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3 1822 01947 1572 


UNtvEPSirr OF 

SAN DIE60 / 


3 1822 01947 1572 

Central University Library 

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Y ' 




C. F. CLAY, Manager 





















Part IV 


Explanatory Note 


List of Manuscripts Translated : 

Note. "A" denotes Ga'alitn pedigrees, "B" Guhayna pedigrees, 
"C" various other pedigrees and "D" more general historical 

Fuller details than those given below will be found in each case 
in the form of introductory notes to the translations. 

BA Full pedigree of Ga'aliin and Guhayna, and general in- 
formation re other tribes ...... 

AB Ditto. By Ahmad ibn Isma'il el Azhari .... 
ABC Pedigrees of Ga'aliin, Guhayna, Mahass and others, and 
some biographical details. By Sadikel Hadra . 

A I Pedigree of Muhammad 'Ali Kenan, a Ga'ali . 

A 2 Pedigree of Muhammad Ishak Muhammad Sheddad, and 
general information about tribes .... 

A 3 Genealogical extracts concerning Ga'aliin etc. 

A 4 Ditto 

A 5 Ga'ah pedigree of el Hadi el Hag Ahmad 

A 6 ,, „ of Zubayr Pasha Rahma 

A 7 „ „ including the Meks of Tekali . 

A8 „ „ of 'Abd el Kadir 'Abdulla 

A 9 „ „ of Muhammad el Nur Ketayna 

A 10 „ „ of Sheikh el Taib Ahmad Hashim, Mufti 

of the Sudan ....... 

A II Full pedigree of the Ga'aliIn, and in particular the Ba 
tahi'n, and information about other tribes 

B I Full pedigree of Guhayna, and in particular of the 
GELfLAB ........ 

B 2 Extract from a Guhani pedigree concerning the Dar Hamid 

B 3 Fragment from a Guhani pedigree 

C I Two full Kawahla pedigrees .... 

C 2 Pedigree of Idri's Muhammad, a Kenani 

C 3 Pedigree of Hamid Muhammad Gabr el Dar, a Musaba'awi 

















D I 






Extract from a Mahassi pedigree . . . . . 

Two Shukri'a pedigrees ...... 

A Sherifi pedigree from Wad Hasuna .... 

Pedigree of Ahmad ibn Musd'ad, a Sherifi 

Full pedigree of the Mesallamia 

Pedigree of 'Abdulla ibn Dafa'alla el 'Araki, a Sherifi, and 
various sections of RufA'a ...... 

General genealogical and historical information concerning 
various tribes ........ 

Abbreviated chronicle of the Fung kings and general items 
of information about various tribes .... 

Tahakdt zvad Dayfulla, a series of biographies of holy 
men. With fifty appendices ..... 

An account of the Nubians. By Daud Kubara of Haifa 

A series of four articles dealing with the 'Abdullab, the 
'Ar.\kiin, the tribes descended from el 'Abbas, and the 
Rikabia ......... 

General historical information about various Arab tribes . 

A histor}' of the Fung kingdom and the Turkish period 
down to 1871 A.D. With Appendices, I The Chronology of 
the Fung Kings. 11 Extract from the Portuguese of Paez's 
Historia Aethiopiae ....... 








• 354 

• 439 


GENEALOGICAL TREES in addition to those printed in the Text 

Trees illustrating MS. BA 
Tree ,, 

Trees ,, 



„ AB 

„ ABC 

„ A2 

,> A3 

„ A4 

„ A II 

„ Bi 

„ C8 

„ C9 

„ I) I 

,. 1^3 

3 folding sheets 

between 60 and 61 

folding sheet 

facing 80 

4 folding sheets 


100 and lOi 

folding sheet 

facing II 

,, 114 

„ 116 

.. 138 

- 144 

.. 174 

„ 180 

„ 212 

3 folding sheets between 272 and 273 


1 . Square brackets [ ] are used : 

(a) to enclose words which do not occur in the Arabic text 
but which are added in the translation to complete the obvious 
meaning ; 

(b) to enclose a transliteration of an Arabic proper name or 
other word. 

2. When a line of dots occurs thus, . . . , some words or sentences 
have been omitted in the translation. Such omissions are made in 
six cases: 

(a) When there occur laudations of God following mention 
of His name. 

(b) When there occur complimentary phrases, such as "upon 
him be blessings," which always follow mention of Muhammad, 
the Prophets or the Companions. 

(c) Where a passage is identical, or practically so, with a 
passage quoted elsewhere. In such a case the reference is 
always given. 

(d) — Chiefly in AB and D3 — where the subject-matter is of 
insufficient interest to warrant translation. In such a case a 
short precis is generally given of the passage omitted. 

(e) When the author has added an explanation as to what are 
the vowel points of the preceding proper name : the result in 
such a case is made clear by the English transliteration. 

(/) When a word is illegible: in this case the word "illegible" 
is added in brackets. 

3. When it is said that a passage is identical with another the 
statement must be understood with the implied reservation that there 
may be slight grammatical variations not affecting the meaning. 

4. The textual notes give obvious emendations for misprints 
that occur in the text, and conversions of dates from the Muham- 


madan to the Gregorian calendar. As regards the former, it may be 
noted that throughout the MSS. there is a continuous confusion be- 
tween J iind e. 

5. It is not enough merely to compare the genealogical trees and 
neglect the text, because several persons or tribes, whose names occur 
in the text, are not entered in the trees owing to their relationship to 
the main stock not being specifically defined. 

6. In common parlance the forms " Ga'aliin," " 'Arakiin," etc. 
are used in all cases instead of the grammatically correct forms 
" Ga'aliyyun," " 'Arakiyyun," etc. In the MSS. sometimes one 
form and sometimes the other is used, independently of the gram- 
matical construction. For the sake of consistency I have used, in 
translating the MSS., the form ending in -iyyun throughout. 

7. The paragraphs have been numbered by the translator for 
the purpose of reference. 


The three trees following Chapter i of Part II illustrate the genea- 
logical connections between the Arabian tribes to which reference is 
frequent in Part IV. Thus, when there is a reference to Wiistenfeld's 
Register in the notes, recourse may be had to these trees, which are 
compiled from that work, and the introductory note which precedes 
them in Vol. i, p. 154. 



M.S. II 


I The line of cleavage between the two great Arab groups of 
descendants of Kahtan on the one hand and of Isma'il and 'Adnan 
on the other has not been obscured by the lapse of ages, nor by the 
tremendous unifying force of a common religion, nor by continuous 
intermarriage, nor by migration to distant lands. The distinction, 
still jealously preserved in Arabia i, is, in another form, clearly trace- 
able in the Sudan at the present day, and its persistence is due to 
the unquestioned authority of the Kuran and of certain of the 

As being a revelation from the very mouth of God the contents 
of the Kuran are famiUar to the masses and unimpeachable both in 
doctrinal matters and as a storehouse of historical facts. The best 
authenticated traditions carry an almost equal weight. 

No one familiar with the historical portions of the Kuran and the 
biography of the Prophet could be oblivious of the distinction be- 
tween the Kahtanite and the Isma'ilite; and, in the second place, the 
careful preservation of pedigrees is enjoined by the Kuran and the 
traditions as an act of piety. The injunction is frequently quoted 
and to some extent obeyed. 

Thus any respectable member of society, and particularly the 
feM whose concern is immediately with things of religion, must 
needs be prepared to produce his pedigree. Some of the links may 
be faulty — they invariably are so — but the ground is fairly sure in 
places, and by a system of comparison one obtains certain valuable 

II Corresponding to the old division between Kahtanite and Is- 
ma'ilite we find in the Sudan a definite line drawn between the two 
great groups of tribes claiming descent on the one hand from Gu- 
HAYNA and on the other from 'Abbas the uncle of the Prophet. 

The period from the present day to that of the Ashab is generally 
shewn as covering about forty generations, and in the case of a 
typical feki or sheikh of good family one may generally accept the 
first five or six generations from the present as stated accurately, and 

^ See Zwemer, p. 259. "The animosity of these two races to each other is 
unaccountable but invincible. Like two chemical products which instantly explode 
when placed in contact, so has it always been found impossible for Yemenite and 
Maadite \i.e. 'Adnanite] to live quietly together." 


the next eight or nine as less so. Then follow seven or eight suc- 
cessive ancestors whose names rest more firmly on the accepted 
authority of contemporary 7risbas compiled during that Augustan 
age of the Sudan, the period of the early Fung kingdom. 

Beyond these are the weakest links in the chain, some fourteen 
or fifteen names probably due in part to the inventiveness of the 
genealogists of the Fung period and their anxiety to connect their 
own generation with that of the immediate descendants of the Com- 
panions of the Prophet. 

III In the early centuries of Islam so much attention was paid, by 
generations that scrupulously observed the behest of Muhammad 
concerning pedigrees, to the exact inter-relationship of his Com- 
panions and their ancestors that the native scribe of the present is 
naturally content to accept without question the statement of any 
ancient genealogist whose work may be accessible to him. 

The popular idea of the value of a long pedigree is easily estimated 
from the opening paragraphs of the larger nishas that have been 

Unfortunately the Arab genealogies have always been almost 
purelv patrilinear, and little account is taken of the wives and 
daughters and the collateral lines. It is noticeable, however, that 
whereas in the more recent generations the mother is not mentioned 
at all unless for some very special reason, her name is not infrequently 
given in the groups of ancestors who lived about the early Fung 
period, but then only incidentally and with a view to showing which 
of the sons of some particular man were full brothers and which 
half-brothers. So, too, in the group of ancestors connecting the 
generations last mentioned with the better-known generations of 
those who lived in the seventh and eighth centuries a.d. one some- 
times finds such names as ''so and so el Khazragi," meaning that his 
mother was a Khazragia^. 

IV Now the traditions current among the Arabs of the Sudan on 
the subject of their racial origins and the circumstances and date of 
the migration of their forebears to the Sudan are almost entirely 
based upon statements they have found in the jiisbas handed down 
to them, though in a few cases their stock of information has been 
supplemented by the result of inadequate uncritical and unenlightened 
foragings among the works of one or two mediaeval Arabic historians. 

'I'he Arabic historians if studied with greater care might well have 
saved the genealogists of the Sudan from a vast number of inaccuracies, 
but, as it is, they have been so neglected that, unless the context 
^ See BA, cxxxni note. 

iV.vii. OF THE SUDAN 5 

forbids, one is often inclined to accept a similarity between two 
statements as corroborative evidence. 

The nisba-v^riter relies as a rule upon the accuracy of the 
inherited or copied nisba, and it is only in deaUng with the more 
recent generations that tradition, other than that derived from the 
nisbas, plays any important part. 

V From among the mass of useless and untrustworthy material con- 
tained in the manuscripts it is not difficult to pick out certain definite 
and persistent traditions which are distinctly interesting. In addition 
to them there are made in passing numerous remarks and asides from 
which one may make some not unimportant deductions. It cannot 
be too often insisted that the proper method is to regard the tribal 
nisbas rather as parables than as statements of fact. Considered in 
that light they have a very definite value. 

By piecing together such scraps of historical information as are 
available from the native manuscripts into an abbreviated and co- 
herent whole one discovers to what extent the result coincides with 
or differs from or supplements the information similarly derivable 
from the works of non- Sudanese authors, whether they be mediaeval 
Arabs or modern European travellers ; and from certain of the manu- 
scripts one learns something of the sociology of the people and of 
their customs and beliefs. 

VI But one must make some attempt to reply to the inevitable 
questions — "What is the general character of these native manu- 
scripts ? " "Who wrote them ? " " What is their date ? " 

VII The word nisba, by which the majority is known, means 
literally a pedigree. Hence the true nisba is avowedly genealogical 
in purpose and items of narrative are only incidental to the main 

As a rule the author or copyist, after the usual confession of faith, 
if he desires to do more than give a bald list of his ancestors, re- 
capitulates his reasons for writing the nisba : it is an act of piety 
enjoined by the Prophet, and the author had found that there was 
some danger of links in the genealogical chain being lost or con- 
fused^. Then follows a genealogical exposition, usually of the Gu- 
HAYNA or the 'Abbasid stock in the Sudan, or of both, including the 
author's or the copyist's own pedigree from father to son. In addition 
the nisba often contains towards the end a series of short stereo- 
typed notes on the origin of the chief Arab tribes of the Sudan. 

^ Much of what is said about this bears a very strong resemblance to the con- 
tents of the first chapter of Ibn Khaldun's second book, i.e. Vol. ii in the Arabic 
edition. This second book, unlike the first and third, has not, I believe, been yet 
translated into either English or French. 


This type of Jiisba is both the oldest and the commonest. 
Hundreds of examples must exist in the Sudan, but the great majority 
of them are not merely incomplete but hardly pretend to be more 
than extracts copied from a larger manuscript. Misreadings and 
omissions abound. Interpolations also occur fairly frequently, but 
happily the Sudanese Arab excels at the type of work that demands 
no mental effort whatever, and as a copyist he may count this as a 
merit. Where interpolations have been added the fact is almost 
always obvious and consequently not without use. 
VIII The father of this type of 7iisba is undoubtedly that renowned 
but very elusive person, " el Samarkandi." As a writer of parables in 
the form of genealogies he deserves a considerable meed of praise. 

The second type of manuscript, sometimes included under the 
term nisba, takes the form of a semi-historical, semi-genealogical 
hotch-potch founded partly on nishas proper and partly on some 
ill-digested Arabic history or encyclopaedia. 

Thirdly, we have copies of a history^ of the Fung kingdom and 
the Turkish period which followed it by an unknown author, who 
probably wrote between 1870 and 1880 but had access to older 

Fourthly, we meet occasionally with a treasured copy of the 
well-known Tabakdt wad Dayfulla^, a series of biographies of the 
Arab holy men of the Sudan, containing many anecdotes and his- 
torical data. 

Into a fifth category may be classed a number of present-day 
works dealing with the history of some particular region or with 
certain specified tribes. These are founded partly on tradition and 
partly on the manuscripts described^. 

IX A word must be said here as to the "Samarkandi" referred to 
as the originator of the most typical nisbas. It must be confessed 
that nothing really definite is known about him at all. All we have 
to go upon may be summed up as follows: hardly had the Fung 
and their Arab allies overthrown the kingdom of Soba in 1504 when 
they were threatened with invasion by Sultan Seli'm who had con- 
quered Egypt in 15 17. 'Omara Dunkas therefore thought it well to 
write to Seli'm and explain that the inhabitants of his kingdom were 
Arabs of exalted lineage. "With this letter he sent a book of the 
pedigrees of the Arab tribes in his kingdom compiled for him by 
el Imam el Samarkandi, one of the learned men of Sennar; and when 

'1)7. ^D3. 

» Part IV consists of examples of all these types of MSS., and remarks as to 
authorship and reliability are given in each case in an introductory note. 


this book reached the Suhan Seh'm its contents delighted him and he 
renounced the attack on Sennar^." 

Of el Samarkandi nothing more is known. He was probably one 
of the itinerant fekis who were attracted from Egypt by the fame 
of the new kingdom founded in the Gezi'ra and by the probability 
that in the vanity and credulity of its rulers some profit might be 
found for himself. His original work has entirely disappeared and 
the numerous "exact copies" of it that are periodically reported are 
never more than garbled extracts. 

There are nine references to el Samarkandi in the manuscripts 
that follow: four of them are in A 2, two in A 11, two in C 5, and 
one in D 6. From A 2 one gathers that el Samarkandi 's method was 
to give the pedigree and branches of the Ga'ali stock and so connect 
them with the Beni 'Abbas; then to tell how one Sulayman of the 
Beni Ommayya migrated through Abyssinia to the Sudan about 
750 A.D., when the 'Abbasids were supplanting the Ommayyads, and 
became ancestor of the Fung; and finally, perhaps, to enumerate the 
Arab tribes of the Sudan and state very shortly from what Arabian 
ancestor each was descended and whence and when it migrated to 
the Sudan. 

From A II one gets the same impression but is told that there 
were two persons named el Samarkandi, Mahmud el Samarkandi 
and 'Abdulla ibn Sa'id el Samarkandi. One of them was apparently 
called "el Samarkandi the Great." C 5 adds nothing to our informa- 
tion. D6 speaks of "Abu Mahmud el Samarkandi." No direct 
information is vouchsafed in any of the manuscripts as to the date 
or life of el Samarkandi ; and D 7, which makes a point of mention- 
ing such savants as came to the Fung court, refers to no such person. 
To non- Sudanese literature so far as I am aware he is entirely 

It would be unjustifiable, I think, to write him down a myth. 
His fame must rest on some basis or other of actuality. If one accept 
the gist of Na'um Bey's account of him it is certainly allowable to 
remark that at the time when el Samarkandi composed his work 
there must have been a fairly large fund of information still available 
about the circumstances of the entry of the Arabs into the Sudan 
and their tribal affinities. El Samarkandi would naturally make use 
of this, and the Arab chieftains of the day would be only too eager 
to supply him with genealogical details and tradition concerning 

^ Translated from Na'um Bey Shukayr, ii, pp. 73, 74. Cp. Crowfoot in A.-E. 
Sudan, i, 319. Na'um Bey, I believe, got his facts by hearsay at Khartoum about 
the time of the reoccupation of the Sudan. 


themselves and their immediate forebears. Where links in the chain 
were missing no doubt others were supphed by the imagination, and the 
critical faculty was presumably brought into play as little as possible ; 
but it appears to me that it is easy to over-estimate the part played 
by sheer inventiveness and to under-estimate the general amount of 
truth underlying statements w^hich as regards the exact form in which 
they have survived are inaccurate in many details. 

X Let us now summarise the information to be gleaned from the 
manuscripts as to historical and sociological matters. 

No mention is made in any manuscript of an Arab immigration 
to the Sudan prior to the foundation of Islam, The reason is obviously 
the lack of interest felt for any ancestor who left Arabia in the pagan 
" Days of Ignorance." The desire of all was to display their fathers as 
pillars of the true faith. 

One also notes that the tide of immigration is always represented 
as having been by way of the Red Sea ports or of the Nile valley^, 
and generally the former 2, Nothing is said of any tribe wandering 
southwards from Tripoli, Algiers or Morocco into the western king- 
doms and thence eastwards into the Sudan. 

The Isma'ilitic tribes most commonly mentioned in the manu- 
scripts as having sent branches to the Sudan are Kuraysh (including 
Beni 'Abbas and Beni Ommayya) and Kays 'Aylan, who include 
Ghatafan, Beni Dhubian (Fezara, etc.), Beni 'Abs, Thaki'f and 

Among the Kahtanite group we most often meet with Himyar, 
who include Kuda'a and Guhayna (a branch of Kuda'a), and with 
Beni Ghassan. 

Extra stress is laid on Kuraysh for obvious reasons, and the Beni 
Ghassan are similarly favoured because the tribes of " Ansar," Aus 
and Khazrag, the "Helpers of the Prophet," were of their number. 

From the frequency with which Himyarite names^ occur in 
Ga'ali nisbas it would appear that some of the Arabs who claimed 
an 'Abbasid (Isma'ilitic) origin were really of Kahtanite stock. 

XI As regards the various epochs at which Islamic immigration 
occurred the following data are available from the manuscripts. 

Speaking of the conquest of Egypt by 'Amr ibn el 'Asi the author 
of 1)4 says the armies of the Muhammadans penetrated "to the 
furthest hmits of the land of the Nuba, to Dabat el Dolib and the 
hills of the Nuba*," that is, roughly speaking, to Debba and el Haraza. 

• See D 2, IV. 2 j^ particular see D 6. 

• E.g. Dhu el Kild'a and Masruk. See BA, cxxxiii note. 

• D4, VI. 


In the next paragraph he alludes to a further immigration in the 
following century. 

Secondly, we are told of the Fezara that they "have dwelt in the 
Sudan since the conquest of el Bahnasa," that is, since 'Abdulla ibn 
Sa'ad's expedition of 641-642^. 

Thirdly, the Mahass, who are Nubian rather than Arab by race, 
claim to be 

descended from the Ansar who conquered the Sudan in 43 a.h. [663 a.d.] 
during the period of the rule of 'Abdulla ibn Abu Sarah [i.e. ibn Sa'ad], the 
Companion. After the conquest the Khazrag settled in this country.... At 
the time of their coming to conquer the Sudan they numbered about 

Fourthly, the Hadarma are said to have migrated from Hadra- 
maut "in the time of Haggag ibn Yusef " and settled at Suakin^, that 
is, between 662 and 713 a.d. 

Fifthly, the ancestor of the Mesallamia is recorded to have come 
to the Sudan from Syria "in the time of 'Omar ibn 'Abd el 'Aziz*," 
or between 679 and 718 a.d. 

Sixthly, we have the entry of Sulayman ibn 'Abd el MaHk, the 
alleged Ommawi ancestor of the Fung, into Abyssinia between 750 
and 754 A.D., and his passage thence to the Sudan°. 

Seventhly, it is generally implied by genealogists of the Ga'ali 
group ^ that Kerdam or his son Serrar was the first of their ancestors 
to immigrate from Arabia. 

Ahmad ibn Isma'i'l el Wall, the author of AB, was born about 
1 830-1 840 and his pedigree makes him the twenty-second in descent 
from Kerdam. The latter or Serrar would therefore, if one reckon the 
generation at about thirty years, seem to have immigrated in the 
latter part of the thirteenth century'. 

Another ntsba says the first Ga'ali ancestor to immigrate was 
Ghanim (the fourth in descent from Serrar), and that he came in the 
middle of the thirteenth century a.d. after the fall of Baghdad before 
the Tartars^. 

A third document makes Ghanim 's grandfather Subuh the 
original settler^. A fourth represents the forefathers of the Ga'aliin 

^ A II, Liv, and D 6, xiii. Cp. account in Part II, Chap. 2. 

^ ABC, IX, and see note thereto. 

^ BA, CLXxvi. * BA, CLXXViii. 

^ E.g. BA, ccxni and note. 

^ E.g. BA, cxxxin and AB, clxvi. 

' See Part III, Chap, i (a). One arrives at the same conclusion if one start with 
the reasonably legitimate assumption that 'Arman, who lived seven generations 
after Kerdam, was a contemporary of el Samarkandi. 

8 ABC, xxii. 9 D 5 (c). 


as coming to ^gypt about 969 a.d. and migrating to the Sudan about 

Other passages suggest that the date of their coming was about 
750 A.D. and the cause of it the overthrow of the Ommayyads by the 
'Abbasids, but one naturally regards these with even more suspicion 
than the other stories^. 

Eighthly, we read that "according to Ibn Khaldun the tribes of 
Arabs descended from Guhayna came after the Muhammadan con- 
quest of the Northern Nuba in 13 18 a.d....^," and this statement we 
have seen to be correct. 

Ninthly, the Rikabi'a are descended from Rikab the son of Ghula- 
niulla. Ghulamulla, it is said^, lived as a young man in Yemen and 
then moved with his father by way of the Red Sea to Dongola, where 
he found the people still "sunk in perplexity and error." He was 
the thirteenth in descent from Musa el Kazim, who, we know, died 
about 800 A.D. 5; and the Awlad Gabir (the fifth generation from 
Ghulamulla) were junior by a generation to Mahmud el 'Araki who 
flourished in the middle of the sixteenth century^. We may there- 
fore hazard the second half of the fourteenth century as being 
very approximately the date of the immigration of Ghulamulla, the 
ancestor of the tribe which is known by the name of his son Rikab. 

Tenthly, the manuscript D 7, speaking of the foundation of the 
Fung kingdom in 1504 a.d., says that it was followed by a largely 
increased immigration of Arabs into the Sudan', 

Lastly, Ya'akub el Mugelli is said^ to have entered the Sudan and 
visited Sennar in 1592 a.d., and his father, the ancestor of the 
ZenArkha, to have previously immigrated from the Yemen, that is 
perhaps about 1560 a.d. 

XII Some of these traditions relate apparently to individuals only, 
but one gets a general impression of four tides of Arab immigration 
into the Sudan. 

The first flowed through Egypt in the seventh and eighth cen- 
turies and was a natural sequel to the conquest of that country. It 
was probably of mixed composition and may have contained, among 
others, tribesmen of Fezar.\ and Beni Ommayya^ and some Ansar. 

The second immigration took place in the eighth century across 
the Red Sea by way of Abyssinia as a result of the overthrow of the 

' D 6, XXXIX. - See A 1 1, vii and D 6, x and notes thereto. 

* ABC, L. • HA, CLXxix, ccvii, ccviii. * Wustenfeld, i, 324. 

* I-^ 3. '57- '^hc elder brother amonj,' the Awldd Gdbir, Ibrahim el Bulad, came 
to the Sudan bct\vcen 1554 and 1562 (see D 3, vi, and D7, xv). 

' D7, XI. 8 ABC, Liv. 

* I.e. the ancestors of the Mesallam/a. 


Ommayyads by the 'Abbasids, and eventually resulted in the founda- 
tion of the Arab-Fung hegemony in the Gezira. 

The ancestors of the Hadarma or HadAreb had similarly reached 
Suakin by way of the Red Sea half a century earlier and settled on 
the coast — so at least say the nisbas; but colonies from Hadramaut 
had undoubtedly established themselves on the African shore at a 
much earlier date, and in any case the interior of the country was very 
little affected. 

For several centuries after the rise of the 'Abbasids no immi- 
gration of tribes is mentioned by the nisbas. Then in the thirteenth 
and fourteenth centuries the conquests of the Mamluk Sultans broke 
down the barrier which had been for so long presented b)'^ the 
Christian kingdom of Dongola and opened the way for a fresh inflow 
of Arabs into the Sudan. To this period belongs the great Guhayna 
movement, and, in so far as the Danagla-Ga'aliin group are Arabs, 
it is probably to the same period that their genesis must be traced, 
though, as we have seen, the Ga'aliin proper — the people living 
between the Shabluka and the embouchure of the Atbara — may not 
have come into existence as a tribe until the beginning of the sixteenth 

The fourth great immigration followed the foundation of the 
Fung kingdom and the conquest of Egypt by Seli'm I : it does not 
seem to have been confined to any particular tribe. 

XIII There is no reason to doubt the approximate correctness of 
this presentation if one have regard only to the dates at which the 
chief immigrations occurred, but the nisbas generally err in as- 
suming that each tribe of the present day is descended from a single 
ancestor and deliberately ignoring the fact that each consists of a 
conglomeration of heterogeneous elements some of which may have 
reached the country at one time and some at another. Even apart 
from this it is dubious whether the particular tribal substrata to 
which certain periods of migration are reserved can be accepted 
as correct. 

No mention is made of any extensive tribal movement into the 
Sudan occurring later than the first half of the sixteenth century; 
and, if one except the thin though constant infiltration of Arabs across 
the Red Sea from the Hegaz and the Yemen, it is probably correct 
to say there has not been any. 

XIV Let us now briefly examine the sparse references that occur 
to the indigenous races with whom the Arab immigrants must 
have coalesced, though the nisbas naturally lay no great stress on 
the fact. 


Muhammad walad Doli'b the younger simply quotes Ibn Khaldun 
when he states that "the original autochthonous people of the Sudan 
were the Nuba and the Abyssinians and the Zing^," but he goes on 
to classify the Hamag as Zing and the Fung as Nuba. " The original 
[home] of the Zing," he says, "is a mountain inhabited by blacks on 
the equator and south [of it]. Beyond them are no other peoples; 
and their country stretches from West Africa [el Moghrab] to the 
neighbourhood of Abyssinia^." Sennar, he adds, in old days con- 
tained "tribes of Zing and Nuba^." 

Daud Kubara of Haifa discussing the Nubian race says that the 
capital of the kingdom of the Nuba was Gebel el Haraza in Northern 
Kordofan : he also speaks of Abyssinians and Nubians as living to- 
gether round the first cataract*. The limits of Nubia to the south in 
the seventh century, in his view, would seem to have been Debba on 
the river and el Haraza inland'^. When civil war broke out between 
the Beni 'Abbas and the Beni Ommayya in the next century, he says, 
many Arabs migrated and, following the steps of previous emi- 
grants, settled in the Sudan "and mingled with the Nubians, and 
took their women to wife, and intermarried with them, and made 
the land of Nuba their home. . .^." The same author speaks of Southern 
Kordofan, Dar Nuba that is, as inhabited by " Zing-Nuba'." 

Referring to the origin of the Fung race the manuscripts commonly 
speak of Sulayman 'Abd el Malik as passing through Abyssinia into 
the "mountains of the Fung " or " the country of the Hamag," mean- 
ing the northern Burun country south of Rosayres, and there marry- 
ing the daughter of a local king, — whence the Fung aristocracy. 

The Fung chronicle says that about 1504 a.d. the Fung and their 
Arab allies overthrew the Christian "Nuba," otherwise "the 'Anag, 
the kings of Soba and el Kerri," and most of "the Nuba... scattered 
and fled to Fazoghli and Kordofan^." Similarly the Tabakat^: 
"Know that the Fung possessed and conquered the land of the 
Nuba early in the tenth century" (sc. of Islam). 

Muhammad walad Dolib the elder classes as "'Anag" the Fun- 
KUR, the aborigines of Borku, the people of Bakirmi, the Dagu, and 

'Di.cLxxvui. ''Di.cLxxxn. ^ ^ j clxxxiii. 

* 1^4, IV. » D4, VI and XX. 

' D4. VII. 7 D4, XXI. 

' P?. QV. paras, i-x. The 'Ana^, I have been assured, came originally from 
Sabd in southern Arabia, and their headquarters were at S6ba on the east bank. 
1 hey had wonderful means of communication between Sabd and S6ba, it is said; 
but the story that when Kinj,' Subr of S6ba fell ill his father came "by telegraph" 
from Sabd in one day has so taxed even the credulitv of the Sudan that the retort 
to a cock-and-bull story is " Khubru Subru!" ("a Subr yarn!"). 

• D 3, q.v. para. iv. 



the inhabitants of eastern and northern Kordofan, including the hills 
of el Haraza, etc. Western and southern Kordofan, and Darfur, he 
speaks of as inhabited by Nuba. He calls the autochthonous Danagla 
'Anag, "and some remnants of them at the present day are called 
the Nuba." The Dinka are '"Anag from among the Zing^." 

These quotations will suffice to shew that, as might have been 
expected, there is no really clear distinction traceable in the mind of 
the native historian between any of the pre-Arab races of the Sudan. 
All are vaguely and indiscriminately heaped together under the names 
" Nuba " and " 'Anag." The term Zing is reserved for more southernly 
negroid tribes, but it too is used with such obvious vagueness that 
there would be little point in discussing the exact connotation of the 
term as used, with rather more exactitude, by mediaeval Arab 
authors 2. The non-Arab element in the Bega tribes of the east and 
some of the negroid tribes in the west is ignored by the simple 
expedient of providing them with shadowy Arabian ancestors or else 
by omitting mention of them altogether. 

XV Now we have seen that in the first nine hundred odd years that 
followed the conquest of Egypt the Arabs who entered the Sudan 
gradually acquired a temporal hegemony in certain districts, but the 
manuscripts do not leave one with the impression that they con- 
cerned themselves very assiduously with the proselytizing of the 
earher inhabitants. The reason may easily be seen: those who left 
Egypt for the west and south were either led to do so by the spirit 
of wandering and the hope of booty or driven forth by the exactions 
of an unsympathetic government. 

Their ancient superstitions, it is true, had been re-clothed in the 
new garment of Islam, but the sword and not the book was still their 
first concern, and so long as a proper subservience was shewn to the 
name of Muhammadanism no exact compliance with its rules in 
daily life were universally exacted. 

In proportion, however, as the sword gradually brought the 
country into subjection a more peaceful and pious type began to 
follow and explain the doctrine which the earlier immigrants had 
perforce neglected because of their own ignorance of its signifi- 

XVI It seems from the nishas that until the latter part of the 
fourteenth century such Muhammadanism as existed among the 
people of Dongola was purely nominal— until, that is, the learned 
and pious Ghulamulla ibn 'Aid settled there and began the work of 


^ See, however, the note to D i, xxii. 


instruction in earnest. Dongola and the country north of it, being 
so near to Egypt, were probably converted by the end of that century, 
but apparently nearly two hundred years elapsed before any religious 
regeneration was effected south of the junction of the Niles. 

Then Mahmud el 'Araki undertook the work. He was followed 
by a large group of other missionaries, of whom the most famous 
were perhaps Tag el Din el Bahari, Ban el Naka, Dafa'alla el 'Araki 
and Hamid el 'Asa^, and schools and mosques were built for the 
enlightenment of the people from the northern frontier of the Sudan 
to Sennar. 

This work of instruction and conversion was enormously facili- 
tated by the foundation of the Fung kingdom, with its subject Arab 
dynasty of the 'Abdullah, a branch of the Rufa'a, at Kerri near the 
Shabluka cataract. 

The power of the Fung king became a guarantee of peace and 
order throughout the northern Sudan, and his court the meeting- 
place of all who had any pretensions to learning. Numbers of these 
latter settled permanently in the Sudan, and their tombs and those of 
their sons and grandsons are still to be seen overshadowing the villages 
that have arisen round them. 

From the early pioneers who were contemporaries of Dafa'alla 
el 'Araki and the Awlad Gabir and from their sons and pupils are 
descended most of the best-known religious families of the Sudan, 
'Arakiin, Ya'akubab, 'Omarab, Ghubush and others; and the 
memory of many is still preserved in the names of villages called 
after them, Wad Medani, Wad el Turabi, Wad Hasuna, Wad Ban 
el Naka, Abu Delayk, etc., and in the nomenclature of the children 
born to the inhabitants in successive generations^. 

XVII The manuscript numbered D 3 is a series of biographical 
notices of these holy men, or patron-saints as they might almost be 
called, from the middle of the sixteenth to the beginning of the nine- 
teenth century, and from it one gleans many interesting details of 

* For all these see D 3. The renowned Awlad Gabir were their contemporaries 
but lived farther north and were successors of Ghulamulla rather than of Mahmud. 

* There is a marked persistence of the same proper names in certain localities 
or amonK certain communities, e.g. " 'Abd el Gelll" among the GELfLAB, "Abu 
'Akla" and "Ijammad el Nfl" among the 'Araki/n, "Sughayerun" among the 
KikAb/a, etc. This is due to the habit of naming children after some holy man 
"for luck" and the fact that it is a common custom among the Sudanese Arabs 
to name the firstborn boy after his father's deceased father and a firstborn 
Kirl after her mother's deceased mother, with intent "to keep the name alive." 
(This does not apply exclusively to the case of a firstborn, but occasionally to that 
of a subsequent child.) Normally, if the grandparent were still alive, the child would 
not be called after him or her, but {e.g.) in tfie case of a boy, after a late brother 
of hib father for choice. This is the normal custom but there is no hard and fast rule. 


the life of the people and their common beliefs. Among the first 
points that strike one are the universal use of the technical Sufi 
terminology, the disproportionate number of incidents and anecdotes 
that relate to divorce and remarriage 1, the v^^ealth possessed by many 
of the holy men, and the obvious survivals that are in evidence of a 
matrilinear system^. 

^ Lack of space and other considerations necessitated the omission of many of 
these stories from the translation. 

^ See, e.g., D3, Nos.46, 85, 107, 124, 154 and 196. 




Three copies of this work have been read and carefully compared 
by me: they are alluded to as MSS. i, 2 and 3 respectively. In 
addition, portions of it have been incorporated by the author of AB 
in his work. Innumerable other copies, more or less complete or 
faulty, also exist in the Sudan. MS. i is in the possession of el Nur 
Bey 'Ankara, an ex-Dervish amir, at Omdurman, and it was from it, 
excepting where the contrary is specifically stated, that the following 
translation was actually taken ^. 

Subsequently Sheikh el Abbas Muhammad Bedr of Um Dubban, 
an ex-Kadi of the Khalifa and a Mesallami by race, sent me a copy 
(MS. 2) taken from a MS. in his possession; and a year later 
Mr S. Hillelson of the Gordon College lent me a third copy (MS. 3) 
which had been given him by an old pupil. 

All three MSS. are in close agreement, and in several cases the 
same errors occur in all three. 

From internal evidence it is likely that MS. i (excepting paras, 
ccxxv-ccxxviii) was copied from the original of MS. 2 : the owner of 
the latter was very positive that the converse could not have taken 

MSS. I and 2 are written in a clear fine script, but MS. 3 is 
written roughly and hastily. 

In MS. 3 we have some of the errors of MSS. i and 2 repeated, 
but in quite a number of cases MS. 3 is right and MSS. i and 2 

On the other hand, MS. 3 is very carelessly written and contains 
many fresh slips and inaccuracies not occurring in the other two. 

As regards the authorship of the original work, it appears from 
paragraph ccxxiii that this nisba was written or, more probably, 
copied by el Shen'f el Tahir ibn Abdulla of the Rikabia in Dongola 
early in the sixteenth century (see note to para, ccxxiii and D 5 {d)). 

I in the name of God .... 

II This is a pedigree giving the origins of the Arabs; for the 

' A marginal reference of " reading {x) for {y) " means that x is either an obvious 
emendation or else the version given by MS. 2 or MS. 3 or AB as opposed to 
MS. 1 (y). 


preservation and guarding of such is obligatory because of the [record 
of] blood-relationships that they contain. 

III The object of preserving them is not to cause boastful com- 
parisons of pedigrees; for, as v^^as said by the Commander of the 
Faithful the Imam 'Omar ibn el Khattab. . ." Ye know from your 
pedigrees how ye are connected." 

IV Some of the learned say that 'Omar may have heard this from 
the Prophet . . . , but that which has no other claim to be obligatory 
than his [sole] authority is yet obligatory. 

V But the knowledge of the pedigrees of persons who are unrelated 
to yourself is of no use, because the authoritative dictum does not 
apply to such ; and the following saying of the Prophet . . . about one 
who was learned in pedigrees bears this out : " A knowledge [of them] 
is useless and ignorance harmless." 

VI But if a man devote himself to the study of what does not con- 
cern him, his labour is impious : 

VII that is in times of mutual love and affection ; but in these pre- 
sent days of mutual hatred and jealousy the study of pedigrees is 
obligatory, for at the end of the age the use of abusive epithets will 
be prevalent, and the difficulty will not be resolved save by means of 

VIII So [the keeping of] pedigrees has been ordained, and it is not 
dutiful to neglect them: in fact he who does so is a rebel, owing to 
the danger of disturbance being caused among the people, and trouble 
in the hearts of the various nations. 

IX Thus the study of pedigrees is obligatory because the obser- 
vance of blood-relationships is obligatory by the authority of the 
Book and the Law ["el Sunna"] and the Unanimities ["el Igma'a"]. 

X As regards the Book, God Almighty said "Fear God by whom 
ye beseech one another and [honour] the womb that bore you." 

XI As regards the Law, we have the saying of the Prophet... 
"He that puts his trust in God and the Last Day will honour his 
guest and observe the duties of relationship and speak good words 
or none at all," 

XII As regards the "Unanimities," all alike have agreed that the 
observance of blood-relationships is specifically ordained; and he 
who neglects it is disobedient. 

XIII In the " Traditions " it is said " The womb is suspended upon 
the throne [of God] and says 'Lord, honour him that honours me 
and cut off him that cuts me off.' " 

XIV Some too have said that the observance of blood-relationships 
lengthens life. 


XV People are reliable as to their pedigrees; and whosoever has 
received from his father or ancestor any charge of a pedigree is indeed 
whatever the pedigree in his charge shows him to be. 

XVI Boastful comparisons of pedigrees are blameworthy, and it is 
not the part of an intelligent man to vaunt his fathers and ancestors 
and claim honour and respect because of the nobility of his pedigree: 
such a thing could only be done by a slave by virtue of his being 

XVII for the Prophet. . .said "I am the ancestor of every pious 
man and woman, even though it be an Abyssinian slave, etc." 

XVIII Boastful comparisons of pedigree and competition to amass 
wealth and disdain of the poor are forbidden by the law. 

XIX For God Almighty said "Verily the faithful are [all] brethren; 
therefore reconcile your brethren," — that is both in affairs temporal 
and spiritual, for faith is the bond between the faithful both in the 
matter of their pedigrees and of their religion; and "reconcile your 
brethren" means [you should do so] if two of them quarrel and 
fight. — "And fear God, and rebel not against Him nor disobey His 
behest, that ye may be the recipients of His mercy." 

XX "O ye that believe, let not men mock at other men, who are 
perchance better than themselves, nor let women laugh other women 
to scorn, who are perchance better than themselves. Neither defame 
one another nor abuse one another with injurious appellations. An 
ill name [it is to be charged with] wickedness, after [having embraced] 
the faith: and whoso repent not, they will be the unjust doers." 

XXI On the authority of 'Omar. . .it is related that the Prophet. . . 
said " The Muslim is brother to the Muslim : he wrongs him not, nor 
abuses him ; and whoso helps his brother Muslim, him will God help ; 
and whoso relieves a Muslim from affliction, God will thereby relieve 
him of one of the afflictions of the day of resurrection." 

XXII God Almighty said "O people, I have created you of male 
and female," — that is Adam and Eve ["Howa"] ; and the meaning is 
" You are all of the same descent, so do not make boastful comparisons 
between one another, for all of you are the children of the same man 
and woman." Others say the meaning to be " I have created each one 
of you in the same manner as the other, so you have no cause for 
invidifjus self-glorification and boastful comparison of pedigrees." 

XXIII [God also said] "And I have made you races ['shu'ub'] 
[and tribes]." 

XXIV [The term] "shuilh" is the plural of "sha'b"... and 
denotes the sources of the tribes, such as Rabi'a and MupR and 
EL Aus and f.l Khazrag; and they were called "races" because from 


them were the tribes sprung, or, as it is also said, because in them 
were the tribes united. 

XXV '' KabdiV ("tribes") is the plural of ''kabila,'' which is [a 
degree less than]^ "shu'ub,'' and examples of '' kabdiV are Bukr 
[derived] from Rabi'a and Tami'm from Mudr. 

XXVI Next below the " kabdil" are the "'amdir," of which the 
singular [is '"amdra"]^. . ., such as Shayban [derived] from Bukr, 
and Darim from Tamim. 

Next below the " 'amdir^' are the " butun,'' of which the singular 
is ''batn" such as Beni Ghalib and Luai [derived] from Kuraysh. 

XXVII Next below the " butun" are the '' afkhddh," of which the 
singular is "fakhdh," such as Beni Hashim and Beni Ommayya 
[derived] from Luai. 

XXVIII Next below the '' afkhddh" are the "fasdil," of which the 
singular is '"fasila". . . , such as Beni el 'Abbas [derived] from Beni 

XXIX After the "fasdil" come the " 'ashdir," of which the singular 
is " 'ashira," and after them there is nothing to mention at all. 

XXX Now [the term] " shu'ilb'' applies to the non- Arabs ['agam] 
and "kabdir' to the Arabs; and it is said that the "shu'ub" are those 
that do not trace their origin [as a race to a common ancestor] but to 
[common] cities and villages, whereas the " kabdiP' are the Arabs 
who trace their pedigrees to their ancestors. 

XXXI Thus the [successive] grades into which the Arabs fall are 
six, viz. the "sha'b," the " kabtla," the "'amdra," the " batn," the 
"fakhdh," and the "fasila"; and the " sha'b" contains [lit. "col- 
lects"] the "kabdil,'' the " kabila" the '"amdir," the '"amdra" the 
''butun" the '' batn" the '' afkhddh" and the '' afkhddh'' the 

Khuzayma is a "sha'b," Kenana a " kabila,'' Kuraysh an 
'"amdra," Kusai a "batn," Hashim a "fakhdh,'' and el 'Abbas a 
*'fastla" and so on. 

XXXII "That ye may know one another." That is, that ye may 
know how closely ye are related to one another, and not make boastful 
comparisons of your pedigrees. 

XXXIII Then he shewed by virtue of what type of character^ one 
man acquires merit over another and gains honour in the sight of 
God Almighty, quoting "The noblest of you in God's sight is the 
most pious of you." 

1 inserting C)3> • ^ inserting SjU*. 

^ reading tfLLaaiJI for J^-aaJI . 

20 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. ba. xxxiv. 

XXXIV [So too] in the Tradition [it is said] "He who desires to be 
the noblest of men in God's sight, let him fear God." 

XXXV Ibn 'Abbas. . .said "In this world honour is given to wealth, 
in the next to piety." 

XXXVI On the authority of Samra ibn Gundub, the Prophet, , . 
said " It is wealth that is reckoned, but piety is [the true] nobleness." 

XXXVII This saying is quoted by el Termidhi, who also quotes a 
beautiful tradition, corroborated by Abu Hurayra. . . : the latter says 
that the Prophet. . .was asked^ "Which of the people is the noblest?" 
He replied "The noblest of them in God's sight is the most pious of 
them." They said "It is not of this that we ask you." He replied 
"The noblest of the people is Yusef the Prophet of God, son of the 
prophet of God, son of the Friend of God." They said "It is not of 
this that we ask you." He replied "Is it of the original sources^ of 
the Arabs that you ask me?" They said "Yes." He replied "The best 
of them in the days of ignorance is the best of them in the days of 
Islam, provided they are versed in knowledge {'fakukhu' or, it is 
said 'fakikhu'), that is provided they have mastered the rules of the 

XXXVIII It is related on the authority of 'Omar. . .that the Prophet 
... on the day of the conquest [of Mekka] made the circuit [of the 
temple] on his she-camel [ndka], and saluted the corners [of the 
sacred stone] with his staff [mahgan] ; and on leaving he found no 
place for his camel to kneel; so he dismounted [from it as it stood, 
helped] by the hands of the men, and then addressed them, and 
praised and glorified Almighty God, saying "Praise be to God who 
hath redeemed you from the brutishness^ of the days of ignorance 
and pride. O people, I have created you in two types, the man of 
piety and justice [who is] noble in God's sight, and the miserable 
infidel [who is] of no account in God's sight." Then he repeated the 
word of God "O people, I have created you of male and female." 

XXXIX Then he said "I tell you this and I ask the protection of 
God for myself and for you, etc." 

XL Now the mahgan was a stick with a bent handle, like a crook. 

XLI By "the brutishness^ of the days of ignorance" is meant their 
pride and boasting, the intention being to warn people of being 
boastful as [the people of] the days of ignorance were from pride and 
conceit of their fathers and ancestors. 

XLII Ye are the sons of Adam, and Adam was formed from mud, 

' reading U J^ J15 for J15 J15. 2 j-ead o^bu) for .J>jbu». 

■■ read i^ for iUjj*. . * read <L*i for i-* . 


that is from the earth that is trodden underfoot, so how shall one be 
proud and boastful: one branch is no greater than another save by 
the will of God on account of piety. 

XLIII Four things characterized the days of ignorance: boasting 
of their merits, speaking ill of [each other's] lineage, [excessive] 
lamentation, and prognostication of rain by the stars. 

XLIV It has been said [by the poet] " By thy life! What is [a man's] 
pedigree if he be not a child of religion: so forsake not piety, trusting 
to your lineage. Verily by Islam was Selman the Persian [slave] 
exalted, and [by his unbelief] did Abu Lahab forego his rich portion." 

XLV God Almighty said "Justify not yourselves": that is "do not 
[pretend to be] free from sin nor boast of your deeds." And it is 
said that the meaning of the verse is "He knows you best, O ye 
faithful," i.e. knows your condition from the day of your creation 
till your last day; therefore "Justify not yourselves" with false 
humility and arrogance, nor say to one that you know not truly "I 
am better than thou" and "I am purer than thou." "Knowledge is 
of God," and this saying is an index [for men] to their duties, that 
they may take warning of what will befal: and verily God knows 
what will befal him that is pious, and God best knows who is the 
most pious, that is the greatest and most obedient and most efficient 
in his works. He who is tardy in works will not be speeded [to 
salvation] by his pedigree, and he that is speedy in works will not 
be retarded by his pedigree : works outweigh pedigrees ; and if you 
are wanting in your works you have no profit in this world or the next. 

XLVI They gained not the dominion and riches save by obedience 
to God Almighty, and by humility and self-abasement and gentleness, 

XLVII And it is related on the authority of Ibn 'Abbas (God bless 
him) that he upon whom be the blessings of God said "There is no 
alternative to be accepted of the Arabs excepting Islam or the sword." 

XLVIII According to Ibn Wahhab there are seven tribes whose 
enslavement is not permissible, namely: 


EL Ansar 





and it is related also that the Prophet said that no Arab should be 
enslaved. If you wish for the reference, see El Mishkat li '1 Kari 
["The Reader's Illuminators"] with the commentary of 'Abd el Baki. 


22 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. ba. xlix. 

XLIX The tribes of the Arabs are seven, and whosoever is not 
included in them may lawfully be enslaved : these are 

^ Kenana 






and the noblest of these is Kenana, because he upon whom be the 
blessing of God said "God chose Kenana from among the sons of 
Isma'il, and Kuraysh from Kenana, and Beni Hashim from Ku- 
R.\YSH, and from Beni Hashim he chose me, who am thus the noblest of 
the noblest " ; and this is no [vain] boast : this account is the true one. 

L Now Himyar and Tai and Tha'aleb and Nigm and Hamdan 
and Ma'afir and Bisar and Hukna and Kelab el Azd^ and Muzayna 
and GuHAYNA all trace their descent to one ancestor: viz. el Mahassi 
ibn Kahtan el Mahassi son of Ibrahim: God knows the truth. 

LI Most of GuHAYNA are in the Nile-land and the west, and Mu- 
zayna are mixed ^ with [the inhabitants of] those parts, and Himyar 
are in the land of el Basra, and Ashga'a in the land of Tunis and 
Tripoli [" Terdbulus"], and Ghafar in the land of Andalusia ["el 
Andalus"] and Persia [''Fans"] and Mesopotamia ["el 'Irak''], and 
Kenana are in the land of Mekka the noble and el Medina the glorious 
and Egypt and el Rum. 

LII Now when Noah, upon whom be the blessings of God, landed 
from the ark to inhabit the earth, one day it happened that his privy 
parts were exposed, and his son Ham looked at them and laughed 
and did not cover him up : then his son Sam saw him and turned his 
face aside and did not cover [his father] : then his son Yafith saw him 
and turned his face aside and covered his father's privy parts. And 
when [Xoah] awoke he learnt of this and he called his son Ham 
[saying] "may God change the seed of your loins and blacken your 
face: you shall oeget none but blacks." 

LI 1 1 And Ham begot el Hind and el Sind and the Nuba and 
Kuran and all the blacks ; and Yafith begot the Turks and the Chinese 
["el Stn"] and Berber and the Slavonians [" el Sakdliba"] and 
Gog and Magog [" Ydgug zva Mdgug"] and Parish and Darish 
and Khalabka and GabirsA; and Sam begot the Arabs and the 
Romans [" el Rum"] and Persians [" Fdris"]. 

' reading ^j'\)\ ^*^)J=> for J|;j^)l ^^},==> . 
'^ reading i^-^o-o (as AB) for 4».jj-o-«. 


LIV And when death was come to Noah, upon whom be the bless- 
ings of God, he called to his son Sam, his firstborn, and divided the 
earth between him and his brothers, and to Sam he allotted the centre 
of the earth, the holy land, and its environs as far as Hadramaut and 
'Oman^ as far as el Bahrayn and 'Alig ; and to his brothers he allotted 
the outlying portions of the land ; and Sam's allotment was the best 
of the earth and the most fertile. Ends. 

LV We will now take up the thread of the narrative. 

LVI The pedigree of Guhayna is as follows: 
Dhubian son of 'Abdulla son of Dahman son of Kays son of 
Mufi'd son of Guhayna son of Rayth son of Ghatafan^ son of Sa'ad 
son of Kays son of 'Aylan son of Mudr son of Mu'awia son of 
el Hakam son of 'Affan son of Ams son of Ommayya son of 'Abd 
Shams son of 'Abd Menaf son of Kusai son of Kelab son of Murra 
son of Luai son of Ghalib son of Fihr son of Malik son of Nudr son 
of Kenana son of Khuzayma son of Mudraka son of el Yds son of 
Mudr son of Nizar^ son of Ma'ad son of 'Adnan. 

LVII Others say that Guhayna was son of 'Atia son of el Hasan 
son of el Zubayr son of el 'Awwam son of Khowaylid son of Asad 
son of 'Abd el 'Uzza son of Kusai. . .etc. 

LVIII Others say that Guhayna was son of 'Abdulla son of Unays 
el Guhani; and God knows the truth. 

LIX Dhubian had ten sons, viz. Wati'd and Fahid and Shati'r and 
Bashir and 'Amir and 'Omran and 'Abd el 'Aziz Mahassi and Gud- 
ham and Sufian Afzar and Sarid*. 

LX Wati'd and Fahid and Gudham and 'Amir and 'Omran were, all 
five, sons of one mother; and Shatir and Bashir were sons of one 
mother; and 'Abd el 'Aziz Mahassi and Sarid^ were sons of one 
mother; and Sufian Afzar ^ was the only son of his mother. 

LXI The descendants of Watid are the Khawalda ; the descendants 
of Fahid the Fahid at in the West. 

LXII Shatir begot Sultan only. 

LXIII Sultan had seven sons, Musallam and Ga'afir and Rashid 
and Ruwah and Hamayd (or "Hamayl")' and Ma'ashir and 

LXIV Muslim's sons were Fadin and Mashaykh and Moghrab and 
Dwayh and Daud. 

LXV Fadin's descendants are the Fadnia; Mashaykh's^ the Ma- 

^ reading ,jUt for ^jUl. 2 reading ^UJa* for UJac. 

^ readingj'jJ for jlJJ. * reading ijlo for jilo. 

^ reading :»; Ls for j^U? . ^ reading jj-s I for j^. 

' reading J>. ;m »^ for jl.^^ . ^ reading ^t^ for ?■ * — >■« . 


shaikha; Moghrab's the Mogharba; Dwayh's the Dwayhia; and 
Daud's the Daudia. 

LXVI Ga'ahr's descendants are the Ga'afira; Rashid's the Ro- 
washda; Ruwah's the Ruwahia; and Hamayl's the Hamaylia, that 
is the Hamaylat, and^ a tribe called Awlad Hamayl between el Hind 
and el Sind; and Ma'ashir's descendants are the Ma'ashira; and 
Rikab's the Rikabia and the Genana and the Mezaniyyun and the 
Lahawiyyun and the Zumaylat: all these are the descendants of 
Sultan son of Shati'r. 

LXVII The descendants of his brother Bashi'r are the Shukria, and 
the BuADiRA and the Umbadiria. 

LXVIII 'Amir begot Muhammad only: this Muhammad had eight 
sons and one daughter, the eldest of [his children]. 

LXIX The sons^ were Rafa'i and Nagaz and Duriab and Hammad el 
'Ulati and Hilal and Kelb and Muhammad 'Akil and Dwayh*, all sons 
of one mother, excepting Dwayh, who was the only son of his mother. 

LXX The daughter was given in marriage by her father Muhammad 
ibn 'Amir to a man named Marhi's of the Ful, whose children by 
her were Kal and Baz and el Ma'adia and Falik and their various 

LXXI The sons of Rafa'i ibn Muhammad were Zanfal and Shabarik^ 
and Kasim. 

LXXII The descendants of Zanfal are the Zenafla, of Shabarik the 
Shabarka, and of Kasim the Kawasma and the MahAmid. 

LXXIII The descendants of 'Abd el 'Aziz Mahassi are the Mahass, 
of Gudham the Gudhamiyyun, and of Sarid^ the Sowarda. 

L.XXIV The sons of Hammad el 'Ulati son of Muhammad 'Amir 
were Mahmud and Hasan Ma'arak'^ and Fuak and 'On. 

LXXV Mahmud had five sons, Rahal and Darish and Kuakir and 
'Ail and Fakhdh. 

LXXVI The descendants of Rahal are the Rowahla, of Darish the 
Dowarisha, of Kuakir the Kuakir, and of Fakhdh the Fowakhidhia. 

LXXVII The sons of Hasan Ma'arak son of Hammad el 'Ulati were 
Durrak and 'Asham and Dasham^. 

LXXVIII The sons of Durrak were Hamar and Hamran. 

LXXIX The sons of 'Asham were Nagih and Nail and Tha'alib and 
'Othman and 'Amud and Halu and 'Affan. 

• inserting J. ^ reading 2ujy\j ^o's)!^ for ij^b >'ilL)l^. 

^ reading i'il^'illi for i'^)^'^)^ . * reading ->-J_5i for j^-j^j . 

^ reading Jjlw for JjLLj. « reading ijLs for j^Le . 

' reading Jj\jl^ for ^Ijjc*. ^ reading^i for^j . 

IV. BA. xcii. OF THE SUDAN 25 

LXXX The descendants of Ndgih are the Nawagiha, of Nail the 
Nawai'la, of Tha'alib the Tha'aliba, of 'Othman the 'Othmania. 

LXXXI The sons of 'Amud were Kerayn and Bashkar and Zamlut 
and 'Isayi and Hasan and Hasan and Shibla, and Ferag by a con- 

LXXXII The descendants of Kerayn are the Keraynat, of Bashkar 
the Bashakira, of Zamlut the Zamalta, of 'Isayl the 'Isaylat, of 
Hasan the Hasania, of Hasan the Hasania, of Shibla the Shibaylat, 
and of Ferag the Mufariga and the Faragab and the Muwariga. 

LXXXI 1 1 The descendants of Halu are the Halawiyyun, of 'Affan 
the 'Affanab^ 

LXXXIV The sons of Dasham were Bedr and Zayd and Hegazi and 
Fadil and Thaki'f and Zuhayr. 

LXXXV The descendants of Bedr are the Bedriyyun, of Zayd the 
ZuAiDA, of Hegazi the Hegazab, of Fadil the Fadliyyun, of Thakif 
the Thakifiyyun, and of Zuhayr the Zuhayriyyun. 

LXXXVI The descendants of Fuak son of Hammad el 'Ulati are the 

LXXXVII The sons of his brother 'On were Thabit and Sabir and 
Sarib and Gurfan and Missi'r and Ma'atuk, and among his descendants 
are the Thawabita^ and the Shaklab and the Shukrab and the 
'Abdullab and the Tungurab and Kungara and, it is said, Bornu 
and BoRKU and Afnu and Madaka and Fellata and the MESsfRiA 
and 'Okayl, — all of them descendants of '(3n^ son of Hammad el 
'Ulati. ' 

LXXXVIII Kelb son of Muhammad 'Amir had five sons, Turfa and 
Ahmar and Serhan and Kalkal and Dagir. 

LXXXIX Turfa had seven sons, Kali'ma and Gama'i and Sulaym 
and Belu and Mani'a and Minba'a and Sandal. 

XC The descendants of Kali'ma are the Thakra, some of whom are 
pagans and some Muhammadans : the descendants of Gama'i are the 
Beni Gama'i, of Sulaym the Beni Sulaym, of Mani'a the Mana'a 
and the Burnit and the Kumdar and Khawabira* and the Dabayti'a : 
and I do not know any descendants of Minba'a. The descendants of 
Belu are the Belu. 

XCI The descendants of Ahmar are the Hamran and the Hamayria 
and the Kerimia and the Beraghith in the West. 

XCII The sons of Serhan son of Kelb son of Muhammad 'Amir 
were Zamal and Mazan and Lahu. 

1 reading w^Uia3l for wjUa*31 . ^ reading aIjI^j for 4lj|y . 

3 reading ^^ for (Jj^. * reading 5j^\^a^ for ojj\^».. 

26 THE NATI\^ MANUSCRIPTS iv. ba. xciii. 

XCIII The descendants of Zamal are the Zamalat, of Mazan the 
I\I.\ZAYNiA, and of LahQ the Lahawiyyun. 

XCIV The descendants of Kalkal are the Kalakla in the land of 
Tunis; and of Dagir the Dawagira in the East, and they are the 
people of el Nuk el Bakht. 

XCV The descendants of Sandal son of Turfa son of Kelb son of 
Muhammad 'Amir are the Sanadalib, and those of Hilal son of 
Muhammad 'Amir are the Beni Yez^d. 

XCVI The son of 'Omran son of Dhubian was 'Amir, whose sons 
were the 'Amarna and Sabik and Dabi'a and Akirit and Adaykim 
and 'Atif. 

XCVI I The descendants of Sabik are the Sabikiyyun, of Dabi'a the 
Dabi'at, of Akirit [the] Kurtan^, of Adaykim the Daki'miyyun, and 
of 'Atif the 'AwATiFA, and also the Gerabi'a. These are all the descen- 
dants of 'Omran. 

XCVI 1 1 The sons of Sufian Afzar were Zayad and 'Abs and Hilal. 

XCIX The descendants of Zayad are the HupuR and the Zayadia. 

C The son of 'Abs was Hammad el Afzar, whose sons were Kabsh 
and Sha'uf. 

CI The sons of Kabsh were Ribayk and Berara and Kerri and 

CII Of these the son of Sha'uf was Sabir only. Sabir's son was 
Sarim, and Sarim's sons were Salim el Hamam and Abza'a and 

CI 1 1 The sons [of Gerar] were Barakat and Hayla and Abu Hagul. 

CIV The sons of Abza'a were Nur and Nuran^. 

CV The sons of Nur were Dal and Mazin. 

CVI Mazin's sons were 'Awal and Ma'al and 'Abd el 'Al and 

CVII Baghdad's descendants are the Baghada. 

CVIII The descendants of 'Abd el 'Al are the Shenabla, and of 
Ma'al the Ma'alia. 

CIX The sons of 'Awal were 'Akil and Gikhays and 'Abd el Baki 
and Sahal and Hamid and Hammad. 

CX The descendants of 'Akil are the Ma'akla, of Gikhays the 
GiKHAYSAT, of 'Abd el Baki the Bawaki, of Sahal the Na'imat, and 
of Hamid the Hababin and the Ferahna and the Meramra and the 
Nawahia, and the Gilaydat^, whose mother was Bakhita el Sughayra, 
[Hamid 's] freed woman. 

^ reading O^j^ for Olj.^. 2 reading Ob^ ^^^ O'^V • 

^ reading C>ljk*X». for 0%JL».. 

IV. BA. cxxii. OF THE SUDAN 27 

CXI The descendants of Hammad are the AwlAd Akoi^ and the 
Meganin : or, according to [another] account [the latter] are descen- 
dants of Hamid and their father was called Magnun. 

CXII The son of Hilal son of Sufian Afzar was Hasan el Hilali, 
whose mother was a concubine; and his sons were Ferag and Nuh 
and Doka and their mother was Lula. 

CXIII Doka's sons were Shilluk and Dinka and Ibrahim and Dekin. 

CXIV The son of Ibrahim was Asbi'h, and Asbi'h's sons were Gank 
and Funkur and Kaf and Ulu el Ghaya. 

CXV Deki'n had five sons, Kira and Kiran and Karanku and Doka 
and Aywa. 

CXVI And it is said that the Kai'dab and the Mahidab and the 
'Afsa and the Bakab and the Mesa'id and the Karafi'd and the 
Khagilat and the Kasirab and the Shukrab and the Ma'ai'da and 
their subdivisions are all of the stock of Muhammad ibn 'Amir. 

CXVII The Bega and the Khas and the Baria and the Kura'an 
and the Mi'dob and Zaghawa^ are said [by some] to be originally 
from Makada, and by others to be among the descendants of the Gin 
that deceived the prophet of God Sulayman son of Daud, upon both 
of them be the blessings of God, when he was away from his wife, 
namely Hafhaf son of Shamakh. 

CXVIII There is a difference of opinion as to the Kawahla, the 
sons of Kahil: some say they are among the above, and some that 
they are descended from el Zubayr ibn el 'Awwam : God knows the 
truth best. 

CXIX Similarly there is a difference of opinion about the Fellata : 
some say they are the sons of Fellat son of Ukba son of Yasir, [who], 
when he converted the people of the West, married the daughter of 
the Sultan of the infidels. Their language is that of their mother's 

CXX And [men] have disputed about these tribes as to their being 
descended from the Gin, and said " How could the Gin have offspring 
by a human woman, because the Gin is not of human descent.?" 
God knows the truth best. 

CXXI Compare the story of Balki's^ and how it is said that her 
mother was a female Gin: [but] knowledge belongs to Almighty God. 

CXXII If you wish for the explanation refer to [the remarks in] the 
Hashia of el Genial [on the passages] wherein God says "And I made 
[Noah's] offspring \to be] those who survived " and "And I have made 

^ reading ^^>5! for \^^ . ^ reading Sjlcj for j^^lSj . 

^ reading i^j-^iXj for «L...*iJL» , 


\ou races and tribes that ye may know one another. Verily the noblest of 
vou in God's sight is the most pioiis of you " and there you will find it. 

CXXIII Now the tribe of Guhayna became [lit. "reached"] fifty- 
t\\'0 tribes in the land of Soba on the Blue Nile under the rule of the 
Fung, but most [of them] are in the West, [namely in] Tunis and 

CXXIV Zubayr had two sons, 'Abdulla and Hasan. The descendants 
of 'Abdulla are the Kawahla, and the son of Hasan was 'Ati'a; and 
some say that the descendants of 'Ati'a are Guhayna : God knows the 
truth best. 

CXXV The Beni Yunis and Beni Sira and Beni Hamza are all 
branches of the descendants of Hilal son of Muhammad 'Amir. 

CXXVI The descendants of Muhammad 'Akil are the Beni 'Akil 
and the Beni Huzayl and the Beni Matayr and the Beni 'Utayba 
and the Beni Yakum and the Beni Mukhallad and Beni Yunis and 
Beni Meri'n: these [tribes] are his own proper descendants. 

CXXVI I The Shamia and the Ma'aida are the descendants of 'Aid 
son of Khamsin. 

CXXVI 1 1 The 'AwAMRA and Beni 'Omran and Beni Kelb and 
Beni Rafa'i and Beni 'Ulati^ and Beni 'Akil and Beni Dwayh 
and Beni Duriab are all Guhayna and very closely related. Here 
ends what I have learnt of the pedigree of Guhayna ; and knowledge 
belongs to God Almighty. 

CXXIX Now as regards Ga'al, what is to be found here is as follows : 

CXXX Kuraysh were in the time of the Prophet (God bless him) 
eighty tribes, and [similarly] Guhayna were eighty tribes: 

CXXXI and accounts differ as to the Beni Ma'amur and Hilal, 
some saying they belong to Kuraysh and some to Guhayna. 

CXXXII Now Ga'al are [descended from] Beni el 'Abbas (God 
bless him), and they should not be called a tribe \kabila'\ but 
rather one of the branches of Beni Hashim, They are only called 
"Ga'al" because their forefather, whose name was Ibrahim, was 
known as " Ga'al " from the fact that he was a generous man, to whom 
in time of famine the feeble branches allied themselves, and he used 
to say to them "ga'alndkum minnd" ["we have made you a part of 
ourselves"]: so he was surnamed "Ga'al." 

CXXXIII Now the man who collected all the tribes of Ga'al to- 
gether was Kerdam son of Abu el Di's son of Kuda'a son of Harkan 
son of Masruk son of Ahmad el Yemani son of Ibrahim Ga'al son of 
Idris son of Kays son of Yemen son of el Khazrag son of 'Adi son of 

^ reading ^.^'^ for Is'^Jlt , 

IV. BA. cxLiv. OF THE SUDAN 29 

Kusas son of Kerab son of Hatil son of Yatil son of Dhu el Kila'a 
el Himyari son of Himyar son of Sa'ad son of el Fadl son of 'Abdulla 
son of el 'Abbas, God bless him. 

CXXXIV This is the account given by some, but the following is 
given by the generality of genealogists : Serrar son of Kerdam son of 
Abu el Di's son of Kuda'a son of Harkan son of Masruk son of Ahmad 
el Hegazi son of Muhammad el Yemeni son of Ibrahim Ga'al son of 
Sa'ad son of el Fadl son of 'Abdulla son of el 'Abbas, the uncle of 
the best of men, upon him be the blessing of God, son of 'Abd 
el Muttalib son of Hashim son of 'Abd Menaf son of Kusai son of 
Kelab son of Murra son of Ka'ab son of Luai son of Ghalib son of 
Fihr son of Malik son of el Nudr son of Kenana son of Khuzayma 
son of Mudraka son of el Yds son of Mudr son of Nizar^ son of 
Ma'ad son of 'Adnan. 

CXXXV Beyond that we will not go since he upon whom be the 
blessings of God warned us against so doing. 

CXXXVI And whosoever is not enrolled among his descendants, 
that is [among the descendants] of the Sultan Kerdam, is not a Ga'aU. 

CXXXVII Now his father Abu el Dis had two sons : one of them was 
called Tergam, but I do not know of his having any descendants, 
and the other was el Sultan Hasan Kerdam son of Abu el Di's. 

CXXXVIII He, it is said, had ten sons: seven of them returned to 
el Kufa; and those that are known and whose descendants are pre- 
served and recorded in the genealogies are three, viz. Dula and 
Tamim and Serrar. 

CXXXIX The descendants of Dula are the Sakarang^, the kings of 
Gebel Tekali ; the descendants of Tami'm are the Tomam ; and the 
sons of Serrar were Samra and Samayra and Mismar. 

CXL Samra had four sons, Bedayr and 'Abd el Rahman Abu Shayh 
and Terayfi and Ahmad Abu Rish. 

CXLI The descendants of Bedayr are the Bedayri'a, of 'Abd el 
Rahman Abu Shayh the Shuwayhat, of Terayfi the Terayfia, and 
of Ahmad Abu Ri'sh the RiAsH^. 

CXLII The descendants of Samayra are the Ghodiat* and the 
KuNAN and the KusAs and the Batahin. 

CXLIII Mismar had four sons, Sa'ad el Ferid and three sons by 
[another] mother, Subuh Abu Merkha and Rubat and Nebih. 

CXLIV Sa'ad el Ferid had three sons, Kahtan and Selma and 

1 readingjijj for jtju. 2 reading !>-5;^i-' for j»-jU-j. 

3 reading chWj for cH^ii. ^ reading OL»jlc for Ob.**, 

30 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. ba. cxlv. 

CXLV Kahtan had six sons, or, it is said, seven; and the latter is 
the more correct : they were Subuh and Fadl and Mansur and Makit 
and Mias and Muhammad el Dub and Makbud. 

CXLVI The descendants of Subuh are the Subha, of Fadl the 
F.\pLiYYUN, of Mansur the Manasra, of Makit the Makaita, of Mias 
the MiAiSA, of Muhammad el Dub the Dubab, and of Makbud the 

CXLVI I The sons of Selma were Hakim and Gabir. 

CXLVIII The descendants of Hakim are the Hakimab, the kings of 
Arko, and the descendants of Gabir are the Gabirab or Gawabra or 

CXLIX Hammad begot Fahid. The sons of Fahi'd were Guma'a 
and Gama'i and Hammad, [also] called Hamid: they were three in 

CL The descendants of Guma'a are the Gima'a, of Gama'i the 
Gawama'a, of Hammad (or Hamid) the Ahamda^ and the Ham- 
\l\da; and it is said that among his descendants are also the Na- 
wai'ba^ and the Salamat and Borku. 

CLI Rubat had five sons, 'Awad and Kuraysh and Khanfar and 
Mukbal and 'Abayta. 

CLII The descendants of 'Awad are the 'Awadia, of Kuraysh the 
KuRAYSHAB, of Khanfar the Khanfaria, of Mukbal the Mukabla, 
and of 'Abayta the 'Abta. 

CLIII The descendants of Nebi'h son of Mismar are the Nebah. 

CLIV Subuh Abu Merkha had three sons, Hammad el Akrat and 
Hamayd el Nawam and Hamaydan. 

CLV The descendants of Hammad^ el Akrat are the Magidia and 
the Kurt AN, and of Hamayd el Nawam the Nawamia and the 
Mansurab and the Sandidab. 

CLVI The sons of Hamaydan were Ghanim and Shaik, whose 
mother was Hamama the daughter of [Hamaydan's] uncle Rubat 
ibn Mismar, and Hasabulla and Mutraf (ancestor of the Hasabia), 
whose mother was the daughter of Hashi el Kumri el Fungawi'a, and 
four sons of another mother, Ghanim and Ghanam, or Ghanum, 
and Gami'a and Malik el Zayn. 

CLVII The descendants of Shaik are the Shai'ki'a. 

CLVIII Ghanim had three sons, Diab and Duab and Gamu'a. The 
descendants of Gamu'a are the Gamu'^a: the sons of Di'ab were 
Bishara and Ndsir. 

' reading Sj^U-'s)! for 5j..o.a^t . 2 reading iol^j (as AB) for i-j^. 
^ reading jup^. for ju»ah.o. 


CLIX The descendants of Bishara are the Mi'rafab and the 'Abd 
EL Rahmanab Zaydab of Berber and the Fadlab and the Serayhab 
and the Hasanab, who Hve from Berber to the land of Zora, 

CLX The descendants of Nasir are the Nasirab who inhabit Gebel 
Berayma on the White Nile. 

CLXI The sons of Duab were 'Arman and Abu Khamsin, 

CLXII The sons of Abu Khamsin were Muhammad and Hammad 
el Bahkarub. 

CLXI 1 1 Muhammad's descendants are the Muhammad ab of Gerayf 
Hamdulla, the Karibab, the Beliab and the Kitiab. 

CLXIV The descendants of Hammad el Bahkarub are the Awgab. 

CLXV The sons of 'Arman were Zayd and Mukabir and Sha'a el Din 
and Tumayr and Sa'id and Nasrulla and 'Abd el 'Al and Musallam 
and Gebel and Gabr and 'Adlan. 

CLXVI The descendants of Zayd are the Zaydab, of Mukabir^ the 
MuKABiRAB, and of Sha'a el Din the Sha'adinab. 

CLXVII 'Abd el 'Al had twenty-four sons, [including] Muhammad 
el A'war and Kabush and 'Abd el Kabir and Hasabulla and Rafa'a 
and Gadulla and Khidr and Kaltut and Kasr and Beshr and Musa 
and 'Omar and Shaddu and Kadabu and Tisa'a Kulli and Muham- 
mad el Nigayd. 

CLXVIII The descendants of Muhammad el A'war are the 'Omarab, 
of Kabush the Kabush ab and the Kandilab, of 'Abd el Kabir the 
'AsHANiK, of Hasabulla the Hasabullab, of Rafa'a the Rafa'ab, of 
Gadulla the Godalab, of Khidr the Khidrab, of Kaltut the Kaltiab, 
but of Kasr and Beshr his brother I know of no descendants. 

CLXIX The descendants of Musa are the Musiab ; the descendants 
of 'Omar are at the village of the Tumayrab at el Sara and are called 
the 'Omarab of Sara; and the descendants of Tisa'a Kulli and the 
tenth of them [sic] Muhammad el Nigayd are the Kaliab. 

CLXX The descendants of Musallam are the Musallamab, of Gebel 
the Gebelab, and of Gabr the Gabrab or " Gab Arab." 

CLXXI 'Adlan^ had thirty sons, namely the four Karakisa, whose 
mother was the daughter of 'Ali Karkus; and Shukl el Kamal; and 
the four Sitnab, whose mother was [Sitna daughter of. . .and the 
four 'Abudatab whose mother was] the daughter of 'Abuda; and 
Nafa'a and Nafi'a^ and 'Abd el Daim and 'Abd el Ma'abud, the 
mother of all of whom was the daughter of Adam Halayb; and 
Muhammad 'Ali and Abu Selima and Barakat, who were sons of 

^ reading ^l£« Ut for jjl^Ul. ^ reading 0*^)j^ for ^Ujlc. 

^ reading ^jjAj for jl^ , 


another mother; and Muhammad Ferid; and 'Abuda and Yoiy and 
Tuayr and Abu Bukr and 'Awad and 'Abd el Rahman Badikis and 
Wahhayb and Kunna and Ba'ashom. 

CLXXII The four Karakisa are well known: the descendants of 
Shukl el Kamal are the Shukal: the descendants of four of the 
Sitnab are the Sitnab, and of four of the 'Abudatab^ the 'Abu- 
datab\ and of Nafa'a the Nafa'ab, and of Nafi'a the Nifi'ab, and 
of 'Abd el Daim the 'Aliab and their subdivisions, and of 'Abd el 
Ma'abud I know no descendants. The descendants of Muhammad 
'Ali are the Sa'adab, and I do not know of any descendants of Abu 
Selima and Barakat. The descendants of the Mek Muhammad are 
the Muhammad AB, of 'Abuda the 'Abudab, of Yoiy the Yoiyab at 
Koz Bara, and I do not know of any descendants of Tuayr^ and Abu 
Bukr and 'Awad and 'Abd el Rahman Badikis. 

The descendants of Wahhayb are the Wahahib near Berber, of 
Kunna the Kunnawiyyun, of Ba'ashom the Ba'ashim and the people 
of el 'Arashkol and the Saba'ania and the people of Kabushia. 

CLXXIII The 'Ababsa are the descendants of 'Abdulla Abu Ga'afir 
el Saffah, the first of the Beni el 'Abbas to hold the power, and they 
live at el Rai and el Shura and are a mighty tribe. 

CLXXIV The Fadnia are the descendants of the noble Sayyid, 
el Sayyid Muhammad ibn el Hanafia, son of the most noble Imam 
'Ali son of Abu Talib, God bless him and honour him; and there is 
much told of them, and God knows best. 

CLXXV The Ga'afira are the family of Ga'afir son of Kahtan of 
the tribe of Tai, said to be a descendant of Hatim el Tai, and they 
are renowned for generosity. 

CLXXVI The Hadarma were originally nomads in Hadramaut and 
migrated to the mainland in the time of el Haggag ibn Yusef of the 
tribe of Thakif and dwelt on the well-known island of Suakin on the 
shore of the Red Sea on the mainland of the Sudan. 

CLXXVI I The Gabarta are originally Arabs. 

CLXXVI 1 1 The Mesallamia (spelt with sa and double l) are the 
family of Musallam son of Hegaz son of 'Atif of the tribe of Beni 
Om.mayya. He migrated from Syria in the time of 'Omar ibn 'Abd 
el 'Aziz, God bless him, and settled on the mainland of the Sudan. 

CLXXIX The Rikabi'a are the descendants of Rikab son of Sheikh 
Ghulamulla^ son of el Sayyid 'Aid son of el Makbul son of Sheikh 
Ahmad, son of Sheikh 'Omar el Zila'i, who dwelt at el Halia, a village 

^ reading >^\jiy^ for w>Ij^jl*c. 2 reading j-*^ for jjJJ. 

^ reading aJJI jt*^ for aAJI ji*^5. 

IV. BA. cxci. OF THE SUDAN 33 

in Yemen, and was son of Mahmud son of Hashim son of Mukhtar 
son of 'Ali son of Serag son of Muhammad son of Abu el Kasim son 
of el Imam Zamil son of el Sayyid Musa el Kazim son of el Sayyid 
Ga'afir el Sadik son of el Sayyid Muhammad el Bakir son of el Sayyid 
Zayn el 'Abdin son of the most noble el Sayyid el Husayn son of the 
Commander of the Faithful the Imam 'Ali son of Abu Talib, God 
bless him and honour him. 

CLXXX [Now not only] the branches and subdivisions of the 
RiKABiA [but also] the persons who have become fused with them by 
intermarriage belong to them, for he upon whom be the blessings of 
God said "the son of a daughter of the tribe belongs to the tribe 

CLXXXI Now Sheikh Ghulamulla^ had two sons, Rikab and Rubat. 
Rikab had five sons and one daughter, 'Abdulla and 'Abd el Nebi 
and Habib and 'Agib, all four sons by the same mother, and Zayd 
by another mother. 

CLXXXII The sons of 'Abdulla were Hagag and Hag. The descen- 
dants of Hag are the Doalib. 

CLXXXIII The son of Hagag was Sheikh 'Ali Abu Kurun, whose 
sons were Ak-hal and Farka, and their descendants are among the 
Kawahla el Duniab, and some of them are in the Tekali hills. 
CLXXXIV The sons of 'Abd el Nebi were Mashir and Shakar. 
CLXXXV The descendants of Mashir are the Sadikab, the stock of 
Sheikh 'Abd el Sadik, and the Samayrab, th€ sons of Muhammad 
son of Mashir, and some branches [who are] with the Shukri'a. 

CLXXXVI The Hadahid and the Kelba and the Genana^ are said 
to be GuHAYNA by origin, but they became fused in race with Mashir 
by intermarriage. 

CLXXXVII The son of Shakar was Hasan, and his descendants are 
in Dongola. 

CLXXXVIII The descendants of Habib are at the village of el Sababi 
on the Blue Nile. 

CLXXXIX The descendants of 'Agib are the Halimab, the sons of 
Sheikh Hammad Abu Halima. 

CXC The sons of Zayd were 'Abd el Rahi'm and 'Abd el Rahman. 
The descendants of 'Abd el Rahim are the Tumayrab, and the 
'Akazab^, the sons of his son el Hag Magid. 

CXCI The descendants of 'Abd el Rahman are the Shabwab* and 
the Bahgab. 

^ reading <UJI jb*^ for aJJI ji%9 . 2 reading AjU«h. for ijli».. 

* reading vli^ ^^^ v'j^- ^ reading v'^^-* ^^^ v'/^- 

34 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. ba. cxcii. 

CXCII The son of Rubat was Seli'm, who had six sons, Ruzaym and 
Dahmash and 'Abd el Razik and Alusbah, [these four] being the sons 
of one mother, el Ganiba the daughter of his uncle Rikab, and 
Muhammad 'On, whose mother was 'Onia, and Hadhlul^, whose 
mother was the daughter of Malik el Kani'sa [i.e. "King of the 

CXCII I Ruzaym had a son, Hammad, whose son^ was Sheikh 
Muhammad, nicknamed Habib Nesi. 

CXCIV The sons of Dahmash were the feki 'Ali and Manofali. 

CXCV The sons of the feki 'Ali were Manofali and Ahmad and 
Muhammad and 'Abd el Keri'm and 'Abd el Hafi'z and 'Abd el 
Rahman: I do not know their descendants. 

CXCVI The only son of Manofali son of Dahmash was 'fsa, whose 
only son was the feki Hammad, whose sons were 'Abd el Fattah 
and 'Abd el Malik and Ibrahim. 

CXCVII 'Abd el Fattah had a son, 'Abd el Bari, who had a son 'Abd 
el Basit, whose sons were IVIustafa and 'Abd el Summad: I do not 
know their descendants. 

CXCVIII The descendants of 'Abd el Malik son of Hammad son of 
'fsa [son of Manofali] son of Dahmash son of Selim son of Rubat 
are a family of fakirs at Kenar and Taha (.?). 

CXCIX The sons of his brother Ibrahim were four, Husayn and 
Idris and Fadlulla and Muhammad. 

CC The sons of Husayn were Ibrahim and el Tayyib and Muham- 
mad and Mani'r : God knows who were the descendants of these four. 

CCI The sons of Idris son of Ibrahim son of Hammad son of 'fsa 
son of Manofali son of Dahmash son of Selim son of Rubat were 
Muhammad and 'Ali and Ibrahim. God knows who were their 

ecu The sons of Fadlulla son of Ibrahim son of the said Hammad 
were Hasabulla and Muhammad el Fezari. I am not sure of Hasa- 
bulla's descendants : the sons of Muhammad el Fezari were Ahmad 
and Idris and Ibrahim: I do not know the descendants of any of the 

CCI 1 1 The son of 'Abd el Razik son of Selim son of Rubat was 
[called] Sheikh Selim after his grandfather, and his son was el Hag 
Belila, whose son was Sheikh Hasan, whose sons were Malik and 
Belila and Kuraysh and 'Abaydi, the descendants of all of whom are 
at Kcnar^ and Gebel Abu Tubr, and also Daud. 

' reading J^' Jjb for J^>a. ^ reading jJ^ for ^'^)^\ . 

^ reading jL^s for L^. 

iv.BA.ccxii. OF THE SUDAN 35 

CCIV The descendants of Musbah are the Awlad Hamayda at 
el 'Adad, and some of them are with the Kababi'sh. 

CCV The son of Muhammad '(3n son of Sehm was Gabir, whose 
sons were the four famous men, the learned Sheikh Ibrahim el Bulad 
and the pious recluse el Sheikh 'Abd el Rahman and the learned 
Sheikh Isma'i'l el Wali and Sheikh 'Abd el Rahim. These are the four 
sons of Gabir, and their stock is called the Gabirab and is well known. 

CCVI The descendants of Hadhlul^ son of Selim son of Rubat son 
of Sheikh Ghulamulla^ son of el Sayyid 'Aid, etc., are the Awlad 
MuSA walad Meri'n at Gebel el Haraza. 

CCVII But the name Rikab appHes to three persons, namely, Rikab 
son of Ka'ab, and Rikab son of Sultan son of Shati'r, of the seed of 
'Abdulla el Guhani, and Rikab son of Sheikh GhulamuUa^ (son of 
el Sayyid 'Aid son of el Makbul son of Sheikh Ahmad son of Sheikh 
'Omar el Zila'i), who [Ghulamulla] was brought up at el Haifa, a 
village in Yemen, on an island called Nowaw^a. 

CCVIII His father had proceeded from el Haifa and settled on one 
of the islands of the Red Sea called Sakia; and thence he migrated 
with his sons to Dongola and settled there because that place was 
sunk in perplexity and error owing to the absence of men who could 
read and were learned. So when he settled there he built up the 
mosques and read the Kuran and taught knowledge direct to his 
children and disciples, the sons of the Muslims. 

CCIX Here ends this blessed genealogical tree that contains the 
pedigrees of all the Arabs. 

CCX As he, upon whom be the blessing of God, said, "Him that 
wishes injury to Kuraysh may God injure"; and again "They ad- 
vanced Kuraysh and did not surpass it"; and again "The Imams 
are from Kuraysh"; and again "Kuraysh was a light between the 
hands of God Almighty 2000 years before he created the children of 
Adam, God bless him; and that light glorifies God, and the Angels 
take up the chorus and glorify Him also." 

CCXI The Prophet, upon whom be the blessings of God, said "A 
succession of rulers drawn from Kuraysh gives security to the land : 
Kuraysh has thrice been shewn glorious : and if any tribe of the Arabs 

[seeks to] supplant Kuraysh they are partizans of Satan." This 

[tradition] is quoted by Abu Nu'aym in the "Hilya." 
CCXI I The following is a list of the tribes that are offshoots of 

Kuraysh: Beni Shayba, Beni Helb, Beni Unais, Beni Yezid, Beni 

Thakif, Beni Halaf, Beni Mu'awia, Beni Malik, Beni Khafif, 

1 reading jyjkA for J^JA. - reading aJJI ^"^ for aAJI yi%s. 

3 reading aJUI ^^U for aJUI ^"^5. 


36 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. ba. ccxii. 

Beni Nadir, Beni Haran, Beni Muhammad, Beni Huzayl\ Beni 
Z.\BiB, Beni Kafid, Beni Khuzam, Beni Makhzum^, and Beni 'Adil, 
all of them Kuraysh ; and the above is on the authority of el Sheikh 
Muhammad el Hindi and el Sheikh Ahmad el Shami who wrote on 
the authority of el Sheikh el Ag-huri who again wrote on the authority 
of el Imam Ahmad ibn Idris, author of Kitdb el Ma'dref fi Asul 
el 'Arab ["the Book of what is known concerning the origins of the 

CCXIII The 'Amriyyun (spelt with 'amr...) are the family of 
Sulayman son of 'Abd el MaHk son of Marwan the Ommawi. He 
migrated from Syria in the time of Abu Ga'afir 'Abdulla el Saffah, 
the first of the Beni el 'Abbas to hold the Khalifate, and settled in 
Abyssinia; and when Sulayman heard that the said Abu Ga'afir had 
set himself to seek out the Beni Ommayya after their dispersal into 
different countries and had finally overtaken Muhammad ibn el 
Walid ibn Hashim in the land of Andalusia and killed him, he fled 
from Abyssinia to the Sudan [berr el Siiddn] and dwelt there and 
married the daughter of one of the kings of the Sudan and begot by 
her two sons, one named Daud and the other Ans. Then Sulayman 
died and the names of his sons became corrupted in the local dialect, 
and Daud was called "Oudun," and Ans "Ounsa." 

CCXIV The descendants of Ounsa are the Ounsab, and of Oudun 
the OuDiJNAB, and the power passed in succession from king to king 
until finally they became the kings of the Sudan renowned in history. 

CCXV The Beni 'Amir are the family of 'Amir and settled in 
Abyssinia and were its chieftains ; and they are renowned for bravery 
and courage, and are a mighty tribe. 

CCXVI Now the date of the commencement of the dynasty of the 
Fung in the kingdom of Sennar was the beginning of the year 910. 
The first of them was the Sultan 'Omara Dunkas, whom they used 
to call "King of the Sun and the Darkness" ["Malik el Shams wa 
el Zull"], and he reigned forty-two years. The following were his 
successors in turn : 

'Abd el Kadir 

reigned twelve years 


,, eleven ,, 

'Omara abu Sakinin 

,. eight 

Deki'n Sid el 'Ada 

,, nineteen ,, 


,, nine „ 


,, four ,, 

'Abd el Kadir 

,, five ,, 


,, twelve ,, 

reading Jj>a> for J-jj^Jb. 2 reading ^B^^a—o for^o^Jo*-*. 

IV. BA. ccxxiii. OF THE SUDAN 37 

'Adlan, his sonS reigned twelve years. And it was he that fought at 

Karkog. And after he had vanquished and slain the Sheikh 'Agi'b 

the Fung deposed him. 
Badi Sid el Kum reigned nineteen years 
Rubat, his son, reigned twenty-seven years 
Badi, son of Abu Dukn, reigned thirty-nine years. He was a ruler 

after God's own heart and was a follower of Sidi 'Abd el Kadir 

el GayH. 
Ounsa, son of Nasir the brother of Abu Dukn, reigned four years 
Badi el Ahmar reigned twenty-nine years 

Ounsa and) 

King Nul J » s^v^n ye^^s 

Badi, son of Nul „ thirty-nine years 

Nasir, son of Badi,) , 

andlsma'fl J " twelve years 

CCXVII Here ends the Fung dynasty. The power was now trans- 
ferred to the Hamag. The first of these was Nasir walad Muhammad ; 
and the grace of God was with him and he so extended his kingdom 
that it had no bounds save the [seven] climates. He reigned twelve 

CCXVIII His successor was the Sheikh Idris, his brother, who 
reigned five years and a half. 

CCXIX The next kings were Muhammad walad Ragab and Mu- 
hammad walad Nasir : they reigned four years and a half. 

CCXX After them Muhammad walad Ibrahim reigned for two years. 

CCXXI After him succeeded Muhammad walad 'Adlan and ruled 
twelve years. 

CCXXI I Here end the Kings of Sennar, lords of power and strength. 
After them the power was transferred to the Turks in the year 1230 
after the Hegira of the Prophet, to whom be the highest honour and 

CCXXIII Now this manuscript was copied from a manuscript that 
was found in the writing of el feki Muhammad ibn el feki el Nur 
el Gabirabi of the stock of the four sons of Gabir, [and] I found his 
son, Ibrahim ibn el feki Muhammad, saying of it that he copied it 
from the manuscript of his father Gabir son of Muhammad 'On son 
of Selim son of Rubat, and that it was mentioned therein that it was 
in the writing of el Sherif el Tahir son of el Sherif 'Abdulla son of 
el Sherif el Tahir son of el Sayyid 'Aid : and I confide the matter to 
God and his Prophet, upon whom be the blessings of God, and refer 
[all] knowledge of the matter to God Almighty to whom glory be. 

1 reading u'^js- o^tj for C)'^)j^ jJj. 


CCXXIV Here ends the blessed genealogical tree that unites the 
pedigrees of the Arabs all together; and God is our help. 

CCXXV This manuscript was completed by the hand of its writer, 
the fakir of God Almighty, el 'Ebayd Muhammad 'Abd el Rahman; 
and its owner is el Nur Bey, known as 'Ankara, son of Muhammad. 

CCXXVI May God protect the writer and the owner and all faithful 
Muhammadans, both men and women, the living and the dead. 

CCXXVII The writing of it was finally completed on the forenoon 
of Tuesday the 24th of Rabi'a in the year 1325^ at Omdurman. End. 
Praise God. 

CCXXVIII In the name of God the compassionate and merciful, 
he upon whom be the blessings of God said "Ye know from your 
pedigrees how ye are related." El Nur el Malik [is] son of el Malik 
Muhammad son of el Malik Matti son of el Malik Ibrahim son of 
el Malik Hasan son of el Malik Muhammad Khayr son of el Malik 
'Omar son of el Malik Fadl son of el Malik Khidr son of el Malik 
Abu Sowar son of el Malik 'Abd el Manan son of el Malik Muham- 
mad Furawi son of el Malik el Yds son of el Malik Ibrahim son of 
el Malik Khidr son of el Malik el Nusr son of el Malik Matti son of 
el Malik Muhammad son of el Malik Musa son of el Malik Sab el Yal 
son of el Malik Musa, king of the Dufar, son of Dahmash son of 
Muhammad el Bedayr son of Samra son of Serrar son of the Sultan 
Hasan Kerdam son of Abu el Dis son of Kuda'a son of Harkan son 
of Masruk son of Ahmad el Yemani son of Ibrahim Ga'al son of 
Idris Son of Kays son of Yemen son of el Khazrag son of 'Adi son of 
Kusas son of Kerab son of Hatil son of Yatil son of Dhu el Kila'a 
el Himyari-, who was descended on his mother's side from the tribe 
of Himyar^, son of Himyar son of Sa'ad el Ansari, who was descended 
on his mother's side from the Ansar, son of el Fadl son of 'Abdulla 
son of el 'Abbas son of 'Abd el Muttalib son of Hashim son of 'Abd 
Menaf son of Kusai son of Kelab son of Murra son of Luai son of 
Ghalib son of Fihr son of Malik son of el Nudr* son of Kenana son 
of Khuzayma son of Mudraka son of el Yas son of Mudr son of Nizar^ 
son of Ma'ad son of 'Adnan. End. 

CCXXIX The poet says on this subject 

"how many a father owes the nobility which he possesses to his son, 
even as 'Adnan owes his to the Prophet of God." 

CCXXX Here ends [this work] with praise to God [for] the grace 
of his assistance. 

' 1906A.D. ^ reading ^_£;-j.«.aJI f()r^;^^>aJI. •'' reading ^;-j^». for «;.-<*.. 
* reading^^-iJ! for j-.aJI . ^ reading jtjj forjIJJ. 



I MSS. I, 2 and 3 all begin and continue alike. Where differences occur, 
other than merely clerical errors and unimportant grammatical variations, 
a note will be found of the fact. 

II Cp. C 5 (a), VII. 

The phrase which I have translated " Because of the [record of] blood- 
relationships that they contain" is ^»y.JI d.La ^j.^ <ui l.<^. The literal 
meaning of ^^ji\ is "the womb," and so "parentage," etc., and aJLo is 
from the root J^-o^ meaning to join one thing to another: hence iJLo is 
also used for "a gift" or "a favour," and a<i.».j ^-^^ comes to mean "He 
acted well by his relatives." In these nisbas the phrase and its variations 
are very common and apparently suggest less the good treatment of one's 
relatives than the preservation of one's relationships. 

III Cp. BA, xxxii; AB, xlix; A 3, ii; A 4, i; A 9, ii; A it, ii; B i, iii; 
C3, 11; C5(a), VI. 

The quotation is ^,^\^j\ aj ^j^k^ U ^^Cl-~jl ^J-« t^.oJ*J and 
is very common. Ibn Khaldun gives it in his second book (ed. ar. vol. 11, 
p. 4). 

IV Cp. AB, LI, where this saying is attributed to el Shadhali. 

V Cp. AB, Lii and lv for the first sentence, and AB, lv; B i, iv, etc., 

for the tradition. The Arabic (in BA) is j-.aj "n) ^J-yi^^ ^i^ "^ >9^, or (in 

AB) ]Uu ^1 dlJLj.n.3 • • • 

The tradition is quoted (in the second form) by Ibn Khaldun in his 
second book (ed. ar. vol. 11, p. 3). 

VI Cp. AB, LViii. 

After "concern him" AB adds as a gloss dJJ^ ^y^, i.e. "from the 
point of view of religion." The words are attributed by AB to Yusef ibn 

VII Cp. AB, Lxiv and B i, iv. 

The Arabic in MS. No. 2 is as follows: 

The meaning is that people will take to calling each other slaves and base- 
born, and the truth or falsity of the assertion will only be susceptible of 
proof by the means of pedigrees. For w>!jj*i)l No. i gives w>tp^)l . AB and 
B I give w»j-aJI : the word w>!j"^' was no doubt unfamiliar. 
IX Cp. AB, Lxvii and C 5 (a), vii. 

The Arabic is ^La^l^ >o-*-jJ' ^^ O*^ wjl— j'^}l ^««v^ w-^a-l^i. Cp. 
para. 11. 

By the " Igma'a" here is meant "the unanimous consent" of the Com- 
panions to the genuineness or validity of a particular tradition or rule (see 
Sell, Essays on Islam, p. 259; and Huart, pp. 236-7). 


For the "Sunna," aptly called "the Blackstone of Islam," see 
Hamilton's Hedaya, pp. xv e/ seq. Cp. D 3, lxvi (end). 

X Cp. AB, Lxviii. 

The quotation is from the 4th chapter of the Kuran (see Sale, p. 53). 

XI Cp. AB, LXix. 

XII Cp. AB, Lxx. 

XIII Cp. AB, Lxxiii, and C 5 (a), v. 

The Arabic is jVxia.5 ^>« aJasI^ ^^j^^^ 0-*> J-*- 

The tradition is given by el Bokhari in the chapter Kitdb Tafsir 
el Kurdfi as a commentary on the Kuranic phrase ^CoU-jt l^aiaiJj as 
follows : 

"It is related on the authority of Abu Hu ray ra... concerning the 
Prophet ... that God created the world, and when he had completed it 
the womb arose and seized him by the loins and said ' Stop ! This is the 
time for me to beseech Thee that I be not cut off,' And God said 'Art 
thou indeed willing that I honour him that honours thee, and cut off him 
that cuts thee off?' The womb said 'Yea, O Lord.' Then God said 'Let it 
be so.'" (See el Zebaydi, vol. 11, p. 117.) 

"El 'arsh" is the word for the imperial throne of God (see Sale's 
Koran, p. 28 of the text). A tradition quoted by Sell (p. 30) probably gives 
the key to the meaning, viz. i^J^ <«-Ul i^j.t jj-ji-e^-oJ' «— '>^5, i.e. "The 
hearts of the faithful are the throne of God Almighty." 

XIV Cp. AB, Lxxiv. 

XV Cp. AB, xxvi and D 5 (c), xviii. MS. No. 2 gives the final words of 
the paragraph asjl». L»-A^ <suli, MS. No. i as jl». U ^Xc AJli. 

XVI Cp. AB, CIV, cv. 
xviii Cp. AB, ex. 

XIX For both quotations, down to the end of para, xx, see Kuran, 
ch. 49 (Sale, p. 382). After the words "that is" sc. "the faithful are 

XXII Cp. AB, CXI ; A 9, I ; C 3, I ; C 5 (a), in. 
The quotation is a continuation of that in paras, xix and XX. 

xxiii Cp. AB, cxx; A 3, in; AS, i; C 3, i; C 5 (a), in. 
A continuation of the last quotation. The words "and tribes" are 
omitted by mistake. 

XXIV et seq. Cp. AB, cxxi et seq. 
These paragraphs, up to and including xxxi, are by way of parenthesis. 
The explanation concerning the correct designation of the various divisions 
and subdivisions of mankind into nations, tribes, etc., is prefaced in AB 
by the words "According to el Khazin" (for whom see note on AB, cix). 
The subject is treated by Wiistenfeld in the introduction to his Register 
{q.v. pp. ix-xi). He shews that the traditional nomenclature is to be traced 
to Muhammad Abu el Hasan ibn Muhammad Abu Ga'afir, a sherif 
known as " 'Obaydulla," the author of the Tahdhib el Insdb wa Nihdyat 
el A'kdh. "'Obaydulla" gives ten relative divisions, of each of which he 
gives the exact distinctive connotation, and adds definitions, quotations, 
and illustrative examples. His divisions are as follows: 


[. gidhm, e.g. 'Adnan, the forefather of the Ismd'fUtic stocks, or ICahtan, the 
forefather of the Yemenite stocks. All the Arabs traced descent to one 
or the other. 



e.g. Ma AD. 



„ NizAr. 



„ MUDR. 



,, descendants of EL YAs. 



,, Ken AN A. 









„ 'Abd MenAf. 

10. raht (a group of less than lo), e.g. Beni HAshim. 

Or, "another example": 

FiHR = a sha'b. 

I^USAI =a kabila. 
HAshim =a 'amdra. 
'Ali =a batn. 

el IJasan =a fakhdh 

The names of the forefathers given do not form an unbroken Une of 
pedigree in either case. 

Wiistenfeld's quotation from " 'Obaydulla," though short, contains two 
of the stock quotations found in BA and AB, viz. the one to the effect that 
any pedigree traced beyond 'Adnan is spurious, and the other "I have 
created you male and female and made you. . ., etc." (see paras, xxii and 


XXIV The Arabic for what I have translated "The sources of the tribes" 
is J.5Li)l ^|j {lit. "the heads of the tribes"). "'Obaydulla" likewise 
employs a simile on these lines. 
With him 

/ sha'b corresponds to the head 
kabila ,, ,, breast 


I batn 
1 fakhdh 

\ raht 




two legs 



Of the above terms kabila is the only one commonly used in the 
Sudan. The usual terms for subdivisions of the kahila are hashim- 
bayt {pi. hashimbuyut), a house-group, fera'a {pi. feru'a), a branch, 
hadana {pi. badandt), properly a trunk, and occasionally rdkuba {pi. 
ruwdkib), an offshoot. In Kordofan badana is used (by the western 
tribes) to denote the main subdivisions of the tribe. The other terms 
are all used loosely: hashimbayt is of general use; fera'a is less technical, 
and rdkuba is rare and literary. On this subject see Jaussen, pp. 112-114. 

After JSUaJI ^^^jj BA rightly gives JjU ("such as"): AB by mistake 
gives i>.« ("from"). 
XXV MS. No. 3 also omits the Oj>- AB inserts it. 

42 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. ba. xxvi. 

XXVI "ShaybAn" is certainly correct. AB (the original) gives C^^ 
("such as Yasan" — a non-existent tribe), instead of ^jl ; . j > »fr> . Here we 
have evidence that the corresponding passages in BA and AB were taken 
from different sources. 

XXX This paragraph is in AB prefaced by " It is said that. . . ." 

XXXI The first half of this paragraph is omitted in AB. 

-xxxii Cp. BA, III; AB, cxx; A3, in; A8, ii; A 7, i; C 5 (a), in. 

The quotation continues the previous one (para, xxiii), from ch. 49 
of the Kuran. A 3 omits the explanatory part of this paragraph, 
-x-xxiii Cp. AB, cxv; A 3, in; C 3, i. 

"He," as appears from AB, is el Khazin. 

This quotation, a very common one, is again from ch. 49 of the Kuran. 

MS. 3 here correctly gives aJLas^)!, MSS. i and 2 wrongly give 

-XXXVII Cp. AB, cxvi. This tradition is given by el Bokhari in the chapters 
entitled Kitdb badi el Khalk and Mandkibii Kurayshin (see el Zebaydi, 
vol. II, pp. 38 and 46). 

"Yusef" is Joseph, and "The Friend of God" ("el Khalil") is 
Abraham. One generation is omitted. 

The word translated "original sources" is ^^Ia.*. AB gives this 
correctly, but apparently none of the copyists of BA knew the word, 
xxxviii Cp. AB, cxvii. 
For "she-camel" BA gives "wa^a" and BA" rahd/a." The camel was 
called "el Kaswa" and was the famous one on which the Prophet fled 
from Mekka. The second half of this paragraph occurs in AB, cvi and 
cxvii in a different setting. 

AB and MS. 3 of BA give a-*c for A«ft (MSS. i and 2). 
XLi Cp. AB, cviii. 
XLii Cp. AB, cix and A 8, i. 

XLiv Abu Lahab was the uncle of the Prophet. Ch. 1 11 of the Kurdn is 
devoted to cursing him for his opposition to Islam. 
XLV The quotation is from ch. 53 of the Kuran. 
XLvii Cp. AB, cxxx. 

XLViii Cp. AB, cxxxi, cxxxii; A 3, iv; and D i, lxxxiv. 
The tradition occurs in el Bokhari (chapter Mandkibii Kurayshin, 
see el Zebaydi, vol. 11, p. 46) in the following words: 
^A».c a.Js, dJJI ^^y^ dJJl J^_j J'v5 Jls <iJsS. AiJI ^^^j ojj^ ^-.1 ^J£. 

\^^y^ ^r.-J L/-^' i^'y^ j'^^ ^=^^5 ^-^'i **:!j-«i ^;^».3 jl««j'^)l^ tAi/* 

" 'Abd el Baki" is Abd el Baki ibn Yusef el Zurkani (for whom see 
Hagi Khalfa's Lexicon, vol. v, p. 447). He was born 1020 a.h. and died 
in 1099 A.H. (1688 A.D.). 

The word oUL::-« means literally a niche in a wall wherein to place 
a lamp. 

The seven great Arabian tribes mentioned will all be found in Wiisten- 
feld. By "cl Ansar" are meant Aus and Khazrag. 

IV. BA. Liii. OF THE SUDAN 43 

XLix Cp. AB, cxxxiv, cxxxv; and A 3, v. 

AB prefaces the paragraph by "In some reliable records I have found 
that. ..." Of the seven tribes given six are identical (though the order is 
varied) with those given in AB, but in place of Kuraysh AB gives Khu- 
ZAYMA (as also does D i , lxxxv). AB again gives "Who am thus the noblest 
of the noblest of the noblest. . ." and omits from "And this is. . ." to 
"true one." MS. 3 spells Ghafar )U5. 
L Cp. AB, cxxxviii, cxxxix; B i, ii; B 3, i. 

For "Nigm" AB and B i give"LAGM": B 3 gives "Nigm." AB, B i, 
and B 3 all add GudhAm to the list. 

The tribes mentioned seem to be mostly, if not all, Kahtanite tribes 
descended from 'Abd Shams. " Nigm " (or " Lagm ") may be a corruption 
of Lakhm. "Bi'sar" is mentioned by Mas'udi (chap, xxxi) as a son of 
Ham who migrated westwards to Egypt, and was the father of Misr, but 
he seems out of place here. B i reads "Bis." "Hukna" (iui^) may 
be a corruption of Gafna (a^Jlc^) (for whom see D i, 194). "Kelab 
EL Azd" should possibly be "Kelab (or Kelb) and el Azd," both well- 
known tribes. MSS. i and 2 give " Kelam el Azrad," and MS. i " Kelab 
el Azrad." 

"El Mahassi" is apocryphal. After "Kahtan" AB continues "And 
another version is that el Mahassi was the son of the prophet Ibrahim . . . 
but I have not found this true." The author of BA seems to have combined 
the two versions. MS. i gives "el Mahassi son of Kahtan son of el Ma- 
hassi. . .etc.," which more nearly agrees with B i; but I have followed 
MS. 2 here. 
LI Cp. AB, cxxxvi, and D i, lxxxiv, lxxxv. 

All three MSS. of BA give Afiw^j^o-* for A<>.j2.o-6 (AB). 

The version of AB differs from B A as follows : 

(a) re Guhayna, the words "and the west" are omitted. 

(b) „ HiMYAR, after "el Basra" AB adds "and Persia" ["Faris"]. 

(c) „ Ashga'a, after "Tunis" AB adds "and Andalusia." 

(d) ,, Ghafar, AB substitutes "el Basra" for "Andalusia and Persia." 

(e) „ Kenana, after "Egypt" AB adds "and Syria." 

There is a large colony of Muzayna at the S.E. end of the Sinai 
Peninsula. They claim to be Harb by origin and their chief branch is the 
'Alowna, a name which occurs more than once in the Sudan as that of a 
tribal division. See Na'um Bey, Hist. Sinai..., p. 112, for the Muzayna. 
Lii This and the following three paragraphs do not occur in AB. 

For the story of Noah and Ham cp. el Tabari, p. 107. 
LIII By Kuran are meant the Kura'an, a wide term generally applied in 
the Sudan to the negroid element among the Tibbu. They almost certainly 
represent the ancient Garamantes and are the " Goran" of Leo Africanus 
(see MacMichael, Tribes..., pp. 235 et seq.). 

For "el Hind" and "el Sind" and Gog and Magog see notes to 
D I, Lvi and lxx. 

As regards " Parish " and " Darish " and " Khalabka " and " GAbirsa " 
(MS. 3 "GabusA") I fancy the Kurdish tribes are meant. Mas'udi (ch. 

44 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. ba. liii. 

XLVi, p. 254) speaks of various Kurdish tribes who allege descent from 
'Adnan and among them occur "the BArisan and the Khalia and the 

Liv " 'Alig" is Rami 'Alig, a series of great sandhills famous as the scene 
in pre-Islamic times of the destruction of the tribe of Wabar (see Mas'udi, 
Ch. XLVII, p. 288). 

LVI Here is confusion: from Rayth to Mudr is correct (see Wiistenfeld, 
H), but this Mudr, father of 'Aylan, is the Mudr mentioned five lines later 
as son of Nizar, and the series of names intervening between the two 
mentions of Mudr, viz. Mu'awia to el Yas, have got into the text by some 
error: this series is in itself too slightly inaccurate: Ka'ab is omitted 
between Murra and Luai, and the relationships of Mu'awia and el Hakam 
to 'Affan are wrongly shewn, and the father of 'Affan and son of Ommayya 
was Abu el Asi (see Wiistenfeld, U and V). 

MS. 3 gives o'-o^i ^^^ O^*^ ^^d Ji.jj for ^ij. 

MSB. I, 2, 3, all give UJac by error for ^Ukc. 

The Dhubian intended in this passage is certainly Dhubian the son of 
Baghid (for which Mufid is probably an error), and grandson of Rayth 
ibn Ghatafan : he was brother of Abs and father of Fezara, both of which 
names occur very frequently in nisbas in conjunction with that of Dhubian. 
Cp. ABC, xxviii. 

There was a Dahman who was descended from Rayth in the fifth 
degree (see Wiistenfeld, H). 

Fihr is the same as Kuraysh. 
Lvii Cp. BA, cxxiv and ABC, xxvi. 

From el Zubayr to Kusai is correct (see Wiistenfeld, T). The rest is 
apparently pure invention, though identical with B i, xxiv. MS. i gives 
jJ^ by error for jXi^. 
Lviii See ABC, xxvi. 

Abdulla ibn Unays is the " Abdulla el Guhani" from whom so many 
Sudan Arab tribes claim descent. He sometimes appears {e.g. in D i, 
Lxxvi) as "son of Anas" or "son of Anas ibn Malik," "Anas" being in 
such cases a corruption of Unays and the insertion of Malik due to the 
fact that the famous divine Malik was son of Anas. 

Abdulla "el Guhani" belonged to the family of Kuda'a and was not, 
strictly speaking, a Guhayni at all, but was so nicknamed. He was a 
descendant of Kuda'a through 'Imram and Taghlib, whereas Guhayna was 
descended from Kuda'a through Aslam (see Wiistenfeld, 2). Wiistenfeld 
(p. 21) gives the following details concerning him: 

He lived among the family of Salima ibn Sa'ad, a Khazragi, in Medina 
and was named "el Guhani" although not descended from Guhayna. 
After he had embraced Islam he joined Mu'adh ibn Gebel in destroying 
the idols of Salima, was one of the "Seventy" at el 'Akaba, and fought 
at Ohod. He was also entrusted by the Prophet with the duty of getting 
rid of Khalid ibn Sufian, the chief of the Lahian Arabs. Having accom- 
plished this (in 625 A.D., see Muir's Life..., p. 267) he returned to Mu- 
hammad, who presented him with his staff saying "This shall be a token 

IV. BA. Lxvi. OF THE SUDAN 45 

between me and thee on the Day of Resurrection. Verily, few on that 
day shall have wherewithal to lean upon." 'Abdulla was known in conse- 
quence as "Dhu Mikhsara" ("He of the Staff"). He lived at A'raf near 
Medina and was once summoned by Muhammad to Medina and stayed 
there all night in the mosque: this night was known thenceforth as "The 
night of el Guhani." He died in 54 a.h. and left four sons, 'Atia, 'Amr, 
Damra, and 'Abdulla. 

Muir also mentions (pp. 337-8) that in 627 a.d. he assassinated the 
Jewish chief Abu el Hukayk, and in 628 a.d. his successor also. 

For the connection between him and Dhubian, the ancestor of the 
Guhayna of the Sudan, see note to D i, lxxxvi. 
Lix Cp. B I, vi; B 3, 11; D I, lxxxix, etc. 
All the Guhayna group of nisbas say Dhubian had ten sons, and the 
names vary but little. "Shatir" is sometimes {e.g. AB) written Shatir: for 
"Gudham" MS. 2 gives "Guzam": "Sufian Afzar" is a fake, two men 
being combined into one. "Afzar" is a reminiscence of Fezara the son of 
the Dhubian of para. Lvi. The variations in the details of this and following 
paragraphs will be seen by reference to the trees. 

Lxii-Lxv AB (cxLi, cxLii) speaks of "Sultan who was ancestor of seven 
tribes," and continues, "I have omitted mention of them for fear of pro- 
lixity, but whoever wishes to know them should refer to the manuscript 
copied from The Noble Gift and Rare Excellence by el Imam el Shafa'i, 
from which he [sc. the copyist] copied them: you will find this complete." 
Now the author of AB (only in the original MS. of 1853) has actually 
written the seven descendants of Sultan and crossed them out: they are, 
however, still legible and are inserted in the tree of AB (q.v.). 

As regards the title of the work of el Shafa'i quoted, the two nouns as 
written in the original MS. of AB would not be clearly legible, though the 
adjectives are so, were it not for the aid of the B i nisba, which (assuming 
its correctness) gives the whole title, viz. "J?/ Nafhat el Sherifa wa '/ Turf a 
7 Munifa {q.v. B 1,1). The copy of AB made for the author's son in 1910 
gives only ^j.]a)\^ djujJ:J\ Aia^jJI. Cp. also B 3, 1. Or " Tuhfat" instead of 
"Nafhat" may perhaps be correct. 

If by "el Shafa'i" is meant the Imam Abu 'Abdulla Muhammad Idris 
el Shafa'i it may be noted that the Fihrist (988 a.d.) quotes the names of 
109 works by him, of which four or five only survive, and the title quoted is 
not among them. 

MS. I gives "Fadin," MS. 2 "Fadni," and later "Fadin." 
MS. 3 omits "(or Hamayl)" — so spelt in MS. 2. 

In para. Lxv MS. 3 has omitted a line thus making the Daudia descen- 
dants of Mashaykh. 

Lxvi AB (para, cliii) says " From Muhammad are descended the Meza- 
NIYYUN, who are proteges to 'Amir (j-«U ^Jl oj-oj ^<r*5), and the Laha- 

WIYYUN (reading ,j>*j^aJUl for O-*:!>*-'^0. who are proteges to 'Amira 
(5j-«U j,3t dj-dj^j), and the Zumaylat." 

The exact meaning of <>^-«cu is obscure, but I think it is represented 
by ''proteges" or "clientes" i.e. not descendants but adherents. 'Amir 


may be the individual and 'Amira be the equivalent of Beni 'Amir, i.e. the 
tribe; or the text may simply be corrupt. The author's son could not help 
me here. 

In para, .\ciii a different descent is given for the Lahawiyyun. For 
"Ruwah's the Ru\v.4hia..., etc.," MS. 3 gives "Dwayh's the Dwayha; 
and Gimayl's the Gi.maylab, a tribe called Awlad Gimayl between 
el Hind..., etc." (as text). 

Lxvii AB (original) gives "And the MubAdiria" (ajjjL<,JU); the copy 
of it made for the author's son gives "And the Badiria" (AjjiU!*); 
BA (MS. 2) gives "And the Um Badia'^ (aj^U ^*^)h)\ BA (MS. i) gives 
"And the LambAdia" {h:>^-> Jt>^}-^^$)', BA (MS. 3) gives an ingenious 
emendation, viz. "And the mother was one of the nomads" (o-* >^*^i 
Aj^Ui, wa el um min el badia). The correct version is no doubt "and the 
Umbadiria": cp. D i, xc, and CaiUiaud, in, 127, where we get ". . .des 
Arabes Qenanehs, Choukryehs [Shukria], Oumbadryehs, Bouadrehs, Ka- 
ouahlehs, habitent les contrees voisines de ces rivieres" [the Rahad. 
Dinder and Atbara]. The name Umbadiria occurs again among the 
sections of Gilaydat (Dar Hamid) of Kordofan {q.v.). 
LXViii MS. I gives ^AjXj by mistake for ^jJbjSi). 

LXix MS. 3 gives "Kelli" (|^=») for "Kelb" (w-A^) here and in 
para. Lxxxviii, but later "Kelb." 
LXX "Ful" are the Fellata (see Johnston, Hist. Coloniz...., p. 12). 

MS. 3 gives "Marsis" for "Marhis." 
Lxxi The author of AB (para. CLii) says that he does not know who were 
Rafa'i's descendants. 

For "Zanfal" AB and MS. 3 of BA give "Zankal": the former is 
correct as the tribe is "Zenafla." 

All three MSS. of BA in this paragraph and the next give "Basharik" 
instead of " Shabarik," but only MS. 3 gives "Basharka" for "Shabarka" 
in para. Lxxii, and the latter is certainly the correct name of the tribe. 

L.xxii To this group of sub-tribes which, in AB, is prefaced by " It is 
said that of the seed of Muhammad were..., etc.," the "Hagahab" are 
added by AB. This is an error for HagagAb. 

After " the Kawasma and " MS. 3 inserts " of Hamid " though " Hamid " 
had not been mentioned. Probably Hamid ought to be added in para. Lxxi 
to the sons of Rafa'i. 


L.xxiv MS. 3 om.its Fuak and '(3n here but mentions them some ten 
paragraphs later. 

Lx.xv, Lxxvi For "Darish" MS. 3 gives "Darash," for "KuAki'r" 
"KuKiR," and for " FowAkhidhi'a" " FowAkhidha." 

LX.xvii For "Durrak" MS. 3 gives (throughout) "Doka." 

Lxxviii "Hamar" and "Hamran" are presumably meant to represent 
the ancestors of the tribes so named. 

-^^S. 3 gives the descendants of Dasham (q.v. paras. Lxxxiv, Lxxxv) 
here instead of later, and spells several of the names differently. 

Lxxix MS. 3 gives " 'Amur".' " 'Amud" here and in lxxxl 

IV. BA. xcix. OF THE SUDAN 47 

Lxxxi "Shibla" is no doubt the "Sabil" of AB, CLV. 

MS. 3 gives "Shibl" here, and in Lxxxii "Shibayli." 
Lxxxii The " MuwARiGA " are the "MuwAhida" of AB, clv. 

After "the 'Isaylat" MS. 3 inserts "and of Hakim the HAKiMfA," 
and after "the Hasania" MS. 3 inserts eLol ^_>o Ji^l ^JLfJJ\^ (V^' 

Lxxxiii As descendants of 'Affan MS. i gives wjI-aaJI jI wjLiaJI ("The 
'Akbab or 'Akab"); MS. 2 gives w)Ua*JI jl ^lJuti\; MS, 3 gives merely 
"the 'Akbab." 

Lxxxiv MS. I gives "Hegaz" for "Hegazi," 

Lxxxv MS. I gives "Zuhriyyun." 

Lxxxvi The Shukrab appears again in the next paragraph. 

Lxxxvii Instead of "and Missi'r and Ma'atuk" MS. 3 has "and Missir 
the freedman ('ma'atuk') of Gurfan." For "Sarib" MS. 3 has "Sharib," 
and for "Shukrab" "Shukrat." MS. 3 has the w^hole passage cast in a 
different form, and adds the "MezAlit" (i.e. the Masalit of Darfur) after 
the Fellata, and omits 'Okayl. 

By "Tungurab" are meant the TuNGUR of Darfur. 
"Afnu" is the name given by the people of Bornii to the Haussa (see 
Cooley, pp. 120, 121). 

"Madaka" may be a corruption of Makdisho (see Cooley, p. 127) or 
of Maghza (Cooley, p. 131). 

Lxxxviii MS. 3 gives here "Dagu" for "Dagir," but "Dagir" later. 

xc For "Thakra" MS. 3 gives "Nakra," and for "Kumdar" "Ku- 
MiJRA," and for "Dabaytia" "Rayta." 

By the Belu possibly are meant the people of that name who formed 
an aristocracy among the Beni 'Amir in the East until the Nabtab section 
ousted them, and who are mentioned by Munzinger {Ostafrikanische 
Studien, p. 287) as ruling certain territory north of Massawa (see Seligman, 
Roy. Anth. Journ. vol. XLiii, 1913, p. 601). Mansfield Parkyns {Life in 
Abyssinia, I, p. 103) also mentions them near Arkiko and gives some account 
of them. 

xci "Beraghith" means "fleas" or, on the coast, "shrimps." 

xciii Contrast para, lxvi for the Lahawiyyun. 

xciv MS. 3 says " . . .and of Dagir the Dawagira, who are in the east, 
and the people of el Nuk el Bakht are the descendants of Kelb ibn 

xcvi Cp. B 3, vii. 
MS. 2 gives " Sabak" here and in xcvii for " Sabik." 
MS. 3 gives " Akirit and Adkaym" here and in xcvii. 

xcvii MSS. I and 3 gives "Kirat" for "Kurtan," but cp. para, clv. 
MS. 3 says the Gerabi'a are the children of Ba'asham (and descendants 
of 'Omran). 

The word Gerabi'a is a plural formed from Girbu'. There is a section 
of Zayadi'a called Avi^LAD Girbu'; and the name Geraba'a also occurs as 
that of a sub-tribe in Sinai. 

xcix MS. 3 omits "and the Zayadia." 


c "Sha'uf" appears in B i as "Ashuf," and in ABC as "Shakuk." 

CI Kabsh is meant as ancestor of the Kababi'sh, Ribayk of the Ribaykat, 
Berara of the BerAra, Kerri of the KerriAt, and 'Atawi of the 'Atawi'a, 
all at present sections of the Kababish except the Kerriat ("Gerriat"), 
who are independent. 

cii MS. 3 in error writes "Gewar" for "Gerar." 

cm The Beni Ger.4r and their sections. 

CIV The Baza 'a and their sections. For " Nuran " MS. i gives " Nulan." 
MS. 3 says "The sons of Abza'a were Fur and Nur and Merwan, and 
Merwan begot Mai; and as regards el Hag Mazin his sons were. . ., etc." 

cvi, cvii Cp. A 3, xxxvii-xxxix. 
I have translated "Baghdad" and "Baghada," which are obviously 
intended, but the text of MS. i gives (i) j\jJu and (2) jtjou, and Sjlij 
(for S^lij), and MSS. 2 and 3 gwt j\jJo and ojKsu. 

cviii Contrast D i, cxxxii. 

ex MS. 3 is here confused and inaccurate. These descendants of Hamid 
are collectively known as "Dar HAmid." For "Hababi'n" (which is cor- 
rect in MS. i) MS. 2 gives "HabAniin." 


MS. 3 says "The descendants of Hammad are Koi {i.e. AwlAd Akoi) 
and the MegAnin are descendants of Hamid: their father was called 

cxii-cxv MS. 3 puts this earlier and says "Hilal's descendants are 
HilAla and Hasan el Hilali..., etc.," and substitutes "tJlu el Ghaba" 
for "Ulu el Ghaya." 

This concubine, who would be a negress, is apparently invented in 
order to drag in all the negro tribes of the upper reaches of the White Nile. 
cxvi For "KAidAb" and "MahidAb" and "BAkAb" (MS. i) MS. 2 
gives "KAi'lAb" and "MahidAt" and "BalkAra." 

MS. 3 says "The descendants of Zayad are the ZayAdi'a. The ShukrIa 
are of the stock of Muhammad ibn 'Amir Sha'ib; and Sha'ib's descendants 
are the NAi'lAb and the MahIdAt and the 'Aksa ( ?) and the BAkAb and the 
DoAlib and the MEsA'io and the FERAKfD(.?) and the HagilAb and the 
KAsirAb and the ShukrAb and the GabAgira and the Ma'Ai'da, and their 

cxvii For this story see Sale's Koran (p. 342) and Hughes (p. 601). The 
Gin was, however, called Sakhr. 

MS. 3 gives "Khdsia"'for "Khas," and adds "the FellAta." 

Mekada here means Abyssinia. Cp. D 7 passim. The word is used, 
e.g. by the Takarir of Kallabat, etc., to denote the Abyssinians: it means 
"slaves" (see Angl.-Eg. Sudan, i, 108). 

By the " Khas" are meant the Hasa or Khasa of whom Makrizi (Descr. 
^SyP^> ^i» 57 speaks as a Muhammadan tribe of Bega inhabiting Suakin. 
The name now applies to the strongest division of the Beni 'Amir and to 
the language of the whole tribe (see Seligman, Journ. R. A. I. vol. XLIII, 
1913, p. 600). 

IV. BA. cxxxm. OF THE SUDAN 49 

cxviii The Arabic translated "some say they are among the above" is 
jg^ J.*5 and it seems that "the above" are the group in the preceding 
paragraph. The generahty of nisbas gives their ancestor as Zubayr ibn 
el 'Awwam. 

cxix Cp. A 2, XXXVII ; A II , LXi and D i , cliv. 
This 'Ukba ibn Yasir also occurs as ancestor of the Awlad 'Ukba who 
are now a section of the Kababish, and there is also a traditional con- 
nection between the Awlad 'Ukba and the Fellata (see MacMichael, 
Tribes..., pp. 178 et seq.). It is just possible that he may have been con- 
fused with 'Abdulla ibn Yasin, the Berber holy-man and leader who 
flourished about 1050 a.d. (see Johnston, p. 63). 

cxxi Balkis is the biblical queen of Sheba. 

cxxii "El Gemal" is Sheikh Sulayman el Gemal, a Kuranic com- 
mentator. A hdshia is properly a series of glosses on a commentary. The 
work of el Gemal was entitled El Futuhdt el Illdhia. 

The first passage quoted is from Ch. 37 of the Kuran, and the second 
from Ch. 49. 

cxxiii Cp. B I, XXIII and ABC, xxvi. Soba is the ancient 'Aloa: cp. 
D7, v. 

cxxiv See Wiistenfeld, T, and cp. paras, lvii and B i, xxiv. 
Zubayr had 14 sons, including an 'Abdulla but not a Hasan. 

cxxvi MS. 3 gives " Mazayn " for " Men'n." 

cxxvii There has been no previous mention of this " Khamsin." 

cxxviii MS. 3 reads " The descendants of 'Amir are the 'AwAmra and 
the...," etc. (as in MSS. i and 2), and omits the last sentence. 

cxxix-cxxxii Cp. AB, CLXii-CLxv; A 11, viii; A 3, x, etc. 
The word translated "allied themselves" is s_--~-iJ {i.e. lit. "traced 
their genealogy"). Thewords "and [similarly] Guhayna were 80 tribes" 
are omitted in A i . 

MS. 3 omits "and Hilal." 

cxxxm Cp. AB, clxvi and xxxix et seq.; BA, ccxxviii; A 2, i; A 3, xv. 
MS. 3 gives "Buda'a" for "Kuda'a"; and "Ibrahim el Ga'aH" for 
"Ibrahim Ga'al"; and "Yemen, the Khazragi on his mother's side, son 
of 'Adnan " instead of " Yemen son of el Khazrag son of 'Adi " ; and " The 
Himyari on his mother's side, son of Hamayd son of Sa'ad the Ansari on 
his mother's side" instead of "el Himyari son of..., etc." 

The Arabic for "the . . .on his mother's side," or "whose mother was 
descended from . . . " is . . . ^^ a^'^ a*— j or <A^t 5y». ^j^ . This apparent 
practice of surnaming a man after his mother's tribe is worth noting. 
Cp. A 9, III (note). 

"Son of Himyar" is no doubt an error. A 5, A 6, A 7, A 8, A 10 all 
give Dhu el Kila'a el Himyari as son of Sa'ad. "Son of Himyar" was 
probably at first a corruption of "el Himyari," and then a copyist added 
"el Himyari" without removing "son of Himyar." The version quoted 
in para, xxxix of AB contains the same error. A 2 (alone) gives "son of 
Hudha'a" in place of "son of Himyar." 

As a matter of fact I distrust the statement that Dhu el Kila'a was 

50 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv ba. cxxxiii. 

called "el Himyari" because his mother was of Himyar. Dhu el Kila'a 
was a well-known Himyaritic name (see Chaps. XLiii, LXXV and xciv of 
Mas'udi, and Wustenfeld, 3), as were also Kuda'a and 'Adi. There was 
also a Himyarite king "Masruk'' son of Abraha (see Mas'odi, Ch. XLiii); 
and "el Yemani " and " Yemen " suggest Himyaritic origins. In fact, until 
one reaches the immediate descendants of el 'Abbas the names given in this 
paragraph strongly suggest Himyaritic rather than Isma'ilitic affinities. 
So, too, the account given by el Mas'udi (Ch. xxxi) as that of an old Copt 
living in southern Egypt, who was interrogated about 260 a.h. by Ahmad 
ibn Tulun, would strongly corroborate a theory of Himyaritic affinities 
for the Ga'aliin. The old Copt said that the Nuba [i.e. the inhabitants 
of Dongola and thereabouts] used bows of which the pattern had been 
borrowed from them by the tribes of the Hegaz and Yemen, and that 
" their kings boast that they are Himyarites " {jt<ft>- u-^-^v^'vo^J-^vo-v^^^i) • 
see V( 1. I, pp. 8 and 168. Of course a late genealogist would not hesitate 
to graft an Himyaritic branch on to an Isma'ilitic stem for the sake 
of exalting the tribe's lineage, and it would appear that this has actually 
been done. The early (Isma'ilitic) generations are given correctly in para, 

cxxxiv MS. 3 omits this and the following paragraph altogether. 
The pedigree given in cxxxiii is more common than the syncopated 
one favoured here and by the author of AB, on account of its not containing 
so many non-Arab names. For Serrar see AB, paras. CLXX and ccxii, 
Bir Serrar, the old rock-hewn wells at the foot of the hill of the same 
name near Bara in Kordofan, are said to be named after him. 

cxxxv Cp. AB, XXIX ; A i, lii; A2, in; A 6, in; A8, ix; B i, xxviii. 
For this injunction not to trace predigrees beyond 'Adnan (or his son 
Ma'ad) see Mas'udi, Chaps, lxix and lxx, where the following occur: 

^,^^•^'1^ aJUJI jLaf^)! ,j^ ^__5-^ '•■oJ A.o-ljil «^3 (J^^ 15JI s.,,.— Jb J jU*Jj ^j\ 

O^ j^^-^!^- O' **vJ i>« '-'J^i ^ w — *- (^ >y*^ j^' ^ y^3 (2) 
^j. — Jl J-Al ^ a A;^.! jk5^ Jaii j^ji^ ^^J^ ^ Jl ^s J^^ ^t siuj jas jju* 

>^y> ^i cr^^l ^j"^ ^o^ «^>JI '->* 0-* ^! — ^^ 'j^ ^^^i U^'j (3) 

Caussin de Perceval (Vol. i, p. 183) admits the unimpeachableness of 
the pedigrees between Muhammad and 'Adnan and concludes that the 
birth of '.Adnan cannot be earlier than 130 B.C. 

.Muhammad's objection to pedigrees extending beyond 'Adnan was 
simply that any such must necessarily be guesswork. As he laconically 
said ^j^l — Jl vJ^ ^^ O-*) "Beyond this point the genealogists lie" 
(quoted by ibn Khaldfin, Ar. ed. Vol. li, p. 3). 


cxxxvi Cp. AB, CLxvi. MS. 3 omits the parenthesis, but adds that 
[Kerdam] lived "in the land of el Hegaz and el Ariaf." 

cxxxvii Cp. AB, CLXVii. Tergam's descendants are presumably the 
TerAgma, a subsection of Ga'alun that occur, e.g., at H. el Rekayb on the 
Blue Nile near el Kamli'n, "Teragma" also occurs on the maps as the 
name of a village in Berber province. 

MS. 3 omits " but I do not know of his having any descendants." The 
Tergam Arabs of Darfur and Wadai {q.v. Part III, Ch 3 (i)) may also 
conceivably have some connection with " Tergam " the brother of Kerdam. 

cxxxviii Cp. AB, cLxviii ; A 2, xix and An, xlv. 
In this and the next paragraph MSS. 2 and 3 give "Tomam" for 

It appears from the mention of Kufa that the generations previous to 
Kerdam lived west of the Syrian desert near Meshed Ali on the Euphrates, 
and that Kerdam or his sons migrated to the Sudan. 

cxxxix Cp. AB, CLXix and A 11, xi ef seq. 
The singular of Sakarang is pronounced " Sakirnyawi." 

CXL This and the following paragraphs, to and including CLXi, are 
similar to paras. CLXXi to ccix of AB: points of dissimilarity will be seen 
from the trees and from the following notes. 

AB remarks (cLXXi) that some accounts give only Bedayr and Abu 
Shayh as sons of Samra. In A i "Abu Shaykh" is three times given in 
error for Abu Shayh. MS. 3 writes "Bedr" and "Bedria" for "Bedayr" 
and "Bedayri'a." 

CXLI According to AB, Terayfi is sometimes called "Turuk, ancestor of 
the Terayfi'a": he is so called in A 11, xii: refer also to AB, ccxv. 

CXLii This is omitted by MS. 3, which by error attributes Mismar's 
descendants to Samayra. 

cxLiii A I gives "Subuh wa Abu Merkha" by error for " Subuh Abu 
Merkha," a slip which also occurs in A 4, iv. Cp. note to para. CLiv. 

CXLiv AB says that some MSS. substitute Fahid for Hammad, but that 
Fahid was really son of Hammad. 

CXLV Of Makit AB says that he was also called " 'Abd el Ghi'th," A i 
gives "Makbat" by error. 

cxLvi AB for Fadliyyun gives Fadiliyyun (and so also MS. 3), and 
adds that Fadl is said also to have been ancestor of the Beni Fadl. 
A I by a slip leaves out the words "of Makit." 
There is a village of Mekabda a few miles north of Old Dongola. 

CXLVII A I by error gives " Hammad " instead of " Selma." 

cxLViii Cp. A 2, XXXIV. MS. 3 gives "Gabarab of Dongola," and after 
"of Arko" adds "with the Khanak and the Island of Nawi (?)." 

CXLIX AB notes that Fahid is sometimes incorrectly called Fuhayd: he 
is so called in A 11. MS. 3 omits him and makes Guma'a, etc., sons of 

CL A I by a sHp omits the words "of Guma'a" and leaves a blank in 
place of "and the Hammada." 

MS. 3 gives "the Hamar and the Ahamda" as sons of Hamid. 


CLi Cp. A 2, XIV and A ii, xl. Of "Khanfar" AB says it is sometimes 
wrongly spelt " Ganfar." A i gives " 'Atia" for " 'Abayta." 

CLii Of Alukbal and MukAbla AB says they sometimes occur vv^rongly 
as MukAbil and AIukabili'a respectively. 

CLiii A 1 in place of "are the Nebah" gives "are the Nebi'h or, as is 
said, the Nebah." 

CLiv A I gives " Subuh hinva Abu Merkha" (" Subuh, that is Abu Mer- 
kha"). In place of Hamayd el Nawam AB gives "Hamayd father of 
Nawam" and says the accounts which speak of "Hamayd el Nawami" 
are wrong. 

A 2, V also gives Hamayd el Nawam, ancestor of the NawAIma. 
A 3 xxviii {q.v. note) and A 4, ix speak of "Hamayd el Nawam, ancestor 
of the NawAmi'a." Cp. A 11, xvi. 

CLV Cp. para, xcvii. 

CLVI MS. 2 gives iu elar-ixJI for i»jlai-^l. 
MS. 3 omits "or Ghanum." 

CLviii Cp. A II, xviii-xx. A I by aslip gives "Ghanim" for "Ghanim." 
MS. 3 adds the Gimi'Ab as descended from Gamu'a. 

CLix MS. 3 omits the words following " HasanAb. ..." 

CLX Cp. A II, XXI. MS. 3 omits this paragraph. 

CLXi Cp. A 2, X and A 11, xxii. AB does not pursue this pedigree beyond 
'Arman and Abu Khamsin, except to mention 'Arman's son 'Adlan. A i 
gives "DuAiba" as among the reputed descendants of Hamaydan, but 
AB (ccix) calls them "DuAbia." 

CLXii Cp. A 2, V and A II, XXV. 

CL.xiii Cp. All, XXVI. MS. 3 gives "KerriAb" and "KitbAb" for 
"KaribAb" and "KixfAB," and omits the BeliAb. 


CLXV Cp. A 2, XI; A II, xxiv and ABC, xii. MS. 3 omits Tumayr and 
adds 'Abd Rabbihi, Shabbu, and Bubai. It also alters in the subsequent 
paragraphs the order in which the descendants of the sons of 'Arman are 

CLXVii,^^^^^. CY>.Aii,xiaxetseq. MS. 3 says "'Abd el 'Al had 24 sons: 
they include Muhammad, ancestor of the Kabushia and the KandilAb, 
and 'Abd el Kerim, ancestor of the 'AshAnik, and HasabuUa, ancestor of 
the HasabullAb, and Rafa'i, ancestor of the RAfa'Ab, and Gadulla, an- 
cestor of the GadolAb, and Khadr, ancestor of the KhadrAb, and Kaltut, 
ancestor of the Kalti'Ab, and Kasr, and Beshr, and Musa, and 'Omar, and 
Tisa'a Kulli, and, the tenth of them, Muhammad el Nigayd, ancestor of 
the NigaydAb." 

CLXXI It is curious that both BA and A 11 (xxix) give "Karkus" with a 
J, but "Karakisa" with a J. 

The words inserted in a square bracket have evidently been omitted 
both in MS. i and 2 by error: their insertion makes the total 30 sons 
correct and squares with paras. BA, CLXXii and A 11, xxix. 

For "'Abuda" MS. i gives " 'Abud " here, but "'Abuda" in para. 
CLXXII. A II (xxix and lxv) gives 'Abudab. 


MS. 3 from here onwards reads: " 'Adlan son of 'Arman had 30 sons: 
they include the Karasika (four), whose mother was daughter of 'AH 
walad Karkus walad Shukl el Kamal; and the Sitnab (four); [and] the 
'Abdutab (four), whose mother was daughter of 'Abud ; and Nafa'a, and 
Nafi'a, and el Mahk 'Abd el Daim, and 'Abd el Ma'abud, all of them sons 
of the same mother, namely the daughter of Adam walad Halayb; and 
Muhammad 'Ali, and Abu Seli'ma and Barakat, all sons of a single mother; 
and el Malik Muhammad, ancestor of the Muhammad ab, son of a different 
mother [fen'd] ; and Tuayr, son of a different mother; and Abu Bukr, son 
of a different mother; and el 'A wad, son of a different mother; and 'Abd 
el Rahman Badikis, son of a different mother." 

MS. 3 then gives a list of descendants, tribal and personal, of Nafi'a 
and Nafa'a: this entirely differs from any other version, excepting ABC, 
and is certainly spurious : the writing is so bad and text so corrupt and so 
obviously a gloss that this passage is not worth an attempt to quote it in 

The names of the following descendants of Nafi'a (for which cp. ABC) 
are decipherable: "Sirayhab," "Miriab," "Shataywab" (ABC, "Sha- 
tirab"), "Mudwas" (sc. "sons of"; ABC. "Mudawas"), "Mekabda," 
"Abu el Dur" {sc. "sons of"), "'Abd el Latff" (sc. "sons of"), "Abd 
el Kafi, ancestor of the Thawabit," " 'Abdulla, ancestor of the folk of 
Walad Abu Zumam," " Abukr, ancestor of the folk of Walad el Nafar," 
"Bakhi't Aswad, who was childless." Among the descendants of Nafa'a 
appear the "Thawawiab" (or " Shawawi'ab " (?) ; ABC, "Thawi'ab"), 
and the "'Amakrab," and the "Nugumi'a" (for whom cp. A 11). The 
"Hasanab" and "Hadrab" of ABC do not appear. 

The MS. continues as foil )ws: "El Malik 'Abd el Daim had 14 s->ns, 
'Ali and Yoiy and Hammad, all sons of the same mother, viz. Bukra 
daughter of his uncle Mukabir ; and Abu Daraywa and Abu Basrun and 
Hammad el Harankal, sons of a single mother; and Kabush; and Muham- 
mad el Kankal (ABC, 'el Fial'), ancestor of the Nafafi'a at el Damer; 
and Shaddu and Kaddu, whose descendants are near Berber; and Dow 
and Kena, whose descendants are the Kenawin Nas walad Ba'ashom; 
and el 'Arashkol and Abu Gidad, who had no children. 

The descendants of 'Ali include the 'AliAb. 

The descendants of Hammad include the 'Alatit [who live] near the 
Saba'ania, and the people of el Madak (Marak?) at el Metemma. 

The descendants of Yoiy are the Yoiyab at Koz Ba'ara (?). 

Abu Dawayra [for "Daraywa"] was ancestor of the Darwab [for 
"Daraywab"] near Bakardash (?). Abu Basrun's descendants are com- 
mingled with the Zaidab. 

Hammad el Harankal was ancestor of the Nas walad el Tarik 
[Terayfi (?)] at Metemma. 

The descendants of Kabush live round Kabtishia. 

As for [the sons of] 'Abd el Ma'abud, 'Abd el Salam el Asfar was 
ancestor of the Sufar and Lakit (?) and el Khadr and ["and" omitted by 
ABC] el Fial, ancestor of the Failab, and Ba'abush, ancestor of the 
Ba'abish, and Sa'ad Abu Dabus, 


The sons of Sa'ad Abu Dabus were 'Abd el Salam and Kanbalawi and 
Sanad, and Idris el Kati'a ancestor of the 'Abdsalamab, the people of 
el Buayda. 

The sons of Sa'ad Abu Dabus ["Abu Dabus" error for "ibn Diab": 
cp. ABC] were el Burnis^ and Nasir and Muhammad el Kusayer and 'Ali 
and SaHh. Ends." 

"The Babsa [for 'AbAbsa'] are. . ., etc." (as para, clxxiii of BA). 

Paras, xviii and xix in ABC closely correspond to the above. 
CLXXii For "Shukal" MS. i gives "Shukalu." 

For "the Mek iSluhammad" MS. 2 gives "el mekani Muhammad" 
("who was surnamed Muhammad"). " Koz Bara" (MS. 3, "Koz Ba'ara") 
may possibly refer to Bara in Kordofan, a few miles N.W. of which among 
the sandhills is a Khar called Yoiy. Koz means a sandhill or ridge. 

CLXXIII The first of the 'Abbasids was called 'AbduUa Abu el 'Abbas 
"el Saffah": it was his elder half-brother and successor, el Mansur, who 
was called "Abu Ga'afir." 

For "el Rai. . ." MS. 3 gives "el Rama and el Mashhur." 
CLXXiv Cp. A 2, xxviii, and A 11, lxiv. 

The Imam 'Ali had a son Muhammad who was called " Ibn el Hanafia" 
because his mother was of the tribe of Hanifa (see Wiistenfeld, p. 31 1 and Y). 
CLXXV Cp. A 2, XL, and A 11, lxiii; and see note to D i, cm. 

A 2 gives Kutaf for Kahtan: cp. ABC, xxxi. It is, of course, only the 
mention of Hatim el Tai {q.v. Wiistenfeld, 6) that suggested (as in A 11, 
LXiii) the idea of generosity. 
clxxvi Cp. A 2, xxxviii and A 11, lxii. 

Here we have a valuable hint as to the different treatments accorded 
to the original MS. of "el Samarkandi" by BA, A2, and A 11, respectively: 
A II simply begins "I heard. . ., etc." {i.e. el Samarkandi heard), but out 
of spite inserts some remarks of his own. 

A 2 is slightly paraphrasing for he begins "The Hadarba are a well- 
known tribe. El Samarkandi says 'I heard...,' etc." BA simply para- 
phrases the whole without mentioning el Samarkandi. 

For Haggag the Thakifi see Wiistenfeld, G. He was born in 42 a.h. and 
died in 95 a.h. He was successively governor of the Hegaz and of el 'Irak. 

The "Hadlarma" are elsewhere called "Hadarba" and "HadAreb" 
(see D 7, li in particular). Mansfield Parkyns says {Life in Abyssinia, 
Ch. iv) "The inhabitants of Souakin and its neighbourhood are called 
Hadarba and their language Hadandawy." He regarded them as a branch 
of the same group as the Bisharin, and mentions that they were enter- 
prizing traders. For an account of them see Part III, Ch. 13. 
CLXXVii Cp. A 2, xxxvi and An, lx. 
No information beyond that vouchsafed here is given in any of the 
nisbas concerning the Gabarta; but Parkyns {Life in Abyssinia, Ch. xl) 
speaks of a village over the Abyssinian border, east of Kedaref, as "in- 
habited by Abyssinian Mohammedans, who are called by their Arab 
co-religionists, Jibberti." Burckhardt also mentions them as a "class of 

^ reading ^^-JjnJl for ^_^^M. 

IV. BA. cxcviii. OF THE SUDAN 55 

Abyssinian merchants" (Nubia, pp. 309, 310). Burton (Pilgrimage..., i, 
177) says "Abyssinian Moslems are called by the Arabs 'Jabarti.'" 

Bruce (Vol. iii, Bk. in, pp. 43-45) speaks of them as a "tawny" folk, 
not black, with long hair, and thinks their name signifies "the faithful." 
They are, he says, "the princes and merchants of this country [Abyssinia], 
converted to the Mahometan faith soon after the death of Mahomet." 

CLXxviii Cp. A 2, XXIX ; A 11, li and C 8, and contrast D i, clxv and 
D 2, XV. 

'Omar ibn 'Abd el 'Aziz, of the Beni Ommayya, was born in 61 or 
63 and died in loi a.h. He was Governor of Medina. 

MS. 3 omits "son of 'Atif " and the last eight words of the paragraph. 
CLXxix Cp. BA, ccvii; A 2, xxvii; A 11, lii; D i, xcii and civ, etc. 
From "Rikab" to "'AH ibn Serag" BA agrees practically with D i, 
but is less accurate for the earlier generations. Wiistenfeld (Y) gives the 
following (and cp. D i): 

The Imam 'Ali 


El Husayn 

Zayn el 'Abdfn 


Muhammad el Bakir 


Ga'afir el Sadik 


Musa el Kazim 


'Ali el Rida 


Muhammad el Gawdd 

For "el Haifa" MS. 3 gives "el Lahia" both here and in paras, ccvii 
and ccviii. 

For Ghulamulla's date see Introduction to Part IV. 
CLXXX The Arabic of the quotation is 

CLXXXi For this et seq. cp. D 3, 222. 
MS. 3 reads " 'Abd el Ghani " for " 'Abd el Nebi." 

CLXXXii "Hag" or "Haga" instead of Hag is probably correct. 

CLXXXiii MS. 3 reads "whose sons were Ak-hal and a section (farka) of 
the Kawahla. . ., etc." 

CLXXXVI Cp. D I, cix. 

CLXXXViii MS. 3 omits "on the Blue Nile." 

cxc MS. 3 gives "Tumrab" for " Tumayrab." 

cxcii For "and Hadhlul. . . " (J^jjt, j) MS. 3 gives "and she was Lula 
(*jy^A ^) daughter of Malik. ..." 

cxcv MS. 3 omits "Muhammad." 

CXCVIII " . . .a family oi fakirs. . . , etc.": the Arabic is as follows: 

jMS. I. d.y ^ USij j^^*A^ *J;i «>'^jl- 
-| MS. 2. dh J li^ v^j-e*^ ^j'> ^"^j'- 
IMS. 3. aJs J j^^is 4Ji»j3. 

56 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. ba. cxcviii. 

The copyist of MS. 3 evidently thought, rightly or wrongly, that ^J 
and 4i> ("Y" and "T") were symbols of hidden meaning (op. Hughes, 
p. 517). For a similar case see MS. C 9, in. 

ecu MS. 3 omits "I am not sure of Hasabulla's descendants," and "I 
do not know. . . , etc." 

cciii MSS. 2 and 3 (and other MSS. I have seen) give "Kenar" for 
"Kena." MS. 3 omits Selim the son of 'Abd el Razik. 

There is a biography of Sheikh Hasan wad Belila in D 3, No. 131. 
ccv For Ibrahim el Bulad see AB (lxxxix, xciv, etc.). 
Various details as to these four famous Gabirab will be found in D 3, 
17, etc. MS. 3 gives "GabArAb" for "GAbirAb." 
ccvi MS. 3 gives "Gabril" for "Merin" (MSS. i and 2). 
ccvii Cp. para. CLXXix, and D i, xcii and civ, where the relationship 
between these three Rikabs is given. 

MS. 3 omits the generations after 'Aid and the words " called Nowawa." 
A further version of the Rikabia nisba will be found in D 5 (d), closely 
resembling BA. 

ccix It is not improbable that with this paragraph (which is omitted by 
MS. 3) the original copy of the nisba by el Sherif Tahir (q.v. in para, 
ccxxiii) ended. El Sherif Tahir obviously could not have written the 
account of the Fungs which follows because they practically all reigned 
after his death. 

ccx The first quotation is given by Hughes (p. 483, "Quraish"). The 
Arabic of the second is 

The last sentence is 

The tasbih is the saying of subhdnu 'llahi {" Glory be to God "). 
For "the children of Adam" some copies give "our father Adam." 
ccxi " Abu Nu'aym " is Abu Nu'aym Ahmad el Isfahani (948-1038 a.d.), 
the author of Hilyat el Anbiyd (" Ornament of the Prophets "). See Huart, 
p. 230. 

ccxii It is very hard to decide what are the tribes intended. Probably 
this list is quite valueless. For "Beni Huzayl" MSS. i and 3 give "Beni 


MS. 3 gives "HAi" for "Helb," "KhalAf" for "HalAf," "NAsir" 
for "NAdir," "GhArid" for "KAfid," and adds one other (indecipher- 

"EI Ag:hQri" is Sheikh el Islam Abu el Irshad 'Ali ibn Muhammad 
ibn Zayn el Din ibn Sheikh el Islam Abd el Rahman el Ag-huri, of the 
Maliki sect. He died in 1066 A. H. (1655-6 A.D. ). He wrote three com- 
mentaries on "Khalil" (see Hagi Khalfa's Lexicon, Vol. v, p. 447). He 
occurs again in D 3, 22, and his great-grandfather in D 3, 157. 

ccxiii Cp. A 2, xxx; A 11, vii and liii; D 2, i and D 6, xxvi; and cp. 
note to BA, clxxiii. See also V< 1. 1, p. 162, for this migration or its 


Sulayman ibn 'Abd el Malik ibn Marwan was the name of the seventh 
of the Ommayyad dynasty, who died in 717 A.D.; but he certainly never 
went to Abyssinia and the Sudan and he died nine years before " el Saffah " 
was born. Either the Sulayman referred to here is another man altogether 
or, more likely, a confusion has arisen between his name and that of 
'Abdulla ibn Marwan, the last of the Ommayyads, who did take refuge in 
the Sudan. 

The first 'Abbasid Khalifa reigned from 750 to 754 a.d. 
MS. 3 omits mention of the change of " Ans" to "Ounsa." 
ccxiv For "Ounsab" MS. 2 gives "Unsdb." 
ccxv Cp. A 2, XXXII ; A II , Lv and D 2, xli. 

ccxvi "Fung" (jj-^) and "Fung" (^>s) occur with equal common- 
ness. In D 3 both are used indiscriminately. For the origin of the name 
see Westermann, pp. lii et seq. 

910 A.H. (1504 A.D.) is the accepted date for the foundation of the 
kingdom of Sennar, and there is greater agreement in the numerous extant 
chronologies of the kings than would be expected. 
The points that are worthy of notice here are 

(i) That in Bruce and Cailliaud's versions 'Abd el Kadir appears as 
successor instead of predecessor of Nail, but in BA, D 2, and D 7 (which 
is the most reliable) 'Abd el Kadir is shown as succeeding 'Omara Dunkas. 

(2) "'Omara Abu Sakinin" (MSS. i and 2) should probably be 
" 'Omara Abu Sakakin" (or " Sakaykin" as in MS. 3, D 3, vi and D 7). 

(3) Duda (or Dura, as in MS. 3) is also given by Bruce and Cailliaud, 
but in D 2 and D 7 (and as a general rule) he is omitted. 

(4) "Tanbul" appears in Bruce as "Tiby"; in Cailliaud, D 2 and D 7 
as " Tabl '' : MS. 3 also gives " Tabl." 

(5) 'Abd el Kadir and Ounsa appear in transposed order in Bruce, 
Cailliaud, D 2, and D 7. 

(6) The 'Adlan who preceded Badi Sid el Kum is similarly said by 
Bruce to have been son of Ounsa and brother of 'Abd el Kadir: Cailliaud 
also calls him brother of 'Abd el Kadir. D 2 and D 7 and MSS. in general 
{e.g. D 3, 241) call him "son of Aya": this may be a nickname, or his 
mother may have been Aya, or there may be a confusion between Aya 
(written i-^t) and Unsa, i.e. Ounsa (a_JI or i-.jl). 

Cailliaud is in error when he speaks of 'Adlan as "Tue par le cheykh 
Agyb." All the MSS. and all traditions agree that 'Adlan killed 'Agi'b, 
i.e. the famous sheikh of the 'Abdullab, known as the Mdngilak, for whom 
see D 3 (vi and passim) and D 5 («). 

As regards the site of the battle, Cailliaud gives it as Karkog, as do 
BA, AB and D3 (No. 241): elsewhere in D 3 (No. 126) it is written 
"Kargog" or " Karjoj " (^^s^j.^) by error for Karkog (^^j^). D 7 

gives "Kalkol," and the latter may be correct. The name Karkog, as 
generally used, applies to a large and well-known village over 50 miles 
south of Sennar and it is most improbable that Sheikh 'Agib would ever 
have been fighting the Fung there. His seat was north of Khartoum and 

58 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. ba.ccxvi. 

the numerous engagements between the Fung and the 'AbdullAb used to 
take place in the vicinity of el Halfaya, or at least far north of Sennar. 
Kalkol is close to el Kamlin, some 60 miles south of Khartoum, and a 
likely spot for a battle to have occurred between Fung and 'AbdullAb. 
Or again the reference may well be to a small village called Karkog very 
close to the south of Khartoum, and a copyist, thinking the southernly 
Karkog to be intended, and knowing it to be out of the question, may 
have substituted "Kalkol." 

(7) Nineteen years is too long for Badi Sid el Kum. Bruce gives 6, 
Cailliaud 7, D 2 12, and D 7 only 3 years for his reign. 

(8) "Badi, son of Abu Dukn" (in all three MSS.) should be "Badi 
Abu Dukn." 

By " Si'di 'Abd el Kadir el Gayli" (in all three MSS.) the author means 
'Abd el Kadir el Gilani, the founder of the Kadiria tarika, who died in 
1 166 A.D. 

The words translated "was a follower of" are O^^^ ^s j.^a».. 

(9) MS. 3 (only) allots Ounsa son of Nasir 14 instead of 4 years, 
ccxvii-ccxxi Isma'il died about 1766 and the total of the preceding 

reigns mentioned by BA is 310 years. As BA says 'Omara Dunkas began 
to reign in 910 A.H., this would bring us to 1220 A.H., i.e. 1805 A.D. It is 
clear, therefore, that the durations of the reigns have been exaggerated. 

There were nominal Fung kings who succeeded Isma'il, and the names 
that follow here as those of the Hamag dynasty are really those of the all- 
powerful Hamag viziers. 

Between Isma'il and Nasir walad Muhammad there is a gap during 
which 'Adlan II was nominal king and Badi walad Ragab and Ragab 
walad Muhammad successively viziers. Nasir succeeded Ragab while 
'Adlan was still on the throne. For these kings and viziers see D 7. 

In para, ccxix MS. 3 gives "Muhammad walad Ragab" for "Ragab 
walad Muhammad," and 4 years for 4^. 

ccxxii "1230" (I rr.) is no doubt a misprint for "1235" (| TTc). 
Isma'il Pasha took Sennar in June, 1821. 

ccxxiii MS. 3 is identical with MSS. i and 2 in this paragraph, but for 
the omission of the words "that was found" and "ibn" (between "Ibra- 
him" and "el feki") and the substitution of "Gabarabi" for "Gabirabi"; 
but MS. 3 of the nisba ends abruptly with the words " Gabir son of 
Muhammad. End" {j^_j^\ j^:>~« ^1 j^^**-)- A copy in the possession 
of the feki Muhammad 'Abd el Magid of Omdurman is identical in this 
passage with MSS. i and 2, but ends abruptly with "and I confide." 

Which of the copyists is referred to in the phrase " I found his son. . . " 
is uncertain as there is no information available as to the date of el Nur 
el Gabirabi. 

The date of el Sherif el Tahir ibn 'Abdulla would be about the end of 
the fifteenth century a.d., i.e. about the time of the foundation of the 
Fung kingdom: he was senior to Sheikh el Zayn ibn Sughayerun, whom 
D 3 (No. 258) says died in 1086 a.h. (1675 a.d.), by five generations, both 
being descended from 'Aid ; and it appears he wrote the nisba, and that 

IV. BA. ccxxix. OF THE SUDAN 59 

from him it passed to Gabir, who was his cousin and junior to him by two 

By "his father Gabir" must be meant "his ancestor Gabir." 

"//e copied. . ." presumably refers to Ibrahim ibn el feki Muhammad. 
Cp. the note to D 3, 17, 

ccxxv This paragraph and the following three and para, ccxxx are all 
additions by the latest copyist, the 'Ebayd Muhammad mentioned. MS. 2 
ends with para, ccxxiv and the verse quoted in ccxxix. 
ccxxviii Cp. paras, cxxxiii and cxxxiv and notes thereon. 

El Nur Bey 'Ankara was one of the Khalifa's best-known amirs. He 
survived the period of the Dervishes and still resides at Omdurman. It 
is very doubtful if he is entitled to claim the ancestry here given: he is 
said to have been half a black. 

" Sab el Yal" may be an error for " Sab el Layl." 

"Matti" is the same name as the Biblical Amittai. 
ccxxix Cp. AB, XXX and A 2, xliii. 


JSufian Afzar 



a) (Mash 

*t re" 


Hammad el Aizar 

Lula = Hasan el Hilali (by a concubine) 

Kabsh Sha'uf 

I I . 

1 Sabir 






Shiiluk Dinka 






VI ah mud 




I ; I _ I , 

Gank Funkur Kaf Ulu el Ghaya 


I I 

Kiran Karanku Doka Aywa 

Fakhdh ^^^^ Flayla Abu Hagul 

jwdkhidh ia ■ 


I. I 

Hamid Hammad 

t) IHabdbin i Aivldd Akoi 
Ferdhna \ Megdnin f 
- Merdmra 
\Gilayddt {by 
Bakhita el Sughayra) 

2) (Hegds 


'Abd Shams 

El Hakam 




'*ti§ represent s.ons by different 

§'Abd el 'Azfz Mahassi 


Musallam Ga atir 

Hamayl, or 

I flamayUa (or 

\ Atddd flatini: 

I Gendna 
- Mezaniyyii 

children by different motlie 


MarW5 = •(daughter) 

•Rafa'i IBeiii Rdfa'i) 

•Duridb [Beni Duridb) •^ammad el 'Uliti {Ben 

Kil Biz El Ma'ddia 

{^MdwiyyCm) VAJ_ 

(■hnyldt) mat 



rib Gurfan Mess 

\Beni Yakam 
Bent Mukfialliu 

yBeni Ylinis 
Beni Alerlti 

I ^anuiyriu 
- Kerimla 


I Tunis) in the East) 


I 'Au.-d(i/u 

I Zayddlu 

I.Ianimdd el Af s. 

Kabsh Sha'u 

Sdlim el Hamdm 


Shilluk DInka 


Ganlj Funkur Kif Olu el Ghiya 

ml Maztn Bai&kit (:laylii Abu Hagul 

Sahal Udmid 

(Na'imdl) (Hahdbin 


I Mfgdnin Y 

!\;iranku Doka 








i M 

mama, married 
I her cousin 


Abu Khamsin 



\a7ii I 

^dc I 

Ser Muhammad 

ffas^ammaddb of Gerayf 



Hammad el Bahkarub 

\wad 'Abd el Rahman Badikis 



Ba'dshim \ 

Saba'dnia \_ 

People of el 'Arashkdl I 
People of el Kabushia ] 



■Abd Shams Hllshim 
(S« Sheet ■) .f^^ ^1 i,,„„,ub 

El 'Abbfc 
El FadI 


Dhu el KiM'a cl Himyari 





El SulKn 


Ibrfhim Ga'al 

Abmad e'l YemSn 




Abu el DIs 


I^asan Kcrdam 


^Sakarang, kings of Telfali) 

Tamlm Serrtr 
(Tomdm) 1 


Ibrfhlm Ga'al 

i. GA'ALllN BR-^NCH 

r Muhammad el Beda\T 
1 (BedayrUi) ' 
El Malik Muaa, king of the Dufdr 
El Malik Sib el Yal 

El Malik MQsb 

El Malik Muhanunad 

El Malii Mattl 

El Malik' el Nufr 

£1 Malik Khidr 

El Malik 'ibiihlm 

El Malik el Y^i 

EI Malik Muhammad pQrdwi 

£1 Malik 'Abd el Manin 

£1 Malik Abu Sowir 

El Malik Khidr 

£1 Malik Fadl 

El Malik 'Omar 

£1 Malik Muhammad Khayr 

£1 Malik Qasan 

£1 Malik'lbrihlm 

£1 Malik Matti 

£1 Malik Muhammad 

El Nurel Malik.Bey, '"Ankara" 

Sa'ad el Ferld 

Subuh abu Merkha 



{fldlamdb, kings 


of Arkd) 

or Gatcdbra, 

or Gdbiria) 

yamayd el NawSm 

■, Matafirdb 

masabulla tMu(raf JGhanfm JGhar 

Mub^rnmad el A'v 

SM'a el Din Tumayr Sa' 

'Abd el 'Al MuBallam Gcbel 

I {Musailarndb) (Gebeldb) {Gabrc 

Kasr Bcshr 

Shaddu Isadabu 

•'Abd el D^im ''Abd cl Ma'abud 

' By bini Adam [Jalayb. 

Tuayr Abu Bukr *Awad 'Abd cl Rahmaii BiUli^tis 

People of el KabOshla } 






;1 Tahir 

* and t by d' 

,;1 Tahir 






'Abd el Rahim 


El Hag Magid 

fMuhammad 'On 




El feki el Nur el Gabirabi 

(Awldd Musa ivalad 
Merin at G. el 

Ahmad Muhammad 

El feki Muhammad 
X By bint Malik el Kanisa. 


■Abd Sh.m. Hii'him 
'^"^'""■' •Ahd.ll«u„..,b 

ErAl,^b.._^ ' AbuV^Ub 

El Sayyid el Husayn 

El Sayyid Zayn cl 'Abdln 

El Sayyid Mubammad el Bi\sir 

El Sayyid Ga'afir el $ddilf 

El Sayyid MDsa el K^im 

El Imim ZdmU 

Abu elVisim 






Sheikh 'Omar el Zlla'i 

Sheikh Ahmad 

El MdjbQl 

El SaWid -Aid 

1 ■ 1 El Sherif -Abdulla 

(liifidhhi) • and f by different mothers. 

Rubdt El Sherif cl Tihir 
Ganiba, ^Selbn 
daughter 1 
of Rikdb 




1 1 1 1 
I Ncbi 'Hablb "-Aglb tZayd (daughter) el Gaiirba = SeHm 
(HaHmdh) 1 


•'Abd el RSkiIj 'Musbih fMubamii 

EiydgBelllfl ■ ■ ^^^\ 
Sheikh '^asan El feki el Nui 

a u . ur n 

Shakir | | •RuzajTm •Dahmash 
H.'.=„ ■AbdelRabtm 'Abd cl Rahman „' . 
t:i8san (Tuma^Tdb) \Shabwdb Mammad 

El Hag Migid ^^"'^'^ Sheikh Muhammad -I;Iab(b Nes," 

nad '6n IHadhlal 

{AKidd Mam uala 


Akbal Farija 

IDeseendanU with 
KawdMa and at 

El feki -All Mandfali 

MSlik Bellla Kuraysh 'Abaydi DdQd ibnl' 
• By Ganiba. t By '6nla. I By bi 

G. Tehali) 

III 1 1 1 'Isa 
Monfifali Ahmad Muhammad "Abd el Kerim "Abd cl HaflK 'Abd cl Rahman 1 

El feki Iiiammad 

t Malik el Kanfsa 

'Abd el Fattih 'Abd el Malik Ibrfhlm 

■AbdclBisii Husayn Id 


ris FaiJIulla Muhammad 

HasabulU Muhammad cl Fe^ri 

1 1 
Muslafd 'Abd cl ^ummad 

I 1 II 
IbrShfm El Tayyib Muhammad Manlr 

1 1 1 


[ 6i ] 



The author of AB was Ahmad ibn Isma'il "el Azhari." Both his 
father and mother belonged to the Dahmashia section of Bedayria 
and were therefore ultimately Ga'aliin, claiming descent from el 
'Abbas the uncle of the Prophet. 

Ahmad "el Azhari " was born at el Obeid in Kordofan, and about 
1 830-1 840 went to Egypt and entered the University of el Azhar. 
He remained there for twelve years as a student and teacher of the 
Maliki code, and then returned to el Obeid. 

In 1 88 1 he proposed returning to Cairo, but on reaching Khar- 
toum was requested by Ra'uf Pasha, the Governor-General, to 
accompany an expedition against the newly arisen Mahdi and attempt 
conciliation. The party was, however, all but annihilated and "el 
Azhari" was among the slain. 

The original manuscript, written in 1853, is in the keeping of the 
head of the Isma'ilia tanka, to which the family of the author all 
belong, and was lent to me temporarily in 1907 by "el Sayyid" 
Isma'il el Azhari, the son of the author and then Kadi of el Obeid. 

He had borrowed it from the son of that Sayyid el Mekki who 
had been the head of the tanka and the Mahdi 's foremost adherent 
in Kordofan. Since then I have seen various other copies and ex- 
tracts, and probably they are very numerous. The headmaster of 
el Kamlin school made a copy of the original for the author's son in 
December 1910, and copies of this copy both for the Director of 
Education and for me. Having done no more in 1907 than translate 
the original and not copied out the Arabic I have made frequent 
use, when in doubt, of the copy made for me. 

Of the manner in which the work was composed no more is known 
than what the author himself states. He seems to have collected a 
number of current pedigrees, and after eliminating much that he 
thought worthless to have embellished the remainder with a series 
of pious aphorisms and arguments, some inferior verses of his own 
composition, and a wealth of detail as to the present ramifications of 
his own family. Much of this extraneous matter has been omitted 
in translation. 


I In the name of God. . . . 

Praise be to God ... (a long exordium in praise of God and of 
Muhammad follows) . 

II The servant of his glorious God, el Sayyid Ahmad ibn el Wali 
el Sheikh Isma'il now speaks. Since the study of the pedigrees of 
men is one of which the knowledge is useless and ignorance is harm- 
less, and since by expending one's energies on such study one shortens 
one's days, I paid no attention to it, nor did I feel any tendency to 
do so, until at last I even became confused as to the exact deter- 
mination of my relationship to such of my own and my father's 
generation as were alive. In addition, this confusion existed to such 
an extent among several of the family that some of them began to 
vie with others in the length of their pedigrees and to boast of their 
original ancestors. 

III Accordingly, the Imam of the age, the Leader of the Way, the 
restorer of lawful and true knowledge, the master of his time, my 
lord and father, el Wali Isma'il, by whose agency God granted me 
to taste the sweetness of the Faith, ordered me to make a genealogical 
record showing every one of the ancestors from whom were variously 
descended those that were yet alive, and to point out all the seed of our 
ancestor el feki Bishara el Gharbawi and to carry back their pedigrees 
to him, and his pedigree also to el Malik Nasir son of Salah son of 
Musa el Kebir, who was known as Masu and in whose person are 
united all the branches of Ga'al el Dufar now existing, and [he 
bade me] to mention also how this ancestor was descended from 
Serrar son of Kerdam, the ancestor of all the Ga'aliyyun and to carry 
back his pedigree to el Sayyid el 'Abbas the uncle of the Prophet, to 
whom be the blessings of God and salutation, and through el 'Abbas 
to 'Adnan, and so to arrange all in verse that thereby all our family 
and suchlike might attain the uttermost of their desire. 

IV Then I sought for the books of pedigrees that contain all the 
tribes of Ga'al el Dufar and suchlike among the Arabs, and by the 
strength and might of God I was able to obtain numerous manu- 
scripts, including one copied by my maternal grandfather the learned 
and esteemed and profound sage el Hag Muhammad ibn Bishara 
from a manuscript which he discovered in God's country, Mekka the 
noble, in the year of his pilgrimage, written by the hand of el Sherif 

V [I also obtained] a copy made — also in the Holy Land — by the 
learned expert and pious saint el Sheikh Muhammad ibn 'fsa ibn 
'Abd el Baki from a manuscript which he found in possession of the 
Sheikh el Kamil, the learned genealogist known as "el Moghrabi"; 


and the latter had copied it from the manuscript of el Sheikh Sdlim 
el Sanhuri. 

VI [Again, I obtained] a manuscript which agrees with the two I 
have mentioned and which is said by its copier to have been also 
taken from el Sheikh el Sanhuri; and, in addition, more than four 
other manuscripts. 

VII All these manuscripts were examined and their substance ex- 
tracted, and thereto I added what I ascertained by questioning 
learned men of high standing, and made of them a genealogical 
record that will undoubtedly satisfy whoever reads it. This I [com- 
pleted] on the forenoon of Wednesday the 4th of Gamad el Akhir 
in the year 1263 a.h.^. . , 

VIII And after I had made this rough copy in that year I continued 
to study the accuracy of the genealogies which I had collected for 
several years, and, after ascertaining the truth from the authoritative 
works of famous Imams, I rejected whatever was completely in- 
accurate in certain of the records, and finally accepted as true what- 
ever I had found by the help of God to be correct. Then I set my- 
self to make a fair copy, after having added such words as occasion 
demanded, [and] I inserted the narrative of various incidents by way 
of explanation and instruction. 

IX Then I named the work "The Complete Compilation of our 
pedigree to el Sayyid el 'Abbas," and put it into verse, adding 
extracts quoted on the authority of the Imams whose names are 
familiar to all men of education. This I have done in a manner such 
as I have not seen equalled elsewhere, and I have said all that there 
is to be said by way of information concerning the ultimate origins 
and subdivisions [of the tribe] ; and I have arranged the result of 
my researches from the authorities into a complete constellation of 
five chapters : 

X The first chapter explains the honour accruing to one that traces 
his descent to el Sayyid el 'Abbas, and gives some of the virtues of 
el Sayyid el 'Abbas, and mentions his descendants and what people 
trace their Uneage to them, and shows how honourable is he that is 
connected with the Prophet, upon whom be the blessing of God, by 
having Hashim ibn 'Abd Menaf as a common ancestor, and how 
secure is he that has preserved the record of his pedigree from father 
to ancestor, and what is ordained for him that disowns them. 

XI There is also an appendix enumerating one by one the steps 
whereby our pedigree is traced to el Sayyid el 'Abbas, God bless 
him, both in prose and verse, and mentioning all the ways [to grace] 

1 1846 A.D. 


and which of them is the best : it also explains our connection with 
the Prophet, upon whom be the blessings of God, in that Hashim 
ibn 'Abd Menaf is our common ancestor, and our lineage as far back 
as 'Adnan. 

XII The second chapter explains the duty of studying the profitable 
part of genealogical records, and shows what part of them is un- 

XIII There is also an appendix giving the rule concerning the 
observance of ties of blood-relationship. 

XIV The third chapter gives the descendants of our ancestor the feki 
Bishara el Gharbawi and shows how they are related to him. 

XV There is also an appendix concerning our ancestor, the feki 
Bishara, himself. 

XVI The fourth chapter contains a warning against overweening 
pride in one's forefathers. 

XVII There is also an appendix explaining how the learned and 
pious man is better than he of noble descent unless the latter be also 
learned and pious. 

XVIII The fifth chapter gives some account of the tribes of the 
Arabs and Ga'al el Dufar. 

XIX There is also an appendix giving the pedigree of my maternal 
grandfather el Hag Muhammad walad Bishara to el Sayyid el 'Abbas, 
and his connection with the Prophet, upon whom be the blessings 
of God, through having Hashim ibn 'Abd Menaf as a common an- 
cestor, and the continuation of his pedigree as far as 'Adnan. 

XX And now it is time to commence laying before you the result 
of the work I have done by the help of the Lord of all honour and 
eternity : so in the name of God, and placing my trust in God and his 
Prophet, I begin as follows. 

{Here follows Chapter /, a disquisition concerning the honour that 
accrues to one that traces his descent to el ^ Abbas: zh pages are omitted 
in the translation; and then occurs the following , i.e. para, xxi, etc.) 

XXI Now as regards the seed of el Sayyid el 'Abbas, God bless him, 
the genealogists mention that he had two sons, el Fadl and 'Abdulla, 
God bless them. The truth, however, is that el Sayyid el 'Abbas 
had ten sons and three daughters ; namely el Fadl and 'Abdulla and 
'ObayduUa and Mushir' and 'Abd el Rahman and Ma'abad and el 
Harith and Kathir and '(3f and Tamam and Amna and Um Habib 
and Safia. 

XXII After exhaustive search I have not found that el Sayyid Fadl 
had any children except Um Kulthum: the bulk of the tribe [are 

^ reading j-t-« for^5. 


descended from] el Sayyid 'Abdulla ibn el 'Abbas, and I have found 
that he had more than three sons, and they include 'Ali and el Facll 
and 'Obaydulla. 

XXIII From 'Ali son of 'Abdulla are descended the 'Ababsa, and 
from el Fadl son of 'Abdulla the Ga'aliyyun, and from 'Obaydulla 
son of 'Abdulla the Hilaliyyun. And their children's children have 
become scattered in the lands of the East and the West. 

XXIV All the sub-tribes of the Beni el 'Abbas who are now in the 
Sudan are descended from el Fadl son of 'Abdulla son of el 'Abbas, 
whether they be Ga'al el Dufar or not; and this, please God, I 
will explain in the fifth chapter^ when enumerating the tribes of the 
Ga'aliyyun, that is of Ga'al el Dufar. 

{The author continues his discourse concerning the immediate 
descendants of el 'Abbas for 3! pages, and then continues as follows, 
i.e. para, xxv, etc.) 

XXV Appendix giving the steps whereby our pedigree is traced to 
el Sayyid el 'Abbas, God bless him, and our connection with the Prophet, 
upon whom be the blessings of God, in that Hdshim ibn 'Abd Mendf is 
our common ancestor, and our lineage as far back as Adndn. 

XXVI Since it has been shown from what I have said how honour 
has accrued to us from our connection with the Prophet, upon whom 
be the blessings of God, and since it has been taught therein that 
people are to be beheved as to their pedigrees, I say praise be to God 
that I have preserved my pedigree [as handed down] by my ancestors 
to me and by their ancestors to them. 

XXVII And [the truth of] it has been confirmed by such persons 
as I have found who are advanced in years and are men of weight 
and reliabiUty, and by questioning them I have verified it, and to 
what they have told me I have added all the true pedigrees which 
have come into my hands and been preserved by me, and I have 
made certain of the truth [of the whole] by enquiries from the learned 

XXVIII Here then is the course of our pedigree to our ancestor the 
feki Bishara el Gharbawi, whereby those of his seed now existing 
trace their descent, and [an exposition of] the connection with him 
of any tribes of Ga'al el DufAr now existing, and of his connection 
with Serrar ibn Kerdam, the ancestor of all the famous tribes of 
Ga'al, and with our lord el 'Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet, upon 
whom be the blessings of God, and with his ancestor Hashim ibn 
'Abd Menaf, and again with the latter 's forefather 'Adnan. 

XXIX Indeed I have preserved my pedigree beyond 'Adnan to 

^ reading J-oaJI for J^-^aAJI. 

66 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. ab. xxix. 

Adam the father of mankind, God bless him, but I am not permitted 
to recount it beyond 'Adnan because of the saying of the Prophet as 
related by the genealogists, "Trace not pedigrees beyond 'Adnan"; 
and in truth my only desire in giving this record is to show the honour 
that accrues to me from my connection with the Prophet, for to him 
[only] do 'Adnan and the rest owe the honour [in which they are held], 

XXX Thus the poet has said: "How many a father owes the 
nobility (which he possesses) to his son even as 'Adnan owes his to 
the Prophet of God." 

XXXI By way of explanation I tell you also that when the Ga'aliy- 
YUN, that is Ga'al el Dufar, were shown to be descended from 
el Sayyid el Fadl son of el Sayyid 'AbduUa son of 'Abbas, and when 
each one of them began enumerating his ancestors one by one until 
he reached el Sayyid el 'Abbas, some of the genealogists [were found 
to] differ in the course of the enumeration owing to inaccuracies of 
the copyists in altering the spelling of some of the names and omitting 
others and transposing the position of others. 

XXXII But, after making most minute investigations, I adopted [in 
each case] the version that most often occurred, [and then too] after 
hearing [the names] from the mouths of them that knew them. Thus 
my enumeration became authoritative, as you shall shortly see, please 
God, both in prose and verse. 

XXXIII And if the list of ancestors of anyone who claims to be of 
Ga'al el Dufar does not include Salah, his pedigree is incorrect, 
for Salah was ancestor of Ga'al el Dufar, and he had seven sons, 
and his father was Musa el Kebi'r, who was known as Masu. 

XXXIV Then the list proceeds from Salah [upwards] to Serrar ibn 
Kerdam, the ancestor of all the Ga'al, and if any list does not in- 
clude him its owner is no Ga'ali. 

XXXV Now there is a variant account wherein it is said that Salah 
was son of Muhammad el Dahmashi son of Bedayr son of Samra, 
and this is utterly wrong. 

XXXVI Another variant says that Salah was son of Muhammad 
el Dahmashi son of Bedayr son of Turki son of Bedayr son of Samra, 
and this also is incorrect. 

XXXVII Yet another variant gives Salah as son of Musa el Kebir, 
who was known as Masu, son of Muhammad son of Salah son of 
Bedayr son of Samra, and this account is nearer the truth. 

XXXVIII The real reliable version is that Salah was son of Musa, 
who was nicknamed Masu el Kebi'r son of Muhammad son of Salah 
son of Aluhammad son of Dahmash son of Bedayr son of Samra 
son of Serrar. 

IV. AB. xLvi. OF THE SUDAN 67 

XXXIX As regards Serrar, the ancestor of all [the Ga'aliyyun], 
some say that he was son of Kerdam son of Buda'a son of Harkan 
son of Masruk son of Ahmad el Yemani son of el Ga'al son of Idri's 
son of Kays son of Yemen son of el Khazrag son of 'Adi son of 
Kusas son of Kerab son of Hatil son of Yatil son of Dhu el Kila'a 
el Himyari son of Himyar son of Sa'ad son of el Fadl son of 'Abdulla 
son of el 'Abbas, but I have not found this true. 

XL Others say that Serrar was son of Kerdam son of Abu el Di's 
son of Buda'a son of Hasi'n son of Ahmad el Hegazi son of Ibrahim 
el Yemani Ga'al el Aswad son of el Fadl son of 'Abdulla son of 
el 'Abbas, and this too is given for what it is worth. 

XLI Others say that Serrar was son of Kerdam son of Abu el Di's 
son of Buda'a son of Masruk. 

XLII Also it is said that Hasin was son of Ahmad son of Harkan, 
or again that his name was 'Abdulla son of 'Abd el Muttalib son of 
Hashim. But this account also is feeble. 

XLIII The correct account which I have found in the highest 
authorities and most generally supported and which I have adopted 
in my version is as follows : 

XLIV I say — and God is our help — that I am el Sa\-\'id Ahmad son 
of el Sheikh Isma'il el Wali son of 'Abdulla son of Isma'il son of 
'Abd el Rahim Baba son of el Hag Hammad son of the feki Bishara 
el Gharbawi son of the feki 'Ali son of Bursi son of Muhammad son 
of Kabsh son of Hunayn son of el Malik Nasir son of Salah son of 
Musa, surnamed Masu el Kebir, son of Muhammad son of Salah 
son of Muhammad son of Dahmash son of Bedayr son of Samra son 
of Serrar, the ancestor of all [the Ga'aliyyun], son of Kerdam son 
of Abu el Dis son of Buda'a son of Harkan son of Masruk son of 
Ahmad el Hegazi son of Muhammad el Yemeni son of Ibrahim 
el Ga'ali, who was ancestor of Ga'al the famous, son of Sa'ad son 
of el Fadl son of 'Abdulla son of el 'Abbas, the uncle of the Prophet, 
upon whom be the highest blessings of God and salutation, son of 
'Abd el Muttalib son of Hashim son of 'Abd Menaf son of Kusai son 
of Kelab son of Murra son of Ka'ab son of Luai son of Ghalib son 
of Fihr son of Malik son of el Nudr son of Kenana son of Khuzayma 
son of Mudraka son of el Yds son of Mudr son of Xizar son of 
Ma'ad son of 'Adnan. 

XLV Here ends the true pedigree which I have preserved and there- 
by observed the law. 

XLVI I have also put it into verse as an aid to memory to the student 
in order that he mav thereby be enabled to gratify his object to the 


{H a- e follow 41 Imes of doggerel, eked out with laudatory adjectives 
and religious remarks and giving the writer's pedigree up to 'Adndn. 
Then, after 4 lines of prose, occurs the following, i.e. para, xlvii, etc.) 

XLVII Chapter II, explaining the duty of studying the profitable part 
of genealogical records, and showing what part of them is unprofitable, 
with an appendix thereto. 

XLVIII The study of pedigrees is in part profitable and in part 
unprofitable. The study of so much as is profitable is obligatory by 
law upon every Muslim. 

XLIX Thus Sidi el Imam 'Omar ibn el Khattab, God bless him, 
said "Ye know from your pedigrees how ye are connected." 

L And the Sheikh Tatai says "It is your duty to know from your 
pedigrees how ye are connected, because of the exhortation ye have 
received to [keep the record of] your blood-relationships." 

LI El ShadhaU also says "That which has no other claim to be 
obligatory than his {sc. 'Omar's) [sole] authority is yet obligatory." 

LII The above is intended to apply to [the study of the pedigrees of] 
people between whom [and yourself] there is some relationship ; and 
indeed el Imam Abu el Hasan acquiesced in the obligations of such 
study in the same manner, saying that this applied to blood-relation- 
ship, [i.e.] to the case of people between whom [and yourself] there 
is some relationship, and not to [the case of] a man who claims honour 
by marriage [only]. 

LI 1 1 El 'Adawi also said "Ye know that [the keeping of the record 
of] your blood-relationships is obligatory"; so he is equally to be 

LIV And, look you ! Is it not obvious that a man should know 
from his pedigree the total number of his ancestors in Islam rather 
than restrict his knowledge to three forefathers [only] ? 

LV That which is unprofitable in the [study of] pedigrees is the 
knowledge of the pedigrees of others, that is of those to whom one 
is unrelated, because the authoritative dictum does not apply to such, 
and the following saying of the Prophet, upon whom be the blessings 
of God, about one who was learned in pedigrees bears this out "A 
knowledge of them is useless and ignorance harmless." 

LVI El Tatai says " Such knowledge of pedigrees as 'so and so was 
son of so and so of the children of so and so, and the children of so 
and so are connected with the children of so and so by having so and 
so as a common ancestor' is a [type of] learning that is unprofitable 
both in this world and the next, and ignorance of it does no harm to 
him that is ignorant of it, nor does he commit any sin by neglecting 


LVII On this point too it is to be noted that a noble pedigree con- 
fers no merit upon a man from the religious point of view, and pride 
in such is blameworthy. 

LVIII Yusef ibn 'Omar says " If a man devote himself to the 
study of what does not concern him^ in his religion, his labour is 

LIX I say that this is the tradition, and if the warning against pride 
of ancestry is [admitted to have been] proved, then it becomes a 
matter of knowledge that the study of other people's pedigrees is 
of no use and unprofitable, since "knowledge of them is useless and 
ignorance harmless," 

LX El Imam Abu el Hasan says " He who is ignorant of this should 
not be called ignorant." 

LXI An unprofitable form of genealogical research is the tracing of 
pedigrees to one's infidel ancestors. Indeed a knowledge of the 
relationships of infidels is not demanded by the law. 

{The author enlarges on this topic for half a page and then continues — 
para, lxii.) 

LXI I Thus I have shown you from the above what is profitable and 
what unprofitable in [the study of] pedigrees and the obligation of 
knowing so much as is profitable, as proved by the saying of el Imam 
'Omar quoted above. 

LXI II This is supported by the quotation I have found in some 
genealogical records from the Words of the Prophet. . .about one 
who was learned in pedigrees "A knowledge of them is useless and 
ignorance harmless " : 

LXIV-LXX That is. . .{here follow, word for wordy paras. BA, vii to 
XI, followed by a series of quotations front Abu el Hasan, etc.). 

LXXI-LXXII {An explanation of terms used.) 

LXXIII (Identical with BA, xiii.) 

LXXIV (Identical with BA, xiv.) 
{The author then continues in the same strain for half a page. Then 
begins the long third chapter concerning the numerous descendants of 
elfeki Bishdra el Gharbdwi. The first 12 pages are omitted: then occurs 
the following, i.e. para. Lxxv.) 

LXXV Now our ancestor, the feki Bishara el Gharbawi, was by origin 
one of the most noble Ga'al, the dignitaries of high lineage, and he 
was descended from the children of 'Abbas the uncle of the Prophet 
. . . , and this I dealt with in the first chapter in enumerating my 

LXXVI Now his forefathers were among the dignitaries of the 

1 reading <1-~aj J-o^-j o'--J*i" U^=» 'i' foi" c5^ dJl—j^ O^^ 'J'- 


kings of the Dufar, who were an independent people ; and his an- 
cestor in the fifth degree was el Malik Nasir, son of Salah son of 
Musa "Masu el Kebir," and ancestor of the Malik-Nasiria. 

LXXVII This term, which is pronounced "Melkanasiria," denotes 
the stock of our said ancestor and also the other descendants of 
el Malik Nasir, with the reservation that our ancestor [Bishara] with- 
drew apart from the rest, and became so famous for his religious 
attainments that he came to be regarded by his descendants as founder 
of a race of his own; and they traced their descent to him and 
were known among the tribes of Ga'al el Dufar as the Gharba- 
wiNGi (spelt with a w and i and n and then a letter [pronounced] 
between a g and sh). 

LXXVIII So then you have learnt the facts about him; and if you 
have regard to his ultimate origin he was an 'Abbasi, and if to the 
tribes of Ga'al, he was a Ga'ali Dufari, and if to the kings of the 
Dufar, he was a Melkanasiri. 

LXXIX And he lived a life of the greatest godliness and sanctity 
and purity, and pre-eminent in piety and truth and faithfulness and 
nobihty of character, and ennobled by the greatest virtues. 

LXXX Thus finally he became greatly respected among the people 
and with his children was held in the highest honour by the greatest 
men of the land. 

LXXXI The truth of all that has been said and proved and written 
of him is shown by the attention and regard paid to him by the kings 
and the honour and high esteem in which they held him; and they 
used to write letters patent for him to every one living in their realms 
directing that no one should interfere with him and his children or 
with anyone related to him by blood or by marriage among the noble 
Ga'al that men know so well. 

LXXXII And I found a document signed by the learned pious and 
powerful conqueror the late Sultan Badi son of the Sultan Nul, and 
dated 1145 a.h.^ and it runs as follows, after the preface. . . : 

LXXXIII "These letters patent I have written for the feki Bishara 
son of the feki 'Ali son of Bursi that no man interfere with him and 
his brothers and his sons and his relatives by marriage and his family 
and any connection of his or any one under his protection: let no 
one of my subjects interfere with him! And I, the Sultan Badi son 
of the Sultan Nul have confirmed the honours conferred by the 
Sultan Badi son of the Sultan Arbat on el feki Bishara son of feki 
'Ali son of Bursi, on him and on him that is with him, — honours 
done to God and His Prophet, a sacred duty. 

^ 1732 A.D. 

iv.AB.xciv. OF THE SUDAN 71 

LXXXIV From whomsoever of his successors hold these letters let 
no man demand contribution nor first-fruits [lit. 'custom'] nor levy 
nor market due nor impost nor forage-due nor herd-due [mfitilrat] 
nor anything small or great within the royal realms, either at home 
or abroad, in the east or in the west. 

LXXXV If anyone interferes with him or approaches him let him 
blame no one but himself [for the consequences]. Beware! I say, 
beware of disobedience ! He who disobeys let him blame no one but 

LXXXVI This I have copied from the sealed letters-patent granted 
to him, word for word, and these letters are now in my possession. 

LXXXVII And he had [granted to him] other letters-patent which 
have been lost in the course of time. It is enough that he relied upon 
God Almighty. 

{Here follow four pages of laudations of Bishdra and his descendants 
mixed with anecdotes of their lives: then follows para. Lxxxviii.) 

LXXXVIII The reason why our ancestor el feki Bishara was called 
"el Gharbawi" ["the Westerner"] was as follows: 

LXXXIX When el Sheikh Ibrahim el Bulad ibn Gabir came from 
Egypt he settled on the island of Tarnag in the country of the 
Shaikia and taught law [lit. Khalif] and apostleship [risdla]. 

XC Now our ancestor el feki Bishara was [still] a child, and his 
father el feki 'Ali ibn Bursi was a man of religion who observed the 
Kuran and had some knowledge of the sciences, and [the latter] left 
the circle of his family and devoted himself to religion, and of all 
his sons he used to urge Bishara in particular to devote himself to 

XCI Thus when our ancestor el feki Bishara heard the news of [the 
arrival of] el Sheikh Ibrahim el Bulad, he crossed the river from their 
home [at] Hosh Mar in Dongola and joined el Sheikh Ibrahim at 
Tarnag Island and sought learning and religious instruction from 
him, and sat at his feet for a [long] while. 

XCI I Now the name Bishara was very common among the pupils, 
so he surnamed our ancestor el feki Bishara "el Gharbawi," because 
the home of our ancestor, Hosh Mar, was to the west of the Island 
where the Sheikh lived, and our ancestor used to cross the river from 
the west to the east to visit the Sheikh at Tarnag Island. 

XCIII Thus, since the Sheikh Ibrahim named him "el Gharbawi," 
he became famous by that name : and the date of his connection with 
the Sheikh Ibrahim was the eleventh century [of the Hegira]. 

XCIV So he served him and acquired learning and practical re- 
ligious instruction from him, for el Sheikh Ibrahim el Bulad was one 


of the greatest and most pious and learned of sages, [and was] the 
first to teach law [KhaliJ] in the land of the Fung. 

XCV I have mentioned the chief points in his biography in what 
follows: Ibrahim el Bulad was son of Gabir, and his story emits a 
sweet odour. 

XCVI His [full] name was el Sheikh el Imam el Hugga Ibrahim 
son of Gabir son of '(3n son of Selim son of Rubat, the father of 
the RiKABiA Sa\yids, and he was bom at Tamag, an island in the 
land of the SnArpA, and went to Eg\-pt and studied under Sidi 
Muhammad el Banufari, and was taught by him the origins and the 
ends of divinit\', 

XCVI I Then he moved to Tamag and there taught law [Khalil] and 
apostles hip. 

XCVI 1 1 He was [also] the first to teach law [Khalil] in the land of 
the Fung. 

XCIX Many people used to visit him, and he taught the whole 
science of law [Khalil] from beginning to end seven times and 
thereby instructed 40 persons, among whom was the virtuous Sheikh 
'Abd el Rahman his brother. 

C So his story continues : and it is said that the reason why he was 
called "el Bulad" was that a certain man swore to divorce his wife 
if he did not succeed in collecting into his house ever\-thing that 
God had created. Then [el Bulad] decided the matter by placing a 
Kuran on the bed, and explained his action by quoting the following 
words of God "There is nothing that I have omitted in the Book"; 
and his Sheikh said to him "You are Bulad el Berr" ["the Steel of 
the Earth"], and his cognomen of "Bulad" for that reason became 

CI His sons were el Hag Muhammad and el Hag Hammad, both 
good and virtuous men, and such of his seed as exist now are descended 
from them. 

CII By the help of the Great King, the Almight>', I have now com- 
pleted all that I promised in this chapter. 

cm Chapter IV. . .(The title is repeated as in para. x\t.) 

CIV and CV My brethren in God and the Prophet, overweening 
pride in our forefathers is blameworthy in the law, and it is not the 
part of an intelligent man to. . .{continues as BA, x\7, v:hich is slightly 

CVI So too, the Prophet. . ., according to the beautiful tradition 
related by Ibn Daud and el Termidhi, said " God hath redeemed you 
from the brutishness [ghubiyya] of the days of ignorance and pride 
of ancestry. 

IV. AB. cxxxiii. OF THE SUDAN 73 

evil The faithful are pious and the impious are base. Ye are the 
children of Adam, [created] of earth." 

CVIII The Imam Abu el Hasan in explanation of this tradition 
says that ghubiyya is so spelt and refers to pride and vain-glory, 
and that the saying was intended to warn people of being boastful as 
[the people of] the days of ignorance were from pride and suchlike 
and conceit of ancestry. 

CIX For, considering that all men alike were formed from the earth 
that is trodden underfoot, how shall. . . .{Continues as BA, XLii.) 

{Then follozc comments and traditions from el Termidhi and 
el Khdzin on the subject of man's creation (15 lines), and then a tradition 
concerning Abu Sufidn, ending as follozvs, i.e. para, ex, etc.) 

CX-CXIII Then God revealed this verse and forbade boastful com- 
parisons of pedigrees and competition to amass wealth and disdain 
of the poor, saying "O people. . . .{Continues as BA, xxii, the quota- 
tions and explanations as given being identical. The same strain con- 
tinues for i^ pages, and the closing words are as follows, i.e. para, cxiv.) 

CXIV And thus the honour that comes from piety is the greatest, 
so the pious man is better and nobler in God's sight than the man of 
noble birth [el Sherif], because God said "The noblest of you in 
God's sight is the most pious of you." 

CXV El Imam el Khazin expounded this verse and showed by 
virtue of . . . . {Continues exactly as BA, xxxiii.) 

CXVI-CXVIII And lastly he quoted Abu Hurayra as saying that the 
Prophet. . .was asked "Which. .. .{Continues as BA, xxx\'ii and 
xxxviii down to ". . .of tnale and female" : the only difference lies in a 
few grammatical variations. Then, after five lines of explanation of 
terms. Chapter V commences as follows, para, cxix.) 

CXIX Chapter V, gi\'ing some account of the tribes of the Arabs 
and Ga'al el Dufar, with an appendix. 

CXX-CXXIX Know that God. . .says "And I have made {Here 

follow BA, xxiii and xxxii in juxtaposition, followed immediately by 
BA, xxiv to xxxi. The copies, but for grammatical variations, are identical 
with the exceptions noted in BA.) 

CXXX The learned Muhammad Zaid el Kafuri asked the question 
" Is the enslavement of all the Arabs permissible or not? " The cele- 
brated answer was that it was [not?] so, and this is the view of Malik 
and Ahmad, because slaver\' implies deterioration. 

CXXXI-CXXXII {As BA, XL VI I and xlviii, zcith the exceptions given 
in the notes.) 

CXXXIII I am not sure of the subdivisions of the seven tribes 
mentioned because of the variations in the different accounts. 


CXXXIV-CXXXV {These t-vco paragraphs are together identical with 
BA, XLix, "with the exceptions noted in BA.) 

CXXXVI {As BA, LI, with the exceptions there noted.) 

CXXXVII Now there are [also] seven tribes apart from these seven, 
viz. Bag, Bagig, Khashba, Khabra, Haratha, Ghibra and 'Athir. 
These are of non-Arab ['agani] ancestors, blacks and whites. 

CXXXVIII-CXXXIX This account is the true one, but in some of the 
genealogies it is said that the original Arabs are Himyar and Tai .... 
{Continues as BA, l, with only the exceptions there noted.) 

CXL Now as for the tribes of the Arabs descended from Guhayna, 
taken separately by themselves, according to some genealogies the 
sons of Dhubian were ten, viz.. . . {Continues as BA, lix, with some 
variations for which see the trees.) 

CXLI-CLIX {These nineteen paragraphs give the various personal and 
tribal descendants of Dhubian, and correspond in outline to paras. LX et 
seq. of BA, though the latter adds very many details as will be seen by 
reference to the trees, where all points of difference and additions and 
omissions can be seen, except such as are specifically mentioned in the 
notes to BA. There is nothing in these paragraphs beyond what is shown 
in the tree and in the notes to BA.) 

CLX Now Dhubian, whom we mentioned above, was the son of 
Guhayna son of. . . {etc., as in the tree, as far as 'Adndn). 

CLXI This is the end of [the account] which I have accepted, 
according to w^hat I found in the records dealing with the tribes of 
the Arabs, but I cannot vouch for its correctness. 

CLXII-CLXV Now as regards Ga'al in general the true account is 
that which I have found given in some of the records, viz. as follows : 
. . . {Paras. CLXiii to clxv are here omitted as being identical with 
paras, cxxx to cxxxii of BA, q.v.) 

CLXVI Now the man who collected all the tribes of Ga'al together 
was Kerdam son of Abu el Di's, and whosoever is not enrolled among 
his descendants is not a Ga'ali. 

CI.XVII His abode was in the land of el Hegaz and the fertile lands, 
and it is related chat his father Abu el Dis had two sons, Kerdam 
and Tergam ; but of Tergam's descendants I know nothing. 

CLXVIII As regards Kerdam it is said that his name was the Sultan 
Hasan Kerdam son of Abu el Di's, and that he had ten sons; but 
those that are known and whose descendants are verified and recorded 
in the genealogies are three only, viz. Dula and Tomam and Serrar. 

CLXIX Dula was ancestor of Fur and the Sakarang, and Tomam 
of the TOiMAM. 

CLXX Serrar was ancestor of all [the Ga'aliyyun], and had three 

IV. AB. ccxxiii. OF THE SUDAN 75 

sons, Samra and Samayra and Mismar. So I will complete what I 
have to say of the descendants of each of these three in turn, if it 
please God. 

CLXXI-CCIX {These paragraphs give the descendants of Samra and 
Samayra and Mismar: the names of all the individuals and the sub- 
tribes here said to be descended from them will be found in the tree. Any 
remarks made in passing by the author and not noted in the tree, will be 
found in the notes to BA, q.v. paras. CXL to clxi.) 

CCX The above are the descendants of Serrar son of Kerdam, the 
ancestor of all [the Ga'aliyyun]. 

CCXI Some accounts give Bedayr as one of his sons, but this is 
incorrect: his sons were three, Samra and Samayra and Mismar, 
and I have given their descendants, all of whom are included in [the 
term] Ga'al, both the Dufar and the others. 

CCXII As regards the tribes of Ga'al el Dufar taken separately, 
their lineage is as follows: their ancestor, from whom they are all 
variously descended, was Salah son of Musa el Kebi'r son of Muham- 
mad son of Salah son of Muhammad son of Dahmash son of Bedayr 
son of Samra son of Serrar, the general ancestor; and anyone un- 
connected with him [Serrar] is not a Ga'ali Dufari. 

CCXI II The sons of Salah son of Musa, known as Masu el Kebi'r, 
were seven: [among them] were Nasrulla, the ancestor of. . .{see tree) 
. . . and Nasir, ancestor of the . . . {see tree) .... 

CCXIV All of these are included in the term Dufar, being descended 
from the seven sons of Salah. 

CCXV The descendants of Muhammad were Abukr and the 

CCXVI-CCXVII {Gives the sons and grandsons of el Malik Musa el 
Sughayr and the tribes descended from them, q.v. in the tree.) 

CCXVIII 'Aid was the brother of Musa el Sughayr, the two of them 
being the sons of Hammad^. 

CCXIX 'Aid was ancestor of the 'Aidab, [who are included] among 
the Ga'al el Dufar. 

CCXX This is all I have discovered about the various lines of 
descent; but I could ascertain nothing definite about [all] the seven 
sons of Salah and their respective descendants. This suffices. 

CCXXI Now you know, from what I have said before, that all whose 
descent is now traced to el Sayyid el 'Abbas are only the progeny of 
el Sayyid el Fadl son of el Sayyid 'Abdulla son of el Sayyid el 'Abbas. 

CCXXII-CCXXIII {Concerning the sons of el 'Abbas, as in paras, xxi 
and xxii.) 

1 reading jw.oi». for il*»-. 


CCXXIV 'Abdulla had a son el Fadl, who was father of Sa'ad the 
father of Ibrahim el Ga'ah. Ibrahim htgot. . .{and so on down to 
Serrdr, as in para. xliv). 

CCXXV-CCXXVI {A mere repetition o/para. XXIII.) 

CCXXVII I will now give the pedigree, as I have done in the other 
cases, and I will do so in the course of showing my own ancestry, 
beginning with my maternal grandfather el Hag Muhammad ibn 
Bishara, and [showing] how he was descended from el Sayyid el 
'Abbas and connected with the Prophet ... by a common ancestry 
from Hashim son of 'Abd Menaf, and I will even go further, back to 
'Adnan. Since I have shown you my true and trustworthy lineage 
on my father's side, I will similarly give the pedigree of my mother's 
father : it is as follows : 

CCXXVIII I am el Sayyid Ahmad son of el Sheikh Isma'il el Wali, 
and my mother was Zaynab, daughter of el Hag Muhammad son 
of. . .{as in the tree, as far back as 'Adndn). 

CCXXIX This is the record I have kept as ordained by the law, and 
in the work I have throughout showed the pedigrees, whether through 
male or female, with intent that the whole should be known, as re- 
quired by the law. 

CCXXX Certain points had been obscure to me, and this fact 
originally actuated me to write this work ; and I have prayed God to 
give me assistance, for He is Almighty, and I offer to Him praise 
from first to last; and prayer and homage be to Muhammad, the 
foremost of the prophets by his pre-eminence, and [blessings be] 
upon all his followers. May God forgive my past sins and my future 
sins, my known sins and my unknown sins, and give me blessing in 
this world and in the world of eternity, and keep me from all future 
ill. And may God grant His mercy to all the prophets and apostles; 
and praise be to God the Lord of the worlds. 

CCXXXI This work was finally completed on the noon of Wednesday 
the nth of Rabi'a el Thani in the year 1270^ after the Hegira or 
Flight of the last of the prophets, upon whom be the blessing of 
God. . .{the Te Deum of para, ccxxx is again repeated). 

1 1853 A.D. 

[ 77 ] 


II The term "Wali" is a title given to a holy man after death. The 
reverence paid to them and to their tombs is based on Chapter x (63) of 
the Kuran (see Sell, p. 109, and Hughes, p. 663). 

III The term Ga'al el Dufar apparently relates exclusively to those 
Ga'aliyyun who are descended from Salah: see paras, xxxiii and ccxiv. 

For the versification of the pedigree see para. XLVi. 

IV Only one of the alleged authorities mentioned in this and the two 
following paragraphs is known to me: this is Salim ibn Muhammad el 
Sanhuri, who was a commentator on the Mukhtasar of Khalil ibn Ishak 
el Gindi. He died in 1015 a.h. (1606 a.d.) and is mentioned in Hagi 
Khalfa's Lexicon (Vol. v, p. 447). Cp. D 3, No. 195. 

It is a common practice of these Sudan genealogists to cull from the 
works of mediaeval authors certain pious remarks and details of informa- 
tion as to the pedigrees of contemporaries of the Prophet, and, after in- 
corporating this in their own work among innumerable genealogical details 
derived from entirely different sources, and even from mere hearsay, to 
quote the mediaeval authors as authority for the whole. The author of 
AB hovers between this and the more candid policy (paras, vii, viii, and 

xxi See Wiistenfeld (W). Two sons are omitted. 

xxii Um Kulthum was el Fadl's only child. 
'Abdulla had eight children, including those given : See Wiistenfeld (W). 

xxiii 'Obaydulla and el Fadl are not shown by Wiistenfeld as having 
any descendants at all. 'Ali had 17 children. 

xxvi Cp. BA, XV and D 5 (c), xviii. 

xxix Cp. BA, cxxxv; A 2, in ; A 8, ix. 

XXX Also quoted in BA, ccxxix. The Arabic is: 

XXXV, xxxvi, xxxvii I have not met with any of these three condemned 

xxxix This, with certain variations, is the account most commonly 
accepted. Abu el Dis is omitted by error between Kerdam and Buda'a. 
For Buda'a a common variant is Kuda'a. Cp. the trees of BA and MSS. 
A I to A II, and the note on para, cxxxiii of BA, from which it appears 
that the version here referred to may be BA or an older copy of BA. 

XL I have not met with this version. Hasin occurs in A 9. Cp. however 
D 6, II for "Ga'al el Aswad" ("the black''). 

XLiii, XLiv There is little doubt that the author has chosen this pedigree 
because he did not like the look of such non-Arab names as Hatil and 
Yatil, and because, there being many variants of the names between Abu 
el Dis and Sa'ad he thought the best way would be to omit them all. The 
result of course is that there are far too few generations between the author 

78 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. ab. xliv. 

and el 'Abbas. His statement that he found this pedigree as it stands "in 
the highest authorities" is no doubt pure invention. 

XLVi The quahty of the verse is vile and is on a par with the Elizabethan 
ballad of John Symon entitled "Pleasant Poesie, or sweete Nosegay of 
fragrant smellyng Flowers gathered in the Garden of heavenly Pleasure, 
the holy and blessed Bible, to the tune of the Black Almayne." The 
following lines from this work (quoted in the Quarterly Review of April, 
191 3) are very similar to the result of our author's efforts, and the very title 
quoted at once recalls the florid nomenclature of Arabic works : 

Isacke was no weede, 

Nor Jacob in very deede : 

Joseph was a flower of price, 

God dyd hym save from cruell device; 

Also Moses eke we find; 

And Aaron likewyse up we bynde, 

Josua is not out of mynd. 

XLix Cp. BA, III and see note thereon. 

L Sheikh Tatai was Muhammad ibn Ibrahim el Tatai, Grand Kadi of 
Egypt. He died in 1094 a.h. (1683 A.D.). He is not mentioned by Hagi 

LI Cp. BA, IV. El Shadhali, the founder of the religious order of the 
Shadhalia, was Abu el Hasan 'Ali el Shadhali ibn 'Abdulla, a descendant 
of Abu Talib. He was born near Tunis and died in 1258 a.d. He was the 
author of Hizb el Bahr ("the Litany of the Sea") and other works on the 
duties of worship. (See Huart, p. 278.) 

Lii Cp. BA, v. 
The Imam Abu el Hasan is, I think, 'Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Muham- 
mad ibn Muhammad ibn Khalaf el Manufi. He was born at Cairo in 
857 A.H. (1453 A.D.). 

Liii El 'Adawi is possibly 'Ali ibn Ahmad el Sa'idi, a Maliki doctor. 
The 'Adawia order was founded by Sheikh 'Adi ibn Musafir in the second 
half of the twelfth century a.d. 

LV Cp. BA, V. 

Lviii Cp. BA, VI, and see note thereto. A Yusef ibn 'Omar is mentioned 
in Hagi Khalfa 's Lexicoji (Vol. in, p. 413) as a commentator on the 
Risdla of el Shafa'i; and another, surnamed "el Kaduzi," as a commen- 
tator on a Hanafite mukhtasar by el Imam Abu el Husayn Ahmad {v. Vol. 
v, p. 455). The date of neither is given. 

LXiv The only difference between this paragraph and para, vii of BA 
is "el 'Arab" (AB) for "el Anzab" (BA). See note to BA, vii. 

Lxxv. This feki Bishara's importance is greatly exaggerated. He is not 
even mentioned in the Tabakdt Wad Dayfxdla {i.e. D 3), although much 
space is allotted to his contemporaries, the pupils of Ibrahim el Bulad. 

Lxxvii The word spelt " Gharbawingi " is intended to be pronounced 
" Gharbawinchi." 

Lxxxi "Letters patent" is a\s^,plur. o^ya>.\. Frequent mention is made 
in the Tabakdt Wad Dayfidla of the grant of similar privileges to holy 


Lxxxii Badi "Abu Shelukh" reigned 1733-1766 (Bruce) or 1721-1761 
(Cailliaud). (See note to D 7, xlviii for this name.) 

Lxxxiii Badi Abu Dukn reigned 1651-1689 (Bruce) or 1638-1675 

Lxxxiv "Contribution" is w— »- (hasab), i.e. an offering, generally of 
dammilr (cloth) given to anyone who came as friend (haslh) of the 
Sultan. "First-fruits" is S^lc {'dda), lit. "custom." "Levy" is iiU 
{'ana), lit. "assistance." " JMarket-due " is j 1^5 (kuwdr), i.e. a due taken 
on the sale of articles. "Impost" is «ijUa. (gabdya). In Darfur Abo 
gabdyin under the Sultans was the official responsible for collecting the 
corn tithes. "Forage-due" is (3^ ('«^o'/e), i.e. a gift of corn to feed the 
beasts of a great man and his retinue when he halted at a village. "Herd- 
due" is Oj^I^ (maturat), i.e. the fattest of the flock, for slaughter in 

honour of a dignitary's visit: Ar. j^, to fatten up (properly of a bull). 
This list is of interest as showing the local imposts in force under Fung 

Lxxxviii The real reason of the nickname "Westerner" was very pro- 
bably that Bishara, or his ancestors, came from Borku. See D i, CXLIX. 

Lxxxix Ibrahim el Bulad was one of the famous sons of Gabir. He is 
mentioned in BA, ccv, and in the Tabakdt. Also cp. Jackson, p. 26. By 
race he was a Rikabi. 

By "Khalil" is meant the subjects treated of by Khalil, viz. Khalil 
ibn Ishak el Gtindi, the author of a great compendium {mukhtasar) of 
Malikite law. He died in 767 a.h. (1365-6 A.D.). EI Sanhuri, 'Abd el Baki 
el Zurkani, and el Ag-huri, all of whom are mentioned by AB or BA 
{q.v. ccxii), were among those who wrote commentaries on Khalil's work. 
(See Hagi Khalfa's Lexicon, Vol. v, pp. 446-7.) Cp. D 3, vi. Risdla 
more commonly means "composition" and "the art of letter-writing," 
but from the context here and elsewhere (and most notably in the couplet 
quoted in D 3, No. 93), it is clear that by risdla is meant the office or 
duty of a rasiil or apostle. (See Hughes, p. 545, ii.) 

xcvi Hugga is properly a decisive argument but the term is used to 
denote a person of incontrovertible authority. For the Rikabia see the 
trees to BA and D i and D 3, and Part HI, Ch. 7. Muhammad el Banufari 
is also mentioned in D 3 (No. 17) as the instructor of Ibrahim el Bulad. 
Nothing definite is known about him. 

xcix The Arabic phrase is Ol^JJi. aju-j J«*A»- 15* a—jj**-^ 5^.«3 and 

"seven sealings" means that he lectured on the whole of his subject 
from beginning to end seven times and on reaching the end of the book 
(Khalil's) he each time sealed or signed it in token thereof. Cp. D 3, 
No. 17. The 40 pupils of the Awlad Gabir are often referred to in D 3, 
e.g. No. 60. 

For 'Abd el Rahman see D 3, No. 17, and BA, ccv. 
c This "divorce oath" is very frequent in the Sudan: a man says "I 
swear that I will do (or not do) so and so, and if I break my oath I will 
divorce my wife" — and if he does break his oath he is expected to divorce 
her, though in practice he often compounds his offence instead. 


The passage in the Kuran alluded to is in Sura, vi {q.v. Sale, p. 92). 

cvi Cp. BA, XXXVIII. 
El Termidhi is Abu 'fsa Muhammad el Tirmidhi, author of the Gama'i, 
an encyclopaedia of traditions throwing light on the law. He died in 
892 A.D. (See Huart, p. 220.) 

By Ibn Daud is meant Abu Daud, one of the six great collectors and 
recorders of the Sunnite traditions, a contemporar}^ of el Termidhi. 

cvii Cp. BA, XLii. 

cviii Cp. BA, XLi. 

Cix El Khazin is Sheikh 'Ala el Din 'Ali ibn Muhammad ibn Ibrahim 
el Baghdadi el Sufi "el Khazin." He completed his great work Lubdb el 
Tdwilfi ma'dni li tanzil (a Kuranic commentary') in 725 a.h. (1325 A.D.) : see 
Hagi Khalfa's Lexicon, Vol. v, p. 298. 

cx Cp. BA, xviii. 

cxvi See note to BA, xxxvii. For ". . .was asked" AB gives JIw JI5 
instead of \j J.*5 J15. 

cxix See para, in (note). 

cxxx The Arabic is as follows: 

I cannot help thinking that a negative has dropped out, but the words 
quoted occur in the original, as in the later copies. The translation given 
of the last four words represents as nearly as possible the explanation of 
them offered by the author's son. 

"Malik" is Abu 'Abdulla Malik ibn Anas; and "Ahmad" is Abu 
'Abdulla Ahmad ibn Hanbal, i.e. two of the four founders of the great 
orthodox sects of Sunnis. 

cxxxi-cxxxii AB gives "Salim" instead of "Aslam" (BA, xlviii); and 
AB gives j^jliJI OlJCi^l instead of j^jIaJL) OlCu^l (BA, xlviii). 

cxxxvii Cp. A3, XII, where almost all these names are spelt rather 
differently. "Bag" may refer to the Bega; but otherwise I have no clue 
to the identity of these tribes. The original MS. gave Khabra: later copies 
taken from it give Gabra. Cp. C 9, 24. 

CLXII From here onwards to ccx cp. A i. 

CLXVI Cp. BA, cxxxiii and cxxxvi. 

CLXVii Cp. BA, cxxxvii. 

CLXViii Cp. BA, CXXXVII and cxxxviii. 

CLXix Cp. BA, cxxxix. 

CLXX The phrase "the general ancestor" (JXJI jt«h.) is very frequently 
applied to Serrar (for whom see note to BA, cxxxiv). 

ccxiv "Muhammad" is presumably the son of Salah ibn Muhammad. 
In para. CLXXii the Terayfia were given as descendants of Terayf. Cp. 
BA, cxLi. 

ccxviii Two or three illegible words follow at the end of this paragraph 
in the original MS. 

ccxix In para, ccxiii these appear as w»ljt*c, but here as w^ljuU. 




Abu Merkha 

lamayd Hamaydan 

? 'Onia 



? DildMa 
? Shdikia 
? Gamil'ia 

I i • I 

lutraf JGhanim JGhanum |Gami'a JMalik el Zayn 



! Nasir 

I Fadayliyyfin 
\ Bent Fadl? 


lara el Gharbawi 

ird mother. 

IRl'i: ri.l.rsTRATING MS, ■AB- 

Uamtdldn) .Kunan j^^ ^Shu/ala 

(C<i'o/.»^l CAtiOia) (HnJiyyBn) 

< «l Mi'iiVi Kinyn OmUh HiUU ZunlDt 'layl IfJclm Mubunnud tl -Akil IJiUi lj>u*yn IS^n 

Ucicdii Ziyd r.l>Jll Th*bl[ Zuhi)'i 



(ffurayiA.A} (KluiTrfaHa) (AffM^) (tUuO IMdlidbt 

•Shift •GUnim 







,a *'2:» 


t«ul»f IGhuito, HJtunum IfiJml-a IM.IikrlZ«yn 

C/Wdfc) M**" 

:t l^aditia) iifdnm, 

El His Htr 

[ 8i ] 



The author of ABC is Sadi'k el Hadra, a Mahassi of the village of 
Salamat el Basha near Khartoum North. He is an old feki who 
has made the study of genealogies his life's work, and is, in fact, in 
process of completing the compilation of an enormous volume com- 
prizing several hundreds of pedigrees which he has collected. I am 
afraid that neither his critical faculty nor his educational qualifications 
can honestly be said to fit him for the adequate presentation of the 
subject he has so courageously undertaken to elucidate, but he has 
certainly collected a formidable mass of raw material. 

On my showing an interest in his studies he kindly composed for 
me the monograph here translated: it is in the nature of an abbrevi- 
ated edition of his magnum opus. 

The first part deals with that branch of the Mahass which is 
traditionally descended from 'Agam ibn Zaid ibn Muhammad 
Mahsin, i.e. with the author's own tribe. The second part is concerned 
with the Ga'ali group of tribes, the third with those of Guhayna, 
and the fourth with a medley of others. One or two brief biographies 
are also included. 

Sadik's method, he informs me, has been to compare various 
manuscripts (twenty-four in all, he says) and to supplement or check 
them by personal oral enquiries from other fekis. When satisfied 
as to the truth he has enshrined it in his work. His method, in fact, 
has been that of the author of AB. It is, however, obvious that he 
has been unduly credulous, and apt to accept at its face value much 
information that is worthless: in this respect he falls behind the 
author of AB. He also shows a distinct tendency to force variant 
accounts into an unnatural agreement by baldly stating as a fact 
what is no more than the product of his own imagination. 

What then is the value of the work? It is small, but not altogether 
negligible. In the first place we have in it an example, the only one 
included in this collection, of a present-day nisha, and one that 
illustrates well the methods followed by native genealogists in dealing 
with their authorities. 

Sadik el Hadra has studied the Tabakdt (D 3) and various 
versions of BA and other such MSS., and we see the result: the pre- 


sumption is thus created that the authors of some at least of the works 
to which he referred for his information proceeded on analogous Hnes. 

Secondly, various items of definite fact, otherwise unknown, are 
to be gleaned as to matters with which Sadik is personally conversant. 
These sometimes help to explain obscure points in the other nisbas. 

Thirdly, even allowing for inaccuracies and a certain degree of 
imagination, we get sidelights on native tradition drawn from sources 
which have been available to Sadik in the course of a long life of 
enquiry, but which do not happen to have come within our ken 
through any other channel. 

It may be added that, though in many cases where ABC differs 
from other nisbas, e.g. in the spelling of a proper name, ABC is 
certainly the less accurate, it is yet quite likely that in some other 
cases ABC may happen to provide a correct copy of some more 
accurate MS. than any I have seen. 

The appendix is by a different author, for whom see the first note 

I 'Agam was son of Zaid son of . . . {as in Tree i). . .son of Ka'ab 
el Khazragi el Ansari, who died at el Medina the Glorious in 19 a.h. 
in the Khalifate of 'Omar ibn el Khattab, God bless him. 

II Sheikh Idris, whose kuhba is at el 'Ayl Fung, was son of 
el Arbab Muhammad son of. . .{as in tree, to 'Agam). He was born 
near Shanbat at a place called Shuhat lying between the railway [and 
the river], north of Shanbat, opposite the experimental pumping- 
station. He was born in 910 a.h., and on the death of his parents he 
moved to 'Aylat el Fung and lived there until his death. He died and 
was buried there, after a life of about 149 Arabic years, in 1059 a.h. 
His mother was Fatima, the daughter of the Sherif Hammad Abu 
Denana^, who is buried at Abu Delayk and was descended from el 
Husayn ibn 'Ali ibn Abu Talib. 

On his father's side Sheikh Idris was a Khazragi Ansari descended 
from Ubi ibn Ka'ab ; and [Khazrag] are originally Arabs of Yemen 
descended from Kahtan ibn 'Abir, that is the prophet Hud, upon 
whom be peace. 

Sheikh Idris 's descendants are [mostly] at el 'Ayl Fung, and some 
are in other places. 

III El Hag Idris was son of 'Abd el Daim son of. . .{as in tree, to 
'Agam) and was born at the Shuhat mentioned above in 959 a.h. 
He lived 99 years and died in 1058 a.h. He had seven sons, namely 
. . .{as in tree, which gives their names and descendants). 

1 reading ajU> for «lJi. 


IV El Sheikh Khogali, whose kubba is at Khartoum North, was 
son of 'Abd el Rahman son of. . .{as in tree, to 'Agam). He had 
nine sons and four daughters. These were . . .{as in tree). Ahmad 
and Muhammad and el Gaz and Um Hani were all children of the 
same mother, namely, Wanasuna bint 'Omar ibn Hammad ibn 
Muhammad, so her pedigree meets that of Sheikh Khogali in the 
person of el Malik Gama'i. Her tribe was called the Makanab, the 
children of el Malik Makan. The mother of the remaining seven 
brothers and two sisters was Bint el Minna bint Ta'ulla ibn Sulayman 
ibn Abu Musa, a Kardakabi'a, so her pedigree meets that of Sheikh 
Khogali in the person of their ancestor, the above-mentioned 'Agam. 
Their progeny forms several tribes [kabdil], some of whom live 
at el Kubba, and some round the village called el Khogalab after 
their ancestor Khogali and situated on the east bank opposite Kerreri, 
and some in the south. 

Sheikh Khogali was born on Tuti Island in 1065 a.h. and lived 
loi years and died in 11 55 a.h. 

V The descendants of Kardaka ibn Fellah ibn Sheraf el Dm ibn 
'Agam are on Tuti Island : others of them are scattered in Kordofan 
and the neighbourhood of Gebel el Haraza, in the west, between the 
two Kababish districts of Gabra and el Safia. They form a consider- 
able number of tribes, about thirty in fact. Others live in the Gezi'ra 
of Sennar. 

VI Some of the descendants of Marzuk ibn Fellah ibn Sheraf 
el Din ibn 'Agam live at Burri el Mahass near Khartoum South, 
namely the children of Ibrahim el Budani who are called the Budanab. 
With them are other descendants of Marzuk surnamed the Awlad 
Kasuma. Other descendants of Marzuk are round el Rakayba on the 
east bank, opposite el Kamni'n, and are called "the Mahass." Others 
of them are at Hillet Balula, north of el Kamnin, on the east bank. 
They form various tribes. 

VII The descendants of Zai'd ibn 'Agam form various tribes. They 
include the children of Hammad ibn 'Abd el Salam ibn . . .{as in tree, 
to 'Isa), namely el feki el Sayyid and 'Abd el Salam and el Hag 
Muhammad Nur and their sisters Fatima and Um Kalthum: and 
the children of each of these form a tribe, and they dwell at Shanbat 
and thereabouts. 

They include also the children of 'Agaymi and of his son Ahmad, 
some of whom are at Shanbat and some on Tuti Island and some in 
the Gezi'ra of Sennar: these form various tribes. 

Also the children of Idris ibn Shakartu ibn...(rt^ in tree, to 


Also the children of Shakartulla ibn el Hag ibn . . .{as in tree, to 
'AH \4shba). Some of these are at Shanbat and some round el Mesal- 
lamia, which is a government headquarters, and some round Sennar, 
and all are descended from Idri's ibn Shakartu. 

Some of the children of Shakartulla are on Tuti Island, some at 
Shanbat, and some in the other directions mentioned. 

VIII Some of the descendants of Rahma ibn 'Ali ibn . . .{as in tree, 
to 'Agam), who are surnamed the Sa'adullab, are on Tuti Island; 
some are at Shanbat; and some are with the Kababish Awlad 'Ukba 
and are called the Awlad Abu Sitta^. 

IX The Sa'adab who live round el Hinayk, on the west [bank], 
opposite Gebel Lula, which is called by the Sudanese Gebel Auli, 
are the descendants of Sa'ad ibn el feki Adam ibn. . .{as in tree, to 
'Agam), and form various tribes. 

\Mth them are the Hammadullab, the inhabitants of Um Kahf 
near el 'Ayl Fung. Some of them too are at el 'Ayl Fung. Some 
again are at el Tomat on the Atbara, and at Gira on the river Sanhit, 
and at Doka in the Butana. 

These people are the children of Alahmud walad Zai'd. The Arabs 
who are under their rule, namely Dubania, trace their descent to 
GuHAYNA, whereas the descendants of Zai'd are Shamia, descendants 
of Alazad Abu Shama ibn 'Agam. 

All of these are descended from the Ansar who conquered the 
Sudan in 43 a.h. during the period of the rule of 'Abdulla ibn Abu 
Sarah, the Companion. After the conquest the Khazrag settled in 
this country and their children multiplied there until the present day. 
At the time of their coming to conquer the Sudan they numbered 
about 81,000. 

They are Arabs of Yemen and descended from Kahtan ibn 'Abir, 
that is the prophet Hud. 

Now Kahtan is ancestor of all [the tribes of] el Yemen and to him 
they trace their descent. The children of Kahtan were Gurhum and 
Hadramaut and Saba. 

X Sheikh Hasan ibn Hasuna, whose kuhba is in the middle of 
the Butana, between the Blue Nile and the Atbara, was a Sheri'f 
on his father's side. His mother was Fatima bint Habashia, whose 
mother was a Saridia Khamaysia tracing her descent to the Ansar. 

Sheikh Hasan ibn Hasun visited Egypt and Syria and other lands 

and performed the pilgrimage. These journeys occupied about 

twelve years. Then he returned to his own country and became 

famous among the nomad Arabs for his piety, and his herds of cattle 

^ reading ilw for i.*-;. 


and camels and sheep and his horses and slaves increased in number. 
And withal he used to give hospitality to travellers, and in one day 
he gave food to about 15,000, a magnificent performance in those 
days. He w^as born on the island called Kagog, situated on the Blue 
Nile north-west of Gebel Garia, in 968 a.h., and lived 91 years. He 
died in 1059 a.h., and was buried in the tomb he built with his own 
hands. He left no children. 

XI The feki Muhammad el Nur ibn Dayfulla, the author of the 
Tabakdt el Azcliyd bi 7 Sudan, was son of Dayfulla ibn 'Ali ibn 
Ibrahim ibn el Hag Nasrulla, a Ga'ali 'Abbasi. His descendants are 
called the Dayfullab, the children of Dayfulla. He died at Halfayat 
el Muluk of the yellow fever known in the Sudan as el Kik in 
1224 A.H.i 

XII The Ga' {sic) who are in the Sudan are the descendants of 
Ibrahim el Hashimi, nicknamed "Ga'al." The reason of his being so 
named was that he was possessed of great power and wealth, and in 
his days a severe famine occurred, and folk came to him from every 
direction and said "O Ibrahim, make us {ogaHnd) your folk," and 
he consented to their wish, and so his people surnamed him "Ga'al" 
because he "made" (ga'al) those who came to him and main- 
tained them until God relieved their distress. He has many descen- 
dants in the Sudan : their number may be about 50,000. Among them 
are the sons of 'Arman, namely Gebel, the ancestor of the Gebelab, 
and Gabr, the ancestor of the Gabrab, and 'Abd el 'Al, the ancestor 
of the Magadib and the Kandilab (and in all 'Abd el 'Al had fourteen 
sons and from each one of them are descended various tribes), and 
Sha'a el Din, the ancestor of the Sha'adinab (who consist of various 
tribes), and el Malik 'Adlan ibn 'Arman (who had thirty male children, 
from each of whom are descended numerous tribes), and Zayd, the 
ancestor of the Zai'dab (who contain many tribes), and Musallam, 
ancestor of the Musallamab (who are many tribes), and Mukabir, 
the ancestor of the Mukabirab (who are tribes), and Sa'i'd, the an- 
cestor of the Sa'adab and the Nimrab, and Nasir, the ancestor of the 
Nasirab, and Shai, and Yoiy, the ancestor of the Yoiyab. These are 
the twelve sons of 'Arman, and their descendants were even more 
numerous. Among these descendants were the children of 'Abd el 
'Al ibn el Malik 'Arman, some of whom have already been mentioned, 
and who were fourteen men in all, and who include the Hasabullab 
[the children of Hasabulla] ; and the Rafa'ab, the children of Rafa'i; 
and the Khadrab, the children of Khadr; and the Godalab-, the 
children of Gadulla; and the Kaliab, the children of KaU; and the 

^ 1809 A.D. 2 reading wj'^);t^». for w^b^sfc.. 

86 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. abc. xii. 

Kiti'ab, the children of Kiti; and the Bashi'rab, the children of 
Bashi'r ; and the IMusiab, the children of Musa; and the 'Omarab, the 
children of 'Omar; and Tisa'a Kulli; and the tenth of them, Muham- 
mad el Nigayd, the ancestor of the Nigada. 

XIII Among the 'Omarab was Sheikh Hamid Abu 'Asa son of 
Sheikh 'Omar son of Belal son of Muhammad son of 'Omar son of 
Muhammad el A'war son of 'Abd el 'Al son of el Malik 'Arman. His 
mother was a Sherifia named Halima, the daughter of el Sheri'f 
Hammad Abu Denana who lies buried at Abu Delayk. Sheikh 
Hamid Abu 'Asa had ten children, namely Muhammad and Hammad 
and. . .{as in tree). 

XIV Nafa'a and Nafi'a were sons of el Malik 'Adlan ibn el Malik 
'Arman by a single mother. Among the descendants of Nafa'a are 
the Thawiab and . . .{as in tree) and many tribes. 

XV Among the descendants of Nafi'a are the Serayhab and... 
(as in tree). 

XVI The sons of el Malik 'Abd el Daim ibn 'Adlan were fourteen 
in number, and they included 'AH and Yoiy and Hammad, the 
mother of all of whom was Bukra the daughter of his paternal uncle 
Mukabir. The descendants of 'Ali ibn el MaUk 'Abd el Dai'm are the 
'Aliab : those of Yoiy ibn el Malik 'Abd el Daim ibn 'Adlan are the 
YoiYAB round Kozbara : those of Hammad ibn el Malik 'Abd el Daim 
are round el Metemma. The descendants of Abu Daraywa are the 
Daraywab, those of Kabush are the Kabushab, and those of Hammad 
reside at el Metemma. [Add] also xAibu Basrun; and Muhammad 
el Fial, ancestor of the Nafafi'a; and Shaddu and Kaddu, whose 
descendants are the Wahahi'b el fukard; and Dow; and Kena, 
ancestor of the Kftawi't. 

XVII The sons of 'Abd el Ma'abud were 'Abd el Salam el Asfar, 
ancestor of the Sufar el Maghawir [Mafawir ( })] ; and Musa, 
ancestor of the Musiab; and Khadr el Fial, ancestor of the Fiail. 

XVIII The descendants of Ba'abush are the Ba'abi'sh. 

The sons of Sa'ad Abu Dabus included 'Abd el Daim and Kan- 
balawi and Sanad and Idris el Kati'a, the ancestor of the 'Abd- 
SALAMAB of el Buayda. 

XIX The sons of Sa'ad ibn Diab [were the] Burnis, namely (and.'*) 
Nasir and Muhammad el Kusayer and 'Ali and Salih. 

XX The sons of Rubat ibn Mismar ibn Serrar ibn Kerdam (i.e. 
the Sultan Hasan, Kerdam being a surname) were 'A wad and Ku- 
raysh and el Khanfari and Mukbal and 'Abt. . . .{The descendants of 
each are given : see Tree 3 . Remarks made in passing and ?iot included 
in the tree are as follows) : 


1. Humayyir and Dahaysh, ancestors of the Humayyirab and 
Dahayshab were full brothers. 

2. The Mawwatab : " Among them was Walad Dayfa." 

3. The 'Awadia sub-tribes: "Each one of these tribes has many 

4. The Makbulab : " Some of them live near Shendi." 

XXI Mismar ibn Serrar ibn Kerdam had four sons, namely Sa'ad 
el Ferid, and the three sons of a single mother, Subuh Abu Merkha, 
the above-mentioned Rubat, and Nebih. . . .{The descendants of each 
are given in Tree 3 , but as remarks not mentioned in the tree are made in 
passing concerning some of them, these remarks are inserted here, as follows) : 

1. The Dubab: "Among them was Sheikh el Husayn el Zahrd." 

2. The Gima'a: "Among them was 'Asdkir Abu Kaldm." 

3. The Hakamab, or Awl ad Hakim : " Some of them are in Don- 
gola and others in the Ga'ali'n country: among them was the feki 
Muhammad ibfi el Bedowi, who was Sheikh el Islam." "And Hakim 
also has descendants round Arko, called the Mihaynab." 

4. The Nasirab: "Their ancestor Ndsir dwelt on the White Nile 
near Berayma." 

5. Hdmid Abu Tinka: (i) "He of el 'Ayn, which lies west of 
el Sdfia in the Kababish country." (2) The descendants of his son 
'Adlan are said to be at el Koz village, those of his other two sons at 
Um 'Adam, and those of his grandson Muhammad "among the 
Halawin," i.e. all in Mesallami'a district. 

6. Marangdna {ancestress of the Hagab): "She of the ridge near 
Walad Medani." 

7. The Rashidab : " Who live on the White Nile near el Hanayk." 

8. The Mukdab: "On the west bank of the White Nile, opposite 
Gebel Auli." 

9. The Nailab : " They include the sons of el Mek Bdbikr who were 
about 18 in all and each of whom had posterity." 

10. The Sulaymania: "On the White Nile, opposite Um Arda 

11. The Hamaydania : "Among them was the feki Ibrahim 'Abd 
el Ddfa'i, the author of the History of the Sudan." 

12. The Shaki'rab: "Near Um Arda Island." 

13. The 'fsAwiA: "Some of them are with the Kababish." 

14. The DuNiBAB : " Who live with the Gimi'ab, and include Kudur 
the panegyrist." 

15. The Harayzab: " Who include Sheikh Dafa'alla el Gharkdn^y 
who lives at Omdurmdn." 

^ reading yj\iyd\ for ^jl5^l. 

88 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. abc. xxi. 

1 6. The descendants of Fatah the Younger: " They include the 
'omda of the Fitihab and the children of Sulaymdn ihn el Mek and of 
his brother Shibayli, and the Kusaysab, the sons of H amid ihn Kussa . . ., 
etc." {as in tree). 

17. Darddk: ''In Ddrfur, and among his desce?idants were Abo ibn 
'Abdulla ibn Godafdt." 

XXII All of the above are Kuraysh and descended from el 'Abbas 
ibn 'Abd el Muttalib ibn Hashim ; and all of them are the children 
of Ibrahim el Hashimi who was surnamed "Ga'al," and the first of 
their ancestors to come to the Sudan was named Ghanim, surnamed 
"el 'Abbasi." He fled from Baghdad after the Tatar attacked it, in 
676 A.H.^. Then they (sic) came to Egypt and found the Fatimites 
ruling there, but they were unable to settle down with them, so 
migrated to the Sudan and took up their abode, some on the Blue 
Nile and some on the White and some in Darfur and Dar Wadai 
(that is Borku), and spread in all directions. 

XXIII Those that are in Darfur are represented by the royal family 
only. The rest of the Darfurians are Kungara and Hilala, and such 
as are neither are all Feratit [i.e. Fertit]. 

XXIV As regards Borku, the royal family are 'Abbasia, that is 
Kuraysh. The rest are Arabs of Yemen, that is Himyar, descended 
from Barik ibn 'Uday ibn Haritha ibn 'Amir ibn Haritha ibn Tha- 
'aliba ibn Amra el Kays ibn Mazin ibn el Azd, who are [all of the tribe 
of] Ghassan. 

XXV The tribes of MuDR ibn Nizar and Rabi'a ibn Nizar. All in 
the Wadi el 'Arab trace their descent to these tribes, and their pedi- 
grees all meet in Kays ibn Ghaylan ibn Mudr and el Yds ibn Mudr. 
Rabi'a, too, forms one stock with Mudr. The mother of el Yds ibn 
Mudr was el Rubab bint Sayda ibn Ma'ad ibn 'Adnan; and el Yds 
ibn Mudr had three sons, Mudraka and Tdbikha and 'Umayr, and 
their mother was Khindif, whose [real] name was Layla bint 
Halwdn ibn 'Omran ibn el Hafi ibn Kudd'a ibn Ma'ad ibn 'Adndn. 
Therefore the posterity of el Yds ibn Mudr were called "Khindif," 
because she was their mother and to her they trace their descent. 
From 'Adndn branch off all the tribes of the Arabs. 

XXVI All of the descendants of Mudr ibn Nizdr who came to the 
Sudan are the children of Kays ibn Ghaylan ibn Mudr. They include 
Guhayna ibn Ri'sh ibn. . .{as in Tree 4, to 'Adndn), and, secondly, 
Guhayna ibn 'Abdulla ibn Anas el Guhani, and thirdly, Guhayna of 
the tribe of Kuda'a, namely Guhayna ibn Zayd ibn. . .{as in tree, to 
'Adndn), and, fourthly, Guhayna ibn 'Atia ibn Hasan ibn 'Abdulla 

1 1277 a.d. 


ibn el Zubayr ibn el 'Awwam ibn Khowaylid ibn Asad ibn 'Abd el 
'Uzza ibn Kusai ibn Kelab. 

All these four, after their arrival in the Sudan, came to an agree- 
ment and became one tribe. 

The tribes of Guhayna are fifty-two in all, not counting those 
that in the past have entered the Sudan via the Nile in the time of 
the Fung, and most of them are v^est of Tunis and Tripoli [Tardblus] 
and Fezzan and Borku . Three of the sons of Baghid came to the Sudan , 
namely Kays and Sufian and Dhubian, and the descendants of Kays 
ibn Baghid were the Guhayna ibn Ri'sh mentioned above and Guhayna 
ibn 'Abdulla ibn Anas el Guhani. These are the children of Kays. 

XXVII The descendants of Sufian ibn Baghid are the Kababish, 
who are the children of Muhammad ibn Sufian ibn 'Abs ibn Sufian 
ibn Baghid. They are sometimes surnamed "Beni 'Abs." 

Now Muhammad ibn Sufian had two sons .... {For these and their 
descendants see tree. Remarks made in passing, and not included in the 
tree, are as follows: 

1. The descendants of the sons of Nur ibn 'Ali. ^^ Each of them 
forms a tribe that defends itself." 

2. The descendants of the sons of 'AH ibn Nur. "Each of them 
forms an independent tribe that defends the other.'' 

XXVIII The sons of Dhubian ibn Baghid ibn Rayth ibn . . .{as in 
tree, to 'Adndn) were nine in number, namely Wati'd and. . . , etc., as 
in tree, which also gives their descenda?its . Remarks made hi passing, 
and not included in the tree, are as follows: 

1. The descendants of Muhammad ibn 'Amir: "Each of them 
forms a separate tribe, some of them living near el Siiit and others in 

the deserts of Senndr." 

2. Rikdb son of Sultan: "Not to be confused with Rikdb ibn 

3. The SHUKRfA descended from Bashir ibn Dhubian: "The 
descendants of Bashtr ibn. . . , etc., are the Shukria and the Nabaria. 
Now all the Shukria trace their descent to Yashkur ibn Wail ibn. . ." 
{as in tree, to Nizdr), "except the Awlad Abu Sin, who are Kuraysh, 
descended from 'Abdulla ibn Ga'afir ibn Abu Tdlib." 

4. The Karibab: "Who live on the banks of the Nile opposite 

5. The Kawahla descended from Kdhil ibn Hasan: "Not to be 
confused with the Kawahla descended from el Zubayr ibn el 'Awzvdm." 

6. The Kanagira : " They include Kungara in Ddrfur, and Borku 
and Bornu and Afnu : others of them are sons of Felldt ibn Kungar, who 
are partly Fell AT A." 


7. The Thakra: ''Some of whom are Muhammadans and the 
remainder infidels." 

8. The KalkAla : " They are in Tunis: some of them \too]^ live near 
el Kdtnnin." 

9. The Dawagira : " They live east of Mekka and are the people of 
el Niik el Bakht." 

10. The Sanadali'b: "Some of whom used to be in Senndr." 

11. The descendafits of the sons of Hildl ibn Muhammad: ''Some 
of them are at el Hildlta." 

12. The tribes descended from 'Akil ibn Muhammad 'Amir: " These 
tribes live in Upper Egypt. But the Shamia and the Ma'aida and the 
Kalalib are descended from 'Aid ibn Husayn. Some of them are west of 

XXIX The descendants of 'Abdulla ibn Zubayr ibn el 'Awwam are 
the Kawahla in the Gezira of Sennar, who are the children of 
Guhayna ibn 'Ati'a ibn el Hasan ibn 'Abdulla ibn el Zubayr ibn 
el 'Awwam, and also the 'Ababda, who are the children of el Zubayr. 
These are Kuraysh. 

XXX The nomads in the Sudan who have been mentioned are all 
descended from Mudr ibn Nizar and Rabi'a ibn Nizar. 

XXXI The Ga'afira in Upper Egypt include the descendants of 
Ga'afir el Sadik, and the descendants of Ga'afir el Tiar, the brother 
of the Imam 'Ali ibn Abu el Talib, and the descendants of Ga'afir 
ibn Kutaf el Tai, who are of the stock of Hatim el Tai, so famous for 
his generosity and bravery, and the descendants of Ga'afir el Barmaki. 
All of them live in Upper Egypt. 

XXXII The Hadarma were originally nomads in Hadramaut and 
moved across to the west bank of the Red Sea \el Mdlih] and 
settled at Suakin in the Sudan, They left the east bank in the time of 
el Haggag ibn Yusef el Thakfi. 

XXXIII The Gabarta^ are by origin Arabs. 

XXXIV The Mesallamia of the district so-named are the stock of 
Musallam ibn Hamaz 'Ataf the Ommawi. They migrated from Syria 
in the time of 'Omar ibn 'Abd el 'Aziz the Ommawi and settled in 
the Sudan in the country known after them. 

XXXV The inhabitants of Edfu are of different races. Some are 
AsHRAF, and some are Arabs, including Manakira and Khula and 
Harai'z and Kaluh and Kalalib and Merinab, all of whom are 
Guhayna, and the Busayli'a, the descendants of Hammad el Busayli, 
who are Arabs of Hegaz tracing their descent to Guhayna. 

^ reading Oj-aJI for S^aJI. 

iv.ABC.Lii. OF THE SUDAN 91 

XXXVI The Saba'^a and the Mata'ana are western Arabs, tracing 
their descent to the Masamida. 

XXXVII The HowARA trace their descent to the Baranis. They are 
western Arabs, and their pedigree goes back to Kuraysh. 

XXXVIII The AwLAD 'Ali trace their descent to Hilala and are 


XXXIX The Hegaziyyun are eastern Arabs, Kuraysh by race. 

XL The rest of the inhabitants of Upper Egypt are composed of 
Copts [Akbdt], and Rum, and Gumusa, the Gumusa being slaves, and 
Aleppans [Haleb], who are children of adultery. 

XLI The Fakhrania include Ashraf on the mother's side. 

XLII El Sayyid 'Abd el Rahim el Kenawi was one of the Ashraf 
of the west, and he is sufficiently famous to need no further 

XLIII The inhabitants of the Nile [valley] south of Egypt and west 
of the Red Sea are all 'Ababda, the descendants of 'Abdulla ibn el 
Zubayr ibn el 'Awwam. 

XLIV The inhabitants of Haifa are Kanuz, the sons of Dowlat 
el Kanzi, that is Nuba. 

XLV Similarly the original inhabitants of Dongola, all of them, 
from the Red Sea to the Equator, are descended from the Zing. 
These came from Neged and el 'Irak. 

XLVI The Persians [Fdrism] are of the seed of Selman el 

XLVII The original HupuR are all Guhayna and inhabit the country 
between Edfu and Aswan. 

XLVIII The Beni 'Amir, that is Um 'Ar'ara, entered Abyssinia. 
They are famous for their bravery and courage and stout-heartedness, 
and are a mighty tribe. 

XLIX The facts given above are based on a tree which I found 
written in the handwriting of el Hasan ibn 'Ali, the brother of 
el Sayyid Ahmad el Bedowi, and taken from the genealogical tree 
found by el Shafa'i 'Ali Ibrahim and the above-mentioned el 

L According to Ibn Khaldun the tribes of Arabs descended from 
Guhayna came after the Muhammadan conquest of the northern 
Nuba in 13 18 a.d., and spread over the Sudan, and formed a separate 

LI The Hamar Arabs are originally Guhayna and trace their 
descent to that tribe. 

LII The Ta'ai'sha and the Habbania and the Awlad Hamayd 
and Selim are descendants of Hammad ibn Gunayd. The Hawazma 

92 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. abc. lii. 

and the Humr and the Messiri'a and the Rizaykat are descendants 
of his brother 'Atia. All of them are Guhayna by descent. 

Similarly the Beni Helba, who are west of Darfur^ and are a great 
tribe, trace their descent to Guhayna. So also do the Beni Husayn 
and the Tergam and Khuzama and the Mahria (sic) and the Masalit 
and the Korobat, who live west of Kebkabi'a. 

LIII The Khawabir, who inhabit Wadai^ in the west, are in some 
cases merchants and in others nomads. They are Beni Ommayya, 
Kuraysh, by origin. 

LIV Some of the descendants of the sons of Abu Bukr^ el Sadik 
who have immigrated to the Sudan. 

They include the sons of Sheikh Muhammad el MugelH, who was 
buried near Esna in the district of Zernikh, and who was a Sheri'f on 
his mother's side and a Bukri on his father's. With him was his 
brother Sheikh Ahmad surnamed "el Yomani." They came from the 
direction of el Yemen, from a village in Yemen called Bunda, to 
Egypt. Thence they went and settled in a village called Zernikh near 
Esna, [he] and his sons with him. Among these sons were Sheikh 
Muhammad "el Mutargam" ("the Interpreter"), and Sheikh 
Muhammad "el Royyan," and Sheikh Muhammad "el Gharkadi," 
and Sheikh Ya'akub. Sheikh Ya'akub proceeded to the Sudan in 
lOOi^A.H. and betook himself to the king of the Fung, 'Omara 
Dunkas, at Sennar. The latter gave him an order [entitUng him] to 
reside at Halfayat el Muluk on the east bank of the Blue Nile, and he 
lived there for a number of years and died there, and was buried near 
the [village of the] Izayrikab, north of el Halfdya, and his tomb is 
still there. 

LV Sheikh Ya'akub left four sons, Sheikh 'Ataalla, Sheikh Musa, 
Sheikh Muhammad Zamir, and Sheikh Hammad, Kadi of Bandi; 
and each of these four had numerous children, tribes. 

The descendants of 'Ataalla live round BayU and are called the 
'Atai'ab. The descendants of Sheikh Musa are numerous tribes, some 
round Sennar and some elsewhere, and they are called the Musi'ab. 
The descendants of Sheikh Muhammad Zamir are numerous tribes, 
some at Halfayat el Muluk and some in the Ga'alin (sic) country, 
and they are called the Zamrab. The descendants of Sheikh Ya'akub, 
who is buried at [the village of] the Izayrikab, include Sheikh 
Hammad who is famous as "Um Amirium" (sic) whose kubba is 
at Khartoum North : the latter's [full] name was Sheikh Hammad ibn 

^ reading j^jli for^tjb. - reading j^^'i^ for acI^j. 

3 reading^^l for^^bt. ^ 1592 a.d. 

iv.ABC.Lvi. OF THE SUDAN 93 

Muhammad ibn 'Ali ibn 'Omar ibn el Sheikh Madi ibn Muhammad 
Abu Guayd ibn el Sheikh Hammad, Kadi of Bandi, ibn el Sheikh 
Ya'akub ibn el Sheikh Muhammad Mugelli. 

LVI [There are] also the sons of Sheikh Ahmad Abu el Gud, the 
brother of Muhammad Abu Guayd, and these are the Zenarkha who 
live with the Gamu'ia. 

Similarly the Awlad Khayrulla near Um Dom, east of Khar- 

These form numerous tribes, and all of them trace their descent 
to 'Abd el Rahman ibn Abu Bukr el Sadik and are Kuraysh. They 
include the Mugelliab and the Hammatti'ab in the Ga'alin (sic) 
country, and the Maktanab, and the 'Amudab, and the Delaykab, 
and the Keraydab, and the Nakagab, and the 'Amarna, some of 
whom are at Gebel Sakadi and Moya and the remainder in the east 
near the Red Sea, at Suakin and elsewhere. 

[ 94 ] 


I The tribes and persons described in this and the following eight para- 
graphs are all known as Mahass at present. It will be seen that the author 
considers them to be all originally Himyaritic Arabs from southern Arabia, 
Ansar of the tribe of Khazrag. One or two of the earlier names given in 
the tree occur in Wiistenfeld, i6 and 22, but there is no consistent co- 
incidence between the pedigree as given in ABC and that given by 

II Cp. D 3, 141 and note thereto for Sheikh Idris and "el 'Ayl Fung" 
{i.e. el 'Aylafun). 

For Hud see Hughes, pp. 181, 182. He is spoken of in Chapters 7, 11 
and 26 of the Kuran, and was the prophet sent to the contumacious tribe 
of 'Ad. There is no reason whatever to identify him with Kahtan. 

III El Hag Idris, as being the ancestor of the Awlad Hadra (see Tree i), 
is the author's progenitor. Of el Hag Idris's descendants the author says : 
"All the descendants of el Hag Muhammad are round Shanbat and, in 
some cases, near Sennar. Those of el Hag Sulayman are on Tuti Island, 
including el Khalifa Muhammad ibn. . . , etc." {as in tree), "and others are 
round Shanbat, and others near Sennar: they form numerous tribes." 

D 3 gives no life of el Hag Idris nor of any of his sons. 

IV Cp. D3, 154 and 19. 

The date 1155 a.h. agrees with D 3. Either "1065A.H." or "loi 
years" is an error. 

V These are the Kardakab section of Mahass. 

VI For the Budanab cp. D 7, cclix. 

El Rakayba is generally known as "Hillet el Mahass" or "Mahass 
el Rakayba." For "Kamnin" in place of "Kamlin" see note to D 3, 109, 
and Vol. I, p. 341. 

The descendants of Marzuk would normally be called "MarAzi'k." 
Sections of that name occur both among the Hamar and the Gawama'a 
of Kordofan and the Shai'kia. 

VIII There is a section of Awlad 'Ukba called Sa'adullAb (see Mac- 
Michael, Tribes..., p. 175). 

IX These Hammadullab are a section of Mesai^lam/a (see C 8, xvii 
and xxiii). 

"The Atbara" is spelt in ABC j^^I^-j*^! j-a— jJI ("el Bahr el 

By "Sanhit" is meant the Setit. 

'Abdulla Abu Sarah's more common name is 'Abdulla ibn Sa'ad. He 
made no expedition in 43 a.h. (663 A.D.). The campaign of 651-2 a.d. is 
no doubt meant. 

For the final sentence cp. D i, Lxxi. 


X Cp. D 3, 132, according to which Sheikh Hasan died in 1075 ^.h. 

XI This paragraph provides us with the name of the author of D 3 and 
is corroborated by tradition on the point (see Introduction to D 3). The 
pedigree, however, differs from that given in D 3 {q.v. No. 89) and the 
latter is more Ukely to be correct. 

For the final sentence cp. D 7, CLXXXV, which corroborates. 

XII Cp. BA, cxxxii, etc., for the name "Ga'al." 

For the descendants of 'Arman cp. BA, CLXV et seq., A 2, xi et seq. and 
A II, XXIV et seq., all of which differ to some extent from one another, as 
a comparison of the trees will show. 

The "MagAdib" are not to be confused with the "MAcADHfR" {i.e. 
AwlAd el Magdhub), who are traditionally Ashraf. 

"Shai" (^) appears in A 11 and BA (MS. 3) as "Shabbu" {J^) or 

"Shabbu" (>j-w). 

As regards "Tisa'a Kulli" and "the tenth of them, Muhammad el 
Nigayd," there is obviously some error in the texts of ABC, BA, A 11, etc. 
In ABC the figure " 9 " is actually written over "Tisa'a," and in the original 
copy no doubt nine sons were mentioned and after their names the author 
wrote "nine in all, and a tenth was Negadi." Later copyists added other 
sons and in some cases seem to have converted the "nine in all" and 
"a tenth" into proper names (see BA, CLXVii and A 11, xxxix). 

XIII Hamid Abu 'Asa's biography is No. 113 in D 3. 

XIV et seq. Cp. BA, note to clxxi. 

XVI It will be seen that only 12 of the 14 sons of 'Abd el Dai'm are given. 
See BA, clxxi, clxxii for notes. 

It is to be assumed that Abu Daraywa was a son of 'Abd el Daim, as 
shown in the tree, because he appears as such in BA (MS. 3) and A 11. 
Similarly, 'Abd el Ma'abud in para, xvii may, for a like reason, be assumed 
to be a son of 'Adlan, and Ba'abush and Sa'ad Abu Dabus to be sons of 
'Abd el Ma'abud. 

For "el Fial" (JUJI) BA (MS. 3) gives "Kankal" (JliiiJI). and for 
"KitAwit" (w^j^U:^), "Kenawi'n" (^jU^). BA is more likely to be 
correct in both cases. 

xix These names are not included in the tree. Cp. note to BA, clxxi. 

XX Cp. BA, CLi et seq.; A 11, xl e^ seq., etc. 
The names "Humayyir" (lit. "little donkey") and Dahaysh (///. a 
"donkey's foal") in juxtaposition are curious. 

xxi Cp. BA, cxLiii et seq. 

2. 'Asakir Abu Kalam was the chief of the Gima'a in the time of the 
Mahdi (see MacMichael, Tribes..., pp. 43, 44). 

3. Sheikh el Bedowi was Kadi of Berber in the Mahdi's time, and at 
the reoccupation was made President of the Board of 'Ulema in the Sudan. 

5. Hamid Abu Tinka is a more or less legendary character. Gebel 
el 'Ayn, between Dongola and Kordofan, is commonly called " 'Ayn Wad 
el Tinka." There is a story current of his having travelled to the Dinka ( ?) 
country in the far south and there by accident killed a stork which had 
built upon the roof of the royal residence — a heinous offence, in conse- 

96 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. abc. xxi. 

quence of which he fled northwards along the Koz el Hagiz to el 'Ayn in 
the far north, where he died. 

9. The NAiLAB are the ruling family of GAMu'fA, that of Nasir el Mek. 

II. The "History of the Sudan" referred to is without doubt "D 7," 
of which the introduction shou'd be consulted. 

The " AwLAD EL Sheikh el Taib" {see tree) are the Gamu'ia of the 
village of Sheikh el Taib, i.e. Sheikh Ahmad el Taib el Bashi'r, for whom 
see D 7, ccxxxv (and note). 

15. Dafa'alla"el Gharkan" (i.e. "the drowned") was a religious recluse 
living in Omdurman. Since the Turkish days, i.e. for at least 33 years, he 
never emerged from his room. He was partly paralyzed and only a very 
select few ever had the entree to his presence. For no other reason 
than the above he acquired a great reputation for sanctity. He died in 

16. "El 'Anagawi" {see tree) in other versions is "el Fungawi." 

The tribes mentioned as descended from MansQr the son of Gamu'a 
represent the subsections of the Gamu'ia. 

XXII Cp. D 6, XXXIX. D 5 (c) speaks of Subuh Abu Merkha, Ghanim's 
grandfather, as the first of the family to settle in the Sudan (paras, i-iii). 
The Tartars took Baghdad in 1258 a.d. 

XXIII This accounts for the frequent occurrence in nisbas of "Fur" 
as descended from Dula son of Kerdam the Ga'ali. One remembers too 
the name "Edrisdjal," i.e. Idri's el Ga'ali, as grandfather of Sulayman 
Solon, one of the early Fur kings, and how 'Abd el Kerim ibn Gama'i 
the founder of the Wadai dynasty is said to have belonged to a Ga'ali 
family (see Introduction to Chap, i of Part III). Para, xxiv has reference 
to the second of these traditions. 

XXI v See preceding note ; and cp. Wiistenfeld, 1 1 . Barik is not mentioned. 
The remainder are all but correctly given. 

XXV See Wiistenfeld, A, D, and J. "Rubab" (^^bj) should be "Riab" 
(w>'£j) and "Sayda" (Sj*-*-^) should be "Hayda" (ejuj»-). 

For Layla see Wiistenfeld, 2. The author seems to nod in repre- 
senting Kuda'a as the son of Ma'ad ibn 'Adnan. Otherwise the 
genealogical facts are correct. 

XXVI The accuracy of the first sentence is impugned by the author's 
own subsequent statements, e.g. as to the descent of the fourth tribe of 


" Ghaylan" is generally written " 'Aylan ": cp. D i passim. 

For "Guhayna ibn Rish" see Wiistenfeld, H. "Rish" {J^ij) should 
be "Rayth" (w^rjj). The names of this Guhayna's ancestors as given do 
occur in Wiistenfeld, H, but with altered relationships. 

For the second Guhayna see BA, Lviii and note thereto: "Anas" 
should be "Unays." This Guhayna belonged to the tribe of KudA'a. 

For the third Guhayna see Wiistenfeld, i. "Sawad" (i'^w) should 
be "Sud" (>^). The family of this Guhayna were neighbours of the 
family of the Fezara son of Dhubian who was very closely connected with 
the first Guhayna: see Wiistenfeld, p. 275 {sub Leith ben Sa'd). 


For the fourth Guhayna cp. BA, lvii and note. 
For the 52 tribes of Guhayna cp. BA, cxxiii. 

The three sons of Baghid according to Wiistenfeld (H) were Dhubian 
(father of Fezara), Anmar and 'Abs. 

XXVII Cp. BA, c. There we get "Sha'uf" (^^ai) for the "Shakiik" 
(^^.ii) of ABC. The 'Abs mentioned here obviously represents the 'Abs 
son of Baghid mentioned in the preceding note. 

The genealogy of the Nurab section of Kababi'sh is given in a confused 
manner: for instance, it is expressly mentioned that 'Ali ibn Nur had 
"five sons," but reference is subsequently made to a sixth, viz. Keradim. 

On p. 195 of Tribes..., I have given a genealogical tree based on the 
version supplied orally by the chief men of the NurAb themselves: it 
agrees fairly well with ABC. It will be noticed that the Rowahla, who 
are a section of the Kababish, do not appear with the NurAb, RibaykAt 
and other sections, i.e. as descended from Sufian, but among the descen- 
dants of Dhubian. There are sections of NurAb called DAr KebIr, DAr 
Um Bakhi't, AwlAd el Kir, and DAr Sa'i'd : hence the names of the sons 
of Nur ibn 'Ali {see tree). 

Sheikh 'Ali wad el Tom is the present ndzir of the KABABfsH. 

XXVIII Cp. BA, Lvi and lix et seq., etc. 

In this section the author has several times confused the two men 
called Dhubian, viz. the son of Baghid and the son of 'Abd: both are 
descended (see tree) from Baghid, and in mentioning the full name of 
some of the descendants of the former he has, on reaching Dhubian, con- 
tinued ". . .son of 'Abd," etc., instead of ". . .son of Baghid," although 
he has previously made it clear that, as in all other nisbas of the Guhayna 
group, the persons and tribes mentioned are descended from the son of 
Baghid. I have ignored these errors in the tree. 

The name "'Abd el 'Aziz Mahsin" is an amusing illustration of 
methods. Other nisbas give " 'Abd el 'Aziz Mahass (^...a>..«), ancestor of 
the Mahass"; but the author of ABC, himself a Mahassi, has already 
provided (see Tree i) a better pedigree for his tribe, so he changes 
"Mahass" to "Mahsin" (,>-o^) by little more than the addition of a 
dot, and omits mention of the Mahass. He even makes mention of two 
different descendants of Dhubian called 'Abd el 'Aziz Mahsin. The name 
Mahsin occurs again in para, i (see tree). 

The 'AwAMRA are given as descendants of 'Omran, whereas from 
their name they should clearly be descended from 'Amir. 

One gathers that, in the author's view, there are two different bodies 
of Shukria, one descended from Yashkur and one from Bashir. They 
generally appear in nisbas as descended from Bashir. For Yashkur cp. 
D 7, XI. For the descent of the ruling family of the ShukrIa, the AwlAd 
Abu Sin, from Kuraysh, see C 5. 

There is a village called el Kalkala close to el Kamlin. 

Cp. BA, xciv for the DawAgira. 

'Aid ibn Husayn has not previously been mentioned.... 

The presentation of the descendants of Dhubian is very inaccurate 


even if judged by the standard of other fiisbas. E.g. Kungar as ancestor 
of the "BoRKU, BoRNU and Afnu" [i.e. Houssa], and with a son "Fellat," 
is ridiculous; and "MakAkla" for "Ma'akla" and "HABBANfA" for 
"HabAbin" are really bad mistakes. 
XXIX Cp. BA, cxxiv. 

XXXI Cp. D I, cm; and also BA, clxxv and A 2, xl, etc. 

XXXII Cp. BA, cLxxvi. 

XXXIII Cp. BA, CLXxvii. 
xxxiv Cp. BA, cLxxviii. 

xxxv "Arabs" here, as so often, means nomad Arabs. 

xxxvi " Masamida " I take to represent MasAmida, i.e. Masmuda Berbers 
(see App. to Part II, Ch. i). 

xxxviii The well-known AwlAd Ali nomads of Egypt are intended. 

XLiv In the Appendix will be found an account of the Kanuz by one of 
their number. For "Dowlat el Kanzi," that is Kanz el Dowla, see Part II, 
Chaps. I and 2. 


XLVI Cp. B A, XLIV. This is an amazing statement! See BA, xliv. 

XL VIII Cp. BA, ccxv. By "Um 'Ar'ara" are meant the tribe commonly 
known as Amarar. 

L See Vol. I, p. 138. 

Lii Practically all the tribes mentioned in this paragraph are BakkAra 
of western Kordofan and Darfur. See Part III, Ch. 3; and for the last 
two named see Vol.i, pp. 85 and 336 respectively. 

Liii See Vol. I, p. 268. 

Liv The tribes alluded to in this and the following paragraphs are known 
as ZenArkha and MashAikha. For the latter, and particularly Sheikh 
Ya'akub, see D 3, 255. 

The name MashAikha (sing. Mushakhi) is said to be complimentary 
to their nobility of descent, i.e. to be properly a sobriquet (cp. Burton, 
Pilgrimage..., i, 58). Most of the MashAikha are near Khartoum and 
others are at Sennar, Abu Haraz, Kabushi'a, in the Gezira, etc. They con- 
sist of no more than scattered families. Eleven generations are given as 
having elapsed since the time of el Mugelli. 

The ZenArkha, as the author says, live among the Gamu'ia, to the 
south of Omdurman, but are independent and have their own sheikh, 
though in past days they obeyed the call of the Gamu'ia nahds. 

LV The AjAfAs are in Kassala. 
The biography of Hammad "ibn Mariam" (or "Wad Um Marium," 
"Um Marium," etc.) is No. 124 in D 3, q.v. (note) for the nickname. 
Bandi is an island between the Shabluka and Shendi. 

LVi For the Hammatti'Ab (HammadtuwiAb ?) see D 3, 21 and 158. 

[ 99] 


The Kanuz 

Section I 

The Kanuz are divided into two tribes. 

Firstly. There are the descendants of el Sayyid Muhammad Wanas son 
of Rahma son of Hasan, whose pedigree reaches to el Fadl son of 'Abdulla 
son of el 'Abbas. The amir Muhammad Wanas had six sons, and he died 
and was buried at the burial-place [gabdna] of Aswan. 

These sons were : 

1. Idris, the eldest, ancestor of el Melik Tunbul^ of Arko Island, 
[whose family] are known as the kings of Dongola. 

2. Hamdulla. He had few descendants. Such as exist are at Kalabsha 
and are known as the Wanasab el Hamdullab after their ancestor. 

3. Arkhi. His descendants are in the Gezira and the Sudan, and their 
tribe is called the Arkhi'ab. 

4. Ad-ham. [His descendants are] at el Khatara and the island of 
Aswan, but most of them are in the Sudan. Branches of them are Belilab 
and MusallamAb. 

5. 'Adlan. His mother was from the Oases [el Wdhdt]. His descen- 
dants are at Aswan and in the Sudan; and they include the tribe of 
'Adlanab^ among the Shaikia. 

6. Khayrulla. His descendants are the Khayrullab, who are in the 
province of Aswan. Most of them are in the Sudan. 

Secondly. We will next mention the noble chieftains called Awlad 
Tamim el Dar* el Ansari, three in number. 

1. The amir Sheraf el Din who had two sons and was buried at 
Cairo at the Gate of Victory {Bdb el Nasr): his sons were Madhnab, 
whose tribe is called the Kurnab and resides at Abu Hur and in the Sudan, 
and Begu, whose tribe is called the BegwAb and resides at Abu Hur and 
in the Sudan. 

2. Nasr el Din Tamim el Dar, whose son was NasruUa. The latter's 
tribe is called the NasrullAb and resides at Kasengar and [among] the 

^ This brief account of the Kanuz was written for me at Omdurman in 1914 
by el Sadik 'fsa one of the chief men of the tribe residing there. 

The Kanuz are now rightly reckoned as one of the main divisions of the Nubian 
race living between Dongola and Egypt. They are no doubt a blend of those Awlad 
Kanz Arabs, who in 1365 conquered Aswan and for some time dominated the 
surrounding country, and the older Nubian stock. See Part II. 

^ On the island of Tombos, near Kerma, is " a fortress built by Muhammad 
Wad Tunbul, king of Arko, and here are the tombs of his ancestors" (Budge, n, 

^ For the 'Adlandb contrast D 5 (c), xxvi and xxxiv. 

* The Awlad Tamim el Dar, however, were Beni Lakhm and not Awlad Kanz 
at all (see Wiistenfeld, 5, and Ibid, i, 441, 442). 




3. Tomam, son of Tamim el Dar, [i.e.] the amir Nigm el Dm ["Star 
of Religion"], who was buried at Cairo at the Gate of Victory, had four 
sons, viz.: 

(a) Um Barak ibn Nigm el Din, whose descendants are called the 
Umbarakab and live in Upper Egypt and the Sudan. 

(h) 'Onulla ibn Nigm el Din, whose descendants are called the 'Onul- 
LAB and live in Upper Egypt and the Sudan. 

(c) Ghulamulla ibn Nigm el Din, whose descendants are called the 
Harbiab and live in Upper Egypt and the Sudan. 

(d) 'Amir ibn Nigm el Din, whose descendants are called the Awlad 
'OmrAn^ and live in Upper Egypt and Kordofan [in] the Sudan. 

Section II 

The following are said to be the 27 divisions of Kanuz in Upper Egypt 

and the Sudan ^. 

(At Aswan, Khartoum, Omdur- 
man, and Khartoum North 

and el Kawa. 

and Butri and el Mesallamfa. 

and Berber and el Damer. 

and Berber. 

and el Kamlfn. 

and Shendi. 

and in Dar Fung. 

and el Kamlfn. 
and Berber. 

and Shendi. 


El Wanasab \ 


El Mududdb 


El Huzaylab 
El '6nullab 


El Umbarakab 


Abu Hur 


El Geraysab 


El Khayrullab 
El Adhamab 


El Ghidaysab 
El Nasrullab 


El Bughdalab 
El Riffa 


El Salmab 


El Hawatin 


El Fellahfn 


El Waznab 


El Tonab 

El Begwab 

El Howwashab 




El fayibab 
El Gazayra 
El liagab 
El Gharbfa 


El Belalab 


El Nukdab 

and Shendi. 

and Dongola. 

^ The Bent [Azvldd] 'Omrdn are a small tribe living among the Bedayria in 
Kordofdn near el Obeid. 

^ Nos. I, 3 and 15 come from Kaldbsha and are sometimes spoken of by that name: 
these form a majority in the Sudan. The Kanuz are chiefly ejnplnyed in the ivorkshops 
of the Steamers and Railways Departments, and as servants. From Section I it seems 
that Nos. 9 and 10 and, again, Nos. 4, 5, 12, 20, are respectively connected by close 


{El 'Abuddb of 
Island and Dongt 






Abd el Rahman 





Mazad Abu Shama 
Tfa) (Shdmia) 





'Ali Hamdulla 


Muhammad 'Ayad 


El feki Adam 





(The Sowdrda of 

Halfdyat el Muluk 

and Khartoum) 


El Hag 'J 
" Makhw£ 
(Azvldd Ha?^ bint 'Omar ibn Hammad. 

8cc. ^inna bint Ta'ulla ibn Sulaymdn. 

a tYasin *E1 Gaz *Um Hani fEl Rukaka fHadi 









iSkdmla) (The ^otodtda of 

Eiyie'Aii^ ^Eiijdg EiH^e 

.fe. E,« 

h Bv Din, <IMli,ii< bint T'l 


I el 'Al Sha'a el Dm 

\ Kandildb (Shd'admdb) 
\ Magddib 

El Mel 

ali Kiti Bashir 

lidb) (Kitldb) {Bashirdb) 

qad (3 others) 

Nafa'a Abd el Ma'abud (26 other sons) 


Hasdndb - 



ifna Fatima Amna 'Abdulla 

Inid) (Ndsirdb) (childless) 


1 Fial Ba'abush Sa'ad Abu Dabus 
'/) {Ba'dbish) I 

m Kanbalawi Sanad Idri's el Kati'a 
{' Abdsaldmdb) 

tCfbildb) lG<ilira>) \\^<auilld6 

(KdlOib) IKitldb) 


{•Alia} IVdiydbi IQarayadb} {Koba 

'iaMi-o) "df^ara") 


(Fftlin (Ba'iibbh] 







{'Awadia, viz. 

b 'Aiddb 

<^ Hufnayyirdb 





Hamama, m. 






IJEl 'Awad 


* By Hamama bint Rubat. 
f By Bint Hashi el Kunmr el 'Anagawi. 
X By Muwahi, one of the Kerriat. 
!? By Marangana. 

II By Bint Rashid, one of the Rishaydab. 
•f By a woman from the east. 
** By a concubine (slave). 

<L,- N.U 

UimiJ Cimi'i Gunl'a Iftiaia C»Ut 

(A/idmJa) iCaadma'a) IGina'o) \Hi0amia IGabJrdb) 

(fCurayiluibi IKhatifoHa) (MatibaUb) VAb/) Uui 

($abha) (Poiflila) (^ubdb) (Munilfh) IMtkdh^a) 




Jni-a ilbr 

(OiSg )i^'»f« 

) (*' 

/,5 (M-i »i.,'Sj 

« (J),K») C.lmM) (M.*« 

■Abd <■! Salim H.^ni -Adldn 

Nin Ftdbtjlcddcr 
iNdtlah) yanun,d Abu parii, 



" By » wncuhinc (ilBvc 




El M*k'Him>d 





I, . 

?rdr) {Baza a) 

^ur Nviran Marwan 



El Hag Mazin 

I 1,1 I I 

al Ma al 'Abd el Al Baghdad Hammad el Khagays 'Abd el Baki 

dkla {Ma' cilia) {Shendbla, with {Baghdda) {Khagaysdb) {Bawdki) 

'dkla]) the Kabdbish) 









Hamid " el Magnun ' 

j Habbdnia [for Habdbiti] 
By Ferdhna 

Bakhita Merdmra 

el I Nawdiha [for Nazvdhia] 

Sughayra Gilayddt 

\Awldd Koi [for Akoi] 



[ loi ] 



A FEW years after the reoccupation of the Sudan a Ga'ali named 
Muhammad 'Ali Kenan obtained this pedigree from the late Sheikh 
el Bedowi of Omdurman, who was Kadi of Berber in the Mahdi'a 
and President of the Board of 'Ulema for some years after the re- 

It corresponds to paragraphs clxii to ccx of MS. AB, but the 
relation between AB and Sheikh el Bedowi's copy is not known. 
Probably paragraphs clxii to ccx of the former were copied from the 

Compare A 5. 

I In the name of God .... 

II — L {Here follows a replica of the text of AB from para, clxii to 
para, ccx inclusive, identical therewith word for word with the exceptions 
given in the notes to paragraphs cxxix and cxl-clxi of BA.) 

LI {This paragraph is in nature of a postscript and is written in a 
different and rougher hand: it commences " This pedigree was asked for 
hy^ Muhammad 'AH son of. . .etc.,'' as in the tree, and ends " . . .son of 
Ma' ad son of 'Adndn.") 

LII Beyond Adnan [the tracing of pedigrees] was forbidden by 
the Lawgiver, upon whom be the blessings of God .... 
LIII A pedigree from on high, well guarded and indisputable: 
There is no pedigree to compare with it. 
Pearls heaped high from of old : a pure light 
Beyond that of the Heavenly Twins. 

A pedigree by whose sweetness the noble ones are known : 

The Heavenly Twins encircle it. 

Lo here a necklace precious and magnificent, 

For Thou art in it: the rarest of all pearls. 

^ I.e. Muhammad 'Ali applied to Sheikh el Bedowi for a copy. 





'Abd Mendf 



'Abd el Muttalib 




el 'Abbas 





Sa'ad el Ferfd 

el Fadl 


1 ■ 

Sa'ad el Ansari 



lu el Kila'a el Himyari 





Abu Turki (ancestor of the Terayffa and 


Hasan ^'^ 


named after his father's 


brother Abu Turki) 
























el Hag Husayn 




Abu el Dfs 


Muhammad 'AH 

[ 103 ] 



The nisba here translated was a copy made for me by Ishak Muham- 
mad Sheddad, a Bedayri of Bara in Kordofan, from the copy in his 

The latter is alleged to have been copied by Sheikh 'Omara 
'Awuda Shakal el Karih {q.v. para, xliv), who lived in Dongola about 
the middle of the seventeenth century, from the original work of 
"el Samarkandi." Compare, however, the introduction to A 3. 

This is a true copy of the original pedigree. 

I In the name of God . . . 

This is the pedigree of el Sheikh Ishak ibn el Sheikh Muhammad 
Ahmad Sheddad: Ishak son of. . .{The pedigree is given from son to 
father^ up to el ^ Abbas, as in the tree.) 

II And of el Abbas the Prophet. . .said "Nobility pertains to me 
and to my uncle Hamza and to el Abbas"; whose lineage finally 
reaches to Adnan. 

III And the Prophet. . .said "Whosoever goes beyond this. . .etc." 

IV A Copy of the Pedigrees of All the Arabs. 
Verily the noble man begot noble [children]. 

V-XIII Now Subuh. . .{From this point to the end of para, xiii the 
text closely corresponds to that of A 11 {paras, xvi to xxvii.- all such 
variations, additions and omissions as occur will be seen from the trees 
and the notes to Ki and An. The arrangement is occasionally altered 
hut the source is obviously one.) 

XIV- XXI Rubat had five sons. . .{The copyist havijig omitted the 
subject-matter of paras, xxviii to xxxix of A 11, which are very corrupt, 
from here onwards to para, xxi gives practically the same details as are 
in paras. XL to xlvi of A 11. For variations see the trees and notes to 
A 2 and An.) 

XXII Now the Abbasiyyun, or the Abbas, are the family of Abu 
'Abdulla el Saffah, who is Muhammad son of Abdulla son of 'Ali 
son of Abdulla son of el Abbas; and Ibrahim Ga'al is descended 
from Sa'ad son of el Fadl son of Abdulla son of el Abbas; so they 
[the Abbasiyyun] and the Ga'aliyyun have their first common 
ancestor in Abdulla son of el Abbas son of Abd el Muttalib son of 
Hashim. Here ends the pedigree of Ga'al. 


XXIII The above is what I have found. Now the 'Abbasiyyun 
held the power at Isbah'an because they were of the family of Hashim, 
and the Beni Ommayya took it from them, and the 'Abbasiyyun 
were impotent until the time of Muhammad Abu 'Abdulla el Saffah. 
He then wrested the power from the Beni Ommayya, and took it for 
himself, and slew them there with great slaughter till he had taken 
their place in the land and put an end to them. 

XXIV The KLawahla are descended from el Zubayr ibn el 'Awrwam, 
and their mother was Safia ; and according to el Samarkandi they are 
the family of Kahil son of 'Amir son of Khalifa Ibayrak son of 
Muhammad son of Sulayman son of Khalid son of el Walid. 

XXV The Shukri'a are a great tribe, renowned for their bravery. 
They are descended from Shukr son of Idris, and their genealogies 
are traced to 'Abdulla el Gawad son of Ga'afir son of Abu Talib son 
of 'Abd el Muttahb (surnamed 'Abd Menaf). 

XXVI Similarly the Hasania are [descended] from the family of 
Ga'afir son of Abu Talib and are the children of Hasan son of Gamil, 
and their pedigree reaches to 'Abdulla el Gawad son of Ga'afir son 
of Abu Talib. 

XXVII The RiKABiYYUN are the family of Rikab son of 'Abdulla 
and their genealogies are traced to el Sheikh Ahmad el Zila'i. 

XXVIII The pADNiA are the descendants of the noble el Sayyid 
Muhammad, son of el Imam 'Ali, known as "Ibn el Hanafia." 

XXIX The Mesallamia are the family of Musallam son of Hegaz 
son of 'Atif el Ommawi, [who] migrated from Syria [el Sham] in 
the days of 'Omar ibn 'Abd el 'Aziz (God bless him), and settled in 
the Sudan. 

XXX The 'Amriyyun (spelt with 'amr . . . ) are the family of 
Sulayman son of 'Abd el Malik son of Marwan the Ommawi. It is 
said that they ruled the blacks in the Sudan and the country of the 
Hamag, and finally [lit. "until"] they became assimilated to them in 
every respect and came to be known as "the Fung." The reason of 
their emigration [i.e. from Arabia] was thus: Sulayman fled to the 
Sudan in the time of the Khali'fate of Abu 'Abdulla Muhammad 
el Saffah, who was the first of the Beni 'Abbas to hold that position, 
and who wrested the power from Marwan, who is said to have been 
the last of the Beni Ommayya dynasty. Abu 'Abdulla continued 

laughtering the Beni Ommayya and subjecting them till he had 
taken their place throughout the country. So Sulayman fled to 
Abyssinia and settled there for a time. Then news reached him that 
el Saffah had pursued [.''] the Beni Ommayya after their dispersion 
into [various] countries and had finally overtaken Muhammad ibn 


el Walid ibn Hashim in Spain [el Andalus] and slain him. Sulayman 
therefore fled from Abyssinia to the Sudan and settled there and 
married the daughter of one of the kings of the Sudan. By her 
he had two sons, the one named Daud and the other Ans. Then 
[Sulayman] died, and the names [of his sons] got altered, and Daud 
was called Oudun, and Ans was called Ouns. Ouns was ancestor of 
the OuNSAB, and Daud of the Oudunab. These [descendants of 
Sulayman] multiplied among the blacks and finally they became fused 
with them in every respect, and their power flourished and they 
became those rulers of the Sudan who are known from history. The 
first king of this stock in Sennar was the Sultan 'Omara, and the power 
passed from Sultan to Sultan till the time of the Sultan Badi whose 
rule ended with the Turkish conquest of Sennar in the Sudan. Ends. 
This is what we have found. 

XXXI As regards Fezara, their pedigree is well known: they are a 
tribe of Beni Tami'm, who settled in the Sudan. 

XXXII The Beni 'Amir are the family of 'Amir and occupied 
Abyssinia and are its rulers. 

XXXIII Ken ANA are a great and famous tribe in the Sudan and are 
the family of Dekaym el Kenani, an important^ and unblemished 
family: they dwell in the same parts of the country as Fezara. 

XXXIV The Gabiria are numerous in Abyssinia; [but] most of 
them [are] between the Mahass and the well-known [town of] 
Dongola. They are the family of Gabir son of 'Abdulla el Ansari. 
When Dongola was occupied, at the time of its siege, the majority 
of them assisted the armies of the Muslims in the expedition of 'Amr 
ibn el 'Asi (God bless him). 

XXXV Rufa'a were settled at the first among the Bega: then 

They are [one] of the tribes of Kutaf. 

XXXVI The Gabarta^ are by origin Arabs. 

XXXVII Fellata are the children of 'Ukba; and the writers of 
genealogies relate that the sheikh who was in Upper Egypt [Ard 
el Sa'td] and known as el Sheikh Mugelli was one of them^. Their 
pedigree goes back to 'Abd el Rahman son of Abu Bukr el Sadik 
(God bless him). 

XXXVIII The Hadarba are a well-known tribe. El Samarkandi says 
" I heard from el Sheikh 'Abdulla ibn el Wuzi'r el Hadrami that they 
declare they [came] originally from Hadramaut and migrated inland 

^ reading ?»^t; Jle^ for •.Ijia-j Jte j_>«. 

- reading ^^j-**- for ajj-»»- . 

^ reading ^o^«i^ ajIs for ^ov** >^^ • 

io6 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. a2. xxxviii. 

in the time of el Haggag ibn Yusef and settled with the Bega till they 
became [a part] of them and ruled at Sudkin el Gezi'ra, and settled 
there on the coasts of the salt sea of the Sudan." 
XXXIX The BeriAb are AshrAf descended from el Husayn. 
XL The Ga'afira are a great tribe: their pedigree goes back to 
Ga'afir ibn Kutaf of the tribe of Tai, and it is said that Ma'atab 
ibn Hatim el Tai was [one] of them. They are famous by [containing 
among their number] Kerdam and others whom we have not space 
to mention. Ends. 

XLI Now this pedigree has been transcribed from el Samarkand! 
the Great, from the original. As regards the pedigree given as that of 
the transcriber of it, there is no need to expand it [any further] here. 
XLII Now 'Arman and Nimayr and Muhammad are the sons of 
'Abd Rabbihi son of 'Arman son of Duab son of Ghanim [son of 
Hamaydan] son of Subuh Abu Merkha son of Mismar, who is brother 
of Samra the father of el Bedayri (the ancestor of the Bedayria); 
and both of them (Mismar and Samra) are the sons of Serrar ibn 
Kerdam, as has just been explained from the beginning as far back 
as 'Adnan. 

XLIII And of 'Adnan one has said "How many a father owes the 
nobility which he possesses to his son, even as 'Adnan owes his to 

the Prophet of God " 

XLIV This pedigree, which has the authority of past genera- 
tions, and which was transcribed from [the work of] el Samarkand! 
the Great, as we mentioned above, was transcribed by el Sheikh 
'Omara el Sheikh 'Awuda Shakal el Karih, and preserved and verified, 
and upon it are the signatures of the 'omad and notables and 
Khalifas and learned men whose names appear below. 

The signature and seal of el Ostadh Mirghani Sowar el Dhahab, 
^'Kh'^lifat el Khtihfd" in Dongola and representative of the Khatmia. 

El Sheikh Mukhtar Sati Muhammad el Obayyad, and his seal. 

The signature and seal of el Sheikh el Kadi Sati Muhammad ibn 
el Kadi Muhammad Salih. 

The signature and seal of el Sheikh Muhammad Taha Muhammad 
Nur el Khut (?), Khalifa of Tankassi. 

The signature and seal of the Khalifa 'Abd el Kadir Yusef, the 
Khalifa of el Sheikh 'Awuda el Karih. 

The signature and seal of el Sheikh Sati Muhammad Muhammad 

The signature and seal of el Sheikh Muhammad Hasan el Sheikh 
'Abd el Gelil Habuba. 

El Sheikh Muhammad Ahmad 'fsa. 

IV. A 2. xLiv. OF THE SUDAN 107 

The signature and seal of the *omda Sa'id Muhammad Ferah, 
'omda of Tankassi Island and district. 

The Khalifa 'Omara Muhammad 'fsa, and his handwriting. 

The signature and seal of the Khalifa Muhammad Hasan Sati, 
Khalifa of el Hag. . .{illegible). 

The signature and seal of el Sheikh Hamid Muhammad 'fsa. 

El Sheikh Ahmad el Kurashi Muhammad Ahmed. 

El Sheikh Muhammad Sulayman Medani. 

El Sheikh Ahmad Muhammad Magdhub. 

The Khalifa 'Othman Ahmad Kurashi. 

The signature and seal of el Sheikh Kumr (?) Idri's Mustafa 

The signature and seal of el Sheikh Babikr Sati Muhammad 
el Obayyad. 

The signature and seal of el Sheikh Muhammad Ahmad el Feki 
'Abd el Rahman. 

The signature and seal of el Sheikh Muhammad Ahmad 'Abd 
el Rahi'm, mdzun of Tankassi. 

The signature and seal of the Khalifa el Sheikh Ibrahim el Dasuki. 

Seal of el Sheikh 'Abd el Wahhab Ahmad Sughayr, the Khalifa, 
in his handwriting. 

El Sheikh Muhammad Taha ibn el feki i^) Ahmad el 'Alim. 

The 'omda Sinada Muhammad Ferah. 

El Sheikh Gerar (?) Muhammad Ferah. 

And others. 

[ io8 ] 

A 2 (NOTES) 

I Cp. BA, cxxxiii (note), A 3, xv, and AB, xxxix et seq. 

"Huzabi" is very doubtful: the copyist writes first i^j^^ ("Hay- 
dari") and then over it ^Jf'>j^^ ("Huzabi") or ^Jj-x»- ("Hadzabi"), 

II Cp. A 8, V. 

III Cp. BA, cxxxv (note). 

v-xiii Subuh Abu Merkha is here called "Subuh Abu Muraka'a, but 
this form does not occur elsewhere. The only emendations made in paras, 
v-xiii is "Ghanim" for "Ghanima." 

The" Maid ia" occur also as "Magidia" (seenotetoD 3, 200 and 108). 

Para, xi closes with "They" (sc. the 13 sons of 'Arman) "died un- 
married." This may be a gloss by the latest copyist to save the trouble of 
giving any more lists of descendants. In para, xlii he actually gives certain 
descendants of 'Arman by way of a postscript. 

Para, xiii opens with "Hammad el Bahkarub begot the Nahkar" (by 
slip for Bahkar), although Hammad el Bahkarub has not been previously 
mentioned. Presumably he is the " Hammad surnamed Kati " of para, xii, 
and "bi Kati" may be an error for "bi Bahkarub." A 11 (xxv and xxvii) 
calls him "el Bahkur." 


As to Rubat and Sa'ad el Ferid being sons of Mismar see note on the 
genealogical tree. 

"Makbud" (^*i.«) is an emendation of "Mafdub" (w^-ai-o). 
"Sakarang" is an emendation of "SakArag," and "Bornu" of 


A 2 (para, xvii) says "Hakim begot the HAkimAb, the people of Arko 
Island. Gabir begot the Mahass, the kings of Khandak and Dongola"; 
but A 1 1 omits this. 

After "kings of Tekali" A 2 adds "who are the original royal stock," 
and after "TomAm" adds "in the west": A 11 contains neither of these 
XXII This and para, xxiii are not in A 11, though cp. A 11, lix. 

For "Abu 'AbduUa" see note to BA, ccxiii. 

"Is descended from Sa'ad" is given literally as "is son of Sa'ad." 
XXIV Cp. BA, cxviii, cxxiv; A 11, xlviii; C i ; D 2, xix and D i, cxxxi. 

The version of D i reconciles the two accounts given in A 2. A 11 
gives " 'Omara" for " 'Amir." 

Wiistenfeld (q.v. S) gives no "Sulayman" as son of Khalid: the latter 
was of the Beni Makhzum. 

The name "Ibayrak" is clearly connected with "BerAkna," the name 
of one of the main sub-tribes of the KawAhla. 


XXV. Cp. A II, L and D 2, xxxi. 
For 'Abdulla ibn Ga'afir see Wiistenfeld, Y. 
'Abd el Muttalib was grandson of 'Abd Menaf. 

XXVI Contrast D i, CLXXI and cp. D 2, xxxiv. 

XXVII Cp. BA, CLXxix, etc. 

XXVIII Cp. BA, CLxxiv, etc. 

XXIX Cp. BA, CLXXViii, etc. 

XXX Cp. BA, ccxiii, etc. 

For a different account of Oiinsa and Oudun see tree of B i . 

XXXI Cp. All, Liv, etc. 

XXXII Cp. BA, ccxv; A 11, lv and D 2, xli. 

XXXIII Cp. A II, Lvi; D I, cxl and D 2, xiii. 

This paragraph and An, Lvi originate from the same source but the 
copyist must be wrong in one case. The reading of A 11 is the better, viz. 
j9t^ iJ'*3 ?^*^l) tJ'*-5 ^^ place of A 2, viz. ^J-^ ^Jte^ r^^y^^. »J'* O-*- 

"Dekaym" should probably be "Deghaym" (see D 2, xiii). 
xxxiv Cp. BA, cxLviii and A 11, lvii. 

The reference is to the conquest of Dongola in 652 a.d. by 'Abdulla 
ibn Sa'ad. I can find no record of 'Abdulla's having a son Gabir. 

XXXV Cp. A II, LViii and D 2, xiv. 

After "then" is written (^>a«^: the meaning is evidently that they 
migrated (see Part III, Chap. 2 {a)). For "KutAf" A 11 gives Kahtan. 

XXXVI Cp. BA, CLxxvii and A 11, lx. 

xxxvii Cp. BA, cxix and A 11, lxi (and notes). 
By '"Ukba" is meant 'Ukba ibn Yasir. 
For Abd el Rahman see Wiistenfeld, R. 
El Sheikh MugelU is the Mashaykhi mentioned in D 3, 255 and ABC, 


XXXVIII See BA, clxxvi and D 7, li. 
xxxix This paragraph appears only in A 2. 
XL Cp. BA, CLXxv and A 11, lxiii. 

A 2 and A 11 give "Kutaf " for Kahtan (BA): cp. para. xxxv. 
XLii See note on paras, v-xiii. 
XLiii Cp. BA, ccxxix and AB, xxx. 

XLIV 'Awuda ibn 'Omar Shakal el Karih's biography is in D 3 (No. 66). 
He was the pupil of a pupil of Hasan wad Hasuna, who died in 1664, and 
he was alive in 1659. 

Khalifa, literally "a successor," is used to mean the head of a re- 
ligious sect. 

The Khatmia includes the Morgham'a tarika. 
Tankassi Island is close to Debba, in Dongola. 

The signatories appear to be mostly Ga'aliin (including Bedayria). 
This practice of obtaining certificates of authenticity from well-known 
religious persons is not uncommon: cp. A 8. 






El tfs 

Ibrahim el Ga'ali 

El Yemdni 

El Hegazi 




Abu el Dfs 


( Terdgma) 





Fahid (Fuhayd ?) 

X Whose mother was descended 
from El Khazrag. 



El Bedayri 



El Malik Taha 

El Malik Husayn 


El Malik 'Alwan 

El Malik Huzabi (?) 

El Malilc el Zayn 













I Fur royal family 
BornU royal fa?mly 
Sakdrang, loyal 
family of Tekali 

( Tomam) 

(seven others) 

Note. Mismar, Subuh Abu Merkha, 
Rubat, and Sa'ad el Ferid appear cor- 
rectly in the text as descendants of 
Serrar. The genealogist, however, in 
giving the descendants of Rubat and 
Sa'ad el Ferfd forgets to mention they 
are both sons of Mismdr; but this is a 
mere oversight and they are here given 
as such according to the usual tradition. 




(Mnftdf'o) <M«^dl(a) (AfWda) 'iV'i 


Z«'yd MuUbu 'Abd'trAl 


[ III ] 



This nisba was copied for me by el Safi Sulayman, ^omda of the 
BiSHARiA Ma'akla in Kordofan, in 1909, from the copy in his 

From a comparison of paragraphs 11 of A 4 and xiii of A 3 it seems 
that both A 3 and A 4 are extracts from the pedigree of Muhammad 
ibn 'fsa Sowar el Dhahab, and that this latter was supposed to have 
been brought from Mekka by "el Sheikh Kamil el Murshid." 

Now Kamil is said to have been a Bedayri, and so was Muhammad 
ibn 'fsa Sowar el Dhahab; and Ishak Sheddad, whose pedigree we 
have in A 2, is also a Bedayri, of the same section as Muhammad 
ibn 'fsa. D 3 contains (No. 191) the biography of the last named. 
He lived, as his descendants still do, in Dongola, and he was a con- 
temporary and friend (see D 3, 191) of that 'Awuda whose son made 
a copy of A 2 {q.v. para. xliv). Evidently, therefore, A 2, A 3 and 
A 4, though varying in minor details {q.v. in the trees), all represent 
extracts from a nisba which was current in Dongola about the 
middle of the seventeenth century, and which in one form or another 
was used by the compiler of AB. 

I In the name of God .... 

[The following is] an extract from the pedigrees of the tribes of 
the Arabs from the noble tradition as related by el Termidhi and 
Ibn Nagi and el Bokhari and Muslim. 

II And [it is related] upon the authority of Abu Hurayra concerning 
the Prophet. . .[that he said] "Ye know [from] your pedigrees how 
ye are connected." 

III The Almighty said "And I have made you races and tribes, 
that ye may know one another. The noblest of you in God's sight is 
the most pious of you." 

IV The tribes whom it is not permitted to enslave are, according 
to El Gdma'i el Sughayr fi hadith el bashir el Kddir ["The small 
encyclopaedia on the tradition of the mighty evangelist"], 

[Kuraysh rMuzAYNA /GhafAr^ 

- El Ansar - AsLAM Himyar^ 


^ reading jUi forjlic. ^ reading jL.©.*- for SjUo*.. 

^ reading a^jJ.^ for i^jj.»- . 


V And the noblest of these ... {co?7tmues as BA, xlix, down to 

VI And according to the tradition related by Abu Musa, Kuraysh 
were, in the time of the Prophet. . . , eighty^ tribes. 

VII Now Gu'uL, considered as a whole, are [descended from]. . . 
(continues as BA, cxxxii, down to. . .Hdshim). 

VIII The Prophet ... said "Carry not your pedigrees beyond 

IX As regards the Beni Ma'amur. . .{continues as BA, cxxxi). 

X It has been explained that Gu'ul's name was Ibrahim, and he 
was called Gu'ul because. . .{continues as BA, cxxxii, i.e. AB, clxv). 

XI Most of GuHAYNA are. . .{continues as AB, cxxxvi,/or which see 
BA, Li). 

XII Now there are [also] seven tribes apart from. . .{continues as 
AB, cxxxvii). 

XIII Now this account is the true one, and I was given it from the 
manuscript of the scribes at Mekka the Noble by el Sheikh Kamil 
el Murshid. This is the pedigree of the people. 

XIV Now the man who collected the whole of the tribe of Gu'ul 
together was Kerdam, and he lived in the Hegaz and the fertile lands, 
and whosoever is not among his descendants is no Ga'ali. 

XV The true pedigree is as follows: Kerdam son of Abu el Dis 
son of Buda'a. . .{etc., up to Hdshim: see tree). 

XVI- XXXV Serrar was ancestor. . .{continues like AB, clxx; et seq. 
The details as given here concerning Serrdr's descendants will he found in 
the tree, which corresponds largely to the tree o/ AB). 

XXXVI This is what appeared to us and was made clear. 

XXXVII The pedigree of Ma'akla is from Guhayna. 

XXXVIII Sahal had three sons, 'Al and Ma'al and 'Abd el 'Al: 'Al 
begot the Ma'alia, and Ma'al begot the Ma'akla, and 'Abd el 'Al 
begot the Zayadia and the Meganin. 

XXXIX The Ma'akla are the descendants of two men, Kal and 
Wal. Kal had two sons, Hubaysh and Ramadan. Hubaysh's descend- 
ants are the Bisharia and the Sama'in and Kanakil and Awlad 
Badr. Ramadan 's descendants are KAGABfL and 'AfiADfA and Awlad 

^ reading ,^>a^Uo^ for a«jLoj. 

[ 113 ] 


I For "el Termidhi" see AB, cvi. 

El Bokhari is the most famous of the Kuranic commentators (see 
Huart, pp. 217-220). 

"Muslim" is Abu el Husayn ibn el Haggag, author of a Sahih (see 
Huart, pp. 218, 219). 

"Ibn Nagi" may be the Ibn Abu Nagih mentioned by el Makrizi 
(Khetdt, I, 275). 

II Cp. BA, III (note). 

III Cp. BA, XXIII, etc. 

IV Cp. AB, cxxxii and BA, xlviii. The author of El Gdmd'i el Sughayr 
was Gelal el Dm el Siuti (1445-1505). 

KLenana is obviously omitted here by a slip. 

VI Cp. BA, cxxx and AB, clxii. 

VII For " Gu'uL " (instead of " Ga'al ") cp. D 6, xi. The word translated 
"considered as a whole" is Z^^ja^. 

VIII Cp. BA, cxxxv, etc. 

XI This paragraph agrees entirely with AB (as opposed to BA) except 
that the words "in Basra and" are omitted after "Himyar." 

The word translated in BA, li, "mixed with" is i».jji.JL« in A 3, 
Aej-jji^.^^ in BA, and 3^jl^^ in AB : the last is probably correct. 

xii The spelling here varies from that in AB, cxxxvii: "Bag" in AB 
is " Bega " in A 3, " Khashba" in AB is " Hashba " in A 3, " Ghibra" (AB) 
becomes "Kibrat" (A3), and "'Athir" becomes "'Afir." 

xiii The Arabic of " I was given. . . " is 

J^>«Jt J^^^ ?-d^l O-^ 2^j^->^\ 2S^ «l,,I^ Aa>....Aj lyjJL)l3. 

For Kamil el Murshid cp. A 4, 11. 


For "the fertile lands" {•^^iy^y) the text of A 3 gives "el 'Irak" 
(oIjjOI). AB gives <^\ij^)\ . 

XV Cp. AB, xxxix and BA, cxxxiii et seq. 

_xvi-xxxw The text of these sections contains only what is in the tree. 
" Suwayh " is written for " Shuwayh," " KodiAt " for " GhodiAt," " Gho- 
mar" for "'Omar," and (once) "Hamayd" for "Hamaydan": these four 
slips have been corrected in the tree. 

The fact that "Hamayd el Nawam" is spoken of proves that A3 
was not taken from AB, for AB expressly condemns that version (see BA, 
CLiv, note). The original of A 3, on the contrary, was evidently used by 
the author of AB. 

The names of 14 sons of Hammad el Akrat are given as in the tree, 
but the form in each case, e.g. "Serrarabi," "Nafa'abi," etc., is not that 

M.S. II 8 


of a proper name but of a member of a sub-tribe; i.e. the son's name 
would be "Serrar," "Nafa'i," etc., and his descendants (the sub-tribe) 
would thus be called "Serr.4rab," etc., and the singular of such form is 
"Serrarabi," etc. Though 14 sons are given, the text of the paragraph 
commences " Hammad el Akrat had thirteen sons." 

XXXVII This and the following paragraphs, to the end, are only written 
in pencil in the MS. They may have been copied from a diiferent source 
but probably represent only vague recollections. 

XXXIX The "BiSHARiA," etc., are sections of the Ma'akla. 



fSa'ad el Ferid 











Mansur Maki't 

{Mandsrd) (Makdita) 

Micis Muhammad Makbud 

(Mids) el Dub (Mekdbda) 


though couched in the singular. 



{(ijiffly.llift) (Khonfarla) (Ah» 

(ildkimdb) {Can 

[ 115 ] 



(See Introduction to A 3) 

I In the name of God .... 

The Prophet. . .said "Ye know from your pedigrees how ye are 

II The following is the pedigree which was transcribed by the feki 
Ahmad Muhammad from the pedigree of Sheikh Muhammad ibn 
'Isa Sowar el Dhahab, [which latter came] from Mekka the Noble, 
for it was brought [thence] by Sheikh Kamil el Murshid the Bedayri^ ; 
[and it] gives the pedigrees of the descendants of Ga'al. 

III-XII Serrar had three sons. . .{for these and their descendants see 
the tree: no other details are given). 

XIII Here ends the catalogue of the Ga'aliyyun. 

XIV Now Mismar and Samra and Samayra were the sons of 
Kerdam son of. . .{as in tree). 

A 4 (NOTES) 

I Cp. BA, III. 

II For Muhammad ibn 'Isa see introduction to A3, and D 3, 191, 
Cp. A 3, XIII. 

III-XII In the tree " Koday " and " Kodiat " have been altered to " Gho- 
day" and "Ghodiat" respectively, 

^ reading ^^jjjuJ I forjjjuJI. 





Ghoday Butah Kusas Kunan 

(Ghodidt) {Batdhin) {Kusdsin) {Kwianiyyun) 


i \ I I ^ 

Muhammad Redayr 'Abd el Rahman Riash X^r^f 

(Bedayria) Abu el Shayh {Ridshin) [Terayfia) 



tRuWt . tNeb 

"TT ,, ;. . ., 1, . 7),. Hranmnd cl Akral Hamnyil el Nnwim Jfamaydin 

[ 117 ] 



This extract is said by the owner, el Hadi, to have been obtained 
some ten years ago by his uncle Rahma Muhammad. He does not 
know its origin. Probably it is, like A i, an extract from Sheikh 
el Bedowi's manuscript, and the variations may be due to the copyist. 

Pedigree of the Ga'aliyyun. 
I I am el Hadi son of. . .{as in tree^ no details given). 


'Abd el Muttalib 

El 'Abbas 


El Fadl 



Dhu el Kild'a el Himyari 




r - 










• r ■ 










Nusr el Dfn 






















Abu el Dfs 



El Hdg Ahmad 




EI Hddi 

[ "8 ] 



This pedigree was lent me by Mr H. C. Jackson, who had borrowed 
it from the famous Zubayr Pasha. The latter, as will be seen from 
the tree, was one of the Gamu'ia section of the Ga'aliin, being 
descended from their eponymous ancestor Gamu'a ibn Ghanim. He 
died in 1913. It is not known from where Zubayr Pasha obtained 
the pedigree. 

{This pedigree commences with a bald list of 10 persons who are 
related to el Zubayr Pasha, being equally with him descended from 
Sulaymdn ibn Abukr, and then continues as follows. . . .) 

I This is the pedigree of his excellency the late el Zubayr Rahma 
Pasha, the great and mighty, to whom are related the persons whose 
names appear above. 

II El Zubayr son of. . .{as tree, q.v., as far as 'Adndn). 

III And the Prophet. . .said " Go not beyond 'Adnan. It is in him 
that [ye] are united. [The generations] beyond 'Adnan are disputed." 

Ill Cp. BA, cxxxv, etc. 

A 6 (NOTE) 


Etc. to 'Adndn 



'Abd Menaf 




'Abd el Muttalib 

El 'Abbas 


El Fadl 


Dhu el Kila'a- 











Ibrahim el Hdshimi 






'Abdulla Harkdn 




Abu el Dfs 






■ I 




I ■ 



I ■ 











El Zubayr 

Whose mother was of EI Ansdr. 
Whose mother was of El Khazrag. 
Whose mother was of El 'Abs. 

Whose mother was of Himyar. 
Whose mother was from Yemen. 

[ "9 ] 



This extract is sealed by three sheikhs. It was produced by a woman, 
who had been born a Tekalawia and captured and enslaved in the 
Mahdia, as a proof of the fact that she was freeborn and not 

Apparently it is from the same source as A 10. 

This is the pedigree of el Tom bint Kerayb, 
copied from the great original. 

I In the name of God .... 

Praise be to Him who made men races and tribes that they might 
know one another, and blessings and salutations upon him that said 
"Ye know from your pedigrees how ye are connected," and upon his 
family .... 

II Now the preservation of pedigrees is obligatory, ordained by 
the law, and to guard them is a duty in the past and in the future. 

III The pedigree is as follows: el Tom daughter of Kerayb son of 
. . .{as in tree, q.v. as far as el Sayyid el 'Abbas). 

A 7 (NOTES) 

"The great original" is S^-J^Jl ^'s)l ("The great mother"). 

Ill The " meks " mentioned are those of Gebel Tekali, and it is of interest 
to notice that they are said to be descended from Gamti'a, i.e. to belong 
to the Gamu'ia branch of the Ga'ali family. 

The name "Gayli" (^J^cf.) seems to attach to the ruling family at 

Tekali from generation to generation. Curiously enough, far to the East, 
between the Blue Nile and the Atbara, is Gebel Gayli (or "Kayli" as it 
should be written) where a small branch of Shukria HasanAb have their 
headquarters, and the Sheikh of these people uses the hereditary name 
of Gayli in place of his father's name; i.e. instead oi (e.g.) "Muhammad 
walad Ahmad" or "Adam walad el Nur" he is known as "Muhammad 
Gayh" or "Adam Gayli." 

Crowfoot (Arch. Survey..., xix, Mem. p. 24) says Gayli "is a Nubian 
word meaning 'red.'" Burckhardt (Nubia) gives it in Nuba dialect as 
"geyla" and in Kanzi as "geylem." The Midobi for "red" is "Kayli" 
and the Birked "Kayle." 

" 'Adnan" for " 'Adi" occurs also in A 10. 

"Yatil" and "Hatil" are transposed by an error. 



El Sayyid el 'Abbds 
El Sayyid el 'Abdulla 
EI Sayyid el Sa'ad 
El Sayyid el Dhu el Kila'a el Himyari (descended on his mother's side 
El Sayyid el Hatil ' from el Himyar) 

El Sayyid el Yatil 

El Sayyid el Kerab 

El Sayyid el Kusas 

El Sayyid el 'Adnan 

El Sayyid el Yemen el Khazragi (descended on his mother's side 

El Sayyid el Kays ^^""^ ^^ Khazrag) 

El Say>'id el Idris 

El Sayyid el Ibrahfm el Ga'ali 

El Sayyid el Ahmad el Yemani 


El Sayyid el Masruk 

El Sayyid el 'Abdulla 

El Sayyid el I^uda'a 
El Sayyid el Kerdam 

El Sayyid el Serrar 

El Sayyid el Mismar 

El Sayyid el Subuh 

EI Sayyid el Hamaydan 

El Sayyid el Ghanim 

El Sayyid el Gamu'a 

El Sayyid el Mansur 

El Sayyid el Hamaydan 


El Sayyid el Diab 


EI Sayyid el 'Abd el Muna'am 

I _ 





El Mek Gayli Abu Gadayn 

El Mek Gayli 'Omara 

El Mek Gayli 'Onulla 


EI Mek Gayli Abu Kurun 


El Mek Muhammad 





[ 121 ] 



This nisba is a disreputable looking document nearly two feet 
long, the lower half covered with signatures and seals: it is badly 
written, in bad condition, and full of inaccuracies. Obviously several 
generations have dropped out between Serrar and the present. It 
was lent me by 'Abd el Kadir 'Abdulla, the sanitary barber of el Kqm- 
lin and he stated that it was copied for him about 1900 by his relatives, 
who hold an older copy, in Dongola, viz, at Um Durrag village, near 

He had no knowledge of the origin of the nisha, but believed 
his relatives to have inherited their copy, which, for all he knew, 
might be the original. 

I Praise be to God who created man from a handful^ of earth and 
made him races and tribes that the noble and the baseborn might 
be known apart, and blessings and salutations be upon the noblest of 
created beings — there is no disputing it — and upon his family and 
his companions, the good and glorious ones ; and the goodness of the 
AsHRAF be upon all other noble men, and may the strength of God 
make their lineage a cause for them to enter into Paradise, as was 
said by Him who is glorious "Fear God by whom ye beseech one 
another and [honour] the womb that bore you." 

II Now he upon whom be all honour said "Ye know from your 
pedigrees how ye are connected." 

III And according to the agreement between those two quotations 
it is the bounden duty of every person to know his pedigree and tribe 
lest perchance he trace his lineage to the Ashraf though he be not of 
them, and so fall into sin, or not know that he is a Sherif, though 
being one. For lack of carefulness in this occasions harm. 

IV It is thy duty to fear God under all circumstances according 
to the word of him who is glorious "The noblest of you in God's 
sight is the most pious of you." 

V This is an honourable pedigree, ennobled by the aid of a host- 
of manuscripts, the pedigree of el Abbas, of whom it was said by 
the Lord of the Apostles "Nobility pertains to me and to my uncle 
Hamza and to el Abbas." 

1 reading aJLJL» for iilw . ^ reading Slj». for Cj-ltw . 


VI Once on a time he upon whom be all honour collected round 
him his uncle el 'Abbas and his children and threw over them a 
mantle (or, according to one account a coat) and called to them say- 
ing "Verily they are the people of my own kith and kin," and cir- 
cumcized them. 

VII It is said on the authority of el Imam Abu Hanifa el Na'amani 
" The noblest is the family of 'Ali and the family of el 'Abbas and the 
family of Ga'afir and the family of 'Akayl and of el Harith ibn 'Abd 
el Muttalib, and when the origins [of all] are made clear all those 
who are connected with them are free, of proved Uneage." 

VIII And here is that pedigree, as you who are learned and intelli- 
gent may see: 'Abd el Kadir son of 'Abdulla. . .{as in the tree, q.v., as 
far as 'Adndn). 

IX The Imam Malik said, "Verily I hate that which carries a 
pedigree above. . . ; and beyond 'Adnan all is false. . . ." 

X This is what has been recorded regarding all who belong to the 
TuAYMAB who are in the ShAiki'a country and the Humayyirab who 
are neighbours of the Bedayria, as is testified by those whose names 
are written^ below. 

27th el Higga 13 19. 

{Here follows a list of some 37 signatories testifying to the truth of 
the above pedigree.) 

A 8 (NOTES) 

I Cp. BA, XLii and xxiii and x. 

II Cp. BA, III and xxxii. 

III Cp. BA, II and A 11, iii. 
V Cp. A 2, II. 

viii The text gives " Abu el Kild'a son of el Himyari " by error for " Dhu 
el Kila'a el Himyari." 

'Abdulla has been inserted between el Fadl and el 'Abbas by a later 

IX Cp. BA, cxxxv. Two or three words here are illegible. 

X The TuAYMAB are the section of Ga'alii'n to which the owner of 
the pedigree belongs. The Humayyirab are apparently a subsection of 
them named after the eleventh man on the list. 

The signatories are mostly relatives of the owner: they have in many 
cases added such remarks as "we approve this true pedigree," etc. 

^ reading ?»'■«>='>•< for >^>« . 

IV. A 8. 






['Abd] Mendf 


'Abd el Muttalib 

El 'Abbas 


El Fadl 

Sa'ad el Ansar 

El Himyari 

Abu el Kila'a 













■ I 






El Yemani 






Abu el Dfs 




El Humayyir el Kebfr 

Abu Serfr 






Muhammad 'AH 




Muhammad el Amfn 




'Abd ei Kadir 

[ 124 ] 



This pedigree is that of a certain Muhammad el Nur Ketayna of el 
Kamli'n (Blue Nile). He stated that the original was at Yunis village 
in Berber at the mosque of the Ketaynab and that he took his copy 
thence. The original is known as nisbat el Ketaynab but its author is 

An attempt seems to have been made here to dovetail together 
the pedigrees of the Ga'alii'n and the Mahass. 

I In the name of God .... 

God said "O people, I have created you of male and female and 
made you races and tribes that ye might know one another. Verily 
the noblest of you in God's sight is the most pious of you." 

II And the Prophet. . .said "Ye know from your pedigrees how 
ye are connected." 

III Here follows the pedigree: Muhammad son of el Nur. . .{as in 
tree, q.v., as far as 'Abd el Muttalib). 

A 9 (NOTES) 

I Cp. BA, XXII, XXXIII, etc. 

II Cp. BA, III. 

III The name Hasfn occurs also in AB, xl and xlii. 

A note of uncertain authorship following the pedigree states that Sa'ad 
and Ibrahim were called "el Ansari" and "el Ga'ali" respectively because 
their mothers were an Ansaria and a Ga'alia: it is also remarked that 
Mushayrif's mother was a Mahassia and that from him were descended 
the SuRURAB, the family of Sheikh Idn's walad el Arbab (for whom see 
D 3, 141), and the 'Ebaydab and the Mahaysab and the 'Awaydab and the 
pAKfRAB sections and various Mahass. 

In D 3, 154, Sheikh Khogali's mother is spoken of as a "Mahassia 
Mushayrifia." For these echoes of a matrilinear system see note to BA, 




'Abd el Muttalib 
El 'Abbds 

El Fadl 

I ■ 





El Dfs Sharuk 


EI Yemani 

Ahmad el Hegazi 















'Abd el Rahfm 







Abu el Kasim 




Abu el K^asim 








[ 126 ] 



This pedigree was sent me by Sheikh el Taib Hashim, the Mufti of 
the Sudan. 

His section of Ga'aliin is the Godalab, so named from Godulla 
his eleventh ancestor. 

I This is the pedigree of the fakir the Mufti of the Sudan, viz. 
Sheikh el Taib son of Ahmad son oi...{as in tree, q.v., to el 

A 10 (NOTE) 

After "Ibrahim el Ga'ali" is added "and he was ancestor of all the 
tribes of the Ga'aliyyun, and to him do all their numerous tribes trace 
their descent, and every branch of them is united in his person." 

" 'Adnan" occurs also in A 7. 


El 'Abbas 

El Fadl 

I ■ 
Sa'ad el Ansari^ 
Dhu el Kila'a el Himyari^ 









Yemen el Khazragi^ 


Ibrahfm el Ga'al 



Ahmad el Yemdni 


'Ali Kumr 





ulla (surnamed Harkan) 





• f 







■ 1 


Sheikh el Taib 



Subuh Abu Merkha 





■ I 

'Abd'el 'Al 



I _ 







^ So called after his mother's father. 

[ 127 ] 



The particular copy of this nisba lent me for translation was the 
property of one of the family of Talha 'Abd el Baki, the head sheikh 
of the Batahin, a tribe of nomads hving east of the Blue Nile. 

Its history was unknown, but from internal evidence it would 
seem clearly to have had the same origin as A 2 and A3. It has more 
the appearance of a paraphrase than of an exact copy. The Arabic 
is somewhat colloquial, the style is disconnected, there are a number 
of clerical errors, and glosses have been added. 

The impression left is that the earliest copyist had access to a 
lengthy manuscript, possibly the original of "El Samarkandi," and 
that he or one of his successors made a hasty transcription without 
greatly discriminating between the relevant and the irrelevant, at 
times merely paraphrasing the meaning, at times hurriedly copying 
a whole passage literally, and at times omitting a few paragraphs. 

The glosses were probably added after the Batahin had acquired 
their copy, and the latest copyist of all may be entirely responsible 
for the clerical errors, as for the cramped and crude writing of the 

I In the name of God .... 

II Now the knowledge of pedigrees should be pursued with pains 
and care, for he upon whom be the blessings of God said "Ye know 
from your pedigrees how ye are connected " ; and many reliable men 
of learning, brilliant savants and geniuses, have given their attention 
to the study of pedigrees, such as Si'di el Sheikh Abu Sulayman 
el 'Iraki and Sheikh Mahmud el Samarkandi and Sheikh Abdulla 
ibn Sa'id el Samarkandi and Sheikh Abd el Rahman el Bahrani. 

III El Bahrani, God bless him, used to say " Verily we have under- 
taken a mighty task, and the pedigrees have fallen into confusion 
among us. What hero will take them in hand^ that the Sheri'f may 
be distinguished from other men ?. . .etc." 

IV I will mention what is necessary concerning the pedigree of 
Ga'al, and, God being my aid to the right way, I will tell of the 
pedigree of the Arabs known as Ga'al. [But as] the tribes of the 
Arabs are many, I will not deal with them [all]. He that would do so- 

1 reading lvJ.*a^ for lyA^-^d . " reading JUui'^)! for Jli;:-/^)l . 


should [do so by studying] the books of el Samarkandi the Great and 
of el Bahrani el Sheikh^ 'Abd el Rahman. 

V Ga'al are the ruling race in the Sudan, and they owe their might 
to the fact of their [descent] from Hashim, and with them is a refuge 
in times of trouble, and this [has always been] the glory of [the tribes 
descended from] Kuraysh, [even] before the mission of the Prophet. 
Their poet says : 

VI " O thou that travellest from place to place, hast thou not stayed 
with the family of 'Abd Menaf? Hast thou not visited them and 
desired their hospitality ? They [would] have saved thee from penury 
and ill. Kuraysh was as an egg that is broken and scattered; and as 
the very essence of the yolk are [the sons of] 'Abd Menaf, that give 
drink to the thirsty, the protectors of the people, and their guides, 
that move their encampments in concord and peace, that smite the 
chieftains [of their foes] in the midst of the pate, that cry ' welcome ! ' 
to the guest. 'Amr the mighty apportioned the pottage to his people, 
what time the men of Mekka suffered from the dearth of food. 
Happy indeed art thou if thou campedst near to them : verily thou 
wilt experience generosity and justice." 

VII Now the reason of their migration to the Sudan was the out- 
break of war between the Beni Ommayya and the Beni Hashim. In 
consequence they migrated to the West, i.e. to the Oases, and then 
returned eastwards, i.e. to Dongola, and conquered its people and 
subdued Guhayna, and subsequently Dongola and Berber; and 
Guhayna became subject to Ga'al. 

VIII The reason of their being so named was, it is said, that their 
ancestor Ibrahim ibn Idris was a generous king, and the feeble tribes- 
men used to come to him complaining of want of food, and he used 
to say to them "ga'alndkum min ahl nafakdtnd" ["we have made you 
a part of our household"]; and for this reason he was surnamed 
"Ga'al." There are also other versions; and God best knows the 

IX And his descendants have been famous by this name, viz. Ga'al, 
until the present. 

X We will now take up the thread of our discourse. 

XI Serrar had three sons, Samra and Samayra and Mismar. 

XII Samra had four sons, Bedayr (ancestor of the Bedayria^) and 
'Abd el Rahman Abu Shayh (ancestor of the Shuwayhat), and 
Turuk (ancestor of the Terayfia), and Riash (ancestor of the 

^ reading ^ j i SJ I for ^jLXi. 2 i-ea4ing ijjjj,) for a.jjj,j. 


XIII From Samayra four [tribes] are descended, the Ghodiat^ 
the KuNAN, the KusAs and the Batahin. 

XIV In the book of el Bahrani the Great [it is said] that their 
ancestor was nicknamed Abtah [after] a wddi of that name in the 
highlands of Mekka, and the nickname passed to his descendants 
and they were known as the Batahin. 

XV Mismar had four sons, Sa'ad el Fend, and the three sons by a 
single [other] mother, Subuh Abu Merkha and Rubat and Nebi'h. 

XVI Abu Merkha had three sons, Hammad el Akrat (ancestor of 
the Magidia and the Kurt an), and Hamayd el Nawam (ancestor 
of the Sandidab^ and the Mansurab'^), and Hamaydan. 

XVII [Hamaydan] had eight sons, Ghanim and Shaik (whose 
mother was Hamama the daughter of his father's brother Rubat), 
and Hasabulla (el Hasabullawiyyun) and Mutraf (whose mother 
was the daughter of Hashi el Kumr el Fungawi), and Ghanim and 
Ghanum and Gami'a (el Gimi'ab) and Malik el Zayn, all four full 

XVIII Ghanim had three sons, Diab and Duab and Gamii'a (the 

XIX Diab had two sons, Bishara and Nasir. 

XX Bishara was ancestor of the Mirafab and the Zaydab and the 
'Abdrahmanab and the Fadlab and the Rubatab and the Serayhab 
and the rest of the well-known descendants of Bishara who live from 
Berber to el Zora. 

XXI The descendants of Nasir are the Nasirab. 

XXII Duab had two sons, 'Arman and Abu Khamsin. 

XXIII 'Arman was ancestor of a tribe called the KamOs. 

XXIV 'Arman had thirteen sons, Gebel and Gabr and 'Abd el 'Ali 
and 'Adlan and Zayd and Mukabir and Sha'a el Din and Sa'id and 
Nasrulla and 'Abd Rabbihi and Musallam and Shabbu and Bubai. 

XXV Abu Khamsin had two sons, Muhammad and Hammad el 

XXVI Muhammad was ancestor of the Hammadab and the Awrika^, 
the people of el Gerayf, and the Kerriab, and the BELfAB, and the 

XXVII Hammad el Bahkur begot the Wagayab, the people of 
Adam walad Farag. 

XXVIII It is said — and God knows the truth — that the Awrika 
are descendants of el Bahkur, as also the Hurayrab and the Hugac; 

1 reading Obj^i for OLjjkl. '^ reading w»l^j-;-£> for v' 

3 reading wjIj^-^UoJI for w^lj^-aJt. ■* reading ^Sj^^)\ for lij^-N)! 


(the fekiKs people) : this I was told by some of their descendants, 
but I am not sure of its truth, and God knows best. 

XXIX 'Adlan had thirty sons : four [of them] were the Karakisa, 
whose mother was daughter of 'Ali Karkus walad Shukl; and four 
[of them] were the Sitnab, whose mother was daughter of walad 
Sinbis^ (?) ; and four [of them] were the 'Abudab, whose mother 
was daughter of 'Abud; and four [of them] were the children of 
Um Halayb; and Nafa'a and Nafi'a the sons of el Fungawia; and 
Muhammad [and] 'Ali, sons of one mother 2, namely the daughter 
of Karkus walad Shukl, el Kamah'a; and 'Abd el Daim and 'Abd 
el Ma'abud, sons of one mother; and Abu Selima and Barakat, sons 
of one mother; and el Mek Muhammad, only son of his mother; and 
el 'Awadi, only son of his mother; and 'Abd el Rahman, only son of 
his mother; and Tor, only son of his mother. 

XXX 'Abd el Daim had fourteen sons, Hammad el Hankal (?) and 
Abu el Basirun and el 'Arashkol and el Kabush and Abu el Gidad 
and el Kenadi [Kenawi ?] and Dow el Kidr and el Shaddu and Abu 
Darayw^a and 'Ali and Yciy and Hammad, father of the 'Alati'd, and 
Muhammad el Funkal. 

XXXI 'Abd el Ma'abud's descendants are the Shadugab and 
the Farisab and the Dogab^ el Wahahib, the people of el fekih 
Muhammad son of 'Abd el Wahhab Guayr son of Sulayman el 
'Adhab, and Kungar son of Sulayman el 'Adhab son of Sa'ad son 
of 'Abd el Saiam son of 'Abd el Ma'abud, for ['Abd el Ma'abud] 
had eight sons, Muhammad el Asfar and Balula el Ki'r and Sinbis 
and Shukl and Katkib and 'Abd el Salam and Musa and el Khudayr. 

XXXII El Asfar begot the Sufar, and Katkib the Ivatkitab, and 
Musa the HammadA (?) and the Tumar, and el Khudayr the Fi'alab 
and the Ba'abish, and 'Abd el Salam begot Musnad, and 'Abd el 
Daim, the people of el Hofia, and el Kanbalawi and Sa'ad and Idri's. 

XXXIII Sa'ad and Idris begot the Kalamin, and Abu Bukr begot 
the Awlad 'Abd el Daim, [viz.] Hadbu'a (?) and others. 

XXXIV Hadbu'a (?) begot the people of 'Abdulla walad Delil; and 
Abu Hasisi [Hasi'n ? Hasis i^] (?) begot the people of Ghanawa [Gha- 
fawa ?] ; and all of these are descendants of Idris. 

XXXV Nafa'a son of 'Adlan had seven sons, Ahmad Abu Harb and 
Hammad Abu Rikayb and Abu No and Mustafa and Sama'in and 
'Ali Abu Zawaid'* and Abu Ruays. 

XXXVI Among the descendants of Abu Harb are the Karhab and 

^ reading j_;---L. for ^>~~w. ^ reading tUwl for ^^\. 

^ reading wjIc-^jJI^ for wila-^jwl^. * reading •xjIjJ for julj. 

IV. All. L. OF THE SUDAN 131 

the FfLA and the 'Amakrab, who are known as the Hadalil; and 
Hammad was the father of the HammadAb. 

XXXVII Abu No was ancestor of the Nowab, and Mustafa of the 
Mustafab, and Sama'i'n of the Sama'i'nab^ and 'AH Abu Zawai'd of 
the NuGUMiA and the Sheraf, and Abu Ruays of the Ruaysab. 

XXXVIII Nafi'a had twenty sons, [from whom are descended] the 
MiRiAB and the Tawilab and the Kabab and Khadimab and the 
Shotalab (.?) and the Kurshab, etc., as far as is known. 

XXXIX 'Abd el 'Ah had twenty-four sons, Hammad (who begot 
el Kabush), and Kandil, and Muhammad, and 'Abdulla el Kabir, 
and Gabar, and Hasabulla, and Musa, and 'Omar, and Khidr, and 
Gadulla, and Rafa'i, and Magzuz, and Kaltud, and Kashr, and Bashr, 
and Tisa'a KulH, and el 'Ashir el Negadi whose descendants are with 
the Batahin. 

XL Rubat had five sons, 'Awad and Kuraysh and Khanfar and 
'Abdulla and Mukbal. 

XLI Sa'ad el Ferid had three sons, Kahtan and Selma and Fuhayd. 

XLII Kahtan had seven sons, Subuh (ancestor of the Subuh), FadI 
(ancestor of the Fadliyyun), Muhammad el Dub (ancestor of the 
Dubab), Makbud (ancestor of the Mekabda^), Mansur (ancestor of 
the Manasra), Makit (ancestor of the Makaita^), and Mimais 
(ancestor of the Mimaisa). 

XLIII Selma had two sons. Hakim and Gabir. 

XLIV The sons of Fuhayd were Hammad (ancestor of the Ahamda), 
and Guma'a (ancestor of the Gima'a), and Gama'i (ancestor of the 

XLV Kerdam had ten sons : seven returned to Kufa, and three bred 
here, namely Serrar, the ancestor of the whole, and secondly Dula, 
the ancestor of the Fur (the Fur royal family) and the Sakarang, 
kings of Tekali; and, lastly, Tomam, the ancestor of the Tomam. 

XLVI Abu el Di's had two sons, Tergam and Kerdam. 

XLVII The pedigree of Serrar leads back to the blessed 'Abdulla 
son of el 'Abbas the uncle of the Prophet .... 

XLVIII The Kawahla* are the family of Kahil son of 'Omara son 
of Khalifa son of Muhammad son of Sulayman son of Khalid son 
of el Wah'd. 

XLIX GuHAYNA are well known. 

L The Shukri'a trace their descent to 'Abdulla el Gawad son of 
Ga'afir son of Abu Talib. 

1 reading w>U*cl.<,-j for w»Ul<-j. ^ reading i-iuU-e for ^>jjILo . 

^ reading a2j\Lc for a^ZALc. * reading iXAl^ for Ja\^ . 



LI The Mesallamia are the family of Musallam son of Hegaz^ son 
of 'Atif el Bukri. He migrated from Syria in the time of 'Omar 
ibn 'Abd el 'Aziz and settled in the Sudan. 

LII The RiKABiYYUN are the family of Rikab ibn 'Abdulla and 
trace their descent to el Sheikh Ahmad ibn 'Omar el Zila'i, who was 
of the stock of 'Okayl ibn Abu Talib. 

LIII The 'Amriyyun (spelt 'amr. . .) are the family of Sulayman 
son of 'Omar son of 'Abd el Malik son of Marwan, and are the 
ruling race that are known now as the Fung. 

LIV The pedigree of Fezara is well known. They are one of the 
tribes of Tami'm and have dwelt [in the Sudan] since the conquest of 
el Bahnasa. 

LV The Beni 'Amir are the family of 'Amir ibn el Darab el 
'Adwani, [and] entered Abyssinia. 

LVI Kenana are the relatives of Duhaym ibn Ahmad el Kenani, 
an important and unblemished family. They dwell in the same parts 
of the country as Fezara. 

LVI I The Gabiria are a numerous body in Abyssinia, [but] the 
majority of them are between the Mahass and Dongola; and it is 
well known that they are the family of Gabir ibn 'Abdulla el Ansar[i], 
who left them [as his posterity] at the time of the conquest of Dongola, 
after its siege. 

LVIII Rufa'a used to dwell with the Bega and Abyssinians. Then 
they migrated to the Nile. They are the family of Kahtan; and God 
knows best. 

LIX The 'Abbasiyyun are of the family of 'Abdulla ibn 'Abbas in 
the Sudan. They include the family of el Saffah and others. 

LX The Gabarta are Arabs by origin. 

LXI The Fellata- invaded the land of Takrur. They are the family 
of Fellat son of 'Ukba^ ibn Yasir from el Batrayn. Some genealogists 
say that they trace their descent to 'Abd el Rahman son of Abu Bukr 
el Sadik: others say they are Arabs. God knows best. 

LXII The Hadarba. I heard el Sheikh 'Abdulla Abu el Wuzir 
el Hadrami say that they were from Hadramaut, and similarly the 
Delaykab also, and [that] the cause of their emigration was [their] 
maltreatment of pilgrims. Then they settled among the Bega at 
Erkowit and Suakin, [where they are] till the present day; and some 
of them have scattered farther afield. 

LXIII The Ga'afira are a mighty tribe, and are descended from 

' reading j !.»..». for jLo*-. '^ reading du^ for O^i. 

^ reading AaAP for ifiic , 

iv.Aii.Lxvi. OF THE SUDAN 133 

Ga'afir ibn Kutaf of the tribe of Tai. They are famous for 

LXIV The Fadnia are the descendants of el Sayyid Muhammad son 
of the Imam 'Ali, God bless him, and there is much related of them. 

LXV The sub-tribes of 'Adlan are seven, the Nafa'ab and the 
Nifi'ab^ and the Muhammadab and the 'Abudab and the Karakisa 
and the Yoiyab and the Shakai.u and the KuRup; and the dispute 
[for the headship ?] is between three of them, viz. the Nafa'ab, the 
NiFf'AB, and the Karakisa; and it is related that six of these sub- 
tribes agreed to take the viziership from the Awlad Nimr, but the 
Nafa'ab dissented and resisted this, because el Arbab Muhammad 
[was] their sister's son. So, when the treaty of Ga'al was concluded, 
they allotted to the Beni Nimr the rule of the East [bank] to be their 
own, and [the Nafa'ab] joined the Nimrab instead of joining the six 
sub-tribes which" are collectively called the Sa'adab ; and the treaty 
was observed until the end of their rule. 

{The following is added in pencil at the close.) 

LXVI Serrar son of Kerdam son of Abu el Di's son of Kuda'a son 
of Harkan son of Masruk son of Ahmad son of Ibrahim Ga'al, an- 
cestor of the tribe, son of Idris son of Kays son of Yemen son of 
'Adi son of Kusas son of Kerab son of Hatil son of Yatil son of Dhu 
el Kila'a son of Sa'ad son of el Fadl son of 'Abdulla son of el 'Abbas, 
uncle of the Prophet. . . , son of 'Abd el Muttalib son of Hashim. 

^ reading w^buAJI for w^UuaJI , ^ reading ^JJI for ijiUl . 



II Cp. BA, II and iii. 

None of the savants mentioned occur either in Ibn Khallikan's or 
Hagi Khalfa's biographical works. For "el Samarkandi" and "el 
Bahrani" see index. 

III The full quotation is given in the text of D 6, in, and part of it there 

v-vi For the hospitality of Kuraysh (the family of 'Abd Menaf ) and their 
lavish entertainment of the pilgrims to Mekka see Muir's Life of Mahomet 
(Introduction, pp. xciv et seq). 

The full quotation as given in A ii is as follows : 

saiU^ j^^fSti «Lia}U^ .^^U w-IiJi ^"^^^^^ cA^>^ woL& 
o'^^)^ iJi^^ O^^-l/^'i Ci'^^'i ^'^''^yb ajIa-JI JJkl 
ol*-i*iU ^A ^^JljIaJIj <1-(1j <3j^ u-"?^' O^j^-"^^ 
olswfr ^^Lm^mo ^l£^ U^^^)3 ^^^aJ ju^l ^^M.A "^sJt j>«^ 

In "'Amr the mighty apportioned. . ." there is a play on the word 
"Hashim." "Hashim's" name was 'Amr (see Wiistenfeld, W), and he 
was surnamed "Hashim," i.e. "He that hasham (apportioned)," sc. the 
food and drink. This line is frequently quoted, e.g. (i) in the Tag el 
'Arils (vol. IX, p. 104), the chief commentary on the great Kdtnus, and 
(2) in Ibn Hisham's Sira Sayyidna Muhammad... (p. 87), which was 
written about 750 a.d., in a quotation from Ibn Ishak, and (3) in Ibn 
Dorayd, and (4) in el Mas'udi (Chap, xxxix), and (5) it may also be found 
in Lisdn el 'Arab (vol. xvi, p. 94, sub "Hashim"). 

After this penultimate line, which begins with " 'Amr" and ends with 
"food," Ibn Hisham, on page 87 of the Sira, adds another in place of 
the last line given in A 11. On this occasion he only gives two lines in all, 
but later (ed. Wiistenfeld, vol. i, pp. 113, 114) he quotes seven lines (not 
including the line about Hashim referred to above), of which the first two are 

Ol^3l i^.c^ J^J-^ L>^ ,iJ ^ «.»..« g ^^jljU OJA^ ^ «^X^1 .iJjJ^A 

and the other five quite diff'erent from An. The other works quoted give 
only the single line; and all but Mas'udi (edit. B. de Meynard) commence 
•^IjOI _5j.^ . Mas'udi begins j^JJI j~o* . 


As regards the authorship, the Lisdn el ^Arab attributes the verses 
to Hashim's daughter, Ibn Ishak {ap. Ibn Hisham, p. 87) to "one of 
Kuraysh or one of the [other] Arabs," Ibn Hisham (on p. 113, when 
quoting the seven hnes mentioned) to Matrud ibn Ka'ab el Khuza'i, and 
the Tag el 'Arus to Ibn el Zaba'ara. Mas'udi gives no definite statement 
on the subject. Again, el Tabari quotes separately, in different places, two 
of the seven lines given in A 11. 

The Kitdb el Amdli of Abu 'Ali el Kali (vol. i, p. 247) makes Abu 

Bukr quote five lines to the Prophet of which the first two are : 

>• » 

»^U« jkAfi JU C*Jp 'ill dX^j J ^ a.,.o. ) l ^J^J■)^ ^vd' L) 

jUSt j,j-03 ^J^ 0-* «^>**-* ^ffV^^V^ CJj.J ^ ^^1 siXjULjA 

and the rest quite different from An. 

The third line of A 1 1 occurs in el Azraki's History of Mekka (ed. 
Wiistenfeld, p. 68) as follows: 

oU^ JwasJ ly^aJl^ f'^^ C-JiXsui ^LoaJ L^ij-^ C^'l^ 

This author gives five lines, and, like the Tag el 'Arus, attributes them to 
Ibn el Zaba'ara: of these five the first is as quoted, the second and third 
different from anything in A 1 1 , the fourth something similar to the fifth 
line of A 1 1 , and the fifth reads thus : 

Ola*^ O-i*^ — ^^^ \y\^ ^o^"*^ JUj.iJI ^^h ^sti\ ^j-^ 
On the whole, however, the nearest parallel I have found is the follow- 
ing from Ibn Wadih el Ya'akubi's History (ed. Houtsma, 1883), vol. i, 
p. 282: 

^\j3\ jj>»63 p^f- O"* ^^tf'O ^^jlji.^ wJAa. 3J »2X.«I ^lIzLa 

Ibn Wadih attributes the verses to "Matrud el Khuza'i," thus supporting 
Ibn Hisham {q.v. supra). I have to thank Professor Bevan for drawing 
my attention to this passage. The expression .iX.*! ■^k^ (lit. "may thy 
mother be bereft of thee") is explained by Lane (Dictionary) as "an ex- 
pression of vehement love." 

VII Cp. D 6, X, "They" presumably means the alleged Kurayshite an- 
cestors of the Ga'aliin. 

Great numbers of Guhayna settled on the Nile and east of it in the 
centuries following the Arab occupation of Egypt and it is not at all 
improbable that the forefathers of the Ga'aliin of the present day ousted 
them from considerable areas between Haifa and Khartoum, and even 
south of that. 


Tribes of "Ga'ali" origin have for centuries been predominant over 
long stretches of country bordering the Nile in the locality mentioned, 
and the Guhayna group of tribes appear to have been to some extent 
pushed inland, away from the river. 

Various branches of Guhayna, too, no doubt acknowledged the over- 
lordship of the Ga'ali meks, when the latter, in the seventeenth and 
eighteenth centuries, were in power round Shendi and Metemma. 

For "the oases" {el Wdhdt) see Mas'tidi, Chap, xxxiii. D 6, x in the 
corresponding passage omits mention of them. 

"Eastwards" should rather be "south-eastwards." 
VIII Cp. BA, cxxxii; A 3, x, etc. 
XI From here onwards cp. BA, cxxxix et seq. 

For Serrar's pedigree see para. Lxvi. 
XIV This story is the one generally accepted by the tribe, and it is 
interesting because it is well authenticated {vide, e.g., el Mas'udi) that in 
the time of Kusai, the fifth ancestor of the Prophet, i.e. about 400-450 A.D., 
the tribe of Kuraysh were divided into ''el Batdh" {i.e. "lowlanders" or 
inhabitants of the valleys) and "el Zimdhir" {i.e. "highlanders"), and the 
two divisions were kept apart when Kusai settled the tribe at Mekka. 
The "Lowlanders" comprised the Beni Abd Menaf, the Beni 'Abd el Dar, 
the Beni Abd el 'Uzza, and the descendants of Zuhra, Makhzum, Taym, 
Guma'a, Sahm, and Adi — all closely related — and the Beni Hanbal ibn 
'Amir. The passage in Mas'udi (Chap, xxxix) runs thus: 

^o-*i u-tij-^ 0"« ^jgfc-ift?'^' 0^3 ^^^-OT* w— -iJ' ^ Vj*-*^ C,5^ ^>^ '^J5 
oUoJl j^ ^ JjL5 ^ p^ia-JI cA;^ LiJ-Al-!* ^jJb\^\ jAofS 5^^:91 

On this matter see also Yakut {Geogr. under "El Bitah"). Whether 
the Batahin are really connected in any way with these " Batah " can hardly 
be decided, but the traditional pedigree that unites the Ga'ali in group 
(including the Batahin) with Kuraysh {i.e. the Beni 'Abbas) and the co- 
incidence of the name need not necessarily be dismissed as pure "fakes." 
It may be that the tribe assumed the name " Batahin " in order to support 
the nisbas and because they lived in a land of valleys (round Abu Delayk 
and 'Alwan), but I think it improbable that there was not some other 
reason as well. 

xvi-xvii Cp. BA, CLiv-CLvi and A 2, v. 
A 2 omits mention of the Sand id ab and Mansurab, of the name of 
Rubat's daughter, and of the name of HasabuUa's mother. It says of the 
last four men mentioned that their descendants are in the west, and omits 
to say they were full brothers. 

The names "el HasabuUawiyyun " and "el Gimi'ab" are written in 
the text just over the names of Hasabulla and Gami'a. 

xviii-xix Cp. BA, CLViii, etc. and A 2, vii, etc. 

XX The words "And the rest of. . .el Zora" occur word for word in A 2. 
By the " 'Abdrahmanab " are meant the Hammadtu family (see D3, 


XXI Cp. BA, CLX. A 2, IX, says: " . . .the Nasirab in the west." 

XXII Cp. BA, CLxi and A 2, x. 

XXIII The paragraph is probably a gloss. It does not occur in BA nor 
A 2. I have not elsewhere met with "Kamus." 

XXIV Cp. BA, CLXV and A 2, xi. 

XXV Cp. BA, CLXii and note to A 2, v-xiii. 

From here the text becomes rather corrupt, and A 2 is no longer of 
use for checking purposes: several names are doubtful. 

XXVI I have taken "Awrika" (for "Adrika") from para, xxviii, but 
either or neither may be correct. 

"El Gerayf " is Gerayf HamduUa (see BA, clxiii). 
For "Kerriab" BA gives "Karibab": possibly the Kerriat are in- 
xxvii Cp. BA, CLXiv. For "Wag AY ab" BA gives "AwGAB." 

XXVIII This may be a gloss. 

XXIX Cp. BA, CLXvii-CLXxii and notes. 

Twenty-eight sons only are given, and the text in this and the following 
paragraphs is corrupt and differs in many details from BA: the trees may 
be compared. 

Shukl should be one of the 30 sons and not father of 'Ali Karkus, as 
is clear from BA, CLXXi and A 11, LXV. 

For " Um Halayb " BA gives " Adam Halayb," which is probably right. 

XXX Thirteen names only are given. "Hankal" (J.ix&) has been cor- 
rected in the text by the owner in pencil to ^J•xJ^ft> (sic). 

"El 'Arashkol" is the name of a hill near el Dueim on the White Nile: 
Cp. BA, CLxxii, 

For "el Kabush" cp. para, xxxix and BA, clxvii. 

Kabushia is on the Nile close to the south of the pyramids of Meroe. 
XXXII For "el Kanbalawi" see Part III, Chap, i (k). 
XXXV These are the Nafa'ab section. 

XXXVIII These are the Nifi'ab section. 

XXXIX Cp. para, xxx for Kabush. Seven sons are missing from the list. 
XL Cp. BA, CLi and A 2, xiv. Sections xl-xlvi correspond closely to 

A 2, xiv-xxi. 

XLii "Mimais" is no doubt the "Mias" of other versions. 

XLiii A 2 (q.v. note) adds a remark as to the descendants of these two men. 

XLv Cp. BA, cxxxviii and A 2, xix. 

XLViii Cp. A 2, XXIV and D 6, xii. 

L Cp. A 2, XXV and D 6, xv, 

LI Cp. A 2, XXIX and D 6, xxiii. 

Lii Cp. A 2, xxvii and D 6, xxv. 

Liii Cp. A 2, xxx and D 6, xxvi. 

Liv Cp. A 2, xxxi and D 6, xiii. 
The reference is to the conquest of Bahnasa (Oxyrhynchus) in 642 a.d. 
by 'AbduUa ibn Sa'ad (see Budge, vol. ii, p. 184, and Burckhardt, Nubia..., 
p. 528). 

Lv-LViii Cp. A 2, xxxii-xxxv and D 6, xxviii, xxxiii and xxxv. 


LIX Cp. A 2, XXII. 
LX Cp. A 2, XXXVI. 

LXi cp. A 2, XXXVII ; BA, cxix, and D 6, xliii. 

Lxii "I" is evidently el Samarkandi: see note to BA, clxxvi. Cp. 
D 6, LI. 

The words "and similarly the Delaykab also" and "and some of 
them. . . " are undoubtedly a gloss by a Bathani. The Batahin have along- 
standing feud with the Delaykab as to the ownership of lands near Abu 
Delayk, and so vent their spite by casting aspersions on the antecedents 
of the Delaykab. 

In D I, XXVI similar treatment is accorded to the HuMR. 
For the Hadarba or Had/Ireb see Part III, Chap. 13 (b), and cp. note 
to BA, clxxvi. 
LXiii Cp. BA, CLXXV and A 2, xl and D 6, lii. 
Lxrv Cp. A 2, xxviii and D 6, iv. 
LXV Cp. para, xxix et seq. 
"Sub-tribes" here is JjUbu>. 

"Kurud" (u*'^^) rfiay be an error for " 'Awad" {^^). 
The Arabic translated " When the treaty. . . " is Ja». a<,A£3 Oj*.Ae UJ . 
This division of the Ga'alii'n is referred to and explained in Part III, 
Chap. I (k). 






ur Kings 


ings of Tekali 


(seven sons) 



j Ghodidt 
I Kunan 
I Kusds 
' Batdhin 

Sa'ad el Fend 


! I I 

Hammad Guma'a Gama'i 

{Ahdjnda) (Gima'a) (Gazvd?na'a) 

[j^^^AbduUa Mukbal Hamama,m. Hamaydan 

* B^ 
t B^ 
t Fl 

Hasabulla {Hasabulldvnyyun) f Mutraf f Ghani 

Gamu'a (Gatnu'id) 

Hammad el Bahkur 

'Adlan ' Musallam Shabbu Bubai 


id Kashr Bashr Tisa'a Kulli El 'Ashir 

el Negadi 

I a *Nafi'a f Muhammad f'Ali J'Abd el Da 

(20 sons) 
Shoialdb (?) 

1 'Awadi 'Abd el Rahman Tor 

alam Musa 

( Hammddd ? 
I Tumdr 

Shaddu Abu Daraywa 'AH Yoiy Hammad IN 


I (Kaldmm) 
nan el 'Adhab 

El Khudayr 
] Ba'dbish 

I I 

Sa'ad Idn's 




bud MuiiDr MakU Mini 

n.d el Akt»« Hunayd cl 

' By Hundma hint RuW(. 


yawbull. («o.oW/An>><lH) -fMut" 


irfA Srrayhdb 



£.yd Mukibi 
• Byr 


bim KarltQ, 
™ly full hrol 








a Gnbtr Muuhulra 

Mk.. 'Oln., KhiJ, 

GlJdI. Rk'l M. 

„., kJ, 

El Xl, 
d N.8i<li 

(by bini 'Ali KortOi wotad Shti 
Ab~-ib„M.,b «.^ 

$Abu Schma jDetakiil 

(Arnnfi] (Afuffa/ift) [J^an 

IJimnuld cl HonM (?) Abu cl Iu,l(a 





The copy of this nisba, which was lent to me for translation by the 
'omda of the Gelilab at Sa'id village in el Kamlin district, was 
taken a few years ago from the copy in possession of el feki Hasan 
walad Muhammad 'fsa, a Geh'labi of Wad el Sha'ir, also in the Blue 
Nile Province. El feki Hasan is said to have inherited his copy from 
an ancestor, who copied it from some earlier unknown MS. 

The Gelilab think (though they have no evidence) that probably 
their ancestor Sa'id son of Daud son of 'Abd el Gelil brought the 
original from the north. He lived nine generations ago {see tree) and 
is said to have built "99" mosques and endowed each with fourteen 
slaves for service. 

It was Hegazi Ma'in the uncle of Abd el Gelil who founded 
Arbagi about 1475 a.d. (see D 3, iv, and note to D 3, 67, and Jackson, 
p. 18). 

The ultimate source of the nisba is obviously the same as that 
of BA: it no doubt emanated from Dongola two or three centuries 
ago, and the copyist, being only interested in the part that related to 
the GuHAYNA group of tribes, omitted the part concerning the Ga'ali 

I In the name of God . . . 

[The following is] an extract taken from The Noble Gift and 
Rare Excellence [el Nafhat el Sharifa wa 7 Turfa 7 Munifa] of 
el Sheikh el Imam el Shafa'i. , .on the origins of the Arabs. 

II Now the [tribes of the] Arabs are Himyar and Tai and Tha'aleb 
and Lagm and Gudham and Hamdan and Ma'aref and Bis and 
HuKNA and Kelb el Azd and Muzayna and Guhayna. All of these 
trace their descent to a single ancestor, el Mahays son of Kahtan son 
of el Mahays son of Ibrahim. . .God knows the truth of this, and 
praise be to Him alone. 

III The apostle in the "Traditions" said "Ye know from^ your 
pedigrees how ye are connected." 

IV And he said of a man who had learnt the pedigrees of the people 
"A knowledge [of them] is useless and ignorance harmless" — this 
being in times of mutual love and affection; but. . .{continues as BA, 
VII and VIII, as far as '^various nations''). 

^ inserting ^>«. 


V And no man neglects it [the study of pedigrees] except the rogue, 
who is not mentioned when absent nor consuhed when present; for 
it is of benefit to the servants of God in this world and the next, and 
[whoever ignores it] is a poltroon and a vagabond. 

VI-XIX This is the pedigree peculiar to the tribes of Guhayna 
only. Know that Guhayna begot Dhubian, and Dhubian begot .... 
{Here follozvs a genealogical list of the descendants, individual and 
tribal, of Dhubian. The names can be seen in the tree. No other facts 
excepting those shown by the tree are given.) 

XX The tribes that may not be enslaved are seven, viz. . . . {seven 
names as in BA, xlviii). 

XXI Know that Guhayna are [to be found] in two different places : 
[there are in the first place] the descendants of Guhayna el Kabir 
ibn Hunad of whom the Prophet. . .said "Through him shall the 
last of the unbelievers be saved from the fire; whose tribe is from 
Mekka the noble : there is none of them here : not one of them has 
come to me excepting 'Abdulla el Guhani, who has come to help 
me; and Guhayna, all of them, now are the stock of el Zubayr ibn 
el 'Awwam, the son of my aunt Safia." 

XXII The Prophet. . .referred [also] to him as "my helper" (by 
" my helper" meaning el Zubayr), and he said too " I am of Guhayna 
and Guhayna are of me : what pleases Guhayna pleases me, and what 
angers Guhayna angers me, even though Kuraysh be affected." And 
he prayed for increase for Guhayna for the sake of the stock of 
el Zubayr. 

XXIII [Secondly] their tribe became [lit. "reached"] fifty-two 
tribes in the land of Soba [under] the rule of the Fung, but most of 
them are in the West, namely in Tunis and Bornuh. 

XXIV This is a pedigree: Zubayr had two sons, 'Abdulla and 
Hasan. 'Abdulla was ancestor of the Kawahla, and Hasan begot 
'Atia. 'Ati'a begot Guhayna, who begot Dhubian. 

XXV This is the pedigree of Zubayr : [he was] son of el 'Awwam son 
of . . . {as in the tree, up to 'Adndn). 

XXVI This is the true and generally agreed upon pedigree. And 
as a variant, ['Adnan was] son of Isma'i'l. . .son of Ibrahim. . .son of 
Tarikh son of Farikh son of Nahur^ son of Ashra'a son of Ra'u son 
of Faligh^ son of 'Amir son of Shalikh son of Fakhshadh son of Sam 
son of Nuh. . .son of Shi'th. . .son of Barda son of Mihayil son of 
Kaynan son of Anush son of Shith. . .son of Adam. . . 

XXVII This book was completed under the help of God and the 

^ reading j^».U for j^».li. ^ reading i3li for ^^^. OF THE SUDAN 141 

goodness of His grace by the hand of its writer the fakir 'Abd el Gelil 
Muhammad Dafa'alla, who wrote it for his brother Muhammad son 
of el Hag 'Ali. . . {as in tree, up to 'Adndn). 

XXVIII This is the true pedigree according to the words of the 
prophet. . ."They are liars that trace their pedigree beyond 'Adnan." 

XXIX And as a variant— 'Adnan was son of Isma'i'l. , .son of. . . 
{exactly as para, xxvi, as far as Adam. . .), and Adam was created of 

XXX In the name of God . . . 

What follows is the pedigree of Ma'i'n's own sons. Ma'i'n had 
seven sons. . . {see tree). These are the seven sons begotten of Ma'in. 
Muhammad begot 'Abd el Gelil, the ancestor of the Gelilab. Hegazi 
was ancestor of the Hegazab, Paris of. . . {etc., as in tree). 



I See BA, lxii-lxv (note) and 63,1. 

II Cp. BA, L. B I and B 3 give "Ma'aref," but BA and AB "Ma'afir." 


IV Cp. BA, V. 

The latter part of the paragraph is word for word the same as BA, 
vii-viii except that for (BA) " . . .And it is not. . .a rebel" B i says merely 
"And he who neglects them is a rebel." 

V This is peculiar to B i . 

vi-xix Cp. BA, Lix et seq.\ B 3, 11, etc. 
There are one or two mistakes in spelling here, viz.: 

ajjIa^ ("Mokarba") for du^Kk^ ("Mogharba"). 

AjJili ("Fadhnia") for iu-'^li ("Fadnia"). 
[once] "j^'^iUJI j..o^^ ("Muhammad el 'Ulati") for -jJ^"^! J^-o^ 

••("Hammadel 'Ulati"). 

SjU.^ ("Hegara") for Sjla.^ ("Hegaza"). 

:>\jAj ("Bakdad") for ^Ij^^ ("Baghdad"), 
[once] J5* (" Awal ") for J\^ (" 'Awal "). 

In para, xiii the Bashakira are merely mentioned as descendants of 
Hammad el 'Ulati, but in para, xvii occurs "Bashkar was ancestor of the 
Bashakira and Tsayl of the 'Isaylat," the writer forgetting that he has 
not previously mentioned Bashkar specifically as a son of Hammad. 

XX Cp. BA, XLViii. 

XXI The two divisions of Guhayna referred to are apparently (i) those 
of Arabia, the well-known and ancient Himyaritic tribe, and (2) those in 
the Sudan round Soba. 

The Arabic for " Of whom the Prophet . . . said ..." is 

• •* 

The meaning is rather obscure, but if the sixth word be pointed ttj^^ 

the meaning may be that the most wicked of men may be saved at the 
personal intercession of Guhayna. 

" El Kabir " may mean "the great " or " the elder." The whole tradition 
given here is suspicious. 

I can find no Guhayna son of Hunad, nor is it clear why Guhayna, a 
Himyaritic tribe, or 'Abdulla el Guhani who was also a Himyarite, should 
ever have been called "the stock of el Zubayr ibn el 'Awwam," who was 
a Kurayshi. 

For " 'Abdulla el Guhani" see note to BA, Lviii. 

Whether the whole of the passage in inverted commas is meant to be 
included in the tradition, or whether the words from "whose tribe. . . " to 
" here" is a gloss by another copyist, is doubtful, but the latter is probable. 


XXII The first tradition is well authenticated: el Bokhari {el Sahih, 
Part II, p. 193) gives it as follows: 

j^*JI J15 Jl5....,j>p....j>c....>.)>*)t jLjC l;jj^e». J-jjto-rfl ^jj ^U Ljj^». 

^l^jJI j-fj>3l (^j'>»- Ob L^j'^'*- i^'^' J^ O'-- 
("Malik ibn Isma'il told me that 'Abd el 'Aziz. . .told him on the authority 
of. . .who had been told by. . .that the Prophet. . .said ' Every prophet has 
a helper, and my helper is Zubayr el 'Awwam.'") 

The second tradition I have not traced and it may, or may not, be 
genuine : the Arabic is as follows : 

(/iV. ". . .as far Kuraysh," — Kuraysh being the Prophet's own tribe). 

xxiii-xxiv These paragraphs are practically identical with BA, cxxiii, 
cxxiv: cp. also BA, lvii (note). 

XXV This pedigree is very faulty as Zubayr is given as descended from 
the wrong son of Kusai (BA, lvii is correct, see Wiistenfeld, T). From 
Kusai to 'Adnan is given correctly except that Ka'ab and Murra are trans- 
posed. See note to para. xxx. 

xxvi No pedigree of any weight ever made 'Adnan son of Ishmael and 
grandson of Abraham. 

For the tree from Abraham ("Ibrahim") upwards to Noah see D i, 
LXVI, etc. "Tarikh" (Terah) was son of Nahur (Nahor) and the insertion 
of "Farikh" seems to be due to some dim recollection of "Faris son of 
Tirash son of Mashiir," the Persian ancestor mentioned in D i, lxv. 

The text also gives "Fahur" for "Nahur," "Ashra'a" for "Sharugh," 
'"Amir" for "'Abir," and "Fakhshadh" for " Arfakhshadh." 
"Ra'u" is another and legitimate form of " Ar'u" (D i, LXix). 
Between Shem and Adam the text is equally at fault: the father of 
Noah was Akhnukh or "Idris" (Enoch) and not "Shith"; "Barda" 
(S^jj) should be Ltid (5^) and "Mihayil" should be Mahalail: cp. 
Mas'udi, Chap, ill (ed. B. de M. vol. i, pp. 68-73). 

xxvii The transposition of Ka'ab and Murra (see para, xxv) is here 
corrected: otherwise the pedigree is the same in paras, xxv and xxvii. 

From Muhammad ibn el Hag to Dhubian the direct stem only is given 
in this paragraph : the other six sons of Ma'in are added to the tree from 
para, xxx — the note to which see. 

xxviii Cp. BA, cxxxv. 

XXIX The copyist has apparently got into difficulties here as this para- 
graph is the same as para, xxvi, the very errors being exactly repeated, 
as far as "Adam." 

XXX From the occurrence again of a formal invocation we may suppose 
that a copyist added this paragraph from some other source than that of 
the rest of the nisba. By a shp "Kaligab" is written for "Kalingab." 
As a matter of fact there is little doubt but that Hegazi ibn Ma'in, the 
founder of Arbagi, was one of the HupuR and had no connection with the 
GuHAYNA group whatever (see Part III, Chap. 13). 


'Abd Menaf 

'Abd Shams 




'Abd el Hakam 


El 'Awwam 
















I I 

Ihabil Farag 

(by a concubine) 




Dekfn =dau. < 

Klra Kiran Karar 

lag Mazin 

lar Hamran 




'Amir 1V1 

{' Awdnira) 












'Amir Dafir Kalfng Fakida 

!db i'Awdmirdb) {Ddfiria) (Kalingdb) (Fakaddb) 

INatailla) {Tbu'aUba) 

{■Affdndb) (Saldm 

na^fiyi-On) (Zu/ioj 

El tJBg Sn'ld -kuUM cl Afdgid 





This nisha was written out for me by Ahmad 'Omar Sultan, the 
'omda of the Ari'fi'a, a section of Dar Hamid in Kordofan, from 
a copy in his possession. It has little value. 

I In the name of God . . . 

This is the pedigree of the Ari'fi'a : Ahmad son of 'Omar son of . . . 
{as in tree^ up to 'Abd Mendf). 

II Now Mazin the son of Sha'uf had four sons :. . .{as in tree, with 
their descendants, as shown therein). 

III These men are the descendants of Mazin son of. . .{etc., as in 
para, i, up to 'Abdulla el Guhani). . .'Abdulla el Guhani, the Com- 
panion of the Prophet, upon whom be the blessings of God. 

IV The Messi'ria and the Habbania and the Rizaykat^ and the 
Fayarin and the Ta'ai'sha are the descendants of Rashid son of 
Muhammad el Asla'a son of 'Abs son of Dhubian. 

B 2 (NOTES) 

I The pedigree from Dhubian to 'Abd Menaf is very inaccurate. The 
names are all familiar ones, but are jumbled together haphazard. 

II "Abza'a," "Gerar," "Dayh" [i.e. Dwayh], and "Shanbul" are 
intended as the eponymous ancestors of the Baza 'a, Bent Gerar, Dwayh, 
and Shenabla, respectively. Cp. BA, cii et seq. 

^ reading oUjj^I for OlijjJt. 




I— I 




O C« C3 tS 




. w ^ .1 "^ „ 

^- < j2 i 3 < 


■3 Q 


O .i; "Q ' 

'• (X! < 






C )- 'O 


vfrt cc cd 









w -0 







This scanty extract was the prized possession of an old feki in 
Dar Hamar in Western Kordofan. 

It bears a strong family likeness to B i . 

I El Imam el Shafa'i says that the original stock of the Arabs was 
HiMYAR and Tai and Tha'aleb and Nigm and Gudham and Hamdan 
and Ma'aref and Bi'sar and Hukna and Kelb el Azd and Muzayna 
and GuHAYNA, — all of these tracing their descent to one ancestor, 
viz. Ibn el Mahays Kahtan son of el Mahays son of Ibrahim; and 
God knows the truth of this. 

II Now as for the tribes of Guhayna^, taken separately: Guhayna^ 
begot Dhubian, and Dhubian begot ten sons, — viz.. . .{as in tree). 

III Dabi'a begot the JPabi'at, and Dakaym the Dakimin, and 
Kirit the Kirat, and Ba'ashom. . . 


I Cp. BA, L and B i, i and ii. 

II Cp. BA, Lix and B i, vi. 

III These four men had not been mentioned before. The copyist has 
omitted the paragraphs preceding this mention of them. From BA, xcvi, we 
see that they were descendants of 'Omran son of Dhubian. 

With "Ba'ashom" the nisba abruptly ends. 





Watid Fahfd Shatir Bashir 
I ( Shiikria 


Sultan ' Bddiria Muhammad Rafa'i Hammad 
\ el 'Ulati 

Musallain Ga'afir Rashid Ruwah Hamil Rikab Ma'ashir 

El Shibla Sufian Gudham Mahass 'Omran 

) 'Atndrna 
I Sabik 

^ reading a ,jye»- for O-^v*?*- 


MANUSCRIPTS C i (a) and (b) 


These two nishas were both found among the effects of Sheikh 
'Abdulla Gadulla BaHlu, ndzir of the KLawahla in Kordofan, in 
1909. Their origin is unknown but they were both clearly copies, 

C I {a) 

I This is the pedigree of the Kawahla in short. 

II Muhammad Kahil son of 'Amir son of Abdulla (according to 
Ibn Yahya) son of Zubayr son of el Awwam; and the mother of 
Zubayr was Safia daughter of Abd el MuttaUb. The mother of 
Muhammad Kahil was Sikina daughter of AH the Imam son of Abu 
Talib, whom God bless; and her mother was Fatima, the daughter of 
the Prophet. 

III Muhammad Kahil had thirteen sons: viz. Hammad, the eldest, 
the ancestor of the Ahamda, by el Khadria^; and Berak and Aswad 
and Khalifa and Budran (and also a daughter) by 'Izza the daughter 
of Affan son of 'Othman, the Imam, whom God bless; and, by 
the concubine, Sa'id and Nifayd and Yezid and Khalbus and Abad; 
and, by el Fungawi'a, Ritayma and Akir and Bishara. 

IV Khalifa had three sons, el Ahmar, Mukwad, and Hilal. The 
descendants of Hilal are. . .{illegible). 

V The descendants of el Ahmar are the Hamaydania and the 
Amria and the Keramia and the Gebalia and the Lababis . . . 

VI Akir begot. . .{illegible); and Salah begot the Ghazaya^ and 
the . . . {illegible) and the Fuaida and the Su'tJDiA and the Kawamla. 

VII Mukwad begot the Kurayshab and the Salatna and the 
MuHAMMADAB and the Nurab and the Rimaytab and the Hasania 
and the Gimaylia and the Delaykab and the 'Urwab and the 
SiNAYTAB and the Ghazalab^. 

VIII Ritayma begot the Wailia and the Gelalia and the Bakia 
and the Mutarfa and the Khalafia. 

IX Aswad had two sons, Rashid and Kelab. 

^ reading ij^-aiJI for 2u^^aaJi\. ^ reading du\jjii\ for 2u\jjtj\ . 

^ reading w»'i)>aJt for wj*^)J^I. 


X Rashid's descendants are the . . . {illegible) and the Bekayrab and 
the. . .{illegible). 

XI Kelab's descendants are the. . .{illegible) and the Gelalab. 

XII From Berak, the son of Muhammad Kahil, are descended the 
Kamalab and the Kawamla and the Berakna and the Kimaylab 
and the Mudakinab and the. . .{illegible) and the Muhammadia. 

XIII From Budran the son of [Muhammad] Kahil are descended 
the Shara'ana — all of them — and the Bedariyyun, and, it is said, 
the Maidia, and the. . .{illegible). 

XIV Bishara was ancestor of the Bishariyyun and. . .{illegible) and 
the Bahkar and the Bahkarun and the Ma'alia and the Sudania (?) 
and the Berakh (?). 

XV 'Abad was ancestor of the 'Ababda, all people of Upper Egypt 
\el Rif] and owners of the country. 

XVI Nifayd was ancestor of the Nifaydia. 

XVII Sa'id his brother was ancestor of the Beni Sa'id in the southern 

XVIII Yezid his brother was ancestor of the Yezidia and the 

XIX Khalbus had no descendants. 

XX Descendants of Ritayma are at Mekka and Medina. . .{illegible). 

XXI Safi'a the daughter of 'Abd el Muttalib was the aunt of the 

XXII The [best] known sons of Zubayr ibn el 'Awwam were Bakhit 
and Muhammad and 'Urwa and 'Obayd and 'AbduUa. 

C I (a) (NOTES) 

I Cp. BA, cxviii. 

II Cp. BA, cxxiv; A 2, xxiv. 

No "Muhammad Kahil" and no "Sikina" appear in Wiistenfeld 
{q.v. T and Y). 

III The names of 'Affan and 'Othman have been transposed. The Imam 
was 'Othman ibn 'Affan. " 'Izza" is not in W^iistenfeld {q.v. U). 

The occurrence of "el Fungawi'a" {i.e. "the Fung woman") suggests 
that Muhammad Kahil himself resided in the Sudan. 

V The Lababis appear among the subsections of Kababish, q.v. 

VI Cp. para. xii. 

XIV "Sudania" and "Berakh" are doubtful readings, 
xvii The mountains of southern Kordofan are meant. Cp. MacMichael 
{Tribes..., p. 202) and Part III, Chap. 5 {a). 
XIX Contrast C i {b), xviii. 
xxii Wiistenfeld (T) does not mention Bakhit or Muhammad. 



IV. ci. 
























E-* x; 


— ^ '-' 

•J2 C 

— u 

re S 

re u 
-^ C 



.3 « 

2 I 


J '2 -5 -g ic ^5 -^ 
ca "I; "S ~S Q "S '^ 
•^^oq Qq oq ^ Co Qq 






■< e s o C3 "a 


— ^ £» 

re »a;. 

^•:2 5 

re -53 -13 

g S ? S ^ •^• 

re ..«:. OF THE SUDAN 151 


I Kahil was son of Musa (?) son of 'Abdulla son of Zubayr ibn 
el 'Aw\vam, whose mother was Safi'a the daughter of 'Abd el Muttalib. 
There is no nobler pedigree among the Arabs but [that of] the Beni 
Hashim . . . 

II Kahil the son of Musa (?) had thirteen sons, who are the ancestors 
of the Kawahla, Four of them were the sons of the daughter of his 
aunt, viz. Khalifa and Berak and Aswad and Budran; and four were 
the sons of el Fungawia, viz. Nifayd and Yezid and Sa'id and Bishara; 
and four were the sons of the concubine, viz. Bagih and Hadi [and] 
Mudakin (?) and Khalbus; and one, viz. Hammad, was the son of 
el Khadri'a. These thirteen^ men are the ancestors of the Kawahla. 

III Khalifa had three sons, Muhammad and Mukwad and Mu- 
hammad el Ahmar. 

IV Muhammad was ancestor of the Hasania and the Gimaylia^ 
and the Sinaytab and the Delaykab and the Ghazalab^. 

V Muhammad el Ahmar was ancestor of the LabAbis and the 
Keramia and the 'Amria and the Hamaydania, and his sons were 
Hilal and Kedah. 

VI Hilal begot 'Abad, the ancestor of the 'Ababda. 

VII Kedah begot three sons, Shambal and Salah and 'Akir. 

VIII The descendants of Shambal are the Shenabla and the 
KuRAYSHAB and the Nurab and the Rimaytab and the Salatna. 

IX The descendants of Salah are the Ghazaya* and the Shadai'da 
and the Su'udia. 

X 'Akir was ancestor of the Fuaida and the Kawamla^. 

XI 'Abad the second begot the 'Ababda. 

XII Berak begot the Berakna, who [consist of] three sections, viz. 
the Has AN AT [descended from] Hasan, and the Muhammadia 
[descended from] Muhammad, and the Berakna [proper]. 

XIII Aswad begot the Asawida. 

XIV Budran begot the Budrania. 

XV Sa'id*^ begot the Kadhakil (?) NAs 'Abd el Muttalib 

XVI Bishara begot the BishAriyyun. 

XVII The sons of the concubine were jointly the ancestors of the 
Beg A. 

^ reading 13 for 3. 2 reading 5yL.»«^ for aJ.^*.. 

^ reading ^'^jJti\ for w''^|jjJI. * reading ij\}sd\ for ajIj-SJI. 

^ reading aX«I^=> for Jl*!^^. ^ reading j^*x ^ for j^x~>. 


XVIII Hadi begot the. . .{illegible); Khalbus begot the Khalabsa; 
Mudakin begot the Mudakinab ; and Hamdan el Khadn'a^ begot the 

C I (b) (NOTE) 

XI It is not clear what is meant by "the second" (^U3I). 



1— 1 



< ^ 






"d ^ 

-•a u 


C ra 




— ' —> 




% en- 
-a II 

S n 3 "■ -" 


< 3 XI 2 ;ii 
■_ Si < '^ 


* Qq 



•5 « 


« § 2 12 S -2 

•T-l ^ 

s -<2 ^ ^ ^ :2 

2 "^ is S~2 a 

^ reading Ajj-aaJI for aj 

u ^ 
•■a ?s 











This pedigree was found in the possession oielfeki Idris Muhammad, 
a Kenani of el Silayk in Kordofan, in 1908. It consists of nothing 
more than the series of names shown in the tree. The first five 
generations are given in Wiistenfeld (Z). 


'Abd Menaf 




'Abd el Muttalib 





El Sayyid el Tahir 

Sheikh Abu Harayra 

Sheikh 'Abd el Ghafar 


Sheikh 'Abd el Mu'ati 


Sheikh Muhammad 


Sheikh 'Abd el Gubara 


Sheikh Hashim 


Sheikh el Sayyid 'Abd el Muntalib 





Sheikh Kenana 



Sheikh Shahab el Dm 


El Savvid Ahmad Zabad el Bahr 

Sheikh Mansur 


Idris Serag 


El Hag el Bashlr 

Abu I^urun 







'Abd el 'Aziz 









[154 J 



This pedigree was copied out for me from his own copy by Hamid 
Muhammad Gabr el Dar, the hereditary chief of the Musaba'at of 
Darfur, who lives near el Obeid in Kordofan. He is more negroid 
in appearance than Arab. 

I In the name of God the Compassionate and Merciful. 

God Almighty said "Ye people, I have created you of male and 
female, and made you races and tribes, that ye may know that he is 
noblest in God's sight who is the most pious " ; and God is the source 
of all learning and knowledge. 

II He upon whom be the blessings of God said "Ye know your 
pedigrees, how ye are descended," and he who knows not his pedigree 
is a Hamagi. 

III The following is the pedigree of the stock of the Sultan Hashim 
the Musaba'awi, and it contains the complete pedigree of the tribe 
of the Musaba'at. 

IV I am el Sultan Hamid son of el Sultan Muhammad Gabr el Dar 
son of el Sultan Ahmad el Ga'ali son of el Sultan Hashim son of 
el Sultan 'f sawi son of el Sultan Muhammad Gunkul son of el Sultan 
Bahr son of el Sultan Idris Gerwabukht son of el Sultan Muhammad 
Tumsah, ancestor of the Musaba'at and brother of Ahmad Kur, 
ancestor of Kungara, the two of whom were sons of el Sultan 
Muhammad Sabun Ga'al son of el Sultan Habib (?) son of el Sultan 
Muhammad Dali son of Ahmad el Ma'akur son of Rizik son of 
Sufial son of el Sultan Ga'afir Gurmun son of Kas son of Rufa'a 
son of Batnan son of 'Agib son of Nagil son of 'fsa son of Mamun 
son of Idris son of Hilal son of 'Abd el Salam el Asmar, Imam 
of the people of Basra, son of el Nudr son of Kenan son of Khuzaym 
son of Mudraka son of el Yas son of Mudr son of Nizar son of Ma'ad 
son of 'Adnan. Ends. 



I Cp. BA, xxii-xxxiii. 

II Cp. BA, III. "Hamagi" is used as a term of opprobrium; — an Arab 
usage common in the Western Sudan (see Vol. i, p. 275). 

III For Hashim's history see MacMichael {Tribes..., pp. 12-75). 

IV Cp. pedigree xii on p. 585 of The World's History, vol. iii (ed. 
Helmolt). Gunkul {q.v. in D 3, 207) is mentioned on p. 545 of the same 
work and called "Djongol." 

The generations from el Nudr to 'Adnan are correct, but Wiistenfeld 
(N) mentions no 'Abd el Salam el Asmar. 

References to Muhammad Dali, Muhammad Tumsah, and Ahmad el 
Ma'akur will be found in MacMichael {Tribes...). 




This pedigree was translated from a dingy document held by the 
\oc2L\feki at the Mahass village of Kutrang on the Blue Nile. 
As an accurate record it is worthless. 

I This is the pedigree of the Mahass, the five sons of Fellah, viz. 
[lit. "of them are. . ."] Marzuk and Subuh and Kurduk and Musa 
and Kundur. 

II Marzuk [i.e. his descendants] are settled in Kordofan, Subuh 
among the Dubaina, Kundur at Aylafun, Kurduk at Tuti and el 
Khartoum, and Musa at Kutrang 1. 

III The father of Fellah was named Sharaf son of Mushayrif^ son 
of Zaid son of Mazad son of Dablak son of Hamaydi son of Gama'i 
son of Sukr son of Kuban son of Abud son of Muhammad el Mahass 
son of Abdulla son of Ma'az son of Gebel son of Abdulla son of 
Ka'ab son of Fihr son of Luai son of Ghalib son of Kenana. 

IV Here ends the pedigree of the Mahass descended from Fellah. 

C 4 (NOTES) 

I I have not seen "Fellah" mentioned in any nisha but this. 

II The normal plural to denote "descendants of Marzuk" would be 
"Merazik," and this name does occur as that of a subsection of the Gm- 
SHiMAT section of the Hamar 'Asakira and also among the Gawama'a in 
Kordofan (see Part III, Chaps, i and 4). 

'Aylafun is on the Blue Nile near Khartoum. 

Tuti Island lies opposite Khartoum. 

Kutrang is on the Blue Nile, south-east of 'Aylafun. 

III The last part of the pedigree is confused and inaccurate. Ka'ab {q.v. 
Wiistenfeld, P) had no son 'Abdulla. 

1 reading -wl^Ji^ for r^)jj£s. ^ reading oi^-«L« for sJujJi^. 


MANUSCRIPTS C 5 (a) and (b) 


These two nishas do not coincide with the pedigrees of the A group 
until Abu TaHb. The one coincides with the other at Sa'ud ibn 
Wahsh, but even so they vary in the preceding generations. The 
first was translated from a copy taken in 1912 by Ali walad Tai, 
'omda of the Nurab section of Shukria east of the Blue Nile, from 
the copy alleged to be in the possession of Abdulla Abu Sin the 
hereditary chief of the Shukria in Rufa'a district. 

The second was taken down for me from the dictation of an old 
man in Rufa'a district, named Hammad el Kakam. 

Both are clearly inaccurate and rest upon oral tradition rather 
than documentary evidence. Other forms of the pedigree will be 
found in the account of the Shukria. 

C 5 {a) 

These are splendid pedigrees reaching back to Hashim. 

I In the name of God . . . 

II Praise be to God who created the human race from water and 
made it male and female. 

III God Almighty said " O people, I have created you of male and 
female and made you races and tribes that ye may know one another." 

IV Again He said. . .{text corrupt). 

V And the Prophet. . .said " He that cuts the connections of blood 
\lit. 'cuts the womb'], God will cut off his hope of salvation." 

VI Again the Prophet. . .said "Ye know your pedigrees, how ye 
are connected." 

VII So this is [written] in obedience to the order of God and His 
Prophet, and for the preservation of blood-relationships. 

VIII I am Sheikh 'Ali son of. . .{as in tree, up to Hashim). 

IX This was transcribed from el Samarkandi^ ; and God best knows 
the truth. 

^ reading ^^jki5;.««Jt for juS^-o-«Jt. 


C 5 (a) (NOTES) 

III Cp. BA, XXII, etc. VI Cp. BA, in. 

V Cp. BA, xiii. VII Cp. BA, II and ix. 




'Abd el Muntalib 

Abu Talib 




'Abdulla el Gawadf 




'Abd Menaf 















Hammad Shorn 















El Sheikh 'AU 
reading jijtA. for jAa^-a-. f reading i\^e^ for i^*.. 


I In the name of God . . . 

II And now I will give the pedigree of the Shukria. They are 
among the most exalted of the Arabs by race, for the Prophet. . .said 
"God chose Kenana from among the Arabs. . .etc. to the end." 
Therefore Kuraysh were among the noblest of the Arabs; and the 
Shukria are descended from 'Abd el Muttalib. 

III This then is the pedigree of el Sheikh Hammad ibn Muhammad, 
known as "el Kakam," — son of Hammad, son of. , .{as in tree, up to 
'Abd el Muttalib). 

IV Now the mother of '(3n ibn 'Abdulla el Gawad was el Sayyida 
Zaynab (the daughter of el Imam 'Ali . . . ) whose mother was Fatima 
the Glorious, the daughter of the Prophet. . . . 

V The above pedigree from the mouth of one of the Shukria 
Arabs who knows his pedigree is in accordance with what is in the 
book of el Samarkandi the Great, and in that book [the author in 
speaking of the generations] from Shakir to 'Abd el Muttalib men- 
tions their nobility of character and bravery; and such they have 
ever maintained, for one of them can meet a thousand foes in war 
and cope with them without any assistance until they flee in disorder 
before him. 

VI Their characters are pleasant and their conduct good both 
individually and in their mutual relationships; and were it not that 
it would take too long I would mention them and their deeds man by 
man and event after event. Their influence with the rulers of the 
country has been great because of their skill in aff^airs of state, and, 
to sum up, their virtues are many. 

VII In addition they are of the family of the Prophet. . .and that 
is to be found in the book Nur el Absdr about the virtues of their 
ancestress el Sayyida Zaynab, the daughter of the Imam 'Ali. . . , and 
the men of learning speak of them from ten different points of view. 
God best knows the truth. 

C 5 {b) (NOTES) 

III. BA, XLix. IV This is incorrect: see Wiistenfeld, Y. 



'Abd el Muntalib 
Abu Talib 


Ga'afir el Tiar El Imam 'Ali 
I ■ I 

Abdulla el Gawad = Zaynab 



'Abd Menaf 










Abu el 'Ala 

I _ 






El Hag Tai'a 



■ i_ 



'Abd el Gelll 

'Abd el Gubar 




Muhammad "el Kakam" 




MANUSCRIPTS C 6 (a) and (b) 


The former of these two Sherifi pedigrees comes from Wad Hasuna, 
between Khartoum and Abu Delayk, It is alleged that the original 
was brought from Mekka by a certain el Hag el Sheikh about 
fifty years ago. This original is in a crabbed but clear hand, written 
on four small pages. One or two other pages were lost in the Dervish 
times, but a copy of the whole had previously been taken by Ibrahim 
el Imam of Wad Hasuna. The copy lent to me for translation was 
made five years ago from Ibrahim el Imam's copy. The grammar 
and the writing are both bad. 

The second version of the pedigree appears to be for the most 
part a mere variant of the first version, attached to the pedigree of 
a quite different man. It had evidently been written out within 
recent years by a copyist. It was given to me by an Inspector but 
he had forgotten from where he had obtained it. Both the nisbas 
seem quite independent of the A and B groups wherein the author- 
ship is generally ascribed to "el Samarkandi." They were probably 
procured by pilgrims from some soi-disant Sherif at Mekka. 

It is noteworthy that whereas the former of the two pedigrees 
makes the Hasuna family descendants of el Husayn, i.e. Ashraf, and 
though they are commonly regarded as such by many at present, the 
author of D 3, writing in the latter half of the eighteenth centur}^, 
had obviously no suspicion that they were Ashraf at all. 


I In the name of God, the Compassionate and Merciful. Praise 
be to God, and blessings and salutation upon the apostle of God, 
who revealed that which was in darkness, the Prophet, son of Abdulla, 
the last and greatest of the prophets, the mediator for sinners, the 
disperser of clouds [of doubt] , he that made the darkness light : upon 
him be the blessings of God in every place. Blessings and salutation 
upon him who revealed that which was in darkness, and all thanks. . . 

II This is the pedigree of the children of el Hasan and el Husayn, 
the sons of Fatima the Glorious, God bless her. 

III I will commence with the children of el Husayn. 

Among them is el Sayyid Hasan son of el Say}4d Mekki son of 
el Sayyid Hasan son of el Sayyid Mekki son of el Sayyid Sowar son 


of el Khalifa Belal el Shayb son of el Sayyid 'Abd el Fattah son of 
el Sayyid Hasuna son of el Sayyid Musa el Harim son of el Sayyid 
el Hag Rahma son of el Sayyid el Hag 'Abdulla son of el Sayyid 
Mahmud son of el Sayyid el Hag Ibrahim son of el Sayyid Hashim 
son of el Sayyid Muhammad son of el Sayyid Gemal el Din son of 
el Sayyid Muhammad son of el Sayyid Hasan son of el Sayyid 'Ali 
son of el Sayyid Ibrahim son of el Sayyid Idris son of el Sayyid 
Salih son of el Sayyid Hasan son of el Sayyid Musa son of el Sayyid 
Ibrahim son of el Sayyid Musa son of el Sayyid Shani son of el Sayyid 
Musa el Kazim son of el Sayyid Ga'afir son of el Sayyid Muhammad 
son of el Sayyid Zayn el 'Abdi'n son of el Sayyid el Husayn son of 
el Sayyid 'Ali son of Abu Talib, God bless and honour him. 

IV And [God bless] the children of Fatima the Glorious, upon 
whom be the blessings of God, the daughter of the Prophet. In her 
person are united all the pedigrees of the Sayyids, who are purified 
of all that is evil, — the abominators^ of all that are in error or un- 
belief, the smiters with smiting swords, the pursuers of the right 
way, the virtuous livers, the forbidders of evil, the arbitrators of 

V In the name of God the Compassionate and Merciful, in whom 
we put our trust at every time. So long as nights" [and days] endure 
and year succeeds to year praise be to God who chose Muhammad 
to be [our] mediator. 

VI [Muhammad] is the one object of love, the eye of [God's] 
providence, the treasure of gifts, the glory of the resurrection, the 
bridegroom of the kingdom of God, the tongue of proof, the mediator 
of all men, the. . .{illegible) of [God's] mercy. 

VII God increase 'the honour of his seed and men's knowledge of 
them, for they are the noblest and the purest of mankind, the most 
perfect in goodness, the noblest in rank, the most splendid in power, 
the greatest in might, the most approved by proofs, the most weighty 
in the scale, the strongest in faith, the last [i.e. greatest] in their coming, 
the noblest and purest of tribes, the stock of the sons of 'Ali, el Hasan 
and el Husayn, who are the two Sayyids, the fair, the honoured, the 
brilliant, the noble, the sons of Fatima the glorious, the splendid, 
the magnificent, the Arab, chief of all the faithful women, the daughter 
of the Lord of the Apostles, even Fatima, God bless her. Hear the 
cry from before God Almighty "O all ye folk^, veil your eyes until 
the marriage of Fatima is consummated, God bless her, the daughter 

^ reading (j>*-Ai--oJI for ^*JsLk^\ . ^ reading iJLAJI for j^Ut. 
^ reading JJfelL; for jJJbU. 

iv.c6.xii. OF THE SUDAN 163 

of the Prophet of God, upon whom be the blessings of God, the 
chief of all women who are true believers." 

VIII It is not permitted to him that trusts in God and the last day 
to harm a Sherif, and if he do so he is a rebel, nor to wrong him, nor 
to seize him, nor to repulse him, nor to strike him, [and this is] in 
honour of the Prophet of God, upon whom be the blessings of God, 
who said " Harm me not in [harming] my family," And they are the 
flower of mankind, the Sayyids, the sons of Sayyids, and if one of them 
be ignorant or immoral he is [yet] better than any other ignorant man, 
and if one of them be learned he is better than any other learned man. 

IX If anyone make light of or destroy their honour, or render them 
odious, or speak them [evil], God will destroy that man's honour on 
the day of the resurrection, and destroy his kingdom if he be a king, 
and subvert his empire if he have an empire, and change his wealth 
to poverty if he have riches, and scatter whatsoever he may have 
collected together. 

X God Almighty said " Say, I ask not of you, for this [my preach- 
ing], any reward, except the love of [my] relations," meaning those 
who are related to the Prophet, upon whom be the blessings of God. 
Thus he that loves them not is disobedient to Almighty God, and he 
that injures them and advantages himself shall be punished; and 
whatever they say must be believed, by virtue of their noble descent, 
without enquiries as to whether they are liars. And every judge and 
every chief and every ruler is bound to honour them, and he that 
would do them evil is [hereby] warned, and every judge and chief 
and ruler must honour them and ennoble them, for they are Sayyids 
and sons of Sayyids, the best of men and sons of the best of men. 

XI The Prophet, upon whom be the blessings of God, said "Woe, 
and again I say woe to any that oppose them: their reward shall be 
[at] the day of the resurrection^. He that strikes them with his hand 
or injures them, I shall oppose him on the day of the resurrection^, 
and he is accursed." And he that curses them^, the Prophet, upon 
whom be the blessings of God, has ordained that he be slain for 
having cursed his offspring; his punishment shall be to ride upon 
an ass, with his face to its tail, and thereon to pass before the gate of 
the Sultan and the chiefs and the judges and all the people. 

XII He that makes light of this pedigree, if he be a king, God will 
take from him his kingdom, and if he be a chief, God will take from 
him his chieftainship, and if he be a judge, God will cause him to 
leave the world without salvation. 

^ reading <UU5 for 5.^5. 2 reading ^.ov**^ for ««ja). 

II — 2 


XIII He that wrongs the descendants of the Prophet, upon whom 
be the blessings of God, must receive eighty-seven lashes of the whip ; 
and grief shall fall upon him, and he shall be expelled from the 
religion of Islam. 

XIV But he that honours and respects them and satisfies their 
needs, shall be honoured by God in this world and the world to come, 
and his needs shall be satisfied in this world and in the world to 

XV This is the pedigree of the sons of el Hasan and el Husayn, 
the sons of 'Ali el Kerrar and of Fatima the Glorious, the daughter 
of the Prophet, upon whom be the blessings of God. Praise be to 
God for the beginning and the end. 

24th of Gemdd Thdni 1327. 

C 6 {a) (NOTES) 

III From Musa el Kazim upwards is correct (see Wiistenfeld, Y), but 
nothing of the remainder occurs in Wiistenfeld. 

Hasiina is the father of Hasan walad Hasuna, for whom see D 3, 132. 

X The quotation is from the 42nd chapter of the Kuran (see Sale, 
p. 360). 

The word translated "chief" here and later is mukaddam. Its technical 
meaning is the head or abbot of a zdzvia. 

XIII C 6 {b) prescribes only 39 in place of 87 lashes. The latter may be 
merely a misprint: "39" is no doubt correct as "The greatest number of 
stripes in chastisement is thirty-nine; and the smallest number is three. 
This is according to Haneefa and Mohammed." (Hamilton's Hedaya, 
p. 204.) 


I {The first few paragraphs fairly closely resemble paras-, iv-xiv of 
C 6 {a) : they are not worth translating.) 

II This nisba was written in the month of Dhu el Higga in the 
year 485 and its accuracy is testified to by el Sayyid el Sheri'f 
Gemal el Din [who was ?] also the muedhdhin at the mosque of the 
Moghrabin^ [Moors] at the city of Fas [Fez] ; and verily it is the tree 
of Idri's ibn Idri's the elder, and the witness thereto is el Sa)^id 
el Sheri'f el Taib el Husayn el Shafa'i, God bless him, as is testified 
by 'Abdulla Ahmad, for it was written by the hand of Gemal el Din. 

III Now the blessings of God be on our lord Muhammad... 
{invocations, etc., follow). 

^ reading ^>*J/a«« for O*'^*^- 

iv.C6.iv. OF THE SUDAN 165 

IV This is the pedigree of el Sayyid el Shen'f Muhammad 'Abd 
el Wahhab son of Muhammad son of el Dow son of el Nur son of 
el Hasan son of Salim son of 'Abdulla son of 'AH el Taib son of 
Muhammad son of el Shafa'i . . . , and el Sayyid el Shen'f Muhammad 
el Harib fled [harab] from Mekka to the city of Fas and became 
a devotee [magdhub] ,. . . son of Ahmad son of Gemal el Din son 
of Hasan. . .son of Hashim son of Kuraysh son of Muhammad. . . 
son of Idris . . . son of Khalil son of Babikr . . . son of Muhammad son 
of el Zayn el 'Abdi'n. . .son of Khalid. . .son of Nasr el Din. . .son of 
Muhammad. . .son of el Mansur son of Isma'il son of Ga'afir son of 
el Hasan son of Fatima the Glorious, daughter of the Chosen One. . . 
{there follow praises of Fatima, and the pedigree of ^Abd el Muttaliby 
correctly given, but for two mis-spellings, to 'Adndn). 

V This glorious pedigree, that of el Shen'f Muhammad 'Abd el 
Wahhab has now by the help of God been completed by the hand of 
me its writer Adam ibn el Shen'f el Zamzami . . . {pious remarks follow). 

C 6 {b) (NOTES) 

II The Arabic is as follows : 

y^J^jSL^\ &.«la»ij OA^^'^ O^*^' U^^^ ^>-^>^' «^^!^*^^' lyXok^tfU 6J>^^ 

•iXiJ^ JSr-'i >f^*^^' u^j^^ O^' t_^-Jj>' {sic) ^^sji-i LjJI^ ^li {sic) O-ijjuoiJ 

O^jJt ^l^i^ Jaa»ui C-.jlf') lyj^) J^<«A>t <UJI juP 

IV The latter part of the pedigree at least is spurious. Wiistenfeld (Z) 
mentions no Ga'afir son of el Hasan. Each name is preceded in the text 
by "el Sayyid el Sherif," and after most of the names follow a few words 
of praise, such as "protector of the poor," "an observer of the book of 
God," " God bless him," etc. 

O ^ ) 




This document was borrowed from Ahmad Musa'ad, brother of the 
'omda of the Halawiyyun, who are a section of Rufa'a. It was 
a transcription, and the original had perished. 

It is obviously an inferior version of the earher paragraphs of 
C 9 (q-v.), and is indeed alleged to have been brought from Mekka 
by " Abdulla el Araki," whose pedigree C 9 represents. 

I In the name of God. . .{some five lines of laudation follow). 

II When I saw that the records of lineage were being lost in [various] 
countries and most men's pedigrees in [different] lands, I feared lest 
my noble pedigree, which connects me with the lord of the apostles, 
should be lost ; for it is not right for one to hide it nor to depart from 
it without reason ; so I wished to record my pedigree, so that all my 
posterity after me might know it and be quite certain of their own 

III I am Ahmad son of el feki Musa'ad son of el Sheikh Ahmad 
son of Idris son of 'Abd el Kadir son of Muhammad son of el feki 
Shinayna son of the perfect saint el feki Rahma son of Guma'a son 
of 'Afif son of Ibrahim Shakh son of Muhammad Zaghyu son of 
Nail son of Halu son of Hammad son of el Sayyid Rafa'i son of el 
Sayyid 'Amir son of el Sayyid Husayn son of el Sayyid Isma'i'l son 
of el Sayyid 'Abdulla son of el Sayyid Ibrahim son of el Sayyid Musa 
el Kaxim son of el Sayyid el Imam Ga'afir el Sadik son of el Sayyid 
el Imam Muhammad el Bakir son of el Sayyid 'Ali Zayn el 'Abdi'n 
son of him that was known as "Lord of the Imams,. . .and Com- 
mander of the Faithful" el Sayyid 'Abdulla el Husayn, the martyr of 
Kerbela^ (which is the name of the place where he was killed), 
el Husayn the son of Fatima the Glorious . . . (four lines of laudatio?i 
of Fdtima and 'AH, and the pedigree of the latter up to 'Adjidn, correctly 
given, follow here). 

IV This is transcribed from El Anwar el Nebawia fi Abdi Khayr 
el Baria and occurs in the fifth chapter of the Anwar el Nebawia : Ibn 
el Salah mentions it in the commentary on el Bokhari. 

V God knows best, and may he bless our lord Muhammad and his 

^ reading aXjj£s for <kjj£s. 


C 7 (NOTES) 

II See C 9, IV, which is identical but for the addition of the last eight 
words in C 7. 

III El feki Rahma may possibly be the "Rahma el Halawi" of D 3, 221. 

"Zaghyti" (3,-j-iij) probably corresponds to the "'Azu Rigal" 
(J^) $j^) of C9, XV. 

The second half of the paragraph, from Rafa'i onwards, is practically 
the same as the second half of C 9, v, but there are some variations in the 
spelling and in the laudations of 'Ali and Fatima. Also " el Sayyid 'AbduUa 
el Husayn" is wrongly given in C 7 for "The father of 'AbduUa, our lord 
el Husayn" (C 9); and C 7 contains an obvious gloss on "Kerbela." 

IV Cp. C 9, XXV. The Arabic in C 7 is as follows: 




A COPY was made for me of a MS. in the possession of the late Sheikh 
el Abbas Muhammad Bedr of Um Dubban, a Mesallami of the 
Badrab section, ex-Kadi of the Khah'fa, and later 'omda of the first 
khut of el Kamlin district. 

This copy (called "No. i" in the notes) was found to be un- 
intelligible in places and I returned it to Sheikh el Abbas for veri- 

He then produced " No. 2," explaining that the original had been 
so damaged in the course of years that the copyist— himself not well 
versed in the subject — had occasionally got into difficulties ; but that 
he had himself revised the whole and made a fresh copy. 

The work seems to have been well and carefully done: Nos. i 
and 2 are in close agreement, though the former contains a certain 
amount omitted in the latter and the order of the paragraphs has 
been changed in places for the sake of clearness. 

Sheikh el Abbas thought that the original was written about the 
time of Idri's Arbab. The latter {q.v. D 3, 141) died about 1650 a.d. 

I In the name of God .... 

II When I, the fakir Mekki Muhammad, saw how rife were sus- 
picion and incertitude regarding things of importance .... 

And how ignorant men were concerning the matter of ancestors 
and pedigrees, I offered my prayers to God and set about clearing 
the pedigree of Musallam ibn 'Atif of doubt and incertitude. 

III I took this copy from the feki el Ami'n ibn Deli'sa, he having 
taken it from the great book of pedigrees; and it is as follows. 

IV Musallam ibn 'Atif begot Ibrahim, who begot Muhammad, 
who begot Daud the elder, who begot Mas'ud, who begot Daud 
el Hashi. The last named was called "el Hashi" because he used 
to round up [yahush] the animals on the days when camp was 

V Daud el Hashi had seven sons, Muhammad Katarish^ Abd el 
Khalik, Arabi, Faza'a, Faragag, Yasir and Sulayman. 

VI Muhammad Katarish begot Abd el Khalik, Hamtur, Hadlul, 
Salih, Razuk and Awad el Kerim. 

^ reading ^jUaS for u-j^^. 


VII His brother 'Abd el Khalik begot Daud el Gemal, who begot 
Nebat, who begot Shawar and Salih. 

VIII Shawar was ancestor of the Shawarab, and Salih of the 
Sawalha and the Nebatia. 

IX 'Arabi begot the Hadarab. 

X The descendants of Faza'a are at Tokar near the Red Sea, and 
some of them are in the neighbourhood of Gebel Um Merahi. 

XI Faragag died childless. 

XII Yasir begot the Daudia Nas Kabanbura, as distinct from the 
D AUDI A AwLAD HAsHi, the descendants of Hammad el Hayhari. 

XIII Sulayman had six sons, Muhammad el Munshelakh, Hammad 
el Hayhari, Nebat, Hasan and Abu Shelukh, all by the same mother, 
and Ibrahim their stepbrother. None of these had any children 
excepting Ibrahim and Hammad el Hayhari. 

XIV The above are the seven sons of Daud el Hashi and their 
children. I will now recount the further ramifications of his family 
in detail. 

XV 'Abd el Khalik son of Muhammad Katarish begot 'Abd el 
Sadik, Nigm, Hammadulla, Kubgan, 'Anfal, Bakoi, Abu Sabayka 
[and Ga'afir]. 

XVI Hamtur, his brother, begot the Ghusaynab^, the Mismarab, 
the Deli'lab, the Kinaynab and the Rihaymab. 

XVII Hadlul begot the Hagakab, the Na'amanab^, the 'Agi'bab, 
the HiLALTiT, the Hasobab, the Balulab, the Khalafullab^, the 
Zuaynab, the Kharufab, the Hammadullab, the 'Ahidab and the 

XVIII Razuk begot the Rizkab. 

XIX 'Aw^ad el Keri'm begot the Talbab. 

XX El Hag Salih died childless. 

XXI 'Abd el Sadik son of 'Abd el Khalik son of Muhammad 
Katarish begot the Sabrab. 

XXII Nigm, his brother, begot the Nigmab, the Husaynab, the 
Maninab and the Dualiyyun*. 

XXIII Hammadulla, his brother, begot the Gabirab and the 

XXIV Ga'afir, his brother, begot the Ga'afira and the 'Aki'kab. 

XXV Kubgan^, his brother, begot the ICabagna and the Battab 
AwLAD Batta. 

XXVI 'Anfal begot the 'Anafla. 

^ reading w;li*— c for w>lij«».5. 2 reading ^iUI^aj for w)l.^ . 

^ reading w^'iUJL*. for wjliXi.. * reading O^b**^' ^^^ C>!>*^j'«^' • 

^ reading ,jlafc»»£» for (jlaji-J. 

lyo THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv.cs.xxvii. 

XXVII Bakoi begot the Hashiab, who live at Koz Ragab and the 
Kash,and who trace their lineage to the AsHRAFon their mother's side. 

XXVIII Abu Sabayka begot the Sabaykab. 

XXIX Ibrahim the son of Sulayman son of Daud el Hashi begot 
'Omar, Ak-hal, Fakad and Bakoi. 

XXX Ak-hal and Fakad died childless. 

XXXI 'Omar begot the 'Omarab, the Bakaisa, the Shokab, the 
MiTKENAB and the 'Agamab. 

XXXII Bakoi begot the Delisab; and among the Delisab are the 
Terarif, the people of Idris Teraf, the father of el Sheikh 'Abd 
el Rahman walad Teraf; and the Sirayrab; and the Korumab, the 
people of Mahmud walad Zaid. 

XXXIII Among the descendants of Ibrahim the elder are the 
Haganab^, and the Badrab, the people of el Sheikh el 'Ebayd 
Muhammad Bedr. 

XXXIV The Shokab and the 'Ashwab and the Rihaymab are 
descended from Ibrahim the younger, son of 'Abdulla son of 'Omar 
son of Ibrahim the elder. 

XXXV From Hammad el Hayhari son of Sulayman are descended 
the Kusaysab, the Tuayrab, and the Wanaysab, the stock of 
el Sheikh Muhammad walad Abu Wanaysa, and the Dualiyyun, 
the people of Um Rawia, and the Shawabna in the Shaybun country, 
and the Gabagira, and the Nakaki'z and the Fadliyyun. 

XXXVI From him too are descended the Mahawasha, the Shelu- 
KHATAB^, the Barsakab^, the 'Awaydab and the Hatatib. 

XXXVII All of these are branches of the stock of Hammad el 
Hayhari. And here ends the pedigree of the descendants of Musallam 
ibn 'Atif ibn Hegaz, who was an Ommawi on the side of his mother 
Rabi'a el Ommawia; but his father was 'Abd el Hamid son of. . . 
{etc., as in tree, q.v.). This is the accepted pedigree of the Mesal- 
lamia: there is no other reliable one. God best knows the truth, and 
to Him all men return. 

C 8 (NOTES) 

II This Musallam is the eponymous ancestor of the Mesallamia. 

III El Ami'n ibn Delisa is said to have been a Mesallami living on the 
Atbara and a contemporary of Hasan wad Hasuna (died 1664 A. D.; see 
D 3, 132). Cp. para, xxxii. 

''He having taken it. . ." is j-jJCJI „p*«.uJt ^J^ 6J^\ l.©^, but it is not 

^ reading w>UUub for w>Us*Jk. ^ reading wjUsULw for w>lXsi 

^ reading ^\JLcijj for -^Ka^jj . 


clear what book is meant : the words are no doubt a gloss as they do not 
occur in MS. No. i. 

IV "On the days..." is ii**JaJt ^^j — literally "the day of the how- 
dah," i.e. on the day when the women ride in state in their howdahs on 
the camels from the old encampment to the new. The usual nomad custom 
is so. 

VI No. I adds that Hamtur and Hadlul were twins, and calls Salih 

vii-viii No. I says here " 'Abd el Khalik son of Daud el JHashi begot 
the Shawarab Nas Awlad Mahr as distinct from the Shawarab " {i.e. the 
rest of the Shawarab.-') "and begot" [i.e. was ancestor of (jJ^)] "Nebat 
ibn Daud el Gemal"; and later "Nebat ibn Daud el Gemal begot Shawar, 
ancestor of the Shawarab, and Salih, ancestor of the Sawalha and the 

In No. I there follows this paragraph: "Concerning the Bualda, the 
descendants of Bulad Gerri, there is a difference of opinion. Some say they 
are descended from Bulad son of Musallam, and others that they are 
Ga'al. God knows the truth about them." 

X Um Merahi is in Gayli district, north of Khartoum. 

XI Not in No. i. 

XII No. I adds "And the seed of the sons of Yasir are the Bambunab 
and the Washkab, and the mother of these was one of the Nuba of 
el Haraza Um Ked, who are descendants of 'Abd el Hadi walad Muham- 
mad walad Dolib, who was descended from el Sheikh Rikab, who was of 
the stock of el Imam el Zila'i." 

El Haraza is in Northern Kordofan, and 'Abd el Hadi was the father 
of Nabray (No. 211 in D 3) and probably (see D 3) died about 1750-1800. 
See MacMichael {Tribes of N. and C. Kordofan, Chap. vi). Rikab is 
No. 222 in D 3. Cp. note xxxiv and see Chap. 7 in Part III for the 
Rikab i'a. 

XIII No. I specifies that the five full-brothers were sons of one Merowia 
el Hurra, and Ibrahim of a concubine named Zaynab. 

XV No. I says 'Abd el Sadik and Nigm were twins and inserts Ga'afir 
(omitted by a slip here in No. 2). 

XVI No . I adds " the Kurash ab , " and gives ' ' Kenanab " for " Kin aynab , ' ' 
and says the Rihaymab were the children of Rihayma, son of el 'Awayd 
son of Hamtur. The descendants of Hamtur are always spoken of as 
"Hamatiria" to-day. 

In a later paragraph No. i says "The eldest sons of Hamtur were 
Barkash and Karshan and Thammar and 'Awad el Kerim." These are not 
mentioned by No. 2; but cp. note xix. 

XVII No. I says "The descendants of Hadlul, according to what we have 
copied from the writings of el feki Sherifi ibn el feki Mekki, and according 
to what has been copied from el feki 'Abdulla ibn el feki el Amin with 
absolute exactitude, are the Shiumab, the Khalafullab, the Hasanab and 

the Mekkiab The sons of Hadlul were Muhammad and Hasan and 'Ali 

and KhalafuUa. 

172 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. cs. xvit. 

Muhammad begot 'Agi'b, who begot Haltit and Khayr el Sid and 
Hasoba and el Zaj^n Balula and Abu Bukr. 

Hasan begot the Hagakab and the Na'amanab (sic) and the Kiab. 

Razuk begot the feki Mekki. 

KhalafuUa begot the Hatukab (?) and the 'Atwadab and the Igirbab. 

'Ali begot Kharuf, who begot the Kharufab and Hammadullab and the 
'Ahidab and the Bashkab. All of these are the descendants of Hadlul." 

Perhaps "el Zayn Balula" should be "el Zayn and Balula," and by 
"Zuaynab" in No. i would in this case be meant the descendants of this 
el Zayn. 

There is nothing in No. 2 to correspond to the names of the three 
sections said in No. i to be descended from KhalafuUa. 

By "'Agi'bab" (No. 2) are meant the children of the Agib son of 
Muhammad mentioned above (No. i). 

The feki Sherifi's kiibba is at Ummat 'Ankan'b east of el Kamlin. El feki 
'Abdulla was also a Mesallami and is said to have been buried near Gebel 
'Isa Talib (near Ummat Ankarib). 

"Igirbab" means "The mangy ones." 

XVIII This Razuk is not the Razuk of the quotation from No. i in note 
XVII, but a son of Muhammad Katarish (so both Nos. i and 2). 

XIX No. I, in agreement with No. 2, previously gave an "'Awad el 
Ken'm" as a son of Muhammad Katarish. Later on No. i gives another 
Awad el Ken'm, "ancestor of the Talbab," as son of Hamtur. No. 2 has 
apparently confused the two. 

xxvii No. I calls them "Our lords the Hashiab," and launches forth 
into praises of the Ashraf, omitted by No. 2. 

Koz Ragab is on the Atbara, and the Kash to the East. 

XXX No. I gives the sons of Ibrahim as No. 2, but omits to say Ak-hal died 
childless, and adds "Fakid {sic) begot the Rizkab." 

XXXI For "Shokab" No. i gives "Shakutab," and, while giving the 
'Agamab as descendants of Ibrahim, does not say that they were so 
descended through 'Omar. 

No. I adds among the descendants of Ibrahim one " Muhammad walad 
'Agib el Shinanabi." 

XXXII No. I gives "Teraif" for "Terarif." 

After the mention of Sirayrab several lines are added by No. 1 which are 
incomprehensible and omitted by No. 2. The passage in No. i runs thus: 

>wv^'3 j'i^^ i— J.J ^jj j-**.^\ ^j^oA.jJI j^ ?----J' 3*^3' *X<J»- AJU^ ^jIj 
AiiXaJI y^ \^tt^j^^ dJU^^I j3'>*^' ^-^ ^33 AA-JJ^"^! ^ij^^f 'y** O-iP' 

and may possibly be translated: "And of the stock of Delisa are the 
Sirayrab Awlad el 'Irak, and the Abu Denana surnamed 'el 'Irak 'Abd 
el 'Ali,' and Abu Denana Hammad, [these two latter being] the sons of 
el Sheikh 'Abd el Rahman the elder son of Delisa the elder ; and their mother 
was el Zayn, called [reading lyiS for I^U] ' Gariat el Halanka' ['The 


bondwoman of the Halanka']. By her he ['Abd el Rahman] begot el 'Irak 
Abu Denana; and they left. . ., etc." The meaning is apparently that they 
left the Halanka country and settled on the Nile near the Magadhib {i.e. 
the AwLAD EL Magdhub in the vicinity of el Damer). Cp. D 5 (c), xviii. 

For Hammad Abu Denana see D 3, No. 141. 

For "Mahmud walad Zaid" No. i has only "walad Zaid." 

XXXIII "The people of el Sheikh el 'Ebayd" are the Um Dubban people 
under the headship of Sheikh el 'Abbas el 'Ebayd Muhammad Bedr. 

XXXIV No. I continues "And of the seed of Ibrahim was 'Awadulla 
Kabu of the Awlad Batil at Gerayfat Omdurman who are descended from 
Ibrahim ; and the Kalakla the children of their [A. BAtil ?] maternal aunt 
Kalkala el Rubatia, who were called Kalakla" [emend from " Kalalkla"] 
\sc. after] "their mother Kalkala, an 'Awadia of the Ga'aliyyun 'Awadia. 

The mother of 'Awadulla Kabu was one of the Nuba of el Haraza Um 
Ked who are descendants of 'Abd el Hadi walad Muhammad Dolib, and 
she was ultimately descended from el Sheikh Rikab. This then is the pedi- 
gree of their mother; and all of these were descended from Ibrahim the 

Cp. note XII for intermarriage with el Haraza people. 

XXXV Muhammad walad Abu Wanaysa is No. 172 in D 3. 

After " DuALiYYUN " No. i adds, in parenthesis, " NAs walad HAshi " : 
cp. para. xii. 

Shaybun is a hill in the Nuba Mountains : its locality used to be famous 
in Turkish and pre-Turkish days as containing gold. The people there 
are entirely distinct, racially, from their neighbours. See note to D 7, ccc. 

For "GabAgira" No. i gives "HabAgira." 

In explanation of "the NakAki'z" No. i adds "The descendants of 
Sulayman el Nakaz, whose mother was daughter of el Malik Sulayman 
the Gamu'i"; and, as regards the Fadliyyun, No. i speaks of them as the 
descendants of Muhammad el Fadl, and includes them among the NakAki'z. 

XXXVI No. I speaks of the MahAwasHa as "descendants of Mahush 
(Mahawwash ?)," and gives the other sections mentioned in this paragraph as 
descended from " Muhammad " {i.e. Muhammad el Munshelakh probably). 

After this No. i continues (omitted in No. 2) as follows: "Muhammad 
Musallam had two daughters, Gaiza and el Khidayra. Gaiza was mother 
of the MoghArba, and el Khidayra of the FAdnia, who are descended from 
el Sherif el Sayyid el Hasib el Nesib ibn Muhammad ibn el Imam 'Ali, 
God bless him, who is known as Ibn el Hanafia." 

XXXVII In No. I Musallam is here called "Musallam el Abwab son of 
Atif . . . ." 

At the close of No. i there is added "As for the version that Musallam 
was descended from Sultan, it is not trustworthy: the fact is merely that 
his mother el Zahra was daughter of Sultan, and fame connected him with 
his [maternal] grandfather because he was his follower and so [his name] 
became mixed with that of his mother's relations." BA, A 2, A 11, C 9, 
D I, and D 6 all agree with C 8. D 2 alone suggests a descent from Sultan 
(who was a descendant of Guhayna). 


e elder") 


(Ddudia Nds Kahanburd) 



* Hagdndb 
i Bddrdb 

f Muhammad 
el Munshelakh 

^khal Fakad 

' Korumdb 

fHamimad el Hayhari 

I Tiiayrdb 
\ Wanaysdb 
, Dudliyyun 
I Shaivdbna 
Nakdkiz I 
Fadliyyun ) 

fNebat fHasan fAbu Shelukh 

* and t by different mothers. 

^^. \Xl 

ISdlndb) iNignuOi 


Sirayfdl I Fa4lnyan i 

■KotOnua \ Afaliduvulia 





This nisha, or rather the first five paragraphs of it, purports to be 
that of the famous Sheikh 'Abdulla ibn Dafa'alla el 'Araki, whose 
biography is given in D 3 (No. 34). 

The actual copy of the nisba which has been translated was made 
for me from his own inherited copy by 'Omar Agib, a descendant of 
the 'Abdullah viceroys, who were themselves, like the 'Araki family, 
a branch of Rufa'a. 

It is interesting to see that Rafa'i, the eponymous ancestor of the 
Rufa'a, occurs in the B and A groups (which are attributed to "el 
Samarkand!"), as son of 'Amir son of Dhubian, ancestor of the 
GuHAYNA tribes. But in C 7 and C 9 this 'Amir is called "el Sa^yid 
'Amir" and allotted a more noble pedigree, direct to el Husayn, the 
martyr of Kerbela and grandson of the Prophet. 

'Amir is said to have been the first of the family to settle in the 
Sudan, and the genealogy of his descendants may be given with 
approximate accuracy: there is, however, no indication that either 
of the versions of his ancestry that have been mentioned is correct 
in any particular. The fact is probably that 'Abdulla el 'Araki went 
on the pilgrimage and, as in the similar case of C 6, returned with a 
Sherifi pedigree, correct from Musa el Kazim upwards and otherwise 

Musa el Kazim had twelve sons (see Wiistenfeld, Y) and the 
scribes of Mekka were no doubt prepared to allot him any number 
more on application. 

The Rufa'a group as a whole are considered Guhayna, but the 
Sherifi descent of the 'Arakii'n is never disputed, although they 
and the Rufa'a are allowed to be equally descended from Rafa'i. 
For the explanation of this see Chap. 2 {a) in Part III. 

Paragraphs viii to xxvi were no doubt added by a later copyist 
who borrowed them from one of the B group of nisbas, and an inferior 
one at that. They do not even agree with the pedigree given in para. v. 

I In the name of God .... 

II As regards what follows, this is the pedigree of honour con- 
cerning the Sheikh of Islam, the Guide [Murshid], the Resolute 
[Hammdm], 'Abdulla el 'Araki. 


III Praise be to God who honoured el Medina with the Prophet 
of God, and protected it, and chose it above all places, and selected it, 
and named it "Tayyiba" [Sweet] because it was sweetened by the 
sweetness of the Beloved [i.e. the Prophet] and its soil was sweetened. 
And he bore witness that there is no god but God alone and that 
He has no partner, but is the God of all created beings and has 
developed them. And He bore witness that our lord Muhammad is 
His servant and apostle, whom His God called "YS" and "TH." 

IV As regards what follows : when I saw that the records of lineage 
were being lost in [various] countries and most men's pedigrees in 
[different] lands, I feared lest my noble pedigree which connects me 
with the lord of the apostles should be lost, for it is not right for one 
to hide it nor to depart from it without reason : so I wished to record 
my pedigree so that all my posterity after me might know it. 

V I say then that I am the fakir in God's sight, 'Abdulla son of 
el Sayyid Dafa'alla son of el Sayyid Mukbal son of el Sayyid Nafa'i 
son of el Sayyid Muhammad " Fala'alah Washm" son of el Sayyid 
Salama son of el Sayyid Bedr son of el Sayyid Muhammad son of 
el Sayyid Ahmad son of el Sayyid Rafa'i son of el Sayyid 'Amir son 
of el Sayyid el Husayn son of el Sayyid Isma'i'l son of el Sayyid 
'Abdulla son of el Sayyid Ibrahim son of el Sayyid el Imam Musa 
el Kazim son of el Sayyid el Imam Ga'afir el Sadik son of el Sayyid 
el Imam Muhammad el Bakir son of el Sayyid 'Ali Zayn el 'Abdi'n 
son of him that was known as " Lord of the Imams " and " The Great 
Captain," whom God proved by [every] kind of trial and test, the 
Commander of the Faithful, the father of 'Abdulla, our lord el Husayn, 
the martyr of Kerbela, the son of Fatima the Glorious, the queen of 
the women of the universe, the daughter of the lord of the apostles, 
our lord Muhammad. . .son of 'Abdulla, son of 'Abd el Muttalib son 
of Hashim [and so on] to his ancestor 'Adnan. 

VI At this point ends the authentic and universally accepted 

VII He upon whom be the blessings of God said "May the curse 
of God be upon him that intrudes himself upon us without a pedigree 
or that leaves us without reason." 

VIII El Sayyid 'Amir had three sons, Muhammad Rafa'i and 
Ahmad el Ad-ham and Hammad el A'li't, own brothers. 

IX Rafa'i begot Hammad and Muhammad, own brothers, and also 
Ahmad their brother on the father's side. 

X Ahmad begot Bedr; and Hammad begot Hasan el Ma'arak (the 
ancestor of the 'Arakiyyun), and Husayn (the ancestor of the Beni 
Husayn), and Hasan (the ancestor of the Beni Hasan), and Shibayl 


(the ancestor of the Shibaylat and father of 'Ay ad and el Atrash), 
and Muhammad el 'Akil (the ancestor of the 'Akaliyyun), and 
Hakim, and Zamlut (the ancestor of the Kamatir), and Towal (the 
ancestor of the Towaliyyun), and Magid (the ancestor of the 
Razkia), and Bashkar (the ancestor of the Bashakira), and Hilal (the 
ancestor of the Hilaliyyun), and Halu (the ancestor of the Halawiy- 
yun), and 'Isayl (the ancestor of the 'Isaylat), and Farag (the an- 
cestor of the Faragab), and 'Abdulla Kerayn (the ancestor of the 

XI These fifteen were the sons of Hammad and [it is written] so in 
the Biography of Ibn Sid [Sa3^id ?] el Nas and the work of Ibn 
'Abbas upon the origins of the people, and Ibn Haggar verified it 
with a view to the serious dissensions as to their pedigrees [that 
might arise] in later days. 

XII Now the sons of Muhammad ibn Rafa'i, the full-brother of 
Hammad, were Zanfal and Haggag and Kasim and Ma'adad and 
Shabrak: these are the sons of Muhammad. 

XIII And Muhammad ['Akil] had no children, but Ibn^ 'Arafa says 
what is true, namely that the paternal uncle is to be identified with 
[?] his brother's son. 

XIV Hasan el Ma'arak had four sons, Hammad and 'Asham and 
Dasham and Daras, 

XV Hammad begot Ahmad 'Azu Rigal. 

XVI 'Asham begot Nagih and Nail and Tha'aleb and 'Othman and 

XVII Dasham begot Bedr and Zayad by [one] mother, and Fadil 
and Haggag [by another], and Hammad their brother on his father's 
side by a concubine. 

XVIII Daras begot Ahmar and el Hamran. 

XIX These are the sons of Hasan el Ma'arak. 

XX Hammad el A'lit's [descendants] are the Beni A'lat in general. 

XXI Hammad el Ad-ham's descendants are the Zamalat and the 
Zibaylat and the Agal and the Kurban and the Lahawiyyun^ and 
the Mezaniyyun (who have nothing to do with the Muzayna, who 
were of old an Arab tribe, but are only Muzayna descended from 
Ad-ham the brother of Rafa'i. 

XXII This then is the pedigree of Rafa'i and his brothers and they 
were in league with one another; and God best knows the truth. 

XXIII The tribes whose members it is not permissible to buy or 

1 reading w»^)juc for w>'^-cuc . 2 reading ^1 for ^^ . 

^ reading jj-o^a^JJI for jj-o^^t. 


sell, because they are free, are seven: viz. Guhayna and Muzayna 
and Ashga'a and Dasham and Ghafar^ and Kuraysh and el Ansar. 

XXIV The tribes that have [no ?] pedigrees and whom it is allow- 
able to sell, are seven: viz. the Beg A and the Begagih and Gabra 
and Haratha and Ghibra and Nays the ancestor of the Sudanese 
[el Suddri]. 

XXV The origin and ancestry of these is non-Arab \^agam'\, of 
white and black: Ibn el Salah mentions it in the Commentary on 
el Bokhari : he says this is transcribed from El Anwar el Nehawia 
fi Abdi Khayr el Barm, and he says he found it in the fifth chapter 
of the Anwar, which treats of the chosen prophet of God .... 

XXVI Now el Sherif Muhammad el Amin el Hindi has mentioned 
that the tribes of Guhayna here in the Sudan Gezira are seven, and 
they are registered in his own handwriting, thus : 

M G R M H R R 

























C 9 (NOTES) 

II For 'AbduUa el 'Araki see D 3, 34. 

III " . . .and named it. . .": the Arabic is 

(See Burton, Pilgrimage, i, p. 377, on this subject.) 

For "YS" and "TH" cp. Hughes, pp. 517, 518. "There are 29 
Surahs of the Qur'an which begin with certain letters of the alphabet. 
These letters, the learned say, have some profound meaning, known only 
to the Prophet himself. . . ." "YS" is applied to the 36th chapter of the 
Kuran (see Burton, loc. cit. i, p. 330). Cp. also BA, cxcviii. 

IV Cp. C 7, II. 

v "Fala'alah Washm" (^3 aJaIj) is probably an error. 
"The Great Captain" is i-«j*N)l j^L5. The zumdm (>oL«j) is properly 

the small string of leather run through a riding camel's nostril and attached 

to the rein. 
VIII In para, xxi "Hammad" is given instead of "Ahmad." 
X Though Hasan el Ma'arak is spoken of here as "ancestor of the 

' Araki yyun" 'AbduUa el 'Araki himself was not descended from him 

according to para, v ! 

^ reading J Uii for j lit. 



XIII Ibn 'Arafa was a Maliki divine in the fourteenth century (see Huart, 
p. 351), and perhaps he is referred to here. The Arabic of the dictum 
quoted is 

The phrase has reference originally to liability for a share in blood-money, 
and there is a play on the word " 'Akil." 
XV Cp. C 7, III. 

XXIII Cp. BA, xLviii, etc. 
"Dasham" is an error for Aslam. 

XXIV Cp. BA, cxxxvii, 

XXV Cp. C 7, IV. 

The title of this work means " The prophetic bouquet concerning the 
ancestry of the best of men." 

XXVI Is almost certainly a late gloss. The Hindi family reside in the 
Gezira : they are mentioned in D i , cxxv. 

This MGRMHRR is merely a meaningless memoriae technica (" migram 



'Abd el Muttalib 




El Husayn 

'Ali Zayn el 'Abdin 


Muhammad el Bakir 


Ga'afir el Sadik 


Musa el Kazim 







El Husayn 






Ferent mothers. Raifa'i Ahmad el Adham 

, Zamaldt 

^-'i j 1 1 Kurbdn 

tasim Ma'adad Shabrak Muhammad Bedr [Lahawiyyun 



f Ahmad 

Hammad el A 'lit 
{Beni A'ldt) ' 


I Hilal 

tyun) {Hildliyyun) 

El Hamran 



Muhammad " Fala'alah Washm" 







(From para. v. The remainder 
from paras, via to xxi.) 


Sflnfal Uagifig, Ma'a^a^ 

— sr 

Mub«nm.d Uaklm ZomlQt Tov 


■Jiayldl) fUnldtciyyar 

•Zaydd fl'iijil mB|u<s 





This work, consisting of eighty-five pages of MS., was copied out 
for me under the direction of Sheikh el Dardiri Muhammad el 
Khalifa of Khorsi, the present Khalifa of the Tigania tarika in 
Kordofan and one of the best known and most respected of the 
DoALiB, who are a branch of the Rikabia "Ashraf" of Dongola. 
It was transcribed from the copy made by el Dardiri in 1884 from 
the copy taken by his father in 1836 from the oldest copy made in 
1738 (see para, ccxvi). 

The book falls into three quite distinct portions. The first sixty 
pages or so are the work of that Sayyid Ghulamulla ibn 'Aid who was 
ancestor of the Rikabia and is related to have been a Sherif who 
migrated to the Sudan from el Yemen and settled in Dongola (see 
D 5 {d)). His date was probably the fifteenth century. 

The Sherif el Tahir who wrote or copied the original of BA was 
his great-nephew, but their works were quite independent of one 

Ghulamulla does not concern himself with the Sudan at all : his 
compilation is cast in the traditional mould, and in arrangement 
and subject-matter nearly resembles Abu el Fida's Historia Ante- 
islamica. It is certainly an abridgement of the history of some 
mediaeval Arabic encyclopaedist {e.g. Ibn el Athir), and it deals with 
the history of the world from the creation to the time of the Abbasids. 

Several generations later, Ghulamulla's descendant Muhammad 
walad Dolib the Elder, who, as appears from D 3 (No. 187), flourished 
about 1680 A.D., added a further twenty pages (" Part II "). A portion 
of the contents of this second part are quotations (or misquotations) 
from Ibn el Athir — unacknowledged, by the way — the rest is a series 
of disconnected notes, some on the tribes of Arabia, and some on 
those of the Sudan. The author was evidently acquainted with the 
original of BA or extracts from it, as a comparison of paras. Lxxxiv 
et seq. with BA shows with sufficient clearness. 

His great-grandson the younger Muhammad walad Dolib, in the 
eighteenth century, added another briefer, and probably more original 
series of notes (" Part III"). It is fairly certain from internal evidence 


that glosses have been added fairly lavishly both in Part II and in 
Part III. 

A translation of the first part (GhulamuUa's) is not given as it is 
irrelevant for all practical purposes, but its contents may be sum- 
marized as follows before we proceed to the translation of Parts II 
and III. 

It begins : 

In the name of God . . . Now this is a book in which I will collect all 
that has been verified by the historians and proved by the genealogists, 
and the fruit of my work shall be that he who has viewed the records of 
the past and the events of antecedent ages, when he reads of them shall 
be as it were their contemporary, and when he understands them shall be 
as it were a spectator of them . . . And the exposition of pedigrees will show 
who are exalted and noble by race, and men will learn to know one tribe 
from another, and by this knowledge shall war become peace and the 
distant be brought near, and there shall be that observance of the ties of 
consanguinity ordained by God Almighty. . .. 

The author then explains how historical research began in the 
time of the Khalifa 'Omar and how the Year of the Flight was agreed 
upon as the basis of MusUm chronology. He then sets to work upon 
his history, and begins with an account of the creation of the uni- 
verse, and discusses the planets, the stars, the seasons, etc. Then follow 
the creation of man, the sojourn in Paradise, the generations that 
followed Adam, the Flood, and the descendants of Noah. 

This leads the author to an account of the ancient tribes of Arabia 
and the other races of the world, and to the stories of Nimrod, and of 
Abraham, Job and other prophets, and the foundation of Mekka. 
Thence we pass to the history of the Israelites, of Persia, of Rome, 
and of Byzantium, including an account of Christ, and so on to the 
foundation of Islam. 

After a very brief history of the Khalifas and a yet shorter mention 
of the struggle between the Beni Ommayya and the Beni 'Abbas the 
work of Sheikh Ghulamulla comes to an abrupt end, and Part II 
commences, without any preface beyond the single word " tanbih" 
("note"), as follows: 

I Khuzam and the Beni Khuzayma are both sub-tribes of Sulaym. 

II Makhzum are a sub-tribe of Kuraysh and are descended from 
Makhzum son of Yakza son of Murra son of Ka'ab son of Luai son 
of Ghahb son of Fihr. 

III Ghatafan are a section of Kays 'Aylan and are descended from 
Ghatafan son of Sa'ad son of Kays 'Aylan. 

IV Beni Kutayf are a Syrian people, of the Beni Tai. 

iv.Di.xiv. OF THE SUDAN 183 

V There is also a different people called Beni Kutayf, of [the tribe 
of] MuDHHiG^: their ancestor is Kutayf son of Nagia son of Murad 
[of] the [same] section [as] Farwa son of Musayk the Kutayfi, the 
Associate of the Prophet. 

VI Zenata are a great tribe in the west and are descended from 
Zanati Yahya son of Dari son of Bermadaghus son of Dari son of 
Zagik^ son of Madaghi's son of Berr son of Bidyan son of Kana'an 
son of Ham son of Nuh. 

VII The Messi'ria Arabs, i.e. those originally so called, are 
descended from Missir son of Tha'aliba son of Nasr son of Sa'ad 
son of Nebhan, [and are] a section of Tai. 

VIII The Mahria are a great tribe descended from Mahra son of 
Haydan son of 'Amr son of el Hafi^ son of Kuda'a ; and ever}' Mahri 
traces his pedigree to him, and the Mahria camels of this tribe simi- 
larly owe their name to him. 

IX HiMYAR are the sons of Himyar son of Saba son of Ya'arub 
son of Kahtan. Now there are three Himyars among the children 
of Kahtan, viz. the "greater," the "lesser," and the "least." The 
"least" is Himyar son of el Ghauth* son of Sa'ad son of 'Auf 
son of 'Adi son of Malik son of Zayd son of Sadad son of Zura'a. 
Himyar the "lesser" is the son of Saba the "lesser" son of Ka'ab 
son of Sahal son of Zayd son of 'Amr son of Kays son of Mu'awia 
son of Gushm^ son of 'Abd Shams son of Wail son of el Ghauth son 
of Hadhar son of Kutn son of 'Arib son of Zuhayr son of Aiman son 
of el Hamaysa'a^ son of el Ferangag. 

Himyar the "greater" was son of Saba the "greater" son of 
Yashhub. Now some of the Himyar who are in the west belong to 
the Himyar of the east. 

X The 'Akaliyyun are descended from 'Ukayl son of Ka'ab son 
of Rabi'a son of 'Amir. 

XI The Ma'akla are of the sons of Ma'akl son of Malik el Bahili 
and belong to the Bahila Arabs. 

XII The RiZAYKAT are of the sons of Rizayk el Thakifi and 
belong to the Beni Thakif, and there is a section of them in the 

XIII Khafaga are a sub-tribe of Beni 'Amir. 

XIV Fezara are descended from Fezara, the father of a sub-tribe of 
Ghatafan. This Fezara was son of Dhubian son of Baghid son of 

1 reading -^.^.j^ for ■».&.ju«. ^ reading «iU»>j for ^^^-^.j- 

^ reading i^laJI for olaJI. * reading »t>^l for ^^\- 

^ reading ^,0-^ for^,<,— ».. ^ reading «.-~*^l for ^^ <v"- 


Rayth^ son of Ghatafan. The Beni el 'Ushara and the Beni Sha- 
MAKH^ are a part of them. 

XV Kuda'a are descended from Himyar, i.e. Kuda'a son of Malik 
son of Murra son of Zayd son of Malik son of Himyar son of Saba. 

XVI Kenana are descended from Kenana son of Khuzayma son of 
Mudraka son of Elyas son of Mudr, who was the fourth grandfather 
of our lord the Prophet. 

XVII GuHAYNA is a sub-tribe of Kuda'a. 

XVIII The Karg are a tribe of Rum living on the frontiers of 

XIX The Tartars are a race living in the far east in the mountains 
of Tafmag on the borders of Sin. They are neighbours of the Turk, 
and between them and the lands of Islam which are beyond the river 
is a distance of more than six months. It was these people of whom 
the Prophet said that their features were most hideous. 

XX The Khulug ... are a tribe tracing their descent from Kuraysh. 
They do not, however, belong to them, but are rather an Arab people 
with whom 'Omar ibn el Khattab has a common ancestor in el Harith 
son of Malik son of el Nudr son of Kenana. It may be added that el 
Harith was the brother of Fihr. 

XXI Kuraysh are the descendants of Fihr; and the name of the 
ancestor of the Khulug was Kays. 

XXII Zaghawa is a tribe of blacks, an offshoot of the Zing, and 
the derivative noun is Zaghawi. 

XXIII Beni Hubl are a sub-tribe of Kelb and are the descendants 
of Hubl son of 'Abdulla son of Kenana son of 'Auf son of 'Udhra^ 
son of Zayd el Dat son of Rufayda son of Thaur son of Kelb ; and 
they include the descendants of Zuhayr son of Ganab* son of Hubl, 
and the descendants of 'Abdulla son of 'Abdulla son of Hubl, and 
the descendants of 'Obayda son of Hubl. 

XXIV Hilala are the descendants of Hilal son of 'Amir son of 
Sa'asa'a son of Mu'awia son of Bukr son of Hawazin. Of this tribe 
was Maymuna daughter of el Harith, mother of the faithful, and 
Hamayd son of Thaur, the poet and Companion of the Prophet, 
They also won honourable mention at the battle of Hunayn. The 
HiLALiA are descended from them, and of their number was Abu 
Zayd el Hilali, so famous for bravery and nobility. There are rem- 
nants of them in Egypt and in Morocco. 

XXV The Messi'ria in reality are descendants of Missir (spelt with 

^ reading wuj for woj^. 2 reading ^~o-w for 9~e-^. 

^ reading ijjs- for oj^js- . * reading w»^^ ^^^ '--'W»' • 


an i) son of Tha'aliba son of Nasr son of Sa'ad son of Nebhan^, a 
branch of Tai. 

XXVI The HuMUR Arabs (spelt with a u after the H and the m) 
are descendants of the Master of the Ass, the Black One, the Liar, 
the false prophet who appeared in el Yemen, of the tribe of 'Aus ; 
and his name was Aihala^. 

XXVII BuLALA, who are between Borku and Barkirma, are descend- 
ants of Belal (Bulal .?) of [the tribe of] el Azd. 

XXVIII Hamar (spelt with an a after the H and the m) in origin 
are descendants of el Ahmar son of Mu'awia son of Selim Abu Sha- 
'abil el Tamimi, and they belong to the Beni Tami'm. 

XXIX The SuLAYM Arabs (spelt with vowel-points as in " Zubayr ") 
are descendants of Sulaym son of Mansur son of 'Ikrima son of 
Khasafa, a sub-tribe of Kays 'Aylan. There are also other Sulaym 
who are a sub-tribe of Gudham ; and of the former there are branches 
in the Sudan, and the latter are in the East. 

XXX The Bedayria, that is the original Bedayria, are descendants 
of Bedr son of 'Amr son of Guayya son of Laudhan^ son of Tha'aliba 
son of 'Adi son of Fezara; and they are a section of Fezara. 

XXXI Ghatafan are a sub-tribe of Kays 'Aylan, and their father 
was Ghatafan son of Sa'ad son of Kays 'Aylan. 

Now Kays 'Aylan was the father of a tribe and his [real] name was 
el Nass (spelt with a double s), and he was son of Mudr and brother 
of el Yas; and 'Aylan was a horse belonging to Kays, famous among 
the horses of the Arabs, and Kays used to win races upon it. There 
was too a man of the tribe of Bagila called Kays Kubba after a 
horse called Kubba and also famous. These two men called Kays 
were neighbours before Bagila settled in the land of Yemen, so that 
when anyone mentioned Kays he was asked whether he meant Kays 
'Aylan or Kays Kubba. 

XXXII Bagila (shortened into Bagla) are a sub-tribe of Beni 
Sulaym and trace their descent to their mother, viz. Bagla daughter 
of Huna son of Malik son of Fahm. The derivative noun is BagH. 

XXXIII The Beni Bagala are a section of Dabba; and Bagala was 
son of Dhuhal son of Malik son of Bukr son of Sa'ad son of Dabba. 

XXXIV Dabba is an Arab tribe and their father was Dabba (son of 
Udd) the uncle of Tamim son of Murr son of Udd son of Tabikha 
son of el Yas son of Mudr. And Dabba had three sons, Sa'ad and 
Sa'i'd and Basil, and Basil was father of the Daylum, and Sa'id left 

^ reading oW ^^^ OWv^- ^ reading aX^A for iL*. 

2 reading (J'A^' for (j'JL)*^'- 

1 86 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv.di.xxxiv. 

no posterity. The children of Dabba, excepting the Daylum, are 
included among the Beni Sa'ad. 

XXXV The Daylum are the children of Dabba, as I have 

XXXVI The Beni Dubayb (spelt with vowel-points as in " Zubayr ") 
are a section of Gudham. 

XXXVII Gudham (spelt with vowel-points as in ghurdh) are a 
tribe from el Yemen who settled in the mountains of Hisma beyond 
the Wadi el Kura ; and this was the surname of 'Amr son of 'Adi son 
of el Harith son of Murra son of Udad son of Yashkhub son of 'Ari'b 
son of Zayd son of Kahlan, and Gudham was brother of Lakhm and 
'Amila and 'Ufayr^. 

XXXVIII The Beni Sahila are the descendants of Sahila son of 
Kahil son of el Harith son of Tamim son of Sa'ad son of Hudhayl, 
and they are tribes and are called the Kahiliyyun. 

XXXIX The Beni Kahil son of 'Udhra son of Sa'ad Hudhayl^ are 
a different tribe. 

XL DCs is a tribe of Arabs. 

XLI Bagila is a tribe from el Yemen, from Saba. 

XLII The Beni Mustalik are a section of Khuza'a. 

XLI 1 1 The Khata are a tribe of the Turks. 

XLIV The Ta'aisha Arabs are the descendants of 'Ai'sh son of 
el Zarb son of el Harith son of Fihr Gahili ; and this 'Ai'sh was an- 
cestor of 'Awaymir son of Sa'ada el Bedayri. 

XLV The Hawazma are a sub-tribe of Bagila and are the children 
of Hazim son of Abu Hazim el Bagili ; but a number of Arab and 
black tribesmen, attracted b]/ the advantages of fellowship and fra- 
ternity with them, [joined them], and the original stock and its accre- 
tions became indistinguishable. 

XLVI Khuza'a are [descended] from el Azd^: that is to say 
Haritha son of 'Amr Muzaykia son of 'Amir begot Rabi'a, i.e. 
Ma-el-Sama, and Rabi'a begot Lohay and Afsa and 'Oday and Ka'ab, 
and from these are descended Khuza'a. Now they were called 
"Khuza'a" because they separated [l^^^s^j] from their [own] people 
and settled at Mekka; and others went to Syria. 

XLVI I The Habbani'a are the descendants of Habban son of 
el Kulus son of 'Amr son of Kays, a sub-tribe of Bahila. 

XLVIII Bahila are a tribe of Kays 'Aylan, and originally Bahila 
was the name of a woman of Hamdan^ who was [married] to Ma'an 

^ readinj^ j*** for^*i-©. ^ reading yJjjA for ^jjJb. 

^ reading 3j^)l for jlw^)I. * reading (j!j^<Jk for ^IJ^oA. 

IV. D 1. Lviii. OF THE SUDAN 187 

son of A'sir son of Sa'ad son of Kays 'Aylan, and Ma'an's descendants 
were named after her. 

XLIX Now if you have studied these genealogical ramifications you 
must know that in the explanation of pedigrees that follows perhaps 
one pedigree resembles the form of another, but they are distinguish- 
able from one another, pedigree from pedigree, and tribe from tribe; 
and the similarity is merely superficial : do not therefore be led astray, 
for nothing is included in this compilation but what is supported by 
the authority of trustworthy genealogists, or mentioned by the author 
of the Dictionary of the Arabic Language, or vouched for by him to 
the exclusion of any other version. If any genealogies are repeated 
in a form contradictory to that given previously, [it must be under- 
stood that] a variant version is being given. 

L The great philosophers are Plato [Iflatun] and Aristotle [Aristu] 
and Ptolemy [Bath'mus] and Galen [Galinus]. 

LI The father of the science of the supernatural was Plato, and it 
is founded upon inductive reasoning from objects of the senses 
realized by the help of the perceptive faculties. 

LII Aristotle is the father of the natural sciences, such as treat of 
the heavens and the earth and existence and non-existence and 
meteorology and fundamental laws and botany and zoology, and they 
are founded upon the use of the perceptive faculties. 

LIII The father of astronomy is Ptolemy, and it is founded upon 
the perceptive faculties and the laws of things perceptible. 

LIV The father of experimental medicine is Galen, and it is founded 
upon the use of the perceptive faculties. 

LV The pedigrees found in the works of reliable historians and 
genealogists are traced to the stock of Nuh, who alone among the 
children of Adam survived the deluge for ever. 

LVI The children of Nuh were Sam and Ham and Yafith. [Wahhab 
ibn Munebbih says that] Sam son of Nuh was father of the Arabs 
and Persians [Fdris] and the Romans [el Rum]; [and that] Ham 
was father of the blacks ; and Yafith of the Turks and Yagug and 

LVII Sam begot Arfakhshadh and Ashudh and Laudh and Aram. 

LVIII From Laudh son of Ham are descended Faris, and Girgan, 
and Tasm, and 'Amlik, father of the 'Amalik, who were the giants 
in Syria, who were called the Kana'aniyyunI; and of them were the 
Pharaohs of Egypt; and [also] the people of Bahrayn and 'Oman, and 
[these latter] were called^ Gashim : [of them too were the children of 
Omaym son of Laudh. . .], 

^ reading ^^\jtjSi\ for ^^UJUl. 2 reading ^J ^ .,f Z ->^ for ^J^^. 


LIX Tasm dwelt in el Yemama as far as Bahrayn; and Tasm and 
the 'Amalik and Omaym^ and Gashim were Arab peoples, speaking 
the Arabic tongue [. Now 'Abil reached Yathreb] before it {i.e. the 
town) was built. 

LX And most of the 'Amalik settled in Sana'a before it was so 

LXI Aram son of Sam son of Nuh begot 'Awad and 'Abir and 
Huwayl. 'Awad begot 'Abir and 'Ad and 'Abil. 

LXI I 'Abir son of Aram begot Thammud and Gidays ; and they 
were Arabs, speaking this Egyptian tongue, and the Arabs used to 
call these nations and Gurhum "the 'Arab el 'Ariba," and the 
descendants of Isma'il they used to name "the 'Arab el Muta'ariba." 

LXIII 'Ad were in Hadramaut, and Thammud in the rocky country 
between el Hegaz^ and Syria [as far as Wadi el Kura, Gidays] joined 
Tasm and lived with them in el Yemama as far as Bahrayn. And the 
name of el Yemama at that time was Gau. And Gashim dwelt^ in 

LXIV The Nebt were descended from Nebit son of Mash son of 
Aram son of Sam. 

LXV The Persians [el Furs] are the descendants of Paris son of 
Tirash son of Mashur son of Laudh son of Sam. 

LXVI Arfakhshadh son of Sam begot Kaynan"^, and Kaynan^ begot 
Shalikh, and Shalikh begot 'Abir, and 'Abir begot Faligh and also 
Kahtan and Yunan; and Kahtan begot Ya'arub [and Yukzan,] and 
Ya'arub begot Yashgub [, and Yashgub begot] Saba, and Saba begot 
Himyar and Kahlan and 'Amr and el Asha'ar and Anmar and 

LXVI I 'Amr son of Saba begot 'Adi, and 'Adi begot Lakhm and 

LXVIII [Now Ya'arub and] Yukzan settled in el Yemen, and were 
its earliest inhabitants and the first to be greeted with the words 
"mayest thou avoid execration." 

LXIX Faligh begot Ar'u^ and Ar'u^ begot [Sarugh, who begot 
Nahur, who begot Tarikh, in Arabic called] Azar, and Azar begot 
Ibrahim, (upon whom be the blessing of God). 

LXX Arfakhshadh begot Nimrudh ; and [Hashim ibn el Kelbi states 
that] el Sind and el Hind were the children of Tukir son of Yuktan 
son of 'Abir son of Shalikh son of Arfakhshadh son of Sam. 

^ reading ^,o--« I for^ljl. ^ reading jla..aJI for jla-aJI. 

^ reading ,^>Jw for ,j>«~£9. ^ reading o'-**^ fo^" U^*i^- 

5 reading <^j\ for ^jS. 

iv.Di.Lxxxi. OF THE SUDAN 189 

LXXI Gurhum was descended from Yuktan son of 'Abir; and 
Hadramaut was son of Yuktan . Now Yuktan is Kahtan [as is said . . . ] . 

LXXII The Berber are descended from Thamila^ son of Marib son 
of Faran^ son of 'Amr son of 'Amlik son of Laudh son of Sam son 
of Nuh. 

LXXIII The Romans [el Rum] are the children of Lanti^ son of 
Yunan son of Laudh; and here I speak of the early Romans. The 
Romans of the Empire, who were numerous and powerful and who 
were contemporaries of the Prophet (upon him be the blessing of 
God), and of whom he made it known that their empire would last 
till the end of the world, were the children of Ishak son of Ibrahim 
the Friend of God (upon whom be the blessing of God) ; and here 
I speak of the later Romans. And all of them trace their descent to 
Sam son of Nuh. 

LXXIV Yafith begot Gamir and Mu'a and Murak and Buan and 
Fuya and Mashig and Tirash. 

LXXV From Gamir, it is said, were descended the kings of Persia 
[Fdris] . 

LXXVI From Tirash were descended the Turks and the Khazar; 
from Mashig the Ashban ; from Mu'a Yagug and Magug ; and from 
Buan the Saghaliba* and Burgan and the Ashban, who in ancient 
days were in the land of the Romans, before the occurrence of the 
events connected with the children of el 'Ais son of Ishak. 

LXXVII Ham begot Kush and Misraim and Kut and Kana'an. 

LXXVI 1 1 From Kush was descended [Nimrudh son of Kush, — and 
according to another account he was descended from Sam, — and the 
remainder of Ham's descendants came to live on the coasts as] the 
Nuba and the Abyssinians [Hdbsha] and the Zing. 

LXXIX Misraim [, it is said,] was ancestor of the Copts (Kubt) 
[and the Berber]. 

LXXX [It is said that] Kut penetrated to el Hind [and el Sind and 
settled there], and his descendants are there. 

LXXXI Kana'an was ancestor of the Kana'aniyyun ; and some-^ of 
them went to Syria. Then the Beni Israil fought with them there 
and expelled them and took possession of Syria. Subsequently the 
Romans attacked the Beni Israil and drove them [excepting a few] 
from Syria to Mesopotamia [el Irak]. Then again the Arabs came 
and conquered Syria. 

1 reading 'jU^.j for %i^. ^ reading ^Ijli for jli. 

^ reading i*^^ for (Jaj, * reading Ajli-oil for iJlicJI. 

^ reading y^if^^st^J for ^9-^*^ • 



LXXXII Now it is related on the authority of 'Urwa ibn Misayk 
el Muradi that when the revelation concerning Saba was made to 
the Prophet, a certain man said "O Prophet of God, what is Saba ? 
Is it a country or a woman ?" The Prophet replied "It is neither a 
country nor a woman, but a man who begot ten [tribes] of the Arabs, 
and six of them went to Yemen and four of them to Syria : the latter 
were Lakhm and Gudham and Ghassan and 'Amila ; and the former 
were el Azd and el Ash'ariun and Himyar and Kenda and Mudhhig 
and Anmar." Then the man said "O Prophet of God, what is 
Anmar ? " The Prophet answered " Those from whom are descended 
Khat'am and Bagila." 

LXXXII I Saba was son of Yashkhub son of Ya'arub son of Kahtan, 
and [his descendants] lived at Marib in the land of el Yemen, and 
when their villages were laid waste they dispersed into [various] 
lands: Ghassan occupied Syria, el Azd^ occupied 'Oman^, Khuza'a 
occupied Tehama, and el Aus and el Khazrag occupied Yathreb, 
and the first of them^ was 'Amr ibn 'Amir, who was ancestor of 
el Aus and el Khazrag. 

LXXXIV Now the tribes of the Arabs are Muzayna and Guhayna 
and Kenana and Khuzayma and Aslam and Ashga'a and Ghafar, 
and whoso does not belong to one of these is not an Arab but only 
a foreigner. 
LXXXV Muzayna are to be found on the Nile and in Egypt ; 
Kenana are at Mekka and in el Yemen and thereabouts ; 
Guhayna are in the Sudan ; 
Aslam are in India and Mesopotamia [el 'Irak] ; 
Ashga'a are in the west and Persia [Fans] and Morocco [Marrd- 
kesh] ; and 

Ghafar are in Spain [el Andalus] and Persia. 
LXXXVI The Guhayna who are in the west are the descendants of 
'Abdulla el Guhani, son of Anas, the attendant of the Prophet (upon 
him be the blessing of God !), and also connected with him by birth 
in that both had a common ancestor in Murra. 
LXXXVII This 'Abdulla had two sons namely Dhubian and Sufian. 
LXXXVIII Sufian had only one son, who was named Kabsh, and he 
is the ancestor of everyone who is a Kabbashi. 

LXXXIX Dhubian, the elder son, had ten sons, namely Watid, 
Fahid, Shatir, Bashir, 'Amir, 'Omran, Mahass, Afzar, Sarid and 

1 reading ij^)l for Ju-;^)^. ^ reading ^jl*^ for iU^. 

^ reading >jk5 j^JJI O^^ ior jtjJ O^JJI O^^- 
* reading >«Jt».l for jij^\ ■ 

IV. D 1. cm. OF THE SUDAN 


XC From Watid are descended the Shukria, the Buadira and the 
Umbadiria ; and from Fahi'd the Zaghawa. 

XCI Shati'r's only son was Sultan, who had three sons, viz. Rikab, 
Ma'ashir and Hamayd. 

XCII Now there are three persons of the name of Rikab: firstly 
Rikab son of Ubi son of Ka'ab, secondly Rikab son of Sultan son of 
Suhayl of the stock of 'Abdulla ibn Anas el Guhani, and thirdly 
Rikab son of Ghulamulla, who was a Sherif tracing his pedigree 
to el Husayn the son of 'Ali and Fatima the daughter of the Prophet 
of God (the blessing of God upon them !). The mother of Rikab the 
son of Ghulamulla was the daughter of Rikab the son of Sultan, and 
his father named him after his maternal grandfather. 

XCIII Rikab the son of Sultan was ancestor of the Rikabia; and 
they live in Upper Egypt. 

XCIV Ma'ashir was ancestor of the Ma'ashira, and Hamayd of 
the Hamaydat, which is a tribe between el Sind and el Hind. 

XCV Bashir was ancestor of the Bisharia, and 'Amir of the 

XCVI Mahass was ancestor of the Mahass; and he was called 
Mahass because he was a heavy sleeper, and whenever his father 
called to him his mother would say "ma hassa" [i.e. "he has not 
awakened"] ; so they called him Mahass. 

XCVI I The descendants of Afzar are Fezara. 

XCVIII Sarid was ancestor of the Sowarda, and Agdham^ of the 


XCIX The tribes descended from el 'Abbas are three, the Ga- 
'aliyyun on the Blue Nile, the Awlad 'Abd el Rahman in Dar 
Salih, and the Awlad Ibrahim Bashkal on the White Nile. 

C The tribes of the Shai'kia^ fall into four divisions; — one is 
Ga'aliyyun, i.e. 'Abbasia, one is Beni Ommayya by descent, and 
one is a remnant of the Barmecides \el Bardmika], i.e. Turkish. 

CI The 'Arakiyyun are descended from Guhayna, but among 
them are the children of el Sherif Ahmad Mukbal, who married a 
wife from among the 'Arakiyyun and begot Dafa'alla the ancestor 
of their pious Khalifas \ and the latter 's children were Bukr Abu 
'Ayesha and 'Abdulla and Hammad el Nil. 

CII This Hammad el Nil's descendants are the 'Aklab, including 
el Sheikh el Terayfi. 

cm The tribes of the Ga'afira fall into three [groups] ; among them 

^ reading >o Ju^t for jij.aJ\ . ^ reading \;j-tt^\ 

^ reading tfLi^UJI for ii*5LiJI. 


are the stock of 'Amir and 'Omran in the neighbourhood of Diraw, 
and they [are . . .a word omitted in the text] : among them again are 
the Awlad Ga'afir el Sadik, who are Ashraf, and the Awlad Ga'afir 
el Tiar who are Beni Hashim ; and the Derr, the rulers of Egypt. 

CIV The tribes of the Rikabia are three : the descendants of Rikab 
ibn Anas of Kuraysh, the descendants of Rikab ibn Sultan of 
GuHAYNA, and the descendants of Rikab ibn Ghulamulla. The last 
named are Ashraf of the stock of el Husayn (the blessing of God on 
him) the son of 'AH and of Fatima the daughter of the Prophet of 
God (on all of whom be the blessings of God). 

CV El Sheikh Ghulamulla had two sons, Rikab and Rubat. 

CVI Rikab had five sons, 'Abdulla, 'Abd el Nebi, Habib, 'Agib, 
and Zayd el Ferid. 

CVI I Rubat had one son named Seli'm. 

CVIII Selim had six sons Ruzayn, Dahmash, Muhammad '(3n, 
'Abd el Rizak, Hadhlul, and Musbah. 

CIX 'Abdulla's sons were Haga and Hagag. 

CX Haga was ancestor of the Doalib, the children of el Sheikh 
walad Dolib. 

CXI Hagag was ancestor of el Sheikh 'AH walad 'Ishayb (the pro- 
genitor of the 'Ishaybab), and of el Sheikh walad Ak-hal and of a 
section of the Kawahla at TekaH and of the Hadahid and of the Ge- 
NANA and of the Simriab and of many households [living] with the 

CXI I 'Abd el Nebi had two sons, Mashir and Shakara. 

CXIII Among the descendants of Mashir was el Sheikh 'Abd el 
Sadik ancestor of the Sadikab ; and among the descendants of Shakara 
was Hasan walad Shakara and the 'Abidab and the Nurab [who Hved] 
at el 'Afat in Dongola and left it and joined the Kababish and multi- 
pHed with them and became nomads. 

CXIV The descendants of Habib are the Sababia. 

CXV The descendants of 'Agi'b are the stock of el Sheikh Hammad^ 
Abu Halima the ancestor of the Halimab. 

CXVI The descendants of Zayd el Ferid were the Shabwab and 
the 'Akazab and the Tamrab and the four sons of el Hag Magid. 

CXVII Selim, the son of Rikab 's brother, had six sons, as has been 
mentioned above. 

CXVIII The descendants of Ruzayn were the Awlad Habib Nesi. 

CXIX The descendants of Dahmash were the Awlad el Feki 'Ali 
Manofal at el 'Afat. 

1 reading jt«A. for 

IV. D 1. CXXV. 



CXX The descendants of Muhammad 'On were the four Awlad 
Gabir and the Kenani'a. 

CXXI The descendants of 'Abd el Rizak were the Awlad el Sheikh 
Hasan walad Beli'l at Kena^ and the Awlad Daud at Abu Tubr. 

CXXI I The descendants of Hadhlul were the Awlad Mahmud at 
Gebel el Haraza. 

CXXIII The descendants of Musbah were the Awlad walad Daud 
with the E^ababish. 

CXXIV These are the branches of the Rikabia who are descended 
from Ghulamulla and are Ashraf. 

CXXV The following are the tribes of AshrAf who are in the Sudan: 

fThe descendants of the aforementioned Ghulamulla. 
The Mirghani'a, i.e. the descendants of 'Othman el Mirghani. 
The Awlad el Hindi in the Gezira. 
The Awlad Abu Sahnun at Atbara : they are descendants of el Hasan 

el Muthenni. 
The Mar'iab el Hamdab at Atbara with the nomads: these are 

The Awlad el Magdhub at Atbara with the SnuRRfA. 
The Awlad el Shagera at el Kedaref. 

The Awlad el Sherif Isma'il at el Kedaref: these are Husaynia. 
The Awlad Bedr walad ^ Maski'n to the west of el Kedaref: these 

are Husaynia. 
The ShibaylAt with the Beni Husayn Arabs, nomads on the Blue Nile. 
The Kamilat in the neighbourhood of Atbara : these are Husaynia. 
The Awlad Bidayn in the neighbourhood of el Hamda: these are 

i The Awlad Bella near Karkog on the Blue Nile: these are Hasan ia. 
The Awlad Mustafa at Aslang^ Island. 
The Awlad Abdulla el Mekani at el Taka: these are Hasania; 

and some of them are at Kassala and some at Suakin ; and they 

are of the stock of Abu el Fatah. 
The Awlad Abu Rakhm, near the Rahad, on the Blue Nile : these are 

The Awlad Obayd near the Binder: these are Husaynia. 
The Awlad Hagu with the Ya'akubab : these are Hasania. 
The Awlad Hammad ibn Ali of the Zaghawa hills in Kordofan : 

these are Hasania ; and they have migrated to Gebel Abu Sinun 

and Tekali and Uarfur and are known as Awlad el Ak-hal. 

Some of them too are near Erkud. 
The Awlad Zayd el Ablag in Darfur: these are Hasania. 
The Awlad el Sherif Hashim Abu Nimsha in Dar Borku : these are 

^The Beni Husayn in Dar Sula: these are Husaynia. 

1 reading U^s forjL£». ^ reading jJj for j. 

^ reading r^y%^\ for ^*i>«j<- 


194 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv.di.cxxvi. 

CXXVI As regards the tribes of the Gawama'a: — the Homran 
section consists of 

the AwLAD Gama'i 
the Serayhat 
the Terayfi'a 


the Fadaylia 
the Ghanaymia 
^the Gamria 

CXXVII The Gimi'ia, the cousins of the Homran, consist of 

[the GemAmla 
i the Ga'afiria 
[the Awl AD Bi'ka 

CXXVIII All of these [Gawama'a] are descended from Abu Merkha 
the ancestor of the Ga'aliyyun, of the stock of el 'Abbas : and some 
of them are Shilluk Awlad Ibrahim. 

CXXIX Gankay are 'Anag, from among the Zing. 

CXXX The Kababish are a composite tribe, including some 
Shaikia and Guhayna and Himyar and Kuraysh. 

CXXXI The Kawahla are descended from el Zubayr (God bless 
him) and include some Kuraysh and descendants of Khalid ibn el 

CXXXII The Shenabla are Arabs of Upper Egypt [el Rif] and of 
Himyaritic descent. 

CXXXIII Dar Hamid are Guhayna by descent. 

CXXXIV The Hawazma^ include Beduin Arabs from el Hegaz and 
Bedayria and Takarir and scatterlings of other tribes. 

CXXXV The Mess^ria and Beni Muhammad and Mima are all of 
them Tha'aleba from the Beni Tha'aleb Arabs of el Hegaz. 

CXXX VI The Rizaykat are descendants of Gunayd, [and thus] 

CXXXVII The HuMR are Arabs of Helb in Upper Egypt [el Rif], 
and the 'Ayadia Arabs of Hira. 

CXXXVIII The Habbania are Beni Ommayya by descent. 

CXXXIX The Bedayria who are in the Sudan include some 'Ab- 
basia and some 'Anag : they consist of 

( Shuwayhat 

-^ Dahmash^ 

AwlAd MtJSA 
I AwlAd Helayb 

^ reading iUjI^sw.)! for iojl^-aJI. ^ reading yji-o^^ for jL^y 

iv.Di.CLiv. OF THE SUDAN 195 

CXL Kenana are Arabs of the East by descent. 

CXLI Zaghawa include some Beni Tamim Arabs, some Mima 
and some Takrur^. 

CXLII FuNKUR are 'Anag. 

CXLIII TuNGUR are by descent Hilala who ruled Darfur, 

CXLIV Musaba'at are also descended from the Hilala Arabs. 

CXLV The Beni Gerar are Fezara by descent : their ancestor was 

CXLVI The Meganin and Awlad Akoi are Guhayna Arabs by 

CXLVII Fezara are among the descendants of Hunad from el Hegaz. 

CXLVIII Of the Hamar, the Tamimia, viz. the stock of el Hag 
Muna'am, are Beni Ommayya by descent; and 

The Ghishimat^ are Ga'aliyyun, i.e. 'Abbasia; and 
The Beni Badr are Bedayri'a ; and 
The Tayaisa^ are 'Anag; and 

The Dekakim are partly Husaynia Ashraf and partly Beni 
Ommayya: they also include some Fur. 

CXLIX The Danakla tribes are autochthonous and are all 'Anag, 
excepting such strangers as immigrated to their country, namely the 
RiKABiA Awlad Ghulamulla, who are Ashraf, and the Gharba- 
wiNGi from Borku, who are 'Abbasia, and the Dufaria, who are 
Bedayria, and the Bekrawia, who are Ga'aliyyun, and the SowA- 
rab, who are Ashraf on the side of their ancestress, the daughter of 
el Sherif Ahmad Abu Denana, and the Sabawia, who are Bedayria 
of the Dufaria branch. The rest of the Danakla are 'Anag and 
aboriginal autochthons, and there are some remnants of them at 
the present day who are called the Nuba. 

CL The Fur are Nuba with the exception of the royal house which 
includes Arabs of the Beni Hilal. 

CLI As regards Borku, the royal house includes Awlad 'Abd 
el Rahman el Magdhub the 'Abbasid, but the rest of [the people 
of] Borku are autochthonous 'Anag, though they include some Arabs, 
such as the Salamat and the Mahria, who are descendants of the 
Beni Ommayya. 

CLII BoRNU are Arabs of Himyaritic stock, and include some 
Husaynia Ashraf. 

CLIII Bakirm are 'Anag. 

CLIV Fellata include Kuraysh and Ansar and children of the 

^ reading j^j^ for (j^jJu. ^ reading Ol«-wu.aJI for oLo*i.aJt. 

^ reading i—jUj for Aj-jIsJ. 

13— a 


White Gin which deceived the prophet of God Sula^inan (God bless 
him), and Christian slaves who came to West [Africa] from Afturia 
and conquered it, but were subsequently conquered by Islam and 
converted, and then multiplied for generation after generation in 
^^■est [Africa]. 

CLV The rest of the inhabitants of Kordofan from the banks of 
the White Nile to Donkola are 'Anag. The countr}- to the west of 
it and south of it, and all its mountains, are [peopled by] Xuba. 

CLVI Fertit are all Zing by descent. 

CLVII The Bexi Helba Arabs in the West are descended from the 
Beni 'Amir Arabs of the Hegaz. 

CLVIII So too the Selim Arabs on the White Xile and in the 
Gezira and at Tekali and in the West are descended from the Selim 
Arabs of the Hegaz. 

CLIX The Gell.\ba el How.\r.\ are from Upper Eg\-pt [el Rjf] and 
descended from remnants of the stock of 'Ad. 

CLX The B.\za'a are descended from the tribes of el HtpuR, Arabs 
of Upper Eg)-pt [el Rt'f], and are connected in lineage with the Derr. 

CLXI The Selimia are Ashr.\f, and likewise the Awlad el MAG^L\R 
at Um Gurfa^. 

CLXII The Dagu and the inhabitants of K_\ga and Katul are 


CLXIII The Ghodiat are H.\-\l\g. 

CLXIV The people of Sennar are Beni 0^enl\tya by descent. 
CLXV The Mesallamia are Bedayria by descent. 
CLXVI The DwAYH Arabs are Guhayna by descent. 
CLX VII The Xuba of el H-\raza and Um Dl"RR.\k: and Abu Hadid 
are 'Anag. excepting the Awlad Mahmud at el Haraza who are 


CLXVIII The people of Abu Tl'BR are partly Magidia, and partly 

RlK-\BiA ASHR-\F. 

CLXIX The Xuba of Abu Slnxn are 'Anag by descent. 

CLXX The Kl-rtan are '.Anag by descent. 

CLXXI The H.\SAXIA Arabs on the \Miite Xile are Gl"Hayna by 

CLXXII The SHAN.\KiT in the West are a medley of Arabs, con- 
taining nomad Arabs and Derr Arabs and Arabs of Upper Eg}-pt 
[el Rif], and there have joined them some Ashraf of the [Beni] 
'Abb.\s and the Hasania and the Husay> ia ; and the lineage of each 
is known. 

CLXXII I The Mogh.\rba are Arabs of Upper Eg)-pt [el Rif]. and 
^ reading ^j»- for 

IV. Di.CLXxxii. OF THE SUDAN 197 

their origin is from the Tartar [Tatar] peasants who are in the 

CLXXIV The [people of] FezzAn [el Fayzdn^] are also Arabs of 
Upper Egypt by descent, Tartars. 

CLXXV The MoGHARBA AwLAD Zerruk el Moghrabi are Ashraf 
HusAYNiA in the West; for the Ashraf in the days of the Beni 
Ommayya were scattered eastwards and westwards, and similarly the 
Beni Ommayya in the time of the Beni 'Abbas reached the western 
country [el moghraU] and conquered it and took possession of it, and 
their progeny is represented by numberless tribes in the West at 

CLXXVI Among the Ashraf in the West are the stock of Muham- 
mad el Thauri; and of his stock are Ahmad el Warak and Zurruk 
el Moghrabi and Ahu el Hasan el Shadhali and 'Abd el Rahim 
el Bura'i ; and they also include the stocks of el Shibli and of Sheikh 
el Dasuki. All of the above are Hasania in Morocco [el moghrab 
el aksd]. 

CLXXVII The Gamu'ia and the Gimi'ab are Ga'aliyyCn, i.e. 
'Abbasia, and similarly most of the Shai'kia are Ga'aliyyun. 

here ends book ii 


CLXXVIII The original autochthonous peoples of the Sudan were 
the Nuba and the Abyssinians [el Habsha] and the Zing. 

CLXXIX The first people who subsequently joined them were the 

CLXXX Ever}^ [tribe] that is derived from the Hamag belongs to 
the Zing group, and ever}' [tribe] that is derived from the Fung 
belongs to the Nuba group. 

CLXXXI The tribes of the Arabs who are in the Sudan, other than 
these, are foreigners, and have merely mixed with the tribes mentioned 
above and multiplied with them. Some of them have retained the 
characteristics of the Arabs, and the element of Nuba and Zing that 
is interspersed among them has adopted the Arab characteristics; 
and on the other hand there have been some Arabs who have become 
fused with the Nuba and the Zing and adopted their characteristics ; 
but in each case they know their origin. 

CLXXXII The original [home] of the Zing is a mountain inhabited 
by blacks on the equator and south [of it]. Beyond them are no 

1 reading o!>i>*" ^^^ 0!/i*^'- 

198 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. d 1. clxxxii. 

other peoples; and their country stretches from West Africa [el 
moghrab] to the neighbourhood of Abyssinia, and part of it is on 
the Nile of Egypt. 

CLXXXIII Sennar was a famous city of Abyssinia, containing 
tribes of Zing and Nuba who were subject to Abyssinia. Subse- 
quently, when they became powerful, they broke away from their 
allegiance and appointed kings of their own and defended themselves 
against Abyssinia and protected their lands. 

CLXXXIV The Berber are a nation of people whose tribes are 
innumerable, descended from the 'Amalik. It was they of whom 
the saying is related "All that is abominable consists of seventy 
portions : of these ninety-nine [per cent. ?] is in the Berber and the 
[remaining] one in the human race and the Gin." 

CLXXXV Most of their tribes are in the west in the mountains of 
Sus, etc., and scattered abroad in the neighbouring regions. They 
include Zenata^ and Howara and Sanhaga and Nabra and Ketama 
and LuATA and Madyuna and Sana. 

CLXXXV I Another nation of them lives between the Abyssinians 
and the Zing, on the shores of the sea of the Zing and the sea of 
el Yemen; and these people^ are blacks and have strange beasts in 
their country, nor are there to be found there such animals as the 
giraffe, the rhinoceros, the hunting leopard, the pard and the ele- 
phant. They too it is who cut off men's organs and present them as 
dowries to their women. 

CLXXXVII Their island lies off ^ the coast of Abyan and is connected 
under the sea with 'Aden from the direction of the point at which 
Subayl rises to eastwards of that point: opposite to it lies 'Aden and 
in front of it is Gebel el Dukhan. This island is Sokotra^, lying off 
'Aden and directly opposite to it. 

CLXXXVII I The Salamat Arabs in the west are [descended] from 

CLXXXIX The people of the Sudan are the Nuba and the Abyssin- 
ians [el Habsha], as has been stated. 

CXC The [descendants of] Daylum son of Basil son of Hasba son 
of Udd son of Tabikha son of el Yas son of Mudr are Arabs. 

CXCI GuRHUM are a people in el Yemen descended from Gurhum 
son of Kahtan son of 'Amir son of wShalikh son of Arfakhshadh son 
of Sam son of Nuh ; and Isma'il the son of Ibrahim, the Friend of 

^ reading 2J\jj for iiUj. ^ reading ^ for yb. 

^ reading ialslS ^^jjj^^ for A3tia\.s ^^bjjij^. 
* reading ^^j^s^JL^ for ^j^o^su^. 

iv.Di.ccii. OF THE SUDAN 199 

God, settled and married among them, and they are his relations by 

CXCII Thammud are the descendants of Thammud son of 'Abir 
son of Aram son of Sam son of Nuh. 

CXCIII The SuLAYM Arabs are said to be [descended] from Kays 
'Ay Ian. 

CXCIV Ghassan are el Azd. Of them are the Beni Gafna, the 
royal family. 

CXCV El Azd are the descendants of Azd son of el Ghauth^ son 
of Nabt son of Malik son of Kahlan son of Saba. They are in Yemen 
and include all the Ansar. 

CXCVI And the children of Asad son of Khuzayma son of Mudraka 
son of el Yds son of Mudr are a mighty tribe descended from Mudr 
EL Hamara; and also the children of Asad son of Rabi'a son of Nizar 
son of Ma'ad son of 'Adnan are a mighty tribe. 

CXCVII The Copts [el Kubt] are the people of Egypt and its 
ultimate aboriginals : they are descended from Kubt son of Misr son 
of Kut son of Ham. 

CXCVI 1 1 The Franks [el Afrang] are a nation of the Romans 
[el Rum\. They call the seat of their kingdom Franga, and its king 
is named "el Fransis." 

CXCIX The Turks [el Turuk] are a nation of people descended 
from Yafith, and they include the Tartars [el Tatar] and Gog and 
Magog [Yagilg and Mdgiig]. They are a mighty people: — there is 
none more numerous excepting the Abyssinians [el Habsha] ; and 
there is no more numerous people than the Abyssinians, excepting 
the Romans [el Rilm]. 

CC The name Christian [Nusdri] is to be traced to Christianity 
[el Nusrdnia], i.e. their religion and the faith they follow. 

CCI "The Jews" [el Yahud] is the name of a tribe, and the name 
is derived from hdda meaning "to repent." 

ecu The Romans [el Rum] are descended from el Rum son of 
Esau ['Isu] son of Isaac [Ishak] son of Ibrahim the Friend of God, 
and they are named after their ancestor. It is related that Esau had 
thirty sons, of whom el Rum was one; but these Romans have been 
joined by tribes [lit. "branches"] that did not belong to them, 
namely Tanukh and Nihd and Sulaym and Ghassan: these tribes 
were in Syria [el Shdm], and when the Muslims drove them out 
they entered the lands of the Romans and mingled and multiplied 
with them and were reckoned as Romans by descent; but they are 
not Romans and the Roman genealogists know the fact. 
^ reading w*^ for ^j-e^. 


CCIIT NiHD are the sons of Nihd son of Zayd son of Lith son of 
Aslam son of el Haf son of Kuda'a. 

CCIV Tanukh are a tribe from el Yemen. They and the Beni Nimr 
and the Beni Kelb are brethren. 

CCV Takrur is the name of a famous city in the Sudan : it lies south 
and west of the Nile, and its inhabitants are naked blacks. The rule 
of it is in the hands of the Muslims; and the nobles among these 
Muslims wear a long shirt, the train [lit. "tail"] of which is carried 
by their servants. Arab merchants travel thither to them with wool 
and brass and beads, and fetch thence pure gold. 

CCVI Abyssinia is an enormous country. There was a city under 
the rule of the Abyssinians called Akhshum^, also known as Dhur 
Tahna, where the Negus [Negdshi] lived ; and a number of countries 
were subject thereto, including the country of Amhara^ (which is 
still so subject) and the country of Sawa and the country of Damut 
and the country of Laman and the country of el Sinhu and the 
country of the Zing and the country of 'Adel el Amrai and the 
country of Hamasa and the country of Badimya and the country 
of Abu Haraz el Islami and the country of Zila'a. Each one of 
these countries has a king [who is] under the Khati (which means 
Sultan), under whom there is a total of 99 kings, he himself being 
the hundredth. 

CCVII Now all the Sudan used to be in fear of the king of Abyssinia 
and court him with flattery, in some cases obeying him and in some 
[merely] flattering him. 

Finally they broke away from their allegiance to him, and each 
mountain became independent, and his rule was restricted to the 
mountains of the Abyssinians. 

CCVI 1 1 Subsequently the Hamag conquered the banks of the White 
Nile, and the nations of the Zing were divided into numerous sections, 
of whom some found leaders among their own number, and others 
were subjected by the tribes of the Arabs who conquered their land. 
CCIX Lastly the dominion of Kordofan fell to the Fung^ for seven 
years, then to the Ghodiat (who are Hamag by descent) for thirteen 
years. After the Ghodiat, the Musaba'at ruled it for seventeen years : 
then [the] Kungara (who are the rulers of Darfur) ruled it for thirty- 
six years. 

CCX The Turks took Kordofan from the Kungara in the year 1233*, 
having one year previously taken the dominion of the White Nile 
from the Meks of the Ga'aliyyun and the remnants of the Hamag. 
^ reading vo^-i^t for jij«Li^\. ^ reading Sj,a,.^\ for Zj,a^^]. 

2 reading ^^iJJ for T».^. * i8i8a.d. 

iv.Di.ccxvi. OF THE SUDAN 201 

CCXI God knows the truth, and He is the first and the last, and to 
Him do all men return. 

CCXII Be it known that this compilation is from the histories [lit. 
" history "] of three men. 

CCXIII From the beginning to the mention of the Khalifas, and on 
to the mention of 'fsa, the prophet of God, is by el Sayyid Ghula- 

CCXIV From the first " tanbth,'' at which point begins the account 
of Khuzam and Beni Khuzayma, is by el Sayyid Muhammad walad 
Dolib the elder, up to the second "tanbih." 

CCXV From the second " tanbth," at which begins the account of 
the origin of the Sudanese, up to the end of the book, is by el Sayyid 
Muhammad walad Dolib the younger, who is buried at Khorsi. 

CCXVI This work was copied by my father in his handwriting in 
1252^ from the copy made in 1151^; and I made this copy on the 
second of Ramadan in the year 1302^ after the Flight of the Prophet. 

1 1836 A.D. 2 1738 A.D. 3 1884 A.D. 

[ 202 ] 


Note that where the reference to Wiistenfeld is marked by a letter the tribe in 
question is Isma'flitic in descent; but where the reference is marked by a figure the 
tribe is Klahtdnite. 

II Makhzum to Fihr correct: see Wiistenfeld, R 17. 

III Ghatafan to Kays 'Aylan correct: see Wiistenfeld, H 8. 

IV This Kutayf is not in Wiistenfeld. The Beni Tai are Kahtanite. 

V See Wiistenfeld, 7. This Kutayf was son of 'AbduUa son of Nagia. . . 

Farwa was the eighth generation in the direct line from Kutayf. 

VI Cp. Ibn Khaldun (trans, de Slane, Vol. iii, p. 180). He states that 
genealogists are united in saying that the Zenata are descended from 
Ghana. " Abou Mohammed ibn Hazm ecrit, dans son Djemhera : ' quelques 
uns d'entre eux [i.e. Berbers] disent que Ghana est le meme personnage 
que Djana fils de Yahya fils de Soulat fils d'0ur9ak fils de Dari fils de 
Zeddjik fils de Madghis fils de Berr.'" Ibn Khaldun mentions also a 
variant given by the same author, viz. Ghana (or Djana) son of Yahya son 
of Soulat son of Our^ak son of Dari son of Ghacfoun son of Bendouad son 
of Imla son of Madghis son of Herek son of Her9ac son of Guerad son of 
Mazigh son of Herak son of Herik son of Bedian son of Kenan son of Ham, 

VII See Wiistenfeld, 6. Nebhan was great-grandson of Tai, the founder 
of the great Kahtanite tribe of Tai. The descendants of Nebhan are cor- 
rectly given, but for j.— ^ Wiistenfeld gives jo^,«.«« ; and "Messiria" may 

thus be a corruption of "Meskhiria." Gp. paras, xxv and cxxxv and see 
Part HI, Ghap. 3, sub " Hawazma," 

viii Pedigree given correctly, but contrast para. CLi: see Wiistenfeld, i. 
The Mahria are a branch of Kuda'a. Gp. D'Arvieux's Travels (p. 345): 
"Mahrah is a Province in which there are neither Palms nor Gultivated 
Lands : The Inhabitants have no other Effects than Gamels . . . Alsahah re- 
ports that the Gamel called Almahrary or of Mahrah is so named from 
Mahrah the son of Hamdan, the Founder of a tribe." See also el Mas'udi 
(Ghap. 16): "They {i.e. the people of el Mahrah) have a sort of camel 
called Mahri camel: it goes as fast as the Bejawi camel, or even faster as 
some think." 

IX Saba was son of Yashgub (or Yashhub) son of Ya'arub : see Wiisten- 
feld, I. 

The "lesser" and the "least" Himyars are not mentioned by Wiisten- 
feld, but their alleged ancestors are: see Wiistenfeld, 3. 

A confusion has arisen between two men called Zayd : one, the son of 
Sahal son of 'Amr, was the ancestor of Malik and 'Adi, etc., as given: the 
other was son of Sadad son of Zura'a son of Saba "the lesser," who was 
grandson of the first Zayd (son of Sahal). Sahal and Zayd have been 
transposed by the copyist: otherwise all is correct from Saba "the lesser" 
to el Ghauth. 


"Hadhar" is an obvious slip for Gaydan (jlj*.^ for ^Ijl*».). 

"Son of 'Auf" should be inserted before "son of 'Arib. 

"El Ferangag" should be Himyar {i.e. the "greater"). 

By these "three Himyars" are perhaps not meant persons but sections 
of the great Himyarite tribe, descended from Kahtan. It will have been 
seen that both the lesser branches mentioned are descended from Zayd 
ibn Sahal, who was the fifteenth descendant, in the direct line, of Himyar 
the "greater." 

The copyist sometimes gives "Yashhub," sometimes "Yashgub," or 
even "Yashkhub." Wiistenfeld uses "Yashgub" (and so too Ibn el Athir): 
Abu el Fida uses "Yashhub." 

X Pedigree given correctly: see Wiistenfeld, D. 'Amir was of the tribe 
of Hawazin. 

XI For Bahila see Wiistenfeld, G. "Ma'akl" is no doubt an invention. 

XII Thakif is a branch of Hawazin: see Wiistenfeld, G. Contrast para. 


XIII Correct: see Wiistenfeld, D. For Beni 'Amir see note to x. 

XIV Correct: see Wiistenfeld, H. Contrast para, cxlvii. 

XV "Son of Amr" is omitted between MaUk and Murra: otherwise 
correct : see Wiistenfeld, i . 

XVI Pedigree correct: see Wiistenfeld, N. "Fourth" is a slip for "four- 
teenth." Cp. para. CXL. 

XVII Correct: see Wiistenfeld, i. 

XVIII The "Karg" are the Georgians: cp. Abu el Fida (p. 168), and el 
Mas'udi (p. 433). 

XIX "Sin" is China. "Tafmag" I cannot trace: it is not in Yakut. 
"The lands of Islam which are beyond the river" are Transoxiana. 

XX Two words here are illegible. 

The pedigree from el Khulug to Kenana is correct: see Wiistenfeld, N. 
But Malik, and not el Harith his son, is the first common ancestor of 
el Khulug and 'Omar ibn el Khattab (for whom see Wiistenfeld, P). 

XXI See Wiistenfeld, O. 

This Kays is not mentioned by Wiistenfeld. 

XXII "Zing" is used by Arab writers as a generic name for the East 
African blacks: e.g. see el Mas'udi- (pp. 178, 232, 261, 380) and Abu el Fida 
(p. 174). Cp. also note to D 4, xx. 

XXIII See Wiistenfeld, 2. Kelb is a sub-tribe of Kuda'a. " Son of Bukr " 
has been omitted between Kenana and 'Auf: otherwise the pedigree is 
correct as far as " Ganab son of Hubl." 

'Abdulla and 'Obayd are among the descendants of Hubl in Wiistenfeld, 
but are not his sons. 

XXIV The pedigree is quite correct: see Wiistenfeld, D. 

For Maymuna see Wiistenfeld, F: she was one of the Prophet's wives. 

The battle of Hunayn took place in 630 a.d.: at it Muhammad defeated 
the Beni Hawazin, of whom Hilala (or Beni Hilal) are a section. 

For Abu Zayd el HilaU see MacMichael (Tribes...), passim, and Part I, 
Chap. 4. 

XXV This is repeated from para, vii above : contrast para, cxxxv. 


XXVI Contrast para, cxxxvii, and see note to A ii, lxii. The vituperative 
remarks on the Humr were probably added after the Dervish days and as 
a revenge for some injury done to the Doah'b by that tribe. 

For 'Aus see Wvistenfeld, 7 ; and for Aihala see Sale {Prel. Disc. p. 139). 
Aihala proclaimed himself prophet the year that Muhammad died. 

xxvii The "Bulala" are no doubt meant here. El Azd are a sub-tribe 
of Kahlan: see Wiistenfeld, 9. 

xxviii For Tami'm see Wiistenfeld, L. Cp. para, cxlviii. 

xxix The pedigree is correct: see Wiistenfeld, G. Cp. para, cxciii. 
For GuDHAM see Wiistenfeld, 5. 

XXX See Wiistenfeld, H. The pedigree of Bedr is correct. Cp. para, cxxxix. 

XXXI The pedigree is correct: see Wiistenfeld, G. 

For Kays 'Aylan see Wiistenfeld, D, where Kays is shown as son of 
'Aylan son of Mudr. Others give Kays 'Aylan as a single name and son 
of Mudr, cp. ABC, xxv et seq. Abu el Fida (q.v. p. 194) discusses this 
question and also mentions the story that 'Aylan was a horse. 

Kays Kubba was son of el Ghauth: see Wiistenfeld, 9. 

XXXII Bagla (whose pedigree is correctly given) was of the tribe of el Azd 
(see Wiistenfeld, 10), but she married one of the Beni Sulaym (see Wiisten- 
feld, G). 

XXXIII Correct: see Wiistenfeld, J. 
xxxiv All correct: see Wustenfeld, J. 
XXXVI Correct: see Wiistenfeld, 5. 

xxxvii "Son of Zayd" should be inserted between Udad and "Yash- 
khub." The rest is correct: see Wiistenfeld, 4. 

XXXVIII Correct: see Wiistenfeld, M. 

xxxix Correct: see Wiistenfeld, i. 

XL Not in Wiistenfeld. 

XLii See Wiistenfeld, 1 1 . 

XLiii The Khata are the people of Chinese Turkestan : see Huart, p. 363. 

XLiv From 'Ai'sh to Fihr is correct: see Wiistenfeld, O. Fihr is the same 
as Kuraysh. 'Awaymir and Sa'ada are not mentioned by Wiistenfeld. 

XLV See Wiistenfeld, 9. There was an Abu Hazim of the Bagila, but his 
only recorded son was called Kays, not Hazim. 

xlvi See Wiistenfeld, 11. Ma-el-Sama was the name of 'Amir and not 
of Rabi'a, and Rabi'a is the same as Lohay. Lohay and Afsa and 'Oday 
were the sons of Haritha, and their descendants, as stated, are Khuza'a. 
Ka'ab was grandson of Lohay. 

XLVii These persons are not in Wiistenfeld (q.v. G). Cp. para, cxxxviii. 

XLVIII "[Married] to" is literally OsswJ, i.e. "under." 
See Wiistenfeld, G and 7. All is correct but that "son of Malik" has 
been omitted between Ma'an and A'sir. 

XLix A-jjjJI AiJUl ^i ,^^U)| w^U> is the Arabic of "the author. . . 

Lii ,.;-.**JI (^^ jti.'N)! j^JLc dl-U«5 is "and they are founded upon. . .etc." 

iv.Di.Lxiii. OF THE SUDAN 205 

Liii oL»^.~.a>^l ^l^lj ,^l-.^'N)l ^^^ dL--oj is "and it is founded 
upon. . .etc." 

Liv oL» 3 ....a>^ n (j~^ i5»-U AJl dUj-oj is "and it is founded upon 
. . .etc." 

LV From the account of the descendants of Noah and the ancient lost 
tribes of the Arabs, which begins here, to the mention of the conquest 
of Syria, is quoted, generally verbatim, from Ibn el Athir's Kdmil. Several 
omissions, which sometimes do not affect the sense, but at other times 
completely alter it, have been made. The words inserted in square brackets 
in the translation do not occur in D i, but as they are essential to the 
general meaning I have added them from the text of Ibn el Athi'r. Copies 
of Ibn el Athir are fairly common in the Sudan. The originals of the 
passages borrowed by the author of D i are to be found on the thirty- 
fourth and following pages of the first volume of Ibn el Athir (ed. Cairo, 
1301 A.H., el Azhar Press). Various other Arab authors give widely diver- 
gent accounts of this subject: cp. Sale {Prel. Disc, section i). 

LVI I.e. Shem, Ham, and Japheth. "Yagug and Magug" are "Gog and 
Magog." See Kuran, Chap. 18. After "Magug" Ibn el Athir mentions 
the origin of the Copts, and gives an anecdote, omitted by D i, about 

Lvii Cp. Genesis x. 22 : " The children of Shem ; Elam, and Asshur, and 
Arphaxad, and Lud, and Aram." After "Aram" some comments are 
omitted by D i. 

Lviii "Who were" {^ O-tiJ^I) should be "among whom were" 

" Them " is the AMALfK {i.e. Amalekites). El Athir gives j»ci<,j *ucKaJ|« : 
D I gives j.-«a-« Ais, tji ^ov**S • 

The children of Omaym should not have been omitted as they are 
referred to in the next line as though previously mentioned. Two lines 
of Ibn el Athir, about the Beni Omaym and their tragic fate as unbelievers, 
are omitted, possibly owing to a superstitious fear: cp. note to Lxvi. 

Lix Yathreb is the old name of Medina. D i appears to have omitted 
these words merely because Abil had not been mentioned before : in con- 
sequence the sense has become nil. 
LX Sana'a was originally called Ozal (see Sale, Prel. Disc. p. 2). 

Some remarks by Ibn el Athir about the Amalik are here omitted by 
D I. 

Lxii The handiest reference to these lost tribes of the Arabs is Sale's 
Prel. Disc, section i. 

There were two of the ancient tribes called Gurhum : see Sale, Prel. 
Disc. pp. 6, 7, 9. Cp. para. cxci. 

El 'Ariba are the pure original Arabs: el Muta'ariba the insititious 
Arabs: see Sale, Prel. Disc. p. 7. Some remarks of Ibn el Athir are here 

Lxiii By ja.,rw.)l (" the rocky country ") is meant Arabia Petraea (see Abu 
el Fida, p. 16). 

The author of D i by omitting the words inserted in brackets has 
completely altered the sense. 

2o6 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv.di.lxiii. 

For "Gau" cp. Sale {Prel. Disc. p. 4) and Mas'udi (ed. B. de M. 
Vol. Ill, Chap. XLvii, pp. 276, 288). 

Lxiv El Nebt are the Nabateans. El Mas'udi (p. 77) speaks of Nimrod 
as son of Mash and builder of the tower of Babel and king of the Nebt. 
The term Nebt seems to designate vaguely the Chaldean element of 
IVIesopotamia. See Palgrave, C and E. Arabia, 11, 158 et seq. 

Lxv "Son of Laudh" is not in Ibn el Athir. In Abu el Fida Faris 
appears as son of Laudh. 

Lxvi Ibn el Athir's remark that Kaynan was a sorcerer is omitted by 
D I : many authors similarly omit his name altogether from the genealogies 
from superstition: see Abu el Fida (p. 20) and Ibn el Athir (Vol. i, p. 35) 
on this point. 

Shalikh = Salah: 'Abir = Eber: Faligh = Peleg: see Genesis, chap. x. 
After "Faligh" D i has omitted Ibn el Athir's note to the effect that "in 
his days was the earth divided." 

Kahtan is the ancestor of all the Yemenite Arabs, or 'Arab el 'Ariba, 
whereas Faligh, as being forefather of Abraham, is ancestor of the whole 
Isma'ilitic stock. 

The insertion here of Yunan is a mistake. Ibn el Athir mentions him 
later as son of Yafith. He is the legendary ancestor of the Greeks, who 
were called Yunaniyytin before they were subjected by the Romans. The 
word is the same etymologically as " Ionian." 

'' And Kahtan begot. . ." The text of Ibn el Athir runs ^Uaai^ jJ^ 
O-o-J' *i)>^ O^*:!^ ^j^i ("and Kahtan begot Ya'arub and Yukzan and 
they two settled in el Yemen"), but the copyist has transferred from 
the end of the chapter the names of the descendants of Ya'arub to 
here, with the result that after the two lines dealing with them he 
blandly continues ^j-o-J' "^P ^J\JaAJ^ ("and Yukzan settled (dual) in el 

For the descendants of Yashgub and Saba cp. Wiistenfeld, 5. 
Lxvii Among the Beni Lakhm were the kings of Hira, who were known 
as the "Mondars" ("Monadira"): cp. Sale, Prel. Disc. p. 9. 

Lxviii "And were ..." Ibn el Athir gives ^\^ {i.e. the dual is dropped) : 
D I gives ^^ {i.e. the descendants of Ya'arub and Yukzan). 

^jtUl sIXoIj aJIc ^.^JL, ^^ Jjl — the formula used in addressing the 

ancient Arab kings was ^JJ^JL)I w**jI (see Wright's Arabic Grammar, 
Part III, p. 3, and cp. el Mas'udi, ed. Sprenger, Chap, ill, p. 78, and ed. 
B. de M. Vol. Ill, Chap, xliv, p. 201). 

LXix Ar'u is the biblical " Reu," Sarugh " Serug," Nahur " Nahor," and 
Tarikh "Terah." Cp. B i, xxvi. 

Lxx Nimrudh, or "Nimrod" {q.v. supra, note LXiv), appears in el 
Mas'udi (p. 77) as son of Mash son of Aram; in el Tabari (p. 127) as son 
of Kana'an; and in Abu el Fida (p. 20) as son of Kush: the last version 
is mentioned by Ibn el Athir but omitted by the copyist. 

Sind and Hind are intended to represent India. "India" is originally 
"the land of the Hind," meaning the people of the south and east of the 
peninsula : generally the people of the north-eastern part were called the 

iv.Di.Lxxxiii. OF THE SUDAN 207 

Sind (see el Mas'udi, p. 176, note), but Abu el Fida (p. 174) speaks of the 
Sind as west of the Hind. 

LXXi Yuktan or Kahtan is the biblical Joktan. 

Lxxii Ibn el Athir gives the tribes of Sanhaga and KetAma as exceptions. 
Cp. para. CLXXxiv. 

Lxxiii No mention of the Romans occurs in this position in Ibn el Athir, 
who, after dealing with the Berber, passes on to the sons of Yafith. He later 
merely mentions that the Romans are descended from Lanti son of Yunan 
son of Yafith, but omits the explanatory details given by the copyist. By 
the "early Romans" ( Jj*;^)' vejijJt) the copyist means the Romans, the 
centre of whose power was Rome, and by the " later Romans " (^ [^\ ^3/31), 
the Byzantines. 

Lxxiv Cp. Genesis, chap. x. 2. Gamir is " Gomer," Mashig " Meshech," 
and Ti'rash "Tiras." 

Lxxvi The Khazar are a people on the shores of the Caspian Sea and the 

AsHBAN is the Arabic equivalent for "Hispani," i.e. Spaniards: see 
el Mas'udi, p. 369. 

For a wonderful account of "Gog and Magog" see el Tabari, Chap. 


The "Saghaliba" are the Slavonians: see el Mas'udi, p. 72. 

" BuRGAN " is the same as " Bulghar," i.e. Bulgarians, The former term 
is used by el Mas'udi (Chap, xxxv). 

El 'Ais is "Esau," and Ishak "Isaac." Some further remarks of Ibn 
el Athir are here omitted by the copyist. It is here, too, that the mention 
of the Romans (see note lxxiii) occurs. 

Lxxvii Cp. Genesis x. 6: "Cush, and Mizraim, and Phut, and Canaan." 
"Kut" (J»^*) is the reading both in Ibn el Athir and the copyist, but 
el Mas'udi (Chap, xlvii) gives Fut (as son of Ham) — whence the Biblical 
Phut. "Kut" generally denotes the Goths. 

The copyist has very slightly paraphrased the text for the next few lines. 
Lxxxi The series of quotations from Ibn el Athir breaks off at the end 
of this paragraph. 

Lxxxii For Saba and the dispersion of the tribes, see Kuran, Chap. 34, 
with Sale's notes, and Abu el Fida, Bk. IV (p. 114) and Bk. V (p. 182). 
The whole of the following tradition is given in el Mas'udi, Chap. xlii. 

By Lakhm here is meant those Beni Lakhm who founded the dynasty 
of the MonAdira (q.v. note lxvii) which ruled in Hi'ra and Anbar from 
about 210 to 634 A.D. (See Van Dyck, p. 24.) 

The Kendite dynasty ruled in Negd from 450 to 530 a.d. (see Van 
Dyck, p. 32); but for "Kenda" el Mas'udi gives "Kenana" (B. de Mey- 
nard's edition). 

Anmar were a section of el Azd : for them and Khat'am (or Khath'am) 
and Bagila see Wiistenfeld, 9. 

Lxxxiii Marib was the site of the great reservoir. For the impiety of 
the local tribes, it was broken down by a great flood, which destroyed 
most of the inhabitants of the vicinity: see Sale, Prel. Disc. p. 8, and text, 
P- 323- 

2o8 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. di.lxxxiii. 

The Ghassanite dynasty ruled a part of Syria from 37 to 636 a.d.: see 
Van Dyck, p. 28. Cp. para, cxciv. 

Aus and Khazrag were great Kahtanite tribes, descended from el Azd : 
see Abu el Fida, p. 184. They formed the bulk of the "Ansar." Hence 
some Sudan tribes like to claim descent from them, and especially from 
Khazrag. Cp. para. cxcv. 

'Amr ibn 'Amir is the 'Amr Muzaykia mentioned in para. XLVI. 



Lxxxvi "Anas" [^\] should be "Unays" [u-tjj'] as in BA, lviii, q.v. 
for an account of AbduUa el Guhani. 

The "Dhubian" and "Sufian" mentioned in the next paragraph had 
no connection with the real AbduUa "el Guhani." I incline to think that 
certain members of the tribe of Ghatafan (a division of the Ismailitic Kays 
'Aylan) were in the author's mind, because among the direct descendants 
of Ghatafan occur Dhubian, 'Abs, Fezara, Sufian, Mazin, Sarid, Dahman, 
Kays and Rayth (see Wiistenfeld, H), all of which names are closely con- 
nected in the Sudanese fiisbas with 'AbduUa el Guhani. How the con- 
fusion arose is not at all clear. See also note to BA, lviii. 

Lxxxix Cp. BA, lix et seq. 

xc See note to BA, lxvii. 


xcii Cp. para, cxxxv and BA, ccvii, clxxix; C 6, in, etc, 
" Suhayl" should be " Shatir." 

The pedigree of Ghulamulla, as given by the owner of D i, the 
descendant and successor of its author, is as shown in the inset to the 
genealogical tree that illustrates D i. The generations from Muhammad 
el Gawad upwards are given correctly. 

For the descendants of Ghulamulla see BA, clxxxi, D 3, 222, etc. 

xciv Cp. BA, Lxvi. 

xcvi This story does not occur elsewhere. 

xcviii Cp. BA, Lxxiii. 

Ci This Dafa'alla's biography is given in D 3 {q.v). 

cii The 'AkilAb are the descendants of Muhammad Abu 'Akla, the father 
of 'AbduUa el Terayfi. See D 3, 41 and 42. 

cm What the author really means is that the term Ga'afira is used in 
three senses. The first group he mentions are meant apparently to be 
classed as Guhayna, 'Amir and 'Omran being sons of Sultan. Cp. ABC, 
XXXI. In reality the division is probably quite fallacious and the well- 
known Upper Egyptian tribe of Ga'afira are intended in every case. For 
their settlement between Esna and Aswan see Burckhardt, p. 133. There 
are a certain number of them in all the bigger towns of the Sudan at the 
present day. 

CIV Cp. para, xcii, 

cv et seq. Cp. para, xcii; BA, CLXXXi et seq.; D 3, 222, etc. 

CXI 'Ah walad 'Ishayb is No. 60 in D 3. 
"Households" is O^-j, 

cxviii Habib Nesi is No, 105 in D 3, 

iv.Di.cxLix. OF THE SUDAN 209 

cxxi Abu Tubr is a hill in northern Kordofan. Tubr is the name of a 
common convolvulus. 

cxxv The term Sherif {pi. Ashrdf) is used indiscriminately for de- 
scendants of Hasan or Husayn. "In Arabia the Sharif is the descendant 
of Hasan through his two sons Zaid and Hasan al-Musanna : the Sayyid is 
the descendant of Hosayn through Zayn al-Abidin. . . ." "This word {s.c. 
Sayyid) in the Northern Hijaz is applied indifferently to the posterity of 
Hasan and Hosayn" (Burton, Pilgrimage..., ii, pp. 3 and 7, notes). 
For the Mirghania see D 7, cxcii, note. 

The best known of the Awl ad el Hindi is "el Sherif" Yusef el Hindi, 
a feki much respected in the Gezira and among the nomads: see C 9, 


For the Awlad el Magdhub see D 3, 123. It is they to whom Burck- 
hardt refers when he says (p. 51): "The few Nubians who know how to 
write, and who serve the governors in the capacity of secretaries, are taught 
by the Fokara of Damer. . .who are all learned men, and travel occasionally 
to Cairo"; and again (p. 266) he apparently refers to them, when speaking 
of Damer, as the "Medja-ydin" religious men or "family of Medjdoule," 
through whose learning Damer had acquired a great reputation. 

For Bedr ibn Um Barak walad Maskin see D 3, 76. 
. For the Awlad Mustafa see D 3, 210. 

"Awlad 'Abdulla el Mekani at el Taka" (i^sUJb j^^JC^Jt ddJt j^e. 
i*^^!) may be an error for AssUJb ... JU (^i^' aJJ' J^*^ i'^j^ ("The sons 
of Abdulla nicknamed el. . . at el Taka"). 
For the Awlad Hagu see D 3, 107. 

The Awlad el Ak-hal are really included among the descendants of 
GhulamuUa {i.e. the first group of Ashraf): see D 3, 222. 

cxxviii "Abu Merkha" is "Subuh Abu Merkha." 

cxxix The DiNKA tribes are meant. 

cxxxi Cp. BA, cxviii. 

cxxxii Contrast BA, cviii. 

cxxxiii Cp. BA, cix, ex. 

cxxxiv Cp. para, xlv, supra. The BEDAYRiA and Takari'r elements are 
chiefly represented in the Halafa section of the Hawazma. See Part III, 
Chap. 3 {d). 

cxxxv Contrast vii and xxv, supra, and D 2, xxxviii. 

cxxxvi Contrast xii, supra. 

cxxxvii Contrast xxvi, supra. 

cxxxviii Contrast xlvii, supra. 

cxxxix Contrast xxx, supra. 

CXL Cp. XVI, supra. 

cxLi Cp. XXII, supra. 

cxLvi Cp. BA, CXI. 

cxLVii Cp. XIV, supra. 

cxLViii The TAMiMfA and the others mentioned are all sections of the 

cxLix For the Rikabia, etc., see index for references. 
For Ahmad Abu Denana see C 8, xxxii (note). 

M. S. II 14 

210 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv.di.cxlix. 

The " Nuba" here mentioned are those of G. el Haraza and other hills 
of northern Kordofan. 

CL See Part I, Chap. 4. 

CLi Cp. paras. CLXxxviii and viii. 

CLiv Cp. BA, cxix, etc. 
"Afttiria" (Ijj^I) may be an error for "Uruba" {i.e. Europe). 

CLVI Cp. note to para. xxii. 

CLVii Contrast D 2, xxxix. 

CLVI 1 1 Contrast D 2, xxxvii. 

CLix See para, lxiii. 

CLXI Um Gurfa is a district near to the east of Kagmar in Kordofan. 

CLXii See Part I, Chap. 4, sub "Birked." 

CLXV Contrast D 2, xv; BA, clxxviii, etc. 

CLXVii See cxxii, supra. 

CLXViii See cxxi, supra. 

CLXix Abu Sinun is a hill lying N.W. of el Obeid in Kordofan. 

CLXXi Contrast D 2, xxxiv, etc. 

CLXXiii "Mogharba" is the usual plural of "Moghrabi" ("Moor"). 
The Arabic here is i^il>*^'»' l>jJJ1 j^ ^j.f^'^aiS ^>«^yA«<pt . 

CLXXV A Zurruk el Moghrabi is mentioned in Hagi Khalfa (Vol. ill, 
p. 418, No. 6222) as a joint author of Risdlat el Turiik. The Mogharba 
of the Blue Nile claim descent from "Ahmad Zerruk" and speak of him 
as a wall of the Shadhalia tarika in Tunis, and a Sherif. See Part III, 
Chap. 4 {b). 

CLXXVi Of these Ashraf the only ones I have been able to identify are : 

1. Zurruk el Moghrabi, for whom see the preceding note. 

2. Abu el Hasan el ShadhaU, for whom see note to para. Li of AB. 
He died in 1258. 

3. El ShibU: viz. Bedr el Din Muhammad ibn AbduUa el Damashki 
el Terabulusi. He was a Hanafite and died in a.d. 1367-8. He wrote 
Akdyn el Morgan, Mahdsin el Wasdil, etc. (See Hagi Khalfa's Lexicon, 
Vol. I, p. 386, No. 1088, and Vol. v, pp. 453 and 413.) 

4. Ibrahim el Dasuki was a Sufi Imam of Egypt. He was born in 
1240 and died in 1277 a.d. (see Na'um Bey, Part I, pp. 130 ff.). 

Ahmad el Warak, Muhammad el Thauri, and Abd el Rahim el Bura'i 
I cannot identify either from Yakut (Irshdd el Arib) or Hagi Khalfa. 
CLXXVIII The Arabic of paras, clxxviii and CLXXix is as follows: 

This is taken probably from Ibn Khaldun (Bk. 2, p. 105), and the remark 
about the Berber may be a misunderstanding of Ibn Khaldun's quotation 
from Ibn Sa'id to the effect that next to the Zing are the "Berbera." 

CLXXX The Fung regard themselves as Beni Ommayya slightly leavened 
by negroes. The Hamag are considered as Ga'aliIn {i.e. AbbAsia) 
leavened by negroes. Where they make a distinction as between Beni 
Ommayya and Beni Abbas our author, looking rather to the black element, 
distinguishes only between Zing and Nuba. 

iv.Di.ccvi. OF THE SUDAN 211 

CLXXXiii Menelik II in 1891 wrote to the European powers "En in- 
diquant aujourd'hui les limites actuelles de mon Empire, je tacherai . . . de 
retablir les anciennes frontieres de I'jSthiopie, jusqu'd Khartoum et jusqii'au 
lac Nyanza. . ." (see Le Soudan Egyptien, by Gregoire Sarkissian, Paris, 
1913, p. 92). Cp. also Ludolfus {Hist, of Ethiopia, trans. Gent, 1684, Bk. i, 
Chap, xvi): ". . .Sennar or Fund, governed by its peculiar king, formerly 
a tributary to the Abessines, but now absolute." See also note to MS. 
D7, L. 

CLXXXV Several of the Arabic historians {e.g. Ibn Khaldun and el Mas'udi, 
Chap. XL vi) give the subdivisions of the Berber in North Africa. Some of the 
names here are corrupt: Zenata, Howara, Sanhaga, Ketama, and Luata 
are well known. " Madyuna" (ij^ji-o) is perhaps " Masmuda" (?^jm^_o-^-o) 
"Nabra" (Sj^) is certainly an error for "Nafza" (Sjij). See Part II, 
Appendix to Chap. i. 

CLXXXVi The people of the modern Berbera are alluded to. 

CLXXxvii The Arabic here is at fault : it reads as follows : 

"Suhayl" is Canopus. 

Yakut {Kitdh mu'agam el Bulddn, sub "Abin") quotes el Tabari as 
saying "Aden and Abyan were the two sons of 'Adnan ibn Udad," and of 

the position of Abyan says: yjjjt dJ^ O^W >-AJlsi.-« >*5- 
De Herbelot (p. 329) speaks of Aden as "Aden Abyan." 
"Gebel el Dukhan" is the volcanic Gebel Tair (Bruce, Vol. 11, p. 232). 

CLXxxviii Cp. para. CLi. 

cxc See Wiistenfeld, J. "Hasba" (i-*,.-^.^) is a copyist's error for 

cxci, cxcii See para. lxii. 

cxciii See para. xxix. 

cxciv See para, lxxxiii, and Wiistenfeld, 11 and 12. 

cxcv See paras. Lxxxii, lxxxiii and Wiistenfeld, 9. "Zayd" is omitted 
between Malik and Kahlan. 

cxcvii Contrast para. Lxxix. 

cxcviii This is practically the same as Abu el Fida's " . . .El Afrang who 
are many nations and the seat of whose kingdom is originally Franga (or 
Fransa), which borders on the northern frontier of the Andalusian 
peninsula; and their king is called 'el Fransis'" (see Abu el Fida, p. 170). 

cxcix Contrast para. Lxxvi. 

cci The 3rd pers. sing. pres. tense of hdda is yahudu. 

ecu " The Byzantine Greeks " would perhaps better express the meaning 
of el Rum here. 

cciii Correct: see Wiistenfeld, i. 

cciv See Wiistenfeld, 2. 

ccvi "Akshum" is Axum, the ancient capital of Abyssinia. Following 
the rise of the Muhammadan power in the seventh century the frontiers 



of Abyssinia were forced further westward, and as a result the capital was 
shifted to Gondar. 

Of the provinces mentioned Amhara is well known, "Sawa" is Shoa 
(or Xoa), "Damut" is Damota (or Great Damot), " Adel el Amrai" is 
Adel, "Hamasa" is Hamazen, "Badimya" is probably the "Bagemder" 
of Ludolfus (p. 14), and "Zi'la'a" is probably Zeila on the northern coast 
of Somaliland. 

ccix For the following see MacMichael {Tribes..., Chap, i) and Part I, 
Chap. 4. 

The date 1233 should be 1236. 
ccxiii Ghulamulla is the ancestor of the Rikabia. Mentions of him are 
very frequent: see BA, CLXXix, CLXXXI and D 3, 189 and D 5 {d). 

For this Muhammad walad Dolib see D 3, 187. 




'Abd el Rizak 
/ Awldd el Sheikh 

Hasan Walad 
\ Belli, at Kendr. 
j Awldd Ddud, 
\ at Abu Tubr 

Hadhlul _ 
{Awldd Mahmud, 
at Gebel el 


(Azvldd Walad 

Ddud, with the 


el Imam 'Ali 


el Husayn 

Zayn el 'Abdfn 


Muhammad el Bakir 

Ga'afir el Sadik 

Musa el Kazim 

'Ali el Rida 


Muhammad el Gawad 

'Ali el Hadi 



'Ali Zamiil 


Muhammad Serag 






Ahmad el Zila'i 




el Sherif Ghuldmulla* 

•krla iZaghdaa) 1 (Bith 

lMa-M,r<,} (W«.«. 


■ Shii™ U'',"'i^''tf ,1 Hdx J^Am '•"'™" " J S^^arKm* "thrd^") Ka'bTbnh) ' 




Muhammad Ahmad '0>l\r, 'omda of the second khut of el Kamlin 
district and by race one of the Fung, wrote out the MS. here trans- 
lated for me. He based it on documents in his possession, but it is 
obviously a precis rather than a copy, and some of the statements 
concerning the tribes, however true they may be, may have been 
added from his own knowledge or recollection and not have occurred 
in the MS. 

I The coming of the Beni Ommayya to the Sudan was as follows : 
Sulayman son of 'Abd el Malik son of Marwan entered the Sudan 
and Abyssinia and dwelt in them for a space; and afterwards he 
migrated to the mountains of the Fung and married the daughter of 
the king Sendal el 'Ag: and they gained the ascendancy over those 
mountains for a [long] time, and there he begot his sons Ans and 
Daud. Daud was surnamed "Oudun" and Ans "Unsa"; and Unsa 
begot his son 'Omara Dunkas, who was the first of the kings of the 

II Histor}' of the Kings 

910, I 

From Qio^ to 940 Kin 

of the Fung at Sennar. 
236, I 













1 100 







1 100 


1505 A.D. 

g 'Omara Dunkas himself. 
'Abd el Kadir, his son. 
Xail, his brother. 
'Omara Abu Sakakin. 
Dekin, son of Xail. 

'Abd el Kadir II. 
'Adlan, son of Aya. 
Badi, known as Sid el Kum. 
Rubat, his son. 
Badi Abu Dukn. 
Ounsa II. 

Badi el Ahmar, his son. 
Ounsa III. 

Xul, son of Badi Xul. 
Badi Abu Shelukh. 

2 reading ^^Y for \ks. 


19. From 1 182 to 1191 King Isma'il. 

20. „ 1 191 „ 1203 

21. 1203 — 

22. 1203 — 

23. 1204 — 

24. From 1204 to 1205 

25. „ 1205 „ 12361 

'Adlan II. 


Badi V. 

Hasab Rabbihi. 


Badi VI, son of Tabl. 

Total 26 (sic) 

[This list] is undispu table. 

III [Thus] the Fung ruled, and after them there came into power 
the Hamag, their viziers, until [in] 1236 a.h., on the 9th of Ramadan, 
Isma'il Pasha, the Egyptian Khedive, son of Muhammad 'Ali Pasha, 
the Viceroy, came into power. 

IV The Tribes of the Arabs. 

The Arabs form the bulk of the population of the Sudan. They 
came to it by way of Egypt and the Red Sea, and gradually gained 
the power over it and settled on its lands and founded in it a number 
of kingdoms. 

V The Shaikia. Among them are the 'Adlanab and the Sowarab 
and the Hannakab and the 'Omarab. 

VI The DwAYHiA. They are of the stock of 'Abd el Rahman wad 
Hag, who came from Mekka. 

VII The '(3nia and the Manasir. Their place is the neighbourhood 
of Abu Hammad and among them are the Wahhabab and the Kebana 
and the Sulaymania and the KagCbab and the Khubara and the 
Rubatab, and among them are the Bedria and the Ferani'b and the 
Da'ifab and the Mi'rafab, who live at Berber, and among them are 
the Si AM and the Mustafiab and the Labi'ab and the Rahmab. 

VIII The Ga'aliyyun. The most famous of the tribes of the Arabs 
in the Sudan. Among them are the 'Omarab and the Magadhib- 
and the 'Ababsa and the RAsKf a and the Sa'adab and the 'Awadia 
and the Hamag, the viziers of the Fung, and the Nifi'ab and the 
Nafa'ab and the Mukabarab and the Inkerriab^. Their locality 
is between Abu Hammad and el Khartoum and el Damer and the 
desert of Kerri. 

IX The GimI'ab. Between Kerri and el Sheikh el Taib. 

X The 'Abdullab. Their place is el Halfaya, and they are a branch 
of the Kawasma. They are called 'Abdullab after their ancestor 
'AbduUa Gema'a. 

^ 1821 A.D. 2 reading w^;3la-« for w^33^a.-«. 

^ reading w»ljj.iJl for ^\jjju\. 


XI Now the Gamu'i'a and the Sururab and the Gimi'Ab and the 
Ga'aliyyun and the MirafabI and the Rubatab and the SHAiKfA 
are all descended from the same ancestor, viz. Abu Merkha, who was 
ultimately descended from el 'Abbas. 

XII The Hasanat. Their place is round el Ketayna. 

XIII The Deghaym and Kenana are the sons of 'Omar, and live 
at Gema'an near Abba Island. 

XIV The Selim and the Rufa'iyyun are Guhayna by descent. 

XV The Mesallamia are Guhayna by descent, and their place is 
in the Gezira. 

XVI The Medaniyyun. Their place is at Medani. 

XVII The 'Arakiyyun. Their place is Abu Haraz and 'Abud. 

XVIII The Khawalda are round 'Abud, and they are Guhayna 
by descent. 

XIX The Kawahla are round 'Abud and Wad Medani, and they 
trace descent to Zubayr ibn el 'Awwam, and among them are the 
Hasanat and the Shenabla. 

XX The Ya'akubab^ are said to trace their descent to the Ga'aliy- 

XXI The 'Akaliyyun. Their place is between the Binder and the 
Blue Nile. 

XXII The Hammada are between the Dinder and the Rahad. 

XXIII The Kawasma reside north of Sennar. 

XXIV The Kamati'r. Their place is Karkog. 

XXV The Lahawiyyun are mostly nomads and live on the east of 
the White Nile between el Kawa and el Gebelayn. 

XXVI The Beni Husayn are spoken of as " Awlad Abu Rof," and 
most of their nomads are from Gebel Sakadi and Moya to Khor 
el Dulayb. 

XXVII The Markum are a large tribe. 

XXVIII The 'Ulatiyyun are mostly nomads: and all the six tribes 
are descended from Guhayna. 

XXIX The Fung are they who founded the ancient kingdom of 
Sennar with the 'Abdullab, and they were the greatest power in the 
Sudan, and their descent is from the Beni Ommayya. 

XXX The Hamag were the viziers of the Fung, and their descent 
is from the Ga'aliyyun. 

XXXI The Shukri'a are Guhayna by descent. 

XXXII The Batahin are Ga'aliyyun by descent. 

XXXIII The Dubania are Guhayna by descent. 

^ reading ^{sj^,^ for wjUj^. ^ reading wjIj^aju for ^{j^aj. 


XXXIV The Hasania are Kawahla by descent. 

XXXV The Howara are HupuR by descent. 

XXXVI The Gima'a are composed of various tribes, and most of 
them are Ga'aliyyun. 

XXXVII The Ta'aisha and the Habbania and the Awlad Hamayd 
and Selim are the descendants of Hammad son of Gunayd, [and live] 
round el Kalaka. 

XXXVIII The Hawazma and the Humr and the Messiria and the 
RiZAYKAT are the descendants of 'Atia, the brother of the Hammad 
mentioned above, and all of them are Guhayna. 

XXXIX The Beni Helba are Guhayna by descent. 

XL The most important of the sources from which pedigrees are 
traced are the Beni Ommayya and the Beni 'Abbas and Guhayna, 
as was pointed out by the two sheikhs Ibn Khaldun and Ibn el Athir 
in their respective works. 

XLI The 'AwAMRA are all descendants of 'Amir son of Sa'asa'a son 
of Dhubian son of Husfa son of Ghila son of Mudr son of Nizar^ son 
of Ma'ad son of 'Adnan son of Ud son of Udad [etc.] up to the prophet 
el Sayyid Isma'il son of our lord Ibrahim, the Friend of God, upon 
both of whom be the blessings of God. 

XLII Now Isma'il son of Ibrahim was ancestor of the Arabs, and 
Ishak son of Ibrahim was ancestor of the non-Arabs [el 'agam] ; and 
God knows best. The mother of the Arabs was Hagar the Copt 
[el Kubtia] , and the mother of the non- Arabs was Sara the Israelite 
[el Isrdila]. 

D 2 (NOTES) 

I Cp. BA, ccxiii; A II, liii, etc. 

"Oudun" is 03^3' ^^^ "Unsa" is iwt. In the following paragraph 


we have "Unsa" in some places and "Ounsa" (dL-Jjl) in others. 

II " 1505 " is the Christian year corresponding to 910 a.h. 
V " 'Omarab " is an error. 

XI "Abu Merkha" is "Subuh Abu Merkha." 
XVI See D 3, 93 note. 

XXVII The Marghumab are meant. 

XXVIII By "The six tribes" is meant the last six tribes mentioned. 
XXX Cp. D 7, XLix and para, viii above. 

^ reading jljJ for jtju. 




The remarkable work known as the Tabakdt wad Dayfulla ("Day- 
fulla's Series") was written, as we gather from biography No. 154, 
in 1805. 

The author, "Wad Dayfulla," was Muhammad el Nur walad 
Dayfulla walad Muhammad of the Fadliin section of the Ga'aliin. 
He lived at Halfayat el Muluk, and died in 1809 (see D 7, clxxxv 
and ABC, xi). 

The whole book would normally cover something over two hun- 
dred medium-sized pages of closely written Arabic MS. The par- 
ticular copy from which the following extracts were taken is the 
property of el Ami'n walad Muhammad walad Taha walad el Sheikh 
Khogali, the Khalifa of his great-grandfather. Sheikh Khogali, whose 
tomb is near Khartoum North and whose biography is included in 
the text (No. 154). 

The family of Wad Dayfulla, who are now known as the Day- 
FULLAB, still live at Halfayat el Muluk close to the Khogalab, and 
though the latter are Mahass and the former was a Ga'ali, there has 
been considerable intermarriage between the two groups during the 
last few generations. 

It is practically certain that the Khogalab copy was taken direct 
from the original, which is believed to be held by the Khalifa of 
the Dayfullab, and both internal evidence and the inherent prob- 
abilities of the case suggest that the copy is a reasonably exact and 
accurate one. 

Other copies are known to exist; e.g. one belonged to the late 
Zubayr Pasha, one is owned by Sheikh Ahmad el Sunna of Wad 
Medani, one by the Barriab who live south of Wad Medani, and one 
by the Khalifa of Sheikh Idris Arbab of Aylafun. 

The subject-matter of the book is the biographies of the holy-men 
of the Sudan for about 300 years, beginning from about the first 
decade of the sixteenth century — in other words, during the period 
of the Fung kingdom. The domed kubbas of most of these holy- 
men have survived to the present, and a fair number of additional 
kubbas have been built subsequently to commemorate the fekis of 
subsequent generations. 


The author does not concern himself with lengthy genealogies of 
dubious authenticity, but casual details of the inter-relationship of 
various families are very rife, and are the more worthy of confidence 
in that they are purely incidental to the main purpose and mutually 

The biographies contain, as a rule, details of the place of birth, 
characteristics, education, career and death of each holy-man, with 
special mention of his manifestations of profitable and miraculous 
powers, his teachers, those taught by him, and any remarks made 
concerning him by other holy-men. In fact the method is very much 
that of el Mas'udi's panegyrics. 

But though the form is to some extent stereotyped and modelled 
on more classical prototypes, the style of writing is distinctly original. 

The Arabic is Sudanese colloquial and presents a very interesting 
study. No dictionary would alone enable one to deduce the meaning 
of all the words and phrases : one has to read them aloud and imagine 
a Sudanese is speaking. 

The narrative as a rule is vivid and fresh : the tale is seldom spun 
out tediously, and there are occasional gleams of humour. In fact 
it is in the descriptive narrative of action that Wad Dayfulla shines, 
and the biographies numbered 52, 60, 63, 66, 74, 143, 153 and 207 
are particularly picturesque and realistic. 

The grammar is bad, the spelling indifferent, and the style loose; 
but there is art galore, and even a jumble of personal pronouns 
referring indiscriminately to two or three different people cannot 
obscure the fact. 

The value of the book is not merely that it tells one for whom the 
majority of the kubbas that stud the Sudan were built, but that 
one gains some insight into the ways of living and thinking and 
speaking of the people of the land in the seventeenth and eighteenth 
centuries. Many of their beliefs and customs, their superstitions and 
practical ideas, are revealed ; and the fact that the author is not aiming 
at any such effect must obviously enhance the value of the information 

Where any test of the accuracy of dates and statements of fact is 
possible by cross-checking, it is surprising how seldom Wad Dayfulla 
is found nodding. There are no attempts either to record conversa- 
tions or to specify dates in the lives of the more remote generations 
of fekis. When our author knows a date he inserts it : when he does 
not he omits it. He leaves the impression of a kind-hearted but 
perspicacious old man of careful and thorough habits, devoting his 
unusual gifts of memory and narration to the cause of religion, and 


at the same time taking a real pleasure in regaling his contemporaries 
and posterity with the records of the holy-men of the past. 

It is not unlikely that he drew many of his facts from the library 
of that Hasan 'Abd el Rahman Ban el Nuka mentioned in D 7, cxc. 
Hasan's father was a pupil of an ancestor of Wad Dayfulla (see 
biography No. 89). 

As regards the plan followed in the translation, it must be 
explained that only portions of the text have been selected. There are 
in the original many pages containing uninteresting records of move- 
ments from village to village, list of pupils, and remarks made by 
one holy-man as to the excellence of another. In addition, the text 
is frequently so blurred and blotched or torn that it is impossible to 
be sure of the meaning of the whole of a passage. I have therefore 
only translated word for word such portions as are reasonably clear 
and as describe some incident of interest from the historical or socio- 
logical point of view, and have noted in brief paraphrase such points 
as seem worthy of mention in the remainder. 

Word for word translation is shown in inverted commas, para- 
phrase in smaller type. 

N.B. I. Such facts as are given in the English text of any biography 
may be taken to occur similarly in the Arabic of the same biography, 
and where relevant information concerning some holy-man occurs in the 
untranslated part of the Arabic text of the biography of someone else, it 
is always included in the notes to the biography of the former. 

2. Dates of birth and death are not infrequently given in the course 
of the Arabic text. Where this is the case the dates are placed, in the 
English text, immediately after the name of the subject of the biography, 
whatever may have been their position in the Arabic MS. 

3. The English equivalents of Arabic dates, notices of textual 
emendations, and references to the numbers allotted to the English 
biographies or to the genealogical trees, are placed in the textual 
footnotes of the translation. 

4. The genealogical trees which form an Appendix to the work are 
compiled from the scattered remarks that occur at random in the course 
of the book. 

I The first page consists of a fragment of three and a half lines, viz. 
"In the name of God the Compassionate and Merciful. The Sheikh, 
the learned feki, the sage Muhammad Dayfulla, my father and lord, 

said 'Praise be to God, the Mightiest of the most mighty '" 

II The second page, which is in part torn, gives a brief account, on back 
and front, of the story of Iblis, Noah, the prophet Idris, Abraham, Isaac, 
Jacob, Job, Moses and Aaron. 

Ill The third page, also fragmentary, commences with mentions of 
Jesus and Mary and the Jews. Praises of Kuraysh follow, and quotations 


from the Kuran. On the back of this page, after an invocation to God, 
commences the historical portion of the work, as follows : 

IV " Know that the Fung possessed and conquered the land of the 
Nuba early in the tenth century, in the year 910I. And [then] the 
town of Sennar was founded by King 'Omara Dunkas. The town of 
Arbagi was founded thirty years previously by Hegazi ibn Ma'in. 

V And in these countries neither schools for learning nor Kuran 
were in vogue; and it is said that a man might divorce his wife 
and she be married by another man on the selfsame day without 
any period of probation {'idda), until Sheikh. . .{word missing)... 
el Kusayer el 'Araki^ came from Egypt and taught the people to 
observe the period of probation and dwelt on the White [Nile] and 
built himself a castle, which is now known as ' the castle of Mahmud ' 
{Kusr Mahmud). 

VI And early in the second half of the tenth century the Sultan 
'Omara Abu Sakaykin appointed Sheikh 'Agib el Mangilak, and in 
the early days of [the latter's] rule Sheikh Ibrahim el Bulad came 
from Egypt to the Shaiki'a country and there taught law [Khalil] 
and apostleship [risdla] ; and learning spread throughout the Gezira. 

VII Then after a short time came Sheikh Tag el Din el Bahari^ 
from Baghdad and introduced Sufiism into the Fung court. 

VIII Then came el Telemsani el Moghrabi; and he inspired 
Sheikh Muhammad^ ibn 'Isa Sowar el Dhahab, and instructed 
him in dogma, and taught him what pertains to the sphere of faith, 
and the interpretation of the Kuran, and its correct recital, and the 
methods of reading it and its syntax. 

IX And the doctrine of the Unity of God and the art of reciting 
the Kuran spread throughout the Gezira, for 'Abdulla el Aghbash^, 
and Nusr father*^ of the feki Abu Sinayna'^ at Arbagi, were his pupils 
in Kuranic teaching. 

X Then arose Sheikh Idris^, who was not inspired by any other 
sheikh. Some say he was instructed by the Prophet, and others that 
a man from the west [el moghrab], called 'Abd el Kafi, whom he met 
by the way, deputed him. 

XI Shortly afterwards arose Sheikh Hasan^ walad Hasuna by the 
will of the Prophet of God, upon whom be the blessings of God. 

XII Then came Sheikh Muhammad ihn. . .{word missing). . .[to] 
the Berber country and introduced there the tenets of el Shafa'i; 
and these tenets spread in the Gezira. 

1 1504 A.D. 

2 No. 157. 

3 No. 67. 

* No. 191. 

5 No. 31. 

^ reading jJlj for jJ^ 

7 No. 51. 

8 No. 141. 

^ No. 132. 


XIII Then came the Mashaikha, and the town of el Halfaya was 
founded.. . , " {Page ends.) 

One or more pages are missing here. The next page extant begins with 
the education and rise of Sheikh Idri's^ wad Arbab of 'Aylafun {q.v.), 
and from here onwards the book is complete and no pages are missing: 
the key-words that should connect one page with the next and that have 
so far failed to do so, from here onwards connect every page. 

Here follow in turn extracts from the biographies of all the holy-men 
mentioned by the Tabakdt. In the Arabic the names are arranged in a 
rough alphabetical order, and as not only are there lapses from this system 
but the order, when observed, is that of the Arabic alphabet, I have re- 
arranged the order in which the biographies are given to suit the English 

1. '"Abd el Baki walad Kuways, el KahU." 

Born and buried at el Shara'ana.. . ."He was one of the forty 
pupils of Sheikh Dafa'alla^." 

2. " 'Abd el Baki el Wall" 

" He was one of the four contemporaries by whose lives the world 
profited, namely Sheikh Bedr^ ibn el Sheikh Um Barak in the east, 
Sheikh Muhammad^ ibn el Terayfi and Sheikh Khogali^ in the 
north, [and fourthly himself 'Abd el Baki].". . .His "Sheikh" was el 

Mesallami^ "He died at Moya, a well-known hill in the south, 

in the days of King Badi walad Nul." 

3. "'Abd el Dafa'i." 

He lived in the south and was a pupil of Sheikh Ya'akub' ibn el 
Sheikh Ban el Nuka. "They were five in number who were pupils 
of Sheikh Ya'akub, viz. Musa^ and Marzuk^ his two sons, and 
Hagu^^ son of his sister Batul, and 'Abd el Razik^^, and 'Abd el 

4. "'Abd el Dafa'i el Kandil ibn Muhammad ibn Hammad, 
el Gamu'i" (b. iioo a.h.^^. ^j j jSq a.h.^^). 

He was born at el Halfaya and was a follower of Sheikh Khogali [ibn 
'Abd el Rahman].. . .He was taught by the feki Shukrulla el 'Udi^* (his 
" Sheikh") and the feki Belal^^ and Abu el Hasan^^.. . .He created a record 
by teaching for 58 years and performed the pilgrimage.. . .His death oc- 
curred at Sennar but his body was taken to el Halfaya for burial. 

1 No. 141. 2 No. 84. 3 No. 76. 4 No. 177. 

5 No. 154. ® No. 172. ' No. 254. ® No. 209. 

8 No. 159. I*' No. 107. 11 No. 27. 12 1689 A.D. 

13 1767 a.d. 1* No. 240. 1^ No. 79. 16 No. 47. 


5 "'Abd el Halim ibn Sultan ibn 'Abd el Rahman ibn el feki 
Muhammad Bahr, el Moghrabi el Fasi." 

His grandfather came to the Sudan with a merchant from Egypt.. . .He 
himself was born at el Halfaya, and his mother's name was Siaka.. . .He 
was taught by Sheikhs Sughayerun^ and Idris^. 

6. '"Abd el Kadir el Bakkai ibn el Hag Fai'd." 

He was born at Shendi, and had a brother named Hammuda. . . . He 
was a disciple of Sheikh Muhammad el Medowi^ ibn el Misri.. . .He was 
buried at Abu Haraz. 

7. *" 'Abd el Kadir ibn el Sheikh Idri's." 

He was the youngest son of his father ^, and was born at Abyad Di'ri.. . . 
His mother was Tahira bint walad Abu 'Akrab, a Mahassi'a.. . .He had 
a son, Idris. 

8. "'Abd el Keri'm ibn 'Agi'b ibn Koruma, el Kahli." 

He learnt Sufiism from the feki Nafa'i el Fezari, who died at el Basha- 
kira, and who was taught it by Mukhtar^ walad Abu 'Anaya, el Gama'i 
\i.e. of the Gawama'a tribe], who was taught it by Taha' walad 'Omara, 
who was taught it by Sheikh Dafa'alla ^ ibn el Shafa'i, who was taught it 
by el Hag 'AbduUa^ el Halanki, the disciple of Sheikh Dafa'alla ^^ 

The feki Muhammad ibn Medani was one of his pupils. He went on the 
pilgrimage but was never heard of again. 

9. " 'Abd el Latif el Khatib ibn el Khatib 'Omara^^." 

He was born at Sennar and in time succeeded his father as preacher. . . . 
He was profoundly learned, and performed the pilgrimage.. . .His death, 
at the hands of el Malik Subr, was avenged upon the latter by King Badi. 

10. 12 " 'Abd EL Magid IBN Hammad elAghbash" (d.1121 a.h.^^). 
He was taught by his father Hammad ^^, and, in his turn, taught the feki 

Mekki walad Serag el Magdhub, and the feki Walad Abu 'Asida, and the 
feki Samih el Tamirabi, and the latter's two sons Sa'ad and Hammad. 

11. ^^" 'Abd el Mahmud el Nofalabi." 

An 'Araki of the stock of Mahmud ^^ " Ragil el Kusr.". . .He was born 
at el Kubia and attained very great fame.. . .He was a contemporary of 
Sheikh Khogali^^, whose daughter he married.. . .He was a party to a 
famous "cause celebre" described as follows: 

'Abd el Mahmud had married a Ga'ali woman called Husna and by 
her had two daughters: she then demanded a divorce from him, 
"and he said to her 'Settle your dowry upon my daughters'; and 
when she had done so he divorced her. Then she went to the feki 
Hammad^** and offered herself to him, forgoing her right to a dowry; 
and he married her. And she said to him ' I have been unjustly 
treated by 'Abd el Mahmud : he robbed me of my stipulated right, 

3 No. 165. 4 Tree 4. 

7 No. 248. 8 No. 83. 

^^ No. 219. ^^ Tree 2. 

15 Tree 7. i« No. 157. 

1 No. 241. 

2 No. 


5 No. 141. 

6 No. 


» No. 33. 

i« No. 


1^ 1710 a.d. 

14 No. 


" No. 154. 

18 No. 




and I want you to get it back for me from him.' And the feki Hammad 
believed her story and complained against 'Abd el Mahmud to the 
troops encamped at Abu Zariba; but they said to him 'We will not 
interfere in your affairs.' Then the feki Hammad wrote to him a letter 
on a tablet and the contents were as follows: 'From Hammad ibn 
Mariam to 'Abd el Matrud. God Almighty said "Give the women 
their dowry freely," and you have disobeyed the book of God and 
robbed the woman of her dowry. You are no 'Abd el Mahmud 
[lit. "Slave of Him that is praised"], you are 'Abd el Matrud [lit. 
"Slave of the expelled one"]!' — that is the devil. This letter he 
gave to a Fezari fakir; and ['Abd el Mahmud] said to him 'You 
are my disciple [howdri] and I have educated you, and do you 
bring me a letter like this ? ' And God caused that fakir to die the 
very same day. [Meanwhile] the feki Hammad was staying in his 
village, which is at Omdurman, when fire broke out and consumed 
all his rooms and surrounded the room in which he was on every 
side. And the people said to him 'Come out'; but he replied 'I 
won't ! Shall I leave my books ? ' Then Ahmad ibn 'Ali el 'dnabi 
went in after him and brought him out, bed and all. Then they re- 
built the rooms with stone but the fire blazed up in the stone. And 
indeed we have seen written in the handwriting of the feki Hammad 
the following : ' After I escaped from the fire all and sundry believed 
in him and were amazed at him, and,' he added, 'el Husna has done 
all this: she said he robbed her of her dowry, — may God call her 
to account!'" 

12. " 'Abd el Nur ibn Obayd." 

He was a follower of Sheikh Muhammad^ walad Da'ud el Lukr, and 
was buried at Abu Haraz. 

"'Abd el Rahim ibn el Sheikh Sulayman el Zamli" {vide sub 
"Wadad,"No. 251). 

13. 2" 'Abd el Rahim ^ ibn el Sheikh 'Abdulla* el 'Araki."... 
He was known as " Ibn el Khatwa.". . .He was born in the Hegaz. 

14. ^"'Abd el Rahman 'Abu Fak' ibn Medani^ walad Um 

He was born and buried at Nuri in the Shai'kia country, but spent 
part of his life at el Abwab. 

15. ^"'Abd el Rahman ibn AsId" (d. 1127 a.h.^). 

His mother was Sitt el Dar the daughter of Sheikh 'Abd el Rahman^ 
ibn Hammadtu, and his father Asid, a Shaiki of the Awlad Um SAlim 
section.. . .He was born at Nuri.... He was taught law [Khali/] by his 

1 No. 186. 2 Tree 9. ^ reading _,^»yJljuc for ^j..o^ji\j^. 

* No. 34. ^ Tree 10. ^ No. 164. ' Tree 10. 

8 1715 a.d. ^ No. 21. 


maternal uncle and " Sheikh," Muhammad^ walad Um Gadayn, and was 
instructed in the Kuran by Sheikh 'Abd el Rahman ^ ibn el Aghbash.. . .In 
1 107 A.H. [1695 A.D.] he left the Shai'kia country with his mother's relatives, 
the AwLAD Um Gadayn ^, for el Abwab.. . .Among his followers were the 
noh\e feki Walad Bahr, Sheikh ibn Medani, Malik* ibn 'Abd el Rahman, 
Hammad^ ibn el Magdhub, and Muhammad ibn Bakhit el Muhammadabi. 

16. ^"'Abd el Rahman ibn Belal" (d. 1155'' a.h.). 

He was the fifth successor of Sheikh Sughayerun ^. . . . His instructors 
were his father ^ and his maternal uncle the feki Abu el Hasan ^" ; and among 
his pupils were the feki Kumr el Din and his brother el Zayn, the three 
sons of the feki Hammad el Tud [Tor .''], the feki Serhan^^ walad Teraf, the 
feki Sanhuri^^ walad Madthir, and others. 

17. i^'"Abd el Rahman ibn Gabir^*." 

He was one of the most famous savants of the Sudan. . . . He was taught 
by his brother Ibrahim el Bulad and by Sidi Muhammad el Banufari.. . . 
"He taught the science of law [lit. Khaltl] from beginning to end 
forty times, and he had under him three mosques, in the Shaikia 
country, at Korti, and among the Dufar respectively: in each of 
these he used to teach {lit. 'read') for four months.". . .Among his 
pupils were such famous men as 'Abdulla^^ el 'Araki, 'Abd el Rahman ^^ ibn 
Masikh el Nuwayri, Ya'akub^' ibn el Sheikh Ban el Nuka, el Mesallami^^ 
walad Abu Wanaysa, Lukani el Hag^^ (maternal uncle of Hasan Hasuna), 
and 'fsa^°, the father of Muhammad ibn 'fsa Sowar el Dhabab.... 
"The four sons of Gabir were like the four elements, each one of 
them having his peculiar excellence. The most learned of them was 
Ibrahim, the most virtuous 'Abd el Rahman, the most pious Isma'il, 
and the most zealous 'Abd el Rahim^^; and their sister Fatima, the 
mother of the son^^ of Serhan, was like unto them in learning and 
religion. And their mother was named Safia." . . . They were buried at 
Tarnag in the Shaikia country. 

18. " 'Abd el Rahman ibn Hag el Dwayhi." 

He was born in the Shaikia country and was a pupil of 'Abd el 
Rahman-^ ibn Asid. 

19. 24" 'Abd el Rahman ibn el Hag Khogali ^s." 

"He devoted himself entirely to the service of God: no one ever 
saw him eat or drink or laugh or tell a tale or talk of what concerned 
him or what concerned him not or uncover his head." 

1 No. 203. ' ^ No. 20. ^ Nos. 14, 164, 203. m 

4 No. 158. 5 No. 123. « Tree i. I 

' 1742 A.D. ^ No. 241. * No. 79. ■ 

10 No. 47. 11 No. 234. 12 No. 227. ■ 

13 Tree i. 1* No. 96. ^^ Nq ^4. % 

i« No. 23. 1' No. 254. 18 No. 172. 

1^ No. 156. 2" No. 144. 21 reading ^o**->^'«J^ for ^;j^o^jij^. 

22 No. 241. 23 No_ i^_ 24 Tree 7. " 25 ^o. 154. 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 225 

20. 1 " 'Abd el Rahman ibn Hammad el Aghbash^," 
He was taught by his father and 'fsa walad Kanu^. 

21. ^'"Abd el Rahman ibn Hammadtu el KHAjiB." 

He was taught by Sheikh Isma'i'l ibn Gabir and visited Sheikh el 
Banufari. . . . His sons by one wife were Medani el Natik^ and the feki Sheikh 
el A'sir^; and, secondly, by Um Gadayn, Muhammad and Medani; and, 
thirdly, Malik' and Abu Dukn. 

22. ®" 'Abd el Rahman ibn Ibrahim walad Abu Malah." 

He was born at Debbat 'Antar, and was named by his mother after her 
maternal uncle 'Abd el Rahman^ ibn Masikh el Nuwayri.. . .As a boy he 
was taught by Muhammad ^^ ibn 'Isa Sowar el Dhahab. Subsequently he 
visited Egypt and took lessons from Sheikh el Islam Ali el Ag-huri.. . .He 
was the fatlier of Sheikh Khogali ^^. 

23. ^2" 'Abd el Rahman ibn Masikh, el Nuwayri." 

He was a close companion of Sheikh Abdulla el 'Araki^^, and 
"one of the forty disciples of Walad Gabir." ..." He was, too, one of 
the four whom Sheikh 'Agib appointed [wald] by order of King 
Dekin ' Sid el 'Ada,' "... He was buried at el Fukara behind Arbagi. 

24. 1^" 'Abd el Rahman ibn Muhammad ibn Medani." 

He was known as"Anuniran." . . .He was taught by the/(?Az Muhammad^ ^ 
ibn Ibrahim, and held in great respect by the Danakla and Shaikia.. . . 
He was murdered by his cousins out of envy. 

25. ^^"'Abd el Rahman ibn el Sheikh Salih^' Ban el Nuka" 
(b. 1 121 or 1122^^). 

He was taught by the fekis Dayfulla^^, and 'Abd el Hadi (a disciple of 
Muhammad ibn Medani), and 'Abd el Baki ibn Faka, the disciple of el 
Khatib'Abd el Latif ^o of el 'Egayga, and Isma'il ibn el feki el Zayn, and others. 
. . .Among his pupils were 'Abdulla ^^ ibn Sabun and 'Ali el Shafa'i^^ and 
Ferah ibn Taktuk^^.. . . 

He used to have visions. 

26. " 'Abd el Rahman ibn Teraf." 

A Mesallami by origin, born at el Hukna on the Atbara. ... He and his 

family migrated thence to Soba on the Blue Nile He was a friend and 

follower of Sheikh Idris^^ wad el Arbab, who " taught him medicine ; and 
he instructed the people accordingly. And he used to cure devils by 
A. B. T. Th. G. H. Kh. etc." 

He was buried close to Soba, in the desert. 

1 Tree 2. 2 No. hS. 3 ^o. 143. 

* Tree 10. ^ No. 163. ^ No. 236. 

' No. 158. 8 Tree 7. « No. 23. 

10 No. 191. " No. 154. 12 Tree 7. 

13 No. 34. " Tree 10. 1^ No. 252 ? 

i« Tree 8. " No. 226. ^^ 1708-9 a.d. 

19 No. 88. 20 No. 9. 21 No. 38. 

22 No. 63. 23 No. 95. 24 No. 141. 

M.S. II 15 


27. "'Abd el Razik Abu Kurun" (d. 1070 a.h.^). 

He was by race a Rufa'i.. . .He was a follower of Sheikh Ya'akub^ ibn 
el Sheikh Ban el Nuka, who sent him to teach at el Abwab, and a contem- 
porary of Sheikh Idris^ wad el Arbab and Sheikh Hasan* Hasuna and 
Sheikh Sughayerun^ and Sheikh Maski'n^ el Khafi....He had twelve 

He worked several miracles, of which the following is an example. 
"And there came to him a slave girl, the w^ife of King 'Adlan, and 
said to him * My lord, my children have died; I prithee beseech God 
to recompense me for them with others.' He said to her ' I grant it, 
I grant it' five times, and she bore five children; and they became 
the ancestors of the 'Adlanab.". . . 

He died at Muays and was buried at Meshra el Ahmar, "and his 
tomb is plain to see and should be visited with becoming humility 
and gravity . . . and the news of his death reached Sheikh Hasan 
walad Hasuna. ..." 

28. '"Abd el Sadik ibn Husayn walad Abu Sulayman, el 


He was born, died and was buried at Um Dom.. . .The feki el Zayn' 
taught him law [Khalil] and Sheikh el Medowi^ apostleship [risdla]. 

29. "'Abd el Wahhab ibn el feki Hammad^ el Negid, el 

He was Imam of the mosque at Aslang, and was buried on the hill to 

the west of it "And when the feki Hammad^" went forth with 

Sheikh 'Agib the Great to war against the king of the Fung he said 
* After me my son Bekri shall read in the mosque, and after him this 
boy 'Abd el Wahhab.'" 

30. " 'Abd el Wahhab walad Abu Kurbi." 
Born at Aslang Island, and buried west of it. 

31. ^^"'Abdulla el Aghbash, el Bedayri el Dahmashi." 

He was born at Berber and taught by Muhammad ^^ Sowar el Dhahab 
and Walad Gabir^^.. . .He propagated [///. "lit the fire of"] the Kuran at 

32. " 'Abdulla ibn el 'Aguz." 

A pupil of Sheikh Muhammad el Mesallami. 

33. "'Abdulla ibn 'Ali el Halanki." 

He was born at Taka and finally buried there.. . .He was taught by 
Sheikh Dafa'alla^* and, in his turn, taught Sheraf el Din ^^ walad Barri, and 

^ 1659 A.D., reading ^J^^u■^ for uju-j. - No. 254. 

3 No. 141. * No. 132. ^ No. 241. 

^ V. sub No. 250. ' No. 258. ^ No. 165. 

9 No. 126. 10 No. 126. 11 Tree 2. 

12 No. 191. 13 No. 17? 14 No. 84. 

1^ No. 237. 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 227 

Dafa'alla^ ibn el Shafa'i of the 'ArakiIn He lived for some time at 

Abu Haraz. 

34. 2" 'Abdulla ibn Dafa'alla el 'Araki. 

He was born at Abyad Diri. His mother was Hadia bint 'Atif of the 
Gimi'ab.. . .'Abd el Rahman^ el Nuwayri accompanied him when he 

went to the Shaiki'a country to visit 'Abd el Rahman* [ibn Giibir] 

" In his days came Sheikh Tag el Din^ el Bahari from Baghdad.". . . 

Among his pupils were his two brothers Abu Idris* and Hammad 

el Nil, Muhammad' walad Daud el Lukr and Sheikh Sheraf el Din^ 

He performed the pilgrimage 24 times.... His sons were Manofali and 
'Abd el Rahman Abu Shanab and 'Abd el Rahi'm^ ibn el Khatwa and 
others.. . .He was buried at Abu Haraz. 

35. i°" 'Abdulla ibn Hammad ibn el feki 'Abd el Magid^^." 
A nephew of Mustafa ['Abd el Magid]. 

36. " 'Abdulla walad Hasoba el Moghrabi." 

His father came as a stranger to the land and settled at Soba and 
attached himself to Sheikh Idris^"^ [wad el Arbab]. 'Abdulla himself was 
born at Soba, and migrated later to Um Leban on the White Nile, where 
he died and was buried.. . .His sons were Tagur^^ el Nahasi, Muhammad 
el Bekri, and el Hag. 

37. " 'Abdulla ibn Musa 'el Mushammir.' " 

A Begawi by race; born at Um Hurfa.. , . Sheikh Idri's^* nicknamed him 
"el Mushammir" ["One who tucks up his clothes"]. 

38. " 'Abdulla IBN Sabun," 

He was by birth a slave [mamluk], the property of a woman of el 
Kalay'a.. . .Though offered a wife he refused and died unmarried. 

40. *' 'Abdulla el Sherif." 

He was nicknamed "Tuwayl el Halfaya." He was born in Fas.. . . 
He was a follower of Ahmad ibn Nasir, and died at Sennar. 

41. 15 '"Abdulla 'el Terayfi.'"" 

His father was Sheikh Muhammad Abu 'Akla^^ el Kashif.. . .He was 
a pupil of Sheikh Dafa'alla i''.. . . He went on the pilgrimage but died on 
the road.. . .His sons were named Ahmad ^^ and Muhammad 1^.. . . 

"He was called 'Terayfi' from the beauty of his features [atrdf], 
namely his face and his forearms and his feet." 

42. 20 '-'Abu 'Akla.'" 

His real name was Muhammad.. . .'Akla was his daughter and hence 
he was called " father of 'Akla." . . . He was a follower of his father's brother 
Sheikh Abu Idris'-^.. . .His sons were 'Abdulla "el Terayfi -2," Shams 
el Din, Abu Idris, and Hammad Abu Kurn. 

1 No. 83. 2 Tree 9. ^ No. 23. " No. 17. 

5 No. 67. 6 I^To ^8^ 7 No. 186. 8 No. 238. 

9 No. 13. 10 Tree 2. ^^ No. 10. 12 No. 141. 

13 reading j^a-U for j^a-^J, No. 246. 1* No. 141. 

15 Tree 9. ' ^^ ^o. 42. " No. 84. i^ No. 56. 

19 No. 177. 20 Tree 9. ^i ^o. 48. 22 No. 41. 



43. "*Abu 'Akla' ibn el Sheikh Hammad." 

His grandfather [gid/ni] was Sheikh Dafa'alla.. . .Among his fol- 

owers was Sheikh Isma'iF ibn Mekki el Dakalashi "And when he 

died, God bless him, there arose from his tomb a scent sweeter 
than pinewood and the camphor tree. And his sons were Hammad 
el (Hasib ?) and Sheikh Kismulla ; and all the stock of Sheikh 
Dafa'alla is descended from these two." 

44. "Abu Bukr," 

"The holy-man of Hagar el 'Asal, a Takagabi by origin. He it 
was that guided Sheikh Hasan ^ ibn Hasuna and revealed to him the 

45. "Abu Bukr walad Tuayr." 

A pupil and follower of Sheikh el Zayn^. 

46. 4 "Abu Delayk." 

"He was paternal uncle of Sheikh Bedowi^ and a follower of 
Sheikh Selman el TowaH^. He was entirely devoted to religion 
and went clothed in patches and rags [dulkdn] . He was called ' Abu 
Delayk ' (' Father of Rags ') and also ' Dhanab el 'Akrab ' (' Scorpion's 
Tail') because he will not suffer deeds of darkness, but is swift to 
strike [such as do them]. 

He guided and instructed [the people], and among his followers 
was his brother's son Sheikh Bedowi^. His children were Husayn 
and 'Ayesha; and when he was nigh unto death, the people said to 
him ' Who is to be the Khalifa after you ? ' And he said ' 'Ayesha my 
daughter.' And Sheikh Bedowi married her and begat by her el 
Nukr and Sheikh Medowi^ and 'Abdulla and Tag el Din. He died, 
and was buried at el Nigfa and his tomb is plain to see." 

47. ^"Abu el Hasan ibn Salih, el 'Udi" (b. 1070^" a.h.; 
d. 1133^^ A.H.). 

His mother was Hosha, the daughter of Sheikh el Zayn^^. 

48. i3«AbuIdris." 

His full name was Sheikh Muhammad ibn el Sheikh Dafa'alla^* ibn 
Mukbal el 'Araki.. . .He was Sheikh el Islam and very famous.. . .He was 
buried with his brother Sheikh 'Abdulla ^^. 

49. 1*'"AbU EL KaSIM 'el GUNAYD.'" 
The son of Sheikh 'Ali el Nil i'. 

50. "Abu el Kasim el Wadianabi, el Mesallami." 
A pupil of Sheikh Idris. 

1 No. 145. 

2 No. 132. 

3 No. 258. 

* Tree 12. 

5 No. 74. 

^ No. 230. 

' No. 74. 

8 No. 167, 

^ Tree i. 

1° 1659 A.D. 

^1 1720 A.D. 

12 No. 258 


^^ Tree 9. ^^ No. 84, reading <xJUI as^ for ai^ 

15 No. 34. i« Tree i. i' No. 62. 



51. "Abu Sinayna." 

His full name was Muhammad ibn Nusr, el Tergami el Ga'ali. He 
was born at el Buwayd. 

"His father Nusr was instructed in the Kuran and its teachings 
by Sheikh Muhammad^ ibn 'fsa; and it was the latter who advised 
him to marry the mother of 'Abu Sinayna.' And it was thus : Sheikh 
Muhammad saw her when she was young and said to him * You shall 
marry this girl and she shall bear to you a pious son.' [Nusr] replied 
'[Then] she wall bear [one like] you yourself.' And thrice or four 
times [Sheikh Muhammad] said 'She shall do so.' And it came to 
pass that her people journeyed from Dongola to el Buwayd in the 
region of el Abwab, and [Nusr] went after her and married her, and 
there was born to him 'Abu Sinayna.'. . .Subsequently ['Abu 
Sinayna'] settled at Arbagi and taught the people there.". . . 

He was buried at Arbagi. 

52. "Abu SuRUR, EL Fadli." 

He was born at el Halfaya.. . .His mother was Kanuna bint el Hag 

'Ali of the Fadlia tribe He was taught law [Khalil] by Sheikh el 

Zayn^ and the articles of faith [el 'akdid] by the feki 'Ali^ walad Barri. 
. . . After teaching awhile at el Halfaya he went to Darftir and taught 
there.. . .He was finally murdered in Dar Sali'h, "and the cause of his 
death was that while he was asleep his concubines killed him by 
smashing his skull with stones; may God be their enemy!" 

53. "Abu Zayd* ibn el Sheikh 'Abd el Kadir." 

He was a follower of Sheikh el Zayn^.. . .He travelled to Darftir and 
Borku in the days when Sultan Ya'akub reigned in the latter.. . .He died 
in Darfur. . . . His sons were Subah and 'Abd el Kadir and 'Ali and Hegazi^. 

54. ''"Abudi." 

A disciple of el Mesallami^.. . .His sons were Muhammad^, Ahmad, 
el Mesallami, 'Abd el Hafi'z and Ibrahim^", all of them fekis. . .He died 
at el Ferar. 

55. 11 "'El 'Agami' ibn Hasuna." 

His real name was Muhammad.. . .His mother was Fatima bint 
Wahshia whose father was a Mesallami Kabaysi and whose mother was 
a SaridiaKhamaysia^^. . . . He went on the pilgrimage and died in the Hegaz. 

56. 13 "Ahmad ibn el Sheikh 'Abdulla el Terayfi." 

A follower of Sheikh Dafa'alla Ahmad, in whose charge Sheikh 'Abdulla, 
left his sons when starting for the pilgrimage.. . .He died in sannat el 
gjdri ("small-pox year"), as did some sixteen of his relatives also. 

1 No. 191. 2 No. 258. 3 No. 58. 

* reading •XJj^jl for jkJjjt. ^ No. 258. 

^ No. 133. ' Tree 11. ^ No. 172. 

9 No. 179. 1" No. 135. 11 Tree 5. 

12 reading 5*....*^>^ for Ay..*»^. ^^ Tree 9. 


57. '"Ali WALAD Abu DUKN." 

His father was a Dongolawi.. . .His mother's name was Siaka.. . .His 
burial-place was el Ruays near el Halfaya.. . .Sheikh Idris^ visited his 

58. -'"Ali ibn Barri" (b. loio to 1013 a.h.; d. 1073^ a.h.). 
His mother was Umhani bint el Wali 'Ali ibn Kandi'l el Saridi.... 

Various laudations of him are quoted, including one hy the feki Sughayerun^ 
el Shakalawi, who said " I knew Sheikh Idri's^ and Walad Hasuna^ and 
'Abd el Razik'^ and Basbar^, but I found none of them as quick in 
his answers as this boy, 'Ali ibn Barri.". . . 

Among his pupils was the feki Arbab el Khashan ^. . . . His "sheikh " was 
Basbar, and the famous case of Basbar and the Hammadia woman is related 
in the biographies of both master and pupil.. . . 'Ali also had a dispute with 
Mismar el Halashi of Kerri about a cow and foretold the resultant deposi- 
tion of Mismar by the King of Sennar, in favour of 'Ali ibn 'Othman. 
"And they have been deposed [from their power] until this present 
day. His son Khidr held the sheikhship after el 'Agayl for six months 
and was then deposed; and Mismar the son of Walad ^° 'Agib [ruled] 
for two months after Sheikh 'Abdulla, and was then deposed." 

59. " 'Ali walad Dhiab, el Kurayshabi." 

He was born at Aslang Island and taught by fekis BelaF^ and Abu 
el Hasan ^".. . .He visited Sennar, and finally died at Koz walad Barakat 
where he had started a school.. . .Muhammad el Nur Subr and other 
descendants of Hammad^^ ibn Mariam were among his pupils. 

" 'Ali ibn Hammuda" {vide sub "Bakadi," No. 68). 

60. '"Ali walad 'Ishayb." 

"He was born at Dongola. He was taught by Sheikh Muham- 
mad el Banufari in Egypt and excelled in learning. Then he settled 
in the south, and Sheikh 'Agi'b the Great built him a mosque, and 
the king of the Fung granted him many lands on the east bank 
and in the Gezi'ra [el HUoi] and in the rainlands, and he acted as a 
judge and did justice therein and gave judgements according to the 
accepted standards and to the [more] valid arguments in the dispute. 

And he was the companion of Sheikh Ibrahim el Bulad ibn Gabir 
in the quest after learning in Egypt; and it is said that each of 
the two prayed a prayer against the other and obtained his desire 
therein: Sheikh 'Ali walad 'Ishayb prayed against Sheikh Ibrahim 
el Bulad saying 'May God shorten your life [that you may die] 
in your youth'; and the whole incident^* is explained in The 

1 No. 141. 2 Tree 3. 

* No. 242. 5 No. 141. 

' No. 27. 8 No. 73. 

^° reading jJjjJj for djJjjJj. ^^ No. 89. 

13 No. 124. 1" reading ijL^I for aJL^I. 







1662 A.D. 
No. 132. 
No. 65. 

12 No 


IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 231 

Biographies Q). And Sheikh el Bulad said to him 'May God make 
your learning useless.' And verily [the period of] el Bulad's teach- 
ing was seven years [only] and in it he taught 40 persons, and then 
he died; and as for Sheikh 'Ali we have never heard of his having 
engaged in teaching of any importance, but only that he judged 
cases. And he was buried at el 'Aydai, and his tomb is plain to see; 
and all the 'Ishaybab are his descendants." 

61. "'Ali el Labadi." 

A Moghrabi by origin, born at Sennar.. . ."His father was one of 
God's chosen." ... His sister was given in marriage to 'Abd el Hafiz 
el Khatib, the father of el Khatib 'Omara^.. . .His sons were Ahlulla, 
Ghab 'Ain, and Mekki....A miracle related of him is that he dipped 
his stick {'ukdz) into a jar (zeer) full of water, pronouncing these words 
" In the name of God the Compassionate and Merciful A. B. T. Th. 
G. H. Kh.," and immediately the water was turned into yellow clarified 
butter (samn).. . .He was buried at Sennar. 

62. 2 '"Ali 'el Nil' ibn el Sheikh Muhammad^ el Hamim." 
He was the third successor (Khalifa) of Sheikh Tag el Din* in the 

country of the Fung.... He was a follower of his father in religious 
matters.. . .He was called "el Nil" ("the Nile") because of the floods of 
knowledge that he poured in the dry wastes of the people's minds, — the 
sobriquet being given him by Sheikh Dafa'alla^.. . .His father, whose 
"Sheikh" was Tag el Din el Bahari, lived at Mundara ; and it was there 
'Ali was buried.. . .On his deathbed he appointed Sheikh "el Gunayd^" 
his successor.. . .He lived in the reign of King Rubat of Sennar. 

63. " El fekir 'Ali walad el Shafa'i." 

A pupil of feki 'Omara', and a follower of Sheikh Dafa'alla^.. . .He 
composed religious poetry, "and if he heard his poetry recited by any- 
one else he used to weep and fly in the air : this was witnessed several 
times." He was buried at Sennar. 

64. ^" 'Araki ibn el Sheikh Idris^°." 

His father named him after Sheikh 'Abdulla el 'Araki ^^ He died of 


65. "Arbab ibn 'Ali ibn 'On" (d. 1102^^ a.h.). 

He was called "el Khashan el Khashuna.". . .Among his pupils were 
el Hag Khogali ^^, the feki Hammad ^^ ibn Mariam and Sheikh Ferah ^^ 
walad Taktuk.. . .He died at Sennar. 

66. " 'AwLfDA ibn 'Omar, ' Shakal el KArih.' " 

He was a pupil of Musa Ferid, the disciple [howdr] of Sheikh Hasan 
walad Hasuna.. . . 

1 No. 219. 2 Tree i. ^ No. 190. * No. 67. 

5 No. 84. 6 No. 49. ' No. 219. 8 No. 84. 

9 Tree 4. ^^ No. 141. ^^ No. 34 12 1690 a.d. 

13 No. 154. 1* No. 124. 15 No. 95 


Several miracles are recorded of him : 

(i) "Sheikh Muhammad^ ibn 'fsa was nigh unto death, and his 
wife, the daughter of el Malik Hasan walad Kashash^ the king of 
Dongola, and mother of Hilali^ his son, said to him 'Your elder sons 
you have guided [in the right way] ; but who is to look after my 
son?' And he said to her 'You must [apply to] el Hadari.' Then 
she came and brought her bracelets and anklets and said to him 
(i.e. el Hadari) 'I want you to make my son to sit in the seat of his 
father.' He replied [to her son] ' Son of my Sheikh, sit on my prayer- 
mat': so he sat there. Then [el Hadari] arose and ran round the room 
[khalzva] and came and knelt before him and took hold of his hand 
and kissed it, saying ' I have made you to sit in the seat of your father.' 
And indeed Hilali attained ^ great eminence among the Fung and the 
Arabs and acted as a judge and a teacher of all kinds of knowledge."... 

(2) "There came to him a certain man called Ibn 'Abad, who 
was addicted to evildoing^, and said to him 'I have a flourishing 
water-wheel and give you a quarter [share] in it.' And he replied 
' What do you want from me ? ' The man answered ' I want the grace ® 
of God.' ['Awuda] said 'I give you a quarter of God's grace.' Then 
the man repented and asked pardon of God. Afterwards he came 
again and said 'I have made it up to a half; and ['Awuda] said 
'And I grant you half of the grace of God.' And the man improved 
more and more : and finally he came and said ' I give you the whole 
water-wheel ' ; and ['Awuda] said to him ' I give you the whole of 
God's grace'; and the man fell down in a faint [and remained so] 
for some days, but finally he became a paragon and one of the saints 
[auliyd] of God.". . . 

(3) "Mismar walad 'Araybi in his journey to Dongola in the 
year 1070' wrought havoc among the men of rank and dignity^; and 
the people appealed to him [' Awuda] for help, and he said to them 
' His destruction will be at the hands of the short pale bald man ; and 
as for me, I am your security that the Sheikh of Kerri shall not enter 
Dongola: if he comes, [and if] 'Awuda is alive, strain some beer for 
him and he will drink it; and if he be dead pour it over his tomb.' I 
say that most of these events connected with the Sheikh ['Awuda] 
are fully corroborated, and are compatible with the Book and the 
Law [sunna] and the Unanimities'*." 

He went on the pilgrimage, and met Sheikh 'Ali el Ag-huri en route. 

1 No. 191. 2 reading t^l-^& forj^lCi^. ^ No. 134. 

■* reading iJa.^ for .-Jfl.^. ^ reading ^j\^a. for p_jl^».. 

^ reading J-JI for JJUI. ' 1659 a.d. 

^ reading ol^xfc.1 for ol^a-t. ^ reading cl<i».t for cl©.*.! 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 233 


67. "'El Bahari,' i.e. Tag el Din, el Baghdadi." 

"His actual name was Muhammad. 'El Bahari' was a surname 
due to the saying 'a shining \hdhir\ moon has passed,' and he was 
so called from the light of his countenance, — sweet is the odour of 
his story. He was the Sheikh, the Imam, the divine Kutb, the im- 
mortal Ghauth, the successor of Sheikh 'Abd el Kadir el Gilani. 
He was born at Baghdad, and went on the pilgrimage, and thence 
to the Sudan by leave of the Prophet of God . . . and of Sheikh 'Abd 
el Kadir el Gilani. He came with Daud ibn 'Abd el Gehl, the father 
of el Hag Sa'id, the ancestor of the people of el 'Aydag^ early in the 
second half of the tenth century, at the beginning of the rule of 
Sheikh 'Agib ; and he dwelt with Daud at Wad el Sha'i'r behind Um 

He married in the Gezira and lived there for seven years.... "He 
was the instructor of five famous men, viz. Sheikh Muhammad 
el Hamim^, and Sheikh Ban el Nuka 'el Darir^,' and Hegazi the 
founder of Arbagi and its mosque, and Sha'a el Dm walad Tuaym 
the ancestor of the Shukria, and Sheikh 'Agib the Great." 

It is said he taught 40 persons including the feki Hammad el Negid* the 
head of Aslang mosque, and the feki Rahma ^ the ancestor of the Halawiin, 
and the 'omda Walad Abu Sadik, and Ban el Nuka "el Darir^" ["the 
blind "].... It is also said he journeyed to Tekali and there instructed 
'Abdulla el Gamal, the ancestor of Sheikh Hammad' walad el Turabi. 

68. "'Bakadi.'" 

His real name was 'AH ibn Hammuda, el Kahli el Aswadi. He was 
born at el Shara'ana and was a pupil of Hamid Abu Muna. 

69. "Bakdush ibn Surur, el Gamu'i." 

A pupil of Sheikh Muhammad^ walad 'fsa.. . .He was appointed by 
Sheikh 'Agib the Great. 

70. 9" 'Ban el Nuka' walad el Sheikh 'Abd el Razik." 

His father called him "Ban el Nuka" after his grandfather i".. . ."He 
died at about the age of 40, or rather more." 

71 . " " ' Ban EL Nuka ' ibn Hammad ibn el Sheikh lDRis,el Fadli." 
His actual name was Muhammad.. . .His mother was a Sudanese.. . . 

"He was called 'Ban el Nuka' because his mother said 'My purity 
[nukdt] (that is innocence) has been revealed [ban].' He was a staff 
of support to King Nail. "...He was acquainted with Sheikhs Tag 

^ written j^juxJl. 

2 No. 190. 

3 No. 71 

* No. 126. 

5 No. 221. 

6 No. 71 

' No. 125. 

8 No. 191. 

9 Tree 8 

^» No. 71. 

11 Tree 8. 


el Din el Bahari^ and Muhammad el Hindi.. . .He died and was buried at 
el Wa'ar. 

72. ^"Barakat Hammad ibn el Sheikh Idris." 

He was a follower of el Imam 'Ali ibn Abu Talib and of his own 
grandfather Sheikh Idris ^.. . .Among his disciples were the fekis Medowi* 
ibn Medani and Muhammad ibn Yusef. ...He had ten sons, including 
Medowi^, Arbab, 'Araki, 'Abd el Rahman and Hammad. 

73. "Basbar 'el Shukri.'" 

By birth he was a Ga'ali 'Oni.. . .He was named Basbar by his mother. 
. . . He was born at el Mekayna and was a follower of Sheikh Sheraf el Din ^ 

Among his pupils were the two Awlad Barri ', Hamayd el Saridi ^ and 
the Awlad^elHagFdid.... 

"It is related that Sheikh Basbar married a woman of the 
Ahamda ['a Hammadi'a'] and divorced her. Then there came to her 
a son of her father's brother, a Hammadi, a disciple [hozcdr] of 
Sheikh 'Abd el Razik Abu Kurun, and married her, in spite of 
[Basbar's] warning to him. And [the Hammadi] said to his 'Sheikh' 
['Abd el Razik] ' You must protect me from him ' ; and [the Sheikh] 
replied 'Do not go near the river.' [Now these Ahamda] were 
riverain folk. And it is said that that man never went near the river 
for years; until finally his wife became pregnant and bore a child. 
Then he went close to the river for the shaving-ceremony of his 
child; and the moment he put his foot into the water a crocodile 
seized it and bit him that he died. Then [the crocodile] cast him 
upon the river bank. Then Basbar, who was [sitting] under the acacia 
trees, cried out 'He got him, he got him, did my boy 'Ali.' Now 
'Ali at that time was a small boy, [still] with a tuft on his head.". . . 

Basbar's sons were el Bedowi and Medani and 'Abd el Kadir Abu 

74. i°" Bedowi walad Abu Delayk" (d. 11 18" a.h.). 

It is said that his father was named 'Abdulla, and that his mother's 
name was Gawadi, and that he was by origin a Kahli.. . ."Sheikh 
Khogali^^ once said 'The fire of 'Abd el Kadir, after [the death of] 
Sheikh Idris ^^, was with Sheikh Bedowi.'". . . 

Several traditions and remarks concerning him and a number of verses 
are quoted. One story is as follows: the scene is at Wad Hasuna. 
"And I was in doubt whether to light the fire on the higher plateau 
or whether to go down to the river and do so at Sellama. Then I saw 
the Prophet of God. . .and he said to me 'Dwell in the red country 
with the red people ' ; and ' the red country ' is the hill of el Nigfa^ 

^ No. 67. 2 Tree 4. ^ No. 141. 

* No. 168. 5 No. 166. 6 No. 238. 

' Nos. 58 and 136. » No. 129. ^ No. 6. 

^° Tree 12. ^^ 1706 a.d. ^^ Nq. 154. ^^ No. 141. 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 235 

and ' the red people ' are the BATAHiN. So T built a retreat [khalzva] 
and in front of it a porch [rdkilba]. [And it happened that] a man 
of the MarghumarI had slain a son of Sheikh Na'i'm el Bathani^ 
and by chance came to me; so I put him inside the retreat and 
sat myself in the porch. [Then the avengers] came and entered 
[the retreat] after him and slew him and said to me ' Sheikh Na'i'm 
farts warnings, and you are making trouble for yourself.' [Then] 
they set fire to the retreat, but it would not take hold. And I said 
'These are no people [for me], I won't live with them.' And again I 
saw the Prophet of God, and as I was sitting before him I perceived 
many black ants making for him from the four quarters; and I said, 
'My lord, the Prophet of God, what are those ants [doing] ?' And 
he said ' They are come to you [for protection] ; stay where you are ; 
let no one interfere with [lit. come to] them.' [And so] here am I 
[lit. you see me^], O Sherif, in this place, eating my food [lit. my 
blessing] and awaiting my end.. . . 

And when he drew nigh unto death he said ' O ye women of the 
Kawahla, I will be your [strong] rock** on the day of the resurrec- 
tion'; and he died in the year 1118^; and in that same year el Samih 
made war on Shendi." 

75. " Bedr iBN EL Sheikh Selman iBN Yasir." 

"He embraced the tenets of Sufiism like his father, and was a 
follower of his father Sheikh Selman, and instructed the people. 
His clothes were always of wool [suf], and he was held in high esteem 
by the kings, and by the tribes of the Arabs from Berber to Upper 

His sons were el Amin and Sheikh Muhammad and Abu Salih, 
and 'AH the son of the Bishari'a woman.". . . 

He was buried with his father. 

76. "Bedr ibn el Sheikh Um Barak ibn el Sheikh Maski'n, 
EL Khafi." 

All the Maskinab, except a very few, are descended from him. 

77. "Bekri ibn el Sheikh 'Abdulla^ ibn Hasoba." 

His kubba is at Soba Bekri, but he died and was buried at Um Leban 
on the White Nile "with his father Sheikh 'Abdulla." 

78. "Bekri walad el feki Idris." 

He was born at Gedid, where his kubba now stands " He had the 

prophetic gift and was a friend of my grandfather the feki Muhammad 
walad DayfuUa." 

1 reading w>U^j-« for w>U^5;-«. ^ No. 213. 

3 reading t<Jl/J for ^\jJ. * reading O^IL^ for Uli**.. 

^ 1706 a.d. ® reading aJJIj^jp for ,_^».jJlju.ft. 


79. i"Belal ibn el feki Muhammad 2 el Azrak ibn el Sheikh 
EL Zayn^." 

He was taught by his father, and in his turn taught the feki Muhammad * 
ibn 'Abd el Rahman, and Sa'ad and Hammad the sons of the feki Samih 
el 'Armani, and the feki Shammar^ walad Adlan, and Medowi*^ ibn el 
Sheikh Barakat of the Mahass, and others. 

80. '^"Berr 'Abd el Ma'abud ibn el Sheikh 'Abd el Rahman^ 
el nuwayri." 

He was a follower of his mother's father Sheikh Muhammad^ walad 
Malimud el 'Araki. 

81. "Berr walad Na'im^" 'Abd el Sheraka." 

A pupil of Sheikh Dafa'alla^^.. . .Born and buried at el Kerrada. 

82. "Burt EL Mesallami." 

He was the disciple [hozvdr'] of Sheikh Selman^- el Towali and, 
together with Abu Delayk^^, learnt from him the tenets of Sufiism.... 
"He had supernatural powers [of prophecy], and said to Sheikh 
Salih^^ walad Ban el Nuka 'You shall be a great man: the saints shall 
come to you, the saints shall come to you; and they shall make you 
be seated [in their presence], and you shall light the fire of 'Abd el 
Kadir.' And his tomb is in the open country between Walad Hasuna 
and Walad Abu Delayk, and over it is a kubba." 


83. "Dafa'alla ibn 'Ali15 'el Shafa'i.'" 

Born at Arbagi.. . .He was taught by Sheikh 'AbduUa el Halanki^^. 

84. ^""Dafa'alla ibn el Sheikh Muhammad ^^ Abu Idri's^^" 
(b. 10032° A.H.; d. 1094-^). 

The best man of his epoch.. . .His mother was Fatima Um Hason'-'- 
bint el Hag Salama el Pubabi....He was born at Dubab behind Um 
'Azam and was taught by his father.. . . Sheikh Sughayerun^^, Belal el Shayb 
ibn el Talib, el Hag Khogali'^, and Muhammad -^ ibn el Terayfi all spoke in 
praise of him. . . . 'Abdulla"'^** el 'Araki was his father's brother. . . . He settled 
at Abu Haraz. . . . He founded a number of mosques in the Gezira and 
endowed them with land and slaves.. . .During all his life he never went 
to Sennar: if King Badi walad Rubat wished to speak to him he (the 
king) used to go to Abu Haraz on purpose.. . . 

1 Tree i. ^ tv^Tq 204. ^ ^^ 258. * No. 175. 

5 No. 235. « No. 166. ' Tree 7. « No. 23. 

9 No. 192. i« No. 212. 11 No. 84. 12 No. 230. 

13 No. 46. 14 No. 226. 15 No. 63. 16 No. 33. 

1' Tree 9. i^ No. 48. 1^ reading ^_r-Jji' 3^' for u^j^ >t'' • 
2" 1594 A.D. 21 158^ A.D. 

^ reading ^jy...^ for ^^.^».. ^ No. 241. 

24 No. 154. 25 No" 177. 26 No. 34. 



He died, aged 91, in 1094I a.h. "and in 10952 commenced Urn 

85. ^"Dafa'alla ibn Muhammad, el Kahli el Hadhali" (d. 
iiai"* A.H.). 

His mother was Ria bint Musa walad Hatuna, "and she called him 
Dafa'alla after Sheikh Dafa'alla el 'Araki^ because the latter was 
the 'Sheikh' of her father.", . .He was born and resided at el Halfdya, 
and was taught law [Khalil] by Muhammad^ el Azrak ibn el Sheikh el 
Zayn, and was the companion in Sufiism of Bedowi walad Abu Delayk, 
. . .He was often called "Walad Ria.". . ."When on his deathbed and 
surrounded by his relatives he said * Be of good cheer, O ye women 
of the Hatunab'^ (?), I will be your [strong] rock on the day of the 
resurrection'; just as Sheikh Bedowi^ walad Abu Delayk said 'Be 
of good cheer, O ye women of the Kawahla, I will be your [strong] 
rock on the day of the resurrection.' " He died in 1121 ^ a.h. 

86. ""Dafa'alla ibn Mukbal, 'el 'Araki.'" 

"He came from the west country, from near Bir Serrar, and was 
accompanied by the feki Muhammad walad Fakrun, the father of the 
Mashai'kha, the people of Ankawi ; but I do not know if they were 
relations or merely brethren in Islam. He settled at Gerf el Gimi'ab 
and married Hadia bint 'Atif in the Gimi'ab country and by her begot 
his five famous sons, the just ones, Hammad 'el Nil' and 'Abdulla^^ 
and Abu Idris^- and Abu Bukr Abu 'Ayesha and el Magdhub. He 
was known as ' el 'Araki ' because of his descent from the well-known 
tribe of 'Arak." 

87. "Daud ibn Muhammad ibn Daud ibn Hamdan." 

He was born and buried at Kuthra, and educated at el Halfaya by 
Dafa'alla 13 "walad Ria."... 

"The great men of his epoch trusted him greatly, and especially 
Sheikh Muhammad Abu el Kaylak." 

88. i^"Dayfulla ibn 'Ali ibn 'Abd el Ghani ibn Dayfulla, 

He was born at el Halfaya.. . .Sheikh el Zayn^^ taught him law 
[Khalil] and apostleship [risdla]; Sheikh Dafa'alla ^^ ibn el Sheikh Abu 
Idris taught him the tenets of Sufiism [tasuf]; and the feki Hamayd^^ 
el Saridi taught him the doctrine of Unity [tawhid] and grammar [nahu]. 
. . .He was a great teacher at el Halfaya, and died in the year Um Lahrn^^. 

1 1683 A.D. 2 1684 A.D. 3 Tree 6. ^ 1709 a.d. 

^ No. 84. ^ No. 204. ' reading Ol-jO^JUk for oLjUyiA. 

^ No. 74. ^ 1709 A.D. 1*' Tree 9. ^^ No. 34. 

12 No. 48, reading er-iji' yi^ for u^.j^^ >»'• ^^ No. 85. 

1* Tree 6. ^^ 1684 a.d. i« No. 258. ^^ No. 84. 

18 reading j^^^f,^ for ju>».l, No. 129. 1^ 1684 a.d. 


89. ^ " Dayfulla iBN Muhammad iBNr)AYFULLA2"(d. ii82A.h.^). 
His father named him after his grandfather ^. . . . He was taught by the 

fekis Belal^ and Abu el Hasan ^ and Idn's ibn Bella el Kenani and Sheikh 
Khogali '. . . . The last named was his " Sheikh " and taught him Sufiism. . . . 
"Everyone agreed that he was the most learned man of his age in 
rehgious subjects, and there is a saying 'After the feki Ibrahim*^ el Hag 
[was] the feki Abu el Hasan, and after the feki Abu el Hasan [was] 
the /ey^/DayfuUa. '"...' 

Among his pupils were the feki Isma'il, Sheikh of el Koz, and Sheikh 
'Abd el Rahman ^ Ban el Nuka, Abd el Rahman ibn Arbab and others 

He began teaching in ii30^"a.h. and continued till his death in 
1182^1 a.h. 

90. i2'"D6libNesi."' 

"His name was Muhammad el Dari'r ibn Idris ibn Dolib, and 
the meaning of 'Nesi' in the language of the Danagla is 'son's son.' 
He was a man of extraordinary energy and used to enter the square 
retreats [khalwdt] for the performance of religious ceremonies 
[dhikr] and devotion ['ibdda]. Now the place where there are 40 
retreats is Gebel Bursi, and each of them is a forty-days '-retreat; 
and el Bursi is a hill between the Shaikia country and Dongola. The 
people of Dongola say 'O God, bless us with the devotion of Doli'b 
Nesi and the generosity of Habib Nesi ^^ and the learning of Walad 
'fsa.' His sons were Sheikh Muhammad el Ni'ri ^^ (for whom see 
under M) and the feki Idris, a reader of the Kuran and its judgments, 
and Mekki and Medani, — all of them good men. 

Hewas buried atel Debba and all the Doalib are his descendants." 

91. "Dow EL Bayt ibn Ahmad el Shafa'i." 

He was born at Berber and trained by Sheikh 'Isa^^ ibn Kanu and 
Muhammad ^^ walad Shafa'i.. . .He resided among the Zaydab at Gerf 


His mother was the daughter of el Khatib 'Omara^'.. . .He was born 
at Sennar and began life as a merchant. He was a pupil of Sheikh 
KhogaU ^^. 

93. "DusHAYN, 'KApi EL 'Adala' ['The Just Judge']." 

He was born at Arbagi and was a Shafa'ite.. . ."He was one of 
the four judges appointed by Sheikh 'Agib by order of King Deki'n 
when he came from the east. He ordered Sheikh 'Agib to ap- 
point the judges, and ['Agib] appointed Sheikh 'Abdulla el 'Araki^^, 

^ Tree 6. ^ reading AXi\\Ju^ for sJu^. ^ 1768 a.d. 

4 No. 88. 5 No. 79. " 6 No. 47. 7 No. 154. 

8 No, 139. 8 No. 25. ^" 1718A.D. 11 1768 a.d. 

12 Tree i. i^ No. 105. 1* No. 187. i^ No. 143. 

18 No. 180. " No. 21Q. 18 No. 154. 19 No. 34. 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 239 

and Sheikh 'Abd el Rahman^ ibn Masikh el Nuwayri, and the feki 
Bakdush^ for the GAMu'fA country, and el Kadi Dushayn for Arbagi 
and the Shafa'ites in general.", , . 

He died and his tomb is at el Dakhila. . . . 

The following couplet is quoted of him : 



He and his brother Busati taught the doctrine of Unity [tawhid] after 
their father's death.. . .He had a son named Arbab. 

95. "Ferah walad Taktuk, el Bathani." 

A pupil of the feki Arbab ^.. . . He was the author of a poem beginning 
"Where are the days of the sons of Gabir," and of the saying: 

("Death! He that defies death may yet assure himself that he 
shall die.") 


96. ^" Gabir and Gabrulla." 

The sons of '(3n ibn Selim ibn Rubat ibn GhulamuUa, el Rikabi.. . . 
Gabir was the father of the four famous men, the Awlad Gabir^, and their 
mother was named Safia. . . . The descendants of Gabrulla, the brother of 
Gabir, are the Awlad Um Sheikh of Hilalia mosque. 

97. " Gad EL Nebi and GuBARA." 

' ' They came from el Yemen and their home was in Hadramaut . "... 
Gad el Nebi settled at Delil. 

98. "Gadulla." 

The disciple \howdr\ of the feki Hammad ibn Mariam, 

99. " Gadulla or Hadulla." 
GaduUa el Shukayri died at Sennar. 

100. "Gami'l IBN Muhammad." 

He was taught by Sheikh el Zayn ', and learnt Sufiism \el tasuf] from 
Hasan ^ walad Hasuna. 

loi. ^"Ghanim Abu Shimal, el Gama'i el Kordofali." 

He was a pupil of *Ali^" ibn Barri and the feki Arbab^^ "He 

came [kadani] from Dar Kurun with his wives and his children and 
settled at Gebayl AuU on the White Nile.". . ."He married 'Ayesha 
el Fakira, the daughter of the pious Walad Kadal, and by her begot 
Busati ibn el Fakira." 

1 No. 23. 2 No. 69. 3 No. 65. 4 No. 65. 

5 Tree i. ^ No. 17, etc. ' No. 258. ^ No. 132. 

s Tree 11. i" No. 58. " No. 65. 


102. "GoDATULLA and GODA," 

"They were both learned men of Kordofal.. . .The former was one 
of the Beni Muhammad and Hved at Zalata in the north [ddr el rih] 
and was taught by el KadaU ibn el Faradi.". . . Goda and Edoma were 
by origin of the Beni 'Omran and were taught by Sheikh el Zayn^. 

"Gubara" (see sub "Gad el Nebi"). 

103. "El Gunayd or Hunayd." 

He was the son of Sheikh Muhammad . . . (lacuna) . . . ibn el Sheikh 
'Abd el Razik^.. . .He embraced Sufiism and died at el Halfaya. 

104. "El Gunayd walad Taha^ ibn 'Omara." 

He embraced Sufiism, and was a follower of Sheikh Dafa'alla^ walad 
el Shafa'i He died in the Hegaz. 


105. ^''Habib Nesi, el Rikabi." 

"He dwelt in Dongola Kashabi and was one of the great holy- 
men [azvliyd] of the Rikabia, and many miracles were vouchsafed 
to him." The people of Dongola in his day used to say "O God, 
bless us.". . .(etc. as in No. 90). 

"Hadulla" (see sub "Gadulla," No. 99). 

106. "Haga ibn 'Abd el Latif ibn el Sheikh Hammad' walad 


He was born at Shanbat. . . . Many miracles, to which Sheikh Khogali ^ 
testified, were vouchsafed to him : e.g. when he was being buried and the 
sun was about to set, it suddenly went back to the east again to give more 
time for the burial. 

107. ^"Hagu ibn Batul el Ghubsha^o." 

His father was a Hamrani named Hammad....He was educated by 
his mother's brother Sheikh Ya'akub^^.. . .He was buried at Um Ma- 

108. "Hagyu ibn el feki Salim ibn el Mai'di." 

He was a pupil of 'Abd el Rahman ^^ ibn Belal, and, after the death of 
'Abd el Rahman, of the feki Payfulla^^. 

109. "'Halawi,' el Hagagabi el 'Amri." 

His real name was Muhammad ibn Gemal el Din.. . .He was born at 
el Kamnin, and was a pupil of Sheikh Muhammad ^^ ibn 'Isa Sowar el 
Dhahab.. . .He visited Egypt, and died and was buried at el Koz. 

110. "Hamd el Sio ibn Bella." 

He was born at el Halfaya His sons were the fekis Muhammad and 

Hammad, and 'Abd el Rahman. 

1 No. 147. 2 No. 258. 3 No. 27 ? * No. 248. 

^ No. 83. ^ Tree i. ' No. 127. ^ No. 154. 

9 Tree 8. ^^ reading rt.t...».)l for 2uL^\. " No. 254. 

12 No. 16. 13 No. 89. 1^ No. 191. 



111. ^"Hamdan ibn Ya'akub^." 

He was called "el Batran," and was born at el Humr.. . .He died in the 
year el Wada'a ("the year of tranquiUity"). 

112. "Hamid el Layn ibn el feki Sulayman ibn el Sheikh 

He was taught by Sheikh el Zayn* and was a great collector of books. 
. . . He was the first to introduce from Egypt the commentary' of 'Abd 
el Baki on Khalil.. . .He was a friend of the author's father. 

113. "Hamid IBN 'Omar, el Badiri." 

He was known as "Abu el 'Asa" ["Father of the Stick"], because he 
always carried a stick.. . .He was born at Sakadi and embraced Sufiism.. . . 
He was a follower of Muhammad el Mansur.. . .His sons were Hammad, 
Ibrahim, Sulayman and Sheikh 'Ali.. . .He was buried at el Gebayl. 

114. ^"Hammad ibn el feki 'Abd el Magid^." 

He succeeded his father.. . .Among his pupils was the feki Hammad' 
walad el Magdhub ^. 

115. "Hammad ibn 'Abd el Rahim, el Alashayrifi." 

He was know^n as " Hatik el Mahassi.". . .He was born at el Khartoum 
and taught law [Khalil] by Muhammad "el Azrak^" ibn el Sheikh el 
Zayn.. . .He was buried at Abu Nagila. 

116. ^°" Hammad Abu Kurun ibn el Sheikh Muhammad ^^ el 

117. "Hammad ibn Abu Zayd, el R^dri el Busaylabi." 

He was born at Arbagi and educated by the feki Muhammad walad 
Hegazi.. . .He was buried at Arbagi. 

118. ^^ "Hammad IBN EL Aghbash." 

He was a pupil of Sheikh 'Abd el Rahman ^^ ibn Hammadtu.. . .His 
father was Sheikh 'AbduUa^* el Aghbash.. . .He was born and buried at 
Berber.. . .His sons were 'Abd el Magid^'^, 'Abd el Rahman 1^, 'AbduUa, 
'Ali, Husayn and Abu Kerayn. 

119. 1'" Hammad 'el Asda' ibn el Sheikh Dafa'alla^^." 

He succeeded his father and taught law [Khalil] and apostleship.. . . 
Muhammad walad el Terayfi^^ was his spiritual guide. "Sheikh 
el Gunayd'*^ walad Taha told me that Sheikh Dafa'alla said to 
Sheikh Muhammad walad Dafa'alla 21 ibn el Shafa'i 'Take ad- 
vantage of the days of Sheikh Dafa'alla-2 [w^hile] you are young'; 
and [again] he said to Sheikh Muhammad 'You were instructed by 

1 Tree 8. 

2 No. 254. 

^ No. 113 

4 No. 258. 

^ Tree 2. 

^ No. 10. 

' No. 123. 
^ No. 204. 
12 Tree 2. 

8 reading wJ^Jwa-^oJ 
10 Tree i. 
1^ No. 21. 

1 for ^aj,a^\. 

11 No. 190, 
1* No. 31. 

1^ No. 10. 

16 No. 20. 

1' Tree 9. 

18 No. 84. 
21 reading 



19 No. 1771 
for ddi\^s jJj, 



20 No. 104, 
•22 No. 84. 

.S. II 



my son Hammad^'; and to Dafa'alla walad el Shafa'i^ he said 'You 
were taught by Sheikh 'Abdulla^.'" 

120. "Hammad ibn Hamaydan, el Ga'ali." 

A pupil of Sheikh Dafa'alla^ He taught at el Halfaya, and among 

those whom he instructed were "my grandfather [gid] the feki 
Muhammad ibn el feki DayfuUa^, and the feki Idris ibn el Izayrik." 

121. '5 "Hammad ibn Hasan 'Abu Halima' ibn el feki^, el 

A friend of Sheikh Idris ^ and a pupil of Sheikh Muhammad ^ ibn 'fsa 
Sowar el Dhabab.. . .He was held in great respect by Sheikh 'Agib the 

122. ^""Hammad ibn el Sheikh Idris i^" 
He succeeded his father as Khalifa. 

123. "Hammad ibn el Magdhub^^" q^ 1105^^ a.h.; d. 1190^'*). 
He was a pupil of the feki Hammad ^^ ibn 'Abd el Magid and a follower 

of Sheikh 'Ali el Dirawi, the disciple of Sidi Ahmad ibn el Nasir el 
Shadhali.. . .He died, aged 85, in 1190, and his tomb is at el Damer.. . .He 
performed the pilgrimage He had a son, Ahmad, born in 1159^^ a.h. 

124. ""Hammad ibn Muhammad ibn 'Ali, el Mashaykhi" 
(b.ios5i8;d. 11421^). 

" He was commonly known as Hammad ' ibn Mariam,' his mother 
being Mariam. The latter 's mother was a Mahassia Mashayrifia, a 
daughter of Walad Kadapo 'el Wali'; and her father was Walad 
Kishayb^i, one of the holy-men [awliyd] of Abu Nagila whose tombs 
are visited, a Mesallami by origin." 

Hammad was born on Tuti Island in 1055- A.H.. . .He was a pupil of 
the/e/:/ Arbab -^ Khashan, but quarrelled with him. ... He died in 1 142 ^^ a.h. 
aged 87.... His sons were Muhammad el Nur, Muhammad el Makbul 
and Muhammad el Shafih.. . . 

There are some five pages of anecdote, praise and poetry on this man. 
"El Sayyid walad Dolib said of him 

{I.e. "I can compare him to no one but 'Omar ibn el Khattab.") 

125. 2^ "Hammad el Nahlan ibn Muhammad, el Bedayri" (d. 

IIl626 A.H.). 

^ No. 119. 

2 No. 83. 

3 No. 34. 

* No. 84. 

5 No. 88. 

6 Tree i. 

' No. 149. 

8 No. 141. 

9 No. 191. 

10 Tree 4. 

11 No. 141. 

^'^ reading wJ^Jka^t for w>jjk.s»^l. 

13 1693 a.d. 

1* 1776 a.d." 

1^ No. 114. 

1^ 1746 a.d. 

" Tree 11. 

^8 1646 a.d. 

1^ 1730 a.d. 

20 No. 147. 

21 No. 208 ? 

22 1646 a.d. 

23 No. 65. 

24 1730 a.d. 25 

Tree 9. 

28 1704 a.d. 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 243 

"He was known as *Ibn el Turabi.' His mother's name was 
Kaia. He studied law [Khalil] under the feki Muhammad ^ ibn el 
Tankar at Muays and excelled therein, having taken the course ten 
times [lit. ' took ten sealings ']. Then he embraced Sufiism and devoted 
himself entirely to God and renounced the world, following the 
teaching of Sheikh Dafa'alla^; and [the latter] guided him.. . . 

And when he was nigh unto death he said to the people 'The 
world has lost its fakir and its commander and they will never 
repair the loss.' Those who benefit from his teaching are the rulers 
of the present generation.. . . 

He died, God bless him, in the year 11 16 after the Flight of the 

126. "Hammad el Negi'p, el 'Awadabi el Gamu'i." 

He was a follower of Tag el Din el Bahari^ and was born at Aslang 

Island "He was a man of power and rank at the court of Sheikh 

'Agi'b and went to war with him, and was killed at Karkog^ in the 
battle against the Fung : and Sheikh 'Agib built for him the mosque 
which is still standing, and devoted lands to its endowment."... 
He had a son, 'Abd el Wahhab^. 

127. "Hammad walad Zurruk." 

He and the feki Gad^ el Nebi'^ came [together?] from Hadramaut.. . . 
His sons were 'Abd el Salam, 'Abd el Latif and two others.. . .'Abd el 
Salam begot Abu Delayk, and 'Abd el Lati'f begot Haga^.. . . 

" 'Abd el Salam was known as ' Sawak el Raka ' [' the Jug-Driver '], 
for when they [his women ?] went down to the river to fill his jug, he 
would drive them both along with a stick.. . . 

And Abu Delayk was called 'Yalam el Asad' ['the Lion's Roar'], 
because, while he was studying as a pupil of Sheikh Maski'n el Khafi 
and had gone out one day to collect firewood, a lion killed his 

128. " Hammadnulla walad Malak." 

He was born at Khartoum, and was a follower of Sheikh Khogali*.. . . 
His sons were Muhammad and Muhammadayn. 

129. "Hamayd rl Sakidi." 

"And Sarid is a [sub] -tribe of Gudham." He was born at el Kubr, 
and was a follower of Basbar ^". " My paternal ancestor, the/e/?/ DayfuUa 
el Fadli^^, was taught by him the doctrine of Unity [tawhtd] and 

1 No. 202. 2 No. 84. 3 No. 67. 

4 reading ^^j^ for .*^a»j£9. ^ No. 29. 

6 reading ^l*. for jl*.. ' No. 97. ^ No. 106. 

9 No. 154. ' * ^^ No. 73. 11 No. 88. 



130. ^ " Hammuda ibn el Tankar, ' Giab el 'Agwa ' [' the Bringer 
of Dates']." 

His mother was Amna bint Serhan ^, and he was a follower of Sheikh 
Idris^. The reason of his nickname, "Giab el 'Agwa," was as follows: 
"His mother's brother, Sheikh Muhammad^ ibn Serhan fell sick, 
and it was said to him, 'The remedy for you is dates'; and as there 
was a dearth of them in the country, Hammuda, God bless him, 
brought some from Upper Egypt [el Rtf], and they cured the malady. 

He wrote a useful commentary in the form of marginal notes on 
Khalil, copied from that of his mother's brother and the Awlad 

131. ^" Hasan walad Beli'l, el Rikabi." 

He dwelt at Dongola el 'Afat and was a follower of Habib Nesi '. . . . He 
performed a number of miracles.. . .He had a son, Kurayshi. 

132. ^" Hasan ibn Hasuna ibn el Hag Musa" (d. 1075^ a.h.). 
" [Musa] came from Morocco [el moghrab], from el Gezirat el 

Khadra, from the land of Andalus, and married one of the Mesal- 
lamia and begot Hasuna; and he said' I have put my seed in the source 
when I am sprung.' And Hasuna married the daughter of his mother's 
sister, Fatima bint Wahshia, the sister of el Hag Lukani ^°, [Wahshia's] 
mother being a Saridi'a Khamaysi'a ; and by Fatima Hasuna had four 
children, Sheikh Hasan and el 'Agami^^ and Sowar and el Haga 
Nafisa. These four sons of Fatima all died childless. Sheikh 
[Hasan] was born at the island of Kagoi [Kagog] , and his story breathes 
a sweet odour.". . . 

Several pages follow, all concerning visions and wonders, dreams and 
miracles and manifestations of God's favour to Hasan walad Hasuna.. . . 
After completing his religious education he performed the pilgrimage and 
travelled for some twelve years in the Hegaz, Egypt and Syria in company 
with various other persons, including Abu Hamayda and Ahmad Tud 
the Dongolawi.. . .He finally returned to the Sudan, "and then, when 
his herds had become numerous, he went up to el Dururba and 
Kantur el Homar [' Donkey's Dam '] and dug his reservoir [haftr] of 
Um Kanatir ['Mother of Dams']. He amassed slaves and mounted 
them on horseback and said ' I will guard my flocks with them ' ; and 
the tradition among the people is [that he had] 500 slaves, each one 
of whom bore a sword with scabbard-tip and plate and pin of silver : 
they consisted of a commander and troops [under him] ; and [they 
also carried] clubs. And they used to trade in their swift horses to 
Tekali and Dar Borku {}) ^^ and Darfur and Sennar and [the country 

^ Tree i. ^ No. 233. ^ No. 141. ^ No. 241. 

^ No. 17, etc. ^ Tree i. ' No. 105. ^ Tree 5. 

^ 1664 A.D. ^^ No. 156. ^^ No. 55. ^2 reading ^5^ for JI*j . 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 245 

of] the AwLAD 'Agi'b. And his slaves became [whole] villages; and 
so manyi were the visits paid to him that they made an enclosure 
for the firstborn [of the flocks and herds offered to him]. The en- 
closure which Sheikh Hasan built for his house was as large as that 
of the King of Sennar. ..." 

The following is one of the miracles related: "A girl died and 
her mother came to him [Hasan] and said, 'My lord, my daughter 
has died, and the property of her father is ill-gotten ; I prithee shroud 
her for me.' And Sheikh Hasan went to her and looked upon her &nd 
said 'Your daughter is well: she has not died. Arise 1' And lo ! her 
breath returned to her, and she arose and lived. . . ." 

A second miracle relates how a man was drowned and remained three 
days in the river: then came Hasan Hasuna and said "Arise!" and the 
drowned man returned to life, was married, and begot a son.. . .Yet again, 
a man brought Hasan two dead birds, and Hasan took them from him, 
"and placed the sleeve of his shirt upon his head, and the birds flew 
away.". . .He was held in high honour by the Fung king Badi walad 
Rubat who, on an occasion of their meeting, granted every request of 
Sheikh Hasan. 

"Now his sister, the daughter of Hasuna, was named Fatima, 
and one of the Shukria married her, and when he wished to transfer 
her [to his home] he brought for her a camel with its howdah ['utfa] 
and gave her four handmaidens [ferkhdt, lit. 'chickens'] and a herd 
of camels and a herd of cattle and a herd of sheep.. . . 

And when he drew nigh unto death he summoned his brothers, 
the sons of Hasuna, 'Abd el Fattah and 'Abd el Kadir and Manid 
and said to them 'My successor is Belal el Shayb the son of 'Abd 
el Fattah'; and [then] he shaved [Belal's] head with his finger, using 
no razor; and he bequeathed a third of his wealth to five poor men 
[fukard] and each of them thereby received 36 head of slaves; and 
their masters ^ drove off the weak and the strong [together] , some of 
them going down to Sennar and others going to Ras el FiL". . . 

Among Sheikh Hasan's followers were his brother el 'Agami^, and 
el Kufi, and el Hag 'Abd el Salam el Begawi, and the feki Muhammad^ 
walad Surur, "and from among the Danagla, Sheikh Musa Ferid^ 
and Sheikh Munowwar and Ahmad Tud.. . . 

He reared a crocodile in the reservoir, and it did much harm, so 
he shot it with a rifle, and the charge exploded backwards and caused 
his death. He died in the year 1075 '^ a. h.; and in his death he rose 
as a Star of Religion." 

1 reading Sp^s for >l)jl=>. ^ reading ^<^il*-» for^ft.>L>. 

^ No. 55. * No. 210. 

5 reading juji for ju^S. ^ 1664 a.d. 


133. "Hegazi." 

He was son of Abu Zayd^ ibn el Sheikh 'Abd el Kadir "He died 

in the prison of Nasir, of hunger and thirst." 


His mother was the daughter of Mek Hasan walad Kashash, the malik 
["king"] of Dongola. 

"Hunayd" (see sub "el Gunayd"). 

135. 3 "Ibrahim ibn 'Abudi 'el Faradi.'" 

His mother was the sister of el Mesallami* and daughter of Abu 
Wanaysa.. . .He was taught first by el Mesallami, his " Sheikh," and then 
by Abd el Rahman^ walad Hammadtu.. . . 

"He compiled the marginal commentary known as el Faradia 
on the study of what is obligatory \el Farid] , and was nicknamed ' el 
Faradi ' because he was a great authority on obligation." . . . He married 
the daughter of his maternal uncle el Mesallami but subsequently divorced 

136. ^"Ibrahim walad Barri." 

He was born at Nasri Island, and his mother was Umhani bint 'Ali 
walad Kandi'l, a holy-man of the Sowarda. ... He read law [KhaW] 
under Sheikh Sughayerun' and learnt what pertains to the sphere of 
faith [^ilm el kaldm] from the feki Husayn Abu Sha'ar the disciple of 
Muhammad^ ibn 'Isa Sowar el Dhahab....He was the companion^, in 
Sufiism, of Sheikh Muhammad ^^ walad Daud.. . .He performed the pil- 
grimage, and died, aged 120 years, in Sannat el Wada'a ("the year of 

137. "Ibrahim ibn Nusr." 

"A learned man of Sennar, and its legal adviser [mufti]"... 
He was a pupil of el Kadal^^ walad el Faradi. 

138. "Ibrahim el Sa'udi." 

He was a Shafa'ite, and the preacher [Khatib] of Sennar. 


140. "Ibrahim IBN Um Rabi'a." 

He was a Takagabi, born at Bahr el Asal, and a pupil of 'Abd el 
Rahman^* ibn Gabir. 

141. ^^"Idris IBN Arbab." 

[The earlier part of this biography, the first given, is missing. The 
first intelligible statements concerning Sheikh Idn's make mention of a 

1 No. 53. 2 No. 191. ^ Tree 11. * No. 172. 

^ No. 21. ^ Tree 3. ' No. 241. ^ No. 191. 

^ reading w^s*-o for>.o. ^" No. 186. ^^ No. 147. 

12 Tree i. " ^^ No. 241. ^* No. 17. i^ ^ree 4. 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 247 

certain Moghrabi, Sheikh Mosa el Kaylubi, and the date 981 a.h. 
(1573 A.D.), and of an exchange of presents between Idris and Sheikh 

" Sheikh Khogali^ said ' The first to light the fire of Sheikh 'Abd 
el Kadir was Sheikh Idris.'". . . 

He was a most eminent teacher and a pillar of religion. One of his 
disciples [howdr] was Sheikh 'fsa el Talib. 

He foretold many important events. "For example, his prophecy 
to Sheikh 'Agib when [the latter] applied to him for a prediction 
regarding the war with the Fung: Sheikh ['Agib] said 'The Fung 
have oppressed us' [lit. 'changed the customs upon us']: [Idris] 
replied ' Do not make war upon them for they will kill you and sub- 
ject your seed afterwards until the day of Resurrection.' And it 
happened as he had said. Again, his prophecy to King Badi Abu 
Rubat when he was Master of the Household [Sid Kum\ to King 
'Adlan walad Aya and [they] proposed making war on Sheikh 'Agib. 
Now this Badi was a disciple [hozvdr] of Sheikh Idn's and enquired 
of him concerning the matter and [the Sheikh] replied ' Ye shall kill 
Sheikh 'Agib and be victorious, and thou shalt return to Sennar 
as king, and the kingdom shall be in the hands of thy descend- 
ants after thee.' And it happened as he had said, and five [of Badi's 
descendants] ruled, Rubat, and Badi his son, and Ounsa walad Nasir, 
and Badi his son, and Ounsa his son; and the period of their rule 
was no years. 

Again, his prophecy that the kingdom of the Fung would come 
to an end : and the reason that it did so was that they fought among 
themselves and divided themselves into two parties, each of which 
fought the other until their kingdom was lost." 

142. " 'fsA WALAD Abu Sakaykin." 

He was born at Abyad Din'.... Both a Mahassi and a Mesallami 
married his mother in turn and claimed 'fsa as their son.. . . 

His kubba is on the road between 'Aylafun and Gebel el Maylakit. 

143. " 'fsA WALAD KaNU," 

A most holy man, the disciple and pupil of Sheikh Muhammad^ ibn 
fsa Sowar el Dhahab.. . .He was born at Dongola el 'Aguz ("Old Don- 
gola"), and was by birth a Hadari....He instructed 'Abd el Rahman* 
ibn el Aghbash and the feki Dow el Bayt^ in the art of Kuranic reading 

[tagwid] One of the miracles related of him is that "he was in 

prison, and the house in which he was imprisoned caught fire; but 
when the fire reached him, it died out : and in the corner of the house 
was a hen ; and she ran hurriedly to drag her eggs to him, and he was 

1 No. 241. ^ No. 154. ^ No. 191. 

* No. 20. ^ No. 91. 


heard to say ' I am 'fsa to my hen ' [i.e. ' the hen knows that I am the 
great 'fsa Kanu']." 

144. " 'fsA IBN Salih, el Bedayri." 

He was the father of Sheikh Muhammad^ Sowar el Dhahab, and a 
pupil of 'Abd el Rahman^ ibn Gabir. 

145. "IsMA'iL SA. . .(torn). . .ibn el Sheikh Mekki=^ el Daka- 


His mother was Khayra, a Sakarnawi'a, who was given to Sheikh 
Mekki as a present by the Sultan of Tekali and bore to him el Nur and 

146. " 'Izz EL Din walad Nafi'a." 

He was born at el Manakil, and was a follower of Sheikh Dafa'alla, 
and later of Muhammad walad Medani and Muhammad walad 'Awayda. 


147. ^ '" El KaDAL ' MUHAMM.\D." 

He was the son of Ibrahim ibn 'Abudi "el Faradi" by the daughter 
of el Mesallami '^ walad Abu Wanaysa, and was surnamed "el Kadal" 
because he was an upright man.... His father taught him law [Khalil] 
and apostleship.. . .He was born on the White Nile, and went to Kordofan 
to visit his pupil GodatuUa ^, and was given a present of 50 camels by the 
king of the Kungara. He lived in the reign of Ounsa walad Nasir, and 
died at Um Talha after a residence there of four months, and was buried 
with "el Faradi" and el Mesallami.. . .He is fabled on one occasion to 
have flown to the Gezira [el Huoi] on his bedstead. 

148. ^ "Kakumr ibn el Hag Ibrahim^ ibn Barri ibn 'Adila ibn 


He was taught by his father's brother the feki 'Ali ^, and was a con- 
temporary of Basbar^*^. 

149. ^i"Kash ibn Sidr ibn 'Abd el Nebi ibn 'Agib ibn Rikab 
ibn Ghulamulla." 

He begot Hasan, the father of the feki Hammad ^- and of Halima, and 
Husayn, the father of 'Ali; and 'Ali married Halima and by her begot 
the feki 'Othman "Sid el Ruaykiba" and another.. . .His son Hasan was 
nicknamed "Abu Halima" ["Father of Halima"] after his daughter 
Halima.. . .As he lived among the Mogharba he was buried among them. 

150. "Kerrar ibn el Sheikh Selman^^ el Towali." 

151. "Khalil ibn 'Ali, el Saridi el Khamaysi." 

He was born at Kagoi Island and was a contemporary of Sheikh Hasan ^^ 
walad Hasuna. 

^ No. 191. 2 ]\-o. 17. 3 ]sjq j5^ 

* Tree ii. ^ No. 172. * No. 102. 

' Tree 3. » No. 136. ^ No. 58. 

10 No. 73. 11 Tree i. 12 ^o. 121. 

13 No. 230. 1^ No. 132. 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 249 

152. "Khalil ibn Bishara, el Dwayhi." 

He was known as "Abu Sayf 'Ud" or "Sayf el 'Od.". . .He was born 
at Shanbat and was a pupil of Sheikh Muhammad^ walad el Terayfi.. . . 
He dwelt and died at Talha. 

153. "Khali'l ibn el Rumi." 

He was a Dongolawi Gabri by race, and migrated southwards to 
Surkum where he dwelt, living a holy life, for some years. Then he went, 
at el Hag 'Omara's request, to Dadun and built mosques. Several wonders 
and miracles are related of him; such as the following: 

"There came to him a man, saying 'A slave-woman of mine ran 
away a year ago : pray God to return her to me.' [Khalil] said ' Fetch 
a jar of servants' beer and a gelded cock'; and the man fetched two 
jars of servants' beer and two gelded cocks : then they strained the 
beer and drank it, that is he [sc. Khalil] and his Danagla who were 
with him. Then came the man and said to him 'Where is my slave- 
woman ?' He replied 'Go among the trees and say "O Bakhita^!" 
three times.' And the woman appeared, carrying a waterskin with 
the ropes of it [trailing] over her face; and she said 'My master, 
what has brought you here ? This is the river Atbara.' Her master 
answered her ' This is Sennar.' Then he drove her with him and came 
[to Khalil] and [Khalil] from afar off said to him ' Be off with you^.' "... 

Again, "when the troops all revolted against the king of the Fung 
at Kerri and Sennar and el Is, and the soldiers had surrounded him 
on every side, and had killed all who were with him, so that none were 
left but thirty horsemen, and when [the king] had hidden from them 
in the courtyard of Kimayr bint el Mek, his sister, Kimayr went to 
Sheikh Khalil and said to him ' My lord, my brother is losing his 
kingdom and we fear his destruction at the hands of his slaves.' And 
he said to her 'Your brother is the wrongdoer and the mischief- 
maker.' She replied 'Let him come to you, and he will repent at 
your hands of his wrongdoing and mischief-making.' He said 
' Bring him to me.' And she went to the king and brought him muffled 
and disguised in woman's raiment; and when he came before the 
Sheikh he said ' I repent of v/hat you prohibit.' [The Sheikh] replied 
'The Fung have taken your crown [lit. "turban of the king"] from 
you, but here is my turban for you, and I guarantee to you the king- 
dom of your father until you die; but if you go forth to battle, take 
me with you and I will bring [or, " and take with you "] el Hag 'Omara 
[sc. to your aid].' And in the morning he went forth against those 
armies with his thirty horsemen, and took with him the Sheikh and 
el Hag 'Omara, as the Sheikh had commanded him, and he routed 

^ No. 177. ^ reading Ai}ai^ for dLs 

^ reading ^JLa\ for ^Jm^\. 


them by the blessing of the Sheikh, and slew them with most dire 
slaughter, and remained king until he died. Now the king mentioned 
was Badi el Ahmar ibn Ounsa walad el Malik Nasir." 

154. ^"Khogali ibn 'Abd el Rahman ibn Ibrahim" (d. 

"His mother's name was Dowwa bint Khogali; and his father 
'Abd el Rahman was a Mahassi Kabani, and his mother a Mahassia 
Mushayrifia. His grandfather Ibrahim was one of the disciples of 
the AwLAD^ Gabir and a follower of Muhammad ibn el Sheikh 
Ibrahim el Bulad, as I have seen it written. Sheikh Khogali was 
born on Tuti Island, and was first taught to write by 'Ayesha el 
Faki'ra bint walad Kadal. He learnt what pertains to the sphere of 
faith ['ilm el kaldm] and Sufiism* from the feki Arhah^, and studied 
law [Khalil] under Sheikh el Zayn*' walad Sughayerun.. . .He went 
on the pilgrimage to the holy house of God, and followed the 
teaching of Sheikh Ahmad el Tabankatawi el Fellati, the divine 
saint [kutb] who resided at Medina." 

His life and character are then treated of from three aspects (mizar). 
Firstly are given records of things said by him, and of him by various 
eminent holy-men; secondly a description of his character and personal 
appearance; thirdly miracles performed by him. The following are quota- 
tions from parts two and three respectively. 

(i) "It was characteristic of him that he held to the Book and 
the Law [sunna] and followed [the precepts and example of] the 
Shadhalia Sayyids as to word and deed. And he used to wear 
gorgeous raiments, such as a green robe of Basra, and upon his head 
a red fez [tarbilsh], and [round it] as a turban rich muslin stuffs. For 
footwear he wore shoes [sarmilga] ; and he fumigated himself with 
India-wood [el 'ud el hindi], and perfumed himself, and put Abys- 
sinian civet on his beard and on his clothes. All this he did in imita- 
tion of Sheikh Abu el Hasan el Shadhali, for all blessings come 
from God Almighty and he was thankful to Him for the same. And 
it was remarked to him that the Kadiri'a only wear cotton shirts and 
scanty clothes, and he replied 'My clothes proclaim to the world 
"We are in no need of you," but their clothes say "We are in need 
of you.'" 

It was also characteristic of him that he never rose up to salute 
any of the great ones of the earth, neither the Awlad 'ACxIB, the rulers 
of his country, nor the kings of Ga'al, nor any of the nobility^ 

^ Tree 7. 2 jy^2 a.d. 

^ No. 17, etc. ■* reading ^^.^\ for J^-^iJt. 

^ No. 65. 6 No. 258. 


excepting only two men, the successor [Khalifa] of Sheikh Idri's and 
the successor of Sheikh Sughayerun. 

El Sha'arawi says that such superiority, namely [that shown by] 
his not rising up, has not occurred among any [other] sheikhs, not 
even in the case of Sheikh 'Abd el Kadir, for the latter, if the 
'Abbasid Khalifa came to see him, used to rise up. [The only ex- 
ception is furnished by] Sheikh Muhammad el Hanafi el Shadhali 
in Egypt, who used not to rise up for any one, neither for Pashas nor 
for Sanjaks.". , . 

(2) It is related that a sandbank formed off Tuti Island and greatly 
impeded the working of the water-wheels of the Mahass. The latter ap- 
pealed to Khogali, pointing out that they would have to migrate elsewhere, 
since they were shut off from the water at low Nile ; so Khogali mounted 
his donkey and went to the bank and dipped his staff in the river and said 
"In the name of God the Compassionate and Merciful! O Sheikh 
Ahmad ibn el Nasiri!" — and the sandbank disappeared: "and this 
miracle has lasted until our own day, this year of 1219^. Now his 
staff was of iron." He was, in addition, a great healer of the sick. 
" I and the King of Death," said he, on one occasion, "have contended 
together for the life of the daughter of 'Ebayd, and he has left her 
to me.". . . 

His final exploit is related thus: "When the Sultan Bukr, Sultan of 
[the] KuNGARA, heard of some abusive remarks of King Badi he 
swore that he would enter Sennar, and tear up its trees, and dam its 
river [so that] cavalry might ride over its bed. Then he made his 
preparations and set forth till he reached the outskirts of the country 
on the east side; and he was at el Mefaza when he saw Sheikh 
Khogali ; and the Sheikh had in his hand a staff and rapped him with 
it on the finger-tips^. And his hand swelled up and became paralysed 
[///. 'died'], and this was the cause of his death, for the Sultan of the 
Fung had besought the mediation of Sheikh Khogali, and said to 
him 'The Sultan of [the] Fur is coming against us.' — Then the Sultan 
Bukr, the Sultan of [the] Kungara, enquired of the river folk saying 
* There came to me a dark man wearing a green robe and rapped me 
with a staff,' and described him to themi as he had seen him ; and they 
repHed 'That was Sheikh KhogaU.'". . . 

Elsewhere we find the following: 

" As regards his original faith, the foundation thereof was Kadirism, 
but in his methods of daily readings of the Kuran [azcrdd] and in his 
rules of personal conduct he was a Shadhali, and indeed his ' Sheikh ' 
was a pupil of Sheikh Muhammad el Nasir the ShadhaU.". . .We 

^ 1805 A.d. ^ reading di^U»l for a.£-'^^\. 


are also told the date of his death: "He died, God bless him, on the 
forenoon of Sunday the i8th of Gamad el Thani in the year fifty- 
five^; and his son the feki Ahmad succeeded him by his father's 
direction, and was a pious ser\^ant [of God] and followed in his 
father's footsteps in all purity of heart ; and the period of his holding 
office [as Khalifa] was six years." 


He was a follower of el Hag 'Abdulla^ el Halanki. 


156. ^"LUKANI." 

The brother of the mother of Sheikh Hasan ^ ibn Hasuna and a pupil 
of Sheikh 'Abd el Rahman' ibn Gabir. He was one of the 40 disciples all 
of whom attained the rank of Kulb. 


157. ^"MaHMUD el 'ArAKI, 'RaGIL EL KUSAYER.'" 

"He was born on the White [Nile], and went for instruction to 
Egypt and was the pupil of el Nasir el Lukani and Shams el Din 
el Lukani; and he was the first to order the people to observe the 
period of probation [after divorce]. Before his time a woman could 
be divorced by her husband and married by another, all in one day 
or on successive days. He settled on Gezirat el Huoi on the banks of 
the White Nile and built himself a mansion, which is now known as 
Kusayer Mahmud.. . . 

Now his coming was before that of the Awlad Gabir^: the latter 
studied under el Banufari, and el Banufari under 'Abd el Rahman 
el Ag-huri, and Sheikh 'Abd el Rahman el Ag-huri was a follower 
of Shams el Din and Nasir el Din, the two Lukanis. His coming 
was in the time of the Fung, and Sheikh Khogali ^^ said that from 
el Khartoum to el Is there were seventeen schools, all of which were 
destroyed by Shilluk and Um Lahm.'\ . . 

He died and was buried at el Kusayer. 

158. 11 "Malik ibn el Sheikh 'Abd el Rahman ^^ walad Ham- 


He lived at el Zora, and built a mosque wherein law [Khalil] was 
taught.. . .His son was 'Abd el Rahman, the father of the feki Karbawi 
and Malik.. . ."Among his pupils were the fekis Ahmad and 'Abdulla, 

1 1743 A.D. 2 Tree 3. •'' No. 178. * No. 33. 

^ Tree 5. * No. 132. '' No. 17. ^ Tree 7. 

8 No. 17, etc. 10 No. 154. 11 Tree 10. ^^ No. 21. 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 253 

the sons of the feki Hammad^ ibn el Magdhub, and the feki Khogali, 
the Khalifa of the Ghubush, and the feki Muhammad ibn Hamid 
el Mitkenabi, and Tahir the grandchild [sabt] of Hammad'-^ ibn 
Mariam, and 'Abdulla walad Mekka the grandchild of Sheikh Mu- 
hammad'^ ibn el Terayfi," 

159. '^"Marzuk ibn el Sheikh Ya'akub^." 

He succeeded his brother Musa ^. . . . He was buried with his father and 
his brother at el Humr. 

160. ■^"Mazri ibn el Tankar." 

He was a pupil of his mother's brother, el Hag Muhammad ^ ibn Serhan, 
and a follower of Sheikh Idris^. 

161. ^*^"Medani *el Haggar' ibn 'Omar ibn Serhan." 

He was the nephew of Sheikh Sughayerun^^ and was taught by him, 
and so proficient did he become that he was nicknamed "el Haggar" 
["the Rock"].. . .When SughayerQn died, [his successor] Sheikh el 
Zayn^'^ invited him to assist him with the teaching in the mosque until 
Ibrahim ^^ was grown up.. . .He was buried at el Koz, and his tomb is 
known as kubbat el Haggar.. . .His sons were Kutbi and Nurayn, the 
former father of the feki Ibrahim, and the latter of Muhammad "ibn 
el Rayda." " [This Muhammad's] mother was Burra bint el Sheikh el 
Zayn and the mother of his father Nurayn was Rabi'a bint el Sheikh 
Sughayerun; and he was taught by the feki 'Abd el Rahman ^^ ibn 
Asid ; and when he died he was buried at el Koz in front of the kubba 
of his grandfather Medani.". . . 

162. 1^" Medani ibn Muhammad^^ ibn Medani el Natik." 
He was taught by his father, and also by his grandfathers {i.e. grand- 
father and great-great-uncles), the Awlad Um Gadayn, Muhammad ^^ and 

Medani ^® Among his pupils was the feki Hammad ^^ ibn el Magdhub 

He was buried at Nuri with his fathers "And the feki Sheikh ibn 

Medani said 'The Medaniyyun are the gold and we the silver.' "... 
He taught the Kuran to Basbar^". 

163. 21" Medani el Natik ibn el Sheikh 'Abd el Rahman 22 
walad Hammadtu." 

He was called "el Tiar" ["the Aviator"].. . .The reason why he was 
called also "el Natik" ["the Oracle"] was that after his death a quarrel 
arose as to his successor, and a feki appealed to him at his tomb, 
"and he replied to him \ndtikahu\ from the tomb 'The Khalifa 
is Sheikh': now Sheikh ^^ was his full-brother.". . .After considerable 
wranglings Sheikh was duly appointed and was known thereafter as "Sot 

1 No. 123. 

2 No. 124. 

3 No. 177. 

4 Tree 8. 

5 No. 254. 

^ No. 209. 

7 Tree i. 

8 No. 241. 

9 No. 141. 

10 Tree i. 

11 No. 241. 

12 No. 258. 

" No. 139. 

1* No. 15. 

1^ Tree 10. 

1^ No. 194. 

17 No. 203. 

18 No. 164. 

19 No. 123. 

20 No. 73. 

21 Tree lo. 

22 No. 21. 

23 No. 236. 


Medani" ["the Voice of Medani"].. . .His son was Muhammad.. . .Among 
his pupils was Basbar^. 

164. ^"Medani WALAD Um Gadayn." 

He was the son of Sheikh 'Abd el Rahman^ ibn Hammadtu. 
"Now Medani* el Natik died during the lifetime of his father 
Sheikh 'Abd el Rahman, so he [walad Um Gadayn] was called Medani 
after him in the hope that he would be like his brother, and indeed 
God fulfilled this hope.". . . 

His sons were Abd el Rahman Abu Fak ^, Abd el Rahim, Sheikh ibn 
Medani and Hammadtu ibn Medani of Dongola, . . . He had great influence 
with the kings of Dongola and the Shaikia. 

165. '"El Medowi'" (d. 1095 a.h.^). 

His full name was Muhammad ibn Muhammad el Kadawi' ibn 
el Sheikh Muhammad^ el ?vlisri. ... He was taught by his grandfather 
el Misri.. . .He visited Sennar and stayed there with the feki 'Omara^, who 
introduced him to King Ounsa ibn Nasir before all the court. On this 
occasion the king at once dismissed his court and rose up to greet him.. . . 
While at Sennar he was frequently received by the king and loaded with 
presents.. . .He died at Koz Ragab in the year Um Lahm. 

166. 10 "Medowi IBN B ARARAT ibn Hammad^Mbn el Sheikh Idris." 
He was a pupil of the fekis Belal ^^ and Abu el Hasan ^^, and highly spoken 

of by Sheikhs KhogaU^^ and SaHh ^^ Ban el Nuka He " lit the fire of the 

Kuran" at three places, viz. el Ayl Fung, Gedid and Elti.. . .He had a 
son, the fcki Muhammad. 

167. ^*^" Medowi ibn el Sheikh Bedowi"." 

He succeeded his father, and was succeeded by his son Sheikh Nasir 
el Din. 

168. " Medowi ibn Medani ibn 'Abd el Daim ibn 'fsa, el Ansari 
el Khazragi." 

He was born at Kutrang, and was a follower of el Kadal ^* ibn el Faradi. 
. . .He was taught by Sheikhs Barakat^^ ibn Hammad and Sheraf el Din^° 
walad Barri. 

169. " Mekki EL Dakalashi." 

He lived between el Shekavk and 'Id el Gima'a and was a pupil of 
Sheikh Dafa'alla-i. 

170. "Mekki el Nahu, el Rubatabi." 

He was a pupil and disciple of Sheikh Muhammad^- el Misri. Among 
his pupils were Sheikh Musa'-^ walad Ya'akub "Abu Kussa," el Sherif 
'Abd el Rahman, and the fekis Hamid el Layn-* and Hamayd^^ el Saridi. . . . 

^ No. 73. ^ Tree 10. ^ No. 21. * No. 163. 

^ No. 14. ^ 1684 A.D. "^ reading ^jIjJCJI for ^^^Ij^^t. 

8 No. 195. 9 No. 219. 10 Tree 4. " ^^ No." 122. 

12 No. 79. 13 jsjo. 47. i-* No. 154. 15 No. 226. 

i« Tree 12. " No. 74. ^^ ^o. 147. ^^ No. 72. 

20 No. 237. 21 No. 84. 22 No. 195. 23 No. 209. 

24 No. 112. 25 No. 129 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 255 

" His large commentary on the Senussia consisted of 40 pamphlets 
[kurdst], and his smaller commentary of 10 pamphlets. He also wrote 
a commentary on articles of faith concerning apostleship ['akidat el 
risdla] and, it is said, a commentar}' on apostleship [risdla], but of 
this I am not sure." 

171. i"El Mesallami." 

He was a disciple of el Kadal Muhammad-, his " Sheikh" and paternal 
uncle, and was taught by him. His companion in Sufiism was Sheikh 
Dafa'alla el 'Araki^ the son of Sheikh Abu Idris....He was buried at 
el Kubia with his "Sheikh" el Kadal and his grandfather el Mesallami*. 

172. ^"El Mesallami wad Abu Wanaysa." 

"[Abu Wanaysa's] father was 'Ali el Fakir, and Wanaysa was his 
daughter.". . .EI Mesallami was a follower of Sheikh 'Abd el Rahman' 
ibn Gabir and lived on the White Nile, and was finally buried between that 
river and el Kharu'a.. . .Among his contemporaries as pupils of Sheikh 
'Abd el Rahman were Sheikhs Ya'akub ' ibn el Sheikh Ban el Nuka and 
'Abdulla^ el Araki and Abd el Rahman^ el Nuwayri and el Hag Lukani^*' 
and 'fsa^i, the father of Muhammad walad 'fsa " Sowar el Dhahab." 

'"El Misri'" {vide sub "Muhammad 'el Misri,'" No. 195). 

173. "Muhammad ibn el 'Abbasi." 

He was a pupil of Muhammad^- ibn 'fsa " Sowar el Dhahab." His son 
was the feki Musa. 

174. "Muhammad ibn 'Abd el Dafa'i^^." 

A follower of Sheikh Khogali ^^. . . . He was the successor of Sheikh 
Muhammad 15 walad Daud el Lukr. He was buried at Hilla 'Agib. 

175. 1^" Muhammad ibn el feki 'Abd el Rahman ibn el Agh- 


He was taught hy the fekis BelaP' and Abu el Hasan ^^ and Busati and 
Ferah^'' walad Arbab, and succeeded his father "He united learn- 
ing and good works." 

176. 20 "Muhammad ibn 'Abdulla^^ ibn Hammad." 

He was called""el 'Alim" ["The Learned"] and "Sahib el Hashia" 
["The Commentator"].. . .He was taught by his paternal uncle the feki 
'Abd el Magid^^ and by the feki Muhammad el Azrak-^, and followed in his 
life the precepts of Sheikh Bedowi-^ walad Abu Delayk....He died at 

177. 25 "Muhammad ibn el Sheikh 'Abdulla^s el Terayfi." 
When Sheikh Dafa'alla^' el 'Araki died, Muhammad's paternal uncle 

1 Tree 11. 2 ^0. 147. ^ ^Tq. 84. ^ No. 172. 

5 Tree 11. ' No. 17. ' No. 254. ^ No. 34. 

^ No. 23. " No. 156. ^ No. 144. 1- No. 191. 

13 No. 4. 1^ No. 154. 15 No. 186. 16 Tree 2. 

" No. 79. 18 No. 47. i» No. 94. 20 Tree 2. 

21 No. 35. 22 No. ID. 23 No. 204. 24 No. 74. 

25 Tree 9. 26 No. 41. 27 No. 84. 


Shams el Dm married him to his daughter 'Ankoliba. . , . He had a son, 
YuseF.. . .He was buried at Abu Haraz. 

"Muhammad 'Abu 'Akla'" {vide sub "Abu 'Akla," No. 42). 

178. 2" Muhammad Abu Sabi'b ibn Timya, el Saridi." 
"Sheikh Hasan^ appointed him to succeed his father^, and the 

reason for this was that the Sheikh's sons were in disagreement, some 
of them wanting 'Araki and some this Muhammad. Then the question 
was put to their father's brother el Hag Ibrahim*' as to who was to be 
the Khalifa, and he said 'I will not say to one of the sons of 'Ali^ 
" Come forward" and to the other " Remain behind." Will they go 
to Sheikh Hasan ? ' 

So they*^ set out to see him, but 'Araki and his brethren reached 
the Sheikh first ; and [the latter] condescended to them and slaughtered 
a sheep for them: then came this Muhammad and his brethren, and 
[the Sheikh] condescended to them and said ' Fetch the matting for 
the successor [Khalifa'] of Walad Barri^.'". . . 

179. ^"Muhammad ibn 'Abudi^" 'Wakamir (?).'" 

A pupil of his father.. . .A description of his clothes follows. 

180. "Muhammad ibn 'Adlan, el Shafa'i el Hoshabi." 

He was a pupil of 'Abdulla el Moghrabi, a learned man of Medina.. . . 
Subsequently he went to Tankasi in the Shai'kia country and taught there. 
. . .He also did missionary work in Bornu and Hausaland [Affiu]. 

Among his pupils were Isma'il ibn el feki el Zayn el Shen'fabi, 
Muhammad walad Ferah, Muhammad walad Sulayman and Sa'ad walad 

"Muhammad 'el 'Agami' ibn Hasuna" {vide sub "el 'Agami," 
No. 55). ■ 

181. "Muhammad ibn 'Ali ibn Karm el Kimani, el Misri 
el Shafa'i." 

He entered the Sudan in the early days of the Fung rule and took up 
his residence at Arbagi, Sennar and Berber, in turn. He died and was 
buried at Berber. "He was one of God's ow^n miracles, for all the 
Sheikhs were taught by him knowledge and the laws of obligation 
[el ferid], as for instance Sheikh 'Abdulla ^^ el 'Araki and el Kadi 
Dushayn^^ el Shafa'i and Sheikh 'Abd el Rahman ^^ walad Ham- 
madtu and Sheikh Ibrahim el Faradi ^^ , , , and Sheikh Muhammad ^^ 
el Misri.". . .His sons were el Shakak and Shafa'i and Mekki and 

1 No. 256. ^ Tree 3. ^ No. 132. 

^ No. 58. 5 No. 136. 6 No. 58. 

' reading l^L; for jiU. ^ No. 58. 

» Tree 11. i" No. 54. " No. 34. 

12 No. 93. 13 No. 21. 14 No. 135. 

15 No. 195. 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 257 

182. "Muhammad ibn Anas." 

He was a follower of Sheikh Khogali^ and the fekis 'Abd el Rahman^ 
ibn Asid and 'Abd el Razik el 'Awadi. 

183. "Muhammad ibn Arbab^" (d. 1170 a.h.^). 

A follower of el Hag Khogali^, as were his brothers Busati and Ferah". 
. . .He was buried at el Bashakira. 

184. "Muhammad ibn 'Awayda." 
A pupil of el KadaF ibn el Faradi. 

"Muhammad 'el Azrak'" {vide sub "Muhammad ibn el Sheikh 

"Muhammad 'Ban el Nuka' " (vide sub "Ban el Nuka," No. 71). 

185. ^"Muhammad ibn el Sheikh Dafa'alla^ ibn el Sheikh 
Abu Idris." 

He was taught by, assisted and succeeded his father. . . . He was a 
contemporary of the feki Medani walad Dushayn. 

"Muhammad el Dari'r ibn Idris" {vide sub "Dolib Nesi," No. 

186. "Muhammad ibn Daud el Lukr^", el 'Udi." 

His mother was Kerita bint el Hag Tehami'd, and he was born at Bayba 
between Elti and Um 'Ukud....He was a pupil of Sheikh 'Abdulla el 
'Araki^^, who, on his deathbed, appointed him his successor.. . .He died 
at Hilla 'Agib on the Binder. 

187. 1^" Muhammad walad Dolib." 

His father was Muhammad el Darir^^ ibn Idris ibn Dolib el Rikabi, 
and his mother was named Zaynab.. . .He was born at Debba, educated 
there and died there.... He lived in the reign of King Ounsa walad 
Nasir.. . .Among the miracles related of him are the following: 

(i) He was attacked by a scorpion and spat upon it, and it died.. . . 

(2) A dog barked at him and he turned round upon it, and it died.. . . 

188. "Muhammad ibn Faid el Sherif." 

He was born on the shore of the Bitter Sea [Bahr el Mun].. . .He was 
a pupil of Sheikh Idris^^. 

"Muhammad ibn Gemal el Din" {vide sub "Halawi," No. 109). 

189. ^^" Muhammad ibn Hag Habib ibn Habib Nesii^,el Rikabi." 
He lived at Kashabi Island in Dongola.. . .It is related of him that 

when "King Dekin of Kordofal" presented him with 50 head [sc. "of 
slaves," or "of cattle"] he said that he did not deserve so much and asked 
that they should be given instead to Sheikh Ziada^' ibn el Nur who did 
deserve them.... He was a descendant of Sheikh Ghulamulla, whose 
kubba is at Dongola el 'Aguz.. . .He himself was buried at Kashabi. 

^ No. 154. 2 No j^ 3 -^Q 5^ 4 iy^6 A.D. 

^ No. 154. ^ No. 94. ' No. 147. ^ Tree 9. 

» No. 84. i« reading ^SJUl for ^-n)!. ^^ No. 34. 

12 Tree i. ^^ ^o. 90. " No. 141. ^^ Tree i. 

1^ No. 105. 1' No. 259. 

M S II 17 


190. 1" Muhammad ' el Hamim ' ibn 'Abd el Sadik ibn Mashir, 
el Rikabi." 

He was nicknamed "el Hamim" ["the Earnest"] because the wife of 
his "Sheikh" sent him to buy a dish of bread [ktsra], and, on his return, 
he found she had left the village, so he followed her with the dish of bread 
from Arbagi to Sennar and thence to Kubia. . . . He was a pupil of Sheikh 
Tag el Din el Bahari- and a contemporary of Sheikhs Idris^ and Ban 
el Nuka el Darir*, and the latter wrote some verses in his honour.. . .He 
died and was buried at el Mundara. 

"Muhammad ibn Hammad ibn el Sheikh Idri's" {vide sub "Ban 
el Nuka," No. 71). 

" Muhammad ' Walad el Bahr ' ibn el Sheikh Ibrahim el Faradi " 
{vide sub "Walad el Bahr," No. 252). 

191. "Muhammad ibn 'Isa ibn Salih, el Bedayri, 'Sowar el 
Dhahab ' [' The Bracelet of Gold ']." 

His mother was Hakika.. . .Among his pupils were 'Isa^ walad Kanu, 
'Abdulla'^ el Aghbash the father of the Ghubush, Nusr el Tergami, and 
'Abd el Rahman Abu Malah the father of Sheikh Khogali^; and among 
his friends were Sheikh 'Awuda^ Shakal el Karih, el Hag 'Abdulla the 
holy-man^ of Gerri, Muhammad^" walad el 'Abbasi, and Hammad^^ walad 
Abu Halima the holy-man of Sharau.. . .He lived in the reign of Badi ibn 

Rubat "He ruled the seven kings of the Gin, and the Fung and 

the kings of Ga'al obeyed him.". . .He was buried at Dongola. 

"Muhammad 'el Kadal'" {vide sub "'El Kadal' Muhammad," 
No. 147). 

"Muhammad el Kanawi" {vide sub "Muhammad 'el Misri,'" 
No. 195). 

"Muhammad 'walad Kuta'" {vide sub "Muhammad ibn Mus- 
allam," No. 196). 

192. 12 "Muhammad ibn Mahmud^^ el 'Araki." 

He was a most learned and pious man, and was buried with his famous 
father at el Kusayer. 

193. " Muhammad ibn Medani ibn Dushayn^^ ' Kadi el 'Adala.' " 
"Sheikh 'Izz el Dini^ walad Nafi'a el 'Araki said 'After Sheikh 

Dafa'alla the man who had intimacy with God was the feki Mu- 
hammad ibn Medani.'". . .Among his contemporaries were Sheikhs 
Musa^^ walad Ya'akub and Hammad ibn Dafa'alla, and among his pupils 
the fekis Dafa'alla ibn 'Abd el Hafiz and Khidr the holy-man [rdgil] 

of el Nuba and 'Abd el Hadi the holy-man of el Ruays "He was 

buried in the village which is famous by his name." 

1 Tree i. ^ No. 67. ^ No. 141. * No. 71. 

^ No. 143. ^ No. 31. 7 No. 154. « No. 66. 

" reading J^\j for J^lj. i" No. 173. ^^ No. 121. ^- Tree 7. 

-^^ No. 157. 1* No. 93. 1^ No. 146. 1^ No. 209. 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 259 

194. 1" Muhammad ibn Medani^ el Natik ibn el Sheikh 'Abd 
el Rahman walad Hammadtu." 

He was taught by his father's brother the feki Sheikh^ el A'sir"*, whom 

he succeeded "And the /<?/?/ Hammad^ ibn el Magdhub told me that 

Muhammad walad Salim el 'Adawi said to him 'When I went to 
Egypt I found no one whose knowledge \lit. "who could read"] of 
law \Khalil\ equalled that of Muhammad ibn Medani, excepting 
el Khadashi.'. . . 

Now the Muhammads who shared one name and one father and 
one epoch were three, Muhammad^ ibn Medani ibn Dushayn and 
Muhammad' ibn Medani ibn 'Abd el Rahman ibn Hammadtu and 
Muhammad ibn Medani ibn el 'Alim el Shafa'i." 

195. "Muhammad 'el MisRi.'" 

Also called Muhammad el Kanawi [Fatawi ?]. 

He was taught by Sheikh Salim el Sanhuri^ and Yusef el Razkabi 
walad 'Abd el Baki.. . .He visited the land of the Fung, e.g. Sennar and 
Arbagi, "in the second half of the tenth century, in the days of Sheikh 
'Agib.". . .He finally died at Berber. 

"Muhammad ibn Muhammad el Kadawi" {vide sub "el Me- 
dowi," No. 165). 

196. '^"Muhammad IBN Musallam." 

He was generally called "Walad Kuta" after his mother Kuta the 
daughter of Amna bint Fatima bint Gabir, [Fatima] being the sister of 
the four Imams ^°. . . . His father was a Halanki of the Nas walad Si'da. . . . 
He was taught by his mother's brother the feki Muhammad^^ ibn el Tankar. 
He first taught at el Koz and then moved his residence to el Hilalia. 

197. "Muhammad el Nukr ibn el Sheikh 'Abd el Razik^^ Abu 

He was taught by his father and the Awlad Ya'akub^^. 

198. 1^ " Muhammad ibn el Hag Nur ibn el feki Hammad^-^ walad 
Abu Halima, el Rikabi.". . . 

He was born at Sharau, and was taught by Hammad^^ ibn Hamaydan 
and Sheraf el Din^^ walad Barri.. . .He instructed Ibrahim the son of his 
brother Kaling. . . . His sons, the fekis Nur and Medani, succeeded him 
in turn. 

"Muhammad ibn Nusr el Tergami" (vide sub "Abu Sinayna," 
No. 51). ■ 

^ Tree 10. ^ No. 163. 

* reading j^^c*^! for ji*.aJL3l. 

^ No. 193. 

^ reading ^^j>v^l for j^^.uJt. 

i» No. 17, etc. ^^ No. 202. 

13 No. 254. 1* Tree i. 

1^ No. 120. " No. 237. 












Tree i. 








199. "Muhammad ibn 'Omran." 

He was taught what pertains to the sphere of faith ['z7«z el kaldm] and 
logic [el miintik] at Shendi by el Medowi^ ibn el Misri. 

200. "Muhammad ibn el feki Salim, el Mai'di." 

He was a follower of the feki BelaF and his son 'Abd el Rahman^ and 
Sheikh Khogali". 

"Muhammad ibn Serhan" {vide sub " Sughayerun," No. 241). 

"Muhammad walad el Shukl" {vide sub "Walad el Shukl," 
No. 253). 

201. "Muhammad ibn Surur ibn el Hag Ghanawa." 
A follower of Sheikh Hasan^. 

"Muhammad Tag el Din" {vide sub "el Bahari," No. 67). 

202. ^"Muhammad ibn el Tankar, el Ga'ali el Bisharabi." 
His mother was Amna bint Fatima bint Gabir, and he was taught by 

her brother Sughayerun'.. . . 

He was a follower of Sheikh Idris^ and would have liked to be his 
successor but was prevented by Sheikh Abd el Razik^. He then settled 
at el Muays and built a mosque there, and subsequently went south to 
el Bursi, where he died.. . .Among his pupils were Muhammad "walad 
Kuta^"" and Sheikh Hammad^^ ibn el Turabi. 

203. 12 "Muhammad 'ibn Um Gadayn' ibn el Sheikh 'Abd el 
Rahman ^^ ibn Hammadtu." 

He was taught by his brother the feki Sheikh^^, whom he eventually 
succeeded, and by his brother's son Ibn Medani^^.. . .Among his pupils 
were 'Abd el Rahman^^ ibn Asid and Medani^' ibn Muhammad ibn 
Medani.. . .He was buried with his brother Medani^^ at el 'Egayga.. . .His 
sons were Abd el Rahman, Hammadtu and Ibrahim.. . .Muhammad, the 
son of the last-named, succeeded the Awlad Um Gadayn as Khalifa. 

204. ^^" Muhammad ibn el Sheikh el Zayn, 'el Azrak'" (d. 

He was taught by his father and his paternal uncle Ibrahim "el 
Haggar^^." The latter died in 1098 A.H.^^ The feki SaHm el Mai'di was one 
of his pupils.. . .One of his miracles is related thus: "The late Sheikh 
Isma'il ibn Belal told me that one of the Hudur was in a boat on the 
Salt Sea, and a storm arose so that the boat was almost swamped, and 
the man called upon Muhammad ibn el Zayn, and saw him come 
flying through the air with his staff; and the sea became calm and 
the boat was saved.". . .He died in the year Um Hiriaydil, viz. 1108. 

1 No. 165. 2 ^Tf, jg 3 Jyfo j6 4 J^o j^^ 

•'' No. 132. ^ Tree i. ' No. 241. ^ No. 141. 

^ No. 27. ^^ No. 196. ^^ No. 125. ^2 Tree 10. 

" No. 21. 1^ No. 236. 1^ No. 194. i« No. 15. 

1' No. 162. 18 No. 164. 19 Tree i. 20 1696 a.d. 

21 No. 139. 22 1686 A.D. 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 261 

205. 1" Muhammad el Zayn ibn el Sheikh Marzuk^." 

He was taught by his father's brother Musa^ and by Sheikh Sugha- 
yerun*. . . .His sons were Sheikh Ya'akub and Marzuk and Medowi. 


A follower of Sheikh Taha'^ ibn 'Omara.. . .Sheikh Isma'il el Daka- 
lashi^ and the feki Nafa'i were among his pupils. 


His father was a disciple of el Kadal^ ibn el Faradi, and he himself 
was born at el Zalata in Northern Kordofal.. . ."He died a martyr's 
death at the hands of Gunkul the Sultan of Fur — both he and his 
pupils — and their possessions were confiscated; and the reason was 
that [Mukhtar] ordered [the Sultan] to do the right, and warned him 
against wrongdoing, [For the Sultan] advanced from el Kab with 
1000 horse to make war upon King Deki'n, and [Mukhtar's] disciple 
the/e^/ Nafa'i elFezari said tohim*^ ' Sendme^^to him ' ; and [Mukhtar] 
replied ' Tell him not to fight the Fung in their country : if he does 
so God and the Prophet will be on their side, and I also.' And when 
[the Sultan] heard that he said 'Raise the sword,' and when they had 
done so he said ' Please God I will kill the feki Mukhtar, and we will 
bury him among ourselves, and [then we shall be able to] visit [his 
tomb] ! ' And he set off to attack them (?) and found the feki together 
with his disciples reading, and he killed both the feki SLnd his disciples 
and his compatriots and confiscated their goods. Then through the 
grace of the feki in those days was Gunkul slain, and [he died] 
leaving about fifty sons, and these have been killing one another even 
up to this present day. That any one of them should die in his bed, 
as for instance el 'Isawi did, has been a rare occurrence." 

208. ii"MusA WALAD KiSHAYB, el Ga'ali el 'Armanabi el Mesal- 

One of his ancestors settled on the White Nile with the Hasanat; and, 
later, the KawAhla and others rendered Musa obedience. . . . 

He was a pupil of Sheikh el Zayn^'^ and a contemporary and equal of 
Sheikh Khogali^^.. . .He was succeeded by his son the feki Medowi. 

209. i^"MuSA IBN Ya'akubI^" 

His mother was named Marhab.. . .He was a famous saint and miracle- 
worker, and was taught by his father. He lived in the reign of Badi ibn 
Rubat.. . .It is said that a stray slave-woman was found who could not 
communicate in any known tongue with any one, but Musa at once under- 
stood all she said.. . .He was buried at el Humr. 

I Tree 8. ^ jsj^ j^^ 3 jv^Tq. 209. ^ No. 241. 
^ No. 248. ® No. 145. ' No. 102. ^ No. 147. 
^ reading oj^*^ for dJuj«JU. ^" reading ^_yl«yl for ^iCwjI. 

II Tree 11 (?). ^^ No. 258. ^^ No. 154." ^^ free 8. 
1° No. 254. 


210. "Mustafa el Sherif, el Moghrabi el Susi." 

"He embraced Sufiism and followed Sheikh Muhammad^ ibn 
el Terayfi.". . .He was buried west of Aslang Island. 


211. 2"Nabray ibn el feki 'Abd el Hadi ibn el Sheikh 
Muhammad^ walad Dolib. . . ." 

He was born at el Halfaya and educated by the feki Dafa'alla, and by 
the feki DayfuUa*, and by his father's brother the feki Sughayerun in Don- 
gola.. . .He was buried at el Halfaya. 

212. " Na'im "Abd EL SHERAKA'ibnelHag,elGa'ahelNawami." 
He was born at el Kerrada and buried near el Hilalia.. . ."He was 

called ' 'Abd el Sheraka ' [' Serv^ant of the Partnership '] because he 
divided his year into two halves: during one half he would serve 
Sheikh Idris^, and during the other he would serve Sheikh Abu 

213. "Na'im el Bathani." 

He was the disciple [hozcdr] of Sheikh Idris'.. . ."His tomb is in 
the desert in front of Walad Abu Delayk." 


He was the brother of Sheikh Hammad^ el Nahlan. 

215. "Now AW IBN EL Sheikh Dow el Bayt^'^" (d. 1176^^ a. h.). 
He was a Shafa'ite. . . . His son the feki Muhammad, a follower of Sheikh 

Khogali^-, was taught by 'Abd el Rahman^^ walad Belal and died in 1171^*, 
in his father's lifetime, and was succeeded by his son the feki el Tahir. 

216. ^^"NuR EL Din Abu Shimla ibn el Sheikh Muhammad^^ 
el Hamim." 

He was brother of Sheikh 'AH el NiF'^.. . .Their father migrated from 
Rufa'a to Mundara, and it was there his sons were buried.. . .It is related 
that Sheikh 'Ali sent his sons to the country south of Mundara, to fetch 
wood from the country of the dolayb palms, for re-roofing his mosques, 
and gave them twenty-four camels for the purpose. The party, however, 
met some elephants which frightened the camels by their trumpeting so 
that they bolted. The sons accordingly returned and reported to Sheikh 
'Ali, who was about to borrow other camels when Nur el Din said 
"'I swear by Sheikh Tag el Dm el Bahari the animals that caused 
our beasts to bolt shall bring [the wood] in their place.' Then he 
addressed an assistant of his father named Abu Sa'ad and said to 

1 No. 


- Tree i. 

3 No. 187. 

4 No. 89. 

5 No. 


« No. 48. 

' No. 141. 

^ Tree 9. 

9 No. 


10 No. 91. 

11 1762 A.D. 

12 No. 154 

13 No. 


" 1757 A.D. 

IS Tree i. 

1^ No. 190 

" No. 


IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 263 

him 'Ab' Sa'ad!' and he repHed '[Yes], master of Ab' Sa'ad's 
mother ! ' Then [Nur el Din] said ' Tell the animals which made our 
beasts to bolt that Sheikh 'All's order to them is "Come and carrj^ 
in their place."' And the elephants came, and they were four in 
number, and carried the load of the twenty-four camels," 

217. i"El Nur ibn el Sheikh Musa^ 'Abu Kussa.'" 

His mother was a slave-woman, and his father's brother was Sheikh 
Muhammad walad Marzuk.. . .He was buried at Mugaddala. 


He was born at el Koz, his mother being the daughter of Sheikh 
Sherif the disciple of Sheikh el Zayn^.. . .He taught at Arbagi.. . .His son 
was the feki Senussi'*. He was buried at el Matassi (?). 


219. " 'Omara ibn 'Abd el Hafiz el Khatib." 

His mother was the daughter of el Labadi^, and he was born at Sennar. 
. . .In Ramaddii 1177 A.H.^ he left Sennar and arrived in Egypt in Safar 
1178 A.H.' After staying at el Azhar university he proceeded to the Hegaz. 
In 1180^ he returned to Egypt.. . .In 1189^ he again performed the pil- 
grimage.. . .He married Fatima bint Salim, a merchant's daughter.. . .He 
was a contemporary of Sheikh 'Izz el Din^° walad Nafi'a of Manakil, the 
disciple of el Kadal^^ ibn el Faradi. 


220. "Radulla ibn Delila, el Saridi el Khamaysi." 

He was born at Shanbat and was taught by fekis Belal^^ and Abu el 
Hasan^^. Later he went to el Bursi and el Turfaya, and died at the latter. 

221. "Rahma EL Halawi." 

A pupil of Tag el Din^^ el Bahari. 

222 . 1^ " Rub AT and Rikab . ' ' 

"They were the two sons of Ghulamulla. Rub at was one of 
God's chosen [ragul magdhub]. The Sowarda married a slave-girl 
of theirs to him, and deceived him about her, and she bore to him^^ 
Selim. Then they confessed to him their deceit and said to him ' She 
is a slave.' So he complained of them to the Kadi, and the latter gave 
judgment for him that his son was free and bound him to pay the 

1 Tree 8. 2 ^^ 209. ^ ^o. 258. ^ No. 232. 

5 No. 61. ^ 1764 a.d. ' 1765 a.d. * 1767 a.d. 

9 1776 a.d. 10 No. 146. 11 No. 147. 12 No. 79. 

13 No. 47. " No. 67. 15 Xree i. 

1^ reading ^<«JLw <*J for ^©JLJ . 


value of the mother. This occurred in the time of the Fung. Now 
Selim sought the daughter of his uncle Rikab in marriage, and her 
name was Ganiba : but she refused him because of [the taint of] 
slavery. Then it happened that Kandil el '(3ni had a daughter who 
was sick, and he referred her case to Selim, and she recovered, so 
[Kandil] married her to him, and she begot 'On. And '(3n begot 
Gabir, the father of the four Sheikhs. Again, Malik el Kanisa [lit. 
' The king of the Church '] had a sick daughter, and she was cured, 
and he married her to [Selim], and she bore to him Hadhlul. Then 
Ganiba bint Rikab regretted her refusal, for he was a man of piety and 
popular among the people ; so he married her and she bore him four 
sons, Ruzayn and 'Abd el Razik and Dahmash and Misbah. Ruzayn 
was ancestor of the NAs Habib Nesi^, and 'Abd el Razik of NAs el 
Sheikh Hasan walad Belil, and Dahmash of the RuaydAb, the 
people of Abyad Diri, and Misbah of the RikAbia of el 'Afat. Ends. 

RikAb ibn Ghulamulla had four sons, 'Abdulla and 'Abd el Nebi 
(by a single mother), and Zayd el Ferid, and Habi'b and 'Agib (by a 
single mother). 'Abdulla begot Hag and Hagag. Hag begot the 
DoAlib, and Hagag begot the NAs walad Ak-hal. 'Abd el Nebi begot 
the SAdikAb, and Zayd el Ferid the 'AkAzAb and the TamrAb and 
the ShabwAb, and 'Agib the SidrAb, the NAs walad Abu Hali'ma. 
Here ends the genealogical tree of the RikAbia." 

223. "Sa'ad el Kursani." 

He was a Shaiki and taught at Nuri....His teacher was 'Abd el 
Rahman- ibn Asid. 

224. "Sa'ad walad ShushAi, el Moghrabi." 

He was buried near Shendi and north of it.... A contemporary of 
Sheikh Sughayerun^. 

225. "El HAg Sa'id ibn Muhammad el 'Abbasi." 

He lived at el Takaki and was taught apostleship [risdla] by el Mesal- 
lami* walad Abu Wanaysa.. . .He visited Berber, Shendi and Sennar. 

226. ^"SAlih ibn BAn el NukA^" (b. 1092^; d. 1167^ a.h.). 
"He was the third of the Khalifas who lit the fire of Sheikh 

'Abd el Kadir in the land of the Fung." 

His biography is divided into three chapters; firstly, the evidence of 
his contemporaries as to his character, etc.; secondly, an account of his 
teaching and career, and thirdly praises of his virtues and some account 
of his miracles. 

' No. 105. 2 ]sjo_ j^ 3 -^Q 241. ^ No. 172. 

^ Tree 8. ^ No. 70. ' 1681 a.d. ^ 1753 a.d. 


IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 265 

The following is from the second chapter: (Salih speaks) 

"Now Sheikh Hammad el Samih, when he invaded Shendi, 
killed the king of the Gamu'ia and more than 100 men, and ravaged 
the country and looted our slaves and our cattle and our sheep and 
camels.. . .Then I and my cousins went to ask for them back and he 
returned a part to us. . .and promised the remainder. And that night 
I saw Sheikh 'Abd el Kadir sitting on a bed . . . and I said to him 
* Hammad has looted my camels. . .etc.'" 

The following is from the third chapter : 

"Sheikh Salih related that there came to him the divine message 
giving him leave to light the fire [of religion] after the death of 
Sheikh Bedowi. Now this was in the year '18^, and in that same year 
el Samih attacked Shendi. His son, Sheikh 'Abd el Rahman 2, was 
born in the year '22 ^. And in those days the court gave him a share 
in the river-lands and the rain-lands; and he lit the fire [of religion] 
and lived honourably according to his obligations and the divine 
laws and com^mandments ^ ; and there was no house, whether of a true 
believer or otherwise, over which he had not influence. And he 
divided the land granted him by the court among the people as 
though it had been a banquet. . . . 

And he died in the year '67 ^ aged 75 . . . and his place was taken 
by his son Sheikh el Zayn, acting for Sheikh 'Abd el Rahman^ his 
brother, and [el Zayn] lit the fire like his father and executed all 
that his father had done at all times and places [lit. ' both when in a 
state of presence and of absence '] . At the same time he never re- 
laxed his reading of the Kuran, and especially [read it] during the 
last third of the night'. He died in the year '89® aged 70, and his 
place was taken by his son Sheikh Ban el Nuka." 

227. ^"Sanhuri ibn Madthir ibn Sanhuri ibn Hammuda^" ibn 
el Tankar." 

228. " Selim, the holy-man [rdgil] of el Sayal. . . ." 

He was a Khalidi, and was much praised by Sheikh Hammad ibn el 
Turabi.. . .He died at el Sayal. 

229. "Selman el 'Awadi" (d. 1121 a.h.^^). 

He was taught, as a child, by Sheikh 'Abd el Razik^'^, and when grown 
up by Sheikh Muhammad el Nukr^". ... He died in the same year as the feki 
'Abd el Magidl^ viz. 1121 a.h. 

1 1706 a.d. "^ No. 25. ^ 1710 a.d. 

* reading a5U_5JuU for ajU^Ju^ . ^ 1753 a.d. 

^ No. 25. ' reading JJUt for JJI . 

« 1775 a.d. ^ Tree i. ^" No. 130. 

11 1709 A.D. ^^ No. 27. ^^ No. 197. 

1^ No. 10. 


230. "Selman el Towali, *el Zaghrat^.'" 

He was a follower of Sheikh Muhammad el Hamim^, and among his 
pupils were Sheikhs 'Abd el Kadir^ ibn el Sheikh Idris, Abu Delayk* 
and Burt^ el Mesallami He died at the age of 120. 

231. " Senussi ibn el feki Mekki ibn el Sheikh 'Ali ibn el Sheikh 
Hamid" (d. about 1117'' A.H.). 

A follower of the feki Abd el Rahman'^ ibn Belal.. . .He died at el Gebel 
about the year 1117^. 

232. "Senussi WALAD NuRAYN^." 

He was born near Arbagi.. . .His mother was one of the Ghodiat^". 

233. ""Serhan ibn el Hag Muhammad ibn Serhan." 

He was born at Arko Island, and had a son named Idris....He 
quarrelled with his cousins and migrated to the SnAiKfA country and 
settled to the east of the island on which the Awlad Gabir dwelt, and 
married their sister Fatima, and begot el Hag Muhammad^^ and el Hag 
'Omar and el Hag Abu el Kasim and Amna, "the mother of el Tankar's 
children.". . .He performed the pilgrimage. 

234. "Serhan ibn el feki Subah walad Teraf." 

He was born at Gerf Kumr, died in 1206^^ aged about 90, and was 
buried at his birthplace.. . .He was a follower of Abd el Rahman^* ibn 

235. "Shammar ibn Muhammad ibn 'Adlan, el Shaiki." 

He was born at Arbagi.. . .He was taught by the fekis Belal^^ and Abu 
el Hasan^^ and Busati ibn el feki Arbab^'^ " He became a mufti [juris- 
consult] in the sects of both Malik and el Shafa'i and a teacher of the 
doctrine of both. The people of Arbagi called him 'The Indian 
Boat' [Markab el Hind].'\ . .He was buried at Arbagi. 

236. ^^" Sheikh el A'sir^** ibn 'Abd el Rahman ibn Hammadtu." 
He was born and resided at Nuri, and was taught by his father and his 

brother Medani^".. . .When the latter died a dispute arose as to whether 
Sheikh or Malik ^^ should be his successor, and the choice fell upon Sheikh. 
. . .Among his pupils were 'Abd el Magid^- ibn el Aghbash and Abd el 
Kadir^^ ibn el Sheikh Idris.. . ."And miracles were vouchsafed to him, 
one being as follows: He guaranteed to 'Othman walad Hammad 
that he should be victorious in war against the Fung: and the cir- 
cumstances were as follows: [Sheikh] fell ill and was told that his 
remedy lay in the fat of storks [rahil], and 'Othman shot a stork with 
a rifle and brought it to him, and his illness left him. Then [Sheikh] 

^ reading Ol^jJI for Ol^ijJI. ^ No. 190. ^ No. 7. 

•* No. 46. 5 No. 82. « 1705 A.D. 7 No. 16. 

^ 1705 A.D. ^ No. 218. ^" reading aj^jcc for ijjjwS. 

11 Tree i. ^^ ^o. 241. ^^ i^^oa.d." 1* No. 16. 

15 No. 79. 16 No. 47. 17 No. 65. 18 Tree 10. 

i» reading j-^'nJI for j-«*3l. 20 ^o. 163. 21 Nq j^g. 
22 No. 10. -"^ No. 7. 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 267 

prayed for him that he should [always] hit the mark when shooting; 
and indeed it was only by rifle-fire that the Fung were defeated, for 
of a truth they [sc. rifles] do not miss^ their mark. Now when 
'Othman had defeated the foe he came out of his retreat [khalwa] 
wearing a shirt of rough wool. [And] the armies parted and each 
went their way [lit. 'the horses parted, tail from tail'], and Sheikh 
'All walad 'Othman sent to King Badi walad Rubat and informed 
him of the defeat and demanded of him his kingdom. Then King Badi 
told his troops the following: 'At midday, after the doors had been 
closed^ and he that was inside was cut off [from the outer world] 
there came in to me a left-handed [d'sir] man wearing rough 
woollen clothes and like a eunuch^ in appearance, and said to me 
" [If] you send forth an army to Kagabi I will do so and so to you." ' 
And the Shaikia horse-traders said to him ' That was the feki Sheikh, 
and indeed 'Othman was putting his faith in him.'" 

237. *" Sheraf el Din ibn 'Abdulla el 'Araki ibn el Sheikh 'Ali ■' 
ibn Barri." 

His mother was 'Agabat bint el Hag Ibrahim ibn Barri.... He was 
born at Nasri Island and taught by his mother's brother Muhammad 
Kakumr^.. . .He performed the pilgrimage, and instructed many people 
of the Hegaz.. . .He died at el Higayr.. . .He was a contemporary of the 
author's father: "My brother in God, el Hag 'Abd el Kadir walad 
Sa'i'd, told me that in his pilgrimage in the year '64'^ he met a great 
sheikh who said to him ' I became a follower of the Way in the 
footsteps of Sheikh Sheraf el Din when he came on the pilgrimage.' 
My father^ also told me saying ' In the year that the small-pox raged 
I and the feki 'Abd el Dafa'i^ and the feki Idris walad Nusar were 
sitting in front of the mosque, when there came up to us Sheikh 
Sheraf el Din riding a mare.. . . ' " 

238. " Sheraf el Din Abu Gemal el Din," 

The holy-man \rdgil\ of Ankawi.. . .He was the son of Muhammad 
ibn Fakrun, whose tomb is at el Hilali'a.. . .He was born at Muays and 
then moved to Ankawi.. . .He was taught by Sheikh 'Abdulla el 'Araki^** 
and himself taught Sheikh Basbar^^.. . .He was buried east of Ankawi. 

239. ^^" Sheraf el Din ibn el feki 'Ali walad Kuta." 
He died at Koz walad Di'ab. 

240. "Shukrulla ibn 'Othman ibn Bedowi el 'tJdi." 

He was born at Shanbat; was taught by Hammad^^ ibn Hamaydan, 

^ reading ^JajiJJ for jy«aa^3. - reading j*jju-dl for jujuJt. 

3 reading '^^a^\^ for j^^-aaJl^. * Tree 3. ^ ^o. 58. 

^ No. 148, reading ^.^515 for ^515. ' 1751 a.d. 

8 No. 89. » No. 4. 10 No. 34. 

11 No. 73. 12 Tree i. i^ No. 120. 


and was a contemporar\- of Sheikhs Hammad el Samih and Hammad ibn 
el Turabi^.. . .His pupils were ver\' numerous and included thtfeki 'Abd 
e! Dafa'i-.. . .He died aged between 40 and 50 and was buried at Shanbat. 
241 . ^" ' SuGHATERUN,' i.e. Sidi Muhammad ibn Serhan el 'L'di." 
" His mother was Fatima bint Gabir ibn 'On ibn Selim ibn Rubat 
ibn Ghulamulla, nor has such fruit been bom save from such a tree. 
He was called 'Sughayerun' because his mother's relatives, the 
AwLAD Gaber, used to call him ^luhammad el Sughayer ['the 
Small,' or 'the Lesser'], and this was per\-erted into ' Sughayeriin.' 
He was bom, God have mercy on him, on Tarnag Island in the 
SnAiKiA country, and was, God bless him, one of those who united 
learning and Sufiism. He excelled in learning under his mother's 
brother Sheikh Isma'il ibn Gabir, who gave him leave to teach. 
Then he transferred himself to Sheikh Muhammad el Banufari 
and studied a certain amount of law [Khalil] with him, and Mu- 
hammad said that it benefited one's teaching. And God blessed 
him and he sat in the seat of his mother's brothers after them. He 
was one of the most ascetic of sages, one of the greatest of saints, 
and, in Sufiism, the lover of Sheikh Idris ibn el Arbab. The reason 
of his coming to Dar el Abwab [' Land of the Gates *] was that the 
sons - of his father's brother were at \-iolent enmit\' with him because 
he usurped their greatness and followed his mother's relatives in 
learning and piety. So they incited Zimrawi the king of the Shatkia 
against hun and bid him slay him. Then [Zimrawi] mounted his horse 
and came to him [Sughayeriin] while he was in the mosque, and found 
his mother, the daughter of Gabir, with him; and she said 'O 
Zimrawi, you have come to kill Muhammad'; and they lowered him 
from his horse in a fainting condition and he began [to groan] saving 
' Hak! Hak! The cattle of el Hag Muhammad have butted me.' Then 
they came to [Sughayeriin] and interceded with him for [Zimrawi], 
and he replied ' This thing is not my doing but that of my mother's 
brothers^.' Then he put a spell upon him and he recovered. And 
[Zimrawi] said to him ' I bestow upon you four sdkias, each of them 
40 'uds of the length of a spear [in breadth], and four brood mares 
and four head [of slaves].' But [Sughayeriin] repUed 'It would be 
impious for me to receive anything from you or to live in your 

Again, it is said that King Badi Abu Rubat, who was Master of 
the Household [Sid Kum\ to King 'Adlan walad Aya, put his trust 
in [Sughayeriin] ; and when King 'Adlan, after kilHng Sheikh 'Agib 

^ Xo. 125. - No. 4. ^ Tree i. 

* reading i'^jt for "^'^l. ' reading ^Jl^^^i for ^ Jl^».l. 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 269 

at Karkog, moved with his army to Dongola province and reached 
Meshwa (?), the Fung deposed him and appointed Badi the Master 
of the King's Household. Then [Badi] requested [Sughayerun] to 
accompany him to the south, and [Sughayerun] said ' I will join you,' 
and he proceeded after [the king] to the south with his mother and his 
brethren and his wives and his children. And when he came to 
el Derira the holy men [fukard] of the south and of the north dis- 
puted among themselves, the former bidding him dwell in the south 
and latter in the north ; and he said to them ' God decide the matter! ' 
And he took his ablution-jug and went into the desert and fore- 
gathered with el Say\-id el Khidr, God bless him ; and el Sayyid told 
him 'Your dwelling-place shall be Koz el Mutrak, opposite the plain 
of Um Wizin.' And [Sughayerun] went thither and found it rough 
land and forest, so he went on to el Figayga and found it was an open 
site clear of trees, and he said 'This is el Figayga [i.e. 'The Little 
Clearing'] where the brethren of Sheikh 'Abd el Rahman^ walad 
Hammadtu stop'; and this was why it was called 'el Figayga.' Then 
Sheikh^ ibn Serhan sent to King Badi at Sennar and informed him 
of his arrival and requested him to grant him a site on the unoccupied 
land^ to dwell in and a watering-place on the river. And the king 
sent for his henchman and said to him 'Give him all the land he 
wants and mark the boundaries for him'; and [the Sheikh] replied 
' Beyond a site of unoccupied land ^ and the watering-place for the 
holy men and a place for burial I want nothing': and this was 
characteristic of his self-restraint and asceticism in all earthly matters. 
Then the Sheikh, God bless him, built the mosque founded under 
the auspices of el Khidr, upon whom be the blessings of God ; and 
it is said that with his own noble hand he set up^ the central pole 
[that supports the roof], [at the foot of] which the Sheikhs give their 
lessons : and men flocked to him from every quarter and camels were 
heaped upon him galore, and he found favour in the eyes of all men. 
Among his famous followers were Sheikh Dafa'alla*^ ibn el Sheikh 
Abu Idris, and the feki 'Abd el Hali'm" walad Bahr, and the sons 
of Barri (the feki 'Ali^ and el Hag Ibrahim^), and Tor el Matan 
el Kahli el Berkani (who was buried in front of his tomb), and the 
three sons of el Tankar (the feki Muhammad^'^ and Hammuda^^ and 
Mazrii2),and Medani^^ el Haggar the son of el Hag 'Omar his brother, 
and Muhammad the son of el Hag Abu el Kasim his brother, a pious 

1 Xo. 21. - No. 241. ^ reading "^i. for '^l».. 

^ reading "^LaJI for AJLaJI. ° reading ji. for j.5. 

« No. 84. ' No. 5. 8 No. 58. » No. 136. 

1° No. 202. " No. 130. 1- No. 160, 1^ No. 161. 


and good man, who died about the same time as his uncle leaving 
no children excepting his daughter Haga the mother of the feki Belal^. 
And the son of Serhan begot the feki el Zayn^ and Ibrahim el Haggar^ 
and Abukr and five daughters, viz. Rabi'a, who was married by 
Medani el Haggar^ the son of [Sughayerun's] brother 'Omar, and 
Haga, who was married by Muhammad^ ibn el Tankar the son of 
[Sughayerun's] sister Amna, and Zaynab, who was married by 
Muhammad the son of el Hag Abu el Kasim, [Sughayerun's] brother. 
Now the length of time he was teaching at el Abwab [may be gauged 
by the fact that] he completed the course thirteen or fourteen or 
fifteen times [lit. 'sealings']. He was buried at el Koz, and his tomb 
is to be visited : through its medium the rainfall is obtainable for the 


He was born at el Shakal near Shendi, and lived and died at Um 
el Rahi.. . .He was taught by Sughayerun® the son of Serhan, and was a 
follower of Sheikh Idris', and a friend of Sheikh Hasan^ and 'Abd el Razik^ 
and Basbar^'' and 'Ali^^ ibn Barri. 


He was a Zarnakhi, born at Abu Hashim, and educated in the Shaikia 
country.. . ."He was at the fight between 'Othman walad Hammad and 
the Fung.". . .He taught his brother's son Sheikh Salih^^ Ban el Nuka. 
He died the year after "small-pox year." 


His village was el Sayal.. . .He was taught by Rahma^* el Halawi, the 
pupil of Tag el Din^^ el Bahari.. . .His son was 'Abd el Rahi'm "Wadad 

245. "SURUR EL SaRIDI." 

He was born and died at el Khashab, and was a pupil of Hasan^' ibn 


"Tag el Din el Bahari" (see "el Bahari"). 

246. "Tagur el Nahasi ibn el Sheikh 'Abdulla walad 

A learned and pious man. 

247. ^^"Taha IBN EL Hag Lukani." 

A follower of Sheikh Hasan^^ walad Hasuna. 

1 No. 79. 2 No. 258. 3 No j^g 

^ No. 161. ^ No. 202. ^ No. 241. 

' No. 141. 8 No. 132. ^ No. 27. 

10 No. 73. " No. 58. 12 Tree 8. 

13 No. 226. 14 No. 221. 15 No. 67. 

" No. 251. 1' No. 132. 18 Tree 5. i» No. 132. 



248. "Taha ibn 'Omara el Furayn (el 'Aurayn ?)." 

Born at el Kugr.. . .A pupil of Dafa'alla^ ibn el Shdfa'i. His brother 
was called "el Akhrash.". . .He died near Sennar. 

249. "Tayrgum EL Rufa'i." 

Born and buried at el Hilalia.. . .A pupil of Sheikh Dafa'alla^, 


250. "Um Barak ibn el Sheikh Maski'n." 


251. "'Wadad' ibn el Sheikh Sulayman el Zamli." 

His name was 'Abd el Rahim.. . .He lived at el Sayal in the HalA- 
wiYYUN country, and was buried there. 

252. 3'"Waladel Bahr.'" 

His name was Muhammad ibn el Sheikh Ibrahim* el Faradi....He 
was a pupil of his brother Muhammad el Kadal^.. . .His sons were the 
fekis Ibrahim and el Berr; and the former begot the /^^i Ahmad el Fezari. 

253. "'Walad el Shukl.'" 

His name was Muhammad.. . .He was a pupil of el Kadal^ ibn el 
Faracli He lived "near to the north of Um Talha at el A'dau." 

254. '"Ya'akub ibn el Sheikh Ban el Nuka^." 

He was a pupil of Abd el Rahman^ ibn Gabir, and one of the forty 
disciples, all of whom attained the rank of Kutb He was buried at el 

255. "Ya'akub ibn el Sheikh Mugelli, el Mashaykhi." 

He was born in Upper Egypt \el Rif] , and entered the Gezira in the 
early days of the Fung rule. 

"And the king entertained him and gave him his daughter in 
marriage and apportioned to him in the neighbourhood of el Halfaya 
as much land as his horse could encompass ^° eastwards and west- 
wards and southwards [lit. 'right'] and northwards [lit. 'left'], and 
conferred it upon him fully and freely^^, and it remains so to the 
present day.". . ."He was buried half a mile [mil] from el Halfaya 
and his tomb is plain to see and should be visited." 

1 No. 83. 2 No. 84. =^ Tree 11. 

* No. 135. ^ No. 147. ^ No. 147. 

' Trees. s No. 71. » No. 17. 

^^ reading j^-^j for jyS:^. ^^ reading J--JI for J*-JI. 


A pupil of his father. . . . Before his death he appointed his son Sheikh 
Muhammad to succeed him. 

257. "Zayn el 'Abdin IBN EL Sheikh 'Abd el Rahman ibn 
el Sheikh Dafa'alla." 

A follower of Sheikh el Gunayd^. 

258. "^''El Zayn ibn el Sheikh Sughayerun^" (d. 1086 a.h.^). 
He was born in the Shaikia country.. . .His mother was Hoda, one 

of the Terayfia. He followed the teaching of his father, and died in 
1086 A.H, 

259. "ZiADA IBN EL NuR ibn cl Sheikh Muhammad walad 'fsa." 
He was the Khalifa of Sheikh Muhammad' 'Ali and, like all the pupils 

of that famous man, the recipient of favours from King Badi walad 
Rubat. King Dekin too sent him on one occasion 50 head [of slaves]. 
He died at Dongola el 'Agtiz [Old Dongola], and was succeeded by his 
son Ahmad, 

On the back of the last, i.e. the 220th page, is written in a rough and 
different hand : 

"The ownership of this Tahakdt has been transferred to Mu- 
hammad ibn Ahmad Hammad el Nil el Rayyah. He has not... 
{illegible). . .nor changed it." 

1 Tree 9. - No. 177. ^ No. 49. 

"* Tree i. ^ No. 241. ® 1675 ^-D. 


No. 181 (?). 




n (233) 




I I 

El Hag Abu el Kasim . El Hag 'Omar 


I I 

El ZAYN (258) Zaynab -Muhammad MEDANI el HAGGAR (161) ^Rabi'a, his first 
^ i, I I cousin, q.v. 

rahm^jj^^ MUHAMMAD =Haga 
'Udi el AZRAK (204) I 

N (47) daughter = BELAL (79) 
'ABD el RAHMAN (16) 

_ I I 

Nurayn El Kutbi 

I . I ■ 

Muhammad ibn el Rayda=Burra, his Ibrahim 
cousin, q.v. 

; of Eimmediately below the names of 
raphi; descended according to D 3 . 

'Abiullad) -Abd d Ncbi (1) Za^d cl Fcrld (3) MublhO) 'A)[ib (j) Gnnlbn 

b d Riklbi MUUAMMADllllAMtM (/<jc) si'j, 

j.jLkt. ,r^.nfn 'ALI ci'nIL (Ij) HAmKiaD NOR cI 61N ABU | " ''^''' 

iI,lBNESI"(!>o) I tlurinAbu Huuyn 

r : \ 1 [ ABU (1 SASIM 'Ali NOt d Din ^ 1 

— 1 UAMlLlADU^n H«U, 

;lRuaykiba" HAmIwODA Kota =Mu.nllnm. u «alan|fi MAZRI (760) _ 

■•GlAHcrAGWA"(jjo) ^ h« lim cousin, q.v. tIAGGAR ('JSr) I 


= Mubuninad M<i^ha^$«jb MUHAMMAD ^Udfia NOnyn 

lANHCRI U-.-,-! h" '""'in. '1 ' .Mub=mm»J ibi. cl R*)fd»=^| 

ABU cl IJASAN ( j;) ./a«,r/(rff = tlULAl. (75) 
-ABD d RAIJMAN (le) 


Timya Kandil el Saridi 



El Wali 'Ali 
= Umhani 


"el 'Araki" 

KAKUMR {148) 


Hammad Abu Dendna 
Abu 'Akrab, a Mahassfa 

t (7) -[{Muhammad) KRatnli) X{Beld[) 

'Agabat Rahman Hammad 5 others 

pHERAF el DfN (237) 

* V. sub No. 



AFA'ALLA "walad RfA" {85) 

Hatuna, a Kahli Hadhali 

Muhammad =Ria 

MAHMOD el 'ARAKI (157) 


j) = daughter 

^BD el MA'ABUD (80) 

Musa " waladjiahassia Mushayrifia 

'ABD el MAHMOD ==(2) yusna, a Ga'alia 
el Nofalabi, 
an 'Araki (ii) 


HAMMAD lilt) 



.I(fi^) t*ABDeiKADIR(7) tfj""*""""'"') I<Kom/i) l(B(/dO 

MEpOWt (/AA) AtbAb '.tr^ki 'Abd d Rabmin Han 



iQu^dauililer Woibthla 






= dayfuLlji 



»d bint Kh<5galj. o Mabaufil MiuhayriHn 

U9) tliiu«iilcr(i)= -ABDclMAHMOD^WBujiM, 

In el na 


pmad=a Si 

Batal el Gh 


ii Wagiba 



Abu 'Ayesha" 

"ABU IDRrS"(^5) 


el Nil 

AD "ABU 'AKLA," el Kashif {42) 

Shams el Dm Abu Idris Hammad Abu Kut 

DAFA7 MAD = 'Ankoliba 
h) I 

el ASpA {119) MUHAP 
^ El Hag is not mentioned 

YUSEF {256) 


'ABD el 

laiki, of th« 
n Section - 


AYK {46) 'Abdulla, a Kahli =Gawadi 

'ABUDI {54) =dai. 

'Ayesha =BEDOWI {74) 



11 'Abd el Haffz IBR 


HAMMAD {147) 


rA«er = MUSA walad 

KISHAYB {208) 

kr MEDOWI {167) 
Nasir el Din 

'Abdulla Tag el Din 

1 el NUr Subr Muhami 



= B»mmid. a Uanirini YAAtyCS 

HI Zayn BcJowJ Htgiii Abu M'uslbii 

51!GhAyER0N (i 





MUfJAMMAD =: FHiaa Uni MuA" ^il'' 

lAMMAD OSi) " ' '^^* 

:1 Hnftz IDRAHtM el FARAI^l ^Ju 



D 3 (NOTES) 

I On the back of this fragment is written in a crude scrawl, in no way 
resembUng the body of the text, " This is the Tabakat walad Dayfulla. In 
the name of God . . . (invocation) ... I He at the door of Sheikh KhogaU . . . 
(praises of the Prophet) . . . ." 

KhogaU ibn 'Abd el RaJpnan (No. 154), who died in 1155 a.h. 
(1742 A.D.), Uved and was buried at el Halfaya, the birthplace of the author's 
family (see No. 88). 

The words "my fatJier" must be taken to mean "my grandfather." 
The author's father was Dayfulla walad Muhammad walad Dayfulla (see 
No. 89). In No. 120 (q.v.) Muhammad Dayfulla is actually called "my 

It must be noted that the word '^Sheikh" is, with ver)' few exceptions 
(e.g. "Sheikh 'Agib "), used throughout in the technical sense as denoting 
not temporal power but the spiritual authority of a superior of a religious 
order. For the exact meaning of the term see Hughes, pp. 556 and 571, 
and Sell, pp. 104, no, in. 

The word "feki" (or "fekih") means properly one learned in juris- 
prudence or dogmatic theology (see Hughes, pp. 106 and 128), but is used 
commonly to mean merely a learned man, or a cleric. It must not be 
confused with "fakir,'' a term used properly of one who is poor in the 
sight of God, i.e. a "dervish." 

II It is impossible to say whether any pages are missing between this and 
the page on either side of it. 

III This page also contains a reference to the tradition (see Hughes, 
p. 475) from the Mishkdt (Bk. xxiv. Chap, i. Part 3) that there were in all 
124,000 prophets, "but those mentioned in the Kuran are enough." 

IV For the Arabic of the following passage and textual emendations see 
Appendix i . The date, and the name of the founder of the Fung dynasty 
of Sennar, are given correctly. For the chronology of the Fung kings 
see D 7. 

Arbagi was, until late in the eighteenth century, one of the chief towns 
of the Sudan, but it was then destroyed by the Shukria and 'Abdullah and 
has now disappeared (cp. D 7, xc). It is said to have been largely peopled 
by Hudur. For the foundation of Arbagi about 1474 a.d. by Hegazi ibn 
Ma'in, cp. Jackson, p. 18. It w^as visited by Poncet in 1699: he calls it 
(p. 17) "the Town of Harbagy." The earliest mention of it (" Arbatg") is 
in Ludolfus (Bk. iv. Chap. vi). He also mentions "Gerri" (Kerri) and 
"Helfage" (Halfaya). The Gelilab of Wad Rawa claim that their ancestor 
was 'Abd el Gelil the nephew of Hegazi ibn Ma'in (cp. sub No. 67). 

V The " 'idda'' of Muhammadan law is "the term by the completion of 
which a new marriage is rendered lawful." (See Hamilton's Hedaya, 
Vol. I, Chap. XII, p. 128, sub "Edit.") 


'' Sheikh. . .el Kusayer" is Mahmud el 'Araki (No. 157). The miss- 
ing word (the page is chipped) is no doubt "rdgil" a term used apparently 
to denote " the holy-man of. . . " : other examples of this use of the word are 
to be found in Nos. 44 and 191. Mahmud is in No. 11 called " Rdgil el 
Kusr" [" the Holy-man of the Castle "], and so ''Kusayer " may be taken to 
be a diminutive form: it is used also in No. 157. 

It is not clear what was the relationship between Mahmud and the 
rest of the 'Araki family of holy men whose biographies are given, e.g. Abu 
Idris, Sheikh Dafa'alla, etc. (for whom see Tree No. 9 and D i, ci). 

The word translated "came" is jaj3 {kadam) and has a technical 
flavour: it is frequently used by the author in speaking of the advent of 
holy men. The technical word '' mukaddam" (a sort of abbot or legate, 
see Sell, pp. 104-107) is formed from the same root. So, too {e.g. paras. 
VIII and x), the phrase ^A*. _/>^i {kaddam 'aid) in the transitive sense is 
used, and I have there translated it "inspired." 

''Dwelt on the White [Nile']'' is in the Arabic ^ « }*^\ ,j.JC_w, and 
"dwelt at el Obayd" would be the normal translation: but it is probable 
from No. 157, and certain from D 7, 11 (q.v.), that the White Nile is meant 
and the words ''el bahr" (the Nile) have here and in No. 157 been left 
out. In addition, el Obayd ["el Obeid"] was not built until about 1760 
(see MacMichael, Tribes..., p. 12). For the whole passage cp. D 7, 11. 

VI Abu Sakaykin (or Abu Sakaki'n) was the fourth of the Fung kings 
and reigned about 1551-1559 (Bruce). 

The term Mdiigilak, or Matigil, may roughly be rendered Viceroy. It 
was especially the title of those Abdullab sheikhs who ruled the country 
round el Halfaya for the Fung kings. These Abdullab were a section of the 
Kawasma branch of the Rufa'a, and it was their Sheikh AbduUa Gema'a 
who was the ally of 'Omara Dunkas (see para, iv) and assisted him to found 
his empire (see Budge, Vol. 11, pp. 200 and 204; Jackson, pp. 17-22; 
D 5 {a); and, in particular, the Appendix to Chap. 2 {a) of Part III). 

'Agib el Mdngilak was the son of Abdulla Gema'a, and he is occasion- 
ally called 'Agib Kafut (see Budge, loc. cit., Jackson, p. 24, and Part III, 
loc. cit.). 

For Ibrahim el Buldd, one of the famous Awlad Gabir, see Nos. 17 
and 23 and AB, Lxxxix, and cp. Jackson, p. 26. 

For the terms " KhaliV and " risdla" see AB, Lxxxix (note), 
vii The text gives el Bahar for el Bahari. This syncopation is very com- 
mon throughout in proper names, e.g. we get 'Omar for 'Omara, el Hamr 
for el Hamra, el Kaf for el Kafi, el 'Od for el 'Udi, etc. I have not noted 
these particular alterations every time they occur as it would be un- 

For Sufiism see Hughes, pp. 608-622 (including a bibliography), and 
Sell, pp. 1-45 {The Mystics of Islam). A large number of the technical 
terms used by the author are borrowed from the Sufi vocabulary, e.g. 
"tarika" " sdlik" "dhikr," " zdhid," "wall" "magdhub," etc. 

For this and following paragraphs, cp. D 7, xxi et seq. 
VIII No biography of el Telemsani is given. 

"Instructed him in dogma'' is ^e^iJI i^i^ oSiL^ {sallakhu tarik el 


kUm), a Sufi phrase. Human life being considered as a journey, the 
"tank" or " tarika" is the road to be followed, the '' sdlik" is one who 
follows it, and '' sallak " is to cause another to follow it. By " tarik d kuvi " 
{lit. the road of the people) is meant particularly " tarik el fukard" i.e. the 
road of the holy men (cp. Appendix 5, etc., passim). 

'''Ilm el kaldm" is the same as '"akdid" (q.v. No. 52) and relates to 
matters of faith in contradistinction .to " V/w el fekih" which relates to 
matters of practice, i.e. jurisprudence. Cp. No. 136; and see Hughes, 
pp. 106 and 286. 

" The iiiterpretatioji of . . .syntax" is in the Arabic 

lA^AkJ J *^^j'jj_3 Ju j) ai .7.1 i^[/*JI j>^^ 

Cp. Hughes, p. 517: "The recital of the Qur'an has been developed into 
a science known as ' Ilmu '1 Tajwid. . . ,' which includes a knowledge of the 
pecuUarities of the spelling of many words in the Qur'an ; of the. . .various 
readings;. . .of the various divisions, punctuations, and marginal instruc- 
tions ; of the proper pronunciation of the Arabic words ; and of the correct 
intonation of different passages." 

IX ''The doctrifie of...Kurdn" is ''el tawhid wa el tagzvid." For the 
latter see para, viii (note). For tazchid see Hughes, p. 629; but the word 
is also used technically by the Sufis to denote the final identification of the 
saint with the Supreme Being by absorption (see Sell, p. no). 

X "Arose" is ^S^^ *^j^> or, literally, "appeared the saintship of." 
For the term "zvali" see Sell, p. 109, and Hughes, p. 663, and AB, 11. 

For 'Abd el Kdfi cp. Jackson, p. 27. 

XII Probably Sheikh Muhammad ibn 'AH (No, 181). 

The repetition of the word >6j*i in the text is obviously a slip. 
El Shdfa'i is the Imam Muhammad ibn Idris, the founder of one of the 
four orthodox Sunni sects (see Hughes, p. 570). 

XIII The Mashdikha are a small section who claim to be descended from 
the Khalifa Abu Bukr el Sadik. They are related to the Mesallamia. 

In this particular context are meant Muhammad walad Fakrun (see 
No. 86), Sheraf el Din (No. 238), Ya'akub ibn MugeUi (No. 255) and 
Hammad ibn Mariam (No. 124). 

El Halfdya, now called Khartoum North, is on the right bank of the 
Blue Nile opposite Khartoum. Previous to the Turkish conquest it was 
one of the most important towns in the Sudan and the seat of the power 
of the 'Abdullab. With the founding of Khartoum its importance waned. 

Poncet visited it in 1699 and calls it "Alfaa, a large village built with 
square stone, where the men are tall and comely" (p. 17). 


1 . "El Shard' ana" is properly the name of a sub-tribe of ELawahla, but 
is here used for their village. 

2. Gebel Moya lies about 20 miles east of Sennar. 

This 'Abd el Bdki el Wdli is the eponymous ancestor of the Wali'a 
section of Kawahla, and is regarded by the family of the 'omda of the 

18 — 2 


Batahi'n, among others, as their " Sheikh," i.e. it is his tomb to which they 
pay their "visits" (zidra) and which they help to maintain, and to him 
that they would have recourse for any supernatural assistance: in other 
words they regard him as the particular medium through which they may 
approach Providence. If they lost a camel by theft they would enquire 
at his tomb, or if a woman was barren she would appeal at his tomb — the 
guardian thereof benefiting proportionately. Cp. note to No. 73, and see 
Jaussen, p. 309, on the subject of zidras and tombs. 

'Abd el Baki's tomb is not at Gebel Moya but at Um Karkur, some 
40 miles N.N.W. of it. 

Bddi walad Nul ruled at Sennar from 1733 to 1766 a.d. (Bruce). He 
is generally known as Badi "Abu Shelukh" (for which name see note to 

D 7, XLVIIl). 

4. No. 174 is this man's son. 

6. Abu Hardz is five miles north of Wad Medani, on the Blue Nile. 
It was the home of the Araki family. 

7. Abyad Dili is north of Khartoum near Wad Ramla station. Cp. 
Nos. 34 and 142. This man's descendants and those of his brother Mu- 
hammad (see No. 141, note) are at Wawissi, north of Khartoum. 

8. El Bashdkira is a village on the Blue Nile about 45 miles above 

''Was taught it by...'" is in each case ^j-« dJ,o.l or ,j^ djt».l, i.e. 
literally, "took it from." 

Which of the three men named Muhammad ibn Medani (for whom 
see No. 194) is meant here is not clear. 

Ndfa'i el Fezdri occurs again in Nos. 206, 207. 

9. '' Succeeded his father" is a.*j| ^iJoa ijlJaaUl ,^3. 

The '' khatib" is the preacher who recites the " khutba" in the Friday 
service at the mosque (see Hughes, p. 472). 

" Ki?ig Bddi" must be Badi "Abu Shelukh" (1733-1766, Bruce) as 
'Abd el Latif's father (q.v.) flourished about 1767. "Subr" I cannot 

From No. 25 (q.v.) we know No. 9 lived at el 'Egayga. 

For the circumstances of his death cp. D 7, LVii. 

10. We know the date of his death from No. 229 (q.v.). 
For the word "e/ Magdhub" see note to No. 61. 

Feki Samih and his two sons are again mentioned in No. 79 {q.v. note). 

11. El Kubia is spelt "el Kubia" in No. 171. 

''And he said to her . . . ." The Arabic of the whole of this passage will 
be found in Appendix 2. The word used for dowry here is " saddk" which 
is properly the gift of the bridegroom to the bride, as opposed to " viahr" 
which is the purchase price paid to the bride's parents. (See Jaussen, 
Coutumes des Arabes..., p. 49.) If a man divorce his wife she can by 
Muhammadan law " demand the full payment of the dower" (see Hughes, 
p. 91). Since, however, it was the wife, and not the husband, who sought 
the divorce, and since she would not be able to effect this object legally, 
she would, as the price of her husband's compliance, be compelled to 
forgo her right to receive the full dower. 'Abd el Mahmud, however. 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 277 

instead of keeping the dowry himself, arranged for it to be given to the 
children of the marriage. When she married Hammad she demanded 
from him no dowry for herself, because, whereas it is customary in the 
Sudan for the second husband before marriage to repay to the first husband 
the amount of the dowry previously paid by the latter, in the case in point 
the woman cunningly represented 'Abd el Mahmud as not having yet 
paid her her dowry. She apparently let Hammad think that 'Abd el 
Mahmud had divorced her on his own initiative and denied receipt of her 
dowry, but at the same time did not mention that it had been transferred 
to the daughters. 

" God Almighty said. . . ." The quotation is from the 4th chapter of the 
Kuran (beginning): see Sale, p. 53. 

For "/fli^iV" see note to para, i, supra. 

Omdurmdn (or "Um Durman," correctly). I know of no evidence to 
show the existence of this village at any earlier date than that of Hammad 
ibn Mariam. From No. 124 we know he was born in 1646 and died in 
1730, and here we have Omdurman spoken of as " his village." It is not at 
all improbable that he and his relatives founded it. It was a small village of 
no importance at all until the Mahdia. Then the Khalifa massed whole 
tribes there, and it has now become the native capital of the Sudan. On 
the above evidence we may perhaps date its foundation about 1680- 1700. 
Browne mentions it ("Emdurman") in 1794 {q.v. p. 459, App. II). 

"His rooms" is " khalwdt." A " khalwa" is properly a place of re- 
treat, and is used also to mean the act of retirement by a holy man from the 
world (see Hughes, pp. 122 and 271). The term is now often used of the 
guest-houses or rest-houses provided in a village for strangers and attached, 
as^a rule, to the mosque: it is often also used in its proper sense of a place 
of retreat for meditation: cp. note to No. 90. 

13. He is here called 'Abd el Rahman, but in the biography of his 
father (No. 34) the names of two of the latter 's sons are given as 'Abd 
el Rahman Abu Shanab and 'Abd el Rahim ibn el Khatwa, and "'Abd 
el Rahim" is therefore obviously correct. 

14. Nilri is a few miles north of Merowi in Dongola. 

El Abwdb ["the Gates"] is another name for the Kabushia district, 
about 80 miles south of Berber. It was so called because it formed the 
meeting point of many roads, viz. the two river roads, the road to Napata, 
the old caravan route that ran from Kabushia N.N.E. to the Atbara and the 
Red Sea, and the route that ran S.S.E. through the cultivable valleys to 
Abu Delayk and Kayli (see Arch. Survey of Nubia, XlXth Memoir, by 

15. For Nuri see sub No. 14. 

For '' Khalil" see AB, lxxxix (note) and cp. Jackson, p. 26. 

We are told here that the year 1107 a.h. was called " Um Hinaydil" 
[" Mother of little melons "], but in No. 204 that name is given to 1 108 a.h. 

No. 161 (q-v.) was a pupil of No. 15. 

"Sheikh ibn Medani" is the son of Medani walad Um Gadayn (Tree 
10); q.v. sub Nos. 164 and 162. 

17. 'Abd el Rahman is one of the famous Awlad GAbir, whose 


descendants are called Gabiria or Gawabra. He flourished about 980 a.h. 
(1572 A.D.), as can be gathered from para, vi, supra, which roughly fixes the 
date of his elder brother, and from a rather obscure remark in the biography 
of Ibrahim ibn Um Rabi'a, one of his pupils (No. 140), mentioning "the 
year 982" apropos of a nisba written by one of the four brothers (" a*:.:^^ 
U-J Vj^' ^^ V^^' >''■«^ Or"! ^**JI"). ^•^- "And the fakir Ibn Gabir 

el Guhani wrote it as a 7tisba on the Arabs." Whether this nisba has 
any connection with the original of BA {q.v. para, ccxxiii and note) I 
cannot say. Ibn Gabir is called "el Guhani" here because his ancestor 
GhulamuUa's wife was of Guhayna origin (see Tree to D i and Tree 10 
of the Tabakdt). 

'Abd el Rahman is mentioned in BA, ccv. 

"He was one of. . . ." The actual words of the Arabic are: 

O-e-o-^-oJ'i >^'^'i)' f^ ^ljL«-aM ^yti\^ i^WjJl wJaiJI ^ 

i.e. literally, "He was the divine Kiilb the immortal Ghauth, the Sheikh 
of Islam and the Muslims." ''Kufb'' and "Ghauth" are both high titles 
of sanctity: the former (see Hughes, p. 531) means literally an axis, and 
the latter a mediator or sin-bearer of the faithful (see Hughes, p. 139; 
and, for both terms. Sell, p. 108). 

For Ibrahim el Buldd see para, vi, supra, AB, Lxxxix et seq., and 
BA, ccv. 

Muhammad el Banufari (for whom see also No. 157) is also mentioned 
in AB, xcvi. 

"He taught. . .forty times'^ i.e. in Arabic ^J-^J.ft- iJ ajI-o-I*. CJtXf 

SloZo^ ^J^fJ\, or, literally, "his sealings in Khalil reached forty sealings." 
For the explanation of this see note to AB, xcix; and for Khalil see AB, 
LXXXix. "He" in this passage ought, I think, to be understood to mean 
not Abd el Rahman but Ibrahim his brother: see No. 23 and No. 60, and 
AB, xcix. 

The DuFAR are Bedayria: see AB, note in. 

"The four sons of Gdbir...." For the Arabic of this passage see 
Appendix 3. By a sHp the name of Abd el Rahman is repeated twice: 
that in one of the two cases, probably the second, the reading should be 
"Abd el Rahim" is clear from BA, ccv (q.v.), where the other brothers 
also are mentioned. 

19. "He devoted. . .God" is aJJ! ^^1 ajaijl. 

21. For IsmdHl and el Banufari see sub No. 17. 

This No. 21 is the head of the large Hammadtu family of Dongola. 
From ABC, lvi, it seems they are Zenarkha or Mashaikha by tribe. 

22. Ibrdhhn walad Abu Maldh was one of the disciples of the Awlad 
Gabir (see No. 154). 

In No. 157 is mentioned Abd el Rahman el Ag-huri as the teacher of 
el Banufari, and el Banufari taught No. 17 who in his turn taught Abd 
el Rahman ibn Masikh, the great-uncle of this No. 22. The Ali el Ag-huri 
mentioned here (and in No. 66) was great-grandson of Abd el Rahman 
el Ag'huri (see note to BA, ccxii), and is known to have died in 1066 A.H. 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 279 

(1655-6 A.D.). As Khogali, the son of No. 22, is said (see No. 154) to have 
died in 1742 A.D., there is no discrepancy in the dates. 

At the end of biography No. 22 the text contains a reference to some 
book "written at the end of Dhu el Higga of the year 1030 by 'Ah ibn 
Muhammad, who was known as 'Zayn,' son of 'Abd el Rahman el Ag-huri 
el Maliki " ; and here our author seems to be a little at fault, not in the date, 
but in the name : 'Ali was son of Muhammad ibn Zayn el Din ibn 'Abd 
el Rahman el Ag-huri (see note to BA, ccxii). The book was no doubt one 
of the commentaries 'Ali is known to have written on Khalil. 

23. Dekin "Sid el 'Ada" (cp. CaiUiaud, 11, p. 255, "Sahib el 'Ada") 
was the fifth Fung king. Bruce gives his date as 1 570-1 587. Sheikh 'Agib 
is the same as he mentioned in para. vi. The appointments mentioned were 
judgeships as will be seen from No. 93, where the names of all four will 
be found. No. 23 is said to have been an 'Araki by race, but his connection, 
if any, with those in Tree 9 is not known. "Walad Gabir" is not No. 17 
('Abd el Rahman) but Ibrahim el Bulad, as we know from No. 60 and 
AB, xcix. The famous 40 are mentioned frequently, e.g. sub Nos. 156, 254, 
60, etc. It may be noted that Ibrahim's contemporary, Tag el Din el Bahari 
{q.v. No. 67), is also said to have had 40 pupils: for this number 40, cp. 
Nos. 17 and 90. 

25. In his biography the date of his birth is given as 1121 A.H.; but in 
that of his father (No. 226) as 1 122. He had a son, Hasan, who, as appears 
from D 7, cxc, was the possessor of a library of books. 

26. For this casting out of evil spirits by means of the alphabet, cp. 
No. 61. The Arabic from "taught him. . ." is as follows: 

C^' C C ^ 
His kubba is shown on the map very close to Soba. 

27. 1007 in the text must be a slip for 1070 in order to agree with the 
dates of the other persons mentioned here. 

" And there came to him. . . " For the Arabic see Appendix 4. 

'Adldn is 'Adlan I of Sennar (1610-1615, Bruce). 

" Fi-ve times " is literally "five knots," i.e. each time he made the promise 
he tied a knot (sc. in a piece of fibre or such-like) to signify that he was 
binding himself to the performance. 

Muays is about four miles from Shendi. 

"And his tomb. . ." is jls^^ SuJCw <iLJLc jljj j-AlJa oj^s^. 

There is a reference in the text to" Ga'al and its kings "(l^^Lo^ J***-)- 
This use of Ga'al for Ga'aliyyun (the later form) is common in nisbas. 
Cp. AB, passim, and No. 154. 

That No. 27 was a man of wealth is evidenced by a remark in the text 
that he killed 60 sheep in honour of an important visitor. 

An anecdote is also related of how he restored to health a broken- 
down donkey. 

Meshra el Ahmar is near Shendi. 

28. Um Dom is an Island between Khartoum and Soba on the Blue 


29. ''Imam,'" i.e. "precentor," is in the Arabic here ''sahib," i.e. lit. 

Asldng is an island in the river about 22 miles north of Khartoum. 

The "King of the Fung" is 'Adlan I (1610-1615, Bruce): vide sub 
No. 126. "'Agib the Great" is " 'Agib the Mangilak" of para, vi, supra 

32. I am told he was a Ga'ali Hasabullawi and was buried at Gebel 
Sakadi Moya, west of Sennar. 

33. Tdka is the district round Kassala. 

Abu Hardz is close to the north of Wad Medani. 
For this biography cp. No. 8. 

34. This man's pedigree is given in C 9. 
36. "Attached himself to" is "sahiba." 

There is a site near Soba called "Wad Hasoba" to this day. 
Um Leban is an island on the White Nile between Dueim and Kawa. 
38. El Kalay'a: there is a place of this name in the Gezira some 
22 miles north-west of el Manakil. 

40. Fas is Fezzan. 

41. This man is mentioned in D i, cii. 

42. His descendants were called the 'Aklab (see D i, cii). 

43. "Among his followers was..." is ^^iJI ^^jJa AJlf^ J>^l O-o^ 
(cp. para, viii, supra and note). 

The "Sheikh Dafa'alla" mentioned here cannot be, as is usual. No. 85, 
because it would be quite incorrect to say that all the stock of the latter were 
descended from No. 43 's two sons : see Tree 9, which shows numerous other 
well-known descendants of Sheikh Dafa'alla el 'Araki. 

44. "Holy-man" is " rdgil" : see note to para, v, supra. 
Hagar el 'Asal is between Khartoum and Shendi. 
"He it was. . .": the Arabic is: 

46. The entire Arabic of this biography is given in Appendix 5. 

"Patches" is "gibab" (sing. " gibba"): this word " gibba" (or "jibbeh") 
became very familiar in the Mahdia, being used for the patched shirts 
worn by the Dervishes in obedience to the Mahdi's orders. 

The simile involved in the nickname of "Scorpion's Tail" is "as a 
man stung by a scorpion dies at once, so he who swears falsely on the tomb 
of Abu Delayk will die at once." On this subject see Jaussen, pp. 311, 312. 

The district and village of Abu Delayk, the headquarters of the Batahin, 
lying about 90 miles east of Khartoum, is called after this man. His real 
name was 'Ali and he is generally said (cp. sub No. 74) to have been a 
Kahli, but his descendants are always called Delaykab. 

El Nigfa is a low hill close to the south-west of the village of Abu 
Delayk : the tomb of Abu Delayk is on this hill and is still much used by the 
Arabs for the taking of oaths. 

48. The text gives some three pages of praises and poetry in honour 
of "Abu Idris." 

50. " A pupil of. . ." is ^^J^ j>^\ Jjj^ »iAJLw. 


51. " His father . . .the people there." The Arabic is given in Appendix 6. 
The dialogue is more than typically difficult. 

El Tergami, i.e. one of the Teragma. It will be seen from the Ga'ali 
Trees that Tergam was brother of that Kerdam from whom the great 
majority of the tribe claim descent. 

" DoTigola" is here written "Donkola" (dJJuy) but the author often 
elsewhere calls it "Donkola" (a)JL.^), e.g. in Appendix 9. 

52. El 'akdid, which embrace all matters of faith, are in contradis- 
tinction to 'ilm el fekilt, which relates only to matters of practice. See 
Hughes, pp. 106 and 286, and also note to para, viii, supra. 

''And the cause. . . ." For the Arabic see Appendix 7. 
For the use of la^-ij for ^j^jj^^j cp. note to No. 74 (end). 
By Ddr Salih is meant Wadai. 

53. Ya'akilb was Sultan of Wadai from 1681 to 1707. He engaged in 
war with Darfur and was defeated by the Sultan Ahmad Bukr at Kebkebia 
(see Schurtz, pp. 542 and 545). 

54. " 'Abudi" is written ^^^*c: see note to para, vii, supra. 

55. " Sdridia " : i.e. a woman of the Sowarda. 
"El 'Agami" is written ^^a»jij I : cp. note to No. 54. 

The AwLAD EL 'Agami live at Berber, and there are a few of them on 
Bundi Island. 'Agami is of course the brother of Hasan wad Hasuna 
(No. 132). 

56. The date of sannat el gidri is not stated. 

58. For Wall see note to para, x, supra. For "Kandil el Saridi," see 
note to No. 222. 

For the ''famous case" referred to vide sub No. 73. 

Mismdr el Halashi was one of the 'Abdullah Mdngilak family of Kerri. 
For lists of these 'Abdullah see Budge, 11, p. 204, and Cailliaud, iii, 
p. 96, and Jackson, p. 105, and Part III, Chap. 2 {a) above; and see note 
to para, vi, supra. The names here given as those of sheikhs of Kerri will 
not square with the above lists, but the explanation is probably that those 
sheikhs who were deposed after only a few months' reign are not mentioned 
in the lists quoted by Cailliaud, etc. The Arabic of this final passage is given 
in Appendix 8 and it will be seen that owing to the indiscriminate use of 
personal pronouns it might be translated in several different ways: it is 
clear, however, that the author is not giving a consecutive list of sheikhs 
but only mentioning examples of such as were deposed after very short 
terms of power. 

For 'All ibn 'Othmdn see No. 236; and for Mismar No. 66. 

" Walad 'Agib" and "Sheikh 'Abdulla" are the same person. 

60. For the Arabic of the whole of this biography see Appendix 9. 
The village of Wad 'Ishayb lies about four miles below el Kamlin on the 
east bank of the Blue Nile, and its people are called 'Ishaybab: they are 
a section of Rikabi'a and the descendants of this No. 60. 

For el Banufari see No. 17. 

'Agib the Great is the Mdngilak of para. vi. 

" The Gezira" is in the Arabic here "el Hiioi." The full name of the 
Gezira, i.e. the land enclosed between the White and the Blue Niles, was 


" Gezira Sennar " or " Gezirat el Huoi." The people of the Blue Nile region 
more often use "el Huoi" than "el Gezira." The word Huoi is often pro- 
nounced almost as though it were Hog, and the fact is that there is no 
exact English equivalent to this final consonant, which is quite difTerent 
from the soft g of, e.g., Karkog, or the usual hard initial or medial g. The 
same letter occurs in another word in this same biography, viz. " 'Aydai," 
as it is here written, or " 'Aydag" (maps " Eidag") as it is often pronounced 
(cp. sub No. 67). Other examples of this case are "Kagoi" in No. 132^ 
"Foga" (in western Kordofan), which is pronounced almost like "Foiya" 
by most natives, and "Fung" or "Funye" {q.v. in Westermann, p. lii). 
Cp. also notes to Nos. 108 and 200 for another case in point. Pere Jaussen's 
remarks on the pronunciation of "^/m" as ">'«'" among the Arabian tribes 
will be found on pp. 6, 7 of his book, and I may quote the following 
editorial from Sudan Notes and Records (No. 2, 1918): "We believe that 
r*- in the mouth of a Sudan Arab has a sound which is intermediate be- 
tween hard ^ in ^0 and/ in^ust. The sound also exists in Nubian (Berberine) 
and has been recorded as occurring in other Arabic dialects (Landberg, 
Etudes..., I, p. 539: 'Quelquefois et dans quelques contrees en Hadramaut 
^ est prononce avec un son entre g (j) et g. Ce n'est ni I'un ni I'autre'). 
The sound in question is articulated in the 'front,' i.e. it is formed by the 
front part of the tongue and the hard palate ; it is therefore nearly related 
to both d and y, and we agree. . .that it very nearly corresponds to </y." 

^ Aydag is close to the north of Wad 'Ishayb. 

For Ibrahim el Buldd see para, vi and No. 17, supra, and note to 
No. 23, and AB, xcix. 

In No. 121 there is a passing mention (omitted in the translation) to 
"the fekir Muhammad Kandil ibn el feki Hammad ibn el Sheikh Ali 
walad 'Ishayb." 

61. " His father was. . ." is Li^Jk»^.« ^f^-j '>$^^- 

" Magdhub'' is a Sufi term (see note to para, vii, supra): it is explained 
by Hughes {q.v. pp. 116, 301, 310, 612) as meaning "abstracted" or 
"attracted," "one chosen of God for Himself": "rapt" in English also' 
suggests the meaning implied. For miracle-working by reciting the alpha- 
bet cp. No. 26. 

62. The statement that 'Ali "el Nil" was the successor of Tag el Din 
implies that he succeeded to the Sheikhship of the Kadiria tarika (vide 
sub No. 67). In No. 216 we have his brother Nur el Din swearing by 
Tag el Din. The story of the dclayb palms {q.v. sub No. 216) is given at 
length both in No. 62 and 216. 

63. '' A follower of. . .," i.e. he embraced Sufiism as taught in the first 
instance by Dafa'alla el 'Araki. See No. 8, where we have 'All's son 
Dafa'alla el Shafa'i instructing Taha the son of that 'Omara whom we 
have here teaching 'Ali walad el Shafa'i. 

" And if he heard. . . ." For the Arabic see Appendix 10. I understand 
the meaning to be that if any other aspiring poet after 'All's death recited, 
as his own composition, lines he had borrowed from 'AH, the spirit of the 
latter would be heard wailing and his wraith be seen in the air. 

65. A Mahassi by race. 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 283 

66. '"Awtlda" is sometimes spelt by the author ^^^ and sometimes 
^^y£. and sometimes d-i^^. 

Musa Ferid is mentioned in No. 132. 

''Sheikh Muhammad " The Arabic is given in Appendix 11. The 

text here gives "Kashkash" for "Kashash," but the correct form occurs 
in No. 134. 

"£■/ Hadari,'' i.e. one of the HuptJR: very probably 'Isa Kanu (No. 143) 
is meant. The bracelets and anklets would be an offering to the feki in 
return for his services. For the prayer-mat cp. No. 178. 

''Fcxg" is here and elsewhere spelt •jj-J^i but the author also often 
uses the form r^. 

''The grace of God" i.e. in Arabic dJUl JJI: this is pronounced 
" alii idla." " Alii" means "what belongs to " : " hddha li/i" ("this is mine ") 
in the Sudan is thus the same as the more common " hadha bitdi." " Lili" 
is probably an abbreviation of "ill li" the colloquial Arabic for "which is 
mine" {lit. "to me"), and " alil uHa" would similarly be short for "Hi li 
ulla" ("that which is to, or belongs to, God"). It will be seen that in this 
passage the author spells it ^Jt thrice and J-JJI once. 

The "Sheikh of Kerri" is Mismar, one of the 'Abdullab MdngHs. 
I do not know who is the " short pale bald man " unless it be 'Ali ibn Barri 
(No. 58, q.v.). In No. 58 Mismar is called "el Halashi." 

"Strain some merissa for him [i.e. 'AzcUda, i.e. the speaker]. . . ." That 
is to say, "He will be everlastingly disgraced by drinking the forbidden 
beverage." Cp., however, No. 153. 

"Pour it over his tomb. . . ," i.e. as an insult to his memory. 

For " the Book and the Law, etc.. . . " cp. BA, ix. 

For 'Ali fl Ag-huri cp. No. 22. 

'Azcuda is mentioned in A 2, XLiv. 

67. Tag el Din is wrongly called "el Bokhari" in Jackson, p. 27. 
"His actual name. . . ." The Arabic is given in Appendix 14. For the 

meaning of the terms "Sheikh," "Imam," " Kutb" " Ghauth" see Sell, 
pp. 104-112. "Imam" may be translated "Precentor" or "Leader" or 
"Pattern" (see Hughes, p. 202); "Kutb" is literally an axis (see Hughes, 
p. 531); and "Ghauth" is literally a mediator (see Hughes, p. 139). 

'Abd el Kddir el Gildni was the founder of the Kadin'a order and died 
at Baghdad in the second half of the twelfth century (see Hughes, p. 2, 
and Sell, p. 116). The Arab nomads of the Sudan chiefly belong to the 
Kadin'a tarika, but their allegiance is somewhat nominal. For the suc- 
cessive Khalifas of this order see note to No. 226. The influence of the 
Kadiria received a great impulse early in the nineteenth century, when 
Ahmad ibn Idris sent missionaries from the Hegaz to the Sudan. The 
Senussi himself was a member of the order, and intellectually the Senussia 
and the Kadiria have close affinities. The latter 's influence now extends 
from India to Algiers. Its propaganda is essentially peaceful. 

'Abd el Gelil, the father of Daud, is the eponymous ancestor of the 
Gelilab, and nephew of Hegazi ibn Ma'i'n, the founder of Arbagi. Hillat 
Sa'id, a few miles north of el Kamlin and the chief village of the Wad 


Rawa district, is named after the Hag Sa'id here mentioned. Cp. note to 
para, iv, supra, and B i, xxx. 'Aydag is also in the Wad Rawa group of 
villages (cp. note to No. 60). 

The Geli'lab still own lands at Wad el Sha'ir, which lies west-south- 
west of Rufa'a in the Blue Nile Province. 

'^ He married in the Gezira. . .." From a remark in the biography of 
No. 190 we know he married a woman of the 'Akk and by her had two 
daughters. The 'Akk were an Arabian tribe very largely represented at the 
conquest of Egypt by the Arabs in 640 a.d. (see Butler, The Arab Con- 
quest...). They were Kahtanites. 

Shd'a el Din walad Tiiaym is said to have lived eleven generations 
ago. The subsections of the ShuKx'^ia all claim him or his father Tuaym as 
a common ancestor. 

'' ^o persons." See note to No. 23. 

Tekali is a mountain in southern Kordofan (see MacPvlichael, Tribes..., 

68. Presumably a relative of No. i (q.v.). He is said by natives to 
have been buried at el Kab between Sennar and Wad Medani. He died 
in 1803 (see D 7, CLXii). 

69. Cp. No. 93. 

70. "He died. . ." is 

This branch of the family is omitted in Jackson's Tree ( Yacubabi Tribe) 
as living not near Sennar but in the north near Shendi. 

71. He is the head of the great Ban el Nuka family, of which one 
branch live in the north near Shendi, and the other, the Ya'akubab, near 
Sennar. They are generally believed to be Razkia by race: Jackson {Yacu- 
babi Tribe) speaks of them as "originally Shaigi." 

"He was called. . . " is 

jOft Ijl^ 0^^3 ^^^iuo ^\ j^eliJ 0^^ CJ15 A-cl ^J^) liJI ^b ^^^-j^ 

King Nail was the second of the Fung kings: his date was 1 534-1 551 

No. 71, called elsewhere "el Darir" ["The Blind"], is given in 
Jackson's Tree ( Yacubabi Tribe) as son of Hamdan Abu Dukn son of 'Abud, 
and there appears as "Bennaga Derair." 

72. "He was a follower of is j-)^i t^j-iaJ' ■.iJULw. 

El Imam 'AH was the Prophet's son-in-law. 

'Araki, like No. 64, was evidently so named after 'AbduUa el 'Araki. 

73. Basbar's descendants are known as the Basabir. " El Shukri " was 
probably only a nickname. He is always said now to have been a Shaiki, 
and as the Shaikia are by origin Ga'aliin and '(3n was son of Shaik 
(see D 5 (c), iv), the term "Ga'ali '(3ni" is quite explicable. 

" // is related. . . " For the Arabic see Appendix 15. 
This story is also related in almost the same terms in No. 58. The 
latter adds that it was for seven years that the Hammadi abstained from 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 285 

going to the river; and in place of ojjj dijixj ("for the shaving ceremony 
of his child") gives ojjj ajI-o-J U' v-*=-i j-^wJI ij3 ("went to the river 
to fetch water for the naming of his child "). No. 58 also adds that Basbar, 
who was sitting under the acacia trees, was engaged in trimming a tablet 
(U-aJ 5>-*aj), i.e. the board used hy fekis as a schoolmaster uses a slate. 

The point of the story of course is that Basbar's son in revenge translated 
himself into a crocodile. 

Most of the AhAmda are not riverain folk, hence the note that the 
particular Hammadi in question lived on the river, the implication being 
that it was very hard for him to avoid visiting the river for years. 

As regards the shaving ceremony see Hughes, p. 554: "At the birth 
of a child it is incumbent upon the Muslim father to sacrifice a goat (one 
for a girl and two for a boy) at the ceremony called 'Aqiqah, which is 
celebrated on either the 7th, 14th, 21st, 28th, or 35th day after birth, when 
the hair is first shaved and its weight in silver given to the poor." On the 
Blue Nile the father names his child on the 7th day after birth and gives 
a party in honour of the event and kills a sheep or goat for the guests. The 
water fetched from the river, in this story, would, if it is really the naming 
ceremony that is referred to, be merely water wherewith to fill the jars 
from which the guests would drink. Elsewhere, however (p. 17), Hughes 
says: "'Aqiqah. A custom observed by the Arabs on the birth of a child; 
namely, leaving the hair on the infant's head until the 7th day, when it is 
shaved, and animals are sacrificed . . ."; and again (pp. 50, 51) "The naming 
of the child should, according to the Traditions. . .be given on the 7th 
day.. . .On this, the 7th day, is observed also the ceremony of 'Aqiqah, 
established by Muhammad himself.. . .It consists of a sacrifice to God, 
in the name of the child, of two he-goats for a boy, and one he-goat for 
a girl. . .," which sacrifice is eaten by the friends assembled: while they 
eat they offer the prayer " O God! I offer to thee instead of my own off- 
spring, life for life, blood for blood, head for head, bone for bone, hair 
for hair, skin for skin. In the name of the Great God do I sacrifice this 

It would appear therefore that the father went to fetch water for the 
" 'akika" proper, i.e. for shaving the boy's head, and that it is not strictly 
accurate to say he wanted it for the naming of the boy, although it is true 
both functions took place on the same day and presumably on the same 

The occasion of the naming of a child is also celebrated among some 
Sinaitic tribes (see Jaussen, p. 16 note). For the 'akika as the ceremony of 
shaving the head of a child, cp. jaussen, p. 94; and cp. Nachtigal (Voy. 
au Ouadai, p. 88) for the same custom as practised in Wadai, and Crowfoot, 
Customs of the Rubdtdb (pp. 122 and 130), where the naming ceremony is 

In the Sudan, when the child's hair is first cut, which is, by the way, 
often some four months after birth, a long tuft (the " '«>-«/" mentioned 
here) is left growing on that part of the head which was first visible at the 
time of birth. Now previous to the child's birth it is customary for the 


parents to dedicate this tuft to some famous saint ("Sheikh"), to whose 
kubha the "visits" mentioned in note to No. 2 are paid, vowing at the 
same time some gift, such as a sheep or a camel or some money to the 
saint in case of their hopes being fulfilled. When the child has reached 
the age of about 4 or 5 years the parents, in fulfilment of their vow, take 
him (or her) to the kubba of the saint and discharge their vow. One 
of the guardians of the shrine, i.e. a descendant of the " Sheikh," then cuts 
off the tuft of hair. The tuft is as a rule left in the kubba, but, at Wad 
Hasuna for instance, it is hung up on a tree sacred to the Sheikh just out- 
side the kubba, and remains there till some accident happens to remove 

it: see note to No. 132. The technical word for this dedication is ^^o- 

C howwara") : e.g. 9.*^ jJ^Jj j^a^J means "we dedicate the boy {i.e. his 

hair) to the Sheikh." Cp. the word "howdr," "a disciple," explained in 
Hughes, p. 169, q.v. There is a mention of the cutting of the tuft in 
biography No. 132 (q.v.). 

That the origin of these customs is of ancient date is clear when one 
reads in Herodotus (Bk. 11, §65) "The inhabitants of the various cities 
[of Egypt], when they have made a vow to any god, pay it to his animals 
in the way which I will now explain. At the time of making the vow they 
shave the head of the child, cutting off all the hair, or else half, or some- 
times a third part, which they then weigh in a balance against a sum of 
silver; and whatever sum the hair W'cighs is presented to the guardian of 
the animals." 

It will not be out of place here to describe the votive offerings and 
such like which I saw in November 19 13 hung on the gnarled old heglik 
tree standing in front of the kubba of Sheikh Hasan walad Hasuna (No. 132) 
at the village that bears his name. 

1. Many small tufts of hair from children's heads (" 'urw/"); some of 
these were wrapped in little bags. 

2. Large bunches of women's hair. These had been left by women 
whose hair had begun falling out and who looked to the saint to re- 
store it. 

3. Several little bundles of the shin-bones of sheep and goats which 
had been sacrificed at the time of the naming ceremony {" sa7nd/a"). 

4. Several miniature shepherd's crooks of this shape j~ . 

These were about a foot long and were imitations of the long staff' {"tnah- 
gan") of the same shape which the Arabs use for shaking down pods 
(" 'ulayf") from the acacia trees for their goats to browse upon. The 
dedication of these sticks is the equivalent of a prayer that the boy may 
become a good herdsman. 

5. Some bundles of big bones, chiefly camels'. It was explained that 
these had belonged to animals which had died of some disease, and the 
owners had dedicated the bones to the Sheikh in the hope that he would 
stay the disease from the rest of the herd. 

6. Many camels' hobbles ("'w/ca/"). These were deposited by the 
owners of camels which had strayed or fallen sick, in the expectation of the 
aid of the Sheikh in finding or healing the beasts. 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 287 

7. There were several articles such as a hair-tent, bowls, grindstones, 
etc., left temporarily by Arabs in chargeof the saint until their return at the 
end of the season. These were not in any way dedicated to the Sheikh but 
only entrusted to him for the time being. For this cp. Crowfoot, Customs 
of the Rubdtdb (p. 123). 

The other objects specified were left permanently. 

The following quotations from Pere Jaussen's Coutumes des Arabes au 
pays de Moab show that the tree-cult underlying the practices described is 
not necessarily of African origin, although so widely spread through Africa, 
e.g. among the Basa on the Abyssinian frontier, who have a "sacred tree" 
(see James, Wild Tribes..., p. 193), and in Darfur and Wadai (see Chap. 4 
of Fart I): 

(i) P. 36. "A d'autres sanctuaires on fait une simple visite, relevee 
d'une offrande, et on laisse un souvenir en attachant a I'arbre sacre qui 
ombrage la cour, ou aux barreaux des fenetres de la qubbeh quelques 
morceaux d'etoffe." 

(2) P. 310. "En temoignage de confiance un bedouin arrache quelques 
crins a la queue de sa chamelle, et les attache en ex-voto a une branche 
de tamarisc dressee au milieu des pierres de la sepulture." 

(3) P- 334- " Les arbres sacres. . .se presentent sous un double aspect: 
ils sont joints a un sanctuaire ou bien ils sont isoles. Dans le premier cas, 
lis ne paraissent pas avoir une origine independante du lieu saint qu'ils 
ombragent, ni un role distinct de I'influence attribuee au wely \wali] qui 
les a fait croitre, qui les vivifie et les protege.. . .La seconde categoric 
d'arbres sacres ne jouit pas du benefice de la proximite d'un sanctuaire; 
ils se dressent isoles, pres d'une source, sur une colline, ou au sommet 
d'une montagne.. . ." 

(See also Plate V to Jaussen's book.) 

Cp. also Zwemer, p. 284, for remarks on what he calls " these rag trees " 
in Arabia. 

74. The Kawahla themselves accept the Delaykab as distant relatives. 

^Abd el Kddir is 'Abd el Kadir el Gilani the founder of the Kadiria 
order: cp. note to No. 67. The phrase "the fire of 'Abd el Kadir. . .was 
with . . . " is the equivalent of " the mantle of so and so descended upon. ..." 
For this succession of Khalifas of the Kadiria see note to No. 226. 

''And I was in doubt. . .": for the Arabic see Appendix 16. "To light 
the fire" is here again used in the metaphorical sense. Sellama is probably 
Sellama el Hag Yusef near east of Khartoum. 

The word '"ugub" (w-j».g) is commonly used in the Sudan to mean 

This direction to Bedowi to settle "in the red country with the red 
people" is fastened upon by the Batahin of Abu Delayk as proving con- 
clusively that the country round el Nigfa and Abu Delayk was occupied 
by them before the advent of the Delaykab, and as disproving the latter's 
claim to own those parts. Most of the Batahin are of the red-brown colour 
that generally distinguishes the nomad Arab. 

For "khalwa" see note to No. 11, 

The MarghumAb are a branch of Kawahla; some of them still graze 


round Abu Delayk with the Shukria. " O Sherif " is addressed to the man 
to whom Bedowi is telling the tale. 

No. 86 used the same words as Bedowi on his deathbed: the Arabic is 
iULiJt ji^ ^^^^ *->' OlJUkl^ Ij. For this incorrect form UJL»., i.e. 

iJCLs- for ^^JSiX>faf., cp. Appendix 7, where we have lai,-«pj for ^a^oj. 

"£■/ Satnih" is Hammad el Sami'h, the fifth of the Abdullab Mdngils 
of Kerri. Cailliaud (vol. in, p. 96) gives his name correctly, Budge 
(vol. II, p. 204) and Jackson (p. 105) wrongly as Hamid (or Hamed) 
el Shemik. His attack on Shendi is again mentioned in No. 226. 

75. This feki is reported to have been a Ga'ali and to have been 
buried near Koz Na'im in the direction of Shendi. Probably he is the 
son of No. 229, the Awadia being Ga'aliin. 

"He embraced. . ." is iui^^! w*aJ^ Jj»»Jlil; and ''Was a follower 

Of^^ is j^ t^^iaJt J*.ei-I. 

The wearing of wool was a sign of asceticism. Whether " Sfifi" is 
derived from ''suf" (wool) is doubtful (see Hughes, p. 608). 

76. This feki is reported to have been buried near J. Arang between 
Wad Medani and el Kedaref, east of the river Rahad. His descendants 
are mentioned in D i, cxxv, as among the Ashraf of the Sudan, being 
descended from Husayn. 

For his date see No. 2, where it is mentioned that Sheikh Khogali, 
who died in 1742, was his contemporary. 

77. He was brother of No. 246. The site of his kubba is shown on 
the map as on the Blue Nile, close south of Khartoum, near Soba. As he 
was buried elsewhere it is presumably his placenta or afterbirth that is 
marked by the kubba: cp. No. 78. This custom, which had its place, too, 
in ancient Egypt, is common in the Sudan, and among the Arab tribes 
appears to be varied according to whether the river is available or not. 
In the latter case the afterbirth is buried outside the threshold of the house, 
close in front of the door. With it, in the case of the Blue Nile tribes, are 
buried a date (if available), a thread of red silk, and a seed of corn {dhu- 
raia) : a tuft of a few branches {zd'af) from the crest of a palm-tree, 
still connected together at their base, as they grew, is stuck in the ground 
over the spot where the afterbirth is buried, the upper half of the tuft 
projecting visibly. If the river is close at hand the afterbirth is (in the case 
of the Blue Nile tribes) first placed in a dish and carried round the village 
by a band of boys and girls, soliciting alms, and then, after being weighted 
with a stone, thrown into the river together with the date, the silk and the 
seed. The benefits supposed to arise from the date and the seed are good 
growth and a long and prosperous life to the child : the benefit from the 
silk thread (which presumably represents the umbilical cord) is said to be 
to the mother, it being hoped that no ill effects will follow as a consequence 
of her not being entirely rid of the afterbirth. A similar custom is said to 
be observed both at the time of circumcision (the foreskin being substi- 
tuted for the afterbirth) and when the boy is married; but in the latter 
case, instead of being buried or thrown into the river, the date, silk and 
seed are placed in a forked stick on the right side of the lintel. 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 289 

For the whole subject of the importance of the afterbirth and the rites 
connected with the disposal of it see Seligman {Hamitic Problem, 
pp. 658 et seq.) and cp. Crowfoot, Customs of the Rubdidb (p. 129). 

78. For a kubba at the birthplace instead of at the burialplace see note 
to No. 77. 

''He had the prophetic gift" is »^i.t.Ol Jjkl ^^ ^\£s {lit. "he was 
of the people who revealed, sc. the future"). 

79. His pupil, No. 4, died in 1767, and his own father (No. 204) in 
1696. The fekt Samih is, in No. 10, called "el Tamirabi." 

80. He is said to have been a Razki, and if so would be connected by 
birth with the Ban el Nuka family. 

81. A Ga'ali by race {vide No. 212). El Kerrada is said to be near 
el Hilalia, i.e. south of el Kamlin. 

82. ''He had supernatural. . . ": for the Arabic see Appendix 17. 
" The saints {Awliyd) shall come to you" : sc. "to visit you." 
^^...X:»-j may mean, as I have translated it, "they shall make you be 

seated," i.e. absolve you from standing up as a sign of respect in their 
presence ; or, possibly, " they shall make you sit [in a position of authority] " : 
cp. the use of jl*5 in No. 66 (Appendix 11). 

For "light the fire of \4bd el Kddir" cp. notes to Nos. 74 and 67. 

"His tomb. . . ." The site is shown on the maps as " 'Id Burta" because 
there is now a well close by. The kubba has disappeared, but the tomb 
exists: it lies a few miles west of Abu Delayk. 

83. From No. 33 we know he was an Araki. Cp. No. 8. 

84. This is the famous "Dafa'alla el Araki" or "Sheikh Dafa'alla." 
Um 'Azam is about 15 miles south-west of Rufa'a. Note that he was born 
at his mother's village: her name has been changed from " Um Husayn" 
to " Um Hason" because it is known to the family as the latter at present. 
The DuBAB are a debased semi-negroid tribe {q.v. Vol. I, p. 207). 

Bddi walad Rubdt reigned from 1651-89 (Bruce) or 1642-77 (MS. D 7). 
" Um Lahm" ("Mother of meat") by a euphemism denotes a year of 
famine. See D 7, XLi. 

85. "Be of good cheer. . ." is as follows in the Arabic: 

SuoLJti] ji^ (^^»- ^t [for oLjU^JIIa] CA*j\JyiA, L \^^^\ 

I read " Hatunab " for " Hanunab" because Dafa'alla's mother's 
grandfather is given above as " Hatuna " and not "Haniina." For the 
quotation cp. note to No. 74. 

86. D I {q.v. ci) says " The 'Arakiyyun are descended from Guhayna, 
but among them are the children of el Shen'f Ahmad Mukbal, who married 
a wife from among the 'Arakiyyun and begot Dafa'alla, the ancestor of 
their pious Khalifas\ and the latter's sons were Bukr Abu 'Ayesha and 
'Abdulla and Hammad el Nil." 

"The west country" {" Ddr el Gharb") is Kordofan: the phrase is 
often used on the Blue Nile in this sense. 

Bir Serrdr is about 30 miles north-north-east of Bara. 
Muhammad walad Fakrun was father of No. 238 {q.v.). 
The Gimi'ab country is a little north of Khartoum. 

M.S. II 19 


It is curious that the author only gives the biography of two of the 
five sons of Dafa'aila. The el Magdhub here mentioned must not be con- 
fused with el Magdhub the father of No. 123. No. 123 was born in 1693 a.d., 
whereas the grandson (No. 84) of No. 86 died as early as 1683. 

"//e was known as. .." is in the Arabic: 

but I know of no tribe called Arak: the name Arakiyyun at present cer- 
tainly only applies to the generations subsequent to No, 86. 
The whole of the text of this biography is given. 

87. Muhamtnad Abu el Kaylak was the famous vizier of Sennar, who 
died in 1776 a.d. after a career of king-making and conquest. Information 
concerning him will be found in MacMichael {Tribes..., pp. 10-13 and 
211) and Jackson, pp. 50-59, and in MS. D 7 passim. 

88. This is the author's great-grandfather. 
For " Urn Lahm" see No. 84. 

89. This is the author's father: cp. No. 120. Contrast ABC, xi. 

90. For the Arabic see Appendix 18: the whole biography is quoted. 

This Dolib is a descendant of the Hag ibn 'Abdulla ibn Rikab men- 
tioned in No. 222, but the exact degree of relationship is not specified by the 
author. The intermediate generations as given from memory by one of the 
DoALiB are given in MacMichael, Tn6^^...,p.93 ; but theymaybe inaccurate. 

For " khalwa" see note to No. 11. For " dhikr" (pronounced ''zikr") 
see Hughes, pp. 703-710; and for "'ibdda" see Hughes, p. 612. 

''A forty-days' -retreat" (Ar. Or*jj*i)l S^JLa.) is a common expres- 
sion for one of these retreats to which a recluse retires for meditation for 
40 days. For this number 40 cp. No. 23 (note). 

" O God, bless us. . ., etc." occurs again in No. 105. 

" Walad 'fsa" is probably No. 191. 

91 . The Zaydab country is in Berber province, a little south of el Darner. 
93. For these four judges see Nos. 23 and 69: the Arabic here is 

s_,^Aa>.fr ^•^' y<r^^^^ O--^' ^^j'))^ dl.oA}t ^Ji.».l ^Aj 

Dekin reigned from 1570 to 1587 a.d. (Bruce). 

There are two villages of " Dushaynat " and one called "Wad el Kadi," 
all about 15 miles south-south-west of el Manakil. 

This No. 93 is grandfather of No. 193, the founder of Wad Medani. 
It is said that he was by race a Busaylabi from Upper Egypt. 

The translation of the couplet is: "Son of Dushayn, the Just Judge, 
who does not err into error: his offspring are good men and true, who lit 
the fire of apostleship." Cp. note to No. 117. 

95. He belonged to the 'Abadla section of Batahin and his kitbba 
lies close to the east of Sennar (vide maps, " Sheikh Ferah"). 

The sons of Gabir are No. 17 and Ibrahim el Bulad and their two 
brothers. Many similar apothegms to that quoted are attributed by the 
Arabs to Ferah: such are the following: 

I. (of the rain) JjUoJb U o-*" ^j^ ^^'i' O-^' ^•^- "if ^^ descend 
upon us what matter to us the houses [we have built]." 



2. (also of the rain) w*U.~JL> U ^jJ:^ w>l.o UL». jj!, i.e. "if it pour 

down upon us what matter the clouds to us." 

The idea in both cases is that the primary consideration is that rain 
should fall : whether its coming is foretold by clouds or whether the houses 
are rainproof are secondary matters. Note the play on words in the first 

96. These two brothers are only allotted four lines in the text: they 
lived at a date rather beyond our author's ken, i.e. about the middle of 
the sixteenth century. 

Hildlia {sic) is between el Kamlin and el Rufa'a on the east bank. 

97. Gad el Nebi is mentioned again in No. 127. The text gives no 
further details. 

99. The title is olUI^I^.^ ^JUbU. but the ^ should be interpreted 
as "or" instead of "and"; or jl may be read. An exactly similar case 
arises in No. 103; and the inference is that the author was copying the 
names from a MS.: the writing of G and H only differs by a single dot, 
whereas the sound of the two letters is absolutely distinct. The text here 
and in No. 103 speaks as though one man and not two was intended. 

loi . " £/ Gdma'i el Kordofdli," i.e. one of the Gawama'a of Kordofan 
(or Kordofal) : for the spelling of the latter word see MacMichael, Tribes..., 
p. 223, and cp. No. 102. 

Auli is a hill about 26 miles south of Khartoum. 

Busdti was no doubt so named after the son of Ghanim's teacher 
el Arbab (see No. 94). 

" Walad KaddF' is perhaps son of No. 147; but see notes to Nos. 124 
and 125. 'Ayesha is mentioned again in No. 154. 

102. There is nothing in the text, which is translated practically com- 
plete, to show who Edoma was. 

Godatidla in No. 207 is called "Muhammad Godatulla." 

103. Cp. note to No. 99. 

105. For the meaning of " Nesi" see No. 90. Cp. D i, cxviii. 

106. Shaiibdt is a few miles north of Khartoum. 

107. Here note an instance of the common occurrence of a man being 
known not by his father's name but his mother's: cp. sub Nos. 17, 46 and 
85. Note also the almost universal mistake of writing a ^^ for an c 

(^it.rfl)' for i-fawijl). In the Sudan the ^J is pronounced in ordinary dialect 
like a hard g but any one desirous of being thought learned pronounces 
it deliberately as gh (c), and hence the fekis being used to pronounce 

the J as gh generally spell proper names really containing a c with a ^^. 

This Hagu is called Hagu "Abu Kurn" in Jackson (Yacubabi Tribe) 
and appears to have been one of the most famous of a famous family. His 
mother Batul appears as such in Jackson's Tree, but Ya'akub (No. 254), the 
eponymous ancestor of the Ya'akubab, is there shown as Hagu's brother, 
and son of Batul, instead of brother of Batul. Jackson's Tree being based 
on oral information is probably wrong, and the detailed consistency of the 
Tabakdt is probably correct. The Ya'akubab too told Jackson that Batul's 

19 — 2 


husband Hammad was a Sherifi (descendant of the Prophet) and it is more 
likely the Tabakdt is correct also on this point. Jackson speaks of Hagti's 
kubba being at el 'Azaza (some 15 miles north-west of Sennar and 
ten miles south of a well and village shown on the map as "Hagu Abu 
Garn"), and "Um Mawakih is presumably thereabouts. According to 
Jackson's Tree Hagu had four sons, Sheikh el Tom, Haggar, 'Abd el 
Kadir and Tai el Din. 

108. "£■/ Mdidi" {\^J^^\) is now generally pronounced " el Magdi. " 
There is a village called "Wad el Magdi" a few miles south of el Kamlin: 
cp. No. 200. 

109. "El 'Amri" i.e. one of the 'Awamra. 

"£■/ Kdmnifi" (for which cp. ABC, vi) is the old, and more correct, 
form of "el Kamlin " : cp. Poncet (p. 17), who speaks of " Camin " in 1709, 
and Tremaux (vol. 11, p. 71), who in 1862 calls it " Kamnyn." The word is 
connected with '' kamna" an ambuscade, the root being ,jx>.^ [to hide 
oneself] : the site is so called because it lies very low and is invisible from 
a distance. 

"£■/ Koz " is probably the place of that name west of Shendi [maps, 

111. Cp. No. 159. "£■/ Batrdn" means "petulant" or "insolent." 
His kubba is near Sabil in Sennar Province. 

" Sannat el Wada'a" is also mentioned in No. 136. 
El Humr is near Sennar. 

112. " ^Abd el BdkV is 'Abd el Baki el Zurkani, for whom see note on 
AB, Lxxxix and BA, xlviii. 

113. " Bddiri," i.e. one of the Buadira. 

This man is great-grandfather of No. 231 who died about 11 17 (a.h.), 
i.e. 1705 A.D., and the two were buried at the same place (assuming el Gebel 
to be the same as el Gebayl). "£/ Gebayl" is Gebayl Um 'Ali near 
Kabushia in Shendi district. 

The 'Omarab, who include the well-known religious family of the 
AwLAD 'Abd el Magid, are descended from and named after 'Omar, the 
father of No. 113. They are reckoned Ga'aliin, but on the mother's 
side claim to be Ashraf owing to "Abu el 'Asa " having married a daughter 
of the Sherif Hammad Abu Denana {q.v. in No. 141, note). See also 

114. One of the Ghubush of Berber. 

115. " El Mashayrifi" i.e. a Mahassi (cp. sub No. 124). He is evidently 
connected with Tree 11 (note his tribe and place of burial). Abu Nagila is 
at Khartoum North, opposite Tuti Island. 

117. Evidently some connection of No. 93 (q.v. note). 

119. " Take advantage of. . .": for the Arabic see Appendix 19. 

121. In No. 191 this man is called "The holy-man of Sharau." 

123. A contemporary of the author: see No. 194 and note to D i.cxxv. 

For "el Magdhub" see note to No. 61. 

This man is mentioned in Jackson (p. 64) and in No. 15, supra: in the 
latter he is spoken of as "el Rihaywabi of Abharaz" [i.e. Abu Haraz] : 
i.e. he was a Ga'ali. 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 293 

" Was a pupil of" is ^JLc wjLLJCJ! iii*. ; "a follower of. . ." is JUL- 

jJLft JljjJaJt (see note to viii, supra). 

124. A story of this man is in No. 1 1, q.v. 

The Arabic of this biography down to " origin" is given in 
Appendix 20. 

Abu Nagila: cp. No. 115. 

By " Walad Kishayb" I think No. 208 is meant: note that the latter's 
ancestor settled on the White Nile and that Kadal "el Wali" (No. 147), 
whose daughter (?) "Walad Kishayb" married, was born on the White 
Nile. No. 208, in his biography, is called a Mesallamabi, and "Walad 
Kishayb" is here called a Mesallami. 

For "a daughter of Walad Kaddl" I think "a daughter of Kadal" 
should probably be read: see note to No. 125 on this superfluous *' walad" 
or ''wad." If the mother of Mariam was a grand-daughter of Kadal 
chronological difficulties arise owing to the excessive number of genera- 
tions between 'Abudi and No. 124 (see Tree 11). 

" Visited" is the technical term: see note to No. 2. 

This No. 124 was probably (see note to No. 1 1) the founder of Omdur- 
man: his kubba is to the south of Khartoum and is called "Wad Um 
Mariam" (" Wad Um" being equal to '' ibn" a curious periphrasis). His 
descendants are called the Mariumab, "Marium" being a colloquial cor- 
ruption of "Mariam": similarly ''harum" is a corruption of ''harim" 
("women") in some parts of the Sudan. 

For No. 1 24's pedigree and nickname see ABC, LV. He was a descendant 
of No. 255. 

125. ''He was known..." is ^__)ljJ1 ^Lj jc_j_i_c(-Ji: this must be 
wrong, and as he is always known as "Wad el Turabi," and as his brother 
Nanna (No. 214) is called "ibn el Turabi" I have read ^U for ^jb. 
As a matter of fact he was not "son of el Turabi" at all but "el Turabi" 
himself, if his own descendants are to be trusted, and they are very positive. 
It is true that this colloquial "zoad" does sometimes creep in where it has 
no place, and this has happened, I think, in No. 124 (q.v. note). Hammad 
was called "el Turabi," it is said, because when at Mekka he was asked 
"What is your race?" and replied "Turabi"; and again when asked 
"Whence come you ?" he replied "Min el turab" (note, " turdb" means 
"earth" or "soil" and his reply was therefore, as it were, "I am of the 
earth, earthy"). As a matter of fact, however, "Abu Turab" was the 
sobriquet of the Imam 'Ali, whose veterans used the war-cry of 

("Paradise, paradise for the Turab!a"),aud it is very likely that "el Turabi" 
means no more than "the followers of 'Ali": see Mas'udi (ed. B. de M.), 
vol. V, Chaps. 87 and 94 (pp. 80, 217, 261). There is no evidence of any 
connection with the Turabiin who live north of Nekhl in the Sinai Penin- 

His kubba is a few miles north-west of el Kamlin and is much in vogue 
at the present day. 

His descendants declare his father's name was 'Abd el Rahman, and 


not Muhammad. His mother Kaia was the daughter of el Hag Salama 
el Dubabi {q.v. in No. 84) and he was thus, it is said, connected with the 
'Araki family. 

The name "Nahld)i" is a corruption of " zvahaldn" ("dirty," "un- 
kempt"): he is said to have remained for thirty-six months shut up in 
his khalwa in a course of asceticism and retirement. 

The present Khalifa is the eighth in descent from him, the names 
being as follows: Abu 'Akla (present Khalifa), ibn Hammad, ibn 
Muhammad, ibn Hammad, ibn el Sayyid, ibn el Na'im, ibn 'Abd el Habib, 
ibn Hammad. 

"i/e studied. . . ." For the Arabic see Appendix 21. 

Muays is close to Shendi. 

" Took ten sealings": see note to AB, xcix. 

"Sultana" {"rulers") here probably means spiritual rulers or fukara. 

The text mentions that he, like No. 241 (q.v.), met " el Sayyid el Khidr," 
and followed his teaching. For el Khidr see note to 241, 

Some six pages are devoted to the biography of No. 125. He is men- 
tioned in D 7 (q.v. XLiii) but is there called Ahmad instead of Hammad: 
D 3 carefully dates his death as in Uti"^)^ <i-»W' J^ y*^ a^ <*-!-«' and the 
dates of his contemporaries corroborate the accuracy of this. He is also 
mentioned in Budge (vol. ii, p. 202). Jackson by confusing Badi el Ahmar 
with Badi "Sid el Kum" has antedated "Wad el Turabi" by about a 

126. Cp. No. 29 (his son). 

Karkog. The word is here written "Kargog" {^^af.ySs>), and the same 

spelling occurs incidentally in No. 117 (not in the translated text). For 
remarks upon the accuracy or otherwise of this spelling see note to BA, 

127. "'Sawdk el Rakd,' for when. . .donkey": for the Arabic see 
Appendix 22. The *'rakd" is the leathern jug used by Muhammadans for 
their ablutions. 

Maskin is the father of No. 250. 

129. By " GudhAm " here is not meant the Arabian tribe of that name 
but the descendants of Gudham (or Agdham), who appears in the Guhayna 
pedigrees as brother of Sarid, the ancestor of the Sowarda (cp. e.g. D i, 


" My paternal ..." \s 
^JLoaJI <UJt \^k>^ (IaaaJI ^ri^) {^^^ ^t^j^^3 J^a.^n xAc Jk^-tj 

130. "'Agwa" are properly dried dates of best quality, pressed in 

"His mother's brother. . .Gdhir": for the Arabic see Appendix 23. 

131. Cp. D I, cxxi. D 3 does not mention the exact connection of 
Belli with the rest of the Rikabia but see No. 222 and BA, cciii. 

132. This is the famous " Wad Hasuna," founder of the village of that 
name about 27 miles west of Abu Delayk, and eponymous ancestor of the 
Hasunab. The present inhabitants of Wad Hasuna claim to be Ashraf (see 
C 6 and cp. ABC, x), but many are of very mixed descent. Sheikh Hasan 



is reputed to have owned all the surrounding country and some sixty-four 
hafirs [reservoirs, dug to hold the rain water] and innumerable slaves. 
The brand he used for his animals was » \k, i.e. 118, that being the total 
arrived at by adding together the numerical values of the consonants of 
his name (HSN), but his descendants of the present day use iy\, i.e. 171, 
as their brand: see Hughes, p. 3, siih " Abjad." 

The kubba of Sheikh Hasan is one of the most highly venerated in 
the Sudan and liars are very chary of swearing upon it, for "it kills." 
Just outside it is the "tree of the Sheikh" covered with votive offerings 
(see note to No. 73). 

For the Arabic of the first portion of the biography see Appendix 24. 

''Andalus " is southern Spain : the author probably regarded it as a part 
of Morocco. 

"/ have put my seed. . .": there is a play on ''nasi" and "asl": it is 
implied that the ancestors of Musa were originally connected with those 
of the Mesallami'a : the latter consider themselves descendants of the 
Khalifa Abu Bukr el Sadik (see C 8). 

''And by Fdtima. . .." Hasuna had other children by another wife, 
as will be seen later from the text. For "Wahshia" ABC, x, gives "Ha- 

" Kagoi" (so pronounced as a rule) is spelt "Kagog" [--^-fc<^]- cp. 

note to No. 60, and No. 151. It lies between Khartoum and Shendi 
(maps, "Koggug"). 

"He went up to el Dururba. . .": for the Arabic see Appendix 25. 

"El Dururba" is a hill near to the north-west of Wad Hasuna. 

"Donkey's Dam" was so called, it is said, because Sheikh Hasan killed 
a wild ass there. 

"Plate and pin of silver": on the sling of a sword is hung a circular 
plate of silver ("mihdhir," sing, "mu- 
hdra"), through which the leather passes. 
This is held in position by a long silver 
pin {"ibzaym") which is welded on to 
the plate thus (the shaded part being the 
leather) : 

"Commander" is " sid kum." The same phrase was used at the Fung 
court to denote the marshal or "mayor of the palace," whose prime duty 
was in early times the ceremonial slaying of a king when, through age or 
impotence, it was considered that he should for the good of the state be 
superseded: see Vol. I, p. 50. 

" Troops": the word is " gundi" and the plural " gunud" means troops. 
It is possible "gundi" here denotes some officer of rank. 

" The property of her father. . .for me": the Arabic is JU aJU U^I 
^J Xy^j^ j>\jx>^. The father was presumably a thief and the expenditure 

of illgotten money on a shroud would be regarded with abhorrence; 
"hardm" is the Latin "nefas." 

"And [then] he shaved. . .": for the Arabic see Appendix 26. 

The reference is to the cutting of the " 'uruf" (see note to No. 73). 


The " ^utfa^^ is a howdah, with framework of wood, fixed on the saddle 
of a camel. It is used on state occasions, such as a ''rahil" (moving the 
bride to the bridegroom's house) or the moving of camp, for the women- 
folk. They are shrouded from view by the hangings and are surrounded 
by a display of all their household valuables fastened to the saddle outside : 
see illustrations in MacMichael, Tribes..., pp. 192, 193. 

Rds el Fil is on the Blue Nile, south of Rosayres. 

The tomb of the "Hag 'Abd el Salam el Begawi" here mentioned is 
close to Wad Hasuna (see maps). 

Musa Ferid is mentioned in No. 66. 

"i/e reared a crocodile...'^: for the Arabic see Appendix 27. The 
reservoir mentioned was Um Kanatir. It is said at Wad Hasuna that the 
crocodile was brought from the river by Sheikh Hasan's slaves. 

Eight pages of MS. are devoted to this biography. 

ABC gives Sheikh Hasan's date as 968-1059 a.h. (ABC, x). 

133. For this man see D 7, ci, cxxi and ccvii, and cp. Jackson (p. 65), 
who says he was of the family of Idris wad el Arbab. 

Ndsir was the Hamag vizier who ruled the Fung kingdom from 1787 
onwards: he was son of Muhammad Abu el Kaylak (see D 7, ci et seq.). 

134. Cp. No. 66 (para. 2). See also note to No. 187. 

135. The ancestor of the " Faradiyyun." 

^' Fard" is "a term used for those rules and ordinances of religion which 
are said to have been established and enjoined by God Himself, as distin- 
guished from those which are established upon the precept or practice of 
the Prophet, and which are called 'surma' " (Hughes, p. 124). 

''He compiled. . .": for the Arabic see Appendix 28. The fact of his 
marriage and divorce is taken from No. 252. 

136. Cp. No. 58. 

For " 'ilm el kaldm " see note to para, viii, supra. 

" Sannat el Wada'a" is also mentioned in No. iii. 

Ibrahim had a son Yusef, as is mentioned incidentally in No. 33. 

137. For "mufti" see Hughes, pp. 58 and 367. 

139. Cp. Nos. 89 and 204. He was called "el Haggar" and died, as 
we know from No. 204, in 1098 a.h. (1686 a.d.). 

140. See note to No. 17. " Bahr " may be an error for " Haggar " (ja^o 

141. See postscript to para, xiii, supra. 

Sheikh Idris (q.v. also in D 7, xxi) is one of the most famous of all 
the "saints" of the Sudan. His kubba is at el 'Aylafun and his family 
(Mahass) reside there: cp. note to A 9, iii. ABC gives his pedigree 
in full. 

The present generation is the eighth after him, thus: Muhammad ibn 
Barakat ibn Hammad ibn Muhammad ibn Barakat ibn Medowi ibn Barakat 
ibn Hammad ibn el Sheikh Idn's. 

His descendants state that the mother of Idn's was Fatima, surnamed 
" Sulha," the daughter of el Shen'f Hammad Abu Denana {q.v. C8, note 
xxxii), and that he was born in 913 a.h. (1507 a.d.) and died in 1060 a.h. 
(1650 a.d.) aged 147 [lunar] years. This information is derived from their 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 297 

copy of the Tahakdt wad Dayfulla: cp. also ABC, 11 ; Jackson, p. 27; and 
D 7, III. 

Idri's belonged to the Kardakab section of Mahass and was granted 
land at el 'Aylafun by the Fung king. Previous to his coming, which was 
soon after the commencement of the Fung dynasty, the land had been 
occupied by slaves of the Fung, and hence its name, '"ayla" being, it is 
said, a Sudanese word for " slaves," and " fun " being the same as " Fung " : 
cp. No. 166, and ABC passim, where the village is called "el 'Ayl Fung" 
and " 'Aylat el Fung." 

The people of el 'Aylafun are chiefly descendants of Barakat (see Tree 4), 
and with them are a few Shaikia (Hannakab), Rikabia and Ga'aliIn. 

The biographies of three of Sheikh Idris's sons are given, viz. Hammad, 
'Araki and 'Abd el Kadir: he had also three other sons, viz. Muhammad, 
Ramli and Belal. The first and second were by one mother, the third and 
fourth by another, and the fifth and sixth by another. 

" The first to light the fire. . . ." See Nos. 74 and 226 and notes thereto, 
and cp. No, 67. The present generation are followers of the Khatmia 
branch of the Kadiria tarika. 

Sheikh 'tsa el Tdlib, is ancestor of the TAlbab Bedayri'a now under the 
\imda of the Shukria Kadurab. He was a cousin of the Bedayri "Wad 
el Turabi " (No. 125). His kuhba is near the hill named after him, between 
el Kamlin and Gebel Kayli. 

''For example, his prophecy . . .": for the Arabic see Appendix 29. This 
passage is full of valuable information: it gives us the cause of the war 
between the Fung and the 'Abdullab of Kerri, and its result, the manner 
of the accession of Badi "Sid el Kum," and the duration of his dynasty 
and its limitations. 

For the war with the 'Abdullab see No. 126 and D 7, xx, and Jackson, 
p. 26. 

'Adldn walad Aya reigned from 1610 to 1615 a.d. (Bruce), and Badi 
"Sid el Kum" from 161 5 to 1621 (Bruce). 

The reigns of Badi's five descendants according to Bruce occupied 
from 1621 to 1729 (109 years), according to Cailliaud from 161 1 to 1717 
(107 years), and according to Tremaux's computation from 1623 to 1729 
(107 years): the last named agrees most closely with the no (lunar) years 
of the text. Ounsa walad Badi "was the last of the true royal family to 
rule" (cp. Jackson, p. 37). 

142. The Bedayri'a of Wad el Turabi claim 'fsa as a Bedayri and cousin 
of No. 125. 

Nos. 7 and 34 were born at the same place. 

143. "A Hadari": i.e. one of the HupuR: cp. No. 66. 
''He was in prison. . .": for the Arabic see Appendix 30. 

145. He is mentioned also in No. 43, g.v. The obliterated word is 
probably " Sabun," a not uncommon sobriquet, or " Sahib. . . ." 

By " Sakarndwia" is meant one of the Sakarang of Tekali (cp. BA, 

146. He is one of the 'Araki family, but lived some four generations 
later than Dafa'alla el 'Araki (see Nos. 193 and 219). 


147. " El Kaddl." JjcS is a word used in the Sudan to mean "he 
walked in a dignified manner." 

Ounsa walad Ndsir reigned at Sennar from 1689-1701 (Bruce). 

148. For " Timya" see Xo. 178. 

149. " Was nicknamed. . . " is ly^ \j^ [io-J^ ... w>i^...]. 

151. For Kagoi, spelt "Kagog" see No. 132 and note. 

Sheikh Hasan Hasuna was born at the same place, and his mother's 
maternal grandmother was, like Xo. 151, a Saridia Khamaysia {i.e. one of 
the Sowarda). 

152. The nickname means "Father of the Swordstick," or perhaps 
" Father of the sword of wood." 

Shanbdt is just north of Khartoum. 

There is a " Talha" between el Kamlin and Rufa'a, but the name is 
common. '' Dzcayhi" denotes his tribe. 

153. Surkuni is a hill a few miles north of Omdurman. 

" Gdbri" i.e. one of the Gawabra or descendants of Gabir. 

" There came to him. . .": for the Arabic see Appendix 31. 

" Servants' beer" : Arabic " merisa shaldtit." " Shaldtit " {sing. " shaldti ") 
is, I am told by natives, a term for servants, whether freemen or slaves; and 
''merisa shaldtit'^ might mean either "beer, the unclean drink of servants" 
(and cp. note to No. 66), or (more likely here) " such coarse beer as servants 
are given to drink." In either case the difference of opinion between Xos. 
66 and 153 as to beer-drinking is noteworthy. The story ends as abruptly 
in the text as in the translation. 

" When the troops. . .": for the Arabic see Appendix 32. 

Another account of this rebellion, of which the leader was el Amin 
Aradib walad 'Agib, will be found in D 7, XLii. The difference between the 
clerical and lay versions is worth noticing. 

Xote that "Fl'ag" in this story is once spelt -^ and once ^-J^i: the 
variation is common. 

Bddi el Ahmar ruled from 1701 to 1726 (Bruce). 

Kerri, north of Khartoum, was the centre of the Abdullab domain, 
and el Is (Kawa) the headquarters of FuxG power on the White Xile. 
El Is, Bruce's "el Aice," is also Browne's "Allais, on the Bahr-el-abiad, 
the place which the ferr}^-boats frequent" (p. 452). 

By "slaves" is meant the soldier}^-: the Fung army was almost entirely 
recruited from slaves drawn from such localities as Tekali and Daier in 
southern Kordofan (cp. Bruce, passim). 

El Hdg 'Omdra was apparently the patron saint of Khali'i el 

154. Khogali is one of the most famous holy-men of the Sudan, and his 
kubba at el Halfaya is very well known. For his biography and pedigree 
cp. ABC, IV.' 

For " 'ilm el kaldm" see note to para, viii, supra. 
'Ayesha was the wife of Xo. loi, q.v. 

"It zoos characteristic . . .": for the Arabic see Appendix 33. For the 
Shadhalia order see note to AB, li. For the different types of clothing 



affected by the religious orders see Hughes, p. 119 (sub "Faqir") and 
pp. 92 et seq. (sub "Dress"). 

"Cotton shirts" {"gibba"). An allusion to the patched shirt of the 
fakir that became so familiar at a later date, in the Mahdia. 

"The kings of Ga'al," i.e. the Meks of the Ga'alii'n. See note to 
No. 27. 

Khogali's rising to greet the successor of Sheikh Idris Arbab would 
be in compliment to Sheikh Idri's as having been the representative of the 
Kadiria order (see No. 141), and (incidentally perhaps) as being of the 
same tribe (Mahass) as Khogah. Sughayerun (q.v. No. 241) was the 
''lover" in the Sufi sense of Sheikh Idris and the successor of the Awlad 
Gabir, whose disciple and follower Khogali's grandfather Ibrahim had 
been: his successor was Sheikh el Zayn (Xo. 258). 

The text later mentions in the following terms 

AatojU-oJ'3 ^i^^jJ' J-^ w-jIj-tfJI .1*^)3' AJ'i)^^!^ rtejh^-" AS'^li.l 0-*3 

that Khogali paid considerable respect to the Rik.4bia and Mash.^i'kha 
"nobility" and others. The whole of this passage describing the attitude 
of superiority assumed by Khogali suggests a suspicion that interested 
parties may have obtained the insertion of these qualifying exceptions in 
the interests of their own prestige, or that a later copyist did not wish to 
give offence; otherwise "el Sha'arawi's" remarks are somewhat inapposite. 

"Sheikh 'Abd el Kddir" is of course "el Gilani." 

"Ahmad el Xdsiri" is later on called "Muhammad el Xasir" (but see 
note to para, vii, supra). This stor\- of the sandbank gives us the only 
intimation in so many words of the date of the composition of the Taba- 

" When the Sultan Bukr . . .": for the Arabic see Appendix 34. Bukr 
reigned in Darfur from 1682 to 1722 (see Schurtz, p. 545). The ston.- ends 
abruptly as in the translation. 

"As regards his original faith . . . ": for the Arabic see Appendix 35. 

The " awrdd" {sing, "zcird") are portions of the Kuran set aside for 
daily reading. 

"He died. . .": for the Arabic see AppendLx 36. 

Where the date is in the twelfth centun.- the author as a rule omits the 
first two figures: if the eleventh or thirteenth centun.- is intended he 
ahvays inserts them. 

155. "Abu Sabib" is here written >^..>.>...^.t I ("Absabib"). 

156. " The 40 disciples": sc. of Ibrahim el Bulad (cp. Nos. 23 and 254). 
The holv-men whose names begin with M are divided into two groups 

by the author, the northern and the southern : the follo^nng are the southern 
group: Xos. 157, 159, 166, 168, 169, 174, 177, 179, 182, 183, 184, 185, 
186, 188, 190, 192, 193, 198, 200, 201, 205, 209, 210. The last two of these 
to be treated of by the author are Xos. 157 and 192 (Mahmud el 'Araki 
and his son Muhammad), and at the close of the latter's biography, and 
before commencing the northern group, the author says: 
jJLc JJw UAiol jL-fctfJI 0^' J-^ ^>« U J-,! oj^, U ^J^ Uiyi l^ 


("Having completed the pleasurable task of relating the virtues of the 
notables of the south, we transfer our attention to the notables of the north 
whose names begin with M.") 

All the M's, excepting the numbers quoted, above fall into the northern 
group. The dividing line between the two is, roughly speaking, the latitude 
of the junction of the White and Blue Niles. 

157. "Born on the White [Nile]" {,^jA.f^'^Lj ojj^. See note to 
para, v, supra, for remarks upon this, and " period of probation " (" 'idda "), 
and ''Rdgil." 

Practically the whole of this biography is here translated, but Mahmud 
lived too early for the author to know much about him: he is mentioned 
in Jackson, p. 22. 

For el Batiufari see No. 17 and for el Ag'huri No. 22. 

''Studied under" is jjs. \^.„Xju\ ''was a follower of" is ,j* Ji».l. 

" Sheikh Khogali said. . . " is 

For el Is cp. 153 (note); and for " Urn Lahm" No. 84. We may infer 
from this passage that there was a successful raid made by the Shilluk 
from the upper reaches of the White Nile between about 940 a.h. 
(Mahmud's approximate date: see paras, iv to vi, supra) and 1095 a.h. 
{i.e. 1533 to 1684 A.D.). 

158. For Zora see BA, clix and A 11, xx. 

The Ghubush are the Awlad el Aghbash (Tree 2). 

159. Cp. Nos. Ill and 3. 

161. "The former father of. . .": the Arabic is jJtj j^^-j_lx.5 juJ^ 

j^\jj\ A_*>i_iJI, and this would make Kutbi grandfather of Ibrahim. The 
addition of to the first word makes the sense more correct. 

" ElRayda " is presumably the name of Muhammad's mother. The pro- 
nouns in this passage are characteristically vague, but the meaning is clear. 

El Koz is the " Goos " of Bruce's map, lying some miles east-north-east 
of the junction of the Atbara with the Nile. 

162. This Sheikh ibn Medani is son of No. 164, called, apparently, 
after his father's half-brother (No. 236): cp. Nos. 164 and 15. 

" The MedanIYYUN are. . . " is as follows: (>a*Jj w-Aj^JI ^J^J^\ 
<LqAJI. The Medani YYUN are the descendants of Medani el Natik {i.e. 
Nos. 194, 162, etc.), and "we" denotes the descendants of Um Gadayn, 
i.e. of a different mother. 

163. He was no doubt called "el Tiar" because of his supposed 
power of transporting himself through the air from place to place. For 
his death see No. 164. 

164. Um Gadayn was evidently the mother's name. 

"Now Medani el Natik died. . . " : for the Arabic see Appendix 37. 

165. Ounsa ibn Ndsir reigned from 1689 to 1701 a.d., according to 
Bruce; and as "el Medowi" died in 1684 Cailliaud's date (1675-1687) is 
probably nearer the truth. 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 301 

166. "£/ 'Ayl Fung'' (^ J^l) is now called "el 'Aylafun" (maps, 
"Eilafun"): see No. 141 (note). 

Gedid is on the west bank of the Blue Nile opposite el 'Aylafun : as 
there are three villages there now they are generally called, in the plural, 

Elti is on the same bank as, and south of, Gedid. 

167. His tomb is with that of his father at Abu Delayk. 

168. Kutrdtig is a village on the east bank of the Blue Nile above 
el 'Aylafun. This man's tomb is at Wad Digays, south of Um Dubban, 
east of Kutrang. 

169. El Shekayk is west of the White Nile between el Dueim and 

170. ''His large commentary. . .": for the Arabic see Appendix 38. 

" The Senussia " is a work on tazohid ("doctrine of unity "). For sharah 
("commentary") see Hughes, p. 572. 

171 . " His companion ..." is 

For el Kubia see No. 1 1 . 

172. Cp. No. 17. 

174. See No. 186. 

175. ''He united. . .": the Arabic of this common phrase is 

JwoaJI^ ^.©AaJI ^>*j ^.^xf. ^.o^ ^J\£s 

The author mentions in this biography that one of Muhammad ibn 
'Abd el Rahman's disciples gave him the information he has written in 
the Tabakdt concerning him. 

177. The author states that one of this man's disciples, fakir 
Mustafa ibn Abu Shama, gave him the information retailed here. See 
No. 2. 

178. Cp. No. 148. Timya was not literally the father but the great - 

, e 

great-grandfather of No. 175. The name Timya is here written ^ - p " 
[for A*^], but in No. 148 it is once written a^ and once a*^, 

"His father'' is 'Ali ibn Barri, and '"Araki" is 'AbduUa el 'Araki, 
father of No. 237, and brother of No. 178. 

"The matting'^ ("el bursh") would be for the Khalifa to sit upon 
(cp. No. 66). 

For the Arabic of the text see Appendix 39. 

180. Tankdsi Island is near Debba in Dongola Province. 

181. "He was one of. . .": for the Arabic see Appendix 40. 

183. The kubbas of this man and of his son 'Abd el Rahman are close 
to Bashakira West: they are of red brick and unplastered. 

185. Medani is father of No. 193. 

186. The form "el Lukr" occurs in Nos. 12 and 174, though here 
"el Aghir" is used. 

Um 'Ukud [maps, "Um Mughud"] and Elti lie on the west bank of 
the Blue Nile below el Kamlin. 


187. Ounsa zoalad Ndsir reigned 1 689-1 701 (Bruce). 
This Muhammad is given the surname of "el Niri" in No. 90 {q.v). 
In the text of No. 134 mention is made of " Sughayerun and 'Abd 
el Hadi, the sons of Sheikh Muhammad walad Dolib." 

189. "/6« H^S" is qualified by J^jS (i.e. "said to be son of, etc."). 
"King Dekin of KordofdV is Jlii;.=> jb 0-« O^i >iU^I. See note 

to No. 207. 

For Ghuldmulla see No. 222. 

There occur in this biography the words ". . .What my grandfather, 
Mtisa walad Ria, told me..." (ajj jJj 15*^3-* ^J^«^ **^ i**^**^" ^)> 
and it would appear therefore that the author's mother was probably the 
daughter of this Musa and a Kahlia by race: see No. 85. 

190. "His Sheikh'': i.e. Tag el Din el Bahari. 

El Mundara is a hill about halfway between el Kamlin and the Atbara : 
the tomb of No. 190 is to be seen there. 

191. A very famous holy-man of the Dahmashia section of Bedayria. 
His present Khalifa resides at Omdurman and is a merchant held in con- 
siderable respect. See Jackson, p. 27, but "AH" is there an error for 
"Muhammad." The fabled reason of his nickname is that he was born 
with a bracelet of gold on his wrist, but see Vol. I, p. 177. 

For "holy-man'' {" Rdgil") see No. 44, note. 

Bddi ibn Ruhdt reigned 1651 to 1689 (Bruce). 

"He ruled. . .": this phrase occurs elsewhere in the Tabakdt in toto. 

For the Gin see Hughes, pp. 133-138. 

193. The town of Wad Medani, capital of the Blue Nile Province, is 
so named after this man. He was a Busaylabi from Upper Egypt, and so 
far as one can deduce from the Tabakdt he probably died about 1700 a.d. 

El Nuba is a village on the Blue Nile a short distance above Khartoum : 
it is reputed to have been founded by some Nuba from el Haraza in 

"He was buried. . ., etc." is aj Sj^-y-i^! Ail*. ^ 0^>' 

194. "Now the Muhammads. . . " is 

jk».lj j-<ftPj •Vft.lj 1^1 ^$ ^a»!j^o-jl ^ \^j2t/\ \^j^\ ^J^J>.f,a^\^ 

By " one father" is meant "fathers of the same name." 

195. Cp. Jackson, pp. 26, 27. 

For Sdlim el Sanhuri see note to AB, iv. He died in 1606 a.d. 

196. "ElKoz" is "Koz walad Diab" (cp. No. 239). 
198. Cp. No. 191, re Sharau. 

200. For Sdlim el Mdidi see also No. 204; and cp. No. 108. 

" Mdidi" is now often pronounced, and spelt, "Magdi": see note to 
No. 60 on this point. A few miles south of el Kamlin is a village called 
"Wad el Magdi" and it is probable this was the home of No. 200 or of 
No. 108. 

202. Amna is mentioned also in No. 196. 

204. " One of his miracles. . ." : for the Arabic see Appendix 41. 

For " Um Hinayclil" see note to No. 15. 



Of the year 1098 the text says "The year of the Nile which collected 
the people after the dispersion of Um Lahm, viz. 1098" 

Um Lahm, the famine year, was 1095 (see No. 84), and presumably 
in 1098 there was a high Nile which relieved the distress caused by 1095. 

205. Jackson (Yacubabi Tribe) gives Medani as son of Muhammad 
el Zayn. 

206. From No. 8 we know this man was a Gama'i by tribe. For 
Nafa'i see Nos. 207 and 8. 

207. "He di::d. . . " : for the Arabic see Appendix 42. 

Gunkul was king of the Musaba'at, a branch of the Fur who ruled 
in Kordofan. In the reign of Musa ibn Sulayman (Schurtz, 1 637-1 682) 
Gunkul laid claim to the throne of Darfur. For his pedigree, etc., see 
MacMichael, Tribes..., p. 55 (note): he was the father of the 'fsawi 
mentioned later; and the latter was father of the famous Hashim. 

King Dekin is mentioned again in No. 189: he appears to have been 
the Fung representative in Kordofan, and the seat of his power would be 
near Tekali and Daier, the locality intended by "their country." 

Nafa'i is mentioned passim, e.g. in No. 206. The author probably means 
to denote by "He said 'raise the sword'" that Nafa'i was executed on the 
spot, but this is not certain, 

I do not know what ^<rvJLfi w-si*5 means, but have translated it "set 
off to attack them." 

208. See note to No. 124. 

"Rendered obedience" is aJ 0>lijl, i.e. he was their Sheikh. 

209. This Musa is generally known as "Abu Kussa," and was one of 
the chief of the Ya'akubab: see Nos. 170 and 217. He and his brother 
(No. Ill) have a kubba at Sabil (see No. iii, note). 

" Marhab" is Marhaba bint Fadl (see Jackson, Yacubabi Tribe). 

211. The feki Sughayerun mentioned here is claimed as ancestor by 
the DoALiB in Kordofan (see MacMichael, Tribes..., p. 93). 

212. For el Kerrada see No. 81. 

"He was called. . .": for the Arabic see Appendix 43. 

213. "In front of" is " east of," i.e. 15 miles north-north-west of Gebel 
Rera, between Abu Delayk and the Atbara. 

214. This man has a conspicuous ^h\tt kubba at el Hilalia. See note 
to No. 125. Nanna is said to have had a son Musa. His name is spelt 


216. The " delay b" palm is Borassus flabellifer. 

"I swear by Sheikh. . .": for the Arabic see Appendix 44. Tag el Din 
was the Sheikh of this family: cp. No. 62, where the anecdote here related 
is also given. 

221. Cp. C7, III. 

222. For the Arabic of the first part of this biography see Appendix 45 . 
For the genealogical items given in this biography cp. D i, paras, civ 

to cxxiv and BA, clxxxi et seq. 


Kandil el 'Oni is possibly the " Kandil el Saridi " of No. 58. 'On was a 
descendant of 'Amir ibn Dhubian, one of whose brothers was Sarid (an- 
cestor of the Sowarda) and another was Shatir the ancestor of Rikab and 
Rubat (see BA). If these two Kandils are one man it may be noted that the 
Barri family (No. 58, etc.) were related on their mother's side with the 
RikAbia of Dongola. 

" The four Sheikhs" are No. 17 and his three brothers. 

"Nds" means, and is often translated, "the people of. . .," i.e. (here) 
"the descendants of." 

"El Ferid" denotes literally an only son. 

226. "He was the third. . ." apparently Tag el Din (No. 67) is not 
counted. The other two were Bedowi wad Abu Delayk and Idris Arbab 
(see No. 74 and note). 

It is mentioned incidentally in this biography that Salih's paternal 
uncles were named Salih Abu Naib and el Zayn respectively; and 
from No. 27 (q.v.) we know there were also two others, Bedowi and 
Hegazi . 

The invasion of Shendi alluded to was in 1706 a.d. (see No. 74). 

"/ saw Sheikh 'Abd el Kddir . . . ," sc. " el Gilani, in a vision." 

"Sheikh Sdlih related. . .": for the Arabic see Appendix 46. 

228. For el Saydl see No. 251. It is in the Gezira. 

"A Khdlidi" i.e. one of the Khowalda. 

230. "El Zaghrdt" means one who makes the " zagharit," i.e. the 
shrill cry of "loo-loo-loo" generally used by women. It is said that 
Selman when alone in the wilds would make this noise and the wild gazelle 
and ariel would come to him to be milked. He was a Ga'ali, and was buried 
at Wad Sak (3rta near Rufa'a. A number of his descendants live at Abu 
'Ushara and el Sellama, on the Blue Nile, south of el Kamlin. 

The "zagharit" is not purely African. Burton speaks of it at Mekka. 
(See Pilgrimage..., 11, 159.) 

233. He is elsewhere called Muhammad Serhan el 'tJdi. 

234. Gerf (or Gerayf) Kunir is on the east bank of the Blue Nile, just 
outside Khartoum. 

235. "He became. . .": for the Arabic see Appendix 47. 

236. Mdlik was one of the Awlad Um Gadayn and a half-brother of 
Sheikh el A'sir. 

"And miracles. . .": for the Arabic see Appendix 48. 

'Othmdn walad Hammad was the liberator of the Shaikia from the 
yoke of the Fung. A traditional account of this incident is in NichoUs 
{"The Shaikiya"), pp. 10-14, from which it would appear that the 
Shaikia about 1690 (I should say a few years earlier) quarrelled with the 
'AbduUabi viceroy, defeated him by a ruse, and obtained their indepen- 

Poncet was at Korti in 1699 and says (p. 15): "Whereas the People 
who are beyond Korti upon the River Nile are in Rebellion against the 
King of Sennar, and that they Pillage the Caravans . . . , they are forced 
to keep at a Distance from the Banks of the River and. . .to enter into the 
Great Desert of Bihouda . . . " : the reference is certainly to the SnAiKiA, 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 305 

who were notorious freebooters. See Vol. i, p. 216. 'Othman is mentioned 
again in No. 243 (q.v.). 

The account given by Nicholls varies from that of D 3 as to the name 
of the Fung king and of the 'Abdullah sheikh : D 3 is much more hkely 
to be right. 

'AH walad 'Othman, who occurs again in No. 58, was one of the 'Ab- 
DULLAB of Kerri. The Arabic is very vague and confused, but it may be the 
ShAikia defeated the army of the 'Abdullab and that the leader of the latter 
then sent word of the defeat to his Fung suzerain at Sennar and (possibly) 
seized the opportunity to join forces with the Shaikia against the Fung. 

''He came out of his retreat": "he" must refer to Sheikh although the 
Arabic hardly admits of it as it stands: cp. note to No. 12. The whole 
story is somewhat confused. 

Kagabi is in the SHAfKiA country. 

''Small-pox" : cp. No. 243. 

238. AMashaykhi. A section of Mashai'kha called themselves Sheraf- 
ELDINAB after him. For his father see No. 84. 

239. A Halaiiki, see No. 196. 

240. For Hammad el Samih see No. 226. 

241 . This biography is given in its entirety in Appendix 49 (in Arabic). 
For the Awlad Gabir and their sister Fatima see Nos. 17 and 222 and 


" The lover of el Sheikh Idris": see note to No. 154. 

"Four sdkias": i.e. the land of 4 sdkias, i.e. about 40 acres of riverain 
land. An 'iid is a variable measure. The word for a spear here is " saldtja," 
i.e. the long broad-bladed spear used by horsemen and not the smaller, 
generally barbed, throwing spear. Grants of land merely mention a given 
breadth parallel to the river, and the grantee can push his cultivation as far 
inland, within this limit, as the levels of the ground and the nature of its 
soil and the water-raising capacity of his water-wheel permit. An average 
water-wheel cultivates perhaps seven acres, but under favourable conditions 
ten acres can be watered. 

Karkog: see note to No. 126. 

For "el Sayyid el Khidr" see Hughes, p. 272. He is a mysterious 
prophet. " Some say he lived in the time of Abraham and that he is still 
alive in the flesh, and most of the religious and Sufi mystics are agreed 
upon this point, and some have declared that they have seen him." He 
is sometimes confounded with Elias, sometimes with Phineas, sometimes 
with St George of England ! He is generally supposed to have drunk of 
the fountain of life. See also Sell (pp. 106, 107) : he is said to be the inter- 
mediary between God and the founder of a reHgious order, and to exercise 
great influence with holy-men and to unveil the future to them and give 
them supernatural powers. 

El Berkdni: i.e. of the Berakna section. 

"Five daughters" : only three are mentioned by name. 

"sealings" : see note to No. 17. 

" the rainfall. . . " : see note to No. 2. 

242. " Taught by": ^JLp aSJu ; "was a follower of" ^^^ J^j-^^ «iU~». 


243. For the ''fight" mentioned cp. No. 236. 

''The year after small-pox year": cp. No. 237: the Arabic is ijS^j 

244. £■/ ^oy^iY: cp. No. 251. 
246. The brother of No. 77. 

248. "El Furayn": the text here gives ^j^t, but in No. 206 we 
have o^j3.flM . 

250. The father of No. 76. He is said to be buried near Gebel Arang 
in Mefaza district. 

.252. The apphcation of a tribal name, "el Fezari," as a nickname to 
a member of the Mahass tribe, which is totally distinct from the Fezara, 
is analogous to the use of "el Guhani" in the case of Abdulla el Guhani 
(see BA, lviii). 

254. Cp. No. 156. This Ya'akub is the eponymous ancestor of the 
Ya'akubab (see Jackson, Yacubabi Tribe). 

255 . A section of the Mashaikha are called Mugelliab after this man's 
father. Mugelli is said to have died in Egypt in Zernikh Island and to 
have been a descendant of the Khalifa Abu Bukr. Cp. No. 238, and see 
A 2, xxxvii and ABC, liv. 

"And the king. . .": for the Arabic see Appendix 50. 

It is a not uncommon expression to say that a courtyard, e.g., is "big 
enough for a horse to gallop in," and the phrase "as much land as his 
horse could encompass" probably means, as it has been explained by 
natives, "as much land as a horse could gallop round." 

The word "mil" means properly a distance as far as one can see under 
normal circumstances. Burton {Pilgrimage..., ii, 63) defines a "mil" as 
1000 paces. 

256. He died in 1802 (see D 7, clii). 

259. Bddi walad Rabat reigned from 165 1 to 1689 (Bruce). 
For Dekin see note to No. 207. 

[ 307 ] 

(Paras, iv to xiii) 

dj«jfi Wl>*dJ 5lj^l JJJaj J^jJI O' J''*i O^'J^ "^JvoJ^ A-yJuj i%)l JULJ 
voJ*5 >-*»-• (>« c5^j^' j-j-oiJI ^... ^.^\jbj3 ^j:^. Zjs. j^ ,>« Uj^j j^i 
J3' j^^3 i^-o-a-* J-^iAJ O*^"' i^jJU^^-a5 AJ Ujj (^ijV'^' j>5w3 Sj^I ^Ut 

j^,.w.c (Jj Jc^^a^^ ?---^' ^_5"^ 'v/*-©J' (^L-oA:JI v»J>i^ ;i-^I jb 1^ 

^JkJ^StJ^ ^tejAll v^^J^^ >»'^3t ^P A.o^^vO>*Jl C^J"^ AisJLj^ «»xJkjJI j'^-- 

A Jig Jui.1 AJ'^) SjijJ.aJI j-S JwJ^awJIj ji.*».3Ji:3l ^^A^ jJ:.ZJlj l&jSfcJ^ OLjt^j^ 
Oj.^J» ^ j-SfcJjl j,5 A.U;«j ^1 A-jA&JI ^ jjj j-<aJ3 lAj^*^' AjJtjk*g (J^jlejiJI 
^«iV5 J-jSj J^-JjJl ^>^ J^^t ^_j*5 A*Xc >9jwS ^*^ j-ji i^J^ ur*Jj^' ^•<-J' ^Tl'i'^ 
ij'^j 'Ztj^ j^-^ *y^$ ol^l jut <k^^\ S^JaiJU wJjAoJt (J>-« ^J-a~j A-ic 

A^Jk^ ^.iJijtj j.*sl«ijl woAJl^ vy*S J«^il3 >Jj.J jb >e«x5 ^>J ^<fa»~o ^tj \ 

1 for j^^AJi (page torn). ^ for c^J r .^. ^ for j.oI«.j. 

4 sc. Jo-tj. 5 forpUJt. 6 for ^M\. 

' for ^jA<Jt. 8 written J^*J^a^. ^ for ^1^. 



(From No. ii) 

jjU <U^ l.^^J^' (^ ■*>* "^JS*^ Lf^J^ w*.tftfr j^^sfc^l jk*P ^^J^ A^^JJsuo 

^.^J ici LiU^ «x<«A. c^JaJI <>J wA^i^3 ^,,95wjk». ^i ^J^jl;^ U <0 tyU 
j^3bi5 aJJI J15 Ul i^jJsL^I jLjt jk;* ^i\ _^j^ ^j^ J^^»' ju* ,j-o ajj^^j 

^jlji jiaAaJ w>UX)t Ikcld ,.^JL>1 yb ^3jJa«JI Jw^ ^^^ak~oJt ju^ ^U wot 
^J^ •X^^l ««-tJ^ J^J^i 15^^ «^^' »3><>J ^ J^5 Jj-«l ,_;^UJI ««J I3JI5 Iv^W 

jU3t w>&.j^ ^gw.rv3b OiyiswJI t^^^ aSj^ AaJ^LJ ? , * ajl^d _^U^A)t ^JLfr 
dJjJuAS jUI ,J^ iV3>* •'^ J^^ J^-o.a>- A*iftJI i ft a- ,* ^^jIj J^_3 jJ»-a^l 1.3 

1 for Slj^l. 2 for Ijtj. 


(From No. 17) 
^^*a!^I ^<^^>JLcI 4jw,cl». aJ jkcii-t^ J^ A*jj'v)t «.jLJft3l,£a Ajijj's)! jjU. ^"^l^t 
^^^j;:**.!^ i^;)_6^jJI»x*fr ^^^^-^Ij J-^-pIo.-'I ^,<nr*;5b O-o^jJ' -*^ ^<nr»~'-«b 

,j.jjjt^^,^l j^^^yj^-JaJ ^jU.j— C>^vel A^li 


(From No. 27) 
Jj^jo OU ^«^'J«.J^ ci'J^-' ^J -^J "^^3 O"^-*^ vilUJI ift-^j AJeU.3 

.iU'^^jjOl iljL».l^^ JL* 




(No. 46) 

,^1^1 oUA- ^-^^ ^^^^^ ^^ ^i*^ ^^^- r^' -^ ^^ '>•' 

C)-«^3 "JA)'^ >iUw3 ^ w^-ojJt ^jj-- *U-UsJI jy«l J^:a»,j'N) djyD w>i*JI 

V>JjJI ^U^ aJJIJljC^ ^><«a-« ri-i-iJl^ jaJI ^^ JJ35 {^3<X> ?l-*^l ly^ 


(From No. 51) 
■ js^jj! Aijj^ C)^ j^ ii-wUrf ^1 AJ jj^i Ljj jsijjJ^ l^ftah.,)j w»l^*;)l i^jlj 


(From No. 52) 
1 for jjA»-«9ji. 


(From No. 58) 
Aw J-H»J«Jt JUU ptlw «jJj j-aa. O*^ '•*■* ^^i Ls" *«^J-*J' 0-* W}*^ 



(No. 60) 

>X»a>^ fa...>..t J \ jtJf ^,0^^ '•r'^3 li -U^. ^ jjLW jJ^ w'j't^ jJ^ 1^^ 

iVj L^Wj Jj— J' L5* ^J^*^ jW-"^ 7»-^' "^^^ *e^ J.>-^3 »^ « 

O'^UJt ^>« ^^^'5 <^J^ 4>ft^W >y^^ «*^ <*J-v*3 '-ai)! ^^^^ jJx»J! jb 

jUjj >-a«j ^,<rUjt wJi? j^ >jW. ch 3'^'>J| ^«a!>j' ?---^' tM; O'^J 

^-<^ L5--ff J./*t j-aij aJUI «U JUi i'::)5Jl ^«*'^' ?-s-^' j^ w*--l* 
i-N)^! o^ »iX«Jju ftio*^ 4ijl i-sJjJI Ai JI53 ly-i w-:^.' J>LJI liL-JI 
jJLp ?i-*-^'j *JUt dliy> ^ ULJt ,>-*jj' ^rt^ ^ff^J Ot^ ^*--' A—Jjju 

1 for «UL-^I. 2 for ajjs-. 


(From No. 63) 


(From No. 66) 

CJI33 ly)j^-i>.rwj lyjj^^l wolt^j OsU^ ^j..3aJLi .iJLJLfi ly) JL3 ^<^J ^j^ 
lyJLfti :iju Jl».19 a^^j ^ ^j^ «l». ^ d^JLaJI v0^ >elii j a L 'i _J^U»^ 

^oJ*J' Oy* Ji**" c^J-*^^ ^-a*^' ^5^.J3 !X'j 
1 for ^U^. 2 for aJ. 3 for Jia^. 



(From No. 66) 
{JJ^^ aJ J>i ^-1^ i-^jl^ai^JU) 'Jl^H ^1£d iUc ^^ dO JUj J*-; ocU. 
2j-JJt jeju J15 j^ju* J3JU u~il oJ JIS ajj ly*i JuJltl riL^jjt^ duSLw 
LJU «tl»> ^ jAilwl^ wjIj (J*-/^' O^ *^' L^i^' /H) "i^f^' aJ J^ aJJI 
j^ Ll^ AJUt JJ\ ^B.A) JJLJafi.1 a3 J15 ^^Jel ^i-flJt J.) wJ^,^ aJ J15 

(Jlju aJJI elJ^l (J-* jLai (Jlj ^i&.>BL;l <«-JLt Lii-o ft5^ A.i£» 4JJI 
1 for ^jt^a.. 2 for JJ!. 


(From No. 66) 
^b < i .lL; ^ ^ 2^ 1^ V5^ p-i-' ^♦^ O-*'-^ ^' ^' ^'■^^^ ^><oiJl ^/i-s'i)l 

^ for «l^».l- ^ for j<s*-*J- ^ for clo*.!. 


(From No. 67) 

|JL)^t w.Jo.aJ1 veLe^)t p*^-^' >^ ojl«.^l ^j^ «ula^j 'H^^ LwfJ ■iXij^} 

j-*^l ^'i V^ ^Ji'^ ^ C>^^ ^--?s»*-t ^-~-'' «i^-^ Ji' >^lJtll 0>*^' 
^ for a;^. 2 for »j-j^. 



(From No. 73) 
\^ ^ O^' «^ vO^ V*^^ Ajjuo^i l\ye\j ^jjj jLwb ■»> i .. t Jl ^t (^^^3 

j^^ ^3 ,j-« dly-ii U3/^ >:•' JjIP' •*-;* T*-^' j'>^ 0*^3 V^^p t^-W*- 
,J-o^p*o j^UJl ^^»~Jt "-J/ij "^ <*J J^Ai ^j«u <uilio cJl «l a.->i~J JI53 (Jv^ 
OjJ^ wJ-0*- <*^3J u' ^5**" ♦^'^ >*^' V/*:J >o^ J^>" "^i O' J^ 

~ ' JuJI sZ^a^J jLwL)^ ji:w.JI ^J.».L»i |-i oUej ^^ OL« ic^^ A^^ 

aJIw ^Uc OI 

^^^^1 Oj^ aJ j-t*-9 IJJ3 •i-s-ft^J (^-^^ L^-J^b v.j^ 



(From No. 74) 
lj-»aJt u^j*^\ yjSLi^ iJ J^ >oJ-'3 <*^J^ aJ^' lj^-^ *^' J^-!; *^!; w.^aiig 

^>-».UaJI j-frS^JI i^^UI^ iia^l ^C-JlA5 |^<jaJl c^j*i)'j >«ia«JI v^UJt «-« 

^j..« lj^; ^ £ s '^yj O-jlj »^'j *S^3 »«* J^^5 UI LjU J^-jjJI C-otj ^^^\jLc 
J^l IJjb j_^l 4JUI Jj-y b bj^--' ^j wJ.5 AJUa 1,-i^ is^j*^' ^W*?^' 

^ for AJtJLS. 2 for ^U^j-»JI. 

3 for^<,v*«. 4 for ^yJjJ. 


(From No. 82) 
Oli ^ O^ UJI oW JJ^ ^Lo j~-iJU Jl5j Jl^-.'s)! ^bj\ o-« u^^3 

jiUJI JL-* jU J^V3 J>-JLa^ y^*^! J^a^ ^3^^ '^y^!^ ^«J*^ 




(No. 90) 

^jJJ J^^j u'^i «*^^' j3^ ajj^aU-o oJlr»j jjyi jJj yk iXSU-aJI 
w^J t/«j^' J-?»- (^ S^I*. ^>-*jjI Joi~«j oUjj^I Ol^JLaJI 5.>L«J!j 
iU-Us ^Vij ilLUJj ijijLiJI jli ,^_)»o ,j^ J-<^ t^j-r^'j '-o^:! 0-**Jj' S^JLi. 

U-iJ^^ A-A*J'3^«-»" ^>»- j^ i^W-'^ {J^^ J^»a^-o 5»-->^t .>'^)j*^)l ^>« 4J3 

C>*<>3 (>-J-eli LoAj [or? vj.JJ»-e] ^yj*-«3 j^^5 4^lil».tj tj'*^' L^^*-* ^^J 


(From No. 119) 
Ju ^__5JLfi i)ilwjl j^<r^>^ f " t^ J^ tjU-o aJJ! «i.> ?-t^' 0-*J '>^J^' 
aJJIju* ^*-iJI Ju ^^jJLt ^.jj^ jV^*^' «>^J *^' ^-'J J^5 L^jJ^ J^-**- 


(From No. 124) 
,j^ w<>;i^.^ jj^ ^^^j lV>^' cJ'*^ ^3 ^^' O-^ «ui^ ■... ; >< rtni.i,a> ,< l^^t 


(From No. 125) 

jJLfr «£JUL/3 J^>>3 <>^) ic)! ^JaAJtj O^i^aJt >.f^AJ^ J>a»J:jt ^ O U^ ffc 

iwJjkiiJi VtjJ' ^UAJ J15 Sbyt «J.> UJj oj^ijt^ 4JJt*ii ?i---iJ' 

A*a>JI iukJLJI «U« jLrk.U)t Ub^Jtij^ U U^^^l^ U^*Ai 

1 for O jLAJ'i t . 



(From No. 127) 

. . . JjJaJb Uv*>~:J J-*^ ^^J^^ ^3>J^ ^y 0^3^ J3^ >6^UJI .x»t 
>...:, n j.ic IjJuj djl ^i5 ju-*^! v6%J j>iA« >'^» J^ ^3 Js^> ^b 
djl^.^ jw^)l ^Jlii w-J aa . l U cji_3 j^*s»^' v>*^*~* 


(From No. 130) 

j-yljl ^Ufc. 3*^3'^ aJ^<»- hy^ 5jk*i« ^Lwlte (JsJ^ j^^^ ^j-^3 o^Ui* 


(From No. 132) 
•mIaJI ws^I ^Lm».j 0^^^ ^Lo-l^U <iJLa. OwJ Tr$j-i ^ j e» - 3 lc^' t«-^ 

,^j.~,.». ^g<^JI ^UUjt 4.eJ9U ^^ AJ ^^ .^ >i'^JJ <* ■«...>,« pa. Aj^jlo V^'3 ty^ 
jJj_3 jJ^ (-« 'j>**' ^'J'Jj'^' io-iaU i'^jlj A.~«jAJ A».la*Jl3 j'^-*^ .-^.a^jJlj 

d}LA>t ^^ ^la».Jj •a.^AtaS 3^JijwJU ^Mtajt 


(From No. 132) 
•*-:-*" ig*^3 o>**»- Jt^^^ >»' j-io- j^.«a*J' j^JaiJ^ ijj^jjJI jJl ^«JJ» 

>*^ •*^;-' ^vffV^^J ^-^ <>ji**.la..^^ AcoJjj'j A*-5 (^.»*-» J.jIw J»*.I^ jJ^ Ju£ 

'^-jj ^bkjJ' 3^^ ^>*j •sI'nU. jL, Aii5j^ s-^-saj^ ^'^)jlj jLw3 j^jli^ 

1 for^j. 2 written J.«j. 3 for Sj^^s. 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 315 


(From No. 132) 

Of\e^ j-iAS ^J^ ^t« wJLo \jA9 A.upa. ,1 •••O^t^ cH^ *^:' <UL<<0L) <^J3 


(From No. 132) 

0~}jJt w«^3^ ^ ^i ^j ^'^)l 

(From No. 135) 
Ai^) l,j«3^*Jb w-iJ^ j_;aJ^l ^c- (J Ajwc^aJU S;3,^.i^l i>.i»laJt \Jii\^ 

1 for j,-tf;AJlj. 


(From No. 141) 

•jMkAJI •;>ju^t ^JIS ^•!A3t w>;i»> 15^ dj^l^ <>*»■ v****^ ^-t*^ *jl,»i.l ly^J 
^>o «iXl!j3 *iW^3 J^A;^; ^^U ^yJlp w>>ai^'^ <0 J15 U-Xp Jul^t j^ 
1^1 ^^ib .ilLUJU 6jif^\ Iv-Uj J15 U£3 ^^-N)! O'^ ietAJI >e»^ ^5^1 JJ" 
w^ga^-fc 9-*^l Jt-^ L>!5lJ^ *:i' '^S (J*^**^ .iU-oJJ >o^5 ju-j «l». O-**. J»bj 



(From No. 143) 

2j^jIft-U.i jut i<~ ** ^' J>*:! »>**-'3 
1 for c.o^ji. 2 for ^J:».U.i. 


(From No. 153) 
0>p a) JIS^ J*.j «»U- 4J' [V^ Ob'^ tJj'^J OUIj^ aJ O/yis] 
i^^ 4-«jj w-». aJ JUt5 j^ U^jj aJJI J-;1 aJ JlSj ^Ift j3 o-« >i^ i^ 
ly-tfj (jLoffc. v>tioij c--j'iLw C>*^J^ J^J^' V^ J,^^***" '^^-J "--**^^^ 
^1 ai J{i^ J^'jJ' *»V >^ **-* 0-i»^' AiX5U-i>^ 3A U^^3 A— j^l 

JjLtvOi^aJI OtU^ Olj^ st^'^iU I'^-a^J b J.5j«iJt J-wi JUJ ^j^^U. 

2,_,.««l juju ,j-6 aJ Jl5j l^ dUlj l|,5L«3 jUw Jjk LjJ J15 ybj S^jI 
1 for Aijsi^ . 2 for ^^;L«1 . 


(From No. 153) 

<IA« O^ O^ ^■i-*f^ '^^^J "r^^^ Vi«^^ O^ ^^.^sLmA)! dj wJdl^tj ^_^p«JI^ 

^1 ^Juw U a! oJl3j J'^X^ .^ i ^l ^1 Sj^^j,^)\ j.*^^ C».JbJ3 <aI^! 
^LLII J^l LjJ JI53 OJL--X. (j-o J'ilLy)! ,j^ aJx i^iow^ aXJU aSjIj ^^yi-t 
A-jle JUi iL-AJI^^^jjJiJI ^w* ^ju ^c s-^yo^ ,iiJl <sujt vJUlUi j>....a,oH 
iJ>o j-au^ l^Xi o\^\ y^^ (Xl««Jtj l.Alaifc.^ dj OcUk.^ <iUl.Qj| ^t wJti (Jt 

dxUo* I^J^i-' ^>*" ^ J^ A^ j^5^ ^^ U-« C--.J 01 J15 -;---iJl e^ju 
.iU-»Jlj oU ^1 j^l dXLj j^ 1^5 ^'J^^ j.i! ^^^^^ ^.wiiJI a£3;^j ^,ov*>*^ 

^^I j-e"J .iUjl jJ^ A-Jjl jjj j„^^)\ ^^Ki j>^Ju»JI 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 317 

(From No. 154) 
^\^\ j^ aJiUJi lot-Jl A*jli«3 a;-JI^ wjU53L. dJL^ tfi'il.i.t ^^^ 

i^b ^^.s^^Ij^ d».3-«;.-aJI ^JsCIj^ Sj^UJI ^UL*.«iJlj ^.^.ojtljj j-»».'^)l j^^jJaJI 
t.\j^S\ ^i J**dJ <VW^J Al-aJ j-i j--i-.aJI ib^l Jjla*-;^ jJaxLi3 J^J^' 
^i ,^ aJUI J^>a^j ^JUj dLiJI iUeJiJI 2jl^|j ^iUM ,J-.aJI^I ^-iJb 

JUaiJJ J^ i^W^ J^^ w)l5-9^l_5 w..«aJI ^3-«*L LoJ! ajj^UJI ^I aJ J-s^ 

*^^ J"*^ ^^J-« "^j «jjj (J^is'iLj >-.»*a.^ 5*^31 "^ S^l*aJI ^.o jLa.1 ^.Xc 
^jj-ji-c ?-;'^' «U*li._5 v,^j>t 7-^'^^ aJuX^ Cya*^'^^ "i)' ^--»JJ/<J' O^ J^*-'^ 

«iX(>.U-JI "^Ij OUil^l "^ jL*.*;;^ ve>AJ "9 *ijl* >^-o^ ^il^' i5***~" ^<.a»-« 
1 for S^L-JI. 2 5/^ for jl^^ ? 


(From No. 154) 
Lo^ «lJ^ ^J->afcJI _.^^j ^;'^*~r^t ^■"^3 ^^>»~~^' 7''^^3 jtw ^j_Lk.jkJ ^..aXa. 

|;i SjU-frJl i^^JLc i-AJj «g».>.cJt AyXfc. (J-o j'jJI («.5p9 ^Xj (>*»- jbej >vJ»i-J 

6j^»A o li li^'i^! j^te j-i Ljj <^>^>^ ^-a^ ^^1^3 i<^3^ f^.*^^ 
J^*J Lf^^*" ?-r:'-JW O^A^I TT'^^ (J*-!*^ O*^ *^>* ^f^^ O^ C^LoJ 

Loaj ^j^^ j-tfui.1 c/o*^ aJxj Jjj! J^j j^»W" -W J'-*^ ,^*-?J' 

1 for Ai'iUsl. 


(From No. 154) 
Oli ^iU, J'iUNllj iljj'iltj j^jil5 ^L.'Nlli A^iiji^ J^l Ut_5 

jJ^UJI ^^U! JUaA^ ^-t-^t J^s<J.j 



(From No. 154) 

j^l=3j d»ol jj^ Sjlib Juo^t <sUAi3l <x.ot dJlCe ^-S ,_,«A».^ (Jj.^,,..>^^j 1^_;— o-a* 
1 for i— ->».. 2 for 5j^. 3 fQf A;3'Ni,a-. 


(From No. 164) 

0I&.J aJJI j^a». jkSj oli.1 ^JJi^ 03^ O' *^*?"j **'^ 
1 for 5l*».. 


(From No. 170) 

d^.iu.f |.9 jaX^\ A^.j^^ '■^j^\j^ ^^j.^JUj\ |_d A^«^^^..JI i«<^ J■;^^^' ^^■j.Zj 

«lJ^ (^51 ^^ ilL^pi p-^ AJl jJ^AJJ i!Ly.Jl Sj^t p-j^J 
1 for j,~rl^^. 


(From No. 178) 

•i-j-iJI j'^jl ^t «iX!i jJ w-^A-Jl^ <sulC« j-i <i*jl Ji*J (J>~.o> ;i---^l AAX<fc.j 
>«v«^ ^aSj IJjb jk«.ai~« C«.C..^ 4i,jU93 i^j-^ oX.^ ^jUa.9 l^iJllft.! 
j.i.';iU3 ^.xij !J^ J^*:" ^"O i^ >^)3^ J^*^ «*-*^ iA*XsiJt ^,<rtAl^l ■^^aJI 

^w^l jj3l Ajl^^l^ Lj^j^ *>*— ^ '*'*^' ijiL-i ^>~.»- ^i's-uJU l ^ ^ t ^ j ^Jjk j.a-lj 

1 for lyU? 


(From No. 181) 

^^Jii\ %^;^rOf ij"^ aAJI ^wult ^J^ Su\e. ^ jij.3 ^JJ J^^A^^C ^ ^^-. u Jlj 

1 for oLT. 

IV. D 3. OF THE SUDAN 319 


(From No. 204) 


(From No. 207) 

J^-jjJIj 4JJI ^<,i^l5 jjl ^j\^ ^ ^>a^' Jj^A^ *i) ^ VP J'-5 *^J' 
^1 JLI <>>*i; UJi j-wJl '>*^j' J^5 "^i /«•■«-«' U-^ ^^l.3u> Utj ^lfc« 
d^AftJt jk».^ ^o-^^Xfi. ..^A^fti ^jiLp ^J^^ <sL;ijJj dJiill jl;;:ato.^ ''^■t^^ <UJtcL:i 

IjJ^ ,J.*-«,o^ ya^i ^j.33 JjS >^l;'^l «iU3 ^J J^5C-». A-AaJI 4=>j^ >rvJI><' 

j^^L~*c J^ ,J->X5 ^0^ u^tjA)l j-Xc O310-JI IJkA Lu-6j jJI \JJt> J2kj IJJb 
1 for oJwj^jJJ? 2 for ,;Xwj^? 


(From No. 212) 

i>^J'^' jjt ^^ttJI ^Jkali..^ Ia.oJ^ 


(From No. 216) 

J--L; ^sw LJlxsJ J.AaJi ^I^^s^! j^jly^l O-:!.*-" ^'-J ?-^' Isla-^ 

JUj ^ J15 ^ -;--«iJI ULxj JasjJI o'^s*^ J^ aJ Jlis ja^I ^I 
J-o^ OiJ"^3 A*0' *^-o-=*- CJUJ AR^^jt ^^jAj iLaJt Oclswi lyjl£« ^ J-^ 



(From No. 222) 
ijl^l l>».3ji WjJ^sj-* "^p-j C^^ ^^O ^' *^' v**^^ ^:'' ^^^J5 ^Wj 

^ A*5iy! Ojjbj A^l io-»5 A^jJtj djj^ *i>=^ a5 ^yo^^a^ j^j-ilSJJ ^^V£uj 

^JJfc.^) dJJli Afs-i*. ^ro-^' '^^^J <*-** ^^^^-ij' w-Jai. ^o-^J— > ^jU ^»..UJI ^><6j 

jXX^ l-aj'j *>AJj'i'' f-J^-^' '>v' j^W- U>^ ^'^bi 0>^ 0>)^ UUI <ie».3ji 
^ , . , _.:f^ ^1 ^^JkA a) OjJ^i IaIjI d<e».^jS C.s , >A.u J 4jl.«9;»e ll^J ojw^ <L..A/l^t 
A^ t^*P; ,^U3I^ lsfcJl-tf> *i^-»-J AJ^iJ lyCU^^l j^^ C-»«JU w>^-^J *--^ 

1 for^o^JL' a). 2 for a^]. 


(From No. 226) 
jju jUI 53,33 ^_y a) o^'^-^'v (^ir''^' iJ^oJ' «^l Ajl ^3 ^Us ;;---iJt 
^^o..,JI Jj:l iuJI ȣUJ j^3 j.-it a<Jl<,.j iuw ^iWi^ Li3*>^ ?-i-^' ^Olij 

ajj^\^ Ji-J.*afcJ ^^^tLs.^ O"'^*-'' '^sll.^^w )^J-»c».jJI Ju£ •^^aj^I «jJ^ **^J5 ^JJ>^ 
AJJ^^ oJslAjJo >6jiL)Lj ^153 jlJl jj^ >Ja.oJlj j-s^-*'' j^Ji 15^ aJsJ.^1 
jIjlS jkj aJU aJj ^)I Ia;-jC3 O-rJ"^" **^>!?:' 0^ *--"^ ^O-* ^ AjU^Ju-o^ 

,^>*JLj3 dj^-j A.i«» i5*3''J **!^'5^' »J*^ ,^L;»M j^Xt Iv^—S A. : J a l.,. ) l 

j^^ aII^^j ^j>^JJI •irj.iJI A^t djju ^^5^ a;....! ^ > A; .>rf3 A..>^iA. (j^ 

_i d^jt AjLsi l^ f'io^ JJ^^ <^ol ^^ j^<Jt .X^^t^ A^a>t ,J>«A>jJljt.«£ ^t*^^^ 
Lc^-ai-j a;^ j^'^i'3 O'y*'' S^^iLJ U^tjk^ «iiX)3 «««3 a^^Ij j^^^aaJI A!lfl». 

^•N)l 4JJI ,ija 

1 for Slij. 2 for aj^. 

3 ^? 4 for JJDI. 


(From No. 235) 
i«*^jl ^U «3-o-»>3 Wvs^ ^;»X43 9.i\^\^ ^IL« «.,...saJc4 ^(9 LZa^o jUcii 




(From No. 236) 
j--£» UJ (J^**^ O'j ^i3'«nrw') ^) lyiU j3J*-»iJ' ^^-^^J*!^' ;»-**^' ^J-^- y-^ 

cj^i V>^ '^-OAJl jJ.Ji J'-si-'l rtA^Jl j^a-jiO.5 j,^^) AJ^Aite. j^ /J-J-*^ *J>*~" 

j~X. A^t JaUj JJ3 ^>U .iU-oJI ^31 J^jl ^U^ JJ3 j^Xt j.^\ O'j 
»-**=^ ^ffv^ J^* jX-.aJ! j-.»-' (^>W JUUJI jj*-^ «^J^-UJ' A-^ '•r-'^i *V>a*J' 
,.;~jN) j««fit Jj>.j ^-U Jji-i Jji.ljJt aJaiJl^ 2 j^jj^| i^^^^^ ^^ j,j^, ^^J^ 

A*9 tjkAJJUe O'^^ O^ p.ww AjJiJt ^ a) l^ld JmoJI ^J^UJI A«AjlZJt 

1 for ^k8i>.->. 2 for juju«;j|? 3 for j^j^aaJl£?. 


(No. 241) 
Jufrflh^ aJ J^^aj J^^^ >*ib' A3l^*fc.t i^ljl (jli OiLX*^ L5<*^J S j :fc,. t .. ) l .iUj 

vi^ A^l Jk»-^ >Xa...^i j^ yk5 «ple?.J o'>«?- w^ji aJJLaJ dj^lj A^ajUJI 
Ulirf ^\yaJ\ ^^ 0_^>;s jL^iw-o JiAJ C^o- L^j'j^J W <*J CJU3 A*^ jjU. 
AJ I^AA-ii dJoU^ ^.5-^*-''*^ J^s,^ ^^a^' >*^ *^^ "^^ J^- J*^ '^•'^ 

1 for i'^)^\ . 

M. S. II 21 


»^b'^j tr*^^ *>*t'j'3 A-JsJLaJl iyu li^ C>!^jl ^*^ J^J l^''^-* *^jl 
u' J:>*3 15^ >*!/**- ^jJ^ O^^ ,,_5^>'>»'vO^'-o 4j JUi ,^3j *«t'j'j 

o^L. r^^fs^ j^i w...a..& ^--iJI JJi:5 Ujjjj o*^-** *iU-oJt ^^jli A*i 
^^1 jk--; ^^iL» ly^^ «iU-oJI ^>^ ;^— ^' *y>* *3^ 15' 'W- W^ iUJi jb 

S^jjJl |«i ?i5^ di'iljtj ^^W-jJ^ dJl^^l^ d-«U jL**«aJI (^ji j-)t ojJtj^oj^S 

^«:::a»li ^1UJI Jlij aj^j J^li JiJi j^ <U3I jUa^t ^ JU3 JiLJI 
^1 ^c-Ay-j J-j^ix JjJa<>JI J^5 «iUJC — dj J15 ^"iLJI « j-AsiJI ,^*-JU 

<UjbLw dAiJ lAjMh-^ «ila>.i«ai gJt (Jl l^M«i ]>^J3 l^a».»i 0«Xa-33 Ajt jL~i O^Jj 
j>JC«-JU ^'sl.aiJI iaij aJsaj ^I aJLJ?^ ji^jj^\j d-oAtt^ j'-^ L^iW -iJUlJJ 

Uj^jbJ! jljjl ^«.«i». AJatI aJ JlSj 4j 4J3J w>l». «sU^t (jli i3j>U cj-ii^tj 

«;i«A^i ^%^yc %^yc^ \jliM C,jJL^\^ ^dLUiJt AXAJ ^Lt <x3 JI33 4j U^JkA-^ 

^lij^ ^e'l^Ljl 4^Jx j^cukJI ,,.r>i^^* >Xa.,«.i»JI l^J <!;.& oAJt •c'<^J ^"^^ O' vO^ 

Aj C-aajI^ Jj'ilt iL^I aJI 00^3 jUa.5*9l j-w ,j-« J^J^' *!iJ' C»Jw3 
^-^-t!Ji' >>' ^*^1 O^ *^' ^*> -;>*-^l 'i'Ufc.'^! ,J>^ ouic Jk**-! 0~«-*5 cH^' 

4JUJI ai-iUJI jULJJI i^)3t3 0^ ^U! uVJ^ y\» ,^^*>J' i^*^' O^' 
«>J3 yX o ^fc .^^ A^' j-0* ^1*^1 O-t* j ^'^ ^l i^^**-*3 L5JJ^-5 O^-fr*'^ Ji.o-a> - < 
*: ur-iJj < jiJo 15'VJ 'i^'^ laJUtf O^J *^^*-' ^o--^' '>j' /^^*^' 

iforj^i^l. 2 for jL^Ua^. SforiJl^. 

* for-iio.. 5 for ^lfl.? 6 ^g/^. 

' for «jx. 


^JJlJi\ A*iAJI jjl».j«,rf ^JJ jjj^ J^Jo a^aaJI OjJ^ i».l». iUiJ ^)l w-^i^ 
j.aS».ateJl t»ijL« ly».^JJ ^^Ij <l..^^ OUJI i^J^ dJ^ J^ci'^ J"*^*^' y<r;*'j-^'j 

Wi'i' j j_$ 4J»etc dJI^I ^J j\ij^\ ^^ J>-» ^ .^ lyC^^Jj <l^l^^ J-0^ «*«^ I )J^ 

1 for Sj^. 


(From No. 255) 
UjjkS <ijUXaJt ^».1^ jfjJt ^ <ii ^^^3 '*^^ <^^Ji "^^^^t oLci»>j 

1 for J5--J- ^ for J-«Jt. 




The full work of which a precis and part translation^ follows contains 
about forty pages of Arabic MS. It was written so recently as 191 1 
by Daud Kubara ibn Sulayman, a Berberi of Haifa, and is a medley 
of history and tradition. Much of it relates to such irrelevant facts 
as the names of village sheikhs and the kinds of vegetables grown in 
different parts. The account given of the intestine troubles of Nubia 
in the eighteenth century is of some interest, and the record of what 
is presumably the traditional belief of the people as to the origin of 
the Nubian race is of distinct value. 

I The author of the work is Daud Kubara ibn Sulayman of Haifa 

II In his prefatory remarks he states that, being moved by enthusiasm 
to learn the history of Nubia, he consulted "the learned men of the 
Nubians (^*-j^I) and the Turks whose ages were about a hundred 
years and more " on the subject, and from their statements compiled 
this work, which he calls " The Precious Pearls of Useful Know- 
ledge^' or 'M Compendium of the History and Geography of EL 
XTba (ij^JI), and the Reasons of the Coming of the Turks in 
the Time of the Sultan Selim I and in the Time of Muhammad 'AH 
Pasha, the Founder of the Khedivial Dynasty, until the Present 

III The opening remarks are an eulogy of the ancient glories of the 
Nubians (iuyJl), with special reference to "the city of Barkal, the 
first capital of the Nubians (^c-oyJt)," and "the city of Donkola 
el 'Aguz, the seat of the power of King Donkol," and el Khandak, 
and Arko, and Sai, and Wadi Haifa, and " Faras, which was the capital 
of the famous kingdom of King Kaykalan," and Ibrim. 

IV The work proper now begins, and the first chapter is headed 
"The Capital of the Kingdom of the Nuba," and straightway pro- 
ceeds as follows: 

" Its capital was Gebel 'Abd el Hadi, which lies between Dongola 

* .So much as is a prdcis is given in small type. Actual quotation only (in inverted 
commas) is in ordinary type. 


and Kordofan, and various other hills. Now the cities and hills of 
the Nubians were dense with troops and horsemen, and when their 
power had become firmly established in the Sudan a great army was 
assembled, under the leadership of King Tahrak and of Sebakh the 
King of Abyssinia, to make war on the kingdom of Egypt; and after 
much fighting and great slaughter Egypt was conquered.". . ."Then 
the Assyrians conquered Egypt as far as the first cataract, that is the 
Sudan cataract, after ejecting the armies of the Nubians {^j^)^\) 
and the Abyssinians.". . .The Egyptians then recovered their power 
and not only expelled the Abyssinians but overran "the lands of the 
Nuba (aj^I) and the Sudan, and set up mighty monuments." 

V Subsequently the Romans conquered Egypt and "the land of the 
Nuba" (ij^l). Then followed a period of dire oppression, and the 
people were reduced to extremities when the torch of Islam was first 

VI Egypt was conquered in the Khalifate of 'Omar ibn el Khattab by 
'Amr ibn el 'Asi, and its people, excepting a few Jews and Copts, 
were converted. 

The armies of the Muhammadans also penetrated "to the furthest 
limits of the land of the Nuba, to Dabat el Dolib and the hills of the 
Nuba," and left garrisons there to keep the peace. 

VII "Finally the civil war between the Beni Ommayya and the 
Beni Hashim broke out in the Hegaz; and when they considered 
the armies which had settled in the land of the Nuba, they took up 
their abode there and mingled with the Nubians, and took their 
women to wife, and intermarried with them, and made the land of 
the NCba their home, and dwelt in complete concord with the 
Nubians : and this is the sole reason of the presence [in the Sudan] 
of the AsHRAF and Arabs of the Hegaz ; and in the course of time they 
multiplied and formed a great proportion of the inhabitants of the 
country of the Nuba." 

VIII This chapter, the second, is in praise of the Nubian character, its 
nobility, piety and courage. 

IX We are now told that the powder in Egypt passed from hand to hand 
until the time of "Toman Bai, the last of the Gerakisa dynasty," 
when the 'Othmania Turks prepared to invade the country; and a long 
description is given of the means whereby the Sultan Selim finally over- 
came Toman Bai on January 22nd, 1517A.D., and conquered Egypt and 
founded a dynasty which remained in power for some 139 years. 

X Selim gradually extended his conquests up the river till he reached 
Haifa, and there "he imposed a tax on the water-wheels and the 
palms, payable in cash and cloth and produce, and made the seat of 
his power the city of Aswan and Ibrim." 


XI Subsequently "Hamam Abu Yusef el Sa'idi, the chief of the 
tribe of the Howara revolted [sc. against the Mamluk rule] and 
became Sultan of Upper Egypt and part of the Nuba country as far 
as Wadi Haifa, and these parts became subject to him. It was part 
of this man's policy to sell the right of ruHng the lands of the Nuba to 
anyone who wanted it for fixed sums ; and this system continued for 
a long time, and as a result it caused greedy competition between the 
various Turks, that is the Kdshifs. On this account the tribes of 
I brim formed an alHance, viz. the Ibramab^ and the Magrab and 
Agha Husayn and the Sakrab (?) and the Kikhiab and the Tubashia 
and the Hamdunab and the Karaiab, with a view to making war on 
four other tribes, viz. the Daudab and the Dababia and the Man- 
DULAB and the Azrihan (?). 

XII And when these four tribes saw that they could not compete 
with their foes at Ibrim, they moved to the vicinity of el Derr, which 
lies ten miles to the south of Ibrim, and made their preparations 
there for carrying on the conflict; but before fighting actually took 
place a settlement was arranged between the parties by the mediation 
of the learned and sensible elders among the Nubians on the following 
conditions : the tribes of Ibrim who had settled at Ibrim were to be 
allotted six places to rule, viz. Ibrim and 'Aniba and Ganiba and 
Masmas and Tushki East and Tushki West ; and the four tribes were 
to take fifteen places, viz. Armana and Farayk and Balana and Kustal 
and Arnadan and Faras and Faras Island and Sarra East and Sarra 
West and Dabayra and Ashkit and Arkayn and Dabarusa and Ankash 
and Haifa Deghaym. Thus the settlement was efi'ected, and this state 
of aff"airs continued for a long time without any tribe encroaching on 

XIII And the Kdshifs coalesced with the Nubians by intermarriage 
until it came to pass that most of the tribes of Kdshifs were descended 
from Nuba mothers; and thus the Kdshifs became partners of 
the Nubians in their possessions, and the tribes became closely 
connected for the preservation of order, and lived together in 

XIV Finally there arose two persons, one from the tribe of the 
Mandulab, and the other from the Daudab, and went to King 
Hamam Abu Yusef, the King of Upper Egypt {el Sa'id), and gave 
him many presents with a view to obtaining from him appointments 
as rulers of the part of Nubia lying between the first and the second 
cataracts, i.e. from Wadi Haifa to the cataract of Aswan, for one year. 

^ reading w>L«l^l for ^Lo\jj\. 


This appointment he granted to them for the period of one year; 
and on their arrival at Derr they appointed employees and assistants 
for their rule, and started from Derr for Wadi Haifa to collect the 
taxes. But when they reached the neighbourhood of Ferayk they 
fell to disputing as to which of them was chief, and the two of them 
remained there, each enrolling the names of his fellow tribesmen. 
Then the two tribes met there, and a great fight took place, and the 
army of the Mandulab was defeated. 

XV After this an alliance was formed between the Mandulab and 
the AsHRAF, i.e. the Dababia, and the Azri'han, against the Daudab, 
and there was war between them for a long space, and all the chief- 
tains and horsemen of both parties were slain. . . ." 

XVI The author then gives the names of the Kdshifs who were the 
heads of the four tribes mentioned, and the names of certain of their 
descendants, and the places where the latter severally reside at present. 

XVII The next chapter deals very briefly indeed with the career of 
Muhammad 'Ali Pasha and his successors up to 1882 a.d. Nothing of 
interest is recorded. 

XVIII This chapter mentions by name those whom the author considers 
to be the most learned or noteworthy personages of the present generation 
in Nubia. The list contains thirty-one names, chiefly of Kadis, Sheikhs 
and Dervish amirs. 

XIX Following the above is the heading ^'Learned Men" but our 
author states there is not room to include a list of these, but " I pray 
Almighty God," says he, " that our Government may see fit to educate 
our sons, for the children of to-day are the men of the future." 

XX The author now passes to the geography of Nubia. Its boundaries on 
the Nile are, he states, from the north of Aswan to Dabat el Dolib on the 
northern frontier of the ShAi'kia country, *' not counting the hills of the 
Nuba lying between Dongola and Kordofan, and the hills of the 
Zing Nuba in southern Kordofan." 

XXI He next proceeds to mention all the places of interest in Nubia, 
dividing the country for this purpose into a series of districts and taking 
them one by one from north to south. 

The first ten districts are on the river : the tenth reaches on the south to 
"Dabat el Dolib, near Old Dongola." 

The eleventh district comprises "the hills of the Nuba between 
Dongola and Kordofan." 

The twelfth comprises "the hills of the Zing Nuba in southern 

The thirteenth is Gebel Barkal. 

XXII These thirteen districts are then subdivided into smaller areas, 
generally villages, and a few remarks are given concerning natural features 
or any point of interest. 


Under "Korosko," the alphabet of the local rotdtia, spoken from 
Korosko to Dar Mahass, is given : it is stated to be a mixture of Arabic, 
Turkish and Nuba, and is as follows : 

I' t ^^ XX y^ c> o f>\- Ro"''"'- 

C C t* [ . A Arabic. 



XXIII The eleventh district is not subdivided, but the author says of it 
"The Nuba hills lying betw^een Dongola and Kordofan are many in 
number, and in them are tribes innumerable. The best known of 
them is Gebel 'Abd el Hadi, the capital (io-oU) of the hills of the 
Nuba: its inliabitants are Nubians (^^*j^)." They cultivate, says 
the author, by raincrop, have considerable flocks and herds, and are iron- 
workers, and some of their women make pottery. 

XXIV Of the twelfth district (the hills of southern Kordofan) little is 
said. Gebels Tekali, el Daier, and Marra (which, by the way, is in 
Darfur) are mentioned, as also the fact that each gebel speaks a different 

XXV The work was completed on the 4th of Ramadan 1330 A.H. 
(191 1 A.D.), 


D 4 (NOTES) 

II The Arabic for the title is 

Ji^i" .^^ ^lJaJL-.3l Sju> ^ JljJ'^JI J>o-> vW-'b '•Ai'i^' *^^^^,^*s^^ 'i^^^' 

The words "Nuba" and "Nubian" are used by the author indiscrimin- 
ately to denote the people of what is known now, as in past times, as 
Nubia, as well as the inhabitants of the hills of northern Kordofan. He 
includes the mountaineers of south Kordofan (Nuba Mountains Province) 
in his category of Nubians or Nuba, but differentiates them as "Zing 
Nuba": see note to para. xx. 

III Barkal, or Napata, was the seat of the Nubian kingdom which is known 
to have risen to power between 600 and 700 B.C. Piankhi reigned about 
721 B.C. (see Breasted, pp. 367-8, and Budge, vol. ii, pp. 1-2). For the 
ruins at Barkal see Crowfoot {Arch. Survey of Nubia, XlXth Mem. p. 31). 

Donkola el 'Aguz ("Old Dongola") was the capital of northern Nubia 
for some 600 years: it took the place of Napata (see Budge, vol. 11, pp. 297, 

299. 372). 

Of "King Donkol" nothing is known. An older form of "Donkola' 
was "Domkola" {e.g. see Yakut, Geogr. iJlioi ly-***'' <*'!'3*'' a<;jjl^). 

Faras was "certainly one of the leading cities of Lower 'Nubia'" and 
should probably be identified with the mediaeval Begrash (see Egypt. Expl. 
Fund Report 1910-11, and Budge, vol. 11, p. 303). I can find no mention 
of "King Kaykalan." 

IV ''Its capital was. . . " is as follows in the Arabic: 

Gebel 'Abd el Hadi is Gebel el Haraza in northern Kordofan. 'Abd 
el Hadi was the most famous of its chiefs, and was a Dolabi by race, i.e. 
by origin a Rikabi from Dongola. Pallme met him in 1838 (see Pallme, • 
pp. 96 and 240, and MacMichael, Tribes..., pp. 93,94). Cp. Cuny(p. 138), 
^'Le Djebel Haraza, ou Djebel Abd-el-Kadi" [misprint for Hadi], "du 
nom de son chef recemment decede" (1857). Cp. also Riippell, p. 125. 

The word a^-eU. here translated "capital" must mean the ancient 
headquarters, if not the cradle of the race, as distinct from its more obvious 
meaning of "capital" in para, xxiii. 

The suggestion that el Haraza was once the headquarters of the present 
Nubian stock is extremely interesting and significant. If one re-read in 
the light of this passage the well-known quotation given by Quatre- 
mere anent the expedition of Kalaun against King Any {q.v. in vol. i, 


p. 185), it at once seems probable that, when Any fled away to the " 'Anag 
country" across a desert waste, it was at el Haraza, as would be natural, 
that he sought refuge. Traditions of the 'Anag as being the ancient inhabi- 
tants of el Haraza are universal and there is no doubt whatever that from 
an early period there was intercourse between the riverain "Nubians" 
and the settlers in the western hills. I incline to think that this intercourse 
is far older than has been supposed, and there is no reason why it should 
not date back at least to the seventh century B.C. It is of course more 
probable that emigrants from the river should have colonized el Haraza, 
Um Durrag, etc., than that the opposite process should have occurred, but 
it is often overlooked that there was in early times an enormous nomad 
population of Hamitic affinities, who roamed the inland country west of 
Dongola and the junction of the Niles, the "desert of Gorham" and the 
neighbourhood of el Haraza that is, and who were partly of Berber origin, 
and whom Marmol (vol. iii, ed. Perrot), in speaking of their wars with 
"the prince of Dongola," calls "ceux de Gorhan, qui est une espece 
d'Egyptiens qui courent par les deserts." 

The modern Nubian or Berberi may owe nearly as much from the 
genealogical point of view to these nomads as to their riverain congeners. 
(See vol. I, pp. 27 et seq.) 

"King Tahrak" is of course Taharka, "who flourished in the second 
quarter of the seventh century before Christ and was the second Sudani 
conqueror of Egypt" (see Budge, vol i, p. 482. Breasted gives his date as 
about 688-663 B.C.). 

By "Sebakh" may be meant Shabataka, the Ethiopian monarch who 
succeeded Shabaka about 700 B.C. Manetho calls him Sebichos and men- 
tions that he was killed by Taharka, who succeeded him (see Breasted, 
Hist. pp. 377-8). 

The Assyrian invasion by Esarhaddon was about 670 B.C. 
v The Nubians first had dealings with Romans about 30 B.C. when a 
prefecture was established in Egypt. From then for a period of 500 years 
the Blemyes and Nobatae {i.e. the Nubians) were more or less continu- 
ally in touch with them. 

VI 'Amr's conquest of Egypt was in 641 a.d. 

Dabat el Dolib, mentioned again in para, xxi, is immediately south of 
"Debba" {i.e. Daba), on the eighteenth degree of latitude. 

VII This is in agreement with the usual Sudanese tradition: the main 
♦ immigration to the Sudan of Abbasid tribes, as represented by the Ga'ali 

group, and of Ommayyad tribes, as represented by the Fung, is generally 
represented as contemporaneous with the civil war in the middle of the 
eighth century between the Abbasids and the Ommayyads in Asia. 

IX The date January 22nd, 15 17, is quite correct. Toman Bai was put 
to death by Sellm I (see Lane-Poole, History..., p. 354; and Muir, Mame- 
luke Dynasty..., Chaps, xx, xxi). 

"Gerakisa" is the same as Circassian. 

XI For Hamam and the period of Howara rule in Upper Egypt and 
Nubia see Burckhardt's Nubia, and Part HI, Chap. 8 above. 

The Howara had held considerable power since 1412 A.D., when they 

IV. D 4. XX. OF THE SUDAN 331 

took Aswan from the Beni Kanz, but the period of their greatest power 
was the eighteenth century, when, under Hamam, they "had assumed the 
whole government of Upper Egypt south of Siout and the Mamelukes had 
been obliged to cede it to them by treaty" (Burckhardt). 

The names of tribes mentioned in the latter part of the paragraph are 

XIII The Kdshifs were minor officials appointed by the Turks to 
administer villages or small groups of villages: they were nominally sub- 
ject to the Beys who were responsible for the larger provinces (see, e.g., 
Norden, Travels..., vol. i, pp. 58-62). 

XX Cp. para, 11 (note) for "Zing Nuba" (^.^jpl 5_jjJI), and D i, 

CLXXXii, Broadly speaking " Zing" seems generally to denote blacks whose 
original home was south, south-east and south-west, as distinct from the 
Nilotic negro proper. 


MANUSCRIPT D 5 (a, b, c and d) 


The following is a series of four translations. The Arabic text was 
sent by the native headmaster of Manakil school to an Inspector in 
the Education Department in 19 13 as being of some interest. They 
are referred to as («), {b), (c) and {d) respectively. The first {a) is 
evidently not copied from any original manuscript but is merely an 
oral tradition. It is headed simply "This is the history of the 'Ab- 
dullah. " 

The second {h) is a short note of eight lines about the Ara- 
KIIN, based, one would say, on some casual verbal information, 
and by no means accurate, but headed "This is copied from the 
7iisba of the Arakiyyun in possession of the Khalifa of the Ara- 
KiYYtJN, Sheikh Abdulla." 

The third (c) is headed "This was copied from the nisba in 
possession of el Ostadh el Sheikh Ali Muhammad, Imam of the 
mosque of el Manakil and educated there. He took it from the 
History of Dongola word for word (la^o^-ci^ iJLiJi f^j^ 0-* ^w^*-')-" 

To the end of para, xxvii may be, and probably is, an extract 
copied from a manuscript. The remainder is probably from oral 
tradition: it agrees in some points and differs in others from the 
account given by Nicholls {The Shaikiya), but from the latter it is 
obvious that there is no really authoritative version. 

The fourth id) is headed "This is copied from the tiisba of the 
RiKABiA in possession of el feki el Bashir ibn el feki Muhammad." 
It is merely a variant of the accounts given in BA and D i . 

D 5 («) 

The 'Abdulldb 

I Among the most famous and bravest of the tribes of the Sudan 
is the 'Abdullah. 

II This tribe used to rule from Hagar el 'Asal to the old kingdom 
of Kerri. They were viziers of the Fung. 


III Serious fighting occurred between them and the Sururab west 
of Halfaya el Muluk at a spot called nowadays Fasher el Sheikh 
'Agib el Hag, [that being the name of] the ancestor of the tribe. 

IV The cause of the fight was as follows : the Sururab attacked the 
'Abdullah at el Halfaya ; and in old days fighting was done only with 
swords and spears, and it was customary in warfare that the opposing 
armies should stand aside and the fighting be begun by the kings. They 
were followed by the viziers, and the latter by the rest of the armies. 

V In this particular engagement the Sheikhs of the 'Abdullah and 
the Sururab respectively came forth to battle, and the first to begin 
the fight were the Sheikh of the 'Abdullah and the king of the 
Sururab. Then the former stood up on his steed and said to the latter 
"Hit the leather" ("shew your strength"), and [the king of the 
Sururab] hurled at him a spear of the kind called by them el 
salatia so that it came out at his back. And when [the Sheikh of the 
'Abdullab] knew his end had come he drew his sword and smote 
the king of the Sururab with it, and they two both died. And the 
Sheikh of the 'Abdullab did not fall from his mare, though dead, and 
no one knew that he was dead till the end of the battle. And when 
the Sururab knew that their king was slain they fled in utter disorder, 
and complete victory rested with the 'Abdullab. 

VI One of their customs was that their chief man was liable to 
death at any time whatsoever, for if any one of the sons of his father's 
brother wished to slay him he would inform him of the fact and 
appoint a date for him ; and the chief would reply " yes " for fear that 
report should become current that he was afraid. So he prepares 
himself to meet the demand of his cousin and shaves his head and 
gets out his sword and places it in front of him and prostrates himself 
twice in prayer and seats himself to await [his cousin's] coming. Then 
his cousin arises and takes his sword and goes to find the king we 
have mentioned and orders the chamberlain to procure him per- 
mission [to enter] from the king. Then the chamberlain informs him 
by knocking at the door, and he gives [his cousin] leave to enter. The 
latter enters drawing his sword and stands behind the king, who is 
facing southwards, and strikes him on the neck without the king's 
saying so much as a word. Afterwards the great men [of the tribe] 
gather together and place the king's hat on his [sc. the slayer's] head 
and appoint him their ruler. Such were their customs of old. 


D 5 (a) NOTES 

rv The Sururab belong to the Ga'ali group of tribes, and are a branch 
of the Gamu'ia. 

M J 

V "Hit the leather. . .etc." is (»iij^5 ^\) jJ^\ Ji. 

VI "Chief man" is ,.^jj ("rais"); "sons of his father's brother" is 
<Uo-c l-;_»I, and "his cousin" A.^.e. ^.A; "chamberlain" is v--w».l-». 
("hagib"); "hat" is S^jjXs. 

It would appear that we have in this paragraph a reference to the well- 
known African cult of the Divine King, the belief that the king incarnates 
the divine spirit and that he should be periodically killed with a view to 
the appointment of a successor whose virility has not suffered from re- 
tention in an ageing body. The custom is practised by the Dinka and by 
the Shilluk, and the killing of the king is a matter of high ceremony and 
reverence. The same custom was held among the Fung at Sennar, where 
Bruce relates that " It is one of the singularities of this brutal people that the 
king ascends his throne under an admission that he may be lawfully put to 
death by his own subjects or slaves, if the great officers in council assembled 
decree that it is not for the advantage of the state that he should be suffered 
to reign any longer. There is one officer of his own family who alone can 
be the instrument of shedding the blood of his sovereign and kinsman . . . ." 
The officer was called the " SidelKum." The Fung were largely Shilluk 
by origin (see Westermann) and the 'Abdullab rose to power in alliance 
with the Fung : it is not therefore surprising to hear of a form of the belief 
in the Divine King as existing among the 'Abdullab. (For this subject see 
Seligman, Hamitic Problem..., pp. 664, 665, and vol. i, p. 50 above.) 

" Who is facing southwards" is iLilt ^JiLc ykj. 

The 'Arakiyyun 

I The pedigree of these tribes goes back to our lord el Husayn 
ibn 'Ali. Their ancestor was Muhammad Abu Idris el 'Araki son of 
Dafa'alla son of Ahmad. The tribe is connected by descent with the 
Badrab, whose Imams, Sheikh 'AbduUa el 'Araki and his brother 
Sheikh Muhammad, gave instruction to many folk. 

II Their number includes many holy men that visited the holy 
sanctuary and Medina . . . (among their holy men the following are 

(i) Sheikh 'Abdulla walad Husayn. 

(2) 'Ali walad Nafi'a. 

(3) His son Falih ibn 'Ah. 

(4) 'Abdulla walad el Kusayer). 


D 5 (b) NOTES 

I Cp. C 9 and D 3, Tree 9. From these it would appear that the informa- 
tion given is inaccurate. The biographies of Muhammad Abu Idris, of his 
father Dafa'alla, of 'Abdulla el 'Araki, and of Muhammad ibn Dafa'alla, 
are given in D 3 under Nos. 48, 86, 34, and 185 respectively. The BAdrab 
seem out of place here altogether. 

II None of these holy men occur in D 3 : they would seem to have lived 
at a later date and to have been of negligible importance. 

The 'Abbdsia now living in the Sudan 

I The 'Abbas I A now living in the Sudan are descended from Salih 
surnamed "Subuh" and nicknamed "Abu Merkha." He was the 
first to come to the Sudan, [viz.] after the decay of the Beni 'Abbas 
and at the beginning of the 'Othmani dynasty, which are described 
by the historians in their works. He was a pious man, and the Sudan 
was honoured by his presence in it as the lands of Irak had been 
honoured by the presence of his ancestors. 

II The vulgar saying of the people of the Sudan that Subuh Abu 
Merkha was a foolish man who used to wipe himself upon merakh 
bushes is nonsense, and unpardonable in the sight of God : possibly 
it may be due to the Nuba on account of their enmity to his descend- 
ants, who conquered them, 

III He was son of Muhammad el Mutawakkil 'ala Alia son of 
Ya'akub son of 'Abd el 'Aziz el Khalifa el Mutawakkil 'ala Alia, the 
last of the 'Abbasid Khalifas. This 'Abd el 'Aziz was son of Ya'akub 
son of Ga'afir el Mutawakkil 'ala Alia. The last named was killed by 
the Tartars, and at his death Baghdad was sacked, and then the power 
of the 'Abbasid dynasty waned and gradually disappeared like all 
other dynasties: glory be to God. Ga'afir was son of Harun el 
Wathik son of el Mu'tasam son of the Commander of the Faithful 
Harun el Rashid son of el Mahdi son of Abu Ga'afir el Mansur son 
of Muhammad son of 'Ali son of 'Abdulla the ancestor of the nation, 
the translator of the Kuran, son of our lord el 'Abbas the uncle of 
the Prophet , . . . 


The Tribes of the Hasandb 

IV These tribes are descended from Hasan son of Zayn el Din son 
of '(3n son of Shaik. Hasan was the youngest son of Zayn el Din 
son of '(3n, and his mother was Fatima daughter of Sheikh Hasan, 
the Sheikh of the HasanIa ; and he was called after his grandfather. 

V When Zayn el Din died and his son Hasan was grown up he 
came to his brothers and his first cousins on the father's side and 
desired them to give him some of the properties and lands of his 
father, which were in their possession; and they refused because 
[though ?] he was their brother, the son of their father, and the 
[cultivable] lands of the Shaikia consisted of only a very narrow 
strip of shelving river bank; and at that time the river bank was 
where at the present day runs the road known as Darb el Sultan. 

VI And when he saw their unwillingness he went away and devised 
a scheme, and said to them "We will meet, if it please God, on 
horseback." And they laughed at him and said " By whose aid will 
you do it, considering that we are your first cousins ?" 

VII Now at that time the strong among them used to prey upon the 
weak, and looting was rife; and the sons of 'On ibn Shaik lived at 
Korti West and thereabouts. Then Hasan went and married a wife 
in the country of his brothers and she bore him four sons and one 

VIII One of the sons he called Fahd ("Leopard"), another Sima'a 
("Wolf-hyaena"), a third Hanid (?), and a fourth Durban ("Porcu- 
pine") after the names of beasts and birds of prey, his intention being 
that they should thereby affright their foes, as was the custom of 
KuRAYSH. And his daughter he named Makash (?). 

IX And he taught his sons to ride on horseback, to fight with the 
sword, to use the spear and to shoot with arrows; and when they had 
attained the proficiency in warfare that he desired he collected them 
and his daughter and made them swear that never would they be 
taken prisoners but would rather fight until all died or all were vic- 
torious. Especially upon his daughter did he enjoin that she should 
fight until she died and not let her cousins capture her to marry her, 
and she acquiesced. 

Then they prepared themselves for death and attacked their 
cousins and slew many of them ; and after this they crossed the river 
at the ford of el Karafab on the east bank, and Hasan ibn Zayn el Din 
swore an oath that their horses should not be unsaddled until he 
found a country for his children to inhabit whether [other folk] liked 
it or no, or else had all been killed. 


X And when they reached the Wadi el Mahfur there met him the 
sons of his [great-] uncle, that is the sons of el Hag Muhammad the 
brother of 'On, and they greeted him and were overjoyed, for they 
desired his aid against their foes and to secure that he and they should 
be as one single hand against all others. 

XI And they said to him "The lands that contain us will contain 
you." He replied "What will contain me and my sons will only be 
the distance that contains me on my horse." They said "That shall 
be so " ; and he galloped his horse from the landing-place of the village 
of el Hag Muhammad to the landing-place of Shilluk, now known as 
" Taraf Bakarish," and again from this to the landing-place of Kubbat 
el Sheikh el Nuwabi. 

XII Then he set up a stone as boundary between himself and the 
lands of the king of the Baza, king 'Akil, the master of Kardafil (sic), 
and this stone is called ''el Shaykhun" and is still standing in the 
middle of the road. 

Now this road was then the river frontage, and the site [of the 
stone] was the [summit of the] shelving bank, which was stony and 
of little value. 

XIII So Hasan and his sons became entirely separated from all 
intercourse with their cousins, the stock of '(3n ibn Shai'k, the Kanu- 
DAB and the 'Amrab, and became united in life and in death with the 
children of their [great-] uncle el Hag Muhammad. 

XIV This is the story of Hasan ibn Zayn el Din and what happened 
between him and his cousins the '(3nia in the year in which died the 
king of the Baza, namely the year 900^. 

XV And the above is taken [J^*^] from the History of Old 
Dongola {'' Donkola el 'Aguz"). But the Nuba and the Baza did not 
know the [true] date and took their reckoning from the years in 
which their famous men died. 

The Tribes living in the Shdikia Country 

XVI The tribes living in the Shaikia country are of various races. 
The greater part of them are Nuba, and these live in certain definite 
places, some of them at el Kadir and Massawi Island, and some in 
the vicinity of Nuri and el Belial and Kenana (as far as the limits of 
el Dakait), and others at el Kasingar and its vicinity eastwards and 
westwards, and [the] islands. These are the habitations of the Nuba. 

XVII Another of the tribes among the Shaikia is the Baza, who 

live near el Zoma. 

1 1498 A J>. 

338 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv.ds. xviii. 

XVIII Another is the 'Irakab, who live at el Nuri. Their ancestor, 
el 'Iraki, came from el 'Irak, and it is said they are Ashraf, and God 
knows best; but people are to be believed as to their pedigrees and 
what good is apparent in them, for their progenitors were learned 
and pious men, as were also the Hammattuwiab. 

XIX Among the Shaikia too are the Dwayhia. Their ancestor was 
DwAYH, of the stock of el Ghulam el Rikabi; and they and the 
RiKABiA have a common descent to our lord 'Okayl ibn Abu TaUb. 

XX Among the Shaikia too are the Terayfia, the inhabitants of 
el Ghariba and Korti and the neighbourhood. Their ancestor el 
Terayfi came from Darfur as a trader and settled in the country [of 
the Shaikia] and begot there his offspring. 

XXI Among the ShaIkia, again, are the Halanka, the inhabitants 
of Um Bakol. Their ancestor came from el Taka and settled here. 

XXII The Bedayri'a are of the stock of Abu Merkha, the ancestor 
of the 'Abbasia, Shaikia and others, and every genealogical record 
mentions them. 

XXIII Living in the Shaikia country too are the Fellalit, the 
sons of Fellati. Their ancestor came from the Fellata country as a 
pilgrim, and settled near Uska on the west of the Shaikia country. 

XXIV Other tribes are the Shelufab and the Shirayshab, and the 
Takarir who live near el Ghazali and el Duaym, west of Merawi. 

XXV The ancestor [of these Takarir] came from Hausaland and 
settled in the country [of the Shaikia] and mingled with the people 
of the land and adopted their habits {^trviH '>:!>•')' ^^^ their 
complexions changed from very black to brown (samra) by reason of 
intermarriage {lit. "women"). 

XXVI The remnants of all tribes we have mentioned are still occupy- 
ing these regions, excepting the tribe of Fung. These latter have dis- 
appeared and left no trace excepting the sons of their daughters, the 
'Adlanab\ the sons of Muhammad "the younger" {el sughayr) son 
of Shaik. 

XXVII The kings of the Fung were bold and cunning, oppressive 
and unjust, and when the Shaikia came and established their power 
the authority of the Fung was dispersed, their kingdom brought to 
nought and their rule destroyed, and they and their progeny went 
away altogether by reason of the cry of the oppressed. . .(there follow 
a few pious reflections).. . . 

XXVIII The above is what I have found and copied and heard, and 
God knows best the truth, and to Him do all men return. 

^ reading w>lJ*N)jk* for w>UJjlc . 

IV. D5. xxxvr. OF THE SUDAN 339 

XXIX The 'On who was mentioned above was '6n son of Shaik, 
and he had three sons, Zayn el Din and Kanud (Katud ?) and 'Amr, 
[whose descendants were] surnamed KanOdab (Katudab?) and 
'Amrab and ZayneldInab and Hasanab ; and the best known tribal 
names are '6nia and Hasanab. 

XXX Such descendants of el Hag Muhammad ibn Shaik, '6n's full- 
brother, as are to be found to-day are the stock of Yusef, Manatab 
and Kutab and Mahmudab : these were the sons of his own begetting. 
But the allies (^'3-oJO who are mixed with them are for the most 
part SowAKiRA and Shellalil and others. 

XXXI The mother of Sowar ibn Shaik was one of the Tungur of 
Darfur. He had no full-brother. He had six sons, Hamdulla and 
Tamalayk and Nimr and 'Aid and Wasif and Gadat. 

XXXII The sons of Hamdulla are 'Akudab and Aminab, of Tama- 
layk Tamalayk, of Nimr 'Anaynab and Hamartudab, of 'Aid 
'AiDAB, and of Wasif Zilaytab. 

XXXIII The sons of Muhammad Kadunk^ ibn Shaik are the 
Kadunkab^, and these fall into three divisions, Banadika, SubhAb 
and 'Aynab (?)^. 

The PL\DUNKAB^ used to be the most numerous of the Shaikia, 
but they were continually intermarrying [with others], like every 
[other] tribe with a few rare exceptions. 

XXXIV Muhammad "the younger" ibn Shaik was full-brother of 
Muhammad Kadunk^, and was ancestor of the 'Adlanab, but the 
ancestresses of this section were all daughters of the Fung, for they 
lived close to the latter at Merawi. And they acquired the charac- 
teristics of the Fung; for the latter in those days were the ruling 
power and gave to the 'Adlanab a share of their dominion as 
being the children of their daughters. Thus you see the 'Adlanab 
have lost their brown complexion and their natural love of the 
open air. 

XXXV Howwash ibn Shaik had no full-brother. He was ancestor 
of the Howwashab, and the ancestresses of these were nomad Arabs. 
They used to marry whatever they found, good or bad, among the 
races of mankind, and in consequence their natures are invariably 

XXXVI Nafa'a ibn Shaik was ancestor of the Nafa'ab. He had no 

1 reading ^^J^S=> for JjU^s . ^ reading ^{ajj^ for ^\>sjj^ . 

^ reading w>U->c for w^W^. * reading wjUjjl^s for >^\sjj£s . 

5 reading ^JJ>^ for JiJ j^ . 

340 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. d 5. xxxvii. 

XXXVII Salim ibn Shaik had four sons, Khalid and Serayh and 
Ya'akub and Rashid. 

XXXVIII Khalid's descendants are the Khalidab, Serayh's the 
Serayhab, Ya'akub's the Ya'akubab, and Rashid's the Rishaydab. 

D 5 (c) NOTES 

i-iii The author's knowledge of history is so hopeless that it is not easy 
to guess at the date at which it is suggested that Subuh immigrated to the 

From Harun el Wathik to el 'Abbas the generations are correct; but 
Ga'afir was Harun's brother, not his son. Ga'afir ruled from 847 to 861 a.d. 
and was not killed by "the Tartars" at all. The author seems to have 
gloriously confused the Saljuk Turks, the Mongols or Tartars, and the 
Ottoman Turks. 

The last of the 'Abbasids, 'AbduUa el Musta'sim was killed by Hulagu 
the Mongol in 1258 and the sack of Baghdad followed; but no less than 
twenty-six Khalifas ruled, at least nominally, for a total period of nearly 
400 years, at Baghdad, between the death of Ga'afir el Mutawakkil and the 
accession of 'Abdulla el Musta'sim. 

The probability is that the author means to suggest that Subuh came 
to the Sudan about the middle of the thirteenth century, Cp. ABC, xxii, 
where Ghanim, Subuh 's grandson, is spoken of as being the first immigrant, 
i.e. in 1277 a.d. 

" Merakh" is Leptadenia Spartiutn, a switch-like shrub without leaves. 
IV The connection of the Hasanab with the rest of the SnAiKfA, accord- 
ing to the version given by the author of D 5 (c) in the following paragraphs, 
if given in the form of a genealogical tree, would be as follows : 


,1 J I I I 

'On Nafa'a el Hag Sowar (by a Muhammad the younger 

{'Onia) (Ndfa'db) Muhammad Tungur woman) ('Adldndb) 

^ \ III I I 

Zayn el Dfn Kanud 'Amr Hamdulla Tamalayk Nimr 

{Zayneldindb) {Kanuddb) {'Amrdb) \'Akuddb (Tamdlayk) ['Anayndb 

,. ^ , (Amindb (Hamartuddb 

(Hasandb) \ \ 

Gadat Wasif 'Aid 

^11 I I (Zilaytdb) VAiddb) 

Fahd Sima'a Hanfd (?) Durban Makdsh (?) K.^^y."") K^ ) 

I I 1 

Howwash Sdlim Muhammad Kadunk 
(flotvivashdb) I {Kadunkdb) 

I \ \ 1 

Khilid Serayh Ya'akub Rashid 

{Khdliddb) (Serayhdb) (Ya'akubdb) (Rishayddb) 


VIII "Simula" («,««»*j) is a mongrel beast, the offspring of the wolf 
begotten from the hyaena (so Lane's Dictionary). 

The meaning of '' Hanid" if that be the true reading, is unknown: the 
same applies to " Makdsli." 

IX For other mentions of this participation of Shaiki'a women in battle 
see Cailliaud (Chap, xxv) and NichoUs, pp. 10, 21 and 31. 

XI The custom of granting a man as much land as he could gallop round 
is said to have been not uncommon. 

XII Baza (or Basa) lies east of KabOshia. The name is an old one : see 
Quatremere, who, quoting a mediaeval Arab historian, speaks of the king 
of "the Gates" [i.e. Kabushia] and "the Princes of Barah (Bazah), 
el Takah. . .etc.": this in 1286 a.d. See vol. i, p. 183 and cp. D 6, xli. 

XVIII See C 8, xxxii (note) for 'IrakAb. 
"People are to be believed. . ." is 

For this cp. AB, xxvi and BA, xv and D 6, XL. 

The Hammattuwiab or Hammadtuwiab are the descendants of 
Hammadtu, for whom see D 3, 21 and 158. 

XIX By "Ghuldm'' I presume GhulamuUa ibn 'Aid is meant. Cp. 
Nicholls, p. 39. 

XX Cp. Nicholls, p. 19. 

XXIV In Nicholls (Appendix 11) the Shelufab and Shirayshab are given 
as being themselves Shaiki'a. 
xxvii Cp. Nicholls, Chap. 11. 

XXX " SowAkira " is the plural of " sokari" a word used on the river 
for the village watchman who is chosen by the villagers to take charge of 
stray goats, etc., that are found damaging their cultivation. He is, in return, 
paid so much a head by the owner for each animal so impounded. 

" ShellAlIl" are inhabitants of the cataracts {"shelldl"). 

XXXI Cp. Nicholls, p. 50. The descendants of Sowar are generally known 
as SowArab. 

XXXII "HamARTUDAb'' (^^^yj..^^ may possibly be an error for 
" HamMADTUWiAb" (w>l;>JJs^». or wib^I^,^), q.v. para, xviii. 

XXXIII In the mme^KADUNKAB'' or "■KandukAb " we probably have, 
not a mere misprint, but an instance of the very common Sudanese- Arabic 
habit of inverting syllables. Similar examples are '"AdnAlAb" often 
used for "'AdlAnAb," "istibdlia" for " ishitdlta" (a hospital), "goz" for 
"zog" (a husband), " lahbat" and "kalbat" (to mix up), etc. 

XXXIV Others give the 'AdlAnAb a Kanzi origin (see Appendix to ABC). 


The Tribes of the Rikdbia 

I The ancestor of these tribes was Sheikh Ghulamulla. He was 
born on an island called Nowawa after his father had come from the 
land of Yemen. 

II He begot two sons on one of the islands of the Red Sea, called 
Si'akia, and thence he proceeded with them to the land of Dongola, 
which, when he arrived there, was utterly sunk in error owing to the 
lack of learned men. When he arrived there he built a mosque and 
taught the Kuran and the sciences. 

III Now his two sons were Rikab and Rubat. 

IV Rikab had five sons, 'Abdulla, 'Abd el Nebi, Habib, 'Agib and 
Zayd el Ferid. 

V Rubat had six sons, Ruzayn, Dahmash, Muhammad '(3n, 'Abd 
el Razik, Misbah and Hazlul. 

VI Ruzayn's descendants were [the family of] Habib Munesi ; and 
Dahmash's were [those of] the feki 'Ali Manofali at Dongola. 

VII Muhammad '6n begot the Awlad Gabir, the great men of 

VIII The descendants of 'Abd el Razik were [the family of] 
Sheikh Hasan walad Belil at el Kenara. 

IX The sons of Misbah are among the Kababish and consist of 
many subdivisions. 

X The descendants of Hazlul are at el Haraza. 

XI The sons of 'Abd el Nebi were 'Abd el Sadik, ancestor of the 
Sadikab, and Shakara, the ancestor of Hasan walad Shakara at 

The descendants of Habib are the people of el Sababi. 

XII The descendants of 'Agib are {sic) Sheikh Muhammad walad 
Abu Halima. 

XIII The descendants of Zayd el Ferid are {sic) Walad Hag Magid. 

XIV Hag Magid's descendants are the Bahigab and the 'Akizab. 

D 5 {d) NOTE 

For the whole of this extract cp. BA, CLXXix et seq. to ccviii ; D i, xcii 
and CIV ei seq. 




This work was written in i860, almost certainly by a certain Ahmad 
ibn el feki Ma'aruf. From internal evidence one would say that he 
was a Fadni. 

He devotes much space to the Fadn^a, who are not a very im- 
portant tribe, and is obviously anxious to glorify their origin and 

It is also clear that the author wrote from the north-eastern Sudan. 
His explanation of the word " Ga'ali" (para, xi) is the one that could 
only be current in the north, and he speaks (para, xii) of the Kawahla 
as a southern tribe. That he did not live on the river is suggested 
(a) by his vagueness as to Dongola and Berber (paras, lix and lx), 
and (b) by his interest in and knowledge of the tribes of nomads living 
between the Nile at Kabushia and the Abyssinian frontier. As 
regards the sources of the information given, it is obvious that they 
are much the same as those of A 11 and A 2, and that we have here 
another of the " Samarkandi" group of nisbas; but though the open- 
ing paragraphs are apparently copied almost word for word, the 
author soon breaks away and gives various details drawn, in all 
probability, from purely oral sources. 

The actual manuscript translated, which consists of seven folios, 
is frayed and stained and may well be the original text of i860. It 
came into the possession of the Education Department of the Sudan 
Government in 1913 ,but in what manner or from what direction is not 
known. The Arabic is indifferent and the style loose and disconnected. 

I In the name of God .... 

II I have composed this essay to explain the origins of the Arabs 
each in their turn to whoso wishes to know them. 

III I say, and God is my help, that I have heard from our lord Abu 
Sulayman el 'Iraki and Abu Mahmud el Samarkandi that they heard 
our Sheikh Abu Sulayman el Bahrani say in some of his retreats 
{i.e. schools, "khalwdt") "We have undertaken a mighty task. Verily 
pedigrees have fallen into confusion. What hero will take them in 
hand that the Sherif may be known from the pretended SherifV 
Then he would correct himself and say "But to contradict one who 
calls himself a Sherif is a large and difficult matter and a pure heart 


cannot encompass it, for men are of different classes: some are 
modest. . . " (several lines, showing the difficulties to be encountered owing 
to men's different characters and motives, follow). 

IV I must now return to my subject, namely the mention of the 
Arab tribes that are occupying the land of the Sudan — in our day 
that is; and God knows best what the future may be. 

V The first of them to be mentioned is the family of the noble 
Sherif el Sayyid Mahmud son of Muhammad son of Sulayman son 
of Ga'afir son of 'Abdulla, and his pedigree goes back to Muhammad 
ibn el Hanafia. 

They include numerous tribes, almost innumerable, known as 
the Fadnia, or, as they were originally called after the manner of 
Arabic, "the Fawadani." These include the family of Hasan ibn Ba 
Fadni ibn Muhammad, among whose descendants was a man called 
Barakat ibn Kasim ibn Mahmud ibn Musa ibn Husayn ibn Katada 
ibn Hasan ibn Ba Fad (sic). This man was a powerful personage and 
married the daughter of 'Anka ibn 'Atif, who bore to him a son and 
a daughter; and [the former] was named Ibn Gebel ibn Barakat ibn 
Kasim. And when he saw the condition of 'Anka's family and knew 
their ways he feared lest his son should become like them, so he 
worried him saying "Join your people" and "You will see me on 
your tracks." So he joined his people at Wahayn, which lies north 
of the city of el Abwab, which is a great city said to contain stone 
images of such beasts as lions and wolves and snakes ; and it has seen 
much of the ravages of war and the blessings of peace in the days of 
Islam and the days of ignorance. 

VI [The Fadnia] also include the family of Mas'ud ibn Ba Fad 
(sic), who has descendants still tracing to him their parentage. 

VII They include also the family of Salimayn ibn Ba Fad whose 
descendants are well known on account of their condition and their 
good characters to this day. 

VIII They include also the family of Mas'ud ibn Ba Fad, and of 
Sa'i'd ibn Ba Fad, whose stock has died out. 

IX Chapter giving an account of the Arabs known as Ga'al, they 
being still the ruling power of that country. Their pedigree is to 
Sa'ad el Ansari, but I am not sure of their ramifications — only that 
it is to Sa'ad that the great majority of the pedigrees are traced. 

X The reason of their migration to the Sudan was their quarrel 
with the Ommavvia at the time of the quarrel between the Beni 
Ommayya and the Beni Hashim. So they migrated to the west, and 
then returned to Dongola and conquered its people, and advanced 
by degrees till they overcame Guhayna. 


XI The reason of their being called by this name was that they had 
an ancestor who was black and hideous to look upon, and so his 
father's sister called him "Beetle" {Gu'al), and the tribe was called 
after him. 

XII The Kawahla. They include the family of Kahil son of 
'Omara son of Khalifa son of Ibayrak son of Muhammad son of 
Selim son of Khalid son of el Walid. And they include innumerable 
tribes in various places, all in the South. Most of them live in the 
desert of the Bega and seldom come down to the Nile ; nor do they 
pass the site at Soba called Balula. 

XIII Fezara. a well-known sub-tribe of Tami'm. They have been 
settled in the Sudan since the conquest of el Bahnasa. Their story is 
well known. 

XIV GuHAYNA. They are famous among the tribes of the Arabs 
and there is no need to relate wherein their fame lies. In the Sudan 
they include the family of Sa'id ibn Gamil, and the family of Madir 
ibn 'Amir, and the family of Musa'ad ibn Kelayb, and the family of 
Bathan ibn Dagna. 

The reason of their emigration (^.^y^-^j^) was that 'Asam el 
Moghrabi, king of Berbera, slew a number of their merchants; and 
God knows best. Then they went out against him and conquered his 
country and looted its wealth ; and so they continued until, as men- 
tioned above, Ga'al came and defeated them and conquered the 
country; and Guhayna became a subject people therein, and they 
entered the island of Anagi'l the Begawi after his stock had died out 
and his rule come to an end. 

XV The Shukria are the family of Shukr ibn Adrak, and their 
pedigree goes back to 'AbduUa el Gawad son of Ga'afir el Tiar son 
of Abu Talib. 

They are a great tribe and their stock continues to the present 
day. I do not know what was the reason of their emigration. 

XVI The Hasania are similarly descended from Ga'afir el Tiar. 
They are the sons of Hasan ibn Gamil and their pedigree goes back 
to 'Abdulla el Gawad ibn Ga'afir el Tiar. Their pedigree and that of 
the children of Shukr meet in the person of 'Ali el Zayni. 

XVII The 'Animia are the descendants of 'Anim ibn Gawad el 
Ya'arebi, a very small tribe. Of their number was a certain clever 
man called 'Ali, who in the time of Barakat was his companion. Now 
he loved making mischief and stirred up Barakat and his people to 
revolt; and the nomads oifered prayers against him, and Almighty 
God caused him to be overcome, and they took him prisoner and 
enslaved him for a time. Then Barakat attacked them and rescued 


him, and he used to say in praise of Barakat and his people... 
(here follows a page or so of rhymed prose and poetry). 

XVIII The Hamran are one of the tribes of Harb, who are nomads 
living between Mekka and Medina. 

Of their number in the Sudan are the families of Hamal and of 
Musa'ad ibn Garulla and of Salim Ba'ai'd, and Ibn Lohay. I am not 
sure of the real reason of their emigration, but it is said that it was 
their fight with Muzayna. 

XIX The Beni 'Amir are the descendants of 'Amir ibn el Tufayl. 
They entered Abyssinia and were its rulers. They are famous for 
their bravery and courage. A story is told about this 'Amir and the 
Prophet. . .(short story follows). 

The reason of their emigration to Abyssinia was that they killed 
their Sheikh Fa'asi ibn 'Abdulla. They wander about the borders of 

XX The Beni Ahmar are a tribe of Beni Ommayya. They were in 
Abyssinia, but most of them have disappeared and only a few remain. 

XXI The Rawagih are the descendants of Ragih ibn Sa'ad el 
Thakfi. Their stock^ still exists. 

XXII The 'AwASiM are the descendants of 'Asim ibn 'Amir ibn 
Nasi'r el 'Omari, a descendant of 'Omar ibn el Khattab. It was he 
who first settled them in Egypt : then they invaded the Sudan in the 
days of el Zahir Abu Barri. 

XXIII The family of Musallam, namely Musallam ibn Hegaz^ ibn 
'Atif el Ommawi. He moved from Syria in the time of 'Omar ibn 
'Abd el 'Aziz, God bless him, and settled in the Sudan, and he has 
left many descendants. 

XXIV The Ataia are nomads descended from Ata ibn Zaim 
el Himyari. I am not sure either of the reason of their emigration 
or of their ramifications, but it is said that they are the people who 
aided el Haggag in the slaying of Ibn el Zubayr. . .etc. 

XXV The RiKABiYYtJN are the descendants of Rikab ibn 'Abdulla, 
and their pedigree goes back to Sheikh Ahmad ibn 'Omar el Zi'la'i, 
the descendant of 'Okayl ibn Abu TaHb, God bless him. It is probable 
that they are the children of Rikab el Guhani. 

XXVI The 'Amriyyun (so spelt) are the descendants of 'Amr ibn 
Sulayman the Ommawi. It is said that they are at present the ruling 
people in the Sudan. They and the people of Luluh, one of the 
Hamag districts, have intermarried to such an extent that they have 
become like these people in every respect, and they are known as 
the Fung. 

^ reading w-a*JI for ^,,^jt5JI. '^ reading jls»»^. forjl».j».. 


XXVII The Hamzat are the descendants of Hamza ibn 'Abd el 
Muttalib. There are a number of them on the bank of the Kadimia 
near el Khor. 

XXVIII Kenana are a great tribe belonging to the famous Kenana 
of el Yemen. In the Sudan they include the families of Duhaym 
el Kenani and of Ragih and of Selim. They live in the same locality 
as Fezara. 

XXIX The RowASi are the descendants of Rasi el Kahtani. They 
were in Abyssinia but most of them disappeared. In Abyssinia they 
contain a number of Beni Ba'ala. A number of them apostatized, 

XXX The Kalla are by origin Arabs. In Abyssinia they are infidels. 
They are a nuisance to the Abyssinians, killing them and capturing 
their women and children. There is a difierence of opinion as to 
their origin, some saying they are descended from Kahtan and 
some from Himyar and some from the Beni Ghassan, and the last 
is true. 

XXXI Thakif. a very small community and unimportant among 
the Arabs . . . (some depreciatory lines by Ibn el Moghrabi about them 
are quoted). 

XXXII The Salahiyyun are the descendants of Salah ibn Gabir 
ibn Ghassan. They are numerous, and most of them live in Abyssinia 
towards the coast. 

XXXIII The Gabiria in Abyssinia are a considerable tribe, but 
most of them are between the Mahass country and Dongola the 
famous. They are the family of Gabir ibn 'Abdulla el Ansari, who 
begot them at the time of the conquest of Dongola, when it was 
destroyed and God gave the Muslims the victory in the invasion of 
'Amr ibn el 'Asi, God bless him. 

XXXIV The Geratima are the family of Geratim ibn 'Ukba 
el Rabi'i of the tribe of Rabi'a. They live between Abyssinia and the 
Beg A. 

XXXV Rufa'a. They lived at first in Abyssinia and [among] the 
Bega\ and then they moved to the Nile lands. They are one of the 
Kahtanite tribes in the Sudan. Our Sheikh Abu Nusr Muhammad 
el Shadhali^ said " I do not know exactly how they are descended, 
beyond that it is certain they are descended from Kahtan." 

XXXVI The Zenarkha are the family of Zernikh ibn A'gif of the 
Beni Lam, the famous tribe in Neged^ el Hegaz. 

XXXVII The 'AwASi are the family of 'Asi ibn Gama'a el Mukhal- 
ladi, the Mukhallad being also an Arab tribe. 

1 reading la^JI for UwJI . ^ reading ^iil^\ for j^^LJI . 

^ reading J^ai-i for 

348 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. d6. xxxvm. 

XXXVIII The Yerabi'a are also Arabs and descended from Himyar. 
They originally lived at Sana'a in el Yemen. They settled in the Sudan 
in the time of 'Abd el Malik ibn Marwan. 

XXXIX The 'Abbasiyyun are descended from el FadI ibn 'Abbas. 
In the Sudan they include the family of el Saffah. They are a mighty 
tribe and more of them are in the Sudan than elsewhere. The reason 
of their emigration thither was the rise to power of the Fatimite 
dynasty in Egypt, and they decHned with it and dispersed into the 

XL The Gabarta are originally Arabs, it is said KuRAYSH, but I do 
not vouch for this and know only that people are under this impression. 
I have enquired from some of their learned men saying " I hear from 
the people of el Taka that you are descended from Kuraysh," and 
they replied " We also say so " ; and I think it is [true], but God knows 
best, and we assume that pedigrees are [properly] kept. 

XLI The 'Adiliyyun are the family of 'Adil ibn 'Aziz the Sa'adi. 
They fall into two divisions: some live in the district of Ousa near 
the Gabarta, and the others live in the strongholds known as el Taka, 
west of the hills of the Baza. And it is said that beyond these strong- 
holds, and between them and Abyssinia, is a great mountain called 
el Los, where they suppose the Companions of the Cave are, and they 
live in these strongholds and are known as the Halanka. It is there- 
fore possible that they are the family of Halayk el Sa'adi son of 
Dhulayma son of Bardhal son of Amal son of 'Amir son of Hawazin 
son of Mas'ud son of Sa'ad son of Bukr, or that they are descended 
from Halak el Mundabi (?) ; and the former is more correct. 

They contain numerous tribes that cannot be enumerated. They 
have intermarried with the Bega so much that they have become 
assimilated to them. It is said that their language resembles that of 
the Bega [and is] a branch of it. 

XLII The 'Alamiyyun are the descendants of 'Alam ibn Sa'ad 
el Ziati and are known as the "House of 'Alam." Most of them live 
near the Tungur in the districts of el Takrur. 

XLIII Fellata settled in the land of el Takrur. They are the family 
of Fellat son of 'Abdulla son of 'Ukba son of Yasir. 

XLIV The Bekriyyun are numerous in the land of el Takrur, and 
in Egypt they form the well-known House of el Bekri. And the 
genealogists make mention of the Sheikh who was descended from 
the said Sheikh [el Bekri], and who lived in Upper Egypt {ard 
el said), and who was a very great man and one of the saints 
famous for piety; and it is a remarkable thing that his descendants 
remember nothing important about him: yet by the grace that is 

iv.D6.Lm. OF THE SUDAN 349 

given him he has facilitated the granting of their prayers, and their 
holy men and their tribe [itself] are called el Mashai'kh^ 

XLV The SawaIl are the family of Sail ibn Yerbu'a el Muzani and 
are a sub-tribe of Muzayna who migrated from near Jedda. There 
are many of them in Egypt. They left el Yemen at the same time as 
Humayl el Selmi. 

XLVI SuLAYM are a well-known tribe of the Hegaz. Most of 
them live between the Holy Places, and some of them settled in the 
Sudan, and these latter are the Yuasifa. 

XLVII The Masha'ala are the family of Masha'al ibn Ya'akub 
el Gahadli, and are a branch of the Gahadla, who again are an Arab 
tribe, partly sedentary and partly nomad, residing to the right hand 
of Mekka, and represented in the Sudan by the family of Masha'al 
ibn Gahdal. 

XLVI 1 1 The 'Agarifa are the family of 'Agraf ibn Ma'amir el 
Khuza'i, Khuza'a being the well-known tribe at Mekka and there- 
abouts, who are represented in the Sudan by the family of 'Agraf 
only. They are a moderate sized community. The reason of their 
immigration to the Sudan was the ill-treatment they received from 
el Haggag at the time when he [re-]built the temple. God and the 
Prophet know best. 

XLIX The 'Aragin are the people of those countries, and were not 
Arabs of the Hegaz. They were extremely skilful and versatile. It 
is said that among them was a man called 'Aziz the Poet . . . (some 
verses follow). 

L The Senabla are the family of Sanbal ibn Gabr. They are a 
large Arab tribe. 

LI The Hadareb. I was told by Sidi 'Abdulla Bawazi'z el Hadari 
that they came originally from Hadramaut, and were said to be a 
branch of the Hamum, who are nomads in Hadramaut, and that they 
emigrated thence to the Sudan in the days of el Haggag ibn Yusef, 
and settled among the Bega until they became exactly as if they were 
Bega themselves, and took up their abode at Suakin, the well-known 
island on the coast of the Sudan near Abyssinia ; and [he said that] 
they were called "the Hadarem," deriving the name from ''hadra,'' 
but from ignorance the d was changed into d and the m into b, as 
can be understood, and they became the "Hadareb." 

LII The Ga'afira are a great tribe. Their descent is from Ga'afir 
el Tai, and it is said that their ancestor was Hatim el Tai. They are 
famous for their generosity, as he was, 

LIII The MusiYYUN are the family of Musa ibn Sa'id el Thakfi. 
1 reading ^U^l for «.^L«^I . 


Thev are a branch of Thaki'f and numerous. In the Sudan they live 
like [nomad] Arabs. 

LIV Among them was a powerful man called 'Ali ibn Gubara, and 
there is a story of him and the kings of the Arabs. It is said that Abu 
Ya'akub, one of the Arab Sultans, sent him to the king of el Takrur 
with a letter written as follows, " In the name of God the Com- 
passionate and Merciful, this from Abu Ya'akub to the Sultan of 
el Takrur. If you want to preserve your self-respect and maintain 
your honour, submit to me: otherwise I will most surely equip^ 
against you an army like locusts in swarm, who will lay waste your 
lands and loot your goods and take captive your sons and make an 
end of your women. So when you read this letter, you will have a 
correct idea of my dominion, and if you desire relief from ill and 
survival from annihilation, then subject yourself to me as I order 

LV When this letter reached the king of el Takrur he told his 
servant to beat him [sc. 'Ali ibn Gubara] and impale his companions. 
This was done; and that very night the Sultan heard [sc. one] say 
" If you slay this man, [sc. he will be avenged] "; and his vizier said 
to him " It is not the custom of kings to kill envoys nor punish them," 
so he ordered him to be released. 

LVI Then, after releasing him, he mounted him on a horse and 
said to him "Go, tell yon Sultan that when Gog and Magog have 
obeyed him I will obey him: his wits are wandering: does he order 
me to obey him before I order him to do anything at all } He is one of 
those that carves the mountains with his fingernails." And when 
this message reached the king of the Arabs he turned to his troops 
and said "Is there any one of you I can send to deal with him }" 
And 'Ali ibn Gubara said " I have a prior right in this matter over all." 

LVII Then [the king] equipped a force, to go with him, of 3000 
cavalry and 2000 riflemen and 1000 bowmen and 1000 swordsmen 
using the short Moorish sword, and the expedition started. 

LVIII And when they reached the land of el Takrur, the two 
armies met, and God gave the victory [to 'Ali] and he returned in joy 
and happiness [from the field of battle] ; and God the Almighty made 
him ruler of el Takrur, and to this day the Sultans of el Takrur are 
his descendants. 

LIX Chapter mentioning the wonders of that land and its chief 

Berber is an immense village. It has had many rulers, including 
the giant dynasty of which each king began his reign as a true believer 
^ readint^ ^^J-v*- f'^^ ^jtr^- 


and ended it a pagan. West of it is a great mountain called Gebe! el 
Ruus, where there are marvels that it would take too long to relate. 

LX DoNGOLA is a great place and its story is well known. It was 
conquered by 'Amr ibn el 'Asi. 

LXI The people of Berber were converted by the people of Dongola ; 
and there are there {i.e. in Dongola) great cities and islands encom- 
passed by walls, and a great mosque built by 'Amr ibn el 'Asi and 
known as "the mosque of 'Amr," and the entrenchment {khandak) 
made by Ibn 'Ukba el Gabiri el Ansari in the time of Ayyub. 

LXII Here ends the history of the Arabs who settled in the Sudan. 
This history is the property of the fakir Ahmad ibn el feki 
Ma'aruf, and I finished writing it in Gemdd 1277^ 

D 6 (NOTES) 

III Cp. A II, II and in. 

" The pretended Sheriff is o^^^-i^U 
V The Arabic begins ... ju-Jt ^Ua 0-*>ov*^ J^-'S! ^ Ji' but this is 
clearly corrupt, and should, I think, read ... ju~.JI Jt ^^^^ j-^J^ U J^t. 
Compare BA, CLXXiv for these Fadni'a. "Fawadin" would be the 
normal Arabic plural formed from Fadin, the name of their ancestor. 
The Arabic translated "He worried him. . .tracks" is 

For el Abwab see D 3, 14 (note). 

IX " That country" (^^S'n)! ^3) is presumably the [northern] Sudan. 

X Cp. A II, VII. Contrast para. XXXIX later. 

XI This version of the origin of "Ga'al" is not, it is almost needless to 
say, in vogue among the Ga'aliin themselves, though not uncommon in 
Dongola. Cp. A 3, vii, and see Robertson Smith, p. 196. 

xii Cp. A II, XLViii. Balula is the name of a village and ferry situated 
on a bend of the Blue Nile a mile or two below el Kamli'n. 
XIII Cp. A II, Liv. 
XV Cp. A II, L. 
xxiii Cp. A II, LI. 



XXX i.e. the " Gall a." 


XXXVII Cp. BA, cxxvi for Mukhallad. 

XXXVIII "YerAbi'a" is a plural from Yerbu'a, which name occurs later 
in para. xlv. 

1 1860A.D. 

352 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv.d6. xxxviii. 

'Abd el Malik ibn Marwan was the fifth Ommayyad Khalifa and died 
in 705 A.D. after reigning twenty years. 
XXXIX Cp. AB, XXIII and ccxiii and ABC, xxii. 
'"AbbAsiyyun" is used here practically as the equivalent of 
"Ga'aliyyun." Contrast para. x. 

The Fatimites conquered Egypt in 969 a.d. and were supplanted by 
the Ayyubites in 1171 a.d. 
XL Cp. A II, LX and AB, xxvi. 

XLi "And it is said..." is as follows in the Arabic, which appears 
corrupt : 

A,o*.^)l JLU JJkl ^^Aj »»ay^l JJb\ w;Ui,-cb 4*5 0>6V*:! v»*5 .xn^ Jt** 

The Companions of the Cave (Ashdb el Kahf) are the legendary 
"Seven Sleepers of Ephesus." Muhammad borrowed the story from 
Christian traditions and introduced it as a revelation into the Kuran {q.v. 
Chap, xviii. See also Sale's notes thereto, Hughes, p. 24, and Gibbon's 
Decline and Fall..., Chap. xxxi). 

El Los is Gebel Kassala. See Werne (p. 217). "In former times the 
race of the Hallenga had, at the foot of the hill of Kassela-el-Lus, a great 
city . . . .The true name of the hill is el Lus, and the word Kassela is the 
name of a sainted Sheikh. The rock-dome of Kassela is surrounded by 
six pillar-Uke rocks; and hence the saying 'Kassela-el-Lus saba Rus' 
(Kassela-el-Lus of the seven heads)." Again of the caves in Gebel Kassala 
Werne (p. 245) says: "They are said to be inhabited by men of ancient 
days, spirits, and ghosts." 

" Halayk" may be a misprint for "Halank." The proper names follow- 
ing are probably corrupt. 

XLii Darfur and westwards are meant. 


XLiv The MASHAfKH or MASHAfKHA are meant. They claim descent from 
Abu Bukr el Sadik, the first Khalifa of Islam. The unnamed Sheikh is 
probably Mugelli {q.v. A 2, xxxvii and D 3, 255). 

XLVi YuASiFA is a plural formed from Yusef, i.e. "sons of Yusef." 

XLViii El Haggag ibn Yusef's date was 42-95 a.h. It was in 74 A.H. 
(693 A.D.) that he pulled down the temple of Mekka and restored it to its 
old pre-Islamic form. For this and the cruelties he perpetrated at this 
period see Ockley (p. 480). 

XLix It is not clear what "those countries" refers to: the Arabic is 
... IvAaIj j^jjJ' *iWJ ^^ ^^^\jjti\. From para, lix it seems the northern 
Sudan is meant. 

L " Sanbal" and " SenAbla " are probably misprints for " Shanbal " and 

LI Cp. All, Lxii, from which it seems " Bdwaziz" {}^j^\^) is an 
error for "Abu el Wuzir" (^J^l ^\). 


Liv There is little clue as to what war is referred to in this story. There 


is no historical Sultan named Abu Ya'akub. In para. XLii "el Takrur" is 
apparent!}? meant to represent any of the western states of the Sudan, and 
it the same is the case here the reference may conceivably be to the incident 
of 'Abd el Kerim, the first Muhammadan ruler of Wadai, the grandfather 
of the Sultan Ya'akub and the conqueror of the Tungur. He reigned 
1635-55 ^^^ was of a Ga'ali stock from near Shendi (see vol. i, pp. 68 and 

The Arabic translated ''you zvill have a correct idea of my dominion'* 
is jc^Xo i»\j.^ j^Xc sZJii^ jk5 jXjI ^JLcI — the word sirdt being literally " the 

[right] way" (see Hughes, p. 595). 
LV The Arabic of this passage is as follows : 

^J^^I IjkA Osil5 y ijtf&j jjUsJ.-»3l *.«-«; <dJ 013 (J 1=3 U^i t^Lii Aiij 

Lix "It has had. . .pagan'' is 
j^L) jiSii^ Jc; Jk4*. ^.fl^yii^o kJ^ >J*^:; jW«^- >^^^ ^v*^ 0^^-5 '•^s*^ ^^JLo ly3^ 

LX Cp. A 2, XXXIV ; D 4, vi, etc. 

LXI By "the mosque of 'Amr" is perhaps meant the mosque super- 
imposed at Old Dongola upon the ruins of an ancient Christian church 
(see Budge, 11, p. 372 and Anglo-Eg. Sudan, i, p. 31). At Khandak there is 
an old brick fort in the middle of the town, which may be alluded to here 
(see Gleichen, p. 29). 

LXii The Arabic of this paragraph is 

•t dJJt ^J\ ^*aaJI lyjDU ^ ^b^*~3b [sic) ^j3e3^l >-ij3d\ w>l.»JI j-ylJt 

iVYY ilo-B.. j^i ojj^j-si^ (J>« xlUii^ jiSj t^ijjA* [sic) aaaJI ^ 





Versions of this work, which represents the only known attempt by 
a native historian to give a detailed chronological account of the Fung 
and Turkish days, are by no means uncommon. General Gordon 
possessed a copy and presented it in 1881 to the British Museum, 
where it is numbered "Arabic 2345." It was no doubt from this 
same copy that Colonel Stewart had obtained most of the historical 
facts given in the Report on the Sudan which he wrote at Khartoum 
in February 1883. 

Professor Budge similarly made use of this MS. in writing The 
Egyptian Sudan, and Na'um Bey Shukayr must have had access to 
this or another copy. 

Mr Jackson has paraphrased yet another copy, and, by adding 
facts drawn from other sources, has woven the whole into the narra- 
tive he has entitled Tooth of Fire (published 1912). In the introduc- 
tion he says he knows of eight copies in all, and mentions that one 
copy is in the Imperial Library at Vienna. 

JVIy own acquaintance with this work dates from 1907, when 
Sir F. R. Wingate, the Governor-General, showed me the rough 
translation of a copy found in Sennar by Sir R. von Slatin, the 

Notes I took from this MS., which I referred to as " The Sennar 
History" were incorporated in The Tribes of Northern and Central 
Kordofdn (published 19 12). 

The particular copy here translated was made for me at Omdur- 
man in 1914 from the MS. belonging to Mek Adlan of Sennar, the 
lineal descendant and heir of the Fung kings. This had been tem- 
porarily borrowed for me by Mr S. A. Tippetts, the Senior Inspector 
of Sennar Province. 

While engaged on editing this copy I found another in possession 
of the feki Muhammad Abd el Magid of Omdurman. One of his 
pupils had made this copy for him in the Mahdia from the MS. in 
possession of the respected feki Hagyu wad Masi'a, the Ya'akubabi, 
of Sennar Province. 

The original work, to which there is no reason to attribute other 
than a single authorship, was undoubtedly based, so far as the Fung 


period is concerned, on those chronologies of the Fung kings which 
were shown at Sennar to Bruce in 1772 and to Cailliaud in 182 1. The 
former was shown an "undoubtedly authentic" list by the Sid 
el Kilm ("Master of the Household"). The latter says "Je m'etais 
procure, chez les erudits de la ville [Sennar], plusieurs listes chrono- 
logiques des rois Foungis du Sennar: mais, en les comparant entre 
elles, je doutais de pouvoir arriver a un travail satisfaisant : enfin, par 
I'entremise d'Ismayl, j'en obtins une du roi Bady lui-mcme. Je puis 
done garantir que la chronologic que je donne ici est plus exacte que 
celle de Bruce" (vol. 11, 255). 

The main difference between these two lists is that Bruce dates 
the accession of 'Omara Dunkas, the first Fung king, in 1504, and 
Cailliaud in 1484. The discrepancy is explained in an appendix, and 
the date 1504 may be taken as correct. 

With one or more of these chronologies as a basis, and with 
the Tahakdt wad Dayfulla (MS. D 3) for occasional reference and 
quotation, the original of the work which is here translated was 
probably compiled gradually during the regifnes of successive Turkish 
rulers and completed about the time of Mumtaz Pasha (i 871 -1873), 

Its author is unknown and its exact date is doubtful. The British 
Museum copy, it is said," consists of 108 octavo pages and was written, 
and perhaps also composed, by Muhammad Abu Bakr Makki Ahmad 
in 1879" (Budge, Preface, p. xi). It ends with the year 1871. One 
would suppose that Muhammad Abu Bakr would have carried the 
history down to his own date had he been the composer and not 
merely a copyist. 

Mr Jackson says that all the copies he has seen "seem to be 
derived from the account put together by Abd el Dafaa and an abstract 
of this, with a few alterations and additions, made by Zubeir wad 
Dawwa." He does not say to what year the narrative is in each case 
carried down. By " 'Abd el Dafaa " he means Ibrahim 'Abd el Dafa'i 
the elegist, who is twice mentioned in D 7 in the third person. Of 
this Ibrahim more anon. 

The copy found by Sir R. von Slatin was made, as is stated at the 
close of it, on the 19th of Shabdn 13^2 A. h. (October 30, 1904 a.d.). 
The copy I have translated consists of no octavo pages and gives 
an account of events down to 1288 a.h, (1871 a.d.). That of Muham- 
mad 'Abd el Magid ends abruptly with 1865. 

None of these gives any direct indication as to the author's name, 
and Mek 'Adlan's evidence is practically worthless: he fluctuates 
between vague reminiscences of the Tabakdt zcad Dayfulla and 
"an unknown scribe" who may have lived in the lifetime of Mek 



'Adlan's father 'Othman or in the time of 'Adlan II, i.e. in the eigh- 
teenth century. He does not even know his own family history and 
has not the faintest idea whether the book was written by one man or 
half a dozen. 

There is, however, internal evidence which makes it easy to guess 
at certain probabilities. In the first place, the author only describes 
in detail events that occurred in the Gezi'ra, from Sennar to Khartoum, 
and he is familiar with the geography of this region and the details 
of its administration. 

It is also evident that he was frequently in Khartoum, for he is 
interested in the various buildings that were erected there, knows 
various junior officials, tells of visitors from Egypt, and knows exact 
dates of arrivals and departures. 

Similarly he shows far more knowledge of the Blue Nile than of 
the White. Kordofan, Berber, Dongola, Kassala and other more 
distant provinces hardly come within his ken at all. 

Again he speaks with exaggerated respect of Sheikh 'Abd el Kadir 
wad el Zavn, the Ya'akubabi, and represents him as having an almost 
supreme influence. Here there must be considerable exaggeration, 
for whereas several of 'Abd el Kadir's contemporaries are mentioned 
by travellers, I have seen no reference to 'Abd el Kadir, and his name 
is not universally remembered. No other secular Sheikh is spoken 
of in similar terms. 

Another man upon whom the author heaps titles of respect is 
Sheikh Ahmad el Taib, the introducer of the Sammani'a tarika, 
who lived a day's journey north of Omdurman. Other holy men 
receive no more than passing words of praise. 

He also indulges in gross adulation of Ga'afir Muzhar Pasha, and 
abuses his successor Mumtaz Pasha with an almost equal lack of 
proportion. Other Governor-Generals are treated very leniently. 

One also notes the author's familiarity with Turkish ranks and 

For the Fung and the Hamag he holds no particular brief, and of 
the history of the 'Abdullab of el Halfaya and the Sa'adab of Shendi 
he expressly mentions his ignorance. The successive Sheikhs of 
Khashm el Bahr, near Sennar, are, on the other hand, fairly well 
known to him. 

From a consideration of the above facts and other minor points 
one would say that the author of this history was perhaps by birth 
one of the Ya'akubab of Sennar, and by training a follower of the 
Sammania tarika. He had an education better than the average, 
and was much in touch with the Turkish officials — as were the sue- 

IV. D 7. OF THE SUDAN 357 

cessive heads of his family. Probably he throve most successfully in 
the times of Musa Pasha and Ga'afir Muzhar Pasha, and was employed 
at Khartoum in some minor administrative position, or else was one 
of those tactful " vicars of Bray " who were always to be found attached 
to the suites of the secular dignitaries. 

From his expressed opinion of Mumtaz one would hazard the 
opinion that he fell into disfavour during that Pasha's regime and com- 
pleted his history after passing beyond his reach. 

On the other hand, the author of ABC (para, xxi), speaking of 
the Hamaydania section of the Gamu'ia, says "Among them was 
the feki Ibrahim 'Abd el Dafa'i, the author of the History of the 
Sudan"; and one notes that the family of the much belauded Sheikh 
el Taib {q.v. in ABC, Tree 3) are very closely related to the Hamay- 
dania. The history mentioned may certainly be assumed to be the 
one under discussion. Na'um Bey Shukayr, in his History of the 
Sudan, also speaks of "Sheikh 'Abd el Dafa'i, author of the Fung 
chronicle" (Part H, Bk. iv, Chap, i, p. 73). 

Thus, in support of the theory that Ibrahim 'Abd el Dafa'i wrote 
it, we have (i) the tradition recorded by Mr Jackson and Na'um Bey 
and quoted above, (2) the express statement in ABC, and (3) the close 
relationship between Ibrahim and the founder of the Sammania 

On the other hand, (i) the history is carried up to a date between 
1870 and 1880, and yet Ibrahim was composing elegies in 1809 and 
1823 (see paras, clxxxv and ccxxxv). (2) One would expect more 
references to the Gamui'a and their Meks from a Gamu'i author, 
and a larger interest in the affairs of the Gamui'a countr}' along the 
west bank of the White Nile. (3) The tradition that Ibrahim 'Abd 
el Dafa'i is the author is not by any means universal : my acquaintance- 
ship with it is limited to the two quotations made above. (4) The 
general setting of the two passing references to Ibrahim in paras. 
CLXXXV and ccxxxv does not seem quite to suit the theory that 
Ibrahim was speaking of himself. 

There is of course the possibility of a divided authorship, but 
there is no particular evidence to support such theory. 

One can only leave the question of authorship doubtful, and say 
that, all things considered, the history is a very creditable piece of 
work. It is written in a simple and straightforward way, with a 
reasonable sense of proportion ; and the author never loses the thread 
of his discourse. 

Of the Turkish days he writes as a courtier, but it would have 
been unsafe, and less lucrative, to do otherwise: in fact he is at 


times unexpectedly critical. He has rescued from oblivion the scanty 
records of many events that happened in the reigns of those kings of 
Sennar of whom little more than the names are recorded by Bruce 
and Cailliaud, and he has given us the only extant account of the 
Sudan in Turkish days as regarded from a native point of view. In 
addition, so far as I am aware, he provides the only connected narra- 
tive from which we can learn the names and dates of the successive 
Turkish Pashas and Beys who ruled the country, and he alone draws 
our attention to the experiments that were made in administrative 
decentralization between 1857 and 1862. 

The account of Soba in pre-FuNG days (see para, i) is evidently 
taken from the passage of Ibn Seli'm el Aswani preserved by el 
Makrizi and quoted above in Part II, Chap. 2. 

I In the name of God the Compassionate and Merciful. Praise be 
to God.. . . 

Now this is a history of the lands of the Nuba and relates who 
ruled them, beginning with the kings of the Fung, and what happened 
in their time [and] until this present day, and who succeeded them, 
and how their kingdom came to an end; but God Almighty best 
knows and judges of that which is hidden. 

It is related in the histories which I have seen that the first of 
the kings of the Fung who was invested with the royal power was 
King 'Omara Dunkas, who founded the city of Sennar in 910 a.h.^ 

Previously to his date the Fung had overthrown the Nuba and made 
the city of Soba (sic) their metropolis ; and in that city were beautiful 
buildings and gardens and a hostel occupied by the Muhammadans. 
Its site was on the east of the Nile, near to the confluence of that river 
with the White Nile; and the chief food of its inhabitants was the 
white dhurra known as el kassdbi. Their religion was Christianity, 
and they had a bishop appointed by the prelate of Alexandria, as had 
the Nuba before them. Their books were in Greek {Rumia) but 
they used to commentate upon them in their own language. 

II These people were overthrown in the ninth century, and in 
those days there were no schools for the Muhammadans who lived 
among them and no observance of the Muhammadan law, so that 
it is even said that a woman might be divorced by her husband and 
married by another man on the same day without any purificatory 
period. This state continued until the coming among them of Mahmud 
el 'Araki from Egypt. He taught them some of the elements of 
Muhammadan law: he also built himself a hostel on the White Nile 

1 1504 A.D. 

IV. D 7.x. OF THE SUDAN 359 

between el Is^ and the Hasania, and lies buried there at the present 

III Previous to this man's time there were certain learned men in 
the country, such as the Awlad Dayfulla, whose tombs near Abu 
Halima, east of the Blue Nile, are well known, and Sheikh Idri's 
walad el Arbab, who was born in 913^. 

IV Islam first entered the land of the Nuba in the Khalifate of 
Harun el Rashi'd el 'Abbasi, but, as we mentioned, there was no real 
observance of the law {el sharfa). 

V Let us now return to our subject. The commencement of the reign 
of 'Omara Dunkas was at the beginning of. . .(a line of the text has 
been inadvertently omitted here, it appears) . . .the people collected round 
him and ceased not visiting him where he lay at Gebel Moya, which 
is east of Sennar ; and finally there came to him 'Abdulla Gema'a of 
the Kawasma Arabs, the father of Sheikh 'Agib el Kafuta the ancestor 
of the Awlad 'Agib; and they determined to make war upon the 
'Anag, the kings of Soba and el Kerri. 

VI So 'Omara and 'Abdulla Gema'a with their men went and made 
war upon the kings of Soba and el Kerri and defeated them and slew 

VII Then their people agreed that 'Omara should be king in place 
of the king of 'Aloa, that is Soba, because he was the more powerful 
["elder" ?], and that 'Abdulla Gema'a should take the place of the 
king of el Kerri. 

VIII So ['Abdulla] went and founded the town of Kerri, which is 
by Gebel el Royyan on the east bank, and made it the seat of his 
kingdom; and likewise 'Omara founded the town of Sennar, [so 
called because] previously a woman called Sennar lived there, and 
made it his capital. This was in 910^, 

IX Now 'Omara and 'Abdulla lived like brethren, but 'Omara's 
rank had precedence over that of 'Abdulla if they were together in 
the same place ; but if 'Omara were absent 'Abdulla had exactly the 
same powers as were vested in 'Omara; and this system remained 
in force among their respective descendants until the end of their 

X After the victory of the Fung over the Nuba, the latter scattered 
and fled to Fazoghli and Kordofan, with the exception of a few of 
them who were converted to Islam and mixed with the Arabs settled 
in their country. These at present are few in number and live in the 
neighbourhood of Shendi and Gerayf Kumr; and not many people 

1 reading ^^_i\ for ,^M. ^ 1507 A. D. 

^ 1504 A.D. 


know that these men are by origin Nuba, for their language has 
become Arabic and their complexion assimilated to that of the Arabs 
as a result of cross-breeding with them. 

XI And indeed the immigration of Arabs to the Sudan increased 
greatly, most of them belonging to the tribes of Himyar, Rabi'a, 
Beni 'Amir, Kahtan, Kenana, Guhayna, Beni Yashkur, Beni 
Kahil, Beni Dhubian, Beni 'Abs (viz. the Kababish), Fezara and 
Beni Selim. 

XII And King 'Omara continued living at Sennar, carrying on the 
affairs of state, until he died in the year 940^ after a reign of 30 years. 

XIII He was succeeded by his son 'Abd el Kadir, who reigned ten 
years and died in 950^, 

XIV After him reigned his brother King Nail, and he resided at 
Sennar like his father and brother, carrying on the government for 
twelve years. He died in 962^. 

XV His successor was King 'Omara Abu Sakaykin, one of the royal 
family, and in his days died 'Abdulla Gema'a, and in his place 'Omara 
appointed his son Sheikh 'Agib el Kafuta as Sheikh of Kerri. And 
'Omara continued at Sennar, carrying on the government, until his 
death in 970^ after a reign of eight years. 

XVI King Dekin walad Nail then came to the throne. He was one 
of the greatest of the kings of the Fung. He reorganized the adminis- 
tration in the best possible manner, and made fixed laws that no one 
of all the people of his kingdom might transgress ; and to every dis- 
trict of his kingdom he appointed a chief; and to such as were wont 
to be seated in his presence he gave a definite order of precedence 
when they were so seated in the council chamber ; and he ceased not 
to devote himself to the organization of his realms until, afte rreigning 
fifteen^ years, he died in 985*^. 

XVII He was succeeded by King Tabl, who followed in the foot- 
steps of King Dekin until his death in 997^ after reigning twelve 

XVIII Tabl was succeeded by King Ounsa, who reigned ten years. 

XIX Then King 'Abd el Kadir reigned for six years, and died in 

XX He was succeeded by King 'Adlan walad Aya, and in his reign 
Sheikh 'Agib rebelled, and the king sent a large army against him and 
a battle was fought near Kalkol, and Sheikh 'Agib was slain and his 
hosts routed, and his family fled towards Dongola. Then the king 

^ 1533 A.D. - 1543 A.D. 3 1554 A.D. 

■^ 1562 A.D. 5 reading "fifteen" for "twelve." 

® 1577 A.D. ' 1589 A.D, ^ 1604 A.D. 


sent to them Sheikh Idri's Muhammad Ahmad, who was noted for 
his piety, with a promise of immunity, and when they returned he 
lavished favours upon them and appointed the eldest of them, 
el 'Agayl, Sheikh of Kerri as his father had been. 

XXI King 'Adlan continued reigning at Sennar until his death in 
1020I after a reign of seven years ; and in his reign flourished a number 
of holy men, such as Sheikh Idris, whom we mentioned. This latter 
attained a remarkable age, for he was born in 913^ and died in 1060^, 
and so lived 147 years. He was instructed by Sheikh 'Abd el Kafi 
el Moghrabi. 

XXII So too, in the reign of King 'Adlan, there came [to the 
country] Sheikh Hasan walad Hasuna el Andalusi. He had been 
visiting the Holy Places and Egypt and Syria for about twelve years, 
and then settled where he now lies buried; and his tomb is well 
known and much visited. His was, God bless him, an austerity of 
the first order though he was blessed with this world's goods in 

XXIII During this king's reign too came Sheikh Ibrahim el Bulad 
from Egypt. He was the first to introduce and teach the Mukhtasar 
of Sheikh Khalil el Maliki into the land of the Fung, and through 
him God manifested many miracles. 

XXIV There also came Sheikh Muhammad el Misri and visited 
Sennar and Arbagi, and then he returned and settled at Berber and 
there taught all the sciences, and was made a judge, and as such con- 
ducted himself with continence and rectitude. 

XXV Sheikh Tag el Din el Bahari too came from Baghdad, and 
Sufiism obtained great fame in the land of the Fung through him. 

XXVI And a certain Moghrabi of Tlemsan, too, inspired Sheikh 
Muhammad walad 'fsa Sowar el Dhahab, and from him this Sheikh 
obtained direction in the right way, and taught others many of the 
branches of knowledge. 

XXVII After King 'Adlan King Badi Sid el Kum came to the throne, 
and reigned three years, and died in 1023*. 

XXVIII He was succeeded by el Rubat, who continued living at 
Sennar until his death in 1052^. 

XXIX After him reigned his son King Badi Abu Dukn. He was 
a man of bravery and generosity and high purpose. He raided the 
White Nile and engaged its inhabitants, who are called Shilluk, 
and he invaded the mountains of Tekali that lie west of the White 
Nile some two days' march. The reason of his invading Tekali was 

^ 1611A.D. ^ 1507 A.D. ^ 1650 A.D. 

* 1614 A.D. ^ 1642 A.D. 


that the king of Tekali had attacked one of his friends who journeyed 
thither, and plundered his goods, and when told that the victim was 
a friend of the king of Sennar had replied " If the king of Sennar 
wants me on his account and crosses the wastes of Um Lama'a, then 
let him do what he will." 

XXX Now the desert spoken of by the king of Tekali is difficult to 
cross owing to lack of water, but must be passed by one going from 
Sennar to Tekali. And when the man returned to his friend the 
Mek Badi he told him how his possessions had been plundered and 
what the king of Tekali had said, and [Badi] at once equipped his 
troops and said to his friend "When we reach the wastes of Um 
Lama'a, let me know." And when they arrived there the man told 
him, and the king and all his men dismounted from their horses and 
crossed over on foot. Then they remounted and rode on until they 
reached the hills of the Nuba; and there they slew many and took 
numerous prisoners and so proceeded until they came to Tekali and 
laid siege to it. 

XXXI And the king of Tekali had fortified it against them, and he 
used to come out to meet them by day, and send them provisions by 
night ; and when the king of Sennar saw the generosity of his spirit 
he made terms with him on the basis of a fixed tribute payable yearly 
by the king of Tekali. 

XXXII Then he returned to Sennar with the prisoners taken from 
the Nuba and Tekali, and on arriving there built a village for each 
different race of prisoners ; and these villages surrounded Sennar like 
a wall to the east and west, and the inhabitants acted as troops for 
the aid and protection of the realm, and they bred and multiplied 
until the fall of the Fung kingdom. Now each village was named 
after the race inhabiting it, for instance "Tekali" and "el Kadero" 
and " el Kanak " and " el Karku." 

XXXIII And this king was a man of continence and piety and paid 
great respect to the men of learning and reHgion, and he used to send 
presents with the guide Ahmad walad 'Alwan to the learned men of 
el Alahrusa ; and his virtues became so famous among them that they 
celebrated him in many poems, including that in which Sheikh 
'Omar el Moghrabi says ... (thirteen lines of poetry follow) ,., This 
poem is a long one, consisting of about seventy lines. 

XXXIV And the same Sheikh also said of him. . . (nine lines of poetry 
follow); and this also is a long poem of about sixty lines. 

XXXV Similarly all the best men of el Mahrusa sang thus in his 
praise, and the evidence of these learned men is sufficient honour. 

XXXVI Among the praiseworthy monuments he left are the great 

IV.D7. xLii. OF THE SUDAN 363 

mosque he founded at Sennar, and the royal palace. The latter con- 
sisted of five stories on the top of one another, and a number of 
buildings adjoining them for the storage of government equipment, 
such as arms and the like. He also built two halls [dmdnayn] 
where he might sit in council, one of them outside the palace and 
the other inside its enclosure, and round the whole he built a vast 
wall and made therein nine gates, and to each of the great men of his 
kingdom he appointed a special gate for entry or exit thereby. 

XXXVII Likewise he made a special hall for the great men of the 
kingdom, wherein they might sit to consider their business; and if 
one of them [lit. "this chief"] wished to enter the hall [dizvdn] of 
the king he must enter alone, unaccompanied by any of his people. 
But the ninth gate was reserved for the king himself, and no man 
might enter with him or go out by it, save only the king and Walad 
'Agib the king of Kerri. 

XXXVIII All these gates opened from the same frontage of the wall, 
which formed a straight line, and in front of them was a roofed area 
supported by two pillars, and under it a high bench [mustabd] 
called "Dakka man Nadak" ("The bench of him that hath called 
upon thee"). 

XXXIX These buildings survived until the time of the late Effendina 
Isma'il Pasha the son of Effendina el Hag Muhammad 'Ali Pasha; 
but in his days the palace fell and all traces of it disappeared. All 
glory be to Him whose kingdom continueth for ever! 

XL King Badi continued at Sennar like his predecessors, applying 
himself to the work of his kingdom and to doing good until he died 
in 1088^ after a reign of thirty-six years. 

XLI After him his brother's son Ounsa walad Nasir came to the 
throne, and in 1095^, during his reign, there occurred a great famine, 
so that men ate dogs ; and they called this year " Um Lahm " (" Mother 
of Meat"), and many folk died, and certain districts were devastated 
owing to the famine and small-pox. 

And King Ounsa remained at Sennar until his death in 11 00^ 
after a reign of twelve years. 

XLII He was succeeded by his son the Mek Badi el Ahmar ("The 
Red"), and he was the first Fung king against whom a section of his 
people revolted; for el Amin Aradib walad 'Agib rebelled with about 
a thousand men of the Fung and others, and appointed over them 
as Mek one named Awkal. And they designed to depose the Mek 
Badi el Ahmar and made ready for war, but he, though having only 
about forty-five horsemen, met them and routed them and drove them 

1 1677 A.D. - 1684 A.D. ^ 1688-9 A.D. 


to a place called el 'Atshan, and slew el Amin Aradib, and returned 

XLIII And in his days lived the pious saint Ahmad walad el Turabi. 
And Badi reigned, honoured and respected, until his death in 1127^ 
after a reign of twenty-seven^ years. 

XLIV After him came to the throne his son Ounsa; and he gave 
himself up to frivolous amusement and the practice of immorality, 
until the news of his doings reached the Fung in the south, namely 
the troops of Lulu, and they determined to depose him, for it is they 
who depose and appoint whatever king they choose without any 

XLV And when they reached their decision they moved north- 
wards until they reached el Kabush near Sennar, and then appointed 
Nul to rule as king, and sent word to king Ounsa saying " If you put 
your vizier to death we will confirm you in your old position and not 
oppose you." Then Ounsa did as they bid him, and after some demur 
slew his vizier and sent the herald and some of the chief men ['omad] 
of Sennar to request forgiveness in accordance with their promise. 
But they paid no attention to these and maintained their resolve to 
depose him; and when he had abandoned all hope he begged for 
immunity for himself and his family, and this they granted him, and 
his reign came to an end. 

XLVI This was in 1130^, and he was the last of the line of Fung 
kings who belonged to the royal family. 

XLVII He was succeeded by King Nul, a connection of the Ounsab 
family on the mother's side. He did not belong to the stock of 
the kings who preceded him, but his appointment was merely agreed 
upon because he was a sensible man and an orthodox follower of the 
Faith. And indeed the common opinion of him was justified, for he 
showed himself just and steady in his conduct, and in his days the 
people had complete rest, so that they called him "El Nom" 
[" Sleep"] because he was so just. He reigned until his death in the 
eighth month of 1135'*. 

XLVIII After him ruled his son King Badi "Abu Shelukh"; and 
he was the last of the kings who were powerful, for at the close of his 
reign the Sheikhs of the Hamag overcame him, and the constitutional 
appointment of kings became a farce, and all power, whether of loosing 
or of binding, passed into the hands of the Hamag. 

XLIX Now the Hamag are a section of those Arabs who are descended 
from the Anwab [i.e. Nuba], or, as another account says, a branch of 

^ 1 71 5 A.D. 2 reading ty for ? r. 

^ 1718 A.D. 4 1723 A.D. 

IV. D7. Lvii. OF THE SUDAN 365 

the Ga'aliyyun el 'Awadia, who are of the seed of our lord el 'Abbas 
ibn 'Abd el Muttalib; but God knows best. 

L In the reign of Badi "Abu Shelukh" the Abyssinians advanced 
to the number of about 100,000, and the king made ready the troops 
of Islam against them with all their equipment and their arms com- 
plete, and begged the men of piety and learning to strive in prayer 
for the victory of Islam, and [appointed] over the army el Amin and 
some of the great men of the realm who were noted for their strength 
and skill. 

LI There also joined them Khami's, the chief of the Fur troops, with 
a large army ; and in command of the cavalry was Sheikh Muhammad 
Abu el Kaylak, the chief of the Hamag. 

LII Then they set forth with Islamic resolve and ardour, and the 
engagement took place east of the river Binder, near 'Agi'b, and a 
furious combat ensued, and men innumerable were slain; but God 
gave the victory to the troops of Islam and the Abyssinians suffered 
a terrible defeat. 

LI 1 1 And the Muhammadans took great booty and a quantity of 
rifles and cannon and tents and horses, etc., and the fame of this 
victory spread throughout the world of Islam, so that embassies 
came [to Sennar] from the Hegaz and el Sind and el Hind, and people 
[immigrated] from Upper Egypt and Morocco and settled there. 

And owing to the terror of this victory the Abyssinians never 
attacked or raided Sennar [again]. 

LIV [The news of] the victory of the Muhammadan troops also 
reached the [Sultan of] the Sultans of Islam and the Emperor of the 
mighty Emperors, and he rejoiced exceedingly, and his heart dilated 
with pleasure. 

LV After the victory the army returned to Sennar and held festivities 
and thanksgivings, and the king gave alms to the poor and needy and 
showed humility and abasement before God Almighty. 

LVI Now this battle befel in Safar el Khayr 1157^ 

LVII And King Badi reigned for a long time, and in the early and 
middle years of his reign he had a good and devout vizier who man- 
aged the afi^airs of state excellently until death overtook him, but 
then the king undertook the ruling of affairs, and his first act was to 
slay the remainder of the Ounsab ; and he changed many of the laws 
and the established customs, and invoked the aid of the Nuba, and 
appointed them chiefs in place of the old nobility, and consented to 
an evil policy of plunder and slaughter, even going so far as to con- 
nive at the murder of (?) the well-known man of learning el Khatib 

1 1744 a.d. 


'Abd el Latif. And, not content with the wrongs he inflicted himself, 
he let his sons also commit deeds of injustice and maHce. So in 
general the atrocities which he committed alienated the hearts of 
his people, and especially those of the Fung nobility and others. 

LVIII While things were thus he made ready a great army to fight 
the Musaba'at, and in command was his vizier Walad Toma, and 
among the chiefs was 'Abdulla walad 'Agib, and among the famous 
warriors was Sheikh Muhammad Abu el Kaylak. Thus he set forth 
with his army until he reached the Musaba'at, and a battle took 
place at a place called Kihayf in the year i i6o^, and the commander- 
in-chief Walad Toma and 'Abdulla walad 'Agib were killed and the 
army took to flight. But Sheikh Muhammad Abu el Kaylak rallied 
them and exhorted them and put strength into their hearts, and they 
returned and met the Musaba'at a second time, and a furious struggle 
ensued, and Shammam walad 'Agi'b and el 'Agayl his son were slain. 

LIX Then the king was informed of all that had taken place in 
both encounters and of the determination and patience of Sheikh 
Muhammad Abu el Kaylak and how he had rallied the soldiers, and 
he sent word appointing him commander-in-chief in Walad Toma's 

LX And when he had learnt of his appointment Abu el Kaylak 
returned to war against the Musaba'at and used all his endeavours 
until God gave him the victory over them and suffered him to turn 
them out of Kordofan ; and this was in the early part of the year. 

LXI Now there were with Abu el Kaylak a number of the Fung 
nobles, and news reached them that during their absence the king 
had ill-treated their dependants, so they came before Sheikh 
Muhammad and voiced their grievance against the king and asked 
for his consent to their deposing Badi and appointing another. And 
after discussion he consented to their plan and took up the matter 
in complete accord with them. 

LXI I The same day he struck camp and set out for Sennar with 
such troops and great men of the Fung, that is slaves of the king, 
as were with him. This was in 1174". And after he had crossed the 
White Nile he camped at el Is^ and sent to Nasir, the son of the Mek 
Badi, saying that if he came to him he would appoint him king. 

LXI II And Nasir came secretly to Sheikh Muhammad at el Is"*, 
and they took the [usual] oaths and assurances from him, and set out 
for Sennar taking him with them. 

LXIV On arriving there they besieged the Mek, and [finally] 

^ 1747 A.D. 2 j^5q ^ d 

^ reading ^j^)^ for v.^-JUb. ^ reading j^Jb for ^-sJ^W- 


granted him immunity for his person and safe conduct to Soba ; and 
he left Sennar in abasement. 

LXV And when they knew he had left they entered Sennar un- 
opposed and fulfilled their promise to the Mek Nasir and m.ade him 
king. This was in 1175^ 

LXVI In these days the power of the Fung dissolved and the power, 
whether of loosing or binding, passed to the Hamag, and Sheikh 
Muhammad Abu el Kaylak subdued the king and put to death num- 
bers of the great men of the Fung. 

LXVII And Mek Nasir remained Mek at Sennar until 1182^, but 
Sheikh Muhammad then deposed him and exiled him to the village 
of Bukera beyond el Tamayn. 

LXVIII After his expulsion the Mek Nasir sent to some of the 
Fung and asked their aid to make war upon Sheikh Muhammad ; so 
[the latter] sent his brother's son Badi walad Ragab and Ahmad 
walad Mahmud, the Sheikh of the Fuari, and a detachment of troops, 
and they came in unto [Nasir] and slew him ; and they had found him 
with the Kuran on his right hand and his prayer-mat on his left, for 
he was a learned man, and his handwriting was beautiful, God have 
mercy upon him ! 

LXIX Nasir's death was in 1182^, and thereupon Sheikh Muham- 
mad appointed his brother Isma'il, son of the Mek Badi, king at Sennar ; 
but all power remained in the hands of Sheikh Muhammad Abu 
el Kaylak. 

LXX And [Isma'il] removed abuses and acted justly by his people 
and treated well the men of religion, so that in return they prayed 
for him, and God blessed him in his lifetime and his seed after him. 

LXXI And in this year there befel a great famine, and it was known 
as '' Sannat el Kabsa'' ("The Year of Pressure"); and in 1185=^ the 
river rose to a great height, and likewise in 11 89"*. 

LXXII In 1190^ Sheikh Muhammad Abu el Kaylak died, may God 
have mercy upon him ! And Sheikh 'Adlan walad Subahi, the Sheikh 
of Khashm el Bahr, also ; and between these two there had been great 

Now [the latter] was a continent and temperate man, honourable 
and pious. 

LXXIII After the death of Sheikh Muhammad the Sheikhs ap- 
pointed Sheikh Badi walad Ragab, the son of Sheikh Muhammad's 
brother, and when this was done the Fung collected and came before 
the Mek Isma'il seeking to be reUeved of Sheikh Badi. But when 

1 1761 A.D. - 1768 a.d. ^ 1771 a.d. 

* 1775 a.d. (reading Ar for w). ^ 1776 a.d. (reading m^. for ^^^a.) 

368 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. d 7. lxxiii. 

Badi heard of this he exiled the Mek Isma'il to Suakin and put the 
Mek 'Adlan upon the throne in his stead. 

LXXIV And the viziership of Sheikh Badi was successful, and he 
treated the people justly and extended all the boundaries of the realm, 
and even surpassed his uncle Sheikh Muhammad in boldness and 
might and strength and bravery. 

LXXV In his days the Shukria Arabs rebelled, so he made ready 
his army and marched against them and killed Sheikh Abu 'AH, the 
Sheikh of the Shukria. 

LXXVI Then he sent Sheikh 'Agib walad 'Abdulla and Sheikh 
Kandalawi to Taka to make war upon the Halanka Arabs, and they 
did so, and Sheikh 'Agib and 'Isawi were killed. Kandalawi returned, 
but the Shukria opposed him on his way and slew him. This was 
in 1193^. 

LXXVII And Sheikh Badi remained at his home, the village of 
Rufa'a, east of the Nile, until the Shukria had been brought into 
subjection. And while there he beat Nasir the son of Sheikh 
Muhammad Abu el Kaylak violently with whips, and deposed 
Sheikh Muhammad el Amin and sent him to el Kerbayn; and he 
also deposed Sheikh Ahmad walad 'Ali^, the Sheikh of the district 
of Khashm el Bahr, and appointed [in his place] Subahi walad 

LXXVIII Then his cousins, the sons of Sheikh Muhammad, changed 
their attitude towards him on account of his having beaten their 
brother, and asked him for permission to go to Sennar for the treat- 
ment of the illness which had resulted to their brother from the 
beating. And he gave them leave, and when they reached Sennar 
they began plotting war and entered into an agreement with the Mek 
'Adlan and some of the great men of the Fung whose attitude Sheikh 
Badi had caused to change. 

LXXIX There also joined them Sheikh Ahmad walad 'Ali, the 
Sheikh of Khashm el Bahr district, and Sheikh Muhammad el Ami'n, 
the Sheikh of Kerri; and they all assembled at Sennar and made 
known their rebellion, hitherto covert, against Sheikh Badi, and took 
all the horses and arms they could find from the Arabs, and marched 
for el Dakhila against Sheikh Shanbul and Sheikh Subahi, whom 
Sheikh Badi had sent to collect the tribute of the Rufa'a Arabs. 

LXXX The forces met at el Dakhila and fought, and Sheikh 
Shanbul was killed and Sheikh Subahi taken prisoner alive, and all 
the horses and the arms that had been with them were captured. 

'^ 1779 A.D. 

- reading ^t, ^kt jj^ ,j^t».\ for ^w jJ^ j^-i^st^. 


LXXXI Now as soon as ever they had resolved upon rebellion the 
news thereof had reached Sheikh Badi, but he had not bothered 
himself until he heard that Sheikh el Ami'n walad 'Agib was privy 
to the plot, but hearing this he said "Now it is war," for he knew 
that Sheikh el Ami'n was a match for him in bravery and strength ; 
and he started at once and crossed the Nile and paused not, not even 
at Sennar, in his eagerness against them, until they met in battle. 

LXXXII The commander of his troops was his son, and after a 
fierce battle his army and his son fled ; and when he saw that he drew 
his sword and plunged into the [enemies'] army alone, and he asked 
every man he met [his name], and he would reply " So and so," and 
Badi would pass on, until finally there met him Sheikh el Amin, and 
when questioned [as to his name] the latter replied "Muhammad 
el Amin" ; and when Badi had made sure of this he struck him three 
blows, but they did him no hurt because his mail was strong and 
Sheikh Badi struck blindly from the excitement of his anger. 

LXXXIII Then Sheikh el Amin struck Badi a single and surer blow, 
for his sword was sharp and his knowledge of warfare complete, and 
Sheikh Badi tried to keep his balance upon his horse's back but could 
not, and fell to the earth. 

LXXXIV And lying thus he called for his uncle's sons, Ragab and 
Nasir and Idris and 'Adlan and their other brothers, that he might 
give them his last instructions. Then Sheikh Ahmad walad 'Ali said 
to him "Are you even yet alive?" and smote him on the mouth with 
his sword, and he died, 

LXXXV But when the sons of his uncle Abu el Kaylak came up 
they were exceedingly wroth with Sheikh Ahmad walad 'Ali for 
striking their brother as he lay on the ground, and thus were laid the 
foundations of the enmity between the sons of Abu el Kaylak and 
those of Ahmad. 

LXXXVI The death of Sheikh Badi was in 1194^, and he was suc- 
ceeded as Sheikh and vizier by Sheikh Ragab walad Muhammad, and 
the king, if he could be so called, was 'Adlan. 

LXXXVI I And Sheikh Ragab went to Kordofan and remained there 
besieging the mountains, and he sent his brother. Sheikh Nasir, with 
about 700 horsemen to the Gezira to give battle to Sheikh el Amin 
at el Hilalia, which lies east of the Blue Nile. 

LXXXVIII And when they came upon Sheikh el Amin he had with 
him only sixteen horsemen of his own family and slaves, but a fierce 
engagement took place and the troops of Sheikh Nasir were routed 
and driven into the river. 

1 1780 A.D. 
M.S. II 24 

370 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv.dt lxxxix. 

LXXXIX When Sheikh Nasir had established himself in the Gezi'ra 
he summoned Badi walad Mismar,the brother of Sheikh el Amin, and 
made him Sheikh in the place of his brother, 

XC This was in 1 198^ ; and when Sheikh el Amin learnt that it was 
the people of Arbagi by whose influence his brother Badi had been 
appointed, he betook himself to the Shukri'a and enlisted their aid, 
and with them attacked the town of Arbagi and put its fighting men 
and such as were scattered in diflE"erent parts to the sword, and razed 
it to the ground and left it desert, though it had been the fairest town 
in the Gezira, populous and prosperous in trade, with fine buildings 
and schools of learning and religion, inhabited by men of wealth and 
well stocked with provisions. But from that day forward it lay waste 
until now. 

XCI While all this was happening Sheikh Ragab was in Kordofan, 
and his brother Ibrahim, who was known as "Walad Salatin," at 
Sennar with the king, acting for his brother, in charge of all his 

XCII Then 'Adlan bethought himself of how the Hamag had 
treated his father the Mek Isma'il and his grandfather the Mek Badi, 
and sent for Sheikh el Amin and the Av/lad Nimr; and they came 
before him, and he mustered his courage and arrested Ibrahim walad 
Muhammad by their advice, for when he had sought their alliance 
they had said to him "We will not agree unless you arrest Ibrahim." 

XCIII So he arrested him and the Hamag v/ho were with him and 
Sheikh Ahmad walad 'Ali and el Zayn walad Harun and el Amin 
walad Tiktak and Walad Kandalawi and slew them all in the 
fdsher, that is in the market-place (suk). 

XCIV Then he fetched out the daughters of Sheikh Muhammad 
and distributed them to the chiefs of the troops as slaves. This was in 
1199^. Now el Na'isan, the famous poet, was living at Sennar at 
this time, and the king designed to put him to death because of his 
inclination towards the children of Abu el Kaylak, and menaced him 
with angry words; and he, seeing his death was intended, fled away 
to Kordofan ; and so soon as he saw Sheikh Ragab he wept and sobbed 
and recited a number of woeful elegies wherein he described the slay- 
ing of Ibrahim and the enslavement of the daughters of IVIuhammad. 

XCV And when Sheikh Ragab heard of the murder of his brother 
and learnt how he had been dishonoured, he set forth straightway 
with his troops; and there were with him the Malik Sa'ad ibn el Mek 
Idris walad el Fahl and el Hag Mahmud el Magdhiib, the worker of 

^ 1784 A.D. 2 jy3^ AD. 


XCVI And Ragab pushed forward until he reached the village of 
Shadli. And as they marched Sheikh Mahmud el Magdhub used to 
say " O Sennar the flames have come upon thee ! " and at times " The 
flood has quenched the flame!"; and on the eve of the battle he said 
"I and thou!" — referring to the [impending] death of himself and 
Sheikh Ragab. 

XCVII And the armies met at a place called el Teras and fought, 
and Sheikh Ragab and el Hag Mahmud were slain. 

XCVIII Now the sons of Sheikh Ragab were Muhammad and Doka 
and Badi and Hasan and 'Ali and Ibrahim and Kamatu. 

XCIX And it is said of el Hag Mahmud that after he had been 
buried the call to prayer used to be heard nightly at his tomb, for in 
his lifetime he was a muedhdhin ("one who calls to prayer"). 

C And when Sheikh Ragab had been killed his troops fled in dis- 
order and reached the village of 'Abud, and when they had camped 
there they were all of different minds and some said one thing and 
some another, but in the end they decided to scatter in flight. 

CI Then the feki Hegazi Abu Zayd sent to them and bade them be 
of good heart and promised them victory and said he would inspire 
them ; so they were reassured and made Sheikh Nasir walad Muham- 
mad their Sheikh. This was in 1202^. 

CII And Sheikh Nasir remained at el Tomat for two years and then 
moved to Taiba Kandalawi for a space. 

CIII Meanwhile King 'Adlan was being treated for his illness, and 
[on his recovery] he prepared a mighty host and appointed to com- 
mand it el Ami'n Rahma walad Katfawi, with whom were Muhammad 
walad Khamis Abu Rida and a number of the great men of the Fung. 

CIV The armies met at a place called Intarahna and a fierce battle 
followed. The troops of the king were routed, but among the Hamag 
was slain 'Ali walad Salatin, the son of Sheikh Muhammad and brother 
of Ibrahim, a man renowned for his bravery. 

CV And there was great slaughter among the troops of the Mek, 
and some of them were drowned in the river. And Sheikh Nasir's 
men pursued them and drove them into Sennar. Then the Mek was 
exceedingly sorry that he had not accompanied his troops in person, 
and so great was his grief that he sur\4ved but a few days and then 

CVI But Sheikh Nasir encamped with his army at el Labayh and 
closely besieged the Mek's troops, and the population fell into dire 
straits, so that finally the Mek's army sallied forth to give him battle; 
but they were discomfited before any fighting actually took place, 

1 1787 A.D. 

24 — 2 

372 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. d 7. cvi. 

and Nasir and his men entered Sennar and made great havoc there, 
and pursued the routed army to el SaH, and then returned. 

CVI I This was in 1203^, and from now onwards the Fung ceased 
to have any authority or leadership, and their king was quite power- 
less: in fact the kings were like prisoners in the hands of the Hamag, 
even as one of the 'Abbasid Khalifas said when their rule had fallen 
into decay and their power gone, "Ah! Is it not wonderful that one 
like myself should see even the least thing forbidden him, and, though 
the whole earth was once dependent upon him, have nought whatever 
of it in his hands?" 

CVIII And in the same year Sheikh Nasir appointed Awkal king, 
but after a short space he replaced him by Tabl, and proceeded with 
the latter northwards to fight against Sheikh el Ami'n and Abu Rida. 

CIX The armies met at a place near Shendi and Mek Tabl was 
slain and the Sheikh suffered a severe defeat. 

CX Then he appointed Badi king, and he too was killed at el Halfaya, 
and at the same time was killed Mek Rubat, the nominee of Sheikh 
el Amin and Abu Rida. Mek Hasab Rabbihi was then appointed, 
but he too died. 

CXI All this occurred in 1204^, and in the same year Sheikh Nasir 
returned to Sennar. 

CXII And in 1205^ Sheikh Muhammad el Amin walad Mismar 
was killed by Abu Rida because the former had severely flogged 
Sheikh 'Abdulla walad 'Agib. [Sheikh Muhammad] was residing at 
the village of Walad Ban el Nuka, and all his sons were away ; so when 
they saw him all alone they determined to kill him, but they dared 
not openly attack him because he was known to be a man of great 
bravery and courage. But they went to work secretly and climbed 
on to the top of his house and pulled off the roofing and stoned him 
from a distance until he was dead. 

CXIII The same year Sheikh Nasir made Nowwar king. And 
No\\'war remained at Sennar, and Sheikh Nasir perceived that he 
was a man of sagacity and strength, so he grew afraid of him and 
made haste to put him to death. 

CXIV He then appointed Mek Badi walad Tabl, who reigned until 
the time of the late Isma'il Pasha, the son of Effendina Muhammad 
'Ali Pasha. 

CXV Now at the time of his accession Mek Badi was very young, 
but as all the power [of the Fung kings] was now merged in that of 
the Hamag I have not mentioned the exact length of time [each 

' 1788 a.d. "^ 1789 a.d. ^ 1790 a.d. 


CXVI Sheikh Nasir was fond of amusement and play, and very 
capricious. It is even said that he never touched gold with his hand, 
excepting on one occasion, when it befel that one of his friends came 
to him and told him that he proposed going to the Hegaz ; and Nasir 
opened his coffer and filled both his hands with gold to give it to the 
man, and he intended the man to hold out the flap of his robe so that 
he might bestow upon him lavishly; but the man held out [only] his 
two hands, so Nasir gave him what was in his own hands and no more. 

CXVII And many tales are told of his generosity, and it is said that 
four kings who were all famous for their generosity lived at the same 
time, namely Nasir at Sennar, and the Sultan 'Abd el Rahman in 
Darfur, and Murad Bey in Egypt, and Ahmad Pasha el Gazar in 
Syria, and each of the latter three had a larger empire than Nasir. 

CXVIII And between him and el Hag Sulayman walad Ahmad 
existed complete friendship and trust, and when the latter came to 
him he used to honour him and bestow on him bountiful gifts; and 
he was, God have mercy on his soul, a man held in honour and 

CXIX Nasir continued in residence at Sennar, and Muhammad 
walad Khamis Abu Rida at el Turfaya, east of Sennar, paying no 
heed to Nasir but occasionally entering Sennar alone, by night and 
secretly, to have discourse with his friends, and then leaving it. 

CXX Things remained thus for some time, and in 1211^ Nasir 
crossed the river with his troops, accompanied by his brother 'Adlan, 
to attack Abu Ri'da ; and a fight ensued and Abu Rida was killed and the 
villages on the east bank were looted and laid waste. But with all his 
generosity Sheikh Nasir was an oppressor and held not his hand from 
taking the possessions of true believers, but enriched one man by 
impoverishing another. 

CXXI And in his time the feki Hegazi died of thirst in prison. A 
number also of the Hadarma were slain by the hand of his brother 
Husayn. But subsequently he turned upon this brother and seized 
all the possessions and herds he had. 

CXXII In his time, too, died the feki 'Abd el Rahman Abu Zayd, 
the pious and learned saint, and also that other holy man the feki 
Muhammad Nur Subr. 

CXXIII During the days of his rule, again, the Sultan Hashim 
walad 'Isawi and the sons of Sheikh el Amin, supported by Fezara 
and Beni Gerar, advanced into the Gezira; and Nasir went out 
against them and met them near Siru. And they came to terms and 
all returned to Sennar excepting the Beni Gerar, who went back 

1 1796 a.d. 

374 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. d 7. cxxiii. 

whence they came after Nasir had honoured them and given presents 
to their chiefs. 

CXXIV Now Sheikh Nasir had entrusted the management of the 
kingdom to his vizier el Arbab Dafa'alla, while he himself devoted 
his time to frivolity and amusement; and he had become infatuated 
with his slaves, and they took to oppressing the people without any 
hindrance from him, for he had given them orders that none of his 
brethren nor the chief men of the kingdom were to have access to 
him until they had applied to his vizier el Arbab Dafa'alla. 

CXXV And [the nobles] were thereby irritated, and the hearts of the 
people were alienated by the oppression they suffered; and his 
brethren for the same reasons threw off their allegiance to him and 
defied him. So they openly rebelled, and collected at 'Abud and 
thereabouts, and were joined by all those whose purpose it suited that 
Nasir's rule should come to an end. 

CXXVI This was in 1212^; and when Nasir learnt of it he went out 
to fight them, and camped at el Sabi'l and tried to win them over by 
the medium of men of learning and rank. He likewise sent to them 
their sisters the daughters of Abu el Kaylak; but they would have no 
truck with him at all on any condition save that he should resign the 
sheikhship. And when he saw there was no hope of winning them 
back to allegiance he returned to Sennar; and his brethren quitted 
'Abud and followed him until they reached el Bukera, a village near 
Sennar. And when Nasir saw they were at el Bukera he took some of 
his treasures and fled to the southern districts by night. And news of 
his flight reached them the following morning, and on receipt of it 
they entered Sennar. 

CXXVII Then Idris remained at Sennar, and 'Adlan followed in 
[Nasir's] tracks as far as the village of Si'ru, which lies west of the 
Nile, but failed to overtake him, and, hearing that he had made for 
Deberki on the river Binder, and despairing of coming up with him, 
he returned to Sennar. 

CXXVIII And Nasir remained near Deberki for a time and then 
moved northwards to seek protection with Sheikh 'Abdulla walad 

CXXIX And when Nasir arrived Sheikh 'Abdulla gave him pro- 
tection, and he stayed with him at el Halfaya, and after a while he 
crossed the Nile and took up his abode at the village of 'Abud. 

CXXX But when his brethren heard of his whereabouts they set 
forth from Sennar and went to the village of Abu Haraz, which lies 
east of the Nile, and camped there. And Idri's remained at Abu 

^ 1797 A.D. 

IV. D 7. cxxxviii. OF THE SUDAN 375 

Haraz and sent on 'Adlan with his slaves and some of the troops, but 
he took the precaution of including no Hamag or Fung among them 
for fear of disaffection. 

CXXXI And when el Arbab Dafa'alla, the vizier of Nasir, got the 
news of 'Adlan and the dissension among the troops, he took his 
helmet off his head and went to meet 'Adlan 's army and sought peace 
for himself. 

CXXXII And Nasir was captured without any bloodshed and taken 
back by 'Adlan to Abu Haraz and handed over to Subahi walad Badi 
to be slain in revenge for the slaying of the latter's father Badi walad 
Ragab. And Subahi slew him and buried him at Abu Haraz close by 
the tomb of Sheikh Dafa'alla el 'Araki, This was in the early part of 

CXXXIII Idris was then chosen to be Sheikh. He was a patient 
and brave man, kind of heart and just to the people, and by nature he 
loathed thieves and never inflicted upon them any other punishment 
than death, so that in his days the crime of theft w^as stamped out, and 
men left their possessions and their wares spread out in the market- 
place all night and all day with no one to guard them, and yet nothing 
whatever was taken, and there was no fear unless it were that a dog 
might take some meat. 

CXXXIV And complete contentment reigned, and Idri's was assisted 
by his brother 'Adlan in organizing his kingdom and quelling such 
Arab tribes as were rebellious and seditious; and indeed 'Adlan 
undertook no expedition but he returned victorious. 

CXXXV Most of their efforts were directed against the nomad Arabs 
with a view to weakening their power of revolt, and in consequence 
the inhabitants of the villages enjoyed a period of peace. 

CXXXVI Among the viziers of Idris were el Arbab Kurashi and 
el Arbab Zayn el 'Abdin walad el Sayyid el feki 'Abd el Gelil w^alad 
'Amir and the feki el Ami'n walad el 'Asha, but he did not entrust them 
with the management of his kingdom as his brother Sheikh Nasir 
had entrusted it to his vizier el Arbab Dafa'alla, preferring to direct 
affairs himself. 

CXXXVII In consequence his position w^as strengthened, as the poet 
has it of a man who does his work in person. . .(a few verses follow). 

CXXXVIII Then, when everything had been settled. Sheikh Idris 
went in person to el Halfaya, towards the close of 1214-, to war upon 
Sheikh 'Abdulla walad 'Agib on account of certain words the latter 
had been reported as having uttered in favour of their brother Sheikh 

1 1798 A.D. ^ 1799 A.D. 

376 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. d 7. cxxxix. 

CXXXIX And the armies met and a fierce battle ensued, until 
finally Sheikh 'AbduUa walad 'Agib was slain and his troops routed. 

CXL Then Sheikh Idris offered them peace and appointed over 
them Sheikh Nasir walad el Ami'n, who was still in power in the time 
of the late-lamented, the dweller in Paradise. 

CXLI Now Sheikh 'Abdulla was a just ruler, an ardent follower of 
the faith and an observer of the Kuran ; and during his rule he ordered 
that when women were married smaller dowries should be paid, and 
the result was an increase in the number of marriages and conse- 
quently of births. 

CXLII It was he, too, who bade everyone in the market, even the 
butchers, when they heard the call to prayer, to assemble at the mosque 
for public worship ; and this became a general custom and continued 
even after his death. 

CXLIII Among his praiseworthy acts, again, was the extirpation of 
the robbers who were known as "el 'Akalit": he caught them band 
by band and cut off their heads, and so stamped out theft and robbery 
in his days. 

CXLIV Sheikh Idris remained at el Halfaya and sent his brother 
'Adlan with a troop of soldiers to the neighbourhood of Shendi, and 
'Adlan, on reaching Walad Ban el Nuka, wrote to the Mek Muham- 
mad walad Nimr promising to sanction his appointment as king of the 
country of the Ga'aliyyun, — for the Mek Sa'ad had died. 

CXLV And when the letter reached the Mek Muhammad walad 
Nimr he was surprised at it and forgot how he and his brothers had 
acted in the time of King 'Adlan the Fungowi in the matter of en- 
slaving the daughters of Muhammad Abu el Kaylak, for in the hour 
of his fate he was blinded. 

CXLVI So he and a number of his brothers and cousins and his son 
Idris, who was still small, went out [to meet 'Adlan] ; but Sa'ad and 
Nimr refused to go with them and fled away by themselves. 

CXLVII And when King Muhammad and his brothers and cousins 
and his son Idris presented themselves, ['Adlan] imprisoned all of 
them, and Mek Muhammad died in prison from the grievous weight 
of chains heaped upon him. And as for the Mek's son Idris, his 
mother came and ransomed him for 300 wukias of gold. But of 
the rest of the prisoners only el Fahl was released, and he only at the 
intercession of el Hag Sulayman walad Ahmad. 

CXLVIII 'Adlan then started for el Halfaya with the other captives, 
keeping Nimr and his companions, who offered no resistance, sur- 
rounded; but when it was dark Nimr and his companions escaped. 

CXLIX Then the chiefs of the Magadhib intervened to the end 


that 'Adlan should return to Shendi; and at Shendi he appointed 
Musa'ad as Mek, and, this done, returned to his brother Sheikh Idris 
at el Halfaya with the rest of the captive Awlad Nimr. And after he 
had reached el Halfaya and met his brother they proceeded to Sennar 
and there executed the prisoners. 

CL In 1216^ war broke out between the Mek Nimr and the Mek 
Musa'ad, and this war was called "The war of the 'Awalib," and 
during its course 'Adlan went west and fought with the Mek 'fsawi 
and defeated him and brought him back captive to Sennar, where he 
died in prison. 

CLI In 1217^ occurred the war of the Batahin and the Shukria, 
and Sheikh 'Awad el Keri'm Abu Sin, Sheikh of the Shukria Arabs, 
was killed. 

CLII In the same year died el Hag Nasir walad Matassi, a man of 
piety, and also the feki Misri walad Kandil, a student of the Kuran 
and a pious man ; and also Sheikh Yusef the son of Sheikh Muham- 
mad walad el Terayfi. He too was a pious man, and the feki Ahmad 
walad el Taib and others composed elegies upon him. 

CLIII We will now return to the history of the Sheikh. The his- 
torian states that Sheikh Idris followed in the steps of his father 
Muhammad Abu el Kaylak in justice and beneficence until he died 
in the month of Gemdd el Akhir 1218^. 

CLIV He was succeeded in the Sheikhship by his brother 'Adlan, 
but the latter neglected his kingdom and exercised no vigilance in its 
affairs and gave himself up to pleasure. But he only ruled for the 
rest of Gemdd and Ragab and Sha'abdn, and on the i6th of Ramaddn 
he was slain. 

CLV And the manner of his death was thus. As soon as he became 
distracted from the affairs of state and ceased to give his attention to 
them, his foes roused themselves, and their ambitions were excited. 
The first to make a plot for his downfall was Muhammad walad 
Ragab walad Muhammad, who conspired with Kamtur and the Mek 
Ranfi and some of the Fung and some of Sheikh 'Adlan's own 
entourage. These dared not yet openly proclaim their revolt, but lay 
quiet awaiting an opportunity; and finally God willed the consum- 
mation of their hopes, for Muhammad walad Nasir "Abu Rish," 
who was in great need of corn, moved from the village of el Kubr; 
and this man had had a brother named 'Ali, who was bold and reck- 
less and used to abuse roundly all that 'Adlan did, and it was said 
— and God knows the truth — that 'Adlan had poisoned him : so then 
*'Abu Rish" left el Kubr and joined Muhammad walad Ragab and 
1 i8oi a.d. 2 1802 A.D. ^ 1803 A.D. 


the others who have been mentioned above, and their hearts were 
fortified and their backs strengthened because of their knowledge of 
the temerity and enterprise of Muhammad " Abu Rish " in all matters 
of difficulty. Now on the night agreed upon by the conspirators 
'Adlan was being wed to the daughter of Walad Guma'a and was 
filled with happiness and joy, and there was with him a clever man 
to whom news had come of the conspiracy, and this man quoted to 
him the following lines as a warning against being taken unawares . . . 
(two lines of poetry follow : the author then recounts hov/ 'Adlan was none 
the less surprised and wounded, but got on his hoi'se and rode off with 
his son Muhammad, but fell dead at Sennar from his wounds). . .And 
when the conspirators received news of this they went thither [to 
Sennar] and bore him into a compound that belonged to him and 
buried him there. 

CLVI Then King Ranfi and Sheikh Kamtur and Muhammad walad 
Nasir all agreed to the appointment of Muhammad walad Ragab, and 
he was made Sheikh, but the real power lay with Muhammad "Abu 

CLVI I And the Mek Ranfi and Sheikh Kamtur and Walad Ragab ^ 
and Muhammad "Abu Rish" all remained at Sennar, but they were 
no longer of one mind, and, as God Almighty said, " You deem them 
to be together hut their hearts are far apart." 

CLVIII And the month of Ramadan, in the middle of which 'Adlan 
had been slain, had not passed before they were at open enmity. The 
Kamati'r {i.e. family of Kamtur) formed one party and the sons of 
Muhammad [walad Nasir "Abu Rish"] the other, and they came to 
blows . . . (the author gives details of the fighting : Muhammad walad 
Nasir and Muhammad walad Ragab were ranged against Kamtur; KamtQr 
proved victorious; Walad Ragab was imprisoned at Sennar; Walad Nasir 
was wounded; and Kamtur's followers took to looting at Sennar. Then 
the 'Ulema tried to effect a reconciliation and Kamtur w^as persuaded to 
return the loot and release Muhammad walad Ragab, but Muhammad 
walad Nasir "Abu Rish" refused the overtures and gave battle to Kamtur, 
late in 1218^, and drove him across the river). . . . 

CLIX And when Walad Nasir had won the victory he entered 
Sennar and put to death the feki el Amin walad el 'Asha, the vizier 
of his uncle Sheikh Idris. 

CLX And the sheikhship was confirmed to his cousin Muhammad 
walad Ragab in name, but in actual fact [Muhammad "Abu Rish"] 
directed affairs entirely. 

CLXI And [the latter] prepared to reside at Kassala, but when all 
was quiet again and the fighting had ceased, he entered Sennar and 

^ reading w*.^ jjj^ for w^j jJ_c. 2 J803 a.d. 


put to death the Mek Ranfi and sent for the Mek Badi, whom his 
uncle, Sheikh Idri's, had deposed, and appointed him king. And Badi 
remained king until the coming of the late Isma'i'l Pasha the son of 

CLXII And in this same year 1218^ died the famous and learned 
feki 'Ali Bakadi. 

CLXIII Then Sheikh Kamtur gathered together such of his family 
and relatives as remained with him and set out for Khashm el Bahr, 
that is the east bank of the Nile, and settled there until the year '19^, 
and in the latter part of that year he moved northwards. 

CLXIV And when Walad Ragab heard of this he had Kamtur pur- 
sued until he was forced to cross the Nile. And Kamtur stopped at 
Omdurman, and the 'Ulema and men of rehgion intervened and pre- 
vented Muhammad's people [from touching Kamtur], so they re- 
turned to el Gedid, while Kamtur crossed over to the east bank and 
went back. 

CLXV Meanwhile, Walad Ragab was camped at Walad Medani, and 
Walad Nasir went to Kassala [and stayed there] till the beginning of 

CLXVI Then Walad Ragab and Walad Nasir fell out until they 
came to be actually at war, and their forces met at a place called 
el Haraba and attacked each other, and the feki Zayn el 'Abdi'n walad 
el Sayyid was killed, and Walad Ragab was routed and driven to 
el 'Aylafun, But Walad Nasir, instead of pursuing him, went home to 
Kassala and appointed as Sheikh his uncle Sheikh el Husayn walad 
Muhammad, while he himself with his slaves remained at Kassala 
enjoying and amusing himself. 

CLXVII And Walad Ragab entered into correspondence with Sheikh 
Kamtur and the family of Sulayman ("Awlad Sulayman"), and 
Sheikh Kamtur and his brethren came and camped at Abu Haraz, 
and with them the Awlad Sulayman and the Awlad Shanbul, except- 
ing Sheikh 'Adlan; and Walad Ragab met them there, and they 
entered into a compact to war upon Walad Nasir, and appointed as 
their king one called 'Agban. 

CLXVIII (The author describes how in the middle of the year both Walad 
Nasir and his brother died suddenly on the same day. The slaves of Walad 
Nasir and of [his uncle] 'Adlan [walad Muhammad Abu el Kaylak] then 
fell to quarrelling together, as Walad Nasir had only left a small son and 
'Adlan's slaves preferred their master's son Muhammad. The two factions 
fought and 'Adlan's slaves fled and joined Muhammad Walad Ragab and 
Kamtur. With this new addition to his forces Walad Ragab then attacked 

1 1803 A.D. ^ 1804 A.D. 

^ 1806 A.D, (reading \cv» for \T.r). 

380 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. d 7. clxviii. 

Walad Nasir's slaves, but he was defeated at Taiba Kandalawi and el Hag 
Sulayman walad Ahmad was killed. Walad Ragab then fled to 'Aylafun 
and Kamtur to Abu Haraz, and Walad Nasir's slaves retired again to 
Kassala, via the village of Walad el Magdhub, and made one Tayfara their 

CLXIX And among the sons of their masters the slaves had with 
them Muhammad walad Ibrahim walad Muhammad Abu el Kaylak; 
and when they were returning after their victory this man asked their 
leave to make a raid on [the] Bakkara, and they gave him leave: so 
he parted [from them at] Walad el Magdhub and raided [the] Bak- 
kara and took some spoil, which he sent to the slaves at Kassala. 

CLXX Then he met [the] Fezara and entered into league with chem 
to fight the slaves and accompanied them to el Khartoum, where they 
looted as they willed and slew Ibrahim ibn el feki Muhammad walad 
Ali, the khalifa of the. feki Arbab. 

CLXXI Muhammad walad Ibrahim then went to 'Abud and stayed 
there. The slaves meanwhile remained at Kassala in impiety and 
drunkenness and villainy; and all power, for loosing or for binding, 
was in their hands for eight months. 

CLXXII (The author then tells how Muhammad walad Ibrahim was joined 
by many of the notables and made his plans. The slaves being apprised of 
this went to Sennar and put the family of Ragab in chains and took them 
to Kassala. Muhammad then attacked them and killed a number and 
captured the rest. He put all the prisoners to death excepting Tayfara, 
who during his brief rule had done no harm in word or deed.) 

CLXXIII Thus the power passed to Walad Ibrahim, and he resided 
at Taiba Kandalawi for a time and then moved to Um Daraysa. 

CLXXIV Meanwhile Muhammad walad Ragab had been at el 'Ayla- 
fun, but he now moved to Abu Haraz and looted the Fadnia Arabs. 

CLXXV Then the 'Arakiyyun came to him and told him that the 
loot had not belonged to the Fadnia but to themselves. He, however, 
refused their request and reviled them, wherefore they named him 
"The Rough-tongued," and affairs came to such a pass that he at- 
tacked them and slew Sheikh Dafa'alla walad el Samuta and Abu 
'Akla ibn el Sheikh Yusef, though he had but few troops with him; 
and his victory was so complete that they fell into^ the grain pits 
{mapnura) and hid therein and were put to the extreme of 

CLXXVI Then Sheikh Muhammad walad Ragab relented and left 
the 'Arakiyyun and went towards el Turfaya to meet Sheikh Kamtur 
and seek his protection, and Kamtur accorded it him because of the 
fear of Walad Ibrahim that was in his heart; or rather, as soon as 

^ reading t«.JaLftw for \yL^. 



ever Walad Ibrahim made representations to him, he seized him 
[Walad Ragab] and sent him to him [Walad Ibrahim]. And when he 
arrived Walad Ibrahim handed him over to Muhammad walad 'Adlan 
to be slain in revenge for his father ['Adlan]. So he was put to death, 
God have mercy upon him ! 

CLXXVII And when Walad Ibrahim had settled his affairs and got 
all the power into his own hands he rested awhile without any quarrels ; 
but on hearing that Muhammad walad 'Adlan had entered into an 
agreement with el Arbab Dafa'alla walad Ahmad and the feki Medani 
walad el 'Abbas and others to attack him and throw off his sway, he 
seized the feki Medani and put him to death; but el Arbab Dafa'alla 
received news of the execution and fled eastwards to Saba'a Dolib. 

CLXXVIII Then Walad Ibrahim, with his vizier el Arbab Kurashi 
and a body of his men, went to the village of Walad Baha el Din and 
sent for Muhammad walad 'Adlan from the village of Borku; and 
when he arrived Walad Ibrahim and his vizier Kurashi took him 
into the khahva, that is the place of worship of that pious man, 
and Kurashi began addressing him with rude and offensive words. 
Walad 'Adlan, however, replied in conciliatory and gentle terms, so 
finally Walad Ibrahim bade his brother cut his throat. 

CLXXIX Now the slaves of Nasir who were following Walad 
Ibrahim were standing outside the khalwa, and as soon as they 
heard the "cut his throat" they cast earth upon the heads of the 
slaves of 'Adlan, who had come with Muhammad walad 'Adlan, and 
the latter at once drew their swords and took up their position at the 
door of the khalwa. And the slaves of Walad Ibrahim and the 
slaves of Nasir wavered, for they were not averse to the appointment 
of [Walad] 'Adlan and detested Walad Ibrahim on account of his 
having handed over the charge of affairs to Kurashi. And the slaves 
of 'Adlan demanded Walad Ibrahim from them and threatened them 
and frightened them by saying they would loose their master Walad 
Ibrahim upon them or else burn them and him together in a fire. 

CLXXX And Kurashi was very nervous and blustered greatly and 
showed his disquietude and fear ; and finally they brought out Walad 
'Adlan ; and Walad 'Adlan saw the gulfs of death yawning before him 
and was terrified, and his breath was choked with the imminence of 
the destruction that was upon him, and he stood fascinated. 

CLXXXI Now the horse of Walad Ibrahim with the king's capari- 
sons upon it was standing near, and Abu Sulayman the slave of 'Adlan 
shouted to him [Walad 'Adlan] "Why are you stupified.? Mount the 
mare and plunge your sword into the hearts of these dogs who wished 
to kill you ! " And when Walad 'Adlan heard him and realised what 

382 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. d 7. clxxxi. 

was before him he sprang upon the mare as it stood and drew his 

CLXXXII Then the slaves of Nasir at once gathered round him, 
and he regained his confidence and ordered them to fetch out Walad 
Ibrahim and Kurashi from the khalzva after taking away from 
them their swords. And the soldiers rallied to Walad 'Adlan and 
took Walad Ibrahim and his vizier Kurashi to the village of Borku; 
and on arrival [Walad 'Adlan] at once slew Kurashi, in accordance 
with the wishes of Nasir's slaves who were following him, and 
proceeded to Sennar accompanied by all the soldiers, and there 
imprisoned Walad Ibrahim in the house of his father's sister 

CLXXXIII This all occurred in 1223^, and the rule of Walad Ibrahim, 
which had lasted for sixteen months beginning from Ragab '23 ['22.''], 
came to an end; and the power passed to Muhammad walad 'Adlan, 
who slew all the sons of Ragab except Hasan, who was in the end 
destined to cause his death. 

CLXXXIV He also put to death Muhammad walad el Sheikh Idri's, 
and many people who rebelled against him, and Muhammad walad 
Ibrahim who had been held captive near el Manakil, and then he 
went in the direction of the White Nile and collected the remnant 
of the slaves of Nasir and a young son of his and slew them all. . . 
(The author adds further remarks as to the severe measures taken by 
Walad 'Adlan to consolidate his power) . . . 

CLXXXV And in the days of Walad 'Adlan, in '24^, an epidemic 
was caused by yellow fever, and many people perished; and this 
illness was called by the natives '' el kik," and among the notables 
who succumbed to it was el Hag Muhammad walad Nurayn of the 
stock of Sheikh Hamid walad Abu 'Asa, and the feki Muhammad 
Nurayn of el Halfaya, the author of the Biographies {lit. series) of 
the Saints of the Sudan (" Tabakdt el Awliyd bVl Suddn"), who was 
mourned by Sheikh Ibrahim 'Abd el Dafa'i in a very beautiful elegy 
of about twelve lines, beginning as follows: "Let the eye weep all 
its days with grief for the running of the river dry. He was rich in 
learning, a pontiff and son of a pontiff, a guest of God's own. Verily 
he has won prestige and glory in the earth." 

CLXXXVI Early in 1225^ Muhammad 'Adlan moved northwards to 
war against Sheikh Nasir walad el Amin, and the latter heard of his 
coming and fled to Shendi. And Walad 'Adlan reached el Halfaya 
and stayed there awhile accompanied by the Mek Badi and his uncle 
Sheikh Husayn and all his troops. 

1 1808 A.D. 2 1809 A.D. 3 181OA.D. 


CLXXXVII Then he returned to Sennar without having fought. 
In '26^ occurred a war between the Sa'adab and the Gimi'ab in 
which was killed el Arbab Banuka [i.e. Ban el Nuka], a brave and 
noble and pious man; and a number of his cousins fell with him, and 
the remainder took to flight ; and as a result of this war the power of 
the Gimi'ab was greatly enhanced and their heads were raised over 
the kings of the Gamu'ia and Walad 'Agib. 

CLXXXVIII In '272 Walad 'Adlan set out to collect tribute from 
the Rufa'a Arabs in the vicinity of Gebel Moya; and el Labayh fled 
from him but was pursued by the troops and overtaken, and some of 
his people were killed and much booty taken. 

CLXXXIX In '28^ Walad 'Adlan went to el Turfaya and stayed 
there awhile, and there came to him Sheikh Khalifa with a certain 
Effendi. And in the same year there appeared a comet, which was 
followed by a severe famine; and that year was called "The Year of 
Hardship" ['' Sannat el Gibis"]. 

CXC In '29'* died Sheikh Hasan ibn el Sheikh 'Abd el Rahman 
walad Ban el Nuka. He was the possessor of a library of books, all 
of which were lost at the time of Nimr's revolt in the Turkish days. 
There also died the pious el Hag Dafa'alla walad DayfuUa this year 
at el Halfaya. . . 

CXCI (The author describes how in the same year Walad 'Adlan, who 
was at 'Abud, prepared to attack Nasir walad 'Agib, the 'Abdullabi, at el 
Halfaya. Ke was interrupted by news that the Mek Badi was starting from 
Sennar against him and had enhsted the Kamati'r, i.e. the Awlad Kamtur, 
to assist him. Walad 'Adlan therefore turned south and besieged the Mek, 
but a friendly agreement was soon reached and Walad 'Adlan visited the 
Mek at Sennar and was received with due honour. In 1231^ Walad 'Adlan 
resumed the offensive against Nasir walad 'Agib and replaced him by 
Nasir walad 'Abdulla. This however was only a temporary move, as, on 
his return to Sennar, Walad 'Adlan ordered the reinstatement of Nasir 
walad 'Agib.). . . 

CXCII And in 1232^ the most learned and pious Sherif, the noble 
el Sayyid Muhammad 'Othman el Mirghani el Mekki, visited Sennar 
and met its rulers and called upon all men to follow his tarika; 
but only a few people did so, and the rulers paid no heed to him but 
wished to test him by examination ; so they brought forward the feki 
Ibrahim walad Bakadi, one of the most brilliant of the 'Ulefna, to 
examine him. And the feki Ibrahim arrived at Sennar with a racking 
headache, and the pain increased until he died, — and this before he 
had ever met the Sherif. 

I1811A.D. 2 j3j2A.D. 31813A.D. 

^ 1814A.D. ^ 1816A.D. ^ 1817A.D. 


So the Sherif left Sennar; and at that time his age was twenty- 
five years. 

CXCIII In 1233^ there was a very high Nile and the village of 
el Bashakira on the east bank was swept away. This Nile was known 
as "The Nile of Abu Sin" because Hammad^, the son of Sheikh 
'Awad el Kerim Abu Sin, was killed the same year by the Batahi'n^. 
And the latter took refuge with the Mek Nimr, and Sheikh Muham- 
mad Abu Sin advanced against them with all his Arabs in a great 
army and prepared to make war on Mek Nimr. But the 'Ulenia and 
religious Sheikhs intervened and prevented their fighting, so they 
returned to their own country. 

CXCIV In 1234^ el Arbab Muhammad walad Dafa'alla walad 
Sulayman was treacherously murdered by Muhammad walad 'Adlan 
in order that he might marry his widow, who was very beautiful. 

CXCV In 1235^ Walad 'Adlan plotted the death of Kamtur in re- 
venge for his father's death. . . 

(The author tells how Walad 'Adlan fell suddenly upon Kamtur, who 
was almost undefended, and slew him and the feki Ahmad walad el Taib. 
He then returned to Sennar rejoicing at having now achieved his revenge 
on all who had participated in his father's death. Kamtur's brothers then 
appointed Derrar as Sheikh in place of Kamtur and, in 1236^, while Walad 
'Adlan was out collecting tribute from the Arabs, they attacked him by 
night in the house where he was. They were, however, detected by Walad 
'Adlan's men and a fight ensued in which the latter lost heavily. Aided 
by the darkness Walad 'Adlan and his women broke through the wall of 
the house and escaped, and meanwhile great confusion prevailed among the 
combatants. In the morning, when it was light, the scattered forces of 
both parties reassembled and the fight was continued.). . . 

CXCVI And the party of Walad 'Adlan was victorious, and sent 
tidings of the victory after him; but he paid no heed, for he was con- 
sumed with shame at his flight. However el Arbab Dafa'alla walad 
Ahmad Hasan, who had been one of those who stayed behind and 
brought the news of the victory, had speech with him and told him 
"There was no fighting like that which took place while you were 
there," and " They were only routed by fear of you," so that Walad 
'Adlan was reassured by skilful arguments and took his men and went 
to Sennar. 

CXCVII And after they had settled down at Sennar certain tidings 
reached them of the advance of Isma'i'l Pasha the son of Effendina 
into their country ; and they were thrown into great perturbation, and 

^ 1 818 A.D. - reading jl^a. for 

^ reading ,j-ja.llaj for ^^t^-lkrw..!. ^ 1819A.D. 

^ 1820 A.D. « 1821 A.D. 


each man began to look after his own interests, and the soldiers 
scattered in the attempt to prepare themselves for eventualities, so 
that Muhammad walad 'Adlan was left at his village with only el 
Arbab Dafa'alla walad Ahmad and a few men. 

CXCVIII Then Hasan walad Ragab seized his opportunity and fell 
upon Walad 'Adlan by night with only five horsemen and a few of his 
relatives, and broke open the door and entered his house. And 
Walad 'Adlan came out and fought fiercely against them alone, and 
three times he repulsed them, but finally one of the relatives [of 
Hasan Ragab] struck him and cleft his leg while his attention was 
elsewhere. And when he collapsed they fell upon him with their 
swords and dispatched him and buried him in his house. 

CXCIX Now the days of Walad 'Adlan were days of prosperity 
excepting only the " Year of Hardship " ; and after his death they had 
no settled rule, and their councils were divided, and they fought 
among themselves in revenge, and scattered, and broke away from 
all control ; but glory be to Him v/hose kingdom has no end and whose 
rule is everlasting ! 

CC Now as regards the Sheikhs of Khashm el Bahr, among them 
was Sheikh 'Adlan walad Subahi who vv^as with Sheikh Muhammad 
Abu el Kaylak and died a few days after him. 

CCI After him his brother's son, Sheikh Ahmad walad el Sheikh 
Kamtur, succeeded. 

ecu He was deposed by Sheikh Badi walad Ragab, who appointed 
Subahi walad 'Adlan in his place. 

CCIII Then Sheikh Ahmad, who had been deposed, succeeded 
again and remained in power until Sheikh 'Adlan deposed him, 

CCIV After him ruled Sheikh Muhammad Kamtur, who was killed 
by Walad 'Adlan. He was a gentle man, who never showed anger nor 
was insolent nor abusive ; but if his anger was aroused he would curse 
the Devil. He had numerous brothers, all of whom were noble of 
character and withal brave and generous and well versed in their 

CCV And Sheikh Kamtur was succeeded by one of them, namely 
his brother Sheikh Derrar, in whose days the period of their eminence 
came to an end. 

CCVI Of the successive rulers among the AwlAd 'Agib and the 
kings of the Sa'adab I have no knowledge. 

CCVII The kings of the Fung who were possessed of power began 
with 'Omara Dunkas and ended with the Mek Badi walad Nul, and 
after the reign of the latter all power, whether of loosing or of binding, 
was in the hands of Sheikh Muhammad Abu el Kaylak and his family 

M.S. II 25 

386 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv.dt.ccvii. 

until '36^ Then Muhammad walad 'Adlan was slain and their influ- 
ence ceased and they no longer directed affairs, and it was even as 
Sheikh Idri's walad el Arbab had said, " In the end they will be divided 
and fight- among themselves and their rule will disappear and the 
Turks will conquer the country." So, too, the feki Hegazi walad Abu 
Zayd, of the family of Sheikh Idris, foretold by shaking letters together 
that the days of the sons of Muhammad [Abu el Kaylak] would end 
with Muhammad walad 'Adlan. 

CCVIII Now after the death of Walad 'Adlan dissension was rife, 
and they continued quarrelling during Ragah and Sha'abdn until the 
country passed under the sway of Effendi'na Isma'il Pasha, the son 
of the late Muhammad 'Ali Pasha. 

CCIX Now [Isma'il Pasha] arrived in the latter part of Sha'abdn 
and camped on the west [bank] opposite el Halfaya; and Sheikh 
Nasir walad el Amin met him and submitted to him and was granted 
peace and presented with a splendid robe and left in his own country ; 
but Isma'il Pasha took with him on his march to Sennar Nasir's son 
el Amin and the kings of the Sa'adab, namely the Meks Nimr and 
jVIusa'ad. And he camped with all his forces and the boats which 
were accompanying him by river at Omdurman. Then he crossed 
the river and camped at el Khartoum, and was met hy the feki Muham- 
mad walad 'Ali, the khalifa of the feki Arbab, and treated him with 
honour and granted him peace ; and he did not stretch forth his hand 
against the districts which he crossed excepting only to obtain pro- 

CCX And [Isma'il Pasha] started from el Khartoum for Sennar on 
the last day of Sha'abdn, accompanied by the Kddi Muhammad el 
Assiuti, and el Sayyid Ahmad el Baghli, the Mufti of the Shafa'ites 
of the Sudan, and el Sayyid Ahmad el Salawi, the Mufti of the 
Sayyids of the Maliki sect, and camped at a village west of el Mesal- 
lami'a. Here he was met by some of the notables and granted them 
peace; and, after he had started, there met him Ragab walad 'Adlan 
and el Arbab Daia'alla walad Ahmad and tendered their submission, 
and to these also he granted peace and gave robes as he had done 
previously in the case of the kings of the Ga'aliyyun. 

CCXI And before he reached Sennar the Mek Badi and some of 
the Hamag came and tendered their submission. . . 

(The author mentions that honours and presents were heaped upon 
Badi and his nobles by Isma'il, who entered Sennar on the 12th oi Ramadan. 
A proclamation was then issued nullifying all complaints based on events 
previous to the conquest. Isma'il acted with the utmost fairness and won 

^ 1821 A.D. 1 reading (J^'aj for ^j^\ja2j. 


all hearts by his justice, "for he heard the plaint of the poor man in person 
without any intermediary." Ragab vvalad 'Adlan was then sent with troops 
to chase Hasan walad Ragab, and caught him and brought him and some 
of his supporters back as prisoners : several of the latter were put to death 
at Sennar.) . . . 

CCXII Then he sent Muhammad Sa'id Effendi with a force of 
soldiers and Sheikh Rahma walad Rahala against Mek Idris el Mih- 
ayna, the Mek of the Gamu'ia, because the latter had not met him 
and he had heard of his looting villages. And they came upon him 
at his house on the White Nile and slew him and took his possessions 
and returned to Sennar. 

CCXII I And, when affairs were settled satisfactorily, the first taxes 
were imposed by the issue of an order for the classification of houses ^ 
[into three groups, namely] high, medium and smaller. Then he had 
lists made of slaves and flocks but did not impose any tax upon them ; 
and he took nothing from the country except fodder for his horses. 
Early in '38- arrived His Highness Effendina Ibrahim Pasha. . . 
(The meeting is described. The author says that in Rabfa Awal both went 
south, but Ibrahim "returned in a few days and went to el Mahrusa." 
Isma'il meanwhile proceeded to Fazoghli, where he captured the local 
chiefs and "expelled the merchants who resided there and imposed a tax 
of gold upon them.") . . . 

CCXIV And while he was away in the Gebeh, Diwan Effendi Sa'id 
[imposed] taxation on the people with the compliance of the mu- 
'allim Hanna el Mubashir and el Arbab Dafa'alla walad Ahmad. On 
each head of slaves they made the tax fifteen rials, on each head of cattle 
ten rials, on each sheep (51^) and donkey five rials. Meanwhile a false 
rumour spread that Isma'il Pasha had been killed in the Gebels. . . 
(The author describes how some showed sorrow and some joy and some 
withheld judgment. When Isma'il returned safe and was told of this he 
"punished no one for what he had done, but treated them with gentleness 
and mercy, as was the custom of his late-lamented father, and he put no 
one to death except Walad 'Agaylawi, whom he impaled."). . . 

CCXV And Isma'il Pasha, on his arrival, found that Diwan Effendi 
and el Mubashir had apportioned the collection of the taxes to various 
employes, and appointed clerks, and arranged the assessments, and 
issued ledgers, and sent these employes out to the villages to collect 
the money. And from his compassion for the folk he was dipleased at 
what had been done and called in the ledgers for alteration; but it 
was found that el Mubashir had sent them to el Mahrusa. 

So he sent Sheikh Sa'ad 'Abd el Fattah after them, to bring them 
back, but Sa'ad failed to overtake them. . .(The author explains how 
Isma'il Pasha, since he had been unable to alter the amounts in the ledgers, 
1 reading JjK:.^ for jIlo. ^ 1822 a.d. 



ordered special leniency in the collection of taxes. We are also told that 
as a result of the amount of fever in Sennar, Isma'il Pasha, in 1237^, moved 
with liis court to Wad Medani. In 1238"^ troops were sent for Hasan 
walad Ragab, but he decamped. Several of Isma'il's suite died this year.) . . . 

CCXVI In Safar 1238^ His Excellence moved northwards by boats, 
and when he reached Shendi the Mek Nimr and the Mek Musa'ad 
met him, and he requisitioned from them many things, and they were 
unable to provide them all and were afraid. So they made outward 
show of obedience to his orders, but asked for an extension of time, 
and engaged to fulfil his requirements before the time limit he ap- 
pointed. They also begged him to leave his boats and honour them 
w'ith his presence in the town. Accordingly he landed and camped in 
one of the houses at Shendi, unaccompanied by anyone except his 
Mamluks. Then they fell upon him in the night and set fire to the 
house, and Isma'il Pasha [lit. "the late-lamented one"] and his 
Mamluks were burnt to death within. And, oh! To what deeds w^as 
the way thus prepared! Their act was the cause of the devastation 
of the land and the death of true believers, the shedding of their 
blood, the plunder of their goods, the dishonouring of their wives, 
the general ruin of the countryside, the captivity of the women and 
the children and the dispersal of the people into other districts. 

CCXVII When the news reached Muhammad Sa'i'd Eff"endi el 
Kadakhdar at Walad Medani, he collected his scattered forces, and 
fortified himself at Walad Medani, and sent Shama'dan Agha and 
Mustafa Kashif with some mounted men to verify the report; and 
they reached el Khartoum and then returned to him with the facts. 

CCXVI 1 1 Then el Arbab Dafa'alla fled from Walad Medani and 
camped at 'Abud, and bands of men rallied to him there. . . 

(The author describes how an expedition was then sent from Wad 
Medani to 'Abud but found the bird flown ; so they laid the village waste 
and killed the local khalifa, Muhammad walad 'Abd el 'Alim, and re- 

El Arbab had, meanwhile, gone south and joined Hasan walad Ragab, 
and the two of them collected an army at Abu Shoka. Muhammad Sa'id 
then sent a second expedition, composed of Shaikia and Delatia, which 
gave battle to the rebels at Abu Shoka and defeated them with great 
slaughter. Hasan Ragab, his uncle Husayn and his son Muhammad were 
among the slain. Much booty was taken, and the force returned tri- 
umphantly to Wad Medani.). . . 

CCXIX Now when the news of the murder of Isma'il Pasha reached 
Muhammad Bey Defterdar, who was at the time in charge of Kordo- 
fan, he at once started with some of his troops and a certain number 
of Fur for el Abwab, and [thence] proceeded, slaying and looting 

' 1822 A.D. 2 1822 A.D. 3 1822 A.D. 


unceasingly, to el Metemma. There he found a number of people 
collected, and some of them came and asked him for peace, and he 
granted it to them. Then one of these same people sprang at him 
and wounded him with a spear that was in his hand. 

Seeing this, the Defterdar ordered them all to be slain; but a few 
escaped. Then he went to the feki Ahmad el Rayyah in his khalwa and 
ordered all [there] to be burnt. 

CCXX He next moved to Shendi and found the Mek Nimr had fled, 
so he returned along the east bank to look for Walad 'Agib at el 

So far from finding them, however, he found el Halfaya deserted; 
so he burnt it and passed on to Kubbat el Sheikh Khogali, but 
similarly found no one there. Then he crossed the river to Tuti 
Island and there slew many people. 

CCXXI After this he went to el 'Aylafun. Now he had been pre- 
ceded there by some of his Fur soldiery, and the people of el 'Aylafun 
had come out and given battle to them. So when the Bey arrived he 
slew them all and burnt down the village and took prisoner slaves 
and freemen alike. 

CCXXI I Thence he marched along the east bank to Walad Medani. 
Now Walad 'Agib was at this time living at Kutrang, and, as soon as 
he heard of what had happened at el 'Aylafun, he quitted the village 
and left the river and camped at el Kubba and thence crossed over to 
Omdurman with his men. 

And there joined him the remnant of the Hamag, who had sur- 
vived the battle at Abu Shoka. 

CCXXIII The Bey, meanwhile, went to Walad Medani with the 
captives of el 'Aylafun and stayed there a short time and gave orders 
to Husayn Agha el Gokhadar to proceed to the White Nile. 

CCXXIV On his way thither Husayn Agha passed through the vil- 
lages of el 'Adayk, and when he reached Walad el Turabi he turned 
eastwards, away from the river, and looted camels and sheep from 
the Shukria, and then went across to the White Nile and stopped at 
the camp of the Ga'aliyyun. And the troops raided the camps and 
took what booty they wanted. Then some [of the Arabs] begged for 
peace, and he granted it and ordered their flocks to be returned to 
them after they had accepted his conditions. 

CCXXV Afterwards there came to him one of the soldiers and told 

him that the feki Fadlulla, from the camp of the 'Akakir on the White 

Nile, was one of those who had raised their heads and stretched out 

their hands to slay the soldiers, for his brother had been killed. 

So el Gokhadar enquired for the feki Fadlulla, but could not 

390 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. dt.ccxxv. 

find him ; and, having with him 72 men from the encampment of the 
Ga'aliyyun, he ordered their hands to be cut off; and the sentence 
was carried out on all of them, and in consequence some died, and 
others survived. Then he moved elsewhere. 

CCXXVI The Defterdar, for his part, went to Kordofan, and then 
returned the same year to the country of the Ga'aliyyun. 

CCXXVII And while the Defterdar was on his way to Kordofan, 
Walad 'Agib and the Hamag refugees who were with him were on 
the west bank at Omdurman, and they were attacked there by 'Ali 
Agha el Busayli and some Shai'kia and Mogharba troops, and they 
fled before them to the neighbourhood of Shendi and joined the Mek 
Nimr, and remained with him until they heard that the Defterdar 
was advancing from Kordofan. 

Then they scattered, and some of them settled down at el Hilalia. 
And news of this reached el Kadakhdar Muhammad Sa'id, and he 
sent troops in boats who came upon them at early dawn and killed a 
number of them and put the rest to flight. 

Then the soldiers returned to Walad Medani with the loot they 
had taken. 

CCXXVIII And when the Defterdar Bey reached the country of the 
Ga'aliyyun, the Mek Nimr fled and camped at a place called el Nasub 
in the desert, but the Bey overtook him with a troop of Turkish and 
Shaikia soldiery, and a fight took place. And after many of the Mek's 
men had been killed he was put to flight. This was a great battle, and 
much plunder was taken and many women and children captured. 

CCXXIX Then the Bey returned with his loot and prisoners to Um 
'Aruk and camped there; and so numerous were the captives that he 
made a thorn-enclosure for them and supplied it with water by means 
of a trench ; and some of them died from the severity of the conditions 
and some were ransomed by Sheikh Bashir walad 'Aki'd, and others 
were sent to el Mahrusa. 

CCXXX The survivors of the battle of el Nasub had, in the mean- 
while, scattered in every direction, and the Bey now advanced from 
Um 'Aruk to fight them, that is Musa'ad and Walad 'Agib. 

CCXXXI And on his way he seized the feki Ibrahim 'fsa, and with 
him one called 'Agib walad Dekays, and beat them and took them with 
him towards Abu Haraz and kept them prisoners awhile and then 
released them. 

CCXXXII And he continued the pursuit of the refugees until he 
overtook Musa'ad at a place called Makdur, between the Dinder and 
the Rahad, and there he inflicted great slaughter upon them and took 
much booty and many captives. Now among the slain was Sheikh 


Salih, one of the Awlad Ban el Nuka, and their possessions were 
looted and the books of Sheikh Hasan were scattered [and lost]. This 
occurred early in 1239^ 

CCXXXIII The Defterdar now moved to Sabderat, and on his return 
thence directed the captives, both the freemen and the slaves, to be 
sent to el Mahrusa, and instructed Muhammad Sa'i'd el Kadakhdar 
also to proceed to el Mahrusa with such as were left of the entourage 
of Effendi'na the late Isma'il Pasha and all his belongings. 

CCXXXIV And he appointed Kolali el Hag Ahmad to act for him, 
and dispatched him to Walad Medani, while he himself returned to 
Um 'Aruk with el Sayyid Ahmad EfFendi el Salawi and remained 

And el Hag 'Abd el Razik was his clerk at this period. 

CCXXXV On the 17th of Ragab of this year there passed away the 
Leader in the Way, the Authority on Sacred Law and Truth, the 
Leader of the Zealous, the Guide of the Seekers after Knowledge, 
Sheikh Ahmad el Taib ibn el Bashir, upon whom be the mercy of 
God; and Sheikh Ibrahim 'Abd el Dafa'i composed a long elegy 
upon him, which contained the following lines:. . .(six lines of poetry 
follow).. . . 

CCXXXVI At the end of that year the Bey ordered all the slaves 
whom he had acquired by requisitioning them from the people to 
be sent to el Mahrusa, and himself prepared to go northwards also, 
having heard of the coming of 'Othman Bey Barungi to the Sudan, 
He stayed at Um 'Aruk until the arrival of 'Othman Bey, and then 
proceeded to el Mahrusa, taking with him el Sayyid Ahmad el 

CCXXXVII This was in Muharram 1240^; and in Safar of the same 
year 'Othman Bey reached Omdurman with his Gehadia troops — and 
this was the first time that the Gehadia entered the Sudan — and the 
muallim Mikhayil Abu 'Ebayd as a Mubdshir. 

CCXXXVIII Then he crossed over to el Khartoum and was met by 
Sheikh ShanbuP walad Medani, and bestowed upon him honours 
and robes and appointed him Sheikh over all the lands from Hagar 
el 'Asal to the hills of the Fung. 

CCXXXIX There also met him Sheikh 'Abdulla \valad 'Omar, and 
him he blew from a cannon's mouth. 

CCXL He then left el Khartoum for Walad Medani, after appointing 

'Othman Agha el Khurbatli, the Director of Military Supplies, to 

act for him, and ordering the feki Arbab walad el Kamil to be blown 

from a cannon also. On his arrival at Walad Medani he put a large 

1 1823 A.D. " 1824 A.D. ^ reading J^.i for J3.W 


number of people to death with the cannon, and ordered el Sa3ryid 
Ahmad el Baghli, the Mufti of the Shafa'ite Sayyids, to depart to 
el Mahrusa. 

These evil acts excited great discontent among all the people, and 
their hearts were alienated from him, and they loathed this occupation 
of the country. 
CCXLI Then he ordered the payment of the taxes . . . 
(The author describes the distress that followed: soldiers were sent 
out to collect the taxes, and in consequence most of the people fled far 
afield. Some fled to el Kedaref, and the officer who was sent after them 
overtook them there and shot them down in heaps. A drought and an 
epidemic of small-pox then both occurred and the people v/ere reduced to 
eating dogs and donkeys, and corn rose to a piastre for a rotl. Thus 
"half the population perished by the sword and sickness and famine." 
'Othman Bey is described as quite pitiless, and curses are hurled at him 
by the author.). . . 

CCXLII And el Khurbatli 'Othman remained acting as vice- 
governor, but his rank was that of a lieutenant whereas in the army 
were Kdimakdms [Colonels] and Beykhdshis [Majors] and Yuzbdshis 
[Captains], and these paid no attention to his orders or prohibitions, 
and each man acted as he pleased. Thus the people were ruined, for 
they had no ruler to care for them, 

CCXLIII However this state of affairs did not last long, for God in 
his goodness relieved the people by the destruction of 'Othman Bey 
and the advent of Mahhi Bey. 'Othman Bey died in the middle of 
Ramaddii 1240^, and his Heutenant [el Khurbatli] hid the fact of 
his death until he sent for His Excellence Mahhi Bey from Berber; 
and the latter came secretly, and camped on the east of the river near 
the village of Hammad for a few days, and then returned to Berber, 
and, after a short stay there, came back with all his troops and took up 
his residence at el Khartoum and stationed his men at el Kubba. 
This was in 1241^. 

CCXLIV Mahhi Bey cancelled the taxation and prohibited the 
Gehadia troops from the aggression they had practised in the time of 
'Othman Bey, and then he sent for the 'omdas and notables and such 
religious leaders as were left in the Gezira, and, when they arrived, he 
consulted them as to how best to serve the interests of the people and 
secure their means of livelihood and persuade them back to their 
lands. And each of those present gave his views, but he agreed only 
\Nith the opinion of Sheikh el Zayn, who was at the time Sheikh of a 
kliut {i.e. district); and him he honoured before all of them and 
gave a splendid robe, and bestowed on him the sheikhship of the 

^ 1825 A.D. 2 1826 A.D. 



district of el Ku'a, and took him with him to the neighbourhood of 
el Kedaref to consult with him as to the necessary measures. 

CCXLV And when Mahhi Bey entered el Kedaref he ordered 
corn to be sent to the Gezi'ra, as there was none whatever there . . . 
(The author describes how this saved the situation and how blessings 
were called down upon Mahhi Bey's head. He adds, however, that the 
soldiery, who were known as el Bayrakia, and who were camped at Kubbat 
Khogali, were bad characters and destroyed the tomb and everything near 
it. He adds a list of several /e^w who died this year owing to an outbreak 
of small-pox: they include "Muhammad Nur, the khalifa of Sheikh 
Khogali."). . . 

CCXLVI And in the month of el Kd'ida of that year His Excellency 
Khurshid Agha arrived as ruler of the Sudan ; and Mahhi Bey met 
him at Omdurman, and they stayed there awhile together. . . 

(The author mentions a few unimportant circumstances of Mahhi 
Bey's departure and enlarges on the excellence of his rule, the soundness 
of his policy of repatriating those who had fled before the extortions of 
'Othman Bey, and his courtesy to the natives.). . . 

CCXLVII And in el Higga 1241^ plentiful rains fell, at which the 
people rejoiced greatly, and counted it of good augury, and hastened 
to sow the crops. 

CCXLVIII The same month KhOrshid Agha went up the White Nile 
and captured some booty and returned in safety. Then he went to 
Dar el Abwab and arrested Sheikh Bashir walad Ahmad 'Akid and 
his brother Mustafa and extorted great wealth from the former. 

CCXLIX Now before his expedition up the White Nile he sent 
Sheikh 'Abd el Kadir with a promise of peace to Sheikh Idri's 'Adlan 
in the south ; and Idri's was given safe conduct and brought back by 
Sheikh 'Abd el Kadir to meet Khurshid Agha at Berber, 

And Khurshid Agha reassured Sheikh Idris and bestowed great 
honour upon him, for since the time of Effendina Isma'il Pasha Sheikh 
Idris had met none of the rulers of the land, and had only come to 
him under promise of peace. Therefore Khurshid Agha paid par- 
ticular attention to him and invested him with the sheikhship of the 
Fung mountains and gave him permission to remain there. 

CCL Then Khurshid Agha returned to el Khartoum and made an 
expedition against the Arabs of Walad el 'Igba round Siru and re- 
turned in safety. 

CCLI After this he collected the Sheikhs at el Khartoum to fix the 
official taxation, and bade them choose one who should be invested 
with the sheikhship over all of them and so be the medium between 
him and themselves. And they unanimously chose Sheikh 'Abd 

1 1826 A.D. 


el Kadir, and Khurshid Agha at once issued a firman to him making 
him Sheikh over all the other Sheikhs from Hagar el 'Asal to the far 
end of the Fung mountains, and gave him a splendid robe and a sword 
of honour. 

CCLII And when he had finished all he wished he fixed the amount 
of taxation per fedddn with the universal consent of the Sheikhs. 

CCLIII In Muharram iz^^i^ he made an expedition against the 
DiNKA, and thence proceeded to the Fung mountains. . . 

(The author mentions the death there of one of Khurshid Agha's 
mu'dzvins, and speaks of them as an experienced company whose advice 
the Governor-General always took.). . . 

CCLIV In the same year trouble was caused by Sheikh Khalifa 
el 'Abadi walad el Hag, who showed himself disobedient and rebellious 
and came to Berber and attacked the troops stationed there. 

And when the news reached Khurshid Agha he at once started 
with a force of Gehadia in boats, and when he reached Berber he 
found the soldiers had killed Khahfa and the trouble had died down ; 
so he returned. 

CCLV In '44^ he attacked the Fung mountains in person and slew 
some of [the people of] Gebal Abu Ramla, and the hearts of the people 
of el 'Atish were filled with respect for him, and some of those who 
had fled returned. 

CCLVI Then Sheikh 'Abd el Kadir advised him to exempt the 
chief men among the people from taxation in order to obtain their 
goodwill in the development of the country. And he did so, and the 
result of this policy w^as apparent, for, as an example, if he exempted 
one of the fekis or chiefs from payment on ten kadaas, the man so 
exempted at once reassured the people and persuaded them to re- 
turn to their lands, so that Khurshid Agha obtained from them [the 
taxes on] one or two hundred kada'as or more: thus owing to his 
wisdom and the farsightedness of his advisers the development of 
the country progressed and the population increased. 

CCLVII In 1245^ there was such a high Nile that the people were 
afraid of being drowned on their lands. 

CCLVIII The same year Sheikh Ahmad el Rayyah el 'Araki came 
from Dar el 'Ati'sh . . . (The author tells how the Governor-General 
honoured him and sent him back with letters, to reassure the people of his 
district, and to promise them that he was coming to visit them shortly, and 
that such as came down from the hills he would pardon and such as did 
not he would put to death. He then went to el 'Ati'sh district and 
collected the people, many of whom came to meet him and others of 
whom he compelled to come in by force, and sent them, to the number 

^ 1828 A.D. reading wtr for »TiY. 2 1829 a.d. ^ 1830A.D. 


of 12,000 souls all told; under escort to their lands; and when the people 
saw that he was consulting their welfare they ceased all resistance and 
became loyal subjects.). . . 

CCLIX Then Khurshid Agha returned to el Khartoum and began 
the building of the mosque in the same year, and ordered the people 
to build houses, for most of them lived in tents of hair-matting and 
cowhide and there were no buildings of brick, excepting those of the 
family of the feki Arbab near the mosque and those of the families of 
the Kadis and of the feki Hammadnulla and those of the Budanab'. 

CCLX Similarly he ordered work to be started on barracks for the 
troops and storerooms for the equipment of the Gehadia. The 
Government buildings, that is the present hakimddrta, had been 
begun by Mahhi Bey ... 

(The author speaks of the energy shown in building the mosques and 
dwelling-houses. Some unimportant changes of personnel in the Govern- 
ment are also mentioned.). . . 

CCLXI In 1246^ Khurshid Agha made an expedition in boats 
against [the] Shilluk and inflicted upon them such slaughter as had 
never been seen since the time of the Mek Badi Rubat. 

CCLXI I In the same year died the feki 'Abd el Kadir walad Day- 

CCLXIII In 1247^ Khurshid Agha made the Sabderat expedition 
and hemmed them in so strictly that they desired to submit and asked 
for peace : and Khurshid Agha granted them peace and returned . . . 
(certain transfers of personnel are mentioned).. . . 

CCLXIV The same year occurred a great earthquake, and the excel- 
lent Muhammad el Magdhub Kumr el Din, son of Sheikh Hammad 
walad el Magdhub, died and was buried at el Damer; and el Khur- 
batli Hasan Kashif, the ruler of el Halfaya district and the White 
Nile, also died and was buried at Kubbat el Sheikh Khogali. 

CCLXV In 1248'* Khurshid Agha went to Kordofal and returned. . . 
(In 1249 ^ the author says, Khurshid Agha v/as promoted in rank by 
Muhammad 'Ali Pasha: great rejoicings and festivities in the Sudan are 
said to have followed the receipt of this news.). . . 

CCLXVI In 1250^ Khurshid Agha went to Kordofan and returned 
in safety. Then he visited Shendi, accompanied by the Grand Kadi, 
with a view to the settlement of the disputes that had arisen between 
Sheikh Bashir Ahmad 'Akid and the Ga'aliyyun people about the 
lands which the former had occupied. And His Excellence sent for 
all the Governors of Provinces, and they all assembled at Shendi and 

1 reading w^Uju for w>Ijju. ^1831 a.d. 

3 1832 a.d." ' ^ 1833 a.d. 

5 1834 A.D. ^ 1835 A.D. 

396 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. d 7. cclxvi. 

held a meeting there at the end of DM el Higga, that is at the end of 
the year '50, and then he sent them back to their provinces. . . 

CCLXVII (The author adds that early in 1251^ Khurshid Agha visited 
Dongola and thence proceeded to Egypt and met the Viceroy and came 
back again as Governor-General. As soon as he reached Khartoum he 
sent for all the Kdshifs and Mdmurs and Sheikhs, and they came and 
waited his will with great trepidation having heard rumours of con- 
scription.). . . 

And their fears increased as he kept silence for two days, for he 
was closeted with Sheikh 'Abd el Kadir and insisting upon taking the 
Arabs for the Gehadia, while the Sheikh was begging him not to do 
so for fear the people would disperse and the land lie waste. And 
finally they agreed to call for the slaves, and when His Excellency 
had accepted this compromise he summoned the officials and Sheikhs 
who had come to el Khartoum and promised them that freemen 
should be exempt and decided the number of slaves which each dis- 
trict was to produce for the Gehadia, according to its capacity. 

CCLXVIII So all men were then reassured and ceased to fear, and 
began bringing in the slaves needed for the Gehadia. 

CCLXIX This same year the sun was ecHpsed after the evening 
praver and its light disappeared and it was divided into two halves, 
one dark and the other not, and it remained so until near sunset and 
then shone brightly again. 

CCLXX The same year again His Excellency visited the southern 
mountains with his troops and busied himself there and collected 
many slaves, some of whom he enlisted in the Gehadia to serve the 
Government, and others of whom he distributed to the Mdmurs or 
sent elsewhere. 

CCLXXI Then he returned to el Rosayres and there awaited 
Muhammad Efi^endi, whom he had sent with the Gehadia to Dar 
el 'Atish as he had heard that the Makada had come down accom- 
panied by Ragab walad Bashir and killed the pious Walad 'Arud and 
many people ; and when the troops had arrived in Dar el 'Ati'sh God 
had moved the hearts of the inhabitants not to fight, so Ragab walad 
Bashir was taken prisoner and the troops returned in safety. 

CCLXXII And in the same year Muhammad Effendi was granted 
the rank of Miraldi and went with the Sudanese troops to the Hegaz. 

CCLXXIII In '52-, in Safar, a violent wind blew for two successive 
days. On the first day it blew red; and this was after the time of the 
evening prayer, and it became very dark and then suddenly light 
again. On the second day the wind blew black and the air was darker 

^ 1835 A-D- ^ 1837 A.D. 



than on the previous day : this too lasted from the time of the evening 
prayer until the sunset. 

CCLXXIV In the same year occurred a serious drought, and corn 
of any kind was unobtainable; but His Excellency the Hakimdar 
issued a hundred ardebs of dhurra at his own expense to the poor 
and needy, and ordered a hundred ardebs from the Government 
store to be sold in the market to help the people. He also ordered 
prayers to be made for rain and attended them in person. 

CCLXXV And in this year too the people were visited by cholera, 
which was known as "The yellow wind" [el rih el as far], and so 
great was the mortality that in el Khartoum itself more than twenty 
corpses were taken out [for burial] daily. 

CCLXXVI And when the epidemic was at its height the Hakimdar 
went to Shendi and stayed there for some time. And from there he 
sent Ragab walad Bashir to el Khartoum, where he was put to 
death by being impaled. 

CCLXXVII Now the notables who perished by this novelty were the 
feki el Senussi ibn el feki Bakadi, and the feki el Nakhl, the reader 
of the holy Kuran at the village of Bakadi, and the feki Muhammad 
ibn el Hag el Taib, the Imam of the mosque at el Khartoum, and the 
feki Muhammad 'Ali walad el 'Abbas, and Sheikh el Terayfi ibn 
el Sheikh Yusef, and Sheikh Muhammad ibn el Sheikh Hasan walad 
Ban el Nuka, and Sheikh Sa'ad 'Abd el Fattah el 'Abadi, and Sheikh 
Mustafa, the khalifa of Sheikh Dafa'alla el 'Araki. 

CCLXXVIII This same year His Excellence pulled down the mosque 
which he had begun to build in '45^, because it was too small: so, 
when el Khartoum increased in size as a settlement and the popula- 
tion multiplied, he demolished it down to its foundations, and began 
building on its site the present mosque, which is much more spacious. 

CCLXXIX In Ramadan of this year Ahmad Kashif, the ruler of 
el Kedaref, made an expedition in the direction of the lands of Ma- 
KADA, and slew many of them, and sent the captives to el Khartoum. 

CCLXXX The same year appeared a great star in the middle of the 
day and sparks flew from it. Also an epidemic of fever broke out, 
which the people called " Um Saba'a" ("Mother of Seven"), and 
caused great mortality ; and among the notables who died was el 'Awag 
el Darb el feki Muhammad Barakat, a man well known for his 
generosity, descended from Sheikh Idri's. The fever was called 
"Mother of Seven" because most of those who were stricken by it 
died on the seventh day, and if one survived the seventh day he was 

1 1830 A.D. 

398 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. d 7. cclxxxi. 

CCLXXXI In 1253^ Mustafa Bey came as Governor of the whole of 
the Gezira of Sennar, He had previously been in Kordofan. 

CCLXXXII In the same year there was an eclipse of the moon for 
about two hours and it became very dark. 

CCLXXXIII This year too occurred the battle of Walad Kaltabu, 
which is a place near Rashid, where the Abyssinians and the 
Muhammadan troops met and fought. In this battle was killed 
Sheikh Miri, the Sheikh of el Kallabat, and Sheikh Ahmad walad 
'Abud of the Shaikia Sowarab cavalry and many men; and the 
major of the battalion, and 'Ali Agha el Sahbi, the Sanjak of the 
Mogharba, and the Malik Sa'ad of the Shaikia cavalry were all taken 
prisoners and ransomed. 

CCLXXXIV And towards the end of the year the Hakimdar led a 
large expedition against the Mekada, and left Sulayman Kashif Abu 
Daud to act for him at el Khartoum. 

CCLXXXV In el Ka'ida of the same year Mirmiran Ahmad Pasha 
with Firhad Bey, Miraldi of the Gehadia, arrived with troops from 
el Mahrusa to assist the Hakimdar, and overtook him on the road as 
he was returning without having met the Abyssinians. Then they 
went back together to el Khartoum and stayed there until the begin- 
ning of 1254'^. 

CCLXXXVI In Rabfa el Atcal 1254 dispatches came for Khurshid 
Pasha, permitting him to go back to el Mahrusa and appointing 
Ahmad Pasha to succeed him as Hakimdar of the Sudan. 

CCLXXXVII So Khurshid Pasha made all preparations for his 
family and belongings and set forth by boat; and this was a great 
sorrow to all the people, and when he bid them farewell they began 
to weep, and of Sheikh 'Abd el Kadir it is even said that he abstained 
from eating or drinking for two days from grief at the parting. 

CCLXXXVIII And when Ahmad Pasha heard of the affliction of this 
Sheikh he sent for him and promised him all prosperity and happi- 
ness, until his grief was assuaged; for Khurshid Pasha had recom- 
mended him strongly to his successor. And indeed Ahmad Pasha 
fulfilled his promises, because he entrusted him with the whole 
direction of the Government and never issued a single order except 
by his advice, so that Sheikh 'Abd el Kadir had more influence than 
a Governor. . . 

CCLXXXIX (The author describes how Ahmad Pasha devoted himself 
to reorganization and efficiency and put a stop to unauthorized looting by 
the soldiery, so that the prosperity and security of the country increased 
greatly "and prices fell until the ardeb of dhurra could be bought for five 

1 1838 A.D. 2 1838 a.d. 



piastres." It is remarked that Khurshid Pasha had collected the scattered 
natives, relieved the effects of past famines and stamped out sedition ; but 
Ahmad Pasha even surpassed him in the success of his measures and 
attained to great popularity, for he vv^as fairspoken, no lover of bloodshed, 
firm of will, sparing of words, and insisted on his orders being carried out 
without procrastination.). . . 

CCXC And he remained at el Khartoum for a time and set the 
affairs of the provinces in order ; and then he went to the neighbour- 
hood of Walad Medani, leaving behind him 'Abd el Kadir Agha to 
act for him at el Khartoum. And while he was away in those parts, 
in Ramadan of the same year, His Highness . . . Effendina Muhammad 
'Ali Pasha honoured the country with a visit and entered el Khar- 
toum . . . (The author speaks of the Hakimdar returning, and the re- 
ception of him and the chief functionaries by the Pasha, and their joy 
thereat. Muhammad 'Ali Pasha then went south with the Hakimdar "as 
far as the mountains of Fazoghli," and held a reception for all the chief 
Sheikhs of the country, such as Sheikh Ahmad Abu Sin, and presented 
them with robes.). . . 

CCXCI Then His Highness turned his attention to searching for 
mines and remained for some time in those parts. Afterwards he 
returned to el Khartoum, in the month of el Higga in the same year, 
and after a short stay there returned to el Mahrusa. 

CCXCII The Hakimdar, however, remained awhile in the [southern] 
mountains and came back to el Khartoum early in 1255^. Thence he 
proceeded to Dongola and stayed a few days there. He then turned 
back and reached Shendi, where he heard news of the flight of 
Ahmad walad el Mek. So he pursued him accompanied by some 
troops and the Malik Kanbal ; but the latter was killed the same year. 
His Highness then returned to el Khartoum. 

CCXCIII On the 4th of Showdl in the same year died the learned 
Sidi Muhammad el Bulaydi, the Mufti. 

CCXCI V In 1256^ the Hakimdar went to the neighbourhood of 
el Taka with the Gehadia and cavalry composed of Delatia, Mo- 
GHARBA and Shaikia, and remained there till the district had sub- 
mitted. Then he made it a mudiria and appointed as governor 
Kurkatli 'Omar Kashif. 

CCXCV The same year there v/as a very high Nile; and Ahmad 
Hashim, the vice-governor [wakil el mudiria] died; and His 
Excellence Mustafa Bey, the Governor of el Khartoum, returned 
from Kordofan to el Khartoum sick and there died. 

CCXCVI After the return of the Hakimdar from el Taka he appointed 
Hamdi Musa Bey Mirdldi to succeed Mustafa Bey as Governor of 

1 1839 A.D. ^ 1841 A.D. 

400 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. d 7. ccxcvi. 

el Khartoum and the whole of the Gezi'ra of Sennar proper, and 
Hamdi Bey held this post during the lifetime of the late Ahmad Pasha. 

CCXCVII Now H. E. the Hakimdar gave himself no rest, but was 
always visiting again and again the districts of his hakimddna, one 
time going to the [Fung] mountains, and another to Kordofan and 
Tekali; and finally he returned to el Khartoum in 1257^ and in 
Ramadan died there. 

CCXCVIII After his death the affairs of the hakimddna fell into 
disorder, and confusion reigned owing to the division of the country 
into seven provinces, each one with its own Amtr Lewa as Governor. 

CCXCIX Then, the same year, came Menekli Ahmad Pasha as a 
reformer, but no reforms resulted and nothing was settled, for each 
governor concerned himself only with the work of his own province 
and failed to render full obedience to the reformer. 

CCC For a time the latter stayed at el Khartoum : then he went to 
el Taka with the army, taking with him el Arbab Muhammad Dafa- 
'alla and Sheikh 'Abd el Kadir and Sheikh Ahmad Abu Sin. 

At el Taka he took captive a number of the rebels and brought 
them back to el Khartoum when they were all executed. 

CCCI And Menekli Ahmad Pasha stayed at el Khartoum until '61^ 
and then proceeded to el Mahrusa in company with el Arbab 
Muhammad Dafa'alla and Sheikh Abd el Kadir walad el Sheikh 
el Zayn . . , 

(The author says the two Sheikhs were received in audience by 
Muhammad 'Ali Pasha, and Sheikh 'Abd el Kadir made a speech of 
which the eloquence amazed the Pasha, who conferred upon him the 
decorations of a Mirdldi set in jewels. The two Sheikhs were also shown 
round Cairo and Alexandria and other places.). . . 

CCCII Finally the Pasha appointed Khalid Pasha as their Hakimdar 
and recommended them to his care; and in Muharram 1262^ Khalid 
Pasha entered el Khartoum in company with those we have men- 
tioned. There also accompanied him Sheikh Ibrahim el Hinami as 
Kadi over the whole Sudan. For awhile His Excellency stayed at 
el Khartoum : then he undertook a tour of inspection which took him 
into every quarter of his hakimddria. At one time he visited el Taka, 
at another the mountains of Fazoghli and the mines of Kassan, at 
another Kordofan and the mines of Shaybun. And he remained in 
power as Hakimdar until the latter part of 1266^. 

CCCIII Then 'Abd el Latif Pasha came as Hakimdar in the place 
of Khalid Pasha, in Rabfa el Akhir of the same year, and the latter 
returned to el Mahrusa after 'Abd el Latif Pasha had importuned 

^ 1842 A.D. 2 1845 A.D. ^ 1845 A.D. ^ 1850 A.D. 


him [to do so] and repeated complaints had been made on the subject. 
In fact had not Sheikh 'Abd el Kadir been charged to reply for the 
people on his behalf he would have been ruined. 

CCCIV 'Abd el Latif Pasha stayed at el Khartoum busying himself 
with hearing cases and petitions innumerable ^ and he did no other 
work unless it were what he did in the matter of renewing and 
beautifying the buildings of the present hakimddria. 

CCCV In his time Rufa'a Bey, the Director of Schools, came, and 
with him Kdimakdm Bayumi EfFendi and many Effendis and gentle- 
men ; and the Hakimdar continued at el Khartoum and never left it ; 
and nothing happened in the hakimddria except the dismissal of 
Sheikh Idris 'Adlan from the position of Sheikh of the [Fung] 
mountains and the appointment of his brother's son 'Adlan in his 
stead, and the matter of Hasan Mismar, the Superintendent of Cus- 
toms, who was beaten and imprisoned, and what followed, and the 
dismissal of Hasan Khalifa el 'Abadi, who had been in charge of the 
road across the Abu Hammad desert, from the sheikhship, and his 
imprisonment, and what followed, and the appointment of his 
brother Husayn Khalifa as Sheikh, and the granting to Sheikh 'Abd 
el Kadir of the rank of mudzvin of the hakimddria in addition to his 
being Sheikh el Mashdikh of the whole of the Gezira, and the extreme 
deference paid to him, and also to Sheikh Ahmad Abu Sin. 

CCCVI Early in 1268^ Rustum Pasha arrived as Hakimdar of the 
Sudan and 'Abd el Latif Pasha retired to el Mahrusa. In his days 
the Members of the Council, Mahr Bey and the others, visited the 
country ; but his period of rule was short : in fact he stayed a few days 
in el Khartoum, visited Walad Medani district, returned thence sick 
and died at el Khartoum. 

CCCVI I In Ramaddn of the same year Isma'il Pasha Abu Gebel was 
appointed to succeed Rustum Pasha. He came to el Khartoum and 
stayed there awhile, and then went to the district of Khashm el Bahr. 
Thence he proceeded to the eastern districts, toured them awhile, 
and finally returned to el Khartoum until he was recalled in Sha- 
'abdn '69^. 

CCCVIII He was succeeded as Hakimdar by Selim Pasha, who lay 
sick at el Khartoum until his recall at the end of Gemdd el Azcal 


CCCIX Selim Pasha was succeeded by Sirri 'Ali Pasha Arnaot : he 
never left el Khartoum except to visit Sennar, and his rule was brief 
for he was recalled in Gamdd el Akhir 'yi^. 

1 reading l^Jj-Aa-^) for Vj-cu».'i). - 1851 a.d. 

3 1853 A.D. ^ 1854 A.D. ^ 1855 A.D. 

M.S. II 26 


CCCX The next Hakimdar was Garkas 'Ali Pasha. He stayed at 
el Khartoum for some time. And in his days Effendina 'Abd el Hah'm 
Pasha honoured the country with a visit, but he did not remain for 
long, for cholera, known as el rih elasfar, broke out; and when the 
epidemic was at its height, namely in Ragab '73^, the doctors advised 
a change of air for him, so he went by boat up the White Nile, and 
thence returned to Berber without leaving his boat once until he 
reached el Khartoum. From Berber he returned to el Mahrusa. 

CCCXI Now this epidemic killed great numbers of the people and 
penetrated to every part of the Sudan ; and among the notables who 
died from it was Sheikh Abd el Kadir el Sheikh el Zayn, Sheikh 
el Maslidikh of the Gezira of Sennar and el Khartoum, a noble and 
good man, and one of the greatest in the land. He died at el Khar- 
toum and was buried there, and every community was represented 
at his burial, as well as the Hakimdar and the vice-Hakimdar. 

CCCXII There also died Sheikh Yasi'n, Sheikh el Mashdikh in 
Kordofan Province, one of the greatest in the land; and Sheikh 
el Terayfi ibn el Sheikh Ahmad el Rayyah el 'Araki ; and the feki 
'Omar Bakadi, the famous man of learning (God bless him!); and 
many of the nobles. 

CCCXI 1 1 And 'Ali Pasha Garkas, after the departure of H, E. 'Abd 
el Halim Pasha, remained as Hakimdar until the coming of Effendina 
Muhammad Sa'id Pasha. 

CCCXI V The last-named [returned] to Egypt in '73 ^ after a short stay 
at el Khartoum, and [before] his return he dismissed the Hakimdar and 
appointed Arakil Bey el Armani Governor of the whole of the Gezira 
of Sennar and el Khartoum on the i6th of Rabfa Thdni 1273^. 

CCCXV Arakil Bey remained Governor until his death in '75 . . . 
(The author says he was a skilful and well-endowed statesman of kind 
disposition, and all went well during the first part of his rule because he 
took the advice of Sheikh el Zubayr, who had succeeded his father Sheikh 
'Abd el Kadir; but mischief-makers caused a breach between them and 
el Zubayr fled to Cairo "and remained there as a mu'dwin in the Interior." 
Arakil Bey then ceased taking the advice of any of the native notables of 
influence and increased his severity, so that he completely alienated most 
of the Sheikhs, and some of them even revolted and took to the hills.). . . 

CCCX VI In Ragab 1275* Hasan^ Bey Salama el Garkasi was ap- 
pointed in his stead as Governor. This Bey was a man of bad natural 
attributes, coarse and rough, ignorant of statesmanship and unfitted 
for rule, but withal regular in his prayers, a keeper of faith and 

^ 1857 A.D. 2 1857 A.D. ^ 1857 A.D. 

■* 1859 A.D. 5 reading ^--a- for 



CCCXVII In Muharram 1278^ he was recalled, and Muhammad 
Rasikh Bey, the Governor of Kordofan, was appointed in his place. 
He reached el Khartoum in Safar of the same year. 

CCCXVIII Rasikh Bey was fond of ease and enjoyment, and did no 
work except to begin building the fort which stands on the east bank 
of the Nile, opposite the fort of the hakirnddria. 

CCCXIX He was the last of the Governors {Mudiriyyun) who were 
restricted to the control of the province of el Khartoum and the 

CCCXX Only a short account has been given of these and of the 
Hakimdars who were appointed after the late Ahmad Pasha, for they 
made no great mark, and no important events happened [in their days]. 
We have therefore contented ourselves with merely enumerating 
them and recording their names. The real power of the hakirnddria 
and its proper organization had ceased with Ahmad Pasha; and in 
the same way the regime of the Kadis who were held in awe by the 
people and could speak authoritatively ceased with the late Kddi 
el Salawi, and after him things fell into decay, and the Kadis, as has 
been seen, were mere names with no authority. 

CCCXXI Rasikh Bey continued to hold the position of Governor 
until the good news was received of the appointment of His Excel- 
lence Musa Pasha as Hakimdar of the Sudan. And the people re- 
joiced at this news and were sure that it meant relief and security. 

CCCXXI I Musa Pasha arrived on the 4th of Safar '79^ to the joy 
and relief of all men, and after its time of trial the hakirnddria re- 
gained its splendour. 

CCCXXI 1 1 After the firman had been read, Musa Pasha sent for 
all the Governors and the Sheikhs of the provinces and the notables, 
and on their arrival at el Khartoum he thoroughly reorganized the 
system of Government and fixed the taxation ... (The author ex- 
plains how, in his care for the interests of the people, Musa Pasha made 
the yearly taxes payable in three instalments and caused each taxpayer to 
be provided with a sirki on which was entered the amount he had to pay 
and a note of each payment made to the serrdf.) . . . 

CCCXXIV He also created district ndzirs {nuzdr aksdm) and officials 
over the people, and as ndzir over ail he appointed el Zubayr 'Abd 
el Kadir, who had been Sheikh el Mashdikh. All this he did that the 
people might tread the paths of civilization and progress. He also 
ordered them to wear Turkish clothes. 

CCCXXV (The author speaks of the improvement in the state of affairs 
occasioned by these reforms, and then mentions an expedition made by 

1 1862 A.D. ^ 1863 A.D. 

26 2 

404 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. d 7. cccxxv. 

Musa Pasha to the Abyssinian border, where, faiHng to meet the Abyssin- 
ians, he turned his attention to the Awlad Nimr — who had retired there 
from Shendi after the murder of Isma'il Pasha — and broke their power. 
He went on to el Taka, and finally returned to Khartoum the same year. 
There he received news of his promotion to be Ferik, and the event was 
duly celebrated by the populace.). . . 

CCCXXVI On the 3rd of Muharram 1280^ Musa Pasha set out for 
el Mahrusa to meet His Excellence the Khedive and was greatly 
honoured and returned, after a short stay, to his hakimddria, and 
el Khartoum was honoured by his arrival on the forenoon of a Friday 
in Gemdd el Akhir 1280. . . 

CCCXXVI I (The author now suddenly breaks off his history to say that 
he will give a short resume of the events that happened during the regimes 
of Musa Pasha's successors. 

CCCXXVIII He then recounts in fulsome language how in 1282"^ Ga'afir 
Muzhar Pasha came to Khartoum with Ga'afir Sadik Pasha, the new 
Governor-General, as the latter's zoakil, and at once proceeded to el 
Taka and repressed a rebellion there. On the 17th of Shozvdl 1282^ he 
returned to Khartoum and by virtue of a firman received from Egypt 
took the place of Ga'afir Sadik Pasha as Governor-General. On the i8th 
of Shozvdl the firman was publicly read and a formal reception held, and 
the new Governor-General appointed 'Ali Bey Fadli to be his zvakil. 

CCCXXIX In 1283* the Governor-General was summoned to Cairo and 
sent up the Red Sea to Massawa on a mission of enquiry. After his return 
to Cairo he was sent back again to Khartoum in 1284'. His departure, 
journey and return were celebrated in a poem addressed to him by Sheikh 
el Amin Muhammad, the Chief of the 'Ulema. He then remained at 
Khartoum and carried on the Government with great success. Eulogies 
of his modesty, generosity and other virtues are poured forth in a stream 
of nauseous adulation. 

CCCXXX In 1288^ the catastrophe of his recall befel the Sudan, and 
universal grief was shown.). . . 

CCCXXXI And while they were distracted with uncertainty and con- 
jecture and were relieving the tension by clinging to the ropes of hope, 
lo! they were overwhelmed with a great disaster and stricken by a 
terrible blow, by comparison with which their previous affliction was 
of no account, for in the month of Ragab el Khartoum and its neigh- 
bourhood suffered a calamity such as had never been known, namely 
the appointment of one who was in every respect the opposite of his 
predecessor, and whose name [viz. Mumtaz, i.e. "Distinguished"] 
was completely distinguished [Ar. " mumtdz"] from his character; for 
his character was that of those men of whom God in His precious 

1 1863 A.D. 2 1866 A.D. 

3 1866 A.D. 4 1867 A.D. 

5 1868 A.D. « 1871 A.D. 


Book spoke the words " Be ye separated^ this day [from the righteous] , 
O ye evildoers ! " 

CCCXXXII This substitute, whose works were perversion and sub- 
stitution, arrived on the 2nd of Ramadan in this year, and from the 
day of his arrival he terrorized the people by such wholesale in- 
justice as had never been experienced by them individually or col- 
lectively at the hands of any of the rulers who preceded him, and as 
would, if mentioned, blacken the pages of the records and cause the 
heart of the historian to bleed for pity. Therefore we have drawn a 
veil over the details and recognized that to shroud the foulness of his 
deeds in a short summary is preferable to expounding them at length. 

^ reading jj.;^ I for^^;^:^!. 


D 7 (NOTES) 

I The first page of Mek 'Adlan's MS. is missing and the second page 
begins with " . . .' el Kassdbi.' Their religion. . . ." The first paragraph, as 
far as that point, is translated from Muhammad 'Abd el Magid's MS., 
which is to all intents and purposes the replica of that of Mek 'Adlan. 

The description of Soba bears a strong resemblance to that given in 
the tenth century by Ibn Selim and quoted in Vol. i, p. 171 above. 

For the date of the foundation of Sennar see note to para. viii. 

Soba lies a few miles upstream of Khartoum on the Blue Nile and is 
the ancient 'Aloa. It is described as follows by Abu Salih the Armenian, 
writing at the beginning of the thirteenth century a.d. "Town of 'Alwah. 
Here there are troops and a large kingdom with wide districts, in which 
there are 400 churches. The town lies to the east of the large island between 
the two rivers, the White Nile and the Green Nile. All its inhabitants 
are Jacobite Christians. Around it there are monasteries, some at a distance 
from the stream and some upon its banks. In the town there is a very 
large and spacious church, skilfully planned and constructed, and larger 
than all the other churches in the country; it is called the church of Man- 
bali. The crops of this country depend upon the rise of the Nile, and upon 
the rain. When they are about to sow their seed, they trace out furrows in 
the field and bring the seed and lay it at the side of the field, and beside 
it they lay a supply of the drink called ' mizr,' and go away ; and afterwards 
they find that the seed has been sown in the ground and the mizr has been 
drunk. So again at the time of harvest they reap some of the corn, and 
leave beside the rest of it a supply of mizr ; and in the morning they find 
the harvest completed ; and they say that this is done by beings of a different 
order from ours." (Trans. Butler and Evetts, pp. 262 et seq.) 

The churches were under the jurisdiction of the see of S. Mark at 

Ruins to be seen at Kutrang, Kasemba and other places (see Vol. i, 
p. 48) probably represent the remains of some of the 400 churches: 
they are in red brick and of a meagre description, almost level with the 

Alvarez, some four hundred years later, also records the existence of 
ancient Christian churches hereabouts. Yakut, el Mas'udi and Eutychius 
all mention that the particular form of Christianity in vogue was the 
Jacobite or monophysite (see Abu Salih, p. 264, note). 

The most flourishing period of the Christian kingdom of 'Aloa may 
have been between iioo and 1300. Budge (Vol. 11, pp. 303-306) gives a 
good rhum^ of the subject. A description of the ruins at Soba may be 
found in Budge, Vol. i, 324, and a photograph of them in Peacock's Report, 
p. 6. A very full discussion of the whole question of Christianity in the 


Sudan will be found in Letronne (Materiatix...), and reference should be 
made to Part I, Chap. 3 and Part II, Chap. 2 above for further information 
re Soba and 'Aloa. 

''A hostel occupied by the Miihammadans'' is in the Arabic Sj^.^*-* J»^j 
^^ii,X„>^ ^ \J . See note to D 7, para. 11, and see explanatory note in Vol. i, 
p. 171 re Ibn Selfm's use of the same word. 

The spelling '' Sobd" for "Soba" is unusual and incorrect. 

The mizr spoken of is the older form of the modern merissa (native 
beer). El Tunisi {Voy. au Ddrfour, p. 224) speaks of "le mizr, le oum- 
bulbul, sorte de vin rouge." He explains it in a note (p. 426) as "une 
boisson fermentee et enivrante, tout a fait analogue au bouza qu'on pre'pare 
en Egypte." ''Bouza'' and "booze" are no doubt the same word and so 
both appear to be of the same derivation as the word ''merissa." 

" Kassdbi" is the fine white variety of millet which is still grown in 
large quantities in the Gezira. 

II This paragraph closely resembles D 3, v and D 3, 157 (g.v.). 

The word translated " hosfel" is again Lbj. In D 3 the word used 
is jmas. In Muhammad 'Abd el Magid's MS., in place of J»bj *J ^^ we 
have lisbj ^ ^. 

"EI Is" is definitely written ^/-Jl in at least one copy. See D 3, 
153 (note). 

III By the Awlad Dayfulla are probably meant the Dayfullab, i.e. 
the family of the author of D 3 . 

For Idris el Arbab see D 3, 141 and note thereto. 
Muhammad Abd el Magid's MS. gives 912 for 913. 
V Cp. Jackson, Tooth of Fire..., p. 17. 

VII Cp. Jackson, p. 22. 

"Because he was the more powerful" is j.**5jl yb ou^^ . 

VIII There is no warrant for deriving " Senndr" (jl_Uw) from " si)i" 
(O-***' ^ tooth) and "ndr" (jU, fire). Schofl^ {Periplus . . . , p. 61) identifies 
Sennar with the ancient Cyeneum. The author of the Periplus says that 
it is three days' journey inland from Adulis to Coloe (modern Kohaito), 
and from Coloe to the city of the Auxumites {i.e. Axum) "there is five 
days' journey more; to that place all the ivory is brought from the country 
beyond the Nile through the district called Cyeneum and thence to Adulis." 
Cyeneum may correspond geographically with Sennar but it certainly does 
not philologically as the former is spelt Kw/revo;. 

910 a.h. is the generally accepted date of the foundation of the Fung 
kingdom: cp. Bruce. The original MS. may, however, have given 915 
{w") in mistake for 910 {w ), or the last of the three figures may have 
been indeterminate, for one other MS. I have seen gives 915, and another 
gives 910, and in the MS. here translated there is a marginal note to "910 " 
implying that the text read "915 " and that the copyist made the emenda- 
tion: the note is ^»<> ojsJ \^ ^il^-oJt. 

X Gerayf Kumr, or Gerayf East, is on the east bank of the Blue Nile a 
few miles outside Khartoum. Jackson (p. 19) wrongly translate "Gereif 


XI Cp. A.-E. Sudan (which reproduces Stewart's Report...), p. 229, 
where "Khamir" (j-j-o-*-) is a mistake for Himyar (^-A-o - a.), "Beni 
Abbas" (^U ,^)"for 'Abs i^^), "Ziban" (oWj) for Dhubian 
(^Lj3), "Ferara" (Sjiji) for Fezara (Sjlji), and "Shaker" (jXi) for 
Yashkur (^iC<i.j). 

The tribes mentioned are well-known Arabian tribes, frequently men- 
tioned in the Sudan nisbas. 

The Beni Yashkur are a branch of Kays 'Aylat^t (see Wiistenfeld, D 
and ABC, xxviii (note)). From the remarks of the author of ABC one 
gathers that the Shukria are intended here to represent the descendants 
of the Beni Yashkur. 

Of the 'Abs Burton says "Those ancient clans the Abs and Adnan 
have almost died out.. . .The Abs, I am informed, are to be found near 
Kusayr (Corseir) on the African coast, but not in Al-Hijaz" {Pilgrimage..., 
II, 119). 
XIII See note to BA, ccxvi for this and following paragraphs. 

For the following chronology of the kings cp. Appendix i, BA, ccxvi, 
D 2, II, Anglo-Eg. Sudan, p. 328, Bruce, Cailliaud, Tremaux, Na'um Bey 
and Jackson, in all of which similar lists are given though the dates vary 
to some extent. 

XVII Of Tabl Cailliaud says (Vol. 11, p. 256): "fut tue a Chendy par les 
gens du roi de cette ville." 

XX See remarks re the battle of Kalkol in the note to BA, ccxvi, and also 
D 3, 241 and 141. 

XXI Sheikh Idris el Arbab's biography is given in D 3 (No. 141): see 
also Jackson, pp. 27, 28. 

XXII Hasan wad Hasuna's biography is given in D 3 (No. 132). 

XXIII For Ibrahim el Bulad and "Khalil" see AB, 89-101 ; D 3, 6, etc. 

XXIV The biography of Muhammad el Misri is No. 195 in D 3. 

XXV Tag el Din's biography is No. 67 in D 3. 

XXVI Cp. D 3, VIII. The same words ^^JLc ^oJ^* {^'inspired'') are used in 
both cases: see note to D 3, v. ''''Obtained direction in the right way" is 

vo^t j^JjJs Jc».l. 

XXVIII El Rubat was son of Badi Sid el Kum (see Cailliaud, 11, 256). In 
his reign the Abyssinians repeatedly invaded Sennar, but no mention is 
here made of the fact. An account of the circumstances will be found in 
the note to para. L and Appendix 2. 

XXIX In the text, as in that used by Jackson (q.v. p. 35), the people 
attacked by Badi are called "Shakka" (^S^) and there is a marginal note 
saying " perhaps Shilluk " (»iJLU»). " Shilluk " is certainly the right read- 
ing: cp. Stewart (Report...) or Anglo-Eg. Sudan, p. 229. 

xxxii Bruce noted this fact concerning the nomenclature of the villages 
round Sennar. 

xxxiii The word "el Mahrma" is used throughout D 7 instead of the 
usual "Misr" (Cairo): it means literally "the well-guarded," and is an 
epithet applied to any large town. 

xxxvi Cp. Jackson, pp. 34 and 82. 
Cailliaud (11, 258) in 1821 describes Sennar and says: "Au centre 



domine I'ancienne residence des aieux de Bady. C'est une construction 
en briques cuites, elevee de quatre etages; abandonnee, ainsi que toutes 
ses dependances, elle est deja a demi delabree." 

Poncet in 1699 says (p. 19): "the King's Palace is surrounded with 
high Walls of Brick bak'd in the Sun, but has nothing regular in it. You 
see nothing but a confus'd Heap of Buildings, without Symmetry or 

XXXVIII Cp. Poncet (p. 19): "When we had almost past over the Court, 
they oblig'd us to stop short before a Stone, which is near to an open Hall, 
where the King usually gives Audience to Embassadors." Burton (Pil- 
grimage..., II, p. 31) uses the word " dakka" for a stone bench at Medina. 

XLi " Urn Lahm" is several times mentioned in D 3 (see Nos. 84, 88, 
157, 165), and is similarly identified with 1095 a.h. (1684 A.D.). 

XLii Badi el Ahmar would appear to be the king whom Poncet found 
reigning in 1699. Bruce gives his dates as 1701 to 1726, but I agree with 
Jackson (q.v. p. 98, note) in thinking those dates must be less accurate than 
the dates given by Cailliaud (1687-1714) or D 7. Poncet describes him 
thus: "That Prince is Nineteen Years of Age, black, but well shap'd and 
of a Majestick Presence, not having thick lips, nor flat Nose like the Rest 
of his Subjects." In other words, he was more of an Arab than a negro 
type and therefore likely to have been paler in complexion (i.e. "Ahmar"). 
The rebellion referred to here and Badi's exploit are also mentioned 
in D 3, 153 (q.v.). Cp. Jackson, pp. 35-36. EI Amin Aradib zoalad 'Agib 
was presumably one of the 'Abdullah of Kerri. Cailliaud (11, 256) notes 
that Badi's vizier was Nasir el Tamani. 

XLiii The biography of this saint is given in D 3 (No. 125). From D 3 
and the statements of his descendants it seems that his real name was 
Hammad and not Ahmad. 

The reading vy is given, and not vv, in other copies. 

XLiv " The nczcs of his doings reached the FuNG in the south. . . ," etc., is 
as follows in the Arabic : 

J-"* 05»*^ ^>UJ' 15* t^.>-!/J 0-* O^y.3 C^y^j^i \iH'>^^ ^ 

Lulu is not mentioned elsewhere: Jackson (p. 36) assumes it to be the 
commander's name. 

The ''slaying'' referred to may be the ceremonial slaying of the king 
as practised at Sennar (vide Bruce, and cp. Vol. i, p. 50 and note to D 5 (a), 
vi), or the sense may be no more than the obvious one, that the military 
were all-powerful and that no one could oppose them. 

XLV Cailliaud (11, 256) mentions that Ounsa died at Sennar of small-pox. 

XLVii We have seen from the preceding paragraphs that the succession 
to the throne had been purely patrilinear. For the Ounsab see BA, 214 
and D 2, I : they were the royal family. 

XLViii "Abu Shelukh" (7-^ ajI) has been quite incorrectly called 

"Abu Shilluk" (>iJULi ^1) by several writers. Westermann is thus led 
into using the name as evidence of what may perhaps be taken as true 


on different grounds, namely that the Fung were racially an offshoot of 
the Shilluk. " Shelukh" are the cuts on the face used by most Sudanese 
Arabs: "mushellakh" is the usual adjective to describe one so marked. 

The Sheikhs of the Hamag, it will be seen, only usurped the royal 
functions in fact, but were very careful not to attempt to do so in name. 
They acted as "kingmakers," but in deference to public opinion never 
failed to insist upon the existence of a king of the royal house. Their position 
in some respects resembled that of the hereditary viziers under the fifth 
dynasty in ancient Egypt {q.v. Breasted, Hist., pp. 113, 114). 
XLix Contrast D i, clxxx, and compare D 2, viii and xxx. 

"AnwAb" is a curious plural formed from "NtJBA." 
L For this war with Abyssinia see Jackson, Chap, iii, and Budge (Vol. ii, 
p. 203). The latter says: " 'lyasu I, 'Adyam Sagad I, king of Abyssinia, 
invaded Sennaar because Badi had stopped certain presents which 'lyasu 
had sent to the king of France. A battle was fought on the Binder river, 
and the Abyssinian army was defeated with great slaughter." As Budge 
says later that 'lyasu I was murdered in October 1706, and that Badi Abu 
Shelukh reigned from 1724 to 1762, "'lyasu I" must be an error for 
"'lyasu II." 

Jackson (p. 48) gives a variant translation of paras, l-lvi — not differing^ 
to any extent from D 7. We note, however, that the "el Ami'n" of para. L 
was el Amin Mismar, the 'AbduUabi, of Kerri. The only MSS. I have seen 
give simply "el Amin." 

The Abyssinian account of the war, as gathered from the Portuguese 
records, admits the defeat but shows that Sennar was actually abandoned 
by Badi and that but for a brilliant manoeuvre carried out by Khamis, the 
Fur, the Abyssinians would probably have been completely victorious. 

It may be as well to give here a brief historical resume of the previous 
relations between Sennar and Abyssinia. The first detailed record of these 
relations will be found in the Historia Aethiopiae of P. Petri Paez, who was 
a Jesuit father, born about 1564. (See Beccari, Rerum Aethiop...., Vol. ill, 
pp. 327-354, 370 ff. ; and cp. Bruce, loc. cit.) 'Abd el Kadir II had been 
on good terms with the great Abyssinian conqueror Susneos ("Socinios") 
but had been deposed by his brother 'Adlan I. He fled to Tchelga, a 
frontier district of Abyssinia leased to Wad 'Agib by a special arrangement 
(see Bruce, Vol. ill, p. 300) and under the joint protection of the two, but 
was subsequently killed in a local rebellion. Aboiit 161 3 we have Badi Sid 
el Kum, who had succeeded 'Adlan I and was son of 'Abd el Kadir, sending 
a present of two indifferent horses to Susneos : he appears not to have been 
satisfied with the treatment meted out to his father. About a year later, 
el Rubat having succeeded his father Badi, Susneos, irritated by a number of 
incidents that had occurred, entered into a league with "Nael filho de 
Agub" (Nail wad 'Agib, an 'Abdullabi ?) and sent his generals to make a 
series of raids into the provinces of Sennar (including Suakin), and con- 
siderable loot was captured yearly. In 161 9, as the marginal summary 
puts it, " Melca Christos, lonael et Oald Haureat regnum Funye invadunt, 
pluribus praeliis hostes profligant, regem capiunt et, universa regione de- 
populata, a Suaquem usque ad Fazcolo {i.e. Fazoghli), ingenti praedi 



onusti ad Imperatorem redeunt." [Extracts from the Portuguese of Paez 
will be found in Appendix 2. See also Bruce, Vol. iii, pp. 311-319.] 

After the expedition just described, to quote Bruce {loc. cit), " Still 
the vengeance of Socinios was not satisfied. The Baharnagash, Guebra 
Mariam," was commanded to march "against Fatima, queen of the Shep- 
herds^, called at that time Negusta Errum'-, queen of the Greeks. This 
was a princess who governed the remnant of that antient race of people, 
once the sovereigns of the whole country, who, for several dynasties, were 
masters of Egypt, and who still, among their ancient customs, preserved 
that known one, of always placing a woman upon the throne. Her residence 
was at Mendera, on the north-east of Atbara, one of the largest and most 
popular towns in it." Mendera, that is Mundera, was on the great east- 
to-west trade and pilgrim route, and its queen, the modern representative 
of Candace, derived her income from the fact. She surrendered to Guebra 
Mariam and was taken to Abyssinia but was released and sent back home 
with presents. 

The Abyssinians no doubt considered Sennar, or at least that portion 
of the kingdom which was bounded by Abyssinia, as theoretically a subject 
state. For instance, Ludolfus, basing his history chiefly on the works of 
Tellez and the Jesuit memoirs, says in Bk. i, Chap, xvi (published 1681 
and translated by Gent in 1684) that to the south Abyssinia is bounded 
by "the Kingdom of Sennar or Fund, governed by its peculiar king, 
formerly a tributary to the Abessines, but now absolute"; and in Bk. 11, 
Chap, xviii, we find "as for the king of Sennar, he has often revolted and 
made warr upon the Abessines." 

Menelik II was of the same opinion so late as 1891 : see note to D i, 


Between the reigns of el Rubat (died 1642) and Badi "Abu Shelukh" 
{ace. 1723) there seems to have been a period of comparative peace. 

The el Amin walad Mismar mentioned here is not to be confused with 
the Muhammad el Amin walad Mismar of paras. Lxxvii et seq. : see Na'um 
Bey, Hist. Sudan, 11, 99. 

LI Khamis is mentioned by Bruce (Vol. 11, p. 635): "Hamis, prince of 
Dar Fowr had been banished from his country in a late revolution occa- 
sioned by an unsuccessful war against Sele and Bagirma, and had fled to 
Sennaar, where he had been kindly received by Baady, and it was by his 
assistance the Funge had subdued Kordofan." 

Muhammad Abu el Kaylak was probably the greatest man that the 
Sudan produced in the seventeenth and eighteenth centuries. His sons 
and grandsons were virtually supreme in the Gezira after his death until 
the Turkish conquest, and he himself not only conquered and administered 
Kordofan but also raised himself to the position of a dictator at Sennar. 

I do not think that there can be much doubt but that he was one of the 
Hamag by race, though Jackson (p. 51) says (rashly, I think) that the "general 
consensus of native opinion" is in favour of his being a Ga'ali, and quotes 
an account of him given by the Mek of the Gamu'ia from which it would 
appear that Abu el Kaylak's mother was Hamag and his father a Gamu'i 
1 The Bega tribes, that is. - I.e. el Rilm. 



IV. D 7. LI. 

(i.e. of Ga'ali extraction). The term "Hamag" is often used as almost the 
equivalent of barbarians, and, on the other hand, in so far as the Hamag 
have Arab blood in them, it is supposed to be derived from Beni 'Abbas 
(i.e. Ga'ali) ancestors. In fact, where some people would say that the 
Gamu'ia were partly Hamag, the Gamu'ia put it differently and speak of 
the Hamag (e.g. Abu el Kaylak) as being partly Ga'ali. There is, however, 
the possibility that Abu el Kaylak was called a Hamagi because of his 
mother belonging to that race. Such an example of the survival of a 
matrilineal system vvould be by no means anomalous. 

From Bruce (Appendix 28, p. 226) one would suppose that Abu el Kaylak 
was the son of Sheikh Subahi . The vizier ' Adlan is repeatedly referred to as his 
brother and in 1 176 (1762 a.d.) wrote a letter of recommendation for Bruce 
signed "el Sheikh 'Adlan son of el Sheikh Subahi." But Subahi was the 
Sheikh of Khashm elBahr(see para, lxxii) and one of theKAMATiR(RuFA'A), 
which Abu el Kaylak certainly Vvas not, so it is evident that Bruce was 
simply misled by the use of the term " akhu." From para. LXXii it is clear 
that 'Adlan and Abu el Kajlak were bosom friends. 

As regards Abu el Kaylak's career: in Appendix 46 (pp. 416-7) Bruce 
says (1772): "From these two provinces [viz. the Gezira and southern 
Kordofan] are all the riches of the kingdom ; and they are both in the hands 
of the two brothers, Adelan, and 'Abd el Calec, who have killed two kings, 
and keep the third [i.e. Isma'il] without forces or revenue." 

Again, on p. 425, Bruce says: " News brought (Aug. ist) that the people 
of Darfoor have marched with an army to take Kordofan, which, it is appre- 
hended, they soon will do, being about 12,000 horse, and an infinite number 
of foot. There are at Kordofan about 1500 horse, with Mahomet Abou 
Calec; who, it is thought, will fall back on Sennaar, if not surrounded. . . ." 

Browne, writing in 1793 from Darfur, says (p. 307): "A king of the 
name of Abli Calik is the idol of the people of Kordofan where he reigned 
about fourteen years ago and is renowned for probity and justice." 

The following Tree, compiled from D 7, will be found useful in follow- 
ing the career of Abu el Kaylak's descendants : 

(i) Muhammad Abu el Kaylak (d. 1776) Ragab 

(2) Badi (d. 1780) 

(3) Ragab 
(d. 1786-7) 

(4) Nasir 
(d. 1798) 

(5) Idrfs 
(d. 1803) 

(6) 'Adlan 
(d. 1803) 

Muhammad 'Ali 
"Abu Rfsh" 
(d. 1806) 

(d. 1785) 

(8) Muhammad 
(d. 1808) 


(9) Muhammad (d. 1821) Ragab Idris 

I \ 

el Husayn 'AH "walad Sald^fn" (d. 1788) 

(7) Muhammad (d. 1807 c.) Doka Badi Hasan 'Ali Ibrdhfm Kamatu 


The name "Abu el Kaylak" is alleged (by feki Muhammad 'Abd 
el Magid of the 'Omarab, for whom see D 3, 1 13 note) to be more correctly 
"Abu Lakaylak." He explains '' Lakayluk" as a diminutive of '' lak" 
meanmg 100,000, and says the nickname was given because Sheikh 
Muhammad commanded 100,000 men. This, however, is not very con- 
LVii Abd el Latif el Khatib's biography is No. 9 in D 3. 
The text is corrupt here, reading thus : 

^ L5J^^i 

A-LlJ^ j^yi^l ^LaJI «^JaJJI j^ ^_- -l-.r^ )\ 

The MS. of Muhammad 'Abd el Magid omits the middle line. 
"I'he Fung nobility" is ^^^1 ^^ iJ^jJI el^-^s. Cp. paras, lxi and 
LXII. ^ 

LVIII Cp. MacMichael (Tribes ..., pp . 9-1 1), and Jackson (p. 50) who adds 
el Ami'n Mismar (for whom see para, l) among the commanders. The 
Fung army was probably composed largely of Abdullab from Kerri if we 
may judge from the names " AbduUa walad Agi'b," " Shammam walad 
'Agib," "el Amin Mismar" and " Agayl." Khami's the Fur was probably 
assisting the Fung in Kordofan during the war : see the first passage from 
Bruce quoted in the note to Li. 

LXI ''Fung nobles" here is ?j~iA)t SJ^^ jjI^' : cp. paras, lvii and LXii. 

LXII " Great men of the Fung, that is slaves of the king," is ~^»i\ dj-^ 
,iU^l jLA*ft ^&«: cp. paras, lvii and lxi. ^ 

It would appear that slaves had attained in Sennar to a position analo- 
gous to that of the Mamluks in Egypt. 

lxiv Cailliaud says (11, 256) that Badi died at Suakin. 

Lxvii Cailliaud speaks of Nasir (11, 256) as "tue a el-Bouqra par Bady 
Oualed Regeb." 

Lxviii " FuAri" may be a plural formed from Fur: cp. "Anwab" in 
para. XLix. Jackson (p. 59) says: "Ahmed wad Mahmud, Sheikh of the 
Furs." Muhammad Abd el Magid's MS., however, gives "Kawaria." 
"Prayer-mat" is IJ^^. Jackson (p. 59) translates "pen." 

Lxix It was in Isma'il's reign that Bruce visited Sennar. In the text 
Bruce speaks of him as "white in colour as an Arab," with short black 
hair; but in the MS. notes (Vol. vi, p. 417) he speaks of him ("the mek") 
as having "woolly hair and black flat features." 

L^xxi The reading '89 instead of '83 is adopted from another MS. 

Lxxii The reading "1198" as the date of Abu el Kaylak's death is 
obviously an error, as his successor died in 1194A.H. (see para. Lxxxvi). 
Two other MSS. to which I had access, and which agree with that here 
translated as regards other dates, give 11 90. 

As regards the relationship between Abu el Kaylak and 'Adlan see note 
to para. Li. Cp. also para. cc. 

Feki Muhammad Abd el Magid writes to me of 'Adlan walad Subahi : 
"He was one of the KamAti'r, a learned and pious man. His tomb is at 

414 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv.dt.lxxii. 

Sennar and is still visited. In times of distress people call upon him saying 
*Ya 'Adlan, Wali and Sultan.' He has performed many miracles, and 
has a marv^ellous power of curing club-footedness {el nabt). If one has a 
club-foot and visits him on seven Saturdays, by God's leave one will be 
healed of it." 

'' Khashm el Bahr" was the name given to the district bordering on 
either side of the river from Sennar southwards. Muhammad 'Abd 
el Magid writes to me again on this subject: "It was the custom of the 
kings to grant to the man they put in charge of these villages the rank of 
' Sheikh of Khashm el Bahr,' and to the man they put in charge of the 
cultivable lands the rank of ' Sheikh of the lands of the villages of Khashm 
el Bahr.' The inland villages, which water from wells, were called ' the rain- 
land villages ' {hilldl el kuir) and also had two Sheikhs, one for the villages 
and one for the lands : the former was called ' Sheikh of the rainland vil- 
lages,' and the latter ' Sheikh of the lands of the rainland villages.'" 
Lxxiii Of Isma'il Cailliaud (ii, 256) notes "mort du cote de Saouakin." 
LXXV Abu 'All's full name was Abu 'Ali wad Muhammad wad 'Adlan 
wad Nail, Nail being the ancestor of the Awlad Nail section. 

Lxxvii Muhammad el Amin (walad Mismar) was Sheikh of Kerri, an 
'Abdullabi. He had apparently succeeded the Sheikh 'Agib of para, lxxvl 
Badi his brother seems to have succeeded him, but when Badi died, or was 
deposed, he again became Sheikh and did not die till 1790 (see para. 


The reading ''Ahmad walad 'AH" for "Muhammad" is correct and 
occurs in other MSS.: cp. paras. Lxxix, cci and cciii and note to cci. 
Jackson gives (p. 61) "Mohammed wad Ali." 

Lxxxi El Amin walad 'Agib is the Muhammad el Amin of para. LXXix, 
etc. (cp. note to para. l). "Wad 'Agib" was practically the hereditary title 
of the 'Abdullab. 

Lxxxiv "His uncle" is Abu el Kaylak. Jackson (p. 63) is in error in 
making el Amin give Badi the coup de grace. Such MSS. as I have seen 
all agree with the text as translated. 

Lxxxvi Ragab was son of Abu el Kaylak. 

Lxxxviii Jackson (p. 63) makes Nasir the victor. No MSS. that I have 
seen do so. 

xc Cp. D 3, IV (note) and Jackson (p. 63). 

xci In para, civ it is Ibrahim's brother 'Ali who is called "Walad 

xcii The Awlad Nimr are the Ga'ali Meks of Shendi. 

xciii For '\fdsher" cp. el Tunisi (Voy. au Ouaddy, p. 98): "Le mot 
de Ouarah, chez les Ouadayens, est analogue au mot de Facher chez les 
Foriens. . .Au Darfour, la denomination de Facher s'applique egalement 
a la grande place qui est devant la demeure du sultan. . .et a cette demeure 
elle-meme. Ou donne encore ce nom, hors de Tendelty, a la ville, ou au 
bourg, ou au village ou le sultan s'etablit. Mais au Ouaday, le nom de 
I^acher ne s'applique qu'a la grande place qui est devant \e palais. . .." 

xcv Sa'ad ibn el Mek Idris was the Ga'ali Mek of Shendi. According 
to Cailliaud's list (in, 106) he ruled for 40 years. 


xcvi The Arabic of the three phrases given is 

(a) jO JJUl.**. j^J^ Lj. 

(b) J--JI UlAi? jUI. 

(c) v:u3ljUI. 

C 'Abud lies south-west of Wad Medani, in the Gezira. 

CI Hegazi's biography is given in D 3 (No. 133). 
"Said he zcou/d inspire them" is ^.©vs''^ <*-ojjkij ^^Aj^^^l — a technical 
phrase for which cp. para, xxvi above. 

CIV Intarahnd is west of Rufa'a. 
For 'Ali "walad Salatin" cp. note to para. xci. 

cvi From CailUaud (11, 256) it seems that after 'Adlan's death his son 
Rubat reigned for a month and was then put to death by Nasir at Sennar. 
See para. ex. 

CVii The Arabic of the quotation is 

Ajju ^ ^*5^ ^li y>« U3 U*.o». LjjJl 

cviii Awkal is said by Cailliaud to have reigned 18 months and to have 
been killed by Nasir at el Darner (Vol. 11, p. 256). 

Cix Cailliaud (11, 256) says Tabl reigned a year and 5 months and "fut 
tue a Chendy par Oualad-Agyb." 

cx This Badi is Badi V. For Rubat see note to cvi. Cailliaud omits 
Hasab Rabbihi. 

cxii Cp. notes to paras, lxxvii and lxxxi. 

cxiv This is Badi VI. 

cxvii See Na'um Bey {Hist. Sud. 11, 87) for such tales. 
The Sultan Abd el Rahman el Rashi'd reigned from 1785 to 1799. 
Murad Bey, the Alarnluk, was defeated by Napoleon's army in July 1798, 
made Governor of Upper Egypt in 1800, and died in 1801. 

Ahmad Pasha el Gazar was Governor of Acre at the time the French 
besieged it. He is said to have been "a monster of rapacity and cruelty" 
(Paton, I, 259). 

cxviii " Came to him'' is the technical aJLc >6jk,5 (see note to para. xxvi). 

cxx The author appears to fluctuate in his estimate of Nasir's character ; 
or else remarks from another hand have been inserted in the text. The 
MS. of Muhammad 'Abd el Magid agrees with that translated. Cp. para, 

cxxi Cp. D 3, 133. For " Husayn" Jackson (p. 68) gives "Hassan." 
Such other MSS. as I have seen give "Husayn." 

cxxiii This Siru is north of Omdurman, so "advanced into the Gezira" 
(Sj»jj.a^l I^JL».i) is probably an error: the southern Siru {q.v. para, 
cxxvii) can hardly be meant here. It is too far from the Fezara and Bexi 
GeraPv country. 

Hashim, the Musaba'awi Sultan, had lately been expelled from Kordo- 
fan by the Kungara and had fled to Shendi. He was eventually put to 
death there by the Mek Nimr (see Burckhardt, and MacMichael, Tribes..., 
P- 63). 

4i6 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv.dt.cxxiv. 

cxxiv See note to CLXXVii. 

cxxvii Idris and 'Adlan were Nasir's own brothers. This Sirii is on the 
west bank just south-west of Karkog. Deberki is nearly due east of 

cxxviii This 'Abdulla walad Agib is the one first mentioned in para. cxii. 
See also cxxxviii. 

cxxix ''Gave him protection'^ is ji\x,ji\ oUatI . 

cxxxii Badi walad Ragab had been actually killed by Ahmad walad 'Ali, 
but (see Lxxxiv) the latter was merely the ally of Nasir and the other sons 
of Abu el Kaylak. Ahmad 's grievance had been his deposition from the 
sheikhship, but a more mortal quarrel existed between Badi and Nasir on 
account of the former's having flogged the latter (see Lxxvii). In the result 
Badi was deposed and killed, and here we have Adlan handing over Nasir, 
his own brother, to Badi's son for vengeance to be taken. Jackson (p. 69) 
gives "Sahi" (^-a-l.-^) or "Hyas" (,.^Lj_a.) for "Subahi" (|^».L^_-tf) 

which is obviously the correct reading. 

Sheikh Dafa'alla el Araki is repeatedly alluded to in D 3. 

CXL See para. ccix. The reference (p^ ^ " - r- jb^es~j.^\) is to Isma'il 

CXLI Jackson (pp. 70, 71) wrongly attaches the following description of 
Abdulla walad Agib to "Agib." 

CXLIV The Mek Sa'ad was mentioned in para. xcv. According to 
CailUaud's list (iii, 106) Musa'ad {q.v. para. CXLIX) succeeded Sa'ad. 

This is, according to tribal accounts, quite correct. The ruling family at 
Shendi were the Sa'adab, and Musa'ad inherited in due course. Then 
Muhammad walad Nimr, also a Sa'adabi, rebelled and tried to enlist the 
aid of the Hamag towards the realizations of his pretensions. The Hamag 
{i.e. 'Adlan) played Muhammad false as related in D 7 ; but his son Nimr 
(see para. cxLVi) escaped and took refuge with the Shukri'a nomads for a 
time, and then returned in 1801 (see para, cl) and relegated Musa'ad to 
an inferior position. Jackson (p. 71) has confused Muhammad walad Nimr 
and his son Nimr walad Muhammad. Cailliaud (copied by Budge, Vol. ii, 
p. 206) made the error of allotting Musa'ad and Muhammad each 13 years 
and not noting that they overlapped ; and Jackson makes things worse by 
putting in definite dates (which CaiUiaud did not), viz. Musa'ad 1778- 
1791 and Muhammad 1791-1804. See Part III, Chap, i {k) on the subject. 

CXLV See paras, xcii-xciv. It had been on the advice of the Ga'aliin 
of Shendi (Awlad Nimr) and others that the king had enslaved Abu el 
Kaylak's daughters. 

CXLIX " M/iG^Z)///B" = Awlad EL Magdhub. Cp. D i, cxxv; D 3, 123; 
and D 7, cclxiv. 

CL This Mek 'fsawi was a Gamu'i, the eponymous ancestor of the 
IsAWiA section and nephew of Babikr Sulayman {q.v. note to para, ccxii). 

CLi 'Awad el Kerim Abu Sin was the grandson of the Abu 'AH of 
para. lxxv. His father was 'Ali, and his son was the well-known Ahmad 
Bey Abu Sin (see para, ccxc and Part III, Chap. 2 {d)). 

clii Yusef's biography is No. 256 in D 3. 

CLiii " The historian states. . . " is f'j^\ J^i {sic in each MS. seen). 


CLV Muhammad walad Ragab walad Muhammad [sc. Abu el Kaylak] 
was 'Adlan's nephew. 

" Kamtur" is Muhammad Kamtur (see para, cciv) of Khashm el Bahr 
(q.v. note to para. Li). 

Badi VI had been deposed by Idn's walad Muhammad (see para. CLXi) 
and Ranfi set up in his place. 

Muhammad walad Nasir [sc. walad Abu el Kaylak] "Abu Rfsh" was 
'Adlan's nephew. 
CLVII The quotation runs ^Jw ^yj^JLSj Iju.^j*. ^ ^^-r,^ ." . 

CLXI So, too, CailUaud (ii, 257): " Ranfa regna 5 ans. Fut tue a Sennar 
par Mohammed Regeb. Le trone fut vacant pendant un an et demi, 
ensuite revint a Bady, fils de Tabl." 

CLXii 'Ali Bakadi is the feki whose biography is numbered 68 in D 3, 

CLXiv The Gedid referred to is the village on the Blue Nile a little above 

CLXV The text gives . . . IjjjUs » ? » r iw Jjl^t ^1 aJL.^9 ^J| 

Another MS. gives . . ._5jjU kv» Aiw JSt^l ^i l^ ^ISl^ '^1L.^ ^^l 

CLXVi For ''Hardba" (ajI^a) Jackson (p. 73) gives Meheria {duj^}). 
Muhammad 'Abd el Magid's MS. gives "Hawawa." 

CLXVii Sulayman is presumably the Hag Sulayman Ahmad of paras 
cxviii and clxviii. 

CLXXV The 'Arakii'n had great religious influence owing to their 
alleged nobility of descent and the number of their fekis. See D 3 passim. 
The emendation in the final sentence is adopted from another MS. 

CLXXVII An "el Arbab Dafa'alla" is mentioned in paras cxxiv, cxxxi and 
cxxxvi {i.e. about 1797). In this paragraph (CLXXVii), i.e. about 1808, we 
have "el Arbab Dafa'alla walad Ahmad" or "el Arbab Dafa'alla." In 
para, cxcvi, i.e. in 182 1, we have "el Arbab Dafa'alla walad Ahmad Hasan"; 
and in paras cxcvii, ccx, ccxiv and ccxviii "el Arbab Dafa'alla walad 
Ahmad" or "el Arbab Dafa'alla." Probably the same man is meant in 
each case. See note to para, ccxviii. 

"Arbab" is properly a title: see Jackson, p. 94, and cp. Poncet, p. 8: 
"The Erbab or Governour of this province. . .lives at Argo," 

CLXXix To cast earth upon a person's head is to show contempt for him. 
The Arabic is . . . jJLe w^'j^l l^»- • 

CLXXXiv It is noteworthy that all the five sons of Muhammad Abu el 
Kaylak whose children are mentioned at all named their (eldest ?) sons 
Muhammad after Abu el Kaylak. 

CLXxxv " Yellow fever" is Aj)^\j.k^ ir**" 

Hamid walad Abu 'Asa is No. 113 in D 3. 

"Muhammad Nurayn" is either another form of, or a mistake for, 
Muhammad Nur, for whom see the introduction to D 3 and ABC, xi. 

Ibrahim 'Abd el Dafa'i is mentioned again as a poet in para, ccxxxv. 
He was possibly the son of that 'Abd el Dafa'i el Kandil whose biography 
is in D 3 (No. 4). The question of his authorship of D 7 is discussed in 
the Introduction. 

M.S. II 27 

4i8 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv. d7. clxxxv. 

The Arabic of his verses is : 
Ijuj-o^oJ^JW (J^ >*^ w>*e-^ Lf^ J*^^*^ UjJki L5^ O-**^' P-> 
bi>-'3 ^olJ*^' Lji Ij'Si-^ jl*- J^aJ Ua*;;)! wa-wo j^^a^' O-v' >-:*^' >* 
In Muhammad 'Abd el Magid's copy, in the first Hne, ^.^x*^ occurs 
for ^^..CL^, and in the second line we have ^JaJ for ,^1 and 1^1 for 
Ua*^! . The sense is unaffected. 

CLXXXViii El Labayh was the Rufa'i Sheikh. His headquarters were at 

CLXXXix "Gibis" (^,^AO.) is a purely Sudanese word, and is variously 
explained. The idea of stickiness seems to be primarily involved. 

cxc Cp. para, ccxxxii. Sheikh Hasan was the son of the 'Abd el Rahman 
ibn Salih ibn Ban el Nuka whose biography is in D 3 (No. 25). See Intro- 
duction to D 3. 

cxci Nasir "walad 'Agib" is the Nasir walad el Amin of paras cxl and 
CLXXXVi: see para. ccix. "Walad Agib" was practically a hereditary title. 
Na'um Bey (11, 99)— followed by Budge (11, 204) and Jackson (p. 105) — 
gives three separate persons in succession (Nasir wad el Amin, Amin ibn 
Nasir and Nasir wad Agib) by error for one. 

cxcii El Sayyid Muhammad 'Othman el Mirghani was the great-grand- 
father of Sir Sayyid Ali el Mirghani, K.C.M.G. He entered the Sudan by 
way of Massawa from Mekka in 181 7 and visited Kordofan as well as 
Sennar, In Kordofan he married a Dongolawia, and his son el Sayyid 
el Hasan was born at Bara. The shrine erected over the latter's afterbirth 
at Bara is described by Seligman in the volume of Essays and Studies pre- 
sented to William Ridgezoay. El Sayyid el Hasan visited Mekka and finally 
returned and settled at Kassala. His son el Sayyid Muhammad 'Oth- 
man II resided at Massawa and died in Egypt in the Khalifa's time, leaving 
two sons, el Sayyid Ahmad,who lives at Kassala, and el Sayyid 'Ali, who 
lives at Khartoum and Omdurman. The Mirghania tarika is a branch of 
the Khatmia. 

cxciii ''Ahmad" is given in the Arabic by error for " Hammad." 'Awad 
el Kerim Abu Sin had a number of sons, and the best known of them, 
Ahmad Bey (see paras ccxc, etc.), lived on into Turkish days. One of 
Ahmad Bey's brothers was named Hammad ; and other copies I have seen 
give "Hammad" and say both he and his father "were killed by the 
Batahin." The text of D 7 gives "Bahtagiyyun" but no such people exist. 
''Religious Sheikhs" is juja- s^^l j^. L^. 

cxcv See para. CLv. ^ 

cxcviii Hasan was Abu el Kaylak's grandson. Of him and Wad 'Adlan 
Cailliaud, who accompanied Isma'il Pasha in 182I; speaks as follows: " Ces 
deux usurpateurs, ennemis I'un de I'autre. . .n'accordaient au roi legitime 
que la faible part qu'il leur avait plu de lui assigner. A'dlan \i.e. Walad 
'Adldn] tenait sa cour au village de Mouna, oii il tentait de se former une 
petite province: il avait le don de se faire aimer, et son parti etait plus fort 
que celui de Regeb [i.e. fj( sew Ri.gab]. Au mois d'avril, le bruit des 
brillans succes d'Ismayl sur les Chaykyes et de I'approche de son armee, 
vint Jeter I'alarme dans le Sennar. A'dlan et Regeb sentirent alors que leur 



interet commun exigeait qu'ils reunissent leurs forces pour repousser un 
ennemi egalement redoutable pour tous deux. lis formerent done une 
alliance momentanee, et prirent I'engagement reciproque d'agir de concert 
contre le pacha, tant que le danger subsisterait.. . .Sur ces entrefaites, 
Regeb, abusant de la confiance d'A'dlan, con9ut le projet de se debarrasser 
de son competiteur par une lache trahison. . .vers la fin de mai, A'dlan, 
livre au sommeil, fut assailli par une foule d'assassins qui enfoncerent ses 
portes: il se leve, saisit ses armes, et se defend avec fureur; mais convert 
de blessures, il succombe sous le fer d'Abdallah-Niknitt el d'ldris-Ouad- 
A'quindi, ecuyers de Regeb, payes par lui pour commetre cet attentat. 
Regeb croyait alors avoir vaincu tous les obstacles; mais les troupes 
d'A'dlan. . .firent eclater I'horreur que leur inspirait une action aussi 
atroce.. . .A Gondal, le i^"" juin, ces memes troupes, commandees par le 
ministre d'A'dlan, en vinrent aux mains avec celles de Regeb.. . .Regeb 
remporta I'avantage; mais cette victoire fut loin d'augmenter la force de 
son parti. Quelques jours apres, ayant appris que I'armee d'Ismayl avait 
passe le fleuve Blanc et qu'elle s'avan9ait sur Sennar, Regeb ne songea 
qu'a alia se refugier dans les montagnes sur les confins de 
I'Abyssinie. Alors Bady. . .reunit a lui I'ancien parti d'A'dlan, et se porta 
au-devant du pacha jusqu'a Ouad-Modyen [i.e. Wad Medatii]." (Cailliaud, 

PP- 233-5-) 

cc See note to para, lxxii. 

CCi-ccii See note to para. LXXVII where Ahmad is called "w^alad 'Ali." 

ccvi See Part III, Chap, i (k) and Chap. 2 (a). 

ccvii '^Foretold by shaking. . ." is i^»Ja5.o ^^j.a^ J^jj — a method of 

ccix CaiUiaud's narrative (Vol. ii, 192 et seq.) may be compared. Nasir 
walad el Amin is CaiUiaud's "Lod-A'guyb" {i.e. Wad 'Agi'b): the two 
narratives agree remarkably closely as to Isma'il's movements. 

ccx The Kadi Ahmad el Salawi was known to Werne as he accompanied 
Ahmad Pasha's Kassala expedition. Werne (p. 253) says: "This great 
Kadi is a hypocritical but intelligent Mograbin, drinks stoutly his wine 
in private ... and ... during Ramazan, when even the poor half-starved 
soldiers fasted, openly set them the fine example of eating and drinking 
before his tent." 

ccxi See note to para, cxcviii. Cailliaud mentions this expedition 
against Hasan walad Ragab (Vol. 11, 238 et seq): it was under the command 
of Diwan Effendi {q.v. para, ccxiv) and consisted of 400 irregular horse. 
The murderers of Walad 'Adlan were put to death by impalement. 
The Mek Badi is thus described by Cailliaud : " II etait vetu d'une large 
chemise de toile blanche, les jambes nues, de longues sandales aux pieds, 
la tete couverte du bonnet particulier aux meliks [i.e. the 'takia' for a 
description of which see Vol. i, pp. 248 and 249]. . .Bady est un homme 
de quarante ans environ, d'une taille moyenne, robuste, d'une figure 
pleine et agreable, ayant les cheveux crepus et le teint de couleur cuivree, 
qui est celui de la race des Foungis." (11, 298-9.) 

ccxii This is evidently the expedition referred to by Cailliaud (11, 307-8). 
It started on August 22nd and only took eighteen days. CaiUiaud's 


420 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv.dt.ccxii. 

"Djamelyehs" refers to the Gamu'i'a. "Leur chef fut tue. . .on leur prit 
trois cents chameaux, beaucoup de boeufs, et de moutons." 

Idris el Mihayna was related as follows to the present mek of the 

Gamu'i'a, Nasir: 


I I 

Mihayna Babikr 
"i I 

Idrfs Ibrahim 

'Abd el Kadir Nasir el Mek 


The Muhammad Sa'id Effendi mentioned is the same as the "Diwan 
Effendi Sa'id" of paras ccxiv, ccxv, for Cailliaud mentions that "Divan 
Effendy" commanded this expedition, 
ccxiii The reading Jj^^ occurs in other MSS. 

Cailliaud accompanied the expedition to Fazoghli (Cailliaud, Vol. ii. 
Chaps. xxxvi-XLiii). 

There is no other record, so far as I am aware, of the taxation fixed by 
Isma'il Pasha: Cailliaud gives no information on the subject. There was 
no regular budget until 1881 (see Deherain, p. 181), and nothing is known 
of the details of taxation previous to the time of Khurshid Pasha (for which 
see Deherain, p. 182). 

A rial at present is worth, in the Gezira, 10 piastres (2s.), and in most 
other parts {e.g. Kordofan) 20 piastres. An exhaustive note on the subject 
of the currency in use in Egypt in 1845 is added to his edition of el Tunisi's 
Voyage au Ouaday by Dr Perron (see pp. 675-682). Among the silver 
coins there were (i) the "rial abu madfa'a" (the Spanish dollar of Charles 
IV, value 20 pt. 28 paras), (2) the "rial ^aguz" (a worn and defaced coin), 
(3) the "rial abu arba'a" (the same as No. i, except that iiii occurs instead 
of IV. Date 1798. " Tres recherche au Soudan "), (4) the " rial abu shubbdk," 
or " rial abu ibra" or " rial abu nukta " (Austrian), (5) the " rial abu iayra " 
(Russian), the "rial chinco" or "abu shagera" (5-franc piece). Nos. 4 
(the Austrian thaler, or talari) and 5 were also known as "rial kushli" 
(value 20 pt.). 

Cailliaud writing of Berber in 182 1 similarly says " Les piastres d'argent 
d'Espagne, sur-tout celles de Charles IV, y sont preferees: mais celles oil 
le nom du prince est ecrit Charles IIII, par quatre I, et qu'ils nomment 
'real France abou-arba. . .' obtiennent sur les autres un surcroit de valeur 
qui va a 2 francs et plus" (Vol. ii, 118); and again (Vol. 11, 296), writing 
of Sennar, "I'argent qui a cours dans le pays sont les piastres d'Espagne: 
mais ici, comme au Barbar, celles qui portent I'empreinte de Charles IIII, 
par quatre 1, obtiennent une preference marquee." 

If the rial be reckoned at its very lowest possible value, viz. 10 pt., the 
taxation specified in para, ccxiv still appears almost unbelievably onerous, 
and to amount to something approaching confiscation. 

As no mention is made of camels, which presumably were not taxed 
per head because there was no means of counting them, we may assume 
that a tribute was, in the case of the nomads, demanded from the whole 


tribe. It may also be taken for granted that it was not paid and that the 
herds of the nomads were, practically speaking, spoils of war for any 
official who could catch them (see note to ccLXXXix). 

ccxiv The spread of the false rumours mentioned was described by 
Diwan Effendi to Cailliaud {q.v. Vol. in, 75-76). 

An insurrection actually occurred at el Halfaya {op. cit. Vol. ii, 93; 
cp. also Deherain, pp. 94-96). 
ccxv Sa'ad 'Abd el Fattah {q.v. para. CCLXXVii) was one of the 'Ababda. 

A '' mu'allim" was a clerk and a " muhdshir" a kind of superintendent. 

For the move to Wad Medani in March 1822 cp. Cailliaud, ill, 89. 
ccxvi Several accounts of the murder of Isma'il Pasha by Mek Nimr are 
extant. Cailliaud had parted from the Pasha, luckily for himself, and only 
heard of the murder when he arrived at Marseilles on i ith December 1822. 
He gives the following description, based presumably on the first account 
received in Cairo: "Arrive a Chendy, il commit I'imprudence grave de 
s'eloigner de son camp, et d'aller dans un village voisin celebrer par un 
banquet nocturne, avec un petit nombre des siens, le bonheur d'etre 
bientot rendus a leurs foyers. Nimir 011 Nemr, ancien roi de la province 
. . .avait voue a Ismayl une haine eternelle. A la faveur des tenebres, il 
accourut a la tete de sa troupe chargee de matieres combustibles, et en un 
clin d'oeil un vaste incendie enveloppa la maison ou le jeune prince et ses 
amis dormaient dans une securite perfide. II leur fut impossible de se 
frayer une issue a travers les flammes, et ils perirent suffoques.. . .Nimr 
prit la fuite avec ses complices, et se retira dans le Darfour." (Vol. in, 
336, etc.) 

The last detail is certainly wrong: Nimr fled towards Abyssinia not 

Riippell was at Shendi in 1824 and gives a rather different account 
(see Reisen..., p. 11 1). Isma'il Pasha gave Nimr two days in which to 
produce 1000 slaves as tribute. Nimr protested that this was impossible. 
Isma'il struck him and threatened him with impalement, and Nimr pre- 
tended to give way. He then persuaded the Pasha to leave his boat and 
stay in the village, and, under pretext of furnishing fodder for the horses, 
piled masses of dura stalks outside the house where the Pasha was. When 
night came and Isma'il and his companions were half drunk, Nimr set fire 
to the dura stalks, and Isma'il and his friends were burnt to death. 

Werne (1840) also gives the story with slight variations and additions: 
e.g. Nimr was given three days to pay the impost, and Isma'il struck him 
on the face with his pipe-stem as he knelt asking for a longer period of 
grace (see Werne, p. 77). 

Zaydan (11, 164) speaks of a time limit of five days and a demand for 
a boat-load of gold and 2000 men — modified finally to 20,000 rials of silver 
and 2000 men. Isma'il was then persuaded to attend a dancing entertain- 
ment to which all the inhabitants also assembled, and at a given signal the 
straw was lit and the Pasha and his suite driven within its circle and killed. 

The account given in D 7 is practically the same as that given by 

Of Nimr himself Cailliaud (11, 300) says: "On m'avait prevenu de son 

422 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv.dt.ccxvi. 

caractere hautain, de sa fierte: je le trouvai assis sur un engareb lisant le 
Coran.. . .Nimir est un homme de six pieds; il a le regard dur, Thumeur 
sombre; il est reflechi, plein d'orgueil et d'audace, studieux et devot." 
See also note to cccxxv. 

ccxvii " Kadakhddr" is said to have been a title denoting "Master of 
the Household." 

ccxviii El Arbab Dafa'alla (previously called "el Arbab Muhammad 
walad Ahmad") is mentioned by Werne (p. 77). Speaking of Isma'il 
Pasha's murder he says: "At the same time, the father of our Defalla 
[q.v. paras ccc, ccci], Mohammed Adlan Defalla, Great Sheik of the 
Fungh, on the Gesira, murdered all the Turkish soldiers to be found in 
his countries." Our author omits this! Werne adds (p. 78) that this same 
el Arbab Dafa'alla "fled from the Gesira, and, according to report, died 
in Habesch." See note to CLXXVii. 

The family of el Arbab Dafa'alla are said to have been Sururab, i.e. 
Gamu'ia, but they intermarried with the Fung royal house (see note to 
para. ccc). Their headquarters were at el Surayba. Abu Shoka is a few 
miles south of Sennar (see Marno's map). 

The people of 'Abud were nearly all Kawahla. 

" Delalia" were irregular troops such as were later called Bashi Bazuks. 
ccxix Cp. Cailliaud, iii, 337-8; Riippell, 11 1-2: Deherain, 98; Werne, 
77; and Budge, 11, 212. 

The Arabic of the last sentence is : 

U*^a. ^^S^ai^J j-«lj aJ^Aa. ^ »-JjJt J^-o^fc-' A*Aa)I ^^^ J^ij 

ccxx This " Walad 'Agib " is the Nasir walad el Ami'n of para. ccix. For 
Sheikh Khogali see D 3, 154. 

ccxxii Kutrang is on the east bank of the Blue Nile below el Kamh'n. 
By "el Kubba" is meant, as usual, the site of Sheikh Khogali 's tomb 
at Khartoum North. Werne's translator (p. 17) cails it "Chobba." 

ccxxiv El 'Adayk is a colloquial name for the Blue Nile. 

ccxxv The 'Akaki'r are a section of Ga'alii'n. 

ccxxviii El Nasub is a hill in the Butana between the Blue Nile and 
Kassala Province. 

ccxxix Bashir walad 'x\kid (q.v. para. CCLXVI) was one of the Mirafab 
of Berber. 

Um 'Artik ("mother of roots") was properly a large /iam^: tree and 
gave its name to a site on the west bank of the White Nile close to the site 
of the present Commandania of Omdurman. 

ccxxxii See para. cxc. 

ccxxxiii Sabderat is just east of Kassala. Werne (pp. 217-8) refers to this 
expedition. Sabderat was destroyed and the popilation put to the sword. 

ccxxxv Cp. para. CLXXXV for Ibrahim 'Abd el Oafa'i. 
Sheikh Ahmad el Taib ibn el Bashir's tomb, built in 1906, is at the 
village, called after him " Sheikh el Taib," on the west bank some twenty- 
five miles below Omdurman. He introduced the Sammania iarika into 
the Sudan. He himself adopted it, when at el Medina, from its founder 
"el Sammani." Sheikh el Taib's descendants speak of themselves as 



Gamu'ia, but it is said that as a matter of fact the Sheikh's father, el Bashi'r, 
was a Baza'i from Kordofan who married one of the Gamu'ia of the 
SuRURAB section and settled permanently on the Nile. 

Sheikh el Taib's full name was Ahmad el Taib ibn Bashir ibn Malik 
ibn el feki Muhammad ibn el feki Surur. 

"£■/ Sammdni's" full name was Muhammad ibn 'Abd el Kerim, and 
he is alleged to have been a Kurashi. He was born in 1 130 a.h. (1718 a.d.) 
at el Medina and was taught by Sheikh Muhammad ibn Sulayman el Kurdi. 
He was then instructed in the tenets of the Khalwatia tarika by el Sayyid 
Mustafa ibn Kamal el Din el Bekri and adopted it. Later he founded the 
Sammania farika himself. It was so called because he was by trade a 
seller of samn (fat). He died in 1189 a.h. (1775 a.d.). Cp. also Burton, 
Pilgrimage..., i, 162. 

ccxxxvii Cp. Budge (11, 213), who says 'Othman Bey succeeded in 1825. 
Muharram is the first month of the year and Safar the second. 

The Gehadia were trained troops drawn by the Turks from subject 
races. They were not irregulars as were the " Delatia " : see para. CCLXVII. 
For '' Mubdshir" see note to ccxiv. 

ccxxxviii Budge (he. cit.) has mistranslated and misunderstood the 

Sheikh Shanbul walad Medani, or an ancestor of the same name, was 
eponymous ancestor of the " Shenabla " of the Gezira. These are not to be 
confused with the quite distinct Shenabla nomads of Kordofan, but are 
connected with the Kawahla. Their ancestor is said to have come from 
Subia in Yemen. Arbagi was their headquarters. Medani the son of 
Shanbul was killed in 1883 with Hicks Pasha. 

CCXLiii Kubbat Khogali was the usual military camping place. It was 
healthy, and troops could easily be marched thence to Berber Province 
(cp. Werne, p. 17). 

CCXLiv This Sheikh el Zayn was great-grandson of the el Nur walad 
Musa Abu Kussa whose biography is in D 3 (No. 217). He was a Ya'aku- 
babi and his full name was el Zayn walad el Sheikh Salim (see Jackson, 
Yacubabi Tribe...). 

El Ku'a (or el Ki'an) — meaning literally "a bend" or "elbow" (sc. of 
the river) — is a district on the Blue Nile south of Sennar. 

CCXLV For " Bayrakia" some copies give " Baraykia". The literal 
meaning is probably "standard-bearers" (i.e. Barakddria). 

CCXLIX Sheikh 'Abd el Kadir was the son of the Sheikh el Zayn of para. 
CCXLIV (cp. Jackson, Yacubabi Tribe..., p. 3). 

Idris walad 'Adlan was met by Werne, who calls him (1840) "After 
Aburow \i.e. Abu Rof] the most powerful ruler in the peninsula" (p. 161). 
Idris walad 'Adlan was a brother of the Muhammad walad 'Adlan who 
was murdered by Hasan Ragab (see Cailliaud, 11, 238). 

CCL The Arabs meant are the Hammada, Sheikh Abu Gin's people. 
The Siru mentioned is the one near Sennar. 

CCLII ''He fixed...," etc., is C)^jJd\ ^J>.e. J\^^^\ ixjj . A fedddn 
^ 1-038 acres (5024 square yards). 

ccLiii The date 1243 (for 1247) is given in the other MSB. 

424 THE NATIVE MANUSCRIPTS iv.dt.ccliv. 

ccLiv Khalifa was Sheikh of the 'Ababda. 

CCLV El 'Atish lay between Rosayres and Lake Tsana in what is now 
Abyssinia. It was the headquarters of a Kdshif (see Werne, p. 197). 

CCLVI A kada'a is about s^hfedddns. 
When Muhammad ■'Ali reproached Khurshid Pasha for not sending 
more money to him the latter replied "When my Sennarians cultivate ten 
times as much as they do they will still only have corn and beasts and no 
money to give you." Khurshid Pasha had pleaded their poverty, to which 
the Pasha's reply had been "They have two Niles and I only one: make 
the lazy work as I do in Egypt and they wall become rich" (Brun Rollet, 
Bull. Soc. Geog. 1855, ix, p. 367, quoted by Deherain, p. 168). 

Between 1830 and 1838 the taxation rose to 3,125,000 francs, and be- 
tween 1838 and 1842 to 5,000,000 (Deherain, pp. 182, 183). 

ccLix HammadnuUa is presumably the HammadnuUa walad Malak of 
D3, 128. 

'' Budandb" for " Budatdb" is adopted from Muhammad Abd el 
Magid's MS. They are a section of Mahass and their present representa- 
tives hve at Burri on the outskirts of Khartoum: cp. ABC, vi. 

The making of Khartoum into the official capital of the Sudan dates 
from this time (1830). In 1822 a permanent military camp only had been 
made there (Deherain, p. 117, quoting Werne, Expedition zur Entdeckujig 
der Quellen des Weissen Nil, pp. 44-5). Cp. also Holroyd, p. 167. He 
visited Khartoum in 1837. It had then 15,000 inhabitants and many 
houses "built of sunburnt bricks." 

CCLXII 'Abd el Kadir walad Dayfulla was a Gamu'i (Fitihab section, 
Hamaydania subsection). He is buried at el Debba in Gayli district. 

CCLXIII This expedition was a failure and Khurshid Pasha suffered 
defeat. Ahmad Pasha in 1840 said to Werne (q.v. p. 8) : " First Darfur, and 
now Taka, will pay no tribute, nor have they done so since Churschid 
Pascha was in the Chaaba (the forests where he was defeated)." The enemy 
had been the Hadendoa under Sheikh Muhammad Din "the defeater of 
the Turks under Churschid Pasha" (Werne, p. 55). . ."It seemed to us 
most wonderful that the Haddenda, a tribe that numbers over 80,000 
fighting men, did not set on us, and give us a lesson such as Churschid 
Pascha had received from them "(p. 176). . ."The fatal defeat of Churschid 
Pascha, in which he also lost two guns, to recover which a whole battalion, 
save one or two men, were sacrificed" (p. 177). Khurshid Pasha managed 
however to get 3000 head of cattle and some cash as tribute (see Werne, 
p. 109). 

CCLXIV Hammad walad el Magdhub is No. 123 in D 3. 
" The ruler of. . .Nile" is ^;Ai.j'^\ ^a^-Jlj ijUJLsi^tl ^^51 ^^^U.. 

CCLXXI " Alakdda" is a synonym for Abyssinians or Abyssinia. Werne 
uses the word passim in this sense. See, too, his remarks (p. 247). 

CCLXXV The cholera evidently spread westwards. El Tunisi speaks of 
it ("el haoua el-asfar") in Wadai in 1838 {Voy. Darfour, p. 283). 

CCLXXvi Ragab walad Bashir is said to have been one of the 'Abdullab. 

ccLxxvii El Senussi was no doubt the son of the Bakadi who is men- 
tioned (No. 68) in D 3 and in para. CLXII above. 

IV. D7. ccxc. OF THE SUDAN 


Muhammad ibn el Hag and Muhammad 'AH were Mahass, 'el Terayfi 
was an 'Araki and Sheikh Mustafa the same. 

Sa'ad 'Abd el Fattah's son, Sheikh Hasan, was a Kadi in Dongola 
a few years ago, and died on the pilgrimage. 

CCLXXX The village of 'Awag el Darb opposite el 'Aylafun is called after 
the man here mentioned. ''Sheikh Idris" is Idrfs wad el Arbab of 
el 'Aylafun. 

CCLXXXI The Gezira of Sennar comprised all that "the Gezira" does 
now. The term is so used (e.g.) in Marno's map (1870). Mustafa Bey was 
of course subject to the Governor-General {Hakimddr) : his title as given 
here is '' Mudir 'aid 'iimum gezira Sennar." See note to paras ccxcv, 
ccxcvii, cccxiv and cccxvii. 

CCLXXXIII Sheikh Miri is mentioned by Werne (p. 75): he says (in 1840) 
" Under their lately deceased Sheikh Myri, who possessed more than ninety 
suits of chain armour... the Tokruri [i.e. the Takarir] enjoyed a pretty 
considerable power, highly dangerous for their frontier neighbours, as 
they had also for warfare about a hundred muskets, a large number for 
these lands; but since Sheikh Myri's death they have sadly declined in 
power and force." Mansfield Parkyns also mentions him (11, 357). 

'Ali Agha is also mentioned (Werne, p. 144): "Ali Aga, whose family 
name is Sobi, leader of 300 Magrabins. . . ." He was " wofully slashed in 
an attack by the Turks on Makada. Never have we seen on any skull such 
severe scars. ..." He was "descended from one of the principal families 
of Fez." 

Of the Malik Sa'ad Werne (p. 160) says " The Schaigies every morning 
wait on the old Sheik Melek Saat, and kiss his hand. They never steal or 
make a prize of anything, without preserving the best of it for him, and in 
all ways provide for and attend to him, as if he was still in possession of 
his old rank and dignities." And again (p. 137) "The Schaigie Melek 
Saat, whose father yet [sc. 1840] rules the old Dongola, had received, a 
month before the present chasua [i.e. the expedition by Ahmad Bey to 
Kassala], some hundred blows of the stick at the order of the Pascha." 

CCLXXXIV Sulayman Kashif was a Circassian. He led Ahmad Pasha's 
White Nile exploration expedition. He lived at Kerreri (see Werne, pp. 14, 
62, 63, 186, etc.). 

ccLxxxvi Ahmad Pasha was a Circassian, "stolen from his native land 
when only six years old" (Werne, p. 156). 

ccLXXXix From the nomads in the east Ahmad Pasha used to demand 
20 pt. poll-tax on adult males and a tenth of all produce and animals (see 
Werne, p. 61). 

ccxc 'Abd el Kadir Agha is probably Werne 's " Abd el Kader, the jovial 
Topschi Baschi," the commandant of artillery (Werne, pp. 28, 139). 

Ahmad Abu Sin was the greatest of the Shukria Sheikhs : he attained 
to the rank of Bey and was given practically complete control over the 
Arab tribes in and east of the Gezira. Werne describes him (p. 54) as "a 
handsome large man, with noble countenance, and his character is described 
by all as vigourous, able, and generous." 

Baker's description of him is also worth quoting: "He was the most 


magnificent specimen of an Arab that I have ever seen. Although upwards 
of eighty years of age, he was as erect as a lance, and did not appear more 
than between fifty and sixty; he was of Herculean stature, about six feet 
three inches high, with immensely broad shoulders and chest ; a remarkably 
arched nose ; eyes like an eagle, beneath large, shaggy, but perfectly white 
eyebrows; a snow-white beard of great thickness descended below the 
middle of his breast. . . As a desert patriarch he was superb, the very per- 
fection of all that the imagination could paint, if we would personify 
Abraham at the head of his people" {Nile Tributaries..., p. iii). 

ccxcii Kanbal was a Shaiki. Werne says of him (1840): "Even now, 
though dead, Kamball still lives in the people's mouths: they have a great 
number of songs about him, in which he is described, on account of his 
cruelty and savage deeds, constantly wandering round, without grave, rest, 
or peace, as the punishment of his crimes. He was shot in the back, most 
likely by the soldiers of Achmed Pascha, in a fight between them and the 
Schaigies of Melek Hammet" (Werne, p. 177). 

Werne himself, however, speaks of Kanbal as "a distinguished soldier, 
an honest man, and general favourite, and from his generosity to the poor, 
ever in debt." He was extraordinarily brave and much valued by Ahmad 
Pasha. "After his death the Pascha himself took charge of his infant son, 
had him educated, and allows him 500 piastres a month" (p. 179). This 
son was the lately deceased Bashir Bey Kanbal who was "mudwin of Arabs " 
in Kordofan. 

" Hatnmef" is the same as Ahmad walad el Mek. He did not submit to 
the Turkish government but fled for the Abyssinian border. The Pasha took 
Kanbal's Shai'ki'a in pursuit and rode himself with them from Berber to Abu 
Haraz, where " Hammet" was captured: he was not however put to death. 

ccxciv It was this expedition which Werne accompanied. Its object 
was primarily to collect tribute from the Hadendoa. "I need money, 
much money — want it most badly," said Ahmad Pasha to Werne. He 
also hoped to open up the Abyssinian trade routes and conquer that country 
(Werne, p. 8). He took with him about 10,000 regulars, and about the same 
number of irregulars and camp-followers (Werne, p. 197). The expedition 
was conducted in a perfectly haphazard manner but the Halanka and 
Hadendoa submitted eventually and the town of Kassala was founded 
(see Deherain, pp. 108-110; Lepsius, Letters, p. 200; Werne passim; and 
Budge, Vol. II, pp. 214-217). 

ccxcv This Mustafa Bey is the man mentioned as Governor of the 
Gezira of Sennar in para. CCLXXXI. As we see from the next paragraph and 
para, cccxiv the control of the two (Khartoum and the Gezira) was 
generally vested in one man. 

ccxcviii The seven provinces, according to Budge (11, 217), were 
Fazoghli, Sennar, Khartoum, Kassala, Berber, Dongola and Kordofdn. 

ccxcix "Reformer" is "munazam" (^.^JsU*). It is not certain from 
the text and the context whether the author intends to say that Menekli 
Pasha was made Governor-General {Hakimddr) as were his predecessors 
and successors, or that an experiment was being made in decentralization, 
which was abandoned as a failure and tried again in 1856 (see para, cccxiv). 


According to Lepsius, who writes in 1844 (January), Ahmad Pasha 
MenekH was "the new Governor of the Southern Provinces." Lepsius 
also says "On the sudden death, by poison, of Ahmed Pasha, the governor 
of the whole Sudan, at Chartum. . .the south is divided into five provinces, 
and placed under five pashas, who are to be installed by Ahmed Pasha 
Menekle" {Discoveries in Egypt..., pp. 133-135). 

ccc This el Arbab Muhammad Dafa'alla is the son of the el Arbab 
Dafa'alla mentioned previously, and is the man mentioned by Werne as 
accompanying Ahmad Pasha's Kassala expedition in 1840. Werne calls 
him (p. 37) "Mohammed Defalla, a great Sheikh of the neighbourhood of 
Wollet-Medina. . .his relations of the old royal family have whole heaps 
of such" {sc. armour as that he wore). Again Werne says (p. 76) " Defalla 
has already given many causes for suspecting his fidelity and both his own 
and father's names are too often connected with that of Nimr." 

He is referred to as "our herculanean neighbour" and "our fat friend," 
His command consisted of 150 men (p. 78). He married Nasra, the sister 
of Idn's walad 'Adlan (see Werne, p. 160). 

cccii The ''mi?ies of Shaybun" were once famous. Russegger in 1838 
(p. 200) says "The bed of every stream in the vicinity of Jebel Sheibun 
and Tira ... exhibits a gold-bearing alluvium." As a matter of fact 
Mr S. C. Dunn tells me that at Shaybun itself there was never any gold; 
but the people of Shaybun, the ShawAbna, used to get it from the north 
side of Gebel Kinderma, a day's journey away. The Arabs thought the 
gold was from Shaybun itself. 

Khalid Pasha was Governor-General when Petherick visited