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Full text of "History of the American Negro and his institutions;"

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HISTORY 



OF THE 



AMERICAN NEGRO 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 



EDITED BY 
A. B. CALDWELL 



ORIGINAL EDITION 
ILLUSTRATED 



VOLUME IV 

1921 



A. B. CALDWELL PUBLISHING CO. 
ATLANTA, GEORGIA 



aasaa^ 



Copyright 1921 
A. B. CALDWELL PUBLISHING CO. 



PREFACE 



Every scholar and every observant reader recognizes 
the fact that biography occupies an important place in lit- 
erature, and is absolutely essential to the completeness of 
history. More than any other study it discloses the far- 
reaching effects of the human element in events. The his- 
tory of a race is epitomized in the stories of its leaders. 

This collection of biographies of race leaders in North 
Carolina is Volume IV of the Biographical History of the 
America Negro. It does not include all the Negro men and 
women of importance in the Old North State, but it does 
include many of the greatest and best. As men come and 
go, rise and fall, it is not possible to make a work dealing 
with contemporary men exhaustive. We have sought to 
make it representative. Accordingly, biographies of men 
and women from every honorable profession and line of 
work will be found in its pages. Every part of the Slate 
is represented. 

The Editor and Publisher is grateful for the cordial 
spirit of co-operation shown by the hundreds who were 
interviewed and dares to hope that the present generation 
may find inspiration and encouragement in these stories, 
and that the future historian may find in them a true reflec- 
tion of the lives and times with which they deal. 

THE PUBLISHER. 



CONTENTS 



Page 
104 

ALLEN, OSCAR JAMES " 197 

ALLEN. RICHARD .-__ " 671 

ALEXANDER, ZECHARIAH -_ 317 

ANDERSON, FLOYD JOSEPH-- 383 

ANDERSON, JAMES HARVEY JR. -" 492 

ANDERSON, LAURIE WttUBa " 91 

ANDERSON. WALTER GUTHRIE __ 42 

ASKEW. CORNELIUS EDWARD 167 

ATKINS. SIMON GREEN ~-~ " ~ _'_ 195 

AVANT, FRANK W. _____-- " 675 

AVANT WILLIAM GEORGE 486 

AVERY.' ASYRIA DICKERSON _ ~_ 305 

AVERY, DORMAN JAMES - 24 

AVERY. JOHN MOSES 797 

BARBER. JOHN THOMAS I_I______ 495 

BASS. GARLAND BRYANT -------- ~ 497 

BASKERVILLE, PRESLEY LOUIS - 490 

BAXTER, JAMES ASBURY 353 

BAXTER, JOHN EARLE ' '_ 389 

BEEBE, WILLIAM THOMAS - " 291 

BENNETT. JUNIA NEWTON 664 

BIAS JOHN HENRY -- '_ 192 

BILLIPS. GEORGE WALTER 679 

BLACK. JOHN WILTON __ ----- 234 

BLACKNALL. JOHN WILLIAM "_ 499 

BLAIR. CLARENCE WALKER 55 

BLAKE. JOHN WESLEY A. __ 333 

BLUME. JOHN ANDREW 126 

BONNER. JAMES ALEXANDER 269 

BOONE, PHILIP LEMUEL — -— :~ 451 

BOOHER. WILLIAM JOHN H. 331 

BOWEN McDUFFIE 249 

BOYER CHARLES HENRY : 70 

nnvKTN TOHN ELLIS : 470 

BrIwLEY EDWARD MACKNIGHT „ " 6 81 

BRODIE. FURMAN LAWRENCE - l.'.'S."- 299 

RPOWN CALVIN SCOTT 633 

BROWN CHARLOTTE HAWKINS - ^IZ"" 502 

BROWN, JAMES SAMUEL - ""ZZ7-.Z f* 

BRUCE, ROBERT BLAIR 684 

rtCttpF WILLIAM HENRY •» 479 

RRY ANT WILLIAM HENRY, REV. - 265 

BRYANT WILLIAM HENRY, DR. - ~~ 686 

BULLOCH OSCAR SIDNEY — ""Mi |80 

BURNETT PETER WILLIAM _- = ~ „ 505 

BUP.WELL. THOMAS H.—— - 409 

hvfrs ERNEST CASWELL ol» 

BYNUM CHARLES HUDSON — 624 

CALDWELL DOCTOR EDWARD __ 689 

PAT DWEI GILBERT HAVEN - 645 

HsOTSKi S&SSS8S; :: ::::::: f» 

CHRISTIAN JOHN ROBERT T. 695 



pt ARK' DANIEL FRANKLIN 

CI ELAND WILLIAM CALVIN .. - 517 

CLEMENT; JOHN HENRY 



-ELAND, laSffiSS-™ 

CLINTON. OEOBGE_WYL1E "TSSS-'-'-l- ,!I 



COLES WILLIAM ROBERT 

8go? Y Ek M ^, c ,l.AM N |KTHffR-:: 

SSSoeTnoreWckson-:: :: ffl 

OT J S&SV9Sff?L: :: 



CURTRIGHT, EDWARD EUSEBIA 40 

DAVIS, CHARLES GASTON 667 

DAVIS, ERNEST LEONARD I Z__ I 702 

DAVIS, GEORGE EDWARD 52 

DAVIS, JUDGE BUSTEE 554 

DAVIS. NICHOLAS VOLIVER 704 

DeBERRY, PERFECT ROBERT 415 

DeBERRY, WILLIAM CALEB 237 

DELANY, HENRY BEARD __ 145 

DELLINGER, JAMES ELMER 360 

DENT, EPHRIAM NITRE __ _ _. 446 

DENT, WILLIE EDWARD _ _ "• 468 

DIGGS, JEFFERSON DAVIS ' __!_ I I_ 708 

DILLARD, CLARENCE _ 32 

DOCKERY, ZANDER ADAM ._ Ib4 

DODSON, JESSE ALLEN 712 

DOUGLASS, ROBERT LANGHAM 210 

DUDLEY, JAMES BENSON 120 

EATON, JAMES YOUMAN 129 

EATON, PLUMMER PETER 799 

EDMONDSON, HENRY MELVIN 567 

EDWARD, GASTON ALONZO 417 

ELLERBEE, WILLIAM 367 

ELMES, ARTHUR FLETCHER 549 

ELLIS, JAMES BOYD 321 

EVANS, FRANK ALSTON 140 

EVANS, WALTER PARSLEY 802 

FAIRLEY. LEONARD EDWARD 587 

FALKNER, HENRY HALL 805 

FAULK, JACOB WILLIAM 428 

FISHER, EDWIN WALLACE 595 

FLYNN. DALLAS JOSEPH 530 

FOSTER, WALTER SCOTT 243 

FOUNTAIN, JOHN ARTHUR - 80s 

FOUSHEE, CHARLES WEBSTER 223 

FRANCIS. CHARLES WARWICK 460 

FRANCIS, JAMES BUTLER 714 

FREDERICK. ROBERT JAMES 568 

GERRAN, GARLAND ALONZO 72 

GOODSON. ISAIAH DANIEL C. W 

GOORE, PERRY R. D. 412 

GORDON, JACOB DUCKERY , 717 

GORDON, OWEN RICHARDSON 454 

GRAVES, CHARLES FRANCIS 514 

GRASTY. ERNEST REGINALD 594 

GREEN, JOHN RICHARD 94 

GRIFFIN. ALFRED JAMES 113 

GULLINS. WILLIAM RICHARD 404 

HAIRSTON, JOHN THOMAS 720 

HAIRSTON, JOHN WINSTON 626 

HARRIS. ROBERT DAVID 373 

HARVEY. MATHEW CURTIS 723 

HAWKINS. HORACE ROBERT 854 

HAWKINS. JAMES ROBERT 558 

HAWKINS, SAMUEL THOMAS - 725 

HAYDEN. SYLVESTER JACKSON 533 

HAYES, EDGAR JOHN _ 226 

HAYES, WILLIAM HENRY 810 

HAYLEY, WALTER EUGENE 729 

HAYSWOOD. JOHN HENRY 606 

HENDERSON. JAMES MONROE 732 

HILL, JAMES SAMUEL 435 

HOGAN, BENJAMIN HARRISON 592 

HOLT. KINCHEN CHARLEY 736 

HOLLOWAY. THOMAS BERKELEY 39^ 

HOLLCWELL, JAMES LESLIE 67 

HORNE. WOODY LEMUEL 456 

HORTON, WILLIAM HAYWOOD 2 465 

HOWIE, SAMUEL JOSEPH 1 398 

HUNTER. ROBERT THOMAS 512 

INBORDEN, THOMAS SEWELL 48 

JACKSON, HENRY HARRISON 597 

JACKSON. NATHANIEL EDWARD _• 482 

JAMES, JAMES EDWARD .. 813 

JONES, JOHN WISE 739 

JONES. YORKE 254 

JORDAN, WILLIAM JULIUS 1 661 

KENNEDY, HENRY PEARSON 1 600 

KING, CHARLES HENRY 88 



Pag« 

KING, MAX CANSTUART 742 

KNUCKLES. WILLIAM HENRY 142 

LANGFORD. ROBERT OWENS 420 

LANKFORD, HENRY PHILBERT 483 

LANIER, JAMES SANDERS 160 

LAUGHLIN, JAMES AMOS 745 

LAWRENCE. WILLIAM WARWICK 110 

LEE, CLEON OSCAR 342 

LEE, JOHN FRANCIS 217 

LEEPER, GEORGE SADLER 519 

LEWIS. JOHN ADDISON 182 

LEWIS, PETER SIMON 747 

LIGON, JOHN WILLIAM 96 

LISTON, HARDY 339 

LLOYD. JEREMIAH MANTIUS 99 

LOGAN, FRANK THOMAS 189 

LONG, THOMAS ALEXANDER 462 

MABRY. HENRY CLAY 327 

MARSH, THOMAS SETTLES 643 

MARTIN, BENJAMIN FRANKLIN 185 

MARTIN, JAMES DANIEL 336 

MARTIN. JOHN HENRY 440 

MARTIN, JOHN THOMAS 857 

MASON, BRACHELOR KELLY 630 

MASON, FISHER ROBERT 815 

MELTON. LEAVY JAMES — 641 

MERRICK. EDWARD RICHARD - *« 

MERRICK- JOHN • 1* 

MILLER. HECTOR CHARLES 750 

MILLER, JOSEPH SAMUEL 753 

MILLS, JOSEPH NAPOLEON , 448 

MITCHELL, GEORGE HENRY 281 

MITCHNER, WILLIAM ARTHUR 83 

MOORE, AARON McDUFFIE 18 

MOORE, GEORGE WASHINGTON 756 

MOORE, PETER WEDDICK 151 

MOORE. WILLIAM HENRY 137 

MORRIS, JOHN PAYTON 860 

MORRISEY, ALEXANDER 401 

MORTON, JAMES MANGUM 8« 

MORTON. SIDNEY DOUGLAS 547 

McCORKLE. PINCKNEY ARMSTRONG 759 

McCOY, THOMAS LEDYARD 570 

McCROREY, HENRY LAWRENCE 619 

McCROREY, MARY JACKSON 621 

McDUFFIE. EMANUEL MONTEE 179 

McIVER. ERNEST THOMAS 

Mcknight, joseph nathan »i» 

McLEAN, WILLIAM HENRY 297 

MrNAIR. WALTER LEWIS 4 " 4 

McRARY, ROBERT BAXTER 655 

NEAL, LOUIS NAPOLEON 551 

NELSON. JACOB ROBERT 6*0 

NEWSOME. ALEXANDER HAMPTON : 35 

NEWSOME. MARCELLUS NOLLE 603 

NORMAN, HARRY HOWARD 369 

ODEN, REDMOND STANLEY 80 

O'HARA, RAPHAEL 1°7 

O'KELLY, CADD GRANT 762 

O'NEIL. EDWARD DUFFY 765 

PARHAM, SAMUEL LEVENUS 132 

PARKER. FRANCIS HENRY 610 

PARTEE. WILLIAM EUGENE -- 357 

PASCHAL, JOHN HENRY >•- 

PEACE, SAMUEL F. B. - - %]% 

PEARSON. WILLIAM GASTON '\\% 

PEELE. JESSE WILLIS 472 

PERRY. JOHN SINCLAIR — *** 

PEGUES, ALBERT WITHERSPOON 

PERSON. BENJAMIN FRANKLIN 

PHILLIPS, WILLIAM HAYWOOD 39 

PITCHKORD. CHARLES PERCY 768 

PORK, HAMMOND GLASGOW J>48 



POPE, WILLIAM CALVIN ___ 
POWELL, LATTA HILLIARD 
PRICE. AUPHEY THOMAS 



:■, is 



QUICK, FREDERICK DOUGLAS §22 

QUICK, HARRISON INGRAM *|5 

QUICK, JOHN DOWARD &44 



QUICK, WILLIAM HARVEY 773 

RAMSAY, JOHN KENNETH 777 

RANKIN, WILLIAM JONES 431 

RASBURY, LEVI EDGAR 375 

REDDING, WYATT COLUMBUS 779 

REID, COMMODORE M. 287 

REID, SAMUEL ALEXANDER 314 

RHYNE, ROBERT BENJAMIN 735 

ROBINSON, ARTHUR LEE 387 

ROBINSON, CARROUS WILLIAM 694 

ROBINSON, JOSEPH HARRISON 123 

ROGERS, ANDREW JACKSON 782 

ROLLINS. EDWARD FRANKLIN 294 

ROLLINS, JOSEPH ANDREW 458 

RUSSELL, PINKNEY WARREN 524 

SAMPSON, JOHN HENRY 354 

SAMUELS, JOHN EDWARDS 240 

SANDERS, JOHN T. 391 

SANDERS, OTTO EUGENE 822 

SAVAGE, JOHN ANTHONY 45 

SAVOID, ROBERT CLEBERT 117 

SCALES, IRVIN ALFRED 784 

SCARLETT. JAMES JONAS 262 

SHARP, WILLIAM BRADSHAW 67j4 

SHAW, GEORGE CLAYTON 825 

SHAW, WESLEY HENRY ..___ 536 

SHEPARD, JAMES EDWARD 423 

SHUTE. CHARLES HENRY 220 

SIMPSON. JOHN F. K. 34S 

SMITH, ALLEN ABRAHAM 175 

SMITH, CHARLES LOFTIN W. 652 

SMITH. EDWARD WALTER 477 

SMITH, EZEKIEL EZRA ?K* 

SMITH. MICHAEL DAVID 828 

SPARROW, HENRY CLAIN 831 

SPAULDING. CHARLES CLINTON • 21 

SPILLER. RICHARD 279 

STANLY. JUDSON PICKETT 700 

STARKEY. WILLIAM HENRY 541 

STFWART. CHARLES CONSTANTINE 466 

SUGGS. DANIEL CATO 272 

SUTTON. WILLIAM 862 

TAYLOR. ROBERT I 787 

TAYLOR. THOMAS THADDEUS 172 

THOMAS. DAN^L LEVY 1 I " 528 

THOMAS. JUNTUS HERCULES 29 

THOMPSON, ELI BENJAMIN 58 

THORNTON. MANSFTFT n F^NKLIN 613 

TOWNS. EDWARD MOSELEY 560 

TURNER. WILLIAM SHERMAN 319 

UNDERWOOD, CHARLES THOMAS 1M 

UNDERWOOD, RUFUS WALTER 834 

VASS. SAMUEL NATHANIEL 162 

VICK. SAMUEL HYNES 851 

VINCENT. ANDREW BROWN 562 

WALLACE, WILLIAM HENRY 426 

WALKER, JOHN WILLIAM 836 

WARNER, ANDREW JACKSON 213 

WATKINS, FREDERICK HENRY 839 

WATKINS, GEORGE W. 149 

WATKINS. JAMES WASHINGTON 629 

WATKINS. SIDNEY DANIEL 589 

WEEKS, ALFRED LEONARD E. 203 

WENTZ. SAMUEL FORMER 841 

WHITE. GEORGE L. 617 

WHITE. JOHN LEE 102 

WILLIAMS, FRANKLIN WALTER 845 

WILLIAMS. MOSES WINSTON • »4S 

WILLIAMS. WILLIAM HENRY 407 

WILLIAMSON, CHARLES HENDRICK 789 

WITHERSPOON, SIDNEY HOUSTON 266 

WITHERSPOON. WILLIAM FRANKLIN 363 , 

WOOD. JAMES WILLIAMS 794 

WYCHE, ROBERT P. 2i9 



,^r> 






• %* 





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George Wylie Clinton 



Some one has said that ''Christian life is action. It is 
not speculating, it is not debating, but is doing. One thing, 
and only one in the world has Eternity stamped upon it. 
Feelings pass, lives and emotions pass, opinions change. 
What you have done lasts. It lasts in youth, through life, 
through Eternity. What you have done for Christ, that, 
and only that, you are." 

Had this quotation been written about Bishop George 
Wylie Clinton, the distinguished senior Bishop of the A. 
M. E. Zion Church himself, it could not have been more 
fitting. For he is a man of action. True, he stands high 
as a churchman and as a man of tint intellectual attain- 
ments ; but he is best known and will be longest remembered 
for the things he has done. 

In order that his life may be seen in the proper per- 
spective, it will be necessary to take a glance at his origin. 
He was born March 28, 1859, and is a son of Jonathan Clin- 
ton and Rachel Patterson. His mother was a slave, and 
according to the law the condition of the son followed that 
of the mother. Her parents were Louis and Melvina Pat- 
terson. Speaking of his childhood, youth and education, 
Bishop Clinton says: "I was born a slave in Cedar Creek 
township, Lancaster County, South Carolina, March 28, 
1859. I attended a private school taught by a colored 
preacher when between six and seven years of age. After 
reaching seven I attended the public school taught by a 
white man. My second teacher was a brother of my fa- 
ther's master. I was prepared for college under the tutor- 
ship of a West Indian Colored man of fine education by 
the name of J. H. Stewart. When I started to school I had 
an old Webster's blue-back speller and a Second Reader. 
With the exception of an Arithmetic these were the only 
books I had of my own until I was ready for the fourth 
year. My lessons were prepared from the books of other 



10 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

pupils during recess, or by looking over their shoulders 
while they were studying, or from borrowed books. I also 
went to a private night school a mile away from my home, 
with a dog as my companion. During three months of my 
student life in the public schools, I >had to walk seven miles 
to school each day." When ready for college young Clinton 
matriculated at the University of South Carolina, but was 
compelled to leave when that Institution was closed to col- 
ored people on the return of the Democratic party to power 
in that State. Undaunted, however, the young man con- 
tinued his studied in the S. C. L. A. Brainard Institute, 
Chester, and at Livingstone College, Salisbury. 

By dint of hard work and close economy he continued 
his studies and was graduated from Livingstone College 
Theological school in 1895. He has the A. M. degree from 
that Institution and the D. D. and LL.D from Wilberforce 
University, Zenia, Ohio. He was popular as a student and 
was active in such college athletics as baseball and foot 
races. Looking back over the years of his boyhood and 
youth he attributes his success in life to the influence of a 
godly mother who was ambitious for her son and anxious 
for him to become a useful man. He also mentions the en- 
couragement he received from the late Bishop I. C. Clinton, 
and from boyhood has had the earnest desire to be useful 
and efficient. He has also been greatly stimulated by read- 
ing biographies of great Americans' and other notable char- 
acters. 

Bishop Clinton did not begin nor pursue his education 
with the idea of taking up religious work. He had chosen 
the law as his life work and was preparing himself for it 
when he had to read the Bible by a sentence in Blackstone's 
Commentaries which says, "He who would become a success- 
ful practitioner of the law should become conversant with 
the Divine law as set forth in the Bible, especially the first 
five books of the Bible, known as the Pentateuch, written 
by Moses." He had not as yet made profession of religion, 
but this formed a sort of turning point with the young man 
and as he felt almost from that time forth that he was 
called to preach the gospel. In November, 1878, he was 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 11 

converted and on February 14th of the following year was 
licensed to preach. He began preaching before he was 
twenty years of age and at twenty-two he join 2d the confer- 
ence and became a regular pastor. His first charge was 
Pleasant View consisting of three churches near Chester, 
S. C, which he served for two years with success. 

Bishop Clinton was the founder and first editor of the 
A. M. E. Zion Quarterly Review at the age of twenty-nine. 
This publication has exerted a powerful influence on the 
denomination. Later he became editor of the Star of Zion, 
the chief organ of his denomination and was a power in the 
promotion of the movement which resulted in the estab- 
lishment of the first publishing house under the auspices of 
the A. M. E. Zion Church. He was the first manager of that 
institution which has come to occupy so large a place in the 
life of the denomination and has been chairman of the 
Board of Management for fifteen years. 

As a young man and even after entering, the ministry, 
he taught school for a number of years and for eight years 
served as President of Atkinson College, Madisonville, Ky. 
The present ground and the buildings, 'with one exception, 
of that institution, were secured during this term of office 
as President. 

After editing the Star of Zion for four years he had 
come to be one of the recognized leaders of the denomination 
and at the General Conference of 1896 at the age of thirty- 
six was elevated to the Bishopric. His first appointment 
was the Seventh Episcopal District, embracing the Missouri, 
the Tennessee, The West Tenenssee and Mississippi and 
California Conferences, the diocese, over which he presided 
for eight years. Since then his administration has included 
the Sixth Episcopal District, embracing the Philadelphia and 
Baltimore, the Kentucky, and two Alabama Conferences. 
The Second Episcopal District embracing the New Jersey, 
Western North Carolina, the Blue Ridge and East Tennes- 
see and Virginia Conferences over which he is now presiding 
with increasing success. Each of these Conferences has 



12 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

made marked improvement along all lines under the super- 
vision of our subject, and ministers have made substantial 
progress in their intellectual development. 

Bishop Clinton is a man of fine physique, cordial address 
and is a pleasing and forceful speaker. There is no other 
man of his age in Zion Methodism who is more widely and 
favorably known. His voice has been heard in almost every 
nook and corner of the country, not only as a preacher, but 
as a race leader. He is conservative, but fearless. He be- 
lieves in the square deal both for himself and the other 
fellow. 

For twenty-five years Bishop Clinton has been a lec- 
turer at the Tuskegee Bible School, Tuskegee, Ala., and has 
there been brought in touch with many young men whom 
he has inspired to higher endeavor and whom he has helped 
to equip for their work in life. In fact as his ability to 
help has increased, he has remembered the days of his 
own early struggles and has assisted many a young man 
and woman to an education so that it is not uncommon to 
hear church workers of the denomination attribute their 
success to the assistance received from Bishop Clinton. 

On February sixth, 1901, while President of Atkinson 
College and serving the Fourth Episcopal District, at 
Huntsville, Ala., Bishop Clinton was married to Miss Mary 
Louise Clay, a daughter of Alfred and Eliza Clay, of Hunts- 
ville, Ala. 

Mrs. Clinton was educated at home in the public 
schools and later graduated from Clark University. The 
Bishop has one son, George William Clinton, by a former 
wife, Mrs. Annie Kimball Clinton. In connection with this 
biography, a word about the great church with which he is 
identified will not be amiss. The A. M. E. Zion Church in 
North Carolina was established by Bishop J. J. Clinton, D. D., 
of Philadelphia, in 1864. Associated with him were such 
then great race leaders and remarkable preachers as the late 
lamented Bishop J. W. Hood, of Fayetteville, who passed 
into his reward at the ripe old age of eighty-eight in 1918, 
also the late Rev. W. J. Moore and others. In North Caro- 
lina the church was started at Newbern and is now flourish- 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 13 

ing in every one of the 100 counties of the State and leads 
all other Negro Methodist bodies there. 

At this time (1919) there are 578 churches and 126,000 
members. Its chief educational institution of higher learn- 
ing is Livingstone College at Salisbury, N. C. The denomi- 
nation also owns the Eastern North Carolina Academy at 
Newbern and the Edenton Industrial Academy at Edenton, 
N. C. The publishing interests, valued at $100,000, are 
mostly at Charlotte, where the plant includes a quarter of 
a block of valuable property on South Brevard and Second 
Streets, with a trifling indebtedness. 

Six of the Bishops and many of the general officials 
of the A. M. E. Zion Church were born in N. C. It is grati- 
fying to know that the affairs have been managed in such 
a manner that the church has always been able to command 
the good-will and encouragement of the leading citizens of 
both races. 

Through his wide travel, close study and personal con- 
tact not only with the leaders, but with the rank-and-file 
of the people all over the country, Bishop Clinton concludes 
that the best interests of the race are to be promoted by 
the formation of business concerns directed by responsible 
men and women of the race; by joint action of white and 
black for peace, uplift and community welfare; by the best 
possible training and higher education in industrial and 
technological schools and by the investment and conserva- 
tion of race means in enterprises that will furnish employ- 
ment to the youth of the race. 

Bishop Clinton is a man of good business judgment 
and executive ability and would have succeeded in life in 
almost any other line he might have adopted. 

In addition to his work as churchman and educator in 
his own denomination he has three times represented the 
A. M. E. Church in the Ecumenical Conference at Washing- 
ton, D. C, 1891; London, England, 1901, and Montreal, 
Canada, 1911. He has been officially connected with the 
International and Interdenominational Sunday School As- 
sociation, was once Vice-President and the only Negro that 
-even enjoyed that honor. He is now a life member, hav- 



14 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

ing been so honored through the generous gift of $1,000 
by Mr. W. N. Hartshorn, of Boston, and is now a member 
of the Executive Committee of said Association. 

He was also a member of the Convention on Arbitration 
presided over by the late Ex-Sec. of State, Hon. John W. 
Foster, of Ind., is a member of the Ex. Com. of the Federal 
Council of Churches and the General Committee of the Inter- 
church World Movement. 



John Merrick 



If we did not have the record of so many successful 
men who were born in slavery and who rose to places of 
prominence in business and professional life, it would be 
hard to believe these stories. Among the men whose ambi- 
tion, enterprise and executive ability have made history for 
the race in North Carolina, must be mentioned John Merrick, 
who was born September 7, 1859, and who died August 6, 
1919. 

Mr. Merrick was a native of the old town of Clintin, in 
Samson county. His mother's name was Margaret Jones. 
He did not know his father. 

When John was twelve years old, he went to work in 
the brick yard at Chapel Hill. In this way he and his 
brother, Richard, supported their mother. He never went 
to school. After six years of service in the br.ck yard, 
the family moved, in a steer cart, to Raleigh. Here he 
became a hod carrier and from that advanced to the more 
profitable work of a brick mason. In this capacity he 
worked on the erection of the first building at Shaw Uni- 
versity. Later he became a boot-black in a barber shop, 
and while thus engaged learned the barber's trade. He 
must have been capable and faithful as a fellow barber, 
who decided to open up a shop in Durham, persuaded Mr. 
Merrick to go with him to that place. The firm of Wright 
& Merrick was established and, after a few years, was sold 




JOHN MERRICK 



16 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

to Mr. Merrick. He remained the sole owner arid with 
the growth of Durham he increased his business and 
established new shops, becoming the owner of three for 
white and two for colored people. As his earnings in- 
creased, he bought a home and began to accumulate other 
property. He was frank and courteous, and always gave 
his customers the best possible service. In his contact with 
the white people of Durham, especially, the Duke family 
for whom he was the family barber, led to the development 
of his most valuable characteristic. He could always com- 
mand the support of white people and their co-operation in 
any of his undertakings. 

As his business grew, he developed his great talent for 
organization and between 1883 and 1916 organized, or 
helped to establish, a number of business concerns and insti- 
tutions which have become powerful both in Durham and 
North Carolina and, in fact, over the South. Among these 
are to be mentioned the Royal Knights of King David; the 
North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company; the Lin- 
coln Hospital ; the Mechanics & Farmers Bank ; the Bull City 
Drug Company; the Merrick-Moore-Spaulding Real Estate 
Company; the Durham Textile Mills and the Durham Col- 
ored Library. 

At the time of his death, Mr. Merrick was Supreme 
Grand Treasurer of the Royal Knights, President of the 
North Carolina Mutual and the Lincoln Hospital, of the 
Mechanics & Farmers Bank and of the Merrick-Moore- 
Spaulding Real Estate Company. 

He was an active member of St. Joseph's A. M. E. 
Church, of which he was a trustee and with which he had 
been identified for a number of years. 

Mr. Merrick was a wise investor and a splendid judge 
of real estate values. He handled all investments for the 
insurance company of which he was President and had the 
remarkable record of not having lost a penny in any of 
his transactions. It was characteristic of the man that <he 
continued to work at the barber's trade and would often 
hold meetings of the directors of the insurance company 
in the rear of his barber shop. He lived to see the little 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 17 

company he organized in 1899 with a debit of only $29.40 
grow to a great organization with an income of more than 
$1,000,000 a year, operating in 1920 in twelve states. At 
this writing, June, 1920, the company has $32,000,000 of 
insurance in force, With new business at the rate of $1,000,- 
000 a month. And it will be recalled that this is only one 
of the organizations which he helped to set up. 

Mr. Merrick was a man of winning personality, un- 
selfish, generous, sympathetic and charitable. He num- 
bered his friends among all classes, indiscriminately, of 
white and colored, and had much to do with the present 
happy relationship existing in Durham between the two 
races. He was always interested in anything put forth 
for the advancement of his race and ready to do his part in 
any patriotic undertaking. At the same time his private 
charities were enormous. He was a trustee of Kittrell 
College and secured large sums of money from white friends 
for the institution. He gave the College a memorial library 
in honor of his wife. He was also the source of securing 
from white friends large donations for Lincoln Hospital 
and other institutions for the colored people of Durham. 

Mr. Merrick was an intimate friend of the late Dr. 
Booker T. Washington and accompanied him on several of 
his trips. He never sought to press his views on others 
but considered himself as a ihumble working man in the 
ranks. He served his day and generation well with what 
he had. His powers lay along the line of organization and 
financial leadership. He used things for what they were 
worth. He got rich himself, and left a splendid personal 
estate, but he did not get rich by making others poor— 
rather he grew rich by helping others and his community, 
his State and his race are better for his having lived. 

On Dec. 10th, 1880, Mr. Merrick was married to Miss 
Martha Hunter. The following children were born to this 
union: Mrs. Geneva B. Williams, Raleigh, N. C; Mrs. 
Mabel V. Bruce, Winston-Salem, N. C. ; Edward R. Merrick, 
Durham, N. C; John T. Merrick, Durham, N. C. ; Mrs. 
Martha Donnell, Durham, N. C. 



Aaron McDuffie Moore 



It is not easy to write the story of the life and work of 
a man like Aaron McDuffie Moore, M. D., L.L. D., of Dur 
ham, without indulging in superlatives. One must, of 
course, take into consideration the time and the circum- 
stances under which a man begins life. Dr. Moore was 
born at Elkton on Sept. 6, 1863, in the midst of the War 
Between the States. So it will be seen that he stands as a 
living exponent of what freedom means to the race and of 
what has been accomplished in a single generation. 

Like so many of the successful men of both races, Dr. 
Moore was born and reared on the farm. His parents were 
Israel Moore and Annie Eliza (Spaulding) Moore. His 
maternal grandparents were Benjamin and Eddie Spaulding. 
Young Moore attended the local public schools where he had 
for companions and schoolmates boys several of whom were 
later to become prominent in the political, professional 
and business life of the race. At a time when the stand- 
ards of society were perhaps less exacting than now he 
reached a determination to be sober and honest and to do 
all he could for others. With this vision of life before him 
he early realized the need of preparation for the work of 
life and made his plans to go to college. Wages were about 
eight dollars per month, but the youth would not be dis- 
couraged and entered the Normal School at Fayetteville 
where he remained for four terms. Later he passed to 
Shaw University, Raleigh. 

In 1898 he completed his medical course at Leonard 
Medical College with the M. D. degree. In 1887 Shaw Uni- 
versity, in recognition of his success and attainments con- 
ferred on him the degree of Doctor of Laws. 

On the completion of his medical course, he located at 
the growing city of Durham where he has since resided. 
Tihe following year, on Dec. 18, 1889, Dr. Moore was mar- 
ried to Miss Cottie S. Dancy of Tarboro, N. C. They have 




AARON McDUFFIE MOORE 



20 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

two daughters : Lyda Vivian Merrick and Mattie Louisa Mc- 
Dougald. As a physician he was successful from the begin- 
ning and is today perhaps the most widely known physician 
of the race in the State. He has long been identified with 
the different Medical Societies to which he is eligible. 

After he had been at Durham for about ten years, Dr. 
Moore and others organized in 1899 the North Carolina 
Mutual Insurance Company which stands as a monument 
to their wisdom, foresight and ability. It is one of the great 
institutions of the race. Dr. Moore was for twenty years 
the Secretary-Treasurer of the Company and on the death 
of the late Mr. Merrick was promoted to the Presidency. 

Dr. Moore has seen America, Cuba, Haiti and Porto 
Rico. In this reading, he gives first place, of course, to 
his professional books, after that to the Bible and current 
literature. He is a member of the Baptist Church. He is 
on numerous committees and boards of religious and educa- 
tional institutions. Among the secret orders he is identified 
with the Masons and the Pythians. His voice is often heard 
at public gatherings and always rings true to the interests 
of the race. He believes that "youth must recognize indi- 
vidual responsibility to the race, to the nation and to hu- 
manity and prepare themselves to become a working unit 
in their development." 

In connection with the other duties he has to perform, 
he is Secretary-Treasurer of the State Teachers Association 
and Superintendent of the State Rural School Movement, 
which employs a field worker to investigate and improve 
the public school system of the state. 

He is also Superintendent of the Lincoln Hospital which 
was donated twenty years ago by the Dukes of the Ameri- 
can Tobacco Company. They have recently made an appro- 
priation of a hundred thousand dollars for the erection of 
a new building. 

There are very few things of importance to the race 
with which Mr. Moore is not connected. 



Charles Clinton Spaulding 



As every student of modern business knows, insurance 
is one of the marvels of American finance. In volume and 
resources as well as in the type of men it has developed, in- 
surance takes its place along with such great activities as 
banking and railroading. In its earlier history, the growth 
of the insurance business gave rise to some of the worst 
abuses of American finance. Gradually the work was put 
on a scientific basis and the interest of the policyholders 
safeguarded by law. As this tightening up process went on, 
many of the organizations which were doing an insurance 
business fell by the wayside. Lack of resources made it 
necessary for many to retire from the field while the absence 
of business experience and ability wrecked many more. As 
they were unable to measure up to the legal requirements 
or stand the test of good business financing. 

In the year 1889 a group of young colored men got 
together in Durham and organized what is popularly known 
far and wide as the "North Carolina Mutual." That they 
were men of unusual ability is shown by the character of 
work they have done. That year their premium income 
was $840.00. In 1919 their premium income was 
$1,224,541.69. 

They began as the farmers say "at the stump." They 
now employ more than nine hundred persons in the various 
departments of their work. At no time has there been any 
confusion about meeting the legal requirements imposed 
by any of the States in which the Company does business. 
The high character of the men and women employed by 
the North Carolina Mutual is another thing which com- 
mends it to the public. 

Among the builders and promoters of this great insti- 
tution of the race is Charles Clinton Spaulding, a business 




CHARLES CLINTON SPAULDING 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 23 

man of tried ability and a citizen who is a credit to his 
race and an asset to his city. 

He was born at Clarkton in Columbus Co., on Aug. 1, 
1874. His father, B. M. Spaulding, was a farmer and his 
mother, before her marriage, was Miss Margaret Moore. 
His paternal grandparents, Emanuel and Susan Spaulding, 
each lived to be about eighty-five years of age. 

On September 26, 1900, Mr. Spaulding was married to 
Miss Fannie Jones, of Washington, D. C. She was a 
daughter of Mr. and Mrs. W. F. Jones. Five children were 
born to them. They are Margaret L., Chas. C. Jr., John A., 
Booker B., and Fannie V. Spaulding, who died at seven 
months of age. Mrs. Spaulding passed to her reward on 
July 19, 1919. As a boy young Spaulding attended the 
local public schools and after moving to Durham went to 
the High School at Durham. 

He began the serious work of life on the organization 
of the North Carolina Mutual at Durham in 1899 and in 
one capacity or another has been an important factor in the 
business since that time. He is now ,1920) Secretary- 
Treasurer and General Manager and the growing volume of 
business and resources of the Company as well as the splen- 
did manner in which he 'handles all the affairs of the con- 
cern is evidence of his fine executive ability. He is frank 
and hearty in his manner, thinks rapidly and dispatches 
his work with facility. At the same time he is thought- 
ful and courteous and leaves a good impression on those 
with whom he comes in contact. Mr. Spaulding is an active 
and prominent member of the White Rock Baptist church 
of which he is Treasurer. He is Cashier of the Mechanics 
and Farmers Bank of Durham with resources of $250,000.00. 
Among the secret orders ihe is identified with the Masons 
and the Pythians. There is hardly a religious, educational 
or public institution in Durham among his people with 
which he is not identified in some way. 

All his life he has been prompted by a desire to render 
unselfish service and his life ihas been successful not only 



24 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

from a financial point of view but has been rich in service 
as well. 

He knows no short cuts to progress but believes it de- 
pends on such fundamental things as "promptness in busi- 
ness engagements, unselfish social service work, more 
wholesome lives by the leaders, better homes, better schools 
and more consecrated lives to the service of humanity." 



John Moses Avery 



The hill country of North Carolina has produced many 
hardy, successful men of both races whose contributions to 
the business and professional life of the State have added 
much to its wealth and fame. Among these must be men- 
tioned John Moses Avery, Vice-President and Assistant 
General Manager of the North Carolina Mutual Life Insur- 
ance Company of Durham. 

Mr. Avery was born near the old town of Morganton 
in Burke Co., on Oct. 10, 1876. His father, Thomas Avery, 
was a farmer and the boy was brought up on the farm. 
Thomas Avery was a son of Angeline Avery and George 
McRae. Mr. Avery's mother, before her marriage was 
Harriett Elizabeth Kincaid, a daughter of Harvey and Cor- 
delia Kincaid. 

Young Avery attended the local public schools as a boy 
and later the District High School at Morganton. He did 
his college work at Kittrell College from which he gradu- 
ated in 1900. It was necessary for the young man to work 
his own way through school. 

Mr. Avery has devoted practically all his mature life 
to insurance work. After his graduation he returned to 
Morganton and accepted the agency of the North Carolina 
Mutual. He served in this capacity for five years. Such 
was his record as an agent that in 1905 he was made travel- 
ing agent and worked in that capacity for one year. In 
1906 the growing volume of business done by the concern 




JOHN MOSES AVERY 



26 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

made the enlargement of the office staff a necessity. A 
man of executive ability, who was familiar with the field 
work was needed for the position. Accordingly Mr. Avery 
was elected a director and Assistant General Manager, a 
place which he held until Jan/1, 1920, when he was elected 
first Vice-President. / 

On April 9, 1903, Mr. Avery was happily married to 
Miss Lula Luvena Aiken, a daughter of James and Savara 
Aiken, of Reidsville, N. C. They have two children: Jan- 
ette E. and Vivian B. Avery. 

In politics Mr. Avery is a Republican, though he has 
not been active in party matters. 

He is a member of the A. M. E. Church and has been 
active in the General Conferences since 1904, and has a 
brother, Rev. A. D. Avery, who is in the ministry of that 
denomination. He is a thirty-third degree Mason and an 
Odd Fellow. He also belongs to the Pythians and the Royal 
Knights of King David. His investments and property 
interests are at Durham. 



Edward Richard Merrick 



The first generation of Negroes after Emancipation 
worked under many disadvantages. Poverty and ignorance 
were general and the lack of business training and experi- 
ence made progress and development slow. Notwithstand- 
ing these handicaps certain leaders came to the front in 
every department of life and became pioneers in their re 
spective lines of work. Among these was the late John 
Merrick, a story of whose life appears in this volume. This 
biography has to do with his son, Edward Richard Merrick, 
Assistant Secretary of the North Carolina Life Insurance 
Company, of Durham. 

Mr. Merrick is typical of a class of young men who 
are exerting a profound influence on the business life of 
the race. These young men having better educational ad- 
vantages and better business training than their fathers 



s. 




EDWARD RICHARD MERRICK 



28 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

had, have been able to reach places of responsibility and 
leadership at an earlier age. Many. of them like Mr. Mer- 
rick are men of college education. 

Edward Richard Merrick was born at Durham on June 
12, 1889. His father, John Merrick, was President of the 
North Carolina Mutual Insurance Company. His mother's 
name is Martha Merrick. 

Growing up in Durham Mr. Merrick attended the Whit- 
ted High School and passed from there to the A. & T. Col- 
lege at Greensboro from which he was graduated in 1909. 
He has always been independent and self reliant, able to 
take care of himself in any situation. His first work in 
the insurance field was as an agent. Later he took a clerk- 
ship in the office and was promoted from that to his pres- 
ent position. He is especially interested in current litera- 
ture and business magazines. 

He is a member of the Methodist church and in politics 
is a Republican. Among the secret orders he is identified 
with tlhe Masons, Pythians and Royal Knights of King 
David. 

On Nov. 21, 1916, Mr. Merrick was married to Miss Lyda 
V. Moore, a daughter of Dr. A. M. Moore. They have one 
daughter, Vivian M. Merrick. 



Benjamin Franklin Person 



It is not easy to tell the story of a man like Prof. Ben- 
jamin Franklin Person of Franklinton in short space. For 
nearly forty years, he has been engaged in the important 
work of teaching. Those who first went to school to Prof. 
Person has grown to maturity and many of them (have 
passed away. Not a few have found their way to other 
states and other sections. That so many of them have suc- 
ceeded in the various walks of life and in the different pro- 
fessions is to the credit of this veteran teacher. 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 29 

He was born in Granville Co. during the war on May 
19, 1862. His parents were Burwell and Jane Person. His 
paternal grandparents were Ben and Lucy Person, while his 
maternal grandparents were Byrd and Rosa Blacknall. The 
boy grew up on the farm and attended the public schools. 
To this good day he remembers with gratitude the toil and 
the sacrifices of his mother in order that he might get an 
education. He needed but little urging as he was himself 
an ambitious boy. For his college work he went to St. 
Augustine and to Shaw University, graduating with the 
A. B. degree in 1884. In the meantime he had begun teach- 
ing and each summer while in college was spent in the 
school room. Soon after his graduation, on Dec. 18, 1884, 
he was united in matrimony to Miss Eveline L. Williams of 
Kittrell. Their eleven children are Lucy S., Katie F., Anita, 
Maggie, Jane M., Jesie M., Ben, Robert, William, Iris and 
Mellville. 

Prof. Person is a member of the Presbyterian church, 
but has not identified himself with the secret orders. His 
favorite reading has been history and biography. He is a 
member of the State Teachers Association and was the 
founder and organizer of the Colored Musical Association. 
Prof. Person excels in mathematics and the sciences. Few, 
if any other, men in the public life of the State have taught 
more students than he. Born and reared on the farm, he 
still farms in a small way during the summer. 



Junius Hercules Thomas 



The pastorate of the First Baptist Church in a city like 
Wilmington offers to a young man, who is equipped for it, 
unusual opportunities and at the same time weighty respon- 
sibilities. The leaders in such centers are more than merely 
pastors of their local congregations. They come to be ill 
the eyes of the people the representatives of their denomi- 
nations. 




JUNIUS HERCULES THOMAS 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 31 

Rev. Junius Hercules Thomas, S. T. B., pastor of the. 
First Baptist Church of the historic city of Wilmington, is 
a native of Alabama having been born in Dallas Co., on May 
1, 1884. His father, Lee Thomas, was a farmer and a hotel 
man and the boy grew up on the farm. His grandparents 
on the father's side were Crockett Thomas and Vinie Aber- 
crombie. Rev. Thomas' mother, before marriage, was Miss 
Luvenia Benson. 

Young Thomas lost has father at an early age and he 
was under the necessity of helping to support the family, 
at a time when he wanted to go to sdhool. His mind early 
turned to religious matters. He gave his heart to God when 
he was about twelve years of age and joined the Oak Grove 
Church in Perry, Alabama. As a boy he attended the coun- 
try public schools. By the time he was seventeen he had 
consecrated his life to tihe ministry and was licensed to 
preach by his home church in 1903 and by the same body 
ordained to the full work of the ministry in 1905 at twenty- 
one years of age. He felt that he must have a better equip- 
ment for the serious work of life than that provided by 
the public schools, so (he entered Selma University after he 
began preaching, and after he was married, completing the 
College Preparatory in 1912. That he made not mistake in 
spending the time and money for this course is shown by 
his rapid progress since. 

On December 20, 1903, soon after he was licensed to 
preach, he was married to Miss Cassie Elizabeth Harris, a 
daughter of John and Mattie Harris. 

Rev. Thomas' first work as a pastor was in his native 
State. The first church he served was Lillie Grove at Ham- 
burg, which he pastored for three years. Other churches 
in Alabama which he pastored were Mt. Olive, at Marion, 
two years; Provewell at Spratt, three years; Friendship at 
Marion a year and a half, Betlhel at Alexander City three 
years, Friendship at LaFayette three years ; Ebenezer at 
Lanet three years and Seventeenth Street at Anniston two 
and a half years. In December, 1918, he began work as a. 
pastor of the First Church at Wilmington, which responded 



32 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

to his leadership. He is rapidly rising to a place of promi- 
nence in his section. He combines the qualities of a care- 
ful organizer or executive with tlhose of an attractive and 
popular speaker. He is not blind to the shortcomings of his 
people and believes that they should be trained and encour- 
aged to organize race enterprises and that a spirit of co-op- 
eration should be fostered among them. 

He is not active in either politics nor in the secret 
orders. Next after the Bible his favorite reading is history 
and sociology. 

Since leaving College, the language of the Bible, He- 
brew and Greek, have been mastered for all practical pur- 
poses. Post work in Biblical Exegesis has been done so 
carefully till now he is referred to as "Expositor." Church 
polity is a specialty with him. 



Clarence Dillard 



Rev. Clarence Dillard, principal of the colored graded 
schools at Goldsboro is one of those rare men in this day of 
specialists who has been able to combine two important lines 
of work and make a success in both. He is at once an effi- 
cient and prominent educator among his people and a suc- 
cessful pastor. He is a native of Alabama, having been 
born in Talladega County just before the outbreak of the 
War between the States. The exact date is unknown, in 
the absence of written records, but it was perhaps about 
1858. His father, Thomas Dillard, was a farmer and died 
at the age of eighty. His mother before her marriage was 
Julia Woodward. She was a daughter of Thomas and 
Peggy Starks, of Winnsboro, S. C, though both had been 
originally brought from Culpepper, Virginia, to the South. 

Dr. Dillard was married on Oct. 3, 1884, to Miss Annie 
Louvenia Hamer, a daughter of the late Rev. Jacob P., and 
Janes Hamer, of Washington, D. C. Of the four children 




CLARENCE DILLARD 



34 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

l)orn to them, two are living. Clarence Dillard, Jr., is a 
successful physician at Whiteville, N. C. The daughter, 
Alberta Estelle, married Rev. J. W. Herritage, an Episcopal 
minister in Fayetteville, North Carolina. 

The subject of our biography left Alabama when about 
six years of age. He attended the Winnsboro Academy in 
South Carolina and then went to Howard University at 
Washington for his college course, remaining there for five 
years and winning his A. B. degree in 1883. Since that 
time he has had the A. M. and Ph. D. degrees from Lincoln 
University. 

Dr. Dillard had a hard struggle to secure his education. 
The financial conditions were such that he had to make his 
own way through school. This he did courageously, with 
never a thought of failure, in the face of obstacles which 
would have defeated a less dauntless soul. He held firmly 
to his faith in God and was prompted by an intense desire 
to help the race. When able to secure a teacher's certifi- 
cate, he began teaching and has been identified with the edu- 
cational life of the State for a generation. 

He began preaching as a young man and his first work 
along this line was missionary service in Virginia. He had 
charge of the Statesville Academy for one year and assisted 
the Rev. A. S. Billingsley in church work during the same 
time. Later he was called to the pastorate of the Second 
Presbtyerian Church at Goldsboro where he preached for 
twenty years, during which time a lot was bought and a new 
house of works'hip erected. He was pastor of the First Pres- 
byterian Church at Elm City for six years. At Dudley he 
organized and built the Presbyterian Church, which he pas- 
tored for twenty years. He also organized the Presbyterian 
congregation at Hookerton and built a church and pastored 
it for five years. The work at Wilson had been organized 
when he was called there, but he remained with that con- 
gregation for five years and paid the church out of debt. 
He organized the work at Kinston and also organized a 
church at Fremont. He pastored the Presbyterian church 
at Rocky Mount for five years and built there a new house 
of worsihip also. 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 35 

He was employed by the State Department of Educa- 
tion for ten years, during which time he conducted teach- 
ers' institutes in different counties of the State. 

He has had charge of the graded schools at Goldsboro 
for more than a quarter of a century and has lived to see 
many of his early students grow up to be men and women 
and to fill positions of usefulness in the business and pro- 
fessional life of the race. That he is a good business man, 
as well as a teacher and preacher, is shown by the fact that 
while not working primarily for money, he has notwith- 
standing accumulatEd considerable property in addition to 
an attractive, well furnished home at Goldsboro. A con- 
servative estimate of the worth of his property would 
probably be about $15,000. 

He is identified with the Masons but has not been active 
in politics, though at one time he served as Alderman at 
Goldsboro. In his reading he gives first place to the Bible 
and theological literature; after that to text books -on the 
science of teaching and to biography. 

While seeking to minister to his people in matters both 
spiritual and intellectual, he ihas had a rare opportunity to. 
observe conditions ; and believes that the best interests of 
the race are to be promoted by "an educated ministry in 
the pulpit ; better school facilities : an equal chance in life's 
race ; sympathy and greater patience on the part of our 
white people." 

Such, in brief, is the story of a man who, though born 
in slavery, has lived to render large and effective service to 
his people. 



Alexander Hampton Newsome 



If what has been accomplished by the self made men 
of America of both races could be set over against what, 
has been done by the college men and the men of splendid 
opportunities, there would be nothing for the self made- 
men to be ashamed of. On the other hand they have much 




ALEXANDER HAMPTON NEWSOME 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 37 

to be proud of in the records they have made. Besides the 
successes they have won under difficulties have, in turn, 
been the inspiration of many another youth. One of these 
sterling men, who, tihough born in slavery and reared in 
poverty, has done valiant service as a religious leader, is 
Rev. Alexander Hampton Newsome now (1920) stationed 
at High Point. 

Mr. Newsome is a native of Davidson County, where 
he was born Oct. 5, 1860, which was just before the out- 
break of the war. He was nearly five years of age when 
the war closed and remembers seeing the flash of the can- 
non when Salisbury was bombarded. From earliest boy- 
hood Ihe felt that his work in life must be that of the min- 
istry. His early years were spent on the Davidson County 
farm where he had for a companion a white boy, the nephew 
of his mother's former master. The aunt of this boy 
taught young Newsome to read and write. Such was his 
eagernes sto learn and his aptitude for books that he 
learned his alphabet in one night and soon mastered the 
Blue Back Speller. After that he entered the public schools 
of his native county and after his marriage went to High 
School at Oxford. 

He gave his heart to God when Ihe was about sixteen 
years of age and was licensed to preach before he was seven- 
teen. He did supply work for several years. In 1881 he 
was regularly admitted to the Conference under Bishop 
Merril at Winston-Salem and was soon recognized as one of 
the strong men of the connection in Western North Carolina. 
A mere list of his pastorates is a long one. Churches have 
been built and repaired, parsonages constructed and debts 
of long standing paid under his administration. Best of all 
souls /have been saved in the revivals he has held and many 
members added to the church. His first regular appoint- 
ment under the Conference was the Deep River Circuit. 
After that he preached at West Raleigh one year, Oxford 
two years, Madison Circuit, Rockingham County, one year, 
Morris Chapel Station, High Point, two years ( Winston- 
Salem two years, Larinburg one year, Lumberton four 
years, Reidsville two years, Lexington two years, Gastonia 



38 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

two years, Simpson's Chapel, Charlotte, two years, Hickory 
four years, and Oxford a second time four years. In 1913 
he was promoted to the Western North Carolina District, 
over which he presided for six years. Though some of the 
years of his superintendency were hard years for the people 
of the District, nevertheless he brought it up to new higfh 
water marks in finances and efficiency. In 1919 he was 
sent a second time to the Morris Chapel Station, at High 
Point. Rev. Newsome has had some of the most popular 
appointments in the M. E. connection in Western North 
Carolina. All his life he has been a hard worker. As a boy 
on the farm working for 25 cents a day, he would carry 
home lightwood knots, by the light of which he would read 
till late in the night. He did not take defeat or failure into 
consideration. He worked and prayed and trusted and 
went ahead. Nor did he pause when 'he had joined the 
Conference. Though deprived of a college education he 
continued to read and study. He took the Conference 
course and passed a creditable examination. It has been 
stated that he has brought into the Conference more young 
men than any other man in the Conference. His greatest 
revival was at Charlotte, where 160 were converted at one 
meeting. At Lumberton 140 were converted at one revival. 

Rev. Newsome has been married twice. His first mar- 
riage was on Nov. 28, 1879, to Miss Janie Sanders, of Ran- 
dolph County. Of the five children born to them only one 
survives, Miss Dora F. Newsome. In 1889 Mrs. Newsome 
passed away. In 1889 Rev. Newsome was married to Miss 
Mary L. Alford, of High Point. She was educated at Ben- 
nett College. They have four children: Coudres A., 
Charles D., Earline A. and Lee H. Newsome. 

In the Annual Conference Rev. Newsome is a member 
of the Board of Stewards and of Home Mission. He is also 
a Trustee of Bennett College. During the War he was 
active in all the campaigns and drives and (had one son, Lee, 
in the service in France. 



William Haywood Phillips 



All observers of race progress in the South in recent 
years have noted with interest the success which has at- 
tended the younger professional men, especially doctors and 
dentists. It is but fair to say of these that they repre- 
sent the best and most intelligent types of the race. Most 
of tihem are college men and have had to equip themselves 
professionally to stand the same examinations by the same 
boards that the white physicians and dentists have had to 
pass. Among their number must be mentioned Dr. William 
Haywood Phillips, a successful dentist of Wilson. He is a 
native of Raleigh, having been born there December 23, 
1890. His parents were Frank H. and Margaret (Bennett) 
Phillips. His maternal grandmother was Margaret Bennett. 
• Dr. Phillips was married November 30, 1918, to Miss 
Jewel Jennifer, of Washington, D. C. She is a daughter of 
William and S. L. Jennifer, and was educated at Washing- 
ton, where prior to her marriage she taught. 

Growing up in Raleigh, young Phillips attended the^ 
lecal public schools and did his college work at St. Augus- 
tine. He was graduated at that institution in 1910 and en- 
tered Meharry for his dental course, winning his D. D. S. 
degree in 1916. While working through his collegiate and 
dental courses he was accustomed to spend his summer va- 
cations at the North doing hotel and other work. In this 
way he was able to complete his course without a break 
and thus came into the practice of his profession at the 
age of twenty-six. He was led to take up the profession of 
dentistry by tine condition which prevailed among his people 
a few years ago. He had an opportunity to observe this 
condition while in college and noted that the white dentists 
did not cater to colored work and that there were not enough 
colored dentists to serve the people properly. 

After completing his studies, he established himself at 
Wilson, where he has built up a practice and become identi- 



40 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

fied with the business and profesisonal life of that growing 
city. 

In politics he is a Republican, though he has not been 
active. He was popular as a student and was an enthu- 
siastic player of football and tennis. He has had an oppor- 
tunity to travel extensively in America and his favorite 
reading, next after that which bears upon his profession, 
is history. He is a member of the Episcopalian Church, 
but does not affiliate with the secret orders. During the 
war he volunteered for service and was commissioned First 
Lieutenant in the Dental Reserve Corps. From his obser- 
vation and experience with conditions both North and 
South, in the city and in the country, he believes that the 
greatest single need of the race is the right sort of education. 



Edward Eusebia Curtright 



Professor Edward Eusebia Curtright, who is well known 
in educational circles in the Old North State is a member 
of a rather remarkable Georgia family whose members 
have made their mark in both educational and religious 
work. Prof. Curtright is a native of Green Co., Georgia, 
where he was born May 22, 1873. His father, George P. 
Curtright, was a son of Limas Curtright. His mother, be- 
fore her marriage, was Savannah Jackson, a daughter of 
Washington and Lurinda Jackson. 

When young Curtrig'ht came to school age he entered 
the local public school and has been in the school room 
practically ever since, either as student or teacher. Al- 
though finding it necessary to make his own way in school, 
he rose rapidly from the public school, passed through the 
High School, entered Atlanta University and won his A. B. 
degree in 1902. Long before this, however, he had secured 
a teacher's license and spent a number of years teaching 
school in the rural districts of Georgia. His summer vaca- 
tions while a student were usually spent in that way, and 




EDWARD EUSEBIA CURTRIGHT 



42 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

this made it possible for him to earn the money for his. 
college course during the remaining months of the year. 

Since completing his college course at Atlanta Uni- 
versity he has done considerable post-graduate work and 
specializing at Chicago University. In 1902 he was called 
to the work at the High Point Normal and Industrial Insti- 
tute and has since been a very vital part of the life of that 
growing and popular school. 

On June 2, 1906, Prof. Curtright was married to Miss 
Lora May Brooks, of High Point. 

He is fully identified with not only the educational but 
the business life of the town, and is secretary-treasurer of 
the Ramsey Drug Co. He is an independent in politics and 
is a member of the Baptist Church in which he is a deacon 
and superintendent of the Sunday School. Among the 
secret orders he belongs to the Masons. During the war 
he was active in the various drives and was chairman of 
the Red Cross Committee for the colored people. He has 
made a careful study of the conditions among his people 
and believes tlhe progress of the raca resolves itself into a 
matter of the right sort of leadership. 

Prof. Curtright is a vigorous, outstanding man of 
strong affiliations and has before him the promise of a bril- 
liant future in the educational life of his people. 



Cornelius Edward Askew 



The subject of this sketch, Rev. Cornelius Edward 
Askew, B. Th., D. D., is the honored pastor of the First 
Baptist Ohurch, colored, located on the corner of the capitol 
square of Raleigh, diagonally opposite to the White Baptist 
Church, which is on another corner. Dr. Askew has held 
this position now for several years and has proven himself 
a leader of no mean ability, and a preacher second to none 
in the State. 

Dr. Askew was born at Harralsville, in the county of 




CORNELIUS EDWARD ASKEW 



44 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Hertford, State of North Carolina, May 8, 1870. His father's 
name was Andrew Jackson Askew, and he was both a farmer 
and a mechanic. His mother's maiden name was Miss 
Flora Adeline Holloman, daughter of Toney and Hagar Ses- 
soms. His father's parents were Ira and Hasty Jones. He 
attended the public schools at Hertford County, and then 
entered and graduated from the State Normal School at 
Elizabeth City, N. C. He afterwards attended the Theo- 
logical Department of Shaw University and received his 
degree B. Tin., in 1908. He has since received the degree of 
D. D., both from Shaw University and also Benedict Col- 
lege, at Columbia, S. C. 

As in the case of so many of our ablest and best men, 
he encountered many difficulties to overcome in his early 
life, but he had learned to work, and he did not hesitate to 
work anywhere. He labored on the farm, on the railroad, 
in the lumber mills and anywhere he could work, and in 
this way was able to bear Ihis expenses which enabled him 
to pull through the schools he attended. He began his 
work as pastor of the Spring Garden Baptist Church at 
Washington, N. C, and had a successful ministry in that 
place. He also pastored at the same time the First Baptist 
Church at Kinston, N. C, and later he resigned this church 
to become pastor of the Mt. Zion Baptist Church at Rocky 
Mount, N. C. It was while serving at Rocky Mount he was 
called to the First Baptist Church at Raleigh and accepted, 
and is still pastor at this time. For a short time he taught 
at the Tar River Institute as principal, Greenville, N. C. 

He is a great student of the Bible and claims tlhat he 
has been inspired by this book to the success he has at- 
tained. His travels have not been extensive, but his knowl- 
edge of human nature is great, and he has made remarka- 
ble progress as a preacher since he was first licensed at 
twenty-six years of age. He was converted when elevsn 
years old. 

Dr. Askew was married in 1903 to Miss Mallie Golden 
Beebe, daughter of Bishop J. A. Beebe and Mrs. Cornelia J. 
Beebe, of WasJhington, N. C. He was married some time 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 45 

before their union was blessed with one son, who lived to 
be some six years of age, but took sick and died, to the 
profound sorrow of his devoted parents. The child was 
unusually bright and they had planned a great future for 
him, but God took him to heaven. Dr. Askew is an influ- 
ential member of the council of colored men called into 
existence at the instance of the Governor of the State of 
__orth Carolina, and holds other positions of trust among 
his people, who love and honor him for his courage and 
conscientious devotion to duty and to God. 



John Anthony Savage 



Race leaders very properly emphasize the importance 
of buying farms and homes, making investments and es- 
tablishing various lines of business. These things are de- 
sirable, but after all, they do not constitute the best inter- 
ests of the race. The assets of any community, race or na- 
tion, are its men. "Make perfect people: the rest follows," 
says a poet in epigram. Perfect persons may be impossible 
but necessarily it is from the right kind of people that 
great institutions grow. 

It was a peculiar condition which confronted the col- 
ored boy who was born just before, or at about the time of 
Emancipation. He sailed an uncharted se. As a rule, his 
parents were very poor and ignorant. If he aspired to an 
education, he usually had to make his own way and that, too, 
without the example of successful men of his own race to 
guide him. It is not strange that so many of them failed. 
It is remarkable that some of them triumphed. One of the 
successful men of the race who fought his way to a place of 
large service and prominence is Rev. Jofhn Anthony Savage, 
D. D., of Franklinton, N. C. His parents were William 
and Frances Savage, of Henderson, La. Just before the 
outbreak of the Civil War, the family was manumitted and 
went to Liberia. Later they resided at Sierra Leone, where 




JOHN ANTHONY SAVAGE 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 47 

young Savage was educated, so that his education, up to 
the time when he left for tne United States was more Eng- 
lish than American. In 1873 he returned and was matricu- 
lated at Lincoln University, where he won ihis A. B. degree 
in 1879. He then took up the theological course which was 
completed three years later with the S. T. B. degree. Such 
was his record as a student while at Lincoln that for two 
years he was a tutor in the sub-Fresihman class, and in this 
was assisted to earn money for his own course of study. 
Looking backward over his boyhood and youth, he attri- 
butes to (his mother and to the president of Lincoln Univer- 
sity while at that institution the chief inspiration and en- 
couragement of his early yers. On completion of his work 
at Lincoln, he came South and organized the Shiloh Church 
at Kingston, of which he was principal for a year. From 
Kingston ihe went to Newborn and was head of the State 
Normal and Graded School. In 1895 he went to Louisburg 
and patsored the Presbtyerian Church, which he still serves. 
A splendid new house of worship has been erected at Louis- 
burg, at a cost of $15,000, and every department of the 
work has grown steadily under his administration. 

In 1892 he took charge of Albion Academy at Frank- 
linton, wihich then had an enrollment of twelve boarding 
pupils and a faculty of three. All that has been done there 
during the quarter of a century that he has been head of 
the institution cannot be told in a short story like this. It 
may be stated, however, that the enrollment has grown to 
one of 450 and that it has been necessary to increase the 
faculty to twelve. New school buildings and a dormitory 
have been erected and the whole work put on a different 
basis, so that Albion Academy now stands as one of the 
better institutions for the education of the colored boys and 
girls in that part of North Carolina. Dr. Savage does not 
like to talk about himself, and it is not easy to tell the 
story of the great work he has done. It may be said, how- 
ever, that he has built an enduring monument in the lives 
of the many wiho have come under his influence at Albion 
during the last twenty-five years. He ihas lived to see many 
of them grow to manhood and womanhood and come to 



48 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

occupy places of honor and usefulness as preachers and 
teachers and good business men and fine citizens generally. 

While perhaps he is more frequently named as an edu- 
cator, still Dr. Savage has had a fruitful ministry and is 
very mucin beloved as a pastor, preacher and church builder. 

It is not strange that he should consider that the most 
important need before his people today is that they have 
the right sort of education along religious and industrial 
lines. 

In 1879 Dr. Savage was married to Miss Melvma Bald- 
win, who bore him four children. They are: John A., Jr., 
Carrie H. (Hawkins), Mary A. P., and Frank Savage. 

In 1896 Mrs. Savage passed to her reward and fourteen 
years later he was married the second time, to. Miss Mary 
Dover, of Wilmington, Delaware. 

Dr. Savage is prominent in educational work and a 
recognized figure in educational and religious gatherings. 
He has for a number of years been Stated Clerk of the Cape 
Fear Presbytery, having assisted in its organization, and 
is Permanent Clerk of the Catawba Synod and Chairman of 
the New Era movement of the same Synod. 



Thomas Sewell Inborden 



The best American stories are not romances, but rather 
the simple records of what American boys struggling up 
from poverty and obscurity have done for themselves and 
their people. No race nor section has a monopoly of strug- 
gling, winning youth. Their faith and courage in the face 
of difficulties and their final successes constitute an asset 
of the race, the value of which cannot be computed in dol- 
lars and cents. One of these men who in his own line of 
work has shown the courage of a soldier and the spirit of a 
pioneer is Rev. Thomas Sewell Inborden, President and 
founder of the Joseph Keasbey Brick Agricultural, Industrial 
and Normal School at Bricks, N. C, near Enfield. 




THOMAS SEWELL INBORDEN 



50 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

He impresses one as a man of restless energy. His suc- 
cess in his chosen field of work goes to show that these 
qualities are characteristic rather than spasmodic. Others 
might wait for something to turn up, it has alwys been 
his policy to turn up something. To most boys, school 
days are regarded as merely a period of preparation and 
sometimes of play. Not so with our subject. To him 
school was as mudh a part of life as any that had gone be- 
fore or any that was to follow. He took both his work 
and his religion seriously and while at Oberlin was superin- 
tendent of a Sunday School in which one of his own day 
school teachers taught a class. And the fine thing about it 
is the fact that through it all he seems to have had a good 
time and enjoyed the struggle, for today he is as buoyant 
and optimistic as a youth of twenty. He is direct, posi- 
tive and constructive in his methods and believes that "the 
straight line is the path to power." 

"What you can do, or dream you can, begin it. 

Boldness has genius, power, and magic in it. 

Only engage, and then the mind grows heated — 

Begin, and then the work will be completed." 
Prof. Inborden was born in Loudon Co., Va. — just be- 
fore the close of the war, on Jan. 6, 1865. His father was 
a white man. His mother was Harriet Proctor Smith. She 
was a daughter of Levi and Hannah Proctor. As a boy he 
worked on the farm and was accustomed to doing all sorts 
of outdoor work. Even yet he loves the outdoors and his 
hobbies are bees and botany. He went to the local schools 
and passed from there to Oberlin for his preparatory work. 
His means were limited and his wardrobe consisted of the 
coarse homespun clothes made from flax and wool on the 
Loudon Co. farm. From the beginning it was necessary 
for him to make his own way. All the time he was 
prompted by a desire to know and tohelp. 

At one time his health failed under the strain and to 
this day he recalls the nagging of some of his superiors and 
the taunts of his associates in work and in school. But 
"none of these things moved him." At one time, he went 
to work in a hotel in Ohio and sent back to Virginia to get 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 51 

an Arithmetic and a Dictionary. Years later he was a 
guest in the hotel in which he had once been such an awk- 
ward, embarrassed waiter. He went to Fisk University for 
his College course which he completed with the A. B. degree 
in 1891. Since that time Benedict has conferred on him 
the M. A. degree. 

His vacations were spent in teaching in the public 
schools. Soon after going to Oberlin he was converted and 
at once became an active Christian worker. After going 
to Fiske he organized the first Y. M. C. A. Conference 
among colored schools at that institution. 

His first pastorate was at Beaufort, N. C, where he 
preached during the first summer after his graduation. 
From there he went to Helena, Ark., for two years under 
the American Missionary Association. After that he was 
at the Albany Normal, Albany, Ga., two years. In 1895 he 
came to his present field. Here the man and the oppor- 
tunity were fairly met. Through the munificence of Mrs. 
Brick a large plantation was purchased and without any 
previous traditions to hamper him, he set to work, begin- 
ning with a single student and has created a plant which is 
at once a model and an inspiration to others. 

He now, 1919, has a faculty of 22 and an enrollment 
of 361. The building and grounds are attractive and com- 
modious and the whole plant is worth at least a quarter 
of a million dollars. His courses of study have been 
worked out with a view to giving his pupils a symmetrical, 
well balanced education which shall include the head, the 
heart and the hand. Nor has the influence of the school 
been confined to its pupils. It has exerted a leavening 
influence for miles around and in all Eastern North Carolina. 

Mention must also be made of Rev. Inborden's religious 
work. He is a forceful and attractive speaker and on one 
speaking tour of ninety days spoke ninety-six times in the 
principal cities of the Northwest. In all phases of the war 
work he was a leader and won the hearty commendation of 
the white leaders by his organizing ability, co-operation 
and the success of his work. 



52 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

In Sept., 1891, Prof. Inborden was married to Miss 
Sarah Jane Evans, of Oberlin. She is also an accomplished 
teacher. They have three children: Julia (Mrs. Gordon, 
of Chicago), Dorothy, a teacher, and Wilson B. Inborden, a 
student at Howard. 

Prof. Inborden has written a number of interesting 
booklets and brochures along the line of his work. 



George Edward Davis 



Any discriminating list of the scholarly, versatile col- 
ored men of North Carolina would contain the name of Dr. 
George Edward Davis, of Charlotte (who is now (1919) 
Professor of Natural Science and Sociology and Dean of the 
Faculty of Biddle University. In point of service he is 
the Nestor of the- Faculty, having taught at Biddle for thir- 
ty-five years. In fact, the present president and several 
of the teachers of the institution were students of his years 
ago. 

Dr. Davis is a native of the historic old town of Wil- 
mington, where he was born in the midst of the War be- 
tween the States, on March 24,, 1863. His father, Edward 
Alexander Davis, was for thirty years a member of the po- 
lice force of Wilmington. His mother, Hester Ann Price, 
was a daughter of George W. Price. Dr. Davis' paternal 
grandfather was Arthur Hill. 

Young Davis laid the foundation of his education at 
Gregory Institute in his home town. His brilliance as a 
student may be inferred from the fact that he was able to 
begin teaching at fifteen years of age. His first school 
was at Laurinburg. When ready for college he matriculated 
at Biddle University, and won his A. B. degree in 1883. As 
it was necessary for (him to make his own way in school he 
continued teaching during the summer months at Laurin- 
burg and kept this up for seven consecutive years. He 
made a brilliant record at Biddle and was offered a profes- 



54 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

sorship in the institution while it was still manned by white 
teachers. He had set his heart on Medicine, however, and 
so entered Howard University at Washington. After pur- 
suing the course for two years, he was in 1885, induced to 
heed the urgent call of his Alma Mater and so returned to 
Biddle, where for thirty-five years he has taught without 
a break. 

As a student Dr. Davis was popular and gave consider- 
able attention to college athletics. During the years he 
has traveled well over America. He is a close observer, a 
clear thinker, an extensive reader and a most interesting 
conversationalist. His ability as a teacher was soon recog- 
nized and he was at different times Secretary and Presi- 
dent of the State Teachers Association. He was also the 
conductor for twenty consecutive sessions of the North Car- 
olina State Summer Schools. 

Dr. Davis takes no active part in local politics, though 
in National matters he is a Republican. Nor is he identi- 
fied with the secret orders. He is, of course, an active mem- 
ber of the Presbyterian Church. 

As he has studied conditions, local and general, by per- 
sonal contact with men and through the books, he has 
reached some definite conclusions as to the outstanding 
needs of the people. He has no ready made panaceas. He 
believes that permanent progress must rest on such funda- 
mental things as the development of character, the securing 
of education and the accumulation of property. 

On Sept. 19, 1891, Dr. Davis was married to Miss Eliza- 
beth Gaston, a daughter of Aexander H. and Parmelia 
Gaston. Of the seven children born to them five are liv- 
ing. They are Fannie C, Hattie G., Alexander G., Celeste 
C, and Gladys E. Davis. 

Dr. Davis owns a comfortable home near 'Biddle Uni- 
versity, where he has surrounded himself with the comforts 
of life. 



John Wesley Anthony Blake 



Religion and education go hand in hand. Not a few 
of the religious leaders of the race 'have also made a name 
for themselves as practical educators and have thus multi- 
pied their influence in the lives of others. One of these 
men who for nearly a generation has been going in and 
out before the people in South Carolina and North Carolina 
is Rev. John Wesley Anthony Blake, D. D., of Concord. 
He is a native of Chester County, S. C, having been born 
near Richburg on Feb. 8, 1873. His father, James Blake, 
was a devout member of the A. M. E. Zion Church in which 
he was a class leader. He lived on a farm and also made 
horse collars when that work was still done by hand. He 
was a son of Ben and Celia Blake. Ben Blake was a suc- 
cessful farmer. Rev. Blake's mother, before her marriage 
was Miss Drucilla Stevenson. She was a daughter of An- 
thony Stevenson. 

On March 8, 1897, Dr. Blake was married to Miss Sarah 
L. Crosby. In 1916 she passed to her reward and on July 
10, 1918, Dr. Blake was married a second time to Miss Ethel 
N. Norwell, a daughter of Simon and Ziporah Norwell. 
There are two children, Calista E. (Mrs. Stockton) and 
Ruth E. Blake, both b yhis first wife. 

Dr. Blake has had a hard struggle to fit himself for 
his work in life. In his boyhood days the public schools to 
which he went ran only two or three months a year. Added 
to this was the fact that he was under the necessity of 
making his onw way when he went to college. He did not 
allow this to discourage him, (however, and entered Brainerd 
Normal at Chester. After reaching the place where he 
could secure a teachers license the way was easier and find- 
ing the work of teaching congenial and offering a large field 
of usefulness, he has continued in that work. For thirty 
years he has been teaching in the two states of South Car- 
olina and North Carolina. He was converted about the age 




JOHN WESLEY ANTHONY BLAKE 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 57 

of twelve and joined the church in which he had been 
brought up. He graduated from Brainerd Institute in 
1895. 

Having decided to take up the work of the Gospel min- 
istry he went to Gammon Theological Seminary, Atlanta, 
for (his Theological Course and did special work at Clark 
University and Pee Dee College. He has the D. D. degree 
from the latter. 

Early in life he took for his motto : "Be ready to every 
good work." Added to this has been the influence of an 
humble though Christian training, which disciplined him 
in an honest upright life. 

Dr. Blake joined the Conference at Chester, S. C, in 
1893, and has preached at various places in Lancaster and 
York Counties, South Carolina, and also at Blacksburg, 
Gaffney, and Clio, in South Carolina. In North Carolina 
he has pastored the churches at Grover, Monroe, Wades- 
boro, Fayetteville, Maxton, Hertford and Concord. His 
work has been marked by growth in membership and in 
spiritual power and numerous church improvements have 
been made under his administration. As many as one 'hun- 
dred and fifteen have been converted in one revival. He 
has attended four General Conferences of his denomination. 
In his reading he gives first place to the Bible. After that 
comes the works of John Wesley and the Cyclopedias. He 
is President of the Christian Endeavor and among the secret 
orders is identified with the Eastern Star. His standing 
locally may be judged from the fact tihat he is President of 
the Ministers Union of Concord. Both as pastor and as 
evangelist he has had a fruitful ministry and has brought 
many new members into the church. He believes in a 
"high standard of home or family circle life and a Christian 
standard lifted up by each school teacher with an active 
parent teacher organization co-operating in all moral, reli- 
gious and civic uplift." 

Dr. Blake is one of the prominent figures in the work of 
the Varick Christian Endeavor Movement. 



Eli Benjamin Thompson 



The Rev. Eli Benjamin Thompson, B. Th., of Durham, 
is a native of Robeson Co. and has with singleness of pur- 
pose devoted the mature years of his life to the Baptist 
ministry. He was born April 6, 1888. His father was 
Joihn H. Thompson, a son of John and Mariah Thompson. 

Rev. Thompson's mother was, before her marriage, Miss 
Amelia Ashley, a daughter of Robert and Sarah Ashley. 

As a boy young Thompson worked on the farm and as a 
student in the public schools was apt and steady. He was 
converted when about fourteen years of age and joined the 
Sandy Grove Baptist Church at Lumberton, N. C. 

He attended the National Training School at Dunham, 
and was graduated from the Theological Department of 
that institution with the B. Th. degree May 18, 1914. 

On Nov. 4 of the same year he was married to Miss 
Tola W. Burton, a daughter of Charles M. Burtin, of Rox- 
boro. She was educated at Shaw University and was be- 
fore her marriage a teacher. They have two children, Eli 
B., Jr. and Cordell R. Thompson. 

Young Thompson was licensed to preach in 1910 by 
the White Rock Baptist Church of Durham. The follow- 
ing year he was ordained to the full work of the Gospel 
ministry by the same churclh. His attitude toward an edu- 
cation may be judged from the fact that he remained in 
school under difficulties. It was not only necessary for him 
to make his own way but he also had to help support the 
family at home. Both as pastor and as evangelist he has 
been successful. His first pastorate was Mt. Gilead, at 
Durham, wthere in a single year the membership grew from 
about thirty to nearly ninety. He served the Second Bap- 
tist Church of Roxboro for a little more than a year and a 
half and added forty to the membership of the church. He 
then accepted the call of the Lawson Chapel Baptist Churclh 
ten miles east of Roxboro and during a pastorate of two 




ELI BENJAMIN THOMPSON AND FAMILY 



60 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

years added forty members to that congregation. His next 
pastorate was the Red Mountain Church at Rougemont, 
where in one year thirty new members were added to the 
roll. He has served the Rocky Springs Baptist Church at 
Creedmore for three years and added one ihundred new mem- 
bers. He has only recently gone to the Prospect Hill Bap- 
tist Church of Woodsdale, but already the work there has 
responded to his efforts and sixty persons have come into 
the church. He is also serving the Jonathan Creek Church 
at Nelson, Va. As a result of :his evangelistic work in this 
(1919) season alone nearly one hundred and fifty conver- 
sions have been witnessed. He is a member of the Pythians. 
Speaking of race conditions he advocates "better home train- 
ing and a more competent leadership, spiritually, morally, 
socially and intellectually. This will be the greatest demand 
that can be made on envy, strife and hatred, which exists 
between the races." 



Albert Witherspoon Pegues 



Albert Witherspoon Pegues, A. B., A. M., Ph. D., D. D., 
is one of the most influential of the! leaders of the colored 
people in North Carolina. He was born at McFarlan, N. C, 
Nov. 25, 1859, and passed his younger days in South Caro- 
lina. His mother's name was Adeline Pegues, and she was 
devoted to her son, and first gave him a start in the schools 
when he was quite young. However, young Pegues was 
made of such stuff that he was not long a care to his 
mother, but from the age of twelve years he had depended 
mainly upon his own efforts. He attended the public schools 
of Cheraw, S. C, at a young age, and later on Benedict Col- 
lege, Columbia, S. C. He afterwards attended the Richmond 
Institute, Richmond, Vr., and finally attended and graduated 
from Bucknell University at Lewisburg, Pa., June, 1886. 
He received from time to time small scholarships from 




ALBERT WITHERSPOON PEGUES 



62 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

friends in the North at the different Institutions that made 
it possible for ihim to pull through school together with his 
own small earnings. 

After graduation he began his public career at Parkers- 
burg, W. Va., where he became principal of the high school, 
but he only remained there for one year. In 1887 he was 
called to a position at Sthaw University, Raleigh, N. C, and 
he was dean of the college department for six years. As 
teacher and dean he was personally quite acceptable to 
faculty and students, and his work was noted for efficiency 
and faithfulness. He resigned the position at Shaw to 
accept the work of Sunday School Missionary of the Ameri- 
can Baptist Publication Society for the State, and served a 
few years in that position, resigning to accept the superin- 
tendency of the colored department of the North Carolina 
State School for the Deaf, Dumb and Blind, located at Ral- 
eigh, his home town. He served here several years, and 
resigned to accept other work, but it was not long before 
he returned to the same institution and finally completed 
fifteen years of service there altogether, counting his two 
separate terms of service. When he first left this institu- 
tion it was to return to Shaw University, but not for col- 
lege work, but to take a position in the Theological Depart- 
ment, and he spent ten years in the work of that depart- 
ment. It can be well seen that Dr. Pegues has been closely 
associated with the young men and women of yesterday 
who became the leaders of their people today, and the result 
is that he stands in very close relation to the leaders of the 
Negro Baptists in the State, and wields a great influence 
among them. In 1919 he accepted again a position that 
called ihim back to Shaw University Theological Department 
to do work a part of the year and to spend the other part of 
the year in field work over the State. In this position he is 
supported jointly by the white and colored Baptist Conven- 
tions of the State. He has only recently started out on 
that work, but no one who is acquainted with Dr. Pegues 
expects anything but a marked degree of success to follow 
his efforts. 

Dr. Pegues has for many years sustained quite a close 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION €3 

relation to the Sunday School and young people's work in 
the State of the Baptist denomination as Corresponding 
Secretary of the Baptist State S. S. Convention. In that 
position he has helped to improve the Sunday School work 
of the State. At the same time he has also held various 
positions on the boards of the regular Baptist State Con- 
vention, and has taken a vital part in the operation of the 
Negro Baptists of the State. 

There is hardly a colored man in the State that is bet- 
ter read than Dr. Pegues, and his reading is generally of 
a high type and the result is that his mind has been well 
disciplined and stored with a large supply of facts covering 
a very wide range. 

Dr. Pegues is an ordained minister of the Missionary 
Baptist persuasion and has from the first year of his public 
service served in a ministerial way in addition to his work 
as a teacher. During the early years of his connection with 
Shaw University he was called to the pastorate of the First 
Baptist Church at Franklinton, N. C, and has held that 
position until this blessed day, covering a period of more 
than a quarter of a century. During this pastorate he has 
set a high standard of intelligence as well as morality and 
spirituality for his members. In recent years he has been 
called and has accepted the pastorate of the First Baptist 
Church at Henderson, N. C, some twenty miles further 
away, and he is doing a good work also at that point. As 
a minister he early associated himself with the national 
gatherings of his denomination, but in later life he has 
contented himself to largely limit his activities outside of 
the State to the territory of the Lott Carey Convention, cov- 
ering three or four States only, and he has served as the 
Recording Secretary of that body from the beginning of the 
organization. However, in earlier life and before he ceased 
to attend the National Baptist Convention, he wrote a book 
entitled "Our Baptist Schools and Preachers," which had a 
large circulation among the preachers of that body. He 
also served as Statistician three years. 

Dr. Pegues is a man of signal business ability, and 
though a minister and a teacher, there is no man of the 



64 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

race in the State whose signature has higher standing at 
-a bank than his. He has closely associated himself with 
the practical business life of his people and iholds positions 
in various organizations among them. He is president of 
the Oak City Building and Loan Association at Raleigh, 
treasurer of the Mallette Drug Company, secretary of the 
Capital Development and Trust Company. He is a trustee 
of Shaw University. Dr. Pegues' position on the race situa- 
tion in this country may be summarized in the following 
words : "Mutual sympathy, closer study of conditions, 
needs and opportunities for helpfulness on both sides, seek- 
ing to put in practice principles of right and justice as 
taught in the Bible." It can be seen by a careful study of 
these words that he comes pretty near to the only perma- 
nent solution of this great problem and his own life has 
been an embodiment of his ideas along this line. 

On February 18, 1890, Dr. Pegues was married to Miss 
Mary Ella Christian, daughter of Mr. Wallace B. and Mrs. 
Josephine Christian, of Richmond, Va. To this union was 
born two children, a son and a daughter. But his son Allie 
died as he was nearing manhood, and his death was greatly 
lamented by his acquaintances and friends, for he was a 
popular young man. The daughter, Earnestine Florence, 
still lives and is now the wife of Dr. Hamlin and they make 
their home in West Virignia. 

Dr. Pegues may be classed among the few really able 
leaders of his people in the State and enjoys the confidence 
of his own people and also the white people as few others 
do. He has traveled extensively in the United States and 
some in Canada, but his principal field of activity has been 
in North Carolina, and as a result he is known as few other 
leaders in the State and has a standing equalled only by 
few others. He is a man of pleasing address and convinc- 
ing manners and modest bearing. As a preacher and 
speaker he has shown great endowment in convincing his 
ihearers, and usually depends upon logic and facts rather 
than upon feeling in making his appeal. 



Edward William Carpenter 

The man of business can count his dollars or make an 
inventory of his merchandise and show the world what he 
has accomplished, and we are accustomed to applaud the 
men who can measure their work in large figures. But the 
man who invests (his life in religious and educational work 
must be content with values that can not be measured in 
dollars and cents. One of the faithful workers in these 
fields is Rev. Edward William Carpenter of Charlotte. For 
nearly forty years he has been engaged in educational work 
and for nearly as long a period in preaching the Gospel. 

He was born at Ansonville during the war, April 11, 
1862, and was, of course, free before he felt the pressure 
of slavery. His father Samuel J. Carpenter, was a farm 
hand and after the war continued farming. He was a son 
of Samuel and Jennie Carpenter, who had been brought 
South from Virginia as slaves. Rev. Carpenter's mother 
was Cherry M. Carpenter. She was a daughter of John 
and Rebecca Carpenter, also from Virginia. John Carpen- 
ter must have been enterprising and ambitious as he saved 
enough money from work done at night to purchase his 
own and his wife's freedom. It was from ancestry like this 
that our subject descended. 

Young Carpenter attended the local public school as a 
boy and worked on the farm. When he was about eighteen 
years of age he turned his mind to the serious matter of 
religion. He had previously entered the preparatory de- 
partment of Biddle University and continued his studies 
there, graduating with the A.B. degree in 1886. The same 
institution has since conferred on him the A.M. degree. 

He began to teach at his own home school in 1880 and 
has since been in the harness as a teacher regularly. His 
first pastorate was at Wadesboro, where he preached from 
1884 to 1886. From 1886 to 1889 he preached at Siloam. 
In the latter year he moved to Madison, Ga., to accept the 




EDWARD WILLIAM CARPENTER 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 67 

pastorate of the church there and also preached at Conyers, 
in an adjacent county, as well as some country work. He 
was principal of the Madison Academic Institute for eigh- 
teen years. He was chairman of the committee on exami- 
nation of candidates for the ministry. He examined espe- 
cially in Hebrew, Latin and Theology for years. 

New houses of worship were erected while he was in 
Georgia and ihe was Stated Clerk of the Hodge Presbytery. 
He remained in Georgia till 1907, when he returned to 
Charlotte. For three years he pastored McClintock and 
Emanuel and then went to Woodland and Mint Hill for three 
years. Since 1913 he has again been preaching at Siloam 
and at Lloyd. The house of worship at Siloam has been 
rebuilt. 

On December 30, 1885, Rev. Carpenter was married to 
Miss Augusta T. Richardson, daughter of Henry and Mary 
Richardson. Of the nine children born to them the follow- 
ing are living: Edward W., John H., Emma M., Demetrius 
A., Ira, Mareellus D.. and Augusta T. Carpenter. 

Mr. Carpenter has had a fruitful ministry. He belongs 
to the Masons and the Pythians. He preaches a plain, vig- 
orous gospel as he finds it in the Book. He believes that 
progress depends on better educational facilities and on 
better leadership. 



James Leslie Hollowell 



Rev. James Lesie Hollowell, A. B., A. M., pastor of the 
Presbyterian Church at Statesville, has felt even from child- 
hood that his work in life was to be that of the ministry. 
He had a hard struggle to equip himself for efficient service 
but his patience and courage won and he has made himself 
a prominent place in the work of his denomination. He 
was born at Goldsboro, April 11, 1881, and is a son of 
Samuel Hollowell and his wife, Hepsie Jane, who before her 
marriage was a Hicks. She was a daughter of Diana Hicks. 
His paternal grandmother was Rose Hollowell. 




JAMES LESLIE HOLLOWELL 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 69 

In 1909 Rev. Hollowell was married to Miss Elizabeth 
Cornelia Beatty, a daughter of Carter and Susana Beatty. 
They have one child, James Leslie, Jr., born Sept. 22, 1912. 
Young- Hollowell attended the graded school of Goldsboro 
and after that the Normal School. In the fall of '99 he 
entered Biddle University, graduating with the degree of 
A. B. in 1903. Three years later he completed the Theologi- 
cal course. In 1910 the degree of A. M. was conferred on 
him by Biddle. Speaking of his education, he says: 

"My struggle for an education was hard. At an early 
age my father died, leaving me and one sister to be cared 
for by my mother. I worked mornings and evenings at odd 
jobs and often times during the early years of my school 
life, among excellent white people at their homes. 

When I entered the Normal School, which was one of 
the State's schools, I began to see the necessity of securing 
an education for life's work. I could do more for myself 
and be a help to my parents at this time. I am indebted to 
several kind friends, both white and colored, for help in 
many ways. Here in the Normal School I came in contact 
with one of the finest products of womanhood that ever 
lived, Miss Louise Dorr (white), one of my teachers, who 
has left an everlasting impression on me for good. Such 
principals as A. L. Summers, a graduate of Lincoln Univer- 
sity; E. E. Smith, of Shaw University, and H. E. Hagans, 
of Howard University, and P. W. Russell, of Biddle Univer- 
sity. All of these men inspired me to go on. 

I finished the Normal School under Prof .P. W. Russell, 
now of Biddle University. It was a long, hard pull. I am 
much indebted to the late President of Biddle, Dr. D. J. 
Sanders, for aid and much advice. Truly Dr. Sanders was 
a friend to poor struggling young men." 

From the time of his graduation in the spring to Sep- 
tember, 1906, Rev. Hollowell worked at Hope, Ark., under 
the Freedman's Board. Since that time he has had charge 
of the Trade Street Presbyterian Church at Statesville, and 
Mt. Tabor, a country church. 

Among the secret orders he belongs to the Masons, the 
Pythians and the Eastern Star. He is Stated Clerk of the 



70 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Yakdin Presbytery and Corresponding Secretary of the 
Western N. C. S. S. Convention of Yadkin Presbytery. He 
says: 

"The best interest of our state can be fostered by our 
people by upright dealing with one another, a better appre- 
ciation of industrial opportunities as well as religion. A 
high standard of morality must exist. Accumulation of 
property. Taking advantage of eduction, especially must 
parents emphasize this. Co-operation for race betterment 
in all of its connections, and cultivating friendship with the 
opposite race." 



John Ellis Boykin 



In a state like North Carolina, some of the most use- 
ful men of the race are in the smaller towns and in the 
rural districts. Such a man is the Rev. John Ellis Boykin, 
Baptist pastor and teacher at Thomasville. He was born 
in Sampson Co. on March 4, 1873, and is a son of Warren 
Boykin, a farmer. His mother, whose maiden name was 
Susan Wright, was a daughter of Macon and Rebecca 
Wright. 

On December 28, 1904, our subject was happily married 
to Miss Jerusha C. Hubbard, a daughter of Unus and Alice 
Hubbard. Of the four children born to them two are liv- 
ing. They are Helen T. and Charles R. Boykin. 

Mr. Boykin was brought up under conditions which 
made it necessary for him to work his way through school. 
'Tie refused to be discouraged, however, and managed to at- 
tend and graduate from the State High School at Fayette- 
ville. In 1914 his work and attainments were recognized 
by Friendship College, at Rock Hill, S. C, and the A. M. de- 
gree conferred upon him. 

He began his career as a public school teacher in the 
rural schools of his native county, and has been teaching 
steadily since. He taught with signal success in both Rich- 
mond and Scotland Counties, North Carolina. He passed 



JOHN ELLIS BOYKIN 



72 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

from the rural schools to the principalship of the Union 
Academy at Clinton, where he taught for four years. For 
the last twelve years he has been head of the Thomasville 
School, which has more than doubled its enrollment under 
his administration. 

Mr. Boykin has also been successful in his religious 
work. He was converted and joined the Baptist Church 
when about eighteen years of age. Some five years later 
he was licensed to preach and in 1902 ws ordained to the 
full work of the ministry by the Piney Grove Baptist Church 
of Sampson Co. His first pastorate was at Beaver Dam, 
where a new church was built. For eight years he has been 
pastor of the First Baptist Church of Thomasville, and for 
six years pastor of Elm Grove near Reidsville. Both 
churches have prospered and grown under his care. Ar- 
rangements are now (1919) being made for the erection of 
a modern brick church at Thomasville. For the last six 
years Mr. Boykin has served as moderator of the High Point 
Educational Missionary Baptist Association, and under his 
leadership the work has gone forward. 

Among the secret orders he belongs to the Masons, the 
Odd Fellows, the Eastern Star, and the Knights. of Pythias. 

When asked for some opinion as to how the best inter- 
est of the race might be promoted, he replied : 

"By a united effort in aim. It might be well to ask 
the Government to give us a territory that we might prac- 
tice self government." 



Garland Alonzo Gerran 



Dr. Garland Alphonzo Gerran, of High Point, is a man 
who justifies that fundamental faith in the worth-whileness 
of humanity without which all effort at bettering the world 
would be abandoned. Like hundreds of thousands of other 
people, he had good ancestry. Unlike far too many of them, 
he does not spurn this inestimable blessing and did not sit 
down on the highway of life refusing to take a step forward 




GAR 



\LONZO GERRAN 



74 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

because no elegant vehicle in the way of material advantages 
was at his service. Dr. Gerran had "no chance" if by that 
one means that a boy handicapped by poverty, by racial 
disadvantage is doomed to failure. More than that, he had 
""no chance" if by that one also means that to succeed for 
himself a man must be freed, or deliberately free himself, 
from the obligation to provide for others and to give those 
others loving care and personal attention. 

Dr. Gerran's story is one of simple facts and dates. 
To realize it means to put between the lines what it must 
have mean for a born born into chaotic conditions just after 
the Civil War to have supported and educated himself, espe- 
cially in the arduous study of medicine; to have married in 
early manhood and to have reared a large family and to have 
so lived all the while as to be known in every relation as "a 
good man." A good man medically, a good man financially, 
a good man in every respect, faithful to every small duty, 
measuring squarely up to the big demands of the hour. 

He was born July 25, 1868, at Greensboro, to Matthew 
Gerran. a mechanic and his wife Milly (Scott) Gerran. His 
paternal grandparents were Wilson and Isabella Gerran. 
On his mother's side they were Jackson and Eliza Scott. 
He was educated at the city public school and prepared for 
college at the Friends' Normal. His father began training 
the boy while still very young at the carpenter's trade, so 
that he was a productive, helpful lad even while going to 
school. His memory lingers with reverent appreciation 
upon the influence of his Christian, industrious parents and 
of the Christian teachers, white and black, who guided his 
feet into the right path. His college course was taken at 
Bennett College, Greensboro, from which he was graduated 
in 1888, and his medical degree was bestowed by Leonard 
Medical College of Raleigh, in 1897. Upon completing the 
normal course at Friends' he was able to teach in the public 
schools and thus earn the money necessary to carry himself 
through the higher institutions of learning, spending some 
eight or ten years as a successful public school teacher. Be- 
fore graduating in medicine he was active in doing consider- 
able clinical work. He began the regular practice of medi- 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 75 

cine at Greensboro but after several years established him- 
self at High Point, where for the past twenty-three years 
he has resided, owns property and has won not only the 
confidence of his own people in his conscientiousness and 
skill, but that of the entire commonwealth. During an epi- 
demic of smallpox he was given charge of public health - 
measures in both Guilford Co. and High Point. Of course, 
Dr. Gerran was past the age for actual military service dur- 
ing the war, but took charge of the local Red Cross activities 
among his race and entered unselfishly into the unpaid but 
very beneficial work of the Volunteer Medical Corps, which 
was a strong arm of the service. Our country, by the way, 
has seen from the experience of other nations the disaster 
of allowing all the doctors to leave home, thus leaving the 
masses of the people almost without medical aid and deplet- 
ing the faculties of the colleges of too many of the most 
experienced, capable instructors. 

Dr. Gerran is fully identified with the professional 
societies not only medical, but dental and pharmaceutical, 
and is connected in a business way with the Ramsey Drug 
Store. He is now President of his County Medical Associa- 
tion, and has served as Secretary of the State Association. 
He is affiliated with and has received high honors in the 
orders of Masonry, the Odd Fellows and Knights of Pythias, 
and for twenty-three years has been Grand Medical Direc- 
tor of the Courts of Calanthe. He is resident physician 
and lecturer in Hygiene and Physiology at the High Point 
Normal and Industrial Institute. 

Dr. Gerran is a member of the A. M. E. Church and a 
Republican in politics, but has never been active in the latter 
respect. He often lectures in the public schools on appro- 
priate subjects of public health, sanitation, etc. 

Dr. Gerran believes in promoting the spirit of kindly co- 
operation through the regular patriotic meetings of both 
races for the discussion and peaceful solution of problems 
affecting the interest and welfare of both. He stands for 
individual industry and economy as "first aids" in bringing 
about improvements. His own life exemplifies what it 
means to a boy to be willing to do, and to know how to do, 



76 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

a first-class job of necessary work and to use his skill as a 
basis for advancement, and it may be remarked that the 
young hands which could carpenter successfully can now do 
an equally first-class surgical operation successfully. 

On July 26, 1893, Dr. Gerran was married to Miss Marie 

•M. Manley, a daughter of T. S. and Corina Manly. They 

have had seven children, five of whom are now living, 

namely, Garland Alphonzo, Jr., Frank Elmer, Earnest Waldo, 

Wilbur Samuel, and Lewin Meserve Gerran. 



Daniel Franklin Clark 



Many of the most successful men of America belong to 
that large class known as "self-made men." These are men 
who, without the advantages of money or college education, 
have taken up some practical line of work, devoting them- 
selves to it with fidelity and enthusiasm, winning success 
and pointing the way for the ambitious young men of the 
race. Such a type is Daniel Franklin Clark, a prosperous 
and respected merchant of Goldsboro. Another thing 
worthy of note in connection with Mr. Clark is that he has 
not found it necessary to go among strange people, or to a 
large city, in order to succeed. Right at home, among the 
folks who know him best, he has established a reputation for 
being a man of his word and a man with real business 
ability. 

He was born at Goldsboro, March 28, 1884. His father, 
John Clark, was a carpenter and his mother was Mary 
Mozingo. 

Mr. Clark was married on December 10, 1907, to Miss 
Mary Yelverton, a daughter of John and Laura Yelverton. 
Of the six children born to them four are living. They are 
John Franklin, Robert L., Laura E., and Christine Clark. 

Mr. Clark dug out such education as he has, which is 
sufficient for his purposes as a merchant, and has been a 
hard worker all his life. He began working for the local 
firm of Royal & Borden. Later, without a cnnt of money, 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 77 

he bought a small stock of merchandise for $75.00 and han- 
dled the business in such a way as to win the confidence 
of the wholesale dealers in the town so that he is now in 
position to buy what he wants at any time. He recalls 
with appreciation the one wholesale house in the city which 
trusted him from the beginning and helped make possible 
his splendid success in later years. His growth as a mer- 
chant has been steady and rapid. In the early years as a 
merchant he still held his position while his wife kept store. 
Later, he devided to devote his whole time to his store, and 
having really determined on his business bought a lot and 
and erected a new building sufficient for the large stock 
of goods which he now carries. From the day when he be- 
gan his mercantile career with another concern to the pres- 
ent, when he has the leading mercantile establishment in 
Goldsboro, he has always maintained the respect and confi- 
dence not only of his own people, but of his white neigh- 
bors as well. 

Among the secret orders he is identified with the Odd 
Fellows. He did his part during the war in the way of 
stamps and bond campaigns and is a good citizen from every 
point of view. He is of the opinion that the Negro press 
has too much to say that is antagonistic to the white people 
and believes his race would get more consideration if the 
press assumed a different attitude. 

He has observed that all the colored people who are 
doing the right thing' seem to be doing well. He says : "I 
really think if we would pay our honest dnbts and appreci- 
ate what the white people did for us, we would get along 
better." He illustrates his points by reference to the Jews 
who came to this country and are scarcely recognized by the 
best class of folks. They go to work, however, build a 
business, get money, something which everybody wants, 
and are readily taken up. He thinks that this might be 
quite possibly the way with the colored people if they 
would seek to co-operate with the white people and cease so 
much agitation. 

In addition to this store and other investments Mr. 
Clark owns an attractive home on John Street in Goldsboro. 







ISAIAH DANIEL CURTIS GOODSON 



Isaiah Daniel Curtis Goodson 



The Christian denomination among the colored people of 
North Carolina is not so numerous as some of the other 
denominations, but it is second to none in the quality and 
character of its leadership. One of the effective ministers 
of the church is Rev. Isaiah Daniel Curtis Goodson, of 
Clayton. He was born in the neighboring county of Wake, 
at Eagle Rock, on March 26, 1878. His father, Henry R. 
Goodson, was a farmer and the subject of this sketch grew 
up on the farm and even to this good day farms in a small 
way in connection with his pastoral work. His mother, be- 
fore her marriage, was Miss Sarah Frances Hall, a daugh- 
ter of Isaiah and Narcissa Hall. 

Mr. Goodson was married on Feb. 6th, 1901, to Miss 
Carcillia Annie Whitley. 

He attended first the public schools, and did his prepar- 
atory work at Clayton. For his college work he went to 
Shaw University. Having married at an early age, he 
found it difficult to fit himself for the work of the ministry, 
but having made up his mind to succeed, he would not turn 
back. 

He was ordained to the work of the ministry in 1910 
and since that time has done excellent work in Johnson and 
adjacent counties. During the first year of his ministry he 
organized a church at Greensboro known as Bishop's Tem- 
ple Christian Church. He has also served the churches at 
Eagle Rock, Poplar Springs, Pleasant Grove, Hank's Chapel, 
and the Christian Church at the old towns of Pittsboro. 

For four years he was general Superintendent of Sun- 
day Schools for his denomination and spent the time largely 
in field work. At this time he is Vice-President of his Con- 
ference. 

Among the secret orders he is identified with the Ma- 
sons in which he has taken an active interest. 



80 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

He believes that his people are to be delivered, as were 
the Israelites of old, by serving God and fearing Him and 
keeping His commandments. 

He has trained himself in the practice of truth and 
honesty and as he looked back over the struggles of his boy- 
hoo dand youth, he recognizes the fact that his early deter- 
mination to succeed, and the large place which prayer has 
had in his life, have been prominent factors in his success. 



Redmond Stanley Oden 



The A. M. E. Zion Church has developed a number of 
strong educational and religious leaders with the growth 
of the denomination in North Carolina. Among the strong 
young pastors of the church must be mentioned Rev. Red- 
mon Stanley Oden now (1919) stationed at Kinston. He 
was born at the old town of Beaufort on April 1, 1878. His 
father, William C. Oden, was by trade a shoemaker. He 
married Martha A. Barner, who became the mother of our 
subject. Both parents were slaves before Emancipation. 
As a boy young Oden attended the local public school and 
later went to the American Missionary School. Growing up 
in a port city, it was not unnatural that he should take to 
the sea. He followed steamboating and sail boating for 
five or six years and in this way earn£d some of the money 
used in his education. He was also in the mercantile busi- 
ness for a while at Beaufort with his brother. 

When about nineteen years of age he was happily con- 
verted. From earliest boyhood he had felt that his real 
work in life must ultimately be that of the ministry. Now, 
with the matter more definitely confronting him, he felt as 
he had not felt before, the need of adequate preparation. 
Accordingly he went to school in New Haven, Conn., for 
three years and after that matriculated at Livingston Col- 
lege, where he won his A. B. degree in 1908. Prior to this, 
in 1907, he had joined the Conference at Charlotte under 




REDMON STANLEY ODEN 



82 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Bishop G. W. Clinton. Subsequently he took a Theological 
course by correspondence from Howard University. 

His first appointment under the Conference was the 
Newport Circuit, which he served for three years and where 
he built one new church and repaired two, besides adding 
many new members. His next pastorate was the Holt's 
Chapel station in Pamlico county, where the church was re- 
modelled and a new parsonage built. He remained on that 
work two years and had a splendid growth in membership. 
After that he went to Morehead City for nearly three years, 
where his work was marked by the usual progress. In 1916 
he was assigned to the important work at Kinston, which 
has taken on new life under his administration. Not only 
has the spiritual side of the work and the membership 
grown, but improvements to the amount ot six thousand. 
dollars have been made on the church property. 

In November of this year (1919) he celebrated the 
fiftieth anniversary and jubilee of the St. Augustine A. M. E. 
Zion church and the 56th session of the North Carolina Con- 
ference presided over by the Rev. A. J. Warner, D. D. 
Other denominational leaders from both North and South 
were present and took part in the celebration. Rev. Oden 
was a delegate to the 1916 General Conference and has also 
been elected a delegate to the 1920 General Confrence to 
meet in Knoxville, Tenn. 

The secret of Rev. Oden's success is perhaps to be found 
in a sincere desire to help members of his race to become 
better citizens. He is Secretary of the Board of Education 
of the North Carolina Conference and assistant Secretary 
of the Conference. In his reading his first attention has 
been given to sacred literature. After that he enjoys his- 
tory, biography and the English classics. 

On June 2, 1908, Rev. Oden was married to Ethel E. 
Kincaid, a daughter of Rev. George W. Kincaid, a distin- 
guished minister of Pittsburgh, Penn. They have five 
children Georgia E., :Bertha B., Ethel R., Redmon S., Jr., 
and Milton L. Oden. 

In December, 1917, he was chosen as one of seven min- 
isters in the A. M. Zion Church from which three should be 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 83 

selected as the connection's quota for chaplains of the U. S. 
Army. On Feb. 14, 1918, he received a letter from Adjutant 
General Gregory ordering him to Fort Monroe, Va., for 
service as his application had been accepted, but because 
of the death of his mother a few days before he was com- 
pelled to decline the appointment. 

Rev. Oden believes that a better understanding between 
the best elements of the two races would go far toward 
helping present conditions and promoting progress. 



William Arthur Mitchner 



It is refreshing to find a professional man of the type of 
Dr. William Arthur Mitchner, of Wilson. He carries into 
his work all the energy and enthusiasm of youth, but he 
has not permitted the increasing duties of his professional 
life to crowd out the other things which make life worth 
while. It is not unusual for a man who takes up medicine 
to neglect or ignore his church work and the social side of 
affairs. Not so with Dr. Mitchner. He fs still active in his 
lodge work as a Mason and Odd Fellow, and is a good mem- 
ber of the A. M. E. Zion Church, in which he is superin- 
tendent of the Sunday School and secretary of the Board of 
Trustees. 

Dr. Mitchner was born on May 22, 1882, at Clayton, in 
Johnston county. His parents were Junius and Lucy Mitch- 
ner. His mother, who is still living, was a daughter of 
Frances Sanders. She also still survives (1919) at a ripe 
old age. 

On June 29, 1910, Dr. Mitchner was married to Mattie 
Maltsby, the accomplished daughter of Rev. D. R. Maltsby. 
She was educated at Ingleside, Virginia, and was a promi- 
nent teacher before her marriage. They have one child, 
William L. Mitchner. 

Growing up in Raleigh, Dr. Mitchner had rather supe- 
rior educational advantages, as a boy, compared with his 
country cousins. After passing through the graded schools, 




WILLIAM ARTHUR MITCHNER 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 85 

he went to the Henderson Normal and Industrial Institute 
at Henderson, from which he graduated in 1904. He re- 
turned to his home for his medical course, matriculating at 
Leonard Medical College, from which he won his M. D. de- 
gree in 1908. 

By working at the North in summer hotels, he was 
able to earn sufficient money during his vacations to com- 
plete his medical course without a break, although he helped 
to support his mother while doing so. The family had 
moved away from Johnston county when the boy was only 
about six years of age. While his mother was poor and 
uneducated, still she was ambitious for her son. This, to- 
gether with the encouragement which he received from his 
teachers, was a constant spur to endeavor and enabled him 
to complete his education and enter upon his professional 
career by the time he was twenty-six years old. After 
looking over the field, he decided to locate at Wilson and 
has not regretted his choice. He has built up a lucrative 
general practice and has become fully identified with the 
business and social life of his people in that city. As al- 
ready mentioned, he is active in the work of the A. M. E. 
Zion Church and is medical examiner for the local lodges 
and insurance companies. He is a member of both the 
State and national medical societies and is president of 
the Methodist Sunday School Convention of the Cape Fear 
District. He owns an attractive home in Wilson, where he 
has surrounded himself with the comforts of life and 
where his friends are always made to feel at home. As he 
has observed the growing intelligence of his people and 
their increasing wealth he believes that the chief bar to 
the progress of the race is lack of a better understanding 
between the races. Given this, he sees no reason why 
both races should not live together in peace and harmony. 



James Mangum Morton 



Rev. James Mangum Morton, A. B., A. M., S. T. B., who 
now (1919) in the prime of manhood is serving the Church 
Street Presbyterian Church of Salisbury, is a native of 
Granville Co., having been born near Oxford on Jan. 21, 
1872. His father, William Morton, was a farmer, and the 
son worked on the farm during his boyhood and youth. 
William Morton was a son of York and Rhoda (Daniel) 
Morton, and Rhoda Daniel was the daughter of Billy and 
Lydia Daniel. The mother of our subject was, before her 
marriage, Margaret Taylor, a daughter of Alfred and Ara- 
bella Taylor. Arabella was a daughter of Margaret Gooch, 
who lived to the ripe old age of a hundred and two years. 
It is rare that such a long line of ancestors can be traced. 

Rev. Morton was married on April 16, 1905, to Emma L. 
Cundiff, of Yadkin Co. They have five children, William 
A., Miles L., Edward E., James C. and Cora Lee Morton. 
The last two mentioned are twins. 

Young Morton first attended the public school of Gran- 
ville Co., where he laid the foundations of his education, 
working on the farm between terms. Later he went to 
Mary Potter School at Oxford, for his preparatory work. 

He was converted and came into the work of the 
church when about nineteen, and soon after that decided 
to devote his life to the ministry. For his college work, 
he matriculated at Lincoln University, where he remained 
for seven years, completing first the classical and later the 
Theological course. He won his A. B. in 1904. The A. M. 
degree is from the same institution for special work. Be- 
fore going to Lincoln he taught in Granville Co. He 
has also taught some in Livingstone College since moving 
to Salisbury. 

His first pastorate included the churches at Mocksville 
and Booneville, where he preached for five years with 
good success. In 1909 he was called to the pastorate of 




JAMES MANGUM MORTON 



88 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

the Church Street Presbyterian Congregation at Salisbury. 
His work here has been marked by healthy growth and 
steady progress. The membership has more than doubled 
and plans are made for the erection of a new house of 
worship. 

Dr. Morton is a prominent figure in denominational 
gatherings. He was Moderator of the Yadkin Presbytery 
in 1912, is a member of the ordination committee of that 
body, and was a Commissioner to the 1913 General Assem- 
bly. He belongs to the Masons and the Odd Fellows. His 
favorite reading is History- 

Dr. Morton's parents both died when the boy was young 
so he was under the necessity of making his own way in 
school. His vacations were not times for rest or amuse- 
ment ,but were filled with the hardest sort of work. After 
going to Lincoln, his vacations were usually spent at the 
North. These early experiences developed self reliance and 
character, which have characterized his work as a minister. 

He owns a comfortable home in Salisbury and is an 
ardent advocate of home owning among the members of 
the race. 

He was a leader among his people in the various phases 
of war work. 



Charles Henry King 



Several things stand out prominently in the life and 
work of Rev. Charles Henry King, D. D., who is one of the 
strong men of the A. M. E. Connection in North Carolina. 
The first thing to note is the fruitfulness of his ministry 
and the uniform success of his work. He has never fa-led 
to make good on a single appointment to which his Bishop 
has assigned him. Another striking feature of his work, 
wherever he has gone, has been the cordial relationship he 
has maintained with the other denominations of his own 
race and with the best element of the white race. Still 




CHARLES HENRY KING 



90 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

another item to his credit is his business ability. He was a. 
successful builder and contractor before entering- the min- 
istry and has brought over and applied to the work of the 
Master the same methods which brought success in his 
own work. 

Rev. King is a native of Georgia, having been born in 
Houston Co. on Oct. 14, 1857. So it will be seen he was 
a boy about eight years of age at the close of the war. As 
may be imagined, he had a hard struggle for his education, 
but he managed first through the public schools and later 
by private study and instruction to equip himself for the 
serious work of life. His mother was Clarissa King. 
Young King's boyhood days were spent on the farm. As 
he grew to young manhood he learned the carpenter's trade 
and thus became a builder and contractor in Atlanta, the 
capital city of his native stats. 

While still on the Houston Co. farm he was converted 
and joined the A. M. E. church. About five years later he 
was licensed to preach and in 1884 joined the Conference 
at Nashville, Tenn. There was a difficult situation at 
Knoxville, and Bishop Turner picked the young preacher 
from Georgia to establish the work on a firm basis. He 
did it. A lot was bought, King's Chapel was built and what 
was more important was filled with folk. This was accom- 
plished in two years. The character of his work may be 
judged from the fact that he was promoted to the pre- 
siding eldership, transferred to North Carolina and presided 
over the Wilmington District for three years and the 
Raleigh District four years. He then went to Bethel Sta- 
tion, Greensboro, where he preached two years and erected 
a new brick church, Bethel A. M. E. Church. The next rive 
years were spent as Presiding Elder of Greensboro Dis- 
trict, at the end of which he was appointed to the St. 
Josephs Station, Durham, N. C, which he served four years 
and repaired the church. He then presided over the Dur- 
ham District five years. He then presided three years on 
the Morganton District. He was then appointed to the St. 
James Station, Asheville, N. C, where he was pastor four 
years and repaired the church. From there he pastored St.. 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 91 

James, Winston-Salem, and after that Burlington, N. C, 
church. He is now (1920) serving as Presiding Elder of 
Durham District, being in his second year. He has long 
been a prominent figure in denominational gatherings and 
has attended the General Conferences at Indianapolis, Phila- 
delphia and St. Louis, Mo. Altogether he has been greatly 
blessed in his work and has had a fruitful ministry. 

On Dec. 22, 1887, he was married to Ella M. Pope, who 
was educated at Atlanta University and was at that time a 
teacher in the Atlanta schools. 

Dr. King belongs to the Pythians and the I. 0. of St. 
Luke. He is a member of the Board of Trustees of Kit- 
trell College, and in 1907 was a delegate to the World's 
Sunday School Convention, which met in Rome, Italy. 

Dr. King's travels in Europe were very extensive. 
While abroad he visited the following countries: Italy, 
Switzerland, France, England and Ireland. He visited most 
of the principal cities of the countries of Eurpoe. 

Dr. King was ordained a Deacon in 1882 by Bishop 
W. F. Dickerson, D. D., in Augusta, Ga., and ordained El- 
der by Bishop H. M. Turner, D. D., L.L. D., in 1886, in 
Pulaski, Tenn. In the year 1901 Kittrell College conferred 
the Degree of Doctor of Divinity upon him. He is the sec- 
ond person upon whom the institution conferred this degree. 

His own experience and observations have led him to 
the conclusion that the proper adjustment of racial difficul- 
ties depends on a better understanding. Dr. King is a good 
business man, as well as preacher. He owns property at 
Durham, Raleigh, Atlanta, and Asheville. 



Walter Guthrie Anderson 



A remarkably interesting story of struggle against 
tremendous odds and a story calculated to stimulate the 
ambition and determination of every boy who reads it, is 
the story of Walter Guthrie Anderson. For pluck and en- 
ergy and unbending determination, finally putting him in 




WALTER GUTHRIE ANDERSON 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 



93 



the road to unqualified success, his record is one seldom 
equalled. He is yet a young man, having been born May 
10, 1886, and being therefore at this writing (1920) in his 
thirty-fourth year. The place of his birth was in Nelson 
county, Kentucky. His father was David Anderson, and 
his mother's maiden name was Laura L. Davis. 

To the training of his mother, to th'e early influence of 
the teachings of the Bible and to religious impressions ema- 
nating from the Church, Mr. Anderson attributes the im- 
pulses which early led him to seek the fields of higher 
thought and study. 

From 1904 to 1908 he attended the Atkinson Normal 
School at Madisonville, Ky. In 1913 he received the degree 
of A. B. from Lincoln University, Chester County, Penn- 
sylvania, and in 1916 he graduated from the Theological 
Seminary of the same University, with the degree of S. T. B. 
Struggle and privation inspired by ambition, has been 
the keynote of his life. He was born on a farm, one of a 
family of eight. When at the age of eighteen he deter- 
mined to launch out and seek an education, he hired him- 
self out from March to October at $18 a month. Entering 
Atkinson Normal Institute in the fall, he drove a team of 
mules doing hauling for the school. The second year he 
and another student ran a farm connected with the school. 
He worked as porter and bootblack in a barber shop, walking 
a mile and back three times a day between the barber shop 
and the school. A spell of sickness from pneumonia threw 
him behind, both in his studies and his finances. Never- 
theless, he graduated second in his class. 

Entering Lincoln University he began, as he expressed 
in his "second great battle against ignorance and a depleted 
back account." Here he worked in the dining hall, doing 
any kind of work he was called to do. In vacations he 
worked on boats on the Fall River and Hudson River lines, 
as porters in hotels and clubs and rolling chairs at Atlantic 
City. Thus he made his way through the seven years of 
College and Seminary. Since June 4, 1916, the year of his 
graduation from the Seminary, he has been Pastor of Shady 
Side Presbyterian Church, Lexington, N. C. He has read 



94 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

widely in general literature including philosophy, history, 
the best literary production of England and America, and 
the Bible in the original Hebrew and Greek. In every way 
he is splendidly equipped for the great work upon which 
he has entered. 

During his pastorate at Lexington he has remodeled 
the house, added basement to church, done much war work 
and now teaches in city graded school. For some time he 
conducted a periodical. 

During his college course he took an active interest in 
athletics, being for four years on the football team and six 
years on the basket ball team of his College. He is a mem- 
ber of the Omega Psi Phi fraternity, of the Masonic order, 
and W. M. of the Eastern Star. 



John Richard Green 



When a man reaches the age of twenty-one devoid of 
an education and at that period in life determines to obtain 
one, it requires pluck, energy and determination to carry out 
his purpose. His pride and his disposition to self indul- 
gence must be put aside and he must overcome a thousand 
obstacles. 

This was the situation which confronted the subject 
of this sketch and the situation with which he grappled 
successfully. John Richard Green was born on a farm, 
in Granville Co., N. C, Jan. 7, 1872. His father was Henry 
Green, a farmer. The maiden name of his mother was 
Maranda Smith. His grandparents on the father's side 
were Henry and Rosa Green. Grandparents on the moth- 
er's side were Loveless and Eliza Smith. His childhood 
was spent amidst the usual scenes and surroundings of the 
farm. But somewhere along the way the seeds of ambition 
were dropped into his heart, dreams were being indulged 
and purposes formed which mature manhood would bring 
to realization. 




JOHN RICHARD GREEN 



96 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

When he determined to seek an education to give his 
life to the work of teaching, he has reached his majority. 
By working during vacations he obtained the means of mak- 
ing his way through Mary Potter School, at Oxford, N. C. 
From here he went to Biddle University, Charlotte, N. C, 
from which he graduated in 1908 with the degree of B. S. 

In the same year, 1908, he began his professional life 
as a teacher in Lenoir Co., N. C, where he spent five years 
in rural schools and four years in LaGrange Graded School. 
He loves the work of teaching, and therefore succeeds. At 
present he is Principal of Oxford Graded School. Having 
struggled and sacrificed for an education he knows its value 
and is able to show convincingly and effectively its impor- 
tance. In contact with other minds he finds a delightful 
stimulus for his own mental operations. Importing instruc- 
tion to others, he obtained a stronger grasp on his own store 
of knowledge and the power to use them more readily. 

Mr. Green is a member of the Presbyterian church, 
serving on Elder and as Sunday School SuperintendEnt. To 
his early and continued interest in church work, he attrib- 
utes the impulses he has received toward higher things. 

Mr. Green has never married. He has prospered in 
business, is the owner of considerable real estate and is rec- 
ognized as one of the substantial citizens of his community. 



John William Ligon 



Rev. John Wra. Ligon, A. B., A. M., of Raleigh, is a 
combination of preacher, educator and business man. He is 
a native of Wake Co., where he was born November 12, 
1869. His parents were Washington and Amanda (Dunn) 
Ligon. Of his grandfather, he says: "My grandfather, 
on father's side, was Isaac Yarbrough. Grandmother's 
name was Cheney. On mother's side my grandparents were 
Isaac and Lucy Dunn." 

Mr. Ligon was married on December 27, 1899, to Miss 
Daisy Edna Jones, a daughter of Leonard and Phoebe Jones. 




JOHN WILLIAM LIGON 



98 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

They have five children: Leonard W., May Edna, Johnsie 
E. C, Hazel E. and John William Ligon, Jr. 

As a boy, young Ligon attended the rural schools of 
Wake county and did his college work at Shaw University, 
graduating with the A. B. degree in 1897. Speaking of this 
period he says: "From the age of thirteen t oeighteen I 
was in school only three weeks. Did not attend school 
over six months in any one year, being forced to earn 
money to pay for my schooling. I studied while out of 
school." Mr. Ligon has always been industrious, and a 
hard worker from his youth up. For the last nine years, 
he has run a grocery store in connection with his other 
duties. 

He came into the work of the church when he was 
about seventeen years of age, having joined the Grove 
Baptist Church at that time. About five years later, he 
was called to the ministry and licensed by his chruch. He 
was ordained to the full work of the ministry in 1902. He 
pastored the Blount Street Church, Raleigh, for five years, 
Mt. Pleasant two years and Springfield, at Auburn, since 
1911. He is well known also as an educator and was prin- 
cipal of the Garfield graded school at Raleigh from 1900 to 
1919, previously to this having taught in the graded schools 
of Wake Co., making a period of 26 years altogether spent 
in the school room. 

In his work as pastor he has been successful. He freed 
the Blount Street Church from a long standing debt and 
added many new members to the congregation. Such was 
his popularity that in 1912 he was unanimously chosen 
Moderator of the Wake Baptist Association, which has a 
membership of 7,000 and contains within its organization 
many of the most cultured and ablest ministers of the State. 
It is to be noted that since his election as Moderator the 
receipts of the Association have increased more than 300% . 
He is also Secretary-Treasurer of the Union Publishing 
Company, which publishes the Union Reformerfi official or- 
gan of the Union Baptist Convention of North Carolina of 
North Carolina, being manager and editor of this Journal 
with a large and increasing circulation. 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 99 

Although a busy man, he still finds time for reading 
and his favorites, next after the Bible, are Emerson and 
History. 

Mr. Ligon has lived to see many of the boys and girls 
who first attended his school grow up to manhood and 
womanhood and fill places of usefulness in the community 
and church. Lives like his are a real asset to the race. 
They show how any boy, with courage and industry, can 
succeed if he is willing to pay the price. 



Jeremiah Mantius Lloyd 



There are no finer stories than those which recount 
the struggles of aspiring boys and young men who, finding 
themselves in places of poverty and obscurity, bravely de- 
termine to make men of themselves. The example of one 
such youth in a community is priceless. With the courage 
and spirit of the old pioneers, he blazes the way and others 
follow. One of these men whose biography shows what a 
man of energy and capacity can do, is Dr. Jeremiah Mantius 
Lloyd, of Washington. He was born right in the midst of 
the War between the States, on Feb. 8, 1863. His parents 
were Bachus and Susan Wright. His paternal grandfather 
was Thomas Lloyd. His maternal grandparents were Ham- 
let and Mary Burden. In the confusion as to names which 
prevailed during slavery and just after Emancipation it 
happens that Dr. Lloyd bears the name of his grandfather. 
His parents lived in Bladen Co., and it was there that 
Dr. Lloyd grew to manhood. He laid the foundation of his 
education in the public schools. He later went to Elizabeth- 
town and Fayetteville for his high school and preparatory 
work. When ready for his Medical course he matriculated 
at Leonard Medical College, where he won his M. D. degree 
in 1896. 

Let no one infer from this simple narrative that Dr. 
Lloyd secured either his literary or medical training with- 
out difficulty. Beginning on the Bladen Co. farm, it was 




JEREMIAH MAXTIUS LLOYD 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 101 

necessary for him to make his own way from the begin- 
ning-. After reaching a point in his education where 
he was able to secure a teacher's license, the way was 
easier, though still difficult. His parents were ambitious 
for their children and this atmosphere of encouragement 
in the home was helpful. There were two other brothers. 
'The three put their heads together and concluded that there 
was room at the top. They pooled their financial interests 
and worked steadily together with a view to equipping 
themselves for successful farm work, sometimes teaching 
and again merchandising. Whenever they tackled a prob- 
lem they saw it through to completion, no matter whether 
it was an example in arithmetic or a four year medical 
^course. Of course they won. Dr. Lloyd taught school for 
twelve years. At the same time he was bringing up a large 
family. 

After his graduation at Leonard he returned to Bladen 
Co., where he practiced for a short while. Seeing in 
Washington a better field, he located there in April, 1898, 
where he has since resided and where he has built up an 
-extensive and lucrative practic. He early saw the advan- 
tage of a drug store for colored people in that thriving little 
city and made that an important feature of his work. He 
is not only a successful practitioner but is also a progress- 
ive business man. He owns valuable real estate and other 
property in Washington to the value of not less than forty 
thousand dollars. He is a Republican in politics and belongs 
to the A. M. E. Zion Church. Among the secret orders he is 
identified with the Odd Fellows, the Pythians and the 
Gideon. Observing conditions intimately as he has, he is 
of the opinion that the great need of the race today is 
-encouragement and better educational facilities. 

On May 27, 1887, Dr. Lloyd was happily married to 
Rosa McMillan, of Bladen Co. Of the twelve children 
born to them the following are living : Mantius D., Burly J., 
David F., Willie J., Rosa, Maggie Lee and Blanchie B. Lloyd. 



John Lee White 



The pastor of Pine Street Presbyterian Church, Dur- 
ham, N. C, Rev. John Lee White, A. B., A. M., D. D., was 
born April 20, 1879, at Monroe, Union Co., N. C. His father 
was a Presbyterian minister, Rev. Cyrus Sylvester White, 
who in addition to his ministerial work was a teacher and 
a farmer His mother was before her marriage Emma Har- 
riet Hood, of Lancaster Co., S. C. His grandparents on 
his father's side were Benjamin David Hood and Harriet 
Adline Hood. They were hard working and prosperous peo- 
ple, who owned a farm of 146 acres in Lancaster Co., S. C. 

He obtained his education first from public schools at 
Monroe, and later at Biddle University, Charlotte, N. C, 
going through the preparatory department and graduating 
with the degree of A. B. in 1906. In 1915, after taking 
postgraduate studies, he reecived the degree of A. M. Later 
the honorary degree of D. D. was conferred upon him. 

Converted at eighteen, it was eleven years later that 
he began his ministerial career in 1908 at Belmont, N. C.,. 
where he combined the work of teaching with the pastoral 
care of the church. He was pastor there from 1908 to 
1911. It was during this period, on Oct. 26, 1910, that he 
was married to Miss Ama Banner, of Mt. Airy, N. C. She 
was a graduate of Scotia Seminary, Concord, N. C, and 
was before her marriage an accomplished teacher. They 
have two children, one boy, Wilmer Shaphan White, and one. 
girl, Melva Elvetta White. 

From Belmont he went to Mint Hill church, near Char- 
lotte, where he remained one year. After this he held in 
succession the following pastorates: Shadyside Presby- 
terian church, Lexington, N. C, 1911 to 1914; Pine Street 
Presbyterian church, Durham, N. C, to the present time. 

In 1916 Dr. White was elected a commissioner to the 
General Assembly of the Presbyterian Church in the United 
States, held at Atlantic City, N. J., May 16-25. At the 




JOHN LEE WHITE 



104 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

meeting of his presbytery at Statesville, N. C, he was 
elected chairman of the Sabbath School department of Yad- 
kind presbytery. This position he still holds. 

In 1918 he was appointed by the Catawba Synodical 
Sunday School Convention, in session at Newbern, N. C, as 
fraternal delegate to bear the greeetings of the Convention 
to the Atlantic Synodical Sunday School Convention, which 
met at Old Big Zion Church, Charleston, S. C, in August, 
1919. From 1918 to 1919 he was Moderator of Yadkin 
Presbytery. He was a delegate to the N. A. A. C. P. Con- 
ference, held at Atlanta, Ga., May 30 to June 2, 1920. He 
is now serving as Worshipful Master of his Masonic lodge. 

Dr. White preached his first sermon at Pittsburgh, 
Pa., in 1906, and from that time forward his brain, brawn 
and all the earnestness of his ardent nature have been given 
to the preaching of the Gospel. He has given some inci- 
dental attention to other pursuits by way of supplementing 
his income, but the chief energies of his life have been given 
to the work of preaching and teaching. 

He believes strongly in the principle of co-operation, 
and is convinced that in mutual helpfulness and mutual 
fair dealing lies the hope of his race. His success has been 
won through a trained and cultured r-ind, a strong person- 
ality and knowledge of men, combined with ability to reach 
and influence them. Through extensive travel in different 
States North and South, and through study of the Bible 
with all the help which learning has brought to bear upon 
the better elucidation of his message, he has prepared him- 
self for the great work to which, with increasing intensity 
of application he is devoting the energies of his life. 



Oscar James Allen 



Perhaps the many friends of acquaintances of Rev„ 
Oscar James Allen, of Statesville, will best remember him as 
the singing preacher, for he is both a singer and a preacher 
of ability. He is a native of Gastonia, where he was borm 




OSCAR JAMES ALLEN 



106 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

of humble parentage on March 4, 1889. So it will be seen 
that, though already firmly established in the work, he is 
just now (1919) turning into his thirities. His father, 
Victor Allen, was a stone mason by trade. He passed away 
while the boy was still young, thus making it necessary for 
him to provide the means for his own education. His moth- 
er's maiden name was Ellen White. She was a daughter of 
Albert and Venie White, both of whom lived to be old. 

The subject of this sketch was married on June 9, 1909, 
to Ella Mae Christian, a daughter of Hattie Christian, of 
Charlotte. She was educated at Slater. They have three 
children, Hattie E., Mary B., and Lionel J. Allen. 

As a boy young Allen attended the local public school, 
but did ihis preparatory and college work at Biddle Uni- 
versity, graduating with the A. B. degree in 1910. He was 
a hard worker. His health failed under the strain in the 
spring of 1907. He returned in th fall, however. He has 
succeeded because he has depended upon himself to find a 
way, or to make one. He was converted when about nine 
years of age and when sixteen was called to preach. He 
was licensed by the St. Paul Baptist Church, and in 1913, 
was ordained to the full work of the ministry by the same 
church. His work as a preacher began long before he was 
through school. In 1908 he was called to the Washington 
Baptist Church, at Waco, which he served for six years and 
remodeled the church. 

He preached at Shiloh, Shelby, three years, and at the 
same time pastored Green Bethel at Boiling Springs. He 
built the parsonage and remodeled church at Shelby, also 
remodeled church at Boiling Springs. Early in 1914 he 
accepted the call of the First Baptist church at Statesville, 
to which he went in March of that year. His work here 
has been marked by splendid progress in every way. He 
went at his task with intelligence and enthusiasm. The old 
church with a seating capacity of no more than three hun- 
dred, has been replaced by a modern new house of worship, 
whose auditorium will seat a thousand. Comfortable pews 
and a pipe organ have been installed. A nine room bunga- 
low has been erected hard by the church, the whole plant 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 107 

representing an investment of something like twenty thou- 
sand dollars, all of which has been paid. The membership 
has grown under his administration from 106 to more than 
700. 

Among the secret orders, Mr. Allen is identified with 
the Masons, the Odd Fellows, the Pythians, I. O. of St. Luke, 
Eastern Star and Household of Ruth. 

Mr. Allen is in demand as an evangelist. He believes 
the permanent progress of the race depends upon the 
proper education of the children and the accumulation of 
property in which respect he has set his people a good 
example. 

He is First Vice-President of the Baptist State Con- 
vention ; Secretary of the Baptist Ministerial Conef rence of 
North Carolina. He was active in war work. He has go.od 
property in Statesville and Shelby. 



Raphael O'Hara 



Raphael O'Hara, of New Bern, a leading lawyer of that 
section of the State, was born in Washington, D. C, on 
November 13, 1872, during the period that his father, Hon. 
James E. O'Hara was sent from his District as a Represen- 
tative to the U. S. Congress. His father's people came 
from the West Indies to the States. His mother, before 
marriage, was Elizabeth E. Harris, of Oberlin, Ohio. She 
was a daughter of Beverly and Rebecca E. Harris. Beverly 
Harris was a native of Virginia, but went from that State 
to Buffalo, where he married. Later he moved further 
West, to Monroe, Michigan, and finally settled at Oberlin, 
where his children were educated and where the mother of 
our subject was married in 1869. 

Young O'Hara attended the graded and high schools 
of Washington, graduating from the latter in the summer 
of 1890. His father was comfortably fixed financially, and 
was able to see the boy through school without embarrass- 
ment. He was inspired by the example of his father to 




RAPHAEL O'HARA 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 109 

study law and to succeed to his father's reputation as a 
lawyer, first reading law under him and later taking the 
law course at Shaw University, graduating in March, 1895. 
He has from that institution the degree of L.L. D., and 
also the degree of A. B. 

He was admitted to the bar and licensed to practice 
before the Superior Court of N. C. in February, 1895. On 
the completion of his course he joined his father at New 
Bern, and they practiced together under the firm name of 
J. E. and R. O'Hara until the death of his father in 1905, 
since which time he has practiced alone. He has numer- 
ous clients, not only in his own county, but in Pamlico and 
Jones counties as well. He also practices before the U. S. 
District Court and the Supreme Court of North Carolina at 
Raleigh. He is attorney for the Land & Improvement Com- 
pany and the Standard Building & Loan Association, both 
of New Bern and at one time was associate member of the 
Legal Advisory Board of Craven Co. During the war 
he was chairman of the executive committee in the War 
Savings Stamp campaign and was also chairman of the War 
Camp Community Service among the colored people of 
Craven Co. His standing as a man and as a lawyer is 
such in the community that he has attracted to himself a 
profitable clientele which is by no means all colored. From 
time to time he has had a number of white clients. 

Mr. O'Hara is a member of the Roman Catholic Church 
and is in politics a Republican. He has held various official 
positions in the Republican organization in North Carolina, 
but has not sought office, preferring to give himself entirely 
to his professional work. He has not identified himself 
with the secret orders. He believes that the permanent 
progress of the race in the South depends upon honest, 
steady, efficient work. This he recognizes calls for train- 
ing which will make the Negro indispensable. 



William Warwick Lawrence 



For more than sixty years, William Warwick Lawrence 
has been a familiar figure on the streets of the historic old 
town of New Bern. As a barefoot slave boy during the 
war he went and came as did the boys of his time. When 
the war closed and Emancipation became effective he was 
of school age and started to school to white teachers who 
had come down from the North. He remembers with par- 
ticular gratitude two of his teachers, Miss Merritt, since 
wife of the late Gov. Reed, of Florida, and Miss Norris. 

Mr. Lawrence was born on Dec. 14, 1858. His parents 
were Webb Lawrence and Sylvia Jones. His paternal 
grandfather, Munger, was a native African. 

After the war young Lawrence made good progress in 
his studies and had for schoolmates men who later became 
prominent. Among these men was Dr. Price, the distin- 
guished founder of Livingstone College, and a great orator 
of his race. 

When he was through school he learned the coopering 
trade, at which he worked for eight years. LatEr he 
opened up a music store in New Bern. He was himself 
a teacher of music and has for a long time been organ- 
ist at St. Peters A. M. E. Zion Church. He became skillful 
in repairing musical instruments and ran the store for 
nearly twenty years. At times he did collecting and later 
bought out the Wheeler and Wilson Sewing Machine Agency. 
After that he added insurance. He maintains a place of 
business on George Street near his residence. While he 
has been a busy business man and varied interests have 
claimed his attention, at different times he has also been 
prominent in political circles. He is, of course, a Republi- 
can. In 1888 he was appointed Deputy Collector of Customs 
for the Port of New Bern. For a part of the time he ad- 
ministered the affairs of the office as Special Deputy as the 
Collector was physically unable to discharge the duties of 




WILLIAM WARWICK LAWRENCE 



112 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

the office. Later he was a candidate for Collector, and was 
endorsed by Senator Pritchard, but race conditions in East- 
ern Carolina were such at that time as to preclude the ap- 
pointment. He was appointed Notary Public by Governor 
Scales and with only about two exceptions has been reap- 
pointed by each Governor since. Governor Bickett was the 
last to appoint him, and his term will expire in 1922. 

On Mar. 29, 1878, Mr. Lawrence was married to Julia 
A. Wethington, who was educated at St. Augustine, and 
who before her marriage was a teacher. Of the four chil- 
dren born to them two are living. They are Cicero and 
Willie Lawrence. Their mother passed away in 1883. 

On Oct. 10, 1887, Mr. Laurence married Lillian A. 
Hauens, who was a teacher. Mr. Lawrence has from time 
to time been identified with various Negro enterprises and 
organizations in and around New Bern. 

He is a member of St. Peters (formerly St. Andrews 
Chapel) A. M. E. Zion Church, which he has seen grow from 
small beginnings to one of the great congregations of the 
denomination, it being the Mother Church of the South. 
For twenty-five years he was Superintendent of the Sun- 
day School and Chairman of the Trustees, a Steward and 
Class Leader. He was at one time President of the N. C. 
State Sunday School Association, and is now District Su- 
perintendent of Sunday Schools. He has attended five Gen- 
eral Conferences of his church and knows the denomina- 
tional leaders. But it is perhaps as a sacret order man that 
he is most widely known. He has been an Odd Fellow 
since he was eighteen and has held all the subordinate of- 
fices and several important positions in the Grand Lodge. 
Under his administration a large tract of land was pur- 
chased which was recently sold for $46,000.00. Two hun- 
dred acres were retained for a home. He was National 
Grand auditor for six years and served on the sub-commit- 
tee which had the erection of the hundred thousand dollar 
building in Philadelphia, he being at that time a Grand 
Director. 

He is also a prominent and useful member of the; 
Masonic Fraternity. He has served this order in various 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 113 

capacities including the positions of Grand Organist and 
District Deputy G. M. He has risen to the 33d degree 
Scottish Rite. He is now Auditor General ; for three terms 
he has served in this office, and is an active member of 
Supreme Council. 

He has also taken every degree in the Pythians and 
was at one time Supreme Grand Exchequer till the branch 
he was identified with withdrew from the State on account 
of restrictions on their insurance. 

Such in outline is the story of one who though born 
in slavery has led a busy life and made a success among 
those who know him best. In fact, in the moral, spiritual, 
material and intellectual development of his race the subject 
of our sketch is identified and so interwoven, both in words 
and in his life, that he ranks high among both classes of 
people; a place that is worthy of emulation, a place no 
enemy can batter down. 



Alfred James Griffin 



, Some one has said: "Man must work. That is cer- 
tain as the sun. But he may work grudglingly, or he may 
work gratefully ; he may work as a man, or he may work as 
a machine. He cannot always choose his work but he can 
do it in a genial temper and with an uplooking heart. There 
is no work so sordid that he may not exalt it. There is no 
work so impassive that he may not breathe soul into it. 
There is no work so dull that he may not enliven it." 

That paragraph epitomizes the experience of Prof. Al- 
fred James Griffin, Principal of the High Point Normal & 
Industrial Institute — we had almost said the creator and 
establisher of that institution. 

Professor Griffin is at once a man of vision and a man 
of action. Whether trying to support his mother, trudging 
eight miles to school or presiding over a great work, Prof. 
Griffin puts soul into all that he does and always looks for- 




ALFRED JAMES GRIFFIN 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 115 

ward to something better. The stories of such men should 
be a light to every struggling boy. The record of their 
struggles, fidelity and brilliant success is one of the most 
valuable assets of their people. There have been a few 
men who have fought so steadily and so long to achieve their 
ideals as to make their histories more like romance than 
fact. These men have simply refused to be discouraged. 
Such a man was Booker T. Washington. Such another is 
A. J. Griffin. 

He was born in Madison Co., N. C, November 15, 
1868, and came to school age during those hard years known 
in the South as the "reconstruction period." His parents 
were James Everett and Sylvia Griffin. His mother was 
left a widow. He was her oldest son and however small 
his income, he never failed to share it with her. He started 
to school in the public schools of Edgecombe Co. When 
he came to understand what an education meant, he also 
realized the difficulties in the way of securing one. He had 
no money, no clothes and but little food. He went to Bethel, 
eight miles away, walking the whole distance on Monday, 
carrying with him his little supply of rations for the week. 
On Friday afternoon he would walk back and work on the 
farm all Saturday. When seventeen years of age, he se- 
cured a second grade teacher's license and taught school one 
month for $15. After that he went to the Parochial School 
at Tarboro for three years, putting in such time as he could 
spare on the farm and during the summer months taught 
school at $25 a month. He was now going to school twelve 
miles from home and would carry a week's supply of bread, 
peas and potatoes to the school each Sunday afternoon and 
then walk back on Friday. For five years he had no new 
clothes and when it was necessary for him to appear on the 
programs along with the other students, he swallowed his 
pride regardless of their taunts, took his place and made a 
record of which he may well be proud. After this experi- 
ence, he went to Raleigh and entered the St. Augustine 
School where he remained for five years. During that time 
he had only one new suit, but he graduated at the head of 
his class, and at the graduating exercises wore a second 



116 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

hand suit for which he paid $1.50 and had given a tailor 
another $1.50 to cut it down to his size. 

Such had been his record as a student at St. Augustine 
that upon his graduation he was immediately employed as 
a teacher in the institution at a salary of $25 per month, 
which was gradually raised until he was receiving $350 a 
year. 

In the meantime, on Dec. 26, 1894, he was married to 
Miss Ophelia A. Thompson, of Asheville. She was also 
graduated from the St. Augustine school and is herself an 
accomplished teacher. They have nine children, who are: 
Burtis H., Agnes 0., Charles H. A., James, Marion W., Car- 
roll S., Carolina A., Ethel G. and Josephine T. Griffin. This 
family is a remarkable one. The oldest daughter is a 
graduate of Columbia University, and is now studying medi- 
cine. The others are making fine records at school. 

In 1897, Prof. Griffin resigned his work at St. Augus- 
tine and took charge of the High Point Normal & Industrial 
Institute under the auspices of the Yearly Meeting of the 
New York Society of Friends. It was the beginning of a 
new era for that institution. The faculty, the enrollment 
and the equipment have all shown vigorous, healthy growth 
since his identity with the school. On assuming charge, 
there was a faculty of six. It now requires a teaching force 
of fourteen to take care of the school. On beginning he 
found five acres of land ,one fram building, a small cottage, 
one horse and a few tools. At the first meeting of his board 
he was asked what he wanted and he replied that he wanted 
a new building for the girls, and a farm. He was confronted 
by the fact that there was no money available. He told the 
members of the board that if they could raise a little money, 
he would teach the boys brick-making and carpentry and 
build the house he wanted. They instructed him to go 
ahead and he secured a teacher from Tuskegee and set the 
boys at work brick-making. A teacher from Hampton was 
called to teach carpentry and at once the place began to 
take on new life. As a result Congdon Hall, a modern, two 
story brick structure with basement was erected and other 
buildings have followed from time to time. A ninety acre 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 117 

farm nearby was bought and this is used in teaching agri- 
culture and in raising supplies for the school. There is a 
domestic science department and the school, which a few 
years ago was scarcely known, has come to be one of the 
recognized institutions for colored people in that part of 
North Carolina. Graduates are admitted to the best col- 
leges without examination. Many teachers are equipped 
and the property is worth at least $75,000, bought and paid 
for. 

Prof. Griffin has surrounded himself with a corps of 
capable teachers and has infused into the faculty and the 
student body his own fine spirit. The record of how he 
has reared and educated a large family, kept in touch with 
the leading movements of the race and accumulated consid- 
erable property on the salary which he earned during the 
early years of his work would make a great story of itself. 
He is a man of rare business judgment, possessing a knowl- 
edge of values and executive ability. He is not only a hard 
worker himself but has that unusual quality which enables 
him to correlate all his forces to secure desired results. 
During the war he took a leading part in various drives, 
such as the Red Cross, Y. M. C. A. and W. S. S. campaigns. 
His work in connection with the school has frequently taken 
him North, Where he has been heartily encouraged. 

He is a member of the Episcopal Church and is iden- 
tified with the Masons and Odd Fellows. His favorite read- 
ing is History. 



Robert Clebert Savoid 



In recent years, the insurance field has attracted a 
number of the most intelligent and energetic men of the 
race. Among the men of western North Carolina who 
have made a success in this field must be mentioned Robert 
Cleveland Savoid, now located at Hickory. He was born 
January 3, 1872, in what was then Wake, now Durham Co. 
His father, Wm. Ruffin Savoid, was a farmer, and his 




ROBERT CLEBERT SAVOID 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 119 

mother, before her marriage, was Miss Henrietta Mills, a 
daughter of Harriet Mills. 

Growing up on the farm, young Savoid attended the 
Durham Co. public schools and later, coming into the city 
of Durham, worked in the tobacco factories. When he had 
grown to young manhood, he went South and was for a 
number of years in the turpentine woods of Georgia and 
Florida, spending about six years in Georgia and eight in 
Florida. Returning by way of South Carolina, he came 
back to Durham and again started into the factory for a 
short while. About that time he was induced to take up 
insurance work and spent a few weeks in the office in Dur- 
ham in order that he might familiarize himself with the 
details of the work. He was then appointed agent of the 
North Carolina Mutual at Savannah, Georgia, where he 
remained for two years and went from there to Augusta 
for three years. Failing health made it necessary for him 
to seek a different climate, and such was his record that 
his Company was glad to promote him, and so made him 
superintendent of the Hickory District, where he has re- 
sided for the last four years. 

Mr. Savoid is an active member of the Baptist Church 
and teacher in the Sunday School. He was at one time 
Superintendent of the School. He holds membership in 
the Masons and in politics is a Republican. 

He has had opportunity to study conditions among his 
people in various parts of the South, both in the cities and 
in the country, and believes that the greatest single need 
of the race today is education. 

On August 21, 1914, Mr. Savoid was married to Tressie 
Christian, of Wrightsville, Georgia. She was educated at 
Tuskegee and was an accomplished teacher. They have 
four children: Othalia, Wm. Ruffin, Alzenia and Robert C. 
Savoid. 



James Benson Dudley 

One visiting the Agricultural and Technological Col- 
lege, more popularly known as the A. & T. College, at 
Greensboro, scarcely need be told that there is a construc- 
tive genius at the head of the institution. One sees it in 
the grounds and the buildings and the general aspect of 
the place. A careful examination of the curriculum, as laid 
down in the catalog, only serves to confirm the impression. 

Dr. James Benson Dudley, President of the A. & T. Col- 
lege, is a man of unusual capacity, who for years has ex- 
erted a powerful influence on the educational life of the race 
in North Carolina. 

He is a native of Wilmington, where he was born 
November 2, 1859. His parents were John B. and Annie 
(Hazel) Dudley. While technically born in slavery, his 
environment was such that he scarcely felt the pressure of 
that baneful institution. 

After Emancipation came the establishment in the 
South of missionary schools under the auspices of the Freed- 
mens' Bureau. Coming of school age just about this time, 
young Dudley attended the school at Wilmington, which 
was then taught by Miss Ella E. Roper. Here he laid the 
foundations of an education which was later to bring him 
into prominence as an educator himself. These teachers 
from the North, devoted men and women of learning, while 
never popular with the white people of the South, did s 
magnificent work, which has borne fruit throughout the 
years. They believed in thoroughness and started many a 
colored youth on the road to success. 

When he finished the local school, young Dudley at- 
tended the Institute for Colored Youth at Philadelphia for 
one year and later spent a year at Shaw University. He 
made a brilliant record as a student and when, at an early 
age, he took his first examination in Sampson Co. he won 
a first grade teacher's certificate. Thus armed, he began 
teaching when only seventeen or eighteen years old and 




JAMES BENSON DUDLEY 



122 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

opened up a school with eighty pupils, at that time having- 
read no book on method nor a teacher's journal. He tells 
in an interesting way of his effort to teach the class the 
alphabet, and how he stumbled on a pedagogical principle 
which has since come into general use. 

Such was the record that he made as a country school 
teacher that, without applying for the place, he was elected 
to the Peabody Graded School of Wilmington where he 
remained for eighteen years. The school he presided over 
grew under his administration and it was not long before 
he came to be recognized as one of the most efficient edu- 
cators of the State. He was one of the organizers of the 
State Teachers' Association and was for a number of years- 
its President. His independence and intelligence gave him 
great political influence in and around Wilmington so that 
almost any political office within the gift of his party could 
have been his, but he did not seek office for himself. The 
position of Collector at Wilmington was open to him at the 
time the Presidency of the A. & T. College was offered to 
him. This was in 1896. He decided to accept the work 
at Greensboro, where the first session showed an enrollment 
of fifty-two. There was one school building and a dormi- 
tory. The enrollment has steadily grown until it has now 
reached about 700, requiring the services of a faculty of 
twenty-two to say nothing of the extensive summer work 
which is put on each year, in which fifteen or twenty more 
teachers are employed. The curriculum is a far-reaching 
one, covering not only the normal and classical courses but 
agriculture, domestic science and mechanical arts as well. 
The graduates of the A. & T. College are much in request ; 
in fact, the demand always exceeding the supply. This is 
true for teachers, mechanics, farmers and in fact the gradu- 
ates from every department of the school. Dr. Dudley has 
long been identified with the National Teachers' Associa- 
tion and was responsible for harmonizing and bringing to- 
gether the two branches of that organization. When Amer- 
ica declared war on Germany, many of the young men at the 
College were called to the colors and the institution was 
turned into a training camp. It has the distinction of hav- 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 123 

ing trained more Negro soldiers than any other Negro land 
grant college in the country. Dr. Dudley was himself 
active in every feature of the war work in which he was 
called to take part. 

In all inter-racial matters, he counsels patience and 
non-resistance. He is frequently called upon to lecture and 
to speak for his people in inter-racial gatherings, and be- 
lieves that his people should act without malice or vindict- 
iveness. At the same time he is frank and fearless when 
asked to state the Negro side of a question, and always 
seeks to get down to fact and to fundamental justice. He 
is Chairman of the Negro Section of the Inter-Racial Com- 
mittee and was the only Negro on the Committee of City 
Extension for Greensboro. 

Dr. Dudley is a member of the A. M. E. Church, of 
which he is a steward. Among the secret orders, he is iden- 
tified with the Masons, Odd Fellows and Pythians, being 
for twenty or more years Foreign Correspondent of the 
Grand Lodge of Masons. 

On February 23, 1881, Dr. Dudley was married to Susie 
Wright Sampson, of Wilmington, N. C. She was educated 
at Wilberforce and. Cleveland. Of the two children born to 
them, Annie V. (now Mrs. Jones) survives. 

Dr. Dudley is a man of pleasing address and fine phy- 
sique, which has stood well the strain of the years. He is a 
distinguished representat ive of his race and a real asset to 
his city and State. 



Joseph Harrison Robinson 

In recent years the medical and dental professions have 
attracted increasingly large numbers of young colored men. 
It is gratifying to record that, as a rule, they are meeting 
with splendid success. In other professional lines as, for 
instance, the ministry and teaching, there is no competi- 
tion between white men and colored. With the colored phy- 




JOSEPH HARRISON ROBINSON 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 125. 

sician it is different. He must measure up to the same 
standards and pass identically the same examination as the 
white man before he can be licensed to practice. Then he 
must build his practice in the face of established white phy- 
sicians. That he has been able to do so successfully and at 
the same time maintain the most cordial professional rela- 
tionships with the white doctors, indicates the class of men 
who, in recent years, have gone into medicine. 

One of these is Dr. Joseph Harrison Robinson of Ham- 
let, who is a son of Rev. E. B. Robinson and his wife Leccy 
(Wall) Robinson. She was a daughter of Richard and 
Caroline Wall. 

Our subject was born at Pee Dee on April 28, 1890. 
He was married on Dec. 19, 1918 to Laura Sanders, who was 
educated at Livingstone College. 

Young Robinson laid the foundation of his education in 
the public schools. He early aspired to a college education, 
and after completing the public schools matriculated at Liv- 
ingstone for his college work. Later, having decided upon 
medicine as his life work he entered Meharry Medical Col- 
lege and won his M. D. degree in 1917. On completion of his 
medical course, he began the practice in Georgia, where he 
remained for about a year. In the fall of 1918 he returned 
to his native State, and locating at Hamlet, near his old 
home, has already established himself in a good general 
practice. While in College he spent his summer vacations 
at the North in hotel, dining car and Pullman service. This 
served two purposes. It enabled him to earn the money 
necessary for his course and gave him an unusual opportun- 
ity to see every part of our great country. As he looks back 
over his life Dr. Robinson would give chief credit to the ex- 
ample and teaching of his parents for his success in life. 
He takes no active part in politics. He is a member of the 
A. M. E. Zion Church and sings in the choir. He belongs to 
the Masons and Pythians. His property interests are at 
Hamlet. 

Well equipped mentally and physically, with a good 
practice and a happy home before he is thirty, Dr. Robin- 



12t5 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

son can face the future with confidence and with the hope of 
being able to render large service to his race. He belongs 
to the N. C. Medical & Dental Association. 



James Alexander Bonner 



Few, if any, of the older States have contributed more 
men, in proportion to population, to the upbuilding of other 
States than has the Old Dominion. This has been true of 
both races. Among the sterling Virginia men who have 
done good work in the religious and educational field in the 
Old North State, must be mentioned Rev. Dr. James Alex- 
ander Bonner, of Wilmington. 

He was born in the historic old town of Petersburg, at 
the beginning of the most tragic period of its history, March 
7, 1864. His father, Benjamin B. Bonner was a brick mason 
by trade, who, after Emancipation entered the ministry. 
He was a son of Wyatt Bonner and Salina Hill. Wyatt Bon- 
ner was a railroad fireman and his wife was a Godly woman. 
Dr. Bonner's mother, before her marriage was Mary Eliza- 
beth Lively. Her father was free born and was a local 
preacher. 

Young Bonner grew up in Petersburg and attended the 
public schools there, and in Goldsboro, N. C. He passed 
from the public schools of Goldsboro to Lincoln University, 
Chester Co., Pa., where he remained for eight years, five in 
the Literary and three in the Theological Department. He 
finished the College Course in 1885 with the A. B. degree, 
and in 1888 the Theological Course. Lincoln has since 
conferred on him the A. M. degree, while he has the D. D. 
degree from both Lincoln and Biddle Universities. 

From the beginning of his work at Lincoln he was under 
the necessity of making his own way. Accordingly his 
summer vacations were spent at the resort hotels or in the 
Pennsylvania hay fields. He has never been afraid of exer- 
tion, mental or physical. He did some teaching while at 
Lincoln and after reaching his Sophomore year was supplied 
by an unknown benefactor whose name he never ascertained. 




JAMES ALEXANDER BONNER 



128 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Prom early life he was prompted by a desire to be 
somebody and to do something worth while. If the thou- 
sands who have passed under his tuition as a teacher or who 
have sat under his ministry as a preacher of the Gospel 
^could speak they would doubtless testify that he has at- 
tained his early ideal. 

Dr. Bonner's mind turned early to religious matters 
and he came into the church when about sixteen. His first 
regular pastorate was at Troy, S. C., where he preached from 
1888-90 and taught a parochial school. He went from there 
to Lexington, N. C., where he remained for five years. At 
Lexington he built a new house of worship and taught till 
he removed to Wilmington in 1895, where he has since re- 
sided. Since coming to Wilmington the church edifice has 
been repaired and a commodious parsonage built on Chest- 
nut Street. For nearly a quarter of a century he has been 
Teacher and Principal of the Peabody Graded School and 
has had the pleasure of seeing many of his school boys and 
girls grow up to useful manhood and womanhood, which 
after all is the teacher's greatest reward. 

Dr. Bonner has been honored by being twice elected 
Moderator of Synod, and more often Moderator of Presby- 
tery. He has made for himself a place among the leaders. 
He has attended four General Assemblies of his church and 
has been elected Commissioner to the 1920 General Assem- 
bly. He is a member of the Masons, Grand Historian Pyth- 
ians, Grand Prelate Good Samaritans and the Eastern Star. 
He is a ready speaker, widely known as pulpit and plat- 
form orator, whose services are in constant demand. 

Genial in manner, he is generally beloved ; end energetic 
in action, he is regarded as a man of service. 

On Dec. 20, 1888, he was married to Kittie Stella Richie, 
of Abbeville, S. C, a daughter of William J. and Clara F. 
Richie. They have one son, Benjamin Berry Bonner. 

Dr. Bonner believes that the best interests of the race 
are to be promoted "by education, industry, thrift and prac- 
tical religion." One would hardly call that a short cut to 
success, and yet its worth has been demonstrated in Dr. 
Bonner's own experience. 



James Youman Eaton 



There are few, if any, men in upper North Carolina who 
have touched the lives of more colored young people than 
has Prof. James Youman Eaton, Principal of the graded 
school at Henderson. Prof. Eaton is a versatile man who, 
notwithstanding he might have succeeded along almost any 
line of work he had chosen, preferred to give himself to edu- 
cational effort largely, though he is well equipped as a law- 
yer also. For more than thirty years he has been teach- 
ing in one capacity or another; and has had the pleasure of 
seeing many of the boys and girls pass from his schools into 
higher institutions of learning, and later take their places 
in the professional and business life of the State. 

He is a native of Louisburg, where he was born just 
after the close of the war, in 1866. His father, Thomas 
Eaton, was a carpenter and a farmer. In fact, he was the 
most successful colored farmer of his day in Vance Co., and 
owned 700 acres of land. Prof. Eaton's maternal grand- 
father was a native African, brought to this country in a 
slave ship. He was a man of great physical strength, who 
was held in high esteem by his owner, who gave him the 
name of James Eaton. Prof. Eaton's mother, before her 
marriage, was Annie Eaton, and though of the same name 
as he husband was in no way related by blood. 

On June 30, 1900, Prof. Eaton was marired to Miss 
Mary Agnes Cooper, a daughter of Edward and Carolina 
Cooper, of Vance Co. Mrs. Eaton was educated at Hampton 
Institute, Hampton, Va., where she graduated in 1898. Their 
children are: Coresce C, T. Renfroe, James Y., Jr., Annie 
W. and Mary V. Eaton. 

When of school age, young Eaton attended the local pub- 
lic schools and when ready for college passed to Shaw Uni- 
versity, finishing the course in 1894. This included his law 
course, in connection with which he received the L.L. B. de- 
gree. He was admitted to the bar in September of the. 




JAMES YOUMAN EATON 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 131 

same year and has been practicing the courts of the State 
for more than twenty-five years. In that time he has ap- 
peared in a number of important cases. In 1896 he was 
elected County Attorney of Vance County by the Board of 
County Commissioners, notwithstanding the fact that every 
member of the Board, with one exception, was a white man. 
Prof. Eaton has always handled his own, and public af- 
publican party and stands high in the confidence of his or- 
ganization. He has frequently been a delegate to the State 
and national conventions and has served his party on all 
sorts of committees for more than a quarter of a century. 
In 1898 he was elected a member of the State Legislature 
from his county, where he took an active part in all legisla- 
tion pertaining to the welfare of his people. His speech 
on the Disfranchising Amendment to the Constitution of 
North Carolina was declared by Hon. Josephus Daniels (now 
Secretary of the Navy) to have been the ablest comine 
from the Republican side of the house during the debate. 
Prof. Eaton has always handled his own, and public af- 
fairs entrusted to his care, in such a manner as to win for 
himself the esteem and confidence not only of his own people, 
but of the white race as well. It is, however, as a teacher 
that perhaps he is best known. 

As a young man he began teaching at Townsville and 
later was principal of the public school at Buffalo Lithia 
Springs, Va., for two years. In 1899 he was made Principal 
of the Henderson School and has seen the system grow 
from an enrolment of less than a hundred to more than 700 
and from a teaching force consisting of himself and one 
assistant to a faculty of eleven. In other words, he has 
practically created the public school system of Henderson 
and has done this while keeping up with his law practice 
and at the same time taking care of his political interests. 

Prof. Eaton is a member of the Baptist Church and 
longs to the Masons. At the present time he holds the 
chairmanship o fthe Committee on Appeals in the Grand 
Lodge of North Carolina. He has served the same body as 
Grand Orator. 

For years Prof. Eaton has given close study to History, 



132 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

especially the history of the development of law and politi- 
cal Science. He believes the best interests of the race are 
to be promoted by teaching the people to cultivate a relation 
of confidence in their own leaders and professional men. 
At the same time, he recognizes the importance of making 
these same leaders and professional men worthy of the 
confidence of all the people. 

Prof. Eaton owns considerable property in and around 
Henderson, and occupies perhaps the most attractive home 
in his county. 



Samuel Levenus Parham 



The Master taught that true greatness comes through 
service. One of the greatest incentives in the life of Rev. 
Samuel Levenus Parham, of Henderson, has been a desire to 
be of service. This idea was uppermost in his thinking 
during the years he was struggling for an education. Hs 
was born at Henderson, Oct. 1, 1879. His father, James 
Parham, was a farmer and mechanic. His mother's name 
was Mary (Woods) Parham. 

Mr. Parham was married on May 17, 1899, to Carrie 
Hawkins, of Henderson, a daughter of Easter Hawkins. 
They have four children: Bettie E., Samuel L., Jr., Annie 
L. and James R. Parham. He is giving these the best educa- 
tional advantages. 

Young Parham attended the local public schools as a 
boy, and the Henderson Normal Institute, at Henderson. 
He did his Theological work at Shaw University, from 
which he had the B. Th. degree on the completion of his The- 
ological course. He also holds a Theological diploma from 
Howard University for work done under direction at that 
institution. 

Mr. Parham was left an orphan at an early age and 
had to make his own way in life. Fortunately he came into 
the church at an early age and his life was saved for serv- 
ice. He was licensed to preach in 1911, and in 1912 was or- 




SAMUEL LEVENUS PARHAM 



134 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

dained to the full work of the ministry by the Shiloh Bap- 
tist Church. He served his home church one year. He 
preached at the First Baptist Church of Roxboro six years. 
After a pastorate of three years at Franklinton, he resigned 
and after a two year pastorate at Stovall he resigned to ac- 
cept other work. He has been preaching at Michael's Creek 
six years. He is also pastor at this time (1919 of the First 
Baptist Church at Louisburg. He is popular in his section 
of the State and is in demand as a preacher. As evidence of 
his popularity it may be mentioned that he is Moderator of 
the Middle Association. Some years ago he declined the 
position of Grand Secretary of the Knights of Gideon of 
N. C, to which he had been elected without his knowledge. 

He owns an attractive home and other property at Hen- 
derson. He has studied conditions among his people and be- 
lieves that the best interests of the race are to be promoted 
"by education along all lines of useful service, by higher 
education where it is possible, by prepared and consecrated! 
ministers in our pulpits, by a continuation of conservation* 
by buying homes and farms, and by going into business- 
Wise and skilful Negro leaders should discuss with white 
people race relations. This will lead to a better understand- 
ing of each other and ultimately reduce race friction which 
now prevails." 



Zander Adam Dockery 



The State and the Nation owe a large debt of gratitude 
to the faithful, efficient men who almost without thought of 
pecuniary gain, have invested their lives in the religious; 
instruction of the people and in the training of the young.. 
One of these men who, by force of character and hard work., 
has made for himself a place in the religious and educational; 
life of the State, is Rev. Zander Adam Dockery, of States- 
ville. He is pastor of the Broad Street Presbyterian Church 
of Statesville, and head of the Billingsly Memorial Academy.. 




ZANDER ADAM DOCKERY 



136 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Let no one imagine this position of usefulness and large 
service was reached without a struggle. 

Rev. Dockery was born at Mangum, in Richmond Co., 
on May 10, 1870. His mother's name was Tirzah Dockery. 
His struggle up from poverty and obscurity to a place of 
leadership was marked by hard work, close economy and 
persevering effort. He grew up on the farm and began his 
education in the rural school. A speech by Bishop Moore 
first fired the boy's imagination and a young man who had 
been away to school for a short while added fuel to the 
flame. 

Our subject determined to have an education and went 
to work first at a saw mill and afterwards at a brickyard. 
In the fall of 1890 he entered Biddle University and at the 
end of the second year was able to secure a teacher's license. 
He began teaching in 1893 and has been in the school room 
every year since. It was eleven years from the time he 
began his course till he completed it and during only four 
years was he able to pursue his work without a break. 
Notwithstanding this disadvantage, he never repeated a 
class nor failed on an examination. 

Young Dockery was converted when about fourteen and 
soon after began to shape his life definitely for the minis- 
try. He won his A. B. degree in 1899 and completed the 
Theological Course with the S. T. B. degree three years later. 
He was ordained in 1902 and called to the church at Biddle- 
ville, which he served eight years. He taught school dur- 
ing the winter months. The degree of A. M. was given in 
1909 by Biddle University. He resigned the Biddleville 
work to accept two country churches which had good 
growth under his administration, and in the meanwhile he 
continued teaching. In 1914 he came to Statesville, where 
the quality of his work is recognized by both races. 

Among the secret orders he is identified with the Pyth- 
ians and the Odd Fellows. His favorite reading is History. 
He is a prominent figure in denominational gatherings and 
was a delegate to the General Assembles which sat at Des 
Moines in 1906 and Atlantic City in 1910. He is now (1919) 
Chairman of the New Era Movement in his local Presby- 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 1.37 

tery. He attended the Conference of Foreign Missions of 
his church at N. Y. City on Oct. 12, and is delegate to 
General Assembly at Philadelphia in May, 1920. 

He believes that the greatest single need of the race 
today is a better understanding with the white race. His 
property is in Charlotte, N. C. 

In March, 1890, he was married to Emma J. Patterson, 
of Huntersville. She was educated at Scotia Seminary and 
taught before her marriage. Their children are: Ethel, 
Zander, Jr., George, Emma and Robert Dockery. Mrs. 
Dockery passed to her reward on Jan. 31, 1912. Subse- 
quently he was married to Anna T. Adams, of Charlotte. 
She, too, is a teacher, and was educated at Oxford, N. C. 



William Henry Moore 

The lessons of persistence, of toilsome pursuit of a great 
aim in the face of obstacles and in defiance of hardships 
which are to be found in the lives of many of our most 
successful men, are present in the career of Rev. William 
Henry Moore, D. D., pastor of the Shiloh Baptist Church, of 
Wilmington, N. C. 

Converted at fourteen years of age and ordained to the 
full work of the ministry before he was twenty, Dr. Moore 
has devoted more than thirty years to the active pastorate. 
He is a native of Pender Co., and was born at Currie on 
March 15, 1869. His father, Henry Moore, was a farmer. 
Henry Moore was the son of Louie and Tena Coston Moore. 
Dr. Moore's mother before her marriage was Emily Murphy. 
She was a daughter of Sam and Ellen Murphy. 

Dr. Moore has been married twice. His first marriage 
was on March 8, 1893, to Miss Coa E. Corbett. She was a 
daughter of Calvin D. and Ellen Corbett. She passed away 
on August 19th, 1907. 

On June 2, 1909, Dr. Moore married Clara A. Hill, a 
daughter of Rev. John M. and Mollie Hill. He has four 




WILLIAM HENRY MOORE 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 139 

children, Mamie E., Edna F., Annie L., and Jamie Eliza- 
beth Moore. 

Young Moore was reared on the farm and was accus- 
tomed to do all sorts of outdoor work. He went to the local 
public schools and to the Long Creek High School. He soon 
reached the point where he could himself teach and combined 
teaching with preaching for a number of years. He was 
converted while in his early teens and felt called to preach 
the Gospel when seventeen. H was licensd only a year later. 
He continued to study under the tutorship of Prof. J. F. 
Moore, of Black River Academy and later took special work 
at the University Law School of Chicago. He has the 
D. D. Degree from Guadloupe College, of Texas. The early 
days of his ministry were spent in country pastorates. As 
the character of his work became known there was a demand 
for his services in the larger centers. He accepted the call 
of the First Baptist Church of Burgaw, whre he preached 
with marked success for more than five years. In 1904 he 
resigned that work to accept the.pastorate of the Shiloh Bap- 
tist Church, of Wilmington, which under his leadership has 
come to be one of the best Baptist Congregations in the 
State. Every department of the work has prospered in his 
hands. Dr. Moore is a prominent figure in denominational 
gatherings. He is a recognized Bible scholar. After his 
Theological reading he is very fond of Civil Government and 
has found the biographies of great men especially helpful. 
He belongs to the Masons and is Chaplain of the N. C. Grand 
Lodge. He is also a member of the K. P.'s and the Good 
Samaritans, in which he is Grand Chief. He owns an at- 
tractive home at Wilmington. He believes that the best in- 
terests of the race are to be promoted by closer contact 
between the best element of the two races in order that the 
which man may know from first-hand information what the 
best element of the Negro Race stands for. 



Frank Alston Evans 



Though just now 1920) turning into his thirties, Dr. 
Frank Alston Evans, a successful dentist of Asheville, has 
firmly established himself in the practice of his profession 
and as a citizen has taken his place in the business and social 
life of the city. He is a native of the capital of the State, 
having been born at Raleigh, April 4, 1890. His father, 
Rev. Thomas S. Evans, a Baptist minister, was the son of 
Richmond and Frances (Smith) Evans. They lived in Hali- 
fax Co., at Scotland Neck. 

Almost from childhood Dr. Evans has been an industri- 
ous worker. At the early age of eight he was a messenger 
boy at a hotel, and bellman at twelve. He attended the 
Raleigh public schools, where he made the best of his op- 
portunities. He early showed aptness for mechanics and 
worked a while at the electrical and plumbing trade. At the 
age of seventeen he was able to take a place as chief engi- 
neer, which he held for three years. 

When ready for college, he entered Shaw University 
and studied there for four years, 1906-1910. In 1910 he 
went North and worked in various cities. In this way he 
earned the money to begin his dental course at Meharry in 
1911. By returning each vacation he was able to complete 
the course in 1915 without a break. Some of his vacation 
work was in the Pullman service, which took him to every 
part of the U. S., as well as into Canada and Mexico, and 
added much to his knowledge of men and places and proved 
in every way a valuable experience. 

In 1916 he began practicing in Asheville, where he has 
since resided. On Oct. 14 of the same year he was married 
to Alethia J. Brooks, a daughter of Alexander and Lethia 
Brooks, of Columbia, S. C. They have two children: 
Frank A.. Jr., and Frederick Thomas Evans. 

Dr. Evans was active in college athletics while he was 
in school. He is a member of the Baptist Church and is 




FRANK ALSTON EVANS 



142 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

identified with the Odd Fellows. He was one of the organ- 
izers of the Old North State Dental association, of which he 
is Vice-President and a member of the Executive Board. 
He also holds membership in the State and National Medi- 
cal and Pharmaceutical Association and Interstate Dental 
Association. His investments an$ property interests are 
at Asheville and Raleigh. W* 



William Henry Knuckles 

In the minds of some men, education stands for intelli- 
gence only. ' That is primarily the German idea of education. 
There is an increasing number of men, however, who have 
seen the importance of correlating the forces which make 
for character with the forces which make for intelligence. 
We call this "Christian education" for want of a better term. 
The public schools and State institutions are State created 
and as they are for. all classes and all creeds, cannot give 
religious instruction. So it has remained for the denomi- 
national schools, both in the field of secondary and higher 
education, to train teachers and other religious leaders to 
the work of the churches. 

Among the Baptist educators in North Carolina must 
be mentioned Rev. Wm. H. Knuckles, A. M., D. D., of Lum- 
berton. He was born at Ridgeway, March 6, 1873, and is a 
son of J. W. and Pinkie Knuckles. 

Young Knuckles grew up on a farm in Warren Co. 
and attended the public schools. He was converted at the 
early age of fourteen, and some years later felt called to 
the Gospel ministry. He passed from the Warren Co. 
schools to Shaw University, from which he graduated with 
the A. B. degree in 1910. He pursued his Theological course 
along with his Classical work, and such was his record as a 
student at Shaw that upon the completion of his course he 
was offered a professorship in the institution. This he ac- 
cepted and remained for two years. He was then called to 
the principalship of Thompson Institute at Lumberton, 




WILLIAM HENRY KNUCKLES 



144 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

which is under the auspices of the Lumber River Baptist 
Association. For eighteen years he has presided over this 
growing institution, which now needs the services of a fac- 
ulty of seven teachers. It requires five buildings to accom- 
modate the school work, four of which have been erected 
under Rev. Knuckles' administration. The main college 
building is a commodious brick structure. Finding the in- 
stitution owning only a half acre of land ,it was under his 
supervision that a nine acre tract was secured in connection 
with the college and a 32 acre farm. The whole plant repre- 
sents a value of between forty and fifty thousand dollars. 
Under the policy adopted by Dr. Knuckles, all money raised 
in the Association goes into the permanent building fund, 
while he undertakes, and does make, the tuition fees and out- 
side donations take care of the running expenses. 

Dr. Knuckles, notwithstanding the arduous duties con- 
nected with the school, has been in the regular pastorate for 
a number of years. He served Greenville Baptist Church 
near Lumberton for fourteen years, and erected a new house 
of worship. He has preached at Bryan's Swamp in Bladen 
Co. four years, and Piney Grove, Columbus Co., for five 
years. 

He has not been active in politics, nor is he identified 
with the secret orders. He is a prominent figure in the 
work of the denomination and was for ten years President 
of the State B. Y. P. U. Convention. During the war he was 
chairman of the W. S. S. and Red Cross organizations for 
the colored people of his community and did strenuous and 
successful work. 

On October 5, 1915, Dr. Knuckles was married to Sadie 
Lewis, a daughter of the late Dr. P. S. Lewis, President of 
the Baptist State Convention. They have two children, 
Wm. H., Jr., and Mary R. Knuckles. 

Dr. Knuckles is a forceful and magnetic speaker, a 
clear thinker and a good organizer. 



Henry Beard Delaney 



The finest bit of Christian evidence in literature, Theo- 
logical or otherwise, is the testimony of the man who was 
born blind : "Whereas I was blind, now I see." That was 
the main thing, that was enough. The man knew God 
through Jesus, who had dealt with him. He does deal 
with men personally, individually and on the level of then- 
personalities. He spoke to the boy Samuel in the hush of 
early dawn when the lights were burning low and in such 
human accents that the child thought Eli had called him. 
He thundered His message to Saul of Tarsus on the Damas- 
cus road in tones that made men shudder and in a l'ght 
that blinded. Many trying experiences followed in the life 
of each, but if either ever doubted his acceptance with God 
it is not recorded. 

The life and work of Rt. Rev. Henry Beard Delany, 
Suffragan Bishop of the Episcopal Church cannot be un- 
derstood without some account of his religious experience 
as a youth. 

He was born in the historic old Georgia town of 
St. Marys on Feb. 5, 1858. His father, Thomas Delany, was 
a ship carpenter and house carpenter by trade. He was 
active in the work of the Methodist Church, in which he 
was a local preacher. The mother of our subject was Sarah 
Louisa Delany, a Godly woman. While the boy was still 
small the family moved from Georgia to Fernandina, Fla. 

Coming of school age just about the time the war closed, 
he went to school at Fernandina, supported by the Freed- 
men's Bureau and taught by devout missionary teachers 
from the North whose foundation work in the South for 
the first ten years after the war was one of the finest mis- 
sionary accomplishments of the century. Their work still 
lives. Bishop Delany acknowledges with tender gratitude 
that they gave tone and direction to his life. They not only 
inspired him to effort but brought him those sweet and re- 




HENRY BEARD DELANY 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 147 

fining influences which adorned their lives. As the boy 
grew he developed remarkable talent for music, both vocal 
and instrumental, which he cultivated and found to be of 
great advantage in later years. 

Growing up in Fernandina, he worked on his father's 
farm, also learned bricklaying and plastering, and was never 
afraid of work. As a young man he tried honestly to be 
religious. He reached the point where he was even willing 
to give up his music. Later he was to learn that it was a 
thing to be used rather than sacrificed. At the solicitation 
of friends he joined the Methodist Church and came to his 
first communion, there to feel that he was all undone. 

Fortunately for him and the great church which he 
serves he did not turn back, but humbled himself by fasting 
and prayer for a week. The tender ministrations of his 
mother cut him to the quick. All exhausted physically and 
ready to surrender spiritually a wonderful vision opened up 
before him in which he saw twelve men in vestments, kneel- 
ing m semicircle around him, where he prayed. From this 
he seemed to pass into a church which became vibrant with 
sweet music. He sought to join in, and aroused himself by 
singing aloud: "I am so glad that Jesus loves me." 

Many things have happened from that day to this, but 
the youth now advancing in years and occupying the highest 
position in the gift of his church has never doubted his ac- 
ceptance with God. 

When the time came for him to go to school he could 
not see his way clear. Guided by his Rector and encouraged 
by his parents, he dared to pray about the matter and the 
way opened up so that he not only went to College but in 
turn became himself an educator of distinction and has 
touched the lives of hundreds of young people in a helpful 
way. 

In 1881 he came to St. Augustine School, Raleigh as a 
student, and for nearly forty years has been identified' with 
the Institution. The history of one canont be told without 
reciting the story of the other. He was graduated in 1886. 
Such has been the character of his work that when he had 



148 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

completed his course there was a place awaiting him on the 
faculty. 

It is as a preacher of the Gospel, however, that he is 
best known. In 1888 he was ordained Deacon and three 
years later was made Priest. 

In the Convention of 1918, which met in St. Luke's 
Church, Salisbury, he was unanimously elected Suffragan 
Bishop for colored work in the Diocese of North Carolina. 
On the 21st of November he was consecrated in St. Augus- 
tine's Chapel, Raleigh, N. C, and placed in charge of the 
colored work in North, South and East Carolina. 

No story of Bishop Delaney would be complete without 
mention of his splendid family. On October 6, 1886, he was 
married to Nannie James Logan, of Danville, Va., whom he 
had met at St. Augustine. Ten children have come to bless 
this union, all of whom have been given the advantage of 
the best schools, and who reflect credit upon their parents. 
The children are, Dr. L. T., Sarah E., Annie E., Julia E., Dr. 
Harry R., Lucas, Hubert, Wm. M., Laura and Samuel De- 
lany. There are also two adopted daughters. 

The family live in an attractive home on the campus 
of St. Augustine School. Mrs. Delany is a woman of fine 
Christian character, whose influence for good has been felt 
not only in her own family, but in the school and the com- 
munity as well. She is still Matron of the school. Bishop 
Delany has not sought primarily to make money and yet 
while rearing a big family, he has prospered in a business 
way. Let us say he is a good steward. 

On a little altar in the front room of his home rests 
the family Bible, the last gift of his mother, and on a 
bit of shelf nearby a bottle of Florida sand from his father's 
farm. They stand for things that are very real in the life 
of this man of God. 



George W. Watkins 



Rev. George W. Watkins, A. B., B. Th., of Raleigh, Field 
Secretary of the Missionary Baptist State Convention of 
North Carolina, and General Director of the Baptist 
$150,000.00 drive, is a native of Granville Co. His father, 
Adam Watkins, was a farmer, and the subject of this biog- 
raphy grew up on the farm and went to the public schools 
of his county during boyhood days. Adam Watkins was a 
son of Fanny Watkins. Dr. Watkins' mother, before her 
marriage, was Matilda Overby. 

When about fourteen years of age, Dr. Watkins joined 
the Baptist Church and from early boyhood has endeavored 
to practice the principles of Christianity. 

He had to rely upon his own efforts to secure an educa- 
tion, as his people were poor, but this developed his ambi- 
tion and self-confidence, and taught him to fight to overcome 
difficulties. When about twenty-three years old, he deter- 
mined to consecrate his life to the Gospel ministry and was 
licensed and ordained by the New Jonathan Creek Baptist 
Church in 1903. 

On November 25, 1908, Dr. Watkins was married to 
Lelia S. Downey, a daughter of Ellis and Fannie Downey. 
Four children were born to them — George F., Lyman, Tal- 
madge A., .and Harold B. Watkins. On September 15th, 
1919, Mrs. Watkins passed to her reward. 

Dr. Watkins did both his classical and theological work 
at Shaw University, where he won his A. B. and B. Th. 
degrees in 1908. His first regular pastorate after his ordi- 
nation was the Second Baptist Church at Roxboro, which he 
served for one year. He preached at Hillsboro two years 
and at Greensboro four years. From September, 1912, to 
November, 1917, he pastored the Friendship Baptist Church, 
at Charlotte, when he resigned to accept his present posi- 
tion as Field Secretary of the denomination. His work in 
this capacity, and in connection with the drive which the 




GEORGE W. WATKINS 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 151 

denomination recently put on, has been of high character 
anr reflects credit on the industry, enthusiasm and ability 
of Dr. Watkins. 



Peter Weddick Moore 



It is impossible adequately to tell the story of the North 
Carolina State Colored Normal & Industrial School, at Eliz- 
abeth City, without writing the biography of President Peter 
Weddick Moore. Nor is it possible to write his biography 
without, in a way, relating the history of that Institution. 
The life of the man and the history of the school are so 
closely interwoven that it is impossible to separate them. 
Without thinking of making money for himself, Prof. Moore 
has devoted the best years of his life to the building of an 
institution in eastern North Carolina for the training of 
those whose business it is to train the children of the race. 

Prof. Moore was born near Clinton on June 24, 1859. 
It will thus be remarked that his life is thus nearly contem- 
porary with that of the freedom of his people, and he may 
be said to illustrate, in his own character, the effects of 
one generation of freedom. His parents were Weddick and 
Alecy Moore. 

Coming to school age just after the close of the war, 
young Moore attended the Sampson Co. public schools and 
when ready for college went to Shaw University where he 
won his A. B. degree in 1887; Later, the same Institution 
conferred on him the A. M. degree in recognition of his 
splendid work in education. Still later the same Institution, 
recognizing his worth and ability, confererred on him the 
degree of L.L. D. Prof. Moore remembers vaguely some 
of the closing scenes of the war. 

As he grew up, he worked on the farm, or about the 
house, or at anything wherever there was opportunity to 
make money for his college course. At first, he returned 
to the farm during the summer vacation, but after he was 
able to secure a teachers license, began teaching in the sum- 




PETER WEDDICK MOORE 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 153 

mer schools. He was not afraid to do the hardest sort of 
work and after the idea of getting an education had become 
fixed in his mind, he resolved to do whatever was necessary 
in order to make his way through school. For a While he 
worked at a brick yard. For more than one season he served 
as a steward. Later, as his work and ability became known, 
he was appointed assistant teacher in the normal depart- 
ment of Shaw University. He held this position four 
years. 

After the completion of his course at Shaw, he was 
made-Assistant Principal at the Normal School at Plymouth, 
where he remained for four years. It was then decided to 
establish a Normal at Elizabeth City and he was elected to 
the Principals'hip of what was thought would become a 
successful school. There was appropriated a fund of 
$900.00 — no building no faculty and no student body. Prof. 
Moore had one assistant and the first year showed a total 
enrollment of 69 representing nine counties. Since that 
time, the enrollment has grown to more than 549 and the 
plant is worth $55,000.00. The school has an annual expen- 
diture of about $13,600, and the faculty has grown from 
the principal and one assistant to 15. The buildings are 
located on a tract of 41 acres of land which g*ves ample 
room for the necessary demonstration work of farming 
and trucking. Money is now in hand for new $55,000.00 
buildings and there is an atmosphere of progress and pros- 
perity about the Whole place. Nor has the work done in 
the school room at Elizabeth City been all of Prof. Moore's 
great accomplishment. Through his institutes and sum- 
mer schools and his work in connection with county superin- 
tendents, he has touched the lives of thousands of teachers 
who have not been able to attend the Normal. The work 
has steadily grown in the estimation of both the white 
and the colored people in eastern North Carolina and the 
State : s inclined to be more liberal as Prof. Moore has con- 
ducted the affa"rs of the Normal in such a way as to reflect 
ered't on himself and on th^ race. He has stood up squarely 
and r ade such demands as he felt the rights of his people 
ent'tl d hir to rrake, and yet he has done it in such a man- 



154 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

ner as to retain the confidence and co-operation of the best 
element of both races. He is not only an educator, but he 
is a leader and a statesman. Naturally he is of the opinion 
that the best interests of the race are to be promoted by the 
right sort of education and by a square deal in the best 
sense on the part of the white people. He has been an 
important factor in the work of the North Carolina Teach- 
ers' Association from the time of its organization to the 
present and has held every office within the gift of that 
body. 

In February, 1890, Prof. Moore was married to Symera 
T. Rayner, of Windsor, who was educated at Allen's Acad- 
emy and was herself a teacher. They have two children, 
Ruth Sympson (Mrs. Games) and Bessie Vivian Moore. 



John Henry Paschal 



The Rev. John Henry Paschal who is now (1920) sta- 
tioned at the St. Marks A. M. E. Zion Church at Durham 
does not believe in doing things by halves. Though from 
childhood he was impressed with a feeling that he would be a 
preacher, still he wandered far out into the world. Finally, 
however, when he was converted, he turned right about 
and in three months was licensed to preach. Since that 
time he has been one of the active men .of the denomination. 
Mr. Paschal was born in the old County of Chatham, on Nov. 
20, 1872. His mother was Emeline Paschal, but he was 
reared by his grandparents, Isaac and Emeline Paschal. 

On Mar. 2, 1898, he was married to Delia Watson, the 
daughter of Louis and Nancy Watson, also of Chatham Co. 
In the absence of any children of their own they have 
adopted a daughter whose name is Mattie. 

Mr. Paschal's schooling began in the public schools of 
Chatham Co. and of Moore Co. He attended Hamilton's 
Seminary at Carthage two years, Bennett College at 
Greensboro two years and later went to his denominational 




JOHN HENRY PASCHAL 



156 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

college, Livingstone, at Salisbury, thus attaining a desira- 
ble English education. 

As a boy he worked on the farm and later went into 
railroad work for five years. The last three years of his 
business life he ran a pressing and cleaning establishment 
in Greensboro. He had to make his own way in school 
and so learned to sympathize with every struggling youth. 

Rev. Paschal had grown to mature manhood before he 
Anally gave his heart to God in 1898. He joined the Con- 
ference in 1900, at Union Grove in Chatham Co., under the 
late Bishop Hood. He went to High Point, where with a 
nucleus of only five members he organized the St. Stephen's 
Church which, under his ministry, grew to three hundred 
and fifty. A house of worship was erected and the work 
put on a firm basis. He was retained on that work fo- 
eight years. While pastoring at High Point in 1904 he went 
to Thomasville and organized St. John's Zion Church, with 
four members, and built a nice church, pastoring St. John's 
on week days for four years. . He went from there to San- 
ford, where he preached for two years with great success. 
He was then sent to the Flea Hill Circuit in Cumberland 
Co., where all the - churches of the Circuit had good 
growth under his administration. After that came three 
fruitful years at Lillington where he had most gracious 
revivals which he himself conducted. From Lillington he 
went to Beaver Creek Circuit one year and from there to 
Maxton three years. On this Circuit he did considerable 
building and repairing. In 1919 he was sent to his present 
work in Durham where he is planning a new church. 

One of the most striking things about Rev. Paschal's 
ministry is the manner in which he keeps every department 
of the work in hand. He feels that he is the pastor of the 
whole church and the appointed leader of all its services. 
Accordingly he has ceased to import other preachers to con- 
duct his revivals and the success of his meetings has shown 
that he was right. 

He is a Mason, Odd Fellow and Pythian. He was a 
delegate to the Knoxville General Conference, 1920. His 
investments are at Sanford. 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 157 

Mr. Paschal is regarded as an excellent Gospel preacher, 
who has been a success in all his appointments. He is 
friendly, kind and lovable and holds the affection of his peo- 
ple. His revivals have been blessed with many converts 
and he has added hundreds of souls to the church, and has 
added church properties of marked value to the denomina- 
tion. At St. Marks, his present charge, nearly 200 members 
were brought into the flock in less than two years and even- 
department of the work has taken on new life and growth. 



Charles Thomas Underwood 



The simple facts of the life of the preacher who spends 
the greater part of his life in small towns or in the country 
may be told in a few pages, and yet this simple narrative 
may contain much of suggestion to those who know how to 
appreciate the efforts of the hard working country preacher. 

We give here a brief record of the work of Rev. Charles 
Thomas Underwood. If we could tell of all the people he 
has baptized, of the weddings at which he has officiated 
and the funerals he has conducted, we should have a record 
of large usefulness. 

Rev. Underwood was born April 18, 1862, at Clinton, in 
Sampson Co. He has remained in Sampson Co. His par- 
ents were Henry Underwood, a farmer, and his wife Jane 
(Boykin) Underwood. His grandparents on the mothers 
side were George and Dinah Boykin. On the father's side 
his grandparents were Banter and Roly (Crumpler) Holmes. 

Rev. Underwood attended the local public schools while 
a boy and in 1880 felt called to dedicate his life to the work 
of the Gospel ministry. On Dec. 12, 1886, he was licensed 
to preach by the Red Hill Baptist Church. In 1892 he was 
ordained to the full work of the ministry by a Presbytery 
of the local association. He has held numerous pastorates. 
Such is the character of his work that he is never without 
churches and usually on full time. 

He pastored the following churches: Mt. Pleasant 




CHARLES THOMAS UNDERWOOD 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 159 

three years, Elizabeth city three years, built a house of wor- 
ship ; Littlefield three years ; Red Hill eleven years, repaired 
the Church; First Church, Ingold, N. C, thirteen years, 
erected a new building; Union Chapel, Long Creek, N. C. r 
seven years, repaired the church ; Pilgrim's Rest, Kerr, N. C, 
seven years, built a new church ; First Church, Tomahawk, 
N. C, fourteen years, built church; First Church, Kenans- 
ville, N. C, five years, began building operations; Hayes 
Chapel two years ; Big Piney Grove five years, repaired the 
building; Six Run Piney Grove three years, remodeled the 
house of worship; Kethren Chapel eight years at one time 
and four at another, made extensive repairs ; Second Church, 
Mt. Olive, seven years, erected new church; First Church, 
Magnolia, four years, built church ; First Church, Rose Hill, 
made additions to church; Wallace eight years, completed 
church; Friendship, Fayetteville, planning new building, 
and Wilson's Chapel. In addition to the above he also pas- 
tored the church at Autreyville four years, Bear Skin 
four years, Beaverdam two years, St. Johns, at Long Creek, 
one year, and Mt. Zion, at Armour, one year. 

Not only has Rev. Underwood been active as a builder 
of church houses, but he has also led many new members 
into the fold. He has baptized more than three thousand 
persons. He was for eight years President of the Sunday 
School Convention of the Kenansville Association. 

On Feb. 14, 1883, he was married to Adeline Sellars, a 
daughter of Evans and Candace Sellars. They have had a 
fine family of nine children. Those living are Lenora, 
Rufus, William M., Medissa M., and Addie G. Underwood. 

The second son, Rufus, has followed the example of his 
father and entered the ministry He li.ves at Dunn, N. C. 
The subject of this biography entered Shaw University for 
his Theological Course after he was well advanced in life, 
in fact, after he had a large family. He feels, however, 
that the time and effort were well spent. 

In politics he is a Republican and among the secret 
orders belongs to the Masons. 

Too much can not be said about his life as a worker 
in the General State work and in foreign mission work. 



160 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

For several years he was a local missionary, appointed by 
the Bapt'st State Convention of North Carolina. He has 
been a faithful worker in the cause of missions. He is a 
member of one of the prominent boards of the Baptist State 
Convent on, and because of his faithfulness to God and his 
fellowman, the Lord has not withheld any good things from 
him. 



James Sanders Lanier 



In a busy industrial town like Winston-Salem, where 
there Is a laige Ngro population earning good money and 
buying propeity there is a splendid field for colored lawyers. 
Several good men have realized this opportunity and one of 
th"! rr.ost successful of them is James Sanders Lanier. He 
is a native of Davie Co., having been born at Mocksville on 
September 16 1870. His father, Abraham Lanier, was a 
farmer, and the boy was brought up on the farm and learned 
to do all sorts of out-door work. Life on the farm proved 
to be a real asset, giving him self-confidence and a robust, 
virorcus body. His mother's name was Mary Lanier. 

On: June 16, 1987, Mr. Lanier was married to Carrie L. 
Fethrl ,of Winston-Salem. She is a daughter of Rev. W. L. 
Bethel, a Presbvterian minister, and his wife. Fannie Bethel. 
The Bethels now live in Oklahoma City. Mr. and Mrs. La- 
nier have three children, Raphael 0., Marcelette and Abra- 
ham Leonidas Lanier. Mrs. Lanier was educated at Scotia 
Seminary and taught in the schools of Winston-Salem be- 
fore her marriage. 

The Laniers moved from Davie Co. to Winston-Salem 
and young Lanier went to Shaw University for a year. He 
was imbued with the idea that education was a matter of 
transcendent importance. Accordingly, he worked in the 
iocal tobacco factory and saved his money for the purpose 
of going to college. Each spring as soon as school was 
through he would come back to the factory and work stead- 
ily through the summer vacation. After one year at Shaw, 




JAMES SANDERS LANIER 



162 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

he went to Lincoln University for his regular college course 
and won his Bachelor's degree in 1893. He tpok the law 
course in Shaw University and finished that with the L.L. B. 
degree in 1895. Three years later Lincoln University con- 
ferred on him degree of A. M. Speaking of his studies while 
in school, he says: "Not infrequently I would get up at 
three o'clock in the morning so as to avail myself of a bor- 
rowed book before a classmate should need it." 

He taught in the graded schools at Winston-Salem for 
three years and then settled down there to the regular 
practice of his profession having been admitted to the bar 
in 1895 He recalls with peculiar gratitude the influence on 
his life of two lady teachers, Miss Lucy Reed and Mrs. 
Leodoro. Next after that were books. His favorite read- 
ing is History. 

He is a Republican in politics and is prominent in the 
councils of his party, having been a member of both the 
county and the district committees. He is a member of 
the Presbyterian Church, of which he is an Elder, and has 
been also a commissioner of the General Assembly, which 
is the highest court of his church. At one time he was a 
member of the County School Board and an N. P. under ap- 
pointment by the Governor. He holds membership in the 
Masons Odd Fellows, Pythians, St. Luke's and other fra- 
ternal orders. Mr. Lanier has observed conditions both 
North and South, and believes, that the greatest single need 
of his people in both sections is education. He maintains; 
an office on Church Street, in the very heart of Winston-, 
Salem, and has' built up a paying practice. His investments j 
are in Winston-Salem. Here he has one of the most beauti- 
ful homes among Colored people in the South. 



Samuel Nathaniel Vass 



The outstanding impression that Dr. Samuel Nathaniel 
Vass, A. B,., A. M., D. D., has made upon his people in the 
State and in the entire United States is that of a close stu- 







VL 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 163 

dent of the Bible and a teacher of the same to leaders of 
his people in religious work. There are preachers by the 
hundreds who will express it as their candid opinion that he 
is among the world's most thorough Bible students of any 
race or country, but Dr. Vass expresses it as his own opinion 
that others hold this estimate of his Bible knowledge largely 
on account of the grace bestowed upon him to interpret in 
terms of the life of his own people. But certain it is that his 
people believe in him and his teaching of the Bible as abund- 
antly evidenced by invitations to lecture before churches, 
schools of all classes, associations, conferences, conventions, 
local, district, State and National, and the influence of his 
work has gone to every State in this country. 

But in his younger days, he was regarded a good teacher 
at Shaw University, where he taught for nine years in 
the college department, specializing in the Classics and in 
History, and he taught men and women who now are leaders 
among their people in North Carolina and other States. It 
is said that he always exhibited unusual ability as a teacher, 
and was very thorough and his students were thorough. Dr. 
Vass has said that some men cannot teach what they know, 
but that sometimes he felt he could teach right up to the 
last bit of his knowledge. Some have spoken of him as pos- 
sessing a mind of unusual brilliancy,but he himself has al- 
ways looked upon himself rather as a mediocre and he at- 
tributes his success as a teacher to the hard work necessary 
for him to master his subject, and he leads the pupil along 
the same lines in his studies. 

Dr. S. N. Vass was born in the city of Raleigh, N. C, 
May 22, 1886. His mother's name was Anna Victoria Vass 
an uneducated but highly endowed woman that had grown up 
in slavery. Her former master was the father of Dr. Vass, 
and he was one of the most substantial and distinguished 
white citizens of Raleigh, and a man greatly beloved by all 
who knew him, especially his former slaves. Dr. Vass' 
mother was the daughter of Charlotte Vass, a mulatto, her 
father being a white man of Scotch descent. His mother's, 
father was also a white man of the same descent and his. 
mother was a quadroon. His mother was a servant for a 



164 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

long time in the home of his father's before and after his 
marriage and young Vass was brought up in a most humble 
manner in the back yard of his father's family after his 
father's marriage and his father's wife did not like him 
and often made it very hard for him and his poor mother 
suffered thus inexpressible horrors when she had to often 
chastise her own child to suit the whims of one who hated 
her child. His mother was a woman of a sensitive nature, 
very religious, she suffered much while Vass was a small 
child in this way and Vass insisted that he suffered still 
more from the whippings administered. He began attend- 
ing a private school in the colored Episcopal church at a very 
young age where his teacher, Miss Chatman, a Northern 
lady used often to speak of him before visitors and would 
predict a great career for him. While he claims that he 
was fully five years learning his alphabet, because of his 
admiration of his teacher it was this Northern lady that 
first inspired him to look up and try to make a man of him- 
self. He never attended the public schools much, for his 
mother had a notion that mixing with other children there 
would cause him to forget her training in the back-yard. 
She placed him with her brother for a year or so in the 
country near West Raleigh, where he worked on the farm for 
some little time ,but he was only about seven years of 
age at the time. She afterward, upon her return to the city, 
decided ovsr the protests of his uncle to place him in an 
Episcopal boarding school at Raleigh, the St. Augustine Nor- 
mal and Collegiate Institute, and she was largely persuaded 
10 this course by little Samuel. Dr. Vass entered that Insti- 
tution at about ten years of age and at that time he states 
chat he did not even know all of his name and if he spelt 
it by sound as far as he knew it he could not write it down. 
But he made wonderful progress in his studies and gradu- 
ated at seventeen years of age in 1883. But Dr. Vass has 
said that he could not learn at all until he first prayed to 
God for ability and that his aptness afterward was a direct 
answer to his prayer. 

His mother was a member of the Missionary Baptist 
Church, and his father was a deacon in the white Baptist 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 165 

Church, and yet he was persuaded to join the Episcopalians 
on account of the kindness and sympathy of his teachers. 
But at sixteen years of age a man came to school by 
name of Thomas Morrison, of New Hill, N. C., who made 
a wonderful religious impression upon young Vass, and 
about the same time he came across certain doctrinal tracts 
issued by the Baptist Publishing House that made out so 
strong a case in favor of the Baptists that Vass lost all 
confidence in the doctrines of the Episcopalians, and this 
paved the way to his conversion to the Baptist conception 
of the new life, and he connected himself with the Baptist 
Church in Raleigh, although he still studied and boarded in 
the Episcopal Institution until he graduated more than a 
year afterward. But of course it was not very pleasant for 
him, but he nevertheless lived up to his convictions. 

Dr. Vass had already begun to teach school in the 
country at fourteen years of age, when he secured a second 
grade certificate, and until he graduated he taught both in 
the summer and during the winter months in the country to 
secure means to assist in his education. After graduation 
he was appointed to a position in the public schools of 
Raleigh, but before he ever served he received an appoint- 
ment to teach at Shaw University which he accepted. 
Whil teaching the first year he took certain studies and 
thus recsived an A. B. from Shaw University at the close 
of that session. After continuing his literary work for 
three years more he received his A. M. from Shaw Uni- 
versity. 

Dr. Vass says that from the time he entered Shaw 
University campus a wonderful vision of a service on a 
large scale for his people over a large territory came to him, 
and he was impressed that his connection at Shaw was to 
prove a mere training for the work which he felt would be 
his life work. After teaching there successfully for nine 
years, another great impression came to him that he must 
be up and doing for the Master had need of him elsewhere. 
About that time he received an appointment from the 
American Baptist Publication Society, the exact date was 
Dec. 17, 1892. His field was to be Maryland, Virginia, 



166 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

and the District of Columbia, and he as to begin work at 
pleasure. He finished that session and began his new work 
June 1, 1893, with headquarters at Richmond, Va. He was 
received gladly and achieved signal success on that field, 
and his salary was raised several times and finally he ac- 
cepted the district secretaryship of the Society for the 
South, to begin work Jan. 1, 1896, with headquarters at At- 
lanta, Ga. It was while serving in the service of the Publi- 
cation Society that he accomplished his greatest work for 
his people. He began his new work with very definite ideas 
of what would be most helpful to his people, but before he 
had time to carry out his plans he had to step aside from 
his program to defend the Publication Society from what 
he regarded as unjust attacks made against it on account 
of their failure to allow colored men to write for its Sunday 
School literature. Dr. Vass felt that his people ought to 
be invited to write also, but he did not believe all the charges 
that were lodged against the Society, and was man enough 
to stand out and defend the Society even to his own per- 
sonal disadvantage. It was not long before the attacks all 
centered about Dr. Vass and at least two papers were 
started to destroy his influence, and the issue became vital 
in all the States, with the result that Dr. Vass soon grew to 
be one of the best known characters in the Negro race in 
this country. As soon as the people better understood him, 
they discovered that he had been misrepresented in his per- 
sonal attitude toward their new printing business and they 
afterwards expressed high appreciation of him because he 
stood in the breach at a time when the race prejudice of 
the colored people was greatly stirred up against the white 
people and made his battle upon the platform of co-operation 
between the races, and it was upon the platform that he 
finally won out over his opposers and today he is held in 
high regard by those who formerly opposed him. In con- 
versation with Dr. Vass the writer heard him remark that 
he felt this great battle was God's way of introducing him 
to his people so that the Bible work he was afterwards to 
devote his life to might receive proper emphasis so as to 
be the means of accomplishing the largest results. Today 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 167 

what Dr. Vass stands for along Bible lines is known all 
over the country, and importance is attached to it by thou- 
sands of leaders of the race especially in religious work. 
Dr. Vass filled out twenty-six years of service with the 
Baptist Publication Society ,and in September, 1919, the 
Sunday School Publishing Board of the National Baptist 
Convention called him to the field secretaryship to continue 
under its auspices and support the Bible work he has been 
doing for so many years. 

Dr. Vass was married in June, 1885, to Mary Eliza, 
daughter of Rufus and Nancy Haywood, of Raleigh, and 
among the best colored people of Raleigh. Their union has 
been blessed with six children, four of whom have passed to 
Heaven, and only two remain, Maude Lillian, now the widow 
of Lieut. Urbane F. Bass, M. D., who lost his life in France 
in the World War. She makes her home at Fredericksburg, 
Va., and has four children to mourn their father's death. 
His son is Captain Rufus S. Vass, M. D., who served with 
the medical corps in the U. S. Army in France, and is now 
practicing medicine at Raleigh. 

Dr. and Mrs. Vass were pupils in St. Augustine at the 
same time ,and they married at nineteen years of age. Mrs. 
Vass is a talented and noble woman. 

In recognition of the successful work of Dr. Vass and 
in recognition of his Bible scholarship, both Shaw Univer- 
sity at Raleigh, and Livingstone College at Salisbury, con- 
ferered upon him the honorary degree of Doctor of Divinity 
in 1901. Unlike so many of his people, he has never con- 
nected himself with any of th secret orders from a conviction 
that' his calling required his undivided time and attention. 



Simon Green Atkins 



Occasionally one finds a man who is so competely iden- 
tified with a cause or whose life is so closely intertwined 
with the development of an institution that it is impossible 
to tell the history of one without reciting the story of the 




SIMON GREEN ATKINS 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 169 

other. Such is the case with Prof. Simon Green Atkins and 
the Slater Normal and Industrial School at Winston-Salem. 
It would not be fair to either him or the institution to say 
that he alone has been responsible for its success, for he 
has had the support and co-operation of the best people of 
both races. But it may be said and truly said that more 
than any other man, it was his mind that planned and his 
hand that executed while the work was still more or less 
in the experimental stage. 

To understand the man and his work, one must know 
something of his origin, his training and his ideals. He 
was born in the historic old County of Chatham, in the 
midst of the war, on June 11, 1863. His parents were Allen 
and Eliza Atkins. As a boy he worked on the farm and 
developed the physical hardihood which has stood well the 
strain of nearly half a century of hard work. Fortunately 
for the boy his' home influence was good and begot within 
the boy a selfrespect and a family pride which found ex- 
pression in a simple, clean living, and led to a desire to 
know something and to be something in the world. In this 
conenction he recalls with gratitude the influence of his 
parents' former master, Capt. E. Bryan. 

When of school age he entered the local public schools 
and was again favored by coming under the tuition of 
such consecrated teachers as Mrs. Annie J. Cooper and oth- 
ers who came out from St. Augustine's School to teach in 
the rural schools during the summer. His public school 
work was supplemented by private study till 1880, when he 
entered the St. Augustine's School at Raleigh. Here he 
came under the influence and teaching of that splendid edu- 
cator, the late J. E. C. Smeeds, who was more concerned 
about the content of education and the actual acquirement 
of his students than he was about the titles or high sound- 
ing degrees. Mr. Atkins completed the course at St. 
Augustine in 1884. He began his work as a teacher early. 
His first school was in his home county. While in College 
his summer vacations were spent teaching in the rural 
schools of Chatham and Moore Counties. Because he loved 
his work, he was a successful teacher from the beginning. 



170 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Both as a student and as a teacher he attracted the attention 
of Dr. J. C. Price, the founder of Livingstone College, and in 
the fall of 1884 was engaged by him to take charge of the 
Grammar School Department of that Institution. Here he 
touched the lives of many students, since grown to manhood 
and womanhood. He remained at Livingstone for six years 
and was Treasurer of the College for the last two years. 
During that period he did Institute work in the summer in 
many of the counties of North Carolina and came to know 
intimately the needs of the teacher as well as the student. 

In 1890 Mr. John J. Blair invited him to come to Win- 
ston-Salem. This resulted in his being made Principal of the 
Depot Street Graded School, which position he held from 
1890 to 1895. 

Winston-Salem is an industrial center. At that time 
the colored population was living in a congested area and 
was not encouraged to buy homes. He found, only one two- 
story house among them. He saw that health, sanitation, 
education and progress depended on better housing condi- 
tions and home owning ,and began the agitation which re- 
sulted in such marked improvements along these lines in 
recent years. From the beginning of his work at Winston- 
Salem he has had the support and co-operation of the best 
white people of the town. 

When the section of Winston-Salem known as "Colum- 
bia Heights" was being developed, he suggested to the pro- 
moters the wisdom of opening it up for colored people. 
After mature consideration they decided to do so and Prof. 
Atkins, early in 1892, moved out to what has since become 
a most attractive residence section. Other colored people 
followed so that need of a school on that side of town was 
soon felt. Prof. Atkins continued his work at Depot Street 
School. In 1893 his board added an assembly hall, a library 
and an office to his public school building. This was in the 
midst of the panic year. 

The little school at Columbian Heights was begun in 
1892-93. The next year it was enlarged. In 1895 Prof. At- 
kins resigned his position in the public school to devote him- 
self fully to the work of developing what has come to be 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 171 

known as the Slater Normal and Industrial School. In 
twenty-five years the school has come to be recognized by 
the leaders of both races and by the State as one of the 
worth while institutions in that section. It is perhaps more 
nearly an indigenous institution than any other school of 
like size for colored people in the South. From the begin- 
ning the affairs of the school have been handled by a local 
board who have shown their faith in the institution and 
their faith in Prof. Atkins by their works. A field man 
was employed and the school grew in students, in equipment, 
in resources, and in favor with the people. The State Legis- 
lature, in 1895, appropriated a thousand dollars on condition 
that the friends of the school would raise as much. It was 
done and a new building erected with bricks made by the 
students and completed with materials purchased largely on 
Prof. Atkin's own personal responsibility. Having put his 
hand to the plough, he would not look back. When con- 
fronted by difficulties, he worked all the harder and when 
seemingly insurmountable obstacles blocked his way he 
prayed and went forward. For let it be said here that from 
boyhood he has been a devout Christian. His life in the 
community has always been such that he has been able to 
secure a patient and sympathetic hearing from the leading 
lawyers, bankers, and business men of the town. They 
bear willing testimony to his ability as an educator and to 
his worth as a citizen. 

Space will not permit tracing out in detail year by year 
the progress of the school. From small beginnings it has 
grown to an enrollment of two hundred and fifty in the ad- 
vanced grades and four hundred in the lower grades. The 
plant has developed from one to a group of well equipped 
modern brick buildings valued at $100,000. The faculty 
consists of twenty teachers. The finances of the school 
have grown in proportion to its needs. The State has shown 
greater and greater liberality as the State Board of Educa- 
tion has recognized the character of the work done. The 
General Education Board has also made liberal donations 
to the work, while the citizens of Winston-Salem have been 
ready to lend a hand. 



172 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

For twenty years Prof. Atkins was Secretary of Edu- 
cation of the A. M. E. Zion Church and from 1904 to 1912 
was released from the work at "Slater" for the field work 
of this board. He is held in high esteem by the leaders of 
his church and was in 1916 offered the presidency of Living- 
stone College, Salisbury, N. C, the leading College of the 
A. M. E. Zion Church. He has traveled extensively in 
America and has a good working knowledge of every sec- 
tion of the country. 

On Sept. 3, 1889, Prof. Atkins was married to Oleona 
Pegram of Newbern, N. C. Mrs. Atkins was educated at 
Scotia Woman's College, Concord, N. C, and is herself an 
accomplished teacher. Se has entered into the plans of 
her husband with sympathy and enthusiasm. 



Thomas Thaddeus Taylor 



Rev. Thomas Thaddeus Taylor now (1919) stationed 
at Rockingham, is one of the strong men of the A. M. E. 
Connection in North Carolina. He brings to bear on his 
work a fund of experience gained by study and work in 
various sections of the country North and South. Through 
the years he has toiled patiently and has risen steadily in 
power as a preacher, and in the esteem of his brethren. 
He is a native of the sister State of Tennessee, having been 
born at Somerville in that State on Dec. 30, 1875. His 
parents were Solomon and Susan (Person) Taylor. 

Young Taylor had a taste of farm work as a boy. His 
schooling in Tennessee was confined to the public school 
near Somerville. Later on going to Texas he attended the 
Fort Worth schools for two years and after deciding to 
enter the ministry did three years of College work at Paine 
Colllege, Augusta, Ga. This was supplemented by instruc- 
tions from private teachers, especially along Theological 
lines. So it will be seen that Rev. Taylor is a man of lib- 
eral education. 




THOMAS THADDEUS TAYLOR 



174 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

He was converted at the early age of twelve and al- 
most from boyhood was inclined to the ministry. When 
finally he was ordained and joined the Conference and did 
his first work in the North. He entered the Conference at 
Newark, N. J. Soon after that he was transferred to the 
Western North Carolina Conference and except for occa- 
sional evangelistic work, for which he seems peculiarly 
gifted, has confined his efforts to the South. Since com- 
ing South he has served the following circuits and stations ; 
Kings Mountain one year, Gastonia Station three years, re- 
paired the church ; Lincolnton two years, built parsonage ; 
Mooresville, two years, repaired the church and improved 
the grounds. He is now in his second year at Rocking- 
ham, where a new parsonage and commodious brick house 
of worship have been erected, which when completed will 
have a value of twenty thousand dollars. He entertained 
the W. Central Annual Conference this year, Nov. 19, 1919. 
Rev. Taylor has had a fruitful ministry. He is cordial in 
manner, a pleasing but forceful speaker. Physically he is 
a man of commanding appearance and dignified bearing. 

He has been twice married. His first marriage was 
on Sept. 6, 1900, to Jennie E. Cole, of Elberton, Ga. The 
following children are by that marriage: Susie M. 
Thomas T„ Jr., Walter C, Jeannette, Ethel M. and Julian 
C. Taylor. Mrs. Taylor passed away Dec. 15, 1915. Subse- 
quently Rev. Taylor was married a second time to Miss Lil- 
lian B. Isaachks, of Gastonia. They have one child, an 
infant. 

He is a Republican in politics and among the secret 
orders belongs to the Odd Fellows, though he can hardly 
be said to be active in either. 

As he looks back over his life, he attributes his success 
largely to the influence of his parents. His mother, a 
sainted woman, died when he was but a boy, but left him 
in the Lord's hands. 

He has been a delegate to two General Conferences of 
his church. 

In his reading, he is partial to Poetry and Biography. 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 175 

He takes a delight in studying the lives of great men and 
the causes for their greatness. Rev. Taylor believes that 
man is man the world over, and that he is the same in 
heart and purpose, needing the common acceptance of the 
Word of God for his elevation. He believes, further, that 
there will be no permanency in Democracy nor human free- 
dom in the sense that the world is looking for them, until 
it comes through national consecration of purposes and in- 
ternational bending and blending of governmental will to 
the Will Divine, and all center on Calvary and get light 
from the Cross and therefrom be actuated and governed by 
the mandates of the Gospel of the Son of God. That God 
must be the rightful Father of universal brotherhood and 
that the brotherhood must be of one mind and one heart, 
living within the circle of the Golden Rule. 



Allen Abram Smith 



It is fortunate for church and for State that when an 
emergency arises in either, there is usually some hard- 
working, practical, efficient man who can step into the gap, 
pull things together and lead to better conditions. Such a 
man is Rev. Allen Abram Smith now (1920) head of the 
McDaniel Normal and Industrial School, a Baptist Institu- 
tion at Kinston. Without going into the early history of 
this school, it may be said that Dr. Smith has done more than 
any other man to put the institution on a firm foundation. 
He has presided over it for five years. In that time the en- 
rollment has grown to 175 and requires a faculty of six 
teachers. It is now not so much a question of securing pu- 
pils, as of providing equipment for their accommodation. 

Dr. Smith was born near Mt. Olive in Dublin Co., in 
1864. His father, who passed away before the boy could 
remember, was Abram Smith, and his mother before her 
marriage was Jennie Kornegay. He was reared on a farm 
and as a boy went to school first at Mount Olive and later al 




V 



ALLEN ABRAM SMITH 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 177 

Goldsboro. After that he went to the Normal School at 
Fayetteville for three years, where he came under the tui- 
tion of that great teacher, Dr. E. E. Smith, whose life and 
example have inspired so many colored youth. He then 
spent two or three years at Shaw University and with this 
equipment began the active work of life. 

He was converted, and identified himself with the Bap- 
tist Church when about eighteen years of age. Even be- 
fore that time — in fact, almost from boyhood — he felt that 
his work would be that of the ministry. In 1882 he was 
licensed to preach by the Mt. Olive Baptist Church and or- 
dained to the full work of the ministry five years later. 
The first church to call him to the pastorate was the Best 
Grove Baptist Church near Goldsboro, which he served con- 
tinuously for a quarter of a century. Here a new house of 
worship was erected. The next church to call him was the 
First Baptist of Clinton, where a new house was built and 
where he preached for twenty-one years. In another field, 
Augustus Chapel, near Dudley, a new building is now being 
erected. He served Holly Green Church, near Genoa, ten 
years and made extensive repairs. He has also been 
preaching for the past two years at Patterson Chapel, in 
Lenoir Co. 

For more than thirty years, Dr. Smith has been offi- 
cially identified with the Bear Creek Association. For 25 
years he was Secretary of that body and seven years ago 
was elected Moderator. He is also the organizer and Mod- 
erator of the Western Union Association, over which he has 
presided for twelve years. 

Before coming to Kinston, he was for ten years en- 
gaged in educational work in Wayne Co. along with his 
ministerial duties. During the McKinley and Roosevelt ad- 
ministrations he was Postmaster at Mt. Olive for four years, 
and was for a while engaged in the trucking business in 
Wayne Co. This was while he remained at Mt. Olive. 

Five years ago a situation developed at the associa- 
tional school at Kinston which demanded the administra- 
tion of a strong, progressive man. The brethren turned to 



178 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Dr. Smith, and, fortunately for the institution, he saw his 
way clear to accept the principalship and has since resided 
in Kinston. 

He is a Republican in politics and still keeps in touch 
with the party organization. He is this year (1920) a dele- 
gate to the National convention at Chicago. Though not 
active in the secret orders, he was at one time identified 
with the Pythians, Odd Fellows and Gideons. 

While devoting his time and talents largely to the min- 
istry, he is a business man of good ability and has consider- 
able investments in both Wayne and Lenoir Counties. 

Dr. Smith is a leader and not a follower. He rather 
prefers to create opinion than to wait to see what public 
opinion happens to be. Accordingly, while living in Wayne 
Co., he began a publication, "The Voice," which ran for a 
couple of years. At another time he edited the "News and 
Guide," a Republican paper which was published for several 
years. 

He is a prominent member of the State Baptist Con- 
vention and is one of the Vice-Presidents of the Lott Carey 
Convention. 

On April 12, 1895, Dr. Smith was married to Adella 
Kate Wynne, of Mt. Olive. Mrs. Smith is a woman of 
rare accomplishments, having been educated at Scotia Semi- 
nary, Concord, and was a teacher. They have five children : 
Eva E., Mabel Y., Clyde V., Vivian I. and Talmadge G. 
Smith. 

Dr. Smith is a forceful and convincing speaker and has 
the confidence of the brotherhood in a large section of 
North Carolina. 

He attended the Republican National Convention as Al- 
ternate in 1888. 



Emanuel Montee McDuffie 



It is a far cry from the little cabin in the black belt of 
Alabama to the head of a great industrial educational in- 
stitution. Yet President Emanuel Montee McDuffie, Prin- 
cipal of the Laurinburg Normal and Industrial Institute has 
covered the distance while still on the sunny side of forty 
and has filled the years between with helpful service to 
his race. He has done more, for in working out his own 
success he has pointed the way by which any boy of vision 
and energy can make a place for himself. Such men are 
the greatest asset of the race. While laying the founda- 
tions and building their own successes, they become the 
examples and the benefactors of other struggling youth 
whom they help up from places of poverty and obscurity 
to positions of large service and usefulness. 

Prof. McDuffie's story cannot better be told than in 
his own modest language. He says, "I was born in Snow 
Hill, Wilcox Co., Alabama, Dec. 24, 1883. My parents were 
Emanualand Emma McDuffie. I was brought up under 
the most adverse conditions. My father died about six 
months before my birth, thus leaving my mother with the 
care of seven children. As I had never seen my father I 
was often referred to as the son of 'none.' In July, 1893, 
my mother died and the burden of caring for the children 
then fell on my old grandmother, who was known through- 
out the community as 'Aunt Polly.' In order to help secure 
food and clothing for myself and the rest of the family I 
was compelled to plow an oxen on a farm, and as we usually 
made four or five bales of cotton and forty to fifty bushels 
of corn each year, she was looked upon as a great farmer. 

"When I was fifteen years of age my grandmother 
was called to her heavenly rest, then leaving a house full 
of children to shift for themselves. After her death I 
became interested in education and immediately applied for 




EMANUEL MONTEE McDUFFIE. 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 181 

admittance to Snow Hill Normal and Industrial Institute, 
which had recently been established. I was admitted as a 
student, working- all day, attending school about two and a 
half hours at night. Until I entered Snow Hill I had very 
vague ideas about life as it pertained to the Negro. In 
fact, until that time I was of the opinion that the Negro 
had no business being anything; but after entering the 
school' and being surrounded by a different atmosphere, and 
seeing what had already been accomplished by Mr. Edwards, 
I soon realized that the Negro has as much right to life and 
Liberty as any other man." 

Unprepared though he was, he found great joy at be- 
ing in school. His clothes were insufficient and even what 
he had were soon beyond mending. Frequently he would 
wash his undergarments at the spring at night and pa- 
tiently dry them at the heater. Yet in the face of such 
privation he refused to be discouraged but continued to as- 
pire and to hope. 

Early in life the idea of serving his people got firm 
hold on him. The example and teachings of Prof. Edwards 
and others held him firm. He completed the course in 
1904 and on Sept. 15th of that year reached Laurinburg, 
N. C, which was to witness his success in building an in- 
dustrial school in the midst. He opened school sur- 
rounded with indifference and with only seven students 
and fifteen cents in money. The growth from that small 
beginning has been remarkable. He now (1919) has a fac- 
ulty of fourteen teachers and an enrollment of more than 
four hundred. Five large buildings and three smaller ones 
have been built and now a commodious modern brick build- 
ing at a cost of thirty thousand dollars is under way. The 
life of the school has not only permeated the town but the 
adjacent country through the industries taught and the 
conferences organized. 

On May 12, 1904, Prof. McDuffiie was married to Tiny 
Ethridge of Camden, Ala., a daughter of a Ned and Henri- 
etta Ethridge. They have six children: Verdelle T., Musa 



182 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

S., Iva C, Emanuel Montee, Jr., Reginald S., and Frank H. 
McDuffie. 

While in school he was an enthusiastic base ball and 
tennis player. His favorite reading consists of such inspi- 
rational works as the books of Dr. Washington and the Har- 
vard Classics. He is a member of the Baptist church in 
which he is a Deacon and Secretary. He has not identified 
himself with the secret orders. 

His work at Laurinburg has been of such character as 
to commend it not only to the colored people but also to the 
best white people, including bankers and State and County 
officers, from whom he bears words of hearty commenda- 
tion. 



John Addison Lewis 



Rev. John Addison Lewis, now (1920) pastor of the 
Providence Baptist Church at Edenton, is just another il- 
lustration of what a farm boy can do, when he dares to 
trust God and try. Still on the sunny side of thirty, he 
already has to his credit a record of which a much older 
man need not be ashamed. Beginning his life on the first 
day of the year 1892, he has forged ahead to the place of 
leadership he holds in the great Baptist denomination. 

He was born in Edgecombe Co. and grew up on the 
farm of his father, William Henry Lewis. His mother, 
before her marriage, was Martha Ford, a daughter of Calvin 
Ford. 

Young Lewis attended the public schools of his native 
county and when ready for college entered the National 
Training School at Durham, from which he was graduated 
May 14, 1914. He carried along his theological work at the 
same time he was mastering his literary studies. 

It is interesting to know that Rev. Lewis was converted 
at the age of 11, and grew up in the work of the church, 
thus becoming familiar with its ordinances and discipline, 




JOHN ADDISON LEWIS 



184 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

its forms and service. Almost from childhood his mind 
turned to the ministry — in fact, he never seriously consid- 
ered devoting himself to any other calling. 

He was licensed to preach by the Pittman Grove Bap- 
tist Church, and was by that same body ordained to the 
full work of the ministry at the early age of eighteen. 
From boyhood Rev. Lewis has been a ready speaker, so 
that it is not strange that he came into the work of the 
ministry at so early an age. 

His first charge was the St. Andrew's Church at Kings- 
boro, which he served for less than a year. He himself 
organized the Morning Star Baptist Church in Edgecombe 
Co. and built there a house of worship, preaching to that 
congregation for two years. While here he bought one 
acre of land for a church site, built a splendid church edi- 
fice thereon, and added over seventy-five members to the 
church. 

In 1911 he accepted a call to the Union Baptist Church 
of Durham, which he served for five years. It was while 
engaged in this work that he was able to complete his 
course at the National Training School. Even though bur- 
dened with the double work of his college course and the 
pastorate, he managed to pay the church out of debt and 
left in the Treasury over $1,200.00 for the erection of a 
new church. While pastoring at Durham he was Cor- 
responding Secretary of the East Cedar Grove Association, 
and members of the Ordaining Council of said body for two 
years. Such was his record in his school work at Dur- 
ham that soon after the completion of his course there, he 
was called to the Shiloh Baptist Church at Winston-Salem, 
and in connection with that did considerable work among 
the country churches. The Shiloh Church greatly pros- 
pered under his administration. Rev. Lewis found this 
church over $2,000 in debt. He burnt the last mortgage, 
made over $1,500 improvements, and added over 450 mem- 
bers to the church in four years. In 1920 he resigned 
that work to accept his present pastorate, which is one of 
the most attractive in Eastern North Carolina. He has 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 185 

been cordially received by the people of Edenton and has 
made a favorable impression in that new field. He has 
the happy faculty of making friends and preaches to large 
congregations. He knows how to use his books and is gath- 
ering together a splendid library. Naturally, his first at- 
tention is given to Theological literature. After that, his 
favorite reading consists of History and Biography. 

While at Winston-Salem, he was Secretary of the Min- 
isterial Union of that city. He has done considerable evan- 
gelistic work and has been unusually successful, though he 
loves the work of the pastorate. 

Among the secret orders he belongs to the Masons 
and the Odd Fellows. 

With singleness of purpose, he is devoting himself to 
the ministry and the results show that he has made no mis- 
take in following the Vision Splendid by which his life was 
directed to that calling. 

On November 25, 1914, Mr. Lewis was married to Dun- 
nie Lee Wiggins, of Enfield who has been of untold assist- 
ance in his success. Mrs. Lewis was educated at the Joseph 
Keasby Brick School at Enfield. They have one son, Jos- 
eph Edward Lewis. 

Mr. Lewis' property interests are at Winston-Salem 
and at Durham. 

For a man of his age, he has studied rather profoundly 
the conditions among his people, and believes that their 
progress depends in no small degree upon unshaken faith in 
God, in education and upon the accumulation of property. 



Benjamin Franklin Martin 



On of the most forceful men of the A. M. E. Zion 
Church in North Carolina is Rev. Benjamin Franklin Mar- 
tin, D. D., of Gastonia. He has back of him years of heroic 
service and fruitful ministry. He has lived to see those 
who first attended his schools and waited upon his ministry, 




BENJAMIN FRANKLIN MARTIN AND FAMILY 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 187 

grow up to manhood and womanhood and take their places 
as citizens and the heads of families. If all his experiences 
could be set down they would make a large volume and 
would cover that most critical and eventful period of our 
history— the last half of the nineteenth century. 

He was born at Union Court House, S. C, on Dec. 5, 
1854. So it will be seen that he was a boy past ten year§ of 
age when the war closed. His parents were George R. 
and Georgiana Martin. His maternal grandmother was 
sold south from Virginia. His paternal grandmother was 
Sylvia Pavey. 

On Sept. 26, 1886, Dr. Martin was married to Juliett D. 
Partee. She was the first teacher at Lincoln Academy 
near Kings Mountain. Of the twelve children born to them 
nine are living. They are: B. F., Jr., Ethel J., Georgiana, 
May E., Luke D., Alex W., Starling R., Goler and Fred S. 
Martin. 

After the war young Martin remained at Union with 
his former master and was faithful to him till the day of 
his death. He began his schooling soon after the war. In 
1866 and 1867, he walked to a school five miles each way 
every day. The next year a white lady opened a school in 
the town of Union, and he attended that. After the death 
of his former master in 1868, he went to Chester, where 
he worked in a grocery store. Here he had charge of the 
colored customers. Notwithstanding the long hours at the 
store he continued to read and by private study managed 
to keep his education going along. In the fall of 1869 he 
became an apprentice at the barber trade, which he followed 
till 1871. Then he went to Columbia. Here he tried to 
keep up with his class in the University while still follow- 
ing his trade, but found it necessary to give up the latter. 
Fortunately for the young man he attracted the attention 
of Governor Moses, whom he shaved every morning and 
who supplied his needs while in the University. In 1874 
he entered the Y. M. C. A. Service each Sunday, held serv- 
ices at the Penitentiary at eleven o'clock and at the market 
place at three. He had reached his third year at the Uni- 



188 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

versity when in 1876 the Democrats came back into power 
and closed Vie Institution to colored people. 

He had been converted in 1866, but even before that 
had felt the call to preach the Gospel. He was licensed on 
Nov. 30, 1877, though he had been doing much religious 
work even before this. His Presiding Elder wanted him to- 
go to Charleston to join the Annual Conference, but he 
declined. Conference received him on recommendation of 
his Presiding Elder, and he was sent to Chester. Here he 
preached in the Court House till the fall of 1878. That 
year he was sent to Laurens, after having served as Sec- 
retary of the District Conference. He located at Powers 
Shop where in addition to preaching he also taught the 
local school for two years. A colored man gave three acres, 
of land for a church. At first the congregation worshipped 
under a brush arbor. Later Mt. Carmel Church was 
erected. These were trying days for the young preacher. 
In the midst of opposition and hatred which did not hesi- 
tate one moment to express themselves with a gun, Rev. 
Martin remained and by his coolness and courage won not 
only the support of his own people but that of his' white 
neighbors as well, including Gov. Wade Hampton. 

In Jan. 1879 the Bishop transferred him to the Metro- 
politan Church at Washington, D. C, where he remained 
for two years with good success. He went from there to 
Morris Brown in Philadelphia for one year. From there 
he went to Oxford, Pa., and while on that work matricu- 
lated in Theological Department of Lincoln University, 
where he studied for two terms. He was then transferred 
to Long Branch. At the meeting of the next Conference 
he accepted work in the Zion Church and returned South. 
He was stationed at Winston-Salem one year and went 
from there to Kings Mountain and Pleasant Ridge. He 
remained in that section for sixteen years. In 1887 he 
moved to Gastonia, where he has since resided. He organ- 
ized the work as Gastonia with three members. It has 
since grown to splendid proportions. He was promoted to* 
the district and presided over the Lincolnton District for 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 189 

four years and the Wilkesboro District for the same length 
of time. He then served the Big Pineville Station for two 
years. Other important pastorates have been Charlotte, 
Salisbury and Hickory. His work has been marked by 
financial strength and spiritual growth. Hundreds of new 
members have been brought into the church under his min- 
istry. 

He has been a prominent figure in the General Confer- 
ences of his denomination, having attended those sitting at 
Mobile, Washington, St. Louis, Philadelphia and Charlotte. 
In 1896 Livingstone College conferred the degree of D. D. 

on him. 

He is identified with the Masons, Pythians, Odd Fel- 
lows, Eastern Star and Household of Ruth. In all these 
he is prominent. He was the first 33 degree Mason in 
Western North Carolina. He believes the progress of the 
race depends on moral and spiritual training. Dr. Martin 
owns an attractive home and other valuable property at 
Gastonia. 

Note: Since the above was written Dr. Martin has 
passed to his reward, on December 14, 1919. The funeral 
services were conducted by Bishop R. B. Bruce, officiating 
as Grand Master of the Masons of the State, and Dr. Martin 
was laid to rest with Masonic honors. The funeral was 
perhaps the most largely attended of any colored citizen in 
the history of the town. 



Frank Thomas Logan 



Rev. Frank Thomas Logan, D. D., of Concord, is a 
man who has invested his life in the spiritual and intellec- 
tual development of the race. It is not easy to write the 
story of such a life because it has to do with ideas and 
inner things rather than with money or houses and lands. 

Dr Locran is a native of Greensboro, where he was 
born just prior to the war on November 19, 1859. He was 




FRANK THOMAS LOGAN 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 191 

the son of Louisa Lindsay, who was the daughter of 
Thomas and Maria Tate. 

After the war he went to school at Greensboro. He 
was rather frail as a boy and worked about Greensboro. 
His religious experiences, though beginning early in life, 
where not of that violent, stormy sort which was charac- 
teristic of the times and the race. His spiritual develop- 
ment was no less real, however, on account of the absence 
of strong emotions. Rather his spiritual growth, after his 
decision, kept pace with his intellectual development. For- 
tunately for him, he had the sympathetic advice and co-op- 
eration of some intelligent and consecrated white people 
who recognized his mental ability and physical limitations. 
He recalls with peculiar gratitude the influence upon his 
young life of Mrs. Payne and her husband, in whose home 
he lived for some time. She encouraged him to pursue his 
education and suggested the Law, but there was a still, 
small voice calling to the ministry and he followed. 

When ready for college, he went to Lincoln University 
and remained in that institution for seven years. He won 
his Bachelor's degree in 1881, and three years later com- 
pleted the Theological Course with the degree of S. T. B. 
and A. M. Later in recognition of his attainments and 
his success as an educator and minister the degree of D. D. 
was conferred on him by Biddle University. While at 
Lincoln he pastored the Presbyterian Church at Oxford. 
He was ordained in 1883. He then returned to his native 
town and was for two years head of the Graded School of 
Greensboro. In 1889 he accepted the pastorate of the 
Westminster Presbyterian Church at Concord where he 
has since resided. At the same time he was elected Princi- 
pal of the Concord Graded School and served twenty-seven 
years, and later this school was named by the Board of Edu- . 
cation 'The Logan School." He preached at Westminster 
for fourteen years and was at the same time Chaplain of 
Scotia Seminary. He has remained at the head of the 
school work till the present (1919). Since resigning the 
Westminster work, Dr. Logan has preached at Harrisburg 



192 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

in Cabarrus Co. Apart from his professional studies, his 
reading runs to History, the physical and mental sciences. 
He has attended two General Assemblies of his church, 
those meeting at Saratoga and Cape May. He takes no act- 
ive part in politics, nor is he identified with the secret 
orders. 

Dr. Logan has reared and educated a fine family, but 
has been called to go through the deep waters. His first 
marriage was to Mary M. Hargrove of Greensboro, in 1885. 
All his children were by this marriage. They are: Rob- 
ert H., Frank T., Jr., Mary, William and Nellie. These were 
given a liberal education. Their mother passed away in 
1895 while the children were still young. Subsequently Dr. 
Logan was married to Minnie L. Williamson, a musician and 
teacher. Four y:ars after their marriage she passed away. 
In 1910 he was married a third time. The present Mrs. 
Logan was Anna 0. Percival, a teacher of Domestic Science 
at Scotia. She is a native of Columbia, S. C. 

Dr. Logan believes that the permanent progress of the 
race must rest o i religion, education and work, and has 
served as Moderator of Catawba Presbytery and Clerk of 
Catawba Synod. 

Dr. Logan's son, Frank T., Jr., was with the A. E. F., 
and saw more than a year of overseas service. 



George Walter Billips 



Rev. George Walter Billips of Fayetteville is well 
known in Baptist circles in Eastern North Carolina, and be- 
longs to that cla?> of men who, in America, perhaps more 
than anywhere ehe, have brought things to pass. We re- 
fer to the self-made men. Though lacking the opportunity 
for early schooling, and though denied a college education, 
he nevertheless managed to equip himself for efficient serv- 
ice and has to his credit a record of accomplishment in the 
denomination and in the cause to which he has devoted his 




GEORGE WALTER BILLIPS 



194 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

life, of which a man with better advantages might well be 
proud. 

There are a great many Tar Heels in Georgia, but com- 
paratively few Georgians in North Carolina. Rev. Billips 
is an exception. He was born at Albany, Ga., Oct. 15, 1877, 
and grew to manhood in Georgia and Alabama. His father, 
James Bhillips, was also a minister of the Gospel. In the 
absence of written records, he knows little of his earlier 
ancestors. 

When he was about twenty years of age he gave his 
heart to God. In 1905, he was licensed to preach by the 
First Baptist Church of Fayetteville and in September of 
the following year was ordained tb the full work of the 
ministry. 

On April 2, 1902, Rev. Billips was married at Bain- 
bridge, Ga., to Julia P. Williams, of Fayetteville. Of the 
four children born to them two are living. They are: 
Alice E. and Janie A. Billips. 

Rev. Billips worked out his own education mostly at 
night schools in Georgia and Alabama. He remembers 
with peculiar gratitude the assistance given him by Mr. 
and Mrs. J. A. Kemp of Dothan, Ala. 

He has had a successful career as a minister. His 
first pastorate was at Autreyville, where he preached three 
years. Since then he has pastored St. Paul, Fayetteville, 
four years, repaired the church ; Ebenezer, Wilmington, 
five years, renovated the church and installed a pipe organ : 
Navassa one year, rebuilt the church ; Hay's Chapel, Samp- 
son Co., painted the church; Lake Waccamaw four years, 
repaired the house; Mt. Nebo, organized in 1914, erected 
house of worship and continues to serve (1920), and Long 
Creek, to which he was called in Sept., 1919, and which is 
being remodeled. 

Among the secret orders he belongs to the Odd Fel- 
lows. His home and property interests are at Fayetteville. 
He has kept no accurate record of the number of persons 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 195 

he has brought into the church, but he has had a fruitful 
ministry. He is a successful revivalist. He is in demand 
not only in his own but in other states as well. 



Frank W. Avant 



If one were to seek for the secret of Dr. Frank W 
Avant's success in life and in his profession, it would per- 
haps he found in the proper start given him by his mother, 
followed by his own steadiness of character and willingness 
to work till success came. He is a native of Brunswick Co.. 
having been born at Southport on June 1, 1876. His par- 
ents were Wesley and Sarah J. Avant. His paternal grand- 
parents were William and Polly Avant, and his maternal 
grandparents John and Nancy Pirson. 

As a boy, young Avant attended the public schools 
and later Gregory Institute at Wilmington. From this 
school he passed to the Episcopal Parochial School at 
Petersburg, Va. He did his college preparatory work at 
Howard and spent two years at Lincoln University. Re- 
turning to his home state he took a course in Pharmacy at 
Leonard, but later deciding on medicine as his life work 
matriculated in the Medical Department and won his M. D. 
degree in 1908. The following year he gained much valua- 
ble experience as an Interne at the Freedman's Hospital, 
Washington, D. C. In the summer of 1909, when ready to 
begin active practice he located at Wilmington, where he 
has since resided. He conducted a drug store for some 
years, but now devotes his whole time and energy to the 
practice of his profession. 

On Dec. 10, 1910, he. was married to Florence Nichols 
of Newark, N. J. She was before her marriage a trained 
nurse. They have one child, Sarah Ellen Avant. 

During his college days Dr. Avant was active in col- 
lege athletics. He was Captain of the first football team 




FRANK W. AVANT 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 197 

to leave Howard, and was coach both at Shaw and at 
Lincoln. 

He is an active member of the Episcopal Church and 
is vestryman and lay reader. Among the secret orders he 
is identified with the Masons, Odd Fellows and Pythians. 
He is 'prominent in the State Medical Association and was 
President of that organization in 1916 and 1917. He is 
local examiner for the North Carolina Mutual Insurance Co. 
During the war he was Chairman of the Food Conservation 
-and! was a leader in other war activities. He is an ardent 
^advocate and supporter of education. His property inter- 
ests are at Wilmington. He is President of the Working- 
man's Building and Loan Association. 



Richard Allen 



There is always something fascinating about the story 
<of a stalwart man who has had to struggle up from a place 
of poverty and obscurity to a place of leadership. One of 
the Baptist leaders of North Carolina, who by his energy 
and capacity has made for himself a prominent place in 
the religious life of the State is Rev. Richard Allen, D. D. 
<of Monroe. He has the rather unique experience of hav- 
ing been successful and prominent in two denominations. 
He was born in Lancaster Co., S. C, May 15, 1867. His 
father, Rev. Richard Allen, was a minister in the A. M. E. 
Zion Church and the son was brought up in that faith and 
?pent many years of his ministry in that connection. His 
mother was Elizabeth (Izzard) Allen. She was the daugh- 
ter of Samuel Izzard, a successful farmer. Dr. Allen had a 
rather varied experience in securing an education. He 
went first to Mt. Carmel Preparatory School, and after that 
to Bennett College, Greensboro, where he was graduated 
with the A. B. degree in 1889. Later the Barrett School 
at Pee Dee conferred on him the D. D. degree. At that 
lime wages were low and he worked at $6.00 per month 




RICHARD ALLEN 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 199 

■So ambitious was he for an education that he would cut 
cord wood at night to earn school money. No wonder he 
succeeded. Throughout his life, he has held firmly to his 
fidelity to the Christian religion and to his Bible, and when 
he has found that this principle demanded a change in his 
life he has had the courage to make the change. He does 
his own thinking and while he is making up his mind, he 
seeks all the light available. Once he reaches a conclusion 
Tie acts independently. 

After he had been in school for a while he was able 
to secure a teacher's license and from that time forth the 
way in college was easier. He taught for a number of 
years in the public schools of Guilford, Montgomery, Moore, 
Richmond, Anson and Union Counties, N. C, and in Lan- 
caster Co., S. C. He served as Principal of the Barrett Col- 
lege, Zion Academy and the Monroe High School, and might 
have remained in educational work indefinitely had he 
<chosen to do so. 

It is as a minister that he is best known, as he has 
Tiad a fruitful ministry stretching over a long period of 
years. He was converted when about twenty-five and soon 
after feeling called to preach, entered the ministry of the 
Zion Church. His first appointment was to Gladdens Cove 
Circuit in 1888, which he pastored one year. After that he 
went to school and on completion of his course was assigned 
"to the Ebenezer Circuit one year. He then served the Haley 
Grove Circuit one year, Carthage Station one year, St. Paul 
Circuit one year, Gibson one year, Ashley Chapel two years, 
Rockingham three years, Centenary Circuit two years, 
Rocky Mount one year and Kershaw (S. C.) one year. He 
then resigned from the Methodist ministry and has since 
l)een active in the work of the Baptist church. His first 
work in that denomination was at Zion Academy, Wades- 
horo. He preached at Friendship Baptist Church, Monroe, 
five years. He is now serving the churches at Poplar Hill 
■and Pleasant Hill, Ansonville, having been at the latter for 
lion may be judged from the fact that four four years 
six years. Something of his popularity in the denomina- 



200 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

he has been Moderator of the Yadkin and Philadelphia As- 
sociation. He is also Vice-Moderator of the State Conven- 
tion and Secretary of the Sunday School Association. 

Dr. Allen has been married twice. His first marriage 
was to Miss Cynthia Funderburk on March 9, 1892. Of the 
children born to this marriage, two are living. They are 
Glossie and Rebecca. On August 2, 1904, Mrs. Allen passed 
to her reward. On Sept. 5, 1905, he was married to Miss 
Luzetta Gaddy. Their children are LaFayette, Lucretia, 
Reese, Bernard, Theltus M., Juanita, Elihu and Leonorah. 

Dr. Allen has long been active and prominent in the 
Masonic order and during the war was a leader among his 
people in the different phases of war work. He is a force- 
ful writer. Some years ago he brought out a book entitled 
the "Plan of Salvation" which had good sale. He is an en- 
terprising, successful business man as well and owns a home 
and farm two miles from Monroe. He believes in thrift 
and economy, in the observance and enforcement of the law 
and the cultivation of cordial relationship between the 
races. 



Bryant Pugh Coward 



The life of Rev. Bryant Pugh Coward, now (1919) 
stationed at Wilson, coincides so nearly with freedom that 
he may be said to stand as a sort of example of what one 
generation of freedom means. 

Rev. Co wart was born just before Emancipation on 
February 5, 1864, on a farm in Green Co. His father's, 
name was David Crockett Coward, and his mother, before 
her marriage, was Cherry Dixon. She was a house girl 
and went to the Coward family by marriage. Of his. 
grandparents, Dr. Coward says: "Caesar Reddick was my 
grandfather. He hired his time and was a turpentine dip- 
per. Cherry Hart was his wife. She was a housegirl." 

Dr. Coward was married on March 23, 1887, to Sarah 




BRYANT PUGH COWARD 



202 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Adelaide Brown, a daughter of Aquilla and Margaret Brown. 
They have one child, Arthur D. Coward. 

Young Coward first went to school at the Freewill Bap- 
Baptist College at Kingston and later to Shaw University, 
where he took a two years' college course. His B .D. de- 
gree is from the Eastern North Carolina Industrial Acad- 
emy, where he taught the Normal Department, and his 
D. D. degree from Livingstone College. Speaking of his 
struggle for an education he says: "My father had a large 
family and was not able to send me to any except the pub- 
lic school. Later, I taught in the public schools myself 
and made the money with which to go to college." Apart 
from the Christian training received at his home, he consid- 
ers the influences exerted on his life in Shaw University as 
the most helpful factors entering into his success. Among 
the most helpful books, next after the Bible, he puts down 
the Life of St. Paul, "Pilgrim's Progress," "Paradise Lost" 
and Theological works. 

He went into the work of teaching early, and taught 
for a number of years in Green, Pitt, Craven and Pamlico 
Counties. He became active in the church at about nineteen 
years of age but did not enter the ministry until he was 
about thirty-three. Since that time he has had only five 
charges during the years of his pastorate. He was first as- 
signed to the Jumping Run circuit near Newbern, where 
he remained for nearly three years. From this, he went 
to the James City Station where he preached four years. 
A third appointment was in the Pollocksville circuit, which 
he pastored two years. His next was the Lake Waccamaw 
circuit, where he preached for three years. He was then 
assigned to the St. John Station at Wilson where he 
preached for eight years. Since coming to Wilson a splen- 
did new house of worship has been erected and the plant 
there is now worth something like $75,000. W T herever he 
has gone, Dr. Coward has either repaired or built structures. 
His work has also been marked by a steady growth in the 
circuit or station which he has served. He is prominent 
in all the work of the denomination and has been the dele- 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 203 

gate to two General Conferences, one at Chariotte and the 
other at Louisville. He says the best interests of the race 
can be promoted by giving in all affairs to it its full rights 
and privileges, with the encouragement of Christian char- 
ity. If this is done, the race will work out its own salva- 
tion. We should cultivate racial confidence. Dr. Coward 
has taken more or less part in politics, not so much for 
party reasons but as a matter of principle. Among the 
secret orders he^is identified with the Masons and Pythians. 
He took a prominent part in the war activities and is held in 
high esteem not only among his own people, but his white 
neighbors as well. 

As a teacher, the Hon. John S. Long, County Superin- 
tendent of Craven Co., often said that he was the best 
teacher in the County. 

Dr. Joseph Grimsley of Green Co. said he was one of 
the three best teachers in the County. 



Alfred Leonard Edward Weeks 



Rev. Alfred Leonard Edwards Weeks, D.D., pastor of 
the Tabernacle Baptist Church of Wilson, is a native of Mt. 
Olive in Wayne Co., where he was born July 20, 1875. His 
parents were Alfred and Laura (Spell) Weeks. Alfred 
Weeks was a blacksmith by trade. During the war he 
helped to build fortifications around Richmond. He had a 
family of twelve children, so it may be imagined that their 
opportunities for securing an education were limited. Dr. 
Weeks' maternal grandmother was Satira Spell, who lived 
to be almost a hundred years of age, and died in 1919. 

When of school age young Weeks went to the public- 
school. When the boy was about nine years of age his fa- 
ther was disabled by an accident which made it necessary 
for the mother to find employment as a cook. This made it 
doubly hard for the growing boy. Very early in life his 
mind turned to religious matters. At the age of twelve he 




ALFRED LEONARD EDWARD WEEKS AND FAMILY 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 205 

started to school at Wynn's Chapel, then under the direction 
of that veteran teacher, Dr. A. A. Smith. The influence of 
Dr. Smith on the life of the boy was helpful and powerful. 

When he was fifteen years of age he joined the Free 
Will Baptist Church at Mt. Olive. He grew in grace as he 
grew in knowledge, and united with some other devout 
members of the church and held services in homes. This 
was not acceptable to some of the church leaders and this 
dissension caused Dr. Weeks to transfer his membership to 
the Missionary Baptist Church, in which he was to become 
such a prominent figure. 

From the beginning he took his religious work and 
his chur:h relations seriously. His church and pastor en- 
couraged him and at the age of seventeen he was licensed 
to preach. Fresh visions of the work and previous spirit- 
ual experience marked this period of his life. On July 15, 
1892, he applied for teacher's license, which was denied him 
because of his age. Three months later he walked forty 
miles to Kinston, passed the examination and walked twelve 
miles further to LaGrange, where he secured a school at 
$20.00 per month to begin in December. The intervening 
time was spent at work in Kinston. 

After the close of his school he returned to Mt. Olive 
and bought land. The summer was spent in preparing it 
for strawberries and the following winter in teaching at 
Kinston. He then attended the Normal School at Eliza- 
beth City for two years. He went from there to Shaw Uni- 
versity for his Theological course, and during these years 
maintained himself by teaching and by trucking. He also 
assisted his parents. These were hard years and the diffi- 
culties which confronted the young man would have de- 
feated a less courageous soul. In faith and prayer he went 
forward. The way opened up as he preached and while at 
Shaw he frequently had Sunday appointments which gave 
him valuable experience. In this way he came up to 1900. 
On March 3 of that year he was called to the pastorate of 
the Cedar Grove (now First Baptist) Church of Newbern. 
For fourteen years he served this church, giving one Sunday 



206 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

a month to Mt. Sinai Church at Stonewall. He had not 
been in Newbern long till he interested himself in the 
educational and industrial life of his people. The result 
was the establishment of the Newbern Collegiate and In- 
dustrial Institute, which was opened in the fall of 1902. 
The Institution was established and operated under diffi- 
culties, but did a work which was a credit to its founder 
and a help to the race. 

On July 22, 1903, Rev. Weeks married Annie Elizabeth 
Cooke of Wake Forest. They have two children : Armelia 
and Elizabeth Marie Weeks. Mrs. Weeks was a daughter 
of Rev. Henderson and Mariah D. Cooke. She began teach- 
ing at sixteen and is a woman of rare accomplishments. 
Her early years were beset with hardships which she met 
with fine Christian spirit and conquered. These experi- 
ences peculiarly fitted her to be the wife of a man like Dr. 
Weeks. 

After he had been at New Bern for four years Dr. 
Weeks lost his church by fire. In a little more than a year 
a splendid new house of worship was erected of brick. In 
recognition of his attainments the degree of D. D. was con- 
ferred on him by Selma University of Ala., and by Friend- 
ship College, of South Carolina. 

In 1914 he resigned the work at New Bern and in 1915 
moved to Wilson, where he has since resided. Here he has 
firmly established the Tabernacle Baptist Church and built 
a home. He gives one Sunday each month to the Pleasant 
Hill Church in Halifax Co. While at New Bern he was for 
twelve years Moderator of the New Bern Eastern Associa- 
tion. He is a proinenmt figure in the denominational gath- 
erings, i 

Among the secret orders he belongs to the Odd Fel- 
lows. He advises conservation and Christian fortitude in 
all things. 



Carey Miles Cartwright 



Rev. Carey Miles Cartwright, pastor of the Olive 
Branch Baptist Church of Elizabeth City, has built enough 
Baptist churches to entitle him to a pension if the denomi- 
nation provided in that way for the consecrated men of the 
fold. 

He was born in Deep Creek, in Norfolk Co., Virginia. 
on March 4, 1864, though his people have for a long time 
been identified with the Old North State. His father. 
Charles Cartwright, was a farmer, and his mother, before 
her marriage, was Adeline Wilkins. She was a daughter 
o1 Louis and Abbie Wilkins. Dr. Cartwright's paternal 
grandparents were Miles and Ann Cartwright. 

On August 30, 1887, Dr. Cartwright was married to 
Elizabeth Bembry, of Edenton. They have three children: 
Addie P. (Mrs. Moore), Charles L. and Fannie L. (Mrs. 
Butler.) 

As a boy, young Cartwright attended the public school 
of Norfolk Co. At the early age of twelve, his mind turned 
to the serious matters of religion and even as a youth he 
was active in the work of the church. He was called to 
preach in 1885. Up to that time he had worked on the 
farm, but when he had devoted his life to the work of the 
ministry he felt the need of more preparation and so decided 
Weyland Seminary, where he began his Theological 
course. Roanoke Collegiate Institute conferred the B. Th. 
degree. Later on, in recognition of his work in the minis- 
the Virginia Seminary conferred on him the D. D. de- 
gree, and Princeton University the LL. D. Dr. Cartwright 
is a man of good ability and practical ideas, which he brings 
to bsar on his church matters. 

His first pastorate was the Zion Grove Baptist Church 
near Plymouth, which he served tor four years and erected 
a new house of worship. He accepted the pastorate of the 




CAREY MILES CARTWRIGHT 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 209 

First Baptist Church at Windsor, remaining there for a 
quarter of a century, and built a substantial house there 
also. He preached at Colerain for two years, and built a 
new house. He pastored Severn Baptist Church for ten 
years, and remodeled the house of worship. At Rich Square 
he preached a year and at James ville ten years, and remod- 
eled the church. He served the church at Roper for five 
years, erecting a new building and preached at Columbia 
for two years, remodeling the house. He served Jerusalem 
for two years and reconstructed the church building. In 
19C1 he was called for full time to the Olive Branch Church 
at Eliabeth City. The church building and the congrega- 
tion were both in a precarious condition at the time. As a 
matter of fact, both were about to go to pieces. Dr. Cart- 
wright gathered together his forces, organized his people, 
erected a splendid house of worship and a substantial par- 
sonage, hard by the church and did the whole job without 
involving the congregation in debt. No money was bor- 
rowed, and no notes were given. Better still, none of the 
questionable methods of raising money, too often resorted 
to, were employed by Dr. Cartwright. 

He served the Pleasant Oak Baptist Church ten years, 
remodeling the house, seating same, and put in a five hun- 
dred pound bell. Not only has his work as a pastor been pro- 
ductive of good results along the line of church building 
but he has also had a very fruitful ministry with regard to 
church memberships. He has baptized into the fold 1260 
members, which number does not take into account the 
many converted at meetings which he has held with the 
brethren at their churches. 

Dr. Cartwright is at once a man of thought and of 
action. He is not only an extensive reader of the Bible 
and of Theology, but of History and Biography as well. 
During the earlier years of his ministry, he taught school 
both in Virginia and North Carolina, but of recent years 
has devoted all his time and energy to the ministry. His 
life has been full of good works, and his home is a place of 
culture and refinement. Next after God he gives credit 



210 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

for his success to his faithful wife. He is a Mason and 
an Odd Fellow, and Mrs. Cartwright is the head of the 
Eastern Star and is very active in that organization. 

Dr. Cartwright is a member of the Executive Board of 
the State Convention and is a trustee of the Roanoke Asso- 
ciation. During the war, he was always glad to lend his 
hand to the various campaigns and drives put on by the gov- 
ernment and different organizations. 

He believes that the real progress of his race, and of 
any race, must rest ultimately on the working out of Chris- 
tian principles. 



Robert Langham Douglass 



The present head of the Department of Mathematics 
at Biddle University, though a native of the sister State of 
South Carolina, was educated at Biddle and has for several 
years been identified with the Institution as a teacher. He 
was born in Fairfield Co., S. C, July 5, 1870. His father, 
Levi B. Douglass, was a shoemaker by trade. His mother 
before he marriage was Sarah Parker. Prof. Douglass' 
paternal grandparents were Franklin Douglass, the mana- 
ger for a wealthy planter, and Delsie Woodward. The 
grandmother Delsie was the daughter of an African prince, 
brought to America and sold into slavery in his boyhood 
days. 

Young Douglass' school, days covered the late seven- 
ties and eighties. Those were the days of distressingly 
low wages and correspondingly meager opportunities for 
securing an education. Our subject went bravely to work, 
however, and did not rest content till he had completed his 
college course. 

He laid the foundations of his education at the Fair- 
field Normal and later entered the Preparatory Department 
of Biddle University, where he remained as a student for 
five years. When ready for college he entered upon the 




ROBERT LANGHAM DOUGLASS 



212 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

work of that department and won his Bachelors' degree in 
1892. Later his Alma Mater conferred on him the degree 
of A. M. in recognition of his attainments and successful 
career as a teacher. 

In 1892 he began teaching in Richland Co. and for more 
than a quarter of a century has been in educational work. 
From Grammar School work up to his present position his 
progress was rapid and steady. He was Instructor in the 
Normal and Industrial High School at Aiken and went 
from there to the professorship of Mathematics and Natu- 
ral Science at Haines Institute, Augusta. He has always 
had a liking for Economics and Political Science and has 
specialized along that line. In 1896 he was called to the 
S. C. State College at Orangeburg as Professor of Historical 
and Political Science. In 1903 he was offered the depart- 
ment of Mathematics at Biddle University which he ac- 
cepted and which he has since held. His reading is largely 
along the line of his favorite subjects, Political Economy 
and Political Science. He is a member of the Presbyterian 
Church and apart from expressing the franchise takes no 
active part in politics. As he looks back over the years of 
his boyhood and youth he believes his greatest incentive 
has been the desire to be of service in the world and espe- 
cially to his own race. 

On Jan. 17, 1904, Prof. Douglass was married to Julia 
McLain, a daughter of George W. and Rebecca McLain of 
Camden, S. C. They have five children: James D., Jennie 
L., Sarah R., Roberta L., and George Robert Douglass. Prof. 
Douglass has been a careful student and a close observer. 
He believes that the progress of the race depends upon "bet- 
ter educational advantages and allowing a free exercise of 
the elective franchise unto such as may qualify according 
to the Constitution." He thinks clearly and sees straight 
with reference to the fundamental things in a democracy. 
He says, "In a democracy, the right to vote is the right pre- 
servative of all other rights. No people or group are secure 
in the enjoyment of the simplest rights so long as they are 
debarred from participation in the forming of the govern- 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 21& 

ment under which they live. The negro ought to be given, 
the best education which he is capable of taking — not ac- 
cording to his environments, but an education that will 
enable him to shape his environment. 

Prof. Douglas is an Elder in the Presbyterian Church, 
and in 1902 was Commissioner from the Atlantic Presby- 
tery to the General Assembly which met in New York. He 
is very active in the work of the Sunday School, and a 
Bible Class composed of young women, which he has taught 
for many years is among his chief delights. Prof. Douglass 
believes that it is the prepared man that the world needs 
and whom it will ultimately reward. He has never ceased 
to study diligently in order that he might become highly 
proficient in his special work of advanced mathematics, 
therefore, it is not surprising that he has been eminently 
successful as a teacher and expects yet to win more than 
ordinary distinction for research and his writing upon 
some phase of his particular subjects. 

This sketch would be incomplete without making men- 
tion of the splendid help his devoted wife has rendered him 
in all of his worthy endeavors. Her genial disposition and 
sympathetic counsel have ever been a constant source of 
comfort and inspiration in all that noble ambition has 
prompted him to attain. 



Andrew Jackson Warner 



Bishop Andrew Jackson Warner, D. D., of the A. M. E. 
Zion Church, is a born leader of men. His leadership is 
based on sympathy and service rather than any display of 
authority. An extensive biography of the Bishop would 
make interesting reading as his life covers the whole, period 
of the freedom of the race in America and goes back sev- 
eral years into the slavery period. He has always been a 
hard worker and as a young man saw considerable service 
as a soldier, and has frequently taken a hand in politics. 




ANDREW JACKSON WARNER 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 215 

It is as an humble preacher of the Gospel, however, that he 
prefers to be known and in that field of action has rendered 
the largest service. 

He was born in Macon Co., Ky., about 1852. His father, 
Reuben Warner, was a freeman, having purchased his free- 
dom. His mother, Emily Warner, was a slave, however, 
and as the condition of the child followed that of the 
mother rather than the father, the boy was enslaved till 
he entered the army. 

As a small boy he was janitor at the local white school 
and there began his education. W r hen thirteen and a half 
years old he ran away and on account of his large size was 
able to join the Federal Army as a drummer boy. By the 
close of the war he had been promoted to Sergeant of Com- 
pany C. Ninth U. S. Colored troops from Ohio. He took 
part in the struggle at Fort Fisher and was at one time 
slightly wounded in the hand. 

He was converted and joined the church while still in 
his 'teens, and was called to the ministry before he was 
twenty. His formal schooling ended with his boyhood, but 
he continued to study both men and books, attended lec- 
tures, read and thus by patient endeavor equipped himself 
for his great work in life. He joined the Conference at 
Greenville in 1877. His first appointment was to the work 
at Greenville, where he remained two and a half years and 
added more than a hundred to the membership. He was 
then transferred to Little Rock and built the first Zion 
Church in Arkansas. He has lived to see that small be- 
ginning grow into two conferences. From Little Rock he 
went to Russellville, Ky., for one year, and from there to the 
Metropolitan Zion Church of St. Louis for five years. Here 
his work was marked by splendid growth and great revivals. 
His next appointment was Knoxville for three years, where 
he built the Logan Temple Church. From Knoxville hs 
was sent to Mobile, Ala., where he preached for five years 
and remodeled the church and went from there to Tusca- 
loosa for one year. He was then sent to Birmingham to 
build up the work at that strategic point. His success was 



216 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

remarkable as he left after seven years a church with 
more than a thousand members. In 1896 he was instru- 
mental in organizing the Board of Church Extension and 
was made Secretary. Two years later he was appointed to 
the work at Clinton Chapel, Charlotte, and in a ten years' 
pastorate so organized its forces and developed its re- 
sources as to make it one of the best stations in the connec- 
tion. The house of worship was completed, many new 
members were added and a plant built up which now has a 
value of seventy-five thousand dollars. At the close of 
his St. Louis pastorate he was on the District for a while. 
His sympathy with his men and their loyalty to him caused 
him to be known as the "Swamp Angel." 

Having a wide acquaintance and being popular through- 
out the connection, it was a foregone conclusion that when 
he aspired to a place on the Bench that he would be elected. 
Accordingly he was elevated to the Bishopric in 1908 at 
Philadelphia, in which capacity 'he is now serving. More 
than ten thousand members have been added to the church 
through his ministry. 

Though giving himself primarily to the ministry he 
has not hesitated to counsel his people in matters of poli- 
tics. As a result he has been occasionally nominated for 
office, though in no sense an office seeker. While at Mo- 
bile he was nominated for Congress and polled a heavy vote. 
Later, after frustrating a plan for the fusion of Populists 
and Republicans, he was nominated for Governor of Ala- 
bama. While in Birmingham his influence was the decid- 
ing factor in a Mayoralty contest which gave him great in- 
fluence with the city administration. 

Bishop Warner has been married three times. His 
first marriage was to Alice McNeil. She bore him two chil- 
dren, Jennie and Susie (Mrs. Harris). Mrs. Warner passed 
away thirty years ago. His second marriage was to Mary 
Eliza Delmor. By that marriage four children were born: 
Ethel (Mrs. Coleman), Gladys (Mrs. Boyd), Hittie (Mrs. 
Sanders) and Parthia Warner. Their mother went to her 
reward in 1908. On July 6, 1910, the Bishop was married 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 217 

to Annie Weddington of Charlotte, who was a teacher at 
Hampton Institute. They have one child, Lovette Warner. 

When asked how in his estimation the best interests 
of the race are to be promoted Bishop Warner replied: 
"Get a home, stay at it. Raise children right and educate 
them. Save money, pay taxes." 

On May 31, 1920, Bishop Warner was called from his 
earthly labors and was laid to rest at Charlotte. Impres- 
sive services were held at Big Zion Church, with Bishop 
G. C. Clements master of ceremonies, assisted by Bishops 
Caldwell, Clinton and Blackwell and many other high digni- 
taries of the Church. A large concourse of people were 
present to do honor to one whom the denomination will long 
miss and mourn. 



John Francis Lee 



Rev. John Francis Lee, A. M., S. T. D., the present Edi- 
tor-in-Chief of the Sunday School literature of the A. M. E. 
Zion Church, is a native of the "Old Dominion." He was 
born at Alexandria, Va., on May 8, 1872. His father, John 
Henry Lee, a stone mason by trade, still .survives (1919). 
His mother was Frances (Jackson) Lee. Dr. Lee's pater- 
nal grandparents were Charles Henry and Maria Lee. The 
maternal grandfather was James Henry Jacksdh. 

Dr. Lee says his father looked after his early education, 
until, at nine years of age, the boy went to live with his 
grandfather, who sent him to school for four years. Be- 
tween terms he worked' at a brick yard. Being ambitious, 
he made the most of his opportunities. He did his high 
school work at Philadelphia. 

At the age of seventeen he was converted and the fol- 
lowing year was licensed to preach. With his conversion 
and call to the ministry came the realization that leader- 
ship called for equipment. Accordingly he matriculated at 
Livingstone College and remained to win his Bachelor's de- 




JOHN FRANCIS LEE 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 219 

gree in 1899. His Theological course was begun at Gam- 
mon Theological Seminary and completed at Boston Uni- 
versity. From his student days Dr. Lee has shown a versa- 
tility which has won for him a large place in the life of the 
denomination. Not content with the conventional courses 
which he had already completed he has done extensive post 
graduate and correspondence work. He spent two years on 
a Law course, and holds a diploma from the Jacksonian 
Optical College He seems never to tire of taking up and 
mastering new subjects. He also holds a diploma from 
Home Correspondence School of Springfield, Mass. 

In 1894 he joined the Conference under the late Bishop 
Hood. His first assignment in the A. M. E. Zion Church 
was to the Franklin, Virginia, Circuit, which he served one 
year. He preached at the Mt. Pleasant Circuit two years 
and' was on the Columbus Circuit one year. He was then 
sent to Greensboro for two years, where a troublesome debt, 
was cancelled and the membership doubled. He spent one 
year at Marysville, Tenn., saving the church there at the 
same time. Returning to South Carolina he pastored the 
church at Lancaster, S. C, and later at Rock Hill, S. C. He 
was then transferred to New England and served the Wor- 
cester Church two years, after which he preached at Nor- 
folk, Va., four years. While at Gammon Seminary he 
served the Zion Church on Boulevard, and while at Boston 
University the Rush Zion Church at Cambridge. 

On completion of his course at Boston, after one year 
at Waterbury, Connecticut, he was appointed to the impor- 
tant station at Harrisburg, Pa. This he considers to have 
seen the best work of his life so far considering the condi- 
tions under which it was undertaken, and the marvelous 
results achieved. The church was moved to a new site 
making possible a handsome church building and parsonage. 
The land alone cost $9,000.00 and the improvements, of 
$100,000 value, easily make this property the finest pos- 
sessed by the colored population in central Pennsylvania. 
However, this was not all. It paved the way for opening 
up a splendid residence section for colored people in the 



220 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

vicinity and a sister denomination was quick to take advan- 
tage of this desirable condition and itself erected another 
handsome church worth $60,000. Needless to say that this 
uplifting influence, material, social and spiritual, were felt 
profoundly for good in the entire city of Harrisburg and ra- 
diated such widespread benefits as to be revolutionary in 
the right sense of racial progress. 

From Harrisburg, Dr. Lee was sent to Wilmington, 
where the church was remodeled at an expense of $3,000.00, 
and the life of the church built up ; unfortunately, however,, 
failing health made it necessary for him to put aside the 
work for nearly a year. 

Dr. Lee has for years been doing more or less literary 
work. Numerous contributions to the press, poems some- 
times in dialect, or a splendid poem like his "Ode to the 
Memory of Bishop Walters." Among the more popular of 
his published works may be mentioned: "What You 
G'wine Do Wif Ham?" "Discords and Harmony," "Songs of 
the Fireside," and the "Prince in Ebony." 

In 1916 he was made Editor of the Sunday School Lit- 
erature of the A. M. E. Zion Church, a position for which 
his literary ability, his splendid education and broad gen- 
eral experience admirably fit him. In this position he edits 
five separate periodicals, cover the whole field of the Sun- 
day School literature of the denomination. This gives him 
the largest audience of any man in the denomination. 

On Sept. 24, 1896 Dr. Lee was married to Miss Lillian 
B. Davis, of Salisbury. She was educated at Livingstone 
College, and was a teacher before her marriage. They have 
two children, Robet H. C. and John F. Lee, Jr. 



Charles Henry Shute 

The story of Rev. Charles Henry Shute A. B., A. M., 
D. D., begins on a farm in Mecklenburg Co. and leads up 
through years of struggle and patient study to a place of 
prominence and power in his church and in the leading edu- 




CHARLES HENRY SHUTE 



222 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

cational institution of his denomination in the South. His 
parents were Charles and Luvenia (Crockett) Shute. His 
maternal grandmother, Rebecca Crockett, was before her 
marriage a McDowell. 

Dr. Shute was married on Nov. 15, 1899, to Annie L. 
Foster of Charlotte. She was educated at Scotia Seminary, 
Concord, and was herself a teacher before her marriage. 
They have a large and interesting family of eight children. 
They are Vivian B., Ionia L., Chas. H., Jr., Raymond A., 
Marlow F., Esther L., Matthew A. and Mary E. Shute. 

As a boy young Shute divided his time between the 
farm and the rural school. He was an apt student. 

At an early age his mind turned toward religion and 
he was brought to a decision when about sixteen years of 
age. Two years later he had definitely decided to take up 
the work of the ministry. As he looks back over these 
years of his boyhood and youth he feels that his mother and 
a teacher were the most influential factors in his life, 
though he also recalls with gratitude the helpful attitude 
of his white friends. 

He did his preparatory and college work in the Arts 
and Sciences at Biddle, where he won his A. B. degree in 
1894. He also took Theology at Biddle, leading to the S. 
T. B. degree. The same Institution has since conferred on 
him the A. M. and D. D. degrees. 

On completing his work at Biddle Dr. Shute was called 
to the church at Gastonia, which he pastored for ten years. 
A new house of worship was built during his administration 
and the congregation greatly strengthened. While in Gas- 
tonia he also had charge of the local school work. Such 
was the character of his service at Gastonia both as a 
teacher and a preacher that in 1907 he was called back to 
his Alma Mater to take the chair of advanced Latin and 
Greek in the High School Department. This position, to- 
gether with that of Librarian, he held with distinction until 
1918, when he was selected for the chair of English Bible, 
Biddle University being one of many institutions of higher 
education which recognizes the growing importance of Bi- 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 223 

ble knowledge in modern culture and a demand for a highly 
cultured, trained ministry able to meet the most learned 
upon their own ground. 

While of course Dr. Shute can no longer serve a regu- 
lar pastorate, he still is called upon for many a sermon and 
address. 

Dr. Shute made a brilliant record as a student. Among 
other things he won the Hebrew Medal, also the Alumni 
Medal for Oratory. He is a forceful and attractive speaker. 
His favorite reading after the Bible is History. He has not 
been active in politics nor is he identified with the secret 
orders. He was a commissioner to the General Assembly 
in 1900 at St. Louis. He owns an attractive home near 
Biddle. Out of his observation and experience he is con- 
vinced that the real progress of the race must rest on edu- 
cation and religion. 



Charles Webster Foushee 



There are no more useful members of society than 
those men who devote years of study to preparation and 
then sonsecrate their lives to the important work of teach- 
ing. It is work which makes itself felt in the life of the 
community, of the church and the State. No democra:y 
is safe without schools. 

One of the recognized leaders in the educational life 
of the race in North Carolina is Prof. Charles Webster 
Foushee, Principal of the Graded School of Statesville. 
Prof. Foushee was born in Moore Co., on May 28, 1872. 
He grew up on the farm and went to the rural schools dur- 
ing the short terms they ran. Later on he attended Dayton 
Academy at Carthage. He was an apt student and when 
ready for college went to Livingstone at Salisbury and en- 
tered the Normal Department. 

His mother, Susan Foushee, always encouraged him 
to strive for the best things but until he began teaching in- 




CHARLES WEBSTER FOUSHEE 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 225 

sisted on his returning home each summer and spending- 
his vacations on the farm rather than indoor work at the 
North. 

This was doubtless a wise arrangement and good for 
the young man's health. He spent three years in the Nor- 
mal Department and four in the Classical Department com- 
pleting his course with the A. B. degree in 19C2. Since then 
he has done considerable summer school work and in 1919 
spent some weeks on special work at Columbia University. 
In this way he keeps up with the best thought of his pro- 
fession. 

On completion of his course he was elected Principal 
of the Sanford Graded School, which position he held for 
three years. He came to Statesville in 1905 when the school 
had an enrollment of about a hundred. The enrollment is 
now about three hundred. Then three teachers handled 
the work. There are now five, though this number is 
inadequate. When the new brick building is completed, so 
as to provide the necessary accommodations, the faculty 
will be increased to eight or more. While this growth is 
not sensational, it is solid and shows a steady, healthy 
progress in both enrollment and teaching force. Prof. 
Foushee has done his work in such a way as to commend 
himself to the best people of both races. 

He is a member of the A. M. E. Zion Church and is 
active in his local church. He is Superintendent of the 
Sunday School and a member of the Trustee Board. He is 
the local representative of the N. C. Mutual Life Insurance 
Company and among the secret orders is identified with the 
Pythians, being Deputy of his District. He owns an at- 
tractive home and other property at Statesville. 

On Aug. 19, 1919, he was married to Alma J. Carter, 
a native of Reidsville. She was educated at the A. N. T. 
College and was a teacher in Prof. Foushee's school prior 
to their marriage. 



Edgar John Hayes 



The simple, straightforward record of the enterprising, 
successful men of the race like Prof. Edgar John Hayes 
of New Bern is one of the greatest assets of the race. Such 
- show what the boys and youth of the race can do 
when they have the patience and the pertinacity to equip 
themselves for the real work of life. Youth is impatient 
and is frequently tempted to break away from instruction 
in order to make money. The result is low grade teachers, 
inefficient business men and leaders but poorly equipped 
for their task. 

Prof. Hayes is a native of the sister State of South 
Carolina, having been born at Chester on Dec. 20, 1881. 
His father, Rev. P. R. Hayes, married Rebecca Hope. Rev. 
Hayes was the son of Preston and Mary Hayes. The ma- 
ternal gran* of Prof. Hayes were Aaron and Mary 
Hope. 

Our subject was united in matrimony to Augusta Leona 
Spruill on April 24, 1907. She was a daughter of Edward 
and Estella Spruill. 

Prof. Hayes attended school in both South Carolina 
and North Carolina. He laid the foundation of his educa- 
tion iii the public schools of South Carolina from which he 
passed to the Lancaster N. & I. Institute, where he spent 
two years. He then matriculated at Clinton College, Rock 
Hill, from which he was graduated in 1902 as Salutatorian 
of his class. At that time the family was living at Ker- 
shaw and his church and Sunday School elected him a dele- 
gate to the Young People's Congress held in Atlanta, Ga., 
the middle of that summer. He participated freely in 
the deliberations of that great gathering. In the fall of the 
same year he entered Livingstone College at Salisbury and 
remained at that Institution until his graduation. 

During his school days and since he has been prompted 
and inspired by a desire to be a man of service in the 




EDGAR JOHN HAYES 



228 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

world. It was this, perhaps, which led to his taking up 
the teaching profession in which he has made an enviable 
record. His first school was at Plymouth, N. C, where for 
three years he was Principal of the Eastern N. C. Indus- 
trial High School. As a teacher he was successful from 
the beginning. Indeed, while studying at Livingstone he 
was often selected to take charge of classes in the lower 
grades when the regular professors had to be absent, they 
recognizing his aptitude for maintaining discipline and im- 
parting instruction. 

He went from Plymouth to Irmo, S. C, where in connec- 
tion with the South Carolina Industrial School he had 
charge of the development of 600 acres of land. He became 
through this an active supporter, and a stock-holder, in the 
South Carolina Colored Fair. 

From Irmo he was called back to his Alma Mater, Clin- 
ton College, as Principal of the Normal Department. Here, 
too, he had charge of the Department of Publication and 
edited the Clinton-Palmetto News. He remained at Clin- 
ton for two years and resigned against the wishes of his 
friends and officers of the school to accept the Principalship 
of the Eastern N. C. Academy at New Bern. After two 
years with this institution, where his work was such as 
to make his going a source of regret to the Board and to his 
friends, he accepted work in the city schools of New Bern 
and since 1913 has been identified with the West Street 
Graded School as head of the High School Department. 
This school now (1920) has an enrollment of nearly eleven 
hundred and is recognized as one of the largest and best col- 
ored public schools in the State. Prof. Hayes has done his 
part in making it so. 

Prof. Hayes is an active member of the A. M. E. Zion 
Church. He is a Mason and is Director of the Community 
Forum, a civic organization. He believes that the con- 
tinued progress of the race may be maintained by co-opera- 
tion and education. His property interests are at New 
Bern and Kershaw, S. C. 

In 1916 Prof. Hayes was appointed, together with Pro- 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 229 

fessors R. J. Crockett, R. J. Boulware and C. T. Hinton, to 
the Educational Convocation of the South Carolina A. M. E. 
.Zion Conference and their work not only brought money to 
the denominational schools, but gave moral impetus to the 
educational work in the State. 

In 1917 Prof. Hayes served on a committee of citizens 
which met a Senatorial Committee in Washington and ap- 
pealed for a refund of the Freedmen's allowance to the older 
people of the race. 

In addition to his term teaching, Professor Hayes has 
for the past several years been employed as an instructor 
in the summer school work in the State. 



Robert P. Wyche 

It's a fine thing to live so that one comes to be an inte- 
gral part of the social, educational and religious life of the 
•community in which he resides. It is one of the onduring 
satisfactions of such a life to watch the sown seed spring 
up and come to fruitage. Such has been the experience of 
Rev. Robert P. Wyche, A. B., A. M., D. D., the venerable 
pastor of the Seventh Street Presbyterian Church of Char- 
lotte, where he has preached for nearly forty years. This 
is, in fact, his first and only pastorate. The good doctor 
has lived to see many of the boys and girls who early 
came into the church under his ministry grow up to man- 
hood and womanhood, rear families who have in turn helped 
to strengthen the work. In some instances he has had the 
pleasure of baptizing the grandchildren. 

Dr. Wyche was born near the old town of Oxford on 
July 13, 1854. So it will be seen that he was a boy nearly 
■eleven years of age when freed by the close of the war. 

His father, Norwich Wyche, Jr., was a carpenter, and 
was the son of Norwich Wyche, Sr. His mother, who be- 
fore her marriage was Lucinda Bridges, was a daughter of 
Henry Bridges, a public spirited man whose counsel was 
.sought by those who knew him. 




ROBERT f. WYCHE 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 231 

Dr. Wyche has been married twice. His first marriage 
was to Isabella Butler, of Salem. Mrs. Wyche was one of 
the most distinguished educators of the race and for nine- 
teen years was principal of the Myers Street School, of 
Charlotte, one of the largest public schools in the State. 
She passed to her reward on August 13, 1906. On January 
14, 1914, Dr. Wyche was united in matrimony to Sarah E. 
Long, a daughter of George and Susan Long. They have 
two children: Robert P., Jr., and Thomas Henry Wyche. 

After the war young Wyche attended a private school 
at Henderson. He did his preparatory work at what was 
then Biddle Institute. For a time he worked in the day 
and attended school at night. When he completed the pre- 
paratory course, he secured a teacher's license and helped 
himself through College by teaching. He won his A. B. de- 
gree in 1877. He worked during the next year and then 
look up his Theological course, which he completed in 1881. 
Since that time both the A. M. and the D. D. degrees have 
conferred on him by Biddle Univerity. He was converted 
and came into, the work of the Presbyterian Church when 
about 15 years of age. He early decided to devote his 
life to the work of the ministry and for years been one of 
the prominent figures of his denomination. A book could 
and should be written about his work in Charlotte where 
he has labored so long. The Church of which he is pastor 
is the Mother of Biddle University. During his pastorate 
many notable things have been accomplished. The old 
chun-h was several times repaired. Finally it was torn 
away and a modern brick house of worship erected at a cost 
of twenty thousand dollars, but now worth more. As an 
indication of the growth of the church it may be said that 
both the congregation and the Sunday School are more 
than five times as large as they were at the beginning of 
the pastorate. The church has sent two Missionaries to 
Africa and ministers and teachers to nearly every part of 
America. Many of the leading educators of the race are 
members of Dr. Wyche's church. He is a vigorous worker 
•and devotes his whole time to the pastorate. Next aftei 



232 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

the Bible his favorite reading consists of books of Travel 
and the standard works on Poetry. 

Dr. Wyche has traveled extensively both in this coun- 
try and abroad. In 1910, he toured Palestine and parts of 
Africa. Three years later he attended the Presbyterian 
Alliance of the World at Aberdeen and World's Sunday 
School Convention at Zurich. This gave him the oppor- 
tunity of seeing much of Continental Europe as well as Eng- 
land and Scotland. He has been Stated Clerk of the Ca- 
tawbe Presbytery for thirty-three years and has been 
Stated Clerk of the Synod of Catawbe for twelve years. 
For eighteen years he has been Chairman of the Board of 
Trustees of Biddle University. He is an ardent advocate 
of better educational facilities for the youth. 

Such, in brief, is the story of a man who though be- 
ginning life as a slave, has found the largest freedom in a 
life of service for others. 



John Sinclair Perry 



Most men in both business and professional lines enter 
upon their work and then follow the routine of the beaten 
path. A few, however, dare blaze new trails and become 
pioneers. Among the young men of the latter class should 
be mentioned Dr. John Sinclair Perry, Supt. and Treasurer 
of the Mercy Hospital for colored people at Hamlet. 

Dr. Perry has back of him some generations of suc- 
cessful ancestors and has himself won distinction in more 
lines than one, for in addition to his medcal work, he is 
also an accomplished violinist who has been heard with 
pleasure in concert work in many parts of the country. He 
was born at Fayetteville, Sept. 9, 1885. His father, Dallas 
Perry, was a successful architect and contractor of Fayette- 
ville. He (Dallas Perry) was a close student of the Bible: 
and one of the most devout men of the age. On his mother's; 
side Dr. Perry has much to be proud of, his mother before 



'*3I ^^ P^ 





NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 233 

her marriage was Mary Elizabeth Leary. She was a 
daughter of Mathew N. Leary, a noted Abolitionist and 
financier, and his wife Colostic (Willard) Leary, who was 
of French descent. Dr. Perry's uncle, the late Louis S. 
Leary, was one of the twenty-one men with John Brown at 
Harper's Ferry, and another uncle, John S. Leary, was the 
pioneer colored lawyer of North Carolina. Dr. Perry's 
mother was a notable woman of fine Christian character 
and a musician of more than local reputation. She was for 
years director of music as well as organist at the Episcopal 
Church in Fayetteville. At her death both races united in 
mourning her and in paying the tributes due her. 

Dr. Perry inherited his mother's talent for music and 
after taking instructions from her also studied at the New 
England Conservatory, Boston. As a boy he attended the 
local schools, including the State Normal at Fayetteville, 
completing the course there in 1904. He did his prepara- 
tory work at Shaw Unversity and passed from that to the 
College department, winning his A. B. in 1910. He began 
his medical course at Leonard Medical College, but com- 
pleted it at the University of West Tenn., Memphis, where 
he won his M. D. degree in 1915. His summer vacations 
were spent in the North at work. He also made his con- 
cert work help out in the manner of expenses. Looking 
back over the years of his boyhood and youth he regards 
the influence of his mother and sister and rigid discipline 
of his father as the most potent factors of his life. On com- 
pletion of his medical course he located at Hamlet, where 
he has since resided. He soon saw that Hamlet was stra- 
tegically located for a hospital and set about its organiza- 
tion. Associated with him are a number of leading physi- 
cians and surgeons of the section, including specialists of 
both races. Dr. Perry is Supt. and Treasurer and also as- 
sistant surgeon of Mercy Hospital, which was established 
in 1917. 

On Nov. 4, 1916, Dr. Perry was married to Elizabeth 
C. Christmas, a daughter of Lieut. H. S. and Lula (Huyler) 
Christmas. They have one child, John S. Perry, Jr. 



234 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Dr. Perry is a member of the State and National Medi- 
cal Associations and was active during the Influenza epi- 
demic as well as prominent during the later war activities. 
He is a member of the Episcopal church and belongs to the 
Pythians. He believes the best interests of the race are 
to be promoted "By placing within the reach of every one a 
fair chance to obtain an education, by preaching righteous- 
ness in every transaction, and by appealing first to the 
white man's conscience and then demanding our rights." 



John William Blacknall 



Rev. John William Blacknall, a succesful Baptist pas- 
tor, who lives on the outskirts of the little town of Garys- 
burg, is also a good farmer. He is a native of Franklin Co., 
where he was born Dec. 5, 1870. His father, Starlin Black- 
nall, was a farmer. His mother, before her marriage, was 
Ella Gill, a daughter of Henrietta Gill. 

Rev. Blacknall was married April 17, 1899, to Cora E. 
Waldon, a daughter of James M. and Millie Waldon, of the 
old town of Winton, in Hertford Co. Of the seven children 
born to them the following are alive: Kathleen E., John T., 
Cecelia M., Callie G. and James R. Blacknall. 

The subject of our sketch began his education in the 
public schools of Franklin Co. After he had grown to man- 
Tiood, he realized the importance of a better education and 
entered the Garysburg High School, from which he gradu- 
ated in 1896. During this time he was converted and joined 
the Roanoke Salem Baptist Church, of which he was later 
to become the pastor. About a year after joining the 
church he felt called to preach the Gospel and was licensed 
by his own church and in 1903 ordained to the full work of 
the Baptist ministry. Since that time he has been in the 
active pastorate and has had a fruitful ministry. His first 
pastorate was Patillo's Chapel, which he served for four- 
teen years. While on that work the house of worship was 





JOHN WILLIAM BLACKNALL 



236 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

remodeled. Among the other churches which he has served 
may be mentioned White Oak Church, at Ringwood, the 
home church, or Roanoke at Salem, where he pastored for 12 
years. This church was also remodeled. He served Piney 
Grove Church at Franklin, Virginia, for fourteen years 
and there erected a new house of worship. Altogether he 
has been preaching for 18 years and in that time has 
brought hundreds of new members into the church. He 
was at one time Moderator of the Neuse River Association 
and one of the Vice-Presidents of the State Convention. For 
a number of years he was prominent in the State Sunday 
School Convention and County Sunday School Convention. 

The man who has charge of the small town and coun- 
try churches is sometimes thought of as having small, or 
unimportant work, yet a man situated like Rev. Blacknall 
serves at least 3,000 people and really has under his direc- 
tion more persons than are claimed by many of the large 
city pastorates. 

As Rev. Blacknall looks back over the days of his boy- 
hood and youth, he believes that the greatest factor in 
shaping his life was a desire to be able to think for him- 
self and associate with people of ability. He had the mis- 
fortune to lose his mother while he was still young, and for 
a while his education was abandoned. But he had the cour- 
age to do what few young men undertake after reaching 
maturity — he took up the broken threads again and com- 
pleted his education, thus equipping himself for the impor- 
tant work of his life. In addition to his ministerial work, 
he has taught school for almost twenty-five years. 

Naturally, his principal reading has been along the line 
of his work. He is a Republican in politics and was for 
two years a Justice of Peace in his county. Among the 
secret orders he is identified with the Masons. Since 
young manhood he has resided near Garysburg, where he 
owns an attractive place on the edge of town and is a suc- 
cessful farmer. He believes that if the Christian religion 
were properly applied to the lives of the people, that there 
would be no race problem and that the troubles with which 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 237 

we are now confronted can only be treated in God's way, and 
not by the sword. 



William Caleb DeBerry 



Of the enterprising men of the A. M. E. Zion connection 
in North Carolina who have done splendid work in the allied 
fields of education and religion, is Rev. Wm. Caleb DeBerry 
of Rockingham. Rev. DeBerry and his associates have built 
up a school there whicn is a credit to him and his wife, and 
has been of great usefulness to the race in that section of the 
Stats. The school was established in 1910 and is known 
as the Rockingham Normal & Industrial Training School, a 
boarding institution for boys and girls. It has now reached 
an enrollment of about 300 and requires a faculty of six 
teachers. A new cement stone building will before long he 
opened as a dormitory and dining room for girl students 
and special class work for them in domestic science and in- 
dustrial arts. 

Rev. DeBerry has at all times been the dominant figure 
in the work of the school though he has not allowed his edu- 
cational work to overshadow his work as a pastor. 

Rev. DeBerry is a native of Montgomery Co., having 
been born on a farm near Mt. Gilead on May 30, 1872. His 
father, Caleb DeBerry, was a farmer, and was the son of 
Edenton and Clara DeBerry. Rev. DeBerry's mother was 
before her marriage Parthemia Ingram, a daughter of Ran- 
dall Ingram. 

On June 22, 19C6, the subject of this biography was 
married to Mrs. Laura P. Solomons, of Washington, N. C. 
She was educated at Livingstone College, and Js herself an 
accomplished teacher. They have one child, Wm. Caleb 
Fredsrick DeBerry. Mrs. DeBerry has one child by her 
former marriage, Hattie Ruth Ellen Solomons. 

Young DeBerry first attended the rural schools of 
Montgomery Co., and there laid the foundations of his edu- 




WILLIAM CALEB DeBERRY AND FAMILY 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 239 

cation. His father was ambitious for him and assisted him 
in every way he could. After going to the public schools 
he went to the Hamilton Seminary at Carthage, N. C, and 
later to Carrs Academy at Norwood. He attended Biddle 
University for one year, but finished his college course at 
Livingstone, where he won the A. B. degree in 1904. Since 
that time he has done considerable Theological work 
through correspondence courses from Moody Bible Insti- 
tute at Chicago. 

Rev. DeBerry has been teaching for more than half 
his life. Hundreds of boys and girls have passed through 
his schools to places of large usefulness in the communities 
in which he has taught. While this work of teaching has 
been an important factor in his life and while he has put 
years of study and hard effort into it, still he is primarily 
a preacher of the Gospel. He scarcely remembers the time 
when he did not feel that his calling was that of the min- 
istry. He gave his heart to God when he was about eleven 
year old ; but even before that time he felt committed to the 
ministry. Looking back over the early days of his boyhood 
and youth he realizes the large place which faith had in 
the making of his success. Born in a log cabin with only 
two doors and one window in which there was no glass, he 
struggled up from poverty and obscurity, through service, 
to his present position, though he takes little credit to him- 
self, believing the power of God gave strength and acknowl- 
edging with gratitude the influence and help of his faith- 
ful parents and his loyal wife. 

Soon after joining the church Rev. DeBerry became 
active in its work and filled every office in the local organi- 
zation. In 1901 he joined the Conference at Greensboro, 
under the late Bishop Hood, and was sent to the Gold Hill 
Circuit, which he served for one year. On this appoint- 
ment, while teaching, he also built a new church. He went 
from there to the Rock Hill Circuit and was on this work 
for two years and built a church. He was then appointed 
to the Bethel Station near Concord for a few months to fill 
out an unexpired term and at the next Conference was sent 



240 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

to Mocksville circuit, which he served for three years, and 
remodeled both the church and the parsonage. He was 
then transferred to Kentucky and had the Springfield, Ky., 
station for a year, during which he remodeled the church. 
His next appointment was the Haynesville circuit, which he 
served for one year, and after that the Carthage circuit, 
where he preached for two years and built both a parson- 
age and a church. From the Carthage charge he was sent 
to Rockingham for three years, and raised money for a new 
church. He pastored Sanford three years, Aberdeen two 
years, and is still in the pastorate and is now serving John's 
circuit (1920). 

Rev. DeBerry has resided in Rockingham for a number 
of years and has many influential white friends in that 
community, as well as enjoying the high esteem of his race. 
He has acquired considerable property and is now erecting 
a home, in addition to the dormitory for girls already men- 
tioned. 

He believes that the things which deserve better atten- 
tion by the leadership of the race should include sanitation 
and the right sort of education, by which he means Chris- 
tian principles combined with industrial training. He 
firmly believes that the word "Negro" in capital or small 
letters should be eliminated, as a breeder of prejudice, and 
during the Red Cross drives in which he assisted during 
the war, and upon other occasions of public interest, he 
urged that the word be not used. 



John Edwards Samuels 



The Rev. John Edward Samuels, A. M., B. D., of Ral- 
eigh, though still in his early thirties (1919), has reached 
a place of prominence in the Christian denomination and 
already has back of him a record of accomplishment in 
religious work of which a much older man might well be 
proud. 




JOHN EDWARDS SAMUELS AND WIFE 



242 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Dr. Samuels is a native of Georgetown, British Guiana, 
where he was born Jan. 6, 1885. His father, James Sam- 
uels, was a well-to-do contractor, who was able to give his 
son the best educational advantages. His mother was, be- 
fore her marriage, Maria Maurner, a daughter of Edward 
and Beldina Maurner. 

When he came of school age, young Samuels went to 
the Episcopal Public School of Georgetown and passed from 
there to Queen's College. He went to England for his Theo- 
logical course, which he took at Oxford and which led to 
the B. D. degree in 1907. He also did extension work in 
Art University, London, where he won his M. A. degree. 

Dr. Samuels was brought up in the faith of the Luth- 
eran Church and planned to devote his life to Missionary 
work. Accordingly on entering the Christian Church he 
took a special Missionary course with the Salvation Army 
in the Island of Jamaica. Coming in personal contact with 
some of the Christian leaders from the states, he was in- 
duced to go to that inviting field. He was made General 
Field Secretary for the Afro-Christian Convention with 
headquarters at Newport News, Va. He worked out from 
there over six states and remained on that field for two 
years. His equipment and his personal qualities pointed 
to him as the logical man for the head of the Theological 
Department of Franklinton Christian College, to which he 
was called in 1914. He served as Dean of the department 
for four years and there began his work as Editor of the 
Missionary Herald, one of the the popular monthly publica- 
tions of his denomination. For the last three years, he has 
also edited the quarterly Sunday School literature of the 
church. In May, 1919, he was called to the pastorate of 
the Maple Temple Christian Church of Raleigh, and soon 
made a place for himself among the leaders of his people in 
that city of schools and churches. Hardly had be become 
settled on this new field before he was attached to the Edi- 
torial Department of the Raleigh Independent as associate 
editor. 

He thinks clearly and writes with facility. His Eng- 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 243 

lish is free from slang and colloquialism. In appearance he 
is rather slender and agile and one is not surprised to learn 
that when in College he was a lover of cricket. Naturally, 
his mind runs to the Classics. In addition he likes Biog- 
raphy and History. 

Dr. Samuels is Secretary of Missions and Education in 
his denomination, and is Vice-President of the local Eman- 
cipation Association. He is also head of the Bible School 
of Correspondence. 

On Dec. 26, 1916, he was united in marriage to 
Effie D. Sellers of Burlington, N. C. She was educated at 
Franklinton Christian College, and was before her marriage 
an accomplished teacher. Of the two children born to them, 
one, James Wesley Samuels, is living. Dr. Samuels owns 
an attractive home at Raleigh. 



Walter Scott Foster 



Rev. Walter Scott Foster, now (1920) stationed at Tar- 
boro, is well known in A. M. E. Zion circles both in North 
Carolina and Virginia. His work in both places has been 
marked by growth and progress not only in the membership 
of his church, but in the erection of new church buildings 
and the improvement of others. He is a native of Wake 
Co., where he was born June 27, 1872. His father, Rich- 
ard Foster, was a farmer and- a shoemaker and was a son of 
Eliza High. His mother, who before her marriage was 
Harriet Cofield, was a daughter of Willis Cofield. 

The subject of this biography was married on Febru- 
ary 22, 1900, to Miss Mary Vaughn of Lawrenceville, Vir- 
ginia, where she was educated. They have seven children: 
Richard A., Walter A., Moreland, Carrothers, Edward, Au- 
gusta and Annie Foster. 

Young Foster's boyhood days were divided between 
the farm and the local public school, by far the larger part 




WALTER SCOTT FOSTER 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 245 

going to the farm as the school terms were short. He did 
his college work at Shaw University, attending first the 
Normal Department two years, and later doing work in the 
Scientific and Theological departments. 

Coming into the ministry at an early age, he has years 
of faithful service to his credit as a pastor. About the 
time he was fifteen years of age he decided definitely to 
take up the work of the ministry and was ordained at six- 
teen. He joined the Conference in 1897 at Berkeley, Va., 
and preached for a number of years in that State. His 
first appointment was the Mt. Zion circuit, which he served 
for one year. After that, he served Red Oak Grove circuit 
a year and repaired the church; Richmond, Va., one year. 
While on this work his health broke down, so that he was 
compelled to rest for a few months. On returning to the 
ministry he preached at Mt. Moriah and Charlie Hope cir- 
cuit for three years and built a new house of worship; 
Portsmouth two years and repaired the church ; Williamson 
circuit two years, where the membership was doubled, a 
new parsonage built at \VilIiamston and the church prop- 
erty both there and at Hamilton much improved. He was 
then sent to Plymouth, N. C, for two years, where impor- 
tant alterations were made in the church building and par- 
sonage, while lumber was put on the ground for a new 
church at Macedonia. The membership greatly increased. 
From Plymouth he was sent to Oak Street station at Peters- 
burg for one year, where the debt on the church property 
was cancelled and the parsonage repaired. Coming back to 
North Carolina he served the LaGrange circuit one year 
and repaired the house of worship; Whitehall two years, 
and repaired the parsonage and collected money for the 
erection of a new church; Snowhill circuit two years, re- 
modeled the parsonage and beautified the churches; Bu- 
ford station two years and has be£n in the Goldsboro work 
since 1915. Here the church debt has been paid and a par- 
sonage built. This is now being rebuilt and more than 110 
members have been added to the congregation this year 
(1919). 



246 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Reverend Foster taught school for four years in Wake 
and Franklin Counties, but it is as a minister of the Gospel 
that he is most widely known. 

Among the secret orders he is identified with the Ma- 
sons and Love and Charity. His property interests are at 
Petersburg, Va. 

Loking back over his early days, he attributes to his 
mother and father his success in life. They were ambitious 
for their son and always willing to help. The principles 
that prevailed in his boyhood home have steadily stood 
against every worldly temptation. In his own home now, 
he and his devoted Christian wife are likewise bringing up 
their children in a house of prayer and consecration, and 
all are devout members of the church. 



Mack Daniel Coley 



It is not easy to tell in an understanding way the true 
story of a man like Prof. Mack Daniel Coley now (1919) 
head of the graded school at Wilson. He is a man of origi- 
nality, mental capacity and resourcefulness. At different 
times he has farmed, taught school and practiced law. His 
life is almost contemporaneous with the freedom of the 
race, as he was born at Fremont, Jan. 6, 1866, less than a 
year after the close of the war. His father was a white 
man. His mother's name was Martha Yelverton. She was 
a daughter of Warrick and Sallie Yelverton. 

Prof. Coley has been married twice. His first mar- 
riage was on Nov. 24, 1896, to Hattie B. Winn of Dudley. 
She was the oldest daughter of Charles W. and Frances 
Winn, and was educated at Hampton. By this marriage 
there were five children : Blounie, Blanche, Charlie, Roose- 
velt and Rubie Frances Coley. The oldest daughter is a 
teacher at Wilson and the youngest passed away. Mrs. 
Coley was called to her reward June 30th, 1908. Prof. 
Coley was again married; this time to Lillie B. Taylor, a 




MACK DANIEL COLEY 



248 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

daughter of Rev. Christopher and Alice Taylor of Clinton, 
N. C. She was educated at Elizabeth City, State Normal. 
By the second marriage there was one child, Harold Coley. 

As a boy young Coley worked on the farm and laid the 
foundation of his education in the rural schools. When 
grown to manhood he went to Hampton where he was under 
the necessity of making his own way. He did not permit 
this to dampen his ardor nor discourage him in his determi- 
nation to get an education. By working on the place dur- 
ing the term and at whatever offered during summer vaca- 
tions he was able to continue his studies at Hampton until 
his graduation in 1890. One summer was spent at Neth- 
ersfield, Conn. Now determined to take a regular College 
course, he matriculated at Lincoln University and was grad- 
uated from that institution with the A. B. degree in 1895 
and later received the A. M. degree from the same school. 
All through these years he was prompted by a desire to 
secure an education and make himself helpful to his fellow- 
man. He took up the work of teaching not so much to 
make money as to be of help and for nearly a quarter of a 
century has been in the school room. 

He was principal of the Mt. Olive School for fifteen 
years and went from there to Oxford graded school for two 
years. He is now at Wilson. He is a Republican in poli- 
tics and was for one term Mayor of Dudley while living 
there. In 1919 he was appointed Notary Public by Gov- 
ernor Bickett. In his reading he gives first place to the 
Bible and kindred books. After that he likes such writers 
at Milton and Blackstone. He is a member of the Congre- 
gational Church and belongs to the Masons, the Pythians 
and Odd Fellows. He has been N. G. in the latter and W. M. 
in the former lodge and was a delegate from his State to 
the Eighteenth B. M. C. held in Washington, D. C, in 
1916. 

From boyhood, Prof. Coley had watched and had been 
interested in the procedure of the courts. In 1915 he was 
admitted to the bar and has by means of his legal training 
been able to help the people along legal lines without relax- 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 249 

ing his hold upon educational work. He contemplates giv- 
ing more time to the law in the future, where his power in 
debate and effective logic will doubtless win fresh laurels 
for him. 

Prof. Coley believes that the interests of the race are 
to be promoted and safeguarded by adhering to such fun- 
damental principles as personal security, personal liberty 
and the right of property as guaranteed by the supreme 
law of the land. 

All of his work, since leaving College, has been in his 
native State, except one year spent at the Mayesville In- 
dustrial School in South Carolina. 



Charles Henry Boyer 



Among the experienced and efficient educators of the 
race in North Carolina few stand higher than Prof. Chas. H. 
Boyer, A. B., M. A., who for nearly a quarter of a century 
has been identified with St. Augustine's School at Raleigh. 
Prof. Boyer is a native of Maryland, having been born at 
Elkton on November 12, 1869. His parents were free-born. 
His father was Edward Boyer, and his mother before her 
marriage was Indiana Clinton Caldwell, a daughter of Heze- 
kiah and Susan A. Caldwell. 

Young Boyer attended the local graded school, after 
which he went to the Institute for Colored Youth in Phila- 
delphia, from which he was graduated at the age of sixteen. 
He was Latin Salutatorian of his class. After that he 
taught school in St. Mary's Co., Maryland, for four years. 
In 1890 he entered the Hopkins Grammar School at New 
Haven, Conn., an old preparatory school of New England. 
Here he won the prize in oratory and after his graduation 
in 1892, passed to Yale University in the fall of the same 
year. While at college he was confirmed and became active 
in the work of the Episcopal Church, serving as choir mas- 
ter, Sunday School Superintendent and lay reader. He fin- 



• 


Sfe*. 




■ ■ ■ i 


iTj^^i 




■ 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 251 

ished his course at Yale in 1896 and in the fall of the same 
year came to St. Augustine's, with which he has ever since 
been identified. He received his A. M. degree from his 
Alma Mater, Yale, in 1915. 

On September 22, 1897, he was married to Alethea 
Amelia Chase, a daughter of Daniel and Jance Chase, oC 
New Haven. They have seven children, four girls and three 
boys. They are: Harriet S., Clinton C, A. Alverda L., 
Chas. Edward, Daniel Chase, James Alexander and Ruth 
Frazier Boyer. » 

Prof. Boyer was an enthusiastic ball player while in 
college. He has traveled well over the eastern half of 
America and has a thorough working knowledeg of the 
country east of the Mississippi. In 1911 he spent three 
months in Europe, touching at Gibraltar and Algiers, 
thence visiting Italy, Germany, France, Switzerland, Bel- 
gium, Holland and England. 

Prof. Boyer has taken an active part not only in the 
work at St. Augustine's, but has for years been a promi- 
nent figure in the North Carolina Teachers' Association. 
He was at one time Vice-President of that organization and 
at another time Secretary. He has done a great deal of 
summer school and institute work as well as considerable 
field work for St. Augustine's. He has lived to see many 
of the students of his early days at St. Augustine's grow- 
up to manhood and womanhood and take their places m 
the educational and professional life in North Carolina and 
other States. In politics he is a Republican though he has 
not been active in party affairs. 

He holds membership in the Masons, being a member 
of the Royal Arch, Knights Templars and Shriners. He is 
also President of the American Negro Academy, and Presi- 
dent of the North Carolina Intercollegiate Athletic Asso- 
ciation, which is doing so much for the upbuilding, foster- 
ing and purifying of athletics in the colored schools and 
colleges of the State. 

In his local church he is Senior Warden and Treasurer, 
Superintendent of the Sunday School and a director in the 



252 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Brotherhood of St. Andrew. He is also secretary of the- 
colored Convocation of the Diocese. 

His favorite reading consists of Biography, Poetry and 
magazines. He believes the best interests of the race are 
to be promoted by holding out for better educational ad- 
vantages, together with a full and intelligent use of the 
ballot and by maintaing friendly relations with all people 
as far as can honorably be done. 



William Calvin Cleland 



The A. M. E. Connection has many choice men in North 
Carolina. Among them must be mentioned Rev. William 
Calvin Cleland now (1920) stationed at Durham. His rise 
after joining the Conference was remarkable. Mr. Cleland 
is a native of the neighboring State of South Carolina, hav- 
ing been born in Newberry Co., Mar. 2, 1877. 

The subject of this biography attended the public 
schools of Newberry Co., where he laid the foundation of 
his education. A short life of Abraham Lincoln fell into 
the boys hands and was read with eagerness. This life of 
the great Emancipator did for the boy what it has done 
for so many boys. It fired his imagination and aroused his 
ambition. He knew he must have an education in order 
to do his best work in the world. He made his plans to 
attend Tuskegee, although it was necessary for him to make 
his own way. Just at this critical period in the life of 
the young man, he gave his heart to God and soon after- 
felt called to the work of the ministry. So at Tuskegee he 
took the Bible and Academic Course and remained in that 
institution four years. Later he did three years work at 
Kittrell College, the denominational school for North 
Carolina. 

In 1903 he joined the Conference at Raleigh under 
Bishop B. F. Lee and was assigned to the Wakefield Mis- 
sion where he remained one year. His next appointment 




WILLIAM CALVIN CLELAND 



254 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

was the Hickory Station where he preached five years and 
erected a brick house of worship at a cost of three thousand 
dollars. From Hickory he went to the Bethel Station, 
Charlotte, where he preached for three years, after which he 
served the Lenoir charge five years and began the con- 
struction of a new church edifice. In 1917 he was pro- 
moted to the presiding eldership and presided over the Dur- 
ham District one year. The following year he was given 
the St. Joseph Station at Durham, which has prospered 
under his ministry. 

Rev. Cleland is a forceful and effective speaker and an 
organizer. He has not identified himself with the secret 
orders, nor does he undertake to carry on any outside inter- 
ests, but gives himself with singleness of purpose to the full 
work of the ministry. 

He is a well informed man, keeping abreast of the 
times through the current literature of the day, but his fa- 
vorite reading next after the Bible is History. He studies 
conditions among his people and seeks to lead them intelli- 
gently. He believes the great need of the race may be 
summed up in a few words like "education" and "oppor- 
tunity," by which he means that they should have the right 
sort of education and equality of opportunity with every 
other citizen in every walk of life. 

Rev. Cleland was married on Dec. 27, 1905, to Rosa 
Etta Alexander of Hickory. They have one son, William 
Alexander Cleland. 



Yorke Jones 



If there is a boy anywhere, who is inclined to be dis- 
couraged on account of poverty, obscurity or lack or op- 
portunity, he should study the life of Rev. York Jones, D. D., 
Professor of Homiletics, Church History, Rhetoric and Eng- 
lish Literature at Biddle University. The story begins with 
a nameless little waif "Somewhere in Virginia," and has to 




YORKE JONES 



256 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

do with years of loneliness and struggle up to manhood 
and a place of large usefulness in the Kingdom and a posi- 
tion of leadership in the race. 

Yorke Jones was born somewhere near Petersburg, 
Va., possibly in Chesterfield Co. It must have been early 
in the sixties, since he remembers some of the closing 
scenes of the war and recalls the names of such places as 
City Point, Bermuda Hundred and others made historic in 
those awful days. With reference to his mother, he knows 
only that she was called "Aunt Caroline." His father vis- 
ited them sometimes, but he has no information as to his 
name or his fate. 

A few things stand out clearly, however. A twin 
brother died and an older brother is with him in a big room 
at Hampton, Va. This must have been about the Surrender 
or soon after. Next morning the brother was gone and 
Yorke was alone in the world. To this good day, he does 
not know when nor why the name of Jones was given him. 
For a while he was cared for and taught by the Friends 
who had established a school at Hampton. Later he was 
transferred to an orphans' home in Philadelphia, known as 
the "Shelter," and was sent from there to Burlington, N. J. 
A home was found for him with a family of Friends by the 
name of Pennell, near Medid, Pa., and the things he learned 
and the habits he formed while under the influence of these 
good people steadied and gave direction to what is recog- 
nized as a life of great influence. The first date he remem- 
bers in this connection is 1868. He remained with the 
Pennell family till 1875 and then went to work for another 
farmer. 

The story of his intellectual development is interest- 
ing. Working in the cornfield, he gathered, as boys will, 
some interesting specimens of quartz to be found in that 
section. These he prized highly. Mr. Gifford noting his 
interest presented him a book on geology which he still has. 

Through this, the world of books began to open to 
him and he was soon passionately fond of history. He was 
now attending the public school three months in the year 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 257 

and working on the farm the rest of the time at eight dol- 
lars per month. Under the tutelage of the Friends he had 
come to feel the need of an education and in January, 1877, 
went to Lincoln University with $51.00 to get what he 
called a "practical education," which he imagined would 
require about six months. As a matter of fact, he remained 
at Lincoln for eight years. 

Fortunately he fell into the hands of consecrated, sym- 
pathetic teachers and during the first week at college made 
the great decision. He was soon confronted by the ques- 
tion of what he should do in life and was led into the 
ministry as a field where he could make his life count for 
most. After that his way was clear. He worked through 
both the College and Theological courses brilliantly and 
graduated at the head of his class. His record as a student 
entitled him to a position as tutor. This, with assistance 
from the Board and other quarters, made him easy finan- 
cially and enabled him, under the direction of one of his 
teachers, to begin the nucleus of a library which has grown 
with the years. While taking his Theological course he 
spent his vacations in colportage work. The first was spent 
in Chester, Pa., and the second at Petersburg, Va. Here 
he was impressed with the opportunity for a colored Presby- 
terian Church and the following year returned and started 
a mission. 

For a while he was employed by the Synod of Virginia 
(white), but finally settled down to work out the problem at 
Petersburg with the assistance of the Freedman's Board. 
The Central Presbyterian Church was established and pre- 
sided over by him until 1893. At that time he was called 
to his present position at Biddle University, where not only 
his scholarship but also his splendid Christian spirit has 
been felt by hundreds of young men who have come under 
his influence. Being a professor, he must be exact, and 
even technical, but he is never dry for his work is shot 
through with a fine spirit of evangelism, and so it comes to 
pass that he teaches not only from his text books but with 
his life as well. 



258 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

On July 9, 1888, Dr. Jones was married to Mrs. Susan 
C. Grigg of Petersburg, Va. She had five children all of 
whom have been reared and educated. 

Though not in the regular pastorate he preaches regu- 
larly. He has attended three General Assemblies of his 
church. He believes that in the last analysis the problems 
confronting the race must be solved by religion. 

Dr. Jones has an exceptional gift for music and while 
wholly self-taught in vocal and instrumental music, has 
himself taught these arts of expression to considerable ex- 
tent and beyond question would have achieved much in this 
field had he given his sole attention to it. His literary talent 
is of an equally high order, his poem "The Slave Mother's 
Song" and one of his books, "The Climbers" having been 
well received. One with versatile gifts must necessarily 
sacrifice a promising career in as many different directions 
a? his abilities fit him to pursue, yet after all, in the min- 
istry and in educational work there is opportunity to put 
everything to right use and so these talents have not been 
lost, but are additional opportunities for larger service. 



Ezekiel Ezra Smith 



That Divine Providence that permitted the coming of 
the first ship load of Africans to America has continually 
watched over the destinies of this race. That there should 
arise types of brilliant and commanding leaders in a signifi- 
cant expression of the promise of a race which after 300 
years numbers one-tenth of the population of America and 
has already given to the world stars of the first magni- 
tude in medicine, law, music, painting, oratory, literature, 
business, the school room and statesmanship. 

When Ezekiel Ezra Smith was born May 23, 1852 there 
arose a star of the first magnitude in the aspiration and 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 259 

inspiration which was destined to illuminate the youth of 
the colored race and make a record in the annals of our 
country's history. That some are born great and some 
achieve it and others have greatness thrust upon them may 
beyond a doubt be summed up in the above life. The star 
of this interesting character saw the light of this world 
68 years ago in Duplin Co., N. C. And that he was born 
with aspiration has been evidenced in his earliest efforts 
at self support, for his father, Alexander Smith, and his 
mother Catherine Smith, permitted this promising youth to 
attend night school at Wilmington, walking three milss 
each night. And at twelve years of age we see him work- 
ing at 25 cents a day and by skill, tact, diligence and per- 
sistence, he not only rose to $12.00 per week, but in obedi- 
ence to that Divine Law which says "Seest thou a man dili- 
gent in his business he shall stand before kings," has been 
fully and with distinction realized in this exceptional and 
brilliant life. 

It may be of interest to note that his paternal grand- 
mother was brought direct from Africa and the imagina- 
tion naturally would interpret the beautiful Divine plan 
which has so wonderfully unfolded itself in the leadership 
of one so useful and potential in bearing fruit not only in 
America but in its direct effect upon the Dark Continent 
which young Smith was destined to illuminate with a life 
so pregnant of the best in statesmanship and diplomacy in 
later years. 

At least one of the great factors in shaping the life 
of any man is marriage. Twice married Dr. Ezekiel Ezra 
Smith has been a fortunate man each time. His first 
choice was Willie A. Burnett, the gifted daughter of Dolly 
and John Burnett, to whom he was married in 1875. To 
this marriage God has given one son, a physician of promi- 
nence of Newport News, Va., Dr. E. E. Smith, Jr. Dr. 
Smith's first wife died in 1907. She was a woman of greal 
discretion, tact and ability and nobly assisted her distin- 
guished husband in his early struggles and his rise to a 
commanding position in private and public life. His sec- 



260 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

ond wife, now livng, was Nannie Louise Goode of Vance 
Co.. to whom he was married in 1908. Educated at Ben- 
nett College, the second Mrs. Smith is a teacher of ability, 
a good executive and disciplinarian and though compara- 
tively a young woman has measured up as a refined, cul- 
tured, attractive and beautiful wife who has shouldered 
much of her great husband's varied responsibilities. Their 
lives have been successfully, harmoniously and beautifully 
blended into that constant success so characteristic of the 
subject of this sketch. 

Dr. Smith's education beginning at Wilmington, N. C, 
in a night school, and a High School at Goldsboro, N. C, 
was completed at Shaw University, where he received the 
A. B. degree in 1878 and Ph. D. in 1892. We would use 
the word completed advisedly, for Dr. Smith, like all suc- 
cessful students, has been all these years a student gather- 
ing culture and breadth of mind by contact with everything 
he touched. Associated with some of the greatest leaders, 
like Dr. Henry Martin Tupper, with whom he toured in 
many sections of the North, with the Shaw Jubilee sing- 
ers in raising funds for building the early work at Shaw. 
Later he was associated with some of the most brilliant 
educators, like Dr. E. A. Alderman, the present great head 
of the University of Virginia, who at that time presided 
over the public schools of Goldsboro. Dr. Smith has trav- 
eled in America and Europe and Africa, hence his opportun- 
ity constantly added to his varied stock of training. He 
has made a special study of philosophy and Biblical Culture 
and this has been ever the secret of noble mind. His life's 
work has been teaching and preaching. Having begun his 
first work as teacher in Wayne Co. at 17 years he has con- 
tinued almost constantly in the school room since in the 
capacity of pupil or teacher. He came to Fayetteville as 
head of the State Normal School in 1883. Having taught 
five years he was appointed by President Cleveland to the 
post as Resident Minister and Consul General to the Re- 
public of Liberia in 1888. Successfully holding this posi- 
tion as a diplomat he returns to his home country after 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 261 

three years and resumes his work as Principal of the State 
Normal School, Fayetteville, N. C. 

As a member of the Baptist Church he has been not 
only prominent and active for long years but has been 
President of the Baptist State Convention, a member of 
Executive Board of Lott Carey Foreign Mission Convention, 
and Moderator of Union Association. In all of these posi- 
tions he has been a constructive force in molding men and 
women as he has so successfully wrought in the school 
room all these years. 

Dr. Smith is not only the embodiment of culture and 
progressive education, but is the ideal in courteous chivalry 
.and gentlemanly deportment. Wherever he appears his life 
-abounds in sunshine, hope and inspiration. Beautiful in 
personality and well featured even to the attractive he was 
•compared by the great Dr. Tupper when Shaw conferred 
the degree of Ph. D. on him as having a head like Gen. 
Banks. It is not fulsome praise to state that whenever he 
-appears he becomes the center of interest and attraction 
like all great leaders, there is something unusual and sub- 
lime in his makeup. 

Dr. Smith volunteered under the leadership of Col. 
J. H. Young in the Spanish-American War, with the 3rd 
N. C. Regiment. He was made Reg. Adj. with rank of 
"Capt., and was again given leave of absence from his school 
until the close of the war. 

He again returns to school work and assumes the head 
of the State Normal School at Fayetteville, where he has 
wrought with rare success as one of the foremost educators 
of the South. The Fayetteville Normal School has made 
history in the educational life of the State under his ad- 
ministration. 

We close the brief sketch of one of the most useful 
citizens, brilliant teachers, successful diplomats, loyal and 
gallant soldiers, popular, liberal and broad-minded Chris- 
tian gentleman, successful pastor and business man that 
North Carolina has produced. 

Dr. Smith was converted in 1870, called to preach in 



262 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

1879, ordained by State Convention of which he afterwards, 
became President. His longest and most successful pas- 
torate was with the First Baptist Church, Fayetteville„ 
which he served six years. Dr. Smith, as a business man, 
pays more taxes than any man of color in Cumberland Co. 
His school plant, the State Normal is worth $90,000, faculty 
11, and 500 pupils enrolled. 



James Jonas Scarlett 



Occasionally one finds in the States a minister or a 
doctor who has taken his place among the colored people 
of his communit}' and who has lifted himself to a position 
of influence and leadership, who is not a native of the 
States. The British West Indies have contributed a num- 
ber of intelligent and successful men to the professions of 
the South. One of these Rev. James Jonas Scarlett, a 
prominent Baptist preacher of Greensboro, is a native of 
Jamaica, having been born in the Hanover Parish, County 
Cornwall, about 1873. His father, Alexander Scarlett, was 
a farmer. His mother's name was Dorothy. His paternal 
grandparents were James and Rebecca Scarlett. On the 
maternal side his grandparents were James and Anna 
Wright. 

Young Scarlett grew up on the farm in the beautiful 
mountain section of his native island, and when he came 
of school age attended the government, or as we would say, 
the public schools. He went to a private High School and 
also studied engineering. He was an apt student and 
taught for a couple of years before coming to the States. 

After his conversion he joined the Baptist Church and 
in 1894 felt called to preach the gospel. He was not or- 
dained to the full work of the ministry until after he 
came to the States. On coming over he landed at Balti- 
more and later came South. He spent three years at Shaw 




JAMES JONAS SCARLETT 



264 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

University doing Literary and Theological work. He had 
planned to study medicine, but on reaching the University 
he finally decided to devote his life to religious and edu- 
cational work. The measure of success which has attended 
his efforts would indicate that he made no mistake. He 
taught in the Kinston Graded School for five years and at 
Greenville for two years. He also taught near Washing- 
ton, N. C, for a while. 

It is as a minister of the Gospel, however, that he is 
best known. His first pastorate was at James City, where' 
he preached for two years. After that he served the First 
Baptist Church of Fayetteville ten years and three months. 
The church was remodeled during his pastorate and the 
membership built up. In 1918 he accepted the call of the 
Providence church at Greensboro, where he has since re- 
sided. Speaking of the factors which have mogj largely in- 
fluenced his life he refers to the example of Mr. Charles 
E. B. Gooden, who was his teacher for a number of years. 

Retaining, as he does, his English citizenship, he take^- 
no active part in local politics. He belongs to the Masons, 
and is a member of Love and Charity. - He owns both farm 
and city property. 

On Dec. 26, 1912, he was married to Mamie L. Rhodes, 
of Dallas, N. C. She was educated at Lincoln Academy, 
King's Mountain, and is an accomplished teacher. She 
taught in Gastonia City Public Schools for ten or twelve 
years and was given up by both the patrons and officials. 
very reluctantly. She bears the highest recommendation 
from the Gaston Co. School officials. She also made a fine 
record as a teacher in the Fayetteville City Schools during 
her husband's pastorate in that city. Rev. and Mrs. Scar- 
lett have three children. They are : Mamie, James and! 
Partia. The last two are twins. 



William Henry Bryant 



Dr. William Henry Bryant, one of the young physicians 
of Goldsboro, was born Christmas day in the little city of 
Wilson. His father, the late Fisher Bryant, was a laborer, 
and his mother, who has also passed away was, before her 
marriage, Martha Ruffin. She was a daughter of David 
and Phoebe Ruffin. His paternal grandmother was Mary 
Jane Bryant. 

Early in life, young Bryant caught inspiration from one 
of his teachers and though confronted with serious diffi- 
culty in getting an education forged straight ahead and has 
worked out a measure <of succes which his parents would 
scarcely have considered possible. When he came of school 
age, he attended the local public school at Wilson and passed 
from there to St. Augustine at Raleigh, where he studied 
for four years. He then enjoyed the superior advantages 
of the Boston High School for two years and after that 
went to what is known as the A. & T. College at Greensboro 
for four years, leaving with the B. S. degree in 1911. He 
had discovered a method of making money out of the Pull- 
man service and in 'hotel work at the North during each va- 
cation to carry him through the succeeding school year 
without going into debt. His work in the Pullman service 
gave him a splendid opportunity to see every part of the 
United States and parts of Mexico. When ready for his 
medical course, he matriculated at Leonard Medical College, 
where he remained through the Junior year. He then en- 
tered Meharry College at Nashville and was graduated with 
the M. D. degree in 1915. He was a popular student and 
an enthusiastic football player. After graduation he lo- 
cated at Henderson, where he practiced for a little less than 
a year. He then went to the army training camp and was 
commissioned a First Lieutenant in the Medical Reserve 
Corps and went over seas, remaining in France eleven 
months. 



266 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

On his return to the States in the spring of 1919, Dr. 
Bryant located at Goldsboro where he has steadily built up 
a good practice. He is not specializing but does a general 
practice in and around that city. 

He is a member of the Episcopal Church. He has ob- 
served conditions among his people both North and South 
and believes that the great need of the Negro race today is 
a spirit of co-operation. 



Sidney Houston Witherspoon 

Rev. Sidney Houston Witherspoon of West Raleigh is 
one of those rare, and singularly blest, human beings whose 
entire lives have been dominated by the spiritual forces. 
He was born May 2, 1860, and while his parents and entire 
ancestry so far back as he can trace it were slaves before 
Emancipation they were respectable, thrifty and deeply re- 
ligious. His father, Thomas Witherspoon, was reared as a 
butler in the home of his master. After the war he turned 
to farming and was also a noted cook. He organized the 
first colored Sunday School in Wake Co. The mother of 
our subject, Rachel Witherspoon, was likewise pious and 
deeply anxious that he should consecrate himself to the 
ministry. His paternal grandparents were Benjamin and 
Lucinda Lee, and the maternal grandparents Samuel and 
Amanda Bass, of partly Indian descent. At the age of 
nine young Witherspoon was really converted, and joined 
the Shiloh Baptist Church when a few years older. 

He was about of school age when the first schools be- 
gan to open for colored children, and received his primary 
education at "Tupper's School," now Shaw University. Like 
practically all of the poor but ambitious boys of his race, 
his school work was much interrupted so that it was not 
until 1886 that he graduated from the Theological Depart- 
ment of Shaw University. The little school had grown into 
an important educational institution and the small boy, 
whose determination to fit himself for the ministry had 




SIDNEY HOUSTON WITHERSPOON 



268 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

enlisted the sympathy and help of Dr. H. M. Tupper, had 
already begun his career as a preacher and accepted a call 
to Galilee Baptist Church Johnson Co., and Lee's Cross 
Roads in Wake Co. 

From that time forward the increase in the volume 
and importance of his work has been steady. He pastored 
Malaby's Cross Roads and the First Baptist Church, Ober- 
lin, West Raleigh. In 1887 he resigned from Oberlin to ac- 
cept a call of the First Baptist Church at Asheville, where 
he remained five years going thence to the charge at the 
First Baptist Church of Greensboro. Here his labors were 
especially fruitful in awakening revivals and hundreds of 
converts. In order to better expound the word he studied 
hard in addition to his other labors, almost to the sacrifice 
of his health. In 1898 he went to Ebenezer Baptist Church 
at Charlotte for nine years. Here his work was most ardu- 
ous, but in five years he had succeeded not only in enlarg- 
ing the membership of the congregation but in cancelling 
a debt of more than five thousand dollars. 

For five years he served the Baptist Educational and 
Missionary Convention, first as District Missionary and then 
as General Missionary and Corresponding Secretary. He 
was then called back to pastoral work, serving Laurinburg 
First Baptist Church from 1910 to 1912, then returning to 
the Oberlin Baptist Church. Smaller churches under his 
care include Galilee Johnson Co., Holly Springs Wake Co., 
Gray's Creek, Cumberland 'Co. and Stokes Chapel in Nash 
Co. From 1916 to 1919 Dr. Witherspoon had charge of the 
Bible Training Department of the Laurinburg Industrial In- 
stitute, but was compelled to give up the latter by reason 
of pastoral duties that involved so much hard work and 
long travel. Since 1909 he has been Corresponding Secre- 
tary to the Baptist Ministers Union of South Carolina. 

It will thus be seen that Dr. Witherspoon belongs to 
that noble galaxy of men who carved their way despite ad- 
versity and blazed a trail that will ever be an inspiration 
to those who wish to combine unselfish service with a trained 
mentality to make it of far reaching effect. In recognition 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 269 

of his distinguished abilities Shaw University conferred 
upon him the degree of D. D. in 19C7 and as a member of 
the secret orders he has been given offices that are both 
exacting and enviable. He belongs to the Masons, the 
Grand Lodge of North Carolina; the Royal Arch and 
Knights Templar. 

On December 8, 1886, he was married to Mary M. 
Mangum, a daughter of Samuel and Ellen Mangum of Wake 
Forest. 

(Note.) — Since the above was written Dr. Witherspoon 
has been called to his reward. He passed away on Sept. 30, 
1920. He lived to the day of his death a faithful, true and 
devoted husband, a consistent Christian and a tried and true 
pastor. The last Sunday of his life work was spent at 
Stoke's Chapel at which time seven were baptized, two 
deacons ordained, the Lord's Supper administered and a 
minister of the Gospel ordained and sent forth. 

"He is not dead but sleepeth." 



Philip Lemuel Boone 



Rev. Philip Lemuel Boone, pastor of the First Baptist 
Church of Weldon, is a self-made man in the best sense 
of the word. His father, Rev. L. W. Boone, was also a 
Baptist preacher, the organizer and first President of the 
Roanoke Association of Eastern N. C. His mother before 
her marriage was Charlotte A. Chavis, a very prominent 
young woman. The paternal grandparents of our subject 
were Lamb and Patsy Boone, his maternal grandparents 
were Harry and Marthe Chads. Rev. L. W. Boone was 
the father of thirteen children, of whom Philip L. was the 
twelfth. When he reached the age of three he had the su- 
preme misfortune to lose his father. One can imagine the 
struggle which ensued in the Boone home. The widowed 
mother and the thirteen children had to live and it was nee- 




PHILIP LEMUEL BOONE 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 271 

essary for all hands to assist in making a living. Naturally 
those of the thirteen who wanted an education were under 
the necessity of digging it out for themselves. When 
Philip L. Boone came of age, he went to Virginia. He soon 
realized the need of education. Right bravely he went to 
work and attended a private high school. He had been 
converted when fifteen years of age and when twenty-two 
years old felt called to preach the Gospel. He was licensed 
to preach in 1908, and in 1912 was ordained to the full 
work of the ministry by the First Baptist Church of Gil- 
merton, Va. 

After he had finished at the private school he was at- 
tending Rev. Boone did not make the all too common mis- 
take of considering his education complete. On the other 
hand, he bought some Theological books and after several 
years of study was able to pass a creditable examination, 
making an average of 80 per cent. Nor did he cease to 
study even then. Having learned what could be done by 
hard work and perseverance, he has continued to read i>nd 
study and grow. He is now taking an advanced course in 
Howard University for the degree of B. D. 

The early years of his ministry were spent in Virginia. 
He pastored the Mars Hill Church near Capron, Va., five 
years and eight months. He preached at the First Baptist 
Church, Lawreneeville, twelve months, and while there 
painted, rebuilt and rededicated the church. From Law- 
renceville he went to the Pine Street Church, Suffolk, where 
he remained four years. In 1919 he was called to the First 
Church at Weldon, where he paid off all indebtedness and 
left $1,300.00 in the different treasuries. He paid off the 
entire indebtedness of $2,600.00 in nine months. Now the 
property, is all clear of debt. 

Struggling up through difficulties as he has, Rev. 
Boone knows how to deal sympathetically with his people 
and his congregation is one of the largest in Weldon. His 
favorite reading is the Bible, History and Biography, in the 
order named. Among the secret orders he is identified with 



272 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

the Masons, Sons and Daughters of Peace, The Samaritans 
and the Seven Wise Men. 

He has no panacea for wrong conditions. He believes 
they can be righted only by honesty and reliability. 

On May 15, 1900, Rev. Boone was married to Pattie Lee 
Phipps of Greenville Co. She received her education in 
the Greenville School. They have -three children: Oscar 
L., William W. and Clinton N. Boone. 

Rev. Boone was the first colored Red Cross President 
appointed in Nansemond Co. He was able, together with 
his staff of co-workers to raise over $3,000 to help in the 
winning of the great war. While a common laborer he 
learned several different trades: carpentry, brick laying 
and heading making, together with lumber grading. He 
spent twelve years in book canvassing and selling insurance. 
He has been very successful in all of his undertakings. He 
is now auditor of the Neuse River Association, Secretary 
of Neuse River Union, President of the Roanoke Under- 
takers Association. He has done considerable evangelistic 
work, has traveled North as far as New York and West 
as far as West Virginia. Above all, he has made himself 
a good name, which is more to be desired than gold. 



Daniel Cato Suggs 



Some of the best institutions for higher learning in the 
South today, for both white and colored, originated in an 
effort to provide an educated ministry. With the growth 
of educational ideas and the advance of intelligence, these 
schools ihave broadened their scope and expanded their 
curricula till many of them are now more nearly Univer- 
sities than Theological Schools. This does not mean that 
their Theological departments have been abandoned. 
Rather they have been strengthened, and other depart- 
ments, classical, scientific and industrial, have been added 
till now they stand for Christian education in the broadest 





DANIEL CATO SUGGS 



274 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

sense, an education that is productive and fits its students 
for the home and for citizenship as well as for the profes- 
sions. One of these schools which has rendered large serv- 
ice during the years, is Livingstone College of Salisbury. 
It will be seen that the head of such an institution must be 
a man of constructive ability, vision and learning. Such a 
man is Pres. Daniel Cato Suggs, A. B., A. M., Ph. D., of 
Livingstone College. 

He is a native of Wilson, N. C, where he was born 
two days after Lee's Surrender on April 11, 1865. His life 
being so nearly contemporary with the freedom of the race 
in America, Dr. Suggs interprets in a peculiar way, in his 
struggles and accomplishments, not only to his own people 
but to the world, the meaning of one generation of freedom. 
His parents were George Washington and Esther Suggs. 
His maternal grandmother was Jane Best. His paternal 
grandparents were Luke and Susan Edwards. 

As a boy he attended the local public schools and Wil- 
son Academy. Later he went to St. Augustine School, 
Raleigh. When ready for college, he matriculated at Lin- 
coln University, w*here he won his Bachelor's degree in 1884. 
Subsequently the A. M. degree was conferred on him by 
the same institution. His Ph, D. is from Morris Brown 
University. He began his career as a teacher during his 
student days and has been in educational work for nearly 
forty years. The early years of life spent on the farm 
developed a vigorous body which has stood remarkably 
well the strain of the years indoors. 

On completing his course at College he was called to 
the public schools of Kinston and went from there to Ashe- 
ville for two years. At the end of that time he was elected 
to the Chair of Natural Science and Higher Mathematics at 
his Alma Mater, where he taught for three years. From 
Livingstone College he went to the Georgia State Industrial 
College for Colored Youth at Savannah. Here he had the 
chair of Natural Science and was Vice-President of the 
College. The story of his work at Savannah is no small 
part of the history of the Institution. For twenty years 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 275 

he labored there and helped to make the State College one 
of the most popular institutions of its kind in the lower 
South. 

In 1917 there was an opening for him in his native 
State and Livingstone called back to administer her affairs 
the young man who thirty-three years before she had sent 
forth to his work. Both the man and the institution had 
grown immensely in the meantime. As the center of the 
A. M. E. Zion educational interests in the South, Livingstone 
is doing a splendid work and under its present leadership 
can look to the future with hope and confidence. 

On Sept. 29, 1902, Dr. Suggs was married to Mary A. 
Nocho of 'Greensboro. She, too, was educated at Living- 
stone and was before her marriage a teacher. They have 
five children: Christine, Cato, Beatrice, Frank G., and 
George R. Suggs. 

Dr. Sugg's favorite reading is along Scientific lines. 
He is, of course, a member of the A. M. E. Zion Church and 
has twice been a lay delegate to the General Conference. 
He belongs to the Odd Fellows. He is of the opinion that 
the permanent progress of the race depends on the right 
sort of education. 



Harrison Ingram Quick 



The Quick family is an important one in the "Old North 
State," and is well represented in the religious life of the 
State. One of the most vigorous members of the Quick 
family is Rev. Harrison Ingram Quick of Rockingham, who 
for years has been a prominent figure in the Baptist work 
of that section. 

Mr. Quick is a native of Rockingham and goes back 
to the slavery period, having been born just before the war 
on Nov. 17, 1859. His father, John Quick, was a carpenter 
by trade. John's parents were Abram and Harriet Quick, 
natives of Marlboro Co., S. C. The mother of our subject 




HARRISON INGRAM QUICK 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 277 

was, before her marriage, Elizabeth Covington, a daughter 
of Rhoda Covington. 

On Dec. 27, 1877, Rev. Quick was married to Martha H. 
Ellerbe, a daughter of Ephraim and Nettie Ellerbe of Rich- 
mond Co. Of the nine children born to them seven are liv- 
ing. They are: Corina, Elizabeth, Nannie J., Nettie L., 
Dr. John D., William H., Cooohie and Ada Blanche Quick. 
These nave all been given the advantages of a college edu- 
cation which added to the excellent training of a Christian 
home makes them a credit to their parents and an ornament 
to the race. 

The story of Mr. Quick's struggles for an education and 
his fight to get ahead in the world is a fascinating one. In 
1861, before Emancipation, when the boy was only two years 
of age, his father died. There were two older brothers, 
one four and the other five. At the close of the war they 
were without means. In 1868 the mother married a Mr. 
Leah, who was kind of heart and a 'hard worker but who did 
not realize the importance of education. This was a great 
barrier in the way of the boys in their earlier school days 
and a source of much solicitude on the part of their mother. 
The boys were transferred to the home of their grandmother 
after which they went to school for several years. Books 
and clothing were to buy, but the boys stuck together and 
by running tar and burning coal at night for sale managed 
to make ends meet. The elder brothers went to college, 
while our subject married and established a home. They 
made his house their home till they too were married. In 
this way our subject was deprived of college training until 
1898 when he entered Shaw University for a special course 
in Theology. It is interesting to note that three of his chil- 
dren were attending the institution at the same time with 
their father. 

When a youth about seventeen years of age he had 
i?iven his heart to God and joined the Holly Grove Baptist 
Church. Later he felt the call to preach and was licensed 
by the Holly Grove Church in April, 1897. In October of 
the same year he was ordained to the full work of the min- 



278 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

istry and for more than twenty years has been in the active 
pastorate. He has served a number of the leading churches 
in his section and has steadily grown in popularity with the 
brotherhood. He pastored Bethlehem eight years, repaired 
the building and paid the debt of the church ; St. Lukes fif- 
teen years, repaired the church and cancelled the debt; 
St. Stephens five yars, Kyser two years, First Baptist, 
Hamlet, two years; First Baptist, Monroe, four years; 
East Rocky Ford, Wadesboro, eleven years; First Baptist, 
Southern Pines, four years; Macedonia, Hoffman, four 
years ; Deep Creek, Wadesboro, fourteen years ; St. Johns, 
Shannon, four years and Center Grove, Red Springs, three 
years. He has been Moderator of the Union in the Pee 
Dee Association for thirteen years and is Vice-President 
of the State Convention. He has always been active in edu- 
cational matters and is a Trustee of the DeBerry School at 
Rockingham. 

In addition to his success as a preacher Rev. Quick has 
also had a successful business career. Immediately after 
his marriage, he rented a small farm in Black Jack Township 
and continued to farm as a renter for eight years. He then 
bought a 64 acre farm and ran three plows. In this way he 
reared his family and was later able to buy 50 acres adjoin- 
ing his place and start another plow. Some years later he 
was able to buy 295 acres and 48 acres just out of the town 
limits and ran an eight horse farm. During these years 
he purchased town property at both Rockingham and Ham- 
let. This property was improved and brings him considera- 
ble income in rents. He pays taxes on more property 
than any other colored man in the county. In politics he 
is a Republican. He was one time a Justice of the Peace 
for 6 years and was also in the Revenue service. He was 
also elected to the Legislature from his county, but was 
not seated. Among the secret orders he affiliates with the 
Masons, Pythians, Royal Knights and the Eastern Star, hav- 
ing filled the chair in Masons and Pythians and Deputy 
Master in other orders. 

Such in brief is the story of a man who, though born 



m 



fv • 




NORTH CAROLINA EIDTION 279 

in slavery, has struggled up to a place of large usefulness 
and has demonstrated what a boy can do who is willing to 
''launch out." 



Richard Spiller 



At the time of this writing (1920) Dr. Spiller is sixty- 
eight years old, but (he is vigorous and active and is taking 
care of a man's job. The reader will not be surprised there- 
fore to learn that Dr. Spiller is a wonderful man and a 
leader among leaders. 

The scene of the most active part of his work is laid in 
Virginia, where he reached a position of commanding influ- 
ence among Negro Baptists, and that means the Negro race 
in that State, for most of them are of the Baptist persua- 
sion. 

Those who know Dr. Spiller best pronounce him a mas- 
ter debater and parliamentarian in deliberative bodies of all 
kinds, and he is seldom left with a minority and if he ever 
finds himself in a minority it is not long before he is with 
the majorty, and this does not mean that he capitulates, 
but it often signfies that neither majority nor minority 
is what he is seeking, but unity. His spirit is combative 
but he has sufficient humility and consideration of the other 
side when beaten to acknowledge it and is always the first 
to seek unity. Dr. Spiller is 1 a great preacher. He uses a 
manuscript and uses it well. His sermon is not written out 
in full but the logical portion is written and the illustrations 
are not written. Indeed he really comments on his own 
written sermon, and that is how he carries the less educated 
along with the more intelligent classes. He is a preacher 
such as is not generally met with. He does not intone his 
sermons nor work his people up to ecstacy as many others 
but in his sermons the instruction and the logic and the 
conscience receive greater consideration than the feelings. 

Dr. Spiller was born somewhere in Buckingham Co., 



280 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Virginia, June, 1852. His parents were William and 
Delphia Spiller. He remembers his grandmother was 
Nancy Johnson. He attended school in Richmond and later 
on the Richmond Theological Seminary four years. Dur- 
ing the Civil War he attended a Sunday School conducted 
by Presbyterians at Lynchburg, Va. He was converted 
when about nineteen years of age. After studying for the 
ministry at Richmond he traveled North with jubilee sing- 
ers for a school at Christianburg, Va. He was formally 
ordained to the ministry by the Court Street Baptist Church 
at Lynchburg, Va., in 1875 and his first pastorate was the 
First Baptist Church as Bristol, Va., where he remained two 
years. He then accepted the Bank Street Church at Nor- 
folk, Va., and while in Norfolk studied under an able man 
and has ever since that time devoted much time to his 
studies. After pastoring at Bank Street Church for nine 
years and baptizing eight hundred persons he organized the 
Queen Street Baptist Church in the same city with only three 
members, bought a lot and built a house of worship for 
them and remained as pastor for four years, leaving the 
church with two hundred and thirty members. 

He also did much missionary work while at Norfolk 

that has resulted in much good to the denomination. He 

organized the Calvary Baptist Church of Norfolk, which has 

grown to be the largest church in the city. He resigned 

Queen Street Church to accept the First Baptist Church 

at Hampton, Va., and he found the church discouraged but 

he completed the house of worship and baptized nearly 

eight hundred persons during the seventeen years he served 

that people. While pastor at Hampton he organized the 

Spiller Academy and kept it going while he remained at 

Hampton. After he resigned the school was moved to the 

Eastern Shore. Dr. Spiller went from Hampton to the 

Tabernacle Church, Alleghany, Pa., but resigned after two 

years and came to Concord, N. C, where he pastored his 

first church in North Carolina for two years. He then 

served the Central Church at Wilmington, N. C, for two 

years and resigned to accept the Mt. Vernon Baptist Church 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 281 

at Durham, N. C. At this writing he had passed with his 
seventh year at Durham, and has wonderfully helped that 
church and, indeed, the colored people of the entire city. 
He has written much for the local press at Durham and 
has published a booklet of his sermons and is now prepar- 
ing a hymn book. 

Dr. Spiller has not taken an active part in politics, 
but is a member of the Masons, Pythians and St. Luke 
orders. He is a member of the State Lott Carey and Na- 
tional 'Convention Boards and will be recognized in any 
gathering he attends. He took a leading part in establish- 
ing Virginia Seminary, Lynchburg, Va., while in that State. 

On July 1, 1876, Dr. Spiller was married to Mary E. 
Thompson, of New Jersey, and to them two children have 
been born, the daughter, Lula Estella, is now Mrs. Hawkins, 
and is a preacher of the Gospel like her father. The son, 
William N. Spiller, is a musician of ability and wide reputa- 
tion, having played abroad and in all the principal cites of 
the United States. Dr. Spiller has amassed no great wealth 
but owns some property at Durham, Lynchburg and Appo- 
mattox, Virginia. 



George Henry Mitchell 



The trend of the Negro population has been from the 
South to the North. However, there are a few who, though 
born and reared at the North, have seen the opportunities 
in the unoccupied fields of the South and by intelligent ap- 
plication to their chosen lines of work have succeeded most 
creditably. One of these pioneers in the legal profession 
and in the real estate field is George Henry Mitchell of 
Greensboro. 

Mr. Mitchell is a native of Washington, D. C, where ho 
was born Aug. 27, 1876. His father, the late Geo. W. 
Mitchell, was an attorney at Washington, D. C, and profes- 
sor of Latin and Greek at Howard University. His mother 




GEORGE HENRY MITCHELL 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 283 

who, before her marriage to Prof. Mitchell, was Alvira 
Scott, was a native of Ohio. She was a daughter of John H. 
Scott of Oberlin, a noted Abolitionist, one of Wellington 
Rescuers, and his wife Cecilia Scott, both of Scottish and 
Negro ancestry. This branch of the family went to Ohio 
from Fayetteville, N. C, in 1848. 

Young Mitchell's father died when the boy was only 
three years of age and the family moved from Washington 
to Chattanooga, Tenn. Here he laid the foundation of his 
education in the Howard High School. He has been a hard 
worker all his life. At an early age he picked cotton and 
chopped cordwood, and such was his record as a student 
that he began teaching at fourteen. 

He went to Shaw University, Raleigh, N. C, for his 
College work and for his law course. He won his Bachelor's 
degree in 1897 and the L.L. B. degree from the same insti- 
tution in 1909. Subsequently he went to the University of 
New York for some special work on account of which he 
was given the L.L. M. degree. 

After passing from the elementary grades he found it 
necessary to make his own way in school but refused to 
be discouraged and forged ahead till he was well equipped 
for his work. 

The counsel of his mother during his boyhood and 
youth and a desire to do more than his father did constantly 
impelled him to renewed effort. 

He was an active, popular student and while in school 
was fond of college athletics. His favorite reading after 
his professional books runs to the classics. 

Early in 1902 Mr. Mitchell located at Greensboro, where 
he has since resided. 

Combining the real estate business with his law prac- 
tice he has built up a good clientage in both. He is the only 
lawyer of his race in Greensboro. While a Republican in 
politics he takes no active part in party politics beyond ex- 
ercising the franchise. He belongs to the Baptist Church 
and is identified with the Pythians. From his experience 
and observation he is of the opinion that the best interests 



284 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

of the race may be promoted, "By development of racial' 
pride through sane race periodicals, by thrift, by ceaseless 
industry and by the exercise of the ballot, which alone 
gives safety." 

Mr. Mitchell has been twice married. His first mar- 
riage was in 1903, to Maude M. Wood of Greensboro. She 
bore him one son : Geo. H. Mitchell, Jr., and passed away in 
1907. Subsequently, on Aug. 22, 1912, Mr. Mitchell was. 
married to Lucy C. Smith, a daughter of Rev. J. E. and Ida 
Smith of Chattanooga, Tenn. They (have three children: 
Edward E. E., Kathleen A. and Walter R. Mitchell. 

In 1912 he was licensed to practice in the Federal 
Courts and has been President of the North Carolina Bar 
Association since its organization. 



Robert Blair Bruce 



It is a far cry from the condition of slavery into which 
our subject was born to the Bishopric of a great denomi- 
nation. It is interesting to study the qualities which have 
brought such a man to the front. 

Robert Blair Bruce was born in Brunswick Co., Va., just 
after the outbreak of the war of sections on June 26, 1861. 
His parents, who were slaves before Emancipation, were 
Robert H. and Mary (Jones) Bruce. His maternal grand- 
parents were David and Lila Jones. The grandfather lived 
to the remarkable age of a hundred and nine years. 

The boy grew np on the farm and was permitted to go 
to school on rainy days. His grandmother and an uncle 
raised (him. At an early age he aspired to a more liberal 
education than his environments promised. The nearest 
school of importance was at Lawrenceville, seven miles 
away. Something of his eagerness will be understood when 
it is stated that he walked that distance back and fortn 
each day till the foundation of a good education was laid. 
Incidentally these hard years of his youth did other things. 




ROBERT BLAIR BRUCE 



286 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

for him. They developed a vigorous body which has been 
able to stand the strain of the years remarkably well. They 
also taught him lessons of thrift and economy which have 
played their part in life. They have done more. They 
have created in him a bond of sympathy with all struggling 
youth. 

Bishop Bruce was scarcely more than ten years of age 
when he was converted. He early turned to the work of the 
ministry and has been an active minister of the Gospel 
for nearly forty years. After leaving the school at Law- 
renceville, he went to Petersburg and it was there in Bishop 
Payn'es Divinity School he took his Theological course. He 
began preaching at 18 but actually joined the Conference 
at twenty-two under the late Bishop Hood at Petersburg. 
After completing his work at Petersburg he was on the 
work at Winston for two years. In 1894 he came to Char- 
lotte as pastor of Grace Church, whidh he served for five 
years and started the splendid building which has since 
been completed. His next appointment was the Little Rock 
Church, where he remained for one year. He was in Salis- 
bury two years. 

Early in his ministry 'he saw the tremendous advantage 
in every way which must accrue to the denomination by 
producing its own literature especially its Sunday School 
periodicals. He was a pioneer in that field and was largely 
instrumental in the establishment and building up of the 
publishing interests of the denomination. For twenty-two 
years he was Editor of the A. M. E. 7Am Sunday School 
periodicals, a position which he held until he was promoted 
to the Bench in 1916. Though never formally appointed 
Presiding Elder he virtually served in that capacity for a 
number of years in and around Charlotte. 

He was elevated to the Bishopric in 1916 at the General 
Conference sitting at Louisville, Ky. His president diocese 
consists of South Carolina and Georgia. The degree of 
D. D. was conferred on him by the school at Pittsburg. 

Bishop Bruce has not been active in politics but belongs 
to the Masons, in which he is Deputy G. M. of the State. 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 287 

Next after the Bible his favorite reading is History He is 
a forceful speaker and through his writing has reached 
perhaps more people than any other man in the denomina- 
tion. He cares more for the fundamental things of charac- 
ter and common sense than for appearances. He believes 
that the permanent progress of the race must ultimately 
rest on hard work, common sense and economy. 

In May, 1894, Bishop Bruce was married to Henrietta 
Foster, of Farmville, Va. They have an adopted child, Robt 
B. Bruce, Jr. 

(Note.) Since the above was written Bishop Bruce 
has passed to his reward. He died on July 9, 1920 and 
was laid to rest with impressive ceremonies attended bv 
hundreds of people who miss and mourn this great leader 
in Zion. 



Commodore M. Reid 



Rev. Commodore M. Reid now (1920), stationed at 
St. James M. E. Church, Winston-Salem, N. C, is a native 
of the Old North State, having been born in Cabarrus Co. 
August 9, 1889. His father, James S. Reid, was also a min- 
ister of the Gospel, and. his mother, before her marriage, 
was Margaret Boger. His grandparents on the paternal 
side were Jerry and Mamie Reid and on the maternal side 
Jesse and Martha Boger. Rev. Reid's father was free- 
born, but his mother was a slave before Emancipation. 

As a boy he attended the local public school and when 
ready for college matriculated at the A. & M., now the A. 
& T. College at Greensboro, graduating from that institution 
in 1907 and also did special correspondence work under the 
direction of the Chicago University in Theology. 

On May 29, 1908, Rev. Reid was married to Bertha Rus- 
sell, a daughter of Charlie and Mary Russell, of Greens- 
boro. Mrs. Reid was educated at Bennett College. They 
have two children, Quinten E. and Commodore Reid, Jr. 




COMMODORE M. REID 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 289 

Young Reid had the misfortune to lose his mother at 
an early age and there was a large family of children be- 
sides himself. They lived in the country and there could 
hardly have been a more unpromising situation than that 
which confronted our subject. He remembers now, as he 
looks back over those days, that the Sunday School was a 
steadying influence in his life and that he got from it much 
of the inspiration that has been beneficial in his large suc- 
cess. When he was about fourteen years of age, he was 
converted and came into the work of the A. M. E. Church 
and later definitely consecrated himself to the work of the 
ministry. From boyhood he had felt that his life work 
must be that of the ministry, but knowing the hardships of 
the ministry he tried to get away from the call but finally 
yielded. Speaking of his career as a preacher, he says : 

"My first pastorate was Erie Mills Circuit containing 
two churches, St. Stephens 'and Piney Grove. I was ap- 
pointed to this circuit in July, 1913, in the middle of the 
Conference year. That fall I was ordained Deacon by 
Bishop Coppin, at Hickory, and sent to Coppin's Chapel, 
Durham. This was a mission with nine women and chil- 
dren as members. I resided at Raleigh and went back 
and forth to Durham to my work. The membership in- 
creased from nine to thirty and my report to the Conference 
showed half of a $1,500 debt paid. I was pleased when as- 
signed to Wayman's Chapel, Mt. Airy, but was very much 
surprised on arriving to find the membership greatly re- 
duced and dissatisfied because of a long standing debt. The 
building had been purchased twenty-five years previously 
at a cost of $800. Figures on the book showed that 
$8,000.00 had been raised and yet they had a debt of $500. 
My report to the next Conference showed the debt paid in 
full. It was at this Conference that I was given Elder's or- 
ders. I was retained at Mt. Airy for another year and re- 
ported to the next Conference that the church building 
had been repaired and the membership increased to 100. 
My next assignment was the Burlington circuit, where I 
was confronted by another mortgage. That, however, 



290 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

proved the happiest year of my ministerial life, notwith- 
standing I suffered a severe attack of Typhoid fever, which 
was the first time I had ever needed the services of a doc- 
tor. My people proved loyal and faithful in this my time 
of distress and I shall never forget them. Naturally I 
was anxious to return there for the second term and had been 
promised the place by my Bishop. At St. James, Winston- 
Salem, however, a condition arose which necessitated a 
change, and to my surprise I was sent there. Again, one 
of the first things I met on arrival was the record of a debt 
of several thousand dollars which had hung over the present 
building since its erection fifteen years before. The mem- 
bership was small and seriously divided. On taking charge 
I was told, with more frankness than courtesy, that I was 
not wanted because of my youth. I was advised then that 
they had had some pretty big men and that they had run 
over all of them and that unless I was mighty strong they 
would run over me like an ox over a brush heap. I am glad, 
however, to say that I have been returned for a third term. 
The church building is clear of debt. A new furnace, new 
pews and electric lights have been added. The interior has 
been painted, new carpet put on the floor, all at a cost of 
nearly $4,000, which has been paid in full. The member- 
ship has steadily grown till we now have over three hun- 
dred on the roll." 

Thus it will be seen that Rev. Reid has grown steadily 
with his work and it is no small compliment to a man of 
his age to have been appointed to such an exacting position. 
The secret of his success is the direct, straight-forward way 
he has of dealing with folks. He is not afraid to work 
himself and impresses others with a desire to make things 
go on the circuit or station where he happens to be at the 
time. Before he entered the ministry he was a brick-layer 
by trade and has frequently been able to make valuable sug- 
gestions in connection with building and repair work. 

In reading he, of course, puts the Bible first. After 
that he has a love for the best English authors and the 
work of the leading writers of his own race, such as Paul 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 291 

Lawrence Dunbar, Prof. DuBois and others. Among the 
secret orders he is identified with the Masons. He is of the 
opinion that the best interests of the race will he promoted 
when large numbers become more efficient in every sphere 
of life. He says: "The National interests must ever lag 
until every citizen is given a man's chance and Negroes par- 
ticularly given equal rights." 

Rev. Reid has served as Statistical Secretary of the 
Annual Conference and Chairman of Committee on Susten- 
tation. He was active in war work and his church made an 
enviable record in the first Red Cross Campaign. 



Junia Newton Bennett 



Near Faison, N. C, is a school known as the Colored 
Training and Industrial School, which has for years past 
made its influence felt over a wide expanse of territory and 
has contributed unmeasurably to the elevation of the race 
for whose benefit it was launched. The members of Con- 
gress from that district, the mayor of the town and leading 
citizens in every walk of life have paid high tribute to the 
work of this school and to the splendid Christian character 
of its principal. 

Junia Newton Bennett, the man to whose brain and 
energy this institution owed its inception and its progress, 
was born April 16, 1869, in Piney Grove Township, Sampson 
Co., N. C. His mother's maiden name was Clarissa Har- 
groves, and the boy lived with his grandparents, James and 
Millie Hargroves. His grandfather was a shoemaker by 
trade and did some farm work. At an early period the 
boy's heart was fired by an ambition to work out a career 
for himself in life. But with no father living and con- 
demned as he was to a lot of poverty, the prospect for at- 
taining the object of his ambition did not seem bright. But 
with pluck and energy and a resolute determination to suc- 
ceed, he started out to work his way through school. He 




JUNIA NEWTON BENNETT 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 293 

ifirst attended the Philosphian High School, Faison, N. C. 
From there he went to St. Augustine College, Raleigh. For 
three years he taught summer school and worked about 
the buildings and grounds while in school. 

He was a mere boy when he began teaching his first 
school, which was the public school at Six Run, now called 
Turkey, N. C. After that he taught two years in Pitt Co., 
-one in Green and one in Carteret. From that time till now 
he has held steadily to the pursuit of his vocation as a 
teacher, except as interrupted by his own studies and varied 
by certain other incidental activities. 

Prof. Bennett has been married twice. His first mar- 
riage was on Mar. 4, 1895, to Elvina Herring of Faison. 
Two children were born to this union, but both passed 
.-away, as did their mother also. Subsequent to her death, 
<our subject was married a second time on June 3, 1902 to 
Lula C. Simpson, daughter of John and Mary Anne Samp- 
son of Clinton. She was educated at Clinton and was, be- 
fore her marriage, a teacher. They have eight children. 
Their names are: Booker T., Mabel T., Hattie L., Lattie V., 
Dewey S., Lula E., Tessie S., and Blarney Bennett. 

In 1888 Prof. Bennett founded, on 'his own place, near 
Faison, the Colored Training and Industrial School, of which 
he has been Principal throughout its history. At that time 
he was the sole teacher. Now he has a faculty of four. The 
enrollment was only eighteen at the start but has gone over 
two hundred, while a substantial plant has been provided 
:and the standard of work done by the institution raised. 

Prof. Bennett stands high locally. He has served the 
Piney Grove Township as Justice of the Peace and for six 
;years has been Editor of "The Sun," an independent paper 
^published at Faison. 

He is a member of the Baptist Church and belongs to 
l)oth the Odd Fellows and the Pythians, in both of which 
^e is Secretary. 

He has read widely, is fond of Poetry, of Milton, of 
works on Physical Culture and kindred subjects, and works 



294 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

of Biography, especially such as deal with the inspiring- 
stories of the leaders of his race. 

He urges persistently upon his people the importance 
of co-operation. Teamwork is what he believes will win the 
day. And he never forgets the importance of religious 
principles as a guide to life. These he stresses unceasingly- 
Some years ago Prof. Bennett began farming to> 
strengthen his health. In addition) to supplies for the 
school, he grows truck and the standard crops raised in that 
section. 



Edward Franklin Rollins 



Rev. Edward Franklin Rollins, now (1920) stationed 
at the old town of Washington, is one of the most effective 
men of the A. M. E. Zion connection in North Carolina. He 
is widely known, even beyond his own denomination as "the 
Blind Preacher." He was born March 6, 1876, at Holly- 
Springs. His parents were Sam and Julia (Jones) Rollins.. 
His grandfathers were Henderson Rollins and Nathan Jones.. 

Very early in life, perhaps when he was not more than 
five or six years old, young Rollins became impressed with 
the fact that his work in life was to be that of the minis- 
try. That impression grew upon him with the years and: 
when he was converted at the age of twelve it was generally 
accepted by all who knew him that he would be a preacher.. 
His entire education was shaped with that end in view. He 
graduated from the Institution for the Deaf, Dumb and. 
Blind in 1893. He has been blind since 1881, when both 
eyes were accidentally shot out by another boy but what to- 
many has proven a hopeless affliction he has overcome vic- 
toriously by his courage, mental gifts and consecrated deter- 
mination to be of service. Two years after his graduation, 
he joined the Conference under Bishop Cicero R. Harris, at 
Wilmington. His first pastorate was the Parkersburg cir- 
cuit which he served for two years. From the beginning: 




EDWARD FRANKLIN ROLLINS AND WIFE 



296 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

he was successful, going from his first appointment to the 
Scotland Neck Mission where 'he preached for two years 
with satisfactory results. After that he served the 
Clarkston circuit three years, Elizabethtown circuit one 
year, Carver's Creek circuit two years, Lake Waccamaw 
circuit three years and Grifton circuit one year. He was 
then appointed to station work and given the South Port 
Station, where he preached for two years. From South 
Port he was sent to the Metropolitan Church at Washington,, 
which he served for five years. Rev. Rollins has been an 
active and effective worker and has brought no less than 
3,000 new members into his denomination. 

On September 17, 1902, he was married to Mary A. 
Kemp, a daughter of Louis and Freelove Kemp. They have 
two children, James Maceo and Willie Dancey Rollins. Mrs. 
Rollins is admirably equipped for the work she assumed' 
when she married Rev. Rollins. On account of his blindness, 
it is necessary for her to be his assistant, secretary and 
guide. She enters into his work in the most cheerful and 
cordial manner and together they are making their lives; 
count for the Kingdom. 

Among the secret and benevolent orders Rev. Rollins, 
is identified with the Order of Love and Charity. 

In 1916 Mr. Rollins was a delegate to the General Con- 
ference of his church, which met in Louisville, Ky., and im 
1920 was an alternate to the General Conference which 
met in Knoxville, Tenn. 

Perhaps no better light can be thrown on this man's; 
character than a paragraph from a private letter written by 
him where he says : "The Lord has graciously blessed me 
and my work in bringing me from the lowest station in life^ 
to the present. Blindness has not been allowed to be an in- 
surmountable hindrance but rather a blessing in disguise.'" 




OlXLcw^ H 7m CvOyy^ 



William Henry McLean 



One who sees clearly and speaks fearlessly in religious 
matters, has said, "One great want of the times is a com- 
manding ministry— a ministry of a piety at once sober and 
earnest and of the mightiest moral power. Give us these 
men, 'free of faith and of the Holy Ghost,' who will proclaim 
old truth with new energy. Men of sound speech, who will 
preach the truth as it is in Jesus, Who will preach it apostle- 
wise, that is, 'first of all,' the source of all morals and the 
inspiration of all charity — the sanctifier of every relation- 
ship and the sweetener of every toil. Give us these men — 
men' of zeal untiring — whose hearts of constancy quail not 
although dull men sneer, and timid men blush, proud men 
scorn, and cautious men deprecate and wicked men revile." 

A man of the Baptist denomination who seeks to ren- 
der this sort v of service is Rev. William Henry McLean, 
B. Th., pastor of the First Baptist Church of Greenville. 
Dr. McLean is a' man who, despite the limitations of his 
educational opportunities, has succeeded on every field to 
which he has gone. He is a native of Fayetteville, where 
he was born Nov. 5, 1879. His parents were Wilson and 
Sophia McLean. They were members of the Methodist 
Church. On his mother's side there is a strain of Indian 
blood and his great grandfather was said to have been a 
full blooded African. Young McLean was reared by a 
white man, Mr. John M. Martin, of Fayetteville. Mrs. 
Martin taught him his alphabet. He remained with the 
Martins till he was nearly a grown man and even to this 
good day the relationship between them is most cordial. 
He went to Grammar School one year and from there passed 
to the State Normal for one year. After entering the min- 
istry he went to the Theological department of Shaw Uni- 
versity for t>tfo years, where he won his B. Th. degree. 

Mr. McLean experienced the new birth when he was 
about nineteen. A few months later he felt called to preach 



298 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

and in 1896 was licensed by the First Baptist Church of 
Fayetteville, and was ordained to the full work of the min- 
istry the following year. 

On September 14, 1897, he was happily married to Mary 
Lou Butler, a daughter of Henry Butler of Clinton, N. C. 
Mrs. McLean was educated at Hartshorne College and was, 
before her marriage, an accomplished teacher. She bore 
him one child, which is deceased. Mrs. McLean passed to 
her reward on Sept. 6, 1918. She entered heartily into the. 
work of her husband, who pays grateful tribute to her spirit 
of helpful co-operation. 

His first pastorate was the First Baptist Church of 
Clinton, where he preached for eight months. At the end 
of that time he accepted a call from St. Stephen's Baptist 
Church of Boston to which he went in 1900 and remained 
till 1908. In that time the membership grew from forty to 
eight hundred forty, and a new house of' worship was erected 
at an expense of sixty-five thousand dollars. He resigned 
the work in Boston in 1908 and went to Wayne, Pa., near 
Philadelphia, where he labored for eleven years. The 
church membership was more than doubled and the founda- 
tion laid for a new church. In 1919 he was called to Vir- 
ginia by the Lott-Carey Convention to do Missionary work 
and served in that capacity from April to September when 
he resigned to accept the urgent call of the Baptist Church 
at Greenville. Under his leadership the work is taking on 
new life and his friends predict for him a splendid future on 
this work. As an evangelist Dr. McLean has had great 
success and apart from his own pastorates has had twenty- 
seven hundred persons make profesisons in the meetings 
which he has held. 

In his own churches, he tries to do constructive work. 
He believes in co-operation, rather than antagonism. He 
stands for progress, for clean living, right teaching, a bet- 
ter home life. He has frequently been honored by the 
great denomination to which he belongs. He was for four 
years First Vice-President of the Pa. Baptist State Conven- / 
tion and Secretary of the Executive Board for five years. 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 299 

He has since coming to Greenville organized the Community 
of Welfare Betterment League. Among the secret orders 
he is identified with the Masons. He owns a home at Green- 
ville. 

So the boy who began work at a hotel at 50 cents a 
week is now the man, doing a man's work and occupying a 
place of leadership, because he feared God and worked. 



Calvin Scott Brown 



Rev. Calvin Scott Brown, D. D., is one of the most dis- 
tinguished citizens of North Carolina, and is also one of the 
most' worthy. He has spent all of his life laboring among 
the people of his race in his native State, and is known by 
his people as few others. 

Dr. Brown was born at Salisbury, N. C, March 23rd, 
1859. His father was named Brown, and was a shoemaker 
by trade, and he also served as a policeman. His mother's 
name before marriage was Flora Backett, and both her fa- 
ther and mother were mulattoes of Scotch-Irish descent. 
His father was a mulatto of the same Scotch-Irish descent, 
but his father's mother was a pure African. Dr. Brown 
shows his Scotch-Irish blood by his keen intellect and won- 
derful ability. 

Young Brown attended the Freedman's School at Salis- 
bury, and would not have pursued his studies further if 
Northern friends had not come to his rescue. By their aid 
he finally graduated from Shaw University at Raleigh, and 
he was easily leader among his classmates and fellow pupils 
along all lines. In school he distinguished himself as a 
member of the brass band, and he was about as proficient in 
one thing as another. From the beginning of his career 
he showed marked ability as an organizer, and rose to prom- 
inence in secret societies, at least in one, before he was out 
of his teens. He had organizing genius of such high order 
that even when a pupil at Shaw University, he planned a 



M 






.:■ 







CALVIN SCOTT BROWN 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 301 

Baptist Minister's Union for the State, and succeeded in 
bringing the preachers of his denomination together from 
all sections of the State. Before that time they could not 
get together on account of disputes over various matters. 
From the time Dr. Brown first interested himself in the 
people of his own Missionary Baptist denomination in the 
State until now he has wielded an influence that has easily 
made him the leader of his denomination in the State, and 
he comes as near being a real leader of all the people of 
the Negro race in the State as any other man in North Caro- 
lina. 

Dr. Brown graduated from Shaw University in May, 
1886, and during that same year, December 8th, he was 
marired to Amaza Jeanette, daughter of William Drum- 
mond and Julia Drummond of Lexington, Va. Miss Drum- 
mond attended Shaw University one year, after graduating 
from Hampton. Mrs. Brown has proven herself a true 
companion and assistant to her husband. They have been 
blessed with nine children, only one of whom is dead, and 
her death was caused by accident. The Browns are a 
strong, healthy family, and no doubt they will all make their 
place in the world in their day. The children are in their 
order: William Drummond, Flora B., Julia A., Calvin S., 
Purcell Tucker, Maria Ellen, Schley S., Eunice H., and 
Christine, deceased. The first three are married, and the 
two daughters have children, making Dr. Brown a grand- 
father. 

Dr. Brown was a very poor boy, and knew what priva- 
tion meant, and he made up his mind that if ever an oppor- 
tunity offered for improving his condition he would certainly 
leave no stone unturned, and he therefore deeply appreci- 
ated the opportunity afforded him for finishing his studies 
at Shaw University, and became a hard worker from the 
first, and is one of the hardest working men in the State 
today. He retires at a very early hour each night, and 
rises very soon in the morning, and after making all the 
fires, he goes at once to his office, where he works hard 
until dinner and then on until supper, and this is his rou- 



302 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

tine day in and day out, unless he is on the road. But it 
must be said that he spends much time on the road, either 
traveling the railroads to distant points, or going to his 
churches over country roads. But he never remains away 
from home long at a time, for his work is always on his 
mind. 

While still a student at Shaw University he was called 
to become pastor of the Plains Baptist Church near Winton, 
N. C, and he served that church for twenty-five years. As 
soon as he finished at Shaw University he at once made his 
home at Winton, and devoted himself to building up an acad- 
emy which is today one of the best institutions of the class 
in the entire State, and is now called Waters Academy. The 
school is located in a section where the people had very poor 
educational opportunities until Dr. Brown organized this 
school, and they responded with their money liberally in 
establishing and supporting his institution. Graduates 
from Waters Academy are found in cities and sections cov- 
ering many States and even in Africa, and Dr. Brown is 
regarded as one of the leading educators and leaders in the 
State. So far as the little town of Winton is concerned it 
was he that put it on the map, for the best white people' 
there look upon him as one of the best assets of the county 
and town. 

Dr. Brown has a fondness for writing, and he has es- 
tablished and edited at least two papers, one of which he 
set up himself and printed and mailed in the early days. 
Standing at the head of various influential organizations 
in and out of the State, from time to time he has been 
called upon to deliver annual messages to the people, and 
these documents will be found among the ablest literary and 
philosophic productions credited to our people. He has not 
been anxious to show himself a great reader, but rather a 
great doer, and he states that the chief literary works that 
have influenced him have been the Bible and religious 

books. 

Dr. Brown is a minister of the Gospel and has pastored 
several churches, but he has never pastored in a large city, 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 303 

though he has been called there and urged to accept. On 
the other hand he has spent his life among country churches, 
and sometimes pastored as mairy as tive at a time. It is 
needless to relate that his services there have been of in- 
valuable help to his people. He studied agriculture and 
the needs of the rural communities, and founded co-opera- 
tive societies for the purpose of helping his people in busi- 
ness. Of course such a very able man turned loose in a 
county like his must needs have built up great strength as 
a general leader of his people, and became a great power 
in politics. But he has never been a politician, and has 
steadfastly refused to accept any sort of political position. 
He has been a statesman and not a politician, but his influ- 
ence has been so great that at one time when the colored 
man acting as postmaster had the entire county against 
him, Dr. Brown alone exerted influence enough at Washing- 
ton to have him retained in position. 

For more than a score of years, in fact, from the very 
organization, he has been President of the Lott Carey For- 
eign Mission Society, a body which was organized to over- 
come the hostile attitude of many negro preachers toward 
white people North and South, and at the same time to do 
foreign mission work in Africa. The body has had won- 
derful success in carrying out the objects for which it was 
organized through the able leadership of Dr. Brown and 
others. 

While Dr. Brown lives in a country town, he has trav- 
eled very extensively in this country and in Europe, but 
never has seen any place that he liked better than Winton, 
because his heart is in that work. In Europe he wrote 
back home wonderful articles narrating his observations 
abroad, showing that he kept his eyes open and his head 
working. In fact he made such an impression by his ob- 
servations that his services were later on secured to 
chaperon a company of his people in Europe, and he did 
that work well as usual. He has also visited once or twice 
the Island of Hayti, in the interest of Missions. 

As a secret society man it may be that he wields an 



304 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

even greater influence than in any other capacity. He 
practically belongs to all of the leading orders, and has 
been grand secretary of the Masons for thirteen years, 
grand auditor of the Odd Fellows, a member of the finance 
Committee of the Pythians, and in these positions he has 
aimed to serve rather than to be benefited personally. 

By politics Dr. Brown is a Republican, because of the 
fact that it was this party that has lifted his people out 
of slavery, and because of its liberal attitude toward his 
people. His idea is that the best thing to do for the 
Negro is to apply the law to him exactly like it applies to 
all other American people, and do not discriminate against 
him nor for him. As an educator he believs both in in- 
dustrial and also college education for leaders of the people. 
But the very best indication of what Dr. Brown stands for 
as a leader and educator is to be found in the fact that he 
lives in the country most of his time and loves the work 
there, and the people white and colored love him. Another 
indication of the kind of man he is is found in the fact that 
he has not accumulated wealth for himself. He has not 
thought of himself but only of others. If it had not been 
for the fact that his wife inherited some money, which was 
wisely invested in Winton, he would die a poor man, but he 
perhaps will be able to live comfortably the rest of his life. 

Dr. Brown was converted at the age of sixteen and al- 
most immediately felt called to preach the Gospel. He was 
licensed to preach by the Dixonville Baptist Church and 
was ordained to the full work of the ministry in 1885. 

He has been popular and successful as a pastor and has 
served the Mt. Moriah Baptist Church for more than thirty 
years. During that time a new house of worship has been 
erected. He has pastored the New Hope Baptist Church 
for thirty-five years, where the growth of the congregation 
has necessitated building twice during his pastorate. A 
new house of worship has also been erected at the Philippi 
Baptist Church which he has served for more than thirty- 
two years. 

Dr. Brown's school work at Winton, wihich was begun 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 305 

in 1886, has grown to large proportions. He has a plant 
consisting of seven buildings worth at least $40,000.00, em- 
ploys a faculty of nine and has an enrollment of between 
300 and 400 pupils. 



Dorman James Avery 



There is scarcely a more enegetie man in the Baptist 
denomination in Western North Carolina than Rev. Dorman 
James Avery, D. D., pastor of St. Paul Baptist Church of 
Gastonia. He has a thorough working knowledge of North 
Carolina and an extensive acquaintance throughout the 
State. He was born in the historic old county of Wake, 
near Raleigh, on April 8, 1868. His father, Lewis Avery, 
was a son of Toby Avery and Millie Poole. His mother's 
name was Martha Avery. She was a daughter of Lewis 
and Margaret Haywood. 

The subject of our biography was married on April 10, 
1901, to Lucy C. Burwell, of Kittrell, N. C, who was a 
daughter of Rev. T. H. Burwell of that place. She taught 
school before her marriage to Dr. Avery. They have two 
children: James T. and Martha Avery, both of whom are 
being educated in the best schools. 

Young Avery laid the foundation of his education in 
the public schools of Wake Co. and passed from there to 
the Franklinton Training School. It was necessary for 
him to make his own way in school after leaving the pub- 
lic school. After reaching the point where he could secure 
a teacher's license, he began teaching and then found the 
way easier. He was converted and came into the work 
of the church at the age of twelve. While still in his teens 
he felt called to preach the Gospel and was licensed by the 
Springfield Baptist Church when only eighteen. He took a 
course in Theology at Shaw University from which he had 
the B. Th. dgeree in 1900. In 1913 Friendship College of 
Rock Hill, S. C, in recognition of his attainments conferred 




EORMAN JAMES AVERY 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 307 

on him the D. D. degree. He was ordained to the full 
work o fthe ministry by his home church on April 17, 1892, 
and has been actively in the ministry for nearly thirty 
years. His first pastorate was Earp's Chapel in Johnson 
Co., where he preached one year. He served Providence in 
Wake Co. five years and repaired the house of worship ; Kit- 
trell Baptist Church six years, and repaired the church, and 
Graham four years, and remodeled the building. He was 
then made Missionary for the State Convention (Co-opera- 
tive) which held him for nearly four years. He resigned 
that work to accept the call of the First Baptist Church, 
Reidsville, N. C, which he pastored for nine years. The 
church was repaired and every department of the work 
strengthened. 

From Reidsville he went to the Tupper Memorial 
Church at Raleigh for two years and in 1916 accepted the 
call to his present pastorate at St. Paul, Gastonia. A new 
and modern pastor's home has been erected since his com- 
ing to this work. Dr. Avery has also made his mark as an 
educator. In addition to considerable work in the public 
schools, he founded the Thomson Institute at Lumberton, 
and presided over it for two years. During the same period 
he also patsored the church at Piney Grove. He taught 
four years in Rockingham Co. and has taught one year 
since coming to Gastonia. 

He is a clear thinking, progressive man whose work 
has been marked by steady growth and development along 
both financial and spiritual lines. He has baptized at 
least two thousands 'persons and has had a fruitful ministry. 

As he looks back over his life he reckons the influence 
of one of his teachers, Prof. W. R. Hall, as one of the most 
powerful factors affecting his career. Also Dr. D. A. Lane, 
now of Washington, D. C, exerted a strong influence. 

Dr. Avery is a Mason. He is a member of the Execu- 
tive Board of his local association, a member of the Board 
of Managers of the State Convention. He is also on the 
Board of the Lott Carey Foreign Missionary Convention. 
His favorite reading consists, after the Bible, of History 



308 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

and the Classics. He believes the greatest single need of 
the race is the right sort of education. Feeling the need 
of a strong man as head of the work the Board of Trustees 
of the Brinkley Academy, Brinkley, Ark., through the rec- 
ommendation of Drs. T. O. Fuller, Memphis, Tenn., and S. N. 
Vass, Raleigh, N. C, secured the services of Dr. Avery as 
Principal of the School. He assumed the leadership of this 
great school, in one of the most thriving and prosperous 
sections of Arkansas, Oct. 13, 1919. With such thorough- 
going and strong men backing this school, the most cordial 
relation and kindly feelings between the races, the school 
bids fair to be one among the best schools of its kind in 
the State. Dr. Avery is assisted by a strong corps of 
teachers and has bright prospects of being able to do a 
work which will be an honor to him and reflect credit on 
the race. 



Reuben Ralph Cartwright 



Among the Baptist sof Northeastern North Carolina, 
there is no more forceful or popular minister than Reuben 
Ralph Cartwright, who resides at Belcross, Camden Co. 
The Rev. Dr. Cartwright has back of him years of success- 
ful work as a pastor and leader. He is one of the most 
highly respected citizens in Camden Co. He was born at 
Belcross on August 27, 1888. His father, Miles Cartwright, 
was a man of high standing, a blacksmith by trade, and his 
mother, before her marriage, was Ann L. Jarvis. His pa- 
ternal grandfather was a slave by the nme of David Calley. 
On his mother's side, his grandparents were Reuben and 
Matilda Relph, both slaves. 

Beginning as a boy in the public schools, young Cart- 
wright spent years in preparation for his work as a min- 
ister. He passed from the public schools to Plymouth State 
Normal and later attended the Roanoke Collegiate Institute 
and finally the Afro- American Institute of Washington, D. C. 




REUBEN RALPH CARTWRIGHT 



310 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

He was graduated from the Roanoke Institute in 1893 with 
the degree of B. Th. The D. D; degree was conferred 
upon him in 1912 by the Afro-American Institute. The 
late Bishop Johnson was president of the institution at that 
time. 

Dr. Cartwright grew up on the farm in Camden Co., 
near where he now resides. When about fourteen years of 
age he joined the Baptist Church but it was in 1894, after 
he had grown to manhood before he definitely determined to 
enter the ministry. He was ordained to the full work of 
the ministry by the Sawyer's Creek Baptist Church of Bel- 
cross in 1895. 

On June 8, 1898, Rev. Cartwright was married to Char- 
ity L. Lilly, a daughter of Nancy and Thomas Lilly. To 
this union were born five children, three boys and two girls. 
The following survive: C. W. D., W. H. C, Marion A. and 
Nola B. Cartwright. 

Their mother (Charity) passed to her reward on June 
29, 1908. These four children are being given the advan- 
tage of high school and college education, and it is needless 
to add that they are being given advantages which he lacked 
in his youth. 

On Dec. 28, 1910, Dr. Cartwright was married to Sarah 
C. Martin of .Poplar Branch, N. C. She is the youngest 
daughter of Joseph and Lydia Martin. 

To this union have been born four children, three boys 
and one girl. They are J. F. G., M. W. D., R. R. and 
Annie L. Cartwright 

Our subject had the misfortune to lose his father when 
he was only ten years old, and being the youngest child of 
the family, the other children married and scattered, and 
he was left at home to care for his mother. Naturally, 
this interfered with his schooling and yet he had the cour- 
age and ambition to go ahead and equip himself for his 
work in life. Even at that early age he was prompted by a 
fervent desire to be of some service to his race and people. 
All his life he has been a hard worker. Notwithstanding 
the fact that he has been a busy man, he has traveled over 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 311 

America from Maine to Mexico. Next after the Bible, he 
finds the biographies of great men of special value in his 
reading. 

His first pastorate was the First Baptist Church of 
Rich Square. In 1897 he was elected to fill a vacancy in the 
faculty of Plymouth State Normal, where he remained as a 
teacher for five years. He resigned this professorship to 
accept a position as General Missionary of his denomina- 
tion for the State of North Carolina, under the direction of 
the Publication Board of the National Baptist Convention. 

In 1901 he was called to the pastorate of Oak Grove at 
Hickory, Virginia, which he served continuously for eigh- 
teen years. He resigned this church in 1919 to accept the 
pastorate of the First Baptist Church of Roper, N. C. In 
the meantime, he has served a number of country churches 
and was for fifteen years Moderator of the Northeast Bound 
Union Meeting of Eastern North Carolina. When, in 1917, 
he was selected Moderator of the Roanoke Baptist Associa- 
tion he resigned the former position. The Roanoke Associ- 
ation is the largest in the State. This body is composed of 
74 churches, and has a membership of over 20,000. 

Dr. Cartwright is a very capable leader. He is recog- 
nized as one of the very best preachers and leaders of the 
Baptist denomination in the State. The work of the As- 
sociation has shown steady growth under his administra- 
tion. 

He is a Republican in politics. Among the secret or- 
ders he belongs to the Masons and Odd Fellows. He owns 
and has operated a farm near Belcross, and another near 
St. Bride, Va. He lives at Belcross, where 'he has sur- 
rounded himself with the comforts of life. He believes 
the best interests of the race are to be promoted by a fair, 
untrammeled opportunity, a square deal in governmental 
affairs, and justice in the courts, as well as equal educa- 
tional advantages with those of any other race. 



William Gaston Pearson 



Many of the most successful business and professional 
men were blind to the opportunities that lay right around 
them in their youth. So they went away to neighboring 
States or distant cities to discover opportunities. Occasion- 
ally one finds a wise man who could see the opportunities 
at his door and who had the courage to mine his own dia- 
monds. Such a man is Prof. William Gaston Pearson of 
Durham, educator, organizer and banker. He is more than 
that, he is a sort of institution in Durham. Perhaps the 
best and simplest thing that can be said about his career 
is that it has been carved out in Durham among the people 
who know and understand him best and that at sixty he 
has more friends than at any previous period in his life. 

Prof. Pearson was born at Durham on April 11, 1859. 
His parents were Geo. B. Pearson and Cynthia Ann Barbee. 
Coming of school age just after the close of the War, the 
boy went to the public school of Durham. He passed from 
the public school to Shaw University from which he gradu- 
ated with the A. B. degree after six years. That was in 
1886. Prior to that time he had taught during two sum- 
mer vacations. On completing his course at Shaw, he was 
offered a place in the Durham schools which he accepted. 
He has been identified with the schools of Durham continu- 
ously since 1886 and is now Principal and Supervisor of 
city high schools. Received degree A. M. in course at Shaw 
University, Ph. D. Kitrell College, and A. M. 1919, Wilber- 
force University. In every part of the State and in other 
States are to be found successful men and women who went 
to school to Prof. Pearson. He has long been a prominent 
figure in the educational life of the State. He, has done, 
perhaps, more Institute and Summer school work than 
any other man of the race in the State. He was for two 
years President of the State Teachers Association and for 
many years its Treasurer. 





^ 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 313 

Prof. Pearson has been quite as successful as a busi- 
ness man as teacher. When he began teaching he managed 
to link up some country school work in connection with his 
city school so that when one stopped the other began. In 
this way he taught continuously for twenty-four months. 
His outlay for clothing amounted to five dollars. He in- 
vested his earnings in real estate and built a house on one 
lot for $320.00. After that, he would build a house every 
year. Later still he reached a point where he could build 
several a year. As this property enhanced much of it was 
sold at a handsome profit and the proceeds re-invested. He 
is a careful trader and a good judge of values. 

He is Supreme Scribe of the Royal Knights of King 
David, a Benevolent and Fraternal order with a membership 
of twenty-two thousand. He has been identified with the 
order for thirty years and may be said to be its organizer 
in its present form. In this connection he publishes the 
Royal Knight Herald, the official organ of the order. He is 
also identified with the Masons and Pythians. He organ- 
ized the Mechanics & Farmers Bank and was the first 
cashier. 

On the death of the late John Merrick, Prof. Pearson 
was made President of the Mechanics and Farmers Bank, 
which position he resigned in 1920. In the summer of 
1920 he organized the Fraternal Bank and Trust Co. of 
Durham, with a capital stock of $125,000.00. He is the 
President of this growing institution. The bank occupies 
its own building on Fayetteville Street, erected at a cost 
of $50,000.00. With years of business experience to guide 
him and backed by ample capital, the institution should 
have a great field. 

Prof. Pearson is an active member of the A. M. E. 
Church in which he is a trustee. He was for a long time 
Superintendent of the Sunday School. He is a Republican 
in National politics and has attended several Republican 
National Conventions. In State politics he is independent. 
He was a visitor to the 1920 General Conference of the 
A. M. E. Church, which sat in St. Louis, Mo. 



314 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

On June 6, 1893, Prof. Pearson was married to Minnie 
R. Sumner of Charlotte. She was educated at Livingstone 
College and was also an accomplished teacher for many 
years. 

Such in a word is the story of one who began life un- 
der the most adverse conditions but who by faithful effort 
and persevering endeavor has made his life count in a large 
way both for himself and the race. 



Samuel Alexander Reid 



The subject of this biography was for thirty years a 
soldier in the United States army and during that period he 
not only obtained a position which reflected credit on him- 
self and on his race, but imbibed progressive and enlarged 
views of subjects of public interest. 

Samuel Alexander Reid. was born April 11, 1873, in 
Township No. 12, Cabarrus Co., North Carolina. He still 
makes his home in this county, his postoffice being Con- 
cord. He was the son of James S. Reid, a farmer, and 
Maggie Victoria (Boger) Reid. His further knowledge of 
his ancestry is confined to the fact that his father was 
freeborn and that his mother was a slave. 

His education was obtained in the public schools of 
Cabarrus Co. In 1893 he enlisted in the army in Chicago, 
Illinois. Beginning as a private he served in all the enlisted 
grades and for over twenty years held the position of 1st 
Sergeant. The breaking out of the great world war gave 
him his opportunity for advancement. But previous to this 
time he traveled over the world. He had a desire to go to 
College, but his ambition was thwarted by the poverty of 
his parents. When he entered the army it had been with 
the hope that later he might enter College. While this 
wish was never realized, the thirst for learning which it 
indicated led him to profit by the opportunities for culture 
which travel gave him. In the course of his military career 




SAMUEL ALEXANDER REID 



316 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

he first saw service in Cuba during the Spanish-American 
war, following- which he went to the Philippines for three 
years on the first occasion and again, in 1907, spent two 
years there. As opportunity offered he visited Hawaii, 
Japan and China. His eager and inquisitive mind readily 
absorbed the stores of instruction which travel in these 
countries opened to him. At the same time he was drink- 
ing at the fountain of inspiration opened by the world's 
great books. The two great Puritan writers, John Bun- 
yan and John Milton, through those great works "Pilgrim's 
Progress," "Paradise Lost" and "Paradise Regained," in- 
troduced him to the realms of imaginative literature. His 
love of military glory was stimulated by a study of the life 
of Napoleon Bonaparte, and the needs of another side of 
his nature were met by the life of the great negro leader, 
Booker T. Washington. 

At Fort Des Moines, Iowa, on Oct. 15, 1917, he was 
commissioned a Captain and was assigned to the 317th Am- 
munition train of the 92d Division. This Division reached 
France in June, 1918, when the world war was at a critical 
stage and was actively engaged in the Meuse sector of the 
gigantic battle field from then on until victory crowned 
the Allied Armies. At the close of the war, Captain Reid 
retired from the service. 

On April 11, 1911, Captain Reid married Bessie Louise 
Moore, a daughter of James M. and Laura Moore, of Con- 
cord. She was educated at the Emanuel Lutheran College 
of Greensboro and was before her marriage a teacher. They 
have no children of their own, but have one adopted son, 
Buford L. Reid, who is now about six years old. 

He is a member of the Presbyterian Church. He also 
belongs to the United Spanish War Veterans and to the Mili- 
tary Order of the Serpent. During the time of his military 
career he was an officer in each of these organizations, but 
has not held office in either of them since his retirement. 

Captain Reid is intensely interested n the progress of 
his own race. His early ambition for a college education, his. 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 317 

observation and study during the travel incident to his mili- 
tary career and his study of the lives of great leaders have 
combined to impress him with the importance of education. 
Next to this he stresses the importance for the Negro of 
saving money and owning his own home, and in this respect 
he has himself set a worthy example. He has also been 
impressed with the importance of more progressive meth- 
ods of work on the part of both the preachers and the teach- 
ers of his race. He is Physical Instructor at Lutheran 
College. 



Floyd Joseph Anderson 



Among the strong men of the Presbyterian Church in 
North Carolina coming from Virginia is Rev. Floyd Joseph 
Anderson, D. D., who now (1919), has the chair of Mental 
and Moral Philosophy at Biddle University. 

He is a native of Jetersville, Va., where he was born 
April 19, 1870. His father, Robert Anderson, was a farmer. 
He was the son of John and Lucinda Anderson. His mother, 
Mary J. Anderson, was a daughter of Catherine Alford. 

Young Anderson went to the local public school. 
When it came to securing a college education the boy 
was confronted with the necesisty of making his own way. 
He did not allow this to discourage him, however. He en- 
tered the Preparatory Department of Biddle University and 
was graduated from that institution as Valedictorian of his 
class in 1897. He has from Biddle the degrees of A. M. 
and D. D. He spent several vacations at the North, at 
hotel work, in order that he might continue his course at 
college without a break. 

Early in life he chose that good part of which the Mas- 
ter spoke and decided to enter upon the work of the Gos- 
pel ministry. His first pastorate was at Charleston, S. C, 
in 1900. He also preached for a while at Camden, S. C. 
Following this he was Sabbath School Missionary for some 




FLOYD JOSEPH ANDERSON 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 319 

months during- which time he was located at Jackson, Miss., 
In the fall of 1902 he was called to return to his Alma Ma- 
ter as Professor of Latin. He held that position for five 
years, when he was transferred to the chair of Mental and 
Moral Philosophy, where he remained for a dozen years. 
In the meantime he has done special work in Latin at How- 
ard University. 

On June 19, 1901, Dr. Anderson was married to Emma 
Richie, a daughter of Win. J. and Clara F. Richie of Abbe- 
ville, S. C. She was educated at Scotia Seminary and was 
before her marriage, an accomplished teacher in Charlotte 
City Schools. They have four children: Floyd J., Jr., 
Robert R., James W. and Clara N. Anderson. 

Dr. Anderson was licensed to preach by the Presbytery 
of Southern Virginia in 1899 and ordained the following 
year. He is a prominent figure in denominational gather- 
ings. He has served as Moderator of the Presbytery of 
Catawba and Moderator of the Synod of Catawba and was a 
Commssioner to the General Assembly of the Presbyterian 
Church of the U. S. A., which met at Atlantic City. 

Dr. Anderson believes that the greatest present need 
of the race is equal opportunity along educational and in- 
dustrial lines. His, favorite reading is Biography. His 
property interests are at Charlotte, where he owns an at- 
tractive home. 

Although giving his talents to teaching, Dr. Anderson 
frequently supplies the pulpit, to which he brings the dis- 
tinction of scholarly eloquence. 



William Sherman Turner 



Prof. William Sherman Tinner, A. M., who may be put 
down as one of the progressive and efficient young men of 
the Baptist denomination in the State, is making his mark 
both as a minster and as an educator. He was born in 
Stokes Co. on Sept. 1. I! and obscurity 



320 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

struggled up to his present place of large usefulness. The 
way was not easy, especially in the early days of his life 
when the school term lasted no more than three months 
and the school house was a one room log cabin. 

Sometime and somewhere during those days there grew 
in the mind of the boy a steadiness and devotion to purpose 
and a belief in the ultimate triumph of its right which, 
while not formulated at the time, accounts for his success. 
So it came to pass that the boy who plugged away in the 
one room log school house after a while went to the Univer- 
sity of Chicago, and he who struggled manufully with the 
simple elementary studies, caught a world vision and was 
prepared for leadership in the troublous times now upon us. 
His parents were William A. and Mary Jane (Hughes) 
Turner. 

Passing from the public school, Rev. Turner spent a 
part of a year at the A. & M. College, Greensboro, N. C, and 
later attended the Slater State Normal at Winston-Salem 
and then taught for nine years in Stokes Co. before going to 
college. He matriculated at Shaw University where he won 
his A. B. degree in 1910. He has the B. Th. from the same 
institution. After the completion of his course at Shaw he 
entered the University of Chicago, where he won his A. M. 
degree in 1913. Thus equipped he was called back to his 
Alma Mater and since 1913 has taught in that institution. 
He has the chair of Social and Religious Sciences. 

When about twenty years of age, young Turner was 
converted and joined the Baptist Church. Soon after he 
felt called to preach and in 1908 was ordained to the full 
work of the ministry. His first pastorate was at Graham 
during his student days which lasted two years. He 
was in the Y. M. C. A. work at Knoxville one year. Since 
then he has been in the active ministry supplying churches 
in various parts of the State. His favorite reading includes 
books of History, Philosophy and Theology. In politics he 
is an Independent. 

On Aug. 31, 1916, he was married to Dora D. Barber, 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 321 

who was also educated at Shaw, and who was before her 
marriage a teacher. 

Rev. Turner is of the opinion that "education in citizen- 
ship and religion, and the full guarantee of civil and politi- 
cal rights," are essential to the permanent progress of the 
race. 



James Boyd Ellis 



It has been noted many times that the Negro preachers 
have as a rule laid emphasis in their preaching on the Scrip- 
tures. Some of the white preachers might wander off 
into preaching politics, sociology, ethics, or literary criti- 
cism, but the Negro preacher is generally found standing 
by the old Book. 

A worthy representative of this type is Rev. James 
Boyd Ellis, of Burlington, Alamance Co., N. C. He was 
born Oct. 13, 1877, the son of John Ellis and Fannie 
(Thompson) Ellis. The place of his birth being Leesburg, 
N. C. As his father was a minister of the Gospel, he 
stands worthily in the line of apostolic succession. 

He was married September 25, 1901, to Doskie Graves, 
daughter of James and Susan Graves. This union has been 
blessed by one son, James Ellis, Jr. 

James B. Ellis received his education in the prepara- 
tory school at Leesburg, N. C. He was converted when 
about seventeen. In early manhood he felt called to preach 
the Gospel. In 1899, he was ordained to the full work of 
the ministry by the New Light Baptist Church at Greens- 
boro ,and has since been actively engaged in preaching the 
Gospel. Great success has crowned his efforts in the min- 
istry. Churches have grown in number, and converts by 
the hundred have been gathered into their fellowship. 

The first church to which Mr. Ellis was called as pas- 
tor was the New Light Baptist Church at Greensboro, 
which he has continued to serve to the present time (1920). 




JAMES BOYD ELLIS 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 323 

At that time the church had twenty members, now it has 
more than five hundred, and a new house of worship has 
been built. He served the church at Haw River eleven 
years and remodeled that church. He has pastored the 
Baptist Church at Gibsonville for seven years and erected 
a new church edifice. 

During his ministry, he has led over six hundred con- 
verts into the baptismal waters. Mr. Ellis, by visiting- 
some of the principal cities of the country, has broadened 
his knowledge of men and affairs and has ever been an ob- 
servant student of his times. He is profoundly convinced 
that the greatest need of the black race, as of the white, 
is that the members of the race shall put into their conduct, 
in every station of life, a reverence for God's holiness and 
obedience to His commands. He is fond of applying to the 
problems of our time the ,fme old Bible sentiment, 
"Righteousness exalteth a nation, but sin is a reproach to 
any people." He believes that when white and black do 
the will of God and apply the principles of Christianity to 
their relations with one another, prosperity will attend their 
steps. 

His home is at Burlington, N. C, and he is pastor of 
the churches at Gibsonville and Greensboro. He has a 
stake in the prosperity of the country since he has accumu- 
lated property of considerable va 1 . and is recognized as 
one of the substantial and self-respecting citizens of his 
community. He is leading his people in the pursuit of those 
things which will contribute to their highest and most per- 
manent well being. 

Rev. Ellis is Vice-Moderator of the High Point Associa- 
tion and was active in all the drives and campaigns during 
the war. Next after the Bible, his favorite reading is His- 
tory. As he looks back over the days of his boyhood, he is 
of the opinion that the influence of his father was the most 
potent in shaping his character. 



Andrew Jackson Corde 



Rev. Andrew Jackson Corde now (1920) presiding over 
the Morganton District, resides at Hickory, and is one of 
the most substantial men of the A. M. E. connection in the 
Old North State. Though he has for a long time been iden- 
tified with North Carolina, he is a native of Fairfield Co., 
S. C, where he was born August 1, 1860, just before the 
outbreak of the war. His father, Frank Corde, was a shoe- 
maker and his mother, before her marriage, was Rebecca 
Gilliard and was all her life a laundress. His paternal 
grandparents were Frank and Lucy Corde. 

Our subject grew up in the old town of Winnsboro, 
and coming to school age just after the close of the war, 
attended the Fairfield Normal Institute. He remained till 
graduation in 1880. After entering upon the work of the 
ministry, he attended Morris Brown University at Atlanta, 
from which he was graduated in 1906, his work there being 
in the Theological department. Some idea of how eager he 
was for an education may be gained from the fact that 
while attending the Normal at Winnsboro it was necessary 
for him to make his own way, which he did by working in 
a brick yard and doing other manual labor during his vaca- 
tions. When he was able to secure a teacher's license, in 
1877, he began work as a teacher, a profession which he 
followed for a number of years. His first school was in 
Fairfield Co. Later he taught in Union and Laurens Coun- 
ties, South Carolina. 

While in school, he read the life stories of some of the 
great men of history and was led by their example and ex- 
perience to undertake great things for himself. He was 
converted when sixteen years of age and joined the A. M. E. 
Church. He was convinced of the splendid field for service 
in the ministry, and consecrated himself to that work in 
1884. He joined the Conference at Columbia under Bishop 
Shorter and has since forged steadily ahead in the ministry 




ANDREW JACKSON CORDE 



326 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

of the Gospel. His first appointment was to the Blythe- 
wood Circuit which he served for two years. A new house 
of worship was erected at Piney Grove. He went from 
there to the Bethlehem Circuit for two years and built 
Walnut Grove Church, after which he went to Pleasant 
Grove Circuit for two years. His next appointment was to 
the Coldwell Circuit, which he served for two years, and 
while there repaired the church at Coldwell and built a new 
one at Macedonia. 

In 1904, he was transferred to the North Carolina Con- 
ference and served the Nashville Circuit one year, organiz- 
ing a new A. M. E. Church at Rocky Mount and erecting a 
new house of worship. After that he served Goldsboro 
Circuit two years and went from there to Kittrell College 
.as college pastor. In 1908 the degree of D. D. was con- 
ferred on him by that institution. From Kittrell he went 
to the Milton Circuit, and while there was Principal of the 
Graded School. He preached for two years on the Pleas- 
ant Garden Circuit and remodeled three churches. 

He was then promoted to station work and sent to 
Reidsville where he preached for two years, and from there- 
went to the Liberty Circuit from which he was sent to the 
Hickory Station. He went from Hickory to Efland Circuit 
and from there to Chapel Hill, where he had previously- 
preached while stationed at Kittrell. After that he 
preached on the Guilford College Circuit and the Hillsboro 
Circuit. It was while at the latter place that he was ap- 
pointed by Gov. Kitchen a representative to the Third Na- 
tional Educational Conference at St. Paul, Minn., where he 
spoke on Negro Opportunities. He also interested himself 
in a local school while at Hillsboro and saw the Hillsboro^ 
High School established and in operation before he left 
there. 

On leaving Hillsboro, he went to the old town of Pitts- 
boro, and from there to Graham, where he preached for 
two years and remodeled the church. He passed from there? 
to the Rutherfordton Circuit. 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 327 

In 1917 he was promoted to the Morganton District, 
over which he has presided till the present (1920). 

Though born in obscurity on a poor South Carolina 
farm, Dr. Corde has forged ahead and made a place for 
himself in the life of his people. By hard work and care- 
ful economy he has accumulated considerable property. 

On Aug. 9, 1883, Dr. Corde was married to Fannie 
Williams, a daughter of James and Fannie Williams of 
White Oak, S. C. They have been unfortunate in that only 
three of the seven children born to them survive. Their 
names are Minnie M. (Mrs. Faucette), Hattie O. and An- 
drew Jackson Corde, Jr. 

Dr. Corde has very clear ideas as to what is necessary 
"to race progress and development. He believes that first 
of all the race should have proper educational opportuni- 
ties. After that, they should be given equal protection and 
opportunities as citizens and before the courts. He contends 
with reason that the Negro is a law-abiding citizen and that 
given the right sort of chance, will work out for himself a 
destiny that is worth while. 



Henry Clay Mabry 



It has been said that "the great lesson of biography 
is to show what man can be and do at his best. A noble 
life put fairly on record acts like an inspiration to others." 
Viewed from this point the life and service of Dr. Henry 
Clay Mabry of Raleigh is a real asset not only to his denomi- 
nation but to the race as well. He is a native of Lexington, 
where he was born on Nov. 10, 1853. His mother, Elizabeth 
Mabry was a daughter of Warren Payne and Patsey Mabry. 
It will be seen that our subject was a boy twelve years of 
age at the close of the war and, of course, had not been given 
any schooling up to that time. After Emancipation, he 
was taught his first lesson by his former young mistress, 
-who taught him morning and evening and gave him two 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 329 

dollars a month for his services about the place. This was 
the beginning of a career which led to a career of large serv- 
ice and usefulness both as an educator and as a minister 
of the Gospel. He attended the Presbyterian Parochial 
School one year. When he aspired to a higher education and 
proposed going to Lincoln University, he was discouraged 
by his doctor who advised him that he would not live three 
months. Contrary to this dire prediction he has not only 
lived to be almost the allotted three score and ten but has 
filled the years with work and service. He went to Lincoln 
in 1868 and won his A. B. degree in 1873. 

Young Mabry began teaching in 1871, and organized 
the first colored graded school in North Carolina. Some of 
his earlier vacations were spent at summer seashore resorts 
in hotel work. After completing his College course he took 
up the Theological course which led to the B. Th. degree 
in 1883. He taught for a little more than a year at Bennett 
College. In 1879 he went to Franklinton where he remained 
for about five years and organized the Albion Academy 
which has grown into an institution of importance. He has 
in a way been a pioneer and his work both along educational 
and religious lines has been of a constructive character. He 
has sought to do foundation work rather than build on the 
foundation laid by another. He has made it a rule to go, not 
to the most attractive fields nor to see how long he could 
remain, but rather to thoss places which have offered the 
largest opportunities for service. 

Rev. Mabry's first pastorate was at Chadbourn, where 
he built the first church erected in that prosperous town. 
In fact he organized the church. For the first three months 
his pulpit was a saw log. He also enjoys the distinction of 
having planted the first strawerries in that section where 
strawberries have come to be such a profitable crop. He 
remained on that work for five years and erected a new 
house of worship, said at the time to be the most attractive 
church in the county. True to his training he carried on 
school work in connection with his preaching. From Chad- 
bourn he went to Fayetteville, where he preached and 



330 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

taught for nearly three years. Here he first repaired the 
old church and later laid the foundation of the present 
Presbyterian Church. In 1891 he was called to Biddle Uni- 
versity as Dean of the Theological Department and remained 
with that institution for two years when he resigned to go 
to Petersburg, Va., where he labored for two years and nine 
months. At the end of that time there was an urgent de- 
mand for his services again at Chadbourn. So he returned 
to that field and with characteristic zeal entered upon the 
work. In less than three years a church was built at Vine- 
land and a graded school organized for the twin cities of 
Vineland and Whitewille. 

In 1900 Rev. Mabry moved to Raleigh, where he has 
since resided. He pastored the Davie Street Presbyterian 
Church for nearly eleven years and ran a private school 
which grew to an enrollment of a hundred boys and girls. 
The Raleigh work grew and prospered under his direction. 
Since resigning that pastorate, he has served at Goldsboro, 
Holly Springs and now at Maxton. For seven years he was 
principal of the graded school at Wake Forest and is now 
(1919) head of the school at Apex. 

Before getting into the pastorate he was rather active 
in politics till impressed by his deliverance from an accident 
that his work lay in other directions. From that time to 
the present he has devoted himself with singleness of pur- 
pose to the spiritual and intellectual development of his peo- 
ple and has had the enduring satisfaction of seeing many of 
the converts of his early ministry and students in his vari- 
ous schools grow into manhood and womanhood and take 
their places in their communities as heads of families and as 
good citizens. There is scarcely a man in the Presbyterian 
Church in North Carolina whose work is more widely 
known or who is personally held in higher esteem than Dr. 
Mabry. He has during his long ministry brought into the 
church a large number of members. 

On March 3, 1874, he was married to Sarah Rebecca 
Denny of Westchester, Pa. She was educated at Morton's 
Academy. Dr. and Mrs. Mabry reared an intelligent and 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 331 

interesting family of six daughters. They have however, 
been called to go through the deep waters as five of the 
children have gone to their reward in advance of their par- 
ents. One daughter, Mrs. E. T. Tillman, survives. There 
are two grandchildren. 

Dr. Mabry has held almost every official position in the 
gift of his denomination. He has been moderator of his 
Presbytery and Synod and is Chairman of the Committee on 
Ministerial Relief and Sustentation ; and has for twenty 
years been Chairman of the Committee on Ministerial Re- 
lief. He enjoys the distinction of having sent nineteen 
young men into the ministry. 

Such in brief is the story of a man born in slavery. 
He has lived to see his people emancipated from slavery 
and has done a mans' work in freeing them from the slavery 
of superstition and ignorance. 



McDuffie Bowen 



The old county of Columbus, North Carolina, has con- 
tributed to the business and professional life of the race, 
several remarkable men. Among those who have made a 
place for themselves in the medical fraternity is Dr. McDuf- 
fie Bowen, of Wilmington. He was born near Whiteville 
during the war, on April 14, 1862. His father, John A. 
Bowen, was a son of John and Susan Bowen. His mother, 
before her marriage, was Miss Lucy Ann Dew. 

Young Bowen worked on the farm until manhood. His 
education, up to that time, had been confined to the local 
public schools. On June 16, 1881, he was happily married 
to Amy Oxendine of Robeson Co. Realizing their lack of 
training, and both being anxious to be of some real service 
to the world, they entered school together after their mar- 
riage. Their financial condition was such, however, at that 
time, that it was not practicable for them both to continue 
in school. Accordingly, the wife dropped out for a while 















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McDUFFIE BOWEN 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 333 

and this permitted the Doctor to go ahead with his course, 
which he completed in 1895. Such was the record he made 
as a student that when through school, he was offered a 
professorship at Shaw and remained with that institution 
till 1907. Later, Mrs. Bowen resumed her studies at col- 
lege, winning her A. B. degree in 1905. 

After finishing his medical course at Leonard, Dr. 
Bowen also did post-graduate work at Chicago. He prac- 
ticed in Raleigh until 1907, when he removed to Wilmington, 
where he has since resided and has built up a large general 
practice. 

During the administration of Governor Russell, he was 
appointed physician to the Institution for the Deaf, Dumb 
and Blind at Raleigh for colored peopl°, and handled this 
trust in such a way that he was continued in this position 
by the succeeding Democratic Governors, Aycock and Glenn. 

Before going to Shaw, Dr. Bowen taught school for 
several years in Columbus Co. His favorite reading, after 
his professional books, is History and Current Literature. 

Dr. Bowen is identified with both the State and National 
Medical Societies. He belongs to the Baptist denominaton, 
and is treasurer of the trustee board of his local church. 
Among the secret orders he holds membership in the Masons 
and Pythians. He took an active part in war work, be- 
longing to the Volunteer Medical Corps, but was not called 
into the service. His principal investments are in and 
around Wilmington. 



John Andrew Blume 



Winston-Salem, now the largest city in North Carolina, 
has long been noted for its progressive business men of both 
races. Among the successful Negro men of the city, who 
have risen from the ranks to Drominence in the business 
life of the community, must be mentioned John Andrew 
Blume, of the Winston-Salem Mutual Insurance Company, 




JOHN ANDREW BLUME 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 335 

and Treasurer of the Citizens' Bank & Trust Company. He 
is, in the best sense of the word, a "self-made man." This 
appears both in his education and in his business career. 

Mr. Blume was born at Friendship, in Guilford Co., on 
March 16, 1874. At an early age he moved to Forsyth Co., 
where he attended the public schools. By working in the 
tobacco factories he was able to earn the money on which he 
went to college. He attended Livingston College, at Salis- 
bury, but did not remain to fully complete the course. He 
has never sought to win success by any short cuts but has 
always believed in industry and honesty. His success as a 
business man has been built on this solid foundation. 

On returning from school, he entered the employ of the 
Winston Mutual Life Insurancce Company and made such 
a record that in a short while he was promoted to Gen- 
eral Manager of the concern, which position he held for 
ten years. He was not a man to be contented with a subordi- 
nate position when a higher or better one was within his 
reach, so three years ago he was promoted to the Presidency, 
which has brought great prosperity to the institution. He 
has invested his earnings wisely and has lived to see values 
grow by leaps and bounds in his adopted city. He was for 
a long time identified with the Forsyth Savings & Trust 
Company as stockholder, director and Vice President. With 
the organization of the Citizens' Bank & Trust Company, 
he was selected as the logical man for Treasurer on account 
of his means and splendid business ability. 

Mr. Blume is a member of the A. M. E. Zion Church 
of which he is a member of the Board of Trustees and of 
the Building Committee. In politics he is a Republican and 
is a Notary Public under appointment by the Governor. 

On July 1, 1904, Mr. Blume was married to Miss Cora 
B. Clement, a daughter of Rufus and Bettie Clement, of 
Winston-Salem. Mrs. Blume was educated at Livingston 
College and taught Domestic Science in the city schools of 
Winston-Salem. They have an attractive home on East 
9th Street. 

Mr. Blume is prominent in the work of the secret orders 



336 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

and benevolent societies. As a Mason, he is Deputy Grand 
Master of North Carolina ; he is also Deputy Grand Master 
of the Odd Fellows. lie is Supreme Inner Guard of the 
Supreme Lodge of K. of P., N. A. S. A. and E. A. A. A., 
and is Endowment Secretary for the North Carolina juris- 
diction Grand Court N. C. Order of Calanthe. In addition to 
this he is Supreme Representative of the Supreme Lodge, 
K. P. North Carolina, South America, Europe, Asia, Africa 
and Australia, representing the N. C. jurisdiction. 

He believes that progress will be made by working hard 
at all times, saving something of what we make, investment 
in well selected property and enterprises and in cultivating 
the friendly regard of all, but more especially of those who 
can help us in time of need. 



James Daniel Martin 



Prof. James Daniel Martin, A. B., A. M., Ph.D., Pro- 
fessor of Latin and History at Biddle University may be 
said to stand as an exponent of one generation of freedom 
as he was born May 9, 1864, after the Emancipation Procla- 
mation had been issued but before freedom was an accom- 
plished fact. True, not all members of the race have made 
the same progress, but his life and work show what a boy 
can do, even when early environment is against him. Prof. 
Martin was born at Mechanicsville, in Sumter Co., S. C. 
His father, John Martin, became an extensive planter after 
the war, having purchased land in 1872. His mother, who, 
before her marriage, was Miss Eliza Porter, was a daughter 
of Frank and Sookey Porter. Prof. Martin's paternal grand 
parents were Peter Doctor Martin and Elsie Martin. The 
gradparents on both sides were slaves. 

On Sept. 20, 1893, Prof. Martin was married to Miss 
Catherine Cleveland Dibble of Sumter, S. C. She was a 
daughter of Andrew H. and Elizabeth L. Dibble. She was 
educated at Claflin University. Of the nine children born 




JAMES DANIEL MARTIN AND WIFE 



338 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

to them six are living. These are John F., James Dwight, 
Lizzie B., Catherine B., Louise W. and Beauregard L. Mar- 
tin. 

Fortunately for young Martin, he was brought up in 
a section where the advantages of education have been 
emphasized. He went first to the Ebenezer Presbyterian 
School at Dalzell and later entered the Normal-Preparatory 
department of Biddle University. He was an apt student 
and his progress was steady. After completing the prep- 
aratory department he matriculated in the college course 
and won his Bachelor's degree in 1888. Seven years later 
the A. M. degree was conferred on him by the same institu- 
tion. Let no one imagine that this was accomplished easily. 
In order to secure means for his course, he was accustomed 
to do the hardest sort of manual labor and three times left 
the university to teach in the rural schools. Notwithstand- 
ing these breaks., however, he managed to rejoin his classes 
each time. While these were hard years, yet they were the 
years in which the young man laid broad and deep the 
foundation on which, his future success was built. He had 
great faith and untiring preserverance and zeal. He early 
realized that any worth-while success must be based on 
integrity and honesty of purpose. Prof. Martin has de- 
voted the best years of his life to teaching with a view to 
educating the leadership of the race. After his graduation 
he was for three years Assistant Principal of the State 
Normal School at Salisbury. In 1891 he was chosen Prin- 
cipal of the State Normal School at Goldsboro. At the end 
of that school year he was called back to his Alma Mater 
and for more than a quarter of a century has been identified 
with that institution. He is now head of the Department 
of Latin and History and has made a record which is at 
once a credit to himself and an asset to the University. 
He has done special work through the Chautauqua School 
of Liberal Arts. He also has from Biddle the Ph.D. degree 
which he won in 1911. 

Prof. Martin is a Presbyterian and is one of the most 
active laymsn of his denomination. He is active in all judi- 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 339 

catories of the Presbyterian Church in America. He has 
been President of the Catawba Synodical (N. C. and Va.) 
Sabbath School Convention continuously since 1908. He 
was a member of the Internatioal S. S. Convention which 
met at Louisville in 1908 and Chicago in 1914, and the 
World S. S. Conventions which met at Washington in 1910 
and Zurich, Switzerland in 1913. He has been in the active 
Superintendency of the Sunday School for more than tnirty 
years. At Salisbury and at Goldsboro he served in that 
capacity and on coming to Biddle in 1892 was made Superin- 
tendent of the Seventh Street Presbyterian Sunday School, 
which he has since held. He is a ruling elder in the church 
and has frequently been a commissioner to the General 
Assemblies. 

As a student he was active in college athletics. His 
favorite reading has been along the line of his religious and 
educational work. He has traveled extensively in this coun- 
try and continental Enrope, thus adding to his equipment 
much that could not be gained from books. Out of his 
observation and experience has grown the conviction that 
the progress of the race may best be promoted by "practical 
conservatism in speech and in actions: acquiring the edu- 
cation necessary to good citizenship; owning material pos- 
sessions sufficient to give financial standing; and by each 
and all living so as to mould a good and healthy sentiment 
— more powerful than law." 



Hardy Liston 



Prof. Hardy Liston, of Winston-Salem, was born at 
Winsboro, g. C, on March 30, 1889. His father was Hugh 
L. Liston, a farmer and his mother's maiden name was 
Maggie Davis. His paternal grandfather was Harry Liston. 

On June 28, 1916, Prof. Liston was married to Miss 
Estelle English Hoskins, a daughter of Daniel H. and Sarah 
(English) Hoskins. Mrs. Liston was educated at Scotia 




HARDY LISTON 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 341 

Seminary and is herself a capable teacher. She teaches 
domestic art at Slater Normal and Industrial School. Their 
one child is named Hugh Hoskins Liston. 

Prof. Liston worked on the farm as a young man and 
had at the outset the disadvantages of the short term coun- 
try public school coupled with the necessity of working 
hard between terms. Later, he attended the preparatory 
school of Biddle University where he remained for six years 
and where he was also compelled to support himself by rough 
work of any description available, but by concentrating his 
bright mind upon his studies and exhibiting to his supsriors 
qualities of fine character he presently won both scholarships 
for advanced schooling and positions. These imposed upon 
him heavy responsibilities but made the way in other re- 
spects easier, less interrupted and more favorable to the end 
in view. He entered the College Department of Biddle from 
which he was graduated with the A. B. degree in 1911. In 
addition he did special work at the University of Chicago, 
specializing in Mathematics and Physics, and has gleaned 
invaluable information from travel throughout the East and 
middle West. He has always been a reader of the best in 
literature — the Bible, Shakespeare, Biographies and other 
books of informative and inspirational nature, and considers 
the factors which have shaped his life for good to consist 
of an early fear of God, a willingness to do thorough, honest 
work and to learn from others. 

In 1912 Prof. Liston began teaching at the Swift Mem- 
orial College, Rogersville, Tenn. After finishing one year 
there he went to Spartanburg, S. C, as principal of the 
Carrier Street Graded School for a year, then to Kittrell 
College for two years as head of its Literary Department 
and Instructor in Mathematics. He then accepted a place 
on the faculty of the Slater Normal and Industrial School, 
at Winston-Salem, where he has since remained. He was 
first Instructor in Mathematics and has been now for three 
years head of the Department of Science and Mathematics. 

In politics Prof. Liston is independent, but is not active 
in political affairs, neither is he identified with any of the 



342 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

secret orders. He is a member of the Presbyterian Church. 

Prof. Liston believes that the race will come into its 
own in time, but first must be educated, must be taught 
the value of thrift and economic independence and have 
its powers and capacities developed. He believes that the 
masses must glean a true knowledge of law and order, right 
and justice. 

Prof. Liston is well equipped for his calling and the 
measure of success achieved already promise him a high 
place among the sound leaders of the race. 



Cleon Oscar Lee 



In recent years the movement of the colored population 
has usually been from the South to the North. Occasionally, 
however, one finds a man who, after having had the ex- 
ceptional advantages of the schools at the North, has seen 
in the South an opportunity for large and remunerative 
service in his chosen line. One of this new school of well 
equipped young men is Dr. Cleon Oscar Lee now (1920) a 
successful dentist at Winston-Salem. He was born at Wash- 
ington, D. C, on December 8, 1881. His father, Richard 
Lee, died when the boy was only six years of age. His 
mother, before her marriage was Miss Rebecca Adam. 
When about eight years old the boy went to live with his 
godfather at Toronto, Canada, by whom he was reared. He 
there went through the elementary and high schools. When 
he aspired to professional training, however, it was neces- 
sary for him to make his own way. He learned the barber's 
trade and was thus in position to help himself by work on 
Saturdays and holidays. He matriculated at the University 
at Pittsburgh where he won his D. D. S. degree in 1905. 
His summer vacations were spent in the Pullman service 
which gave him an opportunity to see every part of our 
great country. Dr. Lee's mother was ambitious for him 
and as he now looks back over his boyhood and youth he 




CLEON OSCAR LEE 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 345 

credits her with the greatest share of his success. Upon 
the completion of his dental course he practiced for a while 
at Pittsburgh and then located at Winston-Salem where he 
has built a large practice. 

In politics he is a Republican though he has not been 
active in party affairs. He is a member of the M. E. Church 
and is identified with the Masons. He has had an oppor- 
tunity to observe his people in every part of the country and 
believes that the great need of the race today is better home 
training. He is a careful reader of the Bible and is active 
not only in the work of his own denomintaion but is always 
found willing to put his hand to every good work. 

On April 29, 1909, Dr. Lee was married to Miss Agnes 
Adele Martin, of Forsyth Co. She was educated at 
Scotia Seminary and formerly taught school. They have 
two children, Cleon Price and Theresa Lee and own an at- 
tractive home in Winston-Salem. 

Some years ago Dr. Lee attracted the attention of 
medical and dental circles by his successful case of trans- 
planting. After drawing and treating the tooth of a patient, 
he re-set the tooth, which lasted the patient for seven years 
longer. His report of the work found its way into the 
National Medical Journal and Dr. Lee was called on to re- 
port the case in a paper at the meeting of that Association. 
He is a member of both the National and the State Medical 
and Dental Association. 



John F. K. Simpson 



Prof. John F. K. Simpson believes -that the real progress 
of the race depends upon true leadership. With that in view, 
he has sought to make of himself a leader worthy of his race 
and while not a minister of the Gospel has for years been 
actively engaged in religious and eduational work. 

He was born a slave in Clear Creek Township, Mechlen- 
burg Co., April 12, 1859. His father was Jack Coburn but 




JOHN F. K. SIMPSON 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 347 

the boy took the name of his mother at a later date. She 
was Louvenia (Morris) Simpson. 

Young Simpson attended the Mecklenburg Co. public 
schools as a boy and later matriculated at Biddle University, 
where it was necessary for him to make his own way on 
account of the poverty of his family. He had made up his 
mind, however, to secure an education and while his means 
frequently ran low, he learned to trust God for the next 
month and the next day. Later, two worthy friends came 
to his assistance and he was thus able to complete his colleg- 
iate course at Biddle. 

In the fall of 1882 he was appointed by the Freedmen's 
Bureau to take charge of the Parochial school at Fayette- 
ville, where he remained for five years, resigning to accept 
a position in the State School at Salisbury, then under the 
direction of Professor Crosby. After one year at Salis- 
bury, he was made Assistant Principal of the Normal School 
at Fayetteville and taught for seven years in that institu- 
tion. He was then called to the principalship of the graded 
school at Concord and remained in that old town for a year, 
returning then to Fayetteville to join that efficient educator, 
Dr. E. E. Smith, at the State Normal, where he taught for 
four years. The only educational work he has done outside 
of North Carolina was when he was called to Spartanburg, 
S C, and was identified with its public school system for 
four 'years. Since then he has been attached to the graded 
school system of Fayetteville. 

Prof Simpson has for a number of years been active 
and prominent in the work of the Presbyterian Church in 
which he is one of the Ruling Elders. He is one of the 
most prominent secret order and benevolent society men 
in the State, being identified with the Masons, Odd Fellows, 
Pythians to say nothing of other related orders and local 
societies He has for years been a notable figure in the 
Grand Lodges of the Odd Fellows and Pythians and himself 
organized the Independent Order of True Reformers of 
North Carolina. He is the author of a popular financial 



348 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

record book for lodges and secret orders. His property in- 
terests are at Fayetteville. 

On July 5th, 1900, Prof. Simpson was married to Miss 
Rachael Pickett, who is also a teacher and was educated at 
the Fayetteville State Normal. Of the three children born 
to them only one, Miss Vivian, survives. 

Having been born just before Emancipation, Prof. Simp- 
son represents in his own life and character what one gen- 
eration of freedom has meant to the race. 



William Calvin Pope 



"True greatness does not consist so much in doing 
extraordinary things, as conducting ordinary affairs with 
a noble demeanor and a right motive. It is necessary and 
most profitable to remember the advice to Titus, showing 
all good fidelity in all things." 

One of the men who has done this, and what is more, 
done it in his native country, among those with whom 
he was reared and who know his character and ability 
best, is Rev. William Calvin Pope of Lumberton. He is a 
preacher, an educator and an author of whom his section 
and his race may well be proud. Mr. Pope was born near- 
Fairmount on Dec. 14, 1871. His father, Owen Pope, was 
a common laborer and was the son of Moses and Clara 
Barnes. His mother, Lucy Lennon was a daughter of Cain 
and Clara Lennon. 

On March 20, 1893, Mr. Pope was married to Miss 
Cora Lee Powell, a daughter of Evander and Margaret- 
Powell. They have reared a large and interesting family. 
Of the nine children born to them eight are living — seven 
girls and one boy. They are Jessie L., Eunice L., Myrtle 
L., Mabel B., Margaret G., Gladys B., Esther M., and James 
D. Pope. 

When young Pope became of school age he entered the 
local public school and completed the course at Whitin. 







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WILLIAM CALVIN POPE 



350 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Normal and Industrial School at Lumberton in 1896, three 
years after his marriage. It was necessary for him to 
make his own way in school, but he lost no time in useless 
fretting. Having put his hand to the plough he would not 
look back. The situation was not without embarrassment, 
however, and can best be described in his own language. 

"I can not forget some experiences during my first 
day at a boarding school — Whitin Normal. My pants, which 
my mother had cut and made, were neither long nor short, 
but stopped about half way between the tops of my brogan 
shoes and my knees. The outside seams after leaving my 
pockets seemed to start on a chase after the inside seams 
so that at the lower end of the legs the outside seam had 
swung around tothe inside of the leg and the inside sought 
quarters back near the heel string. My coat, which was 
a new one, was quite large enough for my father while I 
was only about 16 years old. This apparel with my coarse 
home-knit socks presented a ludicrous picture to my more 
stylish school mates, many of whom I saw wink at each 
other and smile, while some laughed outright. Of course 
I felt embarrassed but it was my first lesson in the study 
of sensible dress ; and although my means have not always 
allowed, I have ever since wanted to appear at least sensible 
in my manner of dress." 

At the age of seventeen young Pope was converted and 
joined the Sandy Grove Baptist Church. Ten years later 
he was licensed to preach by the same church and in 1900 
ordained to the full work of the ministry. 

While still in school, he secured a first grade teacher's 
license and in 1890 began his career as a teacher. He 
taught for twelve years when the increasing duties of the 
pastorate made it necessary for him to give up educational 
work for the time. In the fall of 1918, however, he was 
elected principal of the colored graded school of Lumber- 
ton and was re-elected the following year. 

It it as a preacher of the Gospel, however, that Mr. 
Pope is best known. Beginning in 1898, he travelled two 
years in the western part of the state as Colporteur Mis- 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 351 

sionary. In the fall of 1900 he was called to the pastorate 
of his home church which he served seven years. Even 
then ihe resigned to accept another church in Lumberton, 
Providence, which he is still serving (1919). In addition 
to these he has served at different times and for varying 
periods, Shiloh, Cedar Grove, Holy Swamp and Ebenezer in 
Robeson Co.; Horace Grove and Sandy Plain in Columbus 
Co., having served the last named for fifteen years. He 
also served as pastor at Bryant Swamp Church in Bladen 
Co. • 

He has had a fruitful ministry and has added to ths 
church hundreds of new members. New houses of worship 
have been erected at Sandy Grove, Sandy Plain, Horace 
Grove and Cedar Grove. 

Rev. Pope regards the Sunday School as the greatest 
influence coming into his early life. His favorite reading 
has had to do with his work as a teacher and preacher. 
He belongs to the Masons and is President of the Men's In- 
dustrial' Uplift Club of Lumberton. 

He believes the best interests of the race are to be pro- 
moted by encouraging thrift and industry, education, race 
pride and friendly relations between, the races. Such inter- 
ests can only be fostered by trained, fearless and yet wise 
and conservative leaders. 

For a while Mr. Pope edited the Weekly Star published 
at Lumberton. In recent years he has done considerable 
literary work and has written a number of sKort poems. 
These together with other productions have been gathered 
in a volume published in. 1919 under the title "Leisure 
Moments." The book has been favorably mentioned and re- 
viewed. 




JOHN EARL BAXTER AND FAMILY 



John Earle Baxter 



The old town of Beaufort in Carteret Co. on the eastern 
coast of North Carolina, was the place of birth and boyhood 
home of Dr. John Earl Baxter a successful physician o 
the prosperous. little city of Henderson. He was born at 
Beaufort on Feb. 11, 1878. His father, Edward Baxter was 
a sailor and was the son of Burwell Baxter, who came from 
Currituck Co. His mother, before her marriage!, was Miss 
Elizabeth Hamilton. As a boy young Baxter went to school 
at Beaufort. While in school there at Washburn Seminary, 
Miss Wilcox, one of the teachers inspired him to do his best 
and opened his eyes to what a boy might accomplish. His 
friends expected hi mto preach, but he felt that his work 
lay in another direction. He passed from the school at 
Beaufort to Talladega, Ala., where he did his college work. 
He was in that institution for six years. When ready for 
his medical course, he matriculated at Leonard Medical 
College where he won his M. D. degree in 1905. Following 
his graduation he was for a year and a half Interne at 
Long Island College Hospital, Brooklyn. Now fully equipped 
for his work, he returned South and located at Rocky Mount 
where he had taught school for several years before going 
to Medical College. After six months at Rocky Mount, he 
moved in 1908 to Henderson where he has since resided 
and where he has built up one of the most extensive general 
practices enjoyed by any Negro doctor in that part of the 
State. 

While at Medical College he spent his summer vaca- 
tions at hotel work in the North and in Canada and thus 
earned the money for the expenses of his course. On Sept. 
12, 19C7, Dr. Baxter was happily married to Miss Pauline 
Garland, of Henderson. She was educated at Kittrell Col- 
lege. They have a fine family of six children ; John E. Jr., 
William, Halse, Leo, Ruth and Garland Baxter. On April 
12, 1920, the wife and mother was called to her reward. 



354 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Dr. Baxter is a member of the Baptist Church, and 
holds membership in the Masons, Pythians and Odd Fel- 
lows. He also belongs to the State and National Medical 
Societies. In his reading he is partial to History. While 
not active in politics, he is a Republican. His investments 
are at Henderson and Rocky Mount. His work has brought 
him into intimate contact with every class and condition of 
the race and has given him a rare opportunity to study at 
first hand, the needs of his people. He believes that the 
permanent progress of the race depends upon good morals 
developed from within more than upon any outside influence 
that can be brought to bear. 

Dr. Baxter belongs to that type of citizenship, intelli- 
gent and progressive, which is a credit to the race and an 
honor to his profession. 



John Henry Sampson 

Rev. John Henry Sampson, A. B. A. M. Principal of 
the Graded School at Kinston, is a man who has exerted a 
beneficcent influence in Eastern Carolina. Both his reli- 
gious and his educational work has been of a character to 
endure and to endear him to the people of the section which 
he has served. In order to appreciate his character and his 
work it is necessary to understand something of his origin 
and something of his early environment. 

He was born at Princeton in Johnston Co., N. C, Sept. 
18, 1866, which will be remembered was only a little more 
than a year after the close of the war when his people 
were still poor. His parents were Isaac Sampson a farmer 
and Kizziah (Peeden) Sampson. His grandparents were 
Canaan and Vinia (Reid) Sampson and Sallie Peeden the 
owner of a small rural estate near Princeton, N. C. Young 
Sampson laid the foundation of his education in the public 
schools of Wayne Co. Speaking of his further struggles for 
an education he says: "I entered high school late in life, 
when twenty two years of age, with only forty five dollars 




JOHN HENRY SAMPSON 



356 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

in cash. I borrowed money to get through State Normal 
School at Goldsboro, and finally secured a scholarship 
through college. When my means were exhausted and I 
was about to leave school in order to assist in the support 
of my mother, Pres. D. J. Sanders gave me the job of mend- 
ing the mattresses at Biddle University for five dollars per 
month which sum I sent to my mother each month. I 
taught school each summer and for several summers 
walked nine miles each day in order that I might board 
at home and help my mother, with a view to returning to 
college the next year." In 1896 he was graduated from the 
college department of Biddle and three years later from 
the Theological Department. Since that time the same in- 
stitution has conferred on him the A. M. degree. 

On June 8, 1909, he was united in matrimony to Miss 
Albia E. Greely, a daughter of Horace and Charlotte Greely. 
Two children have been born to them only one of whom 
survives. Her name is Vivian Delcena Sampson. Mrs. 
Sampson was educated at Scotia Seminary, Concord, N. C. 
All through life our subject has been prompted by the high- 
est motives. He realizes now that the greatest factors in 
shaping his life have been the ambition to know something 
and have something and the desire to be a man and help 
others up in life. His life has been fruitful of good works 
along the line. While he migiht have made a brilliant success 
as a business man, he has chosen to devote himself to the 
rather u.nremunerative though important work of preaching 
and tr aching. He began work as a teacher in his home 
counts After that he taught in the town of Freemont from 
which he went to Kinston as Assistant Principal in 1902. 
Two years later he was promoted to the principals hip which 
position he still holds (1920). He is also a successful pas- 
tor in the Presbyterian Church. While at Freemont he 
organized a church and built a new house of worship. A 
new church was built at Kinston under his administration 
which church he serves as pastor now. In addition to these 
he has served the churches at LaGrange, Snow Hill and 
Hookrrton, N. C. 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 357 

He has not been active in politics. Among the secret 
orders, he is affiliated with the Odd Fellows. He owns a 
small estate together with an attractive well furnished home 
at Kinston. He says : "I think the best interests of the 
race in the State and Nation may be promoted by giving the 
Tace the rights of personal security, personal liberty and 
private property, by giving the race justice and a fair deal 
in the courts of the State and Nation, in the school room, 
"the business world, by encouraging the race along pure social 
and religious lines and by helping preserve the good moral 
(character of our women." Many students have gone out 
from the Graded School of Kinston. Some have entered 
schools of higher learning and are now college professors, 
'doctors, lawyers, teachers and successful business men and 
women. The lives of these men and women testify louder 
than words to the splendid foundation work done by Prof. 
'Sampson as he has labored during the past eighteen years 
in the school room. 



William Eugene Partee 



Rev. William Eugene Partee, A. B., A. M., D. D., who 
for seven years has had the chair of systematic Theology 
rat Biddle University, brings to bear on his work not only 
the learning of the schools but also years of experience 
.-as a successful pastor and practical educator. He is a native 
•of the old town of Concord, where he was born just before 
the outbreak of the war on Dec. 19, 1860. 

Dr. Partee bears the name of his step-father, Samuel 
A. Partee, who was by trade a tanner. His mother's name 
before her marriage was Trenton Foard. She was a daugh- 
ter of Isaac and Mary Ann Harris. 

Coming of school age just after the war when the 
•public school system was in its infancy, young Partee at- 
tended the Parochial School at Concord and there laid the 
foundation of his education. He was under the necessity 




WILLIAM EUGENE PARTEE 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 359 

of working his way during his early school days. Later 
he was awarded a scholarship after which the way was 
easier. From Concord he passed to the preparatory depart- 
ment of Biddle University as student. At the age of six- 
teen he was converted, which changed the whole course of 
his life. Deciding to take up the work of the gospel minis- 
try the determined to equip himself for his life work. On 
completion of his preparatory course at Biddle, he entered 
upon the college course and won his A. B. degree in 1881. 
Three years later, he was graduated from the Theological 
department with the B. D. degree. Later in recognition 
«of his attainments his Alma Mater conferred on him the 
•degree of A. M. and later still the degree of D. D. 

Since his graduation the years have been filled with 
service as a teacher and preacher. His principal work has 
"been in his native state, in Virginia and in Florida. His 
pastorates have included Concord, N. C, Gainesville, Fla., 
Jacksonville, Fla., Richmond, Va., and, Lynchburg, Va. 
Along with his pastoral work he also taught while at Gaines- 
ville and Jacksonville, Fla. Such was the record he had 
made in both lines of work that when in 1912 a vacancy 
occurred in the chair of Systematic Theology at Biddle Uni- 
versity, he was called to the position which he has since 
filled with credit to himself and to the satisfaction of his 
Board and patrons as well. 

On July 15, 1886, Dr. Partee was married to Miss Edith 
I. Smith, a daughter of William D. and Martha E. Smith. 
Of the eight children born to them six are living. They 
•are William E. Jr., Fannie H., Marion D., Harold S., LeRoy 
D., and Arthur A. Partee. In 1900 Mrs. Partee passed to 
her reward and the Doctor has not again married. 

Dr. Partee has not recently been active in the secret 
orders nor has he been active in politics. Naturally his 
principal reading is along Theological lines, but he also 
finds inspirational and biographical books helpful. With 
reference to the progress of the race, he speaks out of a 
varied experience stretching over a period of years and 
believes that progress is to be promoted, "By Christian cul- 



360 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

ture, vocational training as well as higher education and 
a proper regard for all that goes to make worthy citizens of 
a great Republic." 



James Elmer Dellinger 



Dr. James Elmer Dellinger of Greensboro will be re- 
membered as a highly endowed man of imposing presence. 
He is unusually tall and of fine appearance. It was not 
his lot to attend any of the great universities of America 
and the world, but he can take care of himself before any 
audience or in company of the most cultured before whom 
he is frequently called to appear. 

Dr. Dellinger is not only successful in the practice of 
his chosen profession but is public spirited and is active 
in many ways in his town and State. He was born at 
Lowesville, N. C., on Nov. 3, 1862. His father Jas. Monroe 
Dellinger was a farm cropper and ordinary laborer. His. 
mother was, before her marriage, Miss Belzie Nance. His 
father's parents were Cato and Delia Moore and his mother's 
parents, Cephas Hargroves of pronounced French extrac- 
tion and Anne Johnson. He came up a poor boy, and worked 
on the farm until crops were laid by and then he would get 
other work so as to enable himself to go to school as op- 
portunity might offer him. He worked at the small wage 
of ten dollars a month, and after saving up thirty dollars,, 
entered school. He attended the public schools, then the 
private school and finally finished his course of study at 
the State Normal School at Salisbury and received his di- 
ploma in 1886. He then matriculated at the Medical De- 
partment of Shaw University at Raleigh. The course of 
study at Shaw was of four years but by dint of hard study 
and splendid ability he graduated in three years and re- 
ceived his diploma with the degree of M. D. He was upon, 
graduation appointed physician to the, Leonard Medical 
Hospital which place he held with credit to himself and: 




JAMES ELMER DELLINGER 



362 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

signal service to the students of the school and the citizens 
of Raleigh. He serves also as Trustee of the Board gov- 
erning the University. He took a special course at Harvard 
University. After practicing his profession for a while at 
Raleigh he decided to move to Greensboro where he at once 
began to meet with success in his chosen profession and 
where now he has a lucrative practice. 

When the Spanish American War broke out, Gov. Rus- 
sell honored the colored men of the State by giving them a 
regiment. Dr. Dellinger was commissioned in this regiment 
Chief Surgeon with the rank of Major, and as usual he ac- 
quitted himself with credit. 

Dr. Dellinger is a recognized leader in the State in 
many ways. He is a Republican in politics and has been 
honored on several occasions by being sent to various State 
and National Conventions. He is a member of the Baptist 
Church and has always held some important office in his 
church. He is now a Trustee. He is a familiar figure at 
the various religious gatherings both in and out of the 
State and in all denominations. His service as Superin- 
tendent of the Sunday School covered a period of twenty 
consecutive years. He is held in high esteem by all who 
know him, and his friends have prevailed on him to accept 
many positions of trust and honor. He is also identified 
with the leading secret orders such as, the Masons, the 
Eastern Star and the Pythians, in all of which he is promi- 
nent. 

Dr. Dellinger's idea of the greatest need of the race 
is that of race leadership. He knows that the great masses 
are ignorant and poor, and in a very helpless condition, but 
he feels that with proper leaders the race will soon over- 
come the disadvantages. He cites the fact that the great 
masses of the white race are not educated, but the white 
race believes in a prepared and consecrated leadership, and 
the result is that the Anglo-Saxon race leads the world. 
He attributes their place in the world to leadership, and 
he pleads for a trained leadership for the Negro race and 
he thinks the problem will no longer annoy and affright 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 363 

the people of this country. He believes in educational lead- 
ership, but also consecrated leadership. 

Dr. Dellinger has been greatly impressed in his life 
by reading religious books like Pilgrims Progress and the 
Bible and the result is that he takes a sober view of the 
practical problems of life. Although his parents were poor 
and for the most part uneducated, still they took pains to 
teach their son James Elmer all they knew of the require- 
ments of true manhood and they handed down some heredity 
that no doubt constituted their principal asset. He is an 
illustration of what a poor boy can do if he makes up his 
mind to be a real man. 

Dr. Dellinger was married on Sept. 12, 1894, to Miss 
Gertrude Camilla Farrer, a daughter of Jesse and Amanda 
Farrer of Charlotteville, Va. One child was born to them, 
but it did not survive, and his wife did not' live long. He 
then met Miss Lizzie B. Pentecost at Macon, Georgia, while 
his regiment was in camp near that city and their acquaint- 
ance ripened into love .and they were happily married April 
1, 1890, but their life has been childless. Dr. Dellinger 
has been in poor health in recent years but he still serves 
the people with much satisfaction. 



William Franklin Witherspoon 



As one moves among the colored people of the Old 
North State, he is impressed not only with the number of 
the A. M. E. Zion Churches and members, but also with the 
strength and efficiency of their leadership. It is one of 
the most hopeful signs of the times, that the great de- 
nominations are emphasizing the matter of efficient leader- 
ship. More than that, the biggest and best churches are 
coming more and more to demand intelligence as well as 
zeal. Among the men of the denomination who have strug- 
gled up from privation and obscurity into the sunshine of 
success, none have a more thrilling story than Rev. William 



WILLIAM FRANKLIN WITHERSPOON 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 365 

Franklin Witherspoon, B. D. now (1919) stationed at New- 
bern, which is one of the best appointments in the Connec- 
tion. 

He is a native of the neighboring state of South Caro- 
lina, having been born at Rock Hill on June 19, 1875. Hi 
father, Richard Witherspoon, who still survives (1919) is 
a successful farmer. His mother, who before her marriage, 
was Louisa Roddey, has passed to her reward. On the 
paternal side Mr. Witherspoon's grandparents were Jennie 
Witherspoon and Cornelius Pelham. On the maternal side 
there is a strain of Indian blood. 

Young Witherspoon grew up on the York Co. farm 
and recalls vividly the poverty and the hardships of those 
early years when he was willing to do any amount of hard 
work, practice any sort of selfdenial and undergo any sort 
of privation in order that he might go to school. 

He went first to the rural schools, then to Clinton Col- 
lege at Rock Hill, after that to Lancaster Normal and In- 
dustrial and to Livingstone College. Only those who have 
found it necessary to piece together an education in this way 
can understand the meaning of those years. Yet they have 
borne fruit in the life of Dr. Witherspoon and have enabled 
him to sympathize with every struggling youth. 

When he first aspired to an education, his father op- 
posed his plans. He prayed that the Lord would open the 
heart of his father. And he did. School was seven miles 
away so the boy walked fourteen miles a day, so anxious 
was he for an education. The following year he worked like 
a Trojan and in the fall had three bales of cotton. After 
clearing up his expenses, he had $29.00 left. His father's 
landlord learning of this claimed it in settlement of debts. 
Again the boy prayed. Again the way opened up and he 
started to school at Lancaster. He found some wood to be 
chopped two miles away and tackled the job with such vigor 
that he soon had ten cords cut. His strength and determin- 
ation grew with each victory won. He graduated well up 
in his class, but was in debt for the suit which he wore at 
the time. Immediately after graduation he went bravely 



366 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

to work to pay for the suit. About that time he was called 
to the pastorate of the Heath Springs Church and his ca- 
reer as a preacher began. Not yet content, however, with 
his equipment he continued to read and study and after be- 
ing transferred to North -Carolina and getting into the regu- 
lar pastorate went to school at Livingston College where he 
studied for six years while making full time as a pastor. 
It must be remembered that for a part of this time he was 
preaching as far away from Salisbury as Hamlet. 

He joined the Conference at Lancaster in 1902 under 
the late Bishop Hood. His first appointment was the Heath 
Springs Circuit which he served for two years and improved 
the church property. From there he went to Concord and 
preached at the Price Memorial for one year. His next 
appointment was the Monroe Circuit which he served three 
years. The Union Springs Church was built while he was 
on this work. He was then sent to the Norwood Station 
for four years and built a new house of worship. From 
Norwood, he went to Maxton for a pastorate of three years 
and built two churches on the circuit and repaired the one in 
the city. He then went to Hamlet for one year and while 
there paid $562.49 of the $1100.00 debt on the church. His 
next appointment was to Salisbury which gave him the 
long desired opportunity of completing his Theological 
course. He remained on that work for four years and went 
from there to his present work at Newbern in 1917. Here 
a debt of $6000.00 has been discharged and the whole work 
made to prosper under his administration. 

On Dec. 23, 1903, Dr. Witherspoon was married to Miss 
Ada Pickett of Rock Hill. They have six children. Their 
names are William F. Jr., Roberta E., Richard A., Whittier 
C, Elizabeth C, and Eva C. Witherspoon. The last two 
are twins. 

Dr. Witherspoon holds membership in the Masons and 
Odd Fellows. He was a delegate to the General Conference 
in Charlotte in 1912 and to the 1920 General Conference at 
Knoxville. 

/ 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 367 

When asked how in his opinion the best interests of 
the race are to be promoted he replied, "By better educa- 
tional facilities and more efficient teachers." 



William Ellerbee 



In the midst of much noise and in the presence of mul- 
tiplied organizations, it is well to pause and consider the 
life and work of a quiet but effective old soldier of the cross 
like Rev. William Ellerbee of Raleigh. The race owes much 
to men like him who through the years have stood for 
righteousness. He is a native of Richmond, Va., where he 
was born Oct. 21, 1853. His father was Albert Garnett and 
his mother Marian Bowen. When the boy was three months 
old, he and both parents were sold. The father and mother 
were sold apart, but the baby boy and his mother went to- 
gether. They never saw the husband and father again. 
The mother and baby were brought to Richmond Co. North 
Carolina where he grew up. During the war when he was 
ten years of age, his mother passed away and. the boy was 
left entirely alone in the world. After Emancipation he 
continued to work on the farm. On Jan. 15, 1874 he was 
married to Miss Mary Graham, a daughter of Caroline and 
Handy Graham. They have seven living children: Eugene, 
Luther, Estella, Alice, Clingman, Julia and William Ellerbee. 
Three children, Percy, Benjamin and Minnie have passed 
away. 

The year following his marriage, Mr. Ellerbee was con- 
verted and three years later felt called to the work of the 
Gospel ministry. In 1891 he was ordained by the Pine 
Grove Church and has since been active as a preacher. As 
he was about to enter upon his work he was made to feel 
the need of better preparation for his life work. Three 
children had come into the home and the family was to 
be supported on the small wages then prevailing. Notwith- 
standing this, he entered Shaw University and spent three 




WILLIAM ELLERBEE 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 369 

years at that institution under difficulties. Beginning to 
preach even before he was ordained, he has had long pas- 
torates and has been blessed with a fruitful ministry. He 
preached at Pleasant Grove one year. His next church was 
Mt. Moriah which he served for fourteen years. In fact he 
organized this church with a membership of seven which 
grew to eighty five. A house of worship was erected. He 
also preached for a good while at his old home church, Wake 
Baptist Grove. After building a new house there, it was 
wrecked by a storm and another house was built on the 
same site. He preached at Juniper Level eighteen years, 
repaired the building and added three hundred to the mem- 
bership while there. He pastored St. Amanda in Johnson 
Co. nine years and Oak City Church at Method twenty three 
years. At the latter place, he built twice. He also erected 
a new church at East Durham where he preached for six 
years. At Piney Grove in Granville Co. he repaired the 
church and preached for twelve years. He is now repairing 
the church at Tallaho in the same county where he has pas- 
tored for eight years. He is now in his sixth year et Mt. 
Vernon, Granville Co. and has repairs under way there 
also. He has preached at Rogers Grove for nineteen years 
and built a church. For many years he was Moderator of 
the Johnson Baptist Association and is still a member of 
the Executive Committee. Throughout his life Rev. Ellerbe 
has held to the principle of truthfulness and fair dealing 
with every body and in his own experience has tried to 
apply the Golden Rule. His reading is along the line of his 
work. He remembers that he spent the first twenty five 
cent piece he ever had for a spelling book. Mr. Ellerbe 
has been a Mason for thirty years. 



Harry Howard Norman 

One of the pioneer Baptist preachers of eastern North 
Carolina and a "father in Israel," is Rev. Harry Howard 
Norman, of Elizabeth City. There are few men in that 




HARRY HOWARD NORMAN 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 371 

part of the State who are more widely, or favorably, known 
to the brotherhood than Dr. Norman. He goes back to the 
slavery period, having been born several years before the 
outbreak of the war, on August 19, 1857. He remembers 
the closing scenes of that great struggle which brought 
Emancipation to him and his people and recalled how he 
looked on the Yankee soldiers as a boy. He was born in 
Washington Co. and his father was Isaac Norman, a son 
of Rosa Norman. His mother, before her marriage, was 
Miss Dorcas Spruill who was a daughter of Penny Daven- 
port. 

Growing up after the war, young Norman went to 
school in Washington Co. He worked on the farm till he 
had grown to manhood. When he was about twenty-two 
years of age he was converted and came into the work of 
the Baptist Church. Even before that, his mind had turned 
to the ministry so that after he joined the church he felt 
that there was no escaping from the sacred calling. He was 
licensed, and fully ordained to the work of the ministry 
when about twenty-four and for nearly forty years has 
been going in and out before his people. A full list of the 
churches he has served is a long one, but is well worth mak- 
ing. His first pastorate was Galatia, which he served five 
years where a new house of worship was erected. He 
preached at the First Church, Colerain, six years and paid 
the church out of debt. He served St. John Church, Eden- 
ton, six years and after an interim of five years served the 
same church for another period of nineteen-years, making 
a total of 25 years with that church. Two houses of wor- 
ship have been erected at that point under his administra- 
tion. He is still serving St. John. He preached at Heavens 
Creek Church at Manteo, on Roanoke Island, for ten years 
and built a new church. It will be recalled that this was the 
first attempted settlement in North Carolina. He has been 
preaching at Christian Home Church, Moyock, for four 
years and has a house of worship under way at that point. 
He served Philadelphia Church in Camden Co. six years. A 
new church was also built at Zion and another at Pleasant 



372 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Branch in Currytuck, during a period of four years. The 
Chapel Hill Church, in Tyrrell Co. held him for four years. 
He is now serving the Calvary Baptist Mission in Elizabeth 
City. He was at Zion Hill at Plymouth, for four years and 
erected a new house of worship. He preached at Bellhaven 
for one year, and at Snow Hill Church for one year. He 
preached at Mt. Carmel in Pasquotank Co. for thirteen 
years and built a new house of worship. 

No accurate record of the number of people he has 
brought itno the church has been kept. Thousands, how- 
ever, date their conversion from meetings at which he 
preached, as he has been a prominent figure in the Baptist 
ministry in North Carolina for many years and has done a 
great deal of evangelistic work in his own churches and in 
assisting the brethren. 

At an early age he was inspired by a minister to study 
the Bible and he dates his interest in religious thought to 
that experience. He is a member of the Executive Board 
of the Roanoke Baptist Institute at Elizabeth City. He 
was for a number of years Secretary of the same Board and 
has been actively identified with that institution from its 
beginning. 

Though not active in politics, he is a Republican and 
the only secret order with which he is identified is the 
Gideons. 

Rev. Norman has been married twice. His first mar- 
riage was on November 15, 1878, to Miss Mahala F. Moclees. 
She passed to her reward in 1911. On April 23, 1914, he 
was married to Mrs. Mary F. Winslow. He has resided at 
Elizabeth City for a number of years and his property in- 
terests are in that prosperous little place, where he is well 
known and esteemed. 



Robert David Harris 



The life and work of Rev. Robert David Harris illus- 
trates again what a country boy can do when he yields him- 
self to Divine leadership. Brought up in a home of poverty 
and obscurity, he spent all his early years on the farm. 
He was born at Pineville in Mecklenburg Co. on March 1, 
1862, which it will be remembered was in the midst of the 
war. His parents were Absalom and Caroline Harris. Back 
of them there is no record of his ancestors. After the war 
when he came of school age he attended the local public 
school and that was the extent of his education till after 
he decided to heed the call to preach. 

As a youth he was converted and joined the local Meth- 
odist Church. Once when the lesson for the day was about 
John the Baptist he disagreed with the class and the teacher 
so strenuously that he was dismissed. Later he joined the 
Smithfieldl Baptist Church and almost immediately felt 
called to the ministry. 

Like many another man he tried to escape from this 
clear call of duty but could not. He recalls the influence of 
his old mother on his life at this time. Finally he yielded 
and in 1887 was licensed by the Smithfield Baptist Church 
to preach and in 1892 was by the same church ordained to 
the full work of the ministry. Realizing the need for better 
preparation for his life work he entered the Rowan Normal 
Institute where he spent four years. He also attended 
Friendship College, Rock Hill, S. C, for a short while. His 
first regular pastorate was Bethel Baptist Church in Gas- 
ton Co. which he served acceptably for ten and a half years. 
The church was remodelled and 110 new members baptized. 
He pastored Salem fourteen and a half years. Here a new 
house of worship was erected and 116 baptized. He preached 
at Gold Hill in Lincoln Co. six years, built a new church and 
baptized 125. Fifty seven were baptized at a single meet- 
ing. He served Springfield at Stanley Creek eleven years, 
baptized 125 and purchased a lot for a new church. 




ROBERT DAVID HARRIS 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 375 

For nearly four years he has been on the work at Pine 
Grove in Cherokee Co., S. C. A debt of five hundred dollars 
has been cancelled and a like amount raised for improve- 
ments while fifty new members have been added. So it 
will be seen that he has had a fruitful ministry. Long ago 
his strength as a leader was recognized and he was elected 
Moderator of the Mt. Peace Association which position he 
has held continuously for eleven years. 

Rev. Harris belongs to the Masons but is not active in 
politics. He is a member of the Board of Managers of the 
State Convention. He believes the greatest single need of 
the race is the right sort of education. 

In Jan. 1883, he was married to Emma Crawford of 
Sharon. She was a daughter of Anderson Crawford. They 
own an attractive home in Charlotte. 



Levi Edgar Rasbury 

The leading educational institution of the Free Will 
Baptist Church is at Kinston, and is known as Kinston Col- 
lege. It is now (1920) under the efficient management and 
direction of Prof. Levi Edgar Rasbury. 

Prof. Rasbury is a native of Green Co., having been 
born at Snow Hill January 11, 1888. His father, Edmund 
Rasbury, was a farmer and young Rasbury himself grew up 
on the Green Co. farm. His mother, who still survives, was 
before marriage Miss Sarah Harper, a daughter of Harry 
and Nancy Harper. They were slaves, although there was 
a strain of Indian blood on the mother's side. 

On September 19, 1917, Prof. Rasbury was married to 
Miss Evelyn Morton, a daughter of Austin and Patsy Mor- 
ton. Mrs. Rasbury was educated at LaGrange and Kinston 
and assists her husband in teaching at Kinston College. 
They have one daughter, Emma Elizabeth Rasbury. 

The subject of this biography attended first the pub- 
lic schools, from which he passed to Kinston College where 
he remained for five years, finishing his course there in 




LEVI EDGAR RASBURY 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 377 

1909. He then attended Shaw University for a while, after 
which he went to the Dowington Normal and Inudstrial 
School in Pennsylvania, graduating in 1914. He finally 
completed his college course at Lincoln University in 1918. 
The bachelor's degree was conferred on him by Kinston 
College. 

The poverty of his parents and the ill health of his 
father made it necessary for the boy to make his own way 
in school. While at Kinston College he sawed wood, cooked, 
or did anything else which offered a chance to make ex- 
penses. After completing his work there, and before going 
to Shaw, he taught for three years in Green Co. Later in 
his career he went into the Pullman service and thus had 
an opportunity to see a large part of the country to ad- 
vantage, having traveled the country over. Through all 
his years of struggle he was inspired by a desire to become 
a man, and be of some service in his day and generation. 
While a student, he was an enthusiastic baseball player. 

Prof. Rasbury has found especially helpful the bi- 
ographies of the great leaders of the race, like Washington, 
Douglas and others. 

At the completion of his university training he traveled 
back to his Alma Mater as the head of that institution, 
which has greatly prospered under his administration. The 
enrollment of the school has in two years increased more 
than 50 per cent. 

Prof. Rasbury is a 32 degree Mason and while in school 
was prominently identified with the Greek letter fraterni- 
ties, being a member and office holder in the Omega Si Phi. 
He believes that the best interests of the race in the nation 
are to be promoted by a friendly, cordial understanding be- 
tween the races which would look to a high standard of 
education. 

Prof. Rasbury has had the wisdom to take the necessary 
time for preparation so that he can look forward to the fu- 
ture with confidence. 



Samuel F. B. Peace 



Among the active influential men of the M. E. Connec- 
tion in North Carolina must be mentioned Rev. Samuel 
Flagg Broady Peace of Greensboro. From boyhood, even 
before his conversion, he felt that his work in life must be 
that of the ministry. He shaped his education with the 
ministry in view and for thirty years has been serving as 
pastor or superintendent. He has had some of the best 
opportunities in the State and has had a record of progres- 
sive, constructive work which is cerditable to him and an 
asset of his denomination. 

Rev. Peace is a native of Granville Co., having been 
born at Oxford just before the outbreak of the war. The 
exact date was March 10, 1860. His father, George L. 
Peace was a blacksmith. His mother was Delilah Peace. 
His paternal grandparents were Booker and Jas. Peace and 
his maternal grandparents were Polly and Annie Peace. 

Mr. Peace was married on May 20, 1896 to Miss Annie 
E. Dorsette a daughter of David and Lucinda Dorsette. 
They have five children. Their names are Olivia S., Alberta 
May D., Annie E., Lillian M., and Samuel F. B. Peace, Jr. 
As a boy and youth our subjecct worked on the farm. He 
worked as a tobacconist for awhile. One year was spent 
in New England during which time he served as steward at 
the Curtis School. 

He laid the foundation of his education at Boydon In- 
stitute, and did his College work at Bennett College, com- 
pleted Academic Course and graduated from that institu- 
tion in 1894. 

When about nineteen years of age, Rev. Peace made a 
profession and identified himself with the Baptist Church 
and was by that denomination licensed to preach. Later he 
applied for membership in the M. E. Conference and was 
accepted. He regularly joined the Conference at Winston- 
Salem in 1891 under Bishop Warren. He was appointed to> 




SAMUEL FLAGG BROADY PEACE 



380 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

South Greensboro which gave him the opportunity to at- 
tend Bennett College. He remained on that work from 
1890 to 1894 and erected houses of worship at New Goshen 
and Holmes Grove. The following year he preached at 
Fayetteville and completed the church previously begun. 
From 1895 to 1899 he preached at Lenoir where the church 
was remodeled. The following year was spent on the Gas- 
tonia Circuit and the churches both at Gastonia and at 
Bessemer City paid out of debt. In 1890 he went to Laurin- 
burg and began a successful pastorate of six years. In 
1906 he was sent to Charlotte for two years and while on 
that work completed the Graham Street Church. In 1908 
he was promoted to the superintendency and presided over 
the Greensboro District till 1914. He was then assigned 
to the High Street station, Winston-Salem. Rev. Peace 
has through the years of his ministry felt the call to help- 
others and this has been a very potent factor in his work. 
He believes that permanent progress can come only from 
constant toil and faithfulness to mankind, by study of the 
things in hand and by doing thoroughly the task that falls 
to one's lot. 

So the boy born in slavery has not only witnessed the 
emancipation of his people from physical slavery, but has 
made of himself a leader in order that he might help to 
liberate them from the thraldom of superstitution and the 
slavery of ignorance. He has had a fruitful ministry and 
has made his life count for him whom he serves. 



Peter William Burnett 



Dr. Peter W. Burnett, President of the State Medical, 
Dental and Pharmaceutical Society of North Carolina, is 
typical of what is best among the younger professional men 
in the Old North State. He was born, reared and educated 
in the State and has worked out a measure of success of 
which a much older man might well be proud. He was born 




PETER WILLIAM BURNETT 



382 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

at Oak City, October 10, 1874. His father, Hilliard Burnett, 
was a farmer and the boy was brought up on the farm. 
His mother, before her marriage, was Miss Annie Harrell. 

Young Burnett went to the public schools of Martin 
Co. When seventeen years of age, he lost his father and 
from that time forth had to work to help support his mother. 
The way to a college education and professional training 
did not look bright. In fact, it was not easy. The youth 
was not discouraged, however, and matriculated at Shaw 
University for his literary training. He spent four years 
in the College Department before taking up his medical 
course which he completed in 1906. As he looks back over 
the long, hard years of his boyhood and youth, he realizes 
that the careful supervision and wholesome advice of his 
parents were dominating influences in his life and have 
helped him to win the success which he has since attained. 
While attending medical college his summer vacations were 
spent in the Pullman service and this gave him a rare op- 
portunity to see most of America to advantage. While in 
school he was accustomed to play baseball, football and en- 
gage in other athletic sports. 

Dr. Burnett began the practice of his profession at Ox- 
ford after his graduation and remained there for one year. 
In 1907, he went to Rocky Mount where he has since re- 
sided and built up a large general practice. Such was his 
reputation in the profession that at the annual meeting of 
the State Medical Society in 1919 he was elected President. 
He has also been active in local affairs and is now Presi- 
dent of the local Medical, Dental and Pharmaceutical So- 
ciety. There was at one time a similar organization cover- 
ing Eastern Carolina and he was during its life time presi- 
dent of that. 

Dr. Burnett is a member of the Missionary Baptist 
Church and is in politics a Republican. He holds member- 
ship in the Masons, Odd Fellows, Pythians, Royal Knights 
of King David ; and as in medical work he has refused to be 
a miere figure-head so he has been prominent in the various 
lodges with which he is identified. In fact, he has already 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 383 

held almost every position within the gift of the lodges 
mentioned. He is Medical Examiner for the Odd Fellows 
and Knights of Pythias and also the Standard Life Insur- 
ance Co. 

While it has been necessary for him to spend a great 
deal of money, he has managed his business affairs in such 
a way as to accumulate considerable property which is 
worth at least $30,000. His life and work have been such 
as to give him an intimate knowledge of conditions among 
his people both in the country and in the city. When asked 
how, in his opinion, the best interests of the race could be 
promoted, he replied: "Educate, work, economize and pre- 
serve the health of the people." 

On Dec. 30, 1908, Dr. Burnett was married to Miss 
Bertha E. Herring, a daughter of George W. and Rosa Her- 
ring, of Clinton. She passed away Feb. 1, 1919. 



James Harvey Anderson, Jr. 

A whole book, instead of a sketch, might be written 
about Rev. James Harvey Anderson, Jr., D. D., Ph.D., Editor 
of the Star of Zion. For nearly half a century he has been 
active in the work of the A. M. E. Zion Church and for 
much of that time has been prominent in the Connection. 
Bishop Smith writing of him some years since, said, "He 
is pronounced one of the ablest church statisticians in the 
country, an able writer, a strong theologian, elegant and 
graphic pulpit orator, and splendid scholar." The late Bishop 
Smith said in an introductory article, "If length of service, 
usefulness to the church and race, ability, and merit count 
for anything, Dr. Anderson is highly deserving of credit in 
these directions, and if any man in the A. M. E. Zion Church 
is deserving of promotion, either to title or position, he is 
one." The late lamented Bishop Hood said, "Rev. J. Harvey 
Anderson was brought more prominently to my attention 
by his wonderful speech before the judiciary Committee 




JAMES HARVEY ANDERSON, JR. 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 385 

of the General Assembly of the State of Rhode Island in 
the support of repeal of the inter-marriage laws of that 
State and which was the principal feature in securing the 
repeal. He is a good pastor, able writer and splendid 
preacher. When he opens his mouth a stream of eloquence 
flows forth." 

Dr. Anderson is a native of Frederick, Md., where he 
was born June 30, 1848. His father James Harvey Ander- 
son, Sr., originally a slave, was freed before the birth of 
his son. His mother's name was Minerva. Dr. Anderson's 
grandfather was a Scotchman and his maternal grand- 
mother an Indian Squaw. So he bears in his veins the blood 
of three races. According to the custom of the time he 
was bound out and by his own efforts and the assistance of 
the white people with whom he worked was able to make 
some progress in the way of education, after removing to 
the South following the Civil War. 

After the battle of Antietam he followed the army and 
was employed by a Federal officer for a year. Though still 
in his teens he then enlisted and was in the service till the 
close of the war. 

All his life Dr. Anderson has been a student. He at- 
tributes his success in life to good habits, good company and 
the example of the best white people North and South who 
observing his strong native ability, inquisitiveness and apti- 
tude took a peculiar interest in him and frequently gave 
him books and other assistance. 

About the time he reached his majority, he was con- 
verted and identified himself with the A. M. E. Zion 
Church in which he has become such an important figure. 
He began preaching at Patterson, N. J., in 1870 and regu- 
larly joined the Conference in 1872 under Bishop Sampson 
Talbot. He was successful from the beginning. 

A mere list of the pastorotes and denominational posi- 
tions he has filled is a long one. At the North he served 
the Zion churches at Paterson, N. J., Harlem, Hudson, Troy, 
Rochester and Binghampton, N. Y., Providence, R. I., New 
Haven and Bridgeport, Conn., Washington, D. C, Carlisle, 



386 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Harrisburg, Wilkesbare and Pittsburgh, Pa. In the South 
he has held the best pastorates in the connection such as 
New Bern and Edenton, N. C, Petersburg, Va., and Balti- 
more, Md. He presided over the Harrisburg District for 
five years. He preached a vigorous militant Gospel and 
every where his work has been marked by progress. Early 
in life he learned to assimilate and make his own the best 
things he heard. Later he came in contact with the greatest 
white preachers at the North and found them cordial and 
willing to help him. He speaks and writes faultless English. 
He was soon a recognized figure in denominational gather- 
ings. He was a delegate to the M. E. Church Centennial at 
Baltimore in 1891 ; delegate to the Ecumenical Conference of 
Methodism at London in 1894; fraternal delegate to the A. 
M. E. General Conference at Chicago in 1904. For thirty 
four years he has been Secretary or Secretary and Com- 
piler in various Annual Conferences and was for twenty 
four years Denominational Statistical Seccretary and Editor 
of the Church Year Book. He was a delegate to the Cen- 
tennial of the A. M. E. Zion Church at New York in 1896. 
Naturally he is one of the best informed men in the de- 
nomination on matters pertaining to church history as well 
as the present day practical affairs of the connection. In 
1916 he was elected Editor of the Star of Zion, the denom- 
inational organ published at Charlotte, N. C. Here his 
varied experience in church work, his forceful style as a 
writer, his great fund of information and sound doctrine 
are all brought to bear upon his work. Though past seventy, 
there is the freshness and vigor of a man of forty in his 
manner and expression. 

On March 10, 1870, Dr. Anderson was married to Miss 
Julia Ann Moore of Paterson, N. J. Of the nine children 
born to them the following are living: Minerva Ann, who 
is a nurse, Joseph P. who is a musician, and Lillian V. who 
is also a musician. 

Dr. Anderson has the Ph.D. degree from the institution 
at Newbern and the D. D. degree from Livingstone College. 
He believes that the permanent progress of the race depends 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 387 

on "education, the acquisition of property, proper home life, 
business thrift, industry manufacturing and frugality." He 
has his permanent home at Paterson, N. J. 



Arthur Lee Robinson 



The story of the successful men of any race or people 
is a real asset. Obscure country boys, struggling up from 
poverty to places of success and usefulness, inspire others, 
and so the work of progress goes on. One of the successful 
young professional men of the State whose life should point 
the way for others is Dr. Arthur Lee Robinson, the only 
colored dentist at Hamlet. He is a native of Anson Co., 
where he was born Sept. 17, 1888. His father is R^v. Peter 
Robinson — Presiding Elder of the Carthage district, of the 
A. M. E. Zion Church. The father being an itinerant 
preacher ,the boy attended the public schools wherever the 
family happened to reside at the time. He had the very 
great advantage of being brought up and trained in a Chris- 
tian home. He went to Livingstone College for his literary 
education. Here he was popular as a student and active in 
singing and in college athletics. Later he matriculated at 
Meharry Dental College where he won his D. D. S. degree in 
1917. While at Meharry he was captain and coach of the 
baseball team, and Assistant Prosthetician, teaching Pros- 
thetic dentistry. He was a member of Meharry quartette 
and Philharmonic singers three years. During his college 
days he spent his vacations North in hotel work or in the 
Pullman service. In this way he was self-supporting and 
able to complete his course without a break. He also en- 
joyed the advantage of seeing much of his native land and 
of Canada. 

Early trained to work in the church he has not per- 
mitted the increasing canes of professional life to crowd 
out his religious activities. He, like his father is a member 
of the A. M. E. Zion Church in which he is a steward and 




ARTHUR LEE ROBINSON 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 389 

trustee and Assistant Superintendent of the Sunday School. 
He has an excellent tenor voice and is Choirister in his 
local church besides being in demand on public occasions. 
He is a pleasing and forceful speaker and is often called on 
to make speeches on anniversary and other occasions. He 
belongs to the Masons and is a member of the State Medical 
and Dental Association. On the completion of his course, 
"he located in 1917 at Hamlet where he has a constantly 
[growing practice. He also owns a drug store at Hamlet. 
He believes that best interests of the race are to be pro- 
moted by the right of eductaion and equal opportunity or, 
in other words, a man's chance for every man. 



William Thomas Beebe 



The Beebe family of the old town of Washington has 
long been prominent in that section of the State. One of 
its most distinguished members was the late Bishop J. A. 
Beebe of the C. M. E. Church. His son, Dr. Wm. Thomas 
Beebe, is a worthy representative of the family of the pres- 
ent generation. He was born at Washington on January 
17, 1878. He went to the local public schools as a boy and 
passed from there to Paine College, but did not remain to 
'complete the course. Later, he matriculated at Howard 
University where he took his medical course and won his 
"M. D. degree in 1906. His father has considerable farming 
interests and the boy spent much of his time between terms 
<on the farm. 

Having been brought up in a good home of religious 
influences, and one of intelligence and culture as well, it is 
not strange that Dr. Beebe's mind should early have turned 
to one of the learned professions. After completing his 
•education, he returned to his home town and began the 
practice of medicine. He has built up a large general prac- 
tice and in 1916 added to his other interests a drug store. 
On September 4, 1913, Dr. Beebe was married to Miss 




WILLIAM THOMAS BEEBE 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 391 

Anna A. Hardy, also a native of Washington. She was 
educated at Shaw University. They have one daughter, 
Josephine Beebe. 

Dr. Beebe is a member of the C. M. E. Church of which 
lie is a trustee. He is also chorister in the local church and 
takes an active interest in the work of the denomination. 
He is identified with the Masons, the Pythians and the 
Elks. He is Medical Examiner for his local lodges and for 
the North Carolina Mutual Life Insurance Company. He 
holds membership in the State and National Medical Asso- 
ciations and is widely known in Eastern North Carolina as 
one of the most prominent and successful colored physicians 
in that part of the State. 

His intimate contact with the people has given him an 
opportunity to study conditions over a period of years. He 
believes that the things most needed at this time are edu- 
cation, co-operation and the right sort of home life, which 
can only come with the ownership of homes. His residence 
is at Washington and his business interests center in and 
;around that historic old town. He has recently completed 
a beautiful eight thousand dollar home at Washington and 
lias surrounded himself with the comforts of life. 



John T. Sanders 



A great historian, who was also a great philosopher, 
<once said: "The generality of prince, if they were stripped 
of their purple and cast naked into the world, would imme- 
diately sink to the lowest rank of society without hope of 
emerging from their obscurity. "The reverse is also true 
for there are men who, starting life in obscurity, with every 
imaginable disadvantage, have by sheer force of character 
and strength of will, lifted themselves to places of usefulness 
and leadership. Among these must be mentioned John T. 
Sanders, a successful lawyer and capable business man of 
Charlotte. He is a native of the sister State of South Caro- 




JOHN T. SANDERS 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 393 

lina, having been born at Chester in that State. His par- 
ents were John and Narcissus Sanders. It is to be hoped 
that Mr. Sanders will some time write out in detail for 
publication a complete story of how he secured his educa- 
tion. Of formal schooling there was but little. The famih 
was poor and it was necessary for him to work from boy- 
hood. He went to school eighteen months all told. He 
first attended in an irregular way the public school of his 
native county. His college work was done at Biddle Uni- 
versity, except a short while at Livingstone College. While 
in school he worked all day and studied at night. His study, 
however, was not confined to the evening hours. By an 
original and peculiar arrangement he managed to pursue 
his studies while at his work. He would tear a leaf from 
his book, tack it to his plow, and while going up and down 
the rows would master that particular leaf. When that 
was done, it would be discarded and replaced by another 
It may be imagined that knowledge secured under such dif- 
ficulties was used to advantage when it was once secured. 
When it came to the subject of mathematics, he remembers 
with peculiar gratitude the assistance received from Mr. 
W. G. Alston, who cheerfully helped him over the rough 
places. In fact, all through his career Mr. Sanders' rela- 
tions with the white men with whom he has come in contact 
have been cordial and helpful. His attitude has been frank, 
and free from cringing or subserviency. He has a record, 
of which any man in his position might well be proud, of 
never having accepted a tip from anyone. 

In 1890 Mr. Sanders went from Chester to Charlotte 
and entered Biddle University without a cent of money. 
The Superintendent put him to work on the campus, and he 
spent two months of that term and then went back to the 
farm in S. C. By this time he had come to know the 
value of money and to understand more perfectly the im- 
portance of an education. He continued to work and study 
and in 1898 returned to Biddle, where he spent a part of 
two terms. Prior to this he had taught school for a while 
in North Carolina and having learned the painter's trade 



394 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

earned some money in that capacity. He was now con- 
fronted with the problem of how to make his small capital 
of $375 earn more money. Every night for a month he 
considered the matter and finally came to the conclusion that 
the one thing which everyone wanted was money, and 
would borrow money from anyone. So he decided to go 
into the money lending business. In the eight years from 
1890 to 1898 he realized $2500.00. He took $1500 of this 
amount to the Loan and Savings Bank and in this way 
came into personal contact with the late Mr. S. Wittkosky. 
The methods of the young man appealed to the old banker 
and this transaction led to a cordial arrangement which 
lasted for twenty years — during the rest of the life of Mr. 
Wittkosky. 

Mr. Sanders is a good judge of values and naturally 
drifted into real estate trading; and for a number of years 
has done an extensive financial and real estate business in 
and around Charlotte. 

It is not strange that a man of his logical turn of mind 
should find the law attractive. It is perhaps as a lawyer 
that Mr. Sanders is best known. Here, again, however, he 
was confronted by difficulties which would have appalled a 
less courageous soul. He enlisted the assistance and co- 
operation of a local attorney, who gave him lectures for 
three months ; and with his law books -his dug the rest out 
for himself, and was admitted to the bar in 1906. He was 
the only colored man who passed that examination, notwith- 
standing the fact that a number of other colored men pres- 
ent were from colleges. 

Beginning in a small way he has built up a good prac- 
tice at Charlotte. He works assiduously for his clients and 
has the unique record of never having had a client go to 
prison. 

At one time he turned to journalism and edited the 
Charlotte Advertiser for fifteen years, during which time 
it never missed an issue. He has been conducting a drug 
store in Charlotte since 1904. Before the disfranchisement 
of the Negroes in North Carolina, he was more or less active 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 395 

in politics, but in recent years has devoted himself to his 
business and professional work. 

Among the secret orders he is identified with the 
Masons, Odd Fellows and Pythians and has been Grand At- 
torney for the District Grand Lodge of the Odd Fellows since 
1917. Mr. Sanders married Miss Ella Chishold, of Chester. 
They have no children. 

He is a member of the Baptist Church, and is well in- 
formed and keeps up with present day matters through the 
current periodicals. His favorite reading consists of the 
best English classics, such as Milton and Shakespeare. 

When asked how, in his opinion, the best interests of 
the raee are to be promoted, he put as a fundamental thing, 
practical Christianity. After that, and on the material 
side, he believes the progress of the race depends on or- 
ganization, co-operation and corporations. 



Thomas Berkeley Holloway 



It was not unnatural, perhaps, during the early years 
of Emancipation, for the more intelligent of the colored 
people to turn to the professions of the ministry and of 
teaching. With the growth of education among the 
masses, however, there has come the opportunity for the 
development of successful business careers. So, today, there 
are to be found in various sections, men. who have directed 
their attention to farming on a large scale, to merchandis- 
ing, to manufacturing and, in a few cases, to banking. 
Among the latter must be mentioned Thomas Berkeley Hol- 
loway, of Kinston, who was born in Jones Co., in the ex- 
treme eastern part of the State, just after the close of the 
war, August 14, 1865. His father was a white man and 
his mother was Mary Ann Holloway. 

In this day of short hours and high wages, the story 
of his struggle as a boy reads more like fiction than fact. 
He was hired out when only six years old and worked for 




THOMAS BERKELEY HOLLOWAY 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 397 

three years for ten cents a day. An eight-hour day had 
not at that time heard of. Nor was he permitted to handle 
the little bit of money thus earned. His wages were taken 
up in barter and went toward the support of the family. 
With the shifting of the turpentine and lumbering business 
from the Carolinas southward, his step-father went to 
Georgia. The boy remained on the farm and later in life 
had his wages raised to six dollars per month. Here he re- 
mained until he was nineteen years of age. He was then em- 
ployed by a Mr. Harper, who ran a grocery, whiskey and 
turpentine business and young Holloway made himself so 
useful about the place that he became a favorite with his 
employer. His schooling was confined to the graded schools 
of Kinston. 

On December 12, 1886, he was married to Miss Lucy 
Rhem, of Lenoir Co. She lived only a little more than three 
months and on February 15, 1888, Mr. Holloway was mar- 
ried to Miss Emmaline Speights, also of Lenoir Co. She 
bore him three children, Etta (now Mrs. Banton), William, 
who is in the Government service and Wylie H. In Aug. 
1910, their mother passed away and on Dec. 26, 1912, Mr. 
Holloway was married the third time. This time h'e went 
to Wayne Co. for his wife and found her in Miss M. Katie 
Wynne. The only child born to them passed away in in- 
fancy. 

For four years after his first marriage, Mr. Holloway 
farmed in Lenoir Co. In 1890 he went south to Georgia and 
spent five years in the turpentine woods of Laurens, Tat- 
nail, Coffee and adjacent counties. Such was his thrift and 
industry that he brought back with him to North Carolina 
at the end of that time, $1,000 in money. This was early in 
1895. He went to work immediately on his return and soon 
after reaching home established a grocery business at Kin- 
ston, which grew with the years, until he sold out and re- 
tired from active business February 24, 1920. He con- 
ducted his business in such a way as to attract a large vol- 
ume of trade, not only from his own people, but from the 
white people as well. In fact, his relationships with the 



398 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

white citizens have always been most cordial and helpful 
and when he retired from the grocery business a local news- 
paper gave him a most flattering notice. 

Mr. Holloway has had the good judgment to give to 
his children the educational advantages which he lacked 
in his own youth. 

In 1907, he organized a banking business at Kinston, 
of which he is now president. This has been in successful 
operation for thirteen years. 

Mr. Holloway is a Republican in politics, a member of 
the Free Will Baptist Church and is a friend and supporter 
of education. He is a trustee and treasurer of the educa- 
tional department of his church and holds membershinp in 
the Masons, Odd Fellows and Pythians. He owns an attrac- 
tive home on one of the best residence streets of Kinston 
and has extensive investments in real estate and rent paying 
property in that prosperous little city. Mr. Holloway is a 
good citizen and is always glad to show his patriotism in a 
practical way. During the war he took an active part in all 
the drives and campaigns. He was chairman of the Liberty 
Bond and W. S. S. committees and raised all he was asked 
to do. He is an all-round, successful man. 



Samuel Joseph Howie 



The A. M. E. Zion Connection has now (1920) in the 
work of the Asheville station, a well equipped young man, 
full of promise, Rev. Samuel Joseph Howie. 

He is a native of Lancaster, S. C, where he was born 
December 18, 1889. Here he was brought up in an ex- 
cellent atmosphere of educational and religious influences. 
His fath'er, Millard Howie, was a miner by trade and is still 
living. His mother, who before her marriage was Miss 
Camie Clinton, was a daughter of Minerva Clinton. 

As a boy, he attended the Lancaster Industrial School, 
which was under the direction of the A. M. E. Zion Church 




SAMUEL JOSEPH HOWIE 



400 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

and later entered Friendship College at Rock Hill from which 
hie was graduated with the L. I. degree. After this he went 
to Livingstone College for his theological work, completing 
that course in 1916 with the B. D. degree. He had been 
converted previously, when about fifteen years of age and 
began preaching when about twenty-three. 

He joined the Conference at Gastonia, under Bishop 
Clinton, in 1913. While in college, and before entering upon 
the active work of the ministry, he taught school for five 
terms in Lancaster and York counties, S. C. He was an 
enthusiastic baseball player while in college and still loves 
"the game." 

His first appointment under the Conference was to the 
work at Thomasville and Lexington, where he remained for 
three years and completed the house of worship and bought 
land for a new church at Thomasville. He went from there 
to Winston-Salem and was stationed at People's Choice, 
which he pastored for three years with marked success. He 
is now in his first year of a successful pastorate at Hop- 
kin's Chapel, Asheville. He is a patient, hard working pas- 
tor, an attractive speaker and a capable student of the Bible, 
next after which his favorite reading consists of poetry and 
biography. 

Among the secret orders he is identified with the Odd 
Fellows and the Pythians. He has attended two General 
Conferences of his denomination, the one meeting at Char- 
lotte and the one at Knoxville. He is a friend and supporter 
of education and believes that the progress of his race de- 
pends upon it, provided always that it is Christian educa- 
tion. 

On November 29, 1917, Rev. Howie was married to 
Miss Irene Crawford, of Lancaster. She was educated at 
Lancaster and was an accomplished teacher. She enters 
heartily into the work of her ihusband. They have one 
child, Johnie M. Howie. 



Alexander Morrisey 

The story of men like Rev. Alexander Morrisey ought 
to be placed in the hands of colored youth everywhere. The 
record of the struggle upward from poverty and obscurity 
to places of large usefulness in the Kingdom would serve 
as a source of helpful inspiration to many a Negro boy who 
imagines he is having a terribly hard time. 

Rev. Morrisey was born at Clinton, Sampson Co., on 
April 14, 1873. His parents were Alexander and Esther 
Morrisey. His father passed away while he was still young, 
but his mother lived until June 8, 1914. So it came to pass 
that he was reared by Mr. R. G. Morrisey a white man who 
gave him lessons at night and on rainy days, which was his 
first start in books. The lot of his boyhood and youth was 
a hard one, filled with grinding poverty. He went to work 
when only six years of age and worked for two years for 
his food and clothing. The following year he received $1.50 
per month, or $18.00 for the year's work. The next year 
he was promoted to $2.50 a month. He was at this time 
in the ihome of Mr. R. G. Morrisey and while his income was 
small and the work hard, Mr. Morrisey was not unkind to 
him, but encouraged him when the boy aspired to an edu- 
cation. He was sixteen years of age before he went to 
school. He was able to earn the money for his expenses 
by cultivating an acre and a ihalf of land in cotton working 
Saturdays, evenings and at odd times when not otherwise 
engaged. Unable to buy fertilizer, he burned logs at night 
and used the ashes with good results. He realized $50.00 
from the sale of his cotton and after going to school a 
while, returned to work and made the 'expenses for the next 
year. The second year he attended school six months and 
the third year six monthhs. After the third year of school, 
he took the teachers' examination and made a third grade 
certificate. The next year he won the second grade and 
began teaching in Mingo Township of Sampson Co. He 




ALEXANDER MORRISEY 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 403 

rapidly reached the first grade and continued to teach in 
the public schools for ten years. 

He had been converted at an early age, and after he had 
been teaching for some years felt called to the work of the 
Gospel ministry. He was licensed to preach by the Lisbon 
Street Baptist Church and was ordaihed to the full work 
o fthe ministry inj 1903, at Clinton. At this point he was 
also principal of the graded school for two years. 

After deciding to take up the work of the ministry, (he 
realized that, in order to do his work best, he should have 
college training and so entered Shaw University where he 
did the theological as well as the academic work, graduating 
in 1911 with the degree of B.Th. 

He has kept in touch with farming all his life, and 
still operates a small farm near Fayetteville. Apart from 
his theological books, he has little time for reading anything 
except current literature. 

Hi's first pastorate was the Red Hill Baptist Church, 
which he served for four years and erected a new house of 
worship. He preached at the Atkinson Baptist Church, 
Goldsboro, for six years and at LaGrange five years. A 
considerable addition was made to the church building at 
LaGrange. The house of worship at Smithfield, where he 
preached for four years, was also repaired. He pastored 
the church at Marietta for a year and Grays Creek, in Cum- 
berland Co., for four years. He has been preaching at 
Lisbon Street, 'his home church in Clinton, for three years, 
Feilt's Chapel one year, Littlefield five years and was re- 
cently called to Mary's Grove. All these churches are good 
dhurches with large memberships. 

Before the disfranchisement of the Negroes in North 
Carolina, he was motfe or less active in Republican politics 
but in recent years has taken no active part. He stands 
high in the denomination and is a member of The Minis- 
terial Board Union and the Western Union Association. 

On December 31, 1912, Rev. Morris'ey was married to 
an accomplished young lady of Abbeville,' S. C. She was, 
before her marriage, Miss Mamie Ellison. She was edu- 



404 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

oated at Harbison College and has a wide acquaintance 
among the best people of South Carolina and was a success- 
ful teacher there. They have three Children, Alfred Alex- 
ander, John Oliver and Mary Esther Morrisey. 

Rev. Morrisey is a clear thinker and a close observer 
Who has studied conditions among his people for years. 
He believes that the great need of the race today is trained 
leadership. He has an attractive home on the outskirts of 
Fayetteville. 



William Richard Gullins 



Rev. William Richard Gullins, D. D., the subject of 
this biography, is a distinguished clergyman of the A. M. 
E. Churdh and is now (1920) stationed at Charlotte. He is 
a native of Middle Georgia, having been born at Eatonton 
in Putnam Co., Ga., June 9, 1864. His father, Rev. John 
Gullins, was a Baptist preacher and was also engaged in 
farming. The paternal grandparents were "Guina" negroes. 
Dr. Gullins' mother was, before her marriage, Miss Cath- 
erine Milirons. From this side of the family hie 1 inherits a 
strain of Cherokee Indian blood. Through a white ancestor 
he can also trace his lineage back to the Mayflower. As he 
looks back over his boyhood days he is convinced that the 
lifle and character of his mother were the greatest factors 
in shaping his life. 

Coming of school age during the Reconstruction Period 
he had some experiences which would be unusual today. 
Some of the teachers who were then in charge of this local 
school lived in his father's home and it was there under 
their tutelage that he laid the foundation of his education. 
Later he passed to the Ballard Normal School at Macon 
which he attended for several terms. This was supple- 
mented by a six year course taken at Chatauqua, N. Y. 
He took his Theological course at Turner Theological Sem- 
inary of Morris Brown University, Atlanta. Kittrell Col- 




WILLIAM RICHARD GULLINS 



406 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

lege of North Carolina has conferred on ihim the D. D. de- 
gree. Dr. Gullins ihas interested himself greatly in thle edu- 
cational features of his ministry and has himself taken a 
number of Teacher Training courses. These courses have 
beten pursued under the auspices of the International S. S. 
Association and the African Methodist S. S. Union. He 
has also taken the Standard Teacher Training course. He 
is also an efficient stenographer. 

Dr. Gullins was converted Oct. 23, 1880, and joined 
first the Baptist Church in whidh he remained for about 
four years. There have been nine preachers in his family 
and Dr. Gullins had felt from childhood that his work must 
be that of the ministry. He began his work as a preacher 
in Columbus, Ga., in 1884, where he joined the Conference 
under Bishop J. A. Shorter. His first appointment was 
Louisville, Ga., which he served one year. He walked 84 
miles a month to reach this work, preached to fifteen mem- 
bers and raiste'd a monthly collection of from fifteen to 
twenty cents. The Annual Rally on pastors' salary netted 
him thirty-five cents. From Louisville he went to the Bar- 
tow Circcuit for two years, built a church at Bartow and 
one in the country and was Principal of the local school. 

His next appointment was Powersville where he 
preached two years and built a church. After that he was 
at Milledegville for six months at the end of which he was 
transferred to Virginia and stationed at the Lynn Stretet 
Church, Danville. Here during a pastorate of a year and 
a 'half he cancelled a debt of four thousand dollars. From 
Danville he went to Roanoke and paid a debt, from thene to 
Richmond two years, then to Farmville one year, and from 
Farmville to Smithfield two years where a new parsonage 
was erected. From Smithfield 'he was sent back to Rich- 
mond one year and then to Berkeley for two years. An- 
other transfer took him to Steelton in Pennsylvania where 
he preached for five years and built a splendid house! of 
worship at a cost of $23,000. His next appointment was 
to the historic old town of Germantown, which held him 
three years. Following this he preached at Princeton, N. 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 407 

J., two years; First Church, Providence, R. I., two years; 
EbEnezer Station, Washington, D. C, six months, Raleigh, 
N. C." St. Paul Station one year; Durham, St. Joseph Sta- 
tion two years ; Winston-Salem, Bethel Station one year. 
In 1919 he was sent to Charlotte. He is a pulpiteer of 
recognized ability and during his ministry has been a dili- 
gent student of the Bible and after the Bible his reading 
has included the best English and American classics. 

He is prominent in the work of the secret orders and 
benevolent societies. He is a Mason and an Odd Fellow. 
He 'has biEen honored by being chosen Grand Chaplain of 
the I. B. P. 0. E. W. Elks and Supreme Grand Deputy of 
the Royal Knights of King David. In politics he is a Re- 
publican. He has dared to think independently on race 
questions. His advice to his people is "Prepare for the 
rights you demand." He is a man who knows literary val- 
ues and has been a frequent contributor to the press and 
has written a book "Heroes of the Virginia Conference." 

Dr. Gullins has been married twice. His first marriage 
was on June 8, 1882, to Miss Qulzen Emma Hardy. She 
bore him two children, Hattie L. (now Mrs. Jamison) and 
William R. Gullins, Jr. Mrs. Gullins passed away Oct. 17, 

1897, while they resided at Farmville, Va. On June 21,. 

1898, he was married to Miss Moselle L. Coots, a lady of 
culture who has for years been engaged in educational work. 



William Henry Williams 

Dr. Wm. Henry Williams, a successful young dentist 
of Goldsboro, is typical of a class of young colored men who 
in recent years have gone into the dental profession and 
given their pisople that sort of service which was not before 
available and at the same time have made a name and money 
for themselves. Dr. Williams is a native of Goldsboro 
where he was born September 14, 1891. His fatbsr, Henry 
Williams, has been a successful grocer of Goldsboro for 




WILLIAM HENRY WILLIAMS 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 409 

35 years and his mother, before her marriage, was Miss 
Minnie Bunting. Dr. Williams' father was in position to 
see him through school, which enabled him to settle down 
into ihis professional work at an early age. 

Young Williams attended the local public schools first, 
then passed into the preparatory department of Biddle Uni- 
versity Where later he took the) regular college course which 
he completed with the A. B. degree in 1914. The following 
year he matriculated at Howard University, Washington, 
D. C, and won his D. D. S. degree there in 1917. To his moth- 
er he credits the chief inspiration of his early life. When 
through school and ready for work, he could think of no 
more attractive field than his own home and his success 
there has shown that :he chose wisely. He began to prac- 
tice in August, 1917, and has steadily forged ahead. He 
maintains attractive dental parlors in the very heart of the 
city near the post office and is one of the really busy men 
of the town. 

In politics he is a Republican and is a member of the 
Presbyterian Church. Among the secret orders he affili- 
ates with the Pythians. He owns a comfortable, well fur- 
nished home in Goldsboro, where he is making other invest- 
ments also. On December 10, 1915, Dr. Williams was mar- 
ried to Miss Annice G. North, a daughter of Abraham and 
Annice North. Mrs. Williams was eduacted at Livingstone 
College, Salisbury, N. C. 



Ernest Caswell Byers 

Ernest Caswell Byers of Greensboro, who holds a re- 
sponsible position in the railway mail service is one of those 
•enterprising men who will not be discouraged by difficulties 
nor defeated by a single failure. He believes in the old 
motto, "Try, try again," and as a result has succeeded. 
Mr. Byers is a native of Davidson, N. C, where he was 
born March 25, 1873. His father Andrew Byers was a 




ERNEST CASWELL BYERS 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 411 

blacksmith by trade. He was a son of Andrew Byers, Sr., 
who before Emancipation was carriage driver for his mas- 
ter, and was a skillful violinist. He often drove long dis- 
tances in the South, even as far away as Louisiana and 
Texas. The mother of our subject before her marriage was 
Miss Judia Hotlzclaugh. His paternal grandmother was 
Margaret Cash Byers, the family cook. She was half In- 
dian and half negro. 

Our subject was married on May 3, 1904 to Miss Jen- 
nie Mozella Torrence, a daughter of John and Alice TorrenCe. 
John Torrence was a teacher. Of thethree children born 
to Mr. and Mrs. Byers two are living. They are Daisy Lee 
and Ernest C. Byers, Jr. 

Young Byers first attended the local public school in 
Meckenburg Co. After which he entered the preparatory 
department of Biddle University. Finances were low and 
the way was not easy. He says "I worked my way in the 
print shop of the Afro-American Presbyterian Church pa- 
per, also did painting and glazing on campus." The story 
of this period and of <his later struggle is best told in his 
own simple language. He says, "I was born in the back 
yard of a professor of Davidson College, on the campus and 
was raised there and in the village blacksmith shop with my 
father. I attended the village school till seventeen years 
of age and entered Biddle University in the fall of 1891. 
I worked my own way through school, graduating as class 
representative, merited by scholarship marks covering the 
four year period in the college department. In 1899 I en- 
tered the government service as post office clerk at Char- 
lotte and remained two years. I theln resigned and opened 
a clothing and transfer business in my home town David- 
son. For three years I taught the village school which I 
had attended as a boy before going to college. I resigned 
by school work on account of the growth of my other 
work. In 1909 I re-enlisted in the government service clos- 
ing out my other affairs on account of the panic, since which 
I have moved on as my turn comes receiving all promotions 
due me to the present in this service." 



412 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Mr. Byers attributes his success to industry, energy,, 
honesty and public confidence. His work has taken him 
to various parts of the South but apart from this he has 
not traveled extensively. His favorite, ireadihg - includes 
political economy, current literature and the Bible. He is 
a Mason and a Pythian and is active in the work of the 
Presbyterian Church of which he has long been a member. 
He has both the A. B. and A. M. degrees from Biddle Uni- 
versity. 

He believes that the problems of the race are to be 
solved by education, industry, co-operation and Christianity- 
His property interests are at Greensboro and Davidson. 



Perry R. D. Goore 



In the Missionary Baptist Church there is no appointiva 
power. Every church selects its own pastor and may call 
to its service any preacher in the denomination. Thus it 
will be seen that the preachers are dependent upon the rec- 
ords they have made in former pastorates, so when one 
finds a man occupying a place of prominence or influence in 
the denomination, it may be taken for granted that he is 
a man of character and ability. Among the prominent men 
of the Missionary Baptists of western North Carolina must 
be mentioned Rev. Perry Richards Davidson Goore of Hick- 
ory, better known as P. R. D. Goore. He was born just 
after the close; of the war on August 7, 1865. His father, 
Elijah Goore, was a farmer and before Emancipation had 
been a slave. He was born in Chester Co., S. C. His mother 
Ellen Cassell, was a native of York Co., S. C. Mr. Goore's 
grandparents on his father's side we re Darby and Mary 
Goore. On the mother's side they were Isaac and Eliza 
Cassell. Both sides bore the reputation of being hard work- 
ing, pious people. 

Mr. Goore was married on February 29, 1888, to Miss 
Eliza Ellen Marshall, a daughter of Howard and Maggie, 




PERRY RICHARDS DAVIDSON GOORE 



414 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Marshall of York Co., S. C. Of the nine children born to 
them the following are living: Curley G., John W., Horace 
G., Boston W., and Hamlet C. Goore. The oldest son, Gerald 
P. Goore, deceased, entered the military service, went to 
the training camp at Des Moines and was commissioned 
First Lieutenant. He was honorably discharged and was 
the only colored man from Catawba Co. in an officers' train- 
ing camp. 

Growing up just after the war, at a time when the 
opportunities for getting an education were very limited and 
when financial resources were even more limited, young 
Goore could only attend the county graded school of York 
Co. He was denied the opportunity of a college education, 
though he is himself a friend and supporter of education. 
His father, having been a slave, knew little of the value 
of schools and schooling and like many others at that time 
looked upon education as a means of escaping honorable 
labor. Young Goore was converted when about thirteen 
years of age and when twenty, felt called to the ministry. 
Prior to that time he had worked on the farm, and at the 
carpenters trade. He was licensed and ordained to the full 
work of the ministry by the West End Baptist Church of 
Winston-Salem. His first pastorate was at Winston-Salem 
and all his work in the ministry has been done in the hill 
country and mountain sections of the State. He served the 
church at Kernesville eighteen months and has also preached 
at Walkertown, Oak Ridge, Friendship Church, Hickory, 
Lenoir and Drexal. He is now (1920) missionary of the 
Union Baptist Convention of N. C. He has been active in 
church building and erected new houses of worship on all 
his pastorates. He organized all the churches he has served 
except Kernesville. His has been a fruitful ministry and 
has resulted in the addition of at least two thousand new 
members to the church of his choice. 

In politics he is a Republican but is not identified with 
the secret orders. He owns an attractive home on a large 
lot in Hickory valued at about $4,000. 

Notwithstanding his early difficulties, Mr. Goore has 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 415 

done a remarkable work for the race, and believes that its 
further progress lies along the line- of better education. 
Christian training, and ownership of homes which s'houF 
be made pleasant and attractive for the boys and girls. Al- 
though it is as a preacher that Mr. Goore is best known, 
he has also had considerable experience as a teacher. 



Perfect Robert DeBerry 



A great leader once said that, "A lazy indolent church 
tends toward unbelief; an earnest busy church, in hand-to- 
hand conflict with sin and misery, grows stronger in faith." 
The realization of this fact has given rise to what, in recent 
years, has come to be known as the institutional church, 
which, while not neglecting the stated services, seeks also 
to serve immediately, and in every helpful way, the com- 
munity of which it is a part. Among the colored ministers 
who are trying to render this all round sort of service is 
Rev. Perfect Robert DeBerry, pastor of the First Congre- 
gational Church of Raleigh. He is a native of Montgomery 
Co., having been born at Mt. Gilead in 1879. His parents 
werer Caleb and Parthenia (Ingram) DeBerry. Caleb De- 
Berry was the son of Edmond and Clary DeBerry. Rev. 
DeBerry's maternal grandfather was Randle Ingram. 

As a boy our subject attended the local graded school 
after which he went to Peabody Academy at Troy. As his 
means were limited he served as janitor rather than miss 
the opportunities of an education. He was converted at the 
early age of ten and entered thei ministry soon after he was 
twenty. He entered the ministry while still in school at 
Troy. His first pastorate was country work out from 
Troy, in which he was engaged the last three years he was 
in school. He then passed to Talladega Seminary where 
he combined some college work with his Theological course 
and was graduated in 1907. While pursuing this course he 
preached at Shelby, Ala. one year and was for another year 




PERFECT ROBERT DEBERRY 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 417 

associate pastor at Talladega College. After his graduation 
he went to Dorchester Academy at Thebes, Ga., for three 
years as pastor and chaplain. From Georgia he went to 
Lincoln Academy, Kings Mountain where he remained for 
two years as chaplain and pastor. In July 1911, he came 
to his present work at the First Congregational Church, 
Raleigh, where he is recognized as one of the constructive 
men of his race. He is young, vigorous and progressive. 
In nine years he has developed ihis congregation from one 
of the smallest of the denomination in the state to the larg- 
est. His work has been recognized by both white and col- 
ored and especially by his denomination. He is a member 
of the Foreign Mission Committee and has for twelve years 
been Secretary of the State 1 Convention. He is also Presi- 
dent of the National Convention of congregational workers 
among colored people. He has traveled well over America 
and believes that in a general way "the greatest need of 
the nation at present is a new spirit of brotherhood and co- 
operation. 

On June 8, 1903, Mr. DeBerry was married to Miss 
Dulcina B. Torrence, a daughter of Henry and Violet Tor- 
rence of Kings Mountain. She was a teacher before her 
marriage. They have two children, Pallie and Perfect R. 
R. Berry, Jr. 



Gaston Alonzo Edwards 



The subject of this biography, Prof. Gaston Alonzo 
Edwards, educator, philosopher and registered architect of 
N. C, is now (1920) President of Kittrell College. He was 
born at Belvoir, N. C, April 12, 1875. After laying the 
foundation of his education in the local public schools, he 
attended the A. & M. College at Greensboro and later Cor- 
nell University, Ithaca, N. Y. Returning to his home state 
he established the mechanical department of the Institution 
for the Deaf, Dumb and Blind at Raleigh in 1901-1902. In 




GASTON ALONZO EDWARDS 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 419 

October, 1902, he was called to Shaw University as Teacher 
of Natural Science and Supt. of the Men's Industrial Depart- 
ment. Such was the character of his work at Shaw that he 
remained with the institution for fifteen years. While 
here he also continued to work at his chosen profession, 
architecture, and his fame as an architect spread through- 
out the country. He was the first Negro to design and con- 
struct buildings for the American Baptist Home Mission So- 
ciety. He cares but little for the frills and fads of archi- 
tecture, but adheres strictly to the three Fs in designing, 
Fit, Firm and Fair. As a result he enjoys a liberal patron- 
age from the white people as well as from his own race. 

On March 25, 1915, the General Assembly of N. C. 
passed an act requiring all architects to be examined, li- 
censed and registered. Prof. Edwards not only passed the 
board successfully but enjoys the distinction of being the 
only registered Negro architect in North Carolina. 

On June 12, 1912, he was commissioned by Gov. 
Kitchen as a delegate to the third annual session of the 
Negro National Educational Congress held in St. Paul, 
Minn., in July of the same year. Prior to this, on May 27, 
1909, he had received from his Alma Mater the degree of 
Master of Science, being the first graduate of that school so 
honored. On May 23, 1920, Allen University, of Columbia, 
S. C, conferred on him the degree of Master of Arts. 

In the spring of 1917, by a unanimous vote of the Board 
of Trustees of Kittrell College, he was elected to the presi- 
dency of that institution. The man and the opportunity 
were fairly met and under his administration the school 
has taken on new life and is destined to become one of the 
permanent institutions of the race. 



Robert Owens Langford 



Rev. Robert Owens Langford, now (1920) stationed at 
Winston-Salem, is one of the most progressive and effect- 
ive men of the C. M. E. Connection in N. C. He was born 
at Huntsville, Ala., Oct. 15, 1878. His father, Nathan 
Langford, was a laborer, and his mother, before her mar- 
riage, was Miss Minerva Harris. She was a daughter of 
Henry Harris and Henry was the son of Jennie. One the 
father's side, our subject is descended from Isaac Lang- 
ford, who was the son of Charlotte Langford. These were 
all of unmixed African descent and before Emancipation 
were, of course, slaves. 

On Dec. 12, 1912, Mr. Langford was married to Miss 
Helen Ernestine Hasty, a daughter of Wilson and Lessie 
Hasty. They have one son, Nathaniel Alger Langford. 

Young Langford's early years were spent at hard work 
in an environment which was far from inspiring. Without 
money and lacking many of the comforts of life, the way to 
an education appeared rugged enough. The sturdy quali- 
ties developed during these years of struggle have been the 
very qualities which have carried him over the rough places 
of his maturer years. When just merging into manhood at 
nineteen, he was converted and almost immediately began 
to prepare for the work to which he felt he must devote his 
life. He went to school and preached at the same time. 
After surmounting many difficulties, which would have dis- 
couraged a less hardy soul, he entered Biddle University at 
Charlotte, from which he was graduated in 1912. Since 
then Princeton University in Indiana has conferred on him 
the S. T. B. degree and in 1919 Paine College, Augusta, Ga., 
gave him the degree of Doctor of Divinity. Dr. Langford 
has found his chief inspiration in life in his work. When 
called to preach, he did not hesitate nor evade the issue. 
Nor did he defer the work until he could call himself pre- 
pared, but simply began where he was and went forward. 




ROBERT OWENS LANGFORD 



422 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

He was licensed in 1906. His first pastorate was art 
humble mission, Trinity, Ala., which he served two years- 
He preached at LaFayette one year, after which he was 
transferred to North Carolina and stationed at Bethel. After 
serving that charge one year he was sent to Charlotte, and 
it was while pastoring Williams Chapel there that he at- 
tended Biddle University. While there he added Monroe* 
where he developed the work while serving Williams Chapel. 
Under his administration a house of worship was erected 
at Monroe and named Langford's Chapel in his honor. His 
next appointment carried him to Greenville, S. C, where he 
served the Israel Chapel Station with great success for five 
years. The church debt was paid, a site for a new house 
purchased and the parsonage repaired. The membership* 
grew from 160 to 840. In 1918, he was returned to the Old 
North State and stationed at Winston-Salem, where he has 
developed the Hanes Institutional C. M. E. Church. In ad- 
dition to his regular pastoral work Dr. Langford is con- 
stantly in demand for evangelistic work both North and 
South. In fact his revival work has taken him to every- 
part of the country. No man in his conference has brought 
more members into the church than Dr. Langford. While: 
he taught before leaving Alabama, he now devotes his en- 
tire time and talents to the ministry. 

In politics, he is a Republican. He belongs to the Ma- 
sons and the Working Benevolents. In his reading the Bi- 
ble and Theological works naturally find first place. After 
that he has a fondness for the English and American clas- 
sics. He believes in a spirit of mutual co-operation among- 
the best elements of both races. Among his own people, he: 
believes that progress depends upon the right sort of educa- 
tion, the accumulation of property, the support of religion: 
and an intelligent interest in public questions. While not. 
seeking primarily to make money, but rather to serve his 
people unselfishly, Dr. Langford has proven that word of 
the Master about those who seek first the Kingdom of God 
and his righteousness. He is now able to live in a condi- 
tion far removed from the hard days of his boyhood in Ala.. 



James Edward Shepard 



The story of the educational and religious leadership of 
the Negro in the South has many interesting phases. After 
Emancipation when the Negroes began to worship apart 
zfrom the Whites, the congregations were served mainly by 
ignorant preachers. Though ignorant, they were Christian 
:and were evangelistic. In the midst of economic, social 
and political upheaval, the religious life of the race crystal- 
ized around these leaders, the denominations were organized 
and the struggle upward was begun. 

Educational leadership was less simple. Immediately 
after the war came teachers from the North. In the main, 
they were men and women with the true missionary spirit, 
patient, capable and self-sacrificing. Not a few of them 
were superb teachers. The white South resented, berated, 
-criticised, and ostracized them. They were succeeded by 
the public schools," which gradually passed into the hands of 
colored teachers. So-called colleges, doing the work of 
graded schools and universities with the curricula of high 
schools sprang up on every hand, while the number and kind 
of degrees conferred were enough to make a college man 
blush to look the alphabet in the face. 

Fortunately, in. nearly all the states, a few institutions 
were put on a proper basis and were soon turning out young 
:men and women of intelligence and scholarship, men and 
women born, reared and educated since the war. The 
heads of these institutions have seen that the religious and 
■educational life of the student must be related — that the 
forces making for intelligence must at the same time make 
for character. They also saw that schools must be indigen- 
ous and that they must train men and women for service in 
"this present world, not only the service of preaching and 
"teaching but for intelligent efficient work as well. 

Such an institution is the National Training School at 
Durham. James Edward Shepard, the head of the school, 




JAMES EDWARD SHEPARD 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 425 

is a native of the State, having been born at Raleigh Nov. 3, 
1875. His father, the late Rev. Augustus Shepard, D. D., 
was for twenty years State Missionary of the American 
Baptist Publication Society. He was a son of Richard and 
Flora Shepard. The mother of our subject, Hattie Whitted 
Shepard, was a daughter of Alston and Annie Whitted. 

Growing up in Raleigh, young Shepard attended the 
local schools and later did his preparatory work at Shiloh 
Institute, a Baptist School at Warrenton. After that he at- 
tended Shaw University. He took the course in Pharmacy 
and was graduated with the Ph. G. degree in 1894. After 
his graduation, he engaged in the drug business at Charlotte 
and Durham for three years. Under the McKinley admin- 
istration he was Deputy Collector of Internal Revenue at 
Raleigh and was for a while Chief Clerk in the Recorder 
of Deeds Office at Washington, D. C. It is as a religious and 
educational leader, however, that Dr. Shepard is best known. 

In 1902 he was made Field Secretary of the Interna- 
tional Sunday School Assocation, in which capacity he 
served for seven years. In 1910 he was called to the presi- 
dency of the National Training School at Durham. Here 
the man and the opportunity were fairly met, and under 
his administration the institution has enjoyed its greatest 
period of prosperity. The enrollment has grown from 60 
to 300 — all the dormitories will accommodate. It has been 
necessary to increase the faculty to twenty-one members. 
The work of the school has attracted attention beyond the 
State and students have been enrolled from eleven States, 
Africa, and South America. The school has a modern plant 
on the outskirts of Durham valued at $165,000.00. Dr. Shep- 
ard has done this remarkable thing. Without being in any 
way untrue to his people or to his own ideals, he has been 
able to command the hearty support and co-operation of 
some of the most distinguished white men of the State. 

On Nov. 7, 1895, Dr. Shepard was married to Mrs. Annie 
Day Robinson. They have two children, Marjorie A. and 
Annie D. Shepard. 

Dr. Shepard is quiet and cordial in manner, clear and 



426 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

forceful as a speaker with more care to accuracy of state- 
ment than flowery expression. One understands the sim- 
plicity of his style better when he remembers that Dr. 
Shepard's favorite books are the Bible, Pilgrim's Progress 
and Shakespeare. He is a Republican in politics and among 
the secret orders is identified with the Masons, Pythians and 
Odd Fellows. 

In December, 1920, he was overwhelmingly elected 
Grand Master of Masons for N. C. He is also President of 
the N. C. Colored Teachers Association. In every walk of 
life which tends to build up his race, Dr. Shepard can be 
depended on to lend a hand. He is regarded by both races 
as a safe, sane and wise leader. 



William Henry Wallace 



In recent years, the medical and dental professions have 
attracted a number of the brightest young men of the race. 
In intelligence and progressiveness they rank high. It is 
gratifying to be able to say that they are prospering finan- 
cially. They must meet the same requirements and pass 
the same examiations as the white men in their professions 
and not a few of them are actually overworked. Such is the 
response of the race to adequate preparation and efficient 
service. 

Among the successful dentists of the State must be 
mentioned Dr. William Henry Wallace of Salisbury. He is 
a native of the sister State of South Carolina, having been 
born Aug. 21, 1887, at Columbia. His father, Dr. Joseph E. 
Wallace, is a well known educator and minister. His mother 
is Josephine Wallace. Dr. Wallace's paternal grandparents 
were Andrew and Martha C. Wallace. On the mother's side 
his grandparents were Peter and Susan Connor. 

Growing up in a home of culture and refinement, with 
access to books and the advantage of an early start young 
Wallace forged ahead with his education and was able to 




WILLIAM HENRY WALLACE 



428 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

begin his professional work early. He laid the foundation 
of his education in the graded schools of Columbia and when 
ready for college matriculated at Claflin University, Orange- 
burg, S. C, graduating with the B. S. degree in 1908. He 
then entered the University of Pennsylvania for his. dental 
course and won his D. D. S. in 1911. Dr. Wallace has an 
excellent voice and during his college years spent his vaca- 
tions with the Claflin University Quartette on its summer 
tours in the North and East. He was the Baritone of the 
quartette. In this way he earned money to apply to his 
education and at the same time saw quite a bit of the coun- 
try. He was active in college athletics and played baseball. 
After his graduation he located at Augusta in 1911 where 
he practiced for two years. He then came to Salisbury 
where he has attracted quite as much work as he can han- 
dle. Dr. Wallace is a member of the Episcopal Church and 
belongs to the Masons. He is not active in politics. He is 
a member of the State Medical and Dental Association and 
is Secy.-Treas. of the Tri-State Dental Association. 

On March 6, 1917, Dr. Wallace was married to Miss 
Josephine Pleasant of Chicago. She was educated at Wash- 
ington. 

When asked for some expression as to how the best 
interests of the race might be promoted, he responded with 
the one word, "encouragement." 



Jacob William Faulk 



Just after the close of the War of Sections on Dec. 23, 
1865, a Negro boy was born at Portsmouth, Va., destined to 
a place of leadership and large service among his people. 
This boy, Jacob William Faulk, was the son of a Baptist 
minister, Rev. J. H. Faulk, and his wife, Sophia (Holland) 
Faulk. Rev. J. A. Faulk was free born and was a voter prior 
to 1867. The paternal grandfather of our subject was also 
named Jacob Faulk and was a preacher, so that Jacob W. is 




JACOB WILLIAM FAULK 



430 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

the third generation in the ministry. His grandmother was 
Peggy (Reed) Faulk. On the maternal side his grandfather 
was a Mohawk Indian and his grandmother Mary Holland. 
The family having moved to North Carolina soon after 
the war young Faulk attended schools there which he later 
supplemented by private study at Hertford and later still 
in Washington City. He was an enterprising, dependable 
young man who won the confidence of those with whom he 
came in contact and made friends wherever he went. He 
was converted and joined the Baptist Church at the early 
age of fifteen and in 1893 was licensed to preach and later 
in the same year was ordained to the full work of the Gospel 
ministry at the First Baptist Church of Hertford. Young 
and vigorous, but mature, he threw himself into the work 
with all the enthusiasm of youth and was successful from 
the beginning. For a quarter of a century he, like the apos- 
tle of old, went everywhere preaching, from Florida to New 
England, with the result that at least ten thousand conver- 
sions were witnessed in his meetings. For twenty years he 
traveled an average of ten thousand miles a year and held 
thousands of services. Then for four years he represented 
the American Baptist Publication Society in Eastern North 
Carolina. For fourteen consecutive years Dr. Faulk had 
conducted the meetings for the Ebenezer Baptist Church at 
Charlotte. So when in 1917 he accepted the call to the pas- 
torate of that church he was going among a people he al- 
ready knew. His success here has demonstrated the wis- 
dom of their choice. Other successful pastorates of Dr. 
Faulk are the Philadelphia church, Camden, N. C, which he 
served for six years and raised money for the erection of a 
new house of worship ; the First Baptist church of Weldon, 
N. C, where he preached for twelve years. While on this 
work the church and parsonage of the white Methodists 
were purchased and remodelled. He also served the church 
at South Boston, Va., for eight years and erected a ten thou- 
sand dollar house of worship. He preached at Tarboro, 
N. C, for five years. Thus it will be seen that he has had 
long and fruitful ministry. 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 431 

Among the secret orders, he belongs to the Masons, Odd 
Fellows and Pythians. He is G. W. Superior of the order 
of Love and Charity, an organization which has greatly pros- 
pered under his administration. They hold the unique rec~ 
ord of never having lost a dollar, had a protest or a case in 
court. Thousands of dollars have been paid their benefici- 
aries. 

On Nov. 28, 1891, he was married to Miss Kalula Lee, 
a daughter of David Lee of Edenton, N. C. Of the nine 
children born to them the following are living: Molly L., 
Sally L., John, Ruth, Davy, Sophia, Phillip C. and Lula 
Faulk. 

Dr. Faulk is a great general reader and has traveled ex- 
tensively. He is an attractive and forceful speaker and 
always makes himself heard no matter how large the audi- 
ence. He is himself a vocalist and especially in his revival 
work has found this accomplishment most helpful. He 
owns property in Hertford, Weldon and Charlotte. 



William Jones Rankin 



Since the beginning of religious work among the Ameri- 
can Negroes, it has been the policy of the Presbyterian 
church in the U. S. A. to keep its educational and religious 
work going along together. This has resulted in intelli- 
gent leadership and in the establishment of a number of 
parochial schools, which, through the years, have stood for 
what is best in Negro education and have been feeders for 
the colleges and universities. 

Rev. William Jones Rankin, A. B., S. T. B., is one of the 
capable Presbyterian men who has devoted the best years 
of his life to the task of religious and educational leader- 
ship. His work at Aberdeen is recognized as being of a 
high type. Mr. Rankin was born at Elmwood in Iredell Co. 
on July 1, 1862, which was in the midst of the war, that was 
destined to bring freedom to him and to his people. 



* 
NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 433 

His father, Mitchell Rankin, was a farmer and his 
mother's maiden name Isabelle Gillespie, a daughter of 
Thomas and Matilda Gillespie. The boy grew up on the 
farm and started his schooling at Elmwood. He attracted 
the attention of his pastor who later moved to Salisbury. 
Young Rankin then went to Salisbury and attended a paro- 
chial school there for two years. He did his preparatory 
work at Biddle University and his College and Theological 
courses were pursued at Lincoln University, from which he 
was graduated with the A. B. degree in 1889. Three years 
later he completed the Theological Course with the S. T. B. 
degree. He was also given the degree of A. M. at the same 
commencement.The degree of Doctor of Divinity was con- 
ferred by Biddle University in June, 1911. 

Dr. Rankin's mind turned toward the serious matters 
of religion at an early age. He was converted when about 
sixteen and soon after consecrated his life to the minis- 
try. In fact, from boyhood he felt that his work in life 
must be that of the ministry. 

On April 27, 1893, he was happily married to Miss Mat- 
tie Elizabeth Cooper, a daughter of John and Charity Cooper 
of Roanoke, Va. She was educated at Petersburg and has 
entered heartily into the plans of her husband. They have 
no children of their own but have adopted a daughter. On 
completion of his work at Lincoln University, Dr. Rankin 
was called to the Presbyterian church at Laurinburg which 
he served for two years. In 1894 he moved to Aberdeen to 
take up the work there and has since resided at Aberdeen. 
Soon after moving to Aberdeen Dr. and Mrs. Rankin were 
impressed with the lack of facilities for the education of 
Negro children and began in their home the work which 
grew into the Sarah Lincoln Academy, which for nearly 
twenty-five years has done much for the cause of education 
in that section. It was first known as the Aberdeen Pre- 
paratory School. Again the name was changed to the Eliz- 
abeth School in honor of Mrs. Rankin, whose indefatigable 
efforts made the school possible. In 1903 the school, which 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 435 

had been combined with the parochial school, was turned 
over to the Board of Missions and at the request of one of 
its benefactors was re-named Sarah Lincoln school and fin- 
ally, by action of the Presbytery, made Sarah Lincoln Acad- 
emy. 

Through all these years, Dr. Rankin has also been serv- 
ing the Faith Presbyterian church at Aberdeen and Emanuel 
Presbyterian church at Southern Pines as pastor. New 
houses of worship have been erected at both places. 

Dr. Rankin has twice been a member of the General As- 
sembly of the Presbyterian church in the U. S. A., first at 
Winona Lake, in 1898, the second at Columbus, Ohio, 1918. 
He serves as Moderator of the Synod of Catawba from Sept., 
1909, to Sept., 1910. He has also been Moderator of the 
Yadkin Presbytery three times. 

Dr. Rankin is a Mason. He has not been active in poli- 
tics. He belongs to that type which wears well — whose 
work in the community is appreciated more and more as the 
years go by. This is because he and his wife put back of 
their preaching and teaching simple consecrated lives pat- 
terned after Him "who went about doing good." 



James Samuel Hill 



It is refreshing to find a man who seeks to get out of 
the beaten paths and do some really constructive work for 
himself, his community and his race. Such a man is James 
Samuel Hill, President of the Forsyth Savings & Trust Com- 
pany of Winston-Salem. With the development of a spirit 
of co-operation among the colored people, mercantile and 
commercial enterprises have sprung up, the benevolent and 
secret orders have prospered and great insurance companies 
have been organized, but the banking business has been of 
slow growth among them. It has required men of excep- 
tional ability along financial lines to organize and run banks 
exclusively for the colored people. Mr. Hill is a man of this 




JAMES SAMUEL HILL 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 437 

type and the success which has crowned his efforts and 
those of his associates demonstrates what can be done in 
this field of endeavor. 

Mr. Hill was born in South Carolina, in the old town of 
Jonesville, Union Co. just a few days after the close of the 
war, on May 29, 1865. His parents were LaFayette and 
Caroline Hill. His paternal grandparents were Friday and 
Dorcas Hill. Mr. Hill's mother passed away when he was. 
only four years of age, so that he was denied the loving care 
of a mother during the formative years of his life. Young 
Hill grew up on the farm and attended the rural school until 
ready for college. Speaking of this period, he says: 
"There were nine of us in the family. My oldest sister was. 
the housekeeper until she married ; after her the next oldest 
and so on to the third and fourth. I began work when 
about eight years of age and did almost a man's work. Fa- 
ther would send us to school for about sixty days a year, 
but next term we would have to go over the same studies. 
I remained on the cotton farm until I was nineteen. By 
working at night, after having done the regular day's work, 
I saved enough money to enter Biddle Institute. 

"I was compelled to leave school for lack of means to 
pay board. I returned to South Carolina and cut cord wood 
through the day and hauled it to the railroad at night and 
thus saved a little money and went back to school. In this 
way I earned enough to continue in school until I could teach 
the third grade and got a school at a salary of fifteen dol- 
lars per month and saved nearly all of it by working morn- 
ings and evenings with the people with whom I boarded. 

In 1885, my health was not so good so I decided to- 
leave school. I went to Rock Hill, S. C, and taught, holding 
a second grade certificate and making a salary of thirty 
dollars per month. At the end of three months I drew my 
check for ninety dollars and thought I was a rich man. 

Not being satisfied with a second grade, I decided to 
go back to Biddle Institute. Having been persuaded by Rev. 
S. Matoon, then President of the Institution, I returned 
there until 1889. My class all scattered, we bade each other 



438 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

good bye, and then went in all directions. I went to Monroe, 
N. C. and taught one summer. The following autumn I 
secured a school at Rosendale, Columbus County, and taught 
five months with a salary of thirty-five dollars per month 
on a first grade certificate. Having heard so much of Win- 
ston-Salem, N. C, I decided to make a visit, and having been 
so impressed with this city, I decided to make it my home. 
A few weeks after coming into this city, a meeting was 
called to choose representatives for the Southern Exposition 
which was held in Raleigh, N. C, I seemed to have been the 
choice and was elected. Having filled the place satisfac- 
torily to John T. Patrick, who was Secretary, I remained 
there until it closed. 

Returning to Winston-Salem, I was called to Boonville, 
N. C, to teach out an unexpired term of a parochial school. 
After returning again to Winston-Salem, a good number of 
our best people saw the need of an Industrial School. 
After discusisng the great need of such an institution, we 
organized ourselves into a Board of Trusteed and then 
founded what is known now as Slater Industrial School. 
The next thing was to find some one who would travel 
North and raise the finances. There was not one dollar in 
hand and whoever went must bear his own expense. So I 
was elected to go. 

I took my own money and started. Being successful 
in meeting and making friends, in two months time I raised 
money enough to erect what is now known as the People's 
Choice A. M. E. Zion Church. At that time no money was 
to be had to run the school except what I raised North. The 
third year the state made an offer, if we raised $1,000.00 
the state would give a like amount, and thus the Slater 
School grew to be considered one of the best Normal Schools 
in North Carolina. After having spent eight years with 
Slater, I resigned the work and took up the agency of Liv- 
ingstone College Salisbury, N. C, which position I held 
for twelve years. Time will not allow me to mention my 
experience in raising money for the two schools. I had to 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 439 

undergo almost everything imaginable while soliciting for 
Livingstone College." 

Early in 1907 Mr. Hill and some friends at Winston- 
Salem decided that the town was prepared for the organiza- 
tion of a bank for colored people and the time ripe for it. 
The institution was chartered January 31st and while he 
was away from the city on his work as Field Solicitor for 
Livingstone College, he was elected the first President of the 
institution, which position he has held ever since. The bank 
opened for business May 11, 1907, with $1,000. At this 
writing (March, 1920), the bank has resources amounting 
to $277,791.11. In addition to hundreds of checking ac- 
counts, the bank maintains the various departments which 
a modern banking institution requires, such as the Christ- 
mas Savings and regular Savings Departments. In the lat- 
ter there are more than one thousand depositors and the 
institution has done much to encourage thrift and home 
owning among the colored people. In order to further this 
work, Mr. Hill and his associates in 1919 organized the Peo- 
ple's Building & Loan Association, and Mr. Hill was elected 
President. 

During hostilities Mr. Hill took an active part in all 
the war work of the country. He is a Republican in poli- 
tics though he has participated little in party affairs. He 
is a prominent member of the Presbyterian Church, of 
which he is a deacon, and also President of the Trustee 
Board. He has not identified himself with the secret orders. 
His favorite reading consists of History and Biography. 

On June 28, 1894, Mr. Hill was married to Miss Sarah 
L. Galloway, who was educated at Bennett College, Greens- 
boro, N. C, and who was an accomplished teacher before 
her marriage. They have five children: Harold L., Ed- 
ward C, Lewis L., Leander and Annie Lee Hill. Mr. Hill 
has had unusual opportunities for observing conditions 
among his people and from every angle of view. He has 
concluded that the principal need of the race is of the spirit 
of co-operation among them. 



John Henry Martin 



The visitor to Rocky Mount is impressed by the effi- 
cient manner in which the Baptist cause among the colored 
people is handled in that progressive city and the pastor of 
the St. James Baptist Church, which worships in a handsome 
brick structure on East Thomas Street is among the leading 
ministers of the State. Rev. John Henry Martin was born in 
Rockingham Co. on October 19, 1872. His father, Henry 
Clay Martin, who is still living (1920) was born in 1844 
and married July 31, 1869. He had a large family of two 
sons and seven daughters, and was the first colored teacher 
in Rockingham Co. The mother of our subject was, be- 
fore her marriage, Miss Mary A. Galaway. She was a 
daughter of Stephen and Mary Galaway and died Dec. 1, 
1907, at the age of sixty-three. 

Mr. Martin's paternal grandparents were Landers Mar- 
tin and Maria Martin. It is perhaps to the teaching and ex- 
ample of his father that Mr. Martin is most largely indebted 
for the position which he has won in life. Though of lim- 
ited education, his father was anxious that his son be a 
man of intelligence and education. Mr. Martin went first 
to the public schools of Rockingham Co., and later to the 
State Normal School after which he took a course of three 
years in Theology. He was not only trained by his father 
in books, but was also taught by him to work. He was not 
converted until after he had grown to mature manhood and 
was nearly twenty-five years of age before he decided to 
take up the work of the ministry. In the meantime, he 
had gone to Winston-Salem and secured employment in the 
tobacco factories in that town, where he labored for nearly 
twenty years. It was in this way that he happened to be 
licensed by the First Baptist Church of Winston-Salem and 
was ordained to the work of the ministry by his associa- 
tion. 

His first pastorate was at Leaksville in his home county 




JOHN HENRY MARTIN 



442 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

where he preached for six years. While on that work a 
new house of worship was erected. Soon after entering the- 
the work there he was called to the Marl Hill Baptist 
Church in Henry Co., Virginia. He also preached there for 
six years and remodeled the church building. During this 
pastorate more than three hundred persons were baptized 
into the membership in the church. The Sunday School 
was strengthened and made an important factor in the work. 
From there he went to Shady Grove Church, Spencer, where 
he spent a pleasant pastorate for six years and some months. 
In 1908 he accepted the call to the St. James Baptist 
Church, Rocky Mount, N. C. After going to this work, he 
and his people found it necessary to rebuild, so a splendid 
brick structure was erected at a cost of $25,000, which is 
one of the best colored churches in that section. Every 
church over which Mr. Martin has presided has had marked 
growth in its membership and spiritual life. He is much 
in demand for evangelistic service, not only in his State, 
but in Virginia, South Carolina and other States as well. 
He has brought into the church thousands of new members 
and could spend his whole time in revival work if he undeiv 
took to respond to all the requests that are made for his 
help. 

He is a trustee of the Neuse River Institute, Weldon, 
and also a member of the Executive Board of the Neuse 
River Association. He devotes himself with singleness of 
purpose to his ministerial labors and has no other interests. 
The only secret orders with which he is identified are the- 
Masons and the Odd Fellows. He is a Republican in poli- 
tics though he has given little attention to party affairs. 
His investments are at Rocky Mount and at his old home in 
Leaksville. He believes that the greatest single need among" 
his people is the right sort of education, by which he means 
the development of the whole man, and then a chance to be:: 
a man. 

Mr. Martin has been married twice. His first marriage- 
was in 1886 to Miss Carrie Hamlin, of Leaksville. She was;, 
a daughter of Peter and Martha Hamlin. Mr. Martin's sec- 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 443 

end marriage was to Miss Mamie E. Drain, of Salisbury a 
daughter of Joshua and Phoebe Drain. She was educated 
at Livingstone College and was a successful teacher at the 
time of her marriage. They have two children, Herbert 
and Iris Louise Martin. 



Annanias Samuel Croom 



There is no appointive power in the Baptist denomina- 
tion. Each congregation chooses from the whole number 
of Baptist ministers the one which the local church deems 
best fitted to do its work. He is free to accept or reject 
the call So when a man is found at the head of a splendid 
and growing work in one of the important centers it is an 
evidence of ability and not of favoritism. The story of 
Kev. Annanias Samuel Croom, pastor of the Dixonville 
Baptist church at Salisbury (1920), is a case in point. He 
was born at LaGrange in Lenoir Co. June 30, 1879 His 
father, also a Baptist minister, is Rev. Emperor Croom. 
His mother, before her marriage, was Nancy Walters^ She 
was a daughter of Bryant and Rachel Walters Young 
Croom grew up on the farm, where he was accustomed to 
do those things which the average farmer boy does The 
home influence was good and at the early age of twelve he 
experienced the new birth and joined the Ebenezer Baptist 
church. Having yielded himself to the call to preach the 
Gospel he was licensed by his home church in 1902 and six 
months later ordained to the full work of the ministry He 
began his education in the public school. Later he entered 
the Brick School near Enfield where he went for seven years 
He attended Virginia Union University for his Theological 

course. „ % J *\ 

His parents being poor, the boy found it necessary to 
make his own way in school. At the Brick School he was a 
florist and dairyman. At one time he milked twenty cows- 
daily and separated the milk and cream. He followed the 




ANNANIAS SAMUEL CROOM 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 445 

same line of work after going to Richmond and thus made 
his way through school. Through it all he refused to be 
discouraged and held steadily to his purpose to equip him- 
self for his work. He has had considerable experience as a 
teacher, and, since coming to Salisbury, has had charge of 
the Piedmont Institue which is now run in connection with 
his church. He pastored the St. James Baptist Church, 
Rocky Mount, for five years and raised money for a new 
church which has since been erected. He preached at Shi- 
loh, in Nash Co., five years and there bought considerable 
material for a new house. He also preached for five years 
at the Lisbon Street Baptist church at Clinton and here, too, 
raised money for a new house. On Nov. 28, 1907, he came 
to the Dixonville Baptist church at Salisbury. With his 
coming the work took on new life and surpassed all previous 
records. A modern brick house of worship was erected and a 
splendid new parsonage built as well as a beautiful new site 
for a school. The congregation has grown in numbers 
and in spiritual power. The pastor has grown in power and 
influence and is regarded as one of the strong men of the 
denomination in the State. He is an attractive speaker and 
is in demand as an evangelist. He is prominent in denomi- 
national gatherings and has position on several of the boards. 
He believes that the greatest need of the race is the right 
sort of leadership, educational and religious. He has not 
been active in politics. He is a Master Mason. 

On Oct. 25, 1905, he was married to Miss Pearl Bullock 
of Whitakers, N. C. She too, was educated at the Brick 
School. They have two children, Dorcas and Blanch, who 
are now in school. 

Such, in the word, is the story of the country boy who 
had the courage and the patience to fit himself for leader- 
ship. 



Ephraim Nitre Dent 



The profession of teaching is one of the noblest and 
most self-sacrificing of all the callings to which men devote 
themselves. It is also a calling which, if meagre in its 
financial returns, is yet rich in rewards of another and 
higher kind. The teacher in teaching others teaches him- 
self. In imparting to his pupils the knowledge of books he 
refreshes his own recollection and strengthens his hold on 
his own intellectual treasures. He also in coming in con- 
tact with the understandings of the young receives a stimu- 
lus for his own intellectual nature, and freshens his enthusi- 
asms and his interest in life at the fountain of youthful 
vigor and hopefulness. And he has with all of this the 
added satisfaction of knowing that he is adding to the num- 
ber of men and women of culture and training who will come 
forward and take up the tasks of a new generation. 

These reflections bear with marked appropriateness on 
the career of Ephraim Nitre Dent, the subject of this sketch. 
He has given his life to the work of teaching, and that in 
the spirit of one who loves the work and loves those whom 
he teaches. He was born in Warren Co., N. C, May 12, 
1851. His mother's name was Diana Willams. By refer- 
ence to the dates it will be seen that Mr. Dent was ten 
years of age at the beginning of the war and a youth of 
fifteen before emancipation came. Up to this time, he had, 
of course, had no schooling. His eafly education was ob- 
tained in the Presbyterian school at Louisburg , N. C. 
Later he attended St. Augustine College at Raleigh, N. C, 
and Biddle University at Charlotte. He was poor and was 
forced to rely on his own unaided exertions in getting an 
education and meeting his expenses during the time of his 
school experiences. It was for this reason that he did not 
carry his educational plans through to the full extent 
prompted by his ambition and aspiration. He left school 
in 1875, without having attained all that his heart was set 




EPHRAIM NITRE DENT 



448 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

on, but with a rich heritage none the less, in the fruitage 
of his years of study and of sturdy effort against adverse 
conditions. 

He began his teaching work in Warren Co., N. C, the 
county of his birth. He loves children and is keenly inter- 
tested in the work of teaching. He has high ideals for the 
work, and keeps ever before his mind the picture of the 
true teacher and the great work, he is capable of accom- 
plishing in the world when wholly dedicated to his work. 
He has succeeded in his life calling and is at present princi- 
pal of the graded school in Louisburg, with which he has 
been identified for sixteen years. 

Mr. Dent was married on Oct. 25, 1877, to Miss Lucy 
Long Shaw, daughter of Mr. Matthew Shaw and Mrs. Mary 
Shaw. They have twelve chilren. Thos living are : Giotto 
N., Mary O., Vedeer L., Diana S., "Willie C, Bayette R., 
Ferdinand W., and Wyonette Elizabeth Dent. 

He is an elder in the Presbyterian church. His chief 
and favorite reading is the Bible, though with that he joins 
the study of the best literature of our own day and country. 
He desires greatly a better unedrstanding between races 
and labors unceasingly to that end. He urges upon his peo- 
ple that they seek by hard work and economy, not only to 
become educated, but to become property owners and thus 
to have a stake of their own in the soil of the country in 
which they live. 



Joseph Napoleon Mills 

If there are those who doubt the place of prayer in the 
life or the compelling power which comes from honesty of 
purpose and steady perseverance they should study the 
biographies of men like Dr. Joseph Napoleon Mills of Dur- 
ham. Though born and reared in an unfavorable environ- 
ment, he has by his own energy and capacity won a meas- 
ure of success as a business and professional man of which 
he hardly dreamed as a barefoot country boy. 




JOSEPH NAPOLEON MILLS 



450 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

He was born at Richlands, N. C, Dec. 13, 1879. His fa- 
ther, Lott W. Mills, was a farmer, and was the son of 
Lott W. Mills, Sr., and Zilphia Mills. Dr. Mills' mother, 
before her marriage, was Miss Caroline Henderson, a daugh- 
ter of John and Margaret Henderson. On both sides, Dr. 
Mills' family has been remarkable for its longevity. His 
grandmother Henderson lived to the ripe old age of 102 
years. 

Dr. Mills was married on Dec. 8, 1915, to Miss Bessie 
Juanita Amey, a daughter of Cornelius and Sarah J. Amey 
of Durham. She was educated at Shaw University. They 
have (1919) one child, Joseph N. Mills, Jr. 

After laying the foundation of his education in .the 
public school young Mills entered Kittrell Normal and Indus- 
trial School. He was an apt student and a hard worker 
and once or twice combined the work of two years in one in 
some of his classes. He remained at Kittrell until 1900. 
The way was not easy, but the aspiring youth refused to be 
discouraged, and, when ready to enter upon his medical 
course, matriculated at Leonard Medical College, where he 
won his M. D. degree in 1907. While at this institution, 
his summer vacations were spent in hotel work at the North. 
While in college he played baseball. 

In 1907 he located at Durham and has built up a lucra- 
tive practice and established himself firmly in the esteem of 
the people. 

In his reading the Bible finds first place. Of course, 
as a progressive physician he finds it necessary to keep up 
with the literature of his profession. After that he is most 
interested in English literature and history. He is a Re- 
publican in politics but beyond expressing the franchise 
takes no active part in politics. 

He is an active member of the A. M. E. church, Secy, of 
the Trustee Board and Assistant Superintendent of the Sun- 
day School. Among the secret orders he is identified with 
the Masons, Odd Fellows, Pythians, Good Samaritans, Gid- 
eons, and Royal Knights, for all of which he is medical ex- 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 451 

aminer. He is also one of the surgeons of the Lincoln Hos- 
pital at Durham. 

Dr. Mills has prospered in a material way and is one 
of the well-to-do colored men of Durham, which is noted 
for the prosperity of its colored people. He says, "My 
honest conviction is that the Negro should seek recogni- 
tion at the polls or ballot box, also strive to accumulate 
something in the line of real estate." 

Dr. Mills is Pres. of the Peoples Drug Co. and medical 
examiner for the N. C. Mutual. He is a member of the 
State and National medical organizations. During the war 
he took an active part in the various campaigns nd drives. 



William John Henry Booher 



Dr. William John Henry Rooher, a successful physician 
of Oxford is the only doctor of his race in the State from 
New Hampshire. 

He was born at Concord in that State on April 29, 
1882. His father, William John Henry Booher, died before 
the son was born. Mary Ann Menafee was his mother's 
maiden name. Dr. Booher's paternal grandfather was Wil- 
helm Jacomenah Hesslebac Boohah. Both the father and 
grandfather were natives of German West Africa who emi- 
grated to America and located in Canada. 

As a small boy, young Booher attended the losal pub- 
lic schools of Concord where practially all his school mates 
were white. Later he and his mother came South and lived 
at Columbus, Ga., for one year. After that they went to 
Winter Park, Fla. It this new environment he found it hard 
to understand why he should go to school where all the 
students were Negroes. His struggles for an education 
from that time forward can best be told in his own straight- 
forward way: 

"My father died before I was born. Mother died when 
I was fourteen years of age. We lived at the time in Win- 




WILLIAM JOHN HENRY BOOHER 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 453 

-ter Park, Fla. I was left without means, so had to struggle 
for even a livelihood. I had seen accounts of Tuskegee in 
different papers and my mother had expressed a desire for 
me to go there, so I was determined to go. I finally con- 
sulted a good woman, Miss L. M. Abbott, who after the 
death of my mother, had been very kind to me and a very 
valuable help. She encouraged me in many ways, and, 
^knowing I was without money, prepared a list, soliciting aid 
from friends around the little village. In this way, I se- 
cured enough money, with what I earned, to enter Tuskegee. 
I was compelled to enter night school and work out my 
board. The first years were very hard and embarrassing. 
I had no source whatever from which to get money for 
clothes and was at times without underwear and other 
clothing necessary to health. Many times I have had to 
wash a shirt at night in order to be presentable at school 
the next day. Things went this way for some time, but 
finally Mrs. Booker T. Washington learned of my condition 
and sent me to the barrel room to supply myself with cloth- 
ing. This gave me a push for some years as I began to 
work at Tuskegee during summers and soon got ahead. I 
graduated there in 1902. I was surprised during the sum- 
mer of 1902 when Mr. Washington informed me that I had 
"been selected to fill the place of Conference Agent for the 
school. I accepted the work, remained in it for two years 
and then entered Leonard Medical College. During the four 
years at College I worked in Pullman cars, earning enough 
during vacations to pay school expenses at the next term. 
I was graduated in Medicine in 1908 and have been practiz- 
ing at Oxford, N. C, since that time. While at Tuskegee I 
won the Joseph Frye prize." 

On August 3, 1909, Dr. Booher was married to Miss 
Ira Mae Shaw of Montgomery, Ala. They have two child- 
dren, Mary Louise and William John Booher. He volun- 
teered in the M. R. C. during the war and in 1917 was com- 
missioned First Lieutenant. 

Dr. Booher has traveled extensively and in 1903 toured 
Europe. While in school he was active in college athletics, 



454 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

especially football and tennis. In his reading he puts the 
Bible first. Since he has been practicing he has invented a 
poison bottle. He is school physician at the Mary Potter 
School, Oxford, and local examiner for the Standard Life In- 
surance Co. Among the secret orders, he is a member of 
the Masons, Odd Fellows, Gideons, Royal Knights, and the* 
Granville Helpers. He is President of the latter order. He 
has investments both at Oxford and in Florida. 



Owen Richardson Gordon 



Some men start out on a career which points to success: 
and after making an excellent start, begin to settle down.. 
They continue to settle until they finally disappear from* 
sight. Other, less favored men, recognizing difficulties in= 
the way, buckle on their armor, prepare for the fight and,, 
continuing to struggle, grow with the years. They firmly 
establish the work on which they are engaged and make for 
themselves a place among their people. 

Dr. Owen Richardson Gordon, pastor of the Nazareth: 
Baptist Church of Asheville, is a man of the latter type- 
He is a native of Sumter Co., Ala., where he was born Oct.. 
16, 1867. His father, Rev. Allen Gordon, was a Baptist: 
minister, and the son of Benjamin and Malinda Gordon. 
His mother, before her marriage, was Tempie Anne Ramsay. 

Young Gordon worked on the farm until he was twen- 
ty-seven years of age. Up to that time he had only such 
opportunities for an education as were afforded by the local: 
public schools. In fact, he has never been to college al- 
though he is now a man of liberal education. 

While working on the farm he was converted, after 
reaching maturity, and joined the First Baptist church at 
Gainesville, Ala., which was his father's old church. Al- 
most at once, he felt called to the work of the ministry and 
yet he rebelled at the idea, and fought off the impression,, 
for a dozen years. Finally, yielding himself to the divine: 





<D 7% -4*~£+*, 



i 






NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 455 

leadership, he was licensed to preach by the Mt. Nebo Bap- 
tist church at Patton Junction, Ala., and on the second 
Sunday in November, 1901, was ordained to the full work 
of the ministry by Lee's Chapel Baptist church at Brook- 
side, Ala. He had already accepted the pastorate of this 
church, which he served for eight years so that once he had 
fully committed himself to the work of the ministry, he 
forged rapidly ahead. A course of study has been estab- 
lished under the John C. Martin Fund, and he availed him- 
-self of this in an effort to better equip himself for his 
^vork. Not only this, but his contract with the leading edu- 
cators and theologians of the race drew out the best there 
was in the young man as he sought to adapt himself to the 
demands of his work. After a successful pastorate of eight 
years at Lee's Chapel, he accepted a call from the New Hope 
Baptist church near Birmingham, where he remained for 
eighteen months. At the urgent request of the brethren 
"he accepted the position of associational missionary for 
the Mt. Pilgrim Baptist Association and labored in that field 
four months. Feeling however, that his work was that of 
the pastorate, rather than general field duties, he accepted a 
•call from Rosedale church, which he pastored for three 
years and went from there to Pratt City for three years. 
From Pratt City he went to Republic for four years, and 
there erected a new house of worship. His next charge was 
the Dora Baptist church, which he served two years and 
"while on that work also built a new house. This pastorate 
was followed by one of five months at Empire when he ac- 
cepted a call from the Nazareth Baptist Church of Ashe- 
ville, where he has just closed the third year of successful 
work (1920). The house of worship has been put in good 
-condition and many new members added to the congregation. 
His worth in the denomination is recognized and he has been 
elected moderator of the local association. While in Ala- 
bama he was for seven years corresponding secretary of the 
^Sunday School District Convention. 

Dr. Gordon is enthusiastic in his work and makes 
friends wherever he goes. The secret of his success seems 



456 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

to lie in the feci that he has never ceased to grow. He 

seeks to learn, and apply new lessons from those with whom 
he comes in contact and while he is a man of executive 

ability, and has the qualifications of a leader, still he is not 

autocratic or dictatorial in his methods. He works harmo- 
niously with his people and with the brotherhood generally 
and is one of the strong men of the denomination in west- 
ern North Carolina. 

At the age of nineteen he was married to Miss Sallie 
Williams, of Gainesville. Ala. She passed away after two 
and a half years. Dr. Gordon was married, the second time. 
to Miss Mattie Jones, of Mississippi. After twenty-nine 
years she. too. passed to her reward. Since coming to 
Asheville. Dr. Gordon was married the third time on Octo- 
ber 8. 1917, to Miss Lorena Colley. a native of Lexington, 
S. C. who enters most sympatheteially indeed into the wo. 1 .. 
of her husband. 

While no accurate record of the number of persons he 
tized has been kept, it would mount far into the 
hundreds. 

Dr. Gordon's property interests are in Alabama. His 
secret order affiliations are with the Odd Fellows and the 
Masons. 



Woodv Lemuel Home 



The life and work of a brilliant young man like Dr.. 

Lemuel Home who established himself in his home 

town and is quietly going about the business of being a 

good citizen while successfully carrying on his professional 

career, is the very best exponent of the race in the South. 
or anywhere else. A man of Dr. Home's versatility might 

have succeeded in almost any line of work, but he chose 
the profession of dentistry and. although still on the sunny- 
side of thirty, has already built up a paying practice in the 
prosperous little city of Rocky Mount, where he was born 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 457 

August 24, 1892. His father, Pompey Home, died when 
the boy was about sixteen years of age. His mother, Har- 
riet Home, .still survives. His maternal grandmothei 
a Battle and his paternal grandparents were Franci 

Isabella Home. 

As a boy he attended the public schools until an inde- 
pendent one was established at Rocky Mount, of which his 
father was a moving spirit. He passed from this to the 
Brick School at Enfield where he was a special student for 
three years. He specialized in mechanics with a view to 
his future work as a dentist. From the Brick School he 
went to the National Training School at Durham from which 
he was graduated in 1012. After that he was called to the 
A. & T. College at Greensboro, and was for two years As- 
sistant Secretary of that institution. While there he or- 
ganized the commercial course at the summer school. He 
resigned his position to matriculate at Howard Univ 
for his dental course, which he completed in 1017. He 
brought his stenography and knowledge of commercial work 
into play and was thus enabled to pay the expenses of his 
course at Howard. He recalls with gratitude the influence 
of Dr. Sid P. Hilliard, of Rocky Mount, for whom he worked 
at a boy and who greatly encouraged and inspired him 
through the years. He was active and popular as a student, 
was on the base-ball team at Durham and was coach while 
at Greensboro. His favorite reading is along mechanical 
and scientific lines. 

Immediately after completing the course and pass 
the necessary examinations, he opened an office in Rocky 
Mount and in the comparatively short time he has been be- 
fore the public has already won success. He is a member 
of the National Medical Association, The Inter-State and 
The Old North State Dental Associations, being secretary of 
the latter. He is one of the Vice Presidents of the State 
Medical, Dental and Pharmaceutical Association. Among 
the fraternal and secret orders he holds membership in the 
Masons, I. B. P. 0. E. of W. and Pythians. He belongs to 
the Congregational Church. 



458 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

On April 28, 1917, Dr. Home was married to Miss Aiv 
nie H. Catlett, of Washington, D. C. She is a B. S. of How- 
ard University and was a teacher in the city of Washington 
before her marriage. 



Joseph Andrew Rollins 



North Carolina is indebted to South Carolina for one 
of her efficient educators and ministers in the person of 
Rev. Joseph Andrew Rollins, A. B., S. T. B., the popular 
pastor of the Presbyterian Church and Principal of the pub- 
lic school at Gastonia. 

He was born in the historic old city of Charleston on 
Sept. 10, 1872, and laid the foundation for his education at 
Wallingford Academy of Charleston. As a young man he 
worked at the shoemaker's trade, which he had learned pre- 
viously. Just as he was reaching manhood he came into 
the work of the Presbyterian church and by the time he 
was nineteen had definitely decided to take up the work of 
the Gospel ministry. In order that he might properly fit 
himself for this great work he entered Biddle University 
and won the Bachelor's degree in 1894. Three years later 
he completed the Theological course. 

On April 25, 1899, Rev. Rollins was married to Miss 
Lavinia Young, an accomplished teacher of Greenville, S. C. 
She was educated at Benedict College. They have four 
children: Joseph M., Andrew M., Cecilia Sue and Lavinia 
May Rollins. 

Rev. Rollins' first pastorate was at Watterboro, S. C, 
where he preached for three years. The church house and 
parsonage were repaired and the congregation built up. 
At the end of three years he was called to Monroe and pre- 
sided over that work for seven years with success. In 
1907 he was called to the Third Street Presbyterian Church 
and moving to that city was also made Principal of the pub- 
lic school. Both the church and the school work have pros- 




JOSEPH ANDREW ROLLINS 



460 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

pered under his administration. During the vacation pe- 
riods of his later college years he did missionary work on 
the islands of the South Carolina coasts for which he was 
peculiarly adapted. Looking back over the days of his boy- 
hood and youth, he considers the influences of his parents 
the most potent in shaping his life. Apart from his pro- 
fessional reading his favorite lines are History and Biogra- 
phy. 

He was a delegate to the General Assembly which sat 
at Louisville, Ky., in 1912, and is Chairman of the Com- 
mittee on Ministerial Relief in his local Presbytery. He 
belongs to the Masons, but has taken no active part in poli- 
tics. He believes that the material progress of the people 
as well as their growth in intelligence depends on the right 
sort of schools. He owns an attractive home in Gastonia. 



Charles Warwick Francis 



Rev. Charles Warwick Francis of Huntersville comes to 
North Carolina from the sister State of South Carolina. 
He was born near Sumter in that State on April 12, 1887. 
His parents were Elliott and Alvirah (Dixon) Francis. His 
maternal grandmother was Phoebe Dixon. On the father's 
side his grandmother was Ellen Francis. 

At an early age young Francis was adopted by the 
Retf. Mr. Frazier by whom he was reared. He was given 
his elementary and preparatory education at Dorchester 
Academy in Liberty Co., Ga. From Dorchester he passed 
to Biddle University and including his Theological course 
was at that institution for nine years. He won his A. B. 
degree in 1915 and completed his course in the seminary 
in 1918 with degree of S. T. B. As a boy he worked on 
the farm and later at hotel. He was an industrious, intelli- 
gent youth, and made a school record of which he need 
never be ashamed. When about nineteen and merging 
into manhood he was converted and two or three years later 




CHARLES WARWICK FRANCIS 



462 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

felt called to preach. During two vacations he taught 
school in Georgia. 

On June 11, 1919, he was married to Miss Almena Mar- 
tin of Oswego, S. C. She was educated at Scotia Seminary 
and was before her marriage a teacher. 

Mr. Francis now (1919) pastors two churches, Hunters- 
ville, where he resides and Caldwell in Mecklenburg Co. He 
has traveled considerably in the eastern part of America. 
His reading next after the Bible runs largely to the classics. 
As he looks back over the years of his boyhood and youth 
he attributes to the life and example of Booker T. Washing- 
ton and Rev. Mr. Frazier the credit for the shaping of his 
life. Thus the lives of these great and good men is reflected 
in the life of Rev. Francis and their influence through him 
extended to others as inspiring and helpful. As he looks 
into the future he is of the opinion that productive Christian 
education is the greatest single need of the race. 



Thomas Alexander Long 

Lack of opportunity may hinder and poverty may re- 
tard the progress of an aspiring youth, but neither can de- 
feat the boy who makes uo his mind to equip himself for 
some great work in life and faithfully and intelligently sets 
about the task. Prof. Thomas Alxeander Long of Biddle 
University is an illustration of this. He was born at Frank- 
linton, N. C. His father, S. L. Long, was the local under- 
taker and cabinet maker, and the boy was taught to do 
cabinet work. His mother, before her marriage, was Miss 
Maria White. Prof. Long's paternal grandfather was 
Thomas Long, for whom he is named. His maternal grand- 
mother was Lucy (Levister) White. It should be mentioned 
that S. L. Long, the father, was a slave in Virginia and 
bought himself from his master before the Civil War, in 
1858, paying the bill by working at his trade at night and 
doing extra tasks by day. He then set out to build a home 
and a business enterprise of his own. 




THOMAS ALEXANDER LONG 



464 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

When he came of school age, young Long attended the 
local public schools, from which he passed to the State Nor- 
mal at Franklinton. Such was his record here as a student 
that he was soon called to teach in the institution. Coming 
thus early into educational work he showed an aptitude for 
teaching which has led to prominence in his profession. 
When ready for his regular college work he went to Lincoln 
University, Pa., where he won his Bachelor's degree in 1892 
and his A. M. and S. T. B. degrees followed. Later he won 
the Ph. D. degree. He has done post graduate work in 
Science and Languages at Columbia University, New York, 
and has attended summer school at Univ. of Pa. and Har- 
vard Univ. On completion of his work at Lincoln he was 
elected principal of the high school at Danville, Va., where 
he remained for fifteen years. While there he was active 
in the work of the Presbyterian church of which he is an 
elder and was superintendent of the Sunday school there 
fifteen years. 

No account of Prof. Long's work would be complete 
without some mention of his attainments as a musician. He 
began the study of music at an early age and was able to 
use his talent to help himself through school. He took 
private lessons, studied at Rieger's Studio, Niagara, New 
York, and at the New England Conservatory, Boston. He 
excells as a musician and has for several years had charge 
of the quintette at the General Assemblies of his church, 
the Presbyterian Church, U. S. A. He has served as com- 
missioner to the General Assembly several times, North and 
West, going as far as California. 

In 1907 he was called to Biddle University, where he 
teaches Physics, Latin and Music. 

In 1913 Prof. Long, as delegate from North Carolina, 
attended the World's Sunday School Convention at Zurich, 
Switzerland, and while abroad traveled extensively in con- 
tinental Europe and England. He has done considerable 
summer school work, having taught three summers in the 
Chautauqua and Training School with Dr. J. E. Shepard at 
Durham, N. C. 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 465 

Prof. Long is Secretary of the Catawba Synodical S. S. 
Convention comprising Va. and N. C, and has served more 
than 20 years. He belongs to the Grand United Order of 
Odd Fellows. He believes that the permanent progress of 
the race must be based on Christian education and thrift. 
His property interests are in Franklinton, Charlotte, and in 
Virginia. 



William Haywood Horton 



Rev. William Haywood Horton, a prominent minister 
of the A. M. E. Zion connection, now (1920) residing at San- 
ford, has been a Christian since he was eleven years of age 
and has been preaching the Gospel since he was nineteen. 
The years of his ministry have been filled with self-sacrific- 
ing service in central North Carolina. He is a native of 
Chatham Co. His father was John Horton ana his mother 
Essie Horton. William was born August 22, 1868, and at- 
tended the local public schools during his boyhood days. He 
was converted when eleven years old and joined the Chris- 
tian church. By the time he was sixteen he definitely made 
up his mind to preach. This purpose gave tone and direc- 
tion to his school and college work. He attended college at 
Franklinton Christian College, where he studied for four 
years but did not remain to graduate. For seven years he 
taught in the rural schools of Wilson Co. 

Mr. Horton began as a local preacher of the Christian 
denomination at Rocky Branch, which he served for nine 
years. Here a new house of worship was erected and his 
services were soon in such demand that he was preaching 
every Sunday in the month. He pastored the Poplar 
Springs church for six years, Aberdeen ten years, Kyser 
four years, Durham four years and Pittsboro four years. 
He remodeled the churches at the first three places and 
built new churches at Durham and Pittsboro. 

In 1908 he withdrew from the Christian church and 



466 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

joined the A. M. E. Zion conference. His first appoint- 
ment under this regime was the Greensboro circuit, which 
he served for two years, during which time the church was 
seated and covered. He went from Greensboro to Concord, 
where he remained for a year, after which he was sent to 
the Sanford Station for two years. While here a new par- 
sonage was erected and the church paid out of debt. After 
that he served the Chestnut circuit one year, Geese Grove 
circuit one year, Hollins circuit one year, Cumnock circuit 
one year and is now in his second year at Dunn Station. Mr. 
Horton sings well and has used this accomplishment to 
great advantage in his work. 

Mr. Horton has had a fruitful ministry and has brought 
many new members into the churches in both denominations 
with which he has been identified. He is a firm believer 
in that scripture which says "Trust in God and He will 
give thee the desire of thine heart." 

On April 22, 1903, he was united in matrimony to 
Miss Nettie Taylor, a daughter of Thomas and Alice Taylor, 
of Pittsboro. Of the four children born to them three are 
living, William T., Almira W. and Zenaba H. Horton. 

Mr. Horton belongs to the Masons and Odd Fellows. 
The family has resided at Sanford for a number of years, 
where he owns an attractive home. He also owns considera- 
ble real estate in and around Sanford. 



Charles Constantine Stewart 



Not a few of the most successful colored physicians 
of the South are British West Indians. On account of their 
superior advantages in the government schools, they are, as 
a rule, men of good general education and unusual intelli- 
gence. Retaining as they usually do their British citizen- 
ship, they take no part in party politics but with singleness 
of purpose devote themselves to their chosen profession. 
Almost without exception they have succeeded. 




CHARLES CONSTANTINE STEWART 



468 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

One of these successful physicians and surgeons is Dr. 
Charles Constantine Stewart of Greensboro. Dr. Stewart 
is a native of Jamaica where he was born on Sept. 8, 1885. 
His father, Chas. J. Stewart, was a teacher, and his mother's 
maiden name was Miss Agnes Sangster. His paternal 
grandfather was Chas. Stewart and his maternal grand- 
mother was Rebecca Sangster. 

Dr. Stewart laid the foundation of his education in 
the free schools of Jamaica. He came to the States in 
1905. He matriculated in the medical department of How- 
ard University for his medical course and won his M. D. 
degree in 1911. This was followed by one year as Interne 
at the Freedman's Hospital in Washington after which he 
settled down to the regular practice. In 1913 he located 
at Greensboro where he has since resided and where he has 
built up a good practice. He gives special attention to sur- 
gery and is superintendent of the local hospital. He is 
also Sec. and Treas. of The Gate City Drug Co., Inc. 

On Nov. 27, 1914, Dr. Stewart was married to Mrs. 
Anna Bulloch of Greensboro. 

Dr. Stewart has no visionary ideas about success. He 
considers the biggest factors in his own career economy, 
honesty and careful attention to details in business and pro- 
fession. He believes that the surest way to progress for 
the race is the encouragement of race loyalty, economy 
and honesty. 

Dr. Stewart is a member of the M. E. church and is 
identified with the Masons and the Elks. 



Willie Edward Dent 



In both races, the insurance field has attracted some 
of the brightest minds and best workers. One of the suc- 
cessful young men of Wake Co. who though still in his 
early twenties has already made good is Willie Edward 
Dent of Wake Forest. He was born at Roseville, Aug. 26, 




WILLIE EDWARD DENT AND FAMILY 



470 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

1894. His father, Rev. Janatus R. Dent is a son of Paul 
and Candice Dent. Mr. Dent's mother was, before her 
marriage, Bettie Anne Johnson. She is a daughter of Sid- 
ney and Annie Johnson, all hard working people. 

When the subject of this biography came of school 
age he entered the public school at Wake Forest and later 
went to Kittrell College, though he did not remain to gradu- 
ate from lacks of means. 

During his early youth Mr. Dent was inclined to the 
follies of youth. Fortunately he soon came to see in which 
direction he was tending and had the courage to turn about. 
He identified himself with the Baptist church and Sunday 
School and is now a deacon in his local church and Secre- 
tary of his Sunday School. 

When he began working for himself he found an open- 
ing in the insurance field and identified himself with the 
N. C. Mutual. Neither has had occasion to regret the con- 
nection. His work has been of such character as to com- 
mend him t othe best people of both races. 

On March 19, 1916, Mr. Dent was married to Miss 
Mary Lula Cooke, a daughter of Rev. Henderson T. and 
Mariah D. Cooke. They have two children: Jocelyn Cook 
and Willie Edward Dent, Jr. 

Mr. Dent belongs to the Masons. His property is at 
Wake Forest. He believes the future welfare of the race 
lies along the lines of good citizenship, Christian living and 
the protection of the women of the race. 



Edward MacKnight Brawley 



Edward MacKnight Brawley was born in Charleston, 
S. C, March 18, 1851, the son of James M. and Ann L. 
(Vaughn) Brawley. He attended grammar and high schools 
in Philadelphia, entered Howard University, Washington, 
D. C, transferred to Bucknell University, Lewisburg, Penn., 
from which institution he received the A. B. degree in 1875. 



m m 






NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 471 

The A. M. degree was later conferred by Bucknell and the 
D. D. by State University, Louisville, Ky. He first married 
Mary Warrick of Petersburg, Va., by whom he became the 
father of one daughter. Both mother and daughter died, 
and on December 4, 1879, he married Margaret Sophronia 
Dickerson, of Columbia, S. C, by whom he became the fa- 
ther of nine children, six boys and three girls. Of these 
six survive, the oldest being Benjamin Brawley, author and 
historian. The others are Mrs. A. R. Stewarx, J. Loomis 
Brawley, F. Fustin Brawley, Edgar L. Brawley and Mrs. 
L. S Gaillard. 

Dr. Brawley's life has been divided between work in 
the ministry and in education. He served as the first presi- 
dent of Selma University, Selma, Ala., was the organizer and 
first president of Morris College, Sumter, S. C, for many 
years was District Secretary of the American Baptist Pub- 
lication Society for the South Atlantic States, for eight 
years wrote the Advanced Quarterly for the National Bap- 
tist Publishing Board, and most recently has served as Pro- 
fessor of Evangelism and Old Testament Literature at 
Shaw University, Raleigh, N. C. He has also served as pas- 
tor of the Tabernacle Baptist Church, Selma, Ala., Spring- 
field Baptist Church, Greenville, S. C, Harrison Street Bap- 
tist Church, Palatka, Fla., First Baptist Church, Fernan- 
dina, Fla., and White Rock Baptist Church, Durham, N. C. 
The last of these pastorates, extending from 1912 to 1920 
was in many ways the most distinguished, and at his resig- 
nation Dr. Brawley was given a handsome purse and a silver 
loving cup. He is the author of "The Negro Baptist Pulpit" 
(Philadelphia, 1890), "Commentary on Mark," "Sin and Sal- 
vation," "Church Finances" and many other pamphlets and 
tracts. For many years he has been known as the foremost 
scholar among the Negro Baptists of the country ; scores of 
young people have been inspired by his example and precept 
to seek an education; and in various other ways he has 
rendered far-reaching service, traveling both throughout 
the eastern portion of the United States and in England. 



Jesse Willis Peele 



Among the young men of North Carolina who have 
made their mark in the educational life of the State must 
be mentioned Prof. Jesse Willis Peele, of Goldsboro. He is 
one of those young men who has not found it necessary to 
away from his own home in order to succeed in life. He 
was born at Goldsboro, November 25, 1881. His father, 
the late Willis Peele, was a baggage porter, and his mother, 
before her marriage, was Miss Mary Wright. His paternal 
grandparents were Andrew and Mary Peele. 

Prof. Peele is well equipped educationally. He first 
attended the local graded schools and later the State Nor- 
mal at Goldsboro. He did his college work at Biddle Uni- 
versity, completing the course in 1904, and winning his 
A. B. degree. Later the A. M. degree was conferred on 
him by the same institution. 

On December 22, 1908, he was married to Miss Hattie 
J. Williams, a daughter of Holley and Martha Williams of 
Warsaw. They have two children, Dorothy L. and Willis G. 
Peele. 

From boyhood Professor Peele has looked forward to a 
career as a teacher -and studied at the normal school and 
at college with that object in view. He began his work as a 
teacher in the rural schools and passed from there to the 
r/rincipalship of the Rocky Mount School, where he taught 
for two years. At the end of this period he was called 
back to his home town and has for twelve years past been 
assistant principal of the city graded schools of Goldsboro. 
In this capacity he has given eminent satisfaction not only 
to the members of his board, but to the patrons of the 
school as well. 

Though not active in politics he is nominally a 
Republican and is a member of the Presbyterian Church, in 
which he is deacon and secretary of the board of deacons. 
Among the secret and benevolent orders he holds member- 




JESSE WILLIS PEELE 



474 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

ship in the Pythians, Knights of Gideon and Courts of 
Calanthe. He believes that the progress of the race de- 
pends upon education, co-operation and commerce. 

Note. — Since the above was written, Prof. Peele passed. 
away on Feb. 1, 1920. H e was laid to rest two days later, 
the funeral being held at the Shiloh Presbyterian church.. 
The various fraternal orders with which he was identified 
paid their tributes according to the rituals of their respect- 
ive orders. 



Walter Lewis McNair 



Dr. Walter Lewis McNair, a druggist of Greensboro, is. 
one of those sturdy men who by patient perseverance and 
hard work has won a measure of success in his chosen pro- 
fession which is a credit to him and to his native State. 
He was born at Hamlet in Richmond Co., on Nov. 4, 1868. 
His father, Camus McNair, was a farmer. He was a loyal 
and trusted servant. Even after the war he managed the 
estate of his mistresses until they all passed away, some 
fifteen or more years after emancipation. Later came busi- 
ness reverses, the result of inefficient management. Un- 
der these conditions, the subject of our sketch was doomed 
to years of hard work with little pay. Dr. McNair's mother 
was, before her marriage, Rebecca McMillian. His paternal 
grandmother was Jane McNair. His mother's father was 
Rev. James McMillian, who lived in Columbia, S. C. 

Young McNair laid the foundation of his education in 
the public schools of Laurinburg, but when he aspired to a 
higher education the way was not easy. He went to work 
for an elder brother who promised to see him through school. 
His never got beyond the stage of promises, so it was not 
strange that the boy broke away and began working for 
himself. He worked at whatever offered and saved his 
money. He entered the preparatory department of Biddle 
University and remained in that institution for four years~ 




WALTER LEWIS McNAIR 



476 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Having decided to take up pharmacy, he matriculated at the 
Leonard School of Pharmacy, Shaw University, where he 
won his Ph. G. degree in 1897. He was engaged in Raleigh 
for a while and then went into the Spanish-American War 
as a hospital steward. On his return, he went into the 
drug business for himself in Greensboro, where he has since 
resided and prospered. He has an up-to-date, attractive 
store on East Market Street. 

Looking back now over the days of his boyhood and 
youth he is of the opinion that the greatest single factor 
in shaping his life and giving right direction to his thinking 
was his early attendance and love of the Sunday School. 

Dr. McNair has been married twice. On Aug. 15, 1900, 
he was married to Miss Rosa Jones, a daughter of Adam 
and Rebecca Jones. They had two children, Walter L., Jr., 
and Cecil McNair. In 1906 the mother of these children 
passed away. On Jan. 8, 1908, Dr. McNair was married to 
Miss Roxie E. Brooks of Danville, Va. Their children are 
James, Kermit, Wilber and Gurney McNair. 

Dr. McNair is a prominent lay member of the Presby- 
terian Church, with which he has been identified since boy- 
hood. He has been an elder in the church for a number of 
years and has twice been a commissioner to the Presbyterian 
General Assembly, which is the highest court of the denomi- 
nation. He is now asst. Supt. of his local S. S. 

He is active in the work of the secret and benevolent 
societies and also in state and local civic organizations. He 
belongs to the Masons, Pythians, Eastern Star, Court of 
Calanthe and the Elks. He is Vice President of the local 
building and loan association and also Vice President of the 
N. C. State Fair and Industrial Association. 

He is recognized as a conservative business man and 
stands well with both his white and colored neighbors. His 
work has been of the constructive sort and few of his 
neighbors in his boyhood days would have been bold enough 
to have predicted the successful business career to which 
he has attained. 



/ 



Edward Walter Smith 



Dr. Edward Walter Smith, a successful young dentist 
of Winston-Salem, is a native of Georgia, having been born 
at Cuthbert in that State on October 20, 1884. His father, 
Rev. R. V. Smith, was a minister of the A. M. E. church, 
but died while the boy was still young. His mother's name 
was Lula Smith. Although orphaned at an early age, Dr. 
Smith had the advantage of being reared in the home of 
his uncle, Rev. L. H. Smith, a Methodist minister of Macon. 
Here he had not only the benefit of good home training, 
but was also given the excellent opportunity for an educa- 
tion afforded by the local schools and by the Ballard Nor- 
mal at Macon. After leaving Macon he went to a private 
school in New York. 

At an early age he decided to take up dentistry as a 
profession and matriculated in the dental department at 
Howard University, at Washington, from which he was 
graduated with the D. D. S. degree in 1910. While at How- 
ard he spent his summer vacations in hotel work at the 
North and in the Pullman service. The latter gave him a 
fine opportunity to see every part of America and he found 
this experience very valuable. He was an enthusiastic ten- 
nis player while in college. 

After his graduation he returned to Macon and prac- 
ticed with Dr. Braswell of that city until the fall of 1910. 
He then located at Winston-Salem, where he has since re- 
sided and where he has steadily built up a good practice. 

On June 13, 1914, he was married to Miss Willie Holt, 
a daughter of Rev. K. C. Holt of Greensboro. Mrs. Smith 
was educated at Scotia Seminary, Concord, and at Kittrell 
College. They have one son, Edward Walter, Jr. 

As would be expected, Dr. Smith is a member of the 
A. M. E. Church, in which he is a steward and a trustee. 
His secret order affiliations are with the Pythians and Ma- 
sons. He is also identified with the State Medical and Den- 




EDWARD WALTER SMITH 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 479 

tal Association and is chairman of the executive committee 
of that organization. He was at one time a Vice President 
of the National Medical and Dental Association. He was a 
member of the general conferences of his church which met 
at Philadelphia, 1916, and St. Louis, 1920. He owns an 
attractive home and other property at Winston-Salem and 
takes an active part in the religious, social and business af- 
fairs of the race in that city. He was one of the incorpo- 
rators of the Citizens Bank & Trust Co. of Winston-Salem. 



William Henry Bryant 



Rev. William Henry Bryant, D. D., of Kinston, is a 
product of the coast country of North Carolina, having 
been born in Craven Co. on Nov. 2, 1879. The family moved 
away from that part of the State, however, when he was 
only seven years of age. His father, George Bryant, was a 
farmer and his mother was Nancy Bryant. She was a 
daughter of Louis L. Bryant. 

When he came of school age, the subject of our b.'og- 
raphy went to the local public school in Craven Co. Later, 
under considerable difficulty, he attended the Roanoke Col- 
legiate and Theological Institute from which he was gradu- 
ated with the B. Th. degree in 1907. His religious experi- 
ence dates back to the days of his boyhood. He gave his 
heart to God at the early age of nine and had begun to 
speak in public by the time he was twelve. He had the 
misfortune to lose his mother when still young and his 
father passed away a little later. Not only was he com- 
pletely orphaned but he was also under the necessity of 
making his own way in school. As far back as he can re- 
member he was ambitious to make a man of himself. 

As he grew toward maturity, he realized more and more 
the beauty and dignity of service and was irresistibly 
drawn toward the ministry. At the age of twenty-four he 




WILLIAM HENRY BRYANT AND WIFE 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 481 

was licensed and in 1905 was ordained to the full work of 
the ministry by the Roanoke Baptist Association. He 
taught school for three years at the McDaniel Normal 
School at Kinston. 

As a preacher he has had a fruitful ministry and has 
added many new members to the churches he has served. 
His first regular pastorate, after his ordination was the 
Bell Street Baptist Church of Elizabeth City, which he 
served one year. He went from there to Rich Square, where 
in a single year his work was marked by an increase of 
two hundred members. From Rich Square he went to the 
First Church at James City, which he served for three 
years. His next pastorate was at Plymouth, where he 
preached for three years and added two hundred to the 
membership. A splendid new house of worship was erected 
while he was on the work at Plymouth. In 1912 he resigned 
his work at Plymouth to accept the call of the First Bap- 
tist Church at Kinston. Here, as at his other pastorates, 
success has attended his efforts and at least four hundred 
new members have been added to the church. He was for a 
while head of the Deacon's Union of the Bear Creek Asso- 
ciation. He has also served as a member of the Executive 
Board of the Association and as Treasurer of the Sunday 
School Convention. He received his degree of Doctor of 
Divinity from Washington D. C, American School of Cor- 
respondence, in 1912. He is a forceful and pleasing speaker 
and a man of attractive personality. He has been unusually 
successful in evangelistic work and is frequently called on 
by his brethren to assist them in their revival work. Dur- 
ing the World War he was a special Lecturer and took an 
active part in all the drives. 

On June 6, 1907, Dr. Bryant was united in marriage to 
Miss Georgia M. Lawson, of Springfield, Mass. She was 
educated at Wayland Seminary and is a woman of culture 
and refinement. She is an accomplished teacher and was 
before her marriage a teacher at the great Tuskegee School. 
She enters heartily into the work of her husband and to- 



482 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

gether they are exerting a powerful influence for good 
among the people whom they serve. Mrs. Bryant conducts 
a small private school at her home. 



Nathaniel Edward Jackson 



It has been said, ''Without earnestness no man is ever 
great, or does really great things. He may be the cleverest 
of men; he may be brilliant, entertaining, popular; but he 
will want weight if he lacks earnestness in the pursuit of 
his chosen line of work." 

One of the earnest, successful physicians of eastern 
North Carolina is Dr. Nathaniel Edward Jackson, of Laurin- 
burg. He is a native of the old town of Carthage in Moore 
Co., where he was born June 5, 1880. His parents were 
Isaac and Fanny Jackson. 

When he came of school age young Jackson entered 
Dayton Academy and went from there to Hamilton Semi- 
nary at Carthage. With the increase of knowledge came 
a broadening of his outlook on life and a growth of his 
ideals. He aspired to a college education but the way 
was not easy. He managed, however, to enter the A. and 
M. College at Greensboro, where he spent three years. 
While here he decided to take up medicine. Notwithstand- 
ing the fact that he was without means and under the neces- 
sity of making his own way he went to it with enthusiasm 
and a tenacity of purpose which has characterized his later 
work. He went to Leonard Medical College and won his 
M. D. degree in l c >07. His summer vacations were spent 
at the north on the boats or at the hotels. In 1908 he 
located at Laurinburg, where he has since resided and prac- 
ticed. Not content with merely being admitted to the 
practice, he has done considerable post graduate work, es- 
pecially in obstetrics and surgery. He spent several months 
in Philadelphia at the Lying-in Charity Hospital, and for 
three years spent some time each year at the Freedmen's 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 483 

Hospital, where he specialized in surgery. He has for sev- 
eral years run a hospital in connection with his practice. 

In Feb., 1909, Dr. Jackson ws married to Miss Jessie 
Smitherman of High Point. She was educated at Bennett 
College. They have three children: Annie M., Nathaniel 
E., Jr., and Dennis F. Jackson. 

As a student Dr. Jackson was popular and was an active 
baseball player. He has traveled considerably and is a well 
informed man along various lines. Next after the litera- 
ture of his profession his favorite reading is along the line 
of religious history. He is an active member of the M. E. 
church, in which he is a trustee. He has for several years 
been the Superintendent of his Sunday School. He belongs 
to the Pythians and is identified with the State and Na- 
tional Medical Societies. Dr. Jackson owns property at 
Carthage, but his investments have been made at Laurin- 
burg, where he owns an attractive home and other valuable 
property. 



Henry Philbert Lankford 



Success is not an accident. Rather, it comes as the 
result of carefully though out, vigorously wrought out 
plans. One of the progressive, forward looking young men 
of the A. M. E. Zion Connection who with singleness of 
purpose devotes all his time and talents to the work of the 
ministry is Rev. Henry Philbert Lankford of Gastonia 
(1919). He is a native of Virginia though the range of his 
work has extended from Pennsylvania to Georgia. He was 
born in Southampton Co., Va. on Oct. 5, 1884. His parents 
were Allen G. and Laura A. Lankford. His paternal grand- 
parents were Ned and Agnes Lankford and the maternal 
grandparents were Alfred and Laura Freeman. Allen 
Lankford was a man of education, having graduated from 
Hampton Institute. So oar subject had the advantage of 
exceptional home training. He laid the foundation of his 




HENRY PHILBERT LANKFORD 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 485 

education in the Virginia public schools and went through 
the ninth grade at Portsmouth. He then went to the St. 
Paul School at Lawrenceville, Va., where he took his 
mechanical course. Later he did his literary work at Eden- 
ton, N. C, where he won his B. S. degree. 

In 1907 he was converted and in just a little more than 
two weeks was licensed to preach. He entered into the 
work with characteristic zeal and wholeheartedness. In the 
fall of the same year he joined the Virginia Conference 
under Bishop J. W. Smith, and was assigned to the Roper 
Circuit in N. C, which he served one year. He was then 
transferred to the Philadelphia and Baltimore Conference 
and pastored the church at Lincoln University, Pa., for 
three years while pursuing special studies and theology in 
that institution. He completed the course and won his 
S. T. B. degree. His next appointment was at Media, Pa., 
where he preached one year and completed the house of 
worship. While on this work he was married in 1912 to 
Miss Helen V. Myers of Media. She passed away later the 
same year. 

Rev. Lankford was again transferred and sent to the 
Western North Carolina Conference and stationed at the sec- 
ond church, Salisbury, where he preached one year, when 
another transfer took him to the South Georgia Conference 
under appointment to Augusta. He remained in Augusta 
three years and the work prospered under his hand. Both 
a new house of worship and a parsonage were erected while 
he was there. From Augusta he was sent back to the 
Western N. C. Conference and stationed at the First Church, 
Salisbury, for three years. The church was cleared of debt 
under his administration and in 1917, he was sent to his 
present work at Gastonia where a new parsonage has been 
erected. Rev. Lankford has attended two general confer- 
ences and was while in Georgia chairman of the Georgia 
delegation. He belongs to the Masons. When in school 
he was active in college athletics and played both baseball 
and football. He has not been active in politics. His 
favorite reading is History. 



486 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

On June 4, 1913, he was married to Miss Annie J. 
Sherrill of Landis, N. C. She was educated at Livingstone 
College and taught in the public schools of Spencer before 
her marriage. They have one child, Henry P. Lankford, Jr. 



Assyria Dickerson Avery 

A great man once said, "The spirit and tone of your 
home will have great influence on your children. If it is> 
what it ought to be, it will fasten convictions upon their 
minds." This has been true in the home life of Thomas 
and Elizabeth Avery of Burke Co., whose home, though 
humble, was rich in good influences. Their sons have 
made their mark in life. One of the boys, Rev. Assyria 
Dickerson Avery, is a prominent minister of the A. M. E. 
connection in N. C, now (1919) stationed at Raleigh. He 
was born near Morganton on Feb. 11, 1886, and grew up- 
on the farm in that beautiful hill country, and attended the 
local public school. Later he went to Waters Academy and 
then went to Kittrell College for his Normal and Theologi- 
cal courses. From earliest boyhood he nurtured in his, 
heart a feeling that he was to be a minister of the GospeL 
At fourteen he gave his heart to God and by the time he 
was seventeen was fully committed to the ministry as his. 
life work. He was admitted, on trial, in 1904, and awarded 
a scholarship ati Kittrell. On the completion of his course 
in 1908 he joined, the Conference at Asheville under Bishop. 
Coppin and went to his first regular appointment, the Mt. 
Zion Mission at North Durham. Such was the quality of 
his work that he was promoted from the mission directly to> 
station work, where he was sent to the St. Matthews Station, 
at Raleigh where he preached for three years. The church 
property was greatly improved and the membership) 
strengthened. His next appointment was Bethel Station at. 
Charlotte, which he served four years. Here he found it 
necessary to put a new roof on the house and reduced the 
indebtedness of the church more than four thousand dollars.. 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 487 

In less than ten years he had made for himself a prominent 
place in his denomination and commanded the best appoint- 
ments in the connection. So from Charlotte he was sent 
l>ack to the Capital City, and assigned to the St. Paul Sta- 
tion where he is now (1919) entering upon his fourth year, 
and where he has reduced a burdensome debt of thirteen 
thousand dollars nearly half. 

In his reading the Book of books, of course, has first 
place. It is not strange that after that his next favorite is 
History, for, as Kossuth says, "History is the revelation of 
Providence." 

During the earlier years of his ministry Rev. Avery did 
considerable evangelistic work, apart from his own pastor- 
ates. 

Among the secret and benevolent societies, he is identi- 
fied with the Masons ,the Pythians and the Order of St. 
I^uke. He is of the opinion that the great need of the race 
is better education. 

On June 10, 1913, he was 'united in matrimony to Miss 
:Mamie Gregory of Wilmington, who was also educated at 
Xittrell. Of the three children born to them two are liv- 
ing. They are Lillian E. and Mamie G. Avery. Mr. Avery 
"has recently purchased an attractive home at Raleigh. 



John Adams Cotton 



Rev. John Adams Cotton, B. S., A. B., D. D., for sixteen 
years has had charge of the Presbyterian Church at Hen- 
derson and for the same length of time has presided over 
the Henderson Normal Institute. He was born just after 
-the war, on July 13, 1865, at Manchester, Ky. His father, 
Nelson Cotton, was a farmer and was the son of Jesse Cot- 
ton and his wife, Annie Griffin Cotton. Jesse Cotton was 
free-born and moved from Virginia to Kentucky about 1815. 
Annie Griffin was one-fourth Indian. Dr. Cotton's mother, 
More her marriage, was Miss Silphia Carroll, daughter of 




JOHN ADAMS COTTON 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 489 

David and Susie Carroll, of Tennessee. Dr. Cotton was 
married in Oberlin, Ohio, August 16, 1900, to Miss Maud 
Brooks, a daughter of Square and Blanche (Harris) Brooks. 
They have one child, Carroll Blanche Cotton. Mrs. Cotton 
was educated at Oberlin and is herself an accomplished 
teacher. 

In working out his education, Dr. Cotton attended sev- 
eral schools. He had no financial resources, nor where his 
parents in position to assist in his education. So it came 
to pass that the young man had to work at whatever offered 
in order to pay his way through school. During these 
years of struggle, he was prompted by a sincere desire to 
help the race. He attended Berea College, Kentucky, for 
four years, three years in the preparatory department and 
one in college. He passed from Berea to Knoxville College, 
from which he has the B. S. and the A. B. degrees. He 
won the latter in 1893. He took his theological course, 
leading to the B. D. degree in 1898, at Pittsburgh, Pa. 
Later the National Training School at Durham, in resogni- 
tion of his attainments and his work in North Carolina, con- 
ferred on him the degree of D. D. 

He came into the work of the church when about twen-' 
ty-seven years old and was ordained to the ministry in 1898. 
Coming out of college, he was called to Cleveland, Tenn., 
where he preached for four years. In fact, it may be said 
that he created the colored Presbyterian work at Cleveland, 
as there was no organization when he went there. After 
four years he left a thriving church of fifty members and 
in the meantime had built a school with an enrollment of 
200. After this pastorate of four years at Cleveland he 
was called to the work at Henderson, wliere he has since 
resided and where the work has greatly prospered under 
his administration. The enrollment of the Henderson In- 
stitute the first year he took charge was 382. Under his 
leadership it has grown to 550. Beginning with a teaching 
force of ten, he now has a faculty of seventeen. The plant 
has been greatly enlarged and a nurnber of new buildings 
erected since Dr. Cotton came to take charge. The frame 



490 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

building which was then the Presbyterian church has been 
replaced by a modern brick building worth $25,000. The 
plant and equipment of his school is worth something like 
$100,000. 

Dr. Cotton has taken but little part in politics beyond 
expressing the franchise. He is not identified with the 
secret or benevolent societies. Though not seeking pri- 
marily to make money, he owns an attractive home and 
other property at Henderson which shows what he might 
have done financially had he turned his attention to busi- 
ness rather than educational and religious work. 



James Asbury Baxter 



Few young men in the State have made a more favora- 
ble impression, or done more efficient work for their years, 
than has Rev. James Asbury Baxter, A. B., D. D., of Ashe- 
ville. 

Dr. Baxter is a native of John's Island, on the South 
Carolina coast near Charleston, where he was born August 
25, 1885. His father, Rev. F. L. Baxter, Sr., was a minis- 
ter of the M. E. Church. His grandfather, John Amos 
Baxter, Jr., was also a preacher and did missionary work 
in which his father, John Amos Baxter, Sr., was a pioneer. 
John Amos Baxter, Sr., was by trade a millwright, but 
spent much of his time in missionary work among the slaves 
in the islands along the coast and about the city of Charles^ 
ton. So it will be seen that Dr. Baxter comes of a long line 
of ancestors who have been engaged in religious work. His 
mother, before her marriage, was Miss Delia Hazzard. 

The family moved from John's Island to Florence, S. C, 
when our subject was an infant. There he entered the 
graded school and a little later learned the shoemaker's 
trade, by which he earned money for his higher schooling, 
first at Maryville Institute at later at Claflin University at 
Orangeburg. He was graduated from the latter institution 




JAMES ASBURY BAXTER 



492 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

with the A. B. degree in 1910. At a very early age, he be- 
came active in the work of the church and can hardly re- 
member the time when he did not feel that his work in- 
life must be that of the ministry. Accordingly, his school- 
ing was directed to that end. After he had finished his 
course at Claflin, he took his Theological course at Gammon 
Theological Seminary in Atlanta, completing it with the 
B. D. degree in 1913. 

That same year he joined the Conference at Maxton, 
under Bishop Henderson. He supplied for a while at Boone, 
N. C, but his first regular appointment under the Confer- 
ence was to Trinity, at Wilmington, which he served for 
two years, going thence to St. Peters at Oxford for two 
years. From Oxford he was assigned to work in the west- 
ern end of the State and is now (1920) in his third year 
at Berry Temple, Asheville. 

Looking back over his career, Rev. Baxter recognizes 
what have been at once the restraining and inspiring influ- 
ences of his life. He gives first place to his devoted Chris- 
tian mother and next to the constant care and training of 
the church. 

Among the secret orders he is identified with the Ma- 
sons and Pythians. Next after the Bible, his favorite read- 
ing consists of such standard authors as Victor Hugo, Lew 
Wallace, Van Dyke, and Henry Drummond. 

On December 28, 1918, Dr. Baxter was married to Miss 
Mary E. Banks, a daughter of John and Elizabeth Banks. 
Dr. Baxter is a man of pleasing address, who makes friends 
readily and is a forceful and attractive pulpit speaker. 



Laurie Willis Chester Anderson 



Dr. Laurie Willis Chester Anderson, who is now (1920) 
a successful physician at the old town of Oxford, is a native 
of the capital city of North Carolina, having been born at 
Raleigh on March 20, 1882. He is a son of the late Prof. 
Henry Anderson and his wife, Amanda Anderson. 




LAURIE WILLIS CHESTER ANDERSON 



494 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Growing up as he did in Raleigh, he attended the local 
graded schools and later did his preparatory work at the 
Mary Potter School at Oxford. After that, he went to 
Biddle University and when ready for his medical course 
matriculated at Leonard Medical College, where he won his 
M. D. degree in 1912. 

His father having died when the boy was still young, 
he found it necessary to make his own way through school. 
At an early age he learned the barber's trade and soon came 
to be proprietor of a shop of his own. After he started to 
medical college he spent his vacations at the North in hotel 
work and in the Pullman service. The latter gave him an 
opportunity to see most of the United States and some of 
Canada. The information and practical knowledge thus 
gained have been of great value to him. 

After completing his medical course in 1912, he went 
to Tennessee, spent a few months in Knoxville, some time 
at Morristown, and was at Greenville for a short while. 
He passed the State Board in 1913 and located at Johnson 
City, Tenn., where he practiced for two years. In the early 
fall of 1916, he returned to North Carolina and located at 
Oxford, where he has since resided and where he has built 
up a good general practice. 

On April 29, 1918, he was married to Miss Edith Lan- 
caster, of Tyrone, Pa. Mrs. Anderson was before her mar- 
riage a teacher at Mary Potter. 

In politics, Dr. Anderson is an Independent. He is a 
member of the A. M. E. Zion Church and belongs to the 
Masons. He is the local examiner for the North Carolina 
Mutual Insurance Company and is a member of the National 
Medical Association. He is also medical examiner for his 
local lodge of Masons. 

Dr. Anderson's general observation as well as his inti- 
mate contact with his people! in various parts of the country 
has convinced him that the greatest single need of the 
race is the right sort of education. 



Garland Bryant Bass 



It would he hard to find in the Old North State or else- 
where a finer group of men than the District Superintend- 
ents of the North Carolina Mutual Insurance Company. 
They are picked men who have demonstrated their worth 
before being placed on their respective districts. Among 
these must be mentioned Garland Bryant Bass of Reidsville. 
He is a native of Durham, where he was born Oct. 3, 1879. 

His father was the late William Bass, a farmer. The 
son also worked on the farm till he came of age. His 
mother, before her marriage, was Miss Sallie Evans. She 
is a daughter of John Evans and Elizabeth Stapleton. She 
passed to her reward on June 4, 1920, at the home of her 
son. Mr. Bass' paternal grandmother was Cynthia Mayo. 
On Sept. 25, 1913, Mr. Bass was married to Miss Beu- 
lah L. King a daughter of John and Martha King of Ruffin, 
N. C. She was educated at Danville, Va. They have three 
children: Amanda J., Margaret L. and Garland B. Bass. 

As a boy young Bass attended the local public schools 
and the Whitted High School of Durham, where he com- 
pleted his course in 1902. His vacations were spent on the 
farm until he grew to young manhood, after which he found 
employment in the tobacco factories of Durham. His work 
even from a boy was characterized by the effort to do well 
whatever was assigned him. 

He has been a constant reader of the Bible and has 
found help from such inspirational literature as Booker 
Washington's "Up from Slavery," and "Character Building," 
etc. He taught school for four terms. He was successful 
as a teacher, but finding the work unremunerative, decided 
to enter the insurance field. Accordingly he went to work 
for the North Carolina Mutual and traveled for that well 
known concern for five years. Such was his record that 
when he desired to settle down, there was a place awaiting 
him. So in 1908, he located at Reidsville, where he is Dis- 




GARLAND BRYANT BASS 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 497 

trict Supt. for his Company, and where he stands high as a 
citizen as well as a business man. 

He is a member of the Primitive Baptist Church. 

Mr. Bass knows no short cuts to success for the indi- 
vidual or for the race. He believes progress comes by 
steady work and attending ,to one's own business. 



Presley Louis Baskerville 



Presley Louis Baskerville has led an active life and 
has been successful in a business way. He is a native of 
Mecklenburg Co., Va., where he was born on Christmas 
Day, 1858. His father, Richard Baskerville, was a carriage 
driver for his master before the: days of emancipation. His 
mother, before her marriage, was Jane Dortch, a daughter 
of James and Isabella Dortch. 

Young Baskerville came of school age during the war 
but, of course, had no opportunity to go to school during 
the days of slavery. In 1868 the family moved to Tarboro, 
N. C, and he attended the public school of that old town. 
His early training must have been of the right sort, for he 
states that the greatest factor in shaping his life has been 
the desire to make an honest, honorable living. He served 
an apprenticeship of three years to J. L. Baker and after 
that worked for Mr. Baker for wages a couple of years 
more. After that he was engaged by various firms and in- 
dividuals but later took up contract work in painting and 
decorating on his own account. Ha has to his credit the 
painting of some of the best buildings from North Carolina 
to Georgia. During McKinley's administration, he was ap- 
pointed, through the influence of Congressman White of 
the Second District of N. C, to the position of decorator in 
the Department of Agriculture. He has from time to time 
been engaged by the Atlantic Coast Line Railroad and has 
done sign painting, switch targets and block signals for that 
road through half of the Southern division. This has taken 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 499 

him into several of the Southern States and in addition to 
that he has traveled considerably up and down the coast 
from New York to Florida. In 1906 he moved to Rocky 
Mount where he has since resided and where he has made a 
name for himself for good business ability and for integrity 
among the best people of both races. 

He is an active member of the A. M. E. Zion Church 
and among the secret orders is identified With the Odd Fel- 
lows, having been elected to almost every position in the 
lodge as well as having represented the order at the Grand 

Lodge. . . , 

Mr Baskerville has been married twice. His ftrst 
marriage was on April 2, 1882, to Miss Maria Forman, a 
daughter of Henrietta Forman. She bore him three chiL- 
dren who grew to womanhood and are now married. Lil- 
lian married Mr. Toler, Lydia C. married Mr. Tillery and 
Jane married Mr. Locklear. On June 13, 1901, Mrs. Bas- 
kerville passed away and Mr. Baskerville again married, 
on June 26 1902. His second wife was before her marriage 
Miss Susie' C. McLamb, daughter of Isaac and Mary Jane 
McLamb. She was educated at Scotia Seminary and is an 
accomplished teacher. 

Mr Baskerville has very definite ideas as to how the 
best interests of the race are to be promoted. He advocates 
sticking to business, honest work, letting other folks busi- 
ness alone, trying to accumulate something and finally the 
education of one's children. He owns an attractive home at 
Rocky Mount and has considerable other property. 



Clarence Walker Blair 



Dr Clarence Walker Blair, Ph. G., the only Negro 
druggist at Gastonia, is a native of the old town of Con- 
cord, where he was born Sept. 2, 1888 His parents were 
Rev Charles and Mary Magdalene Blair. In the humble, 
but Christian home, he was taught fidelity to duty, obedi- 




CLARENCE WALKER BLAIR 




MRS. CLARENCE WALKER BLAIR AND SON 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 501 

ence to his parents and to God and a simple faith in prayer. 
His father was a painter and decorator and early taught his 
son to use the tools of his trade. In this simple direct fash- 
ion the course of the boy's life was shaped. It is not strange 
that at a very early age he was converted. He identified 
himself with the Rising Mt. Zion Church in which he was 
active while residing at Concord. 

When of school age, he entered the public schools. He 
was a bright student and such was his record that he was 
awarded a scholarship at Biddle University. At Biddle he 
took the preparatory course. The same ambition to excel 
which characterized his public school work was also seen 
here. 

Even as a youth he was a hard worker and saved his 
money for his professional course at Shaw University. The 
way was made doubly hard by the death of his mother 
which made it necessary for the young man to assist his 
father in the support of the younger children. After tak- 
ing private lessons he matriculated at the Leonard School of 
Pharmacy in 1910 and was graduated from that institution 
with the Ph. G. degree in 1912 with high honors. Without 
difficulty he passed both the N. C. and Ga. State Boards. 
His first position was with the East Avenue Drug Store, 
Charlotte. He resigned that place to accept a better one 
with the Gate City Drug Co., of Atlanta. Though remain- 
ing in Atlanta only nine months, he was successful and 
made many friends. In the fall of 1914, he joined Dr. H. J. 
Erwin and others at Gastonia in the organization of the 
Union Pharmacy. He is the general manager and secretary 
of the concern and is the most important factor in the 
building of the enterprise which is the only one of its sort 
in the county. The Union Pharmacy enjoys a growing 
trade not only in Gastonia but in all the adjacent territory. 

Dr. Blair has taken no active part in politics. He holds 
membership to the St. Paul Baptist Church. He believes 
that progress depends on the right sort of education and 
on equal opportunity with the other race to do a man's 



502 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

work and to enjoy the fruits of his labor and the rights of 
his citizenship on an equal basis. 

On April 10, 1911, Dr. Blair was happily married to 
Miss Katherine I. Bell, the youngest daughter of Mr. and 
Mrs. Wm. P. Bell of Hickory, N. C. Mrs. Blair is a graduate 
of the Allen Industrial Home of Asheville and has entered 
heartily into the plans and ambitions of her husband. They 
have one child, a son, named Moses Amos after the success- 
ful druggist of Atlanta. 



James Samuel Brown 



Rev. James Samuel Brown, D. D., pastor of the Mount 
Zion Baptist Church of Rocky Mount since 1917, is a suc- 
cessful pastor, a popular preacher and an organizer of real 
ability, whose work both in the secret order field and in 
the religious field has made him one of the most widely 
known men in the State. He is a native of Bennettsville, 
S. C, where he was born April 3, 1881. His father, Rev. 
Calvin Brown, was also a Baptist preacher and his mother, 
who, before her marriage, was Miss Patience Wood, was a 
Godly woman. He thus had the advantages of careful 
training and right influences during the days of his boyhood 
and youth. Back of his parents he has but little informa- 
tion in reference to his earlier ancestry. 

On December 26, 1914, Dr. Brown was married to Miss 
Martha Jane Perry, of Maxton, N. C. She was a daughter 
of Frank Perry and was educated at Lumberton, being a 
successful teacher in that city before her marriage to Dr. 
Brown. They have two children, James Samuel, Jr. and 
Chrystobel Brown. 

Whe nour subject was four years of age, his family 
moved from South Carolina to Richmond Co., N .C, and 
it was there that young Brown attended the public school. 
Between times he worked on the farm. He went to Fayette- 
ville for his Normal Course, which he completed in 1904, 




JAMES SAMUEL BROWN 



504 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

having remained with that institution for six years. His 
first year's Theological work was done at Va. Union Uni- 
versity, Richmond, Va., the last two years of the course 
were spent at Shaw University. 

Before he was eleven years of age, Dr. Brown was 
converted and joined the Baptist Church. His mind early 
turned to the ministry and before he was fifteen he had 
definitely decided to make that calling his life work. He 
was licensed by the St. Stephen's Church in Richmond Co., 
N. C, and ordained to the full work of the ministry in 1900. 
While in school he did considerable teaching during the 
summer months both in Richmond and Scotland counties. 

His first pastorate was at Aberdeen, where he remained 
for eleven years. He was successful from the beginning 
and practically every church with which he has been iden- 
tified has had a large growth in membership. Among other 
churches he served before coming to Rocky Mount are Max- 
ton, where he preached four years and built a new house of 
worship; Rockingham eleven years, repaired the building; 
Nashville, near Laurinburg, eleven years, rebuilt the church 
from the ground St. Mark's, near Maxton, and Beauty Spot, 
near Fayetteville, each four years. 

In 1917 he accepted the call to the Mt. Zion, also known 
as First Baptist, Church of Rocky Mount, and is one of 
the recognized leaders of the Baptist denomination in the 
State. 

Dr. Brown has been much in demand for evangelistic 
work and is Secretary of the Pee Dee Association and a 
member of the Executive Board of the Baptist Convention. 
He was Principal of the Pee Dee Institute near Hamlet for 
three years, and such was the progress of the school under 
his administration that it was necessary at times to turn 
away students. He was at one time active and prominent 
in the work of the Masons, Odd Fellows and Pythians in 
connection with which he did extensive field work. Later, 
he felt the necessity of giving his whole time to the min- 
istry. He has a large and flourishing congregation at Rocky 
Mount and soon after going to that field called together the 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 505 

colored ministers in that city and adjacent territory and 
organized the Minister's Union, of which he is Chairman. 
Monthly meetings are held. A quarterly meeting is held 
with the white ministers of the city and Dr. Brown is ex- 
erting himself in every way possible to bring about the best 
understanding and most cordial relationship between the 
two races. All he asks for himself and for his people is 
simply a square deal. During the war he was active in 
various war work at Rocky Mount and Hamlet. 



Thomas H. Burwell 



For more than forty years Rev. Thomas H. Burwell, 
a Baptist preacher of Kittrell, has been going in and out 
before his people. Both as a minister and as an educator 
he has served faithfully and well his day and generation. 

He was born in the Southern part of Granville Co. on 
Oct. 25, 1849. So it will be seen that he was nearly twelve 
years of age when the war began and was almost a grown 
man when it closed. His father, Rev. Jefferson Burwell, 
was a farmer and a preacher. So the boy had the advan- 
tage of being brought up in a Christian home. His mother 
was, before her marriage, Miss Arabella Hayes, a daughter 
of Robert Young. After Emancipation, young Burwell con- 
tinued to work on the farm. His first schooling was in a 
private school at Kittrell. When he decided to go to col- 
lege, he was confronted by the difficulties which confronted 
the aspiring youth of his day. He was poor and wages 
were low — forty cents a day. And yet, in some way, he 
managed to make his way at Shaw University until he was 
able to secure a teacher's license. After that the way was 
much easier and he remained at Shaw for six years. He 
began teaching in 1873 and for forty-five years taught in 
the public schools of his own and adjacent counties. It is 
not unusual for him to be accosted at public gatherings 
by mature men and women who introduce him to ,their chil- 




THOMAS H. BURWELL 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 507 

dren as the man who taught them years ago. His work 
ala teacher is second only to that of his work as a preacher 
of the Gospel. 

While at Shaw University he gave his heart to God and 
«oo„ after definitely decided to give his life to the m.mstry. 
He was censed and ordained to the full work of the mm- 
"try while still at Shaw and for more than forty years has 
been in the active pastorate. More than two thousand per- 
sons have been converted and baptized under his ministry 
h"s first pastorate was the Baptist church at Kittrell which 
h served continuously for eighteen years Here a new 
house of worship was built and after the lapse of a few 
years he was called back to the same church and then after 
another period was called for a third time, so that his work 
at Kittrell covers something like twenty-five years He 
has resided at Kittrell since 1881. He preached at Shiloh 
t Vane Co. thirty-one years .which church had been bu.lt 
by his father and Braxton Hunt. He pastored Haywoods 
in Franklin Co. twenty-six years and repaired the churcK 
He organized and built the church at Manassas Chapel and 
served it for ten years. He also »rg«uzed Co^rd^n 
Franklin Co., and ordained a man from Shiloh to take 
Ilarg of that work. He has been at Zoar in Moore Co. 
t ree years and has been preaching at Philadelphia in 
Dunham Co. three years. He was for a while Moderator 
the Middle Association. At an earlier age he was more 
or less active in politics. He served one term - Postmas- 
ter at Kittrell, N. C. and was for six years Magistrate. He 
is a Mason, Odd Fellow and Gideon. 

On Jan. 9, 1879, Mr. Burwell was married to Miss Annie 
Cornelia Gee of Halifax Co., who was a daughter of Guilford 
and Lucy (Hockaday) Gee. Of the ten children born to 
them six are living. They are Lucy C. (Mrs. Avery) , Annie 
T. (Mrs. Mitchem), Thomas G., Olivia G. (Mrs. Royster), 
Walter C, and Esther E. (Mrs. Rogers). 

Mr. Burwell still farms in a small way. His work as an 



508 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

educator and a preacher has been a good influence in the 
life of his people over a long period of years. Such a life is 
a great asset to any race or any community. 



Ernest Thomas Mclver 



Over on the extreme eastern end of the State at Eden- 
ton is a young man who has already made for himself a 
prominent place in the A. M. E. Zion Connection and whose 
future is bright with promise. Rev. Ernest Thomas Mclver, 
A. B., B. D., was born at Cumnock, N. C, Nov. 21, 1883. 
His father, Pilgrim Mclver, was a farmer, and his mother, 
before her marriage, was Miss Leah Hill. Growing up on 
the farm in what is now Lee Co., young Mclver attended the 
local public schools. He was converted when about, six- 
teen years of age and soon after consecrated his life to the 
Gospel ministry. He did his preparatory work in the nor- 
mal department of Livingstone College and passed from 
there to the college department, graduating with the A. B. 
degree in 1912. He also has the B. D. degree from Hood 
Theological Seminary of the same institution. 

On Dec. 22, 1913, Dr. Mclver was married to Miss Julia 
C. Huffman of Salisbury. Two children were born to this 
union. They are Juliet M. and Janet D. Mclver. On Mar. 
7, 1920, Mrs. Mclver passed away. 

Dr. Mclver has always been energetic and enterprising 
and has a way of bringing things to pass. As a student he 
found it necessary to make his own way, which he did by 
working at the North during vacations. He entered the 
itinerancy in 1910 through the West Central Conference of 
North Carolina. He was ordained deacon at Concord and 
elder at Monroe by the late Bishop Hood. His first pastor- 
ate was the Columbia Heights church at Winston-Salem, 
where he preached one year. After that he served Mt. 
Pleasant and Bell's Mission two years, Mt. Pleasant and 
Reaves Chapel one year and Bethel Station, Kannapolis, one 




ERNEST THOMAS McIVER 



510 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

year. From there he was sent to Kedesh A. M. E. Zion 
Church, Edenton, in 1916, where the work has greatly 
prospered under his administration. Every department of 
the church work has gone forward. The church debt has 
been paid off and the membership increased. He also has 
charge of the Edenton Normal and Industrial School which 
is owned by the denomination. This too has made splendid 
progress under his direction and is regarded as one of the 
worth while institutions of eastern North Carolina. 

Thus the farmer boy has grown into a place of leader- 
ship among his people and leads a life of large usefulness. 
He demands for himself and his people no more than he is 
willing to grant all others. This is simply fair play and 
equal opportunity. 



Charles Hudson Bynum 



One of the gratifying developments of recent years has 
been the number of successful physicians who have come to 
the front among the colored people of the larger centers and 
even of the small cities and country towns. These men 
have had the wisdom to lay broad and deep the founda- 
tions of their training and have progressed in a way that 
would have been impossible fifteen or twenty years ago. 
Among the estimable general practitioners of eastern North 
Carolina is Dr. Charles H. Bynum. He was born in Edge- 
combe Co. on November 11, 1872, but the family moved to 
Wilson when he was still a small boy. His parents were 
Amos and Annie (Wilkins) Bynum, both now dead. His 
paternal grandparents were Amos and Lucy Bynum and 
his maternal grandmother w r as Maria Wilkins. 

Young Bynum went to the Wilson public school as a 
boy and come under the influence of that splendid teacher 
and successful man, Professor Vick, who recognized his 
abilities and encouraged the lad to push ahead. From the 
graded school he passed to Livingstone College at Salisbury 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 511 

for a year and then went to Lincoln University where he 
won his bachelor's degree in 1890. He then entered Leon- 
ard Medical College but had to drop out for a while on ac- 
count of failing health. Returning later, he completed the 
course with the M. D. degree in 1898. His father was able 
to assist in his education to a certain extent but it was 
necessary, for the most part, for him to make his own way. 
His vacations were spent in Pullman and hotel work, and 
this give him an excellent opportunity to see much of the 
country and added greatly to his experience. While in col- 
lege he was an enthusiastic baseball player. 

On completion of his Medical college work, he located 
at Kinston in 1899 and gradually built up a general practice 
which in recent years has grown to large proportions. 

Dr. Bynum has an attractive home on one of the very 
best streets in the heart of .the city, where he has sur- 
rounded himself with all of the comforts, and even the luxu- 
ries of life. On December 16, 1904, he was happily married 
to Miss Helen Blanche Wooten, of Greenville, a daughter 
of Mrs. Cynthia Wooten. Mrs. Bynum was educated at Liv- 
ingstone College and was a successful teacher before she 
married. They have three children, Charles H., Jr., Annie 
T. and Wilfred L. Bynum. 

Dr. Bynum takes an active interest in all matters re- 
lating to the welfare of the race, and believes that the 
permanent progress of his people depends on the right sort 
of education. His relations with the local white physicians 
has been entirely cordial. With the growth of his practice 
and its increased income, he has been able to make consider- 
able investments in and around Kinston. 

He is identified with the State and the National Medi- 
cal Societies and during the war belonged to the Volunteer 
Medical Corps, but was not called into the service. He is a 
member of the Presbyterian church and affiliates with the 
Masons and Odd Fellows. He is also local examiner for 
the Odd Fellows and for the N. C. Mutual Life Insurance Co. 



Robert Thomas Hunter 



The Rev. Robert Thomas Hunter, now (1920) stationed 
at Newton, is a native of Montgomery, Ala. Few men of 
his age in the State has done or are doing more efficient 
work than Mr. Hunter. He was born July 7, 1896, so it 
will be seen that he is still on the sunny side of thirty. 
His father, Wm. Henry Hunter, spent most of his life in 
and around Montgomery. Mr. Hunter's mother, before her 
marriage, was Miss Laura Trimble. His paternal grand- 
parents were Wm. and Dolly Hunter and his maternal grand- 
parents were Alfred and Eliza Trimble. 

Young Hunter attended the primary department of the 
State normal school as a boy and later took the normal 
course at the same school at Montgomery. After he had 
decided to become a minister, he took his theological course 
at Hood Theological Seminary, of Livingstone College, Salis- 
bury. He completed this course in May, 1918, as valedicto- 
rian of his class in theology and won the Bishop A. B. Bruce 
gold medal for scholarship. 

He came into the work of the church when he was about 
sixte n years of age, and took up the ministry about three 
years later. He joined the Conference in Nov., 1915, at 
Statesville and was ordained elder by Bishop Geo. W. Clin- 
ton. _ nder appointment by the Conference, he was sent to 
the Second Creek Circuit in Rowan Co., and it was while 
on this work that he pursued his theological course in Salis- 
bury. Prior to this time he preached for a short time at 
Matthews, where he held forth successfully during the ab- 
sence of the regular pastor. From the Second Creek Cir- 
cuit he was sent to the Newton Circuit which also includes 
the work at Maiden. 

On September 18, 1919, Mr. Hunter was married to Miss 
Gladys Louise Hamblin, a daughter of Dr. Wm. L. and Min- 
nie Hamblin of Montgomery. 

Looking back over his career, Mr. Hunter credits his 




ROBERT THOMAS HUNTER 



514 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

parents with his success in life. He also feels that credit 
for some achievements should be accorded Mr. Robert 
Thomas Aldworth, a white southerner of the highest type, 
a merchant for whom he was named. With his finance and 
many bracing words of encouragement, he cut for him "the 
gordian" knot". of many dark and trying circumstances. 
His father is a hard working, pious man of comfortable cir- 
cumstances, who brought up his children in the Sunday 
School and church and gave them a liberal education. 

From the beginning Mr. Hunter says he has found his 
work interesting and his steady progress indicates that the 
Zion Church may look to him for years of faithful service. 
His favorite reading is poetry and biography, especially 
that relating to the members of his own race. He belongs 
to rhe secret, benevolent and insurance orders and has had 
opportunity for considerable travel throughout the South. 



Charles Francis Graves 



Prof. Charles Francis Graves, efficient principal of the 
Roanoke Collegiate Institute at Elizabeth City, is one of 
the progressive young men of the Baptist denomination in 
North Carolina who has already made + or himself a promi- 
nent place in the educational life of the State, He is widely 
known, not only on account of his educational work, but also 
through his writings. He is a native of Yanceyville, Cas- 
well Co., where he was born May 24, 1878. His father, 
William Pinckney Graves, was a carpenter. He was the son 
of Margaret Graves. Prof. Graves' mother was, before 
her marriage, Miss Carolina M. Williamson, a daughter of 
Agnes Williamson. 

Prof. Graves was married on June 29, 1904, to Miss 
Mattie F. Chavis, of Winston. She was educated at that 
town and is a product of Waters Institute, and is a capable 
teacher. She has proven to be a most competent helper of 
her husband. They have three children, Charles R., Susan 
M. and Hattie M. Graves. 




CHARLES FRANCIS GRAVES 



516 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

When he was a child, his parents moved to Hickory, 
then to Reidsville, seeking better financial conditions, and 
it was there that he attended the public and high schools, 
under such able teachers as Dr. J. E. Dellinger, R. B. Mc- 
Rary and C. C. Somerville. At an early age he went to 
work in the tobacco factories and was in this way able to 
earn money for his college course, which was begun in 1897. 
In addition to this, he did hotel work during vacations and 
was thus able to complete the college work without a break. 
Let it not be imagined, however, that this was an easy task. 
Wages were low, and even after he had reached a point 
where he could teac^ in the rural schools, the terms were 
short and salaries small. He worked his way through 
Shaw University, taking high rank in the Languages, His- 
tory and Literature, completing his course, and winning his 
A. B. degree in 1901 as valedictorian and class orator 
in a class of 19. In 1905 the same institution, without 
his knowledge or solicitation, conferred on him the A. M. 
degree because of his studious habits when he returned to 
address the college societies. 

Going into western North Carolina to teach a summer 
school, he made an unusually fine mark in his examinations 
and after that found the way easier. He taught public 
schools in Buncombe, Caswell, Rockingham, Northampton 
and Pasquotank counties from which he holds first grade 
certificates. 

When, in 1901, he was made the principal of the Roan- 
oke Institute at Elizabeth City, the man and the opportunity 
were fairly met. Only three years later he was elected to 
the presidency of that institution which has since been un- 
der his administration. It is one of the most prosperous 
and successful of the Baptist Associational Schools in the 
State, and the State Department of Education has recog- 
nized this in a most signal way by giving credit to 
the graduates trained here. All who are familiar with this 
line of work know it is most difficult to make the secondary 
denominational schools a success. It requires a man of ex- 
ecutive ability, tact, faith and persistence to make such a 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 517 

school go. The fact that Prof, Graves has made; a success 
of the institution with which he is identified is the best 
testimonial that could be written concerning him. During 
his incumbency 140 have graduated and are following vari- 
ous callings, even as missionary to Africa, preachers, teach- 
ers, doctors, lawyers, etc. In his position he is at once a 
religious and an educational leader and necessarily he must 
be a good business man and a capable executive. Besides 
this he is active along many other lines, being a bank direc- 
tor, auditor of the Union Baptist State Convention, member 
American Sociological Congress, has edited a newspaper and 
is a commissioner or trustee of the Theological department, 
Shaw University, appointed by the Convention. 

Notwithstanding his varied duties, he has found time 
to write a series of booklets which have had a wide reading. 
He is of the opinion that the best interests of the race in 
the State and nation are to be promoted by a demonstra- 
tion of strength of character, strength of intellect and 
strength of material interests, which are compelled to be 
recognized in whomsoever possessed. He is of genial na- 
ture, a good conversationalist, conservative, and expresses 
his views with a seriousness and sanity that no one can mis- 
take his meaning of the broad and humanitarian principles 
of thorough manhood. 



John Henry Clement 



Rev. John Henry Clement, who for more than twenty 
years has been active in the religious and educational life 
of the State, resides at High Point. He is a native of Davie 
Co., having been born at the old town of Mocksville, on 
March 5, 1869. His father, Anderson Clement, was a la- 
borer and a farmer and the boy was brought up to do all 
sorts of farm work. His mother, who before her marriage 
was Miss Martha Lanier, was a daughter of Bob Smith, 
who was free born. 



518 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Growing up in Davie Co., young Clement attended 
the local public school and when ready for college entered 
Biddle University. That was in 1895 and he was graduated 
from Biddle with the degree of A. B. in 1898. He sup- 
ported himself in school for the first five years. 

He began his work as a teacher at Rockingham, where 
he taught for twenty years in the public and graded school, 
being principal of the latter for a number of years. He 
came into the work of the church when he was about 
seventeen years of age and soon after decided to follow the 
ministerial calling. 

After completing his college course, he accepted the 
pastorate of the Jackson Springs Presbyterian church, 
which he served for fifteen years. He preached at Eagle 
Springs for five years, repaired the house of worship. He 
served the Chapel Hill Church for five years and built a 
parsonage. In 1918 he moved from Rockingham to High 
Point, where a new house of worship has been erected at 
an expense of $5,000.00. He is also serving the church at 
Thomasville, which has been repaired during his administra- 
tion. 

Since coming to High Point he has been identified with 
the graded school of Asheboro. His personal interests and 
investments are atRockingham where he so long resided. 

Rev. Clement believes that the progress of the race de- 
pends largely upon the right sort of education and training 
along industrial lines. 

He has been married twice. His first marriage was 
on April 12, 1889, to Miss Annie Kirkpatrick, of Matthews, 
N. C. She was educated at Scotia Seminary and was before 
her marriage a teacher. They had four children: William 
H., Zena, Annie Belle and Charlie Clement. Mrs. Clement, 
passed to her reward in 1914. 

On June 2, 1920, Mr. Clement was married to Miss 
Odessa McDowell, of Salisbury. She was educated at Liv- 
ingstone College and is also an accomplished teacher. 



George Sadler Leeper 



Rev. George Sadler Leeper, A. B., A. M., D. D., of 
IKings Mountain, N. C, is one of those sterling characters 
who, from his youth up, has made his life count for the 
JVTaster. He was born and reared in Mecklenburg Co., N. C. 
His father, Green W. Leeper, was a farmer, and the boy 
:grew up on the farm. His mother, before her marriage, 
was Miss Hannah Minerva Sloan. They set him a Chris- 
tian example, and while poor, brought up the boy in the 
fear of the Lord. His grandparents also were pious folk 
and were loved and respected in their community. 

After attending the public schools, young Leeper en- 
tered the preparatory department of Biddle University and 
remained to graduate from the college and theological de- 
partments. The difficulties he encountered in securing an 
-education would have defeated a less courageous soul. Dur- 
ing the first year at Biddle, his means were exhausted and 
he was under the necessity of working at such odd jobs as 
'offered, in order to remain until the close of the term. When 
;school opened the following year, he was somewhat involved 
in debt and so could not return to college. Not for a 
moment, however, did he despair, but went bravely to work, 
.and after that, by close application to work and study and 
by rigid economy, he was able to pursue his course without 
a break. He completed the college course and won his 
A. B. degree in 1881. The following year, he took up the 
Theological course and in 1884 completed that course with 
the B. Th. degree. Since that time the same institution has 
■conferred on him both the A. M. and D. D. degrees in recog- 
nition of his attainments both as teacher and preacher. 

Early in life Dr. Leeper' s mind turned to religious mat- 
ters. These impressions were intensified by the church and 
school, as well as the home. While still a youth he conse- 
crated his life to the Gospel ministry and shaped his course 
accordingly. 




GEORGE SADLER LEEPER 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 521 

Dr. Leeper began teaching in Gaston Co., in 1874, and 
his success as a teacher has been such as to indicate that he 
might have made for himself a prominent place as an edu- 
cator, had he chosen that field exclusively. The hard disci- 
pline of his boyhood and youth with its poverty and self- 
denial did two things for him. It made him sturdy, healthy 
and self-reliant; also it taught him sympathy and benevo- 
lence toward all who have to struggle. Accordingly his has 
been a sympathetic ministry. He has touched people to 
help them. It is as a preacher of the Gospel that he is best 
known. His pastorates have included Love's Chapel ; Third 
Street, Gastonia; St. Paul, Lloyd; Good Hope, and Lawrence 
Chapel. The Third Street Church, Gastonia, stands as a 
monument to his faith and efforts. Dr. Leeper ad his faith- 
ful wife were mainly responsible for this work. In its early 
days they furnished a room in their home without charge 
where the members met for worship. Later a church build- 
ing was erected under his administration. New houses of 
worship have also been erected at St. Paul and at Good 
Hope. 

Dr. Leeper has not confined himself to his own churches 
in any narrow or selfish manner, but has sought to do good 
wherever and whenever he could. He was the chief factor 
in working up the organization of Lisbon Springs Presby- 
terian church at Lowell. He stands high in the denomina- 
tion. He has been a member of all the church courts and 
is a member of the Catawba Presbytery. For nearly forty 
years he has gone in and out before his people ministering 
to them in every helpful way. 

On May 25, 1887, he was married to Miss Josephine S. S. 
Rhodes, a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Clem C. Rhodes. Of 
the four children born to them, two are living. They are 
Georgia L. and Catherine G. Leeper. 

Dr. Leeper is of the dpinion that the greatest need of 
the race is energetic, intelligent godly leadership. 



Frederick Douglas Quick 

In order to understand a man like Dr. Frederick Doug- 
las Quick of the old town of Rockingham, it is necessary to 
know something of his ancestry. It is interesting therefore 
to note that long before emancipation, his grandfather, John 
Quick, was so much above the average slave in energy, ambi- 
tion and intelligence that he had worked out his own free- 
dom. 

Hon. W. H. Quick, Esq., the father of Dr. Quick is a 
successful lawyer residing at Sanford. An uncle Rev. H. I. 
Quick of Rockingham is a popular Baptist preacher and a 
successful business man. A cousin, Dr. J. D. Quick, is a 
rising young physician at Lumberton, while other members 
of the family adorn the professional and business life of 
the State. So it will be seen that the Quick family is a 
remarkable one. 

Dr. F. D. Quick was born in Richmond Co., on Nov. 17, 
1880. His parents are Mr. and Mrs. W. H. Quick of Sanford. 
The boy grew up on the farm and has always been energetic 
and self-reliant. The home influences were good, but he 
early realized that success depended on personal effort and 
development. He passed from the local public schools to 
Hampton Institute where he spent four profitable years, 
completing the academic course in 1904. By this time he 
had definitely decided to make a physician of himself and de- 
termined to have the best training available. His finances 
were at a low ebb, however, so he remained out of school 
one year and worked. The following year he matriculated 
at the medical department of Howard University, where he 
won his M. D. degree in 1909. His summer vacations were 
spent in hotel work at the North, so he came through school 
out of debt. 

After completing his course, he practiced for a few 
months in Sanford but in 1910 located at Rockingham, 
where he has since resided. He is the only colored physi- 




FREDERICK DOUGLAS QUICK 



524 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

cian in that town and has already built, up a practice which 
would be a credit to a much older man. 

On Jan. 20, 1915, Dr. Quick and Miss Leana Murray, a 
native of Alabama, were happily married. She was edu- 
cated at Livingstone College and was before their marriage 
a capable teacher. They have one child, Otis Quick. 

Dr. Quick is a Republican in poditics but has not found 
much time for party affairs. He is an active member of 
the A. M. E. Zion Church, in which he is a trustee. Among 
the secret orders he holds membership in the Masons, Odd 
Fellows and Pythians, for all of which he is medical exam- 
iner. He also acts in the same capacity for the Standard 
Life Insurance Co. and the N. C. Mutual. He is a member 
of both State and National Medical Associations. He be- 
lieves that the progress of the race must be based on the 
proper sort of home life. In his reading Dr. Quick naturally 
gives his professional books first place, but after that he 
finds History and Biography most helpful. 



Pinkney Warren Russell 

Rev. Pinckney Warren Russell, A. B., D. D., professor 
of Greek at Biddle University, is one of the most distin- 
guished ministers and educators of the Presbyterian 
Church. He is a native of the old town of Newberry, S. ft, 
where he was born April 25, 1864. His parents were Madi- 
son and Rachel (Williams) Russell. His paternal grand- 
father, who was originally from Virginia, was Tom Russell 
and his maternal grandparents were Tom and Easter Wil- 
liams. 

Becoming of school age during what is known as the 
"Reconstruction period," it may well be imagined that the 
boy had no easy time in securing an education. As a 
youngster he worked on the farm, and laid the foundations 
of his education at the Hogue School, in Newberry. After 
the death of his mother and father, he worked at a cotton 
factory at Pelzer, S. C. 




PINKNEY WARREN RUSSELL 



526 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

When about twenty years of age, his mind turned to 
the serious concerns of religion and he came into the work 
of the church. Soon afterward, he devoted his life to its 

ministry- 
He entered and graduated from the normal course of 
Biddle University, and then took the college course, gradu- 
ating in 1890 with first honor. While pursuing his studies 
in school he assisted in teaching some of the lower classes. 
This was followed by the theological course at the same in- 
stitution. His D. D. degree was conferred upon him by 
Lincoln University, Pennsylvania. 

When he left Newberry, he had two ideas in mind — 
the making of money and the securing of an education. 
When he found it necessary later to choose between the 
two, he selected the latter and devoted years of patient en- 
deavor to the task of fitting himself adequately for the great 
work of life. He made a splendid record as a student while 
at Biddle and spent his summer vacations teaching in North 
and South Carolina. 

His first active pastorate was at Biddleville, where he 
had charge of the Presbyterian church for a short while. 
From this he was called to Goldsboro, where he remained for 
seven years. Here he was principal of the State Normal 
School and while connected with that institution made for 
himself an enviable record as a teacher and as an executive. 
Accordingly, he was called back to his Alma Mater as assist- 
ant teacher in the preparatory department, where he re~ 
mained for one term, at the end of which he became princi- 
pal of the preparatory department and served in that capac- 
itl for three years. He was then promoted to the chair of 
Greek in the University, which position he has since held 
with credit to himself and to the satisfaction of the trus- 
tees and patrons. 

Dr. Russel is a member of the Classical Association of 
the Middle West and South. He is also identified with 
the American Classical League and the American Philologi- 
cal Association. 

On December 19, 1894, he was married to Miss Hattie 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 527 

E. Field, of Weldon. Mrs. Russell was educated at St. Aug- 
ustine, Raleigh, and the Peabody Normal and High School 
at Petersburg, Va., and is herself an accomplished teacher. 
They have six children: Ethel, Field S., Pinckney W., Jr., 
Hattie T., Willie H. and Sanders N. Russell. 

Dr. Russell is of the opinion that the greatest single 
need of the race is Christian education. It is not surprising 
to learn that, dealing as he does with the classical litera- 
ture of the past, his favorite reading is history. 



William Robert Coles 



William Robert Coles, the present efficient Superin- 
tendent of the Winston-Salem District for the North Caro- 
lina Mutual, is a native of Rowan Co., having been born at 
Salisbury on Dec. 4, 1887. His father, Rev. Wm. R. Coles, 
is still living (1920). His mother, before her marriage, was 
Miss Rosa F. Trusty. Fortunately for young Coles, the 
home influences were good and he seems to have made the 
most of them. Early in life his parents located at Aiken, 
S. C, where his father was pastor of the Presbyterian 
church and had charge of the parochial school. It was in 
Aiken that our subject laid the foundation of his education. 
When ready for his college course, he matriculated at Bid- 
die University from which he was graduated with the A. B. 
degree in 1899.) He had early learned the tailor's trade 
and used this to help himself through school. He taught 
school at Aiken for six terms. He then went into the tail- 
oring business and at different times ran shops at both 
Augusta and Columbia. 

Mr. Coles was not slow to see the advantages of the 
insurance field and in 1913 made a connection with the 
Standard Life Insurance Company of Atlanta, which he 
represented at Augusta for one year. The character of his 
work on that field was such that his services were sought 
by a local insurance company, the Pilgrim's Health and Life, 



528 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

with which he was identified as Supt. of the Augusta Dis- 
trict' from Dec, 1914 to August, 1918. His work naturally 
revealed to him the competitors, among which was the' North 
Carolina Mutual. So impressed was he with the men and 
the methods of this, the largest Negro insurance company 
in the world, that he resigned his position as Supt. of the 
local concern and accepted the agency of the N. C. Mutual 
in which capacity he worked for one year. Such was the 
record he made in that year, that he was promoted to the 
superintendency and given the Winston-Salem District, one 
of the most productive in the South. He moved at once to 
that thriving city and has fully identified himself with the. 
business and social interests of the race at Winston-Salem. 

Mr. Coles is a member of the Episcopal church in which 
he is a lay reader. He belongs to the Masons. He is a 
lover of short stories and keeps up with the movements of 
the time through the current papers and magazines. His 
investments are at Winston-Salem. 

On Sept. 26, 1906, Mr. Coles was married to Miss Pearl 
C. Shelton, of Columbia, S. C. She was educated at Claflin 
University and was, before her marriage, an accomplished 
teacher. They have two children, T. Shelton and Enostine 
Coles. 



Daniel Levy Thomas 



The M. E. Church has for years maintained an educa- 
tional policy which has brought into her ministry as intelli- 
gent a leadership as will be found in any other denomina- 
tion in the South. Among the successful pastors of the 
connection in North Carolina must be mentioned Rev. 
Daniel Levy Thomas, now (1920) located at West Raleigh. 
He is a native of the sister State of South Carolina, having 
been born at Brightsville, Marlboro Co., on August 31, 1871. 
His father, Joe Thomas, was a son of Judia Thomas. His 




DANIEL LEVY THOMAS 



530 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

mother before her marriage was Sarah Jane McRae, a 
daughter of Abraham and Judy McRae. 

Mr. Thomas was educated at the county public schools 
and at Claflin University. He was converted in his early 
teens and when about twenty years of age felt called to 
preach. Then came the recognition that he needed better 
preparation for his life work than the local schools afforded. 
He was under the necessity of working his way through 
school as he had no financial resources and no friends to 
help him. He spent considerable time in hotel work, in an 
environment which was by no means conducive to piety. 
Like Job, however, "he held fast to his integrity," and in 
1905 joined the conference and took up the active duties of 
the ministry. His first regular appointment was the As- 
bury charge, where he preached for two years. He went 
from there to Conley Springs for two years and was at the 
head of the entire charge for twelve years, where he com- 
pleted the house of worship. In 1914 he preached at Mt. 
Holley and Stanley Creek and went from there to Lenoir 
for two years, where he paid the church debt. From Lenoir 
he went to West Asheville for a year and then to Leakes- 
ville one year. He is now (1920) in his second year at 
West Raleigh which is the only M. E. Church of the capital 
city of the State. He has made good progress in this work 
and is held in high esteem by the progressive people of 
both races. He belongs to the Masons and is an official 
in the local lodge. Mr. Thomas is a constant reader, giving 
first attention, of course, to the Bible and has found special 
help and inspiration from such books as Pilgrim's Prog- 
ress and the Life of Benjamin Franklin. 



Dallas Joseph Flynn 



Rev. Dallas Joseph Flynn, D. D., who is one of the most 
prominent figures of the Congregational Church in the 
South and now (1919) Superintendent of the Congregational 




DALLAS JOSEPH FLYNN 



532 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Churches in North Carolina, South Carolina and Georgia, 
resides at Charlotte. 

He is a native of Mobile, Ala. The exact date of his 
birth cannot now be ascertained. His father was Augustus 
Flynn, a farmer, and his mother before her marriage was 
Millie Keith. Dr. Flynn's paternal grandparents were John 
and Harriet Flynn and his maternal grandparents were 
Pell and Martha Keith. There is a strain of Scotch blood 
on the father's side and Indian blood on the mother's side, 
so that Dr. Flynn really represents a sort of trinity of races. 

On June 26, 1893, he was married to Miss Florence 
Rouville, a daughter of Frances and Angellina Rouville. 

As a boy young Flynn worked as a barber and attended 
the public schools of Mobile. Subsequently he went to Tal- 
ladega and in 1901 was graduated from the Theological 
department of that institution from which he has the D. D. 
degree. 

Early in life he learned the barber trade and used this 
as a means to help himself through school. All his spare 
time was thus employed so there was little or no time left 
for college athletics. 

When he was about 19 years of age he was soundly 
converted and the whole tenor of his life was changed. 
Growing up in a home of the direst poverty and hemmed in 
by adverse circumstances, he now moved forward with faith 
and courage and dates his highest ideals and best impulses 
from that decisive hour when he came into a knowledge of 
the Christ. And he feels that but for the grace of God 
he would have been a self-centered parasite upon the social 
body of the nation ; and moreover, he has found out that 
but for the operation in his daily life of the Holy Spirit 
he would have long sines been lying out in open shame 
and defeat. 

Entering upon the work of the Gospel ministry in 
1901, he has given his life to that calling unstintedly and 
the work of the Kingdom has prospered in his hands. His 
first pastorate was August, Ga., where he preached for a 
little more than seven years. A new house of worship 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 533 

and a parsonage were erected under his administration 
and the congregation built up in every way. He was 
then called to Charlotte, N. C. where he served the Eman- 
uel Congregational Church for six years. Here again his 
work was characterized by growth in numbers and spiritual 
power. In 1914 he was made Superintendent of the Con- 
gregational Churches in N. C, S. C. and Ga. Like the apos- 
tle of old he gives himself entirely to his ministry, having 
paid but little attention to party politics or the activities 
of the secret orders. 

It is perhaps in his capacity as Superintendent that Dr. 
Flynn has done his most notable work. More progress has 
been made by the Congregational Churches under his super- 
vision during the last five years than for any like period 
in their history. The Annual Bible Missionary Conference 
which under God he inaugurated, has been of inestimable 
value in the advancement of the Kingdom of Christ. 

He is a forceful speaker and his voice has been heard 
both North and South in the interest of the work of the 
Kingdom. Some of his writings have also had a wide read- 
ing and his favorite living authors are men like Dr. G Camp- 
bell Morgan and Dr. F. B. Myers. He has also found the 
biographies of great men helpful. Dr. Flynn illustrates in 
his own life what a man can accomplish even in the face of 
difficulties when he has high and holy ideals and works to- 
wards them with singleness of purpose. He is buying a 
comfortable home in Charlotte. 



Sylvester Jackson Hayden 



Among the faithful, earnest workers of the M. E. Con- 
nection in North Carolina must be mentioned Rev. Sylvester 
Jackson Hayden now (1919) stationed at Gastonia. He is 
in no way a sensationalist. He believes in preaching a pure 
Gospel and working with his own hands. He is not only 
a good preacher and a successful pastor, but also a practical 




SYLVESTER JACKSON HAYDEN 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 535 

carpenter. So when there is a church to be erected, he 
take the lead and knows when the job is well done. He has 
had a fruitful ministry both as to new members and the 
building of new houses of worship. 

During the years of his young manhood, he taught 
school for five years in Cleveland, Gaston and Vance Coun- 
ties Cleveland is his home county. He was born near 
Shelby, the county seat, on Oct. 25, 1875. His parents 
were Dennis and Susannah (Goode) Hayden; his mother's 
parents were Moses and Violet Goode. 

Rev. Hayden is the first member of the family within 
his knowledge to enter the ministry. On Aug. 21, 1901, he 
was married to Miss Minnie Ramseur of Hickory. 

As a boy he attended the rural schools in Cleveland 
Co but later went to Bennett College, Greensboro, where 
he pursued the Normal Course. He experienced the new 
birth when he was about eighteen and it was about four 
years later before he definitely decided to take up the work 
of the ministry. He joined the Conference at Asheville un- 
der Bishop Burt. His first pastorate comprised Stanley 
Creek and Mt. Holley where he preached for two years. 
He built a church at Mt. Holley and finished the house at 
Stanley Creek. His next work was the Lenoir Circuit on 
which one new house of worship was erected. From there 
he went to Wentworth near Greensboro one year and then 
to Townsville in Vance Co. for a year. He was then pro- 
moted to the Goldsboro Station where he preached for four 
years. Here a new house was built and the membership of 
the church nearly doubled. His next appointment took 
him to Pin Hook at Hale's Ford, Va., where he preached 
for two years and built a church. From there he returned 
to North Carolina and was on the Rendleman Circuit two 
years. After that he went to Old Fort and Marion for three 
years. While on this work he built a parsonage. In 1917 
he was sent to his present work at Gastonia which has 
prospered under his administration. Though always a busy 
man, he finds time for considerable reading and is especially 
fond of history. He looks to education as the greatest sin- 



536 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

gle factor in the material progress of the race. His prop- 
erty interests are in Randolph Co. 



Wesley Henry Shaw 



On the second Sunday in May, 1918, there was a great 
and notable gathering at Zion Hill Church, in Halifax Co., 
N. C. The occasion was the celebration of the fiftieth anni- 
versary of the pastor for this lengthy period, not only of 
this but of one other church, these being the first two 
churches to which he had been called at the begining of his 
history. Glowing tributes were paid to him by several 
ministers who had been associated with him during his long 
and useful service in his sacred calling, and others sought 
the privilege of bearing testimony to the esteem in which 
they held the veteran soldier of the cross. 

This veteran preacher, Rev. Wesley Shaw, has since 
that time passed to his reward. He was born a slave in 
Northampton Co., N. C, in 1844. In 1862 he became a resi- 
dent of Halifax Co. In 1864 he was converted and joined 
the Baptist church. In 1868 he was licensed to preach the 
gospel and in 1870 was ordained to the full work of the 
ministry. He was at an early period called to the pastorate 
of Zion Hill church and Carter's Chapel and both of these 
pastorates he held for more than fifty years. 

He married early and while yet a slave, and it was 
not until after the death of the first wife that he entered 
school. He then attended Reedy Creek Institute. Though 
he was not a college trained man, the degree of D. D. was 
conferred upon him in tf he later years of his ministry as a 
recognition of long, faithful and able service. He made 
good use of his opportunities while in school and the knowl- 
edge then acquired was used with splendid effect throughout 
the year of his long and fruitful ministry. 

Mr. Shaw was throughout his career a staunch upholder 
of good morals and right living in every relation of life. 




WESLEY HEXEY SHAW 



538 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

So well did he teach and exemplify these principles that he 
won for himself the unreserved respect and admiration of 
both races. He advocated and practiced temperance and 
clean living and by his teaching and example wielded a most 
salutary influence over a widely extended circle. He was 
an advocate of prohibition, when many associated with him 
where giving their voices and their influence to the other 
side of this great question. His labors in the extension of 
the work of the churches were unceasing. He was instru- 
mental in the organization of the following churches : Pie 
Grove and Springfield in Halifax Co.; Cedar Creek and 
Perry's Chapel in Franklin Co. ; Mt. Zion in Warren Co. ; 
Pattillo's Chapel and Cool Spring in Northampton Co. A 
biography of him published near the close of his life by 
W. F. Young says : "No minister has been more successful 
nor more a blessing to the state and community in which he 
lives." 

Besides the churches already mentioned, he served two 
other churches constantly and many more than he could 
accept were at all times seeking his service. During the 
fifty years of his ministry he saw more than 4,000 new 
members added to the churches of which he was pastor. 
He officiated at hundreds of marriages and conducted more 
than 1,000 funerals. 

He was a leading spirit in the organization, in 1871, of 
the Neuse River Association and for twelve years he was 
vice-president of this body. One striking mark of the con- 
fidence reposed in him was found in the fact that as a re- 
sult of his influence a well known white citizen, Mr. T. W. 
Harris, gave a site for the erection of a new building for 
Zion Hill church and also gave material assistance in sug- 
gesting plans for the building. 

He was twice married and had twelve children, who 
live to honor his memory. He was from beginning to end a 
great Bible student and in addition he owned a library of 
many choice books of which he made diligent and intelli- 
gent use. And in his association with others, especially 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 539 

those of trained and disciplined minds he found a source of 
unceasing - instruction and inspiration. 

It was on Nov. 14, 1919, that he passed away. Multi- 
tudes hold his memory in honor and all classes of people 
delight to pay tribute to the unselfish service which he 
rendered to God and to the cause of humanity. 

His first wife was before her marriage Miss Julia 
Palmer. She bore him the following children: Delia, Rob- 
ert, Thomas, Virgil, Rogers, and Lizzie Shaw. After the 
death of Mrs. Shaw Dr. Shaw was married on Jan. 15, 1902, 
to Miss Ada Shaw. This union was blessed with six chil- 
dren : Lola, Wesley, Helen, Fred D., Willie 0. and Matthew 
M. Shaw. 



Frank Robert Cox 



Rev. Frank Robert Cox, who resides at Concord, was 
born during the stormy days of the war. He has no rec- 
ord of the exact date, but it was perhaps Jan., 1864, cer- 
tainly about that time. His parents, Handy Cox and Leah 
(Maddox) Cox. Both were slaves in Moore Co. and it was 
there that Frank was born. His father was a shoemaker 
by trade. After emancipation they continued to live on 
the farm and so the boy was taught to do all sorts of farm 
work, at which he developed a robust body, which has been 
able to stand the strain of the years. His home was one 
of poverty, but the parents were Christian and sought to 
train the boy along right lines. He was required to attend 
Sunday School and regards the lessons there learned as 
the most important factor in shaping his life. He experi- 
enced the new birth when he was about fifteen years of 
age and joined the A. M. E. Zion church of which he has 
been an active and useful member since. For twenty years 
he was Supt. of the S. S. at Love Grove. After growing 
to manhood he left the farm and was for six years engaged 
in railroad work. 



540 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

As the years went by he was more and more impressed, 
with the obligation to preach the gospel. He was licensed 
in 1895 and in 1900 joined the Conference at Greensboro 
under the late Bishop Hood. Since that time he has de- 
voted himself to the work of the church and has had a 
fruitful ministry covering a number of counties in the cen- 
tral and southern part of the State. His first pastorate 
was the Johnsonville Circuit in Harnett Co., which he served 
two years. His next appointment took him back to his 
home county, where he served the Vass Circuit for two 
years and the Candor Circuit one year and Mt. Gilead Cir- 
cuit two years. From the latter he went to Mt. Airy Cir- 
cuit in Richmond Co. for three years, after which he served 
the Albemarle Circuit one year. He was then promoted 
to the Norwood Station in Stanly Co. On the expiration of 
his pastorate there he was sent to the Cedar Grove Circuit 
in Cabarrus Co. and has since resided in Concord. After 
three years of faithful service at Cedar Grove, he was ap- 
pointed to Bethel Station, where he preached one year. He 
then preached on the Mt. Pleasant Circuit two years, and 
Reives Chapel Circuit two years. In 1919 he was appointed 
to the Mineral Springs Circuit in Union Co. 

Rev. Cox has brought many new members into the 
church and at various points has erected new houses of 
worship or repaired the church buildings. His principal 
reading has been the Bible and Theological literature. 

Mr. Cox is a Republican, but takes no active part in 
party politics. Among the secret orders he holds member- 
ship in the Masons, Odd Fellows and Eastern Star. He 
has at different times represented the N. C. Mutual Ins. 
Co. He is a careful business man and owns a comfortable 
home at Concord. 

Rev. Cox has been married twice. He was first mar- 
ried when about eighteen years of age to Miss Louisa Wad- 
dell of Moore Co. She bore him six children, five of whom 
are living. They are Jno. W., Charlie L., Isaac, Annie J. 
(Mrs. McCoy), and Willie F. Cox. In March, 1911, Mrs. 
Cox passed to her reward. On Dec. 26, 1912, Mr. Cox 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 541 

was married to Miss Lucinda Phifer, of Cabarrus Co. She 
was educated at Scotia Seminary. They have one child, 
Frank David Cox. 



William Henry Starkey 



For the past fifteen years Wm. H. Starkey has been 
Secretary of the Land Improvement Company, one of the 
most important business enterprises of the race in North 
Carolina. He has also for some time been secretary and 
treasurer of the Supreme Grand Lodge of the I. 0. G. S. & 
D. of S., also secretary of the Mable Ruth Lodge 195, and 
has filled from time to time some of the most responsible 
political offices in his community. It therefore is almost 
needless to state that- our subject has disolayed qualities 
of the highest order in executive leadership and though 
he began life as a barber he has been called to help pioneer 
new and exacting fields and has lived to see them succeed, 
and enjoy incidental personal success for himself. 

Mr. Starkey was born at Charlotte on Sept. 16, 1865. 
His father, Edward F. Starkey, was a skilled engineer and 
machinist. His mother's maiden name was Laura R. Clark. 
His grandfather was an engineer and a minister, named 
Abraham Starkey. His great grandfather, Peter J. Star- 
key, was a carpenter. The former married Hannah Jones 
and the latter's wife was Phillis Bell. His maternal grand- 
parents were Wm. and Emeline Clark. Thus he had good 
ancestry behind him and though his parents, like others 
just out of slavery, were poor, they were trained to definite 
industry above common labor. 

The boy attended the public school and the State Nor- 
mal and found this difficult inasmuch as he had to make 
his way and so was called away much from continued study. 
He was faithful in attending Sunday School, however, and 
is grateful for its influence in shaping him for a life of use- 
fulness. When only sixteen years of age he was made 




WILLIAM HENRY STARKEY 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 543 

Superintendent of Clinton Chapel, A. M. E. Zion Church, 
and this really marked the beginning of his public career. 
In 1890 he began his business life in New Bern, where he 
has since resided. 

On January 16, 1890, Mr. Starkey was married to Miss 
Mary Elizabeth White, a daughter of Jacob and Matilda 
White. They have reared three of their five children and 
it is pleasant to remark, in passing, that each of these is 
now filling a most creditable and useful position in life. 
One son, Isaac W. Starkey, is a pharmacist, the other, 
Louis Charles, is manager of a successful barber shop, and 
the daughter, Miss Mayme Lillian is a teacher of domestic 
science. Mr. Starkey has given his children educational 
advantages he himself lacked, nor has he stopped with edu- 
cation for his own children alone, but was one of the found- 
ers of the E. N. C. I. Academy at New Bern and is now a 
member of its Trustee Board. 

Mr. Starkey is a Republican in politics and has taken 
an active part in the affairs of his party. He has been 
ward committeeman of New Bern, judge of election, magis- 
trate and assistant registrar of deeds for Craven Co. 

He is member of the A. M. E. Zion Church and in ad- 
dition to the lodges mentioned at the outset is a Patriarch 
of the Odd Fellows, Past Master and 32nd degree Mason, a 
Knight of Gideon and a Knight of King David and member 
of the Household of Ruth. Locally he belongs to the Com- 
mercial Association, is chairman of the Welfare Community 
Service League and member of the board of directors of the 
Public Forum. 

Mr. Starkey is an unusual man, and a most valuable 
asset to the race. "Diligent in business," he has joined 
heartily in church, lodge, public service and educational af- 
fairs, proving that business cares need not make a man 
narrow in his views or cold in sympathy. Not as a pri- 
mary motive, but as incidental to his hard work and good 
judgment, he has accumulated considerable property, show- 
ing again that a man may give his leisure to matters which 
pay nothing and still not be imprudent. He has necessarily 



544 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

been most active but still has managed time to absorb the 
best in books, giving preference to ethical works and those 
on Negro history. He considers, justly, that Booker T. 
Washington's "Up from Slavery" is a work of great inspira- 
tional importance. Mr. Starkey has traveled extensively, 
visiting almost every city of any importance in the United 
States. 

Mr. Starkey 's views on racial progress are worthy of 
considerable thought. For the most part he believes in 
plain, practical education and more business and social or- 
ganizations as aids to a more independent and fuller life 
for his people. He also desires to see more unity between 
the educated and uneducated Negroes. 



John Doward Quick 



One of the encouraging signs of the times is the fact 
that more and more young men of the race are taking up 
professions and lines of work which call for years of men- 
tal training and careful preparation. It is especially grati- 
fying to note that the medical profession is attracting men 
of ability and a desire to be of service. There is scarcely a 
field of endeavor in which a man can make his life count 
for more. 

Among the rising young doctors of eastern North Caro- 
lina is Dr. John Doward Quick of Lumberton. He was born 
at Rockingham on Nov. 23, 1889, and is a son of Rev. H. I. 
Quick and his wife, Helen, who before her marriage was an 
Ellerbe. Dr. Quick's paternal grandparents were Harrison 
and Lydia Quick and his maternal grandmother was Nettie 
Ellerbe. 

Young Quick attended the local graded and normal 
school at Rockingham as a boy. Thus far the way had no 
unusual difficulties, but when the youth aspired to a higher 
education there were obstacles enough, chief among these 
was the lack of means. So it was necessary for him to 




JOHN DOWARD QUICK AND WIFE 



546 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

earn much of the money for his own schooling. This he 
did with persistence and courage which simply did not take 
failure into consideration. Fortunately his home training 
was sound. This reflected itself in the steadiness of pur- 
pose with which he pursued the tasks he had set himself. 
He went from the home school to the A. & M. at Greensboro 
and passed from there to special work in the College of Arts 
and Sciences at Howard University, Washington. When 
ready for his Medical course he matriculated in the Medi- 
cal department of Howard, from which he won his M. D. 
degree in 1917. His student days were so filled that he had 
little time for college athletics, though very fond of most 
games. 

In his reading he naturally gives first attention to the 
literature of his profession. After that he has a fondness 
for the literature dealing with the progress and problems of 
his race. 

After completing his course he went to Kansas City, 
Mo., and passed the State Board in Dec, 1917. While serv- 
ing as Interne at the Kansas General Hospital he was in the 
spring of 1918 commissioned as first Lieut, in the M. R. C. 
He then came to North Carolina, passed the State Board in 
June, 1918, and has since been practicing at Lumberton. 
Already he has firmly established himself not only profes- 
sionally, but in the business and social life of the city as 
well. He is a member of the Baptist Church and belongs 
to the Masons, the Eastern Star, the Pythians and the Chi 
Delta Mu Medical fraternity. 

On Nov. 6, 1918, Dr. Quick was married to Miss Julia 
Francis Lane, a daughter of Frederick and Josephine Lane, 
of Norwich, Conn. She was educated at Howard and 
teaches music at Lumberton. 

They have (1919) one child, Helen Josephine Quick. 

Mr. Quick is Medical Examiner for the N. C. Mutual and 
the Standard Life Insurance Companies. 



Sidney Douglas Morton 



A number of the most effective religious and educa- 
tional leaders in North Carolina have come to the State 
from Virginia, or have ancestors who lived in Virginia. As 
a rule they are a choice lot of men and reflect credit on the 
Old Dominion as well as their present localities. Among 
the younger men of the Baptist denomination born in Vir- 
ginia and now making a place for himself in the Old North 
State must be mentioned Rev. Sidney Douglas Morton of 
the old town of Washington. He was born at Darlington 
Heights, Va., on March 2, 1891, so it will be seen that he is 
still on the sunny side of thirty. His father, Henry Mor- 
ton, was a farmer and his mother, before her marriage, was 
Miss Kate Baker. His paternal grandfather was also Sid- 
ney Morton and his maternal grandfather was John Baker. 
Beyond this he knows little of his ancestry on account of 
lack of written records. 

Mr. Morton has attended some of the best schools of the 
race in the South and is well equipped intellectually. As a 
boy he went to the Blue Field Collegiate Institute at Blue 
Field, W. Va., and later attended the Mary Potter School 
at Oxford, N. C. He began his Theological course at the 
Virginia Theological Seminary at Lynchburg, Va., and 
completed it in 1916 at Shaw Universiay, where he won his 
B. Th. degree. Young Morton had the misfortune to lose 
his father the second year he was in school. After that it 
was not only necessary for him to support himself, but he 
also had to help take care of his widowed mother. When 
about ten years of age, he chose that good part which could 
not be taken away from him, and began preaching in his 
early twenties. He was ordained to the full work of the 
ministry by the St. James Baptist church of Welch, W. Va., 
in 1914. His first pastorate was at Iaeger, W. Va. This 
held him, however, for only a short time, when he was called 
to the pastorate of the First Baptist Church at Washington, 




SIDNEY DOUGLAS MORTON 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 549 

1ST. C. He came to this work in 1916 and during the three 
years he has been at the head of that congregation, it has 
had substantial growth both in numbers and in power. He 
has already made for himself a prominent place in the reli- 
gious and social life of Washington and is regarded as a 
young man with real ability and the qualities of leadership. 
On May 10, 1916, Dr. Morton was married to Miss Hat- 
tie Williams, a daughter of Augustus and Edith Williams of 
Raleigh. They have three children, Mary Lillian, Ruth 
Douglas and S. D. Morton, Jr. Dr. Morton's investments 
are in Virginia. 

He has had, of course, opportunity to study conditions 
at close range and believes that the thing most needed today 
is a spirit of co-operation, first among his own people, and 
then between the two ra:es. Given this, he sees no reason 
why steady progress should not be made. 

Though devoting himself entirely to the work of the 
ministry, he has had some experience in teaching. In his 
reading he gives first place to the Bible and books on The- 
ology. After that he likes scientific books. Among the 
secret orders he is identified with the Pythians. 



Arthur Fletcher Elmes 



The Congregational Church in North Carolina is not 
numerically as strong as some of the other denominations, 
"but is second to none in the quality and equipment of its 
leaders. Among the strong young ministers of the denomi- 
nation must be mentioned Rev. Arthur Fletcher Elmes of 
Wilmington. Mr. Elmes is a native of the British West 
Indies, having been born on the Island of Antigua, which is 
•one of the Lesser Antilles, on March 30, ,1890. His father 
Frederick Elmes was a carpenter and his mother, before 
her marriage, was Miss Matilda Joseph. Young Elmes at- 
tended the government schools of his native island and when 
ready for college, matriculated at Mico College, Kingston, 




ARTHUR FLETCHER ELMES 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 551 

Jamaica, for his classical course, which he completed in 
1908 at the age of nineteen. The following year he was 
made Principal of the school at Bethesda, Antigua, and later 
at Gracehill, in the same island. He taught in the West 
Indies five years before coming to the States. In the 
meantime he had definitely decided to take up the work 
of the ministry. In 1914, he came to the United States and 
entered upon his theological course in the School of Religion 
of Howard University, Washington, D. C. In 1917 he com- 
pleted the course with the B. D. degree. In the fall of the 
same year he was called to the First Congregational Church 
at Wilmington, N. C, where he has since labored. Mr. 
Elmes is a man of pleasing address and genial manner and 
enters heartily into the activities of his people. He is Pres- 
ident of the local branch of the N. A. A. C. P. and a Trustee 
and Director of the Colored Branch of the Y. M. C. A. 

Mr. Elmes keeps himself well informed through the 
current literature of the day, but his favorite reading is 
along theological and sociological lines. 



Louis Napoleon Neal 



Prof. Louis Napoleon Neal, now (1920) head of the 
Northampton Co. Training School at Garysburg, has back 
of him a record of accomplishment as a teacher in eastern 
North Carolina which places him in the front rank as an 
educator among the colored people of the Old North State. 
He was born in Franklin Co., March 5, 1867. His father, 
James Neal, was a farmer and the boy spent the early years 
of his life on the farm and has always been interested in 
agricultural affairs. His mother, before her marrige, was 
Miss Angeline Mann. On the paternal side, Prof. Neal's 
grandparents were Louis and Mary Neal, who were reared 
in Tennessee. His mother's parents were James Jackson and 
Maria Stokes, who were natives of North Carolina. 

Professor Neal was married on September 19, 1894, to 








LOUIS NAPOLEON NEAL 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 553 

Miss Nannie D. Carson, a daughter of Wood and Fanny 
Carson. They had three children, Hugh C, Fannie W. and 
Warren D. Hugh C. and Warren D. passed away while 
babies. In 1897 Mrs. Neal passed away and subsequently 
Prof. Neal married Miss Lizzie Baptist, a daughter of Wm. 
and Sarah Baptist. He has two children by the second wife. 
They are Ruth and Louis N. Neal, Jr. 

The subject of our biography attended the public schools 
of his native county at Louisburg and after passing through 
the High School at that point, matriculated at Shaw Uni- 
versity where he won his bachelor's degree in 1894. For- 
tunately for young Neal, his father appreciated the value of 
education and helped the boy to make the money on the 
farm to meet the necessary expenses of his course. By hard 
work and steady persistence he was able to complete the 
course and for more than twenty-five years has been act- 
ively engaged in educational work in the eastern part of the 
State. For fourteen years he was instructor and assistant 
principal of the Normal School at Franklinton. He was 
principal of the high school at Marion, S. C, for a year, 
after which he returned to his own State and was for seven 
years principal of the graded school at Elizabeth City. The 
next four years were spent at Clinton, where he was at the 
head of the Sampson Co. Training School. From that work 
he came to his present position at Garysburg and is at this 
time giving special attention to vocational and agricultural 
work among his people. This work is supervisory and 
brings him in touch with the progressive people of his sec- 
tion. 

Prof. Neal has traveled rather extensively, not only in 
this country but in South America, the West Indies and 
England as well. Next after his pedagogical books his taste 
in reading runs to psychology and theological books. 

He is a member of the Baptist Church with which he 
has been identified for a number of years. On July 19, 1919, 
he was ordained to the ministry by the Western Union As- 
sociation, but has not taken up the active work of the pas- 
torate. Among the secret orders, he belongs to the Masons, 



554 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Odd Fellows, Pythians, Knights of Gideon and the Elks, in 
all of which he has from time to time been prominent offi- 
cially. 

Prof. Neal is a man of pleasing address and good ability. 
While he has not sought primarily to make money, but has 
devoted himself to a line of endeavor which has never been 
considered remunerative, still he has by wise investment and 
proper management accumulated desirable property and is 
considered one of the conserative business men of the race 
in his part of the State. Some years ago he became inter- 
ested in detective work, and took a school course through an 
institution at Kansas City, Mo., which be completed in 1912. 
It is, however, as a trainer of the youth of the race that he 
is best known ; and many of the boys and girls who attended 
his schools when he began teaching twenty-five years ago 
have grown up to take their places in the professional and 
business life of the race. Prof. Neal has done a great deal 
of summer school and institute work and is President of the 
Summer School and Vocational-Agricultural Congress of 
America, headquarters Hampton Institute, and a member 
of the National Educational Association. He believes the 
best interests of the race are to be promoted by cultivating 
more friendly relations between the two races, by improving 
economic conditions, by better educational facilities and by 
trusting God for the results. 



Judge Bustee Davis 



A representative of the medical profession who holds a 
high position in the esteem of both races and who is in the 
enjoyment of a lucrative and constantly increasing practice 
is Dr. Judge Bustee Davis, the subject of this sketch. His 
home is in Louisburg, Franklin Co., N. C. 

Dr. Davis was born at Montgomery, Ala., Feb. 1, 1885. 
His father was William Davis, a farmer, and his mother's 
maiden name was Miss Clara Gary. His maternal grandpar- 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 555 

ents were John and Charity Gary. They were farmers re- 
siding at Robinson Springs, Ala., on a farm of 168 acres 
which they owned. They were prosperous people, who lived 
well. His grandparents on the father's side were Seaborn 
and Elizabeth Davis, also good farmers and good livers. 

In his early reading in the biographies of great men 
he was inspired with the ambition to become himself a 
scholar and a leader. But as has been the lot of so many, 
there were difficulties in the way of obtaining an education. 
During the period in which he was seeking a college educa- 
tion he worked in various ways to meet his expenses. Dur- 
ing the earlier years he worked in hotels during vacations 
and in spare hours during school terms. 

After passing through the Normal School at Pensa- 
cola, Fla., and the preparatory school of Shaw University, 
Raleigh, N. C, he entered the college department of Shaw 
University, from which he graduated with the degree of 
A. B. in 1911. He then entered Meharry Medical College, 
Nashville. During the four years of his medical course, he 
worked in vacations as Pullman car porter and thus met his 
expenses. During part of this period he was also a reporter 
on a newspaper. 

In 1915 he completed his medical course, receiving the 
degree of M. D. from Meharry Medical College. From 1915 
to 1916 he was an interne of St. Agnes Hospital, Raleigh, 
N. C. 

On Oct. 15, 1916, he began the practice of his profession 
at Louisburg, N. C. During the short period that has 
elapsed since then he has built up an extensive and lucrative 
practice among both races. He is the largest stockholder in 
a drug business, operates automobiles for hire and owns con- 
siderable real estate. He is a hard worker and a persistent 
student and to these factors he attributes the success which 
in constantly increasing measure is crowning his efforts. 

Dr. Davis has taken much interest in fraternal and 
benevolent orders. He is local medical examiner for the 
Knights of Gideon, for the Standard Life Insurance Com- 
pany of Atlanta, Ga., and for the N. C. Mutual Life Insur- 



556 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

ance Company of Durham, N. C. He carries a large amount 
of insurance in the companies mentioned and in the Metro- 
politan Life Insurance Co. of New York. 

He is a believer in thorough preparation for the tasks 
of life and believes that as a race is prepared to traverse 
larger avenues of activity and experience, the doors will 
open to them. By travel in the United States and Canada 
and by extensive reading in the best literature of the day he 
has qualified himself to be a wise leader and broad-minded 
counsellor for his race. He is but in the beginning of his 
career, and great possibilities for success and usefulness 
are ahead of him. 

Dr. Davis belongs to the State Medical Asso. and is on 
the board of managers. He is also a member of the Na- 
tional Medical Society. He belongs to the Baptist church 
and is first vice president of the State B. Y. P. U. and a 
member of the board of managers of the state S. S. Asso. 



James William Croom 



This has been called the day of the young man. It is 
true of the ministry, as of any other calling, that many of 
its most forceful men are on the sunny side of forty. One 
of the young men of the Baptist denomination who has 
made a place for himself in the Old North State is Rev. 
James William Croom of Reidsville. 

Mr. Croom was born at LaGrange in Lenoir Co., on 
July 30, 1886. His father, Rev. E. Croom, is also a minis- 
ter, and lives at the old home in Lenoir Co. His mother 
Nancy (Waters) Croom is a daughter of Bryant and Rachel 
Waters. 

Young Croom went to the LaGrange public schools and 
between terms worked about the stores and in the homes of 
the LaGrange people. When ready for college he entered 
the celebrated Brick School near Enfield. He remained at 
that institution eight years and while there learned carpen- 




JAMES WILLIAM CROOM 



558 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

try. He won his diploma in 1910. His desire to fit himself 
for the real work of life may be measured by the fact that 
he had no help while in school and so worked his way 
through the whole course. He pursued his Theological 
studies at Va. Union University, Richmond, where he re- 
mained for two years. 

Mr. Croom came into the work of the church at an 
early age. He gave his heart to God before he was fifteen. 
While in college, he felt called to preach the Gospel and was 
licensed by his home church in LaGrange. He was ordained 
by the Bear Creek Association in 1908. His first pastorate 
was Union Temple, Salisbury, where he preached four years. 
From there he went to the First Baptist Church at Bur- 
lington where he preached for two years and repaired the 
house of worship. He resigned that work to accept the 
pastorate of Zion Baptist Church at Reidsville to which he 
went in 1914. Here as elsewhere he has done constructive 
work. He is a fluent speaker and is popular as a pastor. 
His standing in the denomination has been recognized by 
his election to membership on the executive board of the 
Rowan Baptist Association. He owns property at Reids- 
ville and at LaGrange, and is a member of the board of 
directors of the "Progressive Building and Loan Association 
of Reidsville, N. C. 



James Robert Hawkins 



Dr. James Robert Hawkins of Lexington though still in 
his early thirties is well established in the general practice 
of medicine. He is the only colored physician in his city. 

Dr. Hawkins, whose father was J. M. Hawkins, is a na- 
tive of Winston-Salem, where he was born on March 20, 
1885. His mother's maiden name was Catherine Mebane. 
His paternal grandparents were M. D. and Sarah Hawkins, 
who were natives of Mecklenburg Co., Va. 

On Sept. 4, 1911, Dr. Hawkins was happily married 




JAMES ROBERT HAWKINS 



560 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

to Miss Cora V. Marable of Oxford. Mrs. Hawkins is an 
accomplished woman. She was educated at Mary Potter 
School, Oxford, and at Scotia Seminary. They have (1919) 
one child, Sarah Catherine Hawkins. 

When he came of school age young Hawkins attended 
the local schools at Winston-Salem. He did his academic 
work at Shaw University and took his Medical course at 
Leonard Medical College, where he won his M. D. degree in 
1911. During his college years, he spent his summers at the 
North in hotel and steamboat work and in this way earned 
enough to continue his studies without a break. As he 
looks back over the years of his boyhood and youth he at- 
tributes no small part of his success to the inspiration given 
him by a white friend, Dr. Hays of Oxford. 

On the completion of his professional course Dr. Haw- 
kins practiced for a few months in Durham and went from 
there to Warrenton for about a year. After that he was 
in his home town for a while and in 1913 located at Lexing- 
ton, where he has since resided. 

He is a Mason and belongs to the Presbyterian Church. 
Speaking from an intimate knowledge of conditions, he says 
that the greatest need of the race today is a better under- 
standing between the races, an understanding which will 
harmonize the best elements of the two races. Of course, 
he finds it necessary to keep up with the literature of his 
profession. After that his reading is of a general nature. 



Edward Moseley Towns 



Some of the most successful men in the business and 
professional life of North Carolina have been attracted to 
her borders from the Old Dominion. Among these must be 
mentioned Edward Moseley Towns, head of the Interna- 
tional Mutual Life Insurance Company of Reidsville. 

Mr. Towns was born in Mecklenberg Co., Va., in June, 
1867. His father, Granville Towns, divided his time be- 




EDWARD MOSELEY TOWNS 



562 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

tween the farm and public work. He was a son of Matilda 
Towns. The mother of our subject was Maria (Macklin) 
Towns. 

Mr. Towns first attended the Borden public schools. 
Later the family moved to Danville and he then went to 
the city graded schools. As he grew to young manhood 
he found work in the local factories and later went into 
business for himself. He followed merchandising for 
twenty years. 

On Sept. 12, 1895, Mr. Towns and Miss Mary Johnson 
of Reidsville were happily married. She was a daughter 
of Prince and Martha Johnson and was, before her marriage, 
engaged in teaching. They have two children, Edward and 
Willett Towns. 

Some years after his marriage Mr. Towns closed his 
interests at Danville and moved to Reidsville. He saw in 
the insurance field a good opening for business and asso- 
ciating with himself Messrs. Miller and Owens they organ- 
ized in 1908 the International Mutual Life Insurance Com- 
pany, which has steadily grown in assets and in popularity. 
They now (1920) have nearly a quarter of a million dollars 
insurance in force. 

Mr. Towns is prominent in the work of the secret or- 
ders and benevolent societies. He belongs to the Pythians, 
Elks and Court of Calanthe. He has been a delegate to the 
Supreme Lodge of Pythians three times and is Exalted Ruler 
of the Elks. He is a member of the M. E. church and is 
chairman of. the trustees and a member of the board of 
stewards. His home and his investments are at Reidsville. 
He believes that the economic and intellectual progress of 
the race depend on thrift and education. 



Andrew Brown Vincent 



Rev. Andrew Brown Vincent, A. B., A. M., D. D., of 
Raleigh, who for almost a generation has been identified 




ANDREW BROWN VINCENT 



564 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

with religious and educational work of the Baptist denomi- 
nation in North Carolina, was born in Caswell Co. in Febru- 
ary, 1858. His mother's name was Nellie Vincent. It is not 
easy to write the story of a man like Dr. Vincent without 
indulging in superlatives. While he is a forward looking 
man who believes in progress along all lines, he is still con- 
servative in racial matters and is looked upon by the sane 
leaders of both races in North Carolina as a counsellor whose 
advice is to be sought and followed. 

Coming of school age soon after the time of emancipa- 
tion he entered the public school and later attended the 
Yadkin Academy at the old town of Mebane or Alebane, 
Still later he matriculated at Shaw University, 1876, with 
which he has been connected more or less closely ever since 
in one capacity or another. He was graduated from that 
institution with the A. B. degree in 1885. While working 
his way through Shaw he was converted, being then about 
twenty-three years old and has since been a factor in the 
Baptist denominational work in the State. 

His vacations while at school were spent either in hotel 
work or on the farm. He remembers a time when he 
worked on a farm for twenty cents a day and a whole year 
for which he received only $65.00 and a blanket. It is not 
strange that a young man who was willing to struggle for 
an education under such difficulties should succeed in the 
end. Soon after his conversion he felt called to the work 
of the ministry and while he has done many things since 
finishing college he is primarily a preacher of the Gospel. 
He has gained in power and has always been ready to learn 
from the best folks of both races. In his writings and by 
personal contact, he has sought to invest his life in such a 
way as to yield the largest returns for Him whom he serves. 
Dr. Vincent has had the rather unusual experience of hav- 
ing been invited at times to preach in white churches. For 
nine years he has edited the Searchlight, a paper recognized 
as of the highest merit. The Searchlight has attracted fa- 
vorable comment and has a wide reading. Bound volumes 
of this paper have been placed in the State library at Ral- 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 565 

eigh, a distinction perhaps not before accorded to any other 
Negro publication. Dr. Vincent taught for eleven years at 
Shaw University and did denominational field work for 
twenty years. This brought him into personal and inti- 
mate contact with denominational leaders of both races, in 
every part of the State. For a number of years he was 
engaged in evangelistic and Sunday School work and num- 
bers his friends by the hundreds and even the thousands. 
He has sought to do constructive work. He is not an agi- 
tator except along constructive lines. He is not blind to the 
wrongs or the evils of the day but he believes that more 
is to be gained in the struggle of his people to equip them- 
selves for important places in life than can be had by noisy 
contention without the equipment. Dr. Vincent believes 
and preaches an evangelistic Gospel. He is more concerned 
about right living and the fundamental things of character 
than he is about the demands of certain so-called race lead- 
ers. The progress of the race, he believes, is a matter of 
individual endeavor. Hence he believes in education, the 
right sort of education, an education which is first of all 
Christian and which is in the end honestly and helpfully 
and serviceably productive. Accordingly he takes his 
place in every movement looking to the betterment of 
conditions and there is a hearty and cordial co-operation 
between him and the white leaders by whom he is fre- 
quently consulted, in all matters relating to the race. He 
is not visionary. He says that religion should be made a 
practical matter and should be worked out in the every-day 
life. He stands for better homes and a better atmosphere 
in them, and his own family life is a striking illustration 
of these principles. 

On June 26, 1884, he was married to Miss Cora Pearl 
Exum of Freemont, a graduate of Shaw and a very accom- 
plished woman. Of the eleven children born to them, 
seven are living. The eldest, Mabel, who passed away was 
almost from childhood a musician of skill and ability. She 
studied at Spellman and later at Syracuse University and 
before her death was composing music which attracted at- 



566 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

tention. She excelled on the piano. The eldest son, Dr. 
U. C. Vincent, is now (1919) an interne in the Bellevue 
Hospital, New York City, and is the first colored man to 
hold such position. He is a graduate of the University of 
Pennsylvania and is a specialist in neurology holding a 
salaried place there. The younger children are Pearl Ruth 
(Mrs. Dixon), Alfred B., Reba G., Bernice and Hebda Vin- 
cent. All of these are being given superior educational ad- 
vantages. 

Notwithstanding his activities along the lines of lit- 
erary, field and other work, Dr. Vincent has held a number 
of pastorates including the First Baptist Church at Oxford, 
which he served for two years, Good Hope seven years and 
various country churches in the counties of North Hamp- 
ton, Person, Nashe and Robeson. He was for a while pres- 
ident of the State Teachers' Association and was fre- 
quently called upon to conduct institutes in various parts 
of the State. Dr. Vincent owns property both in Raleigh 
and in New York City and measured by present day stand- 
ards of monetary success would be called a successful man. 
When reflecting upon the disadvantages of his childhood 
and youth and the difficulties with which he has had to 
struggle, his accomplishments and his character are re- 
markable. He has not only come out victor himself over 
obstacles, but has pointed the way for the youth of his 
race who are ambitious and not afraid to work. 

Despite his manifold activities Dr. Vincent threw the 
full force of his personality and profound influence into 
the various forms of war work, speaking for Liberty 
Bonds, War Savings Stamps, Red Cross, etc., and render- 
ing every assistance in his power to the registration of the 
soldiers. 

Summarizing his work, Dr. Vincent taught at Shaw 
eleven years, was general missionary of the N. C. Bap- 
tists for several years, was the first missionary in the co- 
operative effort between Northern and Southern Baptists, 
known as the New Era movement, was president of State 





/ tfl 




NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 567 

Teachers Asso., was evangelist and S. S. missionary for a 
number of years and is now editor of the Searchlight. 



Henry Melvin Edmondson 



There is a tendency in these modern days, on the part 
of young men ambitious to succeed, to rush into the work 
of life unprepared. Too late, many of them see their mis- 
take and wish that they had taken time to equip themselves 
for the real work of life. The result of this condition is 
often observed in the number of rather capable young men 
filling clerkships, serving as porters, or doing day labor. 
Many of these had the ability, but lacked the courage and 
patience to undergo the privations necessary to secure a lib- 
eral education. Mr. Henry Melvin Edmonson, a rising 
young attorney and assistant cashier of the Forsyth Sav- 
ings & Trust Company, at Winston-Salem, did not make 
such a mistake, however- 

He is a native of Virginia, having been born at Hous- 
ton, in Halifax Co., on June 11, 1888. His father, William 
Edmondson, was a son of Osborne and Ann Edmondson. 
His mother, who before her marriage was Miss Sue Flennou 
was a daughter ofHampton and Patsy Flennou. Mr. Ed- 
mondson's father was a cook and he himself worked about 
the hotel when not attending the public school. He was 
encouraged by his parents to make the best of his opportuni- 
ties and when sixteen years of age matriculated at Kittrell 
College, from which he was graduated with the A. B. degree 
in 1910. Having decided to take up the study of law, he 
then entered Shaw University, from which he was gradu- 
ated with the degree of LL.B. in 1913- Prior to this, how- 
ever, he had taken the State examination and had been ad- 
mitted to the bar before he finished at Shaw. He entered 
heartily into the athletics of college life, and was an enthusi- 
astic football and baseball player. 

Immediately after his graduation, he located at Win- 



568 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

ston-Salem, where he has steadily made for himself a 
place in the business and professional life of North Caro- 
lina's largest city. His law practice is largely civil. He 
is attorney for two local business organizations and institu- 
tions and is Secretary of the Colored Fair Association. For 
some time he has been with the Forsyth Savings & Trust 
Company as assistant cashier. 

In politics he is a Republican, but has taken little part 
in partisan affairs. He is an active member of the Mis- 
sionary Baptist Church and is Superintendent of the Sun- 
day School. Among the secret orders he is identified with 
the Masons. 

When asked for some expression as to how he thought 
the best interests of the race could be promoted, he an- 
swered: "First by acquiring an education, then property." 

Mr. Edmondson is quiet, thoroughly affable in manner, 
and thoroughgoing in his work. He believes that "a thing 
that is worth doing at all, is worth doing well." He un- 
derstands values in men as well as in property and is not 
easily diverted from an undertaking when once he puts his 
hand to it. 



Robert James Frederick 



In recent years dentistry, medicine, pharmacy and those 
professions requiring exkct knowledge and skill have at- 
tracted increasing numbers of the race, and it is gratifying 
to note that a large percentage of them have succeeded. 

Among the successful druggists must be mentioned Dr. 
Robert James Frederick of Goldsboro. The way to his 
present position was not strewn with flowers, but through 
the years when he was struggling for an education he was 
sustained by "the constant guidance and prayers of a dear 
mother and by faith in God." 

Dr. Frederick was born at Warsaw, Duplin Co., April 
24, 1886. His father, John K. Frederick, was a carpenter, 




ROBERT JAMES FREDERICK 



570 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

and was the son of Malcolm and Pennie Merritt. The lat- 
ter was a slave, but Malcolm Merritt was free born. 

On Christmas Day, 1912, Dr. Frederick was united in 
matrimony to Miss Annie L. Jones of Raleigh. She was a 
daughter of Jacob J. and Sarah A. Jones. Mrs. Frederick 
was educated at Shaw University, Raleigh. 

As a boy young Frederick attended the Warsaw pub- 
lic schools- From there he passed to the A. & M. at Greens- 
boro, where he studied for two years. Being a carpenter 
he worked his way through school by this means and by 
hotel work at the North. 

He took his course in Pharmacy at Shaw University, 
where he won his degree in Pharmacy in 1911. He was 
under the necessity of making his own way in school but 
did not permit this to discourage him. 

In 1910 he began his work as a druggist at Charlotte 
with J. L. Eagles. In 1912 he removed to Goldsboro, where 
he has since resided and where he runs the Wayne Drug 
Co. on S. James St., a controlling interest of which he owns. 

In politics he is a Republican though he has not been 
active- He belongs to the Baptist church and is a member 
of the Masons, Odd Fellows and Pythians. He owns a home 
and other property at Goldsboro and takes an active part 
in all movements among the people looking to the betterment 
of conditions. He is of the opinion that the best interests 
of the race are to be promoted "By qualifying to vote in- 
telligently, by work and economy and adjustment to condi- 
tions so as to live with all people without friction, and by 
serving God at all times." 



Thomas Ledyard McCoy 



One of the older men of the State who has had a suc- 
cessful career is Thomas Ledyard McCoy. Mr. McCoy is a 
native of Louisiana where he was born several years before 
the war on Aug. 9, 1858. He was never afraid to work 




THOMAS LEDYARD McCOY 



572 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

and by his own efforts struggled up from poverty and ob- 
scurity. His father, Munford McCoy, was a blacksmith and 
a wheelwright. He was a son of Robert McCoy, who was 
a native of North Carolina. Mr. McCoy's mother was Rose 
(Muse) McCoy- She was a daughter of Charles and Peggy 
Muse, natives of Louisana. 

Young McCoy came of school age during the war. But 
as soon as the public schools were opened he entered and 
passed from the public schools to Leland University, New 
Orleans, where he was graduated from the normal depart- 
ment in 1878. Soon after he entered college his father died, 
leaving his mother with nine children to support. In order 
to help in the support of the family, and keep up his col- 
lege work, Mr. McCoy found it necessary to teach during 
his vacations. Looking back now over the years of youth 
and boyhood he is of the opinion that his own temperate 
life and the desire to help the race out of ignorance have 
been the greatest factors in his life. 

Mr. McCoy has been twice married. His first wife, to 
whom he was married in 1880, was Miss Mary Green. She 
bore him ten children of whom four survive. They are 
Stella, Antoine, Fleetwood and Ida- In 1909 Mrs. McCoy 
passed away. In 1912, Mr. McCoy was married to Miss 
Eugenia Hill, also of N. C. She was educated at Shaw and 
was herself a teacher in the public schools. 

Mr. McCoy has had varied experiences in business 
which have taken him to almost every nook and corner of 
the country, as well as into Mexico and Canada. He was 
in the Pullman service for five years, and for a short time 
worked at railroad building in Mexico. He taught in the 
public schools of Louisiana for five years after which he 
went to Florida and taught for ten years. The next ten 
years were spent in business in Fla. He was then called 
to St. Augustine School, Raleigh, and has since resided at 
Raleigh. He taught at St. Augustine two years. He has 
taught commercial courses privately. 

In politics he is a Republican and before leaving Louisi- 
ana was a Justice of the Peace for eight years. He was 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 573 

postmaster at Raphael, La., for four years and rural letter 
carrier in N. C. for seven years. In 1900, he was census 
enumerator. 

He is a member of the Episcopal church and belongs 
to the Masons, the Odd Fellows and Pythians. Speaking 
from close observation and long experience, Mr. McCoy 
says, "The Negro activities in the recent world war was 
a blessing in disguise for the American Negro. He will 
get better treatment from now on if he will use discretion 
and qualify himself for service. The present unrest will 
soon pass and the Negro will gradually get what is due 
him. Patience and forbearance must be preached by both 
races." 

In 1919 Prof. McCoy was elected Principal of the 
Wake Forest Public Graded School. 



Leland Stanford Cozart 



It is the policy of the Mary Potter Memorial School 
at Oxford to employ the best teachers available. Accord- 
ingly, Mary Potter has come to stand for thoroughness and 
efficiency. Among the capable young men on the faculty 
must be mentioned Prof. Leland Standford Cozart, profes- 
sor of Natural Science and English Literature. 

Prof. Cozart was born in Granville Co. on February 8, 
1892. After laying the foundations of his education in the 
public schools, he attended the Mary Potter High School, 
graduating with first honor in 1912. In the fall of the 
same year, he matriculated at Biddle University, where he 
won his A. B. degree with first honor in 1916. Speaking of 
the difficulties which he had to overcome in getting an edu- 
cation, he says : "My main difficulties were involved in get- 
ting money to pay for my schooling. The bare facts are 
that I entered college with $24.00, believing that, if once I 
entered, it would take more than ordinary force to eject me. 
I worked hard and finally, in the providence of God, went 




LELAND STANFORD COZART 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 575 

through college and trust that the college went through 
me." 

Fortunately, Prof. Cozart's early influences were good 
and while the way was full of hardships, he had the cour- 
age and patience to forge steadily forward until he had 
fitted himself for the serious work of life. He has always 
tried to practice the Greek ideal of a sound mind in a sound 
body. 

Upon graduating from Biddle, he did press reporting" 
awhile, which included feature stories, many of which re- 
ceived favorable comment from the leading American maga- 
zines. Later, he was called back to Mary Potter High 
School, where some years before he had been a brilliant 
student and was assigned to the chair of Natural Science 
and English Literature. He has held this position since, 
except for one year, when, during the war, he was in the 
service of the country. 

In politics, Prof. Cozart is a Republican, though he has 
not been active in party matters beyond expressing the 
franchise. He is a member of the Presbyterian Church, 
and in the capacity of an elder is closely identified with its 
spiritual movement. He belongs to the Masons. 

Prof. Cozart has traveled extensively in the United 
States and had the opportunity of seeing much of Europe 
while he was in the army service. His favorite reading is 
along the line of his work, science and English literature, 
sociology and philosophy. When asked for some expression 
with reference to the progress of his race, Prof. Cozart said : 

"I firmly believe that the best interests of the race in 
this State and in the nation may be promoted by justice in 
the courts and an equal chance before the law. The dark- 
est side of mob-rule is that, while the best element of the 
Whites is. not in favor of lynching, it has not made strong 
enough protest to prove its opposition. To my mind it is 
entirely possible for the more sober classes of Whites to 
inspire the masses of Negroes with the feeling that they 
are as truly Americans in time of peace as well as in war." 



John Henry Crow 



The Rev. John Henry Crow of Dunn is a popular and 
successful pastor of the Baptist denomination, who with 
singleness of purpose has devoted himself to the work of 
the Gospel ministry. He was born in Duplin Co. May 14, 
1869. His father, the late Jordan Crow, was a deacon in 
the Baptist Church, and his mother, Mary (Mclver) Crow, 
was a Christian woman, so the home influences of his boy- 
hood were good. As a result his mind turned early to reli- 
gious matters. Even as a boy he reached the decision 
which brought him into the church and later into the min- 
istry. His paternal grandparents were Henry and Onie 
Ward, the maternal grandmother was Annie Mclver. 

Mr. Crow has been twice married. His first marriage 
occurred when he was about twenty-one years of age, to 
Mrs. Mary Harper of Montgomery Co., Ga. There were 
two children born to this union, Lewis and Laura Crow. 
In 1902 Mrs. Crow passed to her eternal reward. Later on 
December 24, 1905, Mr. Crow was married to Miss Mary 
F. Barnes of Wayne Co., N. C. She was educated at the 
Goldsboro State Normal and was, before her marriage, a 
teacher. They have two children, John Henry, Jr., and 
Clinton Crow. 

Young Crow went first to the Duplin public schools 
and passed from there to the Fremont Graded Schools. 
During 1901 and 1902 he studied Theology at Shaw Univer- 
sity. ' 

Mr. Crow was licensed to preach in 1892 by the Baptist 
church at Vidalia, Ga., and was also ordained in Georgia. 
He had gone South on public work and his first pastorate 
was in Montgomery Co., Ga. After about a year there he 
returned to his native State and was soon preaching full 
time. He accepted a call from the Beaver Dam church in 
Sampson Co., which he served for three "years and repaired 
the house of worship. At Dover, where he preached for 




JOHN HENRY CROW 



578 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

three years, a new church edifice was erected. He also 
built a new church at Shady Grove, Bessie Station, which he 
served for three years. Hook's Grove called him and he 
served that congregation four years and built a new church. 
For twenty years he has been preaching at the First Baptist 
church of Fremont. The church in which that body now 
worships has been erected under his administration. Land 
was bought and a new church begun during a two year 
pastorate of St. John's at Dunn. He served St. John's at 
Lumberton five years and built a new house, Holy Swamp, 
three years, and built there also and Purvis one year. He 
has also done considerable work in South Carolina. He 
preached three years at St. Paul at Mullins, S. C, and re- 
painted the church ; three years at Olive Grove, Effingham, 
and repaired the church. He is now (1919) rounding his 
third year as pastor of the First Baptist church of James 
City, where he completed a church that had already been 
begun. While he has made a most remarkable record as a 
church builder and has added thousands of dollars to the 
value of the church property of the denomination, this 
by no means measures his service as he has had a most 
fruitful ministry and has brought many new members 
into the church. 

He believes the thing most needed today is a better 
understanding between the races, that is between the best 
elements of both races. His favorite reading is along Bibli- 
cal and Theological lines. He owns a comfortable home at 
Dunn. 



John William Crockett 



John William Crockett, the former manager of the A. 
M. E. Zion Publishing House at Charlotte has made for 
himself an enviable record as a business man and as an 
active, earnest worker in the church. He comes to this 




JOHN WILLIAM CROCKETT 



580 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

State from South Carolina, having been born at Lancaster 
on April 26, 1871. 

Mr. Crockett attended the local public school as a boy 
and later went to the Lancaster High School. He has al- 
ways been a hard worker. In fact, it was necessary for 
him to make his own way through school. Early in life 
he identified himself with the church and the Sunday School 
and to these inspiring influences Mr. Crockett attributes no 
small part of his success in life. Growing up on the farm, 
he developed a healthy, vigorous Body which has been able 
to stand well the strain of the years. He continued to 
farm until after he was married. Moving then to Charlotte 
he engaged in insurance work, following that pursuit for 
eighteen years and made for himself such a record that he 
came to be recognized as a substantial, successful business 
man of his race. He organized the Afro-American Mutual 
Ins. Co. of North and South Carolina, of which he is Secy., 
and built the splendid three-story brick building, 410-412- 
414 E. 2nd St., Charlotte, N. C, and the two-story brick 
building corner of Pond and Hampton Sts., Rock Hill, S. C. 
When there was an opening at the head of his denomina- 
tional publishing house at Charlotte, it was realized that Mr. 
Crockett was the logical man for that position. This 
work includes not only a book store, but also represents 
the publishing interests of the whole denomination, includ- 
ing the Sunday School literature, the weekly organ of the 
denomination and the book publications as well. Mr. 
Crockett surrounded himself with a corps of able assist- 
ants who not only turned out work creditable to himself 
but to the great religious body that he served. He held this 
position for four years. 

In politics he is a Republican but he has had little time 
to give to political matters. Among the secret orders he 
is affiliated with the True Reformers and the Masons, being 
deputy of the 14th district. His opinions with reference 
to what will contribute most to welfare of the race are all 
fundamental. First, he believes in working, and also in an 
adequate wage. He believes in saving, and in the building 




MRS. JOHN WILLIAM CROCKETT 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 581 

of good homes with the right sort of education and the 
establishment of business enterprises. 

He himself is a living example of what these policies 
mean when carried out in the life of a man. 

On June 9, 1890, Mr. Crockett was married to Miss Mar- 
garet E. Frazier of Lancaster, S. C. 

Mr. Crockett edits and publishes the Progressive Mes- 
senger, operates a printing plant and carries a line of 
lodge and S. S. supplies. 



Lawrence Macauga Cheek 



The subject of this biography, Lawrence Macauga 
Cheek, is -a gentleman of exceptional type. He hails from a 
county that is distinguished for the number of high class 
persons of color that have gone from it into other parts of 
the State and country. Mr. Cheek was born in Warren Co. 
November 20, 1886. His father's name was Hillard C. 
Cheek and his mother's maiden name was Rosa Dowtin, 
the daughter of Edward and Christine Dowtin. His father's 
mother's name was Zilphia. 

Mr. Cheek had the unusual advantage of being brought 
up in a Christian home and of having parents who were 
deeply interested in his future and who had sufficient 
intelligence to render him help in seeking for more light. 
He was poor as was the case with so many of the best men 
of the race in the beginning. Mr. Cheek knows what work 
means, and to his willingness to work he owes a large part 
of his success in the world today. His parents helped all 
in their power, but young Cheek had to get busy and do all 
kinds of work in order to obtain an education. He worked 
on the farm, in the lumber camp, on steamboats and in ho- 
tels and on Pullman cars and any other place where he was 
able to secure a job to enable him to finish his education. 
He began his education in the country schools of Warren 
Co. and afterward attended the Shiloh Normal and Indus- 




LAWRENCE MACAUGA CHEEK 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 583 

trial School located at Warrenton, N. C, the county seat of 
Warren Co., from which he was graduated in 1907. In the 
fall of the same year he entered Shaw University and by 
hard work in school and out of school he managed to re- 
main until 1911 when he was graduated from the collegiate 
department with the degree of A. B. He then pursued his 
studies further at Chicago University during the years of 
1912 and 1913. In 1912 he was offered the chair of Latin 
and Greek at Houston College of Houston, Texas. He ac- 
cepted the position and remained there until 1915. 

Mr. Cheek always looked on the business world as of- 
fering great opportunities to his race as well as to indivi- 
duals and early began to plan to make some line of business 
his contribution toward the elevation of the people. He ac- 
cordingly resigned his position in Houston in 1915 and came 
to Raleigh. After casting about and conferring with other 
young men who had an eye to business he succeeded in or- 
ganizing the Organ Printing Company at Raleigh which is 
now the largest company of its kind in the State owned and 
controlled by Negroes. A wide vision characterized the 
management from the beginning, up-to-date machinery was 
installed and it was not long before the company was firmly 
established. In 1917 Mr. Cheek took the lead in organizing 
the Raleigh Independent Company for the purpose of pub- 
lishing a weekly paper for the county and city. Mr. Cheek 
was elected to the position of business manager as well as 
managing editor of this progressive weekly, which has 
come to be recognized as one of the leading papers of its 
kind in the State. Mr. Cheek is a young man who will make 
for himself a place in any community and the people of 
Raleigh are justly proud of him. He is public spirited 
and deeply interested in all that concerns the welfare of 
the community at large as well as his own people. When 
he came to Raleigh he found that some of the old type of 
leaders had depended more upon politics than work and 
that little effort seemed to have been made to teach business 
and industry to the young people. In his zeal he ran across 
many old line leaders but he had abundant evidence to feel 



584 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

that the people were with him and deeply appreciated his 
efforts to teach the young people to become self-supporting. 

Mr. Cheek is a devoted Christian and a loyal member 
of the First Baptist Church of Raleigh. He is active in 
all the work of the church, being Assistant Supt. of the 
Sunday School, member of the choir and young people's so- 
ciety. Among the secret orders he is a member of the 
Odd Fellows and Pythians and is Secretary of the local 
branch of the N. A. A. C. P. 

He, as might be judged from his record, has great con- 
fidence in the part that business is to play in the develop- 
ment of his people and his idea of the solution of the race 
problem is co-operation of the race in business affairs. 

Mr. Cheek was married on June 24, 1914 to Miss Ellean 
Elizabeth Whitaker, daughter of Mr. and Mrs. William 
Whitaker of Raleigh. Mrs. Cheek's brother is the business 
partner of Mr. Cheek and has played an important part with 
Mr. Cheek in the business affairs of Raleigh. 

Mr. Cheek considers the fine Christian influence of a 
Godly father and mother the greatest single factor in the 
shaping of his life. 



John Robert Thirgood Christian 



Someone has said, "The proper study of mankind is 
man," and there is no more interesting type than what we 
are accustomed to call the self-made man. He is at his best 
in America, where conditions have permitted the rise from 
poverty and obscurity to places of leadership in various fields 
of endeavor. One of the men of this type to claim our at- 
tention in the religious field is Rev. John Robert Thirgood 
Christian now (1920) at the Christian Temple C. M. E. 
Church, Washington, N. C. 

Mr. Christian is a native of Alabama, having been born 
at Melbourne, Ala., Sept. 5, 1876. His father, Alfred Com- 
modore Christian, was a farmer. He was a pious man of 




JOHN ROBERT THIRGOOD CHRISTIAN AND WIFE 



586 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

God, whose simple life and religious teachings gave direc- 
tion to the life of the boy. He was the son of Jack and Mar- 
thena Nichols. Rev. Christian's mother was, before her 
marriage, Miss Lottie Jane Medley, a daughter of Harry 
Medley. 

Growing u pon the farm, our subject attended the lo- 
cal public school. He did his College work at Miles Memo- 
rial College after his marriage and after entering the min- 
istry. He experienced the new birth when he was eighteen 
years of age and definitely decided to preach when he was 
twenty-nine. 

He joined the Conference in 1907 under Bishop R. S. 
Williams at North Birmingham. 

In his domestic relations Mr. Christian has been called 
to go through the deep waters. He was first married to 
Miss Anna E. Tellis, on Dec. 24, 1899. On May 18, 1910, 
she passed away. Five years later, on Feb. 24, 1915, he 
was married to Miss Hettie Louisa Mills of Union Mills, 
N. C. She was a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. Zachariah T. 
Mills. On Feb. 9, 1918, Mrs. Christian was called to her 
reward. On Feb. 12, 1919, Mr. Christian and Miss Ruth 
Mclntire, a daughter of Mr. and Mrs. L. G. Mclntire, were 
married. 

His pastoral work has been varied and has carried him 
over several states. In 1908 he was assigned to Brookwood 
(Ala.) Station which he served two years. In 1910 he 
pastored Dolomite and Thomas, Birmingham. In 1911 he 
went to Ensley, Ala., where a church was organized. It 
was during this period while in and around Birmingham 
that he went to college. The following year found him at 
the Hillsboro Station where the church was remodeled at 
an expense of a thousand dollars. In 1913, the work at 
Huntsville was in need of an enterprising man to save the 
church at that point and he was stationed there. The 
same year he was ordained Elder and elected delegate to 
the General Conference which sat at St. Louis in May, 1914. 
He was transferred to the N. C. Conference and stationed 
at Charlotte. Eight months later another transfer took him 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 587 

to the Washington-Philadelphia Conference and stationed 
him at the Miles Memorial Church, Washington, D. C, to 
succeed Rev. L. E. B. Rosser, who had been elected Secre- 
tary of the Ministerial Relief Association. In the spring of 
1915 he was sent to Front Royal, Va., where he pastored for 
two years. In 1916 he was transferred to Georgia and sta- 
tioned at Elberton, where he remained until the fall of 
1917, when he was sent to N. C. and stationed at the New 
Reynolds Temple, Winston-Salem. In 1919 he was sent to 
the extreme eastern end of the State and stationed at the 
old town of Washington, the home of the late Bishop Joseph 
A. Beebe, where he pastors (1920) the Christian Temple 
Church. 

Mr. Christian has with singleness of heart devoted 
himself to the ministry. He has not been active in politics, 
nor is he identified with the secret orders. His principal 
reading has been along the line of his work. 



Leonard Edward Fairley 



During the war between the States on July 19, 1862, 
there was born in Richmond Co. a boy, who, though born 
in slavery was destined to occupy a place of large usefulness 
among his people as a religious and educational leader. The 
boy was Leonard Edward Fairley, D. D., now (1919) pastor 
of the Davie Street Presbyterian church in the capital city 
of the State. His parents were Richmond and Elsie Fairley. 
His father's mother was Dinah Terry. His mother was, 
during her girlhood, sold into N. C. from Loudon Co., Va. 
She only remembered that her mother's name was Kitty 
Payne. 

Young Fairley grew up on the farm. When about 
fourteen years of age his mother went to work and live at 
the home of a Presbyterian minister at Floral College. The 
boy was employed about the place. The environment was 
such as to awaken in him an interest in the best things in- 



588 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

tellectually and spiritually. The minister's wife taught him 
his alphabet and started him in the right direction. He 
learned the catechism and when about seventeen came into 
the church. He attended the public school for a while and 
passed from there to the school at Lumberton, where he 
came under the influence of a godly teacher in the person 
of Prof. D. P. Allen, who greatly influenced his life. Hav- 
ing decided when about twenty-one to preach the Gospel, 
he matriculated at Lincoln University for his college course 
and won his S. T. B. degree in 1892. During his college 
days, he spent his summers at the Northern resorts and 
thus earned money for the succeeding term's expenses. 
After entering upon his Theological course he devoted his 
summers to S. S. Missionary work. One vacation was thus 
spent in Arkansas and one in North Carolina. He was act- 
ive in college athletics and was especially fond of football. 

His first pastorate was at Fayetteville, to which he 
went after his graduation. He remained eight years, 
erected a new house of worship and greatly strengthened 
the work in every way. For the first four years, he ran 
a parochial school, after that he was elected principal of 
the State Normal at Fayetteville. 

During the last three years he was in Fayetteville he 
edited and published the Cape Fear Enterprise, a weekly 
paper which won the support of his white friends who had 
at first discouraged the venture. 

In 1900 Dr. Fairley went to Elizabeth City and 
preached there for six years. The church building was re- 
paired and a successful private school carried on. He then 
went to Kinston for three years and again combined teach- 
ing and preaching. From Kinston he came to his present 
work in Raleigh, where for more than a decade he has 
been a recognized leader in a city of schools and churches. 
He is chairman of the Board of Missions for Freedmen in 
the Cape Fear Presbytery, also chairman of the Board of 
Examiners. 

In 1895 he was a commissioner to the General Assembly 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 589 

at Saratoga. Among the secret orders he is a member of 
the Pythians. , 

On Dec. 23, 1896, Dr. Fairley was happily married to 
Miss Carrie L. Thornton of Fayetteville. She had been 
educated at Fayetteville and at Scotia and was herself an 
accomplished teacher. They have eight children, whose 
names are, Richmond A., Nellie M., Eloise, Leonard E., Jr., 
Thornton, WiTbur, Emmett and Thurman. 

Dr. Fairley is a great general reader. He believes the 
outstanding need of the race today is trained efficient lead- 
ership. 

Sidney Daniel Watkins 

It is good to see a man's work prosper in his hands. 
Wherever the Rev. Sidney Daniel Watkins, D. D., of Char- 
lotte, has gone, schools have flourished, new missions have 
been' established, and missions have grown into churches 
which have been grouped to make circuits and not a few 
of them have become stations in the work of the A. M. E. 
Zion connection. His work in and around Charlotte has 
been progressive and constructive. He has presided over 
the Charlotte district for twelve years and has made a 
record which is a credit to him and to his associates. 

Dr. Watkins is a native of Richmond Co., where he 
was born just after the close of the war on June 2, 1865. 
His father, Edmund Watkins, was a farmer, and the sub- 
ject of this biography grew up on the farm and as a bare- 
foot boy went to the short term public schools and worked 
in the field. When about eighteen years of age he came 
into the Kingdom and a year later felt called to take up 
the work of the Gospel ministry. Accordingly he was li- 
censed and in 1889 joined the conference at Concord under 
Bishop Hood. His first conference appointment was the 
River Hill Mission in Caldwell Co., which he served one 
year and built a new church. He was successful from the 
beginning and there has never been a question in his mind 




SIDNEY DANIEL WATKINS 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 591 

that he was doing the work to which he was divinely ap- 
pointed. His next work was the Zion Wesley Circuit where 
he preached for three years and built a new house of wor- 
ship at Troutman's. He then went to the Mooresville Cir- 
cuit, where he built a church and remodeled two others. 
After that he was sent to Rutherfordton for three years 
and remodeled two churches. His next appointment was 
Lincolnton, Which he pastored four years and remodeled the 
church. At the end of pastorate he was appointed to Lit- 
tle Rock Station, Charlotte. He moved to Charlotte, where 
he has since resided. He preached at Little Rock six years, 
added six hundred members and raised two thousand dollars 
toward a new building. He was then promoted to. the district 
and has presided over the Charlotte District for twelve 
years. During that time twelve missions have been es- 
tablished in the district and a number of them have grown 
into churches. 

Not only has Dr. Watkins been a successful pastor, 
but for eighteen years he taught school in connection with 
his preaching. He is the friend and supporter of education 
and an advocate of a better understanding between the 
races. He has an attractive home in Charlotte. 

In Dec., 1894, he was married to Miss Bessie Thompson 
of Salisbury. She was a daughter of John and Millie 
Thompson, and was educated at Livingstone College. She 
was a teacher before her marriage. They have five chil- 
dren, Sidney, Edgar, Leon, Bessie and Sadie Watkins. 

Dr. Watkins went to school at both Livingstone Col- 
lege and Biddle University, taking Theology at the latter. 
He took a correspondence course in Literature. Livingstone 
College conferred on him the D. D. degree. He is a member 
of the general conference and has attended the meetings of 
that body at Charlotte, Louisville, St. Louis, Philadelphia 
and Knoxville. 

At the Knoxville conference in 1920, Dr. Watkins was 
chosen manager of the denominational publishing house at 
Charlotte. 



Benjamin Harrison Hogan 



Just after the close of the war between the States, on 
June 15, 1865, there was born in Orange Co., near the his- 
toric old town of Hillsboro, a boy who was destined to take 
an active part in the struggle of his race for that genera- 
tion. In the unorganized, unsettled conditions among the 
slaves at that time, it happens that Benjamin Harrison 
Hogan, of Goldsboro, does not know the name of his father. 
His mother's name was Zilphia Cameron. 

Young Hogan left Orange Co. and was brought to 
Goldsboro at an early age. He worked around town and 
on adjacent farms, and attended the city school as a boy. 
Having also lost his mother by this time, he was entirely 
alone in the world, but early formed the habits of industry 
and honesty which, coupled with persistence, finally brought 
success. 

After he had reached the point where he could secure 
a teacher's license, he taught school for a number of years 
and then for about twelve years ran a mercantile business at 
Goldsboro. With the development of the trucking industry 
around Goldsboro, he closed up his shop and went into the 
trucking business at which he worked for eight years. 
Since 1902 he has been in the mail service. 

Mr. Hogan is an active and prominent member of the 
A. M. E. Zion church, of which he is a steward and superin- 
tendent of the Sunday School. 

When the Wayne Co. Business League was organized, 
his business expreience made him the logical man for treas- 
urer, to which position he was elected. 

On August 12, 1888, Mr. Hogan was married to Miss 
Annie D. Mattocks, an adopted daughter of John H. and 
Wathenia Mattocks. She was educated at Livingstone Col- 
lege. Of the fifteen children born to them, the following 
survive: John H., Roberta V., Thaddeus L., Annie V., 
Thereas H., Raphael S., Benjamin H., Jr., and Charles Mar- 
tel Hogan. 




BENJAMIN HARRISON HOGAN 



594 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Mr. Hogan has been a hard working man all his life, 
and though lacking a college education, he has handled his 
business affairs in such a way as to accumulate quite a com- 
petence. 

He knows of no short cuts to success. He believes 
that the progress of the race depends upon sobriety, hard 
work, economy and the cultivation of friendly relations with 
one's white neighbors and business associates. 



Ernest Reginald Grasty 



Dr. Ernest Reginald Grasty, successful physician of 
Reidsville, came to this State from the Old Dominion, hav- 
ing been born at Danville on Oct. 8, 1888. His father, Dr. 
W. F. Grasty, is a distinguished Baptist preacher and educa- 
tor of that city. His mother, who before her marriage, was 
Miss Alice Tucker, passed away in 1896. Dr. Grasty's pa- 
ternal grandparents were John and Lucy Grasty ; his mater- 
nal grandparents were John and Seena Tucker. 

As a boy young Grasty went to the local public schools. 
Of course, being brought up in a home of education and 
right influences was a tremendous advantage. When ready 
for college he went to Shaw University and passed from 
the college into the medical department, then known as 
Leonard Medical College. Here he won his M. D. degree 
in 1914. It was necessary for him to earn the money for 
the expenses of his course, which he did during vacations. 
Two vacations were spent on the road in the express service 
and the rest mining coal in W. Va. 

On Dec. 31, 1913, Dr. Grasty was married to Miss Etta 
Allen of Danville. They have two children, Ernest R., Jr., 
and Wm. F., Jr. 

In the spring of 1915, Dr. Grasty began the practice 
at Luthersville. After two years there he moved to Reids- 
ville, where he has since resided and where he enjoys a 
^ood practice. He is an active member of the Baptist 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 595 

church in which he is a trustee. In politics he is a Republi- 
can. He is of the opinion that the progress of the race 
depends more upon intelligent work than on any other factor. 



Edwin Wallace Fisher 



One of the most versatile, as well as successful, busi- 
ness men of eastern North Carolina is Mr. Edwin Wallace 
Fisher, district superintendent of the N. C. Mutual Life Co., 
who resides at the old town of Washington in Beaufort Co. 
Mr. Fisher has the distinction of having been born in 
Westmoreland Co., which is the native county of Pres. 
George Washington and Gen. Robert E. Lee as well as other 
celebrities. The date of his birth was January 17, 1873. 
His parents were Daniel and Eve Fisher. His paternal 
grandparents were Isaac and Susan Fisher. The family 
moved from Virginia to the North when the boy was seven 
years old and our subject attended the public and high 
schools of Deep River, Conn. When it is remembered that 
the high school work in New England is equal to much of 
the so-called college work of the South, it will be seen that 
Mr. Fisher was well equipped for his career in life. He 
learned the trade of machine wood turner, at which he 
worked for a number of years. For twelve years he was 
assistant foreman in a New Haven, Conn., establishment. 
In 1911 he came South and accepted a position as instructor 
in the mechanical department of the A. & T. College at 
Greensboro, where he remained for five years. In the 
meantime, he had had an opportunity to observe conditions 
in North Carolina and in 1916 accepted a position with the 
North Carolina Mutual. He came to Washington, where he 
has met with unusual success in this new line of work. 
Whoever has come in contact with the superintendents of 
this great concern, knows that they are a remarkably intel- 
ligent and aggressive lot of business men. To be at the 




EDWIN WALLACE FISHER 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 597 

head of a N. C. Mutual District is in itself a distinction ; to 
be a leader among these is a high honor indeed. 

Mr. Fisher has had the opportunity of observing con- 
ditions at the North, where educational facilities are su- 
perior to those of the South and in recent years he has 
been brought into intimate contact with the people of the 
South, and he is of the opinion that the great need of the 
race today is better schools. He is a Republican in politics 
bu thas taken no active part in party affairs. He is a mem- 
ber of the Episcopal church, of which he is a vestryman, 
and belongs to the Masonic order. 

Mr. Fisher has been married twice, each time to a na- 
tive of Virginia. His first wife was Miss Nannie Dortch, 
who was educated at Boydton Institute, Boydton, Va. She 
bore him four children, Edwin, Eugene Clarence, and Marion. 
Marion passed away. Mrs. Nannie Fisher died in 1902. 
On August 12, 1903, he was married to Miss Daisy Todd, of 
Petersburg, Va. She was educated at St. Paul's Normal & 
Industrial School and was before her marriage a teacher 
in Petersburg. They have four children, Anna, Milton, 
Susie and Floyd Fisher. 



Henry Harrison Jackson 



When some years ago, Bishop Clinton was speaking 
words of encouragement at Tuskegee to a struggling youth 
from Texas, he little dreamed that he was talking to his 
own future pastor. And yet that is exactly what occurred 
in the life of Rev. Henry Harrison Jackson, now (1919) sta- 
tioned at the Little Rock A. M. E. Zion church, Charlotte. 
The story has its lesson not only for aspiring youth but 
for great leaders as well. 

Mr. Jackson is a native of the Lone Star State, having 
born at Lockhart, Texas, on Feb. 11, 1884. His father, Rev. 
Gilford Jackson, was a Methodist preacher. The mother of 
our subject was, before her marriage, Miss Melissa San- 




HENRY HARRISON JACKSON 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 599 

ders. She was the daughter of another Methodist minister, 
Rev. John Sanders. 

Young Jackson attended the local public schools and 
worked on the farm. Once during cotton picking time, 
there was a rainy day which the boy spent in reading the 
life story of the late Booker T. Washington. His imagina- 
tion was fired and his ambition was aroused and before 
long he was on his way to Tuskegee where he remained for 
three years. Already a Christian, having been converted 
at fourteen, he was inclined to the ministry and began his 
work as a local preacher at twenty-one. It was while at 
Tuskegee that he came in contact with Bishop Clinton, who, 
seeing his aptitude, encouraged him and pointed the way 
to large things. He joined the Conference at Tuskegee in 
1908 and was transferred to North Carolina. He entered 
Livingstone College, where he won his Bachelor's degree in 
1916. Two years later he completed the Theological course 
with the B. D. degree. His first regular pastorate was 
the Second Creek Circuit, which he served three years and 
built the Graham Memorial Church at Salisbury. From 
there he went to the Davidson Circuit, which he served 
six years. Both churches on this work were remodeled 
and the membership greatly strengthened. During these 
years as a busy pastor he was also making full time at col- 
lege and keeping up with his classes. No sooner had he 
finished his Theological course than he found awaiting him a 
Station appointment at Charlotte. He came to the work 
at Little Rock to find an indebtedness of $3,200.00. In six 
months this was cancelled, $3,513.16 having been raised at a 
single rally. In 1919 a parsonage was bought at a cost of 
$3,550.00. While the finances of a church are important, 
they are not the most vital. Spiritual growth and develop- 
ment are the primary things. Here, too, Dr. Jackson has 
been a faithful minister, vigorous, sane, well balanced and 
progressive. As an indication of how the work responds to 
his enthusiasm it may be stated that last year he had sixty- 
two conversions, one hundred and eighty-two accessions, and 
raised $8,897.97. 



600 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

On September 1, 1915, Dr. Jackson was married to 
Miss Ida Houston, of Cleveland, N. C. She was educated at 
Livingstone College. They have one child, Joy Mae Jackson. 

Next after the Bible Dr. Jackson's favorite reading is 
poetry. He belongs to the Masons, the Odd Fellows and 
Pythians. He has attended two General Conferences and 
was local chairman in his ward for the different "drives" 
during the war. He believes that the progress of the race 
is simply a matter of sane living along all lines, spiritual, 
mental and economic. 



Henry Pearson Kennedy 



Dr. Henry Pearson Kennedy, a successful druggist and 
pharmacist of New Bern, has not found it necessary to go 
away from his native town in order to succeed. Right 
among the people who know his character and ability best. 
he has built up a successful business and is highly regarded 
by the best people of both races. Still on the sunny side of 
thirty he has already made for himself an enviable place 
in the buisness and social life of New Bern, where he was 
born January 7, 1884. His father, Henry P. Kennedy, was 
a contractor ; he was a son of Lorenzo D. and Charlotte Ken- 
nedy. The former was free-born, but the latter was a 
slave. Dr. Kennedy's mother was formerly Miss Almira 
Hamilton, a daughter of Frank A. and Annie Hamilton. 
They, too, were slaves before Emancipation. 

Young Kennedy grew up in North Carolina and at- 
tended the local public schools. He had hard enough strug- 
gle to secure an education. There was a family of five 
children, of which he was the eldest. His father was an 
invalid, and it was necessary for the boy to take his father's 
place in providing for the family, as he grew up and be- 
came able. He did not permit this condition, however, to 
discourage him, but forged steadily ahead, and as he looks 
back now over the hard days of his boyhood and youth he 




HENRY PEARSON KENNEDY 



602 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

knows they were not without their advantages. They 
taught him initiative, self-reliance and efficiency. He con- 
siders the greatest factor in his life the teachings of his 
mother. She trained him in the principles of the Golden 
Rule. In school he was active and popular as a student and 
was extremely fond of baseball. His favorite reading con- 
sists of the Bible, Shakespeare and Poe. 

On completion of his studies in the public school of New 
Bern, he decided to take a course in pharmacy, and as soon 
as he was in position to do so matriculated at Shaw Univer- 
sity, where he graduated with the the degree of Ph. G. in 
1906. He spent six months after his graduation at Kinston 
in an attempt to establish a Negro drug store there. From 
Kinston he went to Wilson for a short while and thence to 
Greensboro. He finally realized, however, that there was 
no better place than in his own home town and so returned 
to New Bern, where he associated himself with some of the 
people who knew his ability and has established a success- 
ful drug store in New Street. 

He takes an active part in all movements looking to 
the betterment of the race and is identified with the various 
local organizations of his people at New Bern. He is prom- 
inent in the colored Chamber of Commerce and is Grand 
Trustee of the Elks. He is also prominent in the work of 
the Pythians, Masons, Odd Fellows, Samaritans and Order 
of the Eastern Star, and other local benevolent societies. 
In politics he is a Republican, but beyond exercising the 
franchise does not concern himself much about party affairs. 
He is a member of the Episcopal Church, being clerk of the 
parish and a vestryman. 

Notwithstanding the early difficulties with which he 
had to contend, he has built a successful and prosperous 
business and owns property in New Bern to the extent of 
eight or ten thousand dollars. 

Out of his experience and observation, which has ex- 
tended well over the country, he is of the opinion that the 
thing most needed by the colored people today is the right 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 603 

sort of education, and recognizes the need of training along 
industrial and agricultural lines. 

The year following his graduation from Shaw, Dr. Ken- 
nedy was married to Miss Maggie Ethel Holley, on August 
7, 1907. She is daughter of Wm. E. and Maggie Holley, of 
Greensboro. She was educated at Scotia and was before her 
marriage a teacher. Of the three children born to them, 
two are living, Louise M. and Henry P. Kennedy, Jr. 



Marcellus Nolle Newsome 



Rev. M. N. Newsome, pastor of the First Baptist church 
at Rockingham and principal of the Pee Dee Institute near 
Hamlet, resides at Hamlet. He was born at Ahoskie, N. C, 
on September 25, 1877. His father, the late Wm. P. New- 
some, was a farmer and mechanic. His mother, who, be- 
fore her marriage, was Sallie J. Holloman, is still living 
(1919) and is a daughter of Andrew and Tena Holloman. 

When young Newsome became of school age, he at- 
tended first the local school at Ahoskie. Later he passed 
from the public school to Waters Institute at Winton, where 
he came into contact with and under the influence of that 
splendid teacher and consecrated man of God, Rev. C. S. 
Brown, and says frankly that Dr. Brown has been the most 
pronounced factor for good in his life. After completing 
the work at Winton he went to Shaw University, remaining 
through the junior year and taking the Theological course, 
which led to the B. Th. degree in 1903. 

Young Newsome was religiously inclined from an early 
age. In fact, he went actively into the work of the church 
when only twelve years old and felt a definite call to 
preach the Gospel by the time he was sixteen. He was li- 
censed and ordained by the church at Ahoskie. It was 
necessary for him to make his own way in school, so he 
did this faithfully and has come to be regarded as one of 
the most capable preachers and educators of the denomina- 




MARCELLUS NOLLE NEWSOME 




MRS. MARCELLUS NOLLE NEWSOME 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 605 

tion in the State. He has a philosophic turn of mind and 
next after the Bible finds his greatest pleasure and profit in 
reading history and law. 

His first pastorate was the First Baptist church at 
Raleigh, which he served for a year. From Raleigh he 
went to Ocala, Fla., for a short time, but returned after 
six months to Ahoskie and went from there to the First 
Baptist church at Fayetteville. While on the Fayetteville 
work a new parsonage was erected. His work as teacher 
and preacher was of such character that he was recognized 
as an efficient and capable man and appointed missionary 
for the eastern district of North Carolina by his State con- 
vention. In this capacity he served for two years, going 
over his territory of the State, organizing and strengthen- 
ing the work wherever needed, holding institutes and mak- 
ing himself helpful to th'e brethren in every way possible. 
After that he was called to county work in Bertie Co. where 
he continued his religious and educational activities for 
eight years. During that time, he built a school at Ahoskie. 
In the fall of 1918 he took charge of the Pee Dee Institute 
which is under the auspices of the Pee Dee Association. 
His work here is moving along in good shape and he is now 
also pastor of the First Baptist church at Rockingham and 
the First Baptist church at Laurinburg. Mr. Newsome has 
had a fruitful ministry in all those fields where he has re- 
mained for ny length of time. With his strength of mind 
and body and his equipment he has the promise of years of 
large usefulness in the Kingdom. In recognition of his 
work and attainments, the degree of D. D. was conferred 
upon him by Gaudaloupe College. 

Among the secret orders Mr. Newsome is identified 
with the Odd Fellows and Pythians. 

In September, 1904, he was married to Miss Mary E. 
Trammell of Ahoskie. They have two children, Mannie D. 
and Nolle Newsome. Rev. Newsome owns property in 
Ahoskie. 



John Henry Hayswood 



The Presbyterians have been pioneers in the matter 
of education — Christian education. All along they have in- 
sisted the forces making for intelligence should at the same 
time make for character. They insist not only on an edu- 
cated ministry, but stand for an educated laity as well. So 
preachers are teachers and hard by the churches are schools. 

One of the men who has done valiant service in these 
closely related fields is Rev. John Henry Hayswood, A. B., 
A. M., D. D., of Lumberton. Dr. Hayswood was born near 
Louisburg in Franklin. Co. on July 26, 1866. His parents 
were John and Catherine Hayswood. His paternal grand- 
parents were Matthew and Jennie (Timberlake) Hayswood. 
On the mother's side his grandparents were Edmund Finch 
and Mary Perry. 

Dr. Hayswood was married April 14, 1897, to Miss Mat- 
tie L. Johnson of Portsmouth, Va. She was educated at 
Hartshorn Memorial College, Richmond, Va. 

As a boy young Hayswood went to the public school 
in his native county. He was happily converted when be- 
tween sixteen and seventeen years of age. A couple of 
years later he felt called to preach. Then came the reali- 
zation that he must fit himself for his work in life. 

His mother had passed away when he was eleven years 
of age and when he passed from the public school it was 
necessary for him to support himself. As a boy he worked 
on the farm. In 1885 he went North and worked at Willi- 
mantic, Conn., until the end of 1886. In January, 1887, he 
entered St. Augustine at Raleigh with money enough for 
the balance of that school year. He then taught during 
vacation and returned in the fall for his second year. His 
meager funds were supplemented by service as janitor and 
by doing such other work as could be secured. It may be 
imagined that this left but little time for athletics. Such 
was his conduct and the character of his work that at the 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 607 

end of the school year the principal called it square and 
the young man again went forth to teach during the sum- 
mer. In the fall of 1888 he matriculated at Lincoln Univer- 
sity, where he remained as a student for eight years. In 
1893 he won his A. B. degree from the college department 
and three years later the A. M. and S. T. B. degrees when 
he had finished the Theological department. Since then 
the D. D. degree has been conferred on him by the same 
institution. One June 4, 1896, he was ordained by the 
Chester Presbytery. Coming South to Hookerton he took 
work in Greene and Lenoir Counties and remained on that 
field six and a half years. Unfinished churches were com- 
pleted and old ones repaired and the congregations built up. 
In Jan., 1903, he came to his present field, where the work, 
both educational and religious, has greatly prospered under 
his administration. The Red Stone Academy has been set 
up and has made for itself a place in the educational life of 
Lumberton. It has reached an enrollment of 262. It re- 
quires a faculty of five teachers. In 1909 a school biulding 
was erected which in 1915 was destroyed by fire. A new 
house was built so that the present plant represents a value 
of about five thousand dollars. 

Dr. Hayswood preaches at Lumberton and at Panther's 
Ford. A new house of worship has been erected at the lat- 
ter place. For eleven and a half years he preached at Row- 
land in Robeson Co. He was a delegate to the Kansas City 
General Assembly in 1908 and was twice moderator of the 
Cape Fear Presbytery. He is now Chm. of the Com. on 
Supply. Among the secret orders he belongs to the Masons, 
Pythians and Eastern Star. 



Latta Hilliard Powell 



Rev. Latta Hillard Powell, A. B., B. Th., of Ma 't- 
is one of the strong young preachers of the Baptist deno— 
natkn in eastern Carolina. He is a native of Robeson r " 




LATTA HILLARD POWELL 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 609 

having been born about eight miles from Lumberton on 
Sept. 3, 1886. His father, Franklin Pierce Powell, was a 
farmer. During the slavery period he was sold away from 
his father, Edmond Powell, and trained as a cook in the 
home of Joel Inman. Dr. Powell's mother was, before her 
marriage, Miss Harriet E. Ashley. She was a daughter of 
Robert Ashley, who was owned by the Ashley family near 
Atkinson's Mill. As a slave he won the respect and esteem 
of his master by his industry and loyalty. After emanci- 
pation, he associated himself with some other Christian 
men, such as Rev. A. A. Thompson and Rev. Dennis PowelL 
Together they purchased several tracts of land and estab- 
lished a number of churches which have become centers of 
usefulness. 

Dr. Powell laid the foundation of his education in the 
local public schools and later went to the Thompson Insti- 
tute at Lumberton. Here it was necessary for him to make 
his own way. Between terms he worked on the farm, 
grew strawberries and vegetables and raised hogs. He 
won a year's scholarship from the Lumber River Associa- 
tion and finished at the Institute in 1906. 

He gave his heart to God as a boy and soon after con- 
secrated himself to the work of the ministry. He had the 
wisdom, instead of rushing into his work unprepared, to take 
the time to fit himself for the largest service. Accordingly 
he matriculated at Shaw University, where he completed 
his course in 1912. He has from Shaw both the A. B. and 
the B. Th. degrees. In January, 1919, while in Shaw, he 
was ordained to the full work of the ministry and from 
that time to the present he has had more calls than he 
could accept. He has been successful from the beginning. 
Immediately after his ordination, he took charge of the Mt. 
Level Baptist church in Durham Co., which he served for 
four years. After that he accepted a call from the First 
Church of West Raleigh. He resigned that work in 1912 
to take up mission work in the State, which he followed for 
one year, when he resigned to become the principal of the 
Burgaw Normal and Industrial School. He remained in this 



HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

work for two years, but his shepherd heart yearned for 
the more direct work of the pastorate. So in 1915 he re- 
signed to accept the churches he now serves so acceptably. 
They are the First Baptist, St. John's Church, Lumberton, 
First Baptist, Mount Olive, Mt. Olive Baptist church, White- 
ville and St. Mary's Baptist church, Evergreen. A new 
house of worship has been erected at Mt. Olive at a cost 
of eight thousand dollars. Dr. Powell preached for a while 
at Goldsboro and the twenty thousand dollar edifice of the 
Antioch Baptist church there was begun under his admin- 
istration. 

On Dec. 25, 1920, Dr. Powell married Miss L. W. Pow- 
ers of Wallace, N. C. She is the daughter of Rev. Isaac 
Powers, a prominent Baptist minister. 

Looking back over the days of his boyhood and youth, 
Dr. Powell is of the opinion that the most patent factors 
in shaping his life were the very difficulties which stood in 
his way and which gave new strength and courage as they 
were overcome. 



Francis Henry Parker 



The best advertisement which an institution like the 
great school at Tuskegee, Alabama, has, is the kind of men 
and women it sends out into the world. It is impossible to 
estimate the influence of a man like its founder, the late 
Dr. Washington. Often one finds a prosperous, model set- 
tlement, where there are good schools and successful busi- 
ness enterprises and not infrequently a little investigation 
will show that the leaders there are either Tuskegee men, 
or have come under the tuition of Tuskegee men. 

The story of Prof. Francis Henry Parker illustrates 
this. He was born at Shorter, Ala., in Macon Co., June 4, 
1880. His father, of the same name, was a Baptist preacher 
and was the son of Glasgow and Katie Parker. His mother, 




FRANCIS HENRY PARKER 



612 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

before her marriage, was Lydia Taylor, a daughter of Frank 
H. and Lydia Taylor. 

Young Parker went to the rural schools of Macon Co. 
as a boy and later entered Tuskegee, where he came into per- 
sonal contact with Dr. Booker T. Washington, who took spe- 
cial interest in him. He spent four years at Tuskegee, 
where he made a record of which no one need be ashamed. 
He passed from Tuskegee to Snow Hill, which had been 
organized along the same lines as Tuskegee and remained 
six years in that institution. Here he learned the printing 
trade and graduated in 1905. 

Prof. McDuffy, who had preceded him from Snow Hill 
to Laurinburg, induced young Parker to join him there, and 
for eight years he was superintendent of industry in the 
Normal & Industrial School which has played such an im- 
portant part in the development of that section of North 
Carolina. 

Prof. Parker was not slow to see the opportunities af- 
forded in the real estate field at Laurinburg and for the 
last seven years has been giving more or less time to the 
real estate business. 

In the fall of 1918 he was made district superintendent 
for the N. C. Mutual at Laurinburg, which includes Scotland, 
Robeson, Hoke and Cumberland Counties. He has carried 
along together both his real estate and insurance businesses, 
both of which are a credit to him as a business man. He has 
handled his realty affairs in such a way as to inspire the 
confidence of the white people with whom he has come in 
contact, so that he has been able to command money for 
such transactions as he wished to make. 

Prof. Parker tells an interesting story of how he was 
first inspired to seek an education. Driving with his father 
to Montgomery when a boy, he was very much impressed 
with the rather imposing looking white men with whom 
his father came in contact. He remembers to this day how 
impressive were the wide expanses of their white shirt 
fronts. He eagerly inquired of his father how he might 
become such a man as they met on the streets of Montgom- 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 613 

ery and was told that it was necessary for a man to have 
an education before he could make such an appearance. The 
boy made up his mind to get the education; and although 
the way was long and hard, he succeeded in spite of all 
difficulties and is now in position to wear white shirts if 
he chooses to do so. 

It should be remarked that while at the N. & I. Prof. 
Parker's work was of such a character that he was made 
supervisor of industrial work among the colored people for 
Scotland Co. and his annual report makes interesting read- 
ing of what has been accomplished under his administra- 
tion. 

Prof. Parker has given little attention to politics. He 
is a member of the Baptist church, but is not identified with 
the secret orders. 

On August 13, 1913, he was married to Miss Alice 
Freeman of Fayetteville. Before her marriage Mrs. Parker 
was a teacher. She was educated at the State Normal, 
Fayetteville. 



Mansfield Franklin Thornton 



The Hon. Mansfield Franklin Thornton of Warrenton is 
a remarkable man, now nearly seventy years of age (1920). 
He was born at Warrenton on July 20, 1850, so it will be 
seen that he was a boy fifteen years of age when the 
war closed and has witnessed in his own life the most mar- 
velous changes that have occurred since the time of Christ. 
These changes have been social, political and economic. 

His parents were Alonzo Thornton, a farmer, and his 
wife Martha, (Eaton) Thornton. Alonzo was the son of 
Kittie Thornton. His maternal grandfather was Matt 
Eaton. After the war, young Thornton went to the pub- 
lic schools when they were opened for colored patronage. 
The general poverty then prevailing prevented his getting a 
college education. He must have made good in the public 




MANSFIELD FRANKLIN THORNTON 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 615 

schools, however, as he was able to take a place in the In- 
ternal Revenue Clerk's office at Raleigh, which he held for 
four years. After that he returned to Warrenton and 
was elected Register of Deeds of Warren Co. a position which 
he held for twenty-two years though he had opposition ev- 
ery time. As to the high quality of his character and the 
esteem in which he is held by the best white people of his 
section the following voluntary testimonials will show: 
"Raleigh, N. C, December 19, 1873. 
"To those whom it may concern: 

"The bearer of this letter to you, a young man of color, 
named Mansfield F. Thornton, has been in my employment 
as janitor since the year 1869, and I have reason to know 
him intimately as he has been under my eyes and direction 
for so long a time. 

"I cheerfully recommend him as being a superior young 
man, whose honesty is beyond question, whose politeness 
and good temper cannot be excelled, whose intelligence and 
neatness of person are marked qualities and whose sobriety 
and punctuality in obedience to the direction of his employ- 
ers and to the interest of those whom he may be elected to 
serve will render him indispensible to any household, which 
may have the fortune to secure his presence. He leaves me 
therfore with my bst wishes and my hearty recommendation 
of his character. I can truthfully say I part from a valued 
and trusted young man with much regret. His judgment 
in leaving is such that will enable him to use it to advan- 
tage to himself and others. I remain sincerely yours, 
S. T. CARROW (Late U. S. Marshal, N. C.) 

"I fully endorse the within. 

J. B. HILL, U. S. D. Marshal." 

"I concur in the recommendation." 

J. R. O'NEAL, Clerk in Marshal's Office. 
H. M. MILLER, U. S. D. Marshal." 

The following tribute was handed him by a group of 
his fellow townsmen: 

"We the undersigned citizens of Warren Co., N. C, take 
very great pleasure in certifying to the character of Mr. 



616 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

M. F. Thornton, the bearer of this paper. He is a colored 
man of more than ordinary intelligence and for years has 
been a wise and conservative leader of the colored people. 
He filled the office of Register of Deeds of Warren Co. and 
made a good officer, universally polite and exceedingly ac- 
commodating, he has won the affection of the colored people 
and the respect of the white. 

"M. J. Hawkins, Chm. Board of Co. Commissioners; 
Tasker Polk, Atty. at Law ; J. G. King, M. D. ; R. E. Davis, 
Sheriff; R. H. Ford, J. P.; J. A. Dowton, Register of Deeds; 
W. B. Boyd, Tobacconist; E. C. Price, Dep. Register of 
Deeds; E. S. Allen, of Allen & Fleming; W. T. Johnson, 
Merchant ; P. H. Allen, J. P. ; J. W. Allen, J. P. ; J. W. White, 
Merchant; J. M. Gardner, Cashier; Rodgers & Burwell, To- 
bacconist ; W. D. Rogers, Merchant ; D. F. Crinkley, Mer- 
chant ; Rose & Hilliard, Merchants ; H. L. Faulkner, Auc- 
tioneer; D. H. Riggin, Merchant; W. B. Fleming, Pro. Roller 
Mill; R. B. Boyd, Tobacconist; F. P. Hunter, Druggist; W. K. 
Barham, Druggist; W. A. Burwell, Mayor; W. J. Norwood, 
Hotel Man; C. E. Jackson, Merchant." 

"State of North Carolina, County of Warren, 

"April 12, 1901. 

"I, Wm. A. White, Clerk of the Superior Court of said 
County, hereby certify that I am personally well acquainted 
with the persons who signed the above certificate and any 
statement made by them is entitled to full faith and credit. 
In witness whereof I have set my hand and affixed the 
seal of said office in Warrenton, N. C, this the date and 
year above written. 

"WM. A. WHITE." 

When a colored man receives the voluntary recommen- 
dations as set forth above no further proof of his desirable 
citizenship could be asked. 

Mr. Thornton is a deacon in the Baptist Church and 
active in its work. 

In 1879 he was married to Miss Mary A. Christmas, a 
daughter of Seth Christmas. Her mother's name name was 
Sallie. Of the eleven children born to them, the following 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 617 

are living: Carrie C, Lula N., Cora D., Willie, Salmon P., 
and Estelle B. Thornton. 

Mr Thornton has been and is a rather general reader 
but gives first place to the Bible. He has supplemented 
his early education, and when night schools were available, 
as during his stay in Raleigh, he attended them and inter- 
ested white friends also who helped him to fill up gaps in 
his education which was brought about by ^is lack or 
educational advantages in his youth. Although born and 
virtually reared in slavery he has developed into a good 
and substantial citizen of which his family and his race may 
well be proud. He owns an attractive home and other 
property at Warrenton. 



George L. White 

Like so many of the successful men of both races, Dr. 
Geo L White now (1920) stationed at Greenville, was 
born and reared on the farm. He was born at Jacksonville, 
N C July 15 1870. His father, Edward White, was a 
farmer. Edward White was the son of John and Marian 
(Mantford) White, who lived to a ripe old age. Though tree 
born, they became involved by insolvency and were sold 
for their debts. 

Dr White's father died when the boy was only a child. 
He was reared and educated by his mother's former master. 
When he came of school age, young White attendee; the 
local public schools. After that he passed to the State 
Normal School at Fayetteville and from there to Brown 
University of Providence, R. I., from which he has the A b. 
and D D degrees. He was an active, popular student dur- 
ing his school days, and took great interest in college ath- 
letics, including both baseball and football. 

Dr. White was converted at an early age, and identified 



HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

s 
£ his s I days of the 

as s ' : . 

and d asl as f i as Mass, to Tampa. 

s ath. Few men in the denomination have a 
than Dr. White. H - - Ltment 

. Mass. 

ed at Fall River. Mass., - sburg, P kshe- 

X. C. and Tam] a, F a He as then ] . m ted 
- ict and appoint* rk in Miss. 0:: returning to 

s me of the best appointments in the 
denomination, having served the stations aton, X. C M 

1. ss., Wilmington, X. C. Washing:.-. D. C, Bal- 
eth City. X. C. Rogersville. Tenn., and 
X. C, to which he was 1919. In 

tes, Dr. White has been in de- 
mand ar - en and his 

antry. Few men of his age 
to si tions North and 

Out of his - rvation which has 
"been . and out which has 

5 line conclusions which should 

that much of the fu- 
ture progress of 1 

- ■ 

aal life. He c 

atl - 

nients 

! 

s married 




wT 





; CGM--& rr* 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 619 

Reed of Shippensburg, Pa. She was a daughter of Mr. 
and Mrs. Reuben Reed. They have one child, Kesler D. R. 
White. 



Henry Lawrence McCrorey 



The growth and development of the church, as well as 
the progress and prosperity of the State depend upon the 
right sort of leadership. Nowhere are intelligence and ef- 
ficiency more important than in the pulpit. The Presby- 
terian church has always stood for an educated ministry. 
That the principle is sound has been demonstrated by the 
work accomplished in the South since Emancipation. As a 
rule, wherever one finds a Presbyterian church with a min- 
ister on full time, a school will also be found, and acquaint- 
ance with these preacher teachers will usually reveal the 
fact that they are well balanced men of symmetrical char- 
acter. Their standards are high. Investigation will almost 
invariably reveal the fact that they are either Biddle or Lin- 
coln University men. In the South Biddle men predomi- 
nate. It is a fine type of leadership. So one is not sur- 
prised when he finds at the head of the institufion and in 
its various departments men of simple faith, splendid vision 
and fine attainments. At the very head of this superb 
group stands Rev. Henry Lawrence McCrorey, A. B., A. M., 
S. T. B., D. D., President of Biddle University of Charlotte. 

He is a native of Fairfield Co., S. C, and laid the foun- 
dation of his education at the Willard Richardson school in 
the historic old town of Winnsboro. Later he entered the 
preparatory school of Biddle University and passed from 
that to the college department, from which he was gradu- 
ated with the A. B. degree in 1892. The following year 
he began his Theological course, which was completed in 
1895 with the S. T. B. degree. Since that time the A. M. 
and D. D. degrees have been conferred on him by the same 
institution in recognition of his attainments. He also took 



620 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

post-graduate work at the University of Chicago, specializ- 
ing in Hebrew under Dr. Harper. This simple narrative of 
his schooling from the primary grades to the winning of his 
degree conveys no idea of the struggle the young man 
made to educate himself. His parents were not in position 
to assist him financially, but he did not permit that fact to 
defeat or even discourage him. Through all those years 
there was in his heart a burning desire to rise in order that 
he might help his race to higher standards. That same 
spirit led him into the ministry, and has been the chief 
motive of his work both as an educator and as a religious 
leader. The character of his work as a student may be in- 
ferred from the fact that he had not proceeded far at Bid- 
die until he was made assistant instructor in the prepara- 
tory department and from that day to this he has been 
officially connected with the University, rising steadily from 
one position to another until he reached the presidency — the 
first 'man of his race to fill that distinguished position. 
From assistant instructor in the preparatory department, he 
passed to the principalship. After that he occupied the 
chair of Latin in the collegiate department and relinquished 
that to become professor of Hebrew and Greek Exegesis in 
the Theological department. That work was, in turn, re- 
signed when he was promoted to Dean of the Theological 
Seminary and finally that was surrendered for the presi- 
dency. 

Dr. McCrorey was ordained to the Gospel ministry by 
the Fairfield Presbytery, Synod of Atlantic, in April, 1895. 
He frequently preaches but the character of his work at 
Biddle has been such as to preclude his accepting a regular 
pastorate. 

It has been his policy to make education stand for some- 
thing more than mere intelligence in the life of his people. 
He belongs to that group of educators, fortunately growing 
larger, which would never divorce the forces which make 
for intelligence and the forces which make for character. 
For want of a better term we call it Christian education 
and that is the thing for which Dr. McCrorey stands. Un- 





fcobj-tm^ /Jsf 




NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 621 

der his administration, Biddle University has reached the 
high water mark of its history. 

Dr. McCrorey has been married twice. His first mar- 
riage was on Dec. 27 1,897, to Miss Karie Novella Hughes. 
She was a daughter of John and Mary Hughes. She bore 
him four children: Henry L., Jr., Novella E., Madaline D. 
and Muriel H. McCrorey. Some years later Mrs. McCrory 
passed to her reward. 

On Sept. 19, 1916, Dr. McCrorey was married a second 
time to Miss Mary C. Jackson of Georgia, a sketch of whom 
appears in this volume. 

Dr. McCrorey has not sought primarily to make money, 
and yet he has handled his investments in such a way as 
to indicate that had he decided to devote himself to busi- 
ness his energy and capacity would have carried him far in 
that direction. He owns property in and around Charlotte 
amounting to at least seventy-five thousand dollars. Dr. 
McCrorey also edits the denominational paper. He is first 
vice president of the National Association of Colored 
Teachers. 



Mary Jackson McCrorey 



"He is of stature somewhat low; 

Your hero should be always tall you know." 
Such, in the main, is the sentiment of mankind. Yet I 
dare say there is something misleading in it. Not infre- 
quently it has caused us to overlook those noble souls whose 
lot is to trail in obscurity for the good of others. By far 
the greater part of this world's heroism is never seen. It 
is not of the tall kind, although fully as real, and often- 
times more permanently effective. Without it this poor- 
world would be immeasurably poor. 

In every community, could we discover them, are lives 
of epic grandeur — men and women lofty in their aims, un- 
selfish in their efforts. Among these I class her whose 



622 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

name stands at the head of this sketch, and whose friend- 
ship for many a year it has been my rare good fortune to 
enjoy. Born in Athens, Ga., seat of the State University, 
and of reputable parents who were acquainted with both 
slavery and freedom, she attributes whatever success has 
been hers to the life and example of a sainted mother, 
for whom to the last she cherished the warmest filial affec- 
tion. To both parents, indeed, the advent of this daughter 
was regarded as auspicious and made an occasion of un- 
usual rejoicing; because she was their first free born child, 
the other seven, with the exception of her youngest sister, 
having been born in slavery. 

That our friend is a lover of books, a woman of literary 
taste, and interested in education, will not seem strange, 
perhaps, when the reader is informed that her mother's mas- 
ter was a professor in the State University, that he required 
his daughter to teach that mother to read and write in or- 
der that she might be of service to him in handling his books 
and papers to and from the library. As usual, however, 
to teach a slave to read and write is a dangerous thing. 
In this case it resulted in teaching many more who came to 
her for instruction. Nothing, of course, could be more 
natural than for these parents, under freedom, to strain 
every nerve, as verily they did, for the education of their 
children. They themselves had but tasted and found that 
"for the soul to be without knowledge is not good." 

Graduated from Atlanta University at an early age, 
the subject of our sketch began her life work in the public 
school of her native city, under the superintendence of 
Prof. E. C. Branson, one of the best superintendents in the 
whole South. Under him the Athens system of schools 
gained the reputation of being the best in the State. The 
examination for teachers was most rigid, both white and 
colored being subjected to the same test. At the expira- 
tion of the first term of school, when teachers were to be 
examined again, the announcement was made that those 
teachers who reached a certain per cent in the first or any 
subsequent examination should be exempt from further ex- 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 623 

amination as long as they taught in the system. Bu1 one 
of the whole corps of teachers, white and colored, made that 
per cent, and that was Mary C. Jackson. It is not one of 
the revenges of the time, that among the white teachers, 
who were not exempt, was a daughter of the very man 
who had owned Miss Jackson's mother? Later she studied 
at Harvard University and at the University of Chicago. 

After four years in the schools of Athens and five 
as principal of a large public school in Orlando, Fla., where 
she had seven assistant teachers, and three times her Ath- 
ens salary, she accepted work in her alma mater, from which 
place she was induced by Miss Lucy C. Laney, whom she 
greatly loves and admires, to be associate principal of Haines 
Normal and Industrial Institute, Augusta, Ga., a position 
that with honor and efficiency she filled for more than 
twenty years. An indefatigable worker, no figure is more 
familiar than hers to the summer institutes of the State 
and county, where she has instructed large bodies of teach- 
ers. As a speaker for the Freedmen's Board of Missions 
of the Northern Presbyterian church, she has presented 
most acceptably, in almost every city of importance in 
the_ North and West, the educational work of the Board. 
Some years ago when duties were perhaps less exacting, 
it was not uncommon to find in the New York Independent 
a contribution from her pen. It is safe to say that in the 
great effort to enlighten and uplift a needy people but few, 
very few, have rendered service more efficient, more con- 
scientious, and more continuous than she whose life and 

acter this hasty sketch but inadequately portrays 

W. H. CROGMAN. 

Since the above splendid sketch of Miss 
written by Dr. Crogman, she was married on Sep 
to Dr. H. L. McCrorey, Pres .of Biddle Univ< 
lotte. N. C. Immediately she took her place among the 
leaders in the Old North State, where she was already well 
Known. Needless to say that she enters heartily and sym- 
pathetically into the work of her distinguish and at 
Biddle University and into the general v irment 



624 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

outside of the institution. During the world war she was 
in demand far and near and devoted herself to arousing and 
leading her people in every patriotic endeavor. 



Doctor Edward Caldwell 



A man who, as a citizen and profesional man of Dur- 
ham, N. C, stands high in the esteem of both races, is 
Doctor Edward Caldwell, M. D. The men of the Negro 
race who have entered the medical profession as a rule have 
been men of the highest type both in point of character 
and ability. This is true of Dr. Caldwell. 

The story of his antecedents and his early surroundings 
is an interesting one. His father, Wilson Caldwell, was for 
forty years janitor of the University of North Carolina at 
Chapel Hill. The son whose history is recorded here was 
born at Chapel Hill, August 12, 1867. The parents be- 
stowed upon him the name of "Doctor," an unconscious 
prophecy of the profesison which the boy was later to adopt. 
His mother's maiden name was Susan Kirby. 

His grandfather, "Doctor November," was the body 
servant of Dr. Joseph Caldwell, the first president of the 
University. His grandparents on the mother's side, Rob- 
ert Warren and wife, both died at Oskaloosa, Iowa. 

Perhaps it was the scholarly atmosphere of the Uni- 
versity which engendered in the youth the ambition to be a 
scholar himself. Be that as it may, the ambition was awak- 
ened and in the face of difficulties he pressed forward until 
ne had attained his end. Studies in the free schools of 
North Carolina were supplemented by private lessons given 
by students of the University, among them Hon. Lock 
Craig, who later became governor of the State. From here 
he made his way to Shaw University from the Medical de- 
partment of which he was graduated in 1890. He began the 
practice of medicine at Charlotte in 1890. He practiced for 
seventeen years in Osceola, Ark., having passed the exami- 




DOCTOR EDWARD CALDWELL 



Uvj 



■at. • 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 625 

nation of the Ark. State Medical Board in 1892. From Os- 
ceola he came to Durham, N. C, where he now resides. 
He was elected in 1914 a member of the American Associa- 
tion of Progressive Medicine and the Medical Society of the 
United States. 

Dr. Caldwell remained unmarried until rather late in 
life. In November, 1918, he was married to the widow of 
E. B. Caldwell, whose maiden name was Miss Minnie Stroud. 
They have one child, Julia Elizabeth Caldwell. His wife 
has seven children by her former marriage. 

To the influence of his wife, whom he declares to be a 
most exceptional woman, Dr. Caldwell attributes much of 
the present happines sand success of his life. He has also 
found a new epoch in his life, dating from his discovery of 
a cure for Pellagra. 

He is a member of the Congregationalist church and a 
Pythian. Besides medical works, he has read extensively 
and thoughtfully in the Bible, in the great classical writers 
of Greece and Rome and in the works of Shakespeare. He 
has given much thoughtful study to the interest of his own 
people, and he considers Booker Washington and Tuskegee 
Institute to represent the true ideals for the race. Liberal 
education and the removal of unjust restrictions, he believes, 
will solve most of the negro's problem. 

In 1914 Dr. Caldwell read before the Third Annual 
Convention of the Am. Asso. of Progressive Medicine a 
paper on Pellagra, and has been on each succeeding pro- 
gram. He has been unusually successful in his practice 
with Pellagra. At the Kansas City meeting he advanced 
the theory that Pellagra was caused by silica in drinking 
water. 

Dr. Caldwell enjoys the confidence and esteem of all 
classes of people. Having attained pecuniary independence 
and professional eminence, he has every reason to contem- 
plate with gratification the record which he has made. 



John Winston Hairston 



A truly remarkable career is that of the subject of this 
sketch. To be graduated from college, married and licensed 
to preach all on the same year and that when one is but 
sixteen years of age is a record which gives promise of 
unusual things to follow, and this promise was abundantly 
realized in the case of our subject. 

John Winston Hairston is the son of Winston Hairston, 
a laborer, and Letitia (Coolsby) Hairston. His grandpar- 
ents on his mother's side, John and Theny Goolsby* came 
from Virginia to North Carolina. 

His father had attained that measure of success in life 
which saved the son from the difficulties which many poor 
boys experience in their efforts to secure an education. He 
attended the public schools of Stokes and Davie Counties, 
N. C, going later to Shiloh Institute, Warrenton, N. C. He 
then attended Livingstone College, Salisbury, from which he 
was graduated in 1904. 

On May 2nd of the same year he was married to Miss 
Mary Chambers, daughter of Moses and Julia Chambers of 
Salisbury. They are the parents of three children, Roy 
Charles Hairston, John Goolsby Hairston and James Edwin 
Hairston. Mrs. Hairston was educated at the State Nor- 
mal and is herself an accomplished teacher. 

When only 16 years of age, Mr. Hairston was licensed 
to preach by the Cedar Grove Baptist church, and three 
years later, when just nineteen, was ordained to the full 
work of the ministry by the same church. Following his 
ordination, he was called to the pastorate of the First Bap- 
tist church, Lexington, N. C. He was pastor of that church 
for nine years, at the same time serving his home church, 
Cedar Grove seven years of the time. Later he pastored 
the same church for a period of four years. In 1909 he 
accepted a call to Shady Grove church, Salisbury, and he 
still holds this pastorate (1920). For eleven years he has 




JOHN WINSTON HAIRSTON 



628 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

had charge of the graded schools of Salisbury. The degree 
of Doctor of Divinity has been conferred on him by Liv- 
ingstone;' College, his alma mater. Houses of worship have 
been erected on every pastorate which Dr. Hairston has held 
and, whal is equally as important, have been paid for. ; 

Dr. Hairston has visited the principal cities of the 
United States and has been a constant reader of the world's 
best literature. He is familiar with the writings of most 
of the authors who hold a recognized place in the realm of 
letters. This has enabled him to impart the charm of a 
finished literary style to his preaching and to give to his 
work as a teacher a completeness and finish which have 
contributed greatly to its effectiveness. 

He has availed himself of all means for getting in closer 
touch with other men. He is a member of such fraternal 
orders as the Masons, Odd Fellows, Knights of Pythias, 
Royal Knights of K. D. and several others. He is secretary 
of the Rowan Baptist Association and treasurer of the Sun- 
day School Convention of North Carolina. 

The fact that two organizations to which he belongs 
have selected him to be the custodian of their funds is a 
tribute to that rugged honesty, which is a distinguishing 
trait of his character. This quality, joined with industry 
and good business judgment, has made him successful in 
financial matters and he has accumulated a handsome estate. 

Just a little over forty years of age, with a record of 
unusually successful achievements behind him, and beliving 
in education ,thrift and godly living as the best hope for his 
race, he gives every promise of great future usefulness 
as a teacher and leader. 

Dr. Hairston is a member of the State Teachers Asso. 
and was active in his community as leader in war work. 



James Washington Watkins 



Dr. James Washington Watkins, of Reidsville, is a na- 
tive of Henry Co., Va., where he was born July 9, 1877. He 
is an active, progressive, hard working professional man, 
who has succeeded in a large way where no other colored 
physician has succeeded before. . By wise investment and 
the exercise of good business judgment he has also come 
to be regarded by the leaders of both races in his community 
as a sound business man. Dr. Watkins' parents were Surry 
Watkins, a harness maker and his wife, Louisa (Brown) 
Watkins. His paternal grandparents were Hairstons and 
his maternal grandparents were James Blythe and Laura 
Brown. The apparent confusion in names is due to the 
fact that prior to emancipation the names of slaves usually 
followed those of their owners. In 1910 Dr. Watkins was 
married, but later divorced. 

As a boy he went to the public schools in Virginia, bur 
when ready for college was confronted by the necessity of 
working his own way, or securing the means from some 
other source. He decided that the best education was none 
too good, and so matriculated at Howard University at 
Washington, graduating in 1896 with the A. B. degree. 
He took his medical course at Leonard Medical College at 
Raleigh, which he completed in 1901," then spent two years 
at the Polyclinic at Philadelphia and the Children's Sea- 
shore Hospital, Atlantic City. In helping himself through 
college he worked for a while in the tobacco factories at Dan- 
ville, Va., and later did summer work at the Northern sea- 
side resorts. Dr. Watkins was also fortunate in that he had 
some maternal aunts who believed in his ability and who 
were anxious for him to do well and helped him in his strug- 
gle for an education. In 1904 he located at Reidsville, where 
he has built up an extensive general practice. He is a 
member of the State and National Medical Societies. 

Soon after locating in Reidsville he began the purchase 



630 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

of town property and later invested in nearby farm prop- 
erty, all of which have had good enhancement. He is now 
one of the well-to-do men of the town. He is a member 
of the Presbyterian church and is fully identified with the 
Pythians, but is not otherwise active in the secret or benev- 
olent orders. 

Of course he gives right of way to the literature of 
his profession, but next after that finds pleasure and profit 
in the reading of history. Naturally Dr. Watkins has had 
an unusual opportunity of studying his people as he has 
come into close contact" with them and believes that the 
greatest need of the race today is competent leadership 
along all lines. After that, he thinks the next most impor- 
tant thing is that members of the race learn to live within 
their means. Dr. Watkins is a representative of the type of 
young colored men who are doing much for the race and 
who are incidentally themselves succeeding most gratify- 
ingly. The medical profession has attracted to itself within 
the last two decades some of the brightest minds of the 
race, and it is pleasing to know that in the face of long 
established white supremacy they have not only made good 
among their own people, but are cordially received by the 
white members of the profession. 



Brachelor Kelly Mason 



Among the younger men who are doing excellent work 
the Rev. Brachelor Kelly Mason, now of Charlotte, N. C, 
is making a great record of accomplishment in his 
chosen vocat'on, the ministry. He is in bis early prime, 
born near Fork Church, Davie Co., N. C, Sept. 2, 1881, son 
of Colwell and Lucinda Mason. His father was son of 
G. G. Mason, and his mother was a daughter of Burwell and 
Phyllis Mason, all of them having been brought from Vir- 
ginia to Carolina in old slave days. 

Colwell Mason was a farmer and his son had the usual 




BRACHELOR KELLY MASON 



632 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

rearing of a farmer's boy. At the age of 13 he was con- 
verted and joined the Cedar Grove Baptist church. Mr. 
Mason received his elementary training from the country 
school at Fork Church, and arriving at manhood, feeling 
the call to the ministry, he was licensed by his home 
church and ordained to the ministry. 

His first call was to the First Baptist church, West 
Raleigh, N. C, serving next the Mt. Zion Baptist church of 
Reidsville, N. C. Coincidentally with these early pastorates 
he pursued his college studies first at Livingstone College, 
Salisbury, N. C, and then at Shaw University, Raleigh, N. C. 
He graduated in Theology in 1911, and in the college degrees 
in 1914, holding the degrees of Bachelor of Theology and 
Bachelor of Arts, both from Shaw University. After four 
years of service at Reidsville, N. C, he was called to the 
White Rock Baptist church of Lynchburg, Va. This Lynch- 
burg pastorate began in 1914 and terminated in the summer 
of 1920. 

Those six years were years of splendid success. He se- 
cured the building of a new church at a cost of $35,000, with 
modern equipment and conveniences, and far greater than 
his material success he added six hundred members to his 
church. In September, 1920, he accepted a call to the 
Friendship Baptist church, at Charlotte, N. C, thus coming 
again in close touch with his home state and home people. 
While in Virginia he served as a member of the Educational 
Board of Virginia Baptist State Convention. 

Mr. Mason had the usual difficulties to overcome in se- 
curing an education, which seems to be the lot of the small 
farmer's boy. He attended college without a month's tui- 
tion ahead and made himself a mail boy for other students 
and professors, then his early pastorates helped him out. 

He credits as the most potent factors in shaping his 
life his faith in God, and the prayers of a godly and sainted 
mother. 

He has been a man of one work, a pastor, and the re- 
sults so far achieved appear to fully justify his concentra- 
tion on and consecration to his work. With the Bible and 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 633 

religious literature as the foundation of his reading he has 
added such a range of secular reading as well serve to keep 
him in close touch with current events and modern topics. 

He is a Republican in politics and holds membership in 
the Odd Fellows and Masons. ,',.., f ff}lp 

Mr. Mason is of the opinion that the best interest of the 
race is best promoted by racial confidence and self help, 
which is mighty good doctrine. 

He has accumulated some property, now valued at over 
$30,000, which proves that he is not lacking business quah- 

^^Mr 8 Mason was married Oct. 9, 1913, to Miss Antoinette 
Alston daughter of Jacob and Olivia Alston, of Weldon, 
NC and they have one son, William T. Mason Mrs. 
Mason was educated at Hartshorn College, Richmond, Va., 
and prior to her marriage was an accomplished teacher 

With 14 years experience in the pastorate, with fine 
natural ability, with a good educational equipment, with 
large success already won and not yet forty years old, 
Brachelor Kelly Mason bids fair to do a great work if he is 
spared to length of days. 



Charlotte Hawkins Brown 

Mrs Charlotte Hawkins Brown, although born in North 
Carolina, has been more intimately associated in Massachu- 
setts, having grown up there and is a product of its schools 
At a very early age she showed a marked degree ot 
scholarship and musical ability. Before the age of four- 
teen she had accompanied in public concert such artists as 
Flora Batson Bergen and others of equal importance It 
was thought in her early years that her time would be 
mostly devoted to music and writing. Letters, poems and 
stories were published in magazines and leading papers ot 
Boston while she was a pupil in the grammar school. She 
early developed religious traits which drew her more 



' '■■■'■<■- 1 ; ' 






CHARLOTTE HAWKINS BROWN 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 635 

closely to the work of the Baptist ehureh in her home city 
of Cambridge and she often refers to those years of «ta£ 
ish service as the preparation for the larger work m reh- 
gious education that has characterized her life and work. 

Mrs Brown, familiarly known as Charlotte Hawkins, 
received' her special inspiration to take up the work of 
founding a school for the training of boys and girls ,n he 
ural districts, from an address delivered by Dr Washing on 
in Boston in the early part of her 'teens. She felt that he 
opportunities afforded her in the New England school could 
not be better used than to give out to those of her race who 
made their homes in the backwoods districts 

It was in 1900, fresh from one of the State Normal 
Schools of Massachusetts, still a girl, she found her way to 
a little rural village in the state of North Carolina, undei 
the auspices of the American Missionary Association; flnd- 
„g there the district country church and warm hearted 
country folk. Further encouraged and inspired by her 
friend Mrs. Alice Freeman Palmer, a Cambridge woman 
who had served as president of Wellesley College she set 
out to build a community settlement. Long before the 
Jeanes Fund had been created, before North Carolina or 
any of the Southern States had the awakening for rural 
education, this young woman was planning a model school 
in the heart of a farming district. Withdrawing from the 
Association after the first year because of its -willingness 
to invest funds, it was necessary for her to labor without 
salary, beginning with a log cabin as a dormitory and with 
the church as a school house. The following clippings from 
editorials appearing in the leading daily in Greensbo o, 
North Carolina, describe better than anything else the out- 
come of the persistent work, courage and faith of this young 



woman. 



■It is a fascinating story, that of the long years of a- 
bor upon the most unpromising beginnings, made by a slip 
of a girl, coming all alone from the satisfying atmosphere 
of Cambridge culture. What would you expect of a black 
girl reared in New England, with both manners and man- 



636 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

ner, a cultivated speaking voice and certainly the substan- 
tial beginnings of a liberal education, refined tastes, thus 
introduced in a North Carolina community? Whatever it 
would be reasonable to expect, it is to be said that in this 
particular case the girl was further endowed with the great 
riches of sound common sense. Moreover she was deeply 
and intensely devout. One hears her speak in convincing 
way of entire nights spent upon her knees in the poor hut 
in which she first lived and worked." 

"The real worth of Palmer Memorial Institute is doubt- 
less already well known to most Greensboro people, in help- 
ing to solve many of the larger problems of the race prob- 
lems that are of vital interest to county, state and nation. 
It took a distinguished lead in war activities, and the insti- 
tution has twenty-one men in the service. It is a really vi- 
tal factor in our community life, and the leading white peo- 
ple are beginning to use it as a medium through which the 
North and South may come to some agreement as to the 
best and wisest policy to promote pair play for the earnest, 
self-respecting Negroes of our State." 

Principal Charlotte Hawkins Brown, of Palmer Insti- 
tute, has raised through her more immediate friends the 
sum of $10,000 for the building fund, although as a matter 
of fact, consideration given to the school, b3th in the North 
and here in Greensboro, is largely based on the work and 
personality of the principal, a woman of marked superiority, 
whose long and patient and arduous labors have been fruit- 
ful of impressive results." 

In less than twenty years the Palmer Memorial Insti- 
tute, of which she is principal and founder, has taken high 
rank among the institutions of the South and Mrs. Brown 
has become a national character. She is an easy talker and 
is frequently sought to aid movements of state and national 
interest. She is president of the Federation of Colored 
Women's Clubs in the State of North Carolina and has been 
an officer for a number of years of the National Association 
of Colored Women's Clubs. She bears the distinction of be- 
ing perhaps the only Negro woman in the South who has 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 637 

been able to reach the heart of the Southerner and wrench 
from his pockets ten or more thousand dollars for Negro 
education. She has been invited into the white women's 
club rooms, inta the schools and churches to take her mes- 
sage from the school and for the uplift of the womanhood 
of her race. 

Aside from her school work, she has been largely 
responsible for the great movement launched in North Caro- 
lina to save the delinquent colored youth of the state, to- 
wards which North Carolina's famous Governor Bickett 
has so generously given his approval. She numbers among 
her friends, president? of the leading universities of the 
North, and is spoken of by Dr. Ghas. Eliot of Harvard fame, 
as having done the nost constructive piece of work in that 
she has brought together for the common good of the Ne- 
groes of her section the leading white psople of that section 
with the leading educators and financiers of the North. It 
is no common thing for a Negro woman to be able to hold a 
conference in Boston to which four bankers and merchants 
of a Southern State would find their way in support of her 
plan. 

From a barren field of brush and straw there has 
sprung up buildings in wood and brick to the value of 
$150,000 or more and Sedal ; a, N. C, now known and recog- 
nized as a rural center, is the work of Mrs. Brown. Her 
choice of workers during the years of service, the result of 
which has created what is known as "the Sedalia spirit," 
has been due largely to her keen insight into the character 
of others. The faithfulness of these co-workers, the love 
to a point of worship of the farming people in the neighbor- 
hood, are all but a tribute to the ''faith in action" as demon- 
strated in the life of Mrs. Brown. 

One feels that the day of miracles is not past when she 
repeats incident after incident of the remarkable answers to 
prayers that have created the Palmer Memorial Institute. 
It is refreshing in these times of skepticism and atheism 
to find a well educated, refined man or woman of either race 
claiming personal friendship with God. 



638 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

The institution has furnished many teachers for the 
rural schools. It has made it possible for its patrons to 
have homes near the school. Its present enrollment is over 
two hundred fifty students, half of whom are boarders, 
with a corps of thirteen workers from the best schools 
north and south. 

Sedalia is a little rural village ten miles east of Greens- 
boro, N. C., in which city Mrs. Brown has the profound 
respect of the leading people of both races. To quote a 
banker, this expression carries great weight: "Mrs. 
Brown's name on a piece of paper can be cashed for any 
amount of money in Greensboro." This is all the more 
remarkable when one realizes that instead of accumulating 
for herself she has made untold sacrifices to build the in- 
stitution. It is confidence in her judgment and business 
ability to carry out any project that makes merchants or 
financiers her backers in any movement. It is interesting 
to hear her tell how she has made friends of the Southern- 
ers who looked upon the Boston product twenty years ago 
as an exponent of social equality and race amalgamation. 

The motto of her life has been, "Attempt great things 
for God and expect great things from God;" and for this 
she has been amply rewarded. 



John Daniel Cowan 



It is a far cry from a cotton patch in Due West, South 
Carolina, to the Presiding Eldership of a great denomination 
like the A. M. E. Church, with which Rev. John Daniel 
Cowan, of Asheville, is identified. 

The story of his life is full of human interest and, in a 
way, typical of the progress of the race since emancipation. 

He was born at Due West, S. C, July 13, 1873. His 
father, Jesse Cowan, was a blacksmith and a farmer. He 
worked hard, stood well in the community, and the son re- 
members him as a man of sterling Christian character, 




JOHN DANIEL OOWAN 



640 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

whose example and whose teachings started the boy in the 
right direction. Jesse Cowan was a son of Daniel and Ada- 
Jine Wright. The mother of our subject was Miss Maria R. 
Sitton, before her marriage to Jesse Cowan. She was a 
daughter of Myrinda Sitton. She was a woman of the 
highest Christian character and exerted a most helpful 
and powerful influence on the life of her son. Hers was an 
exemplary life, of which the son today is justly proud. 

There has for years been a Presbyterian parochial 
school at Due West which, in a quiet way, has done splen- 
did work in that immediate section. Rev. Dr. A. G. Davis 
and the Rev. Dr. F. L. Brodie were his teachers in this 
school. To this young Cowan went as a boy and passed 
from there to Biddle University where he studied for two 
years, 1893-1895. After his work at Biddle, he pursued a 
private course in night school covering a period of four 
years. It will thus be seen that he was preparing himself 
for the serious work in life. 

He was converted and joined the church when about 
fifteen years of age and joined the Conference at Raleigh 
in 1903 under Bishop B. F. Lee. He was ordained deacon 
at Morganton, 1904, ordained elder at Winston-Salem, 1906, 
by Wishop W. J. Gaines. Beginning with the smallest mis- 
sion in the Western North Carolina Conference he has, by 
faithfulness, loyalty and hard word risen steadily through 
circuits and stations to the Presiding Eldership of the Mor- 
ganton District, to which he was appointed in 1920. 

His first pastorate was the Statesville Mission, one 
year. After that he served the following charges: Mt. 
Airy four years, Lenoir two years, Pittsboro three years, 
Winston-Salem three years, Asheville four years. His re- 
turn being desired at each place served. 

Though frequently offered other honors, Dr. Cowan has 
steadily declined them and has gone steadily ahead with 
his work, preferring for the record to stand for itself. 

He belongs to the Odd Fellows, the Pythians and the 
St. Luke's. He believes that the best interests of the race 
are to be promoted by proper teaching in the home, the 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 641 

school and the church, by intelligent exercise of the fran- 
chise and by the practical application of democracy. 

Dr Cowan has attended two General Conferences. 

In the summer of 1904, he was married to Miss Lelia E. 
Rankin, a daughter of Alex and Pricilla Rankin Ifa. 
Cowan was educated at Scotia Seminary and graduated in 
1896 They have five children, Waldo E., David Vernon, 
Horace B. J., Gladys M. and John Daniel, Jr. 



Leavey James Melton 

The Rev Leavey James Melton, who has for a number 
of years been identified with the Presbyterian work of North 
Carolina, is a native of the sister State of South Carolina, 
having been born at Mechanicsville, S. C, on Christmas day, 
1864. 

His father, Manson Melton, was a farmer and our sub- 
ject grew up on the farm and after coming of school age, 
divided his time between the farm and the short term 
schools of that day. His grandfather was Robert Melton. 
The mother of our subject was, before her marriage, Miss 
Eliza Jenkins. She was a daughter of John and Amy 
Jenkins. 

Dr. Melton was married July 13, 1893, to Miss Rebecca 
Cantey, a daughter of Fusler and Chaney Cantey of Char- 
lotte N C. There are four living children by this mar- 
riage They are Marian C, Hallie Q., Ona B., and Robert J. 
Melton. The mother of these children passed away and 
subsequently Dr. Melton married Miss Bessie Cathey. They 
have four children: Blar.che L„ Aldrich P., Ruby and Olb.e 
J. Melton. 

At an early age Mr. Melton was led to consecrate his 
life to the work of the Gospel ministry. With the purpose 
of equipping himself for that important work he matricu- 
lated at Biddle University from which he was graduated 




LEAVEY JAMES MELTON 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 643 

with the B. D. degree in 1891. Since that time the same 
institution has conferred on him the D. D. degree. 

Dr Melton began his ministerial career at Wilson, 
N C where he preached for seven years. After resigning 
that work he went to McClintock and Mt. Olive. He is now 
serving Cedar Grove and Matthews, where he has preached 
for ten years. He is regarded as one of the strong men of 
his church. He has traveled considerably in this country 
and is well informed. Next after the Bible his favorite 
reading includes the English Classics and American poets. 

Among the secret orders he is identified with the Ma- 
sons the Odd Fellows and the Pythians. He has attended 
two general assemblies if his church. In politics he is a 
Republican. 



Thomas Settles Marsh 



The self-sacrifice the splendid enthusiasm, and the 
personal devotion of many of the men who have consecrated 
their lives to the Gospel ministry are worthy of imitation. 
Not a few of them are men of such capacity, had they 
turned their attention to business pursuits, their success 
would have been assured. Among the successful young 
men of the A. M. E. connection in North Carolina must be 
mentioned Rev. Thomas Settles Marsh now (1919) stationed 
at New Bern. Mr. Marsh was born in Grace Creek Town- 
ship, Cumberland Co. on July 8, 1876. H : s father, William 
Marsh, was a farmer and was the son of Rachel Marsh and 
William Winsor Mr. Marsh's mother was before her mar- 
riage, Miss Rosa A. Kirk, who was a daughter of Isabella 
Kirk and Richmond Gri 

Rev. Marsh went to the Kenley graded school as a boy 
and later did his Theological work thr< 
ence course. He w; led when 

of age. Even before that he had frit that his work in life 
must be that of the ministry. So it 




THOMAS SETTLES MARSH 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 645 

after giving his heart to God he naturally turned his mind 
to the work of preaching the Gospel. In 1906 he joined the 
Conference at Wilmington under the late Bishop W. J. 
Gaines. His first pastorate was a mission at Wilson, He 
was successful from the beginning. While at Wilson he 
built two churches and remodeled another. From Wilson 
he went to Whiteville Circuit, where he preached for two 
years and repaired three churches. His next appointment 
was the Burgaw Circuit which he served for three years. 
Here he built one church and remodeled two others. He 
was then promoted to Station work and assigned to the 
Eue Chapel Station in the historic old town of New Bern, 
where he is now entering upon his fourth year. 

Looking back over the years of his boyhood and youth 
he feels that the greatest influences for good in his life 
have beeri the church and Sunday School. He also owes 
"much to personal contact with good men and, of course, to 
his own studies. In his reading he gives first place to the 
Bible. He believes that the acceptance and following of 
•Jesus Christ would solve all our problems racial and oth- 
erwise. 

In 1898 he was married to Miss Katie J. George, a 
daughter of Frank and Catherine George. Oi the seven 
children born to them the following are living: William H., 
Katie R., Naomi L., and Thomas S. Marsh, Jr. 



Lovelace Brown Capehart 



Dr. Lovelace Brown Capehart, A. B.. A. M., LL.B.. 
M. D., is a man of marked ability and real worth. He was 
"born in Bertie Co, N. C, Sept. 28, 1863. His father was 
•one of the most substantial white citizens of that section, 
and his mother's name was Penelope Capehart. His ances- 
tors on his father's side were French settlers in Louisiana 
:and the ancestors of his mother's side were slaves. 

Dr. Capehart was reared in the midst of adverse cir- 




LOVELACE BROWN CAPEHART 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 647 

cumstances and had much to overcome to get a start in 
life. He had no one to help him but his mother and no 
one to advise him how to secure an education. But in some 
way or other he managed to get a start sufficient to permit 
him to enter the State Normal School at Elizabeth City. 
From the beginning he showed himself possessed of a high 
order of intellect, and his progress was rapid in his studies. 
He afterward entered Shaw University about 1884, and re- 
mained there through much effort until he was finally grad- 
uated not only from the College Department, but until he 
had also finished the course in the Law Department at the 
same institution. He then accepted a position as an instruc- 
tor in his Alma Mater, becoming professor of English, 
which position he held successfully for eight years, after 
which he resigned to accept a similar position in the Jackson 
Baptist College, at Jackson, Miss. He remained in the far 
South for several years and gathered valuable experience 
which greatly helped him in his after life. He then re- 
signed and return to Raleigh where he took up the study of 
medicine at Leonard Medical College, and began the practice 
•of medicine in Raleigh in 1907 and has continued there since. 

Dr. Capehart was married to Miss Maggie Lillian Love 
at Raleigh on March 3, 1893, and to this happy union have 
been born six children, five of whom survive. The oldest 
son, Henry Martin Tupper Capehart, died in infancy. The 
second son, Lieut. Lovelace B. Capehart, Jr., served in the 
Army in France. He is now married and engaged in Y. 
M. C. A. work. The third child is a daughter, Miss Myrtle 
Lillian, an accomplished young lady of engaging personality 
and pleasing manners. The fourth child, Edwin L. Cape- 
hait, served in the Navy during the World War. 

Dr. Capehart's idea of the best solution of the problems 
of the race is that the Negro should receive the full protec- 
tion of the law as every other citizen, and be allowed to 
work out his own destiny. He has full confidence in the 
ability of his race to make good if given the proper chance: 
One thing is certain, and that is if the race had only a few 
"thousand men of the character and worth of Dr. Capehart 



648 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

we should soon have no race problem on our hands. He 
claims that he owes his success in life to his having been 
reared at his mother's fireside out in the country away from 
the allurements of city life as well as his being influenced 
by the lives of distinguished persons that he early learned 
to emulate, and most of all to the study and acquaintance 
with the Bible. He is a member of the Baptist church. 
In politics he is a Republican, but has never held nor sought 
any political office. He is a member of the Pythians and 
other organizations and is always regarded as a safe and 
worthy leader. 



Hammond Glasgow Pope 



At the historic old town of Fayetteville, today, is an 
enterprising young Baptist preacher who is bringing things 
to pass. He is a native North Carolinian, and was born 
at Wake Forest, May 2, 1886. His name is Hammond Glas- 
gow Pope, and his father was Henry Pope, a farmer. The 
boy himself grew up on the farm and was accustomed to 
do all sorts of farm work before going to college. His pa- 
ternal grandfather was Emanuel Pope. His mother, before 
her marriage, was Carolina Hockaday, a daughter of Mingo 
and Adaline Hockaday. 

Young Peope went to the public school at Wake Forest 
and passed from there to that justly celebrated institution,, 
the National Training School, at Durham. Here he carried 
on both his classical nd his theological training at the same 
time. He had grown to manhood and was twenty-four 
years of age before he was converted and joined the church. 
Almost simultaneously with his conversion came the call 
to the ministry. He was licensed to preach by the Olive 
Branch Baptist church at Wake Forest and in 1914 was or- 
dained to the full work of the ministry. 

His first pastoral work was the Ebenezer Baptist 
church of East Durham, where he preached for three and a 





HAMMOND GLASGOW POPE 



650 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

half years. He cleared the church of debt and before leav- 
ing bought land and left $500.00 in the treasury to begin 
the new building. He went from there to Mount Bright, 
Hillsboro, where he preached for two and a half years. By 
this time, the character of his work had become recognized 
in the denomination, and in 1919 he was called to the First 
Baptist church at Fayetteville which, under his leadership, 
has taken on new life. He has given considerable attention 
to evangelistic work and has before him a future bright 
with promise. 

On November 2, 1913, he was united in the bonds of 
matrimony to Miss Eleanor Hawkins, a daughter of Henry 
and Elizabeth Hawkins, of Franklinton. Mrs. Pope is an 
accomplished woman, who enters heartily into the plans of 
her husband. Of the four children born to them, three 
girls and one boy, two have passed away, leaving them two 
girls: Elizabeth G. and Ruby C. Pope. 

Rev. Pope has found his chief inspiration in religion, 
and in the lives of great men and women. In his reading 
he gives first place to the Bible, but he is also a careful 
student of history and gains help and good influence from 
biography. He also likes to keep up with current magazines 
and periodicals. He belongs to the Masons and Pythians. 



Jacob Robert Nelson 



The visitor to Asheville is impressed with one of the 
splendid modern church buildings near the center of the 
city ; and, on enquiry, finds that it is the Mount Zion Baptist 
church, or perhaps he will more frequently be told that it is 
"Dr. Nelson's church." The story of the development of 
the work at Mt. Zion and the growth and progress of its 
splendid pastor should be told wherever the race is strug- 
gling to do a piece of constructive work. It is simply an- 
other case of a man trusting God and doing the impossible. 
Beginning with a congregation of five folks, in a little to- 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 651 

bacco barn, the work has grown to magnificent proportions, 
so that the congregation now numbers more than 2,000 mem- 
bers and the structure, when completed, will represent a 
value of at least $75,000.00. This is the tangible part of the 
work, the part that can be seen and handled. The best part 
of this fruitful pastorate of twenty-five years cannot be 
measured in numbers, nor told in figures. The burdens that 
have been lifted, the hearts that have been comforted, the 
souls that have been saved is the best part of the record, and 
is not recorded on earth. 

Rev. Jacob Robert Nelson, the pastor of this church, 
is a native of Tennessee, having been born at Beaver Creek 
in Knox Co,, August 2, 1867. His father, Carrick Nelson, 
was a Methodist preacher and the son was brought up in 
the Methodist church and fter his conversion, joined that 
denomination. His mother, before her marriage, was Miss 
Amanda McComb, a daughter of Solomon and Maria Mc- 
Comb. 

Young Nelson attended the local public schools and 
later went to the Normal Institute at Maysville, Tenn., from 
which he was graduated in 1884. He learned the blacksmith 
trade and was a good blacksmith. He was also a fireman 
on the railroad for some time, but could not get away from 
the idea that he ought to preach the Gospel. Accordingly, 
he was licensed to preach in 1895 and preached for some 
time before his ordination. He had been called to the Mt. 
Zion church at Asheville, and when he came to his first 
service on that pastorate he found five persons assembled 
in the little tobacco barn near the present site of the church. 
Under his leadership they soon outgrew these quarters and 
moved to a neighboring carpenter shop. This was also soon 
overflowing and it was necessary to build a house of wor- 
ship, which was done at an expense of about $6,000. With 
fidelity and courage the young pastor went about his work, 
while the congregation grew by leaps and bounds. The 
church, at the time it was built, was thought to be commo- 
dious enough for years, but it was soon overflowing and it 
was seen that a new and modern house of worship was de- 



652 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

manded. Accordingly, the plans were made, and now 
(1920) a splendid brick edtfice with a large seating capacity 
is nearing completion on Eagle Street. 

Dr. Nelson finds that his great congregation occupies 
all his time and energy. He used to give considerable 
attention to evangelistic work outside of his own church, 
but has not been able to do this in recent years. He was 
for a number of years Moderator of the French Broad Bap- 
tist Association and at one time president of the State Bap- 
tist Convention. There is no man of his denomination in 
Western North Carolina who is more prominent in the work 
than is Dr. Nelson of the Mt. Zion Baptist church of Ashe- 
ville. 

On December 28, 1885, he was married to Miss Mary 
Griffith, of Tennessee. She bore him seven children, three 
of whom are living. They are John J., Dedrick and Lois 
Nelson. On June 9 1894, Mrs. Nelson passed to her reward. 
Subsequently, Dr. Nelson was married to Miss Hannah 
Mitchell, then of Washington, D. C, but a native of North 
Carolina. 

Dr. Nelson's secret order affiliations are with the Ma- 
sons. He has collected a good working library and knows 
how to use his books. Next after the Bible, his favorite 
reading consists of biography and history. In the early 
part of his pastorate at Asheville, he ran a parochial school 
there for five years and is still of the opinion that the prog- 
ress of the race depends more upon Christian education than 
anything else. He has property interests at Asheville and 
Knoxville. 



Charles Loftin Walton Smith 



In the professions and in business circles there is com- 
ing to the front a class of young men who are destined to 
make a large part for themselves in the race, and who today 
stand as the best exponents of race progress and race cul- 




CHARLES LOFTIN WALTON SMITH 



654 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

ture. Among these must be mentioned Prof. Charles 
Loftin Walton Smith of Smithfield who, after years of 
faithful service as an educator, organized and incorporated 
in his home town, the North Carolina Investment Com- 
pany with an authorized capital of twenty-five thousand 
dollars. 

Mr. Smith was born at Smithfield on July 8, 1883. His 
father, A. W. Smith, is one of the most successful business 
men of his race in that part of the State. His mother's 
name was Mary Smith. The mother of our subject was 
before her marriage to A. W. Smith, Miss Lina W. Thomas, 
a daughter of John and Amanda Thomas. 

Mr. Smith was married on April 3, 1902, to Miss Ella 
M. Mason, a native of Halifax Co. Mrs. Smith was educated 
at Shaw University and is herself an accomplished teacher. 
They have a family of four attractive children. Their 
names are Edith Mable, Lina May, A. Whitted, and Carlisle 
W. Smith. 

As a boy young Smith attended the local public school 
and made a good record as a student. When ready for col- 
lege, he matriculated at Shaw University, where he spent 
three years in college work, winning the A. B. degree. Even 
before completing his college course, he began teaching. 
His first work was in his home county in the rural schools. 
Some estimate of the character of his work as a teacher 
may be formed from the fact that he was for seven years 
supervisor of the colored schools of Johnston Co. Prof. 
Smith passed the Civil Service Board and spent the years 
of 1907 and 1908 in the government service in the Pensa- 
cola Navy Yard, Florida, as a bookkeeper. He was also at 
the Norfolk Navy Yard for one year, resigning here and 
returning home, where he was placed at the head of the 
Smithfield graded school until Sept., 1909, when he was 
made supervisor. This was excellent preparation for the 
business career on which he is now entering. In January, 
1919, he organized the North Carolina Investment Company 
for the purpose of buying and selling, renting and developing 
real estate. The concern also has a loan and building fea- 




VQ^^^v 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 655 

ture. As Prof. Smith was the moving spirit in the organi- 
zation, he was made secretary and manager, a position he 
is well equipped to fill. He has associated with him as 
stockholders and directors the most substantial and success- 
ful men of the race in and around Smithfield and in Johnston 
Co. 

Mr. Smith is a member of the Baptist church, but has 
not identified himself with the secret orders. He is a clear 
and forceful speaker and is in demand on public occasions. 
His favorite reading is history. In opening up a new line 
of endeavor, he is pointing the way for other enterprising 
young men who may venture to get out of the beaten paths. 



Robert Baxter McRary 



Large numbers of Negroes have done well as the pages 
of this book will testify. Occasionally, however, there is 
to be found a man who by reason of his exceptional ability 
and unusual attainment stands out as an illustration and 
as an inspiration to the struggling youth of the race. Such 
a man is Dr. Robert Baxter McRary of Lexington. His 
clear cut methods, his dignified but cordial manner and his 
scholarly attainments have won him a wide circle of friends 
and put him at the head of the oldest and most powerful 
of the secret orders and benevolent societies of the State, 
the Masons, of which he is the Grand Master. Dr. Mc- 
Rary has not found it necessary to leave home in order to 
succeed. It reflects credit on both his ability and his 
character that he has been able to work out so large a 
measure of success in the town where he was born, and 
among the people with whom he was reared and who know 
him best. He was born at Lexington just before the out- 
bread of the war on Nov. 21, 1860. His parents were W. H. 
and Jane McRary. 

On June 23, 1896, Dr. McRary was married to Miss 
Annie E. Mendenhall, a daughter of Aaron and Carrie A. 



656 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Mendenhall of Greensboro. Mrs. McRary passed away 
Feb. 7, 1903. 

About the close of the war, our subject was "bound" or 
apprenticed as an orphan. He was then about five years 
old. Fortunately for the boy he fell into the hands of a 
Christian guardian, who inspired in him a desire for an edu- 
cation and an ambition for a career in life. When of school 
age, he attended the Presbyterian Parochial School of Lex- 
ington. After that he matriculated at Lincoln University, 
where he won his Bachelor's degree in 1885. His work as 
a student was of a high order though his way in school was 
not easy. He was thrown largely on his own resources and 
earned the money for his expenses by working during vaca- 
tions at the watering places along the Jersey Coasr. He 
bears willing testimony to the fact that the wholesome reli- 
gious atmosphere of Lincoln University was a helpful in- 
fluence in his life. 

After graduation he began teaching in his home county. 
In 1891-2-3 he was principal of the graded school at Reids- 
ville, N. C. He was then called to the head of the Normal 
Department at Livingstone College. The record he made 
as an educator was such as to enable him to select his own 
place in the school work of the State had he chosen to re- 
main in that field of activity. 

He resigned his work at Livingstone to accept a posi- 
tion as private secretary to Mr. T. C. Ford, a capitalist and 
real estate man of Lexington, and easily passed into the real 
estate business for himself, in which he has been unusually 
successful. 

When the graded schools were organized in Lexington 
he drafted the plan for the building for the colored school 
and supervised that school for several years. 

In 1907 he toured Europe, Egypt and the Holy Land, 
and wrote a series of Travelogues that attracted considera- 
ble attention. 

In 1913 he delivered the address on "Isaac N. Rendall 
as an Educator" at the dedication of the bronze tablet which 
the alumni of Lincoln University provided in memory of the 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 657 

late President Rendall, on which occasion his Alma Mater 
conferred on him the L.L. D. degree. He has also the dis- 
tinction of being the first individual alumnus to found a 
scholarship at Lincoln University. In 1916 he declined 
the presidency of Bennett College. 

In politics Dr. McRary is a Republican and was for 
six years Magistrate at Lexington. He is a member of 
the M. E. church and is a member of the "Board of Mana- 
gers of the Freedmen's Aid Society" of his denomination. 
He is also a trustee of Bennett College. So in the religious 
as well as in the business and educational life of his people 
he is a leader. 

He has forged to the front in still another line. Among 
the secret orders, he affiliates with the Masons, the Odd 
Fellows and the Pythians. In 1908 he was chosen Grand 
Master of the Masons, Jurisdiction of North Carolina. Un- 
der his administration the order has prospered and has 
grown from two hundred seventy-two lodges to more than 
six hundred, with a membership of approximately fifteen 
thousand. There is no finer or more loyal group of men 
meeting in the State than the Grand Lodge of Masons over 
which Dr. McRary presides. He is president of the En- 
dowment Board which handles the large benefit, funds of 
the order. 

Dr. McRary is a clear and forceful speaker. While he 
is not an agitator, still he is unafraid. The first question 
he asks himself about a measure or a policy which he is 
asked to oppose or support is, "Is it right?" He is the 
apostle of progress for his own people and all people but at 
the same time is far from being an alarmist. There are 
wrongs to be righted, but he believes more strongly in a 
program of friendship and mutual co-operation along edu- 
cational, industrial, moral and civic lines than in recrimina- 
tion and retaliation. 

Perhaps the best thing that can be said of Dr. McRary 
is that he is a good citizen. During the World War, Dr. 
McRary was appointed by the State Director, Colonel F. H. 
Fries, Chairman of the W. S. S. Committee (Col.) He can- 



658 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

vassed the State at his own expense and received honorable 
mention in the official "History of the W. S. S. Campaign 
in N. C." 



Phillip John Augustus Coxe 



Coming as he does from an environment conducive to 
high attainments and descending from ancestors who for 
generations knew not slavery, Rev. Philip John Augustus 
Coxe, A. B., A. M., S. T. B., pastor of the Presbyterian 
churches at Mebane and Graham and Principal of Yadkin 
Academy at Mebane, already has behind him a record of 
accomplishment of which a much older man might well be 
proud, and, with his equipment, may look forward to years 
of large service in his chosen line of work. He is a native 
of Chestertown, Md., where he was born May 22, 1872. He 
is the fifth of the line to bear the name John. His father, 
John P. Coxe, Jr., was a clergyman. He in turn was the 
son of John P. Coxe, Sr., who was widely known. His 
father's name was John Baptist Coxe, who was a son of 
John Coxe. This remarkable family belonged to a colony 
of free Negroes who lived at Mt. Pleasant, Md. The mother 
of Prof. Coxe resides in Pittsburgh with her son, James D., 
who is Pres. of North Side Realty Co. 

As a boy, young Coxe, our subject, grew up in the city 
of Washington, where he enjoyed the advantages of the 
splendid schools for which the Capital City is well known. 
He completed his work at the M. St. High School in 1893. 
He passed from High School to Duquesne College, Pitts- 
bugh, where he made a brilliant record as a student. At 
this time, when only nineteen, he edited a weekly newspaper 
and was perhaps the youngest editor of his the race in the 
country. 

Among other honors he was class day orator, being one 
of two colored youth in a student body of six hundred. He 
completed his college course at Lincoln University in 1901 




PHILIP JOHN AUGUSTUS COXE 



660 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

with the A. B. degree. He won honors in history and 
political science. After completing his work in the college 
department he studied Theology at Lincoln University and 
won the S. T. B. degree in 1904. In both the sophomore 
and junior college years he won second medals in oratory. 
The A. M. degree was conferred on him by the same insti- 
tution. His first public ministry was in the capacity of 
Sabbath School Missionary in Bellevue, a suburb of Alle- 
gheny, Pa., under direction of the Bellevue Presbyterian 
church. The character of that early work may be inferred 
from the fact that the Mission School grew into a flourish- 
ing church. After one year on the Bellevue work, he was 
called to Carlisle, where he preached from 1905-08. He 
served the church at Westchester, Pa., from 1908 to 1914, 
when he was called to a professorship in the Mary Potter 
School at Oxford, N. C. Here he taught Latin, Ancient 
History and English for two years. In 1916 he moved to 
Mebane, N. C, to take charge of the Presbyterian work at 
that point, including both the church and Yadkin Academy 
of which he is Principal. 

On May 24, 1904, Dr. Coxe was married to Miss Ama 
Delia Caliman, eldest daughter of the late Rev. David F. 
Caliman, pastor of Allen Temple, Cincinnati. She was edu- 
cated in Pennsylvania. They have five children, Philip F. 
A., Gloucester C, Helen M., John the Fifth and Paul D. 
Coxe. 

Among the secret orders, Dr. Coxe is identified with the 
Pythians. In politics he is a Republican. When asked for 
some expression as to how the best interests of the race 
are to be promoted, Dr. Coxe replied, "By education, Chris- 
tian education. Also a recognition of the fact on the part 
of race leaders that our rights are to be obtained as history 
shows all subject races have; that agitation must be with- 
out bitterness; that the ascendant race must be educated 
into the fact that we are not the same people we were in 1619 
or even in 1861. As men we want a chance, a man's chance 
to act, to live. How to persuade him to see that is vital 
to the problem." 



William Julius Jordan 



Rev. William Julius Jordan now (1920) residing at 
Durham, has to his credit many years of faithful effective 
work as a preacher of the Gospel. His voice has been heard 
from the mountains to the sea, and he numbers his friends 
by the hundreds in every part of the State. Though born 
in slavery, Dr. Jordan has lived to see the most wonderful 
developments of all history. He has been an active partici- 
pant in much of the development of his own race and has 
done his part as a religious leader. He was born at Wil- 
mington, Jan., 5, 1853. Being a boy of eight at the out- 
break of the war and twelve when it closed, he remembers 
with distinctness many of the scenes of that great struggle 
as they were enacted in his native city. Dr. Jordan's par- 
ents were Willis and Frances Jordan. 

Willis Jordan farmed after emancipation and lived to 
a ripe old age, having passed away in 1900. Dr. Jordan 
was one of a big family of seven boys and five girls. 

He went to the public schools after the war and to 
Dodge Institute at Wilmington. He spent three years at 
Dodge Institute, where he came under the personal direc- 
tion of Mr. Dodge, who was a splendid teacher. Later he 
completed his course at Kittrell College and from that in- 
stitution has both the A. B. and the D. D. degrees. He 
has for many years been one of the Trustees of Kittrell 
College. Dr. Jordan made a profession of faith at the 
early age of twelve and came into the active work of the 
A. M. E. church. Even as a boy he had felt that his life 
work would be the ministry and would frequently play at 
church and preach to whoever or whatever fell in his way. 
He built for himself a study when only ten years of age. 
In April, 1875, he was married to Miss Elizabeth Ev- 
erett of New Hanover Co. They have no children. 

In 1882, Mr. Jordan joined the Conference at New 
Bern, under Bishop Payne. His first appointment was to 




WILLIAM JULIUS JORDAN 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 663 

a mission at Company Shops, now known as Burlington. 
Nearly forty years later he is back on the same work 
and is gratified to find among the substantial men and 
women of the prosperous little city those who were children 
in his school and church on that first appointment. He 
remained there four years, built a house of worship and 
left the work firmly established. From there he went to 
Pittsboro Circuit four years and remodeled the church. His 
next appointment was Morganton one year. From there 
he went to Fayetteville Station two years and remodeled the 
church. From Fayetteville he was sent to New Bern three 
years and from there to Durham three years. At Durham 
he completed the St. Joseph church and filled it with folks. 
From Durham he was sent to the Asheville Station for two 
years At the end of that time he was promoted to the 
presiding eldership and presided over the Morganton Dis- 
trict for two years, a second term of five years, and was 
also at one time on the Greensboro District. Since that 
time he has alternated between Station work and the dis- 
tricts He has been stationed at Asheville, Greensboro, 
Durham, Raleigh, Chapel Hill, Bethel, Greensboro and other 
important points. The people hear him gladly and do not 
tire of him. So it has frequently happened that he has 
been sent to the same work again and again. 

He has long been a prominent figure in denominational 
gatherings and has attended several general conferences. 
In the early years of his ministry he taught school several 
terms. Perhaps Dr. Jordan is at his best in revival work. 
His ministry has been marked by some notable revivals. 
One at Durham witnessed the conversion of three hundred 

persons. 

Among the secret orders he is identified with the 
Masons, Odd Fellows, Royal Knights, Pythians and Good 
Samaritans. His favorite reading next after the Bible is 
History. He believes the progress of the race depends upon 
right training. 



John Henry Bias 



Prof. John Henry Bias, Principal of the Berry O'Kelley 
Training School at Method, is one of the most capable 
young men identified with the educational life of the State. 
He is a native of Missouri, having been born at Palmyra, 
June 11, 1879. His father, James W. Bias, was for a long 
time employed by the C. B. & Q. Railroad. He was a son of 
John and Hannah Bias, both of whom were natives of Shelby 
Co., Mo. Prof. Bias' mother, before her marriage, was Miss 
Dinah Arnold. She came into Missouri from Kentucky be- 
fore the war. 

Prof. Bias was married, August 30, 1907, to Miss Fran- 
ces L. Lane of Baxter Springs, Kans. She was a native, 
however, of Tennessee, and was educated at Lincoln Insti- 
tute at Jefferson City. They have six children: John C, 
Bernice F., James H., Leon L., Charles W. and Elizabeth Z. 
Bias. 

Prof. Bias laid the foundation of his education in the 
public schools of Marion Co. and later attended Lincoln 
Institute at Jefferson City, Mo., from which he was gradu- 
ated with the B. S. D. and A. B. degrees in 1901. This 
was followed by a course at the State College and special 
work at the University of Chicago. Speaking of his strug- 
gles for an education, Prof. Bias says: "My parents were 
not in position to send me away to school, so at the age of 
sixteen I left home to go to our State school in Jefferson 
City. When I reached the capital, I had but seventy-five 
cents left. I at once found a home where, by working 
mornings and evenings, I paid for my room and board. 
The next three years at Jefferson City were spent in the 
home of a white man; then for about five years I lived in 
the home of another white family. The ideals that grew 
up during the years spent in these splendid families, made 
a very lasting impression on me. Altogether, I spent ten 
years at the State school at Jefferson City and two years and 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 665 

a half in the University of Chicago. While in Chicago, I 
worked out all my expenses." Prof. Bias remembers with 
gratitude the assistance rendered him by a number of 
white friends, including men like the late President Harper, 
of Chicago University. 

He has tried in every capacity to do well the work as- 
signed him, whether it has been his special line, or in the 
home, or in odd jobs at which he might be earning the 
money for his education. This characteristic has been car- 
ried into his later work and his teaching. 

On completion of his work at the University, he was 
made professor of mathematics and drawing at Lincoln 
Institute, remaining there for the school year of 1901-2. 
In 1904 he was chosen professor of mathematics and sci- 
ence at the State Normal School, Elizabeth City, N. C, and 
remained with that institution about four years. He was 
then called to the chair of natural sciences at Shaw Uni- 
versity, where he taught for ten years. During the last 
two years of the Medical school at Shaw, Prof. Bias was 
head of the department of Medical Chemistry. 

There had been built up, during these years, at Method, 
a small town near Raleigh, a modern rural teacher training 
school which, largely through the efforts of Mr. Berry 
O'Kelley, had grown from a one-room country school into 
an institution which stands as a sort of model for the race 
in the way of a rural school. In 1917 Prof. Bias was 
called to the Principalship of this institution, which has 
greatly prospered under his administration. Since he came 
to Method the Berry O'Kelley School has reached its high- 
est enrolment as well as its highest point of efficiency. 
The Board is now (1920) looking for material for a new 
home for girls. 

Prof. Bias has surrounded himself with a capable fac- 
ulty and is making the institution a real training school 
for the race. He believes that the progress of his people 
depends upon giving the rural inhabitants better schools, 
homes and churches and making the development of farm 
and country life attractive to them. 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 667 

In 1920 Prof. Bias was asked to represent the 108 
County Training Schools at the Baltimore meeting of the 
National Association of Teachers in Colored Schools. At 
the meeting in Baltimore he stated that he agreed with 
some who felt that in building up the rural civilization, 
no work in education is more promising than the develop- 
ment of the county training schools. In these schoools 
the teachers from the rural section have been given new 
ideals, the young people have been taught to remain on the 
soil owned by their parents, and to see the advantages of 
the rural sections over the large cities. 



Charles Gaston Davis 



It is not easy to write the story of a man like Prof. 
Charles Gaston Davis, of Method, for the reason that it 
is hard to make the reader understand the conditions which, 
even twenty years ago, surrounded the country Negro boy 
who aspired to a college education. While living was cheap, 
wages were low and all too often relatives and neighbors 
were either antagonistic or indifferent to the importance 
of an education. 

Prof. Davis was born at the little hamlet of Cotton- 
ville, in Stanley Co., Sept. 15, 1880. His father, Frank 
Davis, was born near the same place in 1834 and was the 
son of Jackson Davis, who lived to be seventy-eight, and 
his wife, Nancy Davis, who died at eighty. Prof. Davis' 
mother was, before her marriage, Miss Judie Eeasley, who 
was born about 1830 and who was free-born. She was a 
daughter of Harry and Celia Easley, both of whom lived 
to a ripe old age. 

The subject of this biography laid the foundation of 
his education in the Stanley Co. public schools and did his 
college work at what is now the A. & T. College, Greens- 
boro. The story of that period cannot be better told than 
in his own words. He says: "In September, 1899, I left 



668 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

home to enter school with $1.43. The distance by rail was 
a hundred miles. I borrowed $5.00 from my brother, who 
carried me to the station where I took the train for Greens- 
boro. We reached the city about 12:30 P. M. and I was 
soon on the campus of the A. & T. College. Prof. C. H. 
Moore was then bursar, and after paying him $3.00 for 
board, I had fifty cents left for my month's laundry and 
no books. The next day I made my way to the mechanical 
building and found Prof. Snead, who was in charge of the 
blacksmithing department, and who wanted some mud 
pasted on the inside of the forges. Having finished this, 
I sought my next work with Mr. Rooks. The dairy cows 
had a disease known as foot rot. I managed to secure the 
job of washing the cows' feet and earned enough money 
to pay my board. This being my first trip away from home 
I grew homesick and, in Feb., 1900, went home to see my 
people. On the first of the next February I returned to 
college to finish my work and remained till June. Realiz- 
ing the disadvantages of doing so much hard work while 
trying to study, I decided to remain out of school one year 
and save money for the following year. I partially failed 
in this and, in 1903, returned to school, where I remained 
through four years of college work, winning the Odell medal 
given for the highest mark in mechanics for four years." 
Prof. Davis completed the course in 1907, and has 
since been actively engaged in educational work. In 1907 
he went to the Palmer Memorial Institute at Sedalia, N. C, 
where he taught for two years. In 1919 he joined Prof. 
Bias at Method, near Raleigh, where he has charge of the 
agricultural department and vocational training. 

Prof. Davis is a member of the A. M. E. Zion church 
and in politics is a Republican. He has not affiliated with 
the secret orders. 

On Sept. 18, 1908, he was married to Mrs. Lillie Jones, 
a daughter of Seaborn and Delilah Jones of Greensboro. 
They have one child, Charles G. Davis, Jr. 



Peter James Cook 



Rev. Peter James Cook, D. D., District Superintendent 
of the Winston District of the North Carolina Conference, 
M. E. Church, resides at High Point. 

Dr. Cook is a native of Granville Co., where he was born 
Sept., 1868. His mother, Indiana Cook, was a widow with 
six children and the subject of this sketch frequently had 
to look after the smaller children while she went out to 
work. At the tender age of ten years, he worked in a brick 
yard, thus helping to make a living for himself and the 
family. Even at this early age he had begun going to 
school at night and when he was fifteen he went to work 
on the Oxford & Henderson Railroad. With his increased 
earnings, which would now seem ridiculously small, he put 
aside money enough to go to the St. Augustine School at 
Raleigh. By dint of hard work and close economy, which 
included every day in the year, he was able to remain at 
that institution for five years. He learned the trade of 
brick-layer and spent several years on that work, buying in 
the meantime several lots at Oxford. It must be remem- 
bered that during all these years, he was looking out for the 
family and educating such of them as were unable to help 
themselves. 

At an early age he joined the Episcopal church, and 
remained a member of that denomination until he was twen- 
ty-five years old. As there was no Episcopal church near 
him, he joined the M. E. church at Oxford. Feeling called 
to the work of the ministry about this time, he again re- 
sumed his studies at St. Augustine, completed the course, 
and after that went to Gammon Theological Seminary, At- 
lanta , where he finished the Theological course. Later still, 
he did special work at the Boston University, including 
Theology and the sciences, following this with study of eco- 
nomics and sociology at Harvard. 

Dr. Cook joined the Conference at Maxton under 




PETER JAMES COOK 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 671 

Bishop Cranston. His first appointment under the Con- 
ference was to the Charlotte Mission, where he preached a 
year. While at Boston University he filled an appointment 
of three years at a church near that institution. 

Returning from his studies at the North to North Caro- 
lina, he served the Ramseur charge a year and Mt. Airy 
three years. At the latter place he cancelled a debt of 
$2,500 and repaired the parsonage. He was sent from there 
to the Lexington and Thomasville charge, where he re- 
mained for four years. This was followed by a pastorate 
of three years at Leakesville, from which he went to High 
Point for six years, where a church debt of $3,000 was paid 
off and a new parsonage built. He was then promoted to 
the District and is now (1920) in his second year on the 
Winston District. He erected with his own hands Mays 
Chapel, having himself laid the stone. He also built a 
brick parsonage at High Point. He has a way of putting 
himself in the forefront of denominational enterprises and 
has never yet failed to make good with any work entrusted 
to him. When the Centenary movement was inaugurated, 
his district led not only the North Carolina Conference, but 
the whole Chattanooga area. 

Dr. Cook has been signally honored by institutions, both 
North and South, at least three having conferred on him 
the D. D. degree. Among the secret orders he is identified 
with the Masons, of which he is Grand Lecturer, and the 
Odd Fellows of which he is Grand Chaplain. While pastor- 
ing at Leakesville he taught in the graded school. His 
property interests and investments are at High Point and 
in Granville Co. 



Zechariah Alexander 



Among the enterprising business men of Charlotte, who 
have not found it necessary to leave the home town in order 
to succeed, is Zechariah Alexander, the popular Superin- 
tendent of the Charlotte District for the North Carolina 




ZECHARIAH ALEXANDER 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 673 

Mutual Life Insurance Co. He is a native of Charlotte, 
where he was born March 1, 1877. His father, Andrew 
Alexander, was a shoemaker, and his mother, before her 
marriage, was Miss Martha King. His paternal grandfa- 
ther, Rev. Samuel Alexander, was a pioneer preacher of 
the A. M. E. Zion Church in Mecklenburg Co. His mater- 
nal grandfather, William King, was a trestle builder. In 
the absence of written records, he knows little else of his 
ancestry. 

When he cams of school age, young Alexander attended 
the Charlotte public schools. He was an apt student and 
an energetic boy. When, however, he aspired to a college 
education, the way was not easy. He was almost without 
means and his parents were not financially able to see him 
through school. He learned the barber trade and worked 
at that, though wages were low and his earnings small. 
He entered Biddle University and completed the Normal 
Course in 1896. 

On the outbreak of the Spanish- American war he en- 
lsted and was Sergt.-Major. During the European War 
he served as a member of the Registration Board for the 
first and the last drafts under appointment by the Gov- 
ernor. 

After finishing school and before enlisting in the army, 
Mr. Alexander was bookke'ner for The W. H. Houser Brick 
Co. Returning from the army, he resumed work with the 
same concern, with which he rema'n'd as long as it was in 
business. After that he ao;a'n took up his old trade of lath- 
ing and contract work till attracted to the insurance field. 

He has been engaged in insurance work since 1902. 
That he has remained with the same company for so many 
years and has been entrusted with the work of as important 
a district as that of Charlotte speaks well for both his 
character and his ability. The work has steadily grown 
under his administration. 

Mr. Alexander is an active member of the Friendship 
Baptist Church, in which he is Cha'rman of the Trustee 
Board and Asst. Supt. of the Sunday School. In politics, 



674 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

he is a Republican and among the secret orders is identified 
with the Masons, Mystic Shrine, Pythians and Eastern Star 
in all of which he is prominent officially. He is Trustee of 
the Colored Reform School Asso. of N. C. and Treasurer 
of the Colored Auxiliary Associated Charities. 

Mr. Alexander believes that real progress must be 
based on tripartite education, that is, the education of the 
head, the heart and the hand, and the proper use of the 
ballot. He owns an attractive home in Charlotte. 

On June 1, 1905, he was married to Miss Louise Bates 
McCullough of Charlotte. She was educated at Scotia Semi- 
nary. They have four children, Zechariah, Jr. ; Fred Doug- 
las, Louie Franklin, and Kelly Miller Alexander. 



William Bradshaw Sharp 



In the quaint old town of Hertford, on the coast of 
North Carolina, is a successful young physician who is 
making a place for himself in that section of the State. Dr. 
William Brawshaw Sharp was born in Hertford Co. on 
April 3, 1878. His parents, who were plain country people, 
were Simon and Anne Ward) Sharp. Simon Sharp was the 
son of James and Celia Sharp. Dr. Sharp's mother was a 
daughter of Sarah. The boy grew up on the farm in Hert- 
ford Co. and went to the public school. Here he made good 
progress and early aspired to a higher education. The State 
Normal was then being conducted at the old town of Ply- 
mouth, and he went there for his normal training, gradu- 
ating in 1897. In the meantime he had begun teaching in 
the rural schools of his home county and kept up this work 
for several years, later teaching in both Martin and Hert- 
ford Counties. When ready for his college course he matri- 
culated at Leonard Medical College, where he won his M. D. 
degree in 1901. Following that he did post-graduate work 
at the Long Island Medical, Brooklyn, and in 1902 began 
the practice in his home town of Harrellsville and remained 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 675 

there for four years. In 1907 he located at Hertford, where 
he has since resided. Here he has a splendid field. Two 
years after coming to Hertford he established a drug store 
which he has carried on successfully in connection with his 
practice. 

Dr. Sharp at one time considered locating in Arkansas 
and passed the State Board there but after looking over 
the field he decided that there was nothing better than his 
native State, and so returned to North Carolina. 

In politics he is a Republican though he has taken no 
active part in party affairs beyond exercising the franchise. 
He belongs to the Masons, Odd Fellows and Pythians, and 
is a member of the Baptist church. He is a friend and 
supporter of education and believes that the real progress of 
the race depends on the right sort of training. 

His investments and property interests are in and 
around Hertford. He owns a comfortable home, several 
houses and lots and a nice farm, and has found time to 
carry on considerable farming in connection with all his 
other work. His principal crops are corn, cotton and 
peanuts. During the war he took an active part in all 
the patriotic enterprises. 



William George Avant 



It is a far cry from the ancient days of bitter credal 
differences to the present era of such tolerance of all de- 
nominations that a certain latitudinarianism prevails. Yet 
now and then we find that the informing spirit of religion 
is as real a power as ever since it impels an individual who 
has reached a point of deserved honor and leadership in one 
church to abandon the ripening fruits of his reward, that he 
may follow his conviction that he can serve God better in 
another, although he may serve himself far less well, from 
a semi-worldly standpoint, especially when the world itself 
grants freely that no particular faith embraces all truths, 




WILLIAM GEORGE AVANT 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 677 

while in any sect which fears God and loves its fellow man 
there is truth enough for light and leading. 

In the story of Rev. William George Avant, D. D., two 
forms of greatness are, illustrated. One, the greatness of 
honest achievement. The other, the greatness of renounc- 
ing. Where both these factors combine in one man we have 
one who is, like Paul, capacitated to be an inspiration for all 
time though he may not meet the hour of destiny at the 
turning point which establishes epochs and brings undying 
fame. 

Dr. Avant was born at Wilmington, N. C., just after 
the war on August 16, 1867, when the status of the race in 
America was peculiarly chaotic. As his name implies, he 
is partly of French descent, his grandfather having been 
Capt. Charles Avant, a Frenchman who married a slave girl, 
Polly Howe. His maternal grandparents were Jehu Poi- 
sang, a slave owner and his slave, Nancy, who was a prin- 
cess stolen from the Guinea tribe in Africa. His great 
grandmother on the paternal side was an Indian. Dr. 
Avant's parents were Charles Wesley and Sarah Julia 
(Poisang) Avant. They had fourteen other children and 
our subject was early under the necessity of lending his aid 
toward the support of his large family and is self-made in 
the sense that he worked his own way through school. The 
influence of his mother and of the church were great factors 
in the formation of fine character, but he did not have the 
public and parental assistance that are now available in an 
era of prosperity and good schools at every turn. 

He first attended the public schools of Wilmington and 
then did his preparatory work at the St. Augustine School, 
Raleigh. This being a Protestant Episcopal Institution, and 
the boy of religious turn of mind and great intellectual 
promise, and having been called to the ministry at the age 
of sixteen, it was logical for him to continue in the Epis- 
copal faith and later to become one of the conspicuous or- 
naments of its ministry. Dr. Avant did not study books 
exclusively, but learned the several trades of carpentry, 
printing and book-binding, thus equipping himself for an 



678 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

earning capacity apart from the ministry. His earnings not 
only made possible his higher education but his knowledge 
was of great practical benefit in the building of five churches. 

He attended Howard University, at Washington, D. C, 
from which he was graduated in 1894, and the Payne Divin- 
ity School, of Petersburg, Va., taking three years in Theol- 
ogy. In recognition of his attainments, Livingstone Col- 
lege, at Salisbury, conferred upon his the degree of D. D. 

From his first ordination he was noted as a power in 
the denomination, and after serving as Rector of the St. 
Cyprian Episcopal Church at New Bern was made Arch- 
deacon for the colored work in the Diocese of East Caro- 
lina. On February 22, 1916, Dr. Avant severed his con- 
nection with the Episcopal Church and took up the pastor- 
ate of churches of the Christian denomination at New Bern 
and Maysville. This important step was taken from a sense 
that he was not in full harmony with the church of his 
nearly years and the conscientious course was to unite with 
and serve God through a church which more fully reflected 
his own religious views. 

Dr. Avant has always stood high in the fraternal or- 
ders and having held important offices in the Masonic 
Grand Lodge and its allied organizations, such as the Scot- 
tish Rite, and Mystic Shriners ; Supreme Patron of the Or- 
der of the Eastern Star of the State of North Carolina; the 
Knights of Pythias and other organizations and is now Pres- 
ident of the Eastern Atlantic Christian Conference, as well 
as Dean of Franklinton Christian College, Franklinton, N. C. 

He is a man of very wide travel, and is eminently fitted 
to hold and increase his leadership in whatsoever field he 
selects. In his reading, he inclines to the English and 
American Classics. He is active and interested in all the 
wholesome out-door games of which the young people are 
fond. 

He has also won considerable distinction as a teacher, 
having been Principal of the graded schools in New Bern 
and Morehead City. In politics he is a Republican, though 
not participating in party activities. He believes that if a 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 679 

man will be honest and a real Christian and do his full 
duty as required by the Father's will, the progress of the 
race will take care of itself. 

On August 16, 1899, Dr. Avant was married to Miss 
Jane Elizabeth Dudley, a daughter of the Hon. Edward R. 
and Caroline Dudley. They have five children: William 
Leonard, Frank Hughe.s, Thelma Jane, Edward Richard and 
Jane Elizabeth Avant. 



John Wilton Black 



The large contribution made by the farms to the busi- 
ness and professional life of the nation has frequently been 
remarked by the historian and the biographer; so it is not 
surprising when we come to record the story of Dr. John 
Wilton Black, a successful dentist of Rocky Mount, to learn 
that he was born and reared on the farm. He is a native 
of the historic old county of Robeson, having been born at 
Red Springs on May 21, 1887. His father, James Black, 
was a good farmer of that county and is still living. He 
married Miss Virginia Murphy, a daughter of Amy Murphy. 
Dr. Black's paternal grandmother was Flora Black. 

Young Black went first to the public schools of his na- 
tive county and passed from there to the State Normal 
for three years. From this school he went to the St. Augus- 
tine School for his academic work and remained there 
three years. He took his dental course at Meharry Den- 
tal College, Nashville, winning his D. D. S. degree in 1914. 
He was an industrious and capable youth and worked dur- 
ing the school terms and at hotel work during vacations, 
so that he was able to complete his dental course without a 
break. As he looks back over his boyhood, he recognizes 
the large influence which a former teacher, Professor H. M. 
Williams exerted over him. It was he who inspired the boy 
to go to the Normal at Fayetteville. 

On completion of his course at Nashville, Dr. Black 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 681 

practised for a short time in Cedartown, Ga., but located 
at Rocky Mount in 1917. He maintains attractive dental 
parlors near the heart of the city and has already built up a 
successful pratice. He owns an elegant home on Atlantic 
Avenue. 

Dr. Black is a member of the State Dental Association, 
the Interstate Dental Association, and is identified with the 
Masons, Pythians and other local orders. In politics he is 
a Republican. He is an active and prominent member of 
the A. M. E. Church, of which he is a Steward and Superin- 
tendent of the Sunday School. 

On May 28, 1918, he was married to Miss Annie Fen- 
nell of Kerr, N. C. She is a daughter of Mrs. Grace Fennell. 
Mrs. Black was graduated from the St. Augustine School 
and is an accomplished teacher. 

During the world war Dr. Black was commissioned 1 si 
Lieut, in the Dental Corps, U. S. A., went abroad and served 
in France eleven months in a professional capacity. His 
experience in the dental profession during the war adds 
much to his knowledge and skill as a dentist. He was pro- 
moted to captain in the Dental Reserve Corps and still holds 
this commission. 



Furman Lawrence Brodie 



It is probably true that a majority of the men who 
have had their own way to make at times sympathize with 
themselves and in some cases occasionally persuade them- 
selves that they have had more difficulties than any one 
whomsoever. It would perhaps be well for such to have 
the opportunity to read the simple biography of some man 
who really has overcome mountains of difficulty. The rec- 
ord of Rev. Furman Lawrence Brodie of Charlotte, N. C, 
would be illuminating on that point. 

Dr. Brodie was born at Aiken, S. C, Dec. 4, 1885, son 
of Alfred and Margaret Corley Brodie. His parents were 





:; 



FURMAN LAWRENCE BRODIE 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 683 

slaves and his father was a farmer after the war. His pa- 
ternal grandparents were Thomas and Violet Kitching 
Brodie, and maternal grandparents were Harry Ginyard 
and Leah Corley. 

Young Brodie had literally no early advantages. He 
learned the alphabet at the age of sixteen and learned to 
read at night time by the aid of a pine knot fire. He never 
entered a school room until he was past twenty-two, when 
he became a scholar in the Onarga, 111., public schools, where 
he went six years, paying all expenses by his own labor. 

Having been converted and feeling called to the min- 
istry he entered the Theological Department of Biddle Uni- 
versity, from which he graduated in 1888, being then nearly 
thirty-two years old. 

How many men do we see with the moral courage to 
spend so many years of their young manhood in qualifying 
for their work? In this case we see that from the stand- 
point of the work to be done no better investment of the 
time could have been made. 

His first charge was Davidson and Bethpage churches 
in North Carolina where he served one year. Thence to Mt. 
Zion Church, Due West, S. C, where he remained more than 
eleven years and during which period he organized a church 
at Honea Path, S. C. Called back to Davidson he served 
that charge for twelve years. In 1912 he was called to Mor- 
ganton, N. C, to take charge of church and school work. 
He remained there for seven years during which time in 
addition to local work he organized churches at Hickory 
and Marion, N. C. He was then called to the Brooklyn Pres- 
byterian Church of Charlotte, N. C, where he is meeting 
with a large measure of success along all lines. 

As some measure of appreciation of his work and at- 
tainments Biddle University conferred on him the degree 
of Doctor of Divinity. 

A notable feature of Dr. Brodie's work has not only 
been its constructive character but its wide scope. Every- 
where he has been he has left his mark in the shape of new 
churches outside of his own regular field. In addition to 



684 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

that nearly everywhere he has combined teaching with his 
ministerial work, sometimes in public schools, sometimes in 
parochial schools of his own establishment. With all this 
he has reared a fine family of eleven children, giving them 
the advantages he lacked. 

A thoughtful man having knowledge of his work said: 
"He has done and is doing better work than I could have 
done with such a start." 

Dr. Brodie was married July 31, 1889 to Annie Sarah 
Pierce, daughter of Rowan and Amy C. Pierce. Of the 
twelve children born to them the following survive : Beulah 
B., Alfred A., Furman L., Jr., Milledge T., George C., Ma- 
mie P., Annie M., Francis F., Mytle A., William P., and 
Helen E. Brodie. 

Dr. Brodie says that the greatest factor in shaping his 
life was the advice and counsel of two Christian women. 
He has been a man of one work, divided into two depart- 
ments — preaching and teaching. He has the Presbyterian 
quality of thoroughness and has been a devoted student of 
the Bible and Henry's Commentaries. He is widely trav- 
eled, having covered the entire United States. Is a Republi- 
can in politics and fraternally a Mason. 

"Christian Education" is his shibboleth as the best 
means of promoting the welfare of his race and certainly 
there could not be a better or more practical. He has 
wrought well and strongly. "A workman that needeth not 
be ashamed." 



William Henry Bruce 



Among the business and professional men of the race, 
none rank higher in intelligence or efficiency than do physi- 
cians. While it is true that many of them h?ve had to 
make their own way in school and earn the money for their 
professional training, they have, at the same time, had con- 
siderable opportunity for travel and as a rule one will find 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 685 

the physician to be a man of broad visions and unusual in- 
formation. This is true of Dr. William Henry Bruce ,of 
Winston-Salem. 

He is a native of Vance Co., where he was born August 
5, 1882. His mother was Sarah Cooper Bruce. 

Dr. Bruce was married on October 5, 1911, to Miss 
Mabel V. Merrick, of Durham. She is a daughter of the 
late John Merrick, a story of whose life and work appears 
elsewhere in this volume. She was educated at Kittrell 
College. Dr. and Mrs. Bruce have two children, Wm. H., 
Jr., and Hazel Merrick Bruce. 

Growing up in Vance Co., Dr. Bruce attended the 
local public school and later the Henderson Normal School 
at Henderson. At an early age, he made up his mind to 
enter the Medical profession, and, while the way was not 
easy, he was not discouraged by the difficulties ahead of 
him, but, with unshaken determination, entered Leonard 
Medical College at Raleigh. He spent his vacations working 
at the North and was thus able to complete his course with- 
out a break, winning his M. D. degree in 1907. Soon after 
his graduation, he located at Winston-Salem, where he has 
since resided and where he his built up a most successful 
practice. He maintains modern offices in his own building 
on Church Street, equipped with the most up-to-date appli- 
ances known to the profession. While still comparatively 
a young man, he has steadily built a practice which fully 
occupies his time and takes an active interest in all that 
relates to his profession. He is identified with both the 
State and National Medical Associations. Since his gradu- 
ation he has spent one year in post-graduate work. 

Dr. Bruce has had an opportunity to study conditions 
and needs among his people at close range ; and believes that 
the progress of the race depends upon the right sort of edu- 
cation. 

He is a member "of the M. E. Church, and belongs to 
the Odd Fellows. He is a Republican in politics, but beyond 
exercising the franchise takes little active interest in politi- 



686 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

cal matters. While in College he was an enthusiastic foot- 
ball player. 

Although most of this time for reading is devoted to 
professional books, he considers that a part of his practice 
and confines it to office hours. His favorite home reading 
consists of History and Current Literature. 

Dr. Bruce has handled his investments wisely and owns 
attractive residence and business property at Winston- 
Salem. He is an active figure in the professional and busi- 
ness life of the city and takes a leading part in the move- 
ments for the uplift of the race. 



Oscar Sidney Bulloch 



Every profession and every line of business has been 
invaded by the farmer boys. This has been good not only 
for the farmer boys but for the fields they have entered 
as well. They have brought to their work faith, courage, 
high ideals and a willingness to "pull their part" in every 
worthy undertaking. The ministry is indebted to the farm 
for some of its brightest lights and most forceful leaders. 
Among the men of this type in North Carolina whose suc- 
cessful career, both as educator and clergyman, has been 
characterized by freshness, vigor and enthusiasm, is Rev. 
Oscar Sidney Bullock, A. B., A. M., S. T. B., D. D., of High 
Point. Dr. Bullock was born on his father's farm in Vance 
Co., where he lived till he was twenty-two years of age. 
His father, Horace Bullock, is still living (1920). His 
mother, who, before her marriage, was Miss Emily Jones, 
passed away when her son was only five years of age. For- 
tunately for young Bullock, he was brought up in an atmos- 
phere conducive to high ideals. He was converted before 
he was twelve and the Baptist Church with which he was 
identified had in its membership a number of teachers. He 
had entered the local public schools when of age, but after 
he was thirteen he did not go to school again until he was 




OSCAR SIDNEY BULLOCH 



688 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

twenty. He then entered the Normal School at Henderson, 
where his progress was rapid. He taught one short term 
school before completing his work at Henderson. He passed 
from there to Lincoln University from which he was gradu- 
ated with the A. B. degree in 1903. While at Henderson, 
he had felt called to preach and had consecrated his life to 
that work. So on completion of his college course he took 
up Theology. In 1906 he completed the course and won 
the S. T. B. degree. Later Lincoln University conferred 
on him the degree of A. M. and later still that of D. D. He 
worked his own way from start to finish without a cent's 
assistance from any one. While at Lincoln most of his va- 
cations were spent in hotel work at Atlantic City. During 
his last vacation he was called to do supply work at the 
Frendship Baptist Church at Charlotte and was by that 
church ordained to the full work of the ministry. 

After graduation, he located at High Point having ac- 
cepted the call of the First Baptist Church of that progres- 
sive little city. The church has had the most marked 
growth and development of its history under his leadership. 
A modern brick house of worship has been erected on East 
Washington Street and the membership greatly strength- 
ened. Along with his ministerial work Dr. Bullock has 
also made a name for himself as a teacher. He has the 
chair of mathematics at the High Point Industrial Institute, 
with which he has been identified since 1906. 

Dr. Bullock has an interesting family. On June 11, 
1907, he was happily married to Miss Mehalah C. Morris of 
Richmond, Va. She is a daughter of Berkley and Cornelia 
Morris and was educated at Petersburg. They have two 
children: Nancy Elizabeth Astor and Oscar Sidney Bullock, 
Jr. The little girl is especially talented as a musician, hav- 
ing given a public concert at six years of age. 

Dr. Bullock is a man of good business ability. He has 
an attractive home near his church besides other valuable 
property at High Point. For twelve years he has been 
Secretary of the N. C. State Convention and is a prominent 
figure in the annual meetings of that body, being a member 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 689 

of the Executive Board. Among the secret orders he is 
identified with the Masons, Odd Fellows, Eastern Star and 
Household of Ruth. He believes tht the most pressing 
problems of the race today are religious and economic. 



Gilbert Haven Caldwell 



The subject of this sketch is one of those progressive 
and energetic men who are making their impress upon the 
thought and purpose of the new era upon which these times 
of war and world-reconstruction have precipitated us. The 
variety of activities in which he has been engaged and the 
wide outlook on life which these have given him combine 
to make a typical leader of the new era. 

Rev. Gilbert Haven Caldwell was born in Guilford Co., 
Oct. 10, 1886. His parents were John Edward Caldwell and 
Phoebe Frances (Harrington) Caldwell. John Edward Cald- 
well, his father, was a business man and owner of several 
electric shoe shops. Dr. Caldwell's grandfather on the 
mother's side, Mike Harrington, was a local preacher and a 
leader in his community. 

The graded schools of Greensboro furnished Mr. Cald- 
well with the foundation of his education. Later he went 
to Bennett College, graduating in 1908 with the degree of 
A. B. In 1911 he was graduated from Gammon Theological 
Seminary, with the degree of B. D. Determined to obtain 
the best educational advantages in his reach, he followed 
this with a course on History and Sociology in Syracuse 
University, from which he obtained, in 1918, th- degree of 
Master of Arts. 

It was not without severe struggle and rigid self-denial 
that these advantages were secured. His parents were poor 
and he had to earn, by his own efforts, the money for his 
schooling. By securing a fellowship he met part of his ex- 
penses at Syracuse University,' but the rrcord all the way 
was one of determined effort. To his mother's consecrated 




GILBERT HAVEN CALDWELL 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 691 

life and earnest prayers he attributes the highest impulses 
that have come into his life. Feeling thus, it is not strange 
that the work of the Christian ministry should have made 
a strong appeal to him. He was converted when about four- 
teen years of age and about four years later definitely com- 
mitted himself to the preaching of the Gospel. He joined 
the Conference in 1914 at Maxton under Bishop Henderson. 
He began his ministerial work as pastor of the Trinity Meth- 
odist Church at Wilmington, which he served for only a few 
months. He was sent from there to Asheville where he 
preached two years and repaired the house of worship. His 
next appointment was Statesville, where he preached one 
year. From Statesville he want to Raleigh for three years 
and while there built a parsonage. On the outbreak of the 
war he entered the Y. M. C. A. work as executive secretary 
for the State of N. C. and remained in the service until the 
close of the war. He has served for two years as dean of 
Bennett College, Greensboro, at the same time filling the 
chair of philosophy and education. For four years he was 
secretary of the N. C. M. E. Conference and was a delegate 
to the last General Conference of his denomination. 

Thus it will be seen that the work of Dr. Caldwell has 
been broad in its character and comprehensive in its scope. 
He has read widely not only in the Bible but in the works of 
such poets as Browning and Tennyson and in the history of 
his and other countries. While at Syracuse University he 
was a member of the Cosmopolitan Club. His interests 
and his points of contact with the life about him are numer- 
ous and varied. His training and his war activities have 
led him to believe that denominationalism in religion should 
take a place in the background and the larger interests of 
the race should be the first consideration. 

He has been a frequent contributor to the Southwestern 
Christian Advocate and is the author of a "History of the 
Separation in 1844 of the Methodist Episcopal Church." 



Dallas Waddell Chesnutt 



Dr. Dallas Waddell Chesnutt, who for a number of years 
has been carrying on a successful general practice of medi- 
cine at Wilmington, is a native of Fayetteville, though he 
has resided at Wilmington since he was about a year old. 
He was born January 10, 1878, his parents being Dallas and 
Louisa Chesnutt. 

Growing up at Wilmington, he attended the Gregory 
Normal Institute and also learned the printer's trade, at 
which he worked for a number of years. He passed from 
Gregory to Howard University, at Washington, D. C, where 
he pursued his collegiate education for three years and when 
prepared for his medical work matriculated at Leonard Med- 
ical College, Raleigh. He won the M. D. degree in 1903. In 
the early part of his college work, he made his trade as 
printer help him in the way of earning expenses, but later 
on, and while in medical college, got into hotel work during 
the summer vacations and was thus able to complete his 
course without a break. 

His father, who was ambious for the boy and set him a 
good example, passed away nine years ago, but not until he 
had seen his son successful and with bright promise for 
the future. 

Dr. Chesnutt has always shown a courageous, independ- 
ent spirit and was a fine baseball player while in college. 
In his reading he takes to the sciences, though he has lit- 
tle time for general reading apart from his professional 
books and the current news. In politics he is a Republican. 

He is a member of the Episcopal Church and affiliates 
with the Masons, Pythians, Gideons and Elks. He is Grand 
Medical Director of the State for the Pythians and is also 
identified with the colored State and National Medical So- 
cieties and the New Hanover Medical Society. During the 
war he joined the Volunteer Medical Corps. His invest- 
ments are in and around Wilmington. He looks to educa- 





DALLAS WADDELL CHESNUTT 



694 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

tion as the greatest factor in the progress of his people 
and would like to see a better feeling cultivated between 
the races. 

On Sept. 25, 1907, Dr. Chesnutt married Miss Mary E. 
Collins, also of Wilmington. 



Carrous William Robinson 



Mr. Carrous William Robinson, a prosperous business 
man of the thriving city of High Point, was born in the lit- 
tle mountain town of Waynesville, N. C, on May 14, 1877. 
His father, Rev. Ben Robinson, was a minister of the A. M. 
E. Zion church and his mother, before her marriage, was 
Miss Eliza Leatherwood. 

Young Robinson laid the foundation of his education 
in the graded schools of Asheville. Not content with this, 
he later entered Tuskegee Institute for four years. Speak- 
ing of this period he says, "I worked during the day and 
studied hard to make my classes for four years and suc- 
ceeded without repeating." He has since put into his work 
that zeal and energy for which Tuskegee students are every- 
where noted. He has attacked his problems and overcome 
his difficulties with a perseverance characteristic of a moun- 
tain boy. Fortunately his home training was sound. His 
Christian parents trained him to habits of industry and 
economy and directed his mind to those things which make 
for character. He early identified himself with the church 
and has been an active layman since boyhood. His mem- 
bership is in the Presbyterian church. 

During the Spanish American war he was in the Army 
Y. M. C. A. service for eighteen months. For the last 
twelve years he has been identified with the N. C. Mutual 
Insurance Co. as general agent or district supt. Where the 
business methods of that great concern are known, its rep- 
resentatives need no other recommendation. They stand 
for what is best in the life of the communities in which they 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 695 

work and as business men have no superiors in the business 
life of the race. 

In 1907 Mr. Robinson located at High Point. He is sec- 
retaryand business editor of the Colored American, pub- 
lished at High Point. 

On June 6, 1901, he was married to Miss Jessie F. 
Gaines, of Due West, S. C. She was educated at Scotia Semi- 
nary and Harbison College. They have two children, Min- 
etta and Pauline Robinson. 

Mr. Robinson is one of the active, prominent members 
of the secret and benevolent societies, in several of which 
he stands high. He belongs to the Masons, Pythians, East- 
ern Star and Royal Knights of K. D. During the war he 
took a leading part in all the local campaigns and drives. 

He believes in organization separately for each line of 
business and collectively to bring about that spirit of co- 
operation and better understanding so essential to progress. 
He owns a home at High Point. 



Cornelius Carson Clark 



Of all those who have written about education, none 
have stated the case better than Daniel Webster. He says, 
"Knowledge does not comprise all whicn is contained in the 
large term of education. The feelings are to be disciplined, 
the passions are to be restrained ; true and worthy motives 
are to be inspired; a profound religious feeling is to be in- 
stilled, and pure morality to be inculcated under all circum- 
stances. All this is comprised in education." We call it 
Christian education, and it is the thing for which the denom- 
inational school stands pre-eminently. Among the Baptist 
men of North Carolina who are devoting themselves to this 
ideal, must be mentioned Prof. Cornelius Carson Clark, now 
(1919) head of the Tar River Collegiate and Industrial In- 
stitute at Greenville. He is a native of Halifax Co., which 
has contributed so many men of both races to the religious 
and educational leadership of the State. He was born on 




CORNELIUS CARSON CLARK 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 697 

Aug. 20, 1885. His parents were Council and Abbie Clark. 
His paternal grandparents were Neptune and Julia Clark, 
while his maternal grandparents were Coaf and Louisa 
Smith. 

Young Clark grew up on the farm and attended the 
local school. He early gave evidence of a good mind and 
after the public school went to the Tar River Institute 
for one term. From there he passed to the celebrated 
Hampton School, where his first year was a work year. 
After that he entered upon the teacher's course and in the 
manual training department learned the trade of wheel 
wright. At the end of his second year at Hampton he re- 
turned to his native county and began teaching and has 
since been a factor in the educational life of that part of 
the State. He won his diploma in 1910 and later in the same 
year began teaching at Hobgood. The following year he 
was called to the Tar River Institute at Greenville and re- 
mained until 1915. The Institute greatly prospered under 
his administration. In 1915 he was called back to Hobgood, 
where he again taught for two years. Then once more, in 
1917, came the urgent call for his services again at the Tar 
River Institute. Under his leadership the school has 
reached its largest enrollment and highest point of effi- 
ciency. 

Just as he was merging into manhood, at twenty years 
of age, he experienced the new birth and when about twen- 
ty-six years of age felt called to preach. 

He was licensed by the Kehukie Baptist Church and 
in 1916 was ordained to the full work of the ministry by 
the Old Eastern Missionary Baptist Association. His 
teaching work has so fully occupied his time that he has not 
yet gone into the active pastorate, though frequently called . 
to preach for his brethren. He holds membership in the 
Masons. Looking back over his boyhood Mr. Clark consid- 
ers the influence which his father exerted on him the most 
powerful for good that came into his life. His father was 
a devout Christian and a deacon in the Baptist church. 
Mr. Clark's property interests are at Scotland Neck. 



William Arthur Cooper 



The subject of this biography, Rev. William Arthur 
Cooper, B. Th., of Burlington, is one of the progressive 
young leaders of the Baptist denomination in the State. 
He was born at the historic old town of Hillsboro on June 
6, 1895, so it will be seen that he is now (1919) still in his. 
early twenties. His father, Young G. Cooper, was a farmer, 
and was the son of Starlin and Martha Cooper. Rev. Coop- 
er's mother was, before her marriage, Miss Annie Martin 
Browder. She was a daughter of Wm. Browder, a shoe- 
maker, and his wife, Annie (Whitted) Browder, still living 
at the age of ninety. 

Our subject was married on Jane 30, 1915, to Miss Mar- 
garette Elizabeth Goss, a daughter of Alfred and Emma 
Goss of Durham. She was educated at Mary Potter, Ox- 
ford, and was a teacher in the rural schools before her mar- 
riage. 

When he came of school age, Mr. Coopsr attended the 
local school at Hillsboro and after finishing at the A. M. A. 
School there, went to the Normal and Industrial School 
at High Point. From there he passed to the National 
Training School at Durham, where he won his B. Th. degree 
in 1914. 

His mind early turned to religion and he was converted 
at twelve years of age. He began preaching at the early 
age of seventeen. 

After deciding to take up the work of the ministry he 
realized more fully than ever the necessity for properly 
preparing himself for his work. All his life he has been a 
vigorous worker. He was at one time engaged in insurance 
work while located at Wilson in 1914. He was licensed to- 
preach in April, 1913. 

He was ordained to the full work of the ministry by 
the Mt. Bright Baptist church of Hillsboro, July 6, 1913. 
His first pastorate was near Wilson, where he organized sl 




WILLIAM ARTHUR COOPER 



700 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

church and preached for a year. He pastored the Mace- 
donia Church, Greenwood, S. C, for one year and the Rocky 
Ridge Church at Concord for two years. Since Feb., 1919, 
he has been pastor of the Baptist church at Burlington and 
another at Graham. 

In politics he is a Republican. He belongs to the 
Masons and the Odd Fellows and was accepted as Chaplain 
m the U. S. Army. He has also served as Pres. of his 
local S. S. Convention. 

Me owns a comfortable home and other property. When 
asked how he thought the best interests of the race might 
oe promoted he replied, "By a more effective organization 
of business, closer church co-operation, a more extensive 
educational program and a more consecrated unselfish lead- 
ership." 

Mr. Cooper also has charge of the Richmond Hill Public 
School at Burlington, the largest colored school in the county 



Judge Pickett Stanly 



No state in the Union has greater reason to be proud 
of the excellent men sprung from her soil than North Caro- 
lina. For a long time this exclusively applied to white 
men, but when 1865 brought in freedom for the slaves a 
new era opened up for the colored men. 

They have not been slack to grasp opportunity, as 
can readily be ascertained by any one who will make even 
a casual investigation, and the time is near at hand when 
the Old North State will be proud of the quality of its negro 
citizens. 

A splendid exponent of these capable men is Dr. J. P. 
Stanly of New Bern, N. C, who was born in that city June 
23, 1886. His parents were Judge P. and Lavinia Bryan 
Stanly. His paternal grandparents were Anthony and An- 
nie Stanly, and on the maternal side were William and Vio- 
let Bryan. 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 701 

The elder J. P. Stanly was a real estate dealer, and 
the younger had the advantage of growing up in a business 
atmospiiere. . 

Young Stanly attended the New Ben; graded school 
and the Eastern North Carolina Industrial Academy. His 
college training was obtained at Shaw University and his 
medical education from Leonard Medical College from 
which he was graduated in 1912 with the degree of M. D. 
After taking special courses in Northern hospitals m sur- 
gery and diseases of women and children Dr. Stanly 
began practice in his native town. He has combined the 
real estate business with his professional work, not allow- 
ing either to suffer. He is a prosperous and successful mar 
in the worldly sense, but that he has the altruistic spirit 
is shown by his statement that the greatest factor in snap- 
ing his life was "the desire to be of great service to numan- 
itv and especially suffering humanity." 

Dr Stanly has been quite a traveler, having covered 
the larger part of our own country, Canada and France. He 
is ver/active in church and fraternal circles, being a mem- 
ber of St. Peters A. M. E. Zion church, the motier of Zion 
Methodism in the South, and is Superintendent of the Sun- 
day School, one of the largest in the South. H-: is Medical 
Director of the Odd Fellows, Masons, Knights of Pythias, 
Knights of Gideon, Eastern Star, and Elks, of all of which. 
societies he is a member. 

Dr Stanly has clear ideas as to how best to promote 
the interests of the race. He believes that more money 
should be appropriated to the schools-that more and bet- 
ter sanitation should be secured in Negro settlements— that 
better traveling conditions, i. e., equal accommodations, 
should be- given to negroes and that they should have recog- 
nition at the polls. 

Dr J P. Stanly is a good and useful citizen doing his 
nart day by day to relieve suffering humanity and to better 
general conditions. He has the respect of his community 
and is letting his light shine before men. 



Ernest Leonard Davis 



Jesus once told his followers that if they only had 
faith they could remove mountains. Once in a while a boy 
has dared to trust God and try in the presence of mountains 
of difficulty and has seen them removed and cast into the 
sea. One could scarcely think of a more hopeless situation 
than that which confronted young Ernest Leonard Davis a 
few years ago. An orphan with only one leg and one arm, 
homeless and neglected, the outlook was enough to over- 
whelm him. But it did not, and he accounts for it simply 
enough. God, a Christian woman, who gave him a vision, 
religion and the courage to go forward. 

He was born at Ridgeway, S. C., on Jan. 3, 1885. His 
father was Ansel Davis, and his mother, before her mar- 
riage, was Georgianna Stevens. She was a daughter of 
Maria Stevens. 

While young Davis was still a mere lad the family 
moved to Charlotte, N. C, where by an unfortunate R. R. 
accident he lost an arm and a leg. When he was about 
ten years of age his mother died and the boy was sent to 
an Orphans' Home at Lynchburg, Va. The story of that 
period is best told in his own words. "I refused to be a 
public charge and after a few years threw myself upon 
the world homeless but free! This was in 1900. After 
suffering every species of sorrow, woe and want for three 
years I turned my face toward God and education. For ten 
years I fought daily every opposition, discouragement, skep^ 
ticism and indifference from every quarter. The years were 
cruel, unsympathetic and in many places positively hostile to 
my advancement. In 1904 I became a Christian and I 
won notwithstanding the handicap of one leg and one arm. 
All this was made possible by the sympathetic heart of a 
motherly woman who allowed me to see a vision, and who 
led me to this little height. She (Mrs. Josephine Anderson 
of Lynchburg, Va.) was the only friend I can acknowledge 
who saw a possibility in me." 




ERNEST LEONARD DAVIS 



704 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Mr. Davis was educated at Lynchburg and at Lincoln 
University. In 1913 he won his A. B. degree at Lynchburg 
and passed from there to Lincoln University, where on ac- 
counted of his previous attainments he was permitted to 
carry his seminary and graduate work along together so 
that in 1916 he won from Lincoln both the A. M. and the 
S. T. B. degrees. In 1917 he was ordained to the full work 
of the ministry and is now (1919) teaching in Albion Acad- 
emy, Franklinton, and pastoring two churches. His first 
pastorate and school work were at Elizabeth City. 

Next after the Bible his favorite reading is philosophy, 
history and psychology. In politics he is a Progressive. 
He has thought seriously about the progress of the race, and 
believes the demand is for "tolerant sympathy from the 
white race, safe and sane information from the best papers 
and periodicals in our homes, keeping our fingers on the 
pulse of current history, highly cultured spiritual but prac- 
tical ministry and teachers that can 'deliver the goods' with 
a heart to work. 

On Nov. 25, 1915, Mr. Davis was married to Miss Flor- 
ence Myers, of Oxford. She was educated at the Oxford 
High School and at Berean College. They have three chil- 
dren: Ernest L., Jr., John S. and Daisy D. Davis. 



Nicholas Voliver Davis 



Rev. Nicholas Voliver Davis is a popular and success- 
ful pastor of upper North Carolina and is Moderator of the 
Ready Creek Baptist Association and resides at Weldon. 
He is a native of Franklin Co., where he was born just be- 
fore the outbreak of the war between the States on March 
31, 1857. He remembers the closing scenes of the war 
which brought emancipation to his race and recalls the 
passing of some of the Federal armies near where he lived. 
His parents were George and Jennie Davis and before the 
days of freedom were farm hand slaves. After they had 




NICHOLAS VOLIVER DAVIS 



706 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

been set free they continued to make their living on the 
farm, and their son was brought up and trained to do all 
sorts of farm work. His mother, Jennie Davis, was a 
daughter of Priscilla Davis and his grandmother on his fa- 
ther's side was Eliza Davis. 

Mr. Davis evidently believes in the Biblical injunction 
to "multiply and replenish the earth" for he has been mar- 
ried three times. His first marriage was on February 16, 
1889, to Miss Sarah Harris, of Franklin Co. Of the five 
children born to them, three are living. They are Bettie 
(Mrs. Jones), Mattie (Mrs. Ingram) and Levinia (Mrs. 
Clark). Mrs. Davis passad away in 1902. In the last part 
of the same year Mr. Davis was married to Miss Anna 
Lucas, of Nash Co. She bore him two children, both of 
whom passed away. She also died in 1904. Since that 
time he was married the third time to Miss Louvinia Long, 
of Halifax Co. Two children have been born to this mar- 
riage, Beatrice and Louise Davis. 

Our subject was eight years old at the close of the 
war and, of course, he had no chance to go to school before 
that. As soon as the public schools were organized, how- 
ever, he entered the Franklin Co. schools, but was denied 
the opportunity of going to college. He was a hard work- 
ing, reliable young man and was converted at about the age 
of twenty-one, a year or two before his first marriage. 
Soon after his marriage, he felt the call to preach the Gos- 
pel and was ordained to the full work of the ministry by 
the Walnut Grove Baptist church in 1894. After entering 
upon the work of the ministry, he took up various courses 
in correspondence schools in Theology and has made a suc- 
cess of his work as pastor. He has repaired, remodeled or 
built a new house of worship at almost every point at which 
he has preached. His first pastorate was at Spring Hope, 
where he preached for two years. He pastored Bethlehem 
church four years and the Second Church at Weldon nine 
years and remodeled the church at an expense of more 
than $2,000. He preached at Macon for nine years and 
erected a new house of worship. He served Springfield in 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 707 

Halifax Co. for four years and built a new church. Jackson 
church in Northampton Co. held him for eight years and 
during his administration there the church was remodeled. 
He accepted a call to Roanoke Chapel and served that 
church for nine years and before leaving had raised $1,000 
toward a new building. He preached at Crowell's Cross 
Roads four years and remodeled the church and paid the 
debt. He recently accepted the call of Mt. Zion Church in 
Warren Co. and began the building of a new house of wor- 
ship before he had been on the work a year. He has 
preached at Lovely Hill in Warren Co. for five years and 
has remodeled the church. In 1919 he accepted a call from 
the Ashley Grove church at Vaughn's and is making ex- 
tensive repairs there. In 1913 he was called to the pastor- 
ate of his old home church, Walnut Grove, which he has 
served for the last six years and is now making extensive 
repairs so that when the building is done it will be worth 
at least $3,000. Mr. Davis has done a good deal of evangel- 
istic work among the brethren and in 1908 was elected Mod- 
erator of the Reedy Creek Assoc:"ation, which position he 
has held continuously since. He is a member of the execu- 
tive board of the State convention and is regarded as one 
of the substantial men of the denomination in his part of 
the State. After leaving the farm as a boy he learned the 
carpenter's trade, which he followed for more than twenty 
years and his knowledge and capability along this line have 
served him in good stead in connection with his extensive 
church building. 

His favorite reading is along the line of Bible history 
and theology. Among the secret orders he is identified with 
the Masons, Odd Fellows and Pythians. Although starting 
life under hard conditions, and although freuenqtly called 
to go through the deep waters himself, Mr. Davis has not 
only succeeded as a preacher and pastor, but has made a 
good citizen and has acquired considerable property as well. 
He has lived to see his people make such progress as was 
scarcely to be dreamed of when he was a slave boy and is 
well content with it so far. He is not an agitator, and is 



708 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

pleased with the present conditions of his race and sees 
cause for rejoicing that so many of them have learned to 
accumulate property, buy homes, pay their preachers and 
teachers and make good citizens. 



Jefferson Davis Diggs 

Within comparatively recent years there has been a 
notable cleavage, or out-branching, of various new religion, 
schools of thought and discipline from the older Protestant 
denominations. One must be ill informed in the history of 
religious development if he were to minimize the importance 
of these. We have but to recall the Reformation, to remem- 
ber that the Methodist denomination had its origin in the 
pious heart of the wife of an English curate, its first serv- 
ices in the humble kitchen of her home. Nor should we 
forget the Salvation Army and the Volunteers, who have 
been criticised and ridiculed, but who have earned for them- 
selves a high place by humble service which injured no one 
but helped many by seeking "to save that which was lost." 

Rev. Jefferson Davis D'ggs, formerly a minister of the 
M. E. Church, now of the Holiness denomination, is a man 
who serves his Master in accordance with the light as it 
has been vouchsafed to him. He is following his own con- 
victions regardless of whisperings that the more powerful 
denominations offered more honors and better pay. 

He was born February 14, 1865. His mother, Katie 
Diggs, was then a slave. She was a daughter of Joseph 
and Tamar Diggs, and a grand-daughter cf Susan Diggs, who 
was brought direct from Africa, and lived to be over a 
century old. The same can also be said of the great-grand- 
mother of Mrs. Diggs. Joseph Diggs was a physical giant 
who is said to have picked 737 pounds of cotton in one day, 
and who never allowed himself to be wh ; pped. Mr. Diggs' 
father was his mother's owner. Thus it will be seen that 
he had a peculiar heritage of physical strength, longevity 
and mental capacity. 




JEFFERSON DAVIS DIGGS 



710 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Katie Diggs died when her son was three years old. 
He was then cared for by his grandmother and, in turn, 
as soon as the boy was able to work at anything, he began 
to support himself and her. It was extremely difficult for 
him to secure any education, but she required him to study 
at night. Other than this, his early schooling consisted of 
going for a short while in mid-winter and mid-summer to 
the rural schools. He did not begin his professional life 
until 1883, by which time he was himself able to teach a 
school, and also preached his first sermon. Not the least 
remarkable fact is that Dr. Diggs obtained a liberal, higher 
education after his maturity. 

On April 26, 1885, he made Miss Elizabeth Murphy his 
wife. They had fourteen children, eleven of whom lived to 
be reared and educated. They are Mamie A., James T., 
Jessie E., Bell R., John P., Annie E., Charles M., Rudyard 
K., Frank B., Alice T. and Jefferson Davis, Jr. 

Dr. Diggs was graduated from Bennett College in 1899, 
with the B. S. degree, and from the Christian College of 
Oskaloosa, Iowa, in 1905 with the degree of Master of An- 
cient Literature. Livingstone College conferred upon him 
the D. D. degree. In addition to all this Dr. Diggs has been 
a constant student of the Bible, and a careful reader of 
works on theology, philosophy, psychology, history and 
biography. To a large extent the support of his large fam- 
ily and his own education was provided for by the work 
of his hands, as a mechanic and builder. 

Practically all his life, Dr. Diggs has felt himself ac- 
quainted with a divine, personal Savior, and, placing his 
trust in Him, has plodded along asking only to be a vessel 
finally fit for the Master's use, not seeking earthly reward. 
Viewed in the light of present day discontent and haste on 
the part of youth to "succeed" his career is at once an in- 
spiration to faithful effort and a rebuke to those who com- 
plain in the time of free education, available in night as 
well as in day schools, and high wages, that they "have no> 
chance." 

Dr. Diggs' first appointment, under the M. E. Confer- 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 711 

ence, was to Hickory, N. C, in 1889, where he remained 
three years. After serving several appointments under 
the auspices of this denomination he resigned his member- 
ship and in February, 1904, organized and founded the 
Union Mission (non-sectarian) church in Winston-Salem, 
where he has since resided and has held the unbroken pas- 
torate of the church he founded. Dr. Diggs was for eight 
years past the Education Secretary of the United Holy 
Church of America, and has just been re-elected to that 
position for another quadrennium. He is also President of 
the Afro-American Ministerial Union (inter-denomina- 
tional) of Winston-Salem. 

While in national affairs Dr. Diggs votes the Republi- 
can ticket, he is locally an Independent. 

Like most men who have had to work their own way 
from abject poverty to a place of distinction, Dr. Diggs has 
excellent practical executive ability, and his talents and good 
judgment have been in request. He is President of the 
Central Realty Company and Vice-President of the Twin 
City Building and Loan Assocation. He owns enough prop- 
erty for a modest provision against the time when he 
reaches the sunset years, and must cease from active labor. 

Dr. Diggs believes first in Divine guidance for his race, 
this to be reflected in raising up to them reliable leader 
•of their own race and in education that will help them to 
reach a high plane of moral and intellectual development. 

A native of -Richmond Co., born of a slave girl on the 
•east bank of the Pee Dee river, it is really marvelous to 
reflect that this helpless little black baby, under Divine 
guidance, himself lived to be a leader of his people; that 
from the narrow confines of slavery he emerged during the 
Reconstruction, traveled extensively over the whole of this 
continent, became a cultured minister of the Gospel and is 
yet only in that ripe prime which promises many -rich years 
in which to add new laurels to a career that one could hardly 
credit — save that it, and many another, have been of that 
truth which is stranger than any fiction could have dared 
invent. 



Jesse Allen Dodson 



One now finds, in many towns of the South, colored 
men engaged in professional and business lines in which a 
few years ago, they were unknown. It is one of the encour- 
aging signs of the times. One of the men who learned 
pharmacy and who has built up a successful drug business 
is Dr. Jesse Allen Dodson of Durham. He was born in 
Halifax Co., Va., just after the close of the war on Aug. 24, 
1865. His father, Thomas Dodson, was a mechanic and 
was the son of Peggy Waller. Dr. Dodson's mother was 
Hannah Hogue, and her mother's name was Hannah also. 

Young Dodson first attended the Halifax Co. schools. 
He then spent about seven years in the mercantile busi- 
ness as clerk in a grocery and dry goods store, at Danville, 
Va., where be got his first business training. When ready 
for college he matriculated at Shaw University, where he 
won his A. B. degree, after which he spent two years in 
this institution as a teacher. He decided to take up phar- 
macy and in two years completed the three year course at 
the Leonard School of Pharmacy in 1895 with the Ph. G. 
degree. He passed the State Board of Pharmacy on March 
25, 1897. Speaking of the struggles of that period he says, 
"My difficulties mainly were making the money to pay for 
my schooling. I had no one to help, so I had to make it 
during vacations. During the seven years I spent in college 
I had only $20.00 given me. I left school not owing a penny. 
I spent my summers North working on steamboats and in 
the Pullman service. I taught country schools two seasons, 
and by such methods I always managed to make enough to 
wear good clothes and pay my bills. I was graduated from 
a three year course in Pharmacy in two years." Though 
these were hard years, yet he found they furnished the 
training he needed as a man. After he was through college 
he taught as Principal of one of the graded schools of Dur- 
ham for five years and at the same time tried to run a 



714 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

business. The difficulty, however, of securing properly 
trained help induced him to give up teaching and devote 
himself entirely to business. He was also interested at one 
time in insurance, and made considerable investment in 
that line of work, but finally settled down to the one thing 
which he knew best and which he could handle personally — 
the drug business at which he has been successful. His 
drug store is situated in a beautiful section of the town in- 
habited by people of his own rase, who honor and respect 
him. 

In politics Dr. Dodson is a Republican. He is a member 
of the Baptist church and among the secret orders holds 
membership in the Masons and Pythians. In addition to 
his business Dr. Dodson owns a comfortable home and con- 
siderable real estate in Durham. Speaking of race condi- 
tions he says, "Our best protection would be a national law, 
impartially enforced, that would protect every individual 
and punish every state that did not guarantee that protec- 
tion. Have one law for both races and see that it is carried 
out. Give me the same chance given the white man. Give 
equal opportunity and equal pay for equal service. Let both 
races "shut their eyes and shovel coal," with equal oppor- 
tunity and protection and there will be no race problem." 

On Dec. 28, 1898, Dr. Dodson was married to Miss Lil- 
lian Fitzgerald, a daughter of Richard B. and Sallie W. Fitz- 
gerald. She was educated at Fiske University, and was, 
before her marriage, a teacher in the graded schools of 
Durham. Dr. and Mrs. Dodson have five children. They 
are. Allen L., Gladys E., Hobart L., Richard F. and Lois M. 
Dodson, all of whom are now attending various schools. 



James Butler Francis 



The Presbyterian church since the inauguration of its 
work among the colored people has always pursued a policy 
of education — Christian education. The result has been 




JAMES BUTLER FRANCIS 



716 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

an intelligent ministry and efficient leadership unsurpassed 
by any other denomination. 

Among the well equipped young men of the church in 
North Carolina must be mentioned Rev. James Butler Fran- 
cis now (1920) located at Laurinburg. Though educated 
and now working in North Carolina he was born in South 
Carolina, being a native of Sumter, where he was born on 
May 7, 1888. His father, Henry T. Francis, was a farmer, 
and was the son of James and Annie Francis. His mother, 
before her marriage was Loumanda McCoy, a daughter of 
Butler and Eliza McCoy. His parents were devout Chris- 
tians and the religious training he received in the home gave 
direction to his after life. 

On April 26, 1919, Mr. Francis was married to Miss 
Mary E. Gathings, a daughter of Samuel and Vinia Gathings 
of Pageland, S. C. Mrs. Francis was educated at Claflin 
University and was, before her marriage, an accomplished 
teacher. They have one child, James F. Francis. 

Young Francis laid the foundation of his education at 
Sumter. Te did his preparatory work at Biddle University 
and passed from there into the college department and 
won his A. B. degree in 1916. Following that he took up 
the Theological course and was graduated with the S. T. B. 
degree in 1919 from the same institution. Being of limited 
means and his parents being unable to help him financially, 
he found it necessary to work his way through school. 

Mr. Francis identified himself with the church at an 
early age and when twenty years of age definitely decided 
to take up the work of the ministry. During his Theological 
course he preached at nearby churches and such was the 
character of his service that when he was through school 
he was called to the work at Laurinburg, where he -has 
firmly established himself. He is of a cheerful, cordial 
disposition and makes friends for himself and his work 
as he goes along. He has traveled over a large part of 
America and parts of Canada. His favorite reading is 
along the lines of Theology and Moral Philosophy. 



Jacob Duckery Gordon 



Prof. Jacob Duckery Gordon, one of the competent edu- 
cators of North Carolina, comes to this State from South 
Carolina, having been born at Cheraw during the war, on 
August 9, 1864. His parents were Alexander and Jane (Er- 
vin) Gordon. Alexander Gordon's father, Reuben, was 
brought from North to South Carolina and after years of 
service was again sold and carried west. His wife, Tamar, 
was the daughter of Jack and Maria Kollock. Prof. Gor- 
don's mother was a daughter of Jacob Duckery and Juno 
Harrington. Thus it will be seen that he bears his grand- 
prandfather's name. 

On December 23, 1888, our subject was married to Miss 
Anna Lillie Harrington, a daughter of John and Elsie Har- 
rington. They have one son, John Vereen Gordon. 

Those who are familiar with the history of the slave 
States know what a struggle the colored boys who were 
born in slavery or just after the war, had to secure an 
education. Prof. Gordon was no exception to the rule. His 
story cannot better be told than in his own simple language : 

"I began school life in 1870. I learned my alphabet 
before the close of the first day in school and a happier soul 
never existed before nor since. My tutor was the son of an 
ex-salveholder and his children were in the school with us. 
I was very much in earnest about learning. At that time 
my highest ambition was to learn to read the Bible, so that 
I could join my great-grandfather, Jack, in reading about 
Joshua and the Amorites, Samson killing so many people 
with the jawbone of an ass and many other familiar stories. 
My father, although. unlettered, was very much interested 
in the education of his children, but at the close of the 
short school term he did not care to see us use our books 
too much, especially when the grass was growing. This 
handicapped me and it was only when he was absent that I 
was able to study. Under these circumstances and without 




JACOB DUCKERY GORDON 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 710 

the aid of a teacher, I learned to work vulgar fractions, 
denominate numbers and so on. I was very careful not 
to erase the copies wh.'ch my teachers wrote for me on the 
last days of school, but would preserve them and write and 
re-write from them throughout the entire vacation. The 
day on which I learned to read, I ran ahead of all the 
other children to tell my mother and to read to her a 
few simple sentences. She was as proud of it as I was. 
My mother died in 1877 and father lost interest in me 
and my only sister, who was two years my senior. She 
married young and I went to live with her. I had now 
quit the old field school and was a student of Col. H. L. 
Shrewsburg, where I studied for two or three terms. My 
uncles, seeing my determination, induced me to save money 
to go to Bicldle University. I hired to a farmer at seven 
dollars a month and in the fall of 1880 entered Biddle with 
$25.00 in cash. I remained until this was exhausted, bor- 
rowed railroad fare and returned. On reaching home I 
learned from my father that he had not sent me any money 
for the reason, that the man for whom he was working had 
refused to pay him any money when he learned that it 
was to go for the education of his son. Instead of being 
discouraged, this spurred me to greater efforts and I was 
now more determined than ever to obtain an education. 
The following year I returned to college and at the end of 
the term thought I was 'some scholar' and was eager to 
begin teaching. I was discouraged on the ground that I 
was too young and did not begin teaching until two years 
later. In 1884 I began in Marborough Co. and remained 
there for eleven consecutive years." 

In 1885, Prof. Gordon went to Palatka, Florida, and 
began merchandising, but did not find that kind of work 
congenial so at the end of the year he returned to South 
Carolina and resumed teaching. In 1894 he was on the 
Grand Jury of the U. S. District Court. Following that he 
moved to Concord, N. C, where he has since remained. 
His principal work since he came to the Old North State 
has been teaching though he has been active in other fields 



720 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

as well. He is now (1920) serving his eleventh year as as- 
sistant principal of the Concord Colored Graded & Indus- 
trial School. 

When the Coleman Manufacturing Company erected at 
Concord a cotton mill to be operated entirely by colored 
people, Prof. Gordon found employment there during his va- 
cations as a private secretary. In 1919 the Colored Division 
of the Textile Workers of America was organized at Concord 
and Prof. Gordon was elected Financial Secretary, which 
position he has held since. In October of the same year he 
was elected delegate to the annual meeting of the Textile 
Workers which was held in Baltimore, and was the only 
person of color present and the only colored union represen- 
tative out of the 200 delegates from fifteen States. His po- 
sition as an educator in the county may be seen from the 
fact that he is President of the Colored County Teachers' 
Association. Prof. Gordon is a member of the A. M. E. Zion 
church and is President of the Sunday School Union of Con- 
cord, and was for two years District Sunday School Superin- 
tendent of the Concord District. 

He has found particular help and inspiration in reading 
the lives of Lincoln, Grant, Garfield, Fred Douglas and oth- 
ers. With the years has come success not only in his chosen 
profession but in a business and financial way as well. He 
has accumulated considerable property in and around Con- 
cord so that his annual taxes amount to at least $100.00. 



John Thomas Hairston 



Rev. John Thomas Hairston, B. Th., is pastor of the 
Shiloh Baptist church in a section of Greensboro known as 
Warnersville, where his ministry has been very successful. 
He is a son of a preacher and is especially equipped for 
the chosen work of his life. 

Mr. Hairston was born in Davie Co., Sept. 8, 1876. 
His father was Rev. Wiseman Hairston and his mother was, 




JOHN THOMAS HAIRSTON 



722 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

before her marriage, Miss Susan Mason. His grandparents 
on his father's side were Adam and Bashie Hairston, and 
on his mother's side they were Burrell and Phyllis Mason. 
They were all slaves and hence he cannot trace his ancestry 
further back. 

Mr. Hairston was a poor country boy, and when he 
entered school had only a dollar and a half, a peck of pears, 
a little meat and some flour. Notwithstanding the fact 
that he started in this way he is making his mark and he 
attributes his success to hard work, honesty and living a 
moral life. 

After attending the public schools of Davie Co., he at- 
tended the State Normal at Salisbury for three years and 
then entered Livingstone College, located in the same town 
and graduated from the normal department in 1904. He 
afterwards pursued the course in Theology at Shaw Uni- 
versity and was graduated with the degree of B. Th. in 
1908. 

Dr. Hairston has been married twice. On Oct. 8, 1908, 
he married Miss Lucile Ingram of Rockwell, N. C. She 
bore him two children, Jasper R. and George Thomas Hair- 
ston, and passed away on Dec. 14, 1911. His second mar- 
riage was to Miss Nancy Alice Wright of Asheville, on Oct. 
21, 1913. They have two children, Otis L. and Elmer H. 
Hairston. The children are all being given the best edu- 
cational advantages. 

Dr. Hairston's first pastorate was at China Grove, 
where he preached eight years and built a new church. 
He pastored the church at Mill Bridge two years, Alber- 
marle three years and remodeled the church. He served 
as assistant pastor to his father at Spencer and went from 
there to Reidsville for three years. In 1907 he came to his 
present work, which has prospered under his administra- 
tion. The house of worship has been repaired and a com- 
fortable new parsonage erected. In 1918 he was elected 
Moderator of the Rowan Association, which is one of the 
largest Baptist Associations in the State. 

At the early age of twelve Mr. Hairston was converted 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 723 

and was licensed to preach by the Cedar Grove Bapt. church 
in 1895 and ordained to the full work of the Gospel min- 
istry in 1900. In addition to his work as a pastor he has 
done considerable evangelistic work at which he has been 
blessed in the winning of many to the Master. His idea of 
the race situation is that there ought to be frequent meet- 
ings of the best people of both races for candid discussion 
of the various problems that arise and thus let the races 
better understand each other and he believes that the result 
will be mutual sympathy and help from both sides. 



Matthew Curtis Harvey 



All too frequently, our books of history and biography 
deal with official life and with professional men. These 
are important ; but, after all, advanced civilization depends 
upon the business man and the manner in which he does 
business. As the colored people have increased their earning 
capacity there have sprung up in various towns and cities, 
enterprising men who as merchants and business men are 
not only successful themselves, but have served as worthy 
examples for other members of the race. Such a man is 
Matthew Curtis Harvey, of the picturesque old town of 
Washington. He was born at James City, in Graven Co., 
October 28, 1863, which it will be recalled, was in the midst 
of the war between the States. That part of the State, 
particularly, was practically a battle ground at that time. 
His parents were Moses and Susan Harvey. The family 
moved to Washington when the child was four years old and 
such schooling as he had was secured in Washington. He 
himself says that he was raised on the streets of Washing- 
ton and was accustomed to do just such work as a man 
about town would be expected to do. In November, 1886, 
he was married to Miss Amy Latham, also of Craven Co. 
They have one daughter, Annie R. Harvey, an accomplished 
young lady who was educated at Livingstone College and 




MATTHEW CURTIS HARVEY 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 725 

now has charge of the kindergarten department of the pub- 
lic schools at Washington. 

Mr. Harvey went into business for himself in 1900. 
One going into his well stocked general store today would 
be astonished to know that he began business with the 
insignificant capital of eight dollars twenty years ago. Two 
or three times he has found it necessary to move into larger 
quarters and he is today regarded as one of the safest and 
most successful business men of his race in the city. 

Since young manhood he has not been active in politics, 
but he is active and prominent in the work of his local 
church, being a member of the Metropolitan A. M. E. Zion 
church, of which he is a trustee and a teacher in the Sunday 
School. Among the secret and benevolent orders he is 
identified with the Masons, the Pythians and the Elks. 
Though himself deprived of a college education, he believes 
that the progress of the race depends on proper training and 
the development of a larger spirit of co-operation among 
colored people. 



Samuel Thomas Hawkins 



To multiply the institutions of a fine civilization and to 
extend their benefits to all mankind is beyond doubt the 
great material purpose of all practical effort. Yet in the 
stories of some men we are clearly reminded of the under- 
lying truth of destiny so well expressed in the familiar line: 
"God moves in a mysterious way His wonders to perform." 

Picture to yourself a humble Negro woman, left sud- 
denly widowed through the drowning of her husband, with 
eight young children to care for and you see a situation so 
hopeless, from a worldly standpoint, words are inadequate 
to describe it. Yet it is with the career of one of these 
children, Rev. Samuel Thomas Hawkins, A. B., D. D., Pre- 
siding Elder of the Statesville District of the A. M. E. Zion 
church of the Western North Carolina Conference that this 
biography deals. 




SAMUEL THOMAS HAWKINS 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 727 

He was born at Beaufort in 1883 and, like another Sam- 
uel, seemed designed by Providence, and dedicated by his 
mother, to the ministry, and the life of that mother illum- 
ines not only his career but that of the very life of the race 
itself. So poor as often to be without food, she still kept 
her faith in God as a Father and would pray as only such 
great souls in dire distress, yet perfect confidence in the 
promises do pray for the daily bread that would maintain 
their lives while they labored without complaint or bitter- 
ness in the midst of such adversity. Morning, noon and 
night she would gather her brood about her and teach them 
that God would provide and He never failed ; so these chil- 
dren were never led into temptation, but learned that the 
Lord was their helper. Beyond the fact that his father was 
Samuel Thomas Hawkins, Sr., a farmer and fisherman, who 
was drowned when his son was only six years old, and that 
his mother, Mary Jane Hawkins, was a daughter of Delia 
Jerkins, he knows little of his ancestry. 

Naturally he had to work while still little more than a 
small child and his lot for many a year was one of extreme 
hardship. 

One of the most remarkable facts in his remarkable 
life is that he was actually licensed to preach at the age of 
thirteen. His first sermon was heard by a visiting Bishop, 
Rev. C. R. Harris, and so powerful was it that the Bishop 
declared he should not be left to himself, but must go to 
school and laid the first dollar down on the table as a con- 
tribution. Some months afterwards Rev. H. H. Bingham 
was sent to the Beaufort church and also become profoundly 
interested in the boy's native ability and pious zeal and 
asked of Prof. S. G. Atkins, of Winston-Salem, room for the 
boy so he might attend the Slater Normal School Previ- 
ously he had only preliminary education in the graded school 
at Beaufort. 

While these things helped, young Hawkins was still 
left to work his way through Slater, where for seven years 
he worked at hard and often severely painful tasks. At 
the school he did water carrying, which in winter meant 



728 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

carrying water up the icy hill and sometimes getting his 
hands so cold that blood would come from his fingers when 
he whipped them around his shoulders to keep them from 
freezing stiff. In summer he worked in the brickyards. 
There was no one to give him a penny of financial aid. In 
1905 he was graduated from the normal course at Slater, 
after which he managed to take two years in his higher 
courses. But one main aim of education is to teach "how 
to learn," and by this time the study habit was so fixed 
in him that he carried on several years subsequently a cor- 
respondence course offered by the American Correspondence 
School Bible University, which conferred upon him the well- 
merited degree of A. B., while Livingstone College recog- 
nized his attainments by granting him the degree of Doctor 
of Divinity. 

The Conference at Gastonia in 1907 sent him to his 
first regular appointment in the country where he found 
but three people, preached to them, received thirty cents and 
on his way from that assignment his presiding elder sent him 
to East Bent Circuit. This charge was eighteen miles long, 
and not a penny to help him make the trip. He walked all 
the way. There were four widely separated churches, pay- 
ing, in all (when he received it) a salary of ninety dollars 
a year. He spent two years ministering to this people, 
during which time, however, he added to the churches over 
200 members and had over 150 converts. From here he 
was sent to Piney Grove Circuit, another country charge, 
far away from a railroad, at a slight increase of salary. Here 
he spent two years of most fruitful labor, building one new 
church, remodeling two others and adding over a hundred 
new members. He was then sent to Rockwell circuit, re- 
built one church, practically completed another, brought 
the salary up from $150 to $600 a year in five years, or- 
ganized four fraternal societies, which paid to widows and 
orphans more than $3,000 in benefits, erected a fine school 
building, where there are now (1920) three teachers regu- 
larly employed, and encouraged the entire diocese in the 
making of better homes, ownership of their farms, etc. He 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 729 

was then promoted to the Moore Sanctuary station, where 
within a year he had canceled the church debt and added 
more than a hundred members. After remaining here for 
two years he was sent to Gastonia, where his former suc- 
cesses were repeated in a larger way and after staying 
there longer than any former pastor he was promoted to the 
presiding eldership of the Statesville District and now re- 
sides at Derita, in the historic old county of Mecklenburg. 
Here he is meeting with marked success. 

Dr. Hawkins has traveled quite extensively in the South. 
While nominally a Republican he does not participate in 
party affairs. Among the secret orders, he holds high of- 
fice in the Masons, Odd Fellows, Household of Ruth and is 
active in every form of community service and semi-public 
effort looking to the elevation of all men to better standards. 
He has never sought to make money, but has sufficient 
property gained by thrift to place him in the class of solv- 
ent, substantial men — a further proof that those who will 
not be diverted from seeking first the Kingdom of Heaven 
shall have their reasonable competence. 

On January 6, 1904, Dr. Hawkins married Miss Hattie 
R. Sawyer, a daughter of Joseph and Lula Sawyer. They 
have two children, Blanche and Rufus Hawkins. 

Dr. Hawkins continues to be a hard student as well 
as a hard worker, having taken a course in law as well as 
being a constant reader of the Bible and religious books, 
history and philosophy. He believes that his race should 
be more prudent in the matter of money so as to be able 
to buy land and to establish their own enterprises and 
properly educate their children. 



Walter Eugene Hayley 

Representatives of the negro race are now found in 
practically every department of human activity. They are 
practicing law and medicine, preaching and teaching, follow- 
ing the various mechanical trades, and engaging in all lines 




WALTER EUGENE HAYLEY AND FAMILY 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 731 

of mercantile activities. Their stores, banks, newspapers, 
office buildings and theatres const tute a part of the life of 
every considerable city in the South. 

Hayley's Pharmacy at Concord, N. C, is representative 
of this feature of the expanding life of the Negro. It is 
owned by Walter Eugene Hayley, the subject of this biog- 
raphy. What he has accomplished is a monument to the 
power of a forceful personality and a purpose resolutely 
bent to the accomplishment of a given task. 

He was born Dec. 10, 1882, in Northampton Co., N. C, 
the son of Paul F. Hayley and Nancy Christmas Hayley. 
His father was a railway postal clerk. His paternal grand- 
father was Holiday Haley, of Northampton Co. On the 
mother's side his grandparents were Marcus Christmas and 
Henrietta Christmas, of Warrenton, N. C. The early years 
of his active life were spent in school. After passing 
through Washington public and high school, he went to 
Shaw University, graduating in 1906 from Leonard School 
of Pharmacy, with the Ph. G. degree. 

In July, 1906, he began at Winston-Salem, N. C, his 
life business, that of a druggist, a business deserving also 
to be dignified by the title of a profession. This profes- 
sion he has followed to the present time, and in it he has 
attained a marked degree of success. He remained there 
for three years. 

On Jan. 2, 1907, he married Miss Alice E. Hairston, 
daughter of Dillard Hairston of Walnut Cove, Stokes Co. 
They have five children, Mercedes Vivian, Walter Eugene, 
Jr., Mary Hall, Gwendolyn Paul and Nancy Alice Louise 
Hayley. 

Dr. Hayley has traveled considerably in various parts 
of the United States. In his reading he has sought out 
those works which deserve a place among the highest pro- 
ductions of the human mind, passing by the trashy, light 
and frothy productions which are the creatures of the 
hour and die with the hour. The great masterpieces of 
English and American writers have brought him their mes- 
sages and put their spirit into his life. 



732 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

He is a member of the Methodist church. He is also 
a thirty-third degree Mason and a member of the Knights 
of Pythias. 

Dr. Hayley has no fine spun theories regarding the fu- 
ture of his race or the public policies of our government, 
but is devoting his energies to the successful conduct of 
his business and the discharge of his duties as a citizen. 
He is identified with no political party and has never held 
any political office. 



James Monroe Henderson 



The Industrial Institute Training School and Orphanage 
at Southern Pines, N. C, has a record of service to the race 
which should commend it to the support and patronage of 
those who believe that the progress of the race depends 
on proper training. 

The institution stands as a monument to the energy 
and enterprise of Rev. James Monroe Henderson. He is a 
native of the old town of Concord, where he was born on 
Aug. 15, 1861, scon after the outbreak of the war which 
was to bring freedom and opportunity to him and to his 
people. His father, Henry A. Henderson, was a mechanic, 
and his mother's maiden name was Miss Eliza Eell. She 
was a daughter of John and Martha Bell. John Bell was 
free born, though his wife was a slave. 

As a boy young Henderson attended the lo:al public 
school, and then passed to what is now Biddle University, 
Charlotte. Later he attended evening high school, Chas- 
tain Institute, at Boston, Mass., and also the Well's Memo- 
rial Institute of the same city. 

He was graduated from the latter with the Master Me- 
chanics degree. He also took a business and commercial 
course in Hall's Business School, Boston. He is a member 
of the American Academy of Social and Political Science, 
Philadelphia, Pa. Like so many of the successful men of 




JAMES MONROE HENDERSON 



734 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

the race he had a struggle for his education. He refused 
to be discouraged, however, and would work a while and 
then go to school again. This seemed hard at the time but 
the experience thus gained has been of the greatest service 
in his later work. He knows how to help and to sympa- 
thize with struggling youth. 

Following the completion of his education, he began 
merchandising, and this was followed by some years of 
work as a builder and contractor. While still at the North 
he lectured throughout New England, using illustrated 
stereopticon lectures. He was appointed trial Justice of the 
Peace, for Boston, Mass., for several years, in which he 
served with honor. He also edited the Boston Advance, a 
weekly paper for about twelve years. 

On June 24, 1885, Mr. Henderson was married to Miss 
Sarah Williams, a daughter of Squire Williams of Raleigh. 
She was educated at Raleigh and Greensboro. 

Mr. Henderson is a member of the Union M. E. church, 
and has spent much of his life in missionary and pastoral 
work in Boston and in North Carolina. 

While living on Lookout Mountain, Tenn., he served 
for a while as deputy sheriff. 

It is in connection with his work at Southern Pines, 
however, that he is best known. He felt that there was a 
need which his training and experience fitted him to meet. 
Out of this feeling grew the Industrial Union Training 
School and Orphanage. He has built conservatively and has 
had the wisdom to keep the institution free from debt. 
Considerable property has been accumulated and an Advis- 
ory Board of distinguished white men and women enlisted 
m the work. He is working on the basis that the permanent 
progress of the race depends upon mutual understanding 
between the races and the proper training of the young 
men of the race along industrial, intellectual and spiritual 
lines. This puts him in line with the best thought of the 
educational world today and has brought to him endorse- 
ment from sources that are most flattering. While not 
sacrificing efficiency, Rev. Henderson has had the wisdom 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 735 

to put the expenses of his school at a minimum so that 
even the boy or girl of the most limited means may find a 
way to attend the Industrial Union Institute. 



Robert Benjamin Rhyne 



Rev. Robert B. Rhyne, now (192C) in charge of the 
Hartzell Memorial M. E. church at Hickory, has already 
worked his way up from a place of poverty and obscurity 
to a position of leadership in his denomination and among 
his race. 

Mr. Rhyne was born in Gaston Co. October 7, 1868. His 
parents were William and Mary Ann (Ettleman) Rhyne. 
Young Rhyne grew up on his father's farm in Gaston Co. 
and went to the local public schools. From early boy- 
hood he had the impression that the ministry would be his 
life work so that when, at about the age of fourteen, he 
came into the work of the church, it was practically settled 
that he would be a preacher. He continued to farm, how- 
ever, until he had reached manhood, and taught school for 
a couple of years. He was licensed to preach at an early 
age and did considerable local work before formally joining 
the conference. 

Mr. Rhyne joined the Conference in 1914 at Greens- 
boro. His first pastorate was the Mooresboro and Henri- 
etta charge, where he remained for a year. After that he 
served the Lenoir circuit two years and built a new church; 
the Stanley and King's Mountain charge six years, erecting 
one new building and finishing another; the Shelby and 
Londale charge three years and did considerable repairing ; 
Bessemer City and King's Mountain three years, adding to 
the church at Bessemer City and finishing the church at 
King's Mountain. From this he came to his present sta- 
tion at Hickory, where the work has prospered under his ad- 
ministration. He is now in his second year at Hickory. 

Among the secret orders, Mr. Rhyne is identified with 



736 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

the Odd Fellows and Masons. He was somewhat handi- 
capped in the matter of his education, for lack of early op- 
portunity, but managed to get to Livingstone College for 
two and a half years. He has done considerable evangelistic 
work in which he has been unusually successful. He has 
attended two general conferences of his church and locally 
is a prominent figure in any gathering religious or civic. 
During the war he took an active part in all the drives and 
campaigns and is a friend and supporter of education and 
progress. 

On Christmas eve, 1896, Mr. Rhyne was married to 
Miss Louisa Potts, of Stanley. They have one son, Lentz 
Rhyne. Mr. Rhyne's property interests are in Gaston Co. 



Kinchen Charley Holt 



Among the leaders of the A. M. E. Connection in North 
Carolina none stand higher or have to their credit a record 
of more effective fruitful work than Dr. Kinchen Charley 
Holt of Greensboro, now (1919) Presiding Elder of the 
Raleigh District. Dr. Holt is a native of the middle part 
of the State, having been born at Mebane in Orange Co., 
on Nov. 8, 1869. His father, Pleasant Holt, was a farmer, 
and the boy grew up on the farm and was accustomed to 
doing all sorts of manual labor. When he was of school 
age he entered the local public school. From earliest child- 
hood he was brought up in the church and the Sunday School 
and to this good day recalls with gratitude the happy influ- 
ence on his life of the right sort of home training. It is 
not strange, therefore, that at the early age of twelve he 
was converted and joined the church. He was licensed to 
preach when only a little more than eighteen, and has de- 
voted all his mature manhood to the work of the church. 
Eternity alone can show the results of all these years 
of patient endeavor in the cause of the Kingdom. 

Dr. Holt's mother, before her marriage, was Miss Viney 



738 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

Albright. She was a daughter of Thomas and Emily Faust. 
His paternal grandparents were David and Margaret Holt. 

He was married on October 26, 1904, to Miss Vera L. 
Barker, a daughter of J. Frank and Mary A. Baker of Dud- 
ley, N. C. Mrs. Holt was educated at Scotia Seminary, Con- 
cord, N. C, and Freedmen's Hospital Training School for 
Nurses, Washington, D. C. Eight children have been born 
to Dr. Holt; four are living. They are, Mabel, Wilhelmina 
L., Floyd K., by a former marriage, and Eunice C. Holt, 
by last marriage. 

After going to the public schools, Dr. Holt attended 
the Presbyterian Academy at Mebane, N. C. He did his col- 
lege work at Shaw University and St. Augustine, Raleigh. 
The D. D. degree was conferred on him by Kittrell College. 
Speaking of the conditions under which he went to school, 
he says, "My parents were poor and striving to pay for a 
home. I was the oldest of twelve children and had to 
work to help pay for the home." 

He began his active ministry at Smith's Chapel Mis- 
sion in 1888. Here he bought a lot for a church that was 
later erected, and then he went back to school. His next 
work was the Fayetteville Station, where he filled out an 
unexpired term. At the following conference he was sent 
to St. Matthew, Raleigh, where he preached for two years. 
From Raleigh he went to the Laurinburg Circuit one year. 
After that he preached at St. James, Winston, two years, 
bought a lot and built a church ; Gaston Chapel, Morganton, 
began a new church ; Kinston Station one year, Rue Chapel, 
New Berne, three years, built parsonage at a cost of 
$1800.00. From New Berne he went to W T inston again for 
a short time. In 1900 he was promoted to the District. 
Here his splendid executive abilities have shown to such 
advantage that he has been kept on one district after an- 
other in the Western North Carolina Conference for nine- 
teen consecutive years. Under his administration the work 
has grown and prospered. He is a prominent figure in 
both the annual and general conferences of his denomina- 
tion. He has attended every general conference since 1904. 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 739 

While not devoting himself to business, Dr. Holt has 
managed his affairs well and has an attractive home and 
other property at Greensboro. He is a Republican m poli- 
tics, and among the secret orders is identified with the 
Masons, Odd Fellows and Pythians. His preferred read- 
ing after his Bible and Theological books, runs to History, 
essays etc Dr. Holt believes the best interests of the race 
are to be promoted by "Concentrated efforts in building up 
good substantial business enterprises and encouraging 
friendly racial relations and using the ballot as a safeguard. 
In addition to his regular pastoral work Dr. Holt was in 
demand for evangelistic work before he went on the District. 



John Wise Jones 



Dr John Wise Jones, of Winston-Salem, is one of the 
best known men of the race in North Carolina. He has 
for years been a prominent and successful physician there 
and for the past nine years has been Grand Chancellor ot 
the Knights of Pythias, one of the great benevolent orders 
of the State, embracing at this time no less than 250 local 
lodges and 16,000 members. 

Dr Jones is a native of the Old Dominion, having been 
born in Mecklenburg Co., Virginia, right in the midst ot the 
war on October 26, 1863. His father, William Jones, a man 
of remarkable vitality, was born Christmas day, 1822 : and 
resides with his son. It will beseen that he is now (1920) 
ninety-eight years of age. Dr. Jones' mother, who died 
at the age of eighty-six, was before her marriage Miss 
Nancy Cannon. In the absence of written records he knows 
little of his earlier ancestry. 

Young Jones lived on the farm and as a boy went to 
the public schools. Later, after the family had moved to 
North Carolina, he went to Shaw University, where he 
pursued the regular classical course up to the senior year. 
Having decided on the medical profesison as his life work. 




JOHN WISE JONES 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 741 

he then matriculated at Leonard Medical College, where he 
won the M. D. degree in 1891. The working out of his edu- 
cation, both classical and professional, was by no means 
an easy task, as he had to make his own way. After start- 
ing to college, he spent the vacation months at the North, 
in hotel work, and for a short while taught school in Hali- 
fax and Northampton Counties. While the term, "self- 
made man," as popularly used, refers to a man without edu- 
cation, it is none the less true that many men of college 
training, like Dr. Jones, are also self-made men from the 
fact that they had to make their own opportunities in life, 
and depend upon themselves for the success which has 
crowned their efforts. 

Upon completing his medical course, Dr. Jones began 
the practice at Winston-Salem, where he has since resided. 
To say that he has succeeded in a large way hardly tells 
the story for he is not only a successful physician but is 
also a capable business man of ample means. He is one of 
the most popular secret order and benevolent society men 
in the State. 

After he practiced a few years, he did post-graduate 
work at the Philadelphia Polyclinic, specializing in diseases 
of women and children. From the time his practice began 
to pay, he has had an eye for real estate values and has 
accumulated good property in and around Winston-Salem. At 
this time (1920) in connection with a number of other lead- 
ing business men in the city, he is organizing a new bank 
of which he is president. 

Dr. Jones is identified with both the State and National 
Medical Associations and is at present president of the Na- 
tional Medical Association. He is an active member of the 
Baptist church and is chairman of the board of trustees. 
In addition to his identity with the Pythins, he is also promi- 
nent in the work of the Masons and Odd Fellows. 

On July 2, 1892, Dr. Jones was married to Miss Eliza 
Houser, of Charlotte. She is a daughter of Mr. W. H. 
Houser and was educated at Livingstone College. They 



742 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

have three daughters, Renetta, Ida and Essie M., who are 
accomplished girls with a liberal education. 

There has scarcely been a movement of importance 
among the colored people of Winston-Salem, or of North 
Carolina, for that matter, in recent years, with which Dr. 
Jones has not been identified. He is a public spirited citi- 
zen, looking always to civic betterment. He has watched 
with care the trend of the country population to the city 
and believes that the best interests of the race today are 
to be promoted by building up the farm and home life of 
the Negroes in the South. 

Dr. Jones has traveled extensively in this country and 
parts of Canada. Apart from his professional reading, he 
finds little time for other literature except on current mat- 
ters. Such citizens as Dr. Jones are a real asset to the life 
of any community. 



Max Canstuart King 



The practice of medicine has opened up a field of ser- 
vice and remuneration which a generation ago was scarcely 
known to the colored man. It is gratifying to note the suc- 
cess of so many comparatively young men in this one of the 
most difficult of the so-called learned professions; for let 
it be remembered that the Negro doctor is measured by the 
same standards as the white doctors and is compelled to 
pass the same boards on identical examinations. 

One of these young physicians of the Old North State 
is Dr. Max Canstuart King of Franklinton, of which place 
he is a native. He- was born July 5, 1886. His father, Guil- 
ford King, was a farmer. His mother's maiden name was 
Mary C. Cook. She was a daughter of Rev. Isaac Cook, a 
cobbler and pioneer Baptist preacher of Franklin Co. 

When young King came of school age he attended the 
local school and spent the rest of his time on the farm. 
Later he went to the Christian College of Franklinton, 




MAX CANSTUART KING 



744 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

where he did his preparatory work. Up to this point he 
had experienced but little difficulty as he was living at home, 
but when he matriculated at Shaw University he found it 
necessary to work out his expense through the printing 
office. In this way he was able to complete his course and 
won his Bachelor's degree in 1911. 

Having decided to devote himself to medicine, he took 
three years at Leonard Medical College and then entered 
Meharry Medical College for his senior year and was gradu- 
ated with the M. D. degree in 1915. After he went to medi- 
cal college his vacations were spent in the Pullman service 
which, while enabling him to earn money for his course, at 
the same time gave him a rare opportunity to see the coun- 
try. Looking back over these early days he reckons the 
influence of a good home and an ambitious mother among 
the most potent in his life. 

On completion of his course Dr. King returned to Frank- 
linton and began the practice. Hardly had be become 
settled, however, until the country entered the European 
war. He volunteered and was appointed 1st Lieut. M. R. C. 
April 16, 1918. He served with distinction in France 
from June 20, 1918, to Feb. 15, 1919, and was officially 
mentioned for excellent service. On March 18, 1919, he 
was commissioned Captain. In August of the same year 
he was elected a member of the Association of Military 
Surgeons. He is also a member of the Stato and Nat ; onaI 
Medical Associations. He belongs to the Christian church. 
He is an omnivorous reader of medical books and litera- 
ture, but places the Bible first. From wide travel and 
extensive observation he concludes that the best interests 
of the race are to be promoted "By mutual co-operation 
between the races, racial education of both and by eternally 
contending for justice along all lines." 



James Amos Laughlin 



Rev. James Amos Laughlin now (1920) District Super- 
intendent of the Western District of the M. E. Church, is 
one of those courageous, self-made men, who, in spite of 
his lack of early opportunities has steadily forged ahead 
to a place of leadership in. his race and in his denomination. 
He was born near the site of old Trinity college in Randolph 
Co., on March 30, 1872. His parents were Chesley and 
Sarah Laughlin. His grandparents on the mother's side 
were Jack and Bethsheba Ganaway. On the father's side, 
Amos Dothy Kernes. 

Young Laughlin grew up on the farm and has all his 
life kept up an interest in farming. He was converted when 
about seventeen years of age and began preaching at twenty, 
but did not regularly join the Conference until he was 
twenty-four. He joined the conference at Lenoir under the 
late Bishop Mallalieu and was later ordained elder at Max- 
ton by Bishop Earl Cranston. 

On October 14, 1897, Mr. Laughlin was married to 
Miss Winnie E. Allen, a daughter of James E. and Mary 
Allen of New Salem. She was educated at Bennett College 
and was, before her marriage, a teacher. They have two 
children, Mabel Mozelle and Wynola L. W. Laughlin. 

Mr. Laughlin availed himself of such opportunities 
as the public schools of his native county afforded when he 
was a boy, and, after feeling called to the ministry, went 
to Bennett for a part of three sessions. The rest of his 
education he patiently dug out for himself. 

His first appointment under the conference was the 
Statesville charge, which he served for four years. He re- 
paired one country church and moved the city church at 
Statesville to a better site. He was sent from there to trie 
Central Randolph Circuit, where he built two churches and 
repaired another. His next appointment was to the West 
Greensboro Station, where he remained five year* and re- 




JAMES AMOS LAUGHLIN AND FAMILY 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 747 

paired the house of worship. After that he preached at the 
High Street Station, Greensboro, for four years and remod- 
eled the building. His next appointment was to the Laurin- 
burg Station where he preached for four years and where 
the work greatly prospered under his administration. He 
was then promoted to the district as a District Superintend- 
ent and is now (1920) presiding over the Western District, 
which has been under his direction for two years. 

Mr. Laughlin has had a fruitful ministry from every 
point of view. He has never preached to empty pews, but 
has had big congregations. Wherever he has gone, church 
property has been improved and the membership built up. 
He has well earned his place on the district and is a man of 
executive ability and influence among the people. 

His favorite reading, next after the Bible, is history- 
He has not identified himself with the secret orders, neither 
is he active in politics though a Republican in affiliation. 
He owns considerable farm property in Randolph Co. and 
a home in Greensboro. 



Peter Simon Lewis 



The subject of this sketch, Rev. Peter Simon Lewis, 
D. D., is a native of Townsville, Granville Co., N. C, where 
he was born during the civil war. His parents were Otto- 
way and Jane (Royster) Lewis. His early life was spent 
in Oxford, where he received rudimentary training in the 
public schools. While yet a boy, young Lewis, according 
to the repeated acknowledgement of his teachers, gave evi- 
dence of a fine mind and a bright future. Thoroughness in 
whatever engages head, heart and hand is one of his mas- 
tering passions. 

He began life with this idea: Whatever is worth doing 
at all is worth doing well. So whether at the plow, in the 
cotton field, in the tobacco factory, or in the woods, felling 
tress, his employers always delighted to have such a boy 




PETER SIMON LEWIS 



NORTH CAROLINA EDITION 749 

in their service, who did not have to be watched. In this 
way he grew to young manhood. 

He was converted October 13, 1880, and with his conver- 
sion came a distinct call of God to the gospel ministry, which 
he did not evade, but set about preparing himself for his 
life's work. Having joined the First Baptist church of 
Winston-Salem, N. C, he was by that body licensed to 
preach and later ordained to the full work of the ministry 
by a council of the Rowan Association. 

In the fall of 1883, he entered Richmond Institute, 
Richmond, Va., completed the literary and scientific courses 
and graduated in May, 1887. Subsequently, he entered 
Richmond Theological Seminary, now Virginia Union Uni- 
versity and finished the three years theological course 
and graduated with the degree of Bachelor of Divinity, May 
1889 and in the same year was called to the pastorate of 
the First Baptist church, Salisbury, N. C, where he labored 
successfully eight years. 

On November 23, 1893, he was married to Miss Mary 
Emma Reese of Richmond, Va., who was a teacher in the 
public schools of that city before their marriage. They have 
five children: Sadie M. (Mrs. Knuckles), Peter S., Jr., Rus- 
sel A., Jessie W., and John H. Lewis. 

Accepting the position of General Missionary of Vir- 
ginia 1897, under the plan of co-operation between colored 
and white Baptists, he at once began a campaign of helping 
to bring light and intelligence to the neglected parts of 
the State. During the four years' labor in that field, the 
home mission work received an uplift never before equalled 
in the history of the colored Baptists of that State. 

In 1901 he accepted a call to the pastorate of the First 
Baptist church, Lexington, Va. Here, as elsewhere his la- 
bors were bountifully blessed, both spiritually and finan- 
cially In recognition of his Christian character, services 
and ripe scholarship, the Board of Trustees of the Virginia 
Union University conferred upon him, May 18, 1904, the de- 
gree of Doctor of Divinity. In 1906, he accepted a call to 



750 HISTORY AMERICAN NEGRO 

the pastorate of the First Baptist church, Charlotte, N. C, 
where he has since labored with marvelous success. 

The growth of membership has been steady and a 
modern house of worship erected and paid for, at a cost 
of $45,000.00 j This is said to be the finest church struc- 
ture in North Carolina and one of the most handsome of the 
colored race in the South. Besides, his congregation is 
progressive and believes in trained leadership