Wise Men of the East, of 
which latter organization he is auditor. 

Already he has accumulated considerable property and has 
before him the promise of a bright future. His taste in read- 
ing leans to the best English classics. 



RAYMOND HOLMES CARTER 



DR. RAY^MOND HOLINIES CARTER, who is now a settled 
man and a practicing physician at Newnan, is a native 
of Atlanta, where he was born ^Tay 28, 1881. He is a son 
of the distinguished .Bai)tist minister. Dr. E. R. Carter, whose 
sketch appears in another part of this volume. Dr. Carter had 
the advantage of being brought up in a Christian home of educa- 
tion and culture ; and while he was taught to work, and did work 
during his vacations, he had some years the start of many others 
of his race, who had first to earn the money ])efore they could 
avail themselves of the educational opportuniti(>s about them. 



GEORGIA EDITIOX 333 

He was early put to school at Atlanta University which he at- 
tended until 1892, when he entered Atlanta Baptist College 
where he won his A. B. degree in 1903. He took his medical 
course at Leonard Medical College, Raleigh, X. C, from which 
lie was graduated in 1907, with the degree of M. D. 

Returning to his home city he at once began the practice of 
medicine and surgery, since which time his progress has been 
steady. For a year and a half he was resident physician at 
Fairhaven Infirmary, Atlanta. In September, 1912, recogniz- 
ing the promising field occupied by the growing town of New- 
nan, he moved to that city where he has since resided. 

In 1910 he was elected Assistant Secretary of the Georgia 
State Association of Colored Physicians, Dentists and Pharma- 
cists and served in that capacity until 1912, when he was elected 
Secretary, which office he now holds. 

On Dec. 27, 1910, he was married to Miss Manie W. Cohron, a 
daughter of Emmett Cohron of St. Joseph, :\Io. They have two 
children, a daughter named Sybil and a son, Emmett. 

As a student Dr. Carter was active in College Athletics and 
played foot ball for six years — two years on the team of Atlanta 
Baptist College and four years at Leonard. While not active 
in politics, he classes himself as a Progressive, and in religion is 
a member of the Baptist church. He is not identified with the 
secret orders. 

Still a young man. Dr. Carter comes to his work well equipped 
and has before him a future full of promise. 



ROBERT TOOMBS DANIEL 



ROBERT TOOMBS DANIEL, a business man of Covington, 
Ga., is a fine example of what can be done by a man of 
pluck and energy, even when working under adverse con- 
ditions. This man, who is recognized as the most successful 
colored citizen of Covington, and whose home bears the marks 
of culture and refinement, began life as a poor slave boy. He 
was born at Danielsville January 8, 1858, and was thus a boy 



*Since this sketch was prepared Mr. Daniel has passed away. 




ROBERT TOOMBS DANIEL. 



GEOEGIA EDITION 325 

eight years of age at the outbreak of the War between the 
States. His father was a white man, A. C. Daniel. His mother, 
Mary Riley, was a slave. 

After the war, when he had grown to be a big boy, he ran away 
from home and went to Anderson, S. C, where he obtained what 
little schooling he had. As a young man, he served at boarding 
houses and hotels, and while in South Carolina learned the bar- 
ber trade. In 187-4, when he was about twenty-one years of age, 
he returned to Georgia and located at Covington. He opened 
up a barber shop in that city, and with this small beginning 
commenced to lay the foundation of the comfortable fortune 
which he has since accumulated. 

In the following year, February 23, 1875, he was married to 
Miss Annie L. Turner, of Newton county, a daughter of Green 
and Tomesia Turner. They have had ten children, eight of 
whom are living. Their names are as follows: Thomas T. 
(barber), Mary, Leonora (trained nurse), Katie, Willie, Maude 
(graduate of music Haines Institute, Augusta, Ga.), Evelyn and 
Mattie. 

]\Ir. Daniel early recognized the advantage of owning his home 
and such other real estate as his means would enable him to pay 
for. He gave satisfactory service at his shop and built up 
a profitable business, the returns from which he invested in real 
estate in Covington and in nearby farm property. As one lot or 
farm would be paid for, he would add another, and now is the 
owner of good renting property in that town and several farms 
outside, which he works by tenants. He has given to his chil- 
dren the educational opportunities which he lacked as a boy, and 
has done his part as a citizen in the town in which he lives. 
Though beginning life in so humble a way, he has reached a place 
of wealth and influence among his own people, and commands 
the respect and good will of his white neighbors. 

In politics he is a Republican, though he has not been active. 
He is a member of the Baptist church, of which he is also a 
deacon and superintendent of the Sunday-school. Among the 
secret orders he is identified with the Masons and Good Samari- 
tans. 

When one considers what has been accomplished by the poor 



32G HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

slave boy of Danielsville, almost without parental direction, and 
without the opportunities of an education, it ought to be a source 
of great encouragement to the young people of the race today, 
who have such superior advantages compared with the oppor- 
tunities of a generation ago. The accompanying engraving rep- 
resents Mr. Daniel at the age of 61. 



AUSTIN THOMAS WALDEN 



AUSTIN THOMAS WALDEN, of Macon, is one of few- 
young colored men in Georgia who has dared to enter 
the legal profession. He comes to his work well equip- 
ped in every way, and the future is bright with promise. 

He is a native of Fort Valley, where he w^as born April 12, 
1885. His parents, Jeff AValden and Jennie (Tomlin) Walden. 
were both slaves. Back of them he knows nothing of his an- 
cestry, save his paternal grandparents. 

When of school age he attended the Fort Valley High and 
Industrial School, and later Atlanta University, from which he 
was graduated with the degree of A. B. in 1907. His three 
years' law course was taken at ^Michigan University, from which 
he was graduated in 1911 with the degree of LL. B. This out- 
line of his education, however, gives no adequate idea of the 
work and effort which it was necessary for the young man to 
put into the task. Even as a boy at Fort Valley he worked dur- 
ing the summer season, especially the peach season, and saved 
his money for educational purposes. This process began when 
he was only twelve years of age. He was accustomed to work at 
whatever offered an opportunity to earn an honest dollar, keep- 
ing steadily in mind the purpose for which it was intended. 
After he had been to college, he taught for one year at Knox 
Institute, Atliens. and in that way saved enough money for his 
first year at ^Michigan University. While taking that course, he 
filled in his vacation time with work on the lakes and at hotels. 
As a student he was popular, took an active part in college 




AUSTIN THO:*IAS WALDEN. 



328 HISTUUY OF AMEKICAN NEGRO 

athletics, especially baseball, and from his early college days was 
recognized as an able debater, and graduated with high standing 
in a class of two hundred at the University of Michigan, at Ann 
Arbor. Both while at Atlanta University and at Michigan, he 
took an active part in literary and debating societies, and in 
Atlanta was president of the college Y. :\I. C. A. and identified 
with the Phi Kappa society. 

After graduation, he located in Macon in 1912, where he has 
since done a general practice, and where already he is attracting 
to himself a good clientage. He has been admitted to the prac- 
tice not only in the State courts, but in the Supreme Court of 
Georgia and in the United States courts. He argued his first 
case, a murder case, before the Supreme Court of Georgia only 
four months after his admission to the bar. He is perhaps the 
first one of his race to argue a case before that high tribunal. 

Though not active in politics, he classes himself a Republican. 
He is a member of the Baptist church, in which he is a deacon 
and a teacher of a men's class in the Sunday-school. Among the 
secret orders he is identified with the Masons, Pythians and Wise 
Men of the East — being attorney for the latter in America. He 
is also attorney for various corporations in the city of INIacon, 
and is a member of the National Geographic Society, a learned 
scientific organization of AVashington, D. C. 

Among the things which he thinks ought to be emphasized by 
and for his people are education, sanitation and justice. 



SAMUEL SCIPIO HUMBERT 



PROF. SAMUEL S. HUMBERT, of Montezuma, Ga., is one 
of the well-known, substantial and public-spirited citizens 
of the Negro race in Southwest Georgia. He was born at 
Tumbling Shoals. Laurens county, South Carolina, September 
15, 1865. His parents were Samuel Humbert, Sr., and Matilda 
(Wood) Humbert, botli of whom were slaves, liave passed 
away. Samuel Humbert. Sr., was a farmer by occupation, while 
his wife, Matilda, was a cook and weaver. They were of pro- 




SAMUEL SCIPIO HUMBERT. 



;330 ]I]8T0RY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

nounced Christian character, and exacted of their children im- 
plicit obedience, truthfulness, honesty, promptness, industry and 
economy. Religious books were furnished the children, and the 
family was always found at religious services on Sunday. They 
were permitted to associate only with children of recognized 
good character. Our subject recognizes the fact that this sort 
of careful training was the strongest intiuence in shaping his 
life and character, and acknowledges the debt with gratitude. 

The family had a sufficiency of the necessaries of life, and 
young Samuel was permitted to attend the public schools and 
occasional private schools; but educational facilities at that 
time, especially for the Negroes, were far below what they are 
now. The public schools ran only from one to three months in 
the year, the teachers were themselves often inefficient, and the 
equipment of a rather primitive order. After reaching the 
age of about fifteen, he paid his father thirteen dollars per 
month for his time, and by constant, hard work managed to 
earn thirty dollars picking cotton, which netted him for his own 
use seventeen dollars. This and money earned from other sources 
enabled him to take a course at Brewer Normal School, at 
Greenwood, S. C, from 1884 to 1888, and then at Atlanta Bap- 
tist College, from wliich he graduated in 1889. He has, how- 
ever, declined all honorary degrees, in which he stands almost 
unique not only among the people of his own race, but among 
others as well ; but he is a man of a modest and unassuming 
disposition, who prefers to do his work in a quiet way. In 1891 
he went to Southwest Georgia. 

His life has been devoted mainly to teaching and farming, in 
])oth of which he has been successful. To the former, whieli 
was begun at Bordeaux, S. C, in 1887, he has devoted in all 
twenty years. In 1896 he came to ]\Iontezuma, Ga., and ten 
years later, in 1906, engaged in the mercantile business for six 
years, or until 1912; but is since that time teaching and farm- 
ing again. 

Notwithstanding his modesty, Prof. Humbert's genuine 
worth has not failed of recognition, and he has been called 
upon to serve in various public capacities, and his interest in 
matters affecting the public welfare has been such that he has 



GEORGIA EDITION 331 

not shrunk from such duties. For sixteen years he has served 
as secretary of the Republican Executive Committee of the 
Third Congressional district of Georgia, and was a delegate to 
the Republican National Convention which met in Chicago in 
1904. He has also been for seventeen years secretary of the 
board of trustees of the American Institute, at Americus, Ga., 
which under the presidency of Professor M. W. Reddick has 
rendered important service in an educational way. 

On December 23, 1893, Prof. Humbert was married to Lena 
Felton, daughter of Richard and Chenie Felton, of Marshall- 
ville. Of the seven children born to them, five are now living, 
as follows: lona, Richard, Willie, Milridge and Vivian. 

Naturally, a man of Prof. Humbert's strong religious senti- 
ment places the Bible first hi his i-eading. He is also fond of 
the poems of Pope and Longfellow, of Williams' History and 
"Men of ^lark," and other works of a similar character. His 
culture has also been enhanced by observation, as he has travel- 
ed over a third of the states in the Union. He is a member of 
the ^Missionary Baptist church. Among the secret orders, he is 
affiliated with the Knights of Pythias, in which he is District 
Deputy Grand Chancellor, and member of the Courts of 
Calanthe. By thrift and economy he has accumulated some 
property, and has come to be known as one of the moderately 
well-to-do men of his community. Asked as to how in his opin- 
ion the best interests of the people of his race in the State and 
nation might be promoted, his answer was: "Love, respect for 
each other, obedience to law, religion, education, industry, 
economy and sobriety." The value of these has been demon- 
strated in his own character, in his service to others, and in the 
material success which he has wrought out. 



PETER JAMES BRYANT 



THE Wheat Street Baptist Church of Atlanta is the larg- 
est single Negro congregation in America. Its member- 
• ship numbers more than five thousand. One casually 
meeting their slender, i-atlier delicate looking pastor. Rev. Peter 




PETER JAMES BRYANT. 



GEORGIA EDITION 333 

James Bryant, D. I)., would hardly thiuk of him as the great 
general, the foreeful leader, and magnetic preacher which a 
study of his work proves him to be. 

When he came to Atlanta in IMay, 1898, at tlie age of twenty- 
six, it was to a congregation numbering sixteen hundred. Dur- 
ing his pastorate, the work has grown under his hand to a mem- 
bership of more than five thousand, maintaining a Sunday 
School of more than a thousand. The church supports a mis- 
sionary ill South Afi-ica, a city missionary in Atlanta, an Old 
Folk's Home and leads the churches of the denomination in the 
State ill benevolence, besides running a day and night school 
with both literary and industrial features. 

Let us look for the secret of his success as a leader in the 
simple story of his life. He is a native of Sylvania, Screven 
county, Ga., where he was born April 28, 1870. His parents, 
Rev. Inman and Caroline Moore Bryant, were slaves. His father 
was a well known Baptist preacher. The life and example of 
the elder preacher with his implicit faith in God and unshakable 
belief in the Bible became the model and ideal of the son. At 
his birth his mother" set him apart "to the ministry, calling him 
her preacher son, and he does not recall the time when he did 
not feel that his life work had to be the ministry. Converted and 
joining the church at ten years of age, he had already read the 
Bible through, was assisting his father in prayer meetings at 
eleven and was Superintendent of the Sunday School at twelve. 
At fifteen he had already begun to preach. Even as a small 
boy before joining the church it was not unusual for him to 
gather his playmates together and have meeting. Even the 
expiring chickens and pets could count on a funeral sermon if 
j^oung Bryant had his way. 

"When of school age he was sent to the Pilgrim High School of 
Guy ton and after completing that course entered the Atlanta 
Baptist College from which he was graduated in 1891. Ten 
years later the same institution conferred on him the degree of 
D. D. A similar honor came to him from Guadaloupe College, 
Texas. 

The money he earned as a boy and young man was applied 
to his education. As clerk of his Sunday School or church 



334 TTISTOl^Y OF AMERICAN NEGEO 

association he would earn a few dollars which was augmented 
by his earnings as a teacher during liis vacations. His work 
as a teacher covered a period of ten years, beginning in Elbert 
county when he was sixteen years of age. He next taught at 
Jonesboro, and later at Guyton, his home town. In his work as a 
teacher he made an enviable record. Apart from the teaching 
which he still does in connection with his church, his final and 
perhaps his best work as an educator was at Madison, Ga., where 
lie was principal for- five years, from '93 to '98. 

His work as a pastor also began when he was little more than 
a boy. At sixteen he was pastor of two churches, Egypt and 
Rocky Ford. In this work he had the wise direction and co- 
operation of his father. His next pastorate was at Godfrey in 
Greene county. It was while on this work and living at Madison 
that he was principal of the school at the latter place. As his 
work gained recognition, larger fields opened up to him. In 
1895 he accepted a call to Covington where he remained for two 
j^ears and then went to Americus for one year. From that work 
he was called to his present position in ]May, 1898. 

Here the man and the opportunity were fairly met. He was 
young, alert and ambitious for the work of his Master. He was 
also well equipped. He stood for character rather than show 
and believed in the efficiency of work rather than noise. His 
field was "white unto the harvest." Every department of the 
work was organized and began to grow apace. This widening 
of his opportunities was recognized by the young pastor as a 
responsibility which he sought to meet by doing constructive 
work. So his church is not merely a preaching station but a 
great religious workshop. 

Dr. Bryant is a forceful and attractive speaker and is much in 
demand, not only in Georgia but throughout the nation. He is 
a dominant figure in the annual gatherings of his denomination 
and occupies a prominent place on various boards and commit- 
tees. When in 1915 the two Baptist Conventions of Georgia 
were merged into one organization his church was selected as 
the meeting place. 

Apart from his theological reading he gives large place to 
history and biography. He keeps abreast of the times through 



GEORGIA EDITIOX ;5;55 

current newspapers and magazines. In polities Dr. Bryant is a 
Republican and as a leader counsels his people freely. Among 
the secret orders he is identified with the Masons, Odd Fellows 
and Pythians. He has for years been actively connected with 
the progress and development of the Y. M. C. A. work in At- 
lanta. 

On October 26, 1892, Dr. Bryant was married to Miss Sylvia 
Jenkins, a daughter of Cecil and Rosa Jenkins of Savannah. She 
was educated at Beech Institute, Savannah, and Spelman Semi- 
nary, Atlanta. At both institutions she made an enviable record. 
She began teaching as a young girl. After her marriage she con- 
tinued her work as a teacher and after moving to Atlanta took 
sjjecial courses at Spelman in order that she might be able to 
serve her people in a large way. Accordingly she is one of the 
most accomplished and versatile teachers in the South. She 
enters heartily into all the work of her distinguished husband 
whose splendid accomplishments have l)een made possible by her 
whole hearted co-operation. 



CORNELIUS M. MANNING 



AMONG the older leaders of the race in the South in both 
political and religious circles, few have been more active 
or done more efficient work than Rev. Cornelius IMax- 
well Manning, of Atlanta. 

He is a native of North Carolina, having been born in the 
historic old town of Edenton, December 8, 1845. His father 
was IMoses W. ]Manning, a tailor hy trade and a minister by pro- 
fession, who had been born in Canada. His motlier, Millie E. 
Johnson, was a native of Edenton and was of Burmese and Afri- 
can extraction. She was a slave, but her freedom was pur- 
chased by her husband, together with tliat of their oldest son. 
While Dr. Manning was still an infant the family moved to 
Philadelphia and later to New York. He was educated, there- 
fore, in the Institute for Colored Youths in Philadelphia and 
completed his literary course at Lincoln I'niversity, in 1872. He 




CORNELIUS MAXWELL MANNING. 



GEORGIA EDITION 337 

made his financial way through school by working as cook at 
Northern Summer resorts. Years later, 1900, Morris Brown Col- 
lege conferred upon him the degree of D. D. 

In 1867, which was the year of his conversion. Dr. Manning 
began teaching at Hertford, N. C, and in 1868 was elected dele- 
gate from Perquimans county to the new State Constitutional 
and nominating conventions. The same year he returned to the 
old home, Edenton, and founded there French Academy, an in- 
stitution which is still running as Edenton Normal and Indus- 
trial Institute. 

Having felt called to the ministry, he began his work as a 
preacher of the A. M. E. Z. church at liig Wesley chapel in 
Philadelphia in 1874, was ordained a deacon in 1878, an eldier in 
1879 and elected delegate to the General Conferences in 1880, 
1892, 1896 and 1900. Meantime, in 1881, he had joined the 
A. M. E. church under Bishop Dickerson at Augusta, Ga., and 
was assigned to Savannah for two years, Newnan one year, Car- 
tersville one year, Acworth two years, Lexington three years, 
Palmetto two years, Madison one year and Washington one year. 
This latter service brings his career up to 1896, in which year 
under appointment of President Cleveland, he went to Liberia 
as Secretary to the U. S. Legation at that point. He utilized 
this opportunity to do all the good possible, working as a mis- 
sionary of the A. M. E. church. He pastored a church up St. 
Paul's River one year, and the second year of his stay pastored 
at ^Monrovia and assisted the church in building a liouse of wor- 
ship there. After his return lie served as Professor of Homi- 
letics and Sacred History at Turner Theological Seminary eight 
years. 

In 1914 Dr. Manning was appointed to the Athens station 
which is regarded as having one of the most cultured congrega- 
tions in the connection. In 1915 he was elected to the General 
Conference. 

Dr. INIanning's activities, however, have not been confined sole- 
ly to the work of the church, but he has taken an active part in 
the movements which had to do with the progress and develop- 
ment of his race. Admirably fitted by training and experience 
as a leader, he has been recognized by both races and frequently 



338 JlJSTOliY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

placed in positions of honor and trust. In 1884 he was ap- 
pointed Commissioner to the New Orleans Exposition, and his 
appointment to Liberia has been briefly described. 

He saw military service during the war as a member of Com- 
pany K, Thirty-Fifth U. S. Infantry, from '63 to '66. AVith his 
command he took part in the bombardment and final capture of 
Fort Wagnc)'. was in the engagements of Olustee, Honey Hill 
(or Pocotalligo) and was not mustered out of the service until 
nearly a yeai' after the close of the war. 

In 1868 lie was married to Miss Elizabeth A. Hathaway of 
Edenton, N. C. She bore him two children, Chas. C, deceased, 
and Anna (J. (now i\Irs. Todd). Subsequent to his first wife's 
death, he again married, in 1884, Mrs. INIary A. (Wesley) 
Thomas, a daughter of David and Elizabeth Wesley, of Augusta. 
Of the four children l)orn of this union two survive — Lorenzo 
D. C. and Robert W. ^Manning. 

Dr. Manning is a Thirty-Third Degree ]Mason. and is also 
prominently identified with the Odd Fellows. His intellectual 
calibre may be inferred from the lines of reading he has found 
most helpful. They are: History, sacred and profane; philoso- 
phy and poetry, especially the English classics, such as Shake- 
speare, Milton and Tennyson. While he has not himself been a 
prolific writer, he has occasionally contributed to church papers, 
and some years ago prepared a booklet entitled "Is God Know- 
able?" He also wrote a hymn, ''Creative Week," which has 
found a permanent place in the hymnal of his denomination. 

Out of a long experience, he would advise young men not to 
divide their energies in this day of specialties by trying to mas- 
ter too many things, but to seek to be proficient in some chosen 
line of work or profession. He considers the questions of immi- 
gration and temperance among the most important with which 
we have to deal as a natioji. He lias given careful thought to 
our social and economic conditions, and believes that the best 
interests of Gcoi'gia may be served, not by a policy of repression, 
but by a policy wliicb would give larger opportunities, which 
would inspire lioiie. With this in view, he would like to see 
better wages, better school facilities, better quarters in the coun- 
try, and a ixmuiI system wliich would undertake to reform, 



GEORGIA EDITION 339 

rather than punish the criminal. To this end, he advocates the 
abolition of stockade sentences, shackles and stripes, as well as 
corporal punishment. 



ROBERT BENJAMIN WILLIAMS 



NO record of the religious leaders of Georgia would be com- 
plete without a sketch of Rev. Robert Benjamin Williams, 
D. D., a prominent evangelist and pastor of the New 
Macedonia Baptist church, of ^lacon. 

He w^as born near Westlake, in Twiggs county, August 4, 1869. 
He has a better record of his ancestry than has the average color- 
ed person. His parents, who were both slaves, were Peter and 
Rhoda (McCrae) Williams. His father, who is still living 
(1916), was in his active years a drayman and laborer. His 
paternal grandparents were Peter and Sallie Williams, his 
maternal grandparents werfe Bob and Rebie iNlcCrae. His great 
grandparents, Harry and Hester Powell, were brought to 
Georgia from further North, the one from Virginia and the 
other from the Eastern shore of INlaryland. His parents, though 
poor, were pious, God-fearing people, who taught their chil- 
dren obedience to the law and to God. 

Growing up on a farm in Twiggs county, young Williams had 
but meagre opportunities for an education. He did attend the 
public schools, however, and thus learned to read and write. 
The family moved to Macon when the boy was about twelve 
years old. When fourteen years of age he began railroad work as 
a water carrier. After three years of this, he took up the skilled 
forms of railroad service in which he was steadily promoted. 

When about seventeen years old he was converted and joined 
the New Zion Baptist church. Feeling called to the work of the 
ministry he was in 1893 licensed and in June of the same year 
ordained to the full work of the ministry by Bethesda Baptist 
church. 

On December 24, 1888, he was married to IMiss Lulu Howard, 
a daughter of IMiles and Laura Howard. They have had six 




ROBERT BENJAMIN WILLIAMS. 



GEOKGIA EDITION 341 

children, of whom the followmg are living; R. B., Jr., Mary, 
(Mrs. Wimberly), Martha (Mrs. Pitts). Ethel and Lily Williams. 

Coming into the work of the ministry after his marriage and 
with but limited education, he felt sorely the need of better prep- 
aration for his life work. To educate himself and his children 
at the same time was no easy task but he managed by dint of 
hard work and rigid economy to enter Central City College, at 
Macon, graduated from the Theological Department in 1904, and 
from the Academic Department in 1906. This schooling has been 
supplemented by a correspondence course. The degree of D. D. 
was conferred upon him in 1910. 

In the spring of 1893. he began a little mission in Murray's 
alley, ]\Iacon, without a member. In two weeks time, he had 
gathered about him ten faithful souls who banded themselves 
together in what has since become the New Macedonia Baptist 
Church. These new members were baptized in a neighboring 
church and on July 2, 1893, called ^Nlr. AVilliams to the pastorate 
of the newly organized church, which he has served continuously 
from that time to the present and which he has seen grow under 
his hand from this small beginning to a great congregation 
which has twice required a new building. 

He has not confined his efforts, however, to this Church alone, 
but since entering the ministry has pastored the following 
churches: Irwinton, one year; Harrison Springs, four years; 
Union Hill, one year; Bethel Church (Americus), six months; 
Holly Grove, near Macon, eight months; Thomas Grove, 
(AYaynesboro) nine years, Ebenezer (Ellaville), two years; 
Tennille Grove, nineteen years. During these years he has built 
two houses of worship for the ]Maeon church, one at Harrison 
Springs and another at Waynesboro. He has repaired the 
houses of w()rship at Irwinton and Tennille and is now making 
repairs on the Macon church amounting to about $2,000.00. 

Although a successful pastor. Dr. Williams perhaps excels in 
evangelistic work and in this capacity has preached in every 
part of Georgia and several of the adjacent States. Some of his 
most successful meetings have been held in Philadelphia. 
Thousand of members have been brought into the church through 
his meetings. 



342 JIISTOHY OV AMERICAN NEGRO 

In politics, he is a Republican and among the secret orders is 
identified with the Odd Fellows, Pythians, Sons and Daughters 
of Peace, United Laborers of Macedonia Society, of which he has 
been president since its organization. While not engaged in a 
lucrative business, still Dr. Williams has managed to accumulate 
some property and has investments at Bridgehampton Park, 
Long Island, New York, and Lincoln Heights, near Washington, 
in addition to his home place at Macon. 

Dr. Williams is secretary of the Board of Trustees of Central 
City College, Macon, and treasurer of the Gum Creek ^Missionary 
Baptist Association. He regularly attends the national conven- 
tions. 

When asked how the best interests of the race might be pro- 
moted, he replied : "Be conservative in all undertakings, law 
abiding, educate the children, buy homes and farms, build up 
bank accounts, be courteous to both friends and enemies and love 
and serve God." 

Next after the Bible, his favorite reading consists of the cur- 
rent magazines and standard classics. 



NOAH BORDERS 



MEN who were born in slavery and wlio grew to young 
manhood during the hard years that followed the war 
had to contend with hardships and difficulties their 
children know nothing about. The slave was not permitted to 
learn to read, nor did he own any property. So when freedom 
came the former slave and his family were both poor and igno- 
rant. INIost of that generation remained so. but some of them 
have succeeded in a way which neither they nor their masters 
would have thought possible fifty years ago. 

Among those who have succeeded as farmers is Noah Borders, 
of Polk county. He was born INIarch 7, 1854, and was thus 
eleven years old at the close of the war. His parents. Andy 
and ^Tary Borders, were both slaves. His grandfather was a 
Kemp, while his mother's people were Peeks. 




NOAH BORDERS. 



344 IILSTOKY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

After the war Noah grew up on the farm and remained with 
his father till he was twenty-four years old. He then began 
renting and farming for himself. The first year he made sixty 
dollars. Later he bought land beginning with a forty-acre tract 
for which he paid a hundred and ninety dollars. He has kept 
on buying land till he now has two hundred and twenty acres, 
worth more than five thousand dollars. He makes between 
thirty and forty bales of cotton a year and much grain 
and produce. He is steadily improving his place which grows 
in value every year. He has himself always been a hard worker 
and until recently has been a great basket maker. 

On November 11, 1880, he was married to Mary Murphy, of 
Polk county. They have eleven living children : Dan, Delia 
(Mrs. Rodgers), Postell, James, Bertha, Neal, Herman, Pearlie, 
Katie, Money and Richard Borders. Two dead : Robert and 
William Borders. 

Except one visit to Kansas, I\Ir. Borders has not traveled ex- 
tensively. 

He was past forty before he was received into the church. He 
is now a member of the A. M. E. church of which he is a trustee. 
He has also been steward and class leader. In politics, he is 
a Republican and among the secret orders is a Mason. 

Noah Borders is a man who stands well, not only among his 
own people, but with his white neighbors as well, who are 
always ready to lend a helping hand when the need arises. 



ROBERT RAYMOND HOLMES 



NO record of the educational life of the Negroes of Georgia 
would be complete without some account of the work of 
Prof. Robert R. Holmes, of Waycross, Supervising Prin- 
cipal of Colored Schools. He stands high among the younger 
men of the race who are devoting their lives to the progress of 
the race along educational lines. 

He is a native of Albany, where he was born November 30, 
1876. His father, Noah Holmes, \vho is still living (1916) is a 




ROBERT RAYMOND HOLMES. 



3-lG iiLSTUKY or AMERICAN NEGRO 

carpenter and a local ]\Ictliodist preacher. His mother's maiden 
name was Juno Allen, When of school age, young Holmes at- 
tended the Albany public schools and, when ready for College, 
entered the Georgia State Industrial College at Savannah from 
which he was graduated with the degree of A. B. in 1904. 
Along with his classical course he took carpentry and is a prac- 
tical builder. He lives in a comfortable home on Black well 
street, which he himself erected. His education cost him years 
of hard work, but he believes any boy by industry and applica- 
tion can get an education. 

After completing his course at Savannah, he taught one year 
in the Temperance Industrial and Collegiate Institution, Clare- 
mont, Va. AVhile there he superintended the construction of 
Bagley Hall, the main school building of the Institution. He 
took up the work at Waycross in 1906 and opened with fifty- 
two pupils. In ten years the enrollment has grown to seven 
hundred and fifty with a teaching force of fourteen. Prof. 
Holmes has done special Summer School work at Hampton and 
at Chicago University, specializing at the latter in economics, 
history and manual training. 

In politics he is a Republican. He is a member of the A. >\I. 
E. church in which he is a steward. 

On August 28, 1907, he was married to ]Miss Jessie Bradley, 
of Savannah. ]\Irs. Holmes was educated at Beach Institute 
and the Georgia State Industrial College, Class 1901. 

They have two children. Katherine and Robert R. Holmes, Jr. 

Prof. Holmes' favorite reading is history. Naturally he con- 
siders proper education one of the most pressing needs of his 
race. He emphasizes industrial training in his work as far as 
possible under the public school system. At the recent twenty- 
fifth anniversary of the Georgia State Industrial College, Prof. 
Holmes was unanimously elected president of the General Alumni 
Association of his Alma Mater. He is regarded as one of the 
most prominent Orange and Blue men in the State. In 1916 
he began the publication of an educational paper entitled the 
Vanguard which is the pioneer Colored Pu])lic School Journal 
in the State. 



WILLIAM ROY HUDSON 



PROF. WILLIAM ROY HUDSON, Principal of the col- 
ored public school at Warrenton, Ga., has behind him a 
record of thirty-six years of honest, earnest and efficient 
work as a teacher. During that period he has at diflterent times 
had charge of five different schools, the patrons of any of which 
would be glad to welcome him back today. 

He was born in the town in which he now lives on February 
22, 1861, — just a few years before the close of the period of 
slavery. His fatlier, W. J. Hudson, was a successful mer- 
chant after the war, and his mother's maiden name was Julia 
Loach. She was a daughter of Sanuiel Ivey, a native of Vir- 
ginia, and of Susan Loach, who was of Indian descent. 

Prof. Hudson was educated in the schools of his native town 
of Warrenton and in Atlanta Baptist, now ]\Iorehouse, College, 
Atlanta, graduating from the latter in 1883 with the degree of 
A. "SI. He was a poor boy, and had to struggle for his educa- 
tion, earning what he could by work at odd times. His work 
as a teacher began at Camak, Ga., in 1879, four years before his 
graduation at ]\Iorehouse. It was by this means that he worked 
his way through college. In 1884 he returned to his home town 
to take charge of the school which he had attended as a boy. 
That he was chosen for this work in the community where he 
was reared and best known, is no small compliment to his char- 
acter and standing. 

On March 3, 1893, he was married to INIiss Anna L. ]\I. Par- 
rott, daughter of Samuel and Laura Parrott, of Greensboro. 
Of the twelve children born to them, eight are now (1916) liv- 
ing, as follows: Louise Eoline, George Dewey, Ruth, Anna 
Marie, Ruble Ethel, William Roy, Jr., Mabel and Claude M. 
Hudson. 

Prof. Hudson's preferred reading is along the lines of books 
on teaching, good magazines and the current newspapers, so 
that he keeps well informed both as to current events and as to 
the best methods of teaching. In politics he is a Republican, 




WILLIAM ROY HUDSON. 



GEOECJIA EDJTION 349 

though not active in a political way. He is a consistent and 
vahied member of tlie A. I\I. E. church and is Superintendent 
of the Sunday School. Among the secret orders he is affiliated 
with the Masonic Lodge, of which he is secretary, and also a 
member of tlie I. 0. of 0. F. and the I. B. O. He believes that 
what the people of his race in this country most need is to get 
a better education, to learn the trades and professions, to keep 
out of politics, to live closer to God and be better citizens. 

It is no small tribute both to his economy and his business 
capacity, that though devoting his life mainly to a line of work 
that is never very lucrative, he has yet succeeded in accumulat- 
ing property to the value of ten thousand dollars. A large 
part of this is in farm property in Warren and Greene counties. 
His combined holdings amount to more than three hundred 
acres. So while beginning life as a poor and ignorant slave boy, 
he has by a life of morality, industry and thrift, become a skill- 
ful educator, a well-to-do and influential citizen and a worthy 
and inspiring example to the younger generation. 



HENRY MAYBELL SMITH 



REV. HENRY MAYBELL SMITH, of Crawford, illus- 
trates in his own life and work what may be done under 
adverse conditions and in the face of difficulties. He was 
born a slave at Athens, Ga., February 14, 1852. His father, 
Patrick Henry Smith, was a carpenter by trade. His mother 
was Nancy Crawford. The boy was thirteen when freedom 
came. It was against the law to teach a slave so he could neither 
read nor write. After the war he entered the public school at 
Athens. Here his progress was rapid and steady. His college 
education was limited to a part of one term at Atlanta Univer- 
sity. It should be said however, that Elder Smith has been a 
student from the time he learned to read till the present. By 
dint of hard work he was soon able to secure a teacher's license 
and began teaching in Elbert county. The next year he went 




HENRY MAYBELL SMITH. 



GEORGIA EDITION 351 

to Penfield in Greene county where he built up a good school 
and taught for fourteen years. Even after moving to Crawford, 
he Avas again pressed into educational work temporarily. Such 
was the character of his work in the schoolroom, however, that 
the patrons of the school kept him teaching till the pressing 
duties of his growing pastorates made it absolutely necessary 
for him to abandon the educational work. 

He was converted at the age of twenty-one and two years 
later felt called to the work of the ministry. He was licensed 
by the church at Penfield and ordained to the full work of the 
ministry by the church at Penfield in 1885. Called to the 
church at Crawford in 1886, since that time he has come into 
a place of prominence and leadership in his denomination and 
his ministry has been marked by long pastorates. He accepted 
a call to the Springfield Baptist church, Crawford, Ga., in 1886 
and has served it continuously for thirty years. He preached at 
Penfield for two years, leaving there because he could not give 
the church as much time as was required. He has pastored the 
church at Crawfordville since 1887 and Lexington and Mor- 
ton's Chapel since 1892. Since taking up the work he has 
baptized between three and four thousand converts. 

Elder Smith is active in the work of his denomination and is 
a regular attendant at the State and National Conventions. He 
is secretary of the Jeruel Association and a member of the 
Board of Trustees of the Jeruel Academy at Athens. He is also 
on the Executive Board of the State Convention and of the 
Reformatory. 

While placing the Bible first in his reading, he finds history 
helpful and keeps up with current events through the news- 
papers and the magazines. He runs a small farm and lives in a 
comfortable home at Crawford. He is not active in polities and 
is not a member of the secret orders. He believes in Christian 
education and by precept and example has been a helpful in- 
fluence among the young people of his race. No man of his 
race stands higher with both his white and colored neighbors in 
that part of Georgia than Elder Smith. His life has 'been 
fruitful of good works. 

On Sept. 20, 1875, he was married to :Miss Ella Craddoclc, 



352 HJSTOEY OF AMEKICAN NEGEO 

of Greene county. Five children were born to them. They were 
Mada A., Patrick H., Walter C, Willie R. and Eli Cleveland. 
Subsequent to the death of his first wife, Elder Smith married 
]\Iiss Lizzie ^l. Brittain, a daughter of Lewis D. and Katie 
Brittain, of Oglethorpe county. Of the children born to them 
one is living. They are Clarence J. (dead), and Harvey M. 
Smith. 

Since his entrance into the pastorate four houses of worship 
have been erected, all four are splendid buildings. One at Lex- 
ington, two at Crawford, the first having been blown down by 
cyclone, and one at ^Mortons. 

Good school buildings are on or near each church's property. 
For twenty-two years he was treasurer of the General State 
Baptist Convention, representing one hundred and sixty thou- 
sand or more Baptists. Every report to the Convention has the 
auditor's 0. K. 



JOHN ROBERT TALIAFERRO 



AMONG the A. M. E. pastors of Georgia who are render- 
ing intelligent and effective service to their church and 
race, few are more deserving of honorable mention than 
Rev. John Robert Taliaferro, now (1916) pastor at Cosmopolitan 
Station, Atlanta. 

He is a native of Fulton county, born about six miles south 
of Atlanta on July 8, 1875. His parents, who are still living, 
were born in slavery, and their parents in turn were slaves and 
were all natives of Georgia. His father, John Wesley Taliaferro, 
is a minister who has rendered long service to his denomination. 
His mother's name is Martha Jane (Dorsey) Taliaferro. The 
grandparents were IMiles and Lizzie Taliaferro and Wile}^ and 
Silvia Dorsey. 

On February 27, 1909, Dr. Taliaferro was married to Miss 
Lillie Belle Favors, a school teacher, daughter of Louis and 
Julia Favors, of Senoia. They have one child, a daughter, ]\Iarie 
Florine Taliaferro. 




JOHN ROBERT TALIAFERRO. 



354 HISTOEY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

Speaking of his education. Dr. Taliaferro says, ''I attended 
country schools in many places," — due to the fact that his 
father was an itinerant Methodist minister. He says further 
that the most important preparatory school was the public school 
at Crawford. He then spent four years (1891-1894) at Clark 
University, Atlanta, and two years (1895-1896) at Morris Brown 
College. He did not graduate, but in May, 1914, Morris Brown 
University conferred on him the degree of Doctor of Divinity. 
His early advantages were superior to those of the average col- 
ored boy growing up at the same time, for the reason that his 
parents had both the willingness and ability to put him through 
college, though at some sacrifiee to themselves. He frankly ad- 
mits that he sometimes feels that it would have been better for 
him had he been thrown more on his own resources. He then 
adds happily, "But my parents still live and it is my pleasure to 
care for them in their old age." He says also: "With no dis- 
paragement to the schools, I must confess that parents and home 
life have been the chief agencies in shaping my life." 

He is a thorough believer in the value of clean, wholesome, 
healthful outdoor sports. "While in college he entered heartily 
into such recreation, especially baseball, to which he still lends 
his encouragement, wherever he pastors. From the Sunday- 
school membership of his Jefferson charge he organized a team 
that is said to be one of the best in Northeast Georgia. His 
reading is somewhat extensive, and he is fond of all good litera- 
ture, but gives the preference, of course, to theological lines and 
current newspapers and periodicals. 

Before entering the ministry he spent ten years in teaching, 
beginning in 1892, at the early age of seventeen in Monroe 
county. He also taught in the counties of Upson, Talbot, Coweta, 
Oglethorpe and Greene. In 1894 he was converted. In 1902 
he began preaching and joined the conference at Cartersville. 
His first pastorate was at Penfield, a mission with three mem- 
bers. His salary for the whole year was less than five dollars; 
but this did not prevent his preaching there regularly once a 
month. Since then his advance has been steady. In 1904 he 
was ordained deacon, and made an elder in 1905. He has pas- 
tored churches at AVatkinsville, Siloam, Hogansville, LaGrange, 



GEOEGIA EDITIOX 355 

Cedartown and Jefferson. He built new churches on the Ho- 
gansville circuit and at Siloain and Watkinsville, remodeled 
others and paid off debts. In 1915 he was sent to the important 
station at Atlanta. Many souls have been added to the church 
through his preaching. 

For five consecutive years he has been elected statistician of 
the North Georgia Conference, and is a trustee of the IMorris 
Brown University and secretary of the Board of Trustees of the 
Holmes Institute. 

He is a Republican, but not active in politics. He is a Wor- 
shipful Master ]\Iason and while at Jefferson was Senior Warden 
of Poplar Springs Lodge No. 9. 

His suggestions with reference to how the best interests of 
the race in the State and nation may be promoted are well 
worthy of careful consideration. He says: "The churches and 
schools, properly operated, are the greatest forces for the uplift 
of any people. All other things are secondary. I firmly be- 
lieve that the Gospel of Christ Jesus can and will settle all 
questions that need adjustment. The apparent delay is not due 
to the inadequacy of the Gospel, but rather to the failure of 
mankind to apply Christian methods to the problems that con- 
front us. Therefore, I believe that the Negro's only hope is in 
the church and the school. He has tried ever^-thing else." 



EDGAR GARFIELD THOMAS 



REV. EDGAR GARFIELD THOMAS, A. B., B. D., pastor 
of Mt. Vernon Baptist Church, Newnan, is a native of 
Calhoun county where he was born, Feb. 28, 1880. His 
parents, Henry and Delilah (]kliles) Thomas, were both slaves. 
His paternal grandparents were Thomas and Martha Stanley. 
After the War there was great freedom in the choice of names. 
When the father of our subject went to register, he decided to 
discard his master's name and take that of his father. Having 
seen his father but seldom, he could recall only the first name 
Thomas which he adopted as his surname. Dr. Thomas' grand- 
parents on the maternal side were Simon and Minerva ^liles. 




EDGAR GARFIELD THOMAS. 



CtEOKGIA edition 357 

His education was begiui in the poor short term school of 
Randolph county at INIt. Calvary. His teachers were poorly 
equipped, books were few and school houses were shabby. He 
had, however an eager, alert uiind and quickly learned his 
alphabet and could spell by sight to 'baker" in Webster's 
famous old Blueback. Tied down to this one book, he soon learn- 
ed to spell so well "by heart" that it became unnecessary for 
him to study the book before reciting. He had passed almost 
through his book before his teacher discovered that the boy was 
doing everything by sound and that he had actually forgotten 
his letters. Then the teacher turned him back a few pages at a 
time until he reached "'babe;" and when he was unable to spell 
that by sight from the book, she assigned him that lesson. He 
went to work and soon mastered the alphabet again and was 
able to return to his former class. Fortunately about this time 
he came under the tutorship of a capable instructor. Prof. J. L. 
Reddick, who became his constant friend and advisor, and who 
advanced him rapidly to the Fourth Reader, when his father, 
who was buying a farm and needed his help, found it necessary 
to take him from school. He did not give up but at noon, at 
nights and on rainy days while others napped, the wide-awake 
boy was busy with his books. In this way, unaided and alone, he 
mastered three grades so when in 1895 he went to Atlanta Bap- 
tist College he was able to enter the seventh grade of the Elemen- 
tary English department. On May 14, 1902, he completed the 
Academic course. Still pursuing his studies at the same institu- 
tion, he won the A. B. degree in 1906, and the degree of B. D. 
from the Theological department in 1907. He literally worked 
his way through school. Sometimes it was in the dining room, 
sometimes on the campus, grading the grounds, and again at 
other odd jobs that would help him to the end of his course. 
His earlier vacations were spent at labor on his father's farm 
or selling books. Later he took up the carpenter trade, learning 
as best he could from actual work on buildings. Soon he was 
able to connnand good wages, and his school fees were no longer 
a problem, as in addition to outside work, he did repair work 
about the college during the school term. It is both an evidence 
of his ability and a tribute to his steadfast energy and courage, 
that notwithstanding all the difficulties, he maintained his posi- 



358 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

tion at the head of his class during eleven of the twelve years at 
college, winning scholarships as many years, and on his gradua- 
tion from each department was his class orator. 

In July, 1906, he was elected State B. Y. P. U. Organizer and 
Corresponding Secretary of the State Sunday School Worker's 
Convention of Georgia, which position he filled for two years. 
In September of the same year he was called to the pastorate of 
the Tabernacle Baptist Church, of Monroe, which he served for 
three years. During this time the* church made good progress. 

On Oct. 21, 1908, he was married to ]\Iiss Esther N. Brocken- 
ton, a daughter of Dr. Isaac P. and Martha Brockenton, 
of Darlington, S. C. Mrs. Thomas' father was one of the 
organizers of the South Carolina Baptist Convention and its 
President till the time of his death in 1908. Mrs. Thomas is a 
college graduate of Shaw University and before her mar- 
riage Avas a teacher. They have three children : Esther B., Ed- 
gar G., Jr., and Henry Thomas. 

In the same year he gave up field work and accepted a call 
to Harmony Baptist Church, Augusta, serving it for 
more than two years, building up the congregation and add- 
ing many new members. "While serving as pastor of this church, 
he also held the position of Theological Instructor at Walker 
Baptist Institute. In the autumn of 1910 he was elected presi- 
dent of Twin City Seminary at McRae, Ga. Under his capable 
management, the institution rendered excellent service and 
rapidly grew in usefulness and influence to an enrollment of 
about a hundred andfifty, with three teachers and two assistants. 
In addition to this position, he was in Nov., 1911, called to the 
pastorate of the First Baptist Church of McRae, one of the 
leading congregations of that section, which he served as long 
as he remained at McRae. The church building was beautified 
and the whole service of the church toned up. He also served 
the Mt. Olive Baptist Church in Dodge county for one year. 

Early in 1915, he resigned the work at ]\IcRae to accept the 
call of the ^It. Vernon Baptist Church of Newnan. 

Dr. Thomas recognizes as among the strongest influences for 
good in his life the strict parental control and religious train- 
ing at home. In his reading ho lias found more inspiration in 



GEORGIA EDITION 359 

the Bible aud "^Men of Mark" than in any thing else. He is a 
Republican in politics and among the secret orders is a member 
of the Knights of INIoses, the Good Samaritans, Knights of 
Pythias, and Knights of Tabor. He is a member of the Educa- 
tion Board of the State Baptist Convention. 

His ability as a speaker is widely recognized and he is in con- 
stant demand for special sermons and addresses. He has travel- 
led extensively in America. 

He believes that the most pronounced needs of his race are 
stronger leaders, better teachers and schools, a better under- 
standing between the races, and above all a closer fellowship 
with God. 



MARY C. JACKSON 



"He is of stature somewhat low; 
Your hero should be always tall you know." 

SUCH in the main is the sentiment of mankind. Yet I dare 
say there is something misleading in it. Not infrequently 
it has caused us to overlook those noble souls whose lot is 
to toil in obscurity for the good of others. By far the greater 
part of this world's heroism is never seen. It is not of the tall 
kind, although fully as real, and oftentimes more permanently 
effective. Without it this poor world would be immeasurably 
poor. 

In every community, could we discover them, are lives of epic 
grandeur — men and women lofty in their aims, unselfish in their 
efforts. Among these I class her whose name stands at the head 
of this sketch, and whose friendship for many a year it has been 
my rare good fortune to enjoy. Born in Athens, Ga., seat of the 
State University, and of reputable parents who were acquainted 
with both slavery and freedom, she attributes whatever success 
has been hers to the life and example of a sainted mother, for 



*Since above was written, Miss Jackson was married to Pres. H. 
L. McCrory, of Biddle University, Charlotte, N. C, September 19, 1916. 




:MARY JACKSON McCRORY. 



GEORGIA EDlTlOxY 361 

whom to the last she cherished the warmest filial affection. To 
both parents, indeed, the advent of this daughter was regarded 
as auspicious and made an occasion of unusual rejoicing; be- 
cause she was their first freeborn child, the other seven, with the 
exception of her youngest sister, having been born in slavery. 

That our friend is a lover of books, a woman of literary taste, 
and interested in education, will not seem strange, perhaps, 
when the reader is informed that her mother's master was a 
professor in the State University, that he required his daughter 
to teach that mother to read and write in order that she might 
be of service to him in handling his books and papers to and 
from the library. As usual, however, to teach a slave to read 
and write is a dangerous thing. In this case it resulted in teach- 
ing many more who came to her for instruction. Nothing, of 
course, could be more natural than for these parents, under free- 
dom, to strain every nerve, as verily they did, for the education 
of their children. They themselves had but tasted and found 
that "for the soul to be without knowledge is not good." 

Graduated from Atlanta University at an early age, the sub- 
ject of our sketch began her life work in the public school of 
her native city, under the superintendence of Prof. E. C. Bran- 
son, one of the best superintendents in the whole South. Under 
him the Athens system of schools gained the reputation of being 
the best in the State. The examination for teachers was most 
rigid, both white and colored being subjected to the same test. 
At the expiration of the first term of school, when teachers were 
to be examined again, the announcement was made that those 
teachers who reached a certain per cent, in the first or any sub- 
sequent examination should be exempt from further examina- 
tions as long as they taught in the system. But one of the whole 
corps of teachers, white and colored, made that per cent, and 
that was INIary C. Jackson. Is it not one of the revenges of the 
time, that among the white teachers, who were not exempt, was 
a daughter of the very man who had owned IMiss Jackson's 
mother? Later she studied at Harvard University and the 
University of Chicago. 

After four years in the schools of Athens and five as principal 
of a large public school in Orlando, Fla.. where she had seven 



363 HISTOEY OF AMERICAN NEGEO 

assistant teachers, and three times her Athens salary, she accepted 
work in her ahua mater, from which place she was induced by 
Miss Lucy C. Laney, whom she greatly loves and admires, to be 
associate principal of Haines Normal and Industrial Institute, 
Augusta, Ga., a position that with honor and efficiency she has 
filled for more than twenty years. An indefatigable worker, no 
figure is more familiar than hers to the summer institutes of 
the State and county where she has instructed large bodies of 
teachers. As a speaker for the Freedmen Board of Missions of 
the Northern Presbyterian church, she has presented most ac- 
ceptably, in almost every city of importance in the North and 
West, the educational work of the Board. Some years ago when 
duties were perhaps less exacting, it was not uncommon to find 
in the New York Independent a contribution from her pen. It 
is safe to say that in the great effort to enlighten and uplift a 
needy people but few, very few, have rendered service more 
efficient, more conscientious, and more continuous than she whose 
life and character this hasty sketch but inadequately portrays. 

W. H. CROGMAN. 



WILLIAM JEFFERSON SMITH 



''irMlERE is in Campbell and Coweta counties a group of 
Jl^ successful Negro men who are worthy examples to the 
race. They are a hard-working, home-owning lot and 
with their families are making steady progress in education, 
in the accumulation of property, and in those things that make 
for permanent welfare. 

Among these stands as a leader Rev. William Jefferson 
Smith, of Palmetto. He Avas born in Coweta county just after 
the close of the War, on May 8, 1866. His parents were Peter 
Smith, a white man, and Jane Smith. His mother, now^ (1915) 
an old woman, is still living. Her father was Ranse Edmond- 
son. 

William J. Smith attended the local public schools as a boy 




WILLIAM JEFFERSON SMITH. 



364 HLSTOIJY OF AMKJMCAX NEGRO 

but was unable to go to college. He grew up on the farm and 
learned to do all sorts of farm work. When he was 23 years 
of age he was married, on Feb. 22, 1889, to Miss Alice Elder, a 
daughter of Dock and Almeda Elder. They have eight chil- 
dren : Elnora (Mrs. Cochran), Virleta (Mrs. Talley), Beuna 
(Mrs. Gray), Beatrice (Mrs. Beavers), Cornelia, Luther Jud- 
son, Fred and Lillie May Smith. 

Brought up in the M. E. Church young William early 
identified himself with that body and for 30 years has been an 
active member. Feeling called to preach he was licensed, but 
has not entered the regular itinerancy. He preaches fre- 
quently, however, and acts as pastor to fill vacancies. He 
preached at Moreland for a year and is now supplying the 
church at Union City. He is trustee and steward and a Sun- 
day-school teacher. Next after the Bible his preferred reading 
is poetry. 

After his marriage he began farming for himself on a 
rented farm. After the birth of their third child, Mr. and Mrs. 
Smith had to move sooner than was convenient. He then and 
there determined to have a home of his own. Accordingly he 
purchased 70 acres and moved on it and when that was paid 
for, bought more till now he owns 200 acres of excellent farm- 
ing land. Twelve years ago he opened a store in Palmetto and 
has since conducted this enterprise in connection with his 
farm, disposing of much of his produce at retail prices. 

In politics he is a Republican and was at one time chair- 
man of the Seventh District Committee. Among the secret 
orders, he is identified with the Odd Fellows and the Masons 
and the Good Samaritans. He is also the head of a new 
benevolent organization, known as the Home Relief Associa- 
tion. 



CHARLES THOMAS VEAL 



REV. CHARLES THOMAS VEAL is a leader in the col- 
ored Baptist denomination in Georgia. In addition to be- 
ing Moderator of the First Northwestern Baptist Asso- 
ciation, he is a successful pastor. Few ministers in Georgia have 
enjoyed longer pastorates than Elder Veal. He was born at 
Madison, August 20, 1852, the slave of Mr. P. R. Thomason. 
He is half white. His father, Cope Veal, was a boarder in the 
home of his master. His mother, Annie Thomason, afterward 
^Irs. Dooley, was the house girl. She had been brought from 
Virginia to Georgia when twelve years of age. Later in life she 
became a Christian and died a member of the First Baptist 
ehuri^-h of Athens. 

Charles Thomas Veal was thirteen years of age when freedom 
came. He had but little schooling. When he was fourteen he 
hired out at fifty dollars a year with the privilege of studying 
at night under the direction of Miss Lena Lanier. Later he 
spent one term at the Atlanta Baptist Seminary under Dr. 
Graves. When he was seventeen he left home and went to 
Athens, where he secured employment as a driver, filling in odd 
times with general labor. 

In January, 1873, he was married to Mary Neal, a daughter 
of Edmond and Charity Neal, of Clarke county. The following 
children were born to them : Charley T. L., Robt. O., Phillip 
Paul, Will Pleiuy, Leroy Timothy. Lillie Vashti (^Irs. Daven- 
port), Carrie P^rances (Mrs. Echols). After living together for 
thirty-seven years, Mrs. Veal was taken from her husband on 
January 29, 1910. May 3, following, Elder Veal was married 
to ]\Irs. Mattie Wing. 

The year following his first marriage he was converted and 
joined the First Baptist church of Athens. Almost immediately 
he felt called to preach, but it was nearly three years later be- 
fore he entered upon the active work of the ministry, having 
been licensed and ordained by his home church, under the pas- 
toral charge of Rev. Floyd Hill. 

His first pastorate was at Pierct^'s Chapel in Clarke county. 




CHARLES THOMAS VEAL. 



GEORGIA EDITION 367 

The work immediately took on new life and in two months the 
congregation moved out and built St. James, which he served 
four years. His next church was Shady Grove, which he has 
served thirty-nine years and which has grown from 202 to 900. 
He served the Spring Creek church in Greene county four years 
and baptized forty-nine. He accepted the call of the Mt. Sinai 
church in Clarke county, where, in a pastorate of twenty-one 
years, he has baptized over two hundred. During a twenty 
years' pastorate at Summerhill he has baptized 130 and in seven 
years at Hillsboro has baptized sixty. "With increasing years 
and experience his work has become more and more fruitful. 
He has served Mt. Zion fourteen years and added 230 members. 
He went to St. Matthews when there was no organization, and 
after holding a meeting baptized thirteen converts whom he or- 
ganized into a new church which in four years grew to fifty- 
eight. Land was purchased and a house of worship erected at 
an expense of a thousand dollars. Elder Veal has also been a 
builder, having erected a house at Spring Creek. Shady Grove 
had to rebuild twice, ^It Sinai twice, and the house at Mt. Zion 
remodeled. He also built a new house at Summerhill. 

Some years ago when there was a division in the Northwestern 
Association, he was chosen Moderator of what is now known as 
the First Northwestern, which position he has since held. There 
are twenty-one churches in the association. Elder^ Veal is also 
president of the Sunday School Convention and is a member of 
the Board of Trustees of the school at Monroe. He has done a 
great deal of evangelistic work. 

While his boys were with him he carried on considerable 
farming operations in Jackson county, but now lives near Athens 
on the edge of Madison county where he owns a comfortable 
home and a small farm. Among the secret and benevolent 
orders he is a Mason, a Good Samaritan and a member of the 
Eastern Star. He puts the Bible first in his reading and be- 
lieves that we must look to better home training for progress. 

Speaking of his childhood and boyhood days. Elder Veal says : 
"When I was about five years old a ladder fell on me and I was 
thought to be dead, but God raised me up. Wlien six years old a 
team of horses, with a carriage, ran over me. The doctor and all 



368 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

who saw me said I could not get well, but again the good hand of 
God was upon me and I recovered. In 1869 I got into a fight 
with a very bad boy and whipped him. Feeling sorry for the 
fellow I went to him and begged his pardon, which was granted. 
Turning to leave him, after having made friends, he chopped me 
in the head with a lioe. I fell and all thought that 1 was dead. 
I was unconscious for two days and was down from the wound 
from May till September. I promised the Lord if he would 
raise me up I would serve Him. I believe he delivered me for 
a purpose, for since those days of hardship I have baptized 
nearly two thousand souls, have built a dozen houses of worship 
and have ordained fourteen ministers. I have done all in the 
name of the Tjoi-d. liless the Lord. Oli mv soul!'' 



HARRY HERBERT PACE 



MODERN insurance is one of the marvels of American 
finance. It takes its place along with such great indus- 
tries as banking and railroading. Its growth and de- 
velopment have given rise to some of the worst abuses in Ameri- 
can finance and have at the same time built up one of our most 
important institutions. Along with the growth of the insurance 
business have sprung up numerous assessment orders, the ma- 
jority of which have been unable to measure up to legal require- 
ments or stand the test of good business financing. Out of all 
this confusion clearly emerges one fact. The only absolutely 
safe insurance is that which is based on scientific principles and 
the investment value of money, with fixed premiums graduated 
according to the age of the insured. This class of insurance 
finds no difficulty in meeting the requirements of the laAv and its 
policies are of recognized value in the commercial world. It is 
known as "old line" insurance. 

The only exclusively negro "old line" life insurance company 
is the Standard Life Insurance Company of Atlanta. Mr. 
Harry Herbert Pace is the Secretary. He is a native of Georgia, 
having been born at Covington, January 6. 1884. His parents 





OM^. 




'■■n^'Tl 



TII^^EN FOUNDATION 



GEORGIA EDITION 371 

passed away wliile the boy was still young. His grandfather 
was brought from Virginia to Georgia during the days of slavery 
but was manumitted by his master to wiiom he was related and 
was made manager and overseer of his plantation. 

As a boy young Pace attended the public schools of Covington 
and later the public schools of Atlanta. When ready for college 
he entered Atlanta University, from which he was graduated 
with the degree of A.B. in 1903. He developed a taste for the 
best literature, his preference running to American and French 
History and to American and English Fiction and Biography. 

After his graduation at nineteen, he taught for two years in 
the State School for Negroes at Jefferson City, Mo. Later he 
located in Memphis and became prominent in business, social, 
and political life. In 1908 he became cashier of the Solvent 
Savings Bank and Trust Co. of Memphis. In national politics 
he is a Republican and while in ]\Iemphis was secretary of the 
Shelby County Executive Committee. In 1913 he resigned as 
cashier of the bank to accept the secretaryship of the Standard 
Life Insurance Company of Atlanta, where he has since resided. 
The work of the Standard has been greatly broadened and its 
business largely increased since he became connected with it. 

He is a member of the Episcopal church and among the 
secret orders is identified with the Elks and was elected head of 
the national organization at the age of twenty-four, which posi- 
tion he held for several terms. 

]Mr. Pace is not only a business man but is also a student of 
conditions and affairs. His articles in some of the leading 
periodicals of the country have been valuable contributions to 
the literature of the race. 



ALEXANDER E. CLARK 

REV. ALEXANDER E. CLARK, though a recent comer to 
Georgia, is a man of ability and wide experience. He was 
born in Rutherford county, Tennessee, October 16, 1866. 
His father, George Clark, was a blacksmith. His mother was 
Nancy (Jetun) Clark. She was a daughter of Samuel Jetun, a 




ALEXANDER E. CLARK. 



GEORGIA EDITION" 373 

native of Virginia, whose wife's name was Mintie, a native of 
North Carolina. 

Young Clark early saw the advantages of an education, 
though his opportunities were very meager. He made good use, 
however," of his time, first attending the public schools of his 
native county and later by persistent home study and the aid of 
private teachers. Through these means and his extensive read- 
ing and travel, he has become a well-informed man and a capable 
minister. He has visited practically every city of importance in 
the United States. His preferred reading has been along the line 
of sacred literature. 

When still a boy in his early 'teens, he was converted and join- 
ed the A. M. E. Church at Clarke's Chapel. Soon after becoming 
actively identified wdth the church, he felt impressed with a call 
to the ministry, and was admitted to the Conference at Fort Gib- 
son, I. T., in 1891 ; ordained an elder by Bishop B. T. Tanner at 
Omaha, Neb., in 1900 ; ordained a deacon by Bishop Arnett, Oct. 
28, 1893 ; transferred from the Indian ]\Iission Conference by 
Bishop H. M. Turner in 1894, to th3 Kansas Conference, and 
from the Kansas to the North Missouri by Bishop C. T. Shaffer 
in 1901 ; from the North Missouri to Georgia by Bishop Shaffer 
in 1902, and placed in the Southwest Conference by Bishop H. 
M. Turner. Ten years later, in 1912, he was transferred by 
Bishop J. S. Flipper from the Southwest Georgia Conference to 
the North Georgia Conference, and assigned to his present station 
at Cedartown. Since entering the Conference in the Indian 
Territory in 1891, he has served in the following pastorates: 
Chelsea one year ; Waggoner one year ; Double Springs circuit 
one year. He was then transferred to Kansas and served the 
Columbus circuit two years; the Pittsburgh circuit two years, 
and was at Arkansas City two years, and Paola one year. From 
Kansas he was transferred to Northern Missouri and was for one 
year on the Louisiana station. From Missouri he was transferred 
to Georgia and served the New Bethel circuit, near Columbus, 
for two years ; St. Peter 's circuit one year ; Lumpkin one year ; 
Bethel and Randall circuit four years; Andersonville circuit 
two years; now completing his second year's work at Cedar- 
town. He is a constant attendant on the Annual Conference, 



374 HISTORY OF AMEEICAN NEGRO 

and keeps in close touch with the interests of his denomina- 
tion. Wherever he has gone he has pleased his people and 
has worked in cordial co-operation with his white neighbors. 

On December 23, 1900, he was married to Miss Amanda Bur- 
dine, of Kansas. 

Of the secret orders, he is identified with only one — the Odd 
Fellows. 

It goes without saying that whatever may have been the re- 
wards of twenty-three years of such constant and varied minis- 
terial work, it does not lead to fortune from a material stand- 
point. He has, however, by economy and careful handling of 
his material resources, succeeded in making a little headway in 
the accumulation of property. With his accumulated experience 
and preparation, the succeeding years should, and doubtless will, 
be years of enlarging usefulness. 



RICHMOND VIRGINIA BRANCH 



THE African ]\Iethodis+ Episcopal Church has no more 
zealous, thoroughgoing worker in Georgia than Rich- 
mond Virginia Branch, who is now pastor of the Allen 
Temple A. M. E. Church. He is a native of Georgia, having 
been born in Muscogee county, near Columbus, August 11, 1864. 
His parents were owned by Judge ]\Iartin J. Crawford, as were 
his grandparents. In fact, his father, Benjamin Branch, was 
with Judge Crawford throughout the war. This long identity 
of the family of the slaves with that of their owner, covering 
sometimes a period of generations, as in this case, established 
between the slaves and their owner a feeling of intimacy and 
a cordial relationship which in many instances extended far be- 
yond the days of Emancipation. 

As a boy our subject attended an independent school estab- 
lished by his father and other citizens about three miles from 
Columbus, and later did more advanced work at Clafrin's 
School, in Columbus. He was denied the opportunities of a 




RICHMOND VIRGINIA BRANCH. 



376 HISTOEY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

college education, but as Avill be seen later has attained to a high 
degree of learning through his own endeavors. 

After the war, Benjamin Branch purchased a farm which he 
and his family worked till the time of his death. After that 
the care of his mother and the younger members of the family 
fell upon Richmond V. Branch, and right nobly did he discharge 
the obligation, placing their comfort and well being above his 
own ambitions. 

One has not far to look for the secret of his self-denial. His 
parents were Christian people, and he was brought up under 
the influence of the Sunday-school and the church. He was con- 
verted and joined the church at the age of twelve, and from the 
time of his conversion felt the impression that somehow he must 
preach the Gospel. While still in his twenties, the w^ay seemed 
to open up and he was licensed to preach at Wimberly Station. 
His first charge was the Prospect circuit, w^here he remained for 
two years, 1894-6. From this he went to Glen Alta circuit, and 
for a while resided at Americus while supplying the Mt. Zion 
circuit, also doing some work in Americus. From Americus he 
was assigned to Cuthbert, where he ramained for two years, and 
from Cuthbert went to work at Thomasville, where he remained 
three years. Such was his success in Thomasville that the 
Bishop assigned him to St. Philip's INIonumental Church, in 
Savannah, where he remained to the full limit of four years 
allowed by the itinerancy. In 1908 he was transferred by his 
Bishop to the North Georgia Conference and made Presiding 
Elder of the Atlanta district for three years. His assignment 
to this important and difficult field is the very best endorsement 
of his ability his church could give him. In 1911 he was assigned 
ti) the important pastorate of Allen Temple A. M. E. Church, 
where he has since worked. Something of the task he has in 
hand may be judged from the fact that his church has a mem- 
bership of something more than twelve hundred, and is said to 
have one of the best Sunday-schools in Atlanta. 

Tliis is a mere outline of Dr. Branch's religious activities. He 
has never failed on a field to w^hich he has been assigned. If one 
is inclined to look for the secret of his success, it would perhaps 
be found in his steadiness of purpose after he has reached a 



GEOEGIA EDITION 377 

conclusion about what ought to be done; in the thorough or- 
ganization of his forces, and the hearty, sympathetic touch with 
his young people. He advocates the co-ordination and correla- 
tion of the diiferent organizations and forces in the church, so 
that all may be kept active and none may feel that they have 
been slighted. Accordingly he gets from his young people an 
unusual amount of work without in any way sidetracking or neg- 
lecting the older people. He is himself a quiet, orderly, effective 
man in his work, and believes in doing things thoroughly with- 
out making much noise about it. Consequently little is seen in 
the public prints of the important work he does. 

After he had entered the ministry he felt the need of better 
equipment, and so took up a correspondence course through 
Morris Brown College, from which he was regularly graduated. 
Later, in 1906, the same institution gave further approval of the 
excellent work he was doing for the denomination and for the 
race, by conferring on him the degree of D. D. He is an extensive 
reader, and has gathered around him a select library on which 
he draws freely. 

On November 17, 1886, he was married to Martha Jane 
Batchelor, of Hamilton, Ga., who was a daughter of Walton 
Batchelor. They have had nine children, six of whom survive. 
These are : Arthur Lee, Wayman Loveless, Benjamin Walton, 
Nora Dean, Wright Newman and William Gladstone. 

He is a Republican, though not taking any active part in 
political campaigns. Among the secret orders he is a member 
of the Odd Fellows and K. P's. He considers the race problem, 
education and strong drink among the most important questions 
confronting our people today. By thrift and economy he has ac- 
cumulated some property, and owns the comfortable residence 
in which he resides at 128 Randolph street. The accompanying 
portrait represents him at the age of forty-nine. 



GEORGIA DWELLE 



DURING the comparativel}' short time that the members of 
the African race in America have been permitted to 
direct their own activities and choose their own vocations, 
here and there among them eager, inquiring and alert minds 
have in true pioneer spirit pressed on into what have hitherto 
been to them unknown fields of knowledge, endeavor and 
achievement, and have sustained themselves with an intelligence 
and practical adaptability that is often a source of agreeable 
surprise. The medical profession is not a new field to the Negro, 
though not many 3'ears have elapsed since he entered it. It is 
not altogether new to the women of the Caucasian race, though 
the novelty, especially in the South, has hardly disappeared, 
but the subject of this sketch, Dr. Georgia Dwelle, of At- 
lanta, is one of the few women of the Negro race to enter- that 
profession ; and it may as truly be said that she is making good 
in this new field. 

Georgia Dwelle was born at Albany, Ga., February 27, 1883, 
daughter of Rev. George H. Dwelle, D. D., and his wife Eliza 
(Dickerson) Dwelle. A sketch of her father appears elsewhere 
in this volume, and the family history is there given more in 
detail. 

After a course at Walker Baptist Institute and Spelman Semi- 
nary, Miss Dwelle entered IMeharry College. Nashville, Tenn., 
from which she was graduated in 1904, with the degree of jM. D., 
having previoush^ received the A. B. degree from Spelman 
Seminary. Upon completing her course at IMeharry College, she 
immediately entered upon the practice of her profession at 
Augusta, Ga. Her unusual ability and thoroughness are indicat- 
ed by the fact that in her examination before the State Board 
at this time, her grade was one hundred on nine of the ten sub- 
jects included in the examination, while in the tenth the grade 
was well above ninety. These facts are given by the "Woman's 
Journal, of Boston, in an issue of that year, as an indication of 
what it is possible for a woman to do. 

She has not. however, been content to relax her efforts since 




GEORGIA DWELLE. 



380 HISTOEY OF AMEEICAN NEGKO 

that time, but has continued to be a constant and careful student 
of medical science. With the energy and capacity indicated by 
the foregoing, success was of course assured. In 1906 she re- 
moved to Atlanta, where her work has been carried on with in- 
creasing success. She has accumulated some property, and 
hopes to establish an infirmary. Already she is interested in a 
drug store. 

Dr. Dwelle believes that much good would result from 
co-operation and a free exchange of information and advice as 
between the people of different communities and different States 
on matters of common interest or affecting the common welfare. 
Outside of professional literature, her reading is devoted mainly 
to current topics of the day in the newspapers and magazines. 

She is a member of the Baptist church and is active in relig- 
ious work. As religion,science, and common sense have all served 
to impress her with the value and importance of temperance, 
she is a loyal and active member of the W. C. T. U. Believing 
strongly in the principles of fraternity,she is also affiliated with 
the ladies' connection of the Masons, Odd Fellows, Knights and 
Sir Knights, holding now and for several years past the position 
of State Medical Examiner for the Sir Knights. She is also 
identified with the various medical societies to which she is 
eligible. 

Notwithstanding the variety of things occupying her attention, 
she still finds time to write occasionally for the Taborian Banner 
and other local papers. 

Dr. Dwelle 's brilliant record of the past gives promise 
of still greater achievements for the future, and shows that for 
the boy or girl with energy and determination, there is an ever- 
widening field of possibilities. 



WILLIAM EDWARD FARMER 



THE boys of this generation, in the midst of splendid op- 
portunities, have but vague ideas of the patient endur- 
ance and heroic struggles which fell to the lot of their 
lathers during the years immediately following the war. The 



GEOEGIA EDITION 381 

stories of many of the leaders of the race now past middle life 
are replete with privation, courage and fortitude. These are all 
illustrated in the life of Eev. William Edward Farmer, D. D., 
now (1914) stationed at Fort Valley. 

He is a native of Booneville, Miss., where he was born March 
SI, 1867. When he came of school age he was put in the public 
school for such time as the family could spare him from work 
on the place in earning a living. The father died when the boy 
was only thirteen years of age, and upon the boy fell the burden 
of helping to support the mother and two smaller children. 
AVhen it is remembered that his earning capacity at that age did 
not exceed twenty-five cents a day, paper money, something of 
the conditions by which the family was conironted will be seen, 
Fortunately for the boy, his mother was a Christian, who clung 
to her faith in God and taught her boy the same simple faith 
and trust. His parents, who were both slaves, were Orange and 
Eliza (Hodges) Farmer. As the bo^^ grew, his earning capacity 
increased, and he would perhaps have found it comparatively 
easy to settle down and make a mere living. With this, how- 
ever, he was not content, but was ambitious to make a life that 
should count for himself and his people and his Master. The 
difficulties in the way of his getting an education seemed insur- 
mountable, and would have been for a less courageous spirit ; but 
unfed as he was. poorly clad and without money or books, he 
still fought for an education. He availed himself of every op- 
portunity he had to go to school, though frequently he would 
have to stay out of school two or three days in the week to earn 
bread to eat. When he had passed through the public school 
grades, he managed to secure private instruction through the 
teachers at Lane College. Tennessee, and thus continued his 
study along with his work till he felt capable of taking up his 
work as a minister. He was converted at the age of nineteen, 
and sis years later felt called to the work of the ministry. About 
the time of his conversion he was married to Miss Lizzie 
Reynolds, of Mississippi. They had one daughter, Leola, who 
was given a liberal education and after her marriage took up 
teaching in Arkansas, where she now resides. 

Having advanced in his studies to the point where he could 
teach school, he taught several terms in Tennessee. He joined 



382 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

the C. M. E. Conference in 1887, and his first pastorate was at 
Leavenworth, Kan. From Leavenworth he was sent to Emporia, 
and from Emporia to Newton. He was then transferred to the 
Missouri Conference, and stationed at Parksville in that state 
for three years. From Missouri he was made Presiding Elder of 
the Oklahoma District. That State was just being opened up, 
and the hardship and privation which he underwent during 
his year's work in that new field would make a book in itself. 
He traveled almost from one end of the State to the other ; but 
notwithstanding the hardships of the field it was a fruitful one, 
and many members were added to the church through his year's 
work there. From Oklahoma he returned the following year to 
West Tennessee, where he built two brick churches, the first of 
their kind on that work. In 1901 he was made Presiding Elder 
of the Jackson District. By this time he had made such a repu- 
tation for himself as a preacher and a man of executive ability, 
that larger fields opened up to him, and he was transferred to 
the Miles Memorial Church, in Washington, D. C, for the years 
1902-3. He was next stationed at Greenville, S. C, for one year, 
and Allendale one year. After that he was transferred to the 
Georgia work, and served the Butler Street church two years 
and the West :\Iitchell Street Church one year. From Atlanta 
he went to Savannah for two years, and while on that work 
built a church. He has now been at the Fort Valley Station for 
three years. He is a forceful and effective speaker, preaches a 
simple Gospel, and has been very successful in evangelistic 
work. At a single meeting in ]\Iemphis he had two hundred 
eighty-six converts. Since beginning his ministerial work, he 
has received into the church nearly tw^o thousand members. 

Next after the Bible, he finds his theological books most help- 
ful, but is a student of astronomy and a lover of poetry. Though 
not active in polities, he classes himself as a Republican, and 
among the secret orders is identified with the Odd Fellows. He 
is a trustee of the Helena 15. Cobl) Female Institute, at Barnes- 
ville. 

Such in outline is the story of a man whose work has taken 
bim over nearly lialf the I^nion and given him a broad vision of 
men and of affairs. He owns considerable property in Ten- 



GEOEGIA EDITION 383 

nessee; is a couservative business man, who eominauds the re- 
spect and co-operation of his white neighbors wherever he goes. 
Strong and vigorous of body, alert of mind, patient and pious of 
spirit, he moves steadily among his people, lives the Gospel 
which he preaches, doing faithfully each day's work as it comes, 
and leaves the results to God. When asked what his people most 
needed, he replied in a single word, "Religion." 

Dr, Farmer was married a second time, on December 22, 
1910, to Miss Charity Bronner, a daughter of Charlie and Emma 
Brenner, of Jasper county. 

Looking back over his boyhood days, when he plowed a horse 
which had to be lifted up in the morning by the assistance of 
his neighbors; when he had only one meal a day, and but 
meager clothing, he feels that those years of privation and hard- 
ship have their compensation in the fact that he learned during 
those years to trust God and sympathize with his fellows. 



SAMUEL DANIEL HALL 



REV. SA.AIUEL DANIEL HALL, a minister of the A. M. 
E. Church, was born at Talbotton on ]\Iarcli 3, 186-1. 
His father was Jerry Hall, a carpenter, and his mother's 
name was Maria Green. His mother's father was Jacob John- 
son, an Indian. Her mother, Sophia Green, was a negro slave. 
His grandparents on his father's side were Ross Hall and 
Harriett Pruett. 

On January 14, 1887, Mr. Hall was married to ^liss Hannah 
Lipsey. a daughter of Theanie and Guilford Lipsey, of Taylor 
county. Of the seven children born to them the following are 
living: Alberta Matthews, James H., William P., Charlie E., 
Mamie Sanders and Oneidus A. Hall. 

Young Hall attended the country public schools and labored 
as a blacksmith during the early years of his life. When he 
was twenty-eight years of age, he was converted and soon after 
entered the work of the ministry to which he has devoted more 
than twenty years of his life. 




SAMUEL DANIEL HALL. 



GEOEGIA EDITION 385 

His first pastorate was at Stinsonville, in Meriwether county, 
since which he has served the following circuits and stations: 
Garden Valley Mission, six months ; Richland Circuit, two years ; 
Dranesville Circuit, two years; Glasgow Circuit, four years; 
Bluffton Circuit, four years; Cairo Circuit, four years; Bluff 
Springs, one year. He is now in his third year at Thomaston. 

Notwithstanding the fact that he was denied the opportuni- 
ties of a College education, he has continued to study and has 
completed a correspondence course for preachers under the 
direction of Morris Brown University. The degree of D. D. was 
conferred on him for this work, and he has begun on the course 
leading to the A. B. degree. He is a Republican in politics and 
is identified with the Odd Fellows, Masons, Pythians and Wise 
Men of the East. In addition to his work as a minister he is 
recognized as a capable business man and has accumulated some 
property in both Georgia and Florida. 

Dr. Hall was a member of the General Conference which 
met in Kansas City in 1912. He is a Trustee of Morris Brown 
University and Payne College. 

He has been especially active in the work of the Masons and 
the Wise Men of the East. While located at Cairo from 1900-04, 
he traveled extensively over Florida. He was at that time 
Grand Master of the Masons of that State and did much field 
work for the Wise Men of the East. He has also done consider- 
able work in both Alabama and North Carolina in the same 
interest. For fourteen years he has been Supreme Grand 
Deputy Chief of that organization. In this and other interests, 
he has been over a large part of America. 



JOHN HENRY HALL 



WHOEVER believes that a man can be tied down and 
defeated by hardships and by poverty in his boyhood 
days should study the life and work of John Henry 
Hall, of Walton county. His situation as a bo}^ was difficult 
enough to defeat any but the bravest. His real character is 




JOHN HENRY HALL AND WIFE. 



GEORGIA EDITION 387 

shown l)y the manner in which he has overcome the obstacles by 
which he was confronted. 

He was born at White Plains, Greene county, during the 
war, September 11, 1862. His parents, Jacob Hall and Adeline 
Rankin, had both been slaves before Emancipation. After the 
war they were poor and. of course, without education. Under 
these conditions it is not strange that they failed to realize the 
importance of educating their boy. In fact, the father was 
opposed to education. The boy, however, at an early age, de- 
termined to better his condition. He attended the short term 
public school Avhen not required to woi"k on the farm, but soon 
realized that he must have money to go away to school if he was 
to succeed. So he never lost an opportunity to trade knives or 
chickens or anything that would bring him a few cents. These 
savings he kept in a snuif Ijox under an old apple tree. When 
he had saved ten dollars he bought a calf which he later sold 
for twenty-five dollars. In the fall of 1877 he entered Storr's 
School in Atlanta and remained till the middle of the following 
March. Returning home he helped his father with the crop. 
He soon became a leader in the community. He had a good 
voice for singing and taught a Sunday-school class. He induced 
his father to let him have two acres of land which he cleared 
of the trees at night by the help of the neighbor boys and then 
turned the logs into charcoal. This patch he worked at odd 
times after putting in full time with his father and in the fall 
made a five hundred and fifty pound bale of cotton which en- 
abled him to enter the Baptist College. He made a good record 
in school and early won the favor of his teachers. He had ex- 
hausted his means by the middle of January, 1879. He went 
home to help make a crop to find that his parents had moved 
to Walton county. He looked them up and immediately went 
. to work on the farm. On the third Sunday in March, 1879, he 
was, greatly to his surprise, elected teacher of the local school 
without being an applicant for the place. He hired a hand to 
take his place on the farm and began his work as a teacher. 
The school grew under his direction till it numbered two hun- 
dred and fifty. His industry was remarkable. He worked 
almost dav and night. He succeeded. He showed others how to 



388 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

succeed. For ten years he continued to teach and to farm. In 
recent years he has devoted himself to his farm and other work. 
En 1901, he began buying land, and now occupies a comfortable 
place near ^Monroe. 

At the age of twelve he was converted and joined the Baptist 
church, of which he has since been an active member. He is a 
licensed preacher. 

In 1879 he was married to Miss Effie Davenport, of Oconee 
county. They had two children, Emory and Mattie. After the 
death of the first wife he married Frances Selman, who bore him 
two children, Claud and Sylvester, and passed away. He then 
married Susie Vincent. She bore him one child, Ora Marie. 
Subsequent to her death he married Lula Benton, by whom he 
has four children : Ada Daisy, Alice Ovella, Maggie and Union 
T. Hall. He was again left a widower and in 1915 was married 
to Miss Amanda Grace Harrison, of Barnesville, Pike county, 
who is a successful teacher and whose picture accompanies that 
of her husband. 

In polities Prof. Hall is a Republican. Among the secret 
orders he is identified with the Odd Fellows and the Gospel Aid 
of Georgia, being grand deputy of the latter. His preferred 
reading next after the Bible consists of history, books of char- 
acter, etc. When asked how, in his estimation, the best interests 
of the race might be promoted he responded with a remarkable 
collection of wise and timely suggestions which show wide read- 
ing and mature thought. 



HAMPTON COLLINS MOON 



IF the story of the Negro leaders of the educational and re- 
ligious work of Georgia could be told in full, it would be a 
record of patient endeavor in the midst of poverty, heroic 
struggle in the face of difficulties and steady progress upward. 
One of the younger men who is making his mark in the educa- 
tional life of the State is Prof. Hampton Collins Moon of 
Statham. 



390 HISTOEY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

He was born in Oglethorpe eonnty, December 2, 1881, and is 
a son of Rev. George and ^largaret Moon, an account of whose 
life work precedes this sketch. 

Young Moon had the advantages of Christian parents who 
could also help him realize his ambition to secure an education. 
He attended the public school through the sixth grade and then 
went to Jeruel Academy, Athens. Here he supplemented his 
limited means by acting as steward for several terms. 

Before his marriage he spent some time in the North and 
East where he learned many things which have been of service 
to him in his work. For a while he was in the employ of the 
Eagle Pub. House of Brooklj^n. 

His principal work, however, has been that of a teacher and 
it is in this that he excels. He was head of the school at Colbert 
for eight years and principal of the Summerhill school, Jackson 
county, for four years. He has been at Barber's Creek near 
Statham for four years. He holds a first grade teacher's license. 

His principal reading has been along the line of his work — 
pedagogy. In addition to his teaching he owais and operates a 
small farm near Statham. 

On October 31, 1907, he was married to I\Iiss Mary Parks, 
a daughter of Daniel and Conelia Parks, of Jackson county. 
They have one child, a daughter, Grace ]Moon. The whole group 
is shown herewith, l^efore her marriage, ]\Irs. Moon was a 
teacher also and ably assists her husband in his work. 

Prof. Moon is an active member of the Baptist church, a 
minister and a teacher in the Sunday School. In politics he is 
a Republican and among the secret orders is identified with the 
^Masons and the Good Samaritans. 

Prof. IMoon has been blessed Avith the privilege of teaching 
over a thousand children in the State. Among them are preach- 
ers, teachers, farmers, poultry men, insurance men, firemen, etc. 
In short his students are filling responsible positions in almost 
all lines of industry. His motto is, "Make hay while the sun 
shines." 



DELOVE WILLIS MOON 



DELOVE WILLIS MOON, a brilliant young teacher, poet, 
song writer and inventor, of Statham, Ga., was born in 
Oconee county, Ma}- 2, 1886, near what is now Eastville, 
Ga. His father, Rev. Geo. Moon, died when the boy was eight 
years of age. A sketch of his mother, jMargaret ]\Ioon, appears 
in this volume. He started to school to his mother at the age 
of four at Mt. Sinai, where he remained for several terms. From 
childhood he made a brilliant record as a student, but was a 
rather delicate child after reaching the age of ten years. At 
the age of fourteen he broke down almost completely, and while 
unable to go to college, pursued his studies at home under the 
direction of his mother, and by means of books and self instruc- 
tion. From 1904 to 1910, he studied several different branches 
of ''Physical and Applied Sciences." In 1907 he began to write 
verse, and has published two songs entitled, "I Am Waiting for 
the Spark of Love" and "I Love You Better Still." He has 
also prepared a book of poems entitled "The Proverbs of Life," 
soon to be published. 

In 1908, when he had grown stronger in body he invented a 
''I\Ierry-go-round" at which he worked for two years. 

In 1910 he made a tour of the North going as far as Windsor. 
Canada. Returning to the South late in the fall of the same 
year he took up farming near his old home at Bogart, and made 
three crops. 

Mr. Moon began teaching school as a profession in 1914, at 
Kenney's Academy, near Statham, Ga., where he is still teach- 
ing. In 1914 he built another "Merry-go-round" for practical 
use and is the originator of the "Common School Fair," an aid 
to supplementary school work. Desiring to reach the largest 
possible number of his folks Mr. Moon also conducts a night 
school. 

He has been a member of the ]\It. Sinai Baptist church since 
September, 1894, and in politics is a Repul)lican. His favorite 
line of reading is the Bible and Physical and Applied Science. 



MARGARET M. MOON 



THE present representatives of the :\loon family in Geor- 
gia are making for themselves a place which is creditable 
for them and their race. The story of these brilliant 
boys would not be completed without some account of their 
mother, Margaret M. ]Moon. 

She was born in slavery on April 13, 1858, near Woodstock, 
in Oglethorpe county. She was the second daughter of Kit and 
Frances Thomas. After emancipation she made the most of the 
opportunities offered by the common schools of Oglethorpe 
county. In October, 1873, she was married to Geo. Moon, who 
later entered the Baptist ministry. Two years later she was 
converted and joined the Spring Hill Baptist Church, and was 
active in the work of the IMaster until the day of her death. 

Seven years after her marriage the Moons moved from Ogle- 
thorpe county to Oconee county where both became very ac- 
tive in religious and educational work. 

Rev. Geo. Moon was pastor at the following churches: 
Oconee's Academy, Oconee county, Ga., Little Valley, Jackson 
county, Ga. He continued active until the spring of 1894. On 
May 17th of that year he passed away at his home near Bogart, 
where the family had located after leaving Oconee county. Thus 
bereft of husband and father Margaret Moon and her children 
were confronted wi+h many grave problems. Right bravely she 
faced the future and continued the education 'of her five chil- 
dren, all of whom have grown up under her tuition in the com- 
mon schools. She lived to see four of her sons successful teach- 
ers, two of whom are preachers and one a poet and song writer 
and an inventor. 

Margaret ]Moon was more than a mere teacher. She was a 
leader and a missionary among her people. Her church work 
was very dear to her and for forty years prior to her death she 
had been a teacher in the Sunday School. Full of good deeds 
and enjoying the confidence of her neighbors of both races she 
passed to her reward on Tuesday evening, Nov. 3, 1915, to join 
him who had shared her sorrows and joys. She is survived by 
y. J., H. C, R. L., and D. W. Moon. 

The accompanying picture represents her at the age of 44. 



ROBERT LOUIS MOON 



ROBERT LOUIS MOON, of Statham, Ga., is a son of Rev. 
Geo. and Margaret >\r. Moon. He was born in Oconee 
county, near Eastville, May 2, 1883. His paternal grand- 
parents were Gilbert and Nancy Hall. His grandparents on his 
mother's side were Kit and Frances Thomas. 

As a boy young ^loon attended the ^It. Sinai rural school, and 
later went to the Toccoa City school. When grown to young 
manhood he went to Tuskegee Institute, and is an enthusiastic 
advocate of the work of that great institution. His education, 
however, was not secured without a struggle. The young man 
however did not lack courage. Brought up in a Christian home, 
taught to tell the truth, to be industrious and to think for him- 
self, he steadily forged ahead, overcoming obstacles which would 
have defeated a less courageous soul, and has already made for 
himself a place in his profession, of which he need not be 
ashamed. 

Instead of whining about his poverty he patiently patched his 
own pants and darned his socks, and uncomplainingly Avent about 
his work with the determination to succeed. His experience as 
a teacher has been interesting. His first school was at Hopetown 
in Madison county where he taught for one year. From there 
he went to Smith's Chapel near Bethlehem where he remained 
for three and a half years, resigning to accept a position at 
Spring Hill. Remaining at Spring Hill a year he returned to 
Smith's Chapel for the next term. About this time he deter- 
minded to go to Tuskegee Institute where he remained for three 
and a half years. 

His mother's condition made it necessary for him to return 
home where he arrived with thirty cents. Hearing of a school 
at Tanner's Bridge more than sixty miles away he set out on 
foot, secured the school and set to work with a new determina- 
tion to succeed. The school had run down. The building was 
poor, and the equipment poorer. Finding his students hope- 
ful and his patrons responsive he identified himself with their 
local organizations and began a constructive program which 



GEOEGIA EDITION 395 

has resulted in the building up of the finest rural colored school 
in the county with an enrollment of 137 students and three 
teachers. 

Prof. Moon was recently elected Superintendent and Demon- 
strator of the Masonic Orphans' Home at Americus, and had 
the pleasure of seeing one of his former students, Prof. Gaither 
jMorrow elected as his successor at the school. The school which 
he accepted at $27.00 per month is now paying $63.00 and the 
young man who returned from Tuskegee with only thirty cents 
after providing liberally for his mother and lending a hand to 
every good work in the community now has property valued at 
more than $2,000, and has back of him a record of which he 
may well be proud, and before him a future full of promise. 
One of his favorite mottoes, or rather a group of mottoes, is: 
"Be a Christian, be honest, save your earnings." 

In politics Prof. Moon is a Republican. He is a member of 
the Missionary Baptist Church and is identified with the lead- 
ing secret orders, such as the Masons, Eastern Star, Laboring 
Aid, Good Samaritan, and a number of other local bodies. 

He believes that the best interests of the race are to be pro- 
moted bv industrial, social and religious education. 



SANFORD FRANKLIN JAMES 



AINIINISTER of the Gospel preaches hy the example of his 
life as well as by the sermons he delivers. The influence 
of a clean, helpful and successful life in a community 
lives longer than what men say. One of the men who has realized 
this and who has set his people a good example is Rev. Sanford 
Franklin James, of Polk county. 

He is a native of middle Georgia, having been born in Han- 
cock county just after the close of the war, October 26, 1865. 
His parents, who were both slaves, were Radford and Cornelia 
(Sassinet) James. His mother's mother was Eliza. Beyond 
this he knows nothing of his ancestry. 

As a boy young James attended the public schools of Han- 




SANFORD FRANKLIN JAMES, 



GEOKGIA EDITION 397 

cock county. AVlieii he was fourteen years of age the family 
moved to Clayton comity. Here the boy worked during the 
busy seasons and attended school between times. When he was 
eighteen he was converted and joined the A. ^l. E. church. He 
at once became active in the Avork of his denomination and has 
held every position in his church from the lowest to that of 
Presiding Elder. About three years after connecting himself 
with the church he felt called to preach. On August 27, 1887, 
he was licensed and on November 17, 1895, was ordained. He 
entered upon the active work of the ministry in 1890. Since 
that time his progress has been steady. His first pastorate was 
the Hiram ^Mission, which he served for two years and bought 
land for a church. He then served the Farnaklin circuit three 
years, Carrollton one year, Senie two years, South Atlanta one 
year, Bethel one year, Cave Spring one year, Etowah two years, 
Dallas two years, Tallapoosa two years, Chapel Hill and Dallas 
two years, Calhoun one year. Pine Grove tAvo years, Dalton Sta- 
tion one year and Etowah circuit two years. Such had been 
the character of his work in the pastorate that in 1912 he was 
promoted to the presiding eldership of the Dalton circuit. Dur- 
ing his long and active ministry he has built several churches, 
but his largest service to his denomination has been along the 
line of evangelistic work and in the clearing up of debts on 
church property. He has brought into the church nearly fifteen 
hundred members. After entering the ministry he took a cor- 
respondence course in Theology. His favorite reading has been 
along the lines of Biblical literature and church history. 

On August 26, 1884, he was married to Miss Nancy Dorsey, 
of Clayton county. Of the four children born to them three 
are living. They are Roxie (Mrs. Gaines), Walter and Samuel. 
After the death of his first wife he was married a second time, 
on ]\Iareh 24, 1899, to ]\Iiss Lois Adrine, of Polk county. They 
have one son, Sanford F. James, Jr. 

In addition to his work as a minister, Elder James has made 
a notable success as a business man. In 1901, he moved into the 
woods with his family, where he now lives, and bought land. 
By hard work and economy he has increased his holdings till he 
now owns one hundred and sixty acres, most of which is in cul- 



398 HISTOEY OF AMEKICAN NEGKO 

tivation. Since his boys have grown to manhood he rents the 
farm. 

In politics Elder James is a Republican. He is a Mason and 
an ardent advocate of all around education. 



MILES HUNTER 



WHEN Emancipation came to the Negro slave of the 
South, it found him ignorant, for it was against the 
law to teach a slave to read. It also found him poor, 
Avithout land or money. It was a test of manhood. A few of 
the most energetic went to work, established homes, bought land 
and have made good citizens. As a rule they have given their 
children the educational advantages which they lacked in their 
youth. 

Among this class is Miles Hunter, of Athens. He was born 
at Statham in Jackson, now Barrow county, March 1, 1850. It 
will thus be seen that he was about tifteen when freedom came. 
His parents were Captain and Gracy Hunter. Back of them 
he knows nothing of his ancestry. Growing up on the farm 
he Avas taught to do all sorts of farm Avork. 

On August 20, 1869, when between nineteen and tAventy years 
of age. he was married to Miss Mahala Steed, a daughter of 
Willie and Caroline Steed, of Jackson county. They have nine 
living children. They are : Jasper, John and MattheAV, living 
in BarroAv county; Lucas, Athens, Annie (Mrs. Daniel), Caro- 
line (]Mrs. Thurman). ]Maria (Mrs. Espy), Lula (Mrs. Pender- 
grass). and Evie (Mrs. Harris). 

In 1870, which Avas the year following his marriage, he began 
farming for himself and has prospered. He has increased his 
real estate holdings till he noAv has nearly tAvo hundred and 
fifty acres, worth at least ten thousand dollars. In addition to 
grain and other produce the place makes from forty to fifty 
bales of cotton a year. 

In politics he is a Republican. He is a member of the Bap- 
tist church, of which he is a deacon. Though depriA'ed of an 



GEOEGIA EDITION 399 

education himself, he helieves that the best interests of the race 
are to be served 1)y better schools and better churches. He is 
regarded as a good citizen and a successful man by both his 
white and colored neighbors. 

In 1914 he moved to Athens, and on September 10, 1915, his 
wife passed away at the age of sixty-four. She was a member 
of the Baptist church. 



JAMES THOMAS HINES 



TAMES THO:\IAS HINES, of Palmetto, is a good example 
of what a man with good common sense can do when he 
makes up his mind to it. He has had a hard struggle but 
he has won success and has won it honestly. He was born 
just after the close of the war, about September 15, 1866. His 
father William Hines was a farmer and a carpenter. His 
mother was Frances Varner. On his mother's side his grand- 
parents were William and ]\Iary Cook. The grandmother 
was married twice and was better known by the name of her 
last liusl:)and, Byars. William Cook was a man of un- 
usual ability as a carpenter and builder and was known as 
one of the best carpenters in his section. His wife Mary was 
a great church worker and her influence for good was felt 
throughout the community Avhere she lived. 

James Tliomas Hines coming of school age dui'ing the hard 
days of Reconstruction found it hard to do much in the way 
of getting an education. In fact, his schooling was limited 
to the local public school. He did not permit this, however, 
to discourage him, but has continued to read and to identify 
himself with those things wiiich are for the betterment of the 
race. His favorite reading is the Bible and sacred literature. 

He was brought up to farm work and early found that 
like his father and both liis grandfathers he had a turn for 
carpentry. So he learned and learned well the carpenter trade 
and followed that with the trade of a brickmason. He has 
trained himself along these lines so well that he is regarded 




JAMES THOMAS HINES. 



GEORGIA EDITION 401 

as one of the best carpenters and as the best colored brick- 
mason in his town. He began with the idea that he could do 
anything and has not allowed himself to be discouraged. He 
has kept up his farming and now owns land to the value of 
at least fifteen hundred dollars. 

He is a member of the jM. E. Church with which he has 
been identified since childhood. He is steward, trustee and 
assistant superintendent of the Sunday-school. He is a mem- 
ber of the Woodmen, the Odd Fellows, the Good Samaritans, 
and the Home Relief Association. In all of these he now holds 
or has held official positions. In politics he is a Republican 
and 'has been at times rather active. He thinks all his people 
require is a square deal and fair play in all things at all times. 

In January, 1890, he was married to Martha Frances Cran- 
ford, a daughter of Henry and Jane (Smith) Cranford. They 
have had fourteen children. Those living are Frances Leona, 
Luter Celia, Plosier, William Rosingnol, Irenius, Marvin 
Clinton Baxter, Clarence Tee, Henry Hulit, Ida Sue and 
Elfleda Hines. 



MILES PINCKNEY MOORE 



PROF. MILES PINCKNEY MOORE, a minister and a 
teacher now residing at Dawson, is a native of Edgefield, 
S. C, where he was born September 4, 1855. Both his 
parents, Miles and Daphne IMoore, were slaves. 

Young Moore was taught to read and write by his young mis- 
tress. Miss Susan Moore, and after Emancipation he went to 
school to Miss Delia W. Jones for five years. Later he attended 
Benedict College for a short while, and after that a private 
school taught by Prof. Babbitt of Columbia. 

He was converted at the age of eighteen, and five years later 
felt called to the work of the ministry. He was licensed to 
preach by the Damascus Baptist Church, in 1875. He attended 
regularly the Normal Institutes of South Carolina, and thus 
qualified himself as a teacher. 



GEOEGIA EDITION 403 

Just after reaching his majority, in 1876, when he had finished 
at Miss Jones' school, he sailed for Liberia as a representative of 
the Negroes of South Carolina, inspecting that country for the 
Negroes of his state, as the question of migrating to Liberia was 
much agitated in the South at that time. He remained in 
Liberia a short while, but reported unfavorably, and on his re- 
turn journey to America, spent six months in England, where he 
was cordially received, and bore away with him the written en- 
dorsement of religious and other organizations at different 
points. He delivered numerous lectures, both on American and 
Liberian conditions while in England. 

In 1888 he moved to Georgia. His first pastoral work was at 
Beulah Baptist Church, of Quitman, which he served for five 
years. He then moved to Dawson and has for years been active 
in Missionary and Sunday-school work. Eight years ago he was 
made principal of the Dawson Public School, which position he 
has since held, with credit to himself and satisfaction to his 
patrons. He has a well selected library, and is a careful, but 
extensive reader. Prof. Moore is a well-informed man, and his 
relationship with his white, as well as colored neighbors, is 
cordial and helpful. 

He owns some property in South Carolina, and believes that 
the one essential to the progress of his people is the development 
of Christian character. He has not identified himself with the 
secret orders. 



ALBERT B. McCOY 




M 



ALBERT B. McCOY. 



ORE and more the place and 
importance of the Sunday 
School as the great modern 
irainmg school of the church is being • 
!i>alized; and not only do the wise 
leaders in religious activity recognize 
its possibilities as a training school of 
efficiency and for the development of 
young Christians, but the importance 
of reaching and influencing the young 
while they are impressionable and 
can be influenced is daily growing on 
their consciousness, together Avith the 
fact that the Sunday School is the 
most available and most effective department of church work 
for doing these very things. Along with this naturally comes 
more and more the searching out of consecrated men who 
have demonstrated their ability and fitness for the various 
departments of Sunday School activity; and this is what 
has led to the selection of Rev. Albert B. McCoy, A. M., D. D., 
by the Presbyterian Board of Publication and Sabbath School 
Work as Sabbath School jMissionary or District Superintendent 
for that district composed of the States of Tennessee, Alabama, 
rdississippi, Georgia, Florida, South Carolina, Arkansas and 
Oklahoma. He has established his headquarters at Americus, 
Ga., which places him near the center of the district. 

Dr. ]\IcCoy was born at Cotton Plant, Arkansas, November 9, 
1876, son of Samuel and Maria McCoy, his father being a farm- 
er. His parents Avere born slaves in Salisbury, N. C, and went 
from there to Arkansas. The early part of his education was 
obtained under difficulty, as he had to work in the home of 
white people for his meals, but was allowed to attend school 
between times. He attended first the Cotton Plant Academy in 
Arkansas, and later Lincoln University, of Pennsylvania, which 
conferred on him the following literary and honorary degrees: 



GEOKGIA EDITION 405 

A; B. in 1901 ; A. M. in 1902 ; D. D. in 1913, and S. T. B. in 
1904. There is every evidence that he comes to his work well 
equipped in every respect, and this is borne out by his manner 
of handling the work itself and by the results obtained. 

He was converted and joined the church at the age of sixteen. 
He does not remember the time when he did not want to preach ; 
and as he grew older and was converted, the desire became 
irresistible. While in Pennsylvania he served for two years as 
pastor at "Westchester. On completing his course at Lincoln 
University in 1904, he began work as Sunday School Missionary 
in Southern Georgia. Nine years of that work so demonstrated 
his capacity, that on October 1, 1913, he was appointed to his 
present responsible position as District Superintendent. Insti- 
tute and Convention work and the supervision of the work of 
State Superintendents fill his busy life to the full. 

On June 23, 1905, he was married to Miss Alberta Holsey, 
daughter of Solomon and Charlotte Holsey, of Americus, Ga, 
They have two children — Cecilia Marie and Albert B., Jr. 

Dr. McCoy's preferred reading is along the lines of Bible 
literature and history. He is a Republican in politics, and re- 
gards as the most pressing national question that of the advis- 
ability of continuing the Democratic party as a power. He be- 
lieves that the State of Georgia should make provision for the 
education and training of its Negro farmers along the lines of 
modern scientific agriculture ; and that the education and salva- 
tion of the poorer classes of both races are among matters of 
most vital concern. 



SANDY D. ROSEBOROUGH 



M. 



A]\IONG the prominent and active ministers of the A 
E. connection in Georgia, is Rev. S. D. Roseborough, D. 
D., whose voice has been heard in almost every nook and 
corner of Georgia, who now resides at Cuthbert. He is a native 
of Fairfield, S. C, where he was born on July 4, 1850. He is a 
son of his master, John Calvin Roseborough. His mother's 



GEOEGIA EDITION 407 

name was IMaria. She was brought from Virginia to South 
Carolina. All she remembers about her father is, that he was 
known as "Cox's old Ned," and it is to be presumed that he 
belonged to the Cox family, of Virginia. 

Young Roseborough and his fellow-servants hardly felt the 
weight of slavery, as their master was a lenient man, and did 
not prohibit his slaves from picking up such book learning as 
they could secure ; so while Sandy was still a small boy, his 
mother paid an old Negro man ten cents a month to teach the 
children on Sundays. After Emancipation he went to the 
country schools, such as they were. 

In 1872 he was converted, and almost immediately felt called 
to the work of the ministry, but did not actually join the Con- 
ference until 1877, when he joined at Bainbridge. He had 
previously come to Georgia and settled in Brooks county in '67 
or '68, where he was engaged in farming and carpenter work. 
On entering the ministry, his first pastorate was the Hickory 
Head Mission, Camilla circuit. From Camilla he went to 
Arlington circuit, which he served for four years. From Arling- 
ton he went to the Bainbridge station for one year, and then 
to Cuthbert for three years. From the Cuthbert work he was 
promoted to the Presiding Eldership of the Thomasville Dis- 
trict, then under the direction of Bishop Gaines, and had over- 
sight of that work for four years. Conditions of the Rome 
station requiring a strong man about this time, he was trans- 
ferred to that point for one year. Returning to South Georgia 
the next year, he was made Presiding Elder of the Cuthbert 
District for three years, and was then transferred to the 
Savannah District for three years. The two following years 
were spent at St. John's, Columbus, from which he went to the 
Americus station for two years. At the close of that pastorate, 
he was again made presiding elder and assigned to the Bain- 
bridge District for four years. The next year was spent on the 
Blakely District. Following this he presided over the Cuthbert 
District four years and spent one year on the Talbotton work, 
at the end of which he was given the Columbus District, and is 
now (1914) in the second year of his work on that district. 
Dr. Roseborough has built and repaired a number of 



408 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

churches and parsonages, and is recognized by the denomina- 
tion and its leaders as a forceful, competent and aggressive man. 
In the days of his earlier ministry, he gave much time to revival 
work, in which he was very successful. More lately, his efforts 
have been along administrative lines. He has attempted to 
organize and develop his people after they have been brought 
into the church. He has frequently attended the General Con- 
ferences of his denomination, as well as the Annual Confer- 
ences. 

Among the secret orders he is a Mason, Odd Fellow and a 
Pythian. In recognition of his activities and his attainments, 
the honorary degree of D. D. was conferred upon him in 1902 
by Morris Brown College. He is vice-president of the board of 
trustees of that institution and treasurer of the Southwest Geor- 
gia Annual Conference. 

In 1873 he was married to Miss Endimie Linton, of Georgia. 
The following children have been born to them: Adolphus L., 
who at the time of his death was president of Payne College, 
Cuthbert; William Herschel, who was a minister till the time 
of his death ; Eddie Alfred, who died in his sixth year ; Gertrude 
E., Sandy Dickerson and John Calvin. His first wife passed 
away June 10, 1887. In 1889 he was married to Miss Irene V. 
Clark, of Cuthbert. They have had the following children : Joe 
Clark, Fred Douglas, Lincoln Payne, Ruth, Fannie May, Walter 
Lee, Hazel Marie and Roy. 

Dr. Roseborough owns a comfortable home in Cuthbert, where 
his family resides while he goes out on the work to which he is 
assigned from year to year. He considers the liquor business 
the greatest menace to the progress and development of his 
people. 

Dr. Roseborough has been spoken of and urged by his friends 
several times to run for the Bishopric, but has refused because 
he thought the church had plenty of men more worthy and 
better fitted than himself. His oldest son, Adolphus L. was a 
graduate of ^lorris Brown College, his daughter, Gertrude, a 
graduate of Haines Institute, Augusta, Ga., and was wife of Dr. 
R. E. Jones, Dawson, Ga. 

His son Fred is a graduate of Lincoln University, Chester 



GEOEGIA EDITION 409 

county, Pa. His daughter, Ruth, is also a graduate of Morris 
Brown University. He also has two grandchildren, Roseboro 
and Wyolene Jones, whom he is raising. 



HENRY CLARENCE SCARLETT 



DR. HENRY CLARENCE SCARLETT, of Waycross, is 
one of the best equipped and most successful of the 
younger professional men of the race in South Georgia. 
He is one who has not found it necessary to go away from his 
home town in order to make a success. He is a native of Way- 
cross, where he was born August 29, 1877. His father, who is 
still living (1916), is King Scarlett, a merchant of Waycross. 
His mother, who passed away in 1892, was Julia (Johnson) 
Scarlett. She was a daughter of Jack Johnson. 

Young Scarlett enjoyed the opportunities of the Waycross 
public schools as a boy and when ready for college entered the 
State Normal and Industrial College at Savannah. After win- 
ning his diploma he matriculated at Meharry for his medical 
course, finishing with the degree of ]M.D. in 1907. His vaca- 
tions were spent in the Pullman service, which took him to every 
part of the country. He found this not only remunerative but 
a helpful experience as well. While in college he was an en- 
thusiastic football player. 

While in Meharry he met Miss Donnie F. Redmond, of Missis- 
sippi, who graduated in the same class with himself. They were 
married in May, 1907, and after passing the State Board, im- 
mediately took up the general practice in Waycross. Mrs. Scar- 
lett has practically retired from the practice, devoting her time 
to her home and family. They have three children : Esther 
Lucile, H. C, Jr., and Maudell. 

Dr. Scarlett is a member of the Georgia State Medical Society. 
In politics he is a Republican and is active in the work of the 
party. He usually attends the State Conventions and in 1916 
was a delegate to the Chicago Convention. He is a member of 
the Baptist church, and belongs to the Pythians and the Odd 




HENRY CLARENCE SCARLETT. 



GEORGIA EDITION 411 

Fellows, for both of which he is IMedical Examiner, as he is also 
for the Standard Life Insurance Co. He believes the most press- 
ing need of his people is industrial development. 

Dr. Scarlett owns an elegant home on Reynolds street and 
other valuable property. 



JOSEPH C. McGRAW 



A^IONG the enterprising and successful Negroes of the 
prosperous little city of Waycross is Joseph C. IMcGraw, 
the senior partner of the firm of McGraw Bros. He was 
born and reared in Brooks county, where he remained till he 
reached the age of manhood. His parents were Wra. McGraw, a 
carpenter, and Eliza (Hunton) McGraw. At an early age he 
picked up his father's trade, which he has found very helpful. 
As a boy he attended the Brooks county public schools and later 
the Allen Normal at Thomasville. He worked his own way 
through school till he could secure a teacher's license, after 
which he found the way easier. 

He taught for seven terms in Brooks county, his first school 
being at Dixie. 

In 1897 he was married to Miss Annie Smith, a daughter of 
Frank Smith, of Brooks county. One son, Booker T. McGraw, 
was born to them. A year or so later the parents separated, 
the son, though living with his mother, has been educated by 
the father. 

In 1898 Mr. McGraw moved to Waycross and was engaged for 
one year in a drug store. The following year he went into the 
bicycle business in which he greatly prospered. In connection 
with his repair shop he is also a successful dealer. 

Soon after locating in Waycross, he realized the growing im- 
portance of local real estate and began investing his earnings. 
He gradually increased his holdings till he is now among the 
leading real estate owners of the city. Here his knowledge of 
carpentry came into play. When he desired to improve a lot he 
was either able to do the work or superintend it. 




McGRAW AUDITORIUM. 



GEORGIA EDITION 413 

The biggest thing he has done for himself and his race was 
undertaken in 1912, when he erected what is known as the 
McGraw Auditorium, which is perhaps the best auditorium for 
colored people in the South for a city of the size of Waycross. 
It is a handsome brick structure, well located in the midst of a 
densely populated Negro section. It has attractive offices on 
the second floor. The accompanying illustration will give an 
idea of the ornate appearance of the building. 

Mr. McGraw is a Republican and is secretary of the Ware 
County Committee. He is a Pythian and an active member of 
the A. M. E. Church, being treasurer of the Board of Trustees 
of Gaines Chapel. He stands high, both as a business man and 
as a citizen. While himself a city man, he believes the perma- 
nent prosperity of his race must be based on intelligent farming. 

W. M. McGraw, the junior member of the firm, is an impor- 
tant factor in the business. He is nearly three years younger 
than Joseph, and is unmarried. He, too, is a carpenter and ably 
assists his older brother in all his work. 

They own good business property where the shop stands and 
J. C. McGraw is now (1916) erecting a very attractive bunga- 
low. Together they have worked out a success, which reflects 
credit on them as business men, and on the race. 



JOHN B. BROUGHTON 



REV. JOHN B. BROUGHTON, a Baptist minister of Law- 
renceville, is a man who has done good work in his day 
and generation. He is a native of jMorgan county, hav- 
ing been born about three miles from Rutledge on September 
15, 1856. His parents, Moses King Broughton and Elizabeth 
Durden, were both slaves. The father, who was a carriage 
driver, was sold away from his family and carried to Virginia 
when his son was only three days old. The mother lived till 
1893. Her parents w^ere Ned and Charity Durden. The lat- 
ter lived to the remarkable age of 115 and her mother, Patsy 
Durden, to 110. 




JOHN B. BROUGHTON AND WIFE. 



GEOEGIA EDITION 415 

John B. Brougliton was a small boy at the time of Sherman's 
raid, which he remembers. As he grew up he worked on the 
farm and was fourteen before he went to school. After his 
marriage he removed to Walton county and attended school 
there for awhile. He was converted at the age of thirty-three 
and joined the Baptist Church. Four years later he entered 
the ministry and was ordained to the full work of the ministry 
by the Liberty Hill Baptist Church in 1893. His first pas- 
torate Avas at Loganville where he preached for more than a 
dozen years without a break. He also served the church at 
Gloster for a number of years. His most successful pastorate, 
however, has been what has come to be knoAvn throughout 
that section as the Broughton Tabernacle at Lawrenceville. 
Tlie work here has prospered wonderfully under his hand. In 
fact it is in many respects the leading colored church in that 
section. Among other churches which he has served may be 
mentioned St. James, Carl and First Baptist at Hoschton. 

On January 13, 1880, Mr. Broughton was married to Miss 
Millie Phillips, a daughter of Phoebe Phillips, of Walton 
county. They have three children, Jack, Mosana (Paxon) and 
Lemmie. They own their own home on the outskirts of Law- 
renceville. Rev. Broughton takes but little part in politics and 
is not active in the secret orders. He has, however, made a 
place for himself in the community and is regarded by both 
his white and colored neighbors as a good citizen. As he looks 
back over his life he remembers with gratitude the influence 
OD his life of his Christian mother. He recalls learning the 
Lord's prayer at an early age and reckons the church and the 
Sunday School among the most important factors in the shap- 
ing of his character. 



WILLIAM GILBERT JOHNSON 

REV. WILLIAM GILBERT JOHNSON, D. D., of Macon, 
who has been president of the Georgia Baptist Conven- 
tion since 1902, and is vice-president of the National 
Baptist Convention, as well as one of the strongest and most 



416 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

popular preachers of his race in the State, is known and loved 
by thousands of people in every part of Georgia. He was born 
just after the outbreak of the War between the States, on 
June 4, 1861, at Hephzibah, Ga., and is a son of Gilbert and 
Frances (Walker) Johnson, both of whom were slaves. His 
paternal grandfather was William Johnson, and his maternal 
grandparents were named Frank and Sarah. 

As a boy Dr. Johnson attended the school at Hephzibah, and 
later entered the Augusta Institute, but took his theological 
course at Atlanta Baptist Seminary, later known as the At- 
lanta Baptist (now Morehouse) College. His education was 
not secured, however, without a struggle, for while he was 
brought up in a Christian home, it was by no means a home 
of wealth. By selling rags and bones, he made eighteen dol- 
lars, and with this small fund started to college. During the 
two years he remained at Augusta, he partially earned his 
way by cooking ; but he has never been afraid of work, whether 
it has been in the service of his brethren or to equip himself 
for his work in the world. Like most of the members of his 
race who have attained to places of leadership, he was con- 
Aerted early, being only nine years of age at the time. Only 
a few years later, and while still a mere boy, he felt called to 
the work of the ministry, and began preaching when he was 
about nineteen. Prior to this he had taught school in order 
tc supplement his earnings, so that he could take the desired 
course at Atlanta. His teaching was at Girard and Hephzibah. 
His first pastorate was at Stony Bluff, near Girard. The 
early years of his ministry were busy years, as have been all 
those that have followed ; but at that time he kept up with his 
pastorates, and in the week days taught school. He pastored 
at Waynesboro and at Green's Cut. He was then called to 
Hephzibah, where he remained as pastor for three years. He 
served the Louisville church four years, and Elam Baptist 
Church, Augusta, for nine years. The crovniing work of his 
life, however, as a pastor, has been done at the First Baptist 
Church of Macon, where he has been in charge for seventeen 
years. During this pastorate more than three thousand 
members have been added to the church, and his work in Ma- 



GEORGIA EDITION 417 

con is regarded as one of the most substantial in the denomina- 
tion. 

His position as a leader was recognized when in 1902 he 
was made president of the State Convention, which position 
he has held with credit to himself and satisfaction to the 
brotherhood from that time to this. He is an untiring worker, 
and it is feared by his friends that he will shorten his days 
by the energy with which he undertakes to keep up with the 
various interests of the denomination in the State. He is re- 
garded by all who know him as one of the best preachers in 
the denomination. He is a presiding officer of tact and ability, 
well informed, a ready speaker, quick in action, enthusiastic in 
his work, and yet a careful organizer and manager of men. 
Throughout the years of his ministry he has been a most suc- 
cessful revivalist, and has baptized more than three thousand 
persons. Among all the books he puts the Bible first, though 
he is an extensive reader along theological lines. He is a Re- 
publican in politics, and among the secret orders is identi- 
fied with the Masons and Pythians. 

On February 26, 1885, he was married to i\Iartha Graham, a 
daughter of Emily and John Graham, of Hephzibah. They 
have eight children: Ulysses, Ella, William, Oliver, Charlie, 
James, Theodore and Frances. 

In another matter he has set his people a good example, as 
he lives in his own home and has accumulated considerable 
property. 

In addition to the presidency of the Convention, another 
monument which will stand to his memory even after he is 
gone is the General State Reformatory, near Macon, for 
Colored Boys and Girls. This much needed work, which is 
supported by the denomination, has accumulated property 
worth $30,000.00, and has a capacity for one hundred and fifty 
boys and girls, who are here brought under the happy Chris- 
tian influences which are so often wanting in their homes. 

Dr. Johnson, though just turned into his early fifties, has 
already accomplished the work of a man of three score years 
and ten. His guiding hand is felt in the more than one hun- 
dred associations comprising the State Convention, with a total 



418 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

membership of more than 200,000, and it will be remembered 
that he occupies and attends to the duties of this position 
while filling faithfully and accept a])ly the pastorate of one of 
the largest churches in the State. 

Note— Since the above was written Dr. Johnson has passed 
to his reward. 



MUNGO MELANCTHON PONTON 



AMONG those representatives of the Negro race who are 
touching a large number of men and proving themselves 
real powers in molding the current history of the race, 
is Rev. Mungo ]\IeIancthon Ponton, D.D., of Atlanta. 

Dr. Ponton was born at Twilight, Halifax county, North 
Carolina, IMay 10, 1859. His father, Henry Ponton, was a 
stone mason by trade. His paternal grandfather was a native 
of Scotland and a man of some learning. His paternal grand- 
mother was the eldest daughter of parents brought direct 
from West Africa. Dr. Ponton's mother was Rachel (Day) 
Ponton whose parents were also native Africans. 

Dr. Ponton says that he never knew any of the grinding 
hardships of slavery, as his people and the whites to whom 
they belonged were as one happy family. He was yet but a 
child when universal freedom was proclaimed; though his 
father, Henry Ponton, had already purchased his freedom and 
was concerning himself about that of his family when the 
course of events rendered further efforts unnecessary. 

IMungo's parents, with a brother and sister, both died in 
1863, and he was left for awhile in the care of an older brother. 
Almost from childhood, however, he learned to depend upon 
his own efforts and struck out boldly for himself. During his 
childhood and for years after Emancipation he was assisted 
by I\Irs. Lucy Ponton who helped him in laying the founda- 
tions of an education. 

While inheriting a strong constitution and vigorous mind, 




MUNGO MELANCTHON PONTON 



420 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

both have been subjected to exercise that has served to 
strengthen and develop them to a remarkable degree. His 
early years were spent on a farm. During this time he studied 
at night. His farm work was followed by railroading, slate 
looting, hotel and hospital work— in fact, any honorable occu- 
pation by which he could earn a livelihood and continue the 
acquiring of an education by study at night. In the meantime 
he traveled some and gained valuable information by his con- 
stant habit of close observation. Tliis also gave him a larger 
vision of the opportunities opening up before a properly 
trained and equipped man, and fired him with greater deter- 
mination than ever to acquire a thorough education. 

Speaking of this period, Dr. Ponton says: "I do not know 
whether it will interest anyone except myself to know, that 
my older brother hired me out to a farmer for five dollars 
per month, but on account of the smallness of the compensa- 
tion in proportion to the work, together with the cruelty and 
hardship inflicted, I ran away, and hired myself to a gravel 
train boss as a water boy, for which I received fifteen dollars 
per month, the first money I had earned I could call my own. 
I got compensation for service, but I was among the worst 
men I had ever met — drunkards, gamblers — men who cursed 
and used the most vile language, and had the most immoral 
as well as intemperate habits — men who would fight as well 
as quarrel, and often got into serious trouble. Tired of this 
kind of environment, I left Halifax and came to Wilmington. 
This was the latter jjart of the '60 's and early '70 's, a most 
ti.rbulent time, and awful for a boy of my age, for at that 
time my people did not know the meaning of freedom as well 
as many of them know now. But during this strenuous time 
tlie lingering thought of a future was with me. I wanted to 
communicate with the world outside, so I bought a pencil and 
some paper, and began to practice writing from cast off ad- 
dressed envelopes from the waste basket at the old W. & W. R. 
R. office. By this means I got in touch with the outside world, 
? larger world than I had been in the habit of conceiving. Then 
I began the life — the most loathsome life — the life of a tramp. 
The modern hoboes, I pity them. North Carolina and South 



GEOKGIA EDITION 421 

Carolina, could they speak, would tell some tales of my suffer- 
ing. Hungry, homeless, and aimless, until one day while looking 
over the windings of my path of wandering from my home, 
from Miss Lucy Ponton, and from the dear words of my 
sainted mother, I gave myself to Jesus, and from that time to 
this I have been steadily trying to walk in his footsteps. 
Eternity will tell the rest." 

By and by he entered Lincoln University, at Oxford, Pa., 
from which he was graduated with the A.B. degree in 1888. 
The same year he matriculated at Yale Theological Seminary, 
but being not altogether pleased there, went to Boston Uni- 
versity, from which he was graduated with honor and the 
S. T. B. degree in 1891. He also took lectures at Harvard, 
Andover and Newton Seminary. These highly prized and 
indeed highly valuable opportunities were all acquired solely 
through his own efforts. He did not shirk the hardest and 
most menial physical toil if it only helped him on to the end 
which he kept steadily in view. 

In addition to the several degrees already referred to above 
he also received that of S. T. D. from Morris Brown, and the 
degree of D. D. from Wilberforce University, Xenia, Ohio. 

Dr. Ponton had engaged to some extent in preaching and 
teaching from about the time he began his course at Boston 
University, and since completing his course there his life has 
been devoted mainly to these two lines of activity, and also 
to the building of colleges and the administration of a large 
endowment fund for the training of colored teachers and 
preachers, known as the John C. Martin Fund. 

In 1888-1889 he was, under appointment of Bishop Henry 
M. Turner, pastor of St. Paul A. M. E. Church in the classic 
city of Cambridge, Mass., and later at the famous Summer re- 
sort of Narragansett Pier, R. I. Thence he was transferred to 
the North Ohio Conference, and appointed to Bellaire in 1891. 
In 1892 he began teaching a public school in Van "Wert county. 
In 1894 he was appointed to the pastorate at Canton, Ohio, and 
the following year transferred to the West Arkansas Confer- 
ence, and made principal of Shorter University at Arkadelphia, 
1895-1896, serving meanwhile the A. M. E. Church at Arkadel- 



422 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

phia. In 1896 Dr. Ponton was transferred to Georgia and became 
founder and Dean of Turner Theological Seminary, at Morris 
Brown College, Atlanta, and continued ,his work in this con- 
nection until 1903, w^hen he became Field Superintendent of 
the John C. Martin Education Fund. In 1906-1907, he was 
Professor of Philosophy and John C. Martin Bible Chair at 
Morris Brown College. In 1907 he was called to Mississippi 
to take charge as president of Campbell College at Jackson, 
where a strong executive was needed. The wisdom of this 
choice was seen in the results. In addition to thousands of 
dollars raised for that work during his incumbency, he brought 
to its aid the John C. Martin Fund, and secured a permanent 
bequest for the school in lands valued at ten thousand dollars, 
with a permanent income. In 1912, he established Lampton 
College, at Alexandria, La. Knowing that all, however, can- 
not attend schools, he began conducting a correspondence 
course of study, through which he reaches from five hundred 
to a thousand preachers a year. The successful handling of 
any one of the lines of work mentioned by any ordinary man 
would be a very large undertaking. In addition to these things, 
he has filled a number of the leading pastorates in the North 
Georgia Conference and in what is now his home city of At- 
lanta. These include St. James and Trinity A. M, E. Churches, 
and also St. Paul, in which he succeeded Bishop Flipper. 

Dr. Ponton was first married in 1896, to Mrs. A. M. Shober, 
of Wilmington, N. C. She lived only five months after their 
marriage. In 1900 he was married a second time to Mrs. I. E. 
Upshaw, who was a daughter of Andrew and INlartha Twine, 
of Washington, D. C. Mrs. Ponton is a woman of education, 
culture and refinement. She was an experienced teacher, hav- 
ing before her marriage been connected with the public schools 
of Washington. She also has good business judgment, and her 
assistance to her husband in his work has been invaluable. 
They reside at 34 Johnson Avenue, Atlanta. 

In his reading, it goes without saying that such a man places 
the Bible emphatically first. Next to that he places Bacon's 
Essays, Carlyle's Essays, poetry, history, science of govern- 
ment, ethics, and the mythology of all races. He is nominally a 



GEOEGIA EDITION 423 

Republican in politics, but he believes that in a form of govern- 
ment like ours, the thing of supreme importance is the re- 
demption of the individual life and the proper teaching and 
training of the individual mind, so that the citizen may handle 
with non-partisan intelligence and integrity the various mat- 
ters that come up for his consideration. He belongs to one 
social club, the I\Ionday Club of Atlanta, which numbers among 
its members some of the foremost Negroes of the South. He 
is the author of several books, including "Religion of Re- 
ligions," "How to Study the Bible," "My Country, My Mother 
and My God," and "Didactic Theology." He is editor of "The 
Sphinx," is a member of the Press Correspondence Bureau, of 
Washington, D. C, and is an occasional contributor to the 
o'aily press of the South. 



WILLIAM WASHINGTON FLOYD 



WHEN the Reverend William Washington Floyd, of 
Atlanta, was born at Forsyth, Ga., August 13, 1865, 
just after the close of the war, perhaps no one would 
have predicted for the poor Negro boy, a son of parents just 
out from slavery, the career which he .had carved for himself 
during these years. Following the leadership of his Master, 
he has not shunned any task, however, which lay in the path 
of duty, till now he is at the head of one of the big churches of 
his denomination in the capital city of his native State. 

His parents were Thomas and Rachel Larry Floyd; and 
such was their condition immediately after the war, when our 
subject was a small boy, that they could give him but meager 
advantages in the way of an education, so that it may be said 
that he practically worked out for himself what education 
he secured. He was converted at an early age, and almost 
from the time of his conversion felt that he must preach. He 
at first joined the Methodist Church, and was by that denomi- 
nation licensed to preach. When he began the work of the 




WILLIAM WASHINGTON FLOYD. 



GEORGIA EDITION 425 

ministry, however his doctrinal preference led him into the 
Baptist church, and he has since been a preacher in that de- 
nomination. Taking up the work of the ministry early as he 
did, he yet felt the lack of proper equipment, so after his mar- 
riage he took the theological course at the Baptist College, 
Atlanta. Prior to this time, on October 12, 1883, he had been 
married to Matilda Elliott, of Henry county, who was a daugh- 
ter of George Washington and Sophia Elliott. Through all 
the years she has been a helpmeet to him, and it was through 
her energy and loyalty and ambition for her husband that he 
was able to take his theological course ; for while he was work- 
ing away at college to better prepare himself for his work, 
she M^as keeping things in shape at home and making their 
living. They have been blessed with only one child, Claudia 
Lee, who is a graduate of Spelman Seminary and now a teach- 
er at Rome, Ga. The mother at one time took the missionary 
course at Spelman, also. 

Mr. Floyd's first pastorate was at Stockbridge, in Henry 
county. While working in this part of the State he lived 
near Flippen, and later supplied the churches at Rocky Mount 
and his old church at Bethlehem. The work grew and pros- 
pered under his hand, and tliere came demands for his serv- 
ices from larger fields. He served the church at Ellenwood 
for six years, and later held the pastorate of the Mt. Olive 
Baptist Church for nine years. In 1900 he was called to the 
pastorate of the Zion Hill Baptist Church of Atlanta, which 
under his ministration has steadily grown and prospered, till 
now it has a membership of more than thirteen hundred. While 
this has been his principal work, he has spared one Sunday 
a month to Shiloh Church at Jonesboro, which he recently 
resigned to accept a similar work at LaGrange. 

This outline of his activities will indicate something of his 
steady progress and his growth in the esteem of the denomina- 
tion with which he is affiliated. He does not undertake to be 
sensational in his methods, but constantly tries to train his 
people for better service, holding them as far as possible to 
the Bible, which he puts uppermost among the helpful books. 
He has found great help and inspiration in other religious 



426 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

books, like "Pilgrim's Progress," "The Story of the Bible," 
"Bible Companion" and others. In polities he is a Repub- 
lican, and among the secret orders is a member of the Masons, 
K. of P's.'and Odd Fellows. By economy and thrift he has 
set his people a good example, and owns a comfortable home 
in Avhich he resides at 399 McDaniel street, as well as other 
residence property. In his church work he keeps up the va- 
rious organizations of his denomination, such as the Sunday 
School, B. Y. P. U., etc. He is a member of the Mission Board 
of the Georgia Convention, and has for several years been 
the presiding officer of the Atlanta Ministers' Conference. He 
has also been on the executive board of the Atlanta Association. 
Yet in the prime of middle life, with more than thirty years 
of valuable experience on which to draw, he is a valuable mem- 
ber of his denomination and a capable leader of his race. 



JOHN HENRY HORTON 



REV. JOHN HENRY HORTON, of Athens, must be men- 
tioned among the energetic, successful men of the Baptist 
denomination in Georgia. He has made for himself a 
large place in the work of the church in middle and upper 
Georgia. 

He is a native of Greene county, having been born near 
T'nion Point, ]\Tay 30, 1854. Both his parents were slaves. His 
father. Bob Ilorton, was a carpenter by trade. His mother 
was Viney (Craig) Horton. His grandfather, James Horton, 
was a white man. 

Rev. Ilorton married when a young man. After the death 
of his first wife, he was married a second time. This was on 
December 2, 1896 when he was united to Miss Lela Stout. She 
bore him one daughter, Sarah Lou Horton. The second Mrs. 
Horton passed away September 22, 1913. 

Young Horton was eleven years old at the close of the war. 
Prior to tliat time he had not been permitted to go to school. 




JOHN HENRY HORTON. 



428 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

After the war his former mistress taught him his alphabet 
and spelling, but he was not permitted to go beyond this. He 
would not give up, however, but continued to study at night 
and has made of himself a well informed man. 

As a young man he worked on the farm. He was converted 
ai the age of twenty-three and joined the Siloam Baptist 
Church. Soon after this he felt called to the work of the min- 
istry, but smothered the impulse for ten years. He then talked 
the matter over with his pastor, wa« licensed and later or- 
dained to the full work of the ministry and has made a good 
record regardless of his late start. 

Among some of his most successful pastorates may be men- 
tioned Camak, Siloam, Sardis, Athens, Barnett and Powelton. 

He is strong on evangelistic work and has added hundreds 
of members to the churches which he has served. His pas- 
torates have usually been long ones. 

In politics he is a Republican and is a member of the Odd 
Fellows and Pythians. 

Elder Horton has been honored as moderator of the Jeruel 
Association, being a member of both the executive and trustee 
boards. He has also served as vice-president of the State Con- 
vention. 



WILLIAM ALFRED FOUNTAIN 



IT IS a far cry from a humble home in Elberton, a country 
town of the foothills, to the Presidency of one of the 
great educational institutions of the colored race, in At- 
lanta, one of the chief cities of the South; and this, too, 
while yet in the early prime of life. Such is the record in 
brief of the Rev. William Alfred Fountain, head of Morris 
BroAvn University, a record Avhose details should be a beacon 
light to all aspiring youths. 

He was born in Elberton, October 29, 1870, the eldest child 
of Rev. Richard and Virginia (Harris) Fountain. His paternal 



(I THE NEVv ^^^■■^^1 
\ PUBLIC LIBRARY 



GEOEGIA EDITION 431 

grandparents were Alfred and Katie (Jones) Fountain. In 
course of time, there were seventeen brothers and sisters, so 
that young William may be said never to have had only his 
own support to provide but gladly helped his father, who was 
a shoemaker by trade, to care for the family. After the 
death of his parents, and after his own marriage, Rev. Foun- 
tain, even while carrying on that marvelously wide and 
thorough educational training which has developed his native 
brilliancy to its fullest expression, supported the two families 
and has continued to assist the young brothers and sisters 
as well as rear his own children. 

It has necessarily been a handicap, but he has had the ability 
and strength to win laurels with it, and has outstripped many 
of his fellows who were more favorably situated. 

He was first married to ]\Iiss Jessie Mamie Williams. One 
son, William Alfred, Jr., was born to this union. After the 
death of his first wife, Dr. Fountain was married on October 
24, 1899, to Miss Julia T. Alkn, daughter of Andrew and 
Louise (Summers) Allen. Of the four children by this union, 
three are living: Louise Virginia, Julia Belle and Sue Jett 
Fountain. Allen :\IcNeil Fountain died July 2, 1907. 

As a boy, young Fountain attended the Elberton public 
school, but places the Christian training given by his parents 
first, and as of "unspeakable value." In his earlier years, af- 
ter securing a teacher's license, he taught at Elberton, Jeffer- 
son, Athens, Wintergrove, and joined the A. M. E. Conference 
at Marietta in 1891. He was one of those consecrated almost 
from birth to the ministry. He determined to spare no efforts 
to equip himself for his work. In 1892 he was graduated 
from Allen University. This was the beginning rather than 
the completion of his education. At various dates thereafter, 
while preaching, he took courses at IMorris Brown University, 
receiving the degree of A. B. ; Turner Theological Seminary, 
winning the S. T. B. degree ; took the non-resident course 
of the Central University of Indianapolis, obtaining from it 
the Ph.D. degree ; the Garrett Biblical Institute, Evanston, 
111., and the Chicago University and again certain additional 
work at Allen LTniversity. It will thus be seen how diligent 



432 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

he has been in acquiring learning and how he has never lost 
the habit of constant study in the best schools, as well as 
being a close reader of theological and philosophical books. 
Personally, he has done some writing of the same character 
already, out of the richness of a versatile and well stocked 
mind. 

His advancement in the combined lines of teaching and 
preaching has been little short of marvelous, having been 
principal of a number of important schools in different cities 
of the State while his pastoral record which can only be given 
in brief, includes the following: Pendergrass Mission two 
years, large Sunday School and community work; Bethel A. 
I\f. E. at Athens, increasing membership from thirty-five to 
105 and reducing debt from $1,000 to $500; Grant Chapel, 
Washington, Ga., where he surpassed the first record by in- 
creasing membership in church and Sunday School, paid off 
all indebtedness but $35.00, secured the gift of a lot and built 
the Second A. M. E. Church ; Turner Chapel, of Marietta, was 
enhanced similarly, and in addition Dr. Fountain founded the 
first A. C. E. League in the State. He was then promoted to 
the presiding eldership of the Athens District which greatly 
prospered under his hand in all the pastorates; later impor- 
tant pastorates of his ovv'u include Allen Temple, St. Stephens, 
of Wilmington, N. C, Steward Chapel of ]\Iacon, where he 
organized and operated successfully the Old Folks Home, built 
a beautiful parsonage costing $3,500, repaired the church 
and was the leading spirit in the community life of his people, 
receiving cordial co-operation from the white citizens. 

With his devotion to ideals and his remarkable executive 
ability he was sought by Morris Brown University for its 
highest office and became President of that institution in 
1911. This institution had won for itself a most enviable 
place in the history of the race, being identified with its most 
vital history of religious and educational development. To 
fill the office of president is more than creditable to any man 
who can do so and not lag behind the achievements of notable 
predecessors, but, as was confidently expected, Dr. Fountain 
was not only able to hold firmly together the work already 



GEOEGIA EDITION 433 

established, but to enrich every department of the university 
life, mentally, spiritually and financially. He has strengthened 
the faculty, increased the student body, erected the $20,000 
hall named in honor of Bishop Flipper, repaired the old Wyley 
Hall, installed a graded school and improved the campus. He 
founded a commercial department, equipped with high-grade 
typewriters and a domestic science department with 25 ovens, 
one of the best of such departments to be found in the city. 
The Fair Haven Hospital, costing $5,000, is also part of Morris 
Brown University system, due to Dr. Fountain, who in rare 
degree has the power of making dreams come true in con- 
structive results. 

Dr. Fountain takes no active part in politics, but is a Re- 
publican, and among secret orders is identified with and held 
in high esteem by the Masons, Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias 
and Supreme Circle. 

In the accumulation of private property. Dr. Fountain has 
shown that incidental success which is part of ability to do 
things, having a comfortable competence. The same energy 
if selfishly used would have brought great riches, no doubt, 
and the same unselfishness, without practical business insight, 
might have left him in poverty, but he has the happy condition 
which seems to prove again that those who "seek first the 
Kingdom of Heaven" shall have "these other things added to 
them." 



LUCIUS H. HOLSEY 



FRO^M comfortable slavery to the hardship and penury of 
early freedom ; from illiteracy and poverty to a Bish- 
opric of a great church and to reap, at a ripened age, 
the full fruition of a noble life in universal love and honor and 
the commendation of his own conscience — such has been the 
course of Bishop Lucius H. Holsey, of Atlanta, preacher, ora- 




LUCIUS H. HOLSEY. 



GEORGIA EDITION 435 

tor, philosopher and writer, editor and educator and today 
a poor man because he has given not only himself but his earn- 
ings to helping his race. 

Bishop Holsej' was born, the slave son of James Holsey, on 
a plantation near Columbus, in 1845. His mother, Louisa, was 
of pure African descent, a pious exemplary Christian. There 
he remained until the death of his father, when he became 
the property of a Mr. T. L. Wynn whom he served as body 
servant until 1857. This master in turn died and Lucius was 
allowed to select his master, choosing Col. Richard Malcolm 
Johnston, a professor in the University at Athens. The boy 
was then fifteen years old and was treated with great kind- 
ness but began to crave education, especially so that he might 
read the Bible for himself. Bishop Capers had labored faith- 
fully in establishing missions for the slaves and young Holsey 
was converted at Athens in 1858. By selling old rags he man- 
aged to buy a Bible, IMilton's Paradise Lost, a dictionary and 
two copies of Webster's Blue-Back Speller. An old colored 
man and the white children taught him the alphabet. He 
would, day by day, cut a leaf from one speller and learn how 
to spell, read, write and define the words, catching a word 
now and then and committing it to memory while he worked. 
The other speller was reserved for review at night. 

He remained with his master until after the war. Being 
at one time apparently very sick, he was sent away from the 
house to "'rough it" and in this enforced seclusion and idle- 
ness found extra time also for reading. He never fully re- 
covered from this early lung trouble, and survived by hav- 
ing adopted, in ignorance, the outdoor treatment now scien- 
tifically approved. 

During his servitude (1862) he was united in marriage to 
Miss Harriett A. Turner, the ceremony and festivities par- 
taking of the kindness and lavishness often displayed by in- 
dulgent masters toward those of their household. The bride 
was only fifteen years old, but throughout all his later strug- 
gles put her shoulder to the wheel, working hard and uncom- 
plainingly, suffering every privation that he might go on 



4^6 HISTORY OF A:\IERICAN NEGRO 

with his great work. They had fourteen children, of whom 
six survive. 

In 1868 he was licensed to preach and became the senior 
pastor on a circuit covering Hancock county. Both the weak 
voice, due to lung trouble, and a quiet, logical mind, handi- 
capped him in becoming a popular orator. His hearers con- 
sidered him a deep reasoner, but they much preferred noise. 
He practiced delivering his sei-mons firstinthe woods to strength- 
en his vocal organs, while he made his living by farming. 
He never wavered from common sense and taught what he be- 
lieved were truths in a way best adapted to help the daily lives 
of his people, instead of saying merely what would please 
them at the moment. In 1869 Bishop Pierce called the colored 
preachers of Georgia belonging to the M. E. Church, South, 
to meet at Augusta. About sixty assembled in Trinity church, 
January 4th. It may well be imagined that these untrained, 
almost ignorant, "circuit riders" fresh from the "bushes" pre- 
sented a motley appearance in their efforts to look their dig- 
nified best. Dr. Holsey recalls them with whimsical humor, 
which has no sting, for he laughs as much over his own de- 
scription as of theirs. However, all attendants were made 
members of the Conference, a starting point for unity and in- 
telligent organized effort. From this time on the develop- 
ment of Dr. Holsc}' and the growth of the C. M. E. Church, 
in America are so closely identified that the history of either 
must include much of the history of the other. His first pas- 
torate was Hancock Circuit and his next was Andrew Chapel, 
Savannah. The property was in litigation and so unusable. 
The membership consisted of about fifteen souls. Through the 
courtesy of Trinity Church Sunday afternoon services could 
be held. After six months of this discouraging pastorate, 
he returned to his country home near Sparta, realizing keenly 
that he lacked equipment for his life work and then began 
the acute phases of the struggle to preach, fulfill the duties 
of a minister, support himself and family and by solitary study 
overcome the lack of early schooling. However, in an extra- 
ordinary Conference called in August, 1873, he was elected 
and consecrated Bishop and sent to the fields including Texas, 



GEOEGIA EDITION 437 

Arkansas, Alabama and Tennessee. The family moved to Au- 
gusta. The work was hardly organized and so poorly paid 
and uncertain in payment that he and his family underwent 
literal destitution. He and his good wife often cultivated 
the vegetable garden at night. They lived in a two room 
cabin. Neither his wife nor children had shoes, hardly any 
clothing, and barely enough food. Often on a cold night the 
Bishop would gather up coal ashes, wash them and drain out 
bits of fuel. Not physically robust, enduring all these trials 
for his faith's sake, he went ahead asking no personal 
help, but appealing to others to help themselves. 
Knowing the double and treble hardship imposed upon the un- 
fortunate who strive for education and training while still 
having to earn their bread, his eloquent appeal to the Confer- 
ence resulted in the establishment of the now justly famous 
Payne College at Augusta, which was organized in 1883 for 
the education of young ministers. Bishop Holsey made the 
first subscription to it, and has since been a self-appointed 
evangel of that institution, raising funds for its enlargement 
and equipment. In the face of antagonism he favored white 
teachers. It seemed to him that nothing could be more vital 
than the establishment of harmonious understanding regard- 
less of color differences between the preachers of the same 
Church engaged alike in bringing the gospel to all people. 
He has ever felt that the right-thinking white man is the Ne- 
gro's best friend and that the poorly trained ministers of 
his Church needed the help they could give. 

His labors have been colossal. For twenty years he was 
Secretary of the College of Bishops, keeping the minutes of 
the meetings and attending to the voluminous correspondence, 
writing practically every message for the Bishops and doing 
more perhaps than any other one man to shape the polity 
and promote the growth of the Church. In 1881 he was select- 
ed to represent the Bishops at the Ecumenical Conference held 
in London, addressing that august body and preaching many 
sermons in that greatest city in the world. A striking inci- 



438 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

dent was that of occupying the little box pulpit from which 
John Wesley, founder of Methodism, had preached. Bishop 
Holsey has attended many other important conferences and 
gatherings and is perhaps the most widely known representa- 
tive of his Church. He has never sought to make money, nor 
to keep it, when money came incidentally with success. He 
sought first the Kingdom of God. Great has been his victory. 



OSWELL AUGUSTUS COMBS 



THE LIFE of a man who in the face of difficulties has 
wrought out a large measure of success is not only a 
personal triumph, but a real asset of the race. The 
life of Prof. Oswell Augustus Combs, of Atlanta, illustrates 
this. When conditions have been unfavorable, and the out- 
look for what he wanted to do discouraging, he has never- 
theless worked away faithfully, and has in the end won out. 
He was born in Augusta on June 5, 1861, and is a son of John 
Combs, who was a slave, and a barber by trade. His mother's 
maiden name was Laura L. Benefield, who was freeborn. 

Young Combs was first taught by his mother, and the family 
having moved to Atlanta in 1869, he was placed in the public 
schools, where he finished in 1875 with high honors, receiving 
a handsome sum of money as a prize for being the best penman 
in the school. Entering Atlanta University, he paid his tuition 
the first year with this money; he graduated at the head of 
his class in 1882. Although while in the public schools he 
showed marked aptitude as a penman, yet he aspired to even 
greater proficiency. Being debarred from the Business Col- 
leges, he would imitate copies found in the stairways of these 
institutions, and thus persisted in his effort to make himself 
a skillful penman. How well he has succeeded may be judged 
from the fact that he was awarded three premiums and a 
silver medal at the Alabama State Fair, and was twice ap- 
pointed teacher of penmanship in Peabody Normal Institute, 
all the other professors being white. In ]882 he was elected 
Principal of the Jackson Academy at Forsyth, Ga., and in 



GEORGIA EDITION 439 

1883 he was made principal of tlie Athens City Schools. 
From 1890 to 1894 he was clerk in the War Department, 
Washington, and was for a number of years identified in one 
way or another with Morris Brown College. He has been a 
teacher in the Normal department, teacher of piano and vocal 
music, and for many years Professor of Greek and Latin. He 
is a well recognized coach of students from all five of the 
Negro Colleges around Atlanta in Greek and Latin during 
the summer months. He is perhaps, however, more Avidely 
known as a teacher of Music, and has constantly a large class 
in Atlanta, with classes also in several of the smaller vil- 
lages near by. He is himself proficient on the piano, pipe or- 
gan, violin and cornet. 

To say that Prof. Combs is brilliant does not quite cover 
the ground, because to brilliancy must be added his pluck and 
perseverance ; and these things are best illustrated by the fact 
that he worked his way through College and was made a 
Tutor in Penmanship, Greek and Algebra before reaching 
his Sophomore year, and, nothwithstanding the extra w^ork 
thus involved, graduated as valedictorian of his class. 

On February 20, 1900, he was married to Miss Alberta F. 
McAlpine, a daughter of Ivy and Julia McAlpine, of Talla- 
dega, Ala. They have one child, Oswell Augustus Combs, Jr. 

Prof. Combs is a Republican in politics, and a member of the 
A. M. E. Church. He believes that the best interests of the 
State may be served by fostering harmony between the races, 
and by the practical application of the Golden Rule. He feels 
very grateful to friends at the North who assisted him in 
various ways in his efforts to get through College, and also 
grateful to teachers of the University who befriended him. 
His success and present status in life he attributes largely to 
them. 

In December, 1913, Prof. Combs entered upon the duties 
of a new position to which he had been chosen — the chair of 
Greek and International Law in Allen University, Columbia, 
S. C. This comes in the nature of a distinct promotion, and 
with every prospect of enlarged usefulness in his new field. 



WILLIAM BYRD 



REV. WILLIAM BYRD, A. M., D. D., unlike most men of 
the Negro race born prior to the War between the 
States, was not only free himself, but had at least 
one freeborn generation back of him in both his father and 
his mother, Edmund and Eliza (Owens) Byrd, who were na- 
tives of North Carolina, though they removed to Ross county, 
Ohio, where our subject w^as born September 18, 1859. Ed- 
mund Byrd died when his son was only four years old. Eight 
years later his mother passed away, leaving him completely 
orphaned at twelve. Thus throv/n upon his own resources at 
so early an age, it was with no little difficulty that he obtained 
his education, attending first the public schools of Ohio, and 
completing his course at Wilberforce University in the same 
State, from which he received the degree of B. D. In fact, he 
worked his way up step by step from his entrance on the pub- 
lie school course till his graduation. Here we have the key 
to his character and the secret of his future success ; for he is 
not discouraged by difficulties nor easily turned aside from a 
purpose when formed. Living with his relatives during his 
days in the public school, he filled in every vacation with hard 
work, thus developing a robust body and that self-reliance 
which will not recognize defeat. At Wilberforce he did what- 
ever offered to enable him to earn his tuition, and for the last 
three years of his course was in the home of Bishop Payne. 
Perhaps neither as preacher nor teacher has Dr. Byrd taught 
a more important lesson than that which he wrought out in 
his early life. 

He was converted at the age of twenty-one, and immediately 
joined the A. M. E. Church. Feeling called to the work of 
the ministry, he entered the service of his church in Ohio in 
1894, serving one year in Cleveland. He was then transferred 
to the South, and remained three years in Tennessee — one in 
Chattanooga and two at Knoxville. From Knoxville he was 
transferred to Georgia, and was for three years at the head of 



WLBEN F 



GEORGIA EDITION" 441 

the work at Jackson. From Jackson he went to Decatur, from 
which station in 1903 he was called to the position of Profes- 
sor of Theology in Morris Brown ITniversity, Atlanta. The 
fact that he held that very responsible position continuously 
for ten years in some indication of the esteem in which he is 
held by his associates in religious and educational work. 

Dr. Byrd has been a frequent contributor to the religious 
press, and is the representative of his church on the Allen 
Endeavor League Board. He represented Georgia on the Ad- 
visory Committee of the Laymen's Missionary Movement, and 
had charge of the Teacher Training work in the course at 
Morris Brown. 

Dr. Byrd was married on October 10, 1900, to Priscilla B. 
Manning, daughter of Alfred and Eliza Manning, of New 
Haven, Conn. Three children have been born to them, of 
whom two are now living — Albert Payne and Beatrice Byrd. 

Dr. Byrd is a Republican in politics. His preferred reading 
is along lines that best fit him for his professional work. In 
fact, he finds that field amply large for a man of even his 
abilities, and so finds little time for other things, and is not, 
as are perhaps a majority of the prominent members of the 
race, affiliated with a number of social clubs or secret orders. 



BENJAMIN JEFFERSON DAVIS 



A POWERFUL newspaper, one that is a vital factor in 
molding opinion, is a great institution. A potential 
order that throws about the poor the protective arm of 
insurance, to say nothing of its great benefits, is an institution. 
One who can manage either is something of an institution and 
when both are the almost simultaneous products of his own en- 
terprise — literal brain children sprung from a higher order of 
intellectual and executive genius — he is an Institution, the 
word capitalized. 

No sketch would be adequate to tell the detailed story of 



444 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

the work of Benjamin Jefferson Davis, an obscure Negro boy 
born at Dawson, Terrell county, Ga., May 27, 1870; born into 
the new freedom of his race, but also born into the poverty 
and the haphazard conditions incident to the war, with the 
South devastated and not even the beginnings of present day 
opportunities either for white or black. His mother, Kather- 
ine Davis (still living 1916) belonged to the Rev. Jefferson 
Davis and is the daughter of Rev. Sam Davis. His father, 
Mike Haynes, took the master's name, Davis. To this couple 
had been born several children during slavery. Just before 
the war they were separated and the child, Benjamin Jefferson, 
was of peculiar interest to the parents, he having been born 
after their re-union in the altered status of their race. Edu- 
cational facilities were of the crudest and most meager de- 
scription, yet ultimately, when in 1887 he entered Atlanta Uni- 
versity, he distinguished himself by faithfulness, efficiency 
and those qualities of affirmative determination which have 
made him one of the most prominent leaders of his time and 
people. When sufficiently advanced, he began teaching and 
for ten years while in college and for some time after taught 
in the public schools of Terrell, Sumter and Stewart counties. 
Under the McKinley administration he was appointed store- 
keeper and ganger in the district of Georgia and held that 
position for six years. He is a Republican in politics and on 
reaching his majority became active in political matters and 
has since been prominent in the counsels of his party. He 
vras a delegate to the national convention from the Second 
Congressional District in 1908 and a delegate from the State 
at large in 1912 and again in 1916. Before leaving Dawson 
he Avas chairman of the Second Congressional District Com- 
mittee. 

Mr. Davis' real career began when in 1887 he became active 
in the work of the Odd Fellows. He demonstrated from the 
first an unusual grasp of affairs and attracted the attention 
of Grand Master W. L. Hughes of the Georgia jurisdiction, 
who in 1902 appointed him District Grand Secretary. The 
appointment carried with it little but the name. The treasury 
was empty, the order was in a state that might well be called 



GEOEGIA EDITION 445 

asleep or defunct with a total membership of not more than 
10,000 many of whom were not in good standing. The osten- 
sible salary of sixteen dollars a month was only payable 
through the efforts of the new secretary himself. An old 
trunk, containing a bit of stationery and the official seal, in 
a rented office, constituted the sole equipment of the order. 
In fourteen years the District Grand Lodge, No. 18 G. U. 0. of 
0. F. of America, jurisdiction of Georgia, has grown from a 
membership of 10,000 to 60,000; and with no tangible assets 
to begin with owns property valued at $500,000. This has 
been done on a cash basis and without mortgages. It eviden- 
ces keen financial discernment, skillful organization and wise 
business management. The Odd Fellows' Block on Auburn 
Avenue, between Bell and Butler streets, Atlanta, is a monu- 
ment to the business sagacity of B. J. Davis as well as a land- 
mark in the progress of the Odd Fellows and of the race. In 
this way he has not only made a name for himself, but has 
given steady and lucrative employment to a small army of 
employees. 

With the growth of the Order came the necessity of keep- 
ing in touch with the membership. Accordingly Mr. Davis 
established the Atlanta ''Independent" which was made the 
official organ of the Georgia Odd Fellows. As an editor he 
has the respect of both races. Loyal to the welfare of his 
race, commanding both esteem and good-will, he never fails 
to point out the fact that, both individuals and the race must 
rise or fall according to their own merits and that those who 
deserve reward may safely count upon it, no matter if it seem 
long in coming. He writes freely and fearlessly about the 
great problems of his race. 

That he has encountered criticism, opposition and even 
enmity is not strange. He is willing, however, to pay the price 
of success in these matters and holds that it is better for the 
dissatisfied and intolerant to try for results than to waste time 
in bickering and complaints. The "Independent" soon made 
a place for itself in the literature of the race and claims a 
circulation of 26,500, which makes it one of the most widely 
circulated Negro newspapers in America. 



446 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

One of the most helpful intluenees in his life, and one which 
Mr. Davis acknowledges with gratitude, has been the sympa- 
thetic attitude of his white friends and neighbors. He remem- 
lDers with especial appreciation the late Obe Stevens and the 
late Congressman Griggs, of his home town. 

On August 7, 1898, Mr. Davis was married to Miss Jimmie 
W. Porter, a daughter of Mollie Porter, of Dawson, who is 
a graduate of Tuskegee and was a teacher before her mar- 
riage. They have two children, Benjamin Jefferson, Jr., and 
Johnnie Katherine Davis. 

Mr. Davis is a member of the Friendship Baptist church, and 
his favorite reading is boigraphy. 

Still a young man, he stands as a leader who needs not be 
ashamed of his past accomplishments and whose future is full 
of promise. 



PATRICK W. GREATHEART 



REV. PATRICK WHEELER GREATHEART, D. D., at 
present Dean of the Theological Department of Morris 
Brown University, is a native of South Carolina, having 
been born at Allendale in that State, February 4, 1865. His 
father was Rev. John G. Greatheart, a minister of the Baptist 
Church, and his mother's maiden name was Mollie Mary John- 
son. Back of his parents he knows little of his ancestry. 

As a boy he attended the Beaufort county public schools of 
South Carolina, and having lost both parents at an early age, 
found it necessary to labor incessantly with his hands at what- 
ever offered till he had sufficient education to obtain a teacher's 
license. He taught in Hampton and Beaufort counties. South 
Carolina, and in Oglethorpe and Fulton counties in Georgia. 
His increased earning capacity as a teacher made his way 
somewhat easier, but even so his college and seminary courses 
were not completed without difficulty. 

At the age of thirteen he was converted and in 1885 felt 




PATRICK WHEELER GREATHEART. 



448 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

called to the work of the ministry. He took the literary course 
at Clark University and his theological course at Gammon 
Seminary, graduating May 11, 1892. Seven years later, in 
recognition of his attainments and his Avork in the church, 
the degree of Doctor of Divinity was conferred upon him by 
Wilberforce University. 

In 1885 he joined the South Carolina Conference and his 
first pastorate was at Martin, in that State, for one year. The 
next two years were spent at Blountsville. At the close of 
three years' work in South Carolina he came to Georgia and 
entered Clark University. After his graduation from Gam- 
mon, he served in the following pastorates: Albany, Ameri- 
cus, Eatonton Station, and St. Paul's, at Macon — each for 
two years. 

In 1900 he was promoted to the Presiding Eldership and 
assigned to the Eatonton District where he remained for two 
years. He presided over the Rome District two years and the 
Marietta District one year after which he went to the Blakely 
Station for two years. Then followed the Shellman Circuit for 
one year, the Brunswick District P. E. one year. For four 
years he remained at the St. James Tabernacle, Savannah, and 
in 1913 became P. E. of the Valdosta District. Such had. been 
his record as a scholar, preacher and theologian that the same 
year he was elected Dean of the Theological Department of 
the Morris Brown University, a position he has since filled with 
credit to himself and satisfaction to the trustees and patrons 
of the institution. 

Among other places of distinction he has held or still holds 
may be mentioned that of Life Trustee of the Morris Brown 
University and of "Wilberforce University and President of 
the Central Normal and Industrial Institute. In ]916 the 
degree of A. ]\I. was conferred on him by Morris Brown. 

On December 22, 1892, he married ]\Iiss Irene Lay, a daugh- 
ter of Benjamin and Leah Lay, of Walhalla, S. C. Of five 
children born to them, only two — Lillie ]\Iay and Joseph F. — 
survive. 

Looking back over his life, lie recognizes the good influence 
on his life of his parents, home, school and associates, and 



GEOEGIA EDITION 449 

gives the Bible the first place among the books that have in- 
fluenced and helped him. He is an energetic worker, a faith- 
ful preacher of the Gospel, and a workman who needeth not 
to be ashamed of his workmanship. He commends to his peo- 
ple abiding faith in God and an unfailing effort in the doing 
of what our hands find to do, and is himself an illustration 
of the success of the doctrine which he preaches. 

Among the secret orders he is identified with the Odd Fel- 
lows and the Pythians, being Temple Commissioner of the 
latter. 

It is hardly necessary^ to say that he is a constant reader 
of the best literature of all varieties. 

Hundreds have been brought into the church through his 
work and thousands have been taught and influenced by his 
words and example to lead better lives. 



CHARLES WESLEY HOLSEY 



REV. CHARLES WESLEY HOLSEY, who is prominent 
in the work of the C. M. E. Church in Georgia is a son 
of the distinguished Bishop L. H. Holsey, whose sketch 
appears elsewhere in this volume. He was born at Augusta 
November 18, 1880. 

Brought up in a religious atmosphere, it is not strange that 
he came into the church early and entered the ministry as a 
young man. His education was secured at Payne College from 
which he was graduated with the A. B. degree in 1902. As 
a boy he was taught to work and helped out with his own 
schooling by trucking and raising poultry for the market. 

His first pastorate was the Hopewell ]\Iission near Atlanta. 
He was successful from the beginning and has steadily risen 
iu the work of his denomination. He was on the work at Con- 
yers two years, Jackson two years, Newborn Circuit two years, 
and Sharon Circuit one year. A vacancy having occurred in 
the presiding eldership of the Athens District he was promoted 



450 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

to that work to fill out the unexpired term and such was the 
record that he made that at the next Conference he was 
assigned to the Elberton District and brought that work up 
to a high state of efficiency. 

Next after the Bible Elder Holsey's reading runs to his- 
tory and current literature. In politics he is a Republican of 
the progressive type and has taken a rather active part in the 
work of his party. He is a member of the Masons, Pythians, 
Odd Fellows and other local lodges. He has been a delegate to 
the General Conference. 

On January 9, 1902, he was married to Miss Hattie Dye, a 
daughter of Victoria Dye, of Elbert county. They have four 
children: Robert, Frances, Walter and Charles W. Holsey, Jr. 
Elder Holsey owns a comfortable home on the outskirts of 
Conyers where he farms on a small scale. 



FRANK RANDALL BRIDGES 



REV. FRANK RANDALL BRIDGES, pastor (1914) of 
the ]\I. E. Station at LaGrange, is a native of Newnan, 
where he was born May 1, 1869. Few men of his de- 
nomination in Georgia have been more popular or more suc- 
cessful than Mr. Bridges. His work as an educator and as a 
minister has taken him to various parts of the State and has 
widened the circle of his influence and the number of his 
friends. Beginning as a poor boy on the farm his march up- 
ward has been steady through the years. When a boy living 
hi Newnan he hauled all the wood used in the burning of the 
brick for the M. E. Church of that city. 

His parents were Richard and Betsey (Hall) Bridges, both 
of whom were slaves. His maternal grandparents were Will- 
iam and Hannah Hall, who were brought from Richmond, Va., 
to Oglethorpe county in 1848. 

At the age of twenty Frank Bridges was converted and 
joined the ]\I. E. Church. Two years later he felt called to 



GEORGIA EDITION 451 

the work of the ministry, "With this new vision of life before 
him, he determined to secure an education, though he was 
twenty years of age before he went to any school. It was then 
necessary for him to make his own way. His preparatory 
training was secured at Newnan High School. He then went 
to Ganunon Theological Seminary from which he was grad- 
uated in 1898, He acknowledges with gratitude the happy in- 
fluences on his life of his contact with Prof. J. A. Fortson, 
of Clark University, When he had reached a point where he 
could teach school, he took up that work and at various times 
taught in Fayette, Gwinnett, Newton, Heard, Franklin, Elbert 
and Monroe counties. For more than twenty years, however, 
he has been engaged in ministerial work. His first pastorate 
was at Buford. Since that time he has served the following 
charges: Elberton, one year; East Atlanta, four years; Ho- 
gansville Station, two years; Covington, three years; Griffin, 
one year, and LaGrange, one year. In 1909 he w^as promoted 
to the District Superintendency and assigned to the Waycross 
District which he served for four years. He was then returned 
to LaGrange. In 1912 he was elected to the General Confer- 
ence which sat at Minneapolis. 

He is a Republican, an Odd Fellow and a Mason. Among 
the books found most helpful he mentions, "The Twentieth 
Century Negro," and "Our Brother in Black." 

On January 6, 1902, he was married to Miss Priscilla Brown, 
a daughter of Owen and Mary Brown, of Covington, Ga. Mr. 
Bridges has been a hard worker and has set his people a good 
example in that he has purchased a comfortable home. Be- 
sides this he owns property in "Waycross, Forsyth and La- 
Grange. He is a Trustee of Haven Academy at Waynesboro, 
Ga. He has done a great deal of evangelistic work assisting 
his brethren. His solution of the Race Problem as it relates 
to the Negro is simple. He says, "Respect him, educate him, 
convert him. Do these things and the State is safe." 



GRAFTON ST. CLAIR NORMAN 



GRAFTON ST. CLAIR NORMAN is a business man of 
rather wide experience. He was born at Hamilton, Ohio, 
December 27, 1874, and is a son of William H. and 
Susan (Richardson) Norman. His father was a barber, and 
as a minister of the A. M. E. Church was a prominent figure 
in his denomination. 

Young Norman laid the foundation of his education in the 
public schools of Hamilton, Ohio. In 1891, during the Spring 
term of his third year high school course, he entered the Colo- 
rado Agricultural College, at Fort Collins, Colo., from which 
he was graduated with the degree of B. S. in 1896. He re- 
mained at the same institution another year, taking special 
work in the commercial department, where he was appointed 
assistant teacher. He enjoys the distinction of being the first 
Negro graduate from this college. He was popular as a student 
with both the student body and the faculty. In 1894, in his 
junior year, he was the sole representative of his class in an 
oratorical contest in which every class in the college was rep- 
resented. In that contest he won a gold medal. The following 
year he represented his college in the State Y. M. C. A. meet- 
ing, held in Canon City. In his graduating year, 1896, he 
was further honored by the student body by being selected 
college orator at the celebration of "Washington's birthday. 

In 1896, when Miss Grace Espy Patton was candidate for 
Superintendent of Public Instruction for Colorado, Mr. Nor- 
man, as her personal representative, made numerous speeches in 
the campaign. She was elected, leading the ticket. He was 
the first man of his race to publicly represent a woman candi- 
date for office. 

On the outbreak of the war with Spain, Mr. Norman en- 
listed as a private in the Eighth U. V. I., and rose rapidly 
through the various grades of the service from private to 
Corporal, Sergeant, First Sergeant and Second Lieutenant. 
After the close of the Avar ho returned to Hamilton, where he 





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\J^^.!ri.m>^^ 






ivKno^ 



GEOEGIA EDITION 455 

was given a position on the City Civil Engineering Corps for 
special work. After having completed this special work, he 
assisted in the work of the 1900 census, having been ap- 
pointed by the government as one of the two Negro Census 
Enumerators of the Third Congressional District of Ohio. It 
is to his credit and to that of his race, that the reports he 
turned in were said to have been the best prepared of any from 
that district. In September, 1900, Mr. Norman began his 
work as a teacher, having been selected as instructor in Mathe- 
matics and Natural Science in the Bluegrass Normal and In- 
dustrial College, Keene, Ky. He remained in this position for 
two years, and in 1902 was called to the A. & M. College, Nor- 
mal, Ala., where he was made Commandant and instructor in 
the Normal and Industrial departments. Two years later, in 
]904, he entered the insurance field. Beginning as an agent 
with the Union Central Relief Association, of Birmingham, 
Ala., he soon demonstrated his worth, and in three weeks from 
his appointment as agent was made district manager and 
siationed at Florence, Ala. In this capacity, too, he made 
a success, and upon the death of W. i\t. Ilicks, the former State 
Inspector, he was promoted to that position. In January, 

1912, he came to Atlanta and served as city inspector for The 
Union Mutual Association in Atlanta until the end of July, 

1913, when he was elected by the board of directors of The 
Union Mutual as Secretary-Manager of that important organi- 
zation. 

j\Ir. Norman was married to Miss Maria Annette Rapier on 
December 26, 1906. She was a daughter of Thomas and An- 
nie Rapier, and a niece of Joseph Rapier, ex-Congressman 
from Alabama. 

In politics Mr. Norman is identified with the Republican 
party, and among the fraternal orders is a member of the 
Masons, Odd Fellows and Pythians. He is a member of the 
A. M. E. Church. He believes in "punctuality, obedience to 
authoritv and enthusiasm in business." 



PHILIP DOWELL JOHNSON 



PHILLIP DOWELL JOHNSON, of Covington, one of the 
successful colored men of Newton county, was born near 
Covington April 4, 1864. Both parents were slaves. They 
were Thomas and Elizabeth (Hardwick) Johnson. His ma- 
ternal grandfather was Phillip Hardwick. 

As a boy young Johnson attended the Newton county pub- 
lic schools and later entered Clark University for the col- 
lege preparatory course and spent seven years at that institu- 
tion. It was necessary for him to make his own way in scliool, 
which he was able to do largely by working in the blacksmith 
shop. After reaching the point where he could secure a 
teacher's license, he taught school and from that time forward 
found the way easier. Beginning in Troup county, he taught 
school for twenty-one years. He taught some of the leading 
public schools in Newton and "Walton counties. His last work 
as a teacher was as Principal of the Monticello High School. 
He was Government Farm Demonstrator for Newton county 
for several years. About half his time was devoted to this 
work, the rest to his farm. 

Mr. Johnson is a member of the M. E. Church in the work 
of which he has been prominent as steward, trustee and Super- 
intendent of the Sunday School. Recently his principal read- 
ing has been along the line of agricultural books and papers. 

In November, 1893, Mr. Johnson was married to INIiss Louise 
Callahan, a daughter of Thomas and Evelyne Callahan, of Wal- 
ton county. Of the eight children born to them, three are liv- 
ing. They are Mason Phillip, Flora Louise and Johnnie John- 
son. 



JERE FRANKLIN HUGHES 



REV. JERE FRANKLIN HUGHES, B. D., Ph.D., born in 
Girard, Alabama, while his mother was on a visit to 
that State, really belongs to Georgia, as his people lived 
at Columbus before and after his birth. He was born on 
Christmas day, 1872. His father was Thomas Hughes, and his 
mother Martha Hughes. Both were slaves before Emancipa- 
tion. Young Hughes was early deprived of the guidance and 
leadership of his father, and was by his mother apprenticed 
to the carpenter trade when only seven years of age. This was 
after the family had moved to Selma, Ala. While it may have 
seemed oppressive to the boy to put in the long days at hard 
work, yet it gave him a strong body and the expert knowledge 
as a builder which he was able to turn to good advantage in 
securing an education, and later in successfully carrying out 
his own business plans. So he looks back on these early 
years of struggle without regret, as the very training which 
he received enabled him to work out a larger measure of suc- 
cess in after life than would otherwise have been possible. He 
also counts as a fortunate influence in his life his association 
with a very practical thorough-going business man in the per- 
son of Alph Wilson, a fellow-carpenter and contractor much 
older than himself, but always ready to advise and help. 

Dr. Hughes laid the foundation of his elementary education 
at Selma University, Selma, Ala., and in 1895 entered Gam- 
mon Theological Seminary for a course of three years. Tak- 
ing up other work, however, in the meantime, he did not finish 
the course at Gammon, but later entered the Baptist College 
and finished the course with the degree of B. D. in 1901. He 
was converted at the early age of eight years, and immediately 
felt the call to the ministry. He is another striking example 
so graphically illustrated among the real leaders of his people 
of the advantage of making an early choice of his life work. 

While in school he was frequently in demand as a local or 
temporary preacher; but his first real pastoral work was at 




JERE FRAiNKL,IN HUGHES. 



GEORGIA EDITION 459 

Marietta, Ga. After resigning that, he was called to the Second 
Church at Macon, and later to the First Baptist Church, of 
Laurens, S. C, where he remained some two or three years. 
It was while engaged in this work that he received and de- 
clined a call to Chicago, and accepted work with the Home 
Mission Board of New York, which took him to California, 
with headquarters at Los Angeles. After about two years in 
this service, he returned to Atlanta and accepted a call to the 
First Baptist Church of Asheville, N. C. While successful in 
all his fields, his work in Asheville, perhaps, reached the high- 
water mark, as fully seven hundred members were added to 
the church during his pastorate. A troublesome old debt was 
paid off, the church repaired, and all the organized depart- 
ments of the church work put on a better footing. 

Almost from the very beginning of his ministry, Dr. Hughes 
has been much in demand as an evangelist, and has preached 
and conducted meetings in almost every part of Georgia, and 
in numerous other States as well. 

This is a mere outline of his work as a minister, and while 
it seems enough to have kept one man busy, it is by no means 
the measure of his activities; for he has made a favorable 
record as a business man, and has accumulated considerable 
property. This, it must be remembered, has been done with- 
out neglecting his ministerial work. When he was through 
college he had only ninety dollars. By careful trading, hard 
work, the improvement of his opportunities and careful at- 
tention to his affairs, he gradually added to this ; and here he 
brought into play his knowledge as a builder, improving the 
real estate which he bought, and which in turn he rented and 
made to assist in the purchase of other real estate. At one 
time he engaged in the sale of patent medicines; and finding 
til at his employer was not inclined to give him a square deal, 
launched a medicine business of his own, which, with the co- 
operation of his good wife, was made to bring handsome re- 
turns. This was pushed steadily for a while, and finally dis- 
posed of for more real estate. With the enhancement of 
values and the turning over of profits of this sort, he has been 
able gradually to increase his holdings, and now lives in a 



460 HISTORY OF A:\IERICAN NEGRO 

residence at the corner of Chestnut and Parsons streets, a stone 
structure which is one of the very best residences in Atlanta 
occupied by a colored man. 

He believes in hard Avork, attention to business, rugged 
honesty and plain dealing. He does not affiliate — in fact, is op- 
posed to the secret orders, on account of the many abuses 
which have crept into them. His principal reading has been 
along the line of theology. Though not active as a politician, 
ht votes with the Republican party. 

On December 22, 1908, he was married to ]\Iiss Lillie Crit- 
tenden, a daughter of Horace Crittenden, of Marietta, Ga., 
who was educated at Spelman Seminary. They have six chil- 
dren : Lucile Thelma, J. F. Jr., Willie Travis, Marjorie, Robert 
and Thomas. 

He is a fine example of the self-made man who need not be 
ashamed of the job. 



MATTHEW MONROE ALSTON 



REV. MATTHEW MONROE ALSTON, D. D., of the M. E. 
Church, is a product of the "days before the war." 
Both his parents, Nelson Alston and Winnie Winston, 
were slaves. ]\Iatthew was himself born in slavery on April 
10, 1853. The family then lived near Franklinton, N. C. His 
iQother was a Christian woman and the father came into the 
cjiurch when an old man. 

Young Alston was twelve years of age at the close of the 
war and, of course, had had n-o schooling up to that time. Dur- 
ing the hard years following the war, his time was fully oc^ 
cupied making a living, so at twenty-one he could not write 
his name. As a grown young man he began in the primary de- 
partment. He refused to be discouraged, however, and by the 
hardest sort of work and the most rigid economy managed to 
get ahead. In order that he might pursue his studies, he 
worked at Winston-Salem in a tobacco factory at seventy-five 



GEORGIA EDITION 461 

cents a day and lived on sixty cents a week. He slept in a 
closet and on Saturday evenings would gather barrel hoops. 
When he entered Bennett College at Greensboro, his progress 
was rapid. After reaching a point where he could teach he 
found the way easier. 

His record in the ministry has been one of remarkable ac- 
tivity. He began in North Carolina, but in 1880 was trans- 
ferred to Georgia where he has held some of the most im- 
portant appointments of his denomination in and around At- 
lanta. For a number of years he was Presiding Elder. Through 
his evangelistic efforts hundreds of members have been brought 
into the church. Many houses of worship have been repaired 
and cleared of debt under his administration. His reading 
has been confined largely to the Bible and to theological works. 
In recognition of his work and accomplishments Morris Brown 
College conferred on him the degree of D. D, 

In politics he is a Republican and among the secret orders 
holds membership in the Masons, Pythians and Odd Fellows 
as well as some of the smaller organizations. He is a familiar 
figure in the regular conferences of his church and has twice 
been a delegate to the General Conference. 

On December 12, 1882, Dr. Alston was married to Miss Mary 
V. "Wood, a daughter of Joseph, and Eliza Wood, of Atlanta. 
Of the six children born to them the following are living: 
Eula, Matthew M. Jr., Madison, James M. and Joseph Nelson 
Alston. Dr. Alston owns property in Atlanta and at Jones- 
boro. He is a member of several of the important trustee 
bftards of his conference. 




CHARLES ALEXANDER BULLARD. 



CHARLES A. BULLARD 



AMONG the successful young business men of the race 
in the State must be mentioned Charles Alexander Bul- 
lard, the head of the Union Publishing Co., of Atlanta. 
Mr. Bullard is a native of the sister State of Alabama, having 
been born at Selma, May 30, 1880. His father was Shelton 
Bullard and his mother before her marriage was Eliza Win- 
ston. 

Young Bullard attended the public schools of Selma, working 
between terms at whatever offered about town. He was in- 
dustrious and enterprising and decided to go to Tuskegee. The 
way was not easy. Conditions at home made it necessary for him 
to look out for his own support which he did for four years 
that he was at Tuskegee. He learned the printing trade at 
Tuskegee and left $75.00 in the treasury as a donation to the 
school when he left. 

His work as a printer has taken him to a number of the 
States which has given him the opportunity for wide observa- 
tion. He began his career at Clarksdale, Miss., in 1899. After 
leaving Clarksdale, he took charge of the A. M. E. Zion Pub- 
lishing House in Charlotte, N. C, where he remained for three 
years. In 1903, he came from Charlotte to Atlanta and worked 
one term in the printing department of Atlanta University. 
After that he founded the Union Publishing Co. The fact that 
he has been able to make this concern go during the years of 
depression in the printing business is evidence of his ability 
as a business man as well as his skill as a printer. He is one of 
those men of the race who has had the courage to get out 
of the beaten paths and has succeeded by doing so. 

On August 5, 1909, Mr. Bullard was married to Miss Babel 
Hurt, a daughter of Sallie Hurt. In politics, he is a Repub- 
lican and is a member of the Congregational Church. Among 
the secret orders, he affiliates with the Masons, the Odd Fel- 
lows and the Elks. 

Mr. Bullard owns property in Atlanta and believes that the 



GEORGIA EDITION 465 

best interests of the race are to be promoted by the accumu- 
lation of property and by an intelligent participation in pol- 
itics, at least to the extent of registering and voting. 



LUTHER H. AUGUSTUS BELL 



LUTHER HENRY AUGUSTUS BELL, of Elberton, was 
born in Elbert county on March 22, 1856. His father 
was a prominent young white man of the county. His 
mother's name was Phoebe. His mother's father had been 
brought from Virginia to Georgia. 

Mr. Bell was nine years old at the close of the war. Soon 
after schools of a sort were established all over the South for 
the Negro. The first school attended by Mr. Bell was in an 
old gin house. Later he went to school for eight weeks in a 
pen made of rails in a pine thicket and covered wdth brush. 
He was brought up on the farm and taught to do all sorts 
of farm work. He remembers with gratitude the influence of 
his Christian mother. 

On January 27, 1881, he was married to Miss Mary Jane 
Thompson. They have seven children, all of whom have been 
given educational opportunities which their parents lacked. 
The oldest son. Prof. W, A. Bell, is identified with Payne Col- 
lege, Augusta. The oldest daughter, Mamie Viola, runs an 
industrial school at Holly Springs, Miss. The others are, Fran- 
ces Henrietta (Mrs. Jones), Luther Henry, Lillian Lucile, Clif- 
ford Holsey and Leonard Thurman, 

Mr. Bell has devoted himself largely to farming and to 
handling of real estate and has accumulated good property 
in and near Elberton. 

He is a Republican in politics and is Chairman of the Eighth 
District Executive Committee. He frequently represents his 
party in the State and National Conventions. He is a member 
of the C. M. E. Church in which he is a steward and a trustee. 
He is also a trustee of Payne College, a trustee of Holsey In- 



466 HISTORY OF AIMERICAN NEGRO 

dustrial Institute and President of the Northeast Georgia 
Land Co. He takes an active part in everything looking to- 
ward the betterment of his race educationally or industrially. 
He has at different times been a lay delegate to the General 
Conference of his church. Among the secret orders, he is 
identified with the Pythians, IMasons and Odd Fellows. 

His principal reading has been the Bible and agricultural 
literature. 



GERMAN R. PINKSTON 



REV. GERMAN R. PINKSTON, B. Th., of Sparta, is a 
native of Hancock county, where he was born May 8, 
1875. His parents were Peter and Lula (Brinkley) 
Pinkston, who were both slaves before Emancipation. 

Young Pinkston 's early years were spent on the farm but 
he attended public school such short terms as were available 
forty years ago. At the age of twenty he moved to Augusta. 
Tlie following year he was converted and joined the Baptist 
Church, under the ministry of that godly man, the late Dr. 
W. G. Johnson. Feeling called to the work of the ministry, 
lie was licensed by his home church. Then came the real need 
for better preparation for his life work. He entered upon his 
studies at Walker Baptist Institute, where his progress was 
steady. 

In 1900 he was ordained to the full work of the ministry, and 
accepted a call to the Piney Grove Baptist Church at Gibson, 
which he served until called to the Galilee Church near Sparta, 
which took him back to his native county. Later he accepted 
the call of the Antioch Church near Crawfordville. He was 
successful from the beginning and soon found his time so 
fully occupied that he gave up his text-books for the active 
v.'ork of the pastorate. AVith his growth in years and experience 
broader fields opened up to him. He is now pastoring Hickory 




GERMAN R. PINKSTON. 



468 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

Grove Church, at Culverton, Macedonia, at Sparta, St. Paul, 
at Louisville and Mt. Pleasant, at Thomson. 

Even after assuming the duties of his broadening ministerial 
work, Rev. Pinkston did not abandon his studies, but took a 
course in both the normal and divinity departments of the 
Atlanta Baptist College. So he has been equipped for a fruit- 
ful pastorate. Hundreds of members have been brought into 
tJie church under his ministry and several houses of worship 
have been built or repaired. He stands high in the denomina- 
tion and is a member of the Executive Board of the State 
Convention, Walker Baptist Institute and Home Mission Board. 
Among the secret orders he is identified with the Pythians. 
Be is an ardent advocate of Christian education, and is recog- 
nized as one of the strong men of the denomination. He owns 
a comfortable home at Sparta where he is held in high esteem 
by both his white and colored neighbors. 

In 1904 Rev. Pingston was married to Miss Malvina E. 
Dixon, of Culverton. She was educated at Spelman and enters 
heartily into the work of her husband. 



JOHN P. WATKINS 



DR. JOHN P. WATKINS, a practicing physician of El- 
berton, is a native of South Carolina, having been born 
in Anderson county on October 26, 1878. His parents 
were Harrison Watkins and Mary (Palmer) Watkins. His 
father was a Baptist preacher, who attended Benedict Col- 
lege after Emancipation. 

Young Watkins attended the public schools of Greenville, 
and took the college preparatory course at Benedict College. 
Having decided to enter the medical profession he attended 
Meharry College for his medical course and was graduated 
with the ]\I. D. degree in 1909. During his vacations he taught 
school or worked in the Pullman service. The latter gave him 
an opportunity to see a great deal of the country and was a 



GEORGIA EDITION 469 

valuable contribution to liis general education. While in col- 
lege he was active in student athletics, especially football 
and baseball. 

On the completion of his medical course he located at El- 
berton, Ga., where he has steadily built up a good general 
practice. 

In politics, Dr. Watkins is a Republican and has been rather 
active in the party organization. He is a member of the Bap- 
tist Church and is connected with the Pythians. He stands 
well locally and has already begun the accumulation of some 
property. 



JAMES WALKER 



JAMES WALKER, better known as "Jim" Walker, of 
Henry county, belongs to a small but growing class of in- 
telligent, industrious, home-owning Negroes. Jim was born 
during the war, on August 14, 1863. His father, also named 
Jim was an old-time slave, who lived to the ripe old age of 
eighty-five years. During his declining years, he was tenderly 
provided for by the son, and put away in good style after his 
death. Jim's mother was Sallie Walker. Back of this, he 
knows nothing of his ancestors except that his mother's father 
V. as Jack Ellis. He was married to Hettie Crockett on Novem- 
ber 20, 1887. She is the daughter of Anderson and Sarah Anne 
Crockett, of Henry county. They have seven children: Hugh, 
Lela, James, Shirley, Otis, Pearl and Minnie Walker. 

As a boy, Jim Walker attended the public schools of Henry 
county and had the advantage of being brought up in a Chris- 
tian home. He is a member of the Spring Hill Baptist Church, 
ni-ar his home, of which he is also a deacon. His favorite book 
is the Bible. He has spent his life farming and from a small 
beginning has built up a nice place with a comfortable, well- 





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JAMES WALKER AND FAMILY. 



GEORGIA EDITION 471 

furnished home. He makes on his place from fifty to seventy- 
five bales of cotton a year and other stuff in proportion. 

He believes that, more than anything else, his people need 
the right sort of education and religion. He has given his 
children the educational advantages which he lacked as a 
boy. 



LOUIS THOMPSON 



IN 1865 the War between the States closed and the slaves 
were freed. The white folks were left poor but still had 
the land. The Negro had nothing but his freedom and 
iji many cases did not know how to use that. It was into 
such conditions that Louis W. Thompson, of ]\Ionroe, was 
born, near where he now lives, on November 15, 1865. His 
parents. Judge and Sallie Thompson, had both been slaves 
before Emancipation. Judge Thompson's father, Patrick 
Tliompson, was an energetic, industrious man and worked out 
his own freedom. 

Notwithstanding the hard conditions which prevailed just 
after the war, the Thompson family went to work with a will 
and were always recognized as hard working, fair dealing 
folks by both their white and colored neighbors. One of the 
sons studied medicine, another entered the ministry, while 
still others, like Louis, followed the example of their father, 
and devoted themselves to the farm. 

As a boy Louis attended the public schools of Monroe but 
did not go to college. He grew up on the farm and was trained 
from boyhood to hard work. He was trustworthy and all his 
life has enjoyed the confidence and co-operation of the best 
v.hite people of Walton county. 

When he was converted he joined the Bethany Baptist 
Church and has been an active layman in the work of his de- 
nomination. He is a deacon in his church and was at one time 
Superintendent of the Sunday School. In politics he is a Re- 




LOUIS THOMPSON AND FAMILY. 



GEORGIA EDITION 473 

publican and is Chairman of the Mountain District Committee. 
Among the secret orders, he is identified with the Masons, 
Odd Fellows, the Georgia Benevolent Society and the Mosaic 
Templars, being an organizer in the latter. 

In 1896 he was married to Miss Caledonia Hillyer, who bore 
him seven children. They are, Marcus, Ovella, Viola, Henry, 
Louie, Annie, Idonia and James. In 1911, Mrs. Thompson 
passed away leaving the husband and seven children to mourn 
her loss. 

Later he was married to Miss Sallie Peters, of Walton 
county. They have one child, a son, Jimmie Thompson. His 
second wife had three children before her marriage to Mr. 
Thompson. They are Isie Lee, Henry and Beatrice Peters. 

Mr. Thompson has for several terms held special appoint- 
ments under the Georgia Legislature and has been a trusted 
and capable foreman. He has frequently accompanied com- 
mittees and delegations to the different State Institutions and 
m this way attended the Inauguration of President Roosevelt. 

Louis Thompson had been taught by his father the value 
ol owning land and a home. So when he was married and 
began to work for himself, he began buying land and has 
increased his holdings till he now has three hundred acres. 
Land which a few years ago he bought for seven dollars an 
acre is now worth fifty. He makes as high as eighty bales of 
cc.tton a year and in 1915 won first prize at the Walton County 
Fair on both corn and cotton. 

He believes in the education of the children, in moral train- 
ing and the building up of a better citizenship. It is not 
strange that such a man should have many cordial helpful 
friends among both races by whom he is trusted and respected. 



JAMES FLOYD TOWNS 



PROF. JAMES FLOYD TOWNS, a prosperous farmer and 
a successful teacher of Paulding county, is a native of 
Marietta, Ga., where he was born August 16, 1870. His 
father, Charles Towns, was a farmer. His mother was Maria 
Ford. His maternal grandparents were Fred and Annie Ford. 
Through them he inherits a strain of both Indian and white 
blood, so that he combines in his own person the blood of 
three races. He was brought up on the farm. 

As a boy he attended the public schools of Cobb county and 
when grown to the age of young manhood entered the Dallas 
High School. This enabled him to secure a teacher's license 
and made it possible for him to enter Atlanta Baptist College 
in the Fall of 1893 where he took up the Academic Course. 
He was graduated in 1897. These were busy years for the 
young man bent on getting an education. From May to July 
he would work on the farm, then teach till September. Re- 
turning to the farm for cotton picking, he would not get off 
to college till October. Here he would be busy with his studies 
till Spring again. 

He began teaching in Paulding county in 1893. He was 
soon in demand in adjacent counties and taught in Cobb, Mor- 
gan and Haralson counties. Recently his teaching has been 
near his home and he is regarded as one of the leading teachers 
of the county. 

In his reading he places the Bible first and after that his- 
torical and biographical works. In politics he is a Repub- 
lican and is a member of the Baptist church, being a deacon 
and a teacher in the Sunday School. He has been active in 
the work of the Y. M. C. A. and is President of the District 
B. Y. P. U. He is in demand as a speaker and as an organizer. 
Among the secret orders he is identified with the Masons. 

He has been farming for himself for fifteen years and by 
hard work and careful economy has been able to accumulate 
considerable property. He lives in a comfortable home on 



GEORGIA EDITION 475 

l&iv • ' i ■ tl 

his own land worth altogether at least three thousand dollars. 
On December 1, 1901, he was married to Miss Doshia Cooper, 
a daughter of Fred and Aletha Cooper, of Paulding county. 
They have no children but are rearing a couple of orphan 
boys.. 



JACOB B. MADDUX 



REV. JACOB B. MADDUX, a successful minister of the 
M. E. connection in Georgia, and a prosperous farmer 
and useful citizen of Pike county, resides near IMilner. 
He was born in the same county during the war. Owing to 
the absence of records, the exact date of his birth cannot be 
ascertained, but he was told that it was during the holidays 
of 1862. His father, Philip Maddux, was a Methodist preacher 
and died in 1888. His grandfather was brought from Glen- 
ville, Alabama, to Georgia. His mother's maiden name was 
Sarah Curtis. Her people were brought from Virginia to 
Georgia. 

As a boy, young Maddux attended the public school at 
Barnesville. He aspired to a college education, and found it 
necessary to earn the money with which to pay his way for 
two terms at Clark University, but did not complete the course. 
The fact that he has worked out so large a measure of success 
with his limited education shows him to be a man of great 
native ability. When able to secure a teacher's license, he 
tr.ok up the work of teaching in his native county for six 
years. 

In February, 1884, he was converted and joined the M. E. 
Church. Ten years later he entered the ministry and joined 
the Conference at Waycross under Bishop Moore. His first 
pastorate was the Concord Circuit. He has since served the 
Yatesville Circuit, four years ; the Yatesville and Concord Cir- 
cuit combined, two years and the Harris Circuit. He is a cap- 
able, sympathetic pastor and a good preacher. 



476 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

In politics, he is a Republican and for twenty years was 
Chairman of the Pike County Committee, frequently repre- 
senting his county in the conventions. He is a Mason and a 
member of some local orders. Rev. Maddux, considering his 
many interests, is an extensive reader. Next after the Bible, 
he would perhaps place history and the religious periodicals. 

In his domestic relations, he has been called to go through 
the deep waters. On December 29, 1887, he was married to 
Miss Ursula E. Cauthen, of Pike county. Of the children 
born to this union, three are living ; these are Esther S., Corin- 
na C, and Ocee Lee Maddux. The first Mrs. Maddux departed 
this life June 11, 1896. In November, 1897, Elder Maddux 
married Miss Annie Mallory, of Spalding county. There were 
no children by this union. His third marriage was to Miss 
I,ena Watley in 1907. She bore him one son, Charlie Wilbert 
and on March 5, 1914, left the father and son to mourn her 
loss, as she was laid to rest. 

Mr. Maddux has been a successful business man. He is the 
wealthiest colored man in his county. On his home place is a 
comfortable, well-built residence with a farm of 150 acres at- 
tJ.'ched. This is near Milner. In addition to this he owns 
considerable renting property in Barnesville and Milner. The 
habits of industry and economy he learned as a boy have 
enabled him to forge ahead and make for himself a place 
among the business as well as religious leaders of his race in 
middle Georgia. 



ALFRED SAMUEL STALEY 



REV. ALFRED SAMUEL STALEY, A.M., D. D., of 
Americus, has made for himself an enviable place in 
the educational and religious life of his people. He is a 
native of Houston county, where he was born just after the 
outbreak of the war, on June 12, 1861. His mother was Isabel- 
la Riley, a slave who had been brought from Virginia to Geor- 



GEORGIA EDITION 477 

gia when she was ten years of age. Dr. Staley's father was his 
master. 

Young Staley grew up in Houston county and after the 
war went to the public school in Perry. He was converted 
and joined the Baptist Church at an early age and soon felt 
called to the work of the ministry. He was ordained by the 
Bethesda Baptist Church in 1886. Prior to that time he had 
entered Atlanta Baptist College and finished the course with 
the A. ]\I. degree in 1883. Later, in recognition of his work 
and his scholarship, the D. D. degree was conferred on him 
by Central City College. 

Since entering upon the active work of the pastorate, Dr. 
Staley has had a fruitful ministry and has made for himself 
a prominent place in his denomination. His work has been 
characterized by long pastorates as he is a man who wears 
well. Early in his ministry he moved to Americus where he 
owns valuable property. Among his longer pastorates may 
be mentioned Spring Hill, Shady Grove and Eureka (Albany). 
He has also had successful pastorates in Webster and Ogle- 
tliorpe counties. He has been secretary of the Baptist State 
Convention for a number of years. At the same time he was 
secretary of the Southwestern Association, and was later made 
moderator of that body. Except for about four years spent 
in evangelistic work, he has taught for twenty-five years and 
has had the privilege of training hundreds of boys and girls 
whom he has seen grow up to lives of usefulness. He has 
for a long time been at the head of the Americus public 
school. 

In politics, Dr. Staley is a Republican. Among the secret 
orders, he affiliates with the Masons, Odd Fellows and Pythians. 
He is a trustee of the Masonic Orphanage at Americus. 

On September 7, 1885, Dr. Staley was married to Miss Jones, 
of Sumter. They have three children: Alfred Samuel, Jr., F. 
iMarcellus and Blanche Staley. 

Dr. Staley's favorite reading consists of history and poetry. 
He believes that more of his race should learn the trades. 



JOSEPH JAMES CREAGH 



THE story of Rev. Joseph James Creagli, A. B., S. T. B., 
A. M., D, D. S., the popular colored dentist of Waycross, 
is an interesting one. He is a capable business man, a 
good preacher and a successful dentist. 

Dr. Creagh is a native of St. Croix, Danish W. I., where he 
was born July 2, 1874. His parents were Edwin Oscar and 
jMargaret (Anderson) Creagh. In his native island where edu- 
cation is compulsory, he attended the government schools as 
a boy. When nineteen years of age he came to the States land- 
ing October 10, 1893. Later he matriculated at Lincoln Uni- 
versity from which he was graduated with the A. B. degree in 
1901. His vacations were spent in the service of the Northern 
Steamboat lines. Such was the character of this service that 
he ran on the same line or company for eight consecutive sea- 
sons and always had the satisfaction of knowing that his place 
was open when he wished to return. 

He is a member of the Presbyterian church and feeling 
called to the work of the ministry took up the theological 
course at Lincoln after completing the classical course. In 
three years he won his S. T. B. degree. After his graduation 
he did mission work at Norfolk, Va., and church work at Balti- 
more, ^Id., and came to Georgia as pastor of the Presbyterian 
church at Albany. In January, 1905, he took up the work in 
Americus where he preached till October, 1906. He has not 
been in the active work of the pastorate since locating in Way- 
cross. 

In the fall of 1906 he entered Meharry for his dental course, 
graduating with the D. D. S. degree four years later. While 
in college he played football and organized a cricket club at 
Lincoln. After completing his course at Meharry he practiced 
for a short time at Madison, Ga., but in January, 1912, re- 
moved to Waycross, where he has steadily built up a good 
practice. 

Dr. Creagh is an orderly, systematic man of unusual intelli- 




JOSEPH JAMES CREAGH. 



/ 



480 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

gence, whose work along all lines is a credit to his character 
and ability. His favorite reading is history and biography. 
lie is a hard working, conservative business man and in addi- 
tion to a comfortable home is accumulating other valuable 
real estate in both the residence and business sections of the 
city. He is president of the local Y. M. C. A. and among the 
secret orders is identified with the Masons and the Pythians 
and is Vice-President of the Laborers' Penny Saving & Loan 
Co. He has a well equipped dental laboratory, operating and 
reception rooms and a growing library. He considers Chris- 
tian education as perhaps the greatest need of the race today. 
On June 25, 1913, Dr. Creagh was married to Miss Katie 
L. Adams, a daughter of William and Elizabeth Adams, of 
Quitman, Ga. INIrs. Creagh is a graduate of Talladega Col- 
lege and was a teacher before her marriage. They have two 
children, Willie Elizabeth and Joseph James Creagh, Jr. 



HENRY McNEAL TURNER 



THE late Bishop Henry McNeal Turner, of the African 
j\I, E. Church, was born near Newberry Court House 
South Carolina, February 1, 1834. He was the son of 
Hardy Turner and Sarah (Greer) Turner. He grew up to 
considerable boyhood on the cotton fields of South Carolina, 
and learned to read and write by his own perseverance. He 
was connected with one of the best families on his mother's 
side, of what was then commonly called "Free Negroes."' 
When he was fifteen years old he was employed in a law office 
as a servant at Abbeville Court House, and the young lawyers 
in the office often assisted him with his studies, because of his 
activity and readiness to carry love letters around to the 
young ladies. He learned to read accurately and studied under 
them. Arithmetic, History, the Bible, Geography, Astronomy, 
and afterward was employed in a medical university in Balti- 
more and studied Anatomy, Physiology, and Hygiene. He 



GEOEGIA EDITION" 481 

joined tKe M. E. Church, South, in 1848, he was licensed to 
preach in 1853, and traveled and preached among the colored 
people, many whites in South Carolina, Georgia, Alabama, 
Louisiana and other Southern States. He transferred his 
membership to the A. M. E. Church in 1858, and shortly after 
joined the Missouri Annual Conference, and became an itin- 
erant minister. 

He was transferred to the Baltimore Annual Conference by 
Bishop D. A. Payne, D.D., and remained in Baltimore four 
years. While there he studied Latin, Greek, Hebrew, German 
and Divinity at Trinity College, and took lessons in oratory 
from Bishop Cummings of the Protestant Episcopal Church. 
The degree of LL.D. was given him by Pennsylvania Univer- 
sity 1872; D.D. by Wilberforce University 1873, and D.C.L. 
by the Liberia College in Africa in 1894. He was married to 
Miss Eliza Ann Peacher in Columbia, S. C, in 1856, from which 
union there survives two sons, viz : John P. Turner, M.D., and 
David ^I. Turner; and to Mrs. Martha Elizabeth DeWitt in 
1893, and to Harriett A., Avidow of the late Bishop A. W. Way- 
man, in ]900. 

He was pastor of Israel Church, Washington, D. C, in 
1862 and 1863, and was commissioned Chaplain of the First 
Regiment, U. S. colored troops by President Lincoln (First 
colored chaplain ever commissioned in the United States). He 
was mustered out in September, 1865, and was again com- 
missioned by President Johnson a Chaplain in the regular 
army, but was detailed as an officer in the Freedman's Bureau 
in Georgia. He soon resigned this commission and resumed 
the ministry. He organized schools for colored children for 
a time, and when the Reconstruction Laws were enacted by 
Congress, he called the first Republican Convention in Geor- 
gia, and stumped the State, and was known as a powerful 
orator. He was elected a member of the Constitutional Con- 
vention in 1867 and a member of the Georgia Legislature in 
1868, and again in 1870. He was appointed by President Grant 
Postmaster in Macon, Georgia, later he was appointed Inspec- 
tor of Customs, and then United States Secret Detective. In 
1876 he was elected by the General Conference of the A. M. E. 



482 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

Church, general manager of its publication in Philadelphia, 
and in 1880 he was elected Bishop by the General Conference 
at St. Louis, Mo. He believed that the colored race should 
return to Africa, and l)uild up a nation and a civilization of 
their own, and was one of the principal agitators of that doc- 
trine. He organized four Annual Conferences in Africa, one 
in Sierra Leone, one in Liberia, one in Pretoria of the Trans- 
vaal, and one in Queenstown, South Africa. 

Bishop Turner wrote the Catechism of the A. M. E. Church 
and compiled a Hymn Book for the same, and was also the 
author of Methodist Polity, which is recognized as authority 
in his church. He also wrote various Lectures, Orations, and 
projected two newspapers which the Church purchased and 
made organs of the same. Bishop Turner received into the 
A. M. E. Church more than a hundred thousand members in 
the United States, Canada, West India Islands and Africa. 



SAMUEL GEORGE DAVIS 



AMONG the young men of the A. M. E. connection in 
Georgia is Rev. Samuel George Davis, who was born 
at Davisboro, September 29, 1877. His parents were 
Monroe and Judy Davis. His grandfather, Caleb Davis, was 
brought from South Carolina to Georgia and married Celia 
Davis. His maternal grandparents were George and Eliza- 
beth Hamp. 

As a boy, young Davis attended the public school of Davis- 
boro, where he made satisfactory progress. He came into the 
work of the church early, having been converted at the age 
of thirteen. He soon realized that his work must be that of 
the ministry and was licensed October 31, 1897. Three years 
later, he joined the Conference at Milledgeville under Bishop 
Turner. His first pastorate was the Allentown mission where 
he preached for two years. His next appointment was ]\Ioore's 
Mission, where he remained for one year. His next appoint- 
ment was Vienna Circuit one year, the Byrom Circuit two 
years, after which he was transferred to the Georgia Con- 



GEOEGIA EDITION 483 

ference and stationed at Summit for two years. He was then 
transferred to the Calhoun Circuit of the North Georgia Con- 
ference and after a year's service was assigned to the Elber- 
ton Circuit for one year. Following this he served the Belle- 
vue Circuit three years, Hogansville two years and in 1915 
was sent to Douglasville Circuit. 

Though still a young man, he has brought into the church 
nearly 1200. members. He has been active in the building and 
repairing of the church properties entrusted to him. He re- 
paired the church at Vienna, Byrom and Summit; a $1,000 
house of worship was built on the Bellevue Circuit and a four- 
room parsonage ; a less expensive house repaired at another 
point, and still another church repaired. The church at 
Hogansville was finished during his ministry and a new house 
of worship erected at LaGrange. During the year he has been 
at Douglasville both the church and .the parsonage have been 
remodeled, the church at Chapel Hill repaired and a new build- 
ing erected at Andrew's Chapel. 

Elder Davis' preferred reading, next after the Bible, runs 
to science and history. He has been active in evangelistic and 
Sunday School work and is a trustee of Morris Brown Uni- 
versity. He took, in that institution, his course in theology 
leading to the degree of D. D. He is a member of the Odd 
Fellows, but is not active in politics. He believes that the 
greatest single need of his people is co-operation. 

Eev. Davis owns a small farm in Washington county, which 
is rented during his absence. On November 20, 1904, he was 
married to Miss Rosa Lee Clark, a daughter of George and 
Edna Clark, of Dooly county. They have no children. 



JA.BEZ JENKINS 



TABEZ JENKINS, one of the most successful business men 
of Dublin, was born on a Laurens county farm before 
, Emancipation, June 15, 1856. His parents were James 
Madison and Amanda Jenkins. Back of them he knows noth- 
ing of his ancestry. Coming of school age during the war and 




JABEZ JENKINS. 



GEOKGIA EDITION 485 

while the Negroes were still held in slavery, he was deprived of 
schooling almost entirely, his attendance being limited to only 
a few days after he reached manhood. He was taught to work, 
however, and spent all his early years on the farm. 

On March 29, 1879, he was married to Miss Ida Daniel, a 
daughter of Ennis and Lucy Daniel, of Laurens county. They 
have had six children. Three — William Alexander, Luciana 
Burton, and Ada survive. The other three have passed away. 
After his marriage, Mr. Jenkins rented a farm. His store bill 
was only ten dollars, which he paid by splitting rails. He made 
four bales of cotton and other produce. 

When about thirty years of age Mr. Jenkins purchased a 
farm of 157 acres and began a new era in his career as a ])usi- 
ness man and a farmer. He prospered and has gradually in- 
creased his holdings till now he has about five hundred acres 
which puts him well near the front of colored landowners in 
Laurens county. About ten years ago he retired from the 
active work of the farm and engaged in the drug business at 
Dublin, which he manages personally. At that time he was 
making from ten to twelve bales to the plow. 

Mr. Jenkins is active in all matters pertaining to the progress 
of his race. In politics he is a Republican and is prominent in 
the councils of his party. He has been chairman of the Lau- 
rens county committee for a dozen years. He is also district 
chairman and a member of the State Central Committee. He 
has been a delegate to a number of the national conventions 
which has taken him to some of the principal cities of the 
United States. He once ran for the Legislature. He is a mem- 
ber of the Baptist church, and has been a deacon for thirty 
years. Among the secret orders, he is identified with the 
Masons and the Pythians in both of which he holds high official 
positions. 

Beginning in slavery, ]Mr. Jenkins has worked out a success 
of which he may well be proud. He has accumulated prop- 
erty to the value of at least ten thousand dollars. 

He believes the best interests of the race are to be promoted 
by training the young men in the arts and sciences and giving 
them equal protection before the law. He would encourage 
them to own land and engage in business. 



LOUIS WILLIAM PETER JORDAN 



AMONG the colored men who stand high in the esteem 
of both races is Rev. Louis William Peter Jordan, of 
Oxford. He was born in Putnam county, three miles 
southeast of Godfrey, August 1, 1851. So it will be seen that 
he was ten years old when the war broke out and nearly a 
grown man before his freedom came. His parents were William 
and Harriet Jordan. His grandmother was Ursula Hutson 
and her mother was Patsy Bryant. This is about all he knov/s 
of his ancestry. 

Elder Jordan w^as married on December 24, 1879, to Miss 
Fannie Alexander, of Morgan county, who was a daughter of 
Steven and Dicy Alexander. Of the nine children born to this 
union four are living. They are Patsy (now Mrs. Watson), 
Howard, Elijah and Steven. Mrs. Jordan passed away on 
June 20, 1892. Nearly fifteen years later on April 21, 1907, 
he was married a second time to Miss Candace Poole of New- 
ton county. There are no children by the second marriage. 

As a boy young Jordan grew up on the farm and after the 
war went to school in Putnam county. He attended Hearns- 
ville Academy and after deciding to enter the ministry took 
his theological work at Gammon. He was converted when he 
was about seventeen years of age. He was licensed to preach 
June 30, 1887, and ordained to the full work of the ministry 
June, 1905. Beginning at eighteen he taught school for five 
years. He made for himself a creditable record as a teacher. 
He excels in ^Mathematics which is his favorite branch ,of 
study. His favorite reading is the Bible. His principal work 
in life apart from his teaching has been farming. 

He is a Baptist and is active in the work of his denomina- 
tion. For the last three years he has been clerk of the Yellow 
River Baptist Association. In politics he is a Republican. 
Among the secret and benevolent orders he is identified with 
the B. S. and D. of H. and the Home Aid. He lives in a com- 
fortable home on the outskirts of Oxford in addition to which 
he owns some farm land. He believes the most pressing need 
of the race today is proper business training. 



WILLIAM LAFAYETTE HUGHES 



WILLIAJkl LAFAYETTE HUGHES, for years a promi- 
nent educator of South Georgia, now residing at Dub- 
lin, is a native of that town, where he was born May 
8, 1873. His parents, Pinkney Hughes, a farmer, and Annie 
(McLendon) Hughes, were both slaves. His grandfather, Allen 
Hughes, was a Baptist preacher. His wife's name was Char- 
lotte Hughes. 

When young Hughes came of school age, he attended the 
City Public School of Dublin, though his parents were poor and 
it was necessary for him to work much of the time. On this 
account when he aspired to a college education he found it nec- 
essary to make his own way, and after he had reached a point 
where he could secure a teacher's license, earned money in that 
way for his tuition. In 1890 he entered Atlanta University, 
which he attended for four terms. Here he found the associa- 
tions helpful and inspiring. He read law in the offices of 
Pledger, Johnson and Malone, and studied one year at Morris 
Brown, but did not apply for admission to the bar. 

He began his work as a teacher in 1889 at Dublin. Later 
he was elected principal of the school at Tennille, where he re- 
mained for seven years. In 1903 he entered the revenue service, 
as storekeeper and ganger, and two years later the mail service, 
at which he is still engaged. From 1901 to 1903 he was Dis- 
trict Grand Master of the Odd Fellows, and since that time has 
been District Grand Auditor. These official positions brought 
him into prominence in Odd Fellow circles, and he is frequently 
in demand as a speaker, not only in his own, but other districts 
over the State and country. 

In politics. Prof. Hughes is a Republican, and before accept- 
ing his present position was active in the party organization. 
He is a member of the First Baptist church of Dublin. He is a 
deacon and is active in the Sunday-school. He frequently at- 
tends the State and National Conventions, and is a trustee of 
Central City College, Macon. He has some ideas about education 




WILLIAM LAFAYETTE HUGHES. 



GEOEGIA EDITION 489 

which place him abreast of tlie best tliinkers of his race. We 
can not do better than quote his own words: "Let the colored 
man supplement the school fund in this State, and run the 
schools longer, pay the teachers more, and secure better teach- 
ers. This should apply to the South." 

On February 22, 1899', Prof. Hughes was married to Miss 
Mary Barnes, a daughter of Robert and Rebecca Barnes, of 
Macon. They have one child, a daughter, Rebecca Hughes. 
They own their home, valued at something like three thousand 
dollars. Mr. Hughes is an extensive reader and has built up 
an attractive library. He has traveled rather extensively in 
America. 



FREDERICK MURRAY GORDON 



REV. FREDERICK MURRAY GORDON, of Cave Spring, 
has made a record as a minister, an educator and cit- 
izen of which he may well be proud. He was born a 
slave in Screven county August 14, 1854. His parents were 
Frederick Baltimore and Rosa Ann Gordon. His father 
was a Methodist minister and mechanic. Young Gordon's 
education was obtained from the public schools in Screven 
county and from private teachers, among whom he mentions 
Mr. 0. C. Callahan, and a priest, John Connally. He also 
attended Clark University, Atlanta, and completed a course 
at Chautauqua University in 1892. It was necessary for him 
to work his own way through school, which he did by doing 
various odd jobs until he was able to secure a teacher's li- 
cense when the way became easier. After that, his vacations 
were spent teaching Summer schools. He attributes his suc- 
cess in no small degree to the teaching and example of his 
father and to the men with whom he came in contact at Clark 
University. 

Almost from boyhood he gave evidence not only of talent 
and energy, but of striking business ability. He was con- 



490 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

verted at the age of fifteen and was called to the pastorate 
of a church, even before he had definitely decided to enter the 
ministry. He taught the public school at Marietta for four 
years and entered the regular work of the ministry in 1875, 
joining the Conference at Augusta in 1876. He preached at 
Cartersville two years and preached and taught at Cave 
Spring for four years. 

By the year 1881 he had demonstrated such ability as a 
teacher, and had so won the confidence of those in authority, 
that he was selected by Prof. W. 0. Conner and the Board of 
Trustees for the Georgia School for the Deaf and Dumb as 
principal for the colored department of that school. So satis- 
factory has been his work for the institution that after a period 
of thirty-five years he is still managing and teaching in that 
department. He also enjoys the distinction of having preached 
the Easter sermon every year for more than thirty years at 
the Chubbtown ]\I. E. Church. He has been secretary of the 
Rome District for forty years. 

During these years, by the careful handling of his resources 
and by wise investment he has accumulated a neat little for- 
tune, his property now being valued at about $35,000. This 
has been done while rearing and educating a large family of 
children to whom he has given both classical and industrial 
educations. He has spent at least $10,000 in this direction 
alone. 

In politics he is a Republican and belongs to the Masons. 

Professor Gordon has been twice married. First, in 1875, 
to Miss Lucinda Jackson, a daughter of Nathaniel and San- 
dal Jackson, of Marietta. She died September 24th, 1893, 
leavhig eight children. On October 24. 1894, he was again 
married to ^liss Maria Leigh, a daughter of Esther Leigh, of 
Newnan. Of this marriage there are two children. The names 
of the ten are as follows : William INIurray, a prominent 
teacher; Edward Lansing, a teacher in the Deaf and Dumb 
School in Jackson, Miss.; Sydney B., a dentist; Frederick, 
Samuel S., Clyde Alexander, Estalle, Willard, Rosalie, Leigh 
Walton and George Quentin Gordon. 

As for those things which will mean most for the Avelfare 



GEOEGIA EDITION 491 

of his race in State and nation, Professor Gordon puts them 
in a few words : good citizenship, Christian ethics and morality 
will make any nation strong. 



ROBERT ENGLISH 



R 



OBERT ENGLISH, of Henry county, is an enterprising 
and successful farmer, and a worthy example to the other 
members of his race. 



He was born in ^Monroe county just after the outbreak of the 
war in February, 1862. His father, Ben English, was a slave. 
His mother, Lettie English, is still living and makes her home 
with her son. 

Robert, who is usually known as Bob, went to the public 
school for a short while at Lovejoy station, but did not get 
much in the way of schooling on account of the hard conditions 
which prevailed when he was of school age. Soon after the 
war, the family moved to Henry county. 

On October 1, 1881, Robert English was married to Epsie 
Glenn, a daughter of Ransom Glenn. They have six children : 
Steven, who is now a man of family ; Lilla, Girlie, Charley, Ben 
and Mary. 

After his marriage. Bob English rented, for two bales of cot- 
ton a year, the place on which he now lives. He soon saw 
the advantage of owning his own home and his own land and in 
1886 bought 50 acres. As this was paid for, he gradually added 
more till he now owns 140 acres in his home place and has re- 
cently purchased other tracts which bring his holdings to 180 
acres. He has been able to do this because he knows how to 
work and how to save, and also how to diversify his crop. He 
does not confine himself to cotton, but grows plenty of grain, 
raises his own meat, etc., and does modern, up-to-date farm- 
ing. 

He is a Republican in politics, and a member of the Metho- 




ROBERT ENGLISH. 



GEORGIA EDTTIO]Sr 493 

dist church, in which he is a steward and trustee. He also be- 
longs to the York Masons. 

Although he got but little schooling, he believes in education 
and is schooling his children. He lives in an attractive home 
where he has surrounded himself and family with the comforts 
of life. His life and work go to show what a man who is honest, 
and not afraid to work, can do, even though he may not go to 
college and may not have much at the start. 



DAVID LEONARD MILLER 



REV. DAVID LEONARD MILLER is numbered among 
the active and efficient educators and preachers of the 
C. M. E. connection in Georgia. He is a native of North- 
east Georgia, having been born at Toccoa, January 7, 1874. He 
was educated partly in Georgia and partly in South Carolina. 
His father was Judge Miller, a farmer. His mother, Harriet 
Naves, was a daughter of Bettie Rodgers. On the maternal 
side his people were slaves. 

Of his early efforts for an education, he says: "My parents 
were poor and could not educate me. I studied at night, go- 
ing to school about three months a year, until I reached young 
manhood and was able to earn money for my own schooling." 

This was during the time he lived in Franklin county, Geor- 
gia. When he had earned sufficient means, he went to the 
graded schools at Seneca, S. C, and later entered Claflin Uni- 
versity. With the better opportunities thus afforded, he was able 
to secure a teacher's license and from that time forward his 
progress was more rapid. With the money made teaching he 
attended Payne College at Augusta. 

His teaching work began in 1879 at Seneca. After that he 
taught in Franklin county, Georgia, for six years, and at Monti- 
cello, in Jasper county. His work as a teacher covered a period 
of twenty years, and he had the pleasure of seeing many of his 
scholars grow up into good citizens. 

When a boy of fourteen he was converted; and while active 



494 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

in the church, did not enter upon the work of the ministry till 
1901. Coming to the work well equipped, both by education 
and experience, he soon commanded some of the best appoint- 
ments in his denomination. His first pastorate was at Royston. 
He has since twice held the Monticello appointment. Among 
other stations and circuits he has pastored are the West Mitchell 
Street Station, Atlanta, Newborn Circuit, Griffin Station, 
Washington and Elberton. In 1907 he was appointed to the 
presiding eldership of the Augusta District, which important 
position he held for two years. More recently he served the 
Milledgeville Station and in 1916 was transferred to Fort 
Valley. 

Among the secret orders, he holds membership in the IMasons 
and Odd Fellows. 

He says of his people : ' ' The race, as a whole, should become 
thinkers and producers, coupling with this piety, honesty, truth- 
fulness, morality, unity and industry." 



CARLTON WILSON GAINES 



IF a stranger in Waycross were to inquire of a resident of 
the city, white or colored, for two or three of the most 
capable, most dependable of the young men of the race 
in Waycross, the list would invariably include the name of Carl- 
ton Wilson Gaines. 

He is a native of Ware county, where he was born, March 28, 
1886. When he was six years of age the family moved to Val- 
dosta, where his parents still (1916) reside. His father is 
Hansell Gaines, and his mother ]\Iarietta (Davis) Gaines. His 
mother's father was Henry Davis. 

As a boy, young Gaines attended the Valdosta public schools, 
where he made a creditable record. When ready for college he 
entered the Georgia State Industrial College at Savannah, where 
he took the academic course and the tailoring trade. He was 
rather active in college athletics, playing both baseball and 




CARLTON WILSON GAINES. 



496 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

football. Was unanimously elected captain of the college base- 
ball team and retained that position during all his years there. 
"While in college he passed the civil service examination for 
letter carrier and in 1905 was put on the Valdosta force. While 
thus employed he took the examination for the railway mail 
service, and after getting his appointment only a few months 
thereafter moved to Waycross. For ten years he has had the 
run from Bainbridge to Jesup, serving on the "Jacksonville 
and Montgomery" R. P. 0. 

On September 20, 1911, he was married to Miss Wilhelmina 
McNeal, a daughter of Rev. S. A. and Julia JMcNeal, of Augusta, 
Ga., and to his union with her is largely due his success. This 
highly cultured and refined young woman, wdio for a number of 
years was a teacher in the public schools of Columbus, Valdosta, 
and Waycross, has been his guiding star and best asset. Mrs. 
Gaines was educated at Haines School, Augusta. In one of the 
best residence sections of the city they have a comfortable home, 
where they have surrounded themselves wdth the evidences of 
culture and refinement. In addition to the home place, Mr. 
Gaines owns several other houses and lots, the most valuable 
property owned by Negroes in the city. 

Though not active in politics he is a Republican. He is a 
member of the Baptist church, but has not identified himself 
with the secret orders. His favorite reading is current litera- 
ture. 

His observation and experience lead him to the conclusion 
that one of the greatest needs of his people is business training. 
Looking over the local field he concluded that the time was ripe 
for the launching of a distinctively negro bank at Waycross and 
has organized the Laborer's Penny Savings and Loan Co., the 
name of which indicates the scope and the character of the 
work to be done. The bank was opened for business January, 
1917. 

Through his influence and energy a number of men Avere 
bronglit together and organized the Negro Business League of 
Waycross, whereupon he was unanimously elected the president. 

No one who knows Mr. Gaines and his associates doubts the 
success of both enterprises, for he has a way of seizing oppor- 



GEOEGIA EDITION 497 

tunities as they come and utilizing them. He throws out ideas 
and other men seize upon them, thinking they are theirs. He 
gives everybody credit, but asks for no bouquets. 



LOUIS EMORY HALL 



LOUIS EMORY HALL, one of the leading figures in the 
public school life of Georgia, among the Negroes, is now 
principal of the school at Cedartown, where he has suc- 
ceeded himself for twenty-eight consecutive years. 

He is a native of Frederick, Md., where he was born Febru- 
ary 22, 1856. His father, Richard A. Hall, was a prominent 
minister of the A. M. E. Church, and in 1887 came South as 
pastor of Big Bethel, Atlanta. His mother was Eliza (Black) 
Hall. Both his parents were freeborn. 

Young Hall attended the public schools of Frederick, but 
later the family moved to Washington, and he pursued his 
public and high school studies there, and then matriculated 
at Howard University, graduating from the preparatory de- 
partment in 1873, with the M. A. degree. In September of 
that year, he opened a private school in Baltimore city, which 
he taught for one year. The next year was spent in school 
v/ork in Kent county, Maryland, at the end of which he was 
elected principal of Grammar School No. 2, Frederick, Md., his 
old home. In the Spring of '78 he came to Georgia, and taught 
private and night school for two years. In 1880 he was elected 
principal of the Sparta High School. On December 5th of 
that year, he was married to Miss Nannie M. Jones, a daughter 
of Jared and Sarah Jones, of Newnan. They have five living 
children: Nannie (now Mrs. Jennings, of Jacksonville); Ger- 
trude (now Mrs. Marcrum) ; J. Emerson; Richard D., and 
Victor. 

He remained on the Sparta work for four years, and during 
that time numbered among his pupils men who have since 
made their mark in Georgia. In 1884 he moved to Carters- 



498 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

\'ille, where he taught for three years, till 1887, when he was 
elected to the principalship of the Colored Public School of 
Cedartown, just then in process of organization. Such h.^s 
been the record he has made, that for more than a quarter of 
a century he has been chosen year after year to succeed him- 
self. He has lived peacefully, and sustained the most cordial 
relationship with the people of the community, both white and 
black. He has made for himself the reputation of being a cap- 
able, efficient and trustworthy man. 

In national matters he is a Republican, but in local affaii's 
has not been an agitator along political lines, but, as he puts 
it, "stays with his friends." He is an active member of the 
A. M. E. Church, in which he is an elder, having joined the 
Conference in 1881. He was ordained elder at Rome in 1887, 
and has constantly had charge of mission work in his section, 
and has also given much time to Sunday School and League 
work, in which he is a leader. Among the secret orders, he 
is identified with the Odd Fellows, being Deputy Grand IMas- 
ter of the 29th Division. For years he has done a great deal 
of institute work among the colored teachers, and the esteem 
iii which he is held by the school authorities may be inferred 
from the fact that the examination of colored teachers is 
usually entrusted to him. In his reading he takes to authors 
like Dumas and Hugo. He is also very fond of mathematics. 
When asked how the best interests of his race in Georgia 
raight be promoted, his response was, "By the application of 
common sense." 



JEFFERSON TIMOTHY THOMAS 



THE REV. JEFFERSON TIMOTHY THOMAS has had 
a rich and varied experience as a minister of the Gospel. 
He was born at Chattanooga just before the outbreak of 
the War Between the States. Plis parents were owned by the 
Bailej^s. His mother was Frances Thomas and his father's 




JEFFERSON TIMOTHY THOMAS. 



500 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

name was Bird. He secured his literary education at the pub- 
lic school and at Blood's High School, Chattanooga. He took 
his theological course at Gammon, from which he was grad- 
uated with the degree of B. D. in 1886. 

On April 10, 1879, he was married to Miss Annie Walker, 
a daughter of Eliza Walker. They have nine children : Fran- 
ces (McLeod), Annie Maude (Porter), Jessie, Willie, Samuel, 
Essie May, Benjamin, Mary and J. T., Jr. 

Young Tliomas was a bricklayer by trade and while still in 
his early years moved from Chattanooga to Atlanta. When 
he was fourteen years old he was converted and at once felt 
called to the ministry. It was not until after he moved to 
Atlanta, however, that he was licensed to preach, in 1885, at 
St. Paul's Church. The following year he was admitted to 
the Conference under Bishop Shorter. For more than thirty 
years he has been in the harness and has brought into the 
church nearly three thousand members, besides raising debts, 
building houses of worship and improving church property. 
His first assignment was to the Cobb Bethel Circuit, Campbell 
county, where he remained three years. After that he served 
the Thomaston Circuit two years, Bluff Springs Circuit one 
year, Prattsburg two years, Allen Chapel Station, ]Macon, five 
years, Darien one year, Guyton four years, Waycross one year, 
Blackshear three years, and Rochelle six months. At that 
time he was promoted to the Presiding Eldership of the Val- 
dosta District to fill out an unexpired term of Rev. W. D. 
Johnson, D. D. Here his ability as an executive showed to 
advantage and he came up to the Conference with a financial 
and missionary report which broke all previous records for 
the district. He was retained as Presiding Elder and sent to 
the Savannah District for four consecutive years. Here again 
he made a splendid record. Since leaving the Savannah Dis- 
trict he has served the St. Matthews Circuit three years. Cave 
Spring one year, Millen four years, and in 1915 was sent to 
Gaines Chapel Station at Waycross, where a new brick church 
is under way and where he had pastored sixteen years before. 

In politics he is a Republican and has at times been rather 
active in the work of the party. He is a Pythian and is Chan- 



GEORGIA EDITION 501 

cellor Commander of St. Thomas Lodge at Blackshear, which 
is his permanent residence and where he owns considerable 
real estate in addition to a comfortable home. 

Born in slavery and growing up dnring the hard years fol- 
lowing the war, Elder Thomas has devoted himself to the re- 
ligious leadership of his people and has shown himself "a 
workman that needeth not to be ashamed of his workmanship." 
He believes that race unity will contribute more than anj- other 
factor to the progress of his people. 



STYLES M. SCARLETT 



THE history of Styles Mansfield Scarlett is the record 
of what has been done by a man born in slavery. He 
first saw the light near Brunswick, in Glynn county, 
May 11, 1856, and distinctly remembers the war. His parents 
were Augustus and Susan Scarlett, who, during the war, refu- 
geed with members of the Scarlett famil}^ in Clinch county. 
His grandfather on his father's side was a white man, while 
his mother's father was Joseph Nicalow, and had been given 
his freedom. Styles Scarlett remained with his master several 
years after the war. Finally, when he went away, it was 
with sorrow on the part of the boy on leaving so good a friend 
and regret on the part of the old man because he could not 
do more for the boy who had so faithfully served him. 

His schooling was confined to sixty days at the Government 
school in 1869. His first public work was on the B. & W. R. 
R., in 1870. During the life of the Plant System he was with 
the late H. W. Reid and was at one time foreman over the 
carpenter force. Before that he had worked at sawmilling. 

On December 24, 1875, he was married to Miss Amanda 
Bacon, a daughter of William and Virginia Bacon, of Liberty 
county. They have one son, Walter J. Scarlett, who lives at 
Auburndale, Mass. They have reared several adopted chil- 



502 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

dren and are now raising a bright little girl, Hattie Mae Scar- 
lett. 

Mr. Scarlett is an active member of the Antioch Baptist 
Church, and is a Master Mason. He owns a comfortable home 
on Reynolds Street besides other real estate. He is the leading 
colored undertaker of Waycross. 

In politics he is a Republican and has long been active in 
the Avork of the party. He is a member of the county com- 
mittee of which he has been chairman and secretary at differ- 
ent times. In 1896, he was a delegate to the St. Louis Con- 
vention which nominated ^McKinley. Under the McKinley ad- 
ministration he was assistant postmaster of Waycross, serving 
for six years to the satisfaction alike of his white and colored 
patrons. He was a delegate to the Chicago Convention, 1916. 

For nearly fifty years Styles Scarlett has been a citizen of 
Waycross. In all that time his relations with his neighbors, 
white and colored, have been cordial. He sees the need of 
education and of money and many other things, but he puts 
the purity of the home and the virtue of the motherhood of the 
race above everything else. 



NORTON MOSES 



NORTON ]\IOSES, who lives near Sharpsburg, in Coweta 
county, is a remarkable man. The story of his suc- 
cess should be studied by every poor boy in Georgia. 
He owes his success in life to good common sense and hard 
work. He is a great believer in the Georgia mule and in Geor- 
gia land. 

He was born during the war, June 5, 1863. His parents 
were Milledge and IMaria ]\Ioses. His grandparents were Jere 
and Eliza Freeman; the grandfather was a Baptist preacher. 
His mother's mother was brought to Georgia from Virginia. 

The boy's father died when he Avas young and his mother 
married again. When he was eleven years old, his mother 
hired him out and by the time he had reached his early teens 




NORTON MOSES AND WIFE. 



504 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

he was such a good farm hand that he was given a man's 
wages, which was ten dollars a month at that time. His step- 
father, however, regularly took this up at the end of each week 
so that Norton was not permitted to handle any of his own 
wages. The only money he had was such as came to him in 
the shape of tips. With this uncertain income, he bought some 
books and with such help as he could get, began to study at 
night. His employer set him a copy after many requests but 
did it so reluctantly that the boy did not ask him to set an- 
other. The next time he went to Newnan he bought a copy- 
book and thus learned to write. He pursued his studies until 
he reached the fourth reader and was accustomed to pass his 
used books down to the younger children. He was not per- 
mitted to work for himself until he was about eighteen years 
of age. 

Mr. Moses believes in the Bible injunction, that "it is not 
good for man to be alone," and has been married three times, 
and is the father of nineteen children. In 1881, when he was 
eighteen years of age, he hiduced Anna Mitchell to run away 
with him and get married. She bore him three children, J. P., 
Charlie L. and J. W. Moses. The first year after his marriage 
they Avorked on halves, and cleared thirty-five dollars besides 
making seventy-five bushels of corn. The next Fall they paid 
out with a lot of corn and meat and one bale of cotton clear. 
Then he began to buy land and has steadily increased his hold- 
ings until he now has 1,000 acres, and sometimes makes as 
much as 250 bales of cotton per year. In the midst of his 
growing prosperity he lost his wife, and remained a widower 
for four years. He was then married to Miss Elvina Sikes, 
who was teaching a local school at the time. By this mar- 
riage there are four living children, Norton, Jr., Mary L., 
Eugenia and Gladys Moses. They lived happily together for 
eight years when she died on January 13, 1906. Notwithstand- 
ing the heavy expenses of a growing family and much sick- 
ness, Mr. ]\Ioses continued to accumulate property and save 
money, and at the time of his second wife's death had nearly 
$3,000.00 in bank. 

His third marriage was to Miss Almeta Simms, of Palmetto, 



GEORGIA EDITION 505 

on August 29, 1906. They have seven living children: Alice, 
Myrtis, Manget, Emma Kate, Almeta, Frank and Simms 
Moses. Mr. Moses lives in a comfortable two-story house, 
formerly occupied by one of the leading white men of the 
county. He is not only a hard worker, but a good business 
man. By close observation he has learned to do many things 
for which others have depended on the schools. He keeps his 
own accounts accurately and handles his affairs in a business- 
like way. His farm is run on a self-supporting basis. While 
cotton is his principal money crop, he seeks to raise on the 
place his foodstuffs and his feed. He has confined his efforts 
to that community and has never done a week's work out of 
hearing of Sharpsburg. He has given his children the edu- 
cation which he himself desired but could not secure. He is 
an active member and a deacon of the Ebenezer Baptist Church. 
He is not identified with the secret orders, but carries con- 
siderable insurance for both himself and his wife in an old line 
company. 

He believes that his race should be judged by its best mem- 
bers, rather than by the shiftless and criminal elements. Nor- 
ton Moses has not only succeeded for himself, but has pointed 
the way to success for others. He is a worthy citizen and good 
neighbor and is held in high esteem by both races. 



ROBERT H. GRIFFITH 



AMONG the rising young educators of his race in Geor- 
gia is Prof. Robert H. Griffith, of Fairburn. He is a 
native of Gwinnett county, having been born at Suwa- 
nee August 13, 1881. 

His father, Henry Griffith, was a local preacher and a farmer. 
Back of his parents he knows nothing of his ancestry. While 
still a mere boy, the family moved from Suwanee to Lawrence- 
ville and it was there that Robert went to school. When, 
however, he aspired to a higher education he was confronted 



506 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

by numerous obstacles, which would have discouraged a less 
determined boy, for, in his own words, he "had to work night 
and day to secure an education and found it a rough road to 
travel. ' ' Tlie young man would not be defeated, however, but 
with uncompromising spirit kept on, and entered Clark Uni- 
versity, completing the English course in 1906 and devoting 
two years to the college course. He began his work as a clerk 
in South Atlanta. He earned money to continue in school 
by clerking in a store and working for the postmaster of 
South Atlanta for some years. For five years he rendered 
faithful service as the trusted janitor of the Trust Company 
of Georgia. 

In 1915 he was chosen, principal of the colored school at 
Fairburn, which prospered under his administration. 

In politics, Prof. Griffith is a Republican, and among the 
secret orders is identified with the Odd Fellows. He is a mem- 
ber of the I\r. E. Church. 



JAS. MONROE JAVAN HENRY 



AMONG the younger men of the race who have made a 
prominent place in the professional life of the State, is 
Dr. James Monroe Javan Henry, a successful dentist, 
of Albany. Dr. Henry is a native of Cobb county, having been 
born at Marietta on December 10, 1881. His father, Peter 
Henry, passed away some years ago. His mother, Carrie 
Henry, is still living (1916). Tlie boy grew up in Marietta 
and attended the public schools of his county, where he made 
for himself a creditable record. He went to work at an early 
age and even as a boy determined to succeed. He learned the 
barber trade, not with a vicAv to being a barber all his life, 
but as a stepping stone to something higher and better. 

Dr. Henry found peculiar inspiration in Dr. Crogman's 
book about the Negro race and when he had earned some 
money of his own, decided to take a course in dentistrw This 




JAMES MONROE JAVAN HENRY. 



508 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

rather amused some of his friends, but their attitude only- 
served to make him more determined. Accordingly, he en- 
tered Meharry College and was graduated with the D. D. S. 
degree in 1905, and received the Morrison Metal for Mechan- 
ical Dentistr3^ By putting in full time at work during va- 
cations, he was able to complete the course without a break. 
Returning to his home town, he practiced for six months and 
then located in Albany, where he has built up a splendid 
practice. 

On February 22, 1912, he was married to Miss Eva Hill, a 
daughter of Mr. Charlie Hill, of Smithville. She was a teacher 
before her marriage and was educated at Atlanta University. 

Dr. Henry is rather active in politics, and was a delegate 
to the last Republican State Convention. He is a member of 
the Presbyterian Church, and is identified with the Pythians 
and Masons. Besides other investments, he owns a modern 
bungalow at Albany. He is a constant reader of current 
papers and magazines, apart from which his taste for reading 
runs to the classics. His library consists of several hundred 
volumes, both at his office and home. 



SAMUEL GEORGE MEANS 



REV. SAMUEL GEORGE I\IEANS, one of the most effi- 
cient and successful pastors and evangelists in the A. 
M. E. connection in Georgia, is a man who, without 
early advantages, has won a position of prominence and 
usefulness in his denomination. He is a South Georgia man, 
having been born in Early county on November 8, 1873. His 
parents were Thomas and Elizabeth (Leath) ]Means. His 
grandmother, Rebecca Leath, was a native of Richmond, Vir- 
ginia, and is said to have been half Indian. 

Samuel was early trained to work and was taught the 
blacksmith's trade by his father. His educational advan- 
tages were very limited. He has not permitted this, however, 



GEORGIA EDITION 509 

to discourage him, nor can it be said that he lacks educa- 
tion. He has been a student all his life. 

He was converted at the age of sixteen and at once became 
active in the work of the church. When grown to young man- 
hood, he moved to Atlanta and worked at his trade. He 
.loined the Shiloh Methodist Church, now known as the Cosmo- 
politan, which he serves by special request of the members, 
who consider Elder Means one of their own "boys." 

Feeling called to the work of the ministry, he was licensed 
in 1894 and joined the conference in November of the same 
year. In order better to prepare himself for his vocation, he 
took the Theological course at Turner Seminary, Morris 
Brown University, completing same in 1908. So conspicuous 
has been his success, so noteworthy the work he has accom- 
plished in various fields, that Campbell College, Jackson, Mis- 
sissippi, conferred on him the degree of D. D. in 1908. He 
says that his mother's prayers were perhaps the greatest in- 
fluence in shaping his life for good. In his reading he lays 
special emphasis on the Bible, theological works and books 
of sermons. 

Elder Means went direct from the blacksmith's shop to 
the pulpit. His first pastorate was at Canton Mission, which 
he served for three years. Some idea of his success is indi- 
cated by the fact that he built five houses of worship in three 
years. When he was moved, the conference sent two men 
to take care of the work which had become self-supporting 
under his administration, in the face of the fact that fifteen 
pastors preceding him had failed to bring the work up to 
that standard. From Canton he went to Acworth for two 
years, paid off $1,000 of debt, built a schoolhouse worth $425 
and paid for that. He was then sent to Cedartown, where he 
remained for two years, repairing the church at an expense of 
$1,200, all of which was paid, and adding largely to the mem- 
bership of the church. This was done under adverse condi- 
tions to begin with. 

His next pastorate was at Dalton, which he served for one 
year, rebuilt the church and left it without debt. From Dal- 
ton he went to Cartersville for two years, where he paid off a 



510 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

debt of $600 and left a balance of $1,000.25 toward the build- 
ing of a new brick cliurcb, which has since been completed. 
While at Cartersville, he was brought into close personal 
contact with the late Sam P. Jones, and acknowledges with 
gratitude the help given him by that distinguished evangelist. 
His next pastorate was at JMilledgeville, where he paid a debt 
of $580. The following year he went to Sparta, where he 
remained for three years, paid the church debt of $300, built 
a seven-room parsonage worth $1,600. At the end of that 
time he was promoted to the Presiding p]ldership of the South 
Atlanta District. While this was a snuill district, he raised 
for the quarto-centennial fund and educational purposes, $1,- 
050.00 and in two years' time added 1001 members to the dis- 
trict. From this work he was sent to St. James Station at 
Columbus, where he remained for the full quadrennium. Here 
he organized the kindergarten department of his Sunday 
School, built a new Sunday School room and repaired the 
church at a cost of more than $2,000.00. In 1915 he was sent 
to Rome Station, where his first task, as usual, was to pay off a 
church debt, after which he built a modern two-story, ten- 
room parsonage at a cost of more than $2,000.00. By special 
request, in 1916, he was assigned to the Cosmopolitan Station 
at Atlanta. 

Dr. Means has been quite successful as an evangelist, and 
while not neglecting his pastoral work has traveled exten- 
sively in a number of States doing revival work. Were he to 
respond to half the calls that come to him for work of this 
sort, he would have no time left for his home church. Some 
years he averages almost a sermon a day and something of 
the fruitfulness of his ministry can be understood from the 
fact that he has added to his denomination in the twenty-one 
years of his ministry nearly 17,000 members. He Avas a dele- 
gate to the General Conference meeting in Kansas City. 
Among secret orders Dr. Means is identified with the Odd 
P'ellows, Masons, Good Samaritans, Supi'eme Circle and Pyth- 
ians. 

On December 21st, 1893, he was married to ]\liss Ferriba 



GEORGIA EDITION 511 

Clark, a daughter of Julius and Caroline Clark. They have 
one son, James George Means, and own a comfortable home in 
Columbus. 



SAMPSON S. DAWSON 



SAMPSON S. DAWSON, who is the biggest landowner 
among the colored people of Washington county and who 
is one of the leading farmers of the county, lives near Ten- 
nille. He was born in slavery, more than three years before 
the outbreak of the war between the States, on January 1, 1858, 
His father, who was a farm hand, was Sampson Dawson. His 
mother, before her marriage, was ^Mary Tucker. She was 
brought from Virginia to Georgia when a mere girl. 

It will be seen that young Dawson came of school age just 
about the time of the close of the war. It was, of course, easier 
for him than for the older members of his race to adjust him- 
self to the new conditions of freedom. He attended the public 
schools of Washington county of that time, and that he made 
the most of such opportunities as he had is shown by the fact 
that at an early age he was able to secure a teacher's license 
and began his work as an educator, which stretched over a period 
of several years. It was thus that he earned the money with 
which to pursue liis studies at Cookman Institute, Jacksonville, 
Fla. 

His first school Avas in his home county. In the years that 
followed he taught in Johnson, Putnam, and Laurens counties, 
and gave very general satisfaction. He has seen many of his 
boys and girls grow up into useful citizens. 

On November 29, 1883, he Avas married to Miss Mary A. Eob- 
inson, a daughter of i\Irs. Elizabeth Robinson. Mrs. Dawson 
was also a teacher before her marriage. She was educated at 
Benedict in South Carolina. Mr. and Mrs. Dawson have had 
ten children. Those living are Lillian (Mrs. Adams), Estlier 




SAMPSON S. DAWSON. 



GEORGIA EDITION 513 

H., Homer, Adolphus, Cassius Morton, "Willie Lewis, and Mary- 
Eddie Elizabeth. 

Prof. Dawson soon realized that his own progress and pros- 
perity in life, to be permanent, would have to be built around a 
home and the land. Accordingly, he saved his money while 
teaching and added to this such as he could make renting. He 
has always been a successful farmer. It was after he began to 
buy -land, however, that his real prosperity set in. He has 
increased his holdings till he now owns nearly seven hundred 
acres of farming land and lives in a comfortable, modern home, 
where he has surrounded himself and family with the conven- 
iences of life. 

He works a part of his land himself, rents some, farms some 
out on shares and altogether makes a great deal of cotton, 
grain and other produce. His success should be a source of 
inspiration to the young men of the race. 

In politics he is a Republican. He is a member of the A. M. 
E. Church, and is active in the work of his church. He is a 
steward, trustee, class leader and assistant superintendent of 
the Sunday-school. He is not now actively identified with the 
secret orders. 

Such is a short story of the life of a man whose career began 
in slavery, but w^ho determined to succeed in spite of the difficul- 
ties in his pathway. In working out his own success, he has 
pointed the way for others. It lies along the way of education, 
economy, thrift, the ownership of land and good citizenship. 



DAVID JOYNER 



DAVID JOYNER, a prosperous citizen of Tallapoosa, is a 
native of Chambers county, Alabama, where he was 
born June 4, 1879. His father, who is still living, is 
Floyd Joyner, and his whole life has been spent on the farm. 
His mother, who was Cassie J. Higgins before her marriage, 
is dead. Her father was Moze Higgins and her mother, Senie 
Higgins, is still living at the age of more than one hundred. 



514 HISTORY OF AMP:RICAN NEGRO 

Young Joyner attended the public schools of Chambers 
county each year until he reached young manhood. He 
worked on the farm until lie was 23, when he left Alabama 
for Tallapoosa, Ga. Here he worked in the gold mines for 
a year and a half and then on the railroad for another year 
and a half. At the end of that time he began work in the 
glass factory at eighty cents a day and Avas steadily promoted 
until he was earning $2.10 per day. 

He had the foresight, while earning money, to buy land and 
is now the owner of a comfortable home, besides which he 
also has seven town lots and twenty-one acres of farm land. 
All this has steadily enhanced in value since he purchased 
it. 

On June 2, 1902, he was married to :\liss Ilattie Thurman, a 
daughter of Alex, and Margaret Thurman. 

In politics, ]\lr. Joyner is a Republican, and is Secreary of 
the Haralson County Committee. He is a registered voter, 
(lualifying under both the property and educational clauses. 
He is a member of the :\It. Newly Baptist Church and Super- 
intendent of the Sunday School. He is a constant reader of 
the National Baptist Union Review, his denominational paper. 
He has never identified himself with the secret orders. Mr. 
Joyner is regarded as a good citizen and stands well with 
both his white and colored neighbors. 



WILLIAM RYLEY FORBES 



IT FALLS to the lot of only a few men to rise from a po- 
sition of poverty and obscurity to the leadership of a great 
denomination or party. The lives of such men are always 
interesting. There is perhaps no more helpful literature than 
the biographies of the men who have come up through tribu- 
lation to places of responsibility and power. 

The presidency of the Georgia Baptist Missionary Conven- 
tion is such a place, and brings its leader in touch Avith thou- 
sands of members of his denomination in the State, and gives 




WILLIAM RYLEY FORBES. 



516 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

him the appointing of the important boards of the denomi- 
nation, as well as making him the presiding officer of the an- 
nual Convention. That position is now (1914) held by Rev. 
William Ryley Forbes, D. D., of Macon. He is a native of 
Princess Ann county, Virginia, where he was born November 
22, 1856. While born in slavery, he remembers the war time 
only vaguely, though both his parents, Nelson and Fannie 
Forbes, were slaves. His father was his master's hostler at 
a time when many of the wealthy Virginians maintained ex- 
pensive stables, as well as private race courses. The boy lived 
outdoors with his father and among the horses till his father 
died. His former master, observing that he was a boy who 
could be trusted, brought him up in much the same way that 
his father had been trained, so that at an early age he went 
on the turf, and remained in that work for seven years, con- 
tributing his earnings to the support of his mother, and at- 
tended the Brambleton High School at Norfolk between times. 
His mother was a Christian, and trained the boy to go to 
church with her from childhood. Even when with his rough 
companions at the race course, he could never get away from 
the hallowed influence of his old mother. 

At an early age he aspired to the law as a profession, and 
after finishing high school entered the law office of Col. Lamb, 
who encouraged him and kept him in his office for two years. 
About that time, however, at the age of twenty-one, he was 
converted and joined the Banksville Baptist Church. . That 
was in May, 1878, and in September of the same year he felt 
called to the work of the ministry, and lost all interest in law. 
He recognizes now that it was the hand of God leading him, 
though he scarcely understood it at the time. Such had been 
his life among his white neighbors, that they encouraged him 
and co-operated with him in completing his education, which 
he did at the Richmond Institute. There was always a place 
for him during vacation, and in school he so impressed the 
authorities that he received some missionary help, and in this 
way pushed through to within six months of graduation, when 
his health failed, so that he completed the course through 
private study. 



GEORGIA EDITION 517 

On September 12, 1891, he was married to Miss Ella Thomp- 
son, a daughter of Huldah Thompson, of Eufaula. TTiey have 
eight children: Grandson B., Joseph, Minnie B., Marion T., 
"William R. Jr., Franklin L., Nellie B. and Frances V. Forbes. 

After having been ordained to the full work of the ministry, 
his first pastorate was at Greenville, Va., where he remained 
for eighteen months. In 1887 he was called to the First Bap- 
tist Church, of Eufaula, Ala., where he remained for five years. 
During that time he remodeled the church and added three 
hundred to its membership. In September, 1891, he accepted 
the call of the Metropolitan Baptist Church, Columbus, Ga., 
where he remained till 1897. Here he finished the church 
building and added four hundred and fifty members. He was 
all this time in frequent demand as evangelistic worker and 
preacher among the larger churches. In Alabama he was made 
a member of the Executive Board of the State Convention. 
From Columbus he was called to the pastorate of the Tre- 
mont Temple Church, of Macon, where he has since worked. At 
a meeting of the Missionary Baptist State Convention at Val- 
dosta in 1905, he was elected to the presidency, and has filled 
that position for the last nine years, with credit to himself and 
satisfaction to the brotherhood. This makes him ex-officio 
vice-president of the National Baptist Convention, though he 
had occupied that place prior to his election. For a number 
of years he has been a regular attendant at the National Bap- 
tist Convention, and has taken an active part in the delibera- 
tions of that great body. 

Beyond exercising the franchise, he takes no active part in 
politics. Among the secret orders he is identified with the 
Masons, Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias and Supreme Circle, 
of which he is the Grand Chaplain. He believes the best in- 
terests of the race are to be promoted by unification and co- 
operation. "While not engaged in a lucrative profession, still 
he has managed to purchase a home and invest in some prop- 
erty in Alabama, as well as in Georgia, in addition to educat- 
ing his children. 

Dr. Forbes places the Bible first among all the books, and 



518 HISTORY OF AiMERICAN NEGRO 

would perhaps put his theological books next. He has pub- 
lished a few of his sermons. 



JOSHUA SLOAN WILLIAMS 



BOTH as a physician and a citizen, Dr. Joshua Sloan 
Williams, of Eatonton, Ga., is making a commendable 
record. He is a native of Greenville, S. C, where he 
was born April 8, 1875, son of Andrew Jackson Williams, an 
African Methodist minister, and Emma (Franklin) Williams. 
His grandparents were Ned and Sarah Williams and Joshua 
and Louisa Franklin. 

He attended the public schools of his native State, as his 
father was assigned to various appointments, and in 1891 en- 
tered Allen University, at Columbia, finishing the Normal de- 
partment in 1894. During the time he was at the University, 
his father was financially embarrassed on account of losses by 
fire in 1891 ; but by obtaining a janitorship and doing odd jobs, 
young Williams managed to stay in school. After gradua- 
tion he taught in the public schools of the State in Orange- 
burg and Lexington counties, and also taught a primary grade 
at Allen for two terms. For a short Avhile he was substitute 
mail carrier at Columbia, resigning to clerk for the Negro 
firm of Rice & Dawkins, at Carlisle, S. C. In 1900 he was 
given the position of bookkeeper at the A. ]\I. E. Sunday 
School Union, by Bishop W. D. Chappelle, in whicli position he 
was retained for six years, during which time he finished a 
course in practical bookkeeping at Falls Business College. 
Nashville, Tenn. It was through the advice of his family 
physician, Dr. H. T. Noel, of Nashville, that he became in- 
terested in the study of medicine. AVith tlu^ consent of his 
employer, Dr. Chappelle, and the assistance of his faithful 
wife, he took the medical course at Aleharry College, enter- 
ing in 1904 and graduating in 1908. During the last two 
years in Meharry his vacations were spent in the Pullman 
service Avhicli took him to every part of the United States. To 




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520 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

support his family during those four years and at the same time 
meet the exacting requirements of his professional training, 
was, as one can easily see, no slight task; but to a man of 
energy and determination, the difficulties did not prove !a 
barrier to his success. 

He began the practice of his profession at Franklin, Tenn., 
in 1908; but Franklin is located in a stock-raising and grain 
section, and the farmers are able to handle their work with 
the assistance of day labor for about six months in the year, 
leaving the laboring class, to which most of the Negroes, of 
course, belong, unemployed for the other six months; and the 
latter also find it almost impossible to rent land so as to op- 
erate farms on their own account ; so after two years there, 
Dr. Williams decided to locate in a section where the agri- 
cultural interests were more varied, where the Negroes could 
rent or buy lands, and where there were no Obstacles to their 
continuous industry and consequent earnings ; so he chose his 
present location at Eatonton, Ga., where he located in Feb., 
1911, and which he says he has never had occasion to regret 
for a moment. His progress there has been most satisfactory, 
as he has a good and growing practice, and is accumulating 
some property, and is highly regarded by his neighbors. 

On February 18, 1900, he was married to Miss Alma E. 
Wadsworth, of South Carolina, who had been adopted and 
educated by Rev. and Mrs. R. K. Kearns. Of the four chil- 
dren born to them, two are now living — Ethel Valeria and 
Theodora Christina Williams. 

Dr. Williams has traveled extensively in the United 
States and Canada. He continues to be a close student of 
his profession, and owing to that fact and the almost constant 
demand for his services he finds little time for reading of books 
except on medicine and surgery. Politically he is an Inde- 
pendent. He is a consistent member of the A. M. E. Church, 
in which he is a steward. He is affiliated with the Knights 
of Pythias, Odd Fellows and Knights of Tabor. He believes 
that the largest need of the race is a more intelligent, moral, 
industrious and economic parentage — things that must be rec- 
ognized as vital to the best welfare of the people of any race. 



JOHN THOMAS SAUNDERS 



REV. JOHN THOMAS SAUNDERS, who has been iii re- 
ligious and educational work since boyhood, is a grad- 
uate of Lincoln University, and resides at Valdosta. 
Few young men of his race in South Georgia have done more 
effective work than has Elder Saunders. lie is a native of 
that part of the State, having been born in what was then 
Decatur, now Grady county, October loth, 1873. His parents 
were Cornelius, a Baptist preacher, and Georgian Saunders. 
His paternal grandfather, Henry Saunders, was also a Bap- 
tist preacher. His grandmother was Mollie Saunders. 

The family moved from Decatur into Mitchell county, where 
the boy went to school. Later, when they went to Valdosta, 
he attended the Valdosta city school. About the age of four- 
teen, he joined the ]\Iacedonia Baptist Church and entered the 
ministry before he was twenty years old. He took the nor- 
mal course at the State school at Savannah, continued the 
study of the classics, and while there learned carpentry. 
Feeling the need of better preparation for the ministry, he 
went to Lincoln University and with such assistance as his 
father was able to render, and by working during vacations 
and afternoons during tlie sessions, he w^as able to complete 
the course in 1901 with the S. T. B. degree. His first work 
Avas to teach in a private school in Lowndes county at a 
church, where his father was pastoring. His first public school 
work Avas in Mitchell county. Later he taught at Claxton 
for a year and was principal at Tifton for two years. He 
then taught for several years in Lowndes county. During all 
these 3^ears he had in mind the establishment of a denomina- 
tional school for the Baptists of South Georgia. He got his 
people to thinking about it, and started a subscription which 
some years later resulted in the establishment of the Little 
River Institute, at Sparks. Professor Saunders was made 
principal and remained at the head of the school for four 
years. Under his administration a good scho'olhouse was 
erected and the work put on a substantial basis. 







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GEORGIA EDITION 523 

After entering the ministry, he began with mission work. 
His first pastorate was at Riverhill Church in 1904, where he 
remained for more than five years. He was then called to the 
Mt. Calvary Church at Valdosta, where he repaired the house 
and paid off a mortgage. Other improvements have been made 
and an organ installed. Other and shorter pastorates have 
been Barrett and Jerusalem. Elder Saunders has not been 
active in either politics or the secret orders. Apart from his 
educational work, he has taken an active interest in the work 
of the Macedonia Association, of which body he is clerk. Prior 
to this, he was clerk of the Little River Association. 

On November 18, 1903, Dr. Saunders was married to Miss 
Missouri D. Hodge, of Valdosta. After her death, he was mar- 
ried to Miss Catherine B. Ayers, of Sylvester. Mrs. Saunders 
was educated at Milledgeville and Spelman and was a trained 
teacher when she married. She has been of great assistance 
to her husband in his work and is still engaged in teaching. 
Dr. and IVIrs. Saunders own an attractive and well furnished 
home on the outskirts of Valdosta. 



GEORGE A. CUNNINGHAM 



GEORGE A. CUNNINGHAM, of Oglethorpe county, was 
born on November 12, 1860, only a few months before the 
outbreak of the War Between the States. The success he 
has made as a business man and the esteem in which he is held 
by the organizations with which he is identified show what a 
man of intelligence can do who is not afraid to work. 

His parents were James William Cunningham and Lottie 
Williams. His grandparents on his mother's side were Roger 
and Eliza Williams. 

Growing up on the farm during the war and the hard years 
following it, his education was limited to the public schools, but 
he made good use of his time. He also learned well how to do 
all sorts of farm work. In 1880 he began farming for himself 



xS^i^l^jS^ifv,. . 




GEORGE ALEXANDER CUNNINGHAM. 



GEORGLA EDITION 525 

and is now one of the substantial, well-to-do men of liis county. 

On January 28, 1882, he was married to Miss Amanda Ellen 
Yancey, a daughter of William and ]\lary Yancey, of Alabama. 
They have eleven children ; .Johnnie. James W., ^liles F., Ro- 
berta Lit, Janie L., George Alexander. Jr.. Kulah N., Henry T., 
Mary E., Clara B. and Amanda 11. ('unningham. 

As a farmer, ^Ir. Cuiniingham lias worked intelligently and 
read more than the average man along agricultural lines. In 
politics he is a Republican and has long been active intheparty. 
He is now a member of the Executive Committee and frequently 
attends the conventions. He was a delegate to the Chicago con- 
vention which nominated Roosevelt. 

He is a member of the Baptist churcli in which he is a 
deacon, and is president of the J cruel Baptist Sunday School 
Convention, and a trustee of Jeruel iVcademy. He is a ^Mason 
and an Odd Fellow, and lielongs to the Household of Ruth, the 
Good Samaritans and the Gospel Aid. He is especialh' promi- 
nent in the work of the Good Samaritans, being treasurer of the 
State Grand Lodge No. 7, which position he has held for a num- 
ber of 3^ears. He is also a member of the Building Committee 
which has in charge the erection of the Good Samaritan Temple 
at Athens at a cost of more than $22,000. 

Mr. Cunningham owns a small farm which has steadily en- 
hanced in value till it is now worth at least fifty dollars per acre. 



TAYLOR CARTHAN 



44y^ E.ME:\IBER now thy Creator in the days of thy youth," 
h^ is a phrase that inevitably rises in the mind of one who 
reflects upon the life work of the Rev. Taylor Carthan, 
one of the greatest evangelists of his time. 

He was born at Blakely, Early county, Georgia, September 
22, 1855, and now resides at Macon. His parents, Owens and 
Clarissa Carthan, were both slaves. His materiml grandpar- 




TAYLOR CARTHAN. 



GEORGIA EDITION 527 

ents were Smart and Tama White. Beyond this he knows lit- 
tle of his ancestry. 

On January 7, 1877, he married Miss Julia Jackson, of Hous- 
ton county, who passed away leaving three children, Corne- 
lius, Samuel and William. On January 7, 1914, he married 
Miss Effie AVicker, of Norwood, Georgia. She was a teacher 
before her marriage. They have one child. Ruby T. 

Doubtless the most important event of his life was his con- 
version between the age of twelve and thirteen years. Brought 
into the church so young, and at an early age having to sup- 
pq,rt a widowed mother, Carthan had neither inclination or 
time for anything but hard work on the farm where he lived 
and the consolations of his faith. He went merely to the Perry 
public schools. In 1877 he felt a call to the ministry, was or- 
dained in 1880, and joined the conference of the A. M. E. 
Church in 1882. The record of his pastorates is long. It be- 
gins with Oglethorpe in 1881, where he served a year; Perry, 
two years; the Putnam County Circuit, three years; Harrison, 
Wrightsville, Clinton, Columbus, Camp Hope Station, Moul- 
trie, Ashburn, Darien, each two years; Lumpkin, Bay Springs 
Circuit, Douglas, Hawkinsville, each one year. 

He was State Evangelist for two years, during which time 
he traveled all over .Georgia, drawing immense audiences every- 
where, who were brought into the church by the power of his 
consecration and oratory. He added 1,012 members to the 
church during these two years and by evangelistic work and 
his pastorates has converted more than 6,500 people. He was 
made Presiding Elder of Tallapoosa District for a year, thence 
vras sent to Haddock, and thence to Macon, where he has been 
located for five years. 

Naturally, his reading is confined principally to Bible study. 
He is a Republican, votes and advises in accordance with his 
convictions. He is a Knight Templar of the Masonic order 
and is chaplain for the Knights Templar of Georgia. 

He has not devoted his life to money-making, yet it is pleas- 
ant to know that this noble old man has enough property to 
provide a modest competence and a home he can call his own. 



528 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGKO 

He believes that the welfare of the race can be best pro- 
rnotecl by absolutely fair dealing on both sides. 

Yes, Taylor Carthan's wonderful service for good well illus- 
trates the quotation with which we began; and as the years 
have come on he finds ranch pleasure in them — recollection 
of du'ty done, not shirked; of clean living throughout; no spots 
to regret. So he has joy of work in the i:)resent and looks 
forward serenely to many more years of pin'suing his high 
calling. 



SAMUEL DAVID COTTERELL 



AMONG the well equipped colored physicians of the South 
must l)e mentioned Dr. Samuel David Cotterell, of Way- 
cross. He is a native of Jamaica, British West Indies, 
where he was born April 9, 1883. His parents, both of Avhom 
are living (1916), are Henry Cotterell, a contractor, and Isabella 
(Bradford) Cotterell. 

As a boy young Cotterell attended the government schools at 
Kingston, which was supplemented by work at a private school. 

Later he came to the States, landing at Baltimore. From 
Baltiriiore he made his way to the Southern Christian College 
at Edwards. Miss. He recalls that he had only seven dollars 
left with whieli to begin his course. Such were his industry 
and aj^plieation, however, that he completed the course and won 
his B.S. degree in 1908. This he was able to accomplish by 
painting and carpentry and by putting in full time at work dur- 
ing vacations. By the same means he was able to pursue his 
medical course at ]\Ieharry, graduating with the ]\I.D. degree in 
1912. 

Such was his equipment that he taught electrical therapy for 
two terms at iMeharry, serving also as Interne at Hubbard Hos- 
pital and Wilson's Infirmary. Coming to Georgia after com- 
pleting his course, he practiced at Rome for a couple of months 
in 1912. It was on June 17 of that j^ear that he was married to 
]\Iiss Clara Lawrence, of Cartersville. They have two children : 



GEORGIA EDITION 529 

Lionel and Carl Cotterell. j\Irs. Cotterell was a teacher before 
her marriage. 

In IMarch, 1913, Dr. Cotterell located in Waycross, where he 
has since resided. He was successful from the beginning and 
enjoys a growing practice. 

Dr. Cotterell retains his British citizenship and so takes no 
active part in politics. He is a member of the Cliristian church 
and while in Nashville was pastor of the First Christian church 
of that city. He is active in the work of tlie Y. ^l. C. A. 

Among the secret orders he is identified with the Odd Fellows 
and the Masons. He is medical examiner for the former and for 
the Standard Life Insurance Co. He owns a comfortable home 
and well equipped offices at tlie corner of Parallel and E streets, 
and is also accumulating other real estate. 



JOHN FRANKLIN DORSEY 



REV. JOHN P^RANKLIN DORSE V, one of the most suc- 
cessful young ]\Iethodist preachers of the State, is a good 
illustration of what pluck and perseverance Avill do in 
the face of meagre opportunities and difficulties. He was 
born in Clayton county, January 28, 1879. So it will be seen 
he is still on the sunny side of forty. His parents, Isaac and 
LaA'inia Dorsey, were both slaves before Emancipation. His 
grandfather was Peter Dorsey. His mother's people Avere 
brought to Georgia from Virginia. The Dorsey home was a 
Christian home and its influence was early reflected in the life 
of the boy. He was a regular attendant at the Sunday School 
and was converted at the age of eight. Even as a youngster 
he felt called to the work of the ministry. 

As a boy he attended the public schools of Clayton county 
which was the limit of his educational opportunities except 
such as he created for himself by his own exertions. He joined 
the Conference in 1909 and was assigned to the Flowery 
Branch Circuit, which he served for two years. His next ap- 
pointment was the Gillsville Circuit where he remained for 



530 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

two years, and was then promoted to the more important field 
at Lawrenceville, where the work prospered under his admin- 
istration. A new house of worship was erected and the life of 
the church quickened. Rev. Dorsey is a successful revivalist 
and gives particular attention to the work of the Sunday 
School and the young people. In politics he is a Republican 
and among the secret orders is identified with the Odd Fel- 
lows. 

On September 10, 1900, he was married to Miss Amy Estes, 
a daughter of i\Iack and Winnie Estes, of Clayton county. 
They have two children, Mozella W. and Fannie S. Dorsey. 
They own a comfortable home. 



CHARLIE WILLIAMS 



REV. CHARLIE WILLIAMS, Baptist minister of Augus- 
ta, was born in the days of slavery in Burke county. 
The date of his birth Avas December 21, 1856. His 
father, Larry Williams, was a slave, and was sold away from 
the family about the time the boy was bom. His mother's 
maiden name w^as Eliza. Beyond the fact that his grand- 
mother's name was Nellie, he knows nothing of his ancestry. 

Coming of school age at a time when slave boys were still 
denied the opportunities of schooling, he of course did not 
enter school till after the war. Such was his desire then for 
an education that he worked during the day and went to 
school at night. Later, when his earning capacity increased, 
he worked only half the day and attended school the other 
half. It was thus that he secured his education, chiefly at 
Paine College. 

Charlie Williams was converted at the age of thirteen and 
joined the Red Bank Baptist Church in South Carolina, be- 
fore Negro churches had been organized in that community. 
Soon after that he felt called to preach and was licensed by 
the Pleasant Grove Baptist Church and ordained to the fuU 




CHARLIE WILLIAMS. 



532 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

work of the ministry by the Summerville Church. His first 
pastorate was the Pleasant Home Church, to which he was 
called in 1879, and which he still serves. 

He is an industrious man, and increased the small earnings 
of a young pastor by repairing chairs, making baskets and 
working in a nursery. In 1882 he was called to the Summer- 
ville Baptist Church, and later the Mt. Olive and Pleasant 
Grove Churches. He is now serving Summerville Baptist ; 
Mt. Olive, Augusta ; Pleasant Grove Baptist Church, War- 
renton. 

Notwithstanding his late start, he has traveled extensively 
in the United States. His reading is largely along the line of 
the Bible and sacred literature. He is identified with the 
Pj'thians, and is president of the Pastoral Conference of 
Augusta, Ga. He owns a comfortable home near Augusta, 
and believes that the best interests of the race are to be pro- 
moted "by learning to work; avoiding extravagance; culti- 
■\ating good company, and by the saving and proper invest- 
ment of their money." 

On August 9. 1874, he Avas married to i\Iiss Amy Roberson, 
a daughter of Zad and Grace Roberson, of Barnwell, S. C. 
Of the four children born to them, thiee are now living. The 
oldest, Samuel J., like his father, is a preacher; one daughter, 
Clara, married Matthew Brown, and another, Lilly, married 
Edw. Dunn. 

Mr. Williams has had a fruitful ministry and has baptized 
into the church nearly 2,000 members; about half of these 
have been at the Augusta Church. He stands high in his 
local association and in the State Convention. He is Chair- 
man of the Trustee Board of the Shiloli Baptist Association 
and a member of the State Reformatory Board. Among busi- 
ness institutions, he is Vice-President of the Pilgrims Life In- 
surance Company, and apart from his own pastorate has done 
a great deal of evangelistic work for the brethren. Since en- 
tering the ministry he has built churches at Summerville, I\It. 
Olive and AVarrenton and has remodeled a number of others. 



THOMAS JEFFERSON ELDER 



PROFESSOR THOMAS JEFFERSON ELDER, who is at 
the head of the Sandersville public school, has set some 
new standards in educational work among the colored 
people of Georgia. 

He was born at Athens jnst after the wai-, osi December 
25, 1866. His father was Blant Elder, a phiiiter. His mother 
was Sarah A. Love. 

As a boy he attended Knox Institute at Athens, and early 
aspired to a college education. The way was not easy. In 
fact, it was necessary for him to work his own way through 
school. He was able to do this by working at school and teach- 
ing during Summer vacations. In this way he was able to 
spend four years at Atlanta University. His first work as a 
teacher was at Athens, where he taught for two years. In 
1S89 he was elected to the principalship of the Sandersville 
school, which at that time had an enrollment of little more 
than 100 and was held in the Baptist Church. Under his 
direction the school has steadily grown to an enrollment of 
nearly 400, witli a faculty of seven teachers. Every phase of 
the work has been improved and many new features added. 
One secret of his success has been the fact tliat lie is not con- 
tent with past accomplishments, but keeps himself and his 
teachers abreast of the times in educational work. He keeps 
in touch, through his Summer school work, with the most 
advanced teaching methods and the best there is in indus- 
trial training. He spent three terms at jMorgan Park Academy-, 
Chicago, where he specialized in history and literature. He 
attended Cook County Normal one term and has done special 
work along industrial lines at Hampton. Professor Elder 
has done his work in Sandersville in such a way as to liaA^e 
the hearty approval and cordial co-operation of the best peo- 
ple of both races. He manages his teaching force skilfully 
and seldom has any friction to report to the school board. 

One of the first things necessary Avas to provide himself 



534 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

with proper buildings. This was necessarily a slow process, 
but he now has a plant which would do credit to the larger 
cities. His schoolrooms are comfortably seated and well equip- 
ped in every way. The main building and grounds were pro- 
vided i^or by popular subscription in the county and city. The 
domestic science hall was made possible by the General Edu- 
cation Board and the shop was equipped by Robert Fulton 
Cutting, of New York. Such things as sewing and cooking 
are emphasized in the domestic science department, while the 
boys are taught carpentry and hand craft in the industrial 
department. Professor Elder is looking forward to the estab- 
lishment of an agricultural department in his school. The 
school fair is held annually, and the County Training School 
is conducted by him for Washington county. 

Professor Elder's work has been of a constructive sort and 
has exerted a wide influence not only in Sandersville, but in 
all parts of Georgia. The boys and girls who attended his 
schools years ago have gone out as teachers and home makers 
and are themselves the best advertisement of his methods. 

Though not active in a political way, he is a Republican and 
a member of the Methodist Church in which he is a steward 
and superintendent of the Sunday School. He is not identi- 
fied with the secret orders. In fact, he believes that the best 
interests of the race would be served by fewer secret orders, 
w^ell managed, with strict attention to industry, economy and 
honesty. 

October 9, 1889, he was married to Miss L. L. Phinizy, 
of Athens. They have four children: L. Blanche, Charles S., 
Alfonso and Thomas J., Jr., Elder. Professor Elder owns a 
comfortable home in Sandersville and considerable tenant 
property in the city of Athens, Ga. 



JOSEPH IRA CANTRELL 



THE NEGRO boy who has to make his way in the world 
has sometimes found teaching school for a few terms 
a stepping stone to the thing he desired. Very differ- 
ent is the experience of the boy who starts out to fit himself 
for teaching as his life work. There must be years of careful 
preparation and training as well as perseverance and devotion 
to the work. 

Among the prominent and rising young Negro educators 
of Georgia is Prof. Joseph Ira Cantrell (1916), Superintend- 
ent of the colored graded school of ilonroe. 

He is a native of White county and a son of Ira and Bethena 
(Bell) Cantrell, both of whom had been slaves before Emanci- 
pation. Growing up on the farm in White county and attend- 
ing the short term public schools, he in some way became am- 
bitious for an education. The outlook was not bright. His 
parents were poor and themselves uneducated and there was 
no good school near his home. So he left home when he was 
sixteen to seek the opportunities which his own section did 
not offer. He went to Gainesville, where he made his way by 
working afternoons and mornings. During the Summer he 
would work with Prof. A. F. Johnson, whose cordial assistance 
in every way he acknowledges with gratitude. He was soon 
able to get a teacher's license. Thus equipped he returned 
home and for two terms taught at the place where as a boy 
he had gone to school. He taught four terms in Lumpkin 
county and one in Hall. He was then called back to White 
county to take charge of the Nacoochee School. When he 
began his work at Nacoochee the term was five months and 
the enrollment forty; when he left seven years later, the term 
was eight months and the enrollment seventy-five. He had 
also inaugurated an industrial department. In 1912 he was 
elected to the Superintendency of the Monroe School, where 
he has steadily grown in popularity. The building and grounds 
have been improved, a piano purchased and other features 



536 lllSTUKV OF A.AIEKICAN NEGRO 

added. His enrollment reaches nearly two hundred and he 
has three assistants. 

When Prof. Cantrell began to earn money for himself he 
determined to go to college. Accordingly he entered Clark 
University, pursuing those courses which would specially fit 
him for his work as a teacher. Later he took a Normal and 
Manual Training course at Tuskegee, and has also profited by 
correspondence courses and educational journals. Let no one 
imagine that this Avas easy for the boy starting without means 
or backing other than his own unconquerable will. He simply 
refused to be discouraged and by patient effort and through 
the co-operation of friends who believed in him he has been 
able to work out a large measure of success and wherever he 
is known he is regarded as a capable and trustworthy leader 
of his people. 

On April 16, 1905, he was man-ied to Miss Florence Adeline 
Dorsey, a daughter of Robert and ^Malinda Dorsey, of White 
county. They have two children : Idella and Charlie Alex- 
ander Cantrell. 

In politics, Prof. Cantrell is a Republican, and in religion, a 
Methodist. He is a i^iember of the Pythians and the Good 
Samaritans. He is a successful insurance man and is local 
representative of the Standard Life. His favorite study is 
mathematics; his favorite reading, biography. He oavus prop- 
erty in AVhite county and believes that we must look to prac- 
tical education for progress. 



COLEMAN LEWELLYN BONNER 



THE STORY of the life and work of Dr. Coleman Lew- 
ellyn Bonner, who is one of the leading lights of the 
C. M. E. connection in Georgia, should be a source of 
helpful inspiration to every Negro youth in the land. He is 
a versatile man Avho has made a success of everything to which 
he has turned his hand. That he is a successful pastor is at- 
tested by the fact that almost immediately aftei- entering the 




COLEMAN LEWELLYN BONNER. 



538 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

ministry, he stepped from a small appointment at Waycross, 
paying a salary of $200.00 a year, to the First Church at 
Savannah, at a salary of $1,000.00 a year and is now (1916) 
stationed at Trinity Church, Augusta, the mother church of 
Lis denomination. His work as an administrator of church af- 
fairs was of such character that he was retained as Presiding 
Elder as long as the law of the church would permit. He is 
no less successful as a business man, and while engaged in the 
active work of the ministry, has made as much as 100 bales 
of cotton a year on his plantation in Burke county. He is 
also a man of books and has surrounded himself Avith an ex- 
tensive library, which he has learned to use intelligently. As 
a teacher, he holds the chair of Pastoral Theology. 

Dr. Bonner is a native of Dallas county, Alabama, where he 
was born November 2, 1873. His father, Rev. Thomas H. Bon- 
ner, was one of the founders of the Alabama Conference of 
the C. M. E. Church. His mother, Mary Ellen (Harris) Bon- 
ner, still (1916) survives. 

He attended the public schools of Alabama as a boy, 
which did not, at that time, offer the opportunities now af- 
forded even by the poorest schools. Having been brought up 
in a Christian home, he came into the church at the early 
age of nine and felt from his earliest childhood that his work 
in life was to be that of the ministry, as was his father's. 
"When he had reached young manhood he was licensed to 
preach and joined the conference under Bishop R. S. Wil- 
liams. After that, he attended Paine College for the academic 
course. Later, he took his college course at Clark University, 
Atlanta, and his theological course at Gammon Seminary, 
where he won his degree. Afterwards, the D. D. degree was 
conferred on him simultaneously by Paine College, Augusta, 
and ^liles College, Birmingham, Alabama. 

Immediately after finishing his work at college, he entered 
upon the active work of the ministry and was temporarily 
assigned to Hawkinsville. At the next conference he was sent 
to Waycross, where he remained for a year, and then, to the 
surprise of everybody, especially the older men of the con- 
ference, was appointed to the important station of the First 



GEORGIA EDITION 539 

Church, Savannah. Such was the character of his work that 
he was retained for three years, when he was sent to Butler 
Street, Atlanta, for two years. After that he was appointed 
to the Presiding Eldership of the Elberton District, which he 
served for eight years, residing at Toccoa meanwhile. His 
next work was as Presiding Elder of the Athens District, 
which he served for two years, having in the meantime trans- 
ferred his residence to Green's Cut, Burke county. After hav- 
ing served the Athens District for two years he was (1915) 
assigned to Trinity Station, Augusta, which is considered the 
best appointment in the State. While on the Elberton Dis- 
trict, several substantial houses of worship were built and 
others repaired. 

Dr. Bonner is a forceful and popular speaker and is the 
representative of the Georgia Conference on the General 
Board. He is a regular attendant at the General Conferences 
of his denomination, and was a delegate to the Ecumenical 
Conference w^iich met at Toronto, Canada, and also a fra- 
ternal delegate to the M. E. Church, South. On his moving to 
Augusta, the Trustees of Paine College availed themselves of 
his splendid equipment and assigned to him the chair of Pas- 
toral Theology. 

Among the secret orders, he is identified with the Odd Fel- 
lows, Masons, Pythians and Mosaic Templars, and has held 
high official positions in all of these. While Dr. Bonner is a 
vigorous leader of his people, his relations with the best white 
people in the sections where his work has called him have al- 
ways been cordial and helpful. 

On February 28, 1902, he was married to Miss Roxie 
Rhoades, a daughter of Jerry and Millie Rhoades, of Green's 
Cut, Georgia. She was educated at Paine College, and was 
a teacher before her marriage to Dr. Bonner. They have val- 
uable real estate at Green's Cut, Atlanta, Toccoa and Elber- 
ton, which, since his removal to Augusta, is rented. As stated 
above, he makes as much as 100 bales of cotton a year on the 
I>lantation at Green's Cut. 



SHADRACH R. MARSHALL 



PROF. SHADRACH RICHARD MARSHALL, of Colum- 
bus, principal of the Claflin public school, has made for 
himself an enviable place in the educational life of Co- 
lumbus. He was born in the adjacent county of Talbot on 
September 10, 1867. His father, Bozer Marshall, who was a 
slave, was a carpenter by trade. His mother's name was Eva- 
line. His grandparents were Reddick and Susan Marshall. 

Young Marshall spent his boyhood days in Talbot county 
and attended the public schools there, such as they were. 
When grown up, he moved to Pike county, Alabama, where 
he worked on a farm for four years, attending public school 
after crops were done, and during the Winter. His employer, 
seeing his aptitude, encouraged him to go to Tuskegee, so 
when he had saved $50.00 he entered that institution, then al- 
most in its infancy, but already doing good work. When his 
money was exhausted, he sold his watch and some of his 
clothes so as to finish the first term, at the end of which he 
went to Birmingham and worked in the mines during vaca- 
tion. Frequently he would work overtime at odd jobs and 
occasionally worked all night at such heavy work as unload- 
ing sand and would then go back to the mines for a full day 
the following morning. This enabled him to save $120.00 with 
which to begin his second term's work. It was by such en- 
terprise as this that he was able to earn his way through school, 
completing the course in 1888. He mastered the printing 
trade, which he turned to good advantage until he was out of 
school. He reckons the influences of school life and of his 
associates as among the strongest and most helpful that have 
come into his life. 

When he was able to secure a teacher's license, he began 
teaching in Talbot county. His work as a teacher has been 
confined to two counties, Talbot and Muscogee, in Georgia, 
and to Pike and Bullock counties, in Alabama. 

After locating in Columbus, he edited the Columbus Rifle, 




SHADRACH RICHARD MARSHALL. 



542 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

a Republican paper, for two years, in addition to his edu- 
cational work. In 1897 he was elected teacher of the seventh 
grade of the Sixth Avenue School, but the following year was 
promoted to the Twenty-eighth Street School as principal, 
where he remained for ten years. In 1908, without any solici- 
tation on his part, he was transferred to the principalship of 
Claflin School, with an increase of salary to $50.00 a month. 

On the eleventh of August, 1898, he was married to Miss 
Ida B. Morgan, who has made for him an ideal wife. 

Though not active in politics, he is a Republican. He is a 
member of the A. M. E. Church and is Treasurer of the Board 
of Trustees and Assistant Superintendent of the Sunday 
School. He belongs to the Odd Fellows, Masons and the In- 
ternational Benevolent Society. He has been too busy up to 
this time to travel very extensively. He keeps up with cur- 
rent events through the papers and magazines and is a con- 
stant reader of the leading English and American classics. 
He owns a comfortable home in Columbus and feels that one 
of the most pressing needs of his race is self-confidence and 
co-operation. He keeps in touch with the most progressive 
teaching methods and is regarded as a good citizen by both 
his white and colored neighbors. 



ANDERSON MAXWELL 



REV. ANDERSON MAXWELL, of Marietta, is a native 
of Cherokee county, who has spent an active life in 
that section of the State where he was born and reared. 
He first saw the light ^on December 29, 1854, and remembers 
very distinctly the Civil War. His father was a white man. 
His mother was Emily IMaxwell and his maternal grandmother 
was Hannah Dobbs. 

His mother moved to Milton county during the war and the 
boy was in his teens before he had any opportunity to go to 
school. He then attended night school in Milton county and 
later the free schools of the same county, but was denied the 




ANDERSON MAXWELL. 



544 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

opportunities of a college education. After his marriage he 
took a course of study, however, covering a period of four 
years under the distinguished Dr. Gaulden, who then resided 
at Roswell. As a boy and young man he was a hard worker 
and he has been all of his life. 

He was converted in 79 and in less than twelve months, 
entered the ministry, being ordained by the Pleasant Hill 
Baptist Church, of which he was a member, on February 2, 
1880. 

He served that church as pastor for two years and has 
been preaching steadily for thirty-six years. In that time he 
has pastored the following churches.- Stoney Point, in For- 
syth county, one year; Ridge Church, Cummings, five years; 
Enon, in Campbell county, two years; Cole Street, Marietta, 
five years; New Hope, Dalton, two years; Jonesville, three 
years ; Douglasville, ten years ; Villa Rica, four years ; Temple, 
one .year; Galilee, two years; Big Bethel, one year; Ball 
Ground, three years; Woodstock, five years. Liberty Hill, 
four years. 

Elder IMaxwell has traveled extensively over Georgia and 
adjacent Southern States and into the Middle West. He has 
not kept an accurate account of the number of people brought 
into the church, but his has been a fruitful ministry, not only 
in his own pastorates, but as he has assisted the brethren in 
their evangelistic work. New church houses have been built 
and remodeled at various points. 

As a young man he worked on the farm, but later learned 
the carpenter trade, which he followed while at RosweU. 
About twenty-five years ago he moved to Marietta and in ad- 
dition to his ministry has run a shoe shop. He owns a com- 
fortable home in Marietta, besides other property. He is 
Chairman of the Executive Board of the Sunday School Con- 
vention, and Secretary of the Executive Board of the Kenne- 
saw Association, of which he is also Vice-Moderator, 

Elder Maxwell is a Republican and is active in his party. 
He was a delegate to the National Convention at Chicago in 
1904, from the Seventh Congressional District, and is on both 
the Countv and State Committees. He is a Mason, 



GEORGIA EDITION 545 

In October, 1874, he was married to Miss Savannah Strick- 
land, a daughter of Dennis and Hannah Strickland, of Cobb 
county. There are six children: Rev. Charles Maxwell, Dal- 
ton; Shaddie M. (Mrs. Vick) ; Corinne (deceased); Ursula 
(Mrs. Jenkins) ; Manar (Mrs. Hutchins), and Frances (Mrs. 
Allen) Maxwell. 

Mrs. Maxwell passed away in 1908 and Elder Maxwell was 
married a second time, in 1912, The second Mrs. Maxwell 
was formerly Mrs. Julia Strickland, of Cherokee county. 

Elder Maxwell traveled as a Sunday School Missionary un- 
der the auspices of the Kennesaw Association for one year, 
and for the Union Association another. In his first year he 
organized fifteen Sunday Schools and one new church, and 
during the next year visited forty-two separate Sunday 
Schools in addition to his regular pastoral work. 



DENNIS FULTON DOUGLASS 



PROF. DENNIS FULTON DOUGLASS, who has been 
principal of the Montezuma Public Schools since 1906, 
and who is doing splendid work in his chosen profes- 
sion, is a native of Augusta, where he was born just before 
the outbreak of the war, on February 1, 1860. His father was 
George Douglass, who was by trade a carpenter. His mother 
was Martha Lanier. 

After attending the public schools, young Douglass went 
to Hampton Normal and Agricultural Institute, at Hampton, 
Va., and later attended school at "Winstead, Conn., completing 
the course there in May, 1876. His father having died at 
the end of his first term in school, the boy had to make his 
own way after that, which he did with steady courage and 
determination. 

On the completion of his course, he returned South and be- 
gan teaching at Schofield Normal, at Aiken, S. C. This was 
in the Fall of 1876. He continued to teach until 1882, when 




DENNIS FULTON DOUGLASS. 



GEORGIA EDITION 547 

he took charge of the "Journal of Progress," published at 
Augusta. Later he got on the carrier force of the city, and 
was subsequently appointed railway postal clerk, but was 
displaced from the service during the Cleveland administra- 
tion, but returned to the service after Harrison's election. 
While in Augusta he also edited "The People's Defense." 
He felt all along the call to educational work, and finally 
decided to return to the schoolrooin. In 1900 he went to 
Macon and became the manager of "The Baptist Truth," 
and printing concern of Central City College, where he was 
also engaged as a teacher of mathematics. Three years later 
he decided to give his whole time to teaching, and in 1906 was 
elected principal of the IMontezuma Public School. 

Prof. Douglass is a practical man, and undertakes to link 
up the work of his school with the life of his people. He 
runs a truck farm, raising among other things celery on a 
large scale. He was the first man to demonstrate that the 
soil of Montezuma was adapted to celery. In his school work 
he gives special attention to instruction in agriculture, and 
feels that much depends on the sort of work he is doing. 

Prof. Douglass is a Republican in politics. He is a mem- 
ber of the Baptist Church, and a faithful teacher in the Sun 
day School. Among the secret orders he is identified with the 
jMasons, Pythians and Odd Fellows. He has traveled exten- 
sively over the country. While he is a great general reader, 
he prefers philosophy. He believes that the best interests 
of the race are to be promoted by making the individual more 
worthy, self-helpful and truly religious. He practices the 
doctrines which he preaches, and apart from his school work 
does most of his own field work, and owns a comfortable home, 
and is regarded as a reliable and useful citizen in the com- 
munity in which he lives. 

On December 26, 1906, he was married to Miss Salina A. 
Hines, a daughter of Julia and William Hines. They have 
one child, named Mercedes. 



NOAH BELL WRIGHT 



IT WOULD be hard to find a more well-rounded career of 
genuine usefulness and inspiration than that of the Rev. 
Noah Bell Wright, D. D., of Macon. 

He was born April 29, 1867. His parents, Edward and Mar- 
tha (Goolsby) Wright, were both slaves. Back of them he 
knows nothing of his ancestry. 

He received a rudimentar}- education in the rural schools 
of Lowndes county, while working hard on the farm. Under 
private instruction, however, he reached a point where he 
could get a teacher's license and pursued that calling in Cof- 
fee and other counties for a time. At eighteen, however, he 
was converted, united with the St. John Baptist Church, and 
almost immediately felt called to the ministry. By the same 
church he was licensed and ordained and was called to the 
pastorate of his home church which he served for eleven 
years. He gave up teaching school as soon as he began to 
preach, but he continued to farm all the while he pastored 
by w^hich means he has accumulated a good competence ; a 
small farm near Macon and 500 acres in Lowndes ,county be- 
sides his home. 

That his pastorates have been successful is amply evidenced 
by the fact that he was retained for five or six years in prac- 
tically each place — Mt. Olive, New Hopewell, River Hill, Pleas- 
ant Grove, Ochlochnee, Beulah Hill and has been in Macon 
since 1904. Also by the improvements he has made in each 
place, having as one big achievement to his credit the build- 
ing of Mt. Moriah Church, Macon, at a cost of between $15,- 
000 and $20,000. He has baptized about 1,500 souls. 

The Rev. Wright is a Republican and affiliated with both 
the Masons and K. P's. 

He has been twice married. The first time to Miss Madie L. 
Hall, of Stockton. The second time to Miss Minnie D. Thomas, 
daughter of Henry and Annie Thomas, of Macon. To the 
latter only one son has been born, who died in infancy. 



GEORGIA EDITION 549 

Mr. Wright attends all the national conventions of his 
church and has traveled in every part of America. 

This brief recital abundantly proves what was said, at the 
outset, of his well-rounded career ; farmer, teacher, preacher 
and a success at each ; a good executive and diligent in busi- 
ness, or he could not have built up his pastorates as he has 
done or acquired property of his own. He is a good neighbor 
and citizen who is popular and highly esteemed. His favorite 
reading is the Bible. After that, works of biography, poetry 
and history. His recipe for racial advancement is: "Confi- 
dence in themselves; confidence in God." 



MAJOR MORRIS 



REV. MAJOR MORRIS, ^Moderator of the Union Associa- 
tion, President of the State Sunday School Convention 
and a popular pastor of South Georgia, lives at Cordele. 
He usually signs himself "M, J. Morris." He is an ener- 
getic worker, and has made his influence felt over a large 
section of that part of the State. He was born in Taylor 
county prior to the war, July 14, 1857. He barely remembers 
some of the closing scenes in that great struggle. Rev. Mor- 
ris' parents were Major Morris and Anne Everett. His grand- 
mother on the mother's side was brought from Virginia to 
Georgia, and his grandfather on the father's side was a white 
m.an. Some years after the war, he went to Houston county. 
After he grew up and was able to work, he spent much of his 
time in the woods in the cross-tie business. On April 20, 1877, 
he was married to Miss Nora Finney, of Fort Valley. Six 
children were born, four daughters and two sons. Three 
daughters have grown to womanhood and married. They are 
Elizabeth (Mrs. Williams), Hattie (Mrs. Sutton) and Anne 
(Mrs. Allen). Both sons and one of the daughters passed 
away. After his marriage, young Morris attended the public 
schools of Houston county, which is the extent of his school- 
ing, except a theological course at Atlanta Baptist Seminary, 




MAJOR MORRIS. 



GEORGIA EDITION 551 

which he attended for two terms, in 1889 and 1890. He has 
been a student all his life, however, and has kept up with the 
educational and religious movements of his race. 

A couple of years after his marriage, he was converted and 
joined the Richland Baptist Church, by which he was ordained 
to the full work of the ministry four years later and which 
he served as pastor for eleven years. He was successful from 
the beginning. He has built, or greatly improved, the house 
of worship at every pastorate where he has remained for any 
length of time. At Myrtle, he built both the church and the 
parsonage. A house of worship was also erected at Mt. Cal- 
vary, Cordele, where he preached for nineteen years. Later, 
a new church was organized and called the Morris Tabernacle. 
This organization has grown to a membership of 150 and 
worships in a comfortable house that was built by him. He 
served Salem Church at Fitzgerald for fifteen years and 
erected a beautiful building there. For eleven years he has 
been President of the State Sunday School Convention. He 
is a regular attendant at the National Convention and a prom- 
inent figure in the State Conventions. He recently accepted 
a call to the ]\Iontezuma Baptist Church. 

Dr. Morris is a Republican in politics, and is a member of 
the Masons, Pythians and some other local benevolent orders. 
He carries a straight life policy in the New England Mutual 
Life Insurance Co. 

Referring to the needs of his people, he says that they are 
to be helped most by education and religion ; but insists that 
the education shall be something more than a mere smattering 
of book learning, and that religion shall relate itself to piety. 

Rev. Morris has done well in a business way. He owns con- 
siderable property in Cordele, which yields him a rental of 
$60 a month, and carries on rather extensive farming opera- 
tions also. 



JOHN WILLIAM CARSON 



AiNIONG the leading ministers of his denomination in his 
section is Rev. John William Carson, of Talbotton, a 
prominent pastor and Moderator of the Mount Carmel 
Baptist Association. He was born in Macon county July 5, 
1851. His parents were Jim and Harriet Carson. His grand- 
father was Peter Carson and his grandmother on the mother's 
side was named Lucy. 

Having been a slave until thirteen years of age, and then 
finding it necessary to aid in the support of the family by 
steady work on the farm, he had no early educational advan- 
tages other than those which came from regular and constant 
work. This training was valuable, in the building of charac- 
ter and later, when he learned to read and write, he was able 
to gather for himself much valuable information though de- 
prived of the opportunities of schooling. 

Soon after the war, when he was about sixteen years old, 
he was converted and joined the Locust Hill Baptist Church. 
Even as a young man he felt called to the ministry and was 
licensed to preach by his home church and ordained to the 
full work of the ministry on November 3, 1879. Since that 
time he has been one of the most active men in the denomina- 
tion in his part of the State. His first pastorate was at Flat 
Rock Church in Harris county, which he served for five years. 
Since then he has pastored Powell thirty years, Bethel six 
years. New Hope nearly twenty-five years, Hopewell, at But- 
ler, Georgia, six years; Antioch, in Taylor county, six years; 
County Line two years ; Shady Grove, in Talbot county, nine- 
teen years ; Hopewell, in Muscogee county, eighteen years. He 
is now (1916) pastor of Shady Grove, Powell, Hopewell and 
"Welcome in Talbot county, where he has been for seven years. 

Nearly twenty years ago he was elected Moderator of the 
Mt. Carmel Baptist Association, which position he has held 
without a break until the present time. There are tAventy- 
eight churches in this connection. In politics he is a Repub- 




JOHN WILLIAM CARSON. 



554 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

licaii and belongs to the Masons and Pythians. He is careful 
and economical in handling business matters and has accumu- 
lated some property, including a good home at Talbotton. He 
has brought into the church hundreds of members and has 
done much revival work. In the month of August, 1916, he 
baptized seventy-eight new members. He is a trustee of the 
Central City College and a life member of the Baptist State 
Convention. 

On September 5, 1870, he was married to Miss Fanny Jones, 
a daughter of George Jones, of Chattahoochee. Of the two 
children born to them only one, Dessie, is living. 



LUTHER SAMUEL HARPER 



IN THE prosperous little city of Washington, Georgia, 
Prof. Luther Samuel Harper has worked and taught for 
nearly a quarter of a century. 'He has been ably assisted 
by his wife, who is a graduate of Spelman Seminary. Together, 
they have made the public school of Washington a success, 
have established a home where they are surrounded by the 
comforts of life and have accumulated other valuable real 
estate, including both business and residence property. 

Professor Harper is a native of Elbert county, where he 
was born ]\Iay 15, 1871. His parents, Henry and Harriet 
(Alexander) Harper, were both slaves before Emancipation. 
His father is still living (1916). 

Young Harper attended the public schools of Elbert county 
as a boy and when sufficiently advanced to secure a teacher's 
license, took up a school at Ruckersville and in this way 
earned money to attend Allen University, in South Carolina. 
During the years that followed he taught in Elberton, Hart- 
well, Greensboro, Thomson and in Oglethorpe county. He 
was elected to the principalship of the Washington county 
public school in 1896 and, although competing with two de- 
nominational schools in the same town, has built the work up 



556 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

to its present standard, which now requires a factulty of six 
teachers. 

Prof. Harper has traveled extensively in the East and Mid- 
dle West. His taste in reading runs to the best English and 
American classics. In politics he is a Republican. He is a 
member of the Baptist Church and Superintendent of his lo- 
cal Sunday School. He is an Odd Fellow and a Pythian, and 
also a member of the Good Samaritans and has done a good 
deal or organization work for this order. His savings have 
been invested in local business and residence property at 
Washington, where he is one of the well-to-do members of his 
race. 

On December 28, 1893, he was married to Miss Mary Burns, 
a daughter of Bella Burns, of Wilkes county, who is herself 
a successful teacher. Professor Harper is an advocate of 
Christian industrial education and has demonstrated that how- 
ever limited are a boy's opportunities he may yet succeed 
if he is willing to pay the price. 



ELIJAH RICHARD RICHARDSON 



ANOTHER man who found his life Avork right on the soil 
of his nativity is Elijah Richard Richardson, of Wash- 
ington, Georgia, where he was born in August, 1860, the 
youngest son of Matthew and Hannah Richardson, then slaves 
but who were to be Emancipated within a few years. His 
father was a farmer. His paternal grandfather, Michael 
Richardson, was a carpenter by trade and his grandmother, 
Hannah Richardson, was a skilled weaver in those days of the 
hand loom. So he probably inherited these sterling qualities 
which, even in slavery days, Avere recognized as valuable. 

The boy's education w^as by snatches, for his parents w^ere 
old and feeble. He attended the public schools of Washing- 
ton when he could, and also for a time w^ent to the Knox In- 
stitute at Athens; entered the Atlanta Baptist College and 
spent one term, but then had to return to take personal care 




ELIJAH RICHARD RICHARDSON. 



558 HISTOKY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

of the old folks. Few indeed would make such an uncomplain- 
ing, simple surrender of personal ambitions, the good times of 
boyhood, the school associations, to settle down on a farm and 
be nurse, as well as support, to the elders, as did' young Rich- 
ardson. When the Great Biography is written on the pages 
of the infinite, perhaps some of those who were least in this 
life because they humbly, patiently ministered to age, to help- 
less orphaned childhood, to invalids and the world's neg- 
lected, forgetting all about success and the plaudits of the 
multitude, will blaze forth with the glory of the stars. 

Mr. Richardson has never married, but it is pleasant to 
record that, while he has not worked solely for money, and 
has had misfortunes through fire and storms that would have 
utterly discouraged a less hardy sort, he still has acquired a 
comfortable home and stands well in his community as a man 
of business integrity and solid substance. 

His chief occupation has always been farming in Wilkes 
county, but occasionally he has taught school as a matter of 
being helpful to his people and has likewise pastored his 
church during times when no regular pastor could be em- 
ployed. He is a Missionary Baptist and has been President of 
the Sunday School Convention for twenty-five years and Clerk 
of the Third Shiloh Association for almost that long. In the 
Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias and Masonic orders he has 
held and holds offices of honor and trust and is a prime fac- 
tor in the I. G. U. N. Gospel Aid Society. He is a Repub- 
lican, but has never sought political preferment. 

He gives much time to the study of the Bible and religious 
works and believes the best interests of his race require united 
efforts and also a better understanding between the two races 
in religious and political movements for the common good. 

Rev. Richardson was converted when eighteen and called 
to the ministry after reaching mature manhood. He is now 
(1916) pastor of Tate's Grove, Elbert county. He attends the 
State Convention and is a member of the Board of Trustees of 
Shiloh Academy, Washington, and a member of the Executive 
Board of his local Association. 



JAMES WASHINGTON ENGLISH 



REV. JAMES WASHINGTON ENGLISH is one of the 
most progressive pastors of the A. M. E. connection in 
Georgia. He was born in ]\Ionroe county in 1867. His 
father, Jason English, was freeborn, but his mother, Bettie 
English, was born a slave. While James W. English was still 
a small boy, his parents moved from Monroe county and was 
located at Lovejoy when the boy came of school age. Accord- 
ingly he entered the public schools there and later attended 
the Georgia Institute. Always ambitious for an education, he 
put in such spare time as he had with his books and after en- 
tering the ministry took a private course in theology under 
some of the greatest theologians of his race in Georgia. He 
worked on the farm till he reached the age of young manhood, 
then spent some time in sawmill work and finally got into the 
roailroad work, first as a section hand and later in the Pull- 
man service. Wherever he went, he was faithful and capable 
and was held in high esteem by his employers. 

At the age of twenty-three he was converted and almost im- 
mediately felt called to the work of the ministry. He was 
licensed in 1891 and joined the Conference in 1893 at Athens. 
His first assignment was to the Fayetteville Circuit, where 
he remained for four years. From Fayetteville he was sent 
to Thomaston for two years, and then to the Yatesville Cir- 
cuit two years. He was then promoted to the Shady Dale 
Station for the full quadrennium. After that he was trans- 
ferred to the Newnan Station for one year and from Newnan 
to Midville for the next year. From Midville he was assigned 
to the Tennille Circuit where he remained for four years and 
then went to the Liberty Hill Circuit for one year and Wrens 
Circuit for two years. In 1915, he was appointed to the St. 
Mark Station, Sparta. 

Elder English has shown himself not only a good preacher, 
but a faithful pastor and a capable executive. He built a 
church on the Fayetteville Circuit, both a church and a school- 




JAMES WASHINGTON ENGLISH. 



GEORGIA EDITION 561 

house at Shady Dale, a parsonage at Newnan, another at Ten- 
nille and a new church at Wrens. In addition to these nu- 
merous buildings, he has raised debts in several circuits and re- 
paired a number of church houses. He has been active as an 
evangelist and has taken into the church nearly two thou- 
sand members. 

In the Annual Conference he is Chairman of the Committee 
on the State of the Sunday School and is a Trustee of IMorris 
Brown. Among the secret orders, he is identified with the 
Odd Fellows, Masons and Pythians. He owns a comfortable 
home in Atlanta and some additional real estate in Waycross. 

On November 27, 1901, he was married to Miss Linda At- 
water, a daughter of Taylor and Nora Atwater, of Thomaston. 
They have five children -. Daisy, John Wesley, Hallie Bell, 
Gurna, and William James English. 

Elder English says of his own career, "I lived with my 
grandmother from childhood till I was fourteen, when she 
died. After that I had to look out for myself. I worked 
on the farm and struggled for an education, going to public 
school or night school or taking private lessons whenever I 
could. I have always been a lover of the Sunday School. 
God has blessed me bountifully and I have been successful 
in my study of theology. I joined the A. M. E. Church at 
Love joy under Rev. D. L. Durann, was licensed by Elders J. 
A. Miller and J. A. Lindsy, D. D., ordained deacon by Bishop 
Grant and elder by Bishop Turner. I have met with success 
as a pastor and as an evangelist and in the building of 
churches. I have taken into the church 1,783 members (1916), 
and have at one time or another served on all the committees 
of my conference." 



WILLIAM MERIDA HUBBARD 



FEW will question the statement that the real benefactors 
of the race have been the patient men and women who 
have devoted their lives to the training of the young. 
One of these quiet but efficient men who has contributed in 
no small way to educational progress in his part of the com- 
monwealth is Prof. William Merida Hubb'ard, of Forsyth. 

He is a native of Wilkinson county, having been born at 
Irwinton July 19, 1872. His parents were Edinboro and 
Elizabeth Hubbard. The father was a sort of boss mechanic 
and wood worker about the place. Both parents were Chris- 
tians. 

Young Hubbard early aspired to an education. He soon 
recognized the difficulties in the way, but was not discouraged 
by these. He earned the money for his first term at Ballard 
Normal by working on the farm at six dollars per month. 
Some idea of his economy may be had from the fact that 
when time for settlement came only four cents, which was for 
postage, had been charged against his account. His prog- 
ress in school was rapid and steady. When he could secure 
a teacher's license, he began teaching in his home county, 
his first school being at Calvary Hill, near Irwinton, where he 
taught for two terms. Even while at Ballard he earned the 
larger part of his expenses by working about the place, but 
always kept up with his classes. As his earning capacity in- 
creased, his ambitions mounted and he entered Fiske Univer- 
sity after graduation at Ballard in 1891. He was now well 
on his feet. He had taught three terms in Monroe county 
pnd one term at Gainesville, Fla. After his graduation he 
taught at Cuthbert four years and in 1900 came to Forsyth. 
Here the man and the opportiinity were fairly met. School 
facilities were at a low ebb, but there were plenty of children 
in the thickly settled community. He began with an enroll- 
ment of seven. He needed no assistant teachers. Now he 
has an enrollment of nearly five hundred and a teaching force 




WILLIAM MERIDA HUBBARD. 



564 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

of nine. Then there was no buildmg. Now there is a modern 
plant valued at fifteen thousand dollars. Of course this was 
not done without a struggle, and there were times when Prof, 
Hubbard had to shoulder more than his share of the work 
and also the financial responsibility. The same courage, how- 
ever, which held the boy to his six dollar a month job on the 
farm now held the man to the larger task of building an in- 
stitution for his people. He has succeeded and has won the 
esteem and cordial co-operation of the local leaders of both 
races. As the work developed, industrial features were added, 
including carpentry, blacksmithing and farming. The domes- 
tic science work is under the able management of Mrs. Hub- 
bard. 

On April 12, 1893, Prof. Hubbard was married to Miss Mol- 
lie Helena Worthy, of Monroe county. She was educated at 
Ballard Normal and has entered heartily into the progressive 
plans of her husband. They have six children: Dr. Leola 
Elizabeth, a practicing physician of Forsyth ; Maceo W., Ruth, 
Samuel, Louise and Clifton. These are all being given a lib- 
eral education. 

Prof. Hubbard is not active in polities. He is a Mason and 
is a member of the Congregational Church. 

Such is the story of a poor boy who by his energy and his 
courage has worked out a large measure of success, not only 
for himself, but has built for his people and for the future. 



ANDREW ARTHUR BURNS 



REV. WILLIAM HENRY ANDREW ARTHUR P>URNS, 
usually known by the two middle names, Andrew Ar- 
thur, is an influential Baptist minister of Waycross, who 
by hard work and close application has arisen from a place of 
obscurity to a place of prominence in the highest calling in the 
world. He is a native of Taylor county, where he was born 
June 5, 1885. His father, George Burns, is still living (1916), 
and is a farmer. His mother was Jane Huif before her mar- 




ANDREW ARTHUR BURNS. 



566 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

riage. His paternal grandfather was 'George Burns and his 
maternal grandparents were Jere and Cynthia Huff. 

As a boy young Burns attended the public schools of Taylor 
county, making a full hand on the farm during crop time. 
He was converted at the age of twelve and joined the Baptist 
Church. Almost immediately he felt called to preach and was 
licensed at the early age of thirteen. With his entry on the 
work of the ministry came the need for better preparation for 
his life work. Accordingly he saved his earnings with a view 
of going to college. When he matriculated at Central City 
College, he had only three dollars and sixty-five cents. At that 
time he was pastor of one church with a membership of 
eighteen, which paid him seven dollars per month out of which 
he had to pay railroad fare back and forth. He worked about 
the college and was for four years assistant at the orphanage. 
In this way he worked through the course within a couple of 
months of graduation. Later, he took a correspondence course 
in theology through an institution in Washington, D. C, which 
in 1911, conferred on him the B. D. degree. 

Even as a boy, Elder Burns was popular as a preacher, 
through his evangelistic work and was known as the boy 
preacher. At nineteen he was ordained to the full work of the 
ministry. His first pastorate was the Corinth Church, Macon 
county, which he served one year. He pastored New Zion two 
years, St. Mary's two years, where he built a house of wor- 
ship. New Mt. Olive four years, First Church, Rebecca, one 
year, Shiloh five years, Macedonia at Cordele, two years, 
Second Damascus five years, Macedonia at Hawkinsville, two 
years, Richland two years. Brown Hill at Rochelle, two years. 
New Zion one year. First Church, Ashburn, three years. In 
1915 he accepted the call of the St. Peter's Baptist Church, 
Waycross. The work has greatly prospered under his min- 
istry. He has harmonized the congregation and a thousand 
dollars of the fourteen hundred dollars debt has been paid 
and two hundred added to the membership in the first year. 
Prior to coming to Waycross he resided at Unadilla. 

On January 20, 1909, he was married to Miss Mary L. Tay- 



GEORGIA EDITION 567 

lor, a daughter of Louis and Eliza Taylor, of Houston county. 
They have two children, William Eve and Arthur Clyde. 

In politics. Elder Burns is a Republican and belongs to the 
Masons. He is a regular attendant on the sessions of the 
State and National Baptist Conventions and a Trustee of 
Central City College. Dr. Burns is a studious man and has 
a book on the Bible in course of preparation. Next after the 
Bible his favorite reading is history. 

He considers the most pressing needs of his people to be 
industrial and Christian education and capital with which to 
do business. He owns a comfortable home in Unadilla and a 
farm in Taylor county. 



WILLIAM ANDREW HOLMES 



DR. WM. ANDREW HOLMES, of Fort Valley, stands 
high among the young professional men of the race in 
Georgia. He is a native of DeKalb, Kemper county, 
Mississippi, where he was born September 15, 1877. His par- 
ents, Richard and Mary (Rush) Holmes, were both slaves. His 
maternal grandfather, Tom Rush, was sold from North Caro- 
lina into Mississippi, while his maternal grandmother, Violet, 
was brought from Virginia to Mississippi. Other than this, 
he knows nothing of his ancestry. 

He attended the public schools of his county and at an early 
age began teaching. When ready for college he entered Rust 
College at Holly Springs, Miss., from which he was graduated 
with the degree of A. B. in 1897. Beginning his work as a 
teacher in his home town, he later taught in Alexandria, 
Louisiana, and Longview, Texas, and, in this way, earned 
money for his medical course at Meharry, from which he was 
graduated with the degree of M. D. in 1910. While pursuing 
his medical course he spent his vacations in the Pullman serv- 
ice and thus traveled extensively over America. In college, 
he was active in the work of the Y. M. C. A., and was Presi- 
dent of that Association at Meharry. He passed the Tennessee 



GEORGIA EDITION 569 

State Board examination in his Jnnior year, making the second 
highest average of any applicant. After finishing his course, 
he took the State Board examination in Georgia, located tem- 
porarily at Athens, but, later, in 1910, moved to Fort Valley, 
Avhere he has since resided and where he has built up a splen- 
did general practice. 

On Octobei' 12, 1910, he was married to Miss Suluka Yonge- 
bloed, who was brought from the Congo in her early years 
by a missionarj', Rev. J. ]\I. Lewis, who turned her over to Dr. 
G. ]\I. P. King, of Virginia Union University, where she re- 
mained until sent to Spelraan, where she tinished the academic 
course. She also took a medical course at ]\Ieharry, but is 
not actively engaged in professional work. Her mother was 
a native princess. Dr. and ]Mrs. Holmes have three children, 
Grace King, Wm. Andrew% Jr., and Richard Grover Holmes. 

The doctor's favorite reading consists of biography and 
history. He is a member of the State ^ledical Association, 
and in politics is a Republican. He belongs to the ^l. E. 
Church and was for a number of years Superintendent of the 
Sunday School. He is a ^lason. Odd Fellow and Pythian. 
He is a local medical examiner for these, as well as several 
insurance companies. He owns a comfortable home in Fort 
Valley, where he is held in high esteem by the best people of 
both races. 



GENERAL P. WASHINGTON 



WAYCROSS has had a splendid growth in recent years 
and has had a remarkably large number of home 
owners among the colored people — perhaps larger 
than any other city of its size in the State. This is due in a 
large measure to the foresight and energy of one man whose 
means enabled him to buy land in bodies and sell it on easy 
terms. That man is Dr. General Phinagan Washington, who 
's a native of Florida, having been born at Rhodes Store, in 



GEORGIA EDITION 571 

Jefferson county, December 26, 1864. His parents were Henry- 
Washington, a farmer, and Louise Washington. 

On November 28, 1893, Dr. Washington was married to 
Miss Florence Eva Rivers, a daughter of James H. Rivers, of 
Blaekwell, S. C. Of the five children born, four are living. 
They are Theodore Rivers, of the U. S. Army, Ruth Wendell, 
G. P., Jr., and Lydia Inez AYashington. 

As a boy young Washington attended the public schools of 
Jefferson county only six weeks before he was twelve years 
of age. Later he went to Cookman Institute, Jacksonville, 
and spent a short time at Atlanta Baptist College. He says 
he had no help so had to make his own way. The fact that this 
made him depend on his own resources and ability he regards 
as one of his best assets in life, because it brought out those 
qualities which later won success. 

Having decided on the medical profession, he matriculated 
at IMeharry from which he was graduated with the degree of 
M. D. in 1893. Before taking up his medical course, how- 
ever, he taught school for ten years, beginning in Madison 
county, Florida. His ability as a teacher was soon recognized 
and he was made principal of the Waycross, Georgia, High 
School. After serving here for two years he taught at Hil- 
liard, Florida, two years and after that three terms in Geor- 
gia again. 

On the completion of his medical course in '93 he located 
at Waycross and entered upon the practice of his profession. 
He was successful from the beginning and had the foresight 
to invest his earnings in real estate. Enhancing values en- 
abled him to turn over his investments with a profit Avhicli was 
reinvested. In this way he increased his holdings till he held 
at one time 800 city lots. Though doing an extensive real 
estate business he handles only his own property. He also 
does a local bonding business. 

Dr. Washington is a member of the Georgia Medical Society. 
In politics he is a Republican and is Chairman of the District 
Executive Committee. For twelve years he has attended the 
National Republican Conventions. He is an active member 
of the A. M. E. Church, being Chairman of the Trustee Board 



572 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

of Gaines Chapel. He is an Odd Fellow and a Pythian. He 
was Grand IMedical Examiner of the Pythians for three years 
at the end of which time he resigned. 

Dr. Washington is regarded as a snbstantial and useful 
citizen of Way cross and while he has made money for him- 
self he has made it possible for many families to own their 
homes. He now (1916) has at least two hundred and fifty 
lots in the city and is always in a position to serve the home- 
seeker on attractive terms. His own residence in the suburbs 
is a commodious structure and is the most attractive Negro 
residence in that part of the State. 



WILLIS OLIVER SLADE 



REV. WILLIS OLIVER SLADE, one of the progressive 
young ministers of the A. M. E. comiection, is a Pike 
county boy, having been born near Zebulon, February 
1, 1878. His parents were Clarke and Adeline Slade. His 
mother's parents were Simon and Nancy Leake. While young 
Slade was still a small lioy, the family moved to Hampton, 
where he attended the public school. ]>ptween sessions, he 
worked on the farm. 

He was converted and joined the A. :\1. E. Church Avhen 
about twelve years old and entered the ministry as a young 
man. He took the Bible training course at Tuskegee, remain- 
ing at that institution for two years. In 1901 he joined the 
conference at Newnan and was assigned to his first pastorate 
at Riverdale Mission. The next year he was promoted to the 
Zebulon Circuit, where he remained for two years. Since then 
he has served the Rock Circuit two years, Sharpsburg two 
years, Neal two years, Newnan Station three years and Monti- 
cello three years. In 1915 he was transferred to the North 
Georgia Conference and sent to Cartersville, to which Station 
he was re-appointed in 1916. 

Elder Slade has had a fruitful ministry and has done con- 
siderable evangelistic work, not only in Georgia, but also in 



GEORGIA EDITION 573 

adjacent States. He attended the General Conference meet- 
ing in Philadelpliia in 1915. Among the brotherhood he is 
known as one of the leading financiers of the denomination. 
He bnilt a honse of worship at Riverdale, remodeled a nnm- 
ber of others, rebnilt the one at Monticello and has cleared 
off debts at nnmerous points. He is a IMason, an Odd Fel- 
low and a Pythian. He feels that one of the most pressing 
needs of his people in Georgia is Christian edncation. His 
business ability has been apparent in his own affairs, as Avell 
as those of the church, and he owns property in Thomaston 
and an interest in fifty acres at Hampton. His favorite read- 
ing, next to the Bible, is history. 

On January 30, 1901, Elder Slade was married to Miss Sarah 
Haynes, a native of Columbia, S. C, who was at that time 
teaching in Spalding county. Of the children born to them, 
five are living. Tliey are Rosalie, Annie Pearl, James, Vir- 
ginia and IMario. 



DONALD WALTER GALLIMORE 



AIMONG the young professional men of the State who 
have already established themselves, is Dr. Donald Wal- 
ter Gallimore, of Columbus. He was born in Harris 
county, near Hamilton, February 15, 1885. His father was 
Thomas Gallimore. His mother, Georgia (Pace) Gallimore, 
died when fhe l)oy was about fifteen years of age. Soon after 
his mother passed away, young Gallimore left Harris county 
and moved to Columbus. Prior to that time he had worked on 
the farm and attended the public schools of Harris county. 
On coming to Columbus, he entered Price's Normal School 
and finished the course in 1905. During vacation times, he 
would go back to the farm and help with the Summer work. 
Later, he took the preparatory course in New Orleans Uni- 
versity and, having decided to devote himself to the medical 
profession, entered iMeharry College, Nashville, graduating 




DONALD WALTER GALLIMUKE. 



GEORGIA EDITION 575 

considerable money at Summer hotel work and spent a year, 
after graduation, at the hospital in Nashville. 

In 1918 he came to Columbus, and in three years lias al- 
ready built up a good general practice. Dr. Gallimore is well 
equipped in body and mind for his work, is i)opular among 
his people and has the cordial co-operation of the medical 
fraternity of Columbus of both races. 

He keeps up with current events through the papers and 
magazines, which, apart fi-om liis professional reading, occu- 
pies most of his spare time. He has not taken any active part 
in politics but classes himself as a Republican. He is a mem- 
ber of the A. M. E. Church, in which he is a steward, and 
belongs to the Masons and Pythians. He believes one of the 
most pressing needs of his people in the South today is a spirit 
of co-operation. 



JAMES EDWARD CARTER 



DR. JAi\IES EDWARD CARTER, of Augusta, is perhaps 
the only colored dentist in the State who did not have 
to go outside of Georgia for his dental course. His 
experience has been unique in that he prepared himself for 
liis professional work in his home town under the tutelage of 
white men. He is a native of Richmond county, having been 
born near Augusta September 10, 1875. His father, Henry 
Carter, was a farmer. His mother's name was Chanie Worthy 
?,nd his maternal grandfather was George Worthy. 

The boy lost his parents when he was five years old. He 
lived with his grandfather till he was ten, after which an 
aunt. Marietta Walker, cared for him till he was grown. He 
recalls her devotion to him during his boyhood and youth with 
particular gratitude. 

Young Carter attended first the county public schools and 
when he had gotten there what they had to offer, went to 
Paine College at Augusta. He was an industrious lad and ac- 
customed to work, not only during vacations, but daring the 




JAMES EDWARD CARTER. 



GEORGIA EDITION 577 

school tei'ins as well, at whatever jobs he could secure. When 
grown to young manhood, he was able to do more steady work, 
and thus increased his earnings. He has been a hard worker 
all his life. He managed to take the course in Augusta, and 
mentions with particular gratitude the help received from 
men like Drs. Patrick and Wilder. He enteied upon the prac- 
tice about ten years ago and has had the pleasure of seeing 
his w^ork steadily grow and has himself grown in the esteem 
of his white and colored neighl)ors. 

On November 23, 1898, he was mairied to .Miss Emma E. 
Barnett, of Augusta, who was educated for a trained nurse 
at Lamar Hospital and did splendid service in some of the 
best white families of Augusta, among whom may be men- 
tioned the Phinizys, the Barretts and the Tobins. Dr. and 
IMrs. Carter have two children, Ethel and James E. Carter, Jr. 

Dr. Carter early realized the importance of owning his own 
home and has invested in good real estate on the hill. While 
not active in politics, he votes the Republican ticket and is a 
Pythian and a ^lason. He is a member of the Baptist Church 
and is active in the work of his denomination, being a deacon 
of Thankful Baptist Church and a teacher in the Sunday 
School. It should be mentioned that his relationship to the 
white professional men of the city has been cordial and help- 
ful. Dr. Carter, though an unassuming man, is active in every- 
thing looking to the uplift of his people and is an earnest 
worker for their co-operation and unity. 



JOHN BELTON EPTON 



SO^IE of the most enterprising Negroes in Georgia ha^'e 
come from other States. Among these is Rev. John Bel- 
ton Epton, who is prominent in the work of the A. M. 
E. connection. He is a native of South Carolina, born at Lex- 
ington, IMay 4, 1866. His parents w^ere Rev. Isaac and Graeia 
(Hope) Epton. 
He has been married twice. On January 25, 1887, he was 




JOHN BELTON EPTON. 



GEORGIA EDITION 579 

married to Miss ]\Iary Henderson, daughter of Fannie Hender- 
son, of Thomasville, Ga. By this marriage there were seven 
children: William (who is a minister), Marion, Lottie, Julia 
Bell, Queen Elizabeth, Fannie Mae and John ]\lelton Epton. 
After the death of his first wife, Elder Epton was again mar- 
ried on June 19, 1912, to Miss Leola M. Clay, daughter of 
Stephen and Mamie Clay of Sparta. By this marriage there 
were two children, Claud B., and Fleecie Ethelberta Epton. 

While our subject was yet an infant, his mother passed 
away, so that he never knew what it was to have a mother's 
care. He testifies, however, to the helpfulness of the early 
home life with his father and other members of the family 
and also to the helpful influence of his associates. The family 
moved to Georgia, and when John was a small boy, he at- 
tended the public school at Thomasville and later in Decatur 
county. When ready for college he entered Cookman Insti- 
tute at Jacksonville, Fla., where he pursued the regular course 
during the day and his theological course at night under 
President S. B. Darnell. As a boy in his teens he had been 
converted, and decided to enter the ministry whcMi he was only 
sixteen. He joined the conference at Albany in 1885. After 
entering the ministry, he took the correspondence course at 
Morris Brown University, which he completed in 1901 and 
later received the degree of D. D. During his course at Cook- 
man, he paid his way by teaching during his Summer vaca- 
tions in Thomas, Sumter and Decatur counties. While in col- 
lege, he was active as a football player. His favorite reading 
has been along the line of Biblical and theological literature. 

His first appointment was the Ochlochnee Circuit where he 
combined teaching with preaching. His next appointment 
was the Duncanville Circuit where he remained for three 
years. After that, he served the Lambright Circuit three years, 
Hutchinson Station three years, Bryan County Circuit one 
year, Eastman two years, St. James, Savannah, by special ap- 
pointment, three years and St. James, Columbus, two years. 
He was then promoted to the presiding eldership of the Al- 
bany District over which he presided for three years. His 
next appointment was St. Paul's, Atlanta, where he preached 



580 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

for three years, after which he was sent to liethel, at Augusta, 
for one year. 

Failing health made it necessary for him to take lighter 
work and so he was assigned to St. Mark's, at Sparta, and 
later to Wesley Chapel, at Milledgeville. From Milledgeville 
he was sent to St. Luke's, at Forsyth, and from there to Car- 
tersville. In 1915 he was transferred to Monticello and in 
1916 to Thomaston. It will be seen that he has been an ac- 
tive man in the ministry. He has added to the church at least 
8,000 members and built and repaired a number of churches. 
He was a delegate to the General Conferences at Columbus, 
Ohio, Chicago, and Norfolk, and has frequently represented 
his denomination at other large gatherings. 

He is a Republican in politics and, among the secret orders, 
is affiliated with the ^lasons and Pythians. He believes in 
stressing both industrial and higher education and is im- 
pressed with the importance of economy and right living. He 
owns a comfortable property in Savannah. 

Dr. Epton has special aptitude for languages. He was. of 
course, introduced to Latin and Greek in college and contin- 
ued their study together with mathematics under Prof. John 
Maxwell while pastoring at Eastman. Later, at Savannah, 
he read Hebrew under a Jewish Rabbi, and at Columbus, 
studied Spanish with a native Cuban for a teacher. 



ROBERT WALTON WALKER, Jr. 



REV. ROPERT WALTON AVALKER, pastor of the First 
Paptist Church, of Dublin, has struggled up through 
poverty, from a place of obscurity, to a place of prom- 
inence and usefulness among his people and in his denomina- 
tion. 

He was l)orn in Purke county February 10, 1870. His 
father, Robert Walker, Sr., was a farmer, and his mother, be- 
fore her marriage, was Laura Hodges. Poth parents were 
slaves. His maternal grandparents were Peter and Dinah 




ROBERT WALTON WALKER, JR. 



582 lllSTOKY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

Hodges, of whom he says, "Though they were born slaves, 
they believed in God and prayed to see the yoke of bondage 
removed, and saw it, and died at a ripe old age after Emanci- 
pation." Mr. Walker belongs to a family which has been 
celebrated in Georgia for the number and character of men 
it has contributed to the Baptist ministry. 

His education stretches over a long period of years, and 
was interrupted by numerous breaks. He began with the pub- 
lic schools of Burke county when a boy, and completed the 
theological course at Morehouse College, Atlanta, Avhen forty- 
four years of age. His father was a farmer with a big fam- 
ily and lacked the means to give the boy the education he de- 
si led. He was permitted, however, to attend school three of 
four months each year, but remembers how he had to hoe 
cotton until nine o'clock, and then often run two and a half 
miles to school ; but even this did not discourage the boy, who 
had made up his mind to secure an education. He remained 
vrith his father till he was of age, and, in 1891, left his home 
near Gough and started to Augusta for the purpose of enter- 
ing school. On arriving at the railroad station (Keysville), 
he met Astin Streetman, whose daughter he later married, 
and who induced him to turn aside from his school work for 
the time by offering him work on his farm. He accepted the 
position and remained for three or four years, having mar- 
ried Georgia Streetman, a daughter of his employer, on July 
J 8, 1895. After his marriage, he farmed for himself for sev- 
eral years, but never gave up his determination to get an edu- 
cation ; so in 1901, he moved to Augusta and entered Walker 
Baptist Institute for tw^o years' study. 

At the age of eighteen, he was converted, and soon after 
felt called to the work of the ministry. He was licensed and 
ordained by the Spring Hill Baptist Church and, about the 
time he started to school in Augusta, was called to the Dal- 
ton Baptist Church, of Mobley, Ga. After two years of school- 
ing at Augusta, he returned to Keysville and taught in the 
public schools of Burke county for four years. At the end of 
that time he accepted a call to :\It. :\roriah Baptist Church, at 
Augusta. In order to be in close touch with his work, he 



GEORGIA EDITION 583 

moved back to Augusta, and again entered school. Such 
was the record which he made that in 1910 he was called to 
the First Baptist Church, of ]\Iilledgeville, and later moved 
there with his family. With this promotion came the realiza- 
lion of the need for better theological training, and so after 
serving the Milledgeville Church for a year he entered More- 
house College, and was graduated from the theological depart- 
ment in 1914, keepkig up his work as pastor all the while. 
Milledgeville is one hundred and thirty-seven miles from At- 
lanta, and the hardship of making his classes regularly with- 
out missing any of his appointments at his home church can 
readily be understood. 

After a successful ministry of five years at Milledgeville, he 
was called to the First Baptist Church, of Dublin, and at once 
began the erection of a new building. 

Looking back over his life, he sees that the influence of his 
parents w^as strictly religious, as they were lovers of the church 
and Sunday School. His father Avas a leader of the prayer 
meeting, and frequently conducted meetings in his own home. 
Though the family lacked wealth, his home life was pleasant 
and congenial, and the boy was brought up to love home and 
those by whom he was surrounded. He thinks, how^ever, that 
his greatest inspiration came from his school work and asso- 
ciates. While in school he was active in college athletics. 

He is a constant reader, giving special attention to the 
Bible and sacred literature. Among the secret orders he is 
identified Avith the Masons, Odd Fellow^s, Pythians and I. B. 
O's. Mr. and Mrs. Walker have two children, Robert Bunyan 
and Theodore. 

He believes that the best interests of the race can be pro- 
moted only when the race learns to be more eocnomical, 
thrifty and law-abiding. He owns a home, valued at some- 
thing like three thousand dollars. 



JAMES ROBERT FLEMING 



JAMES ROBERT FLEMING, the Presiding Elder of the 
Marietta District, A. M. E. Church, is a native of Wash- 
ington, Ua., wliere he was born just about the close of the 
War between the States, the exact date of his birth not being 
known. His parents, Robert Fleming and Annie (Williams) 
Fleming, were both slaves. His father, with a brother, Alfred, 
were l)rought to Georgia from Wilmington, N. C, the mother 
being half Indian. 

Young Fleming attended the public schools of Washington. 
While he was still a small boy, however, the family moved to 
Atlanta. Finding it necessary to work during the day, James 
attended night school. He was converted at the age of sixteen 
at Wood's Chapel, now Allen Temple; at the age of twenty-two 
entered the ministry ; joined the Conference at Washington in 
1889, under Bishop Gaines. Feeling the need of preparation 
for the work of the ministry, he took a theological course, begin- 
ning at Gammon Theological Seminary and finishing in 1906 at 
Turner Theological Seminary. Later, in recognition of his 
attainments and of his service to the church, the degree of D. D. 
was conferred upon him by Campbell College, Miss. 

On January 6, 1882, he was married to IMiss Gussie Bailey, a 
daughter of Amelia Bailej^ of Atlanta. They have one daughter, 
Annie Laurie. 

Entering upon the work of the ministry, he was assigned to 
his first pastorate at Stone Mountain, where he remained for 
three years, and bought the ground on which later a church was 
built. The following year was spent at Jackson, Ga. On reach- 
ing that field he found the church advertised for sale by the 
sherifi'. His first task was to pay off the indebtedness, which 
he did during the year, and the following year was sent to the 
Doraville circuit. The next year found him at Acworth, where 
he remained for three years, during which time he built two 
churches on the circuit, one being the brick church at Acworth. 
Here as at other places, he was popular not only with his own 




JAMES ROBERT FLEMING. 



586 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

people, but witli his white neighbors as well. From Aeworth he 
was assigned to the Griffin station for two years, where he 
bought and paid for a church lot. He served the Jonesboro 
circuit four years, during which time he built the church at 
Jonesboro, and the Madison station one year. He was then pro- 
moted to the Presiding Eldership and assigned to the Covington 
District. After two years on this work, he was removed to New- 
nan for two years, at the end of which time the Newnan District 
was merged with the Griffin District and the whole placed under 
his direction for three years. In 1911 he was made Presiding 
Elder of the Monticello District, Atlanta Conference, which 
he served three years, going from there to the Marietta Dis- 
trict in 1915. 

Among all the books he places the Bible first, though he finds 
history of the United States interesting and helpful, and gains 
much help from his theological books. In politics he is a Re- 
publican, but contents himself with voting. He is not a secret 
order man. When asked how the best interests of the race might 
be promoted, he said, "By more Christianity." He attended the 
last General Conference of his church, at Kansas City, and is 
a delegate to the 1916 Conference in Philadelphia. He is active 
in every good word and work in his denomination. 



ANNIE E. YARBROUGH 



DR. ANNIE E. YARBROUGH, a leading dentist of Dublin, 
was l)orn at Eatonton, Ga., July 18, 1882. Her father, 
Hilliard Taylor, was a Baptist minister, while her 
mother's maiden name was Anna E. Pennaman. Her maternal 
grandfather, Morris Pennaman, was an intelligent slave, who 
hired his time in slavery at five dollars per day, and thus ac- 
cumulated enough money during slavery to purchase property 
after Emancipation. 

Miss Taylor (now ]\Irs. Yarbrough) was married to Dr. 
Adolphus Yarl)rough February 22, 1906, who, having learned 




ANNIE E. YARBROUGH. 



588 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

the dental profession, while working as an office boy, is now 
recognized by those who know of his years of successful prac- 
tice in his home town as being one among the best mechanical 
dentists of his race. In the operating room he also has few 
. equals. 

As a girl she attended the Eatonton public school, and was 
later graduated from the Eatonton High School. After grad- 
uation from the High School in '96, she spent the school year 
'96- '97 at Atlanta University, where she did the third year 
work of the Normal course. She then entered Meharry i\Ied- 
ical College, from which she was graduated with the degree of 
D. D. S., in 1910. 

Having lost her father at an early age, she acknowledges 
with gratitude her indebtedness for her education to a brother 
and her widowed mother. Fortunately, her mother was an 
educated woman, having been one of the first Negro Avomen 
of Georgia to take up teaching after Emancipation. 

For seven years she was engaged in teaching, both in the 
rural and city schools. Her first school was at her home town 
of Eatonton, and in the school from which she was graduated. 
Afterwards, she taught in the rural schools of Putnam, Jas- 
per, Dodge and Laurens counties. Following her marriage, 
she was elected to a place in the public school of Dublin, She 
exerted a wholesome and helpful influence on her pupils, and 
was devoted to her work as a teacher. 

During her vacations she engaged in dressmaking and fancy 
work, in which lines she ran a successful business in Dublin 
before taking up the dental profession. 

During her first year at Meharry College, she was elected 
teacher of sewing and domestic science in Walden University. 
She kept up the work of this position, and at the same time 
made a creditable record in her studies in the dental course. 

She is a member of the Baptist Church, and is active in 
the work of her denomination and local church. She is iden- 
tified with the Household of Ruth, Court of Calanthe, and is 
prominent in the social, church and club work of Dublin. She 
believes the best interests of the race are to be promoted by 
educating the youth of the race, and by more hearty and sym- 



GEORGIA EDITION 589 

pathetic co-operation among the business people of the race 
who venture into business for tliemselves. 



HENRY HAL JOHNSON 



REV. HENRY HAL JOHNSON, D. D., while belonging to 
the old slavery regime, has kept his heart young through 
years of ceaseless activity and has made his life count 
for his church and for his Master. 

He was born at Warrenton, October 5, 1858. His parents, 
John and Emma Johnson, were both slaves, his mother having 
been brought to Georgia from Virginia. 

In January, 1888, a couple of years after entering upon the 
active work of the ministry, he was married to Miss Mary 
Battle, a daughter of Sam and Sophia Battle, of Warren 
county. Tliey have eight children : Cordy, Weyman, Beulah, 
John, Theodosia, Carrie, Turner, Envileese and Cornell. 

As a boy he worked on the farm and began his elementary 
education at Warrenton which he later pursued at Sparta and 
Griffin. 

When still a young man at the age of sixteen he was con- 
verted and joined the A. M. E. Church in whose work he has 
since been active. Soon after coming into the church he felt 
called to preach. He was licensed in 1882 and joined the 
Conference at Barnesville under Bishop Shorter in 1886. For 
the first dozen years of his ministry he combined teaching 
with preaching till the larger demands of station work made 
it necessary for him to devote his whole time to the pastorate. 

A mere list of his appointments shows the wide range of his 
services for thirty years. His first pastorate was Harper's 
Mission, where he remained one year, built a church and taught 
the public school. He was then sent to Walker's Chapel Cir- 
cuit two years, where he continued his teaching. It was while 
on this work that he was married. The next three years were 
spent on Green Springs Circuit. He was then transferred 
to the Tabernacle Circuit in Sumter county where he remained 




HENRY HAL JOHNSON. 



GEORGIA EDITION 591 

for four years and in addition to teaching the school repaired 
two churches and built another. He was then sent to the 
Plains Circuit for two years. That they were busy years is 
indicated by the fact that he served four churches, was assist- 
ant principal of the Plains school, built two churches, re- 
paired another and built a parsonage. From Plains he was 
promoted to Dawson Station which he served for two years 
and was then sent to the Cuthbert Station one year. He was 
then promoted to the Presiding Eldership and was at the head 
of the Louisville District two years, the Macon District two 
years and the Albany District one year. Again taking up 
pastoral work, he has since served the Mt. Zion Circuit two 
years, Sandersville Station one year and is now (1916) sta- 
tioned at Warrenton. His ministry has been a fruitful one. 
He has brought into the church at least four thousand mem- 
bers. 

He took the theological course at ^Morris Brown and has 
his D. D. degree from that institution. He is a trustee of the 
same school and was for two terms a member of the executive 
board. In the Conference he is recognized as a wise counsel- 
lor and is chairman of several important committees. He has 
twice represented his Conference at the General Conference 
and is a delegate to the 1916 Conference. 

Dr. Johnson is a Republican and belongs to the Masons and 
the Odd Fellows. He has invested his savings in Milledge- 
ville. He considers sane leadership of ability one of the great- 
est needs of his race. 



JAMES MILES HUNTER 



PROF. JAMES MILES HUNTER, at present the popular 
president of the Northwestern Normal School, at Gaines- 
ville, which is under the auspices of the Northwestern 
Baptist Association, is a product of the generation which has 
come up since Emancipation. His story is one of struggle, hard 
work and persistent effort from boyhood up. Though a man of 




JAJMES MILES HUNTER. 



GEORGIA EDITION 593 

considerable earning capacity, he has not devoted himself to the 
making of money, but is a real asset to his denomination and to 
the people of his section. 

He was born near Jefferson, in Jackson county, on October 2, 
1875. His parents were Jasper and Ellen (Rakestraw) Hunter. 
His maternal grandfather was Anderson Rakestraw, and his 
paternal grandparents were Captain and Gracie Hunter. Both 
the Rakestraw and Hunter families were Avell regarded in 
Jackson county, even during the days of slavery. Prof. Hunter 
gets a strain of white l>lood from both sides of the family. 

On December 27, 1903, he was married to Miss Eugenie Lyle, 
the accomplished daughter of "William and Emma Lyle, of Jack- 
son county. She was educated in the best institutions of Athens 
and Atlanta. Of the five children born to them, four are living. 
They are : ]\Iaude A., Cecil E., William J. and Raphael J. 

As a boy, young Hunter worked on the farm, attending the 
public schools as opportunity offered. At an early age he aspir- 
ed to an education, and always had a feeling that that would 
secure to him a measure of independence which the ignorant man 
could never enjoy. He remembers, too, with gratitude the happy 
influences on his life of his mother and his Christian home. Be- 
tween the ages of fourteen and eighteen he was hired out to local 
farmers ; but such were the conditions of the family that it was 
necessary for his father to use most of the money thus earned. 
When he was eighteen, however, and had managed to save a 
little money from the summer's earnings, he walked to Athens, 
carrying with him such books and clothes as he had, and entered 
Knox Institute. Something of his determination to get an educa- 
tion may be judged from the fact that from the first six months 
he worked as a night watchman and went to school during the 
day. Of course he could not make rapid progress at this, and 
later he secured work in the hotels at Athens, rising at six and 
working till eight. Then he was off to school, and back at the 
hotel again from six to eight in the evening. It was his custom 
to study then till midnight, and during his vacation periods to 
give his full time to the work of the hotel. He kept up this 
strenuous life till he was able to secure a teacher's license. His 
first school was at LittleRiver Academy, where he remained two 



594 HISTORY OP AMERICAN NEGRO 

years and built a new house. Following his work at Little River, 
he taught four tern^^ at Gillsville, returning each fall to Knox 
Institute, and completing finally the Normal and Industrial 
course. After this he matriculated at the Baptist (now More- 
house) College, Atlanta, where he spent nearly two years. While 
at Knox Institute he learned the carpenter trade in the Indus- 
trial department, and after returning from Atlanta spent three 
or four years working at his trade in Jackson county, where he 
erected numerous schoolhouses, ehuiches and other buildings. 
It was about this time that he married, and later settled on a 
farm and followed that line of work for the next five years. 
Though not now actively engaged in farming, he is still very 
much interested "in agricultural life, and believes that his peo- 
ple could not be induced to do a better thing than to turn their 
attention from the city to the farm. 

In the fall of 1909 he was unexpectedly called to the Manual 
Training department of the Ballard Normal School, at Macon, 
which he conducted successfully for two years, but at the end of 
that time he was called to the presidency of the Northwestern 
Normal School, at Gainesville, which has grown most gratify- 
ingly under his administration. Prof. Hunter is deservedly 
popular over the association, both with the clergy and laity. He 
frequently addresses conventions and associations, and has al- 
ways ready a word of encouragement, good cheer and sound 
advice for his people, especially the young people, of his race. 

His preferred lines of reading are history and biography. The 
Pythians is the only secret order with which he is identified. 
He believes that the greatest single need of the race in Georgia, 
is practical Christian education, and thinks that the good of the 
race would be promoted if a larger number would devote them- 
selves to intelligent farming. 

Prof. Hunter's relationship with his white neighbors wherever 
he has gone has been cordial and helpful. 



JOHN HENRY NELSON TURNER 



REV. JOHN HENRY NELSON TURNER, who is promi- 
nent in the work of the C. ]\I. E. Church and who is the 
founder of the Georgia Home Brotherhood, makes his 
home in Macon. He is a native of Baldwin county, having 
been born near :Milledgeville September 3, 1872. His father, 
Nelson Turner, was a local ^Methodist preacher and after 
Emancipation became a farmer. Before the war, he was the 
slave of Colonel Jordan. Dr. Turner's mother was Fannie 
?.Iyrick Tun;er, who died when her son was seven years old. 
Her father was Billy Myrick. Dr. Turner's grandfather on 
the paternal side was Turner Evans, who lived to the remark- 
able age of 109 years. 

Young Turner was deprived of all early educational oppor- 
timities on account of conditions in the home and he had not 
gone to school more than one month when he was eighteen 
years of age. About that time he was converted ; and feeling 
called to the ministry realized the necessity of preparing him- 
self for that important work. Accordingly he entered Paine 
College, Augusta, where his progress was remarkable. It was 
necessary for him to enter the first grade, although a grown 
man of eighteen, but he broke the record by covering this 
grade in two months. He remained at that institution for 
more than nine years, graduating in May, 1895. In January, 
1890, he was licensed to preach and joined the conference 
the following Fall at Augusta. 

AYhile in school, he Avorked out most of his expenses as his 
parents were not in a position to help him. It was fun for 
the children in his class to see a grown young man in the first 
grade, but it did not embarrass him. He wanted an educa- 
tion and meant to have it. He scoured the dining hall and the 
dormitory, cut wood, ordered the coal and groceries, and at- 
tended to the cows. He enjoyed this and kept up with his 
classes. In three years after entering school, he was college 
librarian. During his first three vacations he worked at a 




JOHN HENRY NELSON TURNER. 



CtEORGIA edition 597 

sawmill, saving his earnings for the next term. His fourth 
vacation was spent teaching in Dodge county. 

Entering immediately upon the work of the ministry, he 
has made for himself a large place in the denomination and 
has shown that he made no mistake in taking time to prepare 
himself for his vocation. His first appointment was at ]\Iiles 
Chapel, Augusta, where he remained two years. He was then 
transferred to South Carolina and used to supply a term at 
Greenland Circuit. Returning to Georgia in 1899, he was 
stationed at Elberton for two years and from that point was 
sent to Conyers, where he remained for six years, combining 
teaching with his work as a preacher. It was under his prin- 
cipalship that a new schoolhouse was erected and when the 
time came for him to leave Conyers the l)oard tried to close 
a contract with him for a term of years if he would remain. 
He pastored the Waynesboro Circuit one year. Fort Valley 
Station one year, Bartow one year, Eastman Circuit two years, 
Irwinton Circuit two years and Jeffersonville Circuit one year. 
In 1915 he was promoted to the presiding eldership and 
assigned to the ]\Iilledgeville District. 

He has kept no accurate record of the number of folks 
brought into the church under his ministry, but the number 
i8 large. In his first pastorate at Miles Chapel, a church was 
bought and the property has been improved, or a new house 
erected, in nearly every other station or circuit which he 
served. He is an active man whose ministry has been effect- 
ive and fruitful. 

He believes the best interests of the race are to be pro- 
moted by Christian education and co-operation. 

In politics he is a Republican. He is a member of the Odd 
Fellows and the Masons and is the founder and highest of- 
ficial in the Georgia Home Brotherhood, a history of which 
institution Avill be found elsewhere in this work. In con- 
nection with that organization he publishes a paper entitled 
"The Georgia Home Brotherhood Watchman." 

On December 29, 1897, Elder Turner was married to Miss 
Naomi Smalley, a daughter of William and Rachel Smalley, 
of Augusta. They have seven children : Juanca, Willie, Wil- 



598 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

liam Nelson, Mattie, Nelsonia, Fannie and Johnnie Naomi 
Turner. 



WADE CLIFTON CARTWRIGHT 



REV. WADE CLIFTON CARTWRIGHT, pastor of the 
Bethesda Baptist Church, of Americus, is one of the 
leading young preachers of his denomination in the 
State and is widely known, not only in Georgia, but in the 
r^Iiddle West. In fact, he was born West of the Mississippi, 
at Atlanta, Texas, February 2, 1880. His father. Rev. R. A. 
Cartwright, is also a Baptist preacher and his mother, be- 
fore her marriage, was Rosa Powell. Beyond this he knows 
little of his ancestors, except that his paternal grandfather 
was Nathan Cart^vright and, though deaf and blind, was an 
expert basket maker and followed that occupation as a slave. 
Elder Cartwright received his elementary and literary 
training at Chetopa and Coffeyville, Kansas, and at Lincoln 
Institute, Jefferson City, Missouri. He came South for his 
theological training and was graduated from IMorehouse Col- 
lege, Atlanta, May 26, 1914. He took this course after enter- 
ing the ministry, in fact, after he was married, and was able 
to sustain himself and family while at school by evangelistic 
work in various parts of the country. At one time he was in 
the Pullman service, which took him practically over America 
and parts of Canada. He taught school for awhile in the In- 
dian Territory. It was while in the Pullman service that he 
decided to take up the Avork of the ministry to Avhich he had 
felt inclined for a long time. He began the work in Kansas 
City and from the beginning was successful. In 1909 he was 
ordained to the full work of the ministry and was called to 
the pastorate of the church at Canadian, Oklahoma. From 
that work he was called to Dean's Chapel :\Iuskogee, where 
he remained for eighteen months, during which time the mem- 
bership of the church more than doubled and a new house of 
worship and a parsonage were erected. Feeling the need of 



WADE CLIFTON CARTWRIGHT. 



600 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

better preparation for his life work, he i-esigned, and entered 
Morehouse College. Such was the character of his work there 
that he was made valedictorian of his class in May, 1914. The 
following month he was called to the pastorate of Bethesda 
Baptist Church, at Americus. The work has greatly revived 
there under his leadership, both spiritually and financially. 
He is also pastor of the Lebanon Baptist Church, Plains, Ga., 
to which he gives one Sunday a month. He has the chair of 
Theology at Americus Institute, and is a member of the Mis- 
sion Board of the State Convention. 

In politics. Rev. Cartwright is a Republican. He is a mem- 
ber of the Pythians and the Woodmen. Apart from the Bible 
Lis favorite reading is poetry. 

On December 23, 1907, he was married to ]\Iiss Arbella 
Watson, a daughter of Frank and Christial Watson, of Texas. 
They have one son, Charlie Clifton Cartwright. 



ROBERT MONCRIEF 



THE first half century of freedom for the Negro in the 
South brought many changes. Homes have taken the 
place of cabins. Education and religion have come in- 
stead of ignorance and superstition. 

In Walton county. Rev. Robert ]Moncrief is one of the active 
men of the race. He was born in what was then Clark, now 
Oconee, county just after the close of the war — Sept. 15, 1866. 
His parents were Dave and Samanthy ]\Ioncrief. His mother 
was a slave. 

Later the family moved to Walton county and young Rol)ert 
got what schooling he has in the short term public schools. 
After he had reached the age of manhood and had married, he 
Avas converted and joined the ]Mt. Enon Baptist church which 
two years later licensed and then ordained him to the full work 
of the ministry. His first pastorate was the Bethany Baptist 
church which he served for eight years. During this time the 
membership was increased. He pastorcd the ^Macedonia church 



GEORGIA EDITION 601 

twelve years. Summerhill three years, Gum Spring three years, 
and has recently accepted the call of the church at Little Valley 
in Jackson county. 

Elder ]\Ioncrief is prominent in the work of the denomination. 
He is vice-moderator of the North Western Association and is 
President of the Board of Trustees of the North Western High 
School at Monroe. He does most of his evangelistic work during 
the Summer months and has been successful along this line. 
Last year (1915) he baptized forty -five at one church. In his 
reading and study he sticks close to the Bible and religious lit- 
erature. In his work as a pastor he is prompt and orderly and 
teaches his congregations to be the same. His churches are 
widely scattered so that last j^ear he travelled 1,164 miles on 
the railroad reaching his appointments. 

Brought up on the farm, it was natural that when he began 
life for himself, it was in the same line of work. He has in- 
creased liis operations till he now runs a four-horse farm and 
makes from twenty-five to forty bales of cotton a year besides 
other produce. 

He is a Republican and a Mason. On Jan. 10, 1889, he was 
married to Miss Ella Tilman, a daughter of Moses Tilman, of 
Walton county. They have eleven children: Claudie, Joe 
Stephen, Moses, Matilda, Robert, Roy, Harvey, Grace, Nunnally 
and Nathan. There is one grandchild, George Robert. He has 
given these the educational advantages Avhicli as a boy he missed. 



THOMAS JOSEPH LINTON 



REV. THOMAS JOSEPH LINTON, B. D., D. D., of the A. 
M. E. connection is a rare combination of the scholar, the 
orator and the business executive. This may in part be 
accounted for by the fact that he bears in his veins the blood of 
three races, the Negro, the Indian and the Caucasian. Most of 
his versatility, however, must be attributed to his hard work as 
a student not only in the schoolroom but throughout his career, 
for he has never ceased to study. Had his powers been directed 



602 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

to polities or l)usinoss, it is easy to see what a leader he would 
have been. 

He was born at Key, Brooks eoiuity, Ga., Aug. 10, 1869, and 
by investigation has learned more of his ancestry than most 
colored people know of their ancestry. His father, Henry 
Linton, was a carpenter and a devout Christian man. His 
mother, before her marriage, was Julia Perkins. Dr. Linton's 
paternal grandparents were Joe and Katie Linton, the grand- 
mother having been brought over into Georgia from Florida. 
Going back to the next generation, his great-grandfather was 
Moses Linton, a white man of prominence inSouthwest Georgia. 
On the maternal side there is a strain of Indian blood, inherited 
from his mother's father, who was half Indian. Her mother 
was Penny Perkins. The maternal grandfather's father was a 
full blooded Indian. 

Young Linton grew up on the Brooks county farm. So free 
and easy was the life among the white and colored boys on the 
farm that he was fourteen years of age before he realized there 
w^as any diiference. He went to such schools as were provided 
for the colored children in those days. 

When he was nineteen years of age he married Miss Lessie 
Thomas of Thomas county. Two boys were born to them: 
Thomas, Jr., now a successful tailor in Iowa, and Willie Calvin 
who is preparing for the bar at Syracuse University. The first 
Mrs. Linton passed to her reward on March 21, 1893. Subse- 
quent to her death, on Dec. 30, 1908, Dr. Linton was married to 
]Miss Timmie Bowman of Madison. 

Dr. Linton was converted when he was twenty-two years old 
and joined the A. M. E. church. Feeling called to the work of 
the ministry, he also felt the need for better preparation which 
led him to take up private studies under Prof. F. G. Snelson, 
Sr., of Waycross. He joined the conference at Quitman in 1895, 
under Bishop Abraham Grant and was assigned to the Mill- 
town Mission which he served for one year. The following year 
he was sent to the ]\Iilltown Circuit where he remained a year 
and built a church. From i\Iilltown he was sent to Pavo Sta- 
tion where he built another church. From the lieginning his 
Avor'k had been successful and the following year he was given 



GEORGIA EDITION 603 

the important work of the South ^lacon Station where he re- 
mained for three j^ears and built a new church. While on this 
work he entered the Central City Baptist College and took the 
courses in English and Primary Theology. The following year 
he was transferred to St. Phillip's Station, Atlanta, which gave 
him the desired opportunity to pursue his studies at Morris 
Brown University. After serving St. Phillip 's a year and a half 
he was appointed to what is now the Cosmopolitan Station which 
enabled him to finish his Theological course with the degree of 
B. D. Later the degree of D. D. was also conferred on him by 
Morris Brown University. 

In 1905 he was promoted to the presiding eldership of the 
Monticello District and remained on that work for three years. 
Seeking still better to fit himself for larger service in the king- 
dom, he took from Boston University a correspondence course in 
New Testament Greek, Church History and English. Later still 
he took English Public Speaking and History under Green- 
ville Kleiser. 

In 1908 he was sent to the First Church, Athens, for a year 
and a half and from Athens to Bethel Station, Augusta for three 
years. Here his splendid executive ability was brought into 
play in connection with the organization, building and financing 
the colored Y. M. C. A., the biggest for his race in the South and 
paid off the mortgage debt that had burdened the good people 
of Bethel A. M. E. church for 25 years. From Augusta he was 
sent to Sparta and here organized and put into operation the 
Colored Fair Association through the co-operation of the leading 
white men of the community as well as the negroes. From 
Sparta he was sent to his present work, Griffin Station, in 1915. 

From the beginning his ministry has been marked by great 
ingathering in the churches he has served. 

In politics he is a Republican and when younger was rather 
active. He belongs to the Masons, Odd Fellows and Pythians. 
Next after the Bible his favorite reading is history. He has 
attended three general conferences, two as a delegate and one 
as a visitor. He is a member of the Trustee Board and Execu- 
tive Committee of Morris Brown University. He owns a home in 
Atlanta. 



JAMES A. HADLEY 



THE REV. JAMES A. HADLEY, D. D., one of the lead- 
ing ministers of the A. M. E. denomination, is a man 
who, at his prime, has the peculiar double pleasure of 
looking back upon well spent years and looking forward to 
many more to come as he is vigorous in mind and body and 
thoroughly abreast with the rapid progress of the times. 

He was born in Thomasville, Georgia, on March 8, 1867, 
but his mother had never been a slave, and his father had 
purchased his freedom before the outbreak of the war. Their 
names were Spencer and Fannie Hadley and although condi- 
tions just after the war were not favorable for the race, they 
gave the boy such advantages as the common schools af- 
forded and kept him in regular attendance until he grad- 
uated. And in due course he was ready to acquire higher edu- 
cation, graduating from Turner Theological Seminary with 
the degree of D. D. 

He was converted at an early age and 1886 found him or- 
dained to the work of the ministry under Bishop Shorter. 
From this his advance was steady and rapid. He served im- 
portant appointments from the outset, among them being 
Scotland, Powersville, Cochran, Swainsboro, Milledgeville, Ma- 
rietta, Mcintosh, Brunswick, Waycross, and Savannah. After 
the Conference appointed Rev. Hadley presiding elder he 
served the Washington District for a period of five years, fol- 
lowing which he was assigned to the Atlanta District in which 
he still remains. 

He is a forceful, magnetic preacher, whose pastorates have 
been fruitful, and as a presiding elder he shows constructive 
ability of high order, sympathy and deep insight into the needs 
of his people and his church. 

Dr. Hadley is a trustee of Morris Brown College and Wil- 
berforce University, and is actively interested in the educa- 
tional and Sunday School work of his denomination. He is 
a power in the Conference Avhieh honors him year after year 




JAMES A. HADLEY. 



G06 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

by giving him positions of trust and responsibility on its com- 
mittees. 

While a Republican in politics, he has nothing to do with 
any partisan activities. 

In 1889 he was married to Miss Florence L. Quo, of Val- 
dosta, a graduate of Atlanta University, and before her mar- 
riage a capable teacher. She has been an unfailing helpmeet 
to her husband and is identified with all the activities of the 
women of the denomination. They have had four children. 
Rev. Hadley has considerable business ability and has accumu- 
lated a modest competence. 



AMOS AMOS MATHIS 



DR. AMOS AMOS MATHIS ranks high as a religious and 
educational leader of his race and is widely known as a 
Sunday School and church worker. Endowed with 
strong natural powers, he has sought throughout life to show 
himself a workman that need not be ashamed of his workman- 
ship. 

He is a native of Madison, Ga., where he was born in slavery, 
August 13, 1856. His mother, Malinda Mathis, was a native 
of Richmond, Va., but was sold into Georgia during her girl- 
hood days. She had the reputation of being an expert 
cook. His father, Peyton Amos, was a tanner by trade. 
Strangely enough the grandfather, Amos Amos, though a na- 
tive African, was not a slave. Though born in slavery Dr. 
Mathis had the advantage of a Christian home and says that 
his people were Missionary Baptists as far back as the record 
goes. 

Soon after the war, the family moved from Madison to 
Rome where the father worked on the farm. Tlie boy entered 
the public school at Rome. Here his progress was rapid and 
steady. In a short time he had outstripped his classmates and 
in a few years was elected principal of the school which he had 
previously attended as a pupil. While going to school in Rome, 




AMOS AMOS MATHIS. 



608 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

he was also employed as sexton of the Presbyterian Church 
and thus came to know and honor the pastor and his daughter, 
who was later to grace the AVhite House as the wife of Presi- 
dent Woodrow Wilson. 

After taking up the work of teaching he felt the need of 
better preparation and entered the Ballard Normal School at 
Macon which he attended, where he won honors. Thus equip- 
ped he began teaching in the Bibb county public schools and 
was for nine years principal of a suburban school which pros- 
pered to such an extent that it was necessary to erect a ncAV 
building under his administration. About this time he took 
up religious work more actively but could not even yet break 
away from the work of the schoolroom, but taught several 
terms at East Point, where his work was of such character as 
to commend it to the leaders of both races. 

In February, 1876, he was converted and joined the Thank- 
ful Baptist Church of Rome. He at once became active not 
only in the local church but in the work of the denomination 
as well. Even before his baptism he was promoted to the 
Superintendency of the Sunday School and was later made 
clerk of his local church. He also became clerk of the North 
Georgia General Association, and helped to organize and was 
first clerk of the North Georgia Sunday School Association. 
Soon after joining the church he felt called to the work of 
the ministry and on INIarch 8, 1891, was licensed and ordained 
by the Friendship Baptist Church of Macon. He studied theol- 
ogy at the Baptist College and at Central City College, Macon, 
which conferred on him the degree of D. D. His work as 
pastor has been confined to the Pilgrim Church at Nelson, 
which he served for nearly two years and the Trinity Church 
at Fort Valley, which he supplied for one year. 

His activities have not been confined to Georgia. After 
teaching at INIacon, he was appointed Sunday School Mission- 
ary by the American Baptist Publication Society which posi- 
tion he held for two years. At the end of that time he was 
given a similar appointment under the National Baptist Con- 
vention. This work carried him to every part of the country 
and added much to his knowledge and experience. Two years 



GEORGIA EDITION 609 

ago he accepted the position of Secretary of Missions under 
the joint direction of the white and Negro Baptists of Geor- 
gia. Dr. Mathis is an active, vigorous man, well equipped, 
systematic and earnest. He is popular not only in Georgia but 
has been in demand in every part of the country. 

On August 9, 1885, he was married to ]\Iiss Ellen Douglas, 
of Macon, Ga., a daughter of Rev. Chas. and Mrs. Ellen Doug- 
las, who was a cousin of Fred Douglas. Eight children have 
been born to them : Ezella, Victor, Mercer, Elmer, Lillian, 
Amos, Raymond and Rowena. 

His wide travel and careful study of conditions lead him 
to the conclusion that the greatest need of the Negro today is 
religion, education and wealth. Born in slavery and now oc- 
cupying a place of leadership, he is himself a living example 
of what religion and education will do in the life of a man. 
Dr. JMathis owns a comfortable home in Atlanta and other 
property in ]\Iacon. He stands as a "sure enough, upright, 
downright, all wool, yard-wide, flatfooted, level headed and an 
uncompromising deep water Missionary Baptist." On two oc- 
casions the leading and most prominent white and colored 
people of the State of Georgia urged his appointment as Ameri. 
can Minister to Haiti. 



DANIEL SWANIGAN SNOW 



THE story of Daniel S. Snow, of Dalton, is one full of 
interest not only to the members of his own race, but to 
business men everywhere who have the vision to see unde- 
veloped resources and unimproved opportunities. He is a native 
of Alabama, having been born at Talladega on May 25, 1865. 
His parents, Nelson and Mary Snow, were both slaves ; and while 
his home was one of poverty, it was notwithstanding a Christian 
home. His grandfather on his mother's side, Ezekiel O'Neal, 
was a Baptist preacher ; and it was perhaps early influences like 
these which gave direction and tone to the life of Daniel S. Snow. 
What education he secured was in the Talladega county com- 




DANIEL SWANIGAN SNOW 



GEORGIA EDITION 611 

mon schools. His boyhood days were spent on tlie farm, where 
he took an active part in every sort of farm work. When he was 
twelve years of age, the family moved to Chattanooga, where 
they remained for one year, and the following year located in 
Whitfield county, where he has since resided. His first residence 
was at Tunnel Hill. While living there some eighteen years ago, 
he began making brooms for his neighbors by hand, from broom- 
corn which he raised on his own place. He put good honest 
work into his brooms, and found no difficulty in selling all he 
could make. Gradually his business grew, and he saw the possi- 
bilities of enlarging it, but at the same time recognized the im- 
portance of a better knowledge of every phase of broom making. 
Accordingly he secured employment in an Atlanta broom factory, 
where he kept his work up to requirements, and at the same time 
kept his eyes open. At the end of a few weeks, when he had 
gained the desired knowledge, he returned home and found that 
his services were in demand at Greenville, S. C. He took charge 
of the plant there, though his employers thought at the time 
that they were hiring a white man, and soon made for himself 
a record such that his employers offered him extra inducement 
to stay with them. He was convinced, liowever, that if his serv- 
ices were valuable to others, they ^vould be even more valu- 
able to himself. So returning home, he harvested a good crop 
of broomcorn, made it into brooms, and has since been running 
his own factory. He is ably assisted by his sons, and the fac- 
torj^ has a capacity of about twenty-five dozen brooms a 
day. For these he finds a ready market in the adjacent cities, 
and frequently makes trips to place the product of his factory. 
Another feature of this work is worth attention : He has 
alwaj^s encouraged the growing of broomcorn needed in his 
own county, but has had to secure the bulk of his supply from 
the West. Gradually, however, farmers have come to realize 
the advantages of a steady market, and that it means real money 
to them, so that from year to year he is able to get an increas- 
ing supply of material at home, though he still finds it neces- 
sary to bring a considerable amount from the West. Most of 
his handles are secured from Memphis, although he is in the 
shadow of a timber supply. In addition to brooms, his factory 
turns out mops, whisk brushes, etc. 



012 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

Mr. Snow has done more than merely made a success him- 
self. He has pointed the way by which others of his race and 
section may succeed. 

Though not active in politics, he is a Republican. He is a 
member of the Primitive Baptist church, and has been a minis- 
ter in that denomination for more than twenty years. At this 
time he is serving two churches as regular pastor. He is not 
identified with the secret orders. Like the good business man 
that he is, he is interested in life insurance, and carries several 
policies. In another respect he has set his people a good ex- 
ample in that he owns his home, which is a comfortable resi- 
dence on Railroad street, and in addition runs a farm and owns 
his factory property, which he is planning to enlarge. He be- 
lives that the one thing most needed by his people is the right 
sort of training. Next after the Bible, his preferred line of 
reading is history. He keeps up with the current news through 
the papers. 

On INIay 22, 1886, he was married to Miss Narcissa Easley, of 
Tunnel Hill, daughter of Abraham and Betsy Easley. They 
have eight children: William H., who is now preparing to 
study medicine at Knoxville; Philip, who assists his father; 
Mattie, Colbert, Mary, Delia, Samuel and Azarine Snow. 

The accompanying picture represents Mr. Snow at the age 
of forty. 



JUDGE MARSHALL THOMPSON 



^T^HE STORY of Judge Marshall Thompson, better known 
I as Marsh Thompson, should be a source of encourage- 
ment to every Negro boy. He was born in slavery only 
about a year before the outbreak of the war. The date was 
March 20, 1860. Both his parents were slaves. His father 
was Judge Marsh Thompson, a farm hand and a cooper and 
Iris mother was Sarah Vincent. His grandfather Avas Patrick 
Thompson. Coming of school age during the hard years just 
after the war, there was not much chance for schooling, though 




JUDGE MARSHALL THOMPSON. 



614 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

Le attended the public schools of Monroe for awhile. Most 
of his time, however, from his youth up^ was spent in hard 
work. In fact, it may be said that Marsh has been a hard 
worker all his life. His parents, who had been separated dur- 
ing- slaver}', got together after the war and brought up a 
family noted for its industry and integrity. Nearly all of 
them have done well. 

]\[arsh Thompson is one of the successful farmers of Wal- 
ton county. He worked with his father until he was twenty- 
five and when the home place had to be sold he bought it in 
and when the estate was administered got 75 acres. To this 
he has added from time to time, till he has 300 acres which 
has steadily enhanced until it is now worth an average of at 
least $40.00 per acre. He runs ten plows and makes sixty 
bales of cotton a year, besides all sorts of grain, produce, 
meat, etc. 

Mr. Thompson is a member of the A. M. E. Church, in which 
he has been active for a number of years. He is a steward 
and trustee and was at one time superintendent of the Sunday 
School. Among the secret and benevolent fraternities, he is a 
member of the Masons, the Home ^lission and Laborers' Aid, 
Brotherhood of Georgia Benevolent Society. In politics he is 
a Republican and is active in the councils of his party. He 
was for a long time chairman of the District Committee and 
for fourteen years has been chairman of the Walton County 
Committee. In this capacity he frequently attends the State 
and District conventions. 

He believes that the progress of the race depends on prac- 
tical education, the accumulation of property and obedience 
to the laws. 

He was married about thirty years ago to ]\Iiss Snow, of 
Walton county. One child, j\Iary, was born to them. After 
the death of his first wife, Mr. Thompson was again married. 
The second marriage was to Miss Florence Smith, a daughter 
of Peter and Amanda' Smith, also of Walton. Of the ten chil- 
dren born to them the following ai-e living : Anna, John, Ella, 
Joseph, Rosa and Cleveland. 



GEORGIA EDITION 615 

]\Iarsh Thompson is a good citizen of which any community 
or any race might well be proud. 

Note — Mr. Thompson passed away December 8, 1916. 



WILLIAM G. ALEXANDER 



REV. WILLIAI\I G. ALEXANDER, A. M., D. D., has for 
years ranked high among the leaders of his race in 
Georgia and the South, and has held a number of the 
most important positions in the A. M. E. connection in this 
section. His qualities and achievements as a preacher, author 
and teacher have brought to him gratifying personal recogni- 
tion and made secure his place in the history of African 
jMethodism. He is at once a good preacher, a ripe scholar and 
a wise executive. The difficult positions to which he has been 
assigned as emergencies have arisen is the best testimonial his 
church could give him. The manner in which he has met these 
opportunities and responsibilities is the measure of the man. 

He was converted and called to the ministry at an early 
age and had the wisdom to equip himself for his work in life. 
A(- a preacher and a pastor, he was successful from the be- 
ginning and has to his credit rare achievements in Virginia, 
Alabama and Georgia, where he erected new buildings, im- 
proved the church property, paid off debts and "added unto 
the church such as were being saved." For permanent, con- 
structive work, no other pastor in the Conference liolds a 
finer record. 

As lecturer, he has spoken for his people in many of the 
States on numerous occasions and always instructs and charms 
his audiences. He is at once a forceful and fearless speaker. 

His work as an educator is no less notable. For ten years 
he was Dean of the Seminary at IMorris Brown College and 
left a lasting impression on the many young preachers who 
passed through the Seminary during his administration of 
that department. He brought to this work not only the knowl- 
edge of a careful Bible student, hut the rich fruitage of many 




WILLIAM G. ALEXANDER. 



GEORGIA EDITION 617 

successful pastorates and a broad vision of the work of the 
Kingdom. 

His work as a Presiding Elder has endeared him to the 
preachers and people alike on the districts which he has been 
called to serve. 

The life of such a man is an asset to his race. It is to be 
regretted that the absence of detailed information will not 
permit a more satisfactory treatment of tlie subject. 



ALONZO WILLIAM BRYANT 



REV. ALONZO WILLIAM BRYANT, pastor of the Metro- 
politan Baptist Church, of Columbus, and President of 
the State B. Y. P. U., is a man whose history is a credit 
to himself and an honor to his race. It should prove a source 
of helpful inspiration to the young people of the race. 

He was born at Sparta, Georgia, on Christmas day, 1873. 
Ilis father, Isaac Bryant, Avas a farmer and his mother, before 
her marriage, was Lettie iMoody. His grandparents on his 
lather's side were Richard and Julia Bryant and on his 
mother's side. Judge and Irene Moody. 

Young Bryant was an active, energetic youth. He attended 
the public school of Sparta and later went to school at Dublin 
and Macon. When ready for college he entered the Atlanta 
Baptist, now Morehouse, College and finished the course in 
1903. After that, he worked through the theological course at 
Central City College, :\Iacon, which he completed in 1906. 
Later, in recognition of his scholarship and accomplishments, 
the degree of D. D. was conferred upon him ]jy the University 
of Indiana. 

This short story of his schooling indicates nothing of the 
struggle which it cost him. Almost from the beginning it 
Avas necessary for him to earn his own way as his parents 
were not in position to help him, and, on account of their 
previous condition of servitude, did not even appreciate the 
advantages of an education. He recalls that his father sent 




ALONZO WILLIAM BRYANT. 



GEORGIA EDITION 619 

him to school only two days in his life, and it happened to be 
too wet to plow on l)oth those days. Yonng Alonzo, hoAvever, 
was not to be deterred. For awhile he worked at a dairy at 
night, and went to school during the day. At another time, 
he worked with a night crew of a railroad and attended 
school and even after entering the ministry kept np his studies 
in Atlanta. 

Apart from the Bible he has, since his student days, found 
most interesting and helpful in his reading the Harvard Clas- 
sics and the world's great histories. He has traveled exten- 
sively throughout the United States, Cuba, and the Philippines 
and has by observation added much to his stock of useful in- 
formation. Endowed with great natural capacity and physical 
strength, he has continued to Avork and study and has won 
for himself a place of leadership in his denomination and race. 

His first pastorate was near Sparta, where he preached for 
two years. He was then called to the West Hunter Street 
Baptist Church, of Atlanta, Avhich he supplied for three years. 
He resigned the Atlanta work to accept a call to the First 
Baptist Church of Valdosta, w-here he remained for seven 
years. At the end of that time, he was elected principal of 
the Forest City Industrial School, of Savannah, and admin- 
istered the affairs of that institution for two years, when he 
was called to the pastorate of the St. James Baptist Church, 
of Valdosta. In the meantime, he had been made Superintend- 
ent of Missions by his denomination for the State of Georgia 
and served in this capacity for two years. This brought him 
in touch with the leaders of his denomination all over the 
State and gave him a splendid opportunity to study condi- 
tions and to render large service to his church. Some years 
ago, he was elected President of the State B. Y. P. U., which is 
also a place of influence and responsibility. 

On June 16, 1896, he was married to Miss Mary Arnold, a 
daughter of Nero and Mary Arnold, of Savannah. One child, 
Josephine Alice Bryant, was born to them. Subsequently the 
mother passed away and on March 27, 1901, Dr. Bryant was 
married again, this time to Miss Katie Flewellen, a daughter 
of Nathan and Catherine Flewellen. 



C20 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

Dr. Bryant is a Republican in politics. From 1900 to 1903 
he was postmaster at Thunderbolt and in 1912 was a delegate 
to the Republican National Convention at Chicago. He is a 
Pythian and is Grand Chaplain of that order for Georgia. He 
is also a member of the Odd Fellows and the Supreme Circle. 

Dr. Bryant believes that the best interests of his race in 
Georgia and the nation are to be promoted by peace, confi- 
dence, honesty, and sobriety and a distinction between the 
good and the bad on the part of the Negroes themselves. From 
the other race, he asks for his people only simple justice and 
a fair administration of the laws. 

Dr. Bryant is proving himself a wise and capable leader of 
his race. Early in 1917 he accepted a call to the Metropolitan 
Baptist Church of Columbus. 



JERRY M. USHER 



OVER IN the Second Washington Baptist Association 
there is a quiet godly man Avho has been preaching the 
gospel for many years. He is Rev. Jerry M. Usher who 
resides near Sandersville in Washington county He was born 
in the same county during the War Between the States on 
July 10, 1863. His parents were Daniel and Mary Usher. 
They belonged to the Smiths at the time of Emancipation and 
were at that time known as Smiths, but with the coming of 
f) eedom the Negroes were permitted to choose their own names 
and Jerry Usher's parents preferring to be known by the 
name by which their own parents were formerly known 
changed their names from Smith to Usher. Rev. Usher's 
grandmother on his father's side was Eliza Tarver and on his 
mother's side was Sylva Shehee. Coming of school age soon af- 
ter the war while the colored people were still largely without 
means, young Usher's education was limited to the public 
schools. Notwithstanding this, he has been a friend of educa- 
tion all of his life and is Chairman of the Board of Trustees 
of the Baptist High School at Sandersville. He was brought 



GEORGIA EDITION 621 

up on the farm and has never gotten away from it. Even 
since entering the ministry he has continued his farm work, 
though now on a somewhat reduced scale. 

He was converted at the age of twenty and about four .years 
later felt called to the work of the ministry. He was licensed 
by the Oak Grove Church in 1886, and ordained by the same 
church in 1893. He served this same church as pastor for a 
number of years. He also pastored the Pine Hill Church at 
Davisboro one year, the Jordan Grove Church six years, and 
Mt. Sinai at Deep Step five years. Later he served Hall Grove 
one year, ]\It. Nebo three years, and Marshall Grove, where he 
is now preaching, for two years. He is a prominent figure in 
the work of his association and has taken an active part in 
the work of the Sunday School, being President of the Sunday 
School Convention of the Second Washington Association. This 
position he has held for a number of years. For ten years 
he has been doing missionary work for the same association. 
Since entering the ministry he has kept no exact record of 
the number of folks he has baptized but it would amount lo 
hundreds. His favorite reading is along theological lines. He 
frequently assists his brother ministers in their evangelistic 
meetings. 

He is a member of St. Andrew's Masonic Lodge, number 
-S2. In the denomination he is on the executive board of 
both the church and Sunday School Association, and is on 
the Trustee Board of Central City College with which he has 
been identified for a number of years. Rev. Usher has not 
married. He believes that the best interests of the race are 
to be promoted by Christian education and co-operation. 



CHARLES H. FITZGERALD 



A]\rONG the progressive and prosperous colored men of 
Paulding county, none stand higher than Charles Henry 
Fitzgerald, of Hiram. He was born in Fayette county 
just before the close of the War between the States on Dec. 




CHARLES HENRY FITZGERALD. 



GEORGIA EDITION 623 

15, 1864. His parents were Allen Fitzgerald and Jane Cleck- 
ley. His father was brought from Virginia to Georgia when he 
was a small boy so there is no record of the family available 
back of that. As a boy Charley Fitzgerald attended the pub- 
lic schools of Paulding county to which the family moved 
when he was about fifteen years of age. His mother having 
died when he was a small boy, he had hard enough time to get 
what education he has. He managed, however, to put in two 
terms at the Baptist College and later taught school for a 
couple of terms. His principal work has been farming and at 
this time he has succeeded far above the average man of his 
race. 

At the age of twenty-two he was converted and joined the 
Sweet Home Baptist church of which he has been an active 
and useful member since. Foi- eighteen years he was Superin- 
tendent of the Sunday-school, and is now a teacher. 

On Jan. 25, 1892, he was married to Miss Mattie Jones, a 
daughter of Anderson and Jennie Jones of Pike county. They 
have no children. 

Mr. Fitzgerald has learned the secret of successful farming 
and by diversifying his crops not only makes a living, but has 
also been able to invest in valuable real estate. He owns a 
nice place in the edge of town on which he lives. In addition 
to this he has two tAvo-horse farms, a total of 150 acres. 

Among the secret orders, he is identified with the Odd Fel- 
lows, in politics he is a Republican. He is an ardent believer 
in industrial education for his race. 

]Mr. Fitzgerald has spent all his manhood life in the county 
in which he now lives. He stands well with both races and 
is trusted and honored bv all who know him. 



RICHARD ALLEN HOLLAND 



REV. KICHARD ALLEN HOLLAND, who is now (1915) 
pastor of four big Baptist churches iu Middle Georgia 
and who lives near IMcDonough, was born just after the 
close of the war in Henry county, on October 23, 1866. His 
parents were both slaves. His father, Allen Holland, was a 
blacksmith and a farmer after Emancipation. His mother was 
jMahala Pope. He knows nothing of his earlier ancestry. 

When he came of school age he attended the public schools 
of Henry county. He was about twenty years of age when he 
was converted and joined the Shiloh Baptist Church, of ^Ic- 
Donough. Later he was licensed to preach and ordained to 
the full work of the ministry by the same church. Since that 
time he has been very active. 

His first pastorate was the Baptist Church of Woodbury, 
which he is still serving. When he took charge of this work 
there was a membership of seventeen. The congregation grew 
rapidly and it was soon found necessary to build a new house. 
Numbers increased steadily until even the new house of wor- 
ship would not hold the crowds, and a second and larger house 
was built. The membership now num})ers 540 and the pastor, 
who has been serving the church for so many years is more 
popular today than ever before. Thirteen years ago he was 
called to New ]\Iount Calvary at Concord, which has growai 
under his ministry to a splendid congregation of 460. For 
thirteen years he pastored the Providence Baptist Church, of 
South Atlanta, Avhich grew to the point where it required the 
full time of a man on the ground. Here, too, the membership 
Avas increased and the church property improved. A piano, 
organ and a bell were added to the equpiment. After giving 
up the Atlanta work he accepted calls from the Springfield 
Church near Flippen and the Spring Hill Church at IMilner. 

During his ministry he has baptized at least 12,000 persons, 
doing a great deal of evangelistic work during the Spring and 
Summer of each year. This, it will be remembered, has been 




RICHARD ALLEN HOLLAND. 



626 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

done without the advantages of a college education and is evi- 
dence of the man's energy and capacity. 

On October 25, 1883, he was married to Nancy Grier, a 
daughter of John Wesley and Fannie (Sulfredge) Grier. To 
this union there were born Adolphus, G. W., Mamie B., and 
Annie E. Holland. 

After the deatli of his lirst Avife, Mr. Holland married her 
sister, Lucy Grier. They have the following children: Nancy 
B., Josephine, Allen, Jr., ]\Iark Hanna, Loretta, Emma Lucile, 
and Booker James. 

In politics he is a Republican and has been active in the 
councils of his party. He is Chairman of the Henry County 
Committee, a member of the State Central Committee, and 
Chairman of the Sixth Congressional District Committee. He 
was a delegate to the National Convention which nominated 
President IMcKinley, also to the Convention which nominated 
President Taft. 

He attends the National Baptist Convention occasionally 
and is a constant attendant on the meetings of the State Bap- 
tist Convention in which he takes an active part. 

In addition to his work as a pastor he carries on consider- 
able farming operations and owns property to the value of at 
least seven thousand dollars. His preferred reading is the 
Bible and sacred literature. 



HARRISON HUDSON 



JUST about a year ])efore the Emancipation Proclamation 
was signed on the first of January, 1863, there was born a 
Negro boy in Coweta county who was named Harrison 
Pludson. His parents were William Harrison and Elizabeth 
Hudson, the mother being known as "Bettie" Hudson. The 
parents were both slaves. The father was killed when Harri- 
son was one week old, so of course he has no recollection of 
Lim. His mother had been brought to Georgia from Charles- 
ton. At the close of the war she found herself without 



GEORGIA EDITION 627 

means, and she and her children had hard enough struggle 
to make ends meet. Harrison Hudson, who is usually known 
as "Harris" Hudson, says that he has had to work all his 
life. 

Brought np under conditions like these, he was denied the 
opportunities of schooling, and, though he has made a success 
in life, can neither read nor write. He remembers his first 
year's work, when the combined earnings of himself, his older 
brother and his mother amounted to thirty dollars. He re- 
mained with his mother in Coweta county until he was nine- 
teen years old, and about all he had to show for the hard 
work during his young manhood, was what he ate and wore. 

When stock law was adopted in Coweta county, he moved 
with others to Douglas county in 1881, and began as a renter 
with the exception of one or two years, when he worked as a 
hired hand. Seventeen years ago he inoved to the place Avhere 
he now lives. 

On September 7, 1883, he was mai-ried to Miss Elitha Steph- 
enson, who was a daughter of Wilson and Rillis Stephenson, 
from near Lithia Springs, Douglas county. They have had 
twelve children, of whom the following eight survive-. Lena, 
(now Mrs. White), Samuel, who is a man of family; John; 
Perry ; Lizzie ; Ola ; Ludesta and Willis. He has given these a 
common school education. 

About ten years ago ]Mr. Hudson began buying land, and 
finding this so much more profitable than working for other 
folks, he has continued to add one tract after another, till 
he now owns four hundred and seven acres in Douglas and 
Paulding counties. He has paid for this in cash between seven 
and eight thousand dollars, but the present market value of 
it is much more than that. He is a successful farmer, and 
doing what many other farmers, both white and colored in 
Georgia should do, grows his own supplies in the way of meat 
and bread and corn and hay. Not less than seventy bales of 
cotton have been produced on his various places this year 
(1913). 

He is a Republican in politics, but is not a member of any 
church, though most of his family is identified with the M. 



628 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

E. Church. His life and work go to show what can be done by 
a man of energy who is not afraid to work, and who plans to 
\vork for himself rather than for somebody else. He has 
brought up an intelligent and industrious family, and is re- 
garded as one of the good citizens of Douglas county. His 
credit is good, and the example which he has set his people 
is a worthy one. 



LUNIE SHROPSHIRE 



LUNIE SHROPSHIRE, one of the substantial citizens of 
Campbell county, lives a few miles East of Palmetto. 
He is a native of Fayette county, where he was born 
Christmas day, 1873. His parents were Albert and Rachel 
Shropshire. Back of them he knows nothing of his ancestry, 
except that his grandfather on his father's side was a Scotch- 
man. 

While Lunie was still a child, the family moved to Coweta 
county, but later returned to Fayette. Lunie grew up on the 
farm. His schooling was limited to the short term public 
schools in Coweta and Fayette counties. 

On December 2, 1905, he was married to I\Irs. Mary Thur- 
m.an, who was INIiss Seagreaves before her first marriage. They 
moved to the place where they now reside and have three chil- 
dren, Lunie, Christine and Belle. 

^Ir. Shropshire has made money farming and his home- 
place now includes 100 acres of excellent farm land. On this 
he runs three plows and, in connection with his brother, raises 
about fifty bales of cotton a year besides considerable hay, 
grain and other products. 

He is a Republican in politics and a member of the Baptist 
Church. Among the secret orders he is identified with the 
Odd Fellows and Good Samaritans. 




LUNIE SHROPSHIRE. 



NATHANIEL T. THOMPSON 



REV NATHANIEL T. THOMPSON, of Cartersville, Ga., 
is a popular Baj^tist minister, of wide experience and 
executive ability. He was born near Danielsville, in 
Madison county, on September 11, 1863. His parents, Jones 
Thompson and ]\Iary (Meadows) Thompson, were both slaves. 
}>ack of his parents, he knows little of his ancestry, except that 
his father's mother was named Susan. 

When the boy was three years old, the family moved to 
Hancock county, and when he was of school age he attended 
the public school at Sparta. In this waj^ his boyhood and 
young manhood were divided between farm work and the 
public school. 

When he was twenty years "of age he was converted. In 
the same year, on February 1, 1883, he was married to Miss 
Ada B. Allen, a daughter of Rabun and Harriet Allen, of Han- 
cock county. 

Several years later he felt called to the work of the min- 
it-try. With the call to the ministry came the realization of 
the need for better preparation. This was no easy task, how- 
ever, at his age with a growing family to support ; so he was 
assisted in college by the Sunday School Convention of the 
Second Shiloh Association, after he had been licensed ani;! 
ordained by the Hickory Grove Baptist Church. His first 
pastorate was New Hope Church in Taliaferro county, where 
he remained for two years. He was then called to Level Hill, 
where he still works after a pastorate of more than fifteen 
years. Among other churches which he Ifes served may be 
mentioned the First Baptist Church at Sparta, and Fellow- 
ship in Warren county. In 1910, while serving the Sparta 
Church, he went to Oklahoma on a vacation, and while there 
so attracted his people in that section that he was extended 
a unanimous call, which he accepted. Accordingly he moved 
his family to Oklahoma City, where he remained for six months. 
On returning to Georgia, however, his people would not hear 
to his again leaving the State, and insisted on his return. He 




NATHANIEL T. THOMPSON. 



632 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

■was called to the very promising field at Cartersville in such 
a Avay that he felt he must accept the work, and has since been 
serving the ^Nlt. Zion Baptist Church of that city most accept- 
ably. He has given himself entirely to the Avork of the min- 
istry, taking no active part in politics or in the work of the 
secret orders. He still retains membership in the Second 
Shiloh Association, of which he has been moderator for a num- 
ber of years. His prominence in that association has resulted 
in his being called to assist in the ordination of numerous min- 
isters and deacons. He is a member of the Executive Board of 
the General State Baptist Convention, and is also on the Execu- 
tive Board of the Sunday School Workers' Convention. He 
usually attends the sittings of the National Convention, and 
thus keeps in touch with the larger movements of his denomi- 
nation. In his reading he places the Bible first, and is an 
occasional contributor to his denominational paper. When in 
Sparta he ran a paper known as "The Ministers' Union." 

:\Ir. and ]\Irs. Thompson have ten living children, as follows : 
Robert, Asbury, Olivia, Sara Harriet, Samuel, Louisa, Jones, 
German, Ada and Roberta. 



NOAH WEBSTER CLARK 



IT IS a far cry from the barefoot country boy of JefiPerson 
county to the pastor of a great metropolitan church, at 
the Capitol of the nation ; yet that is the record made by 
Rev. Noah Webster Clark and attained before he was forty 
years of age. 

He was born at jNIatthews, Georgia, April 15, 187G. His 
parents were Peter and Ann (Brinson) Clark. His paternal 
grandparents were Jack and Adeline Gunn. His maternal 
grandparents were Penn Brinson and Kissia Wright. Jack 
Gunn was a blacksmith by trade. Both paternal and maternal 
grandparents bore the reputation of being devout Christians 
and industrious, worthy citizens. 

Young Clark attended the country schools of Jefferson 




NOAH WEBSTER CLARK. 



634 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

county, working on the farm between sessions. He was con- 
verted at the age of sixteen and even l)efore joining the church 
felt an impulse to enter the ministry. Many difficulties con- 
fronted him as he undertook to fit himself for his life's work. 
He recognized the fact that it was necessary for him to make 
his own way and so, without any assistance whatever, except 
$2.50 given him by his parents during the terni, he entered 
Paine College, Augusta, in 1895 and by dint of hard Work 
and close economy bought his oAvn books, paid his own board 
and tuition and graduated with the high honor of being salu- 
tatorian of his class. This simple recital, however, does not 
tell the story of his struggle for an education. 

Tlie whole of his training in the country schools covered a 
period of only eleven months at widely scattered intervals. 
The education he obtained by which he was able to enter the 
first year class, normal course, at Paine College, was through 
studying before the open fireplace at night and during noon 
hours, while working on the farm. During the five years, 1895- 
1900, he was able to attend but two full terms in school. Each 
January of the remaining three years he had to leave college 
so as to teach school at home and earn the money to help his 
parents, to support himself, and provide for the next Fall 
term. 

These difficulties he experienced have made him unusually 
sympathetic toward the young who are striving hard to make 
their way and he has personally assisted perhaps a score of 
boys and girls to pursue their studies in college. 

In 1897 he was engaged to teach in the school where he him- 
self, as a l)oy, had gone to school, :\Iatthews. Jefferson county. 
He taught this school for four years, with credit to himself 
and satisfaction to his patrons and white neighbors. Such was 
the character of his work that he attracted the attention of 
the County School Commissioners and was placed at the head 
of the high school at Bartow. In 1903 he was elected princi- 
pal of the colored school at Louisville and while there he 
established the Louisville Industrial Academy, l)eing the first 
school of Jefferson county from which students were sent to 
college. Land was bought, the best school building for col- 
ored people in that vicinity was erected at a cost of $3,000. 



GEORGIA EDITION 635 

The institutes came to look to Prof. Clark's school for teachers 
for the colored schools of the country. He enjoys the distinc- 
tion of being the first regular graduate, born in the county, 
who was employed as a teacher in the county. 

In 1908 he entered upon the active work of the ministry, 
joining the conference at Hawkinsville. His first pastorate was 
at the Central C. M. E. Church, Jacksonville, Florida, where 
he remained during the Summer. In the Fall he Avas trans- 
ferred to the Central Georgia Conference and was assigned to 
the Dublin Station. At the same time he was appointed Presi- 
dent of the Harriett E. Holsey Normal and Industrial Insti- 
tute. He remained in this work for four years, being then 
sent to the Marshallville Station. In 1914, when a vacancy 
occurred in the pastorate of the Butler Street Church, Atlanta, 
he was promoted to that important station and was by the 
next Conference sent to the Israel ^Metropolitan Church, Wash- 
ington, D. C. 

Rev. Clark is not identified with the secret orders, but has 
given his whole time to his educational and ministerial work. 
He remembers with gratitude the influence upon his life by 
his parents and school associates. His preference is for read- 
ing of religious literature. He believes that strict adherence 
to the teachings of Christ will enhance the welfare of the race, 
advance the prosperity of the country and promote peace 
among the nations. 

On December 17, 1908, he was married to Miss Rosa May 
Marks, a daughter of Jacob and Caroline ]\Iarks, of Midville. 

Since entering the ministry, he has given considerable time 
to evangelistic work. He is a meml)er of the Board of Trus- 
tees of the Helena B. Cobb Industrial Institute, the Harriett 
E. Holsey Normal and Industrial Institute and is on 
a number of prominent boards and committees of his de- 
nomination, being President of the Inter-Denominational Min- 
isters' Union of Washington, D. C. 

As he looks back over his career as a student, he recalls with 
peculiar gratitude the advice and direction of INIrs. Anna 
Pierce Turner, a white lady of Augusta, in whose home he 
spent four years cooking and serving about the house while 
in college. 



CALVERT PRESTON JOHNSON 



DK. CALVERT PRESTON JOHNSON, preacher, lawyer 
and doctor, is one of the most versatile men of his race 
in Georgia. He was born in slavery on November 8th, 
1859, at Louisville, Georgia. His father, Joe Johnson, was a 
cabinet maker by trade. His mother was Annie Polhill. Both 
were slaves. His grandparents were Isaac and Fennie Johnson 
and their parents had been brought into Georgia from Virginia. 

Dr. Johnson remembers the closing scenes of the War Be- 
tween the States and coming to school age after the surrender 
attended the Louisville public schools, where his progress was 
rapid and steady. Even as a boy he showed those qualities 
which have since brought him prominence in more than one 
big profession. 

When eight years of age, he joined the Baptist Church and 
was licensed to preach at the early age of twelve. By the 
time he was seventeen he had made such a record as a preacher 
that he was ordained to the full work of the ministry. Hav- 
ing reached a point where he could teach school, he tried his 
hand at teaching and made a record of which he need not be 
ashamed. Realizing, however, the necessity for better equip- 
ment he entered the Baptist College at Atlanta, completing 
the course in 1879. 

While teaching school at Louisville, his home town, he read 
law in the offices of Cane & Polhill and was admitted to the 
bar in 1882. He did not find the practice of law congenial, 
however, and in less than a year abandoned that profession 
and later decided to take up medicine. He took his medical 
course at the Chicago i\Iedical College and won his degree in 
1890. By this time he had attracted attention as a minister 
and was called to the pastorate of the colored Baptist Church 
at Wilmington, N. C, and was a resident of that city during 
the memorable Wilmington riot. He resided at Wilmington 
two years, when he returned to Georgia and located in the 
delightful old town of Washington where he has since re- 
mained. Here he has built up a large practice and has in- 



GEORGIA EDITION 637 

vested his savings iu Washington and Wilkes county real 
estate. Notwithstanding the demands of a busy professional 
life, he devotes considerable time to religious and educational 
work. Though not now in the active pastorate, he preaches 
almost regularly and is educational secretary of the Third 
Shiloh Baptist Association. In recognition of his several ac- 
complishments, the degree of D. D. was conferred on him by 
Central City College, Macon. 

Dr. Johnson is a man of strong body and vigorous intellect. 
He believes that if a thing is worth doing, it is worth doing 
promptly. The manner in which he worked out his own edu- 
cation is interesting. Notwithstanding his parents were poor 
and unable to assist him financially, he refused to be discour- 
aged, and worked away at whatever offered an opportunity to 
earn an honest dollar. Through his industry and activity, he 
attracted the attention of the late Hon. Alex. H. Stevens, who 
assisted him in finishing his education at the Baptist College. 
In fact, all along through his life he has lived in the most 
cordial relationship with his white neighbors and has com- 
manded the co-operation and assistance, when needed, of a 
number of the leading public men of the State. 

In his reading, he places the Bible first, though he keeps 
abreast of the times through the latest books and magazines. 
In politics he is an exception to the majority of his race, hav- 
ing allied himself with the Democratic party in which he has 
been active for twenty years. 

Among the secret orders, he is identified with the Masons, 
Odd Fellows, Pythians, Good Samaritans and Elks. 

On November 23, 1893, he was married to ]\Iiss Beulah Har- 
ris, a daughter of Wade and Affie Harris, of Coffee county, 
where she owns valuable real estate. ^Nlrs. Johnson completed 
her education at Shaw University, Raleigh, N. C, after her 
marriage ; and for a number of years was an active teacher. 
She is prominent in the women's work of the Baptist State 
Convention, of which she is corresponding secretary. She is 
also Worthy Recorder of the Household of Ruth. 

Dr. and Mrs. Johnson have two children, George and Clara. 

Dr. Johnson is trustee of the Central City College and a 
member of the executive board of his association. 



CYRUS GILBERT WILEY 



PROF. CYRUS GILBERT WILEY is one of the best 
equipped and most progressive young men of his race in 
South Georgia. He is an expert blacksmith and bricklayer, 
a powerful preacher of the Gospel and a successful educator. 
Though not a native of Georgia, he has resided in the State for 
a number of years and has become fully identified with its in- 
terests. 

He was born at Hilton Head, South Carolina, August 13, 
1881. His father, Peter D. Wiley, was a Federal soldier who 
lies buried in the National cemetery at Beaufort, S. C. His 
mother, who was :\Iary Jane Gross before her marriage, is still 
(1917) living. Her father was Cyrus Gross. 

When the boy was still but a lad, the family moved to Savan- 
nah and he attended the West Broad Street school. When 
ready for higher education, he entered the Georgia State College 
for colored youths, graduating as valedictorian with the degree 
of A. B. in 1902. In the industrial department he specialized 
in blacksmithing and bricklaying and by working at bricklay- 
ing in vacation was able to complete the course without a break. 
When he secured a teacher's license, he also taught vacation 
schools. While in college, he was active as a football player. 

His first work as a teacher was in Bryan county. In 1902, he 
was called to the principalship of the Yaldosta public school, 
which then employed only two teachers and had an enrollment 
of 136. The work has been so developed under the administra- 
tion of Prof. Wiley that there is now an enrollment of 900 and 
a teaching force of twelve. He is in fact Superintendent of all 
the colored public schools of Yaldosta. A commodious building 
has been erected, and the system improved in every way. He 
conducts the Teachers' Institute each year for both Yaldosta and 
Lowndes county. 

He has been active in the work of the A. M. E. Church since 
boyhood. About three years ago he took up the service of the 




CYRUS GILBERT WILEY. 



640 HISTORY OP AMERK'AN NEGRO 

ministry, joined the Conference in 1915 and has since been 
pastor of the Ousley circuit. 

From his study and observation of conditions among his peo- 
ple, he has concluded that the things which most retard them are 
criminality and extravagance. He believes that these are to be 
remedied only through Christian and industrial training. 

On June 6, 1906, Prof. Wiley was married to ]Miss Lucile 
Frances Dixon, of Savannah, She, too, is a graduate of the 
State College and a capable teacher. They own a home at Val- 
dosta. 

Prof. Wiley early inclined toward public speaking; having 
been an active member of the literary societies during his school 
days. Now he is an acceptable speaker on any occasion and is 
regarded as one of the best orators in Georgia. 



THOMAS WALTER JOSEY 



DR. THOMAS WALTER JOSEY, one of the brilliant 
young professional men of the State, has not found it 
necessary to leave his home town to make a success. He 
is a native of Augusta, where he was born September 20, 1882. 
His father. Anthony Josey, was a tinner by trade. His mother. 
Patience (Willis) Josey, is still (1916) living. Back of his 
parents he knows little of his ancestry. 

When he came of school age he entered the public school of 
the city which for years has been much above the average. 
After having finished the public school course, he attended 
Haines Normal and Industrial Institute and when ready for col- 
lege matriculated at Atlanta University, where he remained for 
three years. From boyhood he has been full of energy and en- 
terprise and while it was necessary for him to earn his own way 
in college, he found little real difficulty in doing so on account 
of the readiness with which he turned his hand to almost any 
job that offered. 

Having made up his mind to enter the medical profession and 
desiring for himself the best equipment, he entered the medical 



GEORGIA EDITION 641 

department of Howard University at Washington. At this time, 
with the expense of a four years' course ahead of him, he had 
only $65.00, fifty of which was required for the the first half 
year's tuition. Notwithstanding this, he completed the course 
without a break and had a good time meanwhile. He did certain 
work about the University and earned his board, and, when va- 
cation time came, went North and in the steamboat service, 
earned sufficient money each vacation to return to college the 
following Fall. Having a good voice and a ready wit, he did not 
confine himself, however, to the work required of him on the 
boat during the day, but, with his associates, would at night plan 
entertainments, in dialect, in those cities which he could reach 
by trolley. In this way he became widely known in the North 
and East as one of the most popular men in the service on the 
boats plying the Hudson and in fact, during the vacation pre- 
ceding his senior year, he did quite a deal of practice on the 
boat among the passengers. 

Dr. Josey finished his course at Howard in 1911. After prac- 
ticing for a short while in Albany, N. Y., he spent six months in 
Madison, Wis., and then returned to his home in Augusta, where 
he has since remained. 

He has done extensive work for the Pilgrims' Life Insurance 
Company throughout the State. He is a member of the Augusta 
and Georgia Medical Societies and is President of the Alumni 
Association of Haines Normal and Industrial Institute. He is 
proud of his alma mater and as president of its Alumni has 
been active in the support of the school. He is a member of the 
Baptist Church and of the Royal Knights of King David. In 
addition to being medical examiner of the Pilgrims' Life Insur- 
ance Company, he is the local examiner for the Standard Life. 

On November 29, 1916, he was married to Miss Effie Owens, 
a daughter of Roswell Owens, of Allendale, S. C. Mrs. Josey 
was a successful teacher before her marriage to Dr. Josey. They 
have an attractive home. 



MRS. JUDIA C. JACKSON HARRIS 



NO RECORD of the progress and development of the Negro 
race in Georgia would be complete without some account 
of the work done by ]\Irs. Judia C. Jackson Harris near 
Athens in Clarke county. This work is important not only for 
what has been accomplished but for what it stands as well. 
It has been pioneer work and has blazed the way and made the 
path easier for the many who will follow as they catch the spirit 
of co-operation and community development. 

jMrs. Harris, the Principal of the Model and Training School 
and Home, and founder of the Land Clubs which have done so 
much to promote home-owning among a tenant population, is a 
native of Athens. Her father, Alfred Jackson, was a painter by 
trade. Her mother, Louisa Terrell Brown Jackson, was a de- 
vout and at the same time a resourceful woman. Her influence 
had more to do with the shaping of the life of her daughter 
than any other factor. Besides our subject there was a large 
family of children and their education was a problem. Judia at- 
tended the public schools of Athens along with the rest and later 
Atlanta University. She made a creditable record in school 
and at an early age was able to secure teacher's license and had 
little difficulty in getting schools during the summer months. 
The money thus earned enabled her to pursue her college work 
during the regular term at Atlanta University. From that 
point the story can best be told in her own words. 

"During my last year at Atlanta University, the seriousness 
of life began to impress itself upon me more than at any pre- 
vious time in my life. I felt that I wanted to do something to 
compensate for what I had not done during the summer months 
among the working people outside the city limits of Athens. 

"After my graduation, I held the position of principal of one 
of the city schools of Athens. Once a month, and oftener when 
necessary, I went outside to the farming section and met the 
people, organizing them into land clubs and industrial classes. 
As each plantation was paid for a division was undertaken. In 




MRS. JUDIA JACKSON HARRIS. 




OUR FIRST LAND CLUB. 



644 HISTORY OF AEMICAN NEGRO 

each case this lias been done most satisfactorily and successfully. 
I have in all instances taken shares with these men and women. 
Our object was to own land, to put the home on a higher basis, 
to farm intelligently and to found a training school. 

' ' Fifteen years ago I discovered that in a church full of people 
only one man owned his own home. The people lived on rented 
farms. This of course meant a practical shifting of families 
each year. There had been no improvement over the old farm- 
ing methods. Cotton was the principal product and this was 
cultivated so poorly that the average man considered a fine crop 
made if he came out each year clear of all debt. There had been 
no special effort made to produce the things at home that were 
yearly consumed. The families were improperly nourished 
both for a lack of proper food stuff and for want of direction as 
to the preparation of food material. The people were waiting 
for some directing hand. 

"In the church gathering referred to, we organized the men 
and women into land clubs. Owing to the scarcity of money 
only such meager payments as ten, fifteen and twenty-five cents 
were put in the treasury. When cotton was sold they each put 
in as much as ten dollars apiece in club number one. In two 
years we paid for one farm and continued to take up another as 
each was paid for. Other clubs were organized and each con- 
tinued this land buying as the first began. Our farms were 'let' 
to our individual club members on terms that allowed a margin 
sufficient for a decent living. At the same time we were direct- 
ing our renters in a manner that would enable each to clear 
some money over the debts he owed. 

"The first bale of cotton that the clul) received as rent from 
one of these farms was delivered at one of the meetings that the 
club held at the first farm house we purchased. I shall never 
forget that touching picture. Men who had labored hard in the 
soil for forty years wept like children. One exclaimed, 'Miss 
Jackson, is it possible that I am taking in cotton for rent when 
lo! these many years I have worked and given all I made just to 
have a place for my family to live on each year?' Another 
said, 'This isn't me getting cotton for rent.' And exclamations 
of the same nature came from all the men. They inspected the 



GEORGIA EDITION 645 

bale. They sat upon it in the moonshine. We all went into the 
house and tliese people actually sat up all night, so rejoiced 
were they over this one bale of cotton. They sang and prayed 
the whole night through, drinking hot coffee at intervals. And 
so these meetings have gone on, year in and year out, through 
heat and cold, rain and snow. Obstacles seemed not like ob- 
stacles because we had a plan and we were willing to suffer be- 
cause we were working to an end that would make the lives 
brighter. 

"The General Education Board of New York Ix-eame interested 
in tlie development of this community work and gave us the 
school. With the co-operation of the county we were able to pay 
off a deficit and furnish the building with seats. I gave the four 
acres of land on which the school stands. The second year after 
the establishment of the school, I built the model home on a five 
acre tract of land just opposite the school. This with the school 
has been used as a place of meeting for the community folks, both 
industrially and socially. The home is used for teachers also 
during the time that the Teachers' Course is held at the school 
and for the students' home during the last year of school. 

"I have traveled a good deal in my life, a part of this time 
being spent in soliciting funds for our work. I was born and 
reared in the city of Athens, Ga., but after organizing the land 
clubs and founding the school for the farming people, I lived 
with them practicality for more than fourteen years, knowing 
that the best interests of the people could only be fostered by 
keeping close to them, suffering witli them as they suffered and 
experiencing the satisfaction and joys that were theirs after 
overcoming hardships. ' ' 

After taking up this work Mrs. Harris studied at both Hamp- 
ton and Harvard. In 1913 she was married to Prof. S. F. Har- 
ris, Principal of the Athens High and Industrial School. She 
is a member of the Congregational Church. She has read ex- 
tensively and made a careful study of social and economic con- 
ditions among her people. She says, "As a race we lack the 
fundamentals in life and the one thing that can best promote this 
phase is the development of race leadership. We want ideals 
and above all stability." 



646 HISTORY OF AEMICAN NEGRO 

The results aceouiplished by Mrs. Harris commend her work 
to the leaders of both races. The county authorities now co-op- 
erate and require the other colored teachers of the county to at- 
tend the Training School. The General Education Board has 
recognized the work and made possible the building of a com- 
fortable house, while individuals both North and South have 
extended a helping hand. But the inspiration and the moving 
spirit of the work from the beginning to the present time has 
been the woman who in her school days caught a vision of co- 
operation and service and who dedicated her life to the progress 
and development of her people. 



FRED DOUGLASS SESSOMS 



THE LIFE STORY OF Dr. Fred Douglass Sessoms, of 
Washington, Ga., is one of the many that is fraught with 
hope and inspiration for the ambitious colored youth who 
must make his way in the face of adverse conditions, though it 
is true that not every one is able to achieve the degree of suc- 
cess which after years of struggle has finally crowned the ef- 
forts of Dr. Sessoms. 

He was born at Harrellsville, N. C, January 28. 1879, son of 
Henry E. Sessoms, a farmer, and Mary Jane (:\Iitchell) Sessoms. 
His grandparents were Tony and Hager Sessoms and Squire and 
Rebecca Giles. Tony Sessoms' early life was spent in slavery. 
Squire and Rebecca Giles were freeborn. 

On April 11, 1907, Dr. Sessoms was married to :\Iiss Minnie 
Janet :\Ioore, daughter of Alfred and :\Iary A. ^Moore, of Kel- 
ford, N. C. She was a teacher before her marriage. Dr. and 
Mrs. Sessoms have one daughter, Madie Douglas Sessoms. 

His educational training first begun in the public school at 
Harrellsville, N. C, was later continued at Roanoke Collegiate 
Institute, at Elizabeth City; Rich Square Academy, and Shaw 
University, all in North Carolina. His parents were very poor, 
but managed to send him to the public school and two years to 




FRED DOUGLASS SESSOMS. 



648 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

Roanoke Collegiate Institute; but about the time for him to en- 
ter the third year, his father told him that on account of the 
tinaneial depression then prevailing (in the early 'nineties) he 
would not be able to render further assistance ; so the boy 
worked around in the neighborhood, and by Christmas had saved 
up twelve dollars. The first of January, he took this money and 
left home for school. He gave the money to the principal, tell- 
ing him that it was all he had, but he wanted to remain in school 
until it closed, and did not know what he would do when the 
money was out. The principal was so impressed with his ear- 
nestness that he arranged for young Sessoms to assist in teach- 
ing to pay part of his expenses, crediting him for the rest. From 
this on, he taught during vacations in the rural districts, and 
continued his schooling until he was graduated from Rich 
Square Academy. He then taught one year, and built a much- 
needed house for his mother. Having decided to study medi- 
cine, he left home for Philadelphia, hoping to find employment 
that would enable him to earn money to begin his medical course. 
Again his determination paved the way to success, and, in 1902,. 
he matriculated at Leonard Medical College, at Shaw University, 
Raleigh, N. C. ; and by working each Summer in the North, was 
enabled to continue his medical course until his M. D. degree 
was won in 1906. In his reading he has drawn courage and in- 
spiration from the lives of great men who began, as he did, un- 
der adverse conditions. 

He began the practice of his profession in Hertford, N. C, 
in June, 1906, without a penny, and still owing about two hun- 
dred dollars on account of his education. That he had been able 
to get through with his schooling that early and without heavier 
indebtedness, speaks well for his energy and his careful man- 
agement of resources. But not less remarkable has been his 
record since ; for by continuing his professional work, and his ac- 
customed careful handling of income, and without assistance 
from any one, he has not only paid all debts, but now pays cash 
for everything he buys, and has accumulated property valued at 
thirty-five thousand dollars. He has done special work in elec- 
trical therapeutics and has the only X-ray equipment in his city. 

In polities he is a Repul)liean, but not active. He is a mem- 



GEORGIA EDITION 649 

ber of the Baptist Church and was for some 3'ears Superintend- 
ent of the Sunday-school. He lielongs to the Odd Fellows, 
Knights of Pythias, Good Samaritans and ^Mosaic Templars. 

He says : "The best way to promote the interest, as I see it, 
of our race in Georgia and the nation, is for the Negro to ac- 
quire education, buy property, and pursue all legitimate avoca- 
tions and professions pursued by the white man. 



LEXIUS HENSON HARPER 



DOCTOR LEXIUS HENSON HARPER, who has been 
practicing medicine in Augusta since 1905, is a native of 
that city, w^here he was born September 24, 1876. His 
father, Thomas Raymond Harper, was a railway mail clerk. 
His mother's maiden name was Cecilia E. Chestnut. His pa- 
ternal grandparents were Robert A. and Laura F. Harper. 

Dr. Harper went to Haines Normal and Industrial School 
at Augusta for his industrial and preliminary schooling. He 
took his classical course at Lincoln University, graduating with 
the degree of A. B. in 1896. Three years later he took his M. D, 
degree from the College of Physicians and Surgeons of Boston. 
This thorough equipment for his life work, however, was not se- 
cured without a struggle. Meager financial resources made it 
necessary for him to work at the Summer hotels at the North 
during vacation time, in order to complete his course at Lincoln 
University. Having made up his mind to enter the medical 
profession, he worked at the drug business and waited on the 
table at Summer resorts in order to complete that course without 
a break. He recognizes, among the influences that have helped 
him, his parents, his home life, and contact with ambitious as- 
sociates. While in college he was active in all lines of sport, 
and was especially fond of baseball. Apart from his profes- 
sional reading, he is especially fond of books of travel and 
science. 



650 HISTORY OF A:\IERICAN NEGRO 

On completing his course in 1899 he returned to Augusta and 
in June of the following year, having passed the State board, 
began the practice of his profession in that city. Later he had 
an attractive offer to go North and spent four years in office 
practice and the drug business at Providence, R. I. He then 
returned to Augusta, where he has since resided. 

On August 25, 1913, he was married to IMiss ^Mildred A. Bruce, 
daughter of John Bruce, of Tuscaloosa, Ala. She took her lit- 
erary course at Haines Normal and Industrial Institute and 
later did special work in domestic art at Cheyney Institute in 
Philadelphia. Returning to Georgia, she taught at Haines Nor- 
mal until her marriage to Dr. Harper. Dr. and Mrs. Harper 
have two children, Lexius Henson, Jr., and Mildred Cecelia 
Harper. 

In politics, Dr. Harper is a Republican, and in religion a mem- 
ber of the Baptist Church. Among the secret orders he is iden- 
tified with the Pythians, Masons and Eastern Star, in all of 
which he is prominent. He is also a member of the Civic Im- 
provement League, and of the Augusta and Georgia Medical 
Societies. 

Dr. Harper owns his home, and is esteemed as a worthy citi- 
zen of Augusta. 

He is associated with Dr. Burrus in a modern sanitarium at 
the corner of Ninth and Gwinnett Streets and lectures at Haines 
Normal and Industrial Institute. He is recognized by the pro- 
fessional men of both races as a skilled anaesthetist. 



VAN ALSTINE 0. WATSON 



PROF. VAN ALSTINE OGLESBY WATSON, Principal of 
the Tallapoosa High School, is one of the well equipped 
young men of the race, who is devoting his life to educa- 
tional work. He is a son of Dr. S. E. J. Watson, and was born 
at Leland, Miss. 

He had the advantage of being l)rouglit up in a home where 



GEORGIA EDITION 651 

course. He was graduated from that institution in 1909, and 
thus came to his work as a teacher well equipped. While taking 
his university course, he spent his vacations in the Pullman 
service which gave him the opportunity of seeing much of 
America. While in school he was on the baseball team. 

On February 23, 1913, he was married to ]\Iiss Lona Gannt, a 
daughter of Henry C. Gannt of Columbia, Tenn. Mrs. Watson 
teaches in the primary grades of the school of which her hus- 
band is the principal. Prof. Watson's favorite reading is his- 
tory, which he teaches together with mathematics. 

In politics he is a Republican and is chairman of the county 
committee and frequently attends the party conventions. 

He is a member of the A. M. E. Church and was at one time 
Superintendent of the Sunday-school. Among the secret or- 
ders, he is identified with the Odd Fellows. He believes the 
greatest need of the race is education. 

Prof. Watson belongs to the present generation and is repre- 
sentative of a class of young colored men who have taken time to 
equip themselves for the serious work of life and who are to be 
responsible for whatever of progress the race makes during this 
generation. 



LLOYD DAVID McAFEE 



REV. LLOYD DAVID McAFEE is an energetic and suc- 
cessful minister of the C. M. E. connection and resides in 
Columbus, where he has made his home for a number of 
years, although a native of Crawford county, having been born 
there August 28, 1870. His father, Thomas McAfee, who is still 
alive (1916) is a farmer, and was a slave before Emancipation. 
His mother was Susanna (Walker) McAfee. Back of his par- 
ents he knows nothing of his ancestry. 

He worked hard, as a boy, on the farm in Crawford county 
and there availed himself of such opportunities as the poor pub- 
lic schools of that day afforded. From boyhood he was studious 
and adapted to lead, and does not remember the time when he 




LLOYD DAVID McAFEE. 



GEORGIA EDITION 653 

the value of education was appreciated. He secured his ele- 
mentary education at Greenville, Miss. After the family moved 
to Georgia, he attended Walden University for his literary 
did not feel that his life work would be that of the ministry. 
His conversion dates from the age of seventeen but long before 
that the boy was accustomed to preach to his playmates and 
whatever died on the farm was sure of a funeral, if young Mc- 
Afee had his way. 

After his conversion, he attended Ballard Normal school at 
Macon for two terms. He joined the Conference in 1894 at Fort 
Valley and was assigned to the Haynesville circuit in Houston 
county. The following year he was sent to the Smithville mis- 
sion. From Smithville he was promoted to the Camilla Station 
and since then has had some of the best appointments in the 
Conference. He served the Albany station for two years, Bruns- 
wick two years, Unionville (Macon) one year, Holsey's Temple 
(Columbus) two years, Stinson circuit two years, Barnesville 
Station one year, Elko circuit one year, Jacksonville one year 
and Cordele station two years. At the end of that time he was 
promoted to the Presiding Eldership of the Thomasville district 
which he served for two years and was then transferred to the 
McRae District which he served for two years. In 1914 he was 
assigned to the Albany district. His w^ork, both as pastor and 
presiding elder, has been fruitful and progressive. He is a 
vigorous man, an eloquent speaker, with a good word and a 
cheery smile for everybody. He is also a man of good business 
judgment and has invested his savings in Columbus real estate, 
owning considerable renting property in addition to a nice home. 
He stands high in the denomination and is identified with the 
Masons, Odd Fellows, Knights of Moses and Knights and Daugh- 
ters of Tabor. 

On August 28, 1890, he was married to Miss Sarah Jane Regu- 
lus, a daughter of Calvin and Maria Regulus of Crawford 
county. Mrs. McAfee has heartily seconded the efforts of her 
husband and is fully identified with the women's work of her 
denomination. She is president of the Missionary Workers of 
Southwest Georgia Conference, whose motto is, *'To the brave 
and faithful nothing is difficult," and whose creed is: 




MRS. L. D. MCAFEE. 



GEORGIA EDITION 655 

'"I would be true, for there are those who trust me; 
I would be pure, for there are those who care ; 
I would be strong, for there is much to suffer ; 
I would be brave, for there is much to dare; 
I would be a friend to all the friendless ; 
I would be giving, and forget the gift; 
I would be humble, for I know my w^eakness ; 
I would look up and laugh, and love, and lift." 

She was educated at Fort Valley and at Albany. She taught 
for a number of years in the public schools of the State and had 
the reputation of being a banner teacher in every county in 
which she taught. Later she was employed by the J. E. Mc- 
Brady Co., of Chicago, by whom .she is held in the highest es- 
teem. In the dozen years she has been with the firm, her suc- 
cess has been remarkable. She is prominently identified with 
the Knights of Closes and the Knights and Daughters of Tabor 
in both of which she holds high official position. 



WILLIAM WARREN JONES 



REV. WILLIA:\I warren JONES, a successful colored 
IMissionary Baptist minister and prominent Mason, re- 
sides at Augusta, Ga. He was born at Hephzibah on Au- 
gust 21, 1874, son of Phillip Jones, a farmer, and Chanie Louise 
(Ryanes) Jones, the latter being a native of Edgefield, S. C. 
His grandparents were Benjamin and Rachel Jones and Pierce 
and Clarissie Ryanes. 

On February 27, 1897, he was married to Miss Mattie Louise 
Carr, daughter of Robert H. and Elizabeth Carr, of Hephzibah. 
They have three children, Harold Leonhardt, William Warren^ 
Jr., and James Elhannon. 

Mr. Jones was twelve years of age when he learned the al- 
phabet under Prof. S. A. Walker. His early schooling was fre- 
quently interrupted and fragmentary, his time being devoted in 
part to farm work. After he reached the point where he could 
t'^ke up teaching in Burke and Richmond counties, his way was; 




WILLIAM WARREN JONES. 



GEORGIA EDITION 657 

somewhat easier. His course at Walker Baptist Institute was 
delayed on account of his church work, and the fact that he had 
a family dependent on his support. His reading centers about 
the Bible. He has traveled across the continent. 

He was early converted, and at about the age of eighteen felt 
called to the work of the ministry. He was ordained by the 
Franklin Covenant Baptist Church in 1897. 

He has pastored the following churches : Adam Grove, Rich- 
mond Hill, Old Flat Rock, Smith Grove. Thomson Bridge, Mt. 
Horeb, Pine Hill, Bottford Spring, Spring Branch, Cummings 
Grove, Macedonia, Ebenezer and Doyals Grove. Of these he or- 
ganized Richmond Hill (from the Pedo Baptist), Thomson 
Bridge and Mt. Horeb. He is assistant secretary of the Walker 
Baptist Association, and a trustee of Walker Baptist Institute. 
He has had a fruitful ministry and has baptized at least 2,500 
persons. 

He organized churches at Thomson's Bridge, Richmond Hill 
and Mt. Horeb. Houses of worship were erected for each of 
these congregations. 

He is a Republican in politics, and among the secret orders 
is affiliated with the Odd Fellows, Mosaic Templars and Masons, 
and was for three years Grand Lecturer for the York Masons 
of Georgia. He is the owner of a comfortable home and other 
property. His suggestion for the promotion of the best inter- 
ests of his race in the state and nation is as follows : ' ' Serve 
God, stop complaining of the many hardships heaped upon us, 
be true to our trust, stand for all the moral and physcial good, 
having a high aim in life." 

On the organization of the Georgia Baptist Publishing Co. 
Mr. Johnson was made business manager. He attends the Na- 
tional Baptist Conventions and does a great deal of evangelistic 
work. 



ISAIAH MACK 



THE GREAT Baptist denomination in Georgia numbers 
among its ministers some of the ablest men of the race. 
Many of these have come up from the ranks, some of them 
with limited educational opportunities. Notwithstanding these 
difficulties, many of them have not only made successful pastors 
and preachers of themselves, but have worked up to places of 
leadership among their people in the business life of their com- 
munities. Rev. Isaiah Mack, of Milner, is among this class. He 
was born in ^lonroe county, April 11, 1880. His parents were 
Henderson and Peggy Ann Mack. His paternal grandfather, 
Benjamin Mack, was brought to Georgia from Virginia. His 
grandmother, on his mother's side, was a Ponder. 

Young ]N[ack grew up on a farm and as a boy was sent to the 
public school of Pike county. He was converted about the age 
of fourteen and connected himself with the Mt. Hope Baptist 
Church, at once becoming active in its work, though it was five 
years later before he entered the ministry. The year after he 
was licensed he attended Morehouse College, Atlanta, for two 
terms, for the theological training. 

His first pastorate was at the Bethesda Baptist Church at 
Reynolds, which he served for nine years. With the growth of 
this work, he found it necessary to build a new house of worship. 
He pastored Sardis, in ^Monroe county, for thirteen years and 
built there, also. He has served Mt. Gilead twelve years, having 
re-built and seated the house at that point. For nine years he 
preached at Shoal Creek and is now (1916) in his third year 
at Holly Grove. Some short pastorates were Colliers and Phil- 
adelphia, at Hampton. 

On December 31. 1902, Mr. ]\Iack was married to Miss Carrie 
Shehee, of Pike county. They have one child, Bessie Mack, but 
are also rearing an adopted child, a niece, whose parents are 
dead and who is about the age of their own daughter. Her 
name is Flossie Jane Mack. The two girls are being educated 
together. 



GEORGIA EDITION 659 

Rev. Mack does a good deal of revival work, especially 
during the Summer. He is a member of the executive board of 
the State Baptist Convention and of the State Sunday School 
and B. Y. P. U. conventions. He is also on the executive board 
of Cabin Creek Association, a member of the trustee board of 
the Cabin Creek School and president of the District Sunday 
School convention. He is also district organizer of the B. Y. P. 
U. of Georgia. So it will be seen that he is active and fully 
identified with every department of his denominational work. 

He is secretary of the Pike County Republican Committee 
and is a Mason, Odd Fellow and Pythian. He is an ardent ad- 
vocate of Christian education and encourages his people to ac- 
cumulate property. He is himself the owner of a good home and 
three other houses at iMilner and has a half interest in a farm of 
164 acres in ]\Ionroe county, though he conducts his own farm- 
ing operations on rented land near home. 



GEORGE W. FORT PHILLIPS 



REV. GEORGE W. F. PHILLIPS, a prominent minister 
and educator of the C. M. E. Church, has built for him- 
self an enduring monument in the Holsey Normal and 
Industrial Academy, at Cordele. Professor Phillips is a native 
of Milledgeville, where he was born about eight years before the 
war, on February 10, 1853. His father, Rev. Washington Phil- 
lips, and his mother, Nancy, were both slaves. His paternal 
great grandmother was a native African. His maternal great 
grandmother was born in ^Maryland. 

Though not permitted to go to school until after Emancipa- 
tion, young Phillips had, with the assistaiice of an older brother, 
learned to spell in 1861. After Emancipation, he went to school 
for a short while to a colored man by the name of Peter 'Neal, 
who had by some means secured enough education to teach the 
less fortunate. In 1866, he started to a school, under the 
auspices of the American Missionary Association, where he was 




GEORGE WASHINGTON FORT PHILLIPS. 



GEORGIA EDITION 661 

maintained by his father till such time as he could secure a 
teachers' license. He then began teaching the Summer schools 
and from that time on found his way easier. 

In 1870 Prof. Phillips entered Atlanta University and com- 
pleted the Normal course in 1876. Prior to this time, however, 
he had taught in Jones and Hancock counties. In 1877 he was 
elected principal of the ]Milledgeville school, where he remained 
for two years. He was then chosen principal of the Americus 
public school, which position he held for ten years. 

Though converted at an early age, and active in the work of 
the church, he did not enter the ministry until 1890. He joined 
the Conference in that year, and was stationed at Cordele, which 
at that time was merely a mission with three members. He 
kept on with his educational work and after entering the minis- 
try taught school at Andersonville during 1891, 1892, 1893. In 
189-1, he took charge of Holsey Academy, then located at Lum- 
ber City, Telfair county. In 1895 he entered the church work 
and was assigned to ^larshallville, which charge he held two 
years. In 1898 he was assigned to the pastorate of St. Andrews 
Church, Brunswick. While there he published a pamphlet of 
discourses entitled "Seaside Homilies." He was the founder of 
the large grocery business now conducted by his nephew, M. B. 
Phillips, and was for nine years his partner. The partnership 
was dissolved in 1897. Since that time religious and educa- 
tional work has claimed his attention ; a field to which he is 
better adapted. 

Given the principalship of Holsey Normal and Industrial 
Academy he opened school in January, 1907, with 20 pupils and 
one assistant. The institution now gives employment to eight 
teachers and this year (1917) has enrolled over 300. The suc- 
cess of the institution is due in a large measure to Prof. Phillips' 
executive ability, business judgment and scholarship combined. 
He is a progressive man and has kept up with educational move- 
ments and has served his church in a large way. Although not 
active in politics or the secret orders, he has long been identi- 
fied with the Republican party, and with the Masons and Odd 
Fellows. He owns some well located property in Americus and 
at Milledgeville. 



662 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

On April 8.. 1880, he was married to Miss Lucy Wisham, of 
Americus. For more than 30 years she was a popular teacher of 
that place in the puhlic schools. They have no children. 

Apart from the Bible, Prof. Phillips' favorite reading is his- 
tory, good tietion and poetry. He writes some verse occasionally 
himself. He believes that the best interests of the race are to 
be promoted by the means to which he has devoted his own life — 
Christian Education. 

Though not actively engaged in the ministry the title of 
Doctor of Divinity was conferred on him by Phillips University, 
Tyler, Texas, in 1910. 



JAMES MADISON NABRIT 



THOUGHcovering,up to this time, theshortspace of thirty- 
nine years, the life-story of Rev. James Madison Nabrit, 
A. M., D. D., a Baptist minister now of Augusta, Ga., is 
a remarkable one and would be highly creditable to a man much 
older. He was born in Atlanta, September 17, 1877, his father 
being Clarke Nabrit, a blaster and well-digger, whose parents 
were Jack and Harriet Nabrit. His mother's maiden name was 
Slargaret Knox Petty, a daughter of E. James Petty and Dillie 
(Knox) Petty. Dillie Petty was a cook, E. J. Petty a carpen- 
ter and Jack Nabrit a farmer. — all honest, hard-working peo- 
ple, and both families were slaves up to the time of Emancipa- 
tion. 

Dr. Nabrit 's primary education was obtained in Thornton's 
School and Mitchell Street Public School, Atlanta. He later en- 
tered Atlanta Baptist College, from which he was graduated 
with the A. B. degree in 1898, and still later took a post-graduate 
course at the Chicago University. The A. M. degree was con- 
ferred upon him by Virginia Theological Seminary, and the 
D. D. degree by Central City College, IMacon, in which he was 



GEORGIA EDITION 663 

for sometime professor and vice-president. But notwithstanding 
his broad education, it did not come easy ; for his parents were 
poor and had the care of a large family, so that they could give 
him little assistance ; but he had a good brain, good muscle, a 
strong will, and an adaptability that enabled him to take hold 
of nearly any work that offered and make it help him in his set 
purpose to fit himself for a place of large usefulness in life. 
He was at various times newsboy, water boy, grocery porter, cart 
driver, baker, well cleaner, teamster, rural teacher and hotel bell- 
man. Among the influences Avhich have been most potential in 
shaping his life and character, he places first the Christian home 
in which he was reared, and, second his school. He had developed 
a vigorous constitution before entering college, and there became 
an all-around athlete, and captain of the baseball and football 
teams. Since leaving college he has traveled extensively over 
the United States, and has also continued a close student of the 
best literature, giving the preference to theolog>% history, philos- 
ophy and fiction. 

After leaving Atlanta Baptist College, his first work as a 
teacher was at Cuthbert, beginning in August, 1898. He taught 
there part of two years, and was then for eight years vice-presi- 
dent and professor of Greek at Central City College, Macon; 
five years pastor at Forsyth ; five years at Americus, and is now 
(1916) in his fifth year as pastor at Springfield, Augusta, the 
•oldest Negro church in Georgia. In all these various important 
positions, he has shown himself a worker, and a capable and 
successful worker. He has won the confidence and esteem of the 
people wherever he has gone, and has a wide circle of friends in 
various parts of the State and beyond its borders. 

Dr. Nabrit says he is in no sense a politician, his time and 
energies being fully occupied along other lines. A strong be- 
liever, however, in the principles of fraternity, he is identified 
with the following secret orders, though for lack of time to de- 
vote to their duties he has had to give up all official positions in 
them: Masons, Knights of Pythias. Odd Fellows, Supreme Cir- 
cle, Knights of Tabor, Eastern Star and Court of Calauthe. 

Dr. Nabrit teaches Latin and Greek at Walker Baptist In- 



664 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

stitiite and is auditor of the Baptist State Convention. He is 
Secretary of the National Baptist Convention, also a member of 
the Executive . Board. Dr. Nabrit is a forceful and popular 
speaker and is in demand on public occasions. 

He believes that those things which will be most conducive to 
the welfare of his race in the state and nation are : Equal op- 
portunity in business, a square deal before the courts, protec- 
tion in the peaceful pursuit of life and labor, equal chance in 
school, and the open church. 

On May 7, 1899, he was married to ^liss Augusta Gertrude 
West, daughter of Henry and Ella West, of Cuthbert. They 
have six children : James "SI., Jr., ^Margaret E., Samuel Cook, 
Annie Elizabeth, Augusta G. and Henry C. Nabrit. 

While not wealthy. Dr. Nabrit is a substantial property- 
owner, having acquired a good home. The record of his life and 
work should be an inspiring one to the younger generation, and 
is one which it will be to their advantage to emulate; and the 
coming years give promise of a yet larger usefulness. 



MAJOR WADE REDDICK 



REV. :\IAJOR WADE REDDICK, founder and present 
head of the Americus Institute, is recognized in his de- 
nomination and among the teaching profession as one 
of the strong men of the race in Georgia. He has not, how- 
ever, reached his present place of leadership without a strug- 
gle. 

He was born near Cuthbert on :\Iarch 2, 1868. His parents- 
were James H. Reddick, a farmer, and I\Iary Ann Munger. 
His paternal grandfather was a slave, though his maternal 
grandfather was a white man. One of his great-grandfathers 
was brought direct from Africa, and the other great-grand- 
father was an Indian, so that there flows in his veins the blood 
of three races. 

Conditions were such just after the war in the Reddick 




MAJOR WADE REDDICK. 



666 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

home, that it was necessary for all hands to work. ]\[ajor was 
kept on the farm and in the forest cutting ties, until he had 
reached his twenty-first year. Up to that time he had gone 
to school only four months, and even after that time it was 
necessary for him to make his way, by means of his own earn- 
ings, through school. Having determined, however, to secure 
an education, he laughed at obstacles which confronted him, 
and finally succeeded in completing the high school and col- 
lege courses at the Baptist (now jMorehouse) College, Atlanta, 
from which he was graduated in May, 1897. The same insti- 
tution conferred upon him the degrees of A. B. and A. M. 

He taught school at Cuthbert and other points during his 
vacations, while in college, and on the completion of the course 
in 1897, founded the Americus Institute, under the auspices of 
the Southwestern Baptist Association; and the story of the 
work he has done there since that date is the story of the insti- 
tution. A chapter dealing with the Americus Institute will 
be found in another part of this book. It should be said here, 
however, that the work of the Americus Institute has not been 
confined to the local association. It has made a place for itself 
in the educational life of the Negro in Georgia. Some of the 
most successful young men in the State today credit a large 
measure of their success to the training secured here. 

At the age of twenty. Prof. Reddick was converted and 
joined the Ncav Harmony Baptist Church, Shellman, Ga. In 
1894 he felt called to the work of the ministry, and was licensed 
and ordained by his home church. Looking back over his life, he 
acknowledges with gratitude the good influence of his mother, 
his oldest brother, J. L. Reddick, and of his teachers, especially 
Miss Carrie E. Bemus and Dr. Sale. 

While beginning his college course late in life, yet he was a 
popular student and a hard worker, and took an active part in 
college athletics; was at one time manager of the baseball 
team. While his work has been principally in the educational 
field, he recognizes the importance of religious training along 
with the development of the intellectual side of life, and is 
a faithful pastor. He entered upon the work of the pastorate 
at Pelham in 1902. 



GEORGIA EDITION 667 

In addition to this, he is frequently in demand at educational 
rallies, conventions, associations, etc. While not engaged in 
a line that is usually considered lucrative. Prof. Reddick owns 
a comfortable home at Americus, near the Institute, and some 
other city property. 

When asked for some suggestion as to how the best inter- 
ests of the race might be promoted, he said: "By applying the 
laws to offenders of both races alike. By recognizing merit 
and character wherever found. By brotherly kindness to the 
man further down." 

On September 20, 1899, Prof. Reddick was married to ^liss 
Hannah Adelina Howell, a daughter of Irvin and Affie How- 
ell, of Midville, Ga. Mrs. Reddick was educated at Spelman 
Seminary, where she was a teacher before her marriage. 

In 1915 the Missionary Baptist Convention of Georgia and 
the General State Baptist Convention merged into one body 
at a meeting in INIacon. It was seen that Rev. Reddick was 
the logical man for the head of this, the largest denominational 
organization in the State, or for that matter in any of the 
States, Accordingly he was elected to the presidency of what 
is now known as the General Missionary Baptist Convention 
of Georgia, and lias been re-elected at each succeeding session. 
He presides with ease and dignity and has administered the 
affairs of the denomination in a way that has been satisfactory 
to the masses of the organization. His position as President 
makes him ex-offieio a member of all the Boards. 



GRANVILLE W. HARRISON 



REV. GRANVILLE WALKER HARRISON, who pas- 
tors a number of churches on the eastern side of the 
State, and is president of the Columbia Union Sunday 
School Convention and treasurer of the Shiloh Association, re- 
sides at Augusta. He was born at Appling, in Columbia county, 
November 15, 1868. His father, Rev. Benjamin Harrison, was 
also a minister of the Gospel. His mother's maiden name was 



668 HISTORY OF AI\IERICAN NEGRO 

Mahala Bell. His graiulparents were Felix and Nancy Harri- 
son. 

From boyhood Reverend Harrison has been a hard worker. 
His educational opportunities were limited- to the public schools. 
He was converted at the age of eighteen, and soon afterwards 
felt called to the work of the ministry. In 1895 he was or- 
dained to the full work of the ministry, and on ]\Iarch 15th of 
that year was called to the Jerusalem Baptist Church of Savan- 
nah. The church had no house of worship and only nineteen 
members. He was installed as pastor a month later, and by the 
end of the year a house of worship had been erected and the 
membership increased to sixty. He remained with that church 
for eight years, paying off all indebtedness. In 1899 he was 
called to tlie Macedonia Baptist Church, Augusta, which he 
served successfully for more than four years. While serving 
this church he was called to the Zion, White Bluff, and later 
to the New Holt Baptist Church at Harlem, thus filling up 
his time. In 1902 he was called to the pastorate of Mt. Carmel, 
at Winfield, and Green Branch at Mt. Zion. The acceptance 
of this work necessitated his resignation from Zion, White Bluff 
and Macedonia. At this time (1916) he is pastor of the 
churches at Ut. Carmel, Mt. Zion, New Holt, Greenbrand, Mc- 
Duffie county, and ilt. Zion, Lincoln county, with a total mem- 
bership of about three thousand. He is one of the vice-presi- 
dents of the State Baptist Convention; also a member of the 
Executive Board of that body. He is one of the Board of 
Managers of the State Reformatory ; president of the Columbia 
Union Sunday School Convention, and treasurer of the Shiloh 
Association. Among the other institutions of his race, he is a 
member of the Board of Directors of Walker Baptist Institute, 
and of the Negro Fair Association of Augusta, and of the com- 
mittee to harmonize the dift'erences between the two Baptist 
conventions of Georgia. 

It will thus be seen that although lacking a college education, 
he has made for himself a prominent place in his State and 
donimination. Among the secret orders he is identified with 
the Pythians, Odd Fellows and :\Iasons. He owns a com- 
fortable home at 143-1: IMarbury St.. Augusta. 



GEORGIA EDITION 669 

On July 22, 1892, he was married to Miss Carrie Thomas, of 
Augusta. They have one child, John Willie Thomas Harrison. 

Since entering the ministry, j\Ir. Harrison has traveled rather 
extensively over the country, and has been a regular attendant 
at the meeting of the National Baptist Convention, which has 
taken him to many of the larger cities of the country. His fa- 
vorite reading is along the line of the Bible and sacred literature. 

Rev. Harrison has baptized nearly 2.000 members, built four 
churches and within the last eight years has raised more than 
$10,000 for church property. 



ROMAN JOHN JOHNSON 



TO SAY that a colored Baptist minister has fairly won his 
way to a place of high standing as to character, ability 
and achievement, in the Walker Baptist Association, and 
in the State is no small compliment. To such recognition, the 
Rev. Roman John Johnson is clearly entitled. 

He was born near Hephzibah, Ga., December 16, 1867. His 
parents had been slaves up to the time of Emancipation. His 
father was Gilbert Johnson, a farmer and a devout member of 
the Baptist Church, in which he was a deacon. Roman's mother 
w^as Frances (Walker) Johnson, a member of the famous Walker 
family, and a cousin of the distinguished Dr. Charles T. Wal- 
ker. Her father was Frank Walker, a man noted for his natural 
gifts, consistent life and deep piety. In the home there was an 
atmosphere alike of industry and of intense religious devotion 
and sincerity which left their impress upon "R. J.," as he is 
now commonly, and by his brethren affectionately, called ; and 
to these influences he gratefully acknowledges his indebtedness. 

As a farmer's son, with the usual duties which that implies, 
he attended the public school until the point was reached where 
he could obtain first grade license as a pu1)lic school-teacher, and 
then taught for ten years. — from 1886 to 1895. 

In the meantime, in 1878, he had been converted and was bap- 




ROMAN JOHN JOHNSON. 



GEORGIA EDITION 671 

tized into the fellowship of the Franklin Covenant Church by 
Rev. N. Walker. Though still quite young, he soon began to 
take a very active part in the affairs of the church, and, in 1884, 
was sent for the lirst time as a messenger from his church to the 
Association. On October 5, 1885, he w^as married to Miss Char- 
lotte Williams, daughter of Maria Williams. In 1888, he was 
licensed to preach, and the next year was paid the unusual honor 
of being selected to preach the introductory sermon to the Wal- 
ker Baptist Association. The first Sunday in December, 1891, 
he was ordained to the ministry by Revs. W. G. and Gas S. 
Johnson, having been called to the pastorate of Spring Hill 
Baptist Church, near Blythe. In the same year he moved to 
Augusta, where he has since resided. Within four months after 
beginning his first pastorate, he held a revival without other 
ministerial aid, as a result of which he baptized fifty new mem- 
bers. He serves this church now and has built for them two 
excellent houses of worship. In 1892, he was called to Hart's 
Grove Baptist Cliurch, Spread, Ga., to succeed Rev. Thomas 
R. Glover. September, 1900, he was called to the pastorate 
of the First Baptist Church, MiUen, and in October of the 
same year to the Eden Baptist Church, Louisville. In order 
to accept the pastorate of the First Church at Millen, he re- 
signed the pastorate of the Second Baptist Church at White 
Plains, Avhich he had served since 1893. In December, 1905, he 
resigned Hart's Grove at Spread, and organized the First Bap- 
tist Church in the same town. Here a house of worship was 
erected at a cost of two thousand dollars and the membership 
increased from ninety-nine to one of the most active congrega- 
tions in that section. 

Among the positions of honor and responsibility to which he 
has been selected b.y his brethren are the following: Chairman 
of the Finance Comrai,ttee of the Walker Baptist Association; 
Treasurer of the same organization ; Chairman of the Execu- 
tive Board of the Walker Baptist Sunday School Convention; 
Vice-President of the General State Baptist Convention of Geor- 
gia ; Secretary for a number of years of the Baptist Pastoral 
Conference of Augusta and vicinity. In the summer of 1909 
he was called to the pastorate of the Central Baptist Church, 



672 HISTORY OF A:\IERICAX NEGRO 

Augusta ; and under his ministry the old brick house of worship 
which stood where the congregation had worshiped since 1858 
was sold, and a modern new church building erected in a more 
suitable location at a cost of eight thousand one hundred and 
twenty dollars. Under his leadership the church has been 
greatly strengthened and the congregation increased. 

Of the eleven children born to Dr. and ^Irs. Johnson, four 
only are now living. They are Inez Louise (now Mrs. Davis), 
Roman C, Oliver E. and Ionia Eunice. It is needless to say 
that the children who survive are all being given a liberal edu- 
cation. 

Dr. Johnson is the author of a "History of the Walker Bap- 
tist Association of Georgia." The book is in every way a cred- 
itable volume, and is well illustrated. It contains a brief sketch 
of the author by the scholarly Prof. Silas X. Floyd, from which 
the facts of this biography are in part gathered. He is also the 
author of other publications, and a frequent contributor of in- 
structive articles to both the religious and secular press. 

Dr. Johnson took his theological course at "Walker Baptist In- 
stitute ; but his learning and his success are largely due to the 
fact that he has a large and well selected library, of which he has 
made constant and untiring use, giving the preference to relig- 
ious and historical works. He is a member of the Odd Fellows, 
and is a Republican. He is a regular attendant upon the meet- 
ings of the National Baptist Convention, which has carried him 
at various times to almost every section of the country. 

Asked to express an opinion as to how the interests of his race 
in the state and nation might best be promoted, he answered in 
four words: "Opportunity, unity, religion, education." 



ANDREW REYNOLD RAIFORD 



PROF. ANDREW REYNOLD RAIFORD, Principal of the 
Shiloh Academy, a Baptist Institution at Washington, 
Ga., is a man who stands well in his communit}^ and has 
made a place for himself as an educator in the Missionary Bap- 
tist Church. He was born in Elbert county on February 15, 
1877. His parents were Sam and Eliza (Edwards) Raiford. 
His father is a successful farmer of Wilkes county. His paternal 
grandparents, Andrew and Henrietta Raiford, were slaves of 
Thomas Cade. His grandparents, Nelson and Mittie Edwards, 
belonged to Sandy Hughes. 

On August ol, 1910, Prof. Raiford was married to ^liss 
Blanche F. Norris, a daughter of Greene Herman and Char- 
lotte Norris. They have two children, Thelma W. N. and Ber- 
nice Helen Raiford. 

Prof. Raiford first went to school at Bowman Institute in El- 
bert county. Later he entered ^Morehouse College, graduating 
from the academic department in 1905. Four years later he was 
graduated from the college department with the B. A. degree. 
He had to work his own way through college, and among the ex- 
traordinary difficulties which he encountered in doing so, were 
a broken leg, a case of typhoid fever, that came near proving 
fatal, and a severe case of lagrippe. Both the latter left his 
health impaired for sometime. He did not, however, permit any 
of these things to turn him aside from his set purpose to pre- 
pare himself for his life work by completing his college educa- 
tion. In the meantime, he drew inspiration and encouragement 
from his parents, home life, school and associates. He took lit- 
tle part in college games, as his work was quite sufficient for 
physical exercise. In his reading, aside from regular school 
books and the Bible, he has found most helpful works on moral 
and natural science. He has traveled through the South and 
IMiddle West. 

Even before entering college, he did some public school work, 
beginning in Elbert county in 1897. 




ANDREW REYNOLD RAIFORD. 



GEORGIA EDITION 675 

In 1910, he went to Dermott, Ark., as Principal of the Baptist 
Academy. There he found forty acres of land overgrown and 
undrained. He cleared up and drained the land, which, when 
cultivated, enabled him to cut the grocery bill from a hundred 
to forty dollars a month. Splendid crops were grown on that 
part which was cultivated by the school and the balance was 
rented. The health, the appearance and the value of the place 
were all greatly enhanced under his administration. He re- 
mained three years and during that time installed a printing de- 
partment. 

In 1913 he was called to his present position. The work at 
Washington has prospered under his hand. A new building has 
been completed and the campus has been graded and fenced, 
and a thousand dollars worth of property purchased. The en- 
rollment of the school has been built up to more than a hundred 
and fifty. 

In 1912, Prof. Raiford was licenesd to preach and was or- 
dained to the full work of the ministry in 1915. On account of 
his school work he has not entered upon the active pastorate. 
He is a member of the S. S. Board and ex-officio, a member of 
the Executive Board of the Third Shiloh Association. 

He takes no active part in politics, but is in sympathy with 
the Republican party. Among the secret orders he is affiliated 
with the Knights of Pythias and IMosaic Templars. In the local 
lodge of the Templars he is "Worthy Scribe. He is also identi- 
fied with the Lincoln Memorial Association, in which he is 
secretary. He believes that the greatest need of his race in this 
country is honest, capable, well-trained and consecrated leader- 
ship. That sort of leadership the colored people of his com- 
munitv have in Prof. Raiford. 



NATHAN LANE BLACK 



PROF. NATHAN LANE BLACK was born in Hale county, 
Ala., midway between Greensboro and Uniontown, Aug. 
5, 1870. 
From the time he was old and large enough, he had to work 
in the corn and cotton fields. As far back as he can remember 
he had a hunger and thirst for knowledge. His parents, re- 
cently out of slavery and unlettered, could not help him. See- 
ing his white friends and playmates reading, writing and con- 
stantly learning, only made his hunger for knowledge the 
keener and more annoying, as he could not cope with them. This 
unquenchable desire to know, however, had the advantage of 
driving him, even at an early age, to a determination to secure 
an education. 

His father. Henry Black, gave him his first book, "Webster's 
Blue Back Speller." This was the only book his father ever 
gave him. He learned the alphabet in less than a day, and be- 
gan putting them together in words of two letters. No one 
taught him to read. He did that for himself. Having learned 
the words in his spelling, he began to associate them on the 
printed page, and, to the pleasant surprise of his teacher, was 
soon reading. 

The years passed slowly as he helped with the drudgery of 
farm work till he was quite fourteen years old. One Fourth of 
July, his father refused him the liberty of joining his friends in 
the festivities of the occasion. Instead, he was sent to the field 
to plow cotton. While crossing a ditch, the old horse fell. The 
irate father, following a few paces behind, accused the boy of 
throwing the horse, which was unjust to the boy as it was not 
true. Nathan was treated to severe punishment. The father 
went to another part of the field and the boy left, never to re- 
turn. Although fourteen, he had not been to school more than 
seven months. ]Making sure of his escape, he went to the State 
Normal at IMarion, Ala. After two years he applied for license 
to teach in the rural schools of the State. He passed the ex- 




NATHAN LANE BLACK. 



678 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

amination, secured his license and began his career as a teacher. 
From this time forward, he taught, worked and went to school 
till he had more than completed the requireranets of the Normal 
Department from which he was regularly graduated. Being a 
teacher at sixteen, he was known as the "boy teacher." His 
work compared favorably with that of his seniors both in 
point of age and experience. 

Not having yet the education he wanted, he went North and 
worked through to the A. B. and S. T. B. degrees from a Uni- 
versity in the state of New York. It is interesting to note that 
such w^ere his industry and economy that he brought away from 
college more money than he had when he entered. His manly 
disposition and courteous deportment kept him in the good 
graces of both the faculty and his fellow^ students, who were 
always ready to give him an opportunity to earn a dime or a 
dollar. 

Dr. Black is not easily classified. He is a versatile man, force- 
ful and energetic, an independent thinker, a fearless preacher 
and a capable educator. His advanced religious and educational 
ideals are freciuently misunderstood, as a result of which he 
meets with vigorous antagonism. He is President of the South 
Georgia Industrial College at Waycross, a co-educational insti- 
tution. The watchword of the school is the "training of the 
head, the heart and the hand." This advocacy of tripartite edu- 
cation places Dr. Black abreast of the modern educational lead- 
ers. 

He was called to the ministry in 1892 and was ordained on 
December 2, 1906. His first pastorate was the Antioch Baptist 
Church w^hich he served for two years. He accepted the call 
of the Eureka Baptist Church of Albany. Ga.. and served that 
congregation for four years, teaching during the week at ]\Ioul- 
trie. 

With regard to the ministry. Dr. Black claims that the great- 
est single need of the race today is an intelligent thinking 
clergy. His ideal minister is one who preaches the gospel and 
then lives his own message. He does not believe the race is with- 
out this type of preacher, but thinks they are all too few. Next 
to the ministry, he places the women of the race, whose work of 



GEORGIA EDITION 679 

training and redemption is no less sacred. He contends that the 
priests (the preachers) and the women have the destiny of the 
race in their hands. He touches a vital spot, when he says that 
no race is higher than its women and that the ideals of the 
women are set by the clergy. Such doctrine has not made Dr. 
Black popular, but he is content to labor in the truth and to 
wait. 

He has an abiding love for little children and his patience is 
unfailing. In 1910, he went to Waycross and without any 
nucleus or any organization established the South Georgia In- 
dustrial College. Beginning practically in the woods, Dr. Black 
has acquired two squares of ground and erected a comfortable 
school building. He has surrounded himself with a faculty of 
five teachers. The work of the institution is of high character 
and prepares for teaching or for second year college. 

Dr. Black is an able theologian and accomplished musician, 
teaching both vocal and instrumental. In politics, he is a Re- 
publican. He belongs to the Masons, Odd Fellows and Pythians. 



SCOTT EDWARD J. WATSON 



DR. SCOTT EDWARD JAMES WATSON, of Tallapoosa, 
is one of those hard-working, capable men of the race, 
whose kind is fortunately growing in numbers. He is a 
native of Mississippi, having been born at Stoneville in that 
State, March 15, 1867. His father, Albert Watson, although a 
slave, was a carpenter by trade. His mother's name was Amy. 

As a boy, young Watson attended the public schools of Mis- 
sissippi. He early aspired to a higher education, and, by dint of 
hard work and close economy, was able to enter Walden Uni- 
versity at Nashville for his literary course. He was graduated 
from that institution with the degree of B. S. in 1892. When 
sufficiently advanced to secure a teacher's license, he began 
teaching school. His first school was at his home town, Stone- 
ville, Miss. He made a record as a teacher of which he has no 



680 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

cause to be ashamed. He taught during vacation time Avhile 
taking his literary course and for several years after. 

Having decided to enter the medical profession, he gave up 
teaching and matriculated at ^leharry, graduating with the 
M, D. degree in 1909. After entering upon his medical course, 
his vacations were spent in the Pullman service which took him 
to every part of America and gave him valuable experience in 
many ways. 

Completing the course in 1909, he practiced for a short time 
with Dr. Fulton in Mississippi, but a little later located at Tal- 
lapoosa, where he has since resided. He has built up a good 
general practice. 

Dr. Watson has entered into the life of the communit.y and has 
made for himself and family a comfortable home and owns other 
property. He is considered the foremost colored citizen of Tal- 
lapoosa and commands the respect of both his white and colored 
neighbors. 

He is a Republican, and before becoming so engrossed with 
his practice Avas rather active in his party. He is identified with 
the Masons, the Odd Fellows, the I. B. 0., and the Court of 
Calanthe, for all of which organizations he is local examiner. 
He is also Deputy for the Odd Fellows. 

On September 5, 1890, Dr. Watson was married to Miss 
Amanda Y. Smith, a daughter of Dolphus and Frances Smith. 
They have one son. Van A. 0. Watson, a sketch of whom appears 
in this volume. 

Dr. Watson is much interested in the progress of his people 
and from his observation believes the gi'eatest need of the race 
in Georgia today is co-operation. He is a member of the A. M. 
E. Church in which he is a steward. 



CHARLES THOMAS WALKER 



IN 177;} there was brought from Virginia to Burke county, Ga., 
the first of a family of Negroes who as slaves were noted for 
their tidelity and piety, and who with the fuller opportuni- 
ties which came witli Emancipation in 1865, has developed an 
unusual number of strong men, especially in religious and edu- 
cational work. Conspicuous even among these, as one who 
stands out not only as one of three or four of the greatest men 
of his race, and acknowledged to be the greatest preacher his 
race has ever produced, but Avho is also entitled to rank among 
the really large men of his country and of his generation, is Rev. 
Charles Thomas Walker, D. D., LL. D., of Augusta. He is 
fourth in descent from the original immigrant to Georgia from 
Virginia. 

The family history is interesting, and the reader is re- 
ferred to the "Life of Charles T. Walker," by Prof. S. X. 
Floyd, of Augusta. The keynote of his life will be found in that 
fidelity and piety to which we have already referred, combined 
with superior ability, a loving nature and the absence of self- 
consciousness and egotism. Two of his uncles, the Reverends 
Joseph T. and Nathan Walker, and numerous cousins and other 
relatives, have rendered or are rendering valiant service as min- 
isters, citizens and educators. The old Franklin Covenant Bap- 
tist Church, in connection with which the family has figured so 
largely, is located in Richmond county, about five miles from 
Hephzibah, and not far from the Burke county line. It was or- 
ganized in 1848 ; and in 1852 or 1853, though its membership 
was made up of slaves, they raised the necessary funds and pur- 
chased the freedom of the pastor. Rev. Joseph T. Walker, in or- 
der that he might devote himself entirely to the work of his 
church and to preaching the Gospel in Richmond and adjacent 
counties. Rev. Nathan Walker, a licensed preacher, was or- 
dained after the war, and in 1866 succeeded his brother in the 
pastorate. Dr. C. T. Walker's father, Thomas Walker, was his 
master's coachman and a deacon in this church. He died of 



684 HISTORY OF AMERICAN NEGRO 

pneumonia on February 8, 1858, two days before Charles was 
born, on February 5th, the youngest of a family of five brothers 
and six sisters. Charles' mother, Hannah Walker, survived her 
husband only eight years, in his ])Ook "Under the Stars and 
Bars," Hon. Walter A. Clark, a Confederate veteran of Augusta 
and a nephew of Colonel A. C. Walker, pays her a most beau- 
tiful and elo(iuent tribute as one of the most ideal among a fine 
type of colored women of the old days. 

Coming of such parentage and from such surroundings, a life 
characterized by goodness and benevolence seems such as one 
would expect; and yet Charles did not lack the discipline of 
great hardships; and when we consider these, and the fact that 
he was born a slave and fatherless, and that about a year after 
the coming of freedom he was at the age of eight, left completely 
orphaned by the death of his mother, his extraordinary success 
and the place he has attained among the great men of his genera- 
tion, elicit both our wonder and admiration. 

As a farm hand, the boy lived about among his relatives, 
spending most of the time with his older brother, Peter, and his 
uncle Nathan. It was while with the latter, in 1873, that on the 
first Sunday in July he was by this uncle baptized into the fel- 
lowship of the Franklin Covenant Baptist Church, being then 
fifteen years of age. He soon felt the call to the ministry, but 
felt that the call to that sacred and important Avork carried with 
it a call to careful and thorough preparation, and that an educa- 
tion must be obtained. His mother had taught him the alphabet 
and to read the Bible, especially the fourteenth chapter of St. 
John. He still has his mother's Bible and esteems it a priceless 
treasure. Beyoiul the instruction given him by his mother, the 
only schooling he had had was two terms of five months each, 
under ]\Iisscs Hattie Dow and Hattie Foote, respectively. North- 
ern ladies employed by the Freedmen's Bureau. In 1874 he 
went to Augusta and entered the Augusta Institute, a school 
specially designed for colored preachers, founded and presided 
over by the late Rev. Joseph T. Robert, D.D., LL.D., a former 
slaveholder of South Carolina. This is the school that was in 
1879 moved to Atlanta and became Atlanta Baptist Seminary, 
the name being later changed in turn to Atlanta Baptist Col- 



GEORGIA EDITION 685 

lege and Morehouse College, which last name it now bears. He 
had reached Augusta with just six dollars, and rented a room in 
a private family for which he paid two dollars per month, do- 
ing his own washing and cooking, twice a week, on Wednesdays 
and Saturdays. Of course, his money did not go very far, and 
when it was exhausted lie saw nothing to do but gather up his 
little bundle and leave school, intending to walk back to the 
country and find work to enable him to re-enter later. Some of 
his student friends learning of this remonstrated with him, gave 
him a small sum of money and urged him to be patient a few 
days longer. One of them, the late Rev. E. K. Love, D.D., went 
so far as to agree to provide for him till other arrangements 
could be made. Dr. Ro])ert learned of the situation, and through 
three friends in Dayton, Ohio, ]\Iessrs. G. N. Bieree, A. B. Solo- 
mon and E. B. Crawford, secured the assistance that enabled 
young Walker to continue his studies, which he did till the 
course was completed five years later. When Mr. Bieree met him 
in New York some years afterward, he stated with much grati- 
fication, that the investment had yielded him the largest returns 
of any he had ever made. No diplomas were given by that in- 
stitution until 1884; but in that year the trustees voted that a 
list of nearly fifty young men, including the name of Dr. Wal- 
ker, were entitled to rank as graduates. 

In September, 1876, two years after entering Augusta Insti- 
tute, young Walker w^as licensed to preach, and on the first Sun- 
day in IMay, 1877, was ordained to the full work of the Gospel 
ministry, being then nineteen years of age. On October 1st of 
that year he was called to the pastorate of his old home church, 
the Franklin Covenant, and assumed the duties of that office on 
the first of the following January, 1878. His earnestness and 
ability attracted immediate and favorable attention in and 
around Augusta, and he became noted from the start. By the 
time he had reached his twenty-first birthday, while still re- 
taining his connection with the Franklin Covenant Church, the 
following had also been added to his list: Thankful Baptist, 
Waynesboro; McKinnie's Branch, in Burke county; and Mount 
Olive, ill the suburbs of Augusta. Finding it impossible, how- 
ever, to give tlioi'ougli pastoral attention to so many churches, 



f;86 ITTSTOHY OF A:\1ERICAN NEGRO 

he resigned jUI tliese early in 1880 to accept a call to tlie First 
Baptist Chiireh of LaGrange. In the meantime, liowever, dur- 
ing the Summer months of 1876 to 1879 he had taught school in 
the Franklin Covenant church; and in 1879, on June 19th, he 
was married to INfiss Violet Q. Franklin, of ITeph7i})ah. 

His field at LaGrange being more concentrated was for that 
reason more satisfactory, and his uoi-k there was highly success- 
ful, his reputation continuing to gi'ow apace. He also estab- 
lished there a school for Baptists, and was instrumental in hav- 
ing a large frame building erected. This became the LaGrange 
Academy. While in that city he also studied law for two years 
under Judge Walker. 

The rest of his career we must necessarily sketch hastily, 
omitting much that is important ; for like St. Paul he has been 
"in labors abundant," and his triumphs have been many. In 
1883 he accepted a call to the Central Baptist Church of Au- 
gusta, a large church that had become torn by dissensions, with 
the hope of reconciling the contending factions. While he was 
partially successful, the factions had become so embittered, that 
it was finally decided that it was best to sell the church property, 
divide the funds lietween the factions and start anew; so with 
two thousand dollars from the proceeds of the sale and three 
hundred and ten members, he organized the Beulah Baptist 
Church on August 21, 1885. Two days later at the suggestion 
of the pastor, the name was changed to the Taliernacle Baptist 
Church. With the exception of an interval with the I\Iount 
Olivet Baptist Church of New York City, his pastoral connec- 
tion with the Tabernacle Church at Augusta has continued to 
this time. Perhaps no church was ever more devoted to its pas- 
tor, and his work there has been successful throughout. They 
now worship in the biggest Negro church in the world with a 
membership of nearly two thousand. Dr. Walkei' preaches con- 
stantly to large and appreciative congregations. During the 
toui'ist season, Dr. Walker frequently speaks to large numbers 
of distinguished Americans who attend his church. Mr. Jno. D. 
Rockefeller is a personal friend. 

Tt was in 1899' that he accepted the call to the :\rount Olivet 
Church in New York, under conditions very similar to those 



GEORGIA EDITION 687 

under wliicli he had returned from LaGrange to Augusta. His 
work in New York was successful in a high degree, and he en- 
deared himself not only to his flock and to the members of his 
own race in that city, but to a large number of the leading white 
men as well, who with great reluctance gave him up, when, in 
1901, he decided to return to his old flock at Augusta. No less 
an authority than Dr. Robt. S. McArthur, then and for many 
years pastor of the Calvary Baptist Church, and now head 
of the ]\Iissionary Baptist organization of the world, declared 
that "Dr. Walker's ministry in New York has been remarkable 
for pulpit power and for practical results;" and also that 
"There is probably no other Negro in the United States, and 
perhaps no other in the world, who is a better subject for a bi- 
ography than Charles T. Walker;" and again "Dr. Walker is 
the ablest Negro preacher and pastor in the United States." 
While in that city he undertook and effected the first successful 
organization of the Colored Branch of the Y. M. C. A. in New 
York's history. 

Dr. Walker's successful lecture tours and evangelistic cam- 
paigns, his connection with the Augusta Sentinel established 
in 188-1, his trip through Europe and the Holy Land in 1891, 
his successful conduct of the colored people's exposition at Au- 
gusta in 1893, his appointment in 1898 by President ]\IcKinley 
as Chaplain of the Ninth Immunes, United States Volunteers, 
and service with that regiment in Cuba, his election at Atlanta 
in 1899 as one of the vice-presidents of the International Sun- 
day School Convention, his wnde interest and influence in mat- 
ters affecting the general public welfare as well as the welfare of 
his own race, his loyalty to his race, his cordial friendship for 
the white people of the South as well as of the North, and the 
esteem in which he is held by them, — all these we must pass with 
only this brief mention. 

We have already mentioned his marriage. Of the four chil- 
dren boi'u to him and Mrs. Walker, all died early except one 
son, Jonathan. 

In appearance, Dr. Walker is not prepossessing, apart from 
his characteristic expression of benevolence. He is a full-blooded 
Negro, quite dark, thongh not of the ])lackest. He is slightly un- 



688 HISTORY OF A.MKRICAN NEGRO 

der medium height, with shoulders a little stooped, and weighs 
about a hundred and sixty pounds. His voice is good, with suf- 
ficient carrying power to make himself heard by a large audience 
without apparent effort. His manner is simple, devoid of osten- 
tation or self-conscious egotism, but not without poise and be- 
coming dignity. He makes no difference in his treatment of high 
and low, rich and poor, and is beloved of all alike. His deeds 
of practical helpfulness and kindly ministration are without 
number, and are such as flow spontaneously from a life of love 
and devotion to God and man. In the pulpit, he fully realizes 
that he is commissioned to bring a message of salvation to a lost 
and dying world, and preaches accordingly, having made care- 
ful preparation beforehand.