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Full text of "The history of Annapolis, the capital of Maryland: the state house, its various public buildings ... together with a full history and description of the United States Naval Academy from its origin to the present time"

Class 







COPmiGKT DEPOSn^ 



THE 

HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS, 

T]ie Capital of Maryland: 



THE STATE HOUSE, ITS VARIOUS PUBLIC BUILDINGS, INCLUDING THE SENATE 

CHAMBER, WHERE GENERAL WASHINGTON RESIGNED HIS COMMISSION, 

PORTRAITS, RELICS, ic. OF THE STATE, GOVERNMENT MANSION, ST. 

JOHN'S COLLEGE, ST. MART'S CATHOLIC CHURCH AND COLLEGE, ST. 

ANNE'S CHURCH, PRESBYTERIAN AND METHODIST CHURCHES, 

CITY AND NATIONAL CEMETERIES, FARMERS' AND FIRST 

NATIONAL BANKS, CITY AND MARYLAND HOTELS, 

ASSEMBLY ROOMS, COURT HOUSE, <tC., AC. 



©ogctUcr with a full Iti^tory mA g^^niption 

OF THK 

UNITED STATES NAYAL ACADEMY, 

FSOM ITS ORIGIN TO THE PRESENT TIME. 

ITS BUILDINGS, GROUNDS, FOUNTAINS, CEMETERY AND PARK, CHAPEL, 
MONUMENTS, LIBRARY, NEW MIDSHIPMEN'S QUARTERS, 

■WITH j^i>i .A.i>i>EasriDix:, 

Containing a variety of Historical anJ Interesting Reminiscences, &c. 

COMPILED AND EDITED BY 

OWEN M. TAYLOR, 

<\ 



BALTIMORE: J 

TURNBULL BEOTHERS, 

1872. 



y 



^\^^ 



Entered, according to Act of Congress, in the j^ear 1872, 

By TURNBULL BROTHERS, 

In tlie office of the Librarian of Congress, at Washington. 






INTRODUCTION. 



The Author of the following pages entertaining the belief that their 
publication might be acceptable to his fellow -citizens, and a generous 
public, has committed them to the press, in the hope that his readers may 
derive something of interest from their perusal. In taking this step he 
has had many misgivings. Diffident of his ability to invest his subject 
with the interest that belongs to it, he would have been loath indeed to 
give it publicity had it not been for the absence of any such publication. 

He has gathered his material from the records within his reach. He 
is indebted for much of it to the "Annals of Annapolis," (which unfor- 
tunately has become obsolete,) and to the valuable assistance afforded 
him by Commodore Worden, Superintendent at the Naval Academy, 
Henry Lee Snyder, Chief Engineer at the Academy, and to Rev. William 
S. Southgate, of St. Anne's Church. 

The undersigned bespeaks for this publication the clemency of all. 

OWEN M. TAYLOR. 



A BRIEF DESCRIPTION OF THE ANCIENT 

CITY OF ANNAPOLIS, 

AND ITS 

MOST PROMINENT PUBLIC AND PRIVATE BUILDINGS, &.c. 
CHAPTER I. 



ITS EARLY HISTORY. 

Town of St. Mary's — The Capital of the Province — An Assembly called — 
Act of Virginia against dissenting Ministers — The Puritans leave 
Virginia, — Take refuge in Maryland — And settle at Providence, now 
Annapolis — Oath of Fidelity — Mr. Thomas Greene appointed Gov- 
ernor in the absence of Governor William Stone— He proclaims the 
Prince of Wales — The inhabitants of Providence prefer the dominion 
of the Commonwealth — Governor Stone returns — Calls an As- 
sembly — The Puritans refuse to attend — Governor Stone visits 
Providence — Returns Burgesses to the Assembly — They attend — 
Providence organised into a county called Anne Arundel — Murders 
committed by the Indians — Susquehanock Indians — Preparations 
against the Indians. 

The town of Saint Mary's became the capital of the Prov- 
ince, and the first Legislative Assembly of the Province was 
called and held there, about the commencement of the year 
1635. 

Having stated this preliminary fact, and not intending to 
connect the history of the Province with these " annals " further 
than what may appear to be necessary, we will now turn to 
some of the causes which eventuated in the settlement of the 
present capital of Maryland. 

Tn the year 1642 the Assembly of the Province of Virginia 
passed an Act to prevent dissenting ministers from preaching 
and propagating their doctrines in that colony. Under this 
Act the Governor and Council of Virginia issued an order 



6 HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 

that all such persons as would not conform to the discipline of 
the Church of England should depart the country by a certain 
day. Notwithstanding the laws against the Puritans in Vir- 
ginia, they continued to keep up a conyenticle of their members 
for some years, Avhich had in the year 1648 increased to one 
hundred and eighteen members. At this period the gov- 
ernment of that colony caused a more vigorous execution of 
the laws to be enforced against them. Their conventicle in 
Virginia was therefore broken up, and the members of it being 
driven out of that colony, were dispersed in different direc- 
tions. The pastor (a INIr. Harrison) went from thence to 
Boston, in New England, in the latter end of this year, aud the 
elder (a Mr. Durand) took refuge in Maryland. It is stated 
by one of their own members to have taken place in the year 
1649, but at what time of the year we are nowhere informed. 
Most probably they did not leave A^irginia in a body, but 
gradually, in small numbers, in the course of the spring and 
summer of this year. It is stated by Mr. Leonard Strong, in 
his Babylon^s Fall, &c., that they were not invited into ]\Iary- 
land by Governor Stone, but by a friend of the Governor's ; 
that they were only " received and protected." These people 
seated themselves at a place by them called " Providence," but 
afterwards " Proctors," or " The Town Land at Severn ; " 
later still, " The Town at Proctors ; " then " The Town Land 
at Severn where the town was formerly;" after that, "Anne 
Arundel Town," which was subsequently changed into " The 
Port of Annapolis," and finally, under its charter in 1708, was 
established as the "City of Annapolis." 

It is alleged by the advocate of the Puritans who thus set- 
tled at Providence (Leonard Strong, before cited) that " an 
oath to the Lord Baltimore was urged upon this people soon 
after their arrival, which if they did not take they must have 
no laud nor abiding in the Province." The oath here alluded 
to was the oath of fidelity, as prescribed by his lordship, and 
annexed to his "condition of Plantations," of 1648. They 
Avere made acquainted by Captain Stone before they came 
here with that oath of fidelity, which was to be taken by those 



HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 7 

who would hold any land here from his lordship ; " nor had 
they any objection to the oath, till they were as much refreshed 
with their entertainment there as the snake in the fable 
was with the countryman's breast ; for which some of them 
were equally thankful. Bi^t it was deemed by some of these 
people too much below them to take an oath to the Lord Pro- 
prietary of that Province, though many Protestants of much 
better quality had taken it." Although these people had thus 
with the permission of the Lord Proprietary's government, 
seated themselves within the Province of Maryland, yet it 
does not appear that they had immediately thereon subjected 
themselves to the Proprietary government of St. Mary's. 

The peninsula or neck of land whereon Annapolis stands was 
probably uninhabited by any Europeans before their arrival ; 
and thus secluded from the rest of the inhabitants of the 
Province, it is probable that, according to the usage of the Con- 
gregational Church of New England, a branch of which Church 
they were, a sort of hierarchical government was established 
by them, similar to that which had been practised by the first 
colonies of Plymouth, Massachusetts, and Connecticut. Neither 
does it appear that any grants of land or territory were made 
to these people, either collectively or individually, either prior 
to or subsequent to their arrival in Maryland, until the latter 
end of July 1650, when their settlement was organised as a 
county, under a commander and commissioners of the peace, as 
the Isle of Kent had been before. 

In this year (1649), when Charles I. was beheaded, Mr. 
Thomas Greene, who was now Governor of Maryland, in the 
absence of Governor Stone, caused the Prince of Wales to be 
proclaimed in the Province, as " the undoubted rightful heir to 
all his father's dominions," on the fifteenth day of November. 
Another proclamation was also issued, of the same date, 
" to further the common rejoicing of the inhabitants upon 
that occasion," declaring a general pardon to all the inhabitants 
of the Province for every oifence before committed. 

It appears, however, that the Puritans wlio had just settled 
on the Severn did not join in the "common rejoicing;" but 



8 HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 

preferring the rule and dominion of the Commonwealth of 
England, just established in the mother country, to that of the 
declared succession of their late sovereign, Charles I., desired to 
be exempt from the common privilege of causing the shores of 
their beautiful Severn to re-echo with their " rejoicings " on 
this occasion. 

In January 1650, Governor Stone having returned to the 
Province and resumed the functions of his office, convened the 
Legislature by proclamation, to meet at St. Mary's on the 
second day of April ensuing. On the day appointed the As- 
sembly accordingly convened ; but as no returns were made, 
nor any appearance of the freemen or burgesses from Prov- 
idence, " the Governor adjourned the House till Friday next, 
the fifth day of the same present month." 

In the meantime it appears that Governor Stone visited the 
new colony at Providence, probably with a view of reconciling 
in an amicable way the refractory Puritans to the Proprietary 
government; for it seems that they consented to send two bur- 
gesses to the Assembly, and the Governor himself made the 
return thereof as follows : 

" By the Lieutenant, &c., of Maryland : The freemen of 
that part of Maryland now called Providence, being by my 
appointment duly summoned to this present Assembly, did 
unanimously make choice of Mr. Puddington and Mr. James 
Cox for their burgesses, I being there in person at that time." 

Accordingly, on the sixth of April the Assembly met, and 
after choosing James Cox Speaker, and Mr. William Britton 
their Clerk, proceeded to business. We may remark here that 
this choice of the Speaker seems to indicate the growing 
strength and influence of the infant colony that had settled at 
Providence. 

The Puritans who had founded Providence formed at this 
early period of their settlement a considerable population, and 
having sent and been represented by their burgesses or dele- 
gates at this last Assembly, and so far submitting to the Pro- 
prietary government, an Act was passed at this session, entitled 
" An Act for the creating of Providence into a county, by the 



HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 9 

name of Anne Arundel County^ The tenor of this Act was, 
"that part of the Province of Maryland, on the west side of the 
Chesapeake Bay, over against the Isle of Kent, formerly called 
by the name of Providence, by the inhabitants there residing, 
ifec, shall from henceforth be erected into a shire or county, by 
the name of Anne Arundel County, and by that name be ever 
hereafter called." It was probably so called from the maiden 
name of Lady Baltimore, then lately deceased — Lady Anne 
Arundel, the daughter of Lord Arundel of Wardour, whom 
Cecilius Lord Baltimore had married. 

No boundaries were assigned by this Act to the county. As 
the population of that part of the Province was detached from 
the other inhabited j^arts, and like Kent Island, was insulated 
from the rest of the Province, such population constituted its 
limits in fact, until in process of time other counties being 
erected adjacent thereto, defined its boundaries. 

This detached colony had its inconveniences and difficulties 

to contend with, incident to all newly-settled places. It became 

thereby not only more obnoxious to the Indians, but more 

liable to alarm, and more easily assailed by these aborigines. 

Some Acts of Assembly, made at the last session of Assembly, 

indicated considerable uneasiness existing at this period among 

the colonists on account of some recent murders and captures 

committed among them by the natives. It appears that two of 

the inhabitants of Kent and Anne Arundel Counties had been 

lately murdered in a most cruel and barbarous manner by 

certain Indians. It is most probable that the Indians who 

committed the above-mentioned murders were the Susque- 

hanocks, a powerful and warlike tribe who inhabited all that 

part of Maryland which lies between the Patuxent and Sus- 

quehanough rivers, on the western shore, and all that portion 

of country from the Choptank to the Susquehanough, on the 

eastern shore. This Assembly, in addition to this cautionary 

measure of preventing a repetition of such murders by the 

Indians, thought it necessary that some more effectual remedy 

to check such conduct of the natives should be applied, and 

accordingly enacted " An order providing for a march upon 

2 



10 HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 

the Indians/' as follows : " Whereas, certain Indians, this last 
year, have most wickedly and barbarously murdered an English 
inhabitant of the County of Kent, and another inhabitant like- 
wise since, in Anne Arundel County, Be it therefore ordered, 
That the Governor, with the advice of the Council, or the 
major part of them, shall have power, in case such Indians 
who have committed such barbarous and wicked murders shall 
not be sent in after demand made of them to the Government 
here, to receive such punishment as is due for such offence, to 
press men and to appoint such allowance for their pay, and to 
make war upon these nations of Indians refusing to deliver up 
those offenders as aforesaid," as in his and their best discretion 
shall be thought fit ; the charge of which war to be laid by an 
equal assessment on the persons and estates of all the inhab- 
itants of this Province." 

It would appear, however, notwithstanding all this prep- 
aration for an Indian war, that a considerable trade was still 
carried on, either with these hostile Indians, or more probably 
with some other tribe or tribes, who remained in a state of 
peace with our colonists. 



CHAPTER. II. 



PUBLIC BUILDINGS. 

City of Annapolis — Its Population — Shipping — Its Site — Its Advan- 
tages — Naval Academy — Its Proximity to the Seat of the National 
Government — The State House, in which General George Washing- 
ton resigned his Commission — The Treasury Department — The 
Government House — Portraits and Relics of the State — St. John|s 
College — St. Mary's Catholic College and Church — St. Anne's 
Church — Presbyterian and Metho.list Churches — City and National 
Cemeteries— Farmers' and First National Banks — City and Mary- 
land Hoiels— Assembly Rooms — Court House, etc., etc. 

The City of Annapolis, tlie capital of Maryland, received 
its name on the 16th day of August 1708, in honor of Queen 
Anne, the then reigning monarch of England. The charter 
was granted by the Hon. John Seymour, then the Royal 
Governor of the Province. It is situated on the south branch 
of the Severn river, thirty miles south from Baltimore, and 
forty miles east-northeast from Washington, in latitude 38° 
58' north ; longitude, AYashington city, 0° 31' east. Its popu- 
lation is about seven thousand ; shipping some 8000 tons. It 
stands on a peninsula formed by Acton's Creek on the south, 
and Covey's Creek on the north; the heads of these two 
creeks being within a half-mile of each other. Its greatest 
length is little more than a mile, and in breadth something 
more than half a mile. It covers an area of about a hundred 
and sixty -three acres. 

The site of the city is one of great beauty, commanding an 
extensive view of the Chesapeake Bay and the surrounding 
country, which exhibits a great diversity of landscape and pic- 
turesque scenery. The appellation of the " Beautiful City " 
has often been applied to her, especially when clothed in 
Nature's brightest livery. 

Annapolis is the natal place of some of the most distin- 
guished men America can boast of; and has the honor of 
being the native place of five of the most beautiful and accom- 



12 niSTOEY OF ANNAPOLIS. 

plished peeresses of our mother country — the Misses Caton, 
grand-daughters of Charles Carroll of Carrollton. 

This city is admirably adapted as a location for both com- 
mercial and manufacturing enterprises, to a greater extent than 
it has been favored with. Her central position between the 
North and the South ; her proximity to the seat of our 
National Government ; her fine and commodious harbor, which 
gives her great commercial advantages — all combine to recom- 
mend her to the General and State Governments for consid- 
eration. There is water bold and extensive enough for all de- 
sirable purposes ; and also seven miles from the mouth of the 
Severn is the Round Bay, a beautiful sheet of water, which of 
itself presents a commodious and secure harbor for ships of war. 

The public buildings are the State House, the Treasury, the 
Government House, St. John's College, Episcopal Church, 
Presbyterian Church, Catholic College and Church, two 
Methodist Episcopal Churches, the Farmers' National Bank, 
and the First National Bank, Court House, the Maryland and 
City Hotels, Assembly Rooms, &c., &c. 

The State House. 

The State House is situated on a beautiful elevation in the 
centre of the city. It has elicited alike the admiration of the 
citizen, the sojourner, and the stranger, for the beauty of its 
structure. Tlie main building is of brick, and the super- 
structure which surmounts it is of wood. The height from 
the base to the top of the spire is two hundred feet. From 
the platform of the dome, which is one hundred and thirty 
feet high, the spectator has one of the most delightful panor- 
amic views to be found within the United States. It com- 
mands a view of Nature in all the beauty of poetic scenery ; 
the ancient city, the adjacent country, the noble Chesapeake, 
and the Eastern Shore beyond it, for an extent of thirty miles 
around, break upon the view of the deliglited eye. 

The hill on which stands this noble edifice is enclosed by 
a neat and substantial granite wall, surmounted by a handsome 



HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 13 

iron railing, which is entered by three gates, one situated at 
the head of Frances street and in front of the building, the 
second to the southwest, and the third to the northeast of the 
circle. The main entrance to the building is through a portico 
of but modest pretensions, and opens into a spacious and beau- 
tiful hall, in which is had a view of the interior of the dome, 
the stucco-work of which was made from plaster brought from 
St. Mary's County. 

On the rio-ht hand of the hall is the Senate Cliamber. This 
room is judiciously and tastefully fitted up for the use of the 
Senators of our State. It is thirty-four feet by forty ; it has 
a lobby and gallery for the accommodation of visitors. Per- 
sons of distinction are often invited within the bar of the 
Senate, Avhere seats are provided for them. Portraits at full 
length of the distinguished Charles Carroll of Carrollton, 
Samuel Chase, William Paca, and Thomas Stone, ornament 
the walls. These gentlemen were the four signers of the 
Declaration of Independence on the part of Maryland, and 
were at that period all citizens of Annapolis ; each of them in 
his day filled various posts of honor and responsibility, and 
shared largely the confidence and esteem of his fellow-citizens. 
The first-named gentleman was the last survivor of that illus- 
trious band of patriots who signed the Declaration of Ameri- 
can Independence. There is also in this room a portrait of the 
" Hero of the Cowpens," the virtuous and excellent John 
Eager Howard, who has with the rest of his compatriots gone 
to the land of his fathers, there to reap the rewards of an 
honorable and well-spent life. In 1788, '89 and '90, Mr. 
Howard w^as Governor of Maryland. The first and last 
named portraits were ])ainted by Mr. Sully, the others by Mr. 
Bordley, both native artists. 

There is likewise in the Committee Room adjoining the 
Senate Chamber a portrait of the elder Pitt, the friend of 
America. In this picture Lord Chatham is represented at full 
length, in the attitude and costume of a Roman orator, with 
decorations of emblematical figures expressive of his noble 
principles. It was painted by Charles Wilson Peale (who was 



14 HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 

a native of Annapolis) while in England, and presented by 
him in the year 1794 to his native State. 

This room is still more memorable as being the spot upon 
which was consummated the greatest act in the life of the 
greatest man of any age. It was here that Washington, after 
having rescued his country from foreign dominion and usurpa- 
tion, nobly laid down his authority on the altar of liberty — 
resigning his commission into the hands of Congress — (in 
this connection the author will state that over the door from 
the Senate Chamber to the Committee Room will be seen a 
scene most instrnctive and interesting, that is to say, Washing- 
ton's resignation of his military commission) — and in this 
room, too, was ratified l)y the same (Vmgress, the treaty of 
peace with Great Britain, of 178'^, recognising our inde- 
jxMidcnce. 

On the left of the hall, immediately op[)osite to the Senate 
Chamber, is the Chamber of the House of Delegates. This 
apartment originally was of the same dimensions as the former, 
and had also a gallery for the accommodation of spectators ; 
and at that period was suspended from the walls a large 
picture, presenting a full length likeness of General Washing- 
ton, attended by General La Fayette and Colonel Tilghman, 
his aides-de-camp, the Continental array passing in review. 
In his hand he holds the articles of capitulation at Yorktown. 
This picture was painted by Charles Wilson Peale, in pur- - 
suance of a resolution of the General Assembly of Maryland. 

The Chamber of the House of Delegates has within several 
years past been much enlarged and handsomely refitted, and is 
capable of accommodating all its nienibers, who sit at desks 
conveniently arranged, together with the numerous spectators 
who from day to day visit that body. The last three Conv^en- 
tions to reform the organic law of ISIaryland assembled and 
held their deliberations in this hall. 

At the termination of the hall of entrance to the State 
House the State Library is situated, which is appropriately 
fitted up, and contains at present some twenty thousand 
volumes of standard legal and miscellaneous works. 



HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 15 

In the public hall are two stairways ; the one on the right 
leads to a flight of stairs to the Executive Department, directly- 
over the Senate Chamber. This room was occupied under a 
former Constitution of the St^te, and previous to the year 
1838, by the Governor and Council. It has often since that 
period undergone repairs, and is neatly and appropriately 
furnished. The Executive business is now transacted by the 
Governor and the Secretary of State. Opposite to the door 
of the State Department, a stairway leads to the dome of the 
building. 

The stairway on the left of the public hall leads to the 
Court-room of the Court of Appeals of Maryland, and ad- 
joining thereto is the Clerk's office and consultation chamber of 
the Judges. They are over the hall of the House of Dele- 
gates. The large picture of General Washington, attended by 
General La Fayette and Col. Tilghman, &c., and removed 
from the hall of the House of Delegates, has been assigned a 
place in the Court-room, and is hung immediately in front of 
the Justices. 

The Treasury. 

Within the circle enclosing thfe State House on the eastern 
margin of the hill, stands the Treasury Department. This 
building is venerable as well as memorable for having been 
the legislative hall of the Provincial government. In the 
larger room, the Lower House, and in the smaller one, the 
Upper House of Assembly, sat for many years ; such accommo- 
dations contrast strikingly with those of the present day. 

Comptroller's Office. 

A short distance to the northeast from the Treasury Depart- 
ment stands the Comptroller's and Record Office. In the 
latter are deposited the archives of the State, together with the 
old records formerly in the Chancery Office, long since 
abolished. There is also in this building the Land Office. 
This, as likewise the State House, is heated -by steam and 



16 BISTORT OF ANNAPOLIS. 

lighted by gas. On the northwest of the circle is the steam 
apparatus. The grounds surrounding the State House are 
handsomely laid out and decorated with the -most choice trees, 
shrubbery and flowers, and present an appearance in summer 
rarely to be seen. On the southwest of the Capitol is an ever- 
gushing jet-fountain of modern style, and a fish-pool of unsur- 
passed quality and beauty. These grounds are visited during 
the spring, summer, and autumn months by large numbers of 
excursionists from all parts of the State, who invariably leave 
well pleased with their visit to the ancient city. 

From the State House and Episcopal Church circles, respec- 
tively, many of the streets radiate, and intersect each other at 
convenient points. The plan is a peculiar and an agreeable 
one, when viewed from some prominent point. 

The Old Government House. 

The original Government House, at least the main building 
thereof, was erected by Edmund Jennings, Esq., and was pur- 
chased from him by Governor Eden, when he presided over 
the Province of Maryland ; and by whom were built the wings 
and long room. That edifice had a handsome court ~and 
garden, extending, with the exception of an intervening lot, to 
the water's edge. From the portico looking to the garden, a 
fine prospect regales the vision. The building consisted of two 
stories, and presented an extensive front ; there were on the 
lower floor a large room on each side of the hall as you enter, 
and several smaller ones ; the saloon on the same floor wa^ 
nearly the length of the house. 

On each side of the edifice were commodious kitchens, car- 
riage-houses and stables, with spacious lots. Towards the 
water the building rose in the middle in a turreted shape. It 
stood detached from other structures, and was at the time it 
was jiermitted to stand a delightful and suitable mansion for 
the residence of the Chief Mao;istrate of our State. During- 
the year 1869 the United States Government purchased from 
the State of Maryland, at a cost of |25,000, the above described 



EISTORT OF ANNAPOLIS. IT 

mansion, &c., and it is noAV incorporated within the area of the 
Naval Academy, and is used as a library and lyceum, and as 
offices for the Superintendent and Secretary of the Academy, 
one room being used for meetings of the Academic Board. 

The New Government House 

Is about two hundred yards west of the State Capitol. It is 
a magnificent mansion, supplied with all modern improvements, 
centrally located, and was erected in 1869 at a cost of nearly 
two hundred thousand dollars. Ex-Governor Oden Bowie 
was the first to occupy this stately domicile. 

St. John's College. 

In 1784 the General Assembly of Maryland passed an Act 
for founding a college on the Western Shore, and incorporated 
the institution by the name of the " Visitors and Governors of 
St. John's College ; " and for the purpose of providing a " per- 
manent fund for the further encouragement and establishment 
of the said College, the sum of XI 750 was annually and 
forever thereafter given and granted as a donation by the 
public, to the use of the said College." The Legislature also 
granted for the^^use of the institution, four acres of land (now 
known by the name of the College Green), and which land had 
been in the year 1744 conveyed by Stephen Boardley to 
Mr. Bladen, the then Governor of Maryland. Mr. Bladen pro- 
jected the present college building as a noble mansion for the 
residence of the Governors of Maryland. A Mr. Dufi' (the 
architect) came over from Scotland to superintend the con- 
struction of the building. Materials of every kind were pro- 
vided equal to tlie spirit of public liberality, and the edifice 
was nearly completed in a style of superior magnificence, when 
an unhappy contention took place between the Governor and 
Legislature, which increased to such a degree tliat at a period 
when a very trifling sum would have rendered it a noble resi- 
dence, the further prosecution of the design was discontinued, 
and it remained for a long time a melancholy and mouldering 
3 



18 HISTORY OF AN2^AP0LIS. 

monument of the consequences resulting from political dis- 
sensions. It received the cognomen of the " Governor's Folly." 

The depredations of time had greatly injured the interior of 
the building, which in an unfinished state continued many 
years exposed to the inclemency of the weather ; but the Leg- 
islature, actuated by sentiments which reflect the highest credit 
on their patriotism and wisdom, having determined to endow 
and found a college for the education of youth in every liberal 
and useful branch of science, wisely resolved to repair the 
damages sustained, and to apply the building to the purposes 
of education. The agents appointed by the Legislature for 
soliciting subscriptions and donations for St. John's College 
were the Rev, John Carroll, the Rev. Wm. Smith, and Patrick 
Allison, doctors of divinity, and Richard Sprigg, John Steret, 
and George Diggs, Esquires, with power to appoint other 
agents. By an Act of Assembly passed in 1785, the funds of 
" King William's School," which had been founded at An- 
napolis ever since the year 1696, were conveyed to St. John's 
College. 

In thus establishing a seminary of learning at the seat of 
government, our patriots and statesmen manifested their sense 
of the great importance of and the happy results which would 
flow from an institution of this character, under the State pa- 
tronage, and how inseparably it M^as connected with the interest 
and happiness of our people. For years the flourishing con- 
dition of St. John's fully realised the most sanguine expec- 
tations of its noble and enlightened founders. Scholars and 
statesmen were sent forth from her halls who have been the 
pride of her own and the admiration of other States, and who 
have earned for themselves the highest reputation and reflected 
honor on their Alma Mater. But alas ! this noble and effi- 
cient monument of the wisdom of our progenitors was but too 
soon to meet a sad reverse of fortune ; for as early as the year 
1805 we find that political discord, that horrible hydra with 
its hundred heads, reared its crest against this institution, and 
by an Act of the Legislature in that year the funds of the 
college were withdrawn. This paralysed its energies and re- 



HI8T0BT OF ANNAPOLIS. 19 

duced it to a languishing condition, in which posture it re- 
mained until 1811, when the Legislature, partially awakened 
to a sense of duty and justice to the cause of education, granted 
$1000 annually, and again in 1821 granted to its Visitors and 
Governors a scheme of a lottery by which was added to its 
permanent funds twenty thousand dollars. 

In 1831, Vv^hen the efforts of its Visitors and Governors 
were crowned with success in obtaining the services of its 
then able Principal, Rev. Hector Humphreys, D. D., long 
since deceased, a still brighter prospect dawned upon this old 
and favored institution of the State. By the united and un- 
ceasing exertions of the then Faculty, Visitors and Governors 
of the institution, it was again placed in a prosperous condition. 

The efforts thus made to revive this venerable seminary of 
learning could not but attract the further attention of our 
Legislature. In 1833 the State came nobly to the rescue of 
good old St. John's, and passed an Act of compromise, by 
which $2000 per annum, in addition to former grants, were 
secured to the college forever, and which the Visitors and 
Governors accepted in full of their legal and equitable claims ; 
and a deed of release, enjoined by the provisions of the Act, 
was executed and entered upon the records of the Court of 
Appeals. 

At a meeting of the Board of the Visitors and Governors 
of the College, held on the 15th February, 1834, the Princi- 
pal was authorised and requested to collect subscriptions, to be 
applied to the erection of suitable buildings for the accommo- 
dation of students, and for the improving and extending the 
library and the philosophical apparatus of the institution. 
For the purpose of carrying this object into effect, the Princi- 
pal visited several parts of the State, and succeeded in obtain- 
ing a subscription of more than twelve thousand dollars, from 
the proceeds of which has been erected a beautiful edifice, 
finished in a style of elegance that reflects great credit upon 
its projectors. 

St. John's College stands on an eminence at the termination 
of Prince George Street, and is a four-storied structure, in- 



20 ETSTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 

eluding the basement. This building, as also the others which 
form a part of the College, were used during the late war as 
hospitals for the Federal army stationed at this point, since 
which time they have undergone thorough repairs. A more 
delightful situation was never appropriated than this for its 
purposes. It is situated on the banks of the Severn, within 
the limits of the city, commanding in every point of view the 
most interesting and beautiful objects. The adjacent country 
is open and healthy ; the contiguous grounds are sufficiently 
extensive for the advantages of exercise and amusement; and 
the fabric contains a variety of spacious and convenient apart- 
ments for the accommodation of the professors and students. 

The peculiar advantages to youth in being educated at this 
seminary are numerous and evident. With respect to health, as 
far as a high and dry soil with pure air wdll contribute to its 
preservation, or restore it when impaired, few places can be put 
in competition with, and none can excel it. The sessions of 
the General Assembly and the meetings of the Court of 
Appeals and the Circuit Court, are so obviously beneficial to 
those young men who may be called to the public service, or 
enter into the profession of the law, that no parent, especially 
a citizen of our State, should hesitate a moment to send his son 
whom he desires to become eminent in any of the professions, 
to a place where he is the most likely to acquire those quali- 
fications which will render him useful and distinguished as a 
statesman, or afford him the greatest chance of professional im- 
provement. Large cities often defeat the salutary purposes of 
education by furnishing incitements to vice and affording op- 
portunities of concealment. Annapolis is happily free from 
these objections ; and the discipline of this institution is such 
as to prevent the student from deviating fi'om the path of rec- 
titude, even if so inclined. The forming of manners, so es- 
sential to those who are intended for any public or private 
pursuit, will keep pace with the improvement of the intellect, 
and a youth when qualified to enter on the scene of action will 
be enabled to perform his part with ease to himself and sat- 
isfaction to the observer. If all the advantages mentioned are 



niSTORT OF ANNAPOLIS. 21 

united in this institution, and which it is presumed no one will 
dispute, why, we may inquire, should the citizens of Maryland 
send their sons abroad to other seminaries, instead of patron- 
ising an institution of their own ? — an institution, we will 
venture to assert, that has sent forth to the world a constant 
and regular supply of alumni who, by their talents at the bar, 
in the sacred desk, and in our legislative halls, have proved 
themselves inferior to none from any other seminary in the 
Union. 

The College Green in the Revolutionary War was used as the 
encampment of the French army, and also by the American 
troops assembled in the war of 1812. Traces of these en- 
campments still remain, and render it an object of touching 
interest. Parts of it exhibit mounds raised to those M'ho died 
in service ; and though " no storied urn " designates the spot 
Avhere the remains of any distinguished warrior repose, all being 
indiscriminately inhumed, yet the interest of their fate is un- 
diminished by this circumstance when we reflect that they died 
in the same glorious cause. 

On tlie grounds east of the College stands a large forest 
poplar or "American tulip tree," the age of which is not 
known. It is highly probal^le that it formed a part of the 
forest which Avas growing when Annapolis was first settled by 
the Puritans in 1649. This tree has been commemorated in 
verse by a distinguished graduate of St. John's (the lamented 
Dr. John Shaw, who was a native of our city), and is held to 
this day in great veneration by our citizens. Some time about 
the year 1839 it was accidentally set on fire. The occurrence 
excited as much interest in, and exertion on the part of our 
Inhabitants to extinguish it, and save the old favorite tree from 
destruction, as if it had been one of the finest buildings of the 
city. It was truly gratifying to see the interest elicited and 
the delight manifested by many when the progress of the fire 
was arrested. 



22 HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 

St. Anne's Church. 

The present St. Anne's Church is the third building on the 
same site. It stands about two hundred yards west of the 
State House. The first church was built there about the year 
1696, and was taken down to make room for the second. That 
was beo;un in 1774, and finished in the year 1792. On the 
24th November of that year the building was consecrated by 
Bishop Claggett. 

This second church building was burned in the year 1858. 
The fire took from some defects in the arrangement of the 
furnace. A fine, large bell presented to the parish by Queen 
Anne was destroyed with this building. Mementoes of this 
bell are still preserved by some of our citizens in the shape of 
trinkets made of the metal found among the ruins. The silver 
communion-vessels given to the parish were preserved, and 
are still in use in the church. The service consists of seven 
pieces, on each of which the monogram and arms of King 
William III. are engraved. 

The present edifice was built some twelve years ago under 
the rectorship of Rev. J. R. Davenport, now of Xew York. 
The tower encloses in its walls a portion of that of the old 
church built of bricks imported from England. The interior 
is divided by large solid stone pillars into nave and aisles. 
There is a deep apsidal chancel, with six clergy stalls, organ, 
and abundant space for choir seats. It has a richly carved 
altar of grav stone, and the floor of the sanetuarv is laid in 
pattern with enamelled tiles. There are 134 pews, of which 
25 are free. The building will seat some 800 persons, and is 
enclosed by a neat and substantial iron railing. Within this 
enclosure are several sculptured tombs, which contain the 
remains of the Tasker family. There is also a monument 
erected in memory of some of the members of the Carroll 

family. 

St. Mary's Catholic Church 

Is a lartje and handsome structure, and is situated on the Duke 
of Gloucester Street, on grounds donated to the church by the 



HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 23 

venerable and generous Charles Carroll of Carrollton during 
his lifetime. It has not been erected many years, and its ap- 
pearance both internally and externally displays great taste 
and judgment. The interior especially is very handsome and 
appropriate, and the general arrangement is convenient and 
comfortable. Connected with this church is St. Mary's College 
of the Redemptorists. This Society was established at An- 
napolis in 1853, under the auspices of the Rev. Gabriel 
Rumpler, An addition to this college was built in 1859, when 
the very Rev. Michael Miiller was Rector of St. Mary's 
Church. 

This institution is one of three through which candidates 
desiring to become missionary priests of the Society have to 
pass. The first is St. James College, Eager and Aisquith 
streets, Baltimore, where the candidates remain about six years ; 
they are then sent to Annapolis, where, according to their intel- 
lectual abilities, they stay from two to four years ; afterwards 
they go to St, Clement's College, Ilchcster, Howard county, 
Maryland, where they continue their studies for five or six , 
more years. After their promotion to the priesthood they 
return to Annapolis for a six months' trial and course of in- 
struction in pastoral duties. 

The Methodist Churches. 

Methodist Episcopal Church, first charge, is situated on 
the north side of the State House circle. It is a large, com- 
modious and handsome building, with basement and vestibule, 
and has adjoining it a brick parsonage for the minister in 
charge. It was erected in the year 1859. 

The second charge was built in 1870, and is situated on 
Maryland Avenue, a short distance from the Post Office. It is 
a one-story building, and is designated as Wesleyan Chapel. 
Its interior is, like the outside, plain but becomingly neat, and 
is capable of accommodating some four hundred persons. 



24 BISTORT OF ANNAPOLIS. 

The Presbyterian Church 

Is located on the southwest side of Gloucester Street, and 
was erected some twenty-five years since. It is a plain but 
neat building, and is capable of accommodating some three 
hundred persons. The basement of this edifice is occupied by 
the Female Grammar School. 

The Banks. 

The Farmers' National Bank is situated at the corner of 
West Street, fronting the Church circle. It consists of one 
story, and is of singular form externally, though the in- 
terior, particularly the banking room, is well calculated for 
the purposes for which it is intended. 

The First National Bank is located on the corner of Main 
and Gloucester Streets, and also fronts the Church circle, and 
adjoining the Maryland Hotel. It may be truly said of these 
institutions that they have ever been and still are considered as 
sound and as safe as any other banking establishments in this 
country. 

The Court House 

Is quite a modern edifice, and stands on the southwest of 
the Church circle. As you enter there is a spacious hall, on 
each side of which are two commodious offices. The one on 
the right hand is occupied by the Register of Wills, the other 
by the Clerk of the County, and at the end of the hall is the 
Court Room. This is a fine spacious room, and well suited to 
the j)urposes to which it is appropriated. On the second floor 
are the Orphans' Court Room, the Sheriff's Office, Surveyor's 
Office, Jury Rooms, and a room used by the Commissioners of 
the County. The front roof of the building, compared with 
the rear, exhibits the appearance of wings. It is enclosed by 
a substantial wall surmounted by a neat iron railing, and is 
lighted by gas and supplied with water. 



EISTOBT OF ANNAPOLIS. 25 

The City Hotel 

Stands at the corner of Main and Conduit Streets, and has been 
in the occupancy of a number of individuals since its estab- 
lishment as such. The old building, as it is termed, originally 
belonged to and was occupied by Mr. Lloyd Dulany as his 
residence. It is two stories high ; the new building is three, 
and a large building of three stories has recently been added, 
extending back to the Duke of Gloucester Street. The present 
worthy and enterprising proprietor has added greatly to its 
appearance and comfort. This structure with its appendages 
covers a large space of ground. It is an excellent estab- 
lishment, and in every respect well calculated for the com- 
fortable accommodation of travellers and others who make it 
a place of abode or resort. The rooms are large and airy, the 
table constantly supplied with all the delicacies of the season, 
and a corps of obliging and honest waiters always in attendance. 

The Maeyland Hotel. 

This establishment is of recent origin, its existence only 
dating back some three years. It is a very commodious, beau- 
tiful and comfortable structure, and built accordins: to modern 
architecture and with an eye to its convenience and central 
location. It is situated at the head of Main Street, and near 
the Church circle, and within a short distance of the Depot. It 
is an incorporated institution, and since it has been in operation 
has received a share of public patronage. 

The Assembly Kooms 

Are on the Duke of Gloucester Street, and is a spacious 
edifice. It was built since the late war on the site of the " Old 
Ball Room," which was used a portion of that period as a 
Provost-Marshal's Office and Guard House, and from means 
awarded by the General Government to the city for its use and 
occupation. Its main room is large and of elegant con- 
struction, and when illuminated shows to great advantage. It 
4 



26 HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 

contains several apartments, which are rented out for balls, con- 
certs, lectui-es, public meetings, &c. A room is set apart as 
the place of meeting for the corporate authorities of the city. 
In the basement is the Office of the City Police and Watch- 
House. 

The Post Office 

I3 situated at the corner of State House Circle and Mary- 
land Avenue, occupying a portion of the first story of Tem- 
perance Hall. 



CPIAPTEE, III. 



THE NAVAL ACADEMY. 

Front entrance, — termination of Maryland. Avenue. 

The Naval Academy — Its Foundation — The Academy Grounds — 
Cemetery and Park — Public Garden — Buildings, &c. — New Mid- 
shipmen's Quarters — Water Supply — Monuments — The Library — 
Storekeeper's Department — Mess Arrangements, &c. — Baths, Barber 
Shop, Laundry — Band — Hops and Balls — Boat and Ball Clubs, &c. 
— Evening Parades — Marine Corps — The Daguerrean Gallery — 
Department of Steam Enginery — Memorial Tablets. 

In the year 1845, it being found desirable to establish a per- 
manent institution for the instruction of midshipmen in the 
United States Navy, a board, of which Commodore Isaac 
Mayo, U. S. Na\^, was President, was ordered by the Hon. 
George Bancroft, Secretary of the Navy, to select a site for a 
Naval School. 

After examining various localities, Annapolis was chosen as 
being the most eligible place. 

On the 10th of October 1845 the school was formally 
opened by Commander Franklin Buchanan, with the following 
named officers as Instructors, viz : Lieut. James H. Ward, 
U. S. N., Professors Henry H. Lockwood, William Chau- 
venet, and Arsene N. Girault ; Surgeon, John A. Lockwood ; 
Chaplain, George Jones, and Passed Midshipman Samuel 
Marcy. These oflScers constituted the first " Academic Board." 

The following departments were at once organised, viz : 

Department of Gunnery and Steam Lieutenant Ward. 

" " Mathematics, Navigation, &c Prof. Chauvenet. 

" " Natural and Experimental Philosophy..P?'o/. Lockrcood. 

" " C liemistry Surgeon Lockwood. 

" " History and English studies Chaplain Jones. 

" " Frencli and Spanish Pi'of. Girault. 

Infantry tactics Avas also practically taught by Prof. Lock- 
wood. Past Midshipman Marcy was assigned to the de- 
partment of Mathematics as an assistant. 



28 HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 

All candidates for admission to the grade of midshipman 
were, after this date, sent to the Naval School to be examined 
by the Academic Board, and if found qualified, were admitted 
on probation, receiving from the Secretary of the Navy acting 
appointments as midshipmen. These constituted the " Junior 
Class" and remained at the school nnder instruction until the 
Navy Department required their services at sea. 

The '\Senior Class " was composed of midshipmen who, hav- 
ing seen sufficient sea service to entitle them to it, were pre- 
paring for their final examination for promotion. 

Occasionally other midsliipmen were, between their cruises, 
sent to the " school " for short periods. These were assigned 
to the Senior or Junior class according as they were qualified. 

The regular term of the Senior Class was one academic year 
of nine months; and as the course of study was to many but a 
review of branches that they had studied at sea, a very con- 
siderable amount of ground was gone over by the higher sec- 
tions, and a not inconsiderable amount by the lower. The 
academic year commenced in October, and terminated in June, 
when the final examination of the Senior Class took place. 

A Board of five Captains and Commanders was each June 
convened, who conducted the examination in seamanship; and 
after combining the results of this examination with that in 
academic branches by the Academic Board, assigned numbers, 
or, in other words, the " order of merit " to the class, and con- 
ferred the ^^ passing certificates.'^ The same officers also acted 
as a " Board of Visitors," to witness the examination of the 
Junior Class, and to examine into and report upon the discip- 
line and general condition of the institution. 

The Midshipmen of the date of 1840 were the first who 
were graduated at the Naval School, finishing their course in 
June 1846, and Avere followed in regular succession by the sub- 
sequent dates until the change to the four years' course. The 
date of 1841 being very large, was divided into three classes, 
who came in successive years, the last division being graduated 
hi 1849; the date of 1842 were graduated with them, but 
classed separately. There were no appointments made in 1 843 



HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 29 

and 1844, and the date of 1845 followed the last division of 
the '41's and '42's. 

In 1850 a board consisting of Commodore W. B. Shubrick, 
Commander F. Buchanan, Commander S. F. Dupont, Com- 
mander George P. Upshur, Surgeon W. S. W. Ruschenberger, 
and Professor William Chauvenet, and General Brewerton, 
then Superintendent of the Military Academy at West Point, 
as a consulting member, was convened by the Hon. Secretary 
of the Navy, and under a code of regulations prepared by them 
the Naval School was, on the first day of July of that year, 
erected into the 

United States Naval Academy. 

Commander (now Rear Admiral) Cornelius K. Stribling 
was the first Superintendent under the new i-^gime, relieving 
Commander Upshur, who had held the command since March 
1847. 

In November of the following year (1851) the four years' 
course was adopted, under a revision of the regulations, made 
by the Academic Board, and approved by the Hon. Secretary 
of the Navy, the date of 1851 being the first to come imder 
the new system ; a portion of this date were advanced, and six 
members of it accomplished the course in three years. The 
modified course was still retained for previous dates, that of 
1850. being graduated in 1856. 

In November 1853 Captain Stribling was relieved by Com- 
mander (now Rear-Admiral) Louis M. Goldsborough, who in 
turn was relieved in September 1857 by Captain (noM' Com- 
modore) George S. Blake, since deceased. 

In May 1861, in consequence of the breaking out of the 
rebellion, it was found necessary to remove the Academy to 
Newport, R. I. The midshipmen were accordingly embarked 
on board the School-Ship Comtitution, Lieutenant-Command- 
ing George W. Rodgers, and sent to that point. The steamer 
Baltic was employed to transport the officers and others with 
their families ; the library and such other movable property, 



30 HI8T0BY OF ANNAPOLIS. 

&c., of the Academy, as it was thought advisable and necessary 
to remove. The first class was graduated-without examination, a 
portion of them having been detached before the removal of the 
Academy from Annapolis, and upon its arrival at Newport the 
remainder of the first, and all of the second and third classes, 
were detached and ordered to sea duty. Fort Adams was as- 
signed to the use of the Academy by the War Department, 
but was found entirely unsuited to the purpose. The mid- 
shipmen Avere therefore quartered on board the" Constitution for 
the summer, and in Sejitember the Atlantic Hotel, a large and 
commodious building, was hired, fitted up for the purpose, and 
used as quarters until the return of the Academy to Annapo- 
lis. The two school-ships Sanfee and Constitution were moored 
alongside the wharf upon Goat Island in the harbor, and the 
fourth class and also the third were quartered on board of them. 

In September 1865 Commodore Blake was relieved by 
Rear- Admiral (now Admiral) D. D. Porter as Superin- 
tendent, and during the same month the Academy was, 
in conformity with a joint resolution of Congress, restored 
to its former home at Annapolis, the grounds and buildings 
having been vacated by the War Department a few months 
previously. In a very short time after, all traces of the late 
occupation by the army had been obliterated. 

On the first of December 1869, Commodore John L. Wor- 
den relieved Admiral Porter, and is at present Superintendent 
of the Academy. 

Academy Geounds. 

The limits of the grounds originally transferred to the War 
Department were as follows : The northwestern boundary Avas 
coincident with the path now leading from the upper end of 
the mess-hall to the middle gate ; the southwestern extended 
from the water past the building now used as the Paymaster's 
office, a line which is still distinctly marked by a row of trees ; 
the embankment just in rear of the midshipmen's quarters, 
then the shore of the river, formed the northeastern boundary ; 



HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 31 

while the shore line from the southeastern, or bay point, ex- 
tended from the Gymnasium (then called Fort Severn) in a 
sort of crescent form, passing near the mulberry tree in the lower 
parade-ground, and thence bowing out and terminating where 
the angle at present is in the sea-wall. During the year 1851 
the sea-wall was built, and the space between that and the 
shore was filled in during that and the following years. 

The first acquisition to the grounds was made by purchase 
about the year 1847, and included that portion of the grounds 
lying directly northwest of the former limits, lind bounded on 
the northwest by the road leading from the upper gate to the 
river ; the southwest boundary of this was a continuation of 
the line bounding the original grounds on the same side, and 
is also distinctly marked out by the same row of trees. 

The second acquisition added all that portion of the grounds 
above the middle gate which is now enclosed in the walls of 
the Academy. This purchase was made about the year 1853. 
The sea-wall on the Severn side was built in 1853, and the 
space between that and the old shore was filled in with earth 
from a high hill which existed near where the new Midship- 
men's Quarters now stand. 

In 1867 a lot of 9 J acres of ground was purchased from St. 
John's College beyond the walls, which has not yet been en- 
closed; also in 1868 and '69 the farm known as " Strawberry 
Hill," and the land between that and the Severn River and 
" Graveyard Creek," making in all 114^ acres, were purchased. 
Communication with this new addition was established by 
means of a substantial drawbridge thrown across the creek. 

Cemetery and Park. 

On a high point of land in this last purchase has been laid 
out a cemetery for the burial of officers and seamen and others 
belonging to the navy. Beyond the cemetery there is a hand- 
some park. The park and cemetery consist of alternate wood 
and lawn, with considerable diversity of level. Winding 
woods and paths have been laid out in very tasteful mannex', 



32 HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 

making all parts accessible. So attractive are these two places 
that although the improvements are scarcely yet begun, they 
have become a favorite resort for the people in the vicinity, a 
large number of persons visiting each every pleasant day. 
The woods and paths already completed measure three miles, 
and it is contemplated to lay out two miles more. These are 
covered with shells, which have been obtained at an ex- 
tremely small cost. 

Public Gaeden. 

The remainder of Strawberry Hill is devoted to garden 
purposes, for the benefit of the officers and midshipmen. A 
large quantity of fruits and vegetables have been already 
gathered, although only a commencement has thus far been 
made. A Very considerable diminution of the midshipmen's 
mess-bill will result from the operation of the plan when fully 
developed. 

Since the return of the Academy to this place much has been 
done in the way of ornamenting and improving that portion 
of the grounds lying inside the walls ; fountains have been 
erected, roads and paths tastefully laid out, low places filled 
in, trees, shrubs, and flowers planted. The ground in rear of 
the Midshipmen's Quarters, which was found a barren waste, 
has been reclaimed, and made one of the most ornamental 
parts of the yard. 

Buildings, &c. 

Of the buildings originally transferred by the War Depart- 
ment there remain at present the Superintendent's house, 
buildings Nos. 16, 17, 18, and 19 (known as Superintendent's 
Row), and the building used as the Paymaster's office, nor 
were any of these in their present condition when first re- 
ceived ; the Superintendent's house has been altered and re- 
paired on three different occasions, the others were all one- 
story houses, and were raised upon about the year 1848. 

There were some few barracks, offices, &c., standing when 



EISTOBT OF ANNAPOLIS. 33 

the School was first established, one of which, situated across 
the Parade, between the Superintendent's house and the spot 
where the Recitation Hall now stands, was used as a Recita- 
tion Hall and Chapel. The others were on the ground where 
the Midshipmen's Quarters now stand, and were occupied by 
the midshipmen. 

The construction of the southern half of the present Mess 
Hall was commenced soon after the opening of the school and 
was completed in 1847, the second story being used as a 
Lyceum and Library. In 1853 the Mess Hall was enlarged 
to its present dimensions. The whole cost as nearly as can 
be ascertained was $17,809.94. 

The Midshipmen's Quarters were next commenced. Block 
No. 1 was completed in 1850, at a cost of $7,200.00; No. 5, 
early in 1851, cost $10,312.07 ; No. 2, late in 1851, at a cost 
of $7,663.45; and Nos. 3 and 4, in 1853, the former costing 
$7,981.20 and the latter $10,007.62. The Recitation Hall 
was completed in 1853, at a cost of $19,656.46. The build- 
ing now used as a Store, but originally built as a Laboratory 
and Armory, was erected about 1853, at a cost of $7,020.31. 
The structure upon the walls of old Fort Severn, now used as 
a Gymnasium, but originally as a battery for great gun exer- 
cises, was finished in 1851, and cost $6,433.30. Gas and 
steam for heating were introduced in 1853, the works for the 
same being built at an original cost of $28,044.28, and certain 
additions afterwards made at a cost of $8,500.00. The 
Observatory was completed about 1854, at a cost of $4,695.75. 
The Gunnery Building, originally a chapel, was completed 
the same year, costing $3,292.86. A brick building in the 
lower part of the yard, recently occupied as a store, engine- 
house, and residence for the band-leader, was also built in 
1854, at a cost of $4,264.44. Building No. 20 (a wooden 
structure) was originally a hospital and store, in the' middle of 
the lower parade-ground ; it was rebuilt at a cost of $1,000.00 
on the building of the new Hospital about 1857. The new 
Hospital cost $13,000.00. 

The row of buildings known as Officers' Row was com- 
5 



34 HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 

menced about 1855, those nearest the hospital being first built. 
The last were not completed until 1860. The cost of the 
different blocks was as follows : Block Xo. 1 (house of Com- 
mandant of midshipmen) $5,000 ; houses 2 and 3, one block, 
$10,000; houses 4 and 5, one block, $10,000; houses 6 and 7, 
one block, $9,000 ; houses 8 and 9, one block, $10,069.18 ; 
houses 10 and 11, one block, $10,069.18; houses 12 and 13, 
one block, $11,000; houses 14 and 15, one block, $11,000. 
The two buildings occupied by the bandsmen were built in 
1860, at a cost of $1500 each. 

A row of officers' quarters also stood until about 1859, fac- 
ing on the street which then existed, and the site of which is 
still marked by the row of trees running about southeast and 
northwest through the centre of the upper part of the yard ; 
the lower end of this row was just above where the Japanese 
bell now is, and the upper end rested on the road now leading 
from the upper gate to the river ; there were also two houses 
facing on that road, then a street of the City of Annapolis ; 
part of these buildings were purchased with the ground upon 
which they stood, and part were built. The Herndon Monu- 
ment is on the site of one of the buildings of this row. These 
buildings were torn down from time to time, and the materials 
from them used in constructing the new Officers' Row and the 
bandsmen's quarters. 

Since the return of the Academy to this place in 1865, the 
following buildings have been constructed, viz : One block 
(two houses) of officers' quarters, Nos. 21 and 22, at a cost of 
$10,000. A building for the department of Steam Enginery 
was completed in 1866 at a cost of $21,000. The new Chapel 
was completed in 1848, at a cost of $40,000. During the 
present year there has been finished, at a cost of $1 1,000, a new 
building for the department of Natural and Experimental 
Philosophy. A Daguerrean Gallery was completed in 1868 at 
a cost of $2500. 

The Academy has also during the year obtained by purchase, 
at a cost of $25,000, possession of the building lately occupied 
as the mansion of the Governor of Maryland. It is now used 



HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 35 

as a Library and Lyceum, and as offices for the Superintendent 
and Secretary of the Academy, one room being used for meet- 
ings of the Academic Board. 

New Midshipmen's Quarters. 

A new building, designed to accommodate two hundred mid- 
shipmen, was erected about a year since. It is a four-story 
structure with basement and attic, and is composed of a centre 
building fifty-seven feet six inches square, and two wings each 
one hundred and sixteen feet nine inches long, by forty-five 
feet three inches deep ; the whole is surmounted by a dome 
and clock-tower, the latter supplied with a clock having four 
dials, to be illuminated at night. The base of the dome is 
surmounted by a promenade gallery, from which a most mag- 
nificent view is to be had of the surrounding country and of 
the Chesapeake Bay. 

In the basement, under the east wing, there is a kitchen 
fifty- eight feet long by forty-two wide, with large store- room, 
servants' hall, &c., attached; under the main building, a 
pantry, boiler-room (for supplying steam with which the build- 
ing is heated,) a coal-cellar and a bath-room ; under the west 
wino- are bath-rooms. A corridor of twelve feet in width runs 
the entire length of the main building at right angles to the 
corridor ; there are stairways at the extremities of each wing, 
and in the main building these continue to the highest story. 

On the first floor in the west wing there is a mess-hall one 
hundred and two feet long, and occupying the entire depth of 
the wing, with a store-room attached ; in the main building 
there are four rooms each eighteen by twenty-one feet, 
one of which is a pantry, one an office for the Commandant 
of midshipmen, one an office for the officer in charge, 
and the fourth a reception-room for visitors. In the west 
wing there are seven recitation rooms, each twenty-eight by 
fourteen feet, and eight water-closets. There is the same ar- 
rangement of hall, corridors and stairways on this floor as in 
the basement. 



36 HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 

On the second floor the west wing is divided off into twelve 
dormitories, one servants' room, and one baggage room, each 
fourteen by fourteen feet ; the main building into four recita- 
tion rooms twenty-one by eighteen feet each; and the east 
wing into dormitories of the same dimensions as those in the 
west wing. The corridors on this and the upper floors run the 
entire length of the l^uilding ; the halls and stairways are the 
same as the first floor. The wings of the upper stories are the 
same as the second ; the main building in each is divided into 
five rooms, to be used as recitation rooms, &c. There are en- 
trances in front, rear, and at each end of the building, each 
covered by a portico. There is a graceful iron veranda ex- 
tending across Ihe entire front of the building. 

Water. 

Water was introduced into the Academy on the completion 
of the Annapolis water-works in 1867. Each house in the 
yard, and all the public buildings, are supplied with hydrants. 
There are also several in the yard to be used in case of fire. 

Monuments. 

The following monuments stand on the grounds of the 
Academy. The first was erected in 1848, the purpose of which 
will be seen by the inscriptions quoted below. It is entirely 
of marble, and consists of a pedestal six feet four inches square 
and two feet high ; upon this rests the base, two feet nine and 
a-half inches square and four feet high, upon two opposite 
sides of which are the inscriptions. ^\\\^ monument stood 
originally in the centre of the parade ground, and was moved 
to its present position. 

To Passed Midshipmen 
H. A. CLEMSON 

and 

J. R. HYNSON, 

Lost with the U. S. S. Brig Somers, 

Off Vera Cruz, 



BISTORT OF ANNAPOLIS. 37 

December 8th, 1846, 

This Monument is erected 

by 

Passed and other Midshipmen 

OftheU. S. Navy, 

As a tribute of respect. 

1848. 



To Midshipmen, 

J. W. PILLSBURY 

and 

T. B. SHUBRICK, 

The former wounded off Vera Cruz, 

July 34th, 1846, 

Theilatter killed at the Naval Battery 

Near Vera Cruz, 

March 25th, 1847, 

While in the discharge of their duties, 

This Monument is erected 

by 

Passed and other Midshipmen, 

As a tribute of respect. 

1848. 

The other two faces are ornamented by bronze foul-anchors ; 
upon the base rests a capital five feet four inches square, sup- 
ported at each corner by a gun resting on the base ; the whole 
is surmounted by a pyramidal shaft seven feet high, the four 
faces of which are ornamented by laurel wreaths in bronze, and 
under them respectively the names — 

Clemson, Htnson, Pillsbuky, Shubrick. 

The Herndon Monument was erected in June 1860 by sub- 
scription, by officers of the Navy, to the memory of Commander 
William L. Herndon, U. S. Navy, who lost his life September 
12th 1857, while commanding the mail steamshij? Central 



38 HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 

America, in a gallant attempt to save the lives of his pas- 
sengers, his ship having been wrecked. The monument con- 
sists of a base and shaft ; the former six feet square and three 
feet high ; the latter, which is pyramidal in form, eighteen feet 
high, four feet square at the base, and one foot six inches 
square at the top. On the face of the shaft is inscribed — 

HERNDON. 

and on the opposite side — 

September 12th, 1857. 

The Naval Monument was " erected to the memory of Cap- 
tain Richard Somers, and Lieutenants James Caldwell, James 
Decatur, Henry Wadsworth, Joseph Israel, and John S. 
Dorsey, who fell in the several attacks made on the City of 
Tripoli, in the year of our Lord 1804, and in the 28th year of 
the Independence of the United States." It was erected in 
1808, and stood originally in the Washington Navy Yard. 
During the occupation of Washington by the British in the 
war of 1812-'14, this monument was considerably defaced by 
them, and bore for many years afterwards, by authority of 
Congress, an inscription commemorative of the fact. Some 
years after its erection this monument was removed to the Capi- 
tol grounds in Washington. In July 1860 it was removed by 
authority of Congress to this place, and erected on the grounds 
of the Naval Academy, where it now stands. 

LiBRAEY. 

The formation of a Library was commenced soon after the 
opening of the Naval School in 1845, by the transfer of a small 
number of books from the Navy Department. These were at 
first deposited in the Superintendent's office ; soon after a hall 
room was fitted up in the old building, then used as a recitation, 
hall, &c., which room was used until the completion of the 
Mess Hall, when the second story of that building was as- 
signed as a Library and Lyceum. 

Congress early commenced to make small annual appro- 



HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 39 

priations for the increase of the Library. The exact date of the 
first I have not been able to ascertain. 

On the enlargement of the Mess Hall to its present di- 
mensions, the second story was divided into three rooms, two 
of which were nsed for the Library, and the third for the 
Lyceum ; a large number of curiosities, models, &c., having by 
that time accumulated. Numerous flags, troj)hies of naval vic- 
tories in various wars, were deposited in the Lyceum. 

On the removal of the Academy to Newport, the books, &c., 
were boxed up, and thus remained until after the return of the 
Academy to this place, when the library was located in its old 
quarters; but during the year 1869 the first floor of the (late) 
Governor's Mansion has been handsomely fitted up as a library, 
and the books, &c., transferred to it. 

Very large accessions have been made to the library during 
the last four years, more especially of works on professional 
subjects ; all the branches taught at the Academy, and their 
kindred subjects, being very largely represented. The best pro- 
fessional and other periodicals published in this country and in 
Great Britain are taken. 

The officers and midshipmen have free access to the Librar}"", 
the Librarian or assistant being constantly in attendance during 
authorised hours to issue and receive books. The whole 
number of volumes is at present about fifteen thousand. 

A valuable collection of coins, of ancient and modern cu- 
riosities from all quarters of the globe, shells, &c., was re- 
cently bequeathed to the Academy by the late Captain Per- 
cival Drayton, U. S. X. 

A valuable collection of American minerals has been re- 
ceived, donated by Hon. Joseph Wilson, Commissioner of the 
General Land Office of the United States. 

A valuable acquisition to the library, recently made by pur- 
chase, consists of copies in plaster of celebrated pieces of 
statuary and busts of statesmen, generals, naval officers, poets, 
painters, and others. There is also in the Library, transferred 
from the Navy Department, a number of paintings represent- 
ing naval engagements, together with portraits of the follow- 



/ 



40 HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 

ing naval officers, viz : Admirals Enoch Hopkins, Stewart, and 
Farragut; Commodores John Paul Jones, Preble, David 
Porter, Biddle, McDonough, Decatur, O. H. Perry, Jacob 
Jones, Rodgers, and M. C. Perry. 

A handsome ornithological collection is being made, which 
already numbers one hundred and fourteen specimens, and 
many more are in course of preparation. 

Storekeeper's Department. 

All articles required by the students, such as books, sta- 
tionery, clothing, bedding, toilet articles, &c., are furnished by 
the Storekeeper on requisition, a]3proved by the Superin- 
tendent. 

Until within the past two years civilians held the position 
of Storekeeper, and were allowed a certain percentage upon all 
articles furnished to midshipmen. At the present time the 
Storekeeper is required by law to be detailed from the list of 
paymasters of the navy, and has authority, with the approval 
of the Secretary of the Navy, to procure clothing and other 
necessaries for the midshipmen in the same manner as supplies 
are procured for the navy. These are issued at cost prices, 
with a small percentage to cover losses. 

The old " Laboratory " has been recently converted into a 
Government Store, the building formerly occupied as such 
being found altogether too small and incommodious for the 
purpose. 

Mess Arrangements, &c. 

A Commissary is attached to the School, whose province it 
is to subsist the midshipmen. A board of officers, appointed 
by the Superintendent, audit the accounts of the Commissary, 
decide upon the " bill of fare," and determine the amount of 
compensation which shall be received monthly by the Com- 
missary from each midshipman ; this averages at present |22 
per month. 

The Mess Hall is a commodious, well-ventilated, and well- 



BISTORT OF ANNAPOLIS. 41 

lighted building, with suitable kitchens, bakeries, store-rooms, 
&c., attached. 

The midshipmen are divided into mess-crews, each com- 
manded by a first and second captain. Each crew has its 
special table, and each midshipman a particular seat, those of 
the captains being respectively at the head and foot of the 
tables. A regular formation takes place before each meal and 
at the end ; the crews one by one are marched into the Mess 
Hall, each person taking his place behind his chair ; when all 
are in, grace is said by the Cadet Lieutenant-Commander, after 
which the word " seats " is given. The officer in charge pre- 
sides at every meal, and no student is permitted to leave the 
room without his permission ; when it is observed that all 
have finished, the word " rise " is given, the crews are marched 
out and dismissed. 

Baths. 

There are hot, cold, and vapor baths in the Academy for 
the use of the midshipmen, each one of whom is required to 
take a bath at least once a week. Regular bathing hours are 
assigned to each gun's crew, which is marched to the bath- 
house under the orders of its captain. Each midshipman 
takes the room assigned to him, and is allowed to remain suffi- 
ciently long to complete his bath, when the gun-captain gives 
the word "dress"; as soon as all have complied with that 
order, the crew is marched out and dismissed. An attendant, 
for a small consideration from each midshipman, furnishes 
towels, soap, &c., and keeps the house in order. 

Barber Shop. 

There is a Barber's Shop in the Academy and one on board 
the Constitution. Each midshipman who requires to be shaved 

pays the barber a month ; and others paying a 

month for hair-cutting, shampooing, &c. 



42 EI8T0EY OF ANNAPOLIS. 

Laundey. 

Each midshipman is required every Monday morning to 
gather his soiled clothes into his clothes-bag, and make out a 
list of articles in duplicate, one to retain and one for the laun- 
dry ; the clothes are then taken by the servants to the laundry, 
and when done up, are returned. Three dollars a month is at 
present paid by each midshipman for his washing. 

Band. 

There is an excellent band, composed of twenty-eight musi- 
cians, attached to the Academy, which is required to play 
every morning and evening for an hour, and also for drills, 
dress-parades, &c. Many of the musicians also play on reed 
and stringed instruments, forming a very fine orchestral band 
for hops and balls. 

Hops and Balls. 

During the academic year hops are given once a month by 
the officers and also by the midshipmen ; these occur on Satur- 
day evenings, and terminate by half-past eleven. 

About the eighth of January of each year a grand ball is 
given by the graduating class, and on the twenty-second of 
February a dress hop by the second class. The balls and hops 
are given in the Gymnasium, which is very well adapted for 
the purpose. Great skill and taste have hitherto been displayed 
by the midshipmen in decorating the Gymnasium for the 
balls ; using flags, arms, evergreens, &c. Two of the rooms 
in the Store Building are used as dressing-rooms, and others 
when necessary. These hops are believed to have a very re- 
fining influence upon the young gentlemen, are certainly very 
attractive to officers, and to the guests present. 

Boat and Ball Clubs, &c. 

Great attention is paid to physical training, for the fur- 
therance of which purpose encouragement is given to athletic 
sports and exercises in the Gymnasium. 



HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 43 

There is a Base Ball Club in each class ; the members prac- 
tise as much as their duties will allow them to do, and many 
have attained very great skill. Match games occur frequently 
between the diiferent classes, and occasionally with clubs from 
other cities, resulting generally in victory to the Academic 
Club. 

There has been a Boat Club in the first and one in the 
second class each year, using hull boats ; thus far the classes 
have pulled against each other only, resulting in first-class 
time. The Academy is well supplied with boats of the ordi- 
nary navy patterns, of which the midshipmen have free use. 
On application by a sufficient number to the Commandant of 
midshipmen, he appoints one of the members coxswain, the 
others being subject to his orders for the time being. He is 
held responsible for the return of the boat in good condition, 
and for the observance of regulations. 

Evening Parades. 

A very attractive feature in the routine of the Academy is 
the dress parade, which occurs every evening during the 
session except Sundays, and except during the most inclement 
part of the winter. The battalion comprises all the mid- 
shipmen, under their cadet officers, organised into eight com- 
panies, the whole commanded by the assistant in the De- 
partment of Gunnery, &c., who is specially charged with in- 
fantry drills. The band, reinforced by the musicians belonging 
to the marine guard, is under the charge of a drum -major, and 
parades with the battalion. 

Numerous visitors from the City of Annapolis witness these 
parades, finding in them an unfailing source of attraction. The 
midshipmen are quite as well instructed in infantry tactics as 
in the other branches of their profession, as was shown at a 
competition drill with the corps of cadets at West Porut, where 
they were acknowledged to have excelled the latter in the 
manual of arms, though it was claimed the cadets were the 
most accomplished in marching. 



44 HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 

Marine Corps. 

Within the past two years the Marine Station at the Naval 
Academy has been made a permanent post, which is now in 
successful operation. Every morning at 9 o'clock there Ls a 
dress parade and guard-mounting by the marines, and on 
Mondays they have a review and inspection at 10.30 A. m. 
There is also a daily drill in the forenoon on week days. 

The Daguerrean Gallery 

At the Naval Academy is in successful operation, and has been 
since its establishment in 1868, under the auspices of Vice- 
Admiral (now Admiral) Porter, then Superintendent of the 
Academy. It is a commodious brick building, and is located 
on the northeast margin of the Academy grounds, and in the 
rear of the Engineer's department and laboratory. 

The Department of Steam Enginery. 

At the foot of the main avenue leading into the Academy 
grounds, near the sea wall, is a large building known as the 
department of Steam Enginery. It stands back from the or- 
dinary foot pavement, leaving room for an enclosure, which is 
handsomely ornamented with a fountain surmounted by a 
statue of Neptune. The entrance gate is composed of guns 
'captured from the British frigate "Coufiance" during the last 
war with England, and the grounds otherwise ornamented 
with flower vases and the troj^hies of war. The front of the 
building bears a beautiful monogram in blue and gold. En- 
tering by the middle door, the stranger has presented before 
him a scene that is at once glittering and bewildering. He 
instinctively hesitates to step upon the spotless, highly polished 
floor. Massive wrought-iron columns, whose surfaces reflect a 
thousand images, support the broad ceiling. All the sur- 
roundings are glittering and bright in this apartment, called the 
Model Room. Upon a large pedestal in the centre of the room 
are erected two beautiful models of marine engines, one a 



HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 45 

working beam with paddle wheels attached, and the other what 
is known as an oscillating engine. These are complete, and ' 
can be put in operation by means of compressed air contained 
in a tank beneath the floor. At the extreme end of the room 
stands a perfect working model of the latest type of marine 
engine as applied to men-of-war, which is very curious and in- 
teresting, being provided with plate-glass coverings to the prin- 
cipal parts, through which its interior machinery may be seen 
in full operation. To the right and left, on all sides, the eye is 
dazzled by a maze of attractive objects, including delicate in- 
struments and a variety of curious specimens, altogether be- 
wildering to the stranger who is unacquainted with their uses 
The surrounding walls too are enriched with peculiar paintings 
done in white upon a dull black ground, which makes them 
conspicuous from opposite sides of the broad room. 

This apartment is also used for general lectures to an entire 
class when occasion calls for them. On either side are offices, one 
for the use of the Chief Engineer, and the other for assistant 
instructors. Passing through a doorway beyond the offices, 
we enter the main body of the building, a room about one 
hundred feet long and forty wide. A large open gallery sup- 
ported upon polished wrought-iron columns, and surrounded 
by a handsome brass rail, admits light from above, whilst 
from the centre of the ceiling overhead depends a chandelier. 
A neat iron floor extends throughout this vast room. Our 
bewilderment amidst the surroundings of the first room is now 
absorbed in astonishment at the principal object here presented 
before us. Upon a raised platform is erected the ponderous 
machinery of a ship-of-war, complete in all its details, from 
the boilers in which the steam is generated to the powerful 
propeller which imparts motion to the ship. This is no 
model, but tlie actual thing itself as originally constructed for 
practical use. Nothing can exceed the neatness of this beau- 
tiful piece of workmanship. Two boilers at the farther end 
of the room are used in generating steam for putting the en- 
gines in motiou, whilst the other pair are made accessible, 
having the inner surfaces painted white and illuminated with 



46 HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 

gas, for purposes of instruction. On either side of this room 
are extensions containing machine and blacksmith shops, store- 
rooms, &c., also a room containing a handsome steam fire-en- 
gine for use in case of fire within the Academy walls. As- 
cending by the wide stairway to the second floor, we get an ex- 
cellent view at a glance over all the glittering objects below. 
Upon this floor are four comfortable recitation-rooms, where 
the students recite daily when not receiving practical instruc- 
tion in the engine-room ; also a room for drawing, and a model 
shop, where models are made as required to illustrate what is 
not made clear in the text. 

In this department Cadet midshipmen are taught not only 
the theoretical part of marine steam enginery but the actual 
manipulation in practice. 

Memorial Tablets. 

Inserted in the walls of the Chapel are handsome tablets 
bearing the following inscriptions : 

Lieut. Coraraander Alexander Slidell Mackenzie, killed in battle 
with savages, Formosa, June 13, 1867, aged 26 years. Erected by the 
ofBcers and men of the United States Asiatic Squadron. 

This tablet was gotten up in Italy, and manufactured out of 
the best Italian white marble. 

To the memory of Professor William H. "Wilcox, U. S. N., Head of 
the Department of Mathematics of the United States Naval Academy. 
Died August 20, 1870, aged 47 years. 

A foithful and talented officer, whose death is regretted by all who 
knew him. 

This tablet is erected by the officers and professors of the U. S. Naval 
Academy, Oct. 1870. 

In memory of Lieut. John G. Talbot, U. S. Navy, Peter Francis, 
Quartermaster, John Andrews, Coxswain, James Muir, Captain of the 
Hold, all of the U. S. S. Saginaw, who were drowned Dec. 19, 1870, while 
attempting to land on the Island of Kauai, in the North Pacific Ocean, 
after a boat voyage of fifteen hundred miles, voluntarily undertaken in 
search of aid for their wrecked shipmates on Ocean Island. 

To commemorate their adventurous voyage, in admiration of their hero- 
ism, and to keep alive the remembrance of their noble and generous devo- 



HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 47 

tion, this tablet is erected by their shipmates and by officers of the U. S. 
Navy. 

" Greater love hath no man than this, that a man lay down his life for 
his friends." 



Hon. Jeremiah. Townley Chase. 



The Hon. Jeremiah Townley Chase was born in Baltimore 
Town, May 1748. He was from an early period of his life 
until nearly the close of it, a public man, in various important 
departments, in all of which he acquitted himself with hon- 
orable and distinguished reputation. 

He took an early and decided part in the arduous, awful 
and long doubtful contest with Great Britain, in support of the 
violated rights of his country, which terminated in the inde- 
pendence of America and her emancipation from a foreign 
yoke. During the whole period of that awful conflict he ex- 
hibited the most active patriotic zeal, undeviating rectitude, 
and unshaken firmness. At the commencement of his public 
services he was appointed a member of the first committee of 
observation in Baltimore town, where he then resided, and was 
a private in one of the first military companies raised in Mary- 
land. In February 1775 he was elected by Baltimore countj', 
of which the town was then a part, a member of the Convention 
of this State, and in 1770 a member of the convention which 
formed the constitution and government of this State, and was 
one of that body which united in the Declaration of Inde- 
pendence on the part of Maryland. 

After the formation of the Government he was elected, and 
continued to be a representative of Baltimore town until his 
removal to Annapolis in 1779, and was elected a member of 
the Executive Council, in which capacity he continued to serve 
to the end of the Revolutionary War ; the active and important 
services of which Executive in procuring supplies of flour and 
cattle for the American army received the acknowledgments 



BISTORT OF ANNAPOLIS. 49 

of General Washington. He was a member of Congress in 
1783, when the father and saviour of his country closed his 
glorious career by the resignation of his commission. And in 
1784 he was appointed one of the Executive Committee of that 
body to act in the recess of Congress. During all the awful 
scenes and alarming vicissitudes of the Revolutionary War he 
never deserted his post, nor shrunk from the faithful and vigi- 
lant discharge of his duty. 

After the close of the war, and the treaty of peace with 
Britain which ratified and established the high destiny of 
America, he was elected a member of the Convention of Mary- 
land, which passed on the adoption of the Constitution and 
sjstem of national government which was finally ratified. 

In 1789 he was appointed a judge of the General Court of 
this State. On the abolition of that court he was appointed 
chief judge of the third judicial district, and chief judge of the 
Court of Appeals. In June 1824 he resigned his office of 
judge, for reasons assigned in his communication to the exec- 
utive. The dignity, firmness, ability, and impartiality of his 
conduct in his judicial capacity are too much matters of recent 
notoriety and general recollection to make any further detail 
necessary. 



APPENDIX. 



In the year 1769 the General Assembly appropriated the 
sum of <£7500 sterling to be applied to the building of the 
present State House on the site of the old State House, which 
was destroyed by fire in the year 1704. The foundation-stone 
was laid on the 28th day of March, 1772, by Governor Eden. 
On his striking the stone with a mallet, which was customary 
on such occasions, tradition informs us there was a severe clap 
of thunder, although a cloud was not to be seen, the day being 
clear and beautifully serene. In 1773 this building was 
covered with a copper-roof, and in 1775 this roof was blown 
off during the equinoctial gale, and the water is said to have 
risen three feet perpendicular above the common tide during 
the storm. The dome was not added to the main building 
until after the Revolution. The architect of this building was 
a Mr. Joseph Clarke. Mr. Thomas Dance, who executed the 
stucco and fresco work on the interior of the dome, fell from 
the scaffold just as he had finished the centre piece and was 
killed. 

An historian, in speaking of the American theatre, admits 
that Annapolis has the honor " of having erected the first 
theatre, the first temple to the dramatic muse." Of this fact 
there can be no doubt, for as early as the year 1752 a theatre 
was built here, and in which was performed some of Shaks- 
peare's best plays. In the Mai-yland Gazette of June 18th, 
1752, appears the following advertisement: 

By permission of his Honor, Benjamin Faslter, Esquire [the then Presi- 
dent or Governor of the Province], at the new Theatre, in Annapolis, by 
the company of commedians from Virginia, on Monday next, being the 
22d of this instant [June], will be performed " The Beggars' Opera " ; 



HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 51 

likewise a farce called the " Lying Valet," to begin precisely at seven 
o'clock. Tickets to be had at the printing-office. Box 10s., pit 7s. ^d. No 
persons to be admitted behind the scenes. 

It appears that this theatre was suspended for several years ; 
for on Saturday evening, the 18th of February, in the year 
1769, we find that this theatre was again opened by the Ameri- 
can company of comedians with the tragedy of " Romeo and 
Juliet." This company appear to have been held in high es- 
timation by the citizens of Annapolis for their performances, 
especially of the tragedy of " Richard III." t 

Governor Eden succeeded Governor Sharpe immediately on 
his arrival, and continued to govern the affairs of the Province 
until 1776, when he returned to England, in consequence of 
the Revolution and the formation of the Provisional Govern- 
ment of Maryland, which was at this period established. 
Governor Eden is represented to have been a gentleman "easy 
of access, courteous to all, and fascinating by his accomplish- 
ments." When he had taken his departure his property was 
confiscated. In 1784 he returned to Annapolis to seek the 
restitution of his property. He died soon after his arrival, in 
the residence of the late Dennis Claude, now occupied by 
Mayor Fendall. He was buried under the pulpit of the 
Episcopal Church on the north side of Severn, within two or 
three miles of Annapolis. This church was many years ago 
burned down. 

A correspondent writing a letter dated Annapolis, February 
20, 1770, to a friend in England, says : "On Saturday last 
our little city appeared in all its splendor. It was the anni- 
versary of the Proprietary's birth. The Governor gave a 
grand entertainment on the occasion to a numerous party ; the 
company brought with them every disposition to render each 
other happy, and the festivity concluded with cards and 
dancing, which engaged the attention of their respective votaries 
until an early hour. I am persuaded there is not a town in 
England of the same size of Annapolis which can boast a 
greater number of fashionable and handsome women ; and M'ei'e 
I not satisfied to the contrary, I should suppose that the ma- 



52 HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 

jority of our belles possessed every advantage of a long and 
familiar intercourse with the manners and habits of your great 
metropolis." 

Annapolis has always been celebrated for the elegance and 
beauty of her female population, and the compliment paid to 
them in 1770 is equally true at the present time. 

The building occupied by General Luthur Gittings, and op- 
posite the residence of Hon. George Wells, on Charles Street, 
is said to be the most ancient house now standing in the city. 
It was used as a printing-office of the 3Iaryland Gazette at its 
establishment. The house in which the cashier of the Far- 
mers' National Bank resides was formerly a tavern, and kept 
by a Mr. William Reynolds. The small brick house on 
Doctor's Street, now in the occupancy of Judge Hunter, was a 
stocking manufactory ; it was regarded as a great curiosity, 
but did not succeed. 

West Street, then called Cowpen Lane, had at this period, 
1752, but three houses built on it. The most considerable one 
was a tavern ; it was afterwards used as a circulating library. It 
was formerly the residence of Chancellor Johnson, and is now 
owned by Mr. Joseph Bellis, and is known as the National 
Hotel. The house in which the Misses Cowan live, and that 
formerly known as " Hunter's Tavern," were both erected 
about this time. The next house built on that street M^as the 
Hallam Theatre. It stood where Adams Express Company 
hold their office. The building now owned and occupied by 
Judge Mason was built by Governor Ogle as a family resi- 
dence; additions and improvements were made to it by his 
son. 

In 1764 the "Old Ball-room" (on the site of which the 
New Assembly Rooms, are erected) was built from the proceeds 
of a lottery drawn here for that especial purpose. 

The winter of 1765 was one of uncommon severity. On 
the 5th of February a very merry set of gentlemen had a com- 
modious tent erected on the ice, between the town and Greens- 
bury's Point, where they had an elegant dinner, &c., and in 



HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 53 

the afternoon diverted themselves with dancing of reels on 
skates and divers other amusements. 

St. John's College was opened and dedicated on the 11th of 
November, 1789, with much solemnity, in the presence of a 
numerous and respectable concourse of people. 

The magnificent mansion now owned and occupied by Miss 
Hester A. Chase, on Maryland or the Naval Academy Avenue, 
is among the. most ancient and prominent structures of our 
city. It was erected about the middle of the 17th century by 
the venerable Samuel Chase, one of the illustrious signers of 
the Declaration of Independence. The building immediately 
opposite, and now occupied by Judge Robinson, of the Court of 
Appeals, was built some years subsequently by a Mr. William 
Hammond. 

The dwelling-house now occupied by Judge Chas. S. 
Welch, on Hanover Street, was built in the year 1763 by an 
English gentleman named Thomas A. Rutland. The Episcopal 
rectory on the same street, and also the house belonging to 
and occupied by Mrs. Tilton, on Maryland Avenue, with 
others now standing, were built in the same year by the same 
individual. 

The residence of the late Dennis Claude, situated on an 
eminence in the southern part of the city, and now occupied 
by Major Fendall, was built by Dr. Scott of the British army 
in 1 760 ; these figures are still to be seen cut on the fireplace. 
It was built after the style of English manor-houses, and is 
enclosed by a large brick wall, embracing three acres of ground. 

The former residence of the late Hon. James Murray, on 
the outskirts of the city, and now in the occupancy of James 
R. Howison, Esq., was built in the year 1762 by Mr. William 
Hammond, an Englishman. 

All these relics of antiquity were built of brick imported 
from England. 

On the northeast margin of the State House Hill is mounted 
a great curiosity in the shape of an " old cannon " taken out 
of St. Mary's River in the year 1633, and presented to the 



54 HISTORY OF ANNAPOLIS. 

State by the Rev. Joseph Carbur}\ This was one of the 
cannon brought to Maryland bj the first settlers under Lord 
Baltimore. This relic, as may be supposed, is very unlike in 
every particular those of the present day, and is a centre of 
attraction to strangers who visit the " ancient " city.