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A HISTORY 
OF ARCHITECTURE 



HARPER'S FINE ARTS SERIES 

Edited by 
GEORGE HENRY CHASE, Ph.D. 

JOHN E. HUDSON PROFESSOR OF ARCHAEOLOGY HARVARD UNIVERSITY , 

A new series embodying the latest results of archaeology and critical 
study of the Fine Arts in themselves and in their relation to the evolution 
of civilization. These books are prepared with reference to class use in 
the higher institutions of learning, and they also provide authoritative, 
comprehensive, and interesting histories for the general reader. Each 
volume will contain an unusual number of carefully selected illustrations. 

A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

BY FISKE KIMBALL, M. Arch., Ph.D. 

Assistant Professor of Architecture, University of Michigan 

and 

GEORGE HAROLD EDGELL, Ph.D. 
Assistant Professor of Fine Arts, Harvard University 

In Preparation 

A HISTORY OF SCULPTURE 
BY PROF. GEORGE HENRY CHASE 

and 

PROF. CHANDLER RATHFON POST 
Harvard University 

A HISTORY OF PAINTING 

BY PROF. ARTHUR POPE 

Harvard University 



HARPER & BROTHERS, NEW YORK 
[ESTABLISHED 1817] 



HARPER S FINE ARTS SERIES 

A HISTORY OF 

ARCHITECTURE 



BY 

FISKE KIMBALL, M.ARCH ; , PH.D. 

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF ARCHITECTURE UNIVERSITY OF MICHIGAN 

AND 

GEORGE HAROLD EDGELL, PH.D. 

ASSISTANT PROFESSOR OF FINE ARTS HARVARD UNIVERSITY 



ILLUSTRATED 




HARPER y BROTHERS PUBLISHERS 

NEW YORK AND LONDON 




Decimal Classification, 720.9 



A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



Copyright, 1918, by Harper & Brothers 

Printed in the United States of America 

Published March, 1918 



CONTENTS 

CHAPTER PAGE 

EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION xvii 

AUTHORS' PREFACE xxi 

I. THE ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE i 

II. PREHISTORIC ARCHITECTURE 8 

III. PRECLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE u 

IV. GREEK ARCHITECTURE 49 

V. ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 103 

VI. EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE 159 

VII. BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE 183 

VIII. ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 217 

IX. GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 275 

X. RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 344 

XI. POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 401 

XII. MODERN ARCHITECTURE 460 

XIII. AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 524 

XIV. EASTERN ARCHITECTURE 572 

GLOSSARY 589 

INDEX 605 



ILLUSTRATIONS 

FIG - PAGE 

1. STONEHENGE. (RESTORED BY HARTMANN) 9 

2. GIZEH. THE PYRAMIDS OF KHAFRE AND KHUFU (RESTORED 

BY HOLSCHER) I4 

3. BENI HASAN. PORTICO OF A TOMB ........ 17 

4. DER-EL-BAHRI. MORTUARY TEMPLE OF HATSHEPSUT. (RE- 

STORED BY BRUNET) jg 

5. KARNAK. PLAN OF PRINCIPAL TEMPLES. (BAEDEKER) . 19 

6. KARNAK. CENTRAL AISLES OF THE HYPOSTYLE HALL OF THE 

GREAT TEMPLE OF AMON. MODEL IN THE METROPOLITAN 

MUSEUM 20 

7. DUR-SHARRUKIN (KHORSABAD). THE PALACE OF SARGON 

(RESTORED BY PLACE) 27 

8. DUR-SHARRUKIN. THE PALACE OF SARGON. PLAN. (PLACE) 28 

9. BABYLON. PLAN OF THE TEMPLE OF NINMAH. (AFTER 

KOLDEWEY) 31 

10. PERSEPOLIS. PLAN OF THE PALACE PLATFORM 34 

11. PERSEPOLIS. TOMB OF DARIUS, NAKSH-I-RUSTAM. QACKSON) 35 

12. KNOSSOS. PLAN OF A PART OF THE PALACE. (EVANS) . 38 

13. TIRYNS. PLAN OF THE ACROPOLIS. (RODENWALDT) ... 40 

14. MYCENAE. GATE OF LIONS 41 

15. MYCEN.E. PORTAL OF THE "TREASURY OF ATREUS." 

(RESTORED BY SPIERS) . . 43 

16. ATHENS. THE PARTHENON, FROM THE NORTHWEST ... 53 

17. ATHENS. THE PARTHENON. (RESTORED TO ITS CONDITION 

IN ROMAN TIMES. MODEL IN METROPOLITAN MUSEUM) . 53 

1 8. ATHENS. THE ERECHTHEUM, FROM THE WEST 54 

19. THE GREEK DORIC ORDER 59 

20. THE GREEK DORIC ORDER, WITH A RETRANSLATION INTO 

WOOD. (AFTER DURM) 61 

21. PROFILES OF GREEK DORIC CAPITALS, ARRANGED IN CHRONO- 

LOGICAL ORDER < 63 

22. IONIC ENTABLATURE, RETRANSLATED INTO WOOD. (AFTER 

DURM) 66 

23. MAGNESIA. TEMPLE OF ARTEMIS. DETAILS. (HUMANN) . 67 

24. EPIDAURUS. CORINTHIAN CAPITAL OF THE THOLOS ... 68 

25. ATHENS. MONUMENT OF LYSICRATES 69 

26. AKRAGAS. TEMPLE OF OLYMPIAN ZEUS. (RESTORED BY E. H. 

TRYSELL, AFTER KOLDEWEY) 7 

27. GREEK AND ROMAN MOLDINGS. (REYNAUD) 72 



viii ILLUSTRATIONS 

FIG. PAGE 

28. P/ESTUM. THE GREAT TEMPLE, SO-CALLED "TEMPLE OF 

NEPTUNE." (CHIPIEZ) 75 

29. VARIETIES OF THE GREEK TEMPLE PLAN 77 

30. ATHENS. PLAN OF THE ACROPOLIS. (KAUPERT) .... 81 

31. MAGNESIA. THE AGORA AND SURROUNDING BUILDINGS. 

(HUMANN) 88 

32. EPHESUS. THEATER DURING THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD. 

(RESTORED BY FIECHTER) 90 

33. PRIENE. " HOUSE XXXIII." (WIEGAND) 93 

34. DELOS. HOUSE OF THE TRIDENT. (P. PARIS) 94 

35. DELPHI. TEMPLE AND PRECINCT OF APOLLO. (RESTORED BY 

R. H. SMYTHE) 96 

36. PRIENE. BIRD'S-EYE VIEW. (RESTORED BY ZIPPELIUS) . . 97 

37. AN ETRUSCAN TEMPLE. (RESTORED BY HULSEN) . . . . 106 

38. PERUGIA. "ARCH OF AUGUSTUS" ' 108 

39. TIVOLI. "TEMPLE OF VESTA" . no 

40. ROME. THE COLOSSEUM in 

41. NlMEs. "THE MAISON CARREE" 116 

42. ROME. INTERIOR OF THE PANTHEON (RESTORED BY ISA- 

BELLE), SHOWING THE CONDITION AFTER THE RESTORATION 

OF SEVERUS 117 

43. ROME. THE FORUM ROMANUM 119 

44. ROME. THE FORUM ROMANUM AND THE FORA OF THE EM- 

PERORS. PLAN. (RESTORED BY GROMORT) . . . . . 121 

45. ROME. BASILICA OF MAXENTIUS, OR CONSTANTINE. (RE- 

STORED BY D'ESPOUY) 123 

46. SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE 

ROMAN THEATER. (FIECHTER) 125 

47. OSTIA. THE THEATER. (RESTORED BY ANDRE) .... 126 
,48. ROME. THERMAE OF CARACALLA. PLAN. (RESTORED BY 

BLOUET) 129 

49. ROME. THERMS OF DIOCLETIAN. TEPIDARIUM. (RESTORED 

BY PAULIN) 130 

50. N!MES. THE "PONT DU GARD" 132 

51. THE ARCH OF TITUS 134 

52. TRIER. PORTA NIGRA 135 

53. ROME. MAUSOLEUM OF HADRIAN. (RESTORED BY VAUD- 

REMER) 136 

54. POMPEII. HOUSE OF PANSA. PLAN 138 

55. TIVOLI. VILLA OF HADRIAN. PLAN. (RESTORED BY G. S. 

KOYL) 140 

56. ROME. PALACES OF THE CESARS. PLAN. (RESTORED BY 

DEGLANE) 141 

57. SPALATO. PALACE OF DIOCLETIAN. (RESTORED BY HEBRARD) 142 

58. ROME. CORINTHIAN CAPITAL AND ENTABLATURE FROM THE 

TEMPLE OF CASTOR AND POLLUX. (RESTORED CAST IN 
THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM) 145 

59. DEVELOPMENT IN THE RELATIONS OF ARCH AND COLUMN IN 

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 147 



ILLUSTRATIONS ix 



PAGE 



60. ROMAN CELLULAR VAULT. (CHOISY) ........ 151 

61. ROMAN LAMINATED VAULT. (Cnoisv) ........ 151 

62. MOUSMIEH. PR^TORIUM. (DE VOGUE) ....... 153 

63. PLANS OF EARLY CHRISTIAN CHURCHES ....... 160 

64. ELEVATIONS OF EARLY CHRISTIAN CHURCHES ..... 162 

65. ROME. SAN CLEMENTE. PLAN SHOWING THE ATRIUM . . 164 

66. ROME. SAINT PAUL'S OUTSIDE-THE-WALLS. INTERIOR SEEN 

FROM THE ENTRANCE ...... ....... 167 

67. ROME. SAN LORENZO FUORI-LE-MURA. EXTERIOR . . . 167 

68. ROME. SAN LORENZO FUORI-LE-MURA. INTERIOR . . . 169 

69. RAVENNA. SANT' APOLLINARE Nuovo. INTERIOR .... 169 

70. ROME. SAN STEFANO ROTONDO. INTERIOR ...... 170 

71. ROME. SANTA COSTANZA. SECTION SHOWING THE CONSTRUC- 

TION ................... 171 

72. TOURMANIN. THE BASILICA RESTORED ........ 172 

73. KALAT-SEMAN. THE BASILICA OF SAINT SIMEON STYLITES 173 

74. BERLIN MUSEUM. THE FRIEZE FROM MSCHATTA. (STRYZ- 

GOWSKI) .................. 175 

75. RAVENNA. THE MAUSOLEUM OF GALLA PLACIDIA. DRAWING 

OF THE EXTERIOR .............. 178 

76. RAVENNA. SAN VITALE. EXAMPLES OF BYZANTINE CAPITALS 185 

77. CONSTANTINOPLE. SAINTS SERGIUS AND BACCHUS. PLAN . . 187 

78. CONSTANTINOPLE. SAINT IRENE. PLAN ........ 188 

79. PLANS OF BYZANTINE CHURCHES .......... 189 

80. SECTIONS OF BYZANTINE CHURCHES ......... 190 

81. CONSTANTINOPLE. HAGIA SOPHIA. EXTERIOR ..... 191 

82. CONSTANTINOPLE. HAGIA SOPHIA. INTERIOR LOOKING TOW- 

ARD THE APSE ......... . ..... 192 

83. ROME. THE VATICAN. MANUSCRIPT ILLUMINATION SHOWING 

THE INTERIOR OF THE CHURCH OF THE HOLY APOSTLES AT 

CONSTANTINOPLE. (DIEHL) ........... 194 

84. CONSTANTINOPLE. THE HOLY APOSTLES. PLAN, RESTORED 195 

85. AIX-LA-CHAPELLE. CHARLEMAGNE'S CHAPEL. INTERIOR . . 196 

86. CONSTANTINOPLE. THE KILISSEDJAMI. VIEW FROM THE EAST. 

(EBERSOLT) ........... ...... J 99 

87. STIRIS (PHOCIS). MONASTERY OF SAINT LUKE. VIEW FROM 

THE EAST SHOWING THE Two CHURCHES. (SCHULTZ AND 

BARNSLEY) ................. 2O 

88. VENICE. SAINT MARK. PLAN ........... 201 

89. VENICE. SAINT MARK. VIEW FROM THE PIAZZA .... 202 

90. VENICE. SAINT MARK. INTERIOR LOOKING TOWARD THE APSE 203 

91. AKTHAMAR (LAKE VAN). THE CHURCH SEEN FROM THE 

SOUTHEAST. (LYNCH) ............. 20 4 

92. MANASSIA (SERBIA). (POKRYCHKIN) ......... 206 

93. CONSTANTINOPLE. PLAN OF THE SACRED PALACE, RESTORED. 

(EBERSOLT) ................ 2 9 

94. HA'IDRA. THE FORTIFICATIONS, RESTORED. (DIEHL) . . . 211 

95. PLAN OF SAINT GALL. REDRAWN FROM THE NINTH CENTURY 

MANUSCRIPT. (PORTER) ............ 222 



x ILLUSTRATIONS 

FIG. PAGE 

96. LORSCH. ONE BAY OF THE BASILICAN GATE 223 

97. EARL'S BARTON. THE TOWER 224 

98. SANTA MARIA DE NARANCO. PLAN 225 

99. PLANS OF ROMANESQUE CHURCHES . 227 

100. ELEVATIONS AND SECTIONS OF ROMANESQUE CHURCHES . . 229 

101. MILAN. SANT' AMBROGIO. DRAWING OF ONE BAY, SHOWING 

VAULT RIBS AND SUPPORTS. (MOORE) 230 

102. MILAN. SANT' AMBROGIO. INTERIOR LOOKING TOWARD THE 

APSE 231 

103. MILAN. SANT' AMBROGIO. EXTERIOR 232 

104. VERONA. SAN ZENO. GENERAL VIEW 233 

105. PISA. THE CATHEDRAL AND LEANING TOWER, SEEN FROM 

THE SOUTHWEST 235 

1 06. PISA. CATHEDRAL. PLAN 236 

107. PISA. CATHEDRAL. VIEW OF THE INTERIOR LOOKING TOW- 

ARD THE APSE 237 

108. CEFALU. CATHEDRAL. VIEW OF THE WEST END .... 239 

109. MONREALE. CATHEDRAL. VIEW OF THE INTERIOR LOOKING 

TOWARD THE APSE 240 

no. MONREALE. CATHEDRAL. SYSTEM OF THE NAVE AND THE 

EXTERIOR OF THE CHOIR 241 

in. COLOGNE. SAINT MARY OF THE CAPITOL. PLAN .... 242 

112. PAULINZELLE. PLAN 242 

113. SYSTEMS OF GERMAN ROMANESQUE CHURCHES 243 

114. DRUBECK. DRAWING OF ONE BAY, SHOWING THE SYSTEM 244 

115. SPEYER. PLAN . 245 

116. SYSTEMS OF RHENISH ROMANESQUE CATHEDRALS .... 246 

117. SPEYER. CATHEDRAL. VIEW OF THE INTERIOR LOOKING 

TOWARD THE APSE 247 

118. MAINZ. CATHEDRAL. VIEW FROM THE NORTH 248 

119. ARLES. SAINT TROPH!ME. THE MAIN PORTAL 248 

120. CLERMONT-FERRAND. NOTRE DAME DU PORT. TRANSVERSE 

SECTION, SHOWING HALF-BARREL VAULT OVER THE AISLE 249 

121. CLERMONT-FERRAND. NOTRE DAME DU PORT. VIEW OF 

THE EAST END 250 

122. TOULOUSE. SAINT SERNIN. THE INTERIOR SEEN FROM THE 

WEST 251 

123. PERIGUEUX. SAINT FRONT. GENERAL VIEW FROM THE 

SOUTHEAST 252 

124. POITIERS. NOTRE DAME LA GRANDE. VIEW OF THE WEST 

END 253 

125. VEZELAY. CHURCH OF THE MADELEINE. THE INTERIOR 

SEEN FROM THE VESTIBULE 254 

126. ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 255 

127. JUMIEGES. ABBEY CHURCH. THE SYSTEM 256 

128. CAEN. THE ABBEY CHURCHES. SYSTEM OF THE INTERIORS 257 

129. CAEN. SAINT ETIENNE. VIEW OF THE INTERIOR LOOKING 

TOWARD THE APSE 258 

130. IFFLEY. PARISH CHURCH. VIEW OF THE WEST END . . . 259 



ILLUSTRATIONS xi 

* 1C - PAGE 

131. DURHAM. CATHEDRAL. PLAN 260 

132. DURHAM. CATHEDRAL. GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHEAST 261 

133. BEAUVAIS. SAINT ETIENNE. DRAWING OF ONE OF THE 

AISLE VAULTS AND ITS SUPPORTS. (MOORE) .... 262 

134. MORIENVAL. PARISH CHURCH. VIEW OF THE NORTH AISLE 263 

135. COMPOSTELA. SANTIAGO. PLAN 264 

136. LEON. SAN ISIDORO. PLAN AND SYSTEM 265 

137. AVILA. GENERAL VIEW OF THE FORTIFICATIONS .... 269 

138. COMPARATIVE PLANS OF GOTHIC CATHEDRALS IN FRANCE, 

GERMANY, ITALY AND ENGLAND 276 

139. PLANS OF GOTHIC BUILDINGS 278 

140. SECTIONS ABD SYSTEMS OF GOTHIC BUILDINGS 280 

141. AMIENS. WEST FRONT OF THE CATHEDRAL 281 

142. AMIENS. THE CATHEDRAL. VIEW OF THE INTERIOR, LOOK- 

ING INTO THE APSE 283 

143. EXAMPLES OF MEDIEVAL VAULTS 286 

144. REIMS. THE CATHEDRAL. VIEW OF THE VAULTS AFTER 

THE FIRST BOMBARDMENT IN 1914, SHOWING THE LEVEL 
CROWNS OF DEVELOPED GOTHIC VAULTS 287 

145. GOTHIC VAULTING CONOID, SHOWING THE DIRECTIONS OF 

THE THRUSTS AND THEIR ABUTMENT. (MOORE) . . . 288 

146. SAINT LEU D'ESSERENT. VIEW OF THE INTERIOR, SHOWING 

THE VAULTS AND, THROUGH THE WINDOWS, THE FLYING 
BUTTRESSES . . . 289 

147. ARRANGEMENT OF MONUMENTS AND DETAILS TO ILLUSTRATE 

THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE BUTTRESS AND THE DEVELOP- 
MENT OF THE FACADE 290 

148. PARIS. THE SAINTE CHAPELLE. TRANSVERSE CUT ... 291 

149. PLANS OF THE EAST ENDS OF FIVE GOTHIC CHURCHES, IL- 

LUSTRATING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHEVET .... 292 

150. PLANS ILLUSTRATING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE GOTHIC PIER 293 

151. THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WINDOW OPENING. EXAMPLES 

OF PLATE AND BAR TRACERY 294 

152. CHARTRES. THE SOUTHERN SPIRE 296 

153. SENLIS. THE SPIRE 297 

154. REIMS. THE CATHEDRAL VIEWED FROM THE NORTH BEFORE 

THE BOMBARDMENT OF 1914 3 

155. CHARTRES. CATHEDRAL. PLAN .301 

156. SALISBURY. THE CATHEDRAL, SEEN FROM THE NORTHEAST 302 

157. SALISBURY. INTERIOR OF THE CATHEDRAL, LOOKING TOWARD 

THE EAST END 33 

158. LINCOLN. THE CATHEDRAL. THE ANGEL CHOIR .... 304 

159. YORK. THE SYSTEM OF THE CHOIR . . 

1 60. LONDON. WESTMINSTER ABBEY. HENRY VII. 's CHAPEL . 

161. GLOUCESTER. THE CATHEDRAL. INTERIOR OF THE CLOISTERS 307 

162. ROUEN. SAINT OUEN. SYSTEM . 

163. ABBEVILLE. SAINT VULFRAM. THE WEST PORTALS ... 309 

164. ROUEN. SAINT MACLOU. VIEW OF THE WEST FRONT AND 

SPIRE 3io 



xii ILLUSTRATIONS 

FIG. PAGE 

165. BAMBERG. CATHEDRAL. PLAN AND SYSTEM . . . . . 311 

1 66. MUNSTER. CATHEDRAL. SYSTEM 312 

167. FREIBURG. THE MINSTER, SEEN FROM THE SOUTHEAST . . 313 

1 68. FREIBURG. THE MINSTER. SYSTEM 314 

169. MARBURG. SAINT ELIZABETH. THE INTERIOR, LOOKING 

TOWARD THE APSE 315 

170. SYSTEMS OF HALLENKIRCHEN 316 

171. TOLEDO. CATHEDRAL. VIEW OF THE INTERIOR, LOOKING 

TOWARD THE APSE 317 

172. SEVILLE. THE CATHEDRAL AND GIRALDA TOWER, SEEN 

FROM THE SOUTHWEST 318 

173. ASSISI. SAN FRANCESCO. PLAN 319 

174. FLORENCE. THE CATHEDRAL. VIEW OF THE INTERIOR,. 

LOOKING TOWARD THE APSE . 320 

175. ORVIETO. THE CATHEDRAL FRONT, SEEN FROM THE SOUTH- 

WEST '. ... 321 

176. MILAN. EXTERIOR OF THE CATHEDRAL 322 

177. AlGUES-MORTES. GENERAL VlEW OF THE ClTY AND FORTIFI- 

CATIONS 324 

178. CARCASSONNE. LA CITE. VIEW OF THE FORTIFICATIONS . 325 

179. COUCY. GENERAL VIEW OF THE CASTLE GROUNDS, SHOWING 

THE DONJON BEFORE ITS DESTRUCTION IN 1917 . . . 326 

1 80. A MEDIEVAL TOWN HOUSE. (VIOLLET-LE-DUC) .... 327 

181. THE COUNTRY DWELLING OF A MEDIEVAL PEASANT. (VIOL- 

LET-LE-DUC) 328 

182. SAINT MEDARD-EN-JALLE. SKETCH OF THE MANOR. (VIOL- 

LET-LE-DUC) 329 

183. YPRES. THE CLOTH HALL AS IT APPEARED BEFORE THE 

BOMBARDMENT OF 1914 330 

184. BOURGES. MAISON DE JACQUES QEUR 331 

185. FLORENCE. THE PALAZZO VECCHIO 332 

1 86. SIENA. THE PALAZZO PUBBLICO 333 

187. VENICE. THE PALAZZO DUCALE 334 

1 88. CAHORS. THE PONT VALENTRE 336 

189. FLORENCE. CATHEDRAL FROM THE SOUTHEAST 347 

190. FLORENCE. INTERIOR OF SAN LORENZO 348 

191. FLORENCE. PAZZI CHAPEL 349 

192. FLORENCE. PALAZZO MEDICI-RICCARDI 350 

193. FLORENCE. PALAZZO RUCELLAI 351 

194. MANTUA. SANT' ANDREA. INTERIOR 352 

195. THE CERTOSA NEAR PA VIA. FACADE 353 

196. VENICE. PALAZZO VENDRAMINI 354 

197. ROME. LOGGIA OF THE CHURCH OF SAN MARCO .... 355 

198. ROME. "TEMPIETTO" AT SAN PIETRO IN MONTORIO . . 356 

199. ROME. SAINT PETER'S. INTERIOR 357 

200. ROME. PALACE OF RAPHAEL. (RESTORED BY HOFFMANN) . 358 

201. ROME. LOGGIA OF THE VILLA MADAM A. INTERIOR . . . 359 

202. ROME. PALAZZO DELL' AQUILA. (RESTORED BY GEYMULLER) 360 

203. ROME. MASSIMI PALACES. PLAN 362 



ILLUSTRATIONS xiii 

FIG ' PAGE 

204. FLORENCE. MEDICI CHAPEL AT SAN LORENZO 363 

205. VENICE. PALAZZO GRIMANI .364 

206. VENICE. LIBRARY OF SAINT MARK 365 

207. THE DEVELOPMENT OF RENAISSANCE CHURCHES OF CENTRAL 

TYPE 3 6 7 

208. ROME. PALAZZO FARNESE . 369 

209. ROME. PALAZZO FARNESE. PLAN 37i 

210. EARLY RENAISSANCE DETAILS. (AFTER GROMORT) . . . 373 

211. "HIGH RENAISSANCE" DETAILS. (AFTER GROMORT) ... 375 

212. BLOIS. COURT OF THE CHATEAU, SHOWING WINGS OF 

Louis XIII (AT BACK) AND FRANCIS I. (AT LEFT) . 381 

213. PARIS. COURT OF THE LOUVRE. (ORIGINAL CONSTRUC- 

TIONS OF LESCOT AND GOUJON) 383 

214. PARIS. THE TUILERIES. (DE L'ORME'S PLAN) 385 

215. PARIS. DETAIL FROM THE TUILERIES. (PLANAT) . . . 387 

216. SEVILLE. TOWN HALL 388 

217. GRANADA. PALACE OF CHARLES V. COURT 389 

218. HEIDELBERG. WING OF OTTO HEINRICH IN THE CASTLE 390 

219. NURNBERG. PELLER HOUSE 391 

220. MONTACUTE HOUSE. (GOTCH) 393 

221. HATFIELD HOUSE 394 

222. ROME. PLAN OF SAINT PETER'S AND THE VATICAN. (GROMORT) 404 

223. ROME. SAINT PETER'S DOME FROM THE EAST 405 

224. ROME. THE CAPITOL 406 

225. VICENZA. THE BASILICA 407 

226. VICENZA. VILLA ROTONDA 408 

227. MILAN. PALAZZO MARINO. COURT 410 

228. VENICE. SANTA MARIA DELLA SALUTE 413 

229. ROME. SAN CARLO A' CATINARI. CHAPEL OF SANTA CECILIA. 

(Ricci) 415 

230. BAGNAIA. VILLA LANTE. PLAN. (TRIGGS) 417 

231. THE ESCURIAL. PLAN 420 

232. THE ESCURIAL 421 

233. SEVILLE. ALTAR OF THE CHURCH OF EL SALVADOR. (SCHU- 

BERT) ..... 422 

234. BLOIS. WING OF GASTON D'ORLEANS 425 

235. PARIS. COLONNADE OF THE LOUVRE 427 

236. VERSAILLES. THE PALACE FROM THE PLACE D'ARMES . . . 428 

237. VERSAILLES. PLAN OF THE PRINCIPAL FLOOR OF THE PALACE. 

(GROMORT) 429 

238. VERSAILLES. THE GALERIE DES GLACES 43 * 

239. PARIS. PLACE DE LA CONCORDE 432 

240. VERSAILLES. PETIT TRIANON 433 

241. PARIS. PORTE ST. DENIS. PRINCIPAL FRONT .... 437 

242. VERSAILLES. DETAIL OF THE APARTMENTS OF Louis XV. 437 

243. LONDON. THE BANQUETING HALL, WHITEHALL 439 

244. LONDON. SAINT PAUL'S CATHEDRAL. PLAN 44 

245. LONDON. SAINT PAUL'S CATHEDRAL 44 1 

246. BLENHEIM PALACE FROM THE FORE-COURT 443 



xiv ILLUSTRATIONS 

FIG. PAGE 

247. PRIOR PARK NEAR BATH . 445 

248. CLIFFORD CHAMBERS 446 

249. LONDON. SAINT MARY-LE-BOW 449 

250. DRESDEN. CENTRAL PAVILION OF THE ZWINGER .... 450 

251. DRESDEN. FRAUENKIRCHE 451 

252. PARIS. CHURCH OF SAINTE GENEVIEVE. (THE PANTHEON) 465 

253. BERLIN. BRANDENBURG GATE 466 

254. PARIS. ARC DE TRIOMPHE DE L'F/TOILE ....... 467 

255. KEDLESTON. THE DOMED SALOON 468 

256. LONDON. THE BANK OF ENGLAND, LOTHBURY ANGLE. 

(RICHARDSON) 468 

257. EDINBURGH. THE HIGH SCHOOL. (RICHARDSON) .... 470 

258. BERLIN. ROYAL THEATER 470 

259. LONDON. OLD NEWGATE PRISON. (RICHARDSON) . -. . . 473 

260. LIVERPOOL. SAINT GEORGE'S HALL. (RICHARDSON) . . . 475 

261. EATON HALL, BEFORE ALTERATION IN 1870. (EASTLAKE) . 479 

262. LONDON. HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT 481 

263. PARIS. SAINTE CLOTILDE 485 

264. DRESDEN. OLD COURT THEATER. (SEMPER) 489 

265. LONDON. NEW ZEALAND CHAMBERS. (MUTHESIUS) . . . 491 

266. LONDON. WESTMINSTER .CATHEDRAL 492 

267. FLETE LODGE, NEAR HOBLETON. (MUTHESIUS) .... 493 

268. HOARCROSS. CHURCH OF THE HOLY ANGELS 494 

269. PARIS. BIBLIOTHEQUE SAINTE GENEVIEVE 495 

270. PARIS. OPERA HOUSE 496 

271. PARIS. CHURCH OF THE SACRED HEART, MONTMARTRE . . 497 

272. BRUSSELS. PALAIS DE JUSTICE 497 

273. ROME. MONUMENT TO VICTOR EMMANUEL II. . . . . . 499 

274. PARIS. READING-ROOM OF THE BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALS . 502 

275. PARIS. OPERA HOUSE. PLAN 508 

276. PARIS. GRAND BAZAR DE LA RUE DE RENNES. (LA CON- 

STRUCTION MODERNE) 510 

277. BERLIN. WERTHEIM STORE. FACADE TO THE LEIPZIGER 

PLATZ. (MODERNE BAUFORMEN) 510 

278. GARE DU QUAI D'ORSAY. INTERIOR. (L GENIE CIVIL) 511 

279. BROADLEYS ON LAKE WINDERMERE. (MUTHESIUS) . . . 513 

280. VIENNA. STATION OF THE METROPOLITAN RAILWAY. (Lux) 514 

281. BERLIN. TURBINE FACTORY OF THE GENERAL ELECTRIC 

COMPANY (AEG). (HOEBER) 516 

282. PALENQUE. SKETCH PLAN OF THE PALACE AND TEMPLES. 

(HOLMES) 525 

283. TRANSVERSE SECTION OF A TYPICAL MAYA BUILDING. 

(HOLMES) 526 

284. MEXICO CITY. CATHEDRAL 528 

285. SANTA BARBARA. MISSION AND FOUNTAIN 530 

286. NEW ORLEANS. THE CABILDO 531 

287. IPSWICH. WHIPPLE HOUSE 535 

288. WESTOVER, VIRGINIA 537 

289. NEW YORK. SAINT PAUL'S CHAPEL 539 



ILLUSTRATIONS xv 

FIG. PAGE 

290. NEWPORT. REDWOOD LIBRARY 540 

291. RICHMOND. VIRGINIA CAPITOL. ORIGINAL MODEL . . . 541 

292. BOSTON. STATE HOUSE 543 

293. NEW YORK. CITY HALL 544 

294. PHILADELPHIA. BANK OF THE UNITED STATES. (CUSTOM 

HOUSE) 545 

295. WASHINGTON. UNITED STATES CAPITOL 547 

296. SALEM. FIERCE-NICHOLS HOUSE 548 

297. WASHINGTON. WHITE HOUSE. (HOBAN'S ORIGINAL DESIGN) 549 

298. NEW YORK. TRINITY CHURCH 551 

299. BOSTON. TRINITY CHURCH, AS ORIGINALLY BUILT. (VAN 

RENSSELAER) 553 

300. BOSTON. PUBLIC LIBRARY 554 

301. ROCKVILLE. GARDEN OF "MAXWELL COURT" 555 

302. CHICAGO EXPOSITION. COURT OF HONOR 557 

303. ASHMONT. CHURCH OF ALL SAINTS 559 

304. BUFFALO. GUARANTY (PRUDENTIAL) BUILDING .... 561 

305. NEW YORK. WOOLWORTH BUILDING 562 

306. CHICAGO EXPOSITION. TRANSPORTATION BUILDING. DETAIL 563 

307. OAK PARK. CHURCH OF THE UNITY 564 

308. CTESIPHON. ROYAL PALACE. (DIEULAFOY) 573 

309. CORDOVA. INTERIOR OF MOSQUE 575 

310. CAIRO. MOSQUE OF AMRU. PLAN 576 

311. GRANADA. THE ALHAMBRA. COURT OF LIONS .... 577 

312. AGRA. THE TAJ MAHAL 578 

313. KHAJURAHO. TEMPLE OF VISHNU 581 

314. JAVA. THE CHANDI MENDOOT. (SCHELTEMA) 582 

315. ANGKOR WAT. SOUTHWEST ANGLE OF THE PORTICOES . . 583 

316. PEKIN. THE TEMPLE OF HEAVEN 5 8 4 

317. Uji. THE PHENIX-HALL. (CRAM) 585 



EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION 

Harper's Fine Arts Series is intended to provide for the 
student and the general reader concise but authoritative 
histories of architecture, sculpture, and painting. During 
the last twenty years the study of the monuments of the past 
has been pursued with constantly increasing thoroughness by 
a great number of well-trained scholars. Hundreds of books 
and articles devoted to individual artists, to single monu- 
ments or groups of monuments, or to special periods have ap- 
peared, which have greatly modified the generalizations and 
theories of a generation or even a decade ago. The spade of 
the excavator has added many new and important monu- 
ments to those already known, and brought to light new 
evidence on disputed points. Most of the older hand- 
books, therefore, are ''out of date" in many respects, and some 
of those more recently published repeat traditional statements 
which have, in many cases, been proved incorrect. It has 
been the endeavor of the writers of this series to consider all 
the results of modern investigation and to summarize them 
as clearly as possible. The need for such summaries of the 
results of research seems to be better met by single volumes 
than by more elaborate treatises, which can have no compen- 
sating gain in authoritativeness unless they are the work of 
many collaborators. 

In every case of conflicting theories the writers have tried, 
after weighing all the evidence, to present the view which 
seems to them most probable, and then to give, in selected 
bibliographies, the titles of books which will be found helpful 
for further study. They have not attempted to discuss a 
large number of monuments of any given period, but have 
chosen rather to emphasize important and characteristic 
works and to show their relation to the whole development. 
In some cases, also, they have emphasized certain aspects of 



xviii EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION 

their subjects at the expense of others. The development of 
American art has been discussed at rather greater length than 
has been customary in similar books, since it seems to the 
writers that American art merits fuller treatment than it has 
usually received at the hands of critics and historians. As 
the books are intended for Occidental readers, Eastern art, in 
spite of its historical importance and intrinsic value, is treated 
in a single chapter. Throughout, the endeavor has been to 
consider the art of the past in the light of the present, to try 
to show how modern art is related to that which has pre- 
ceded it. 

In the arrangement of the material the use of the books by 
classes has been constantly kept in mind, and headings for 
sections or paragraphs have been freely introduced throughout 
the three volumes. 

One other principle the writers have constantly kept before 
them. The office of the historian is to trace development, to 
show how the art of any period grew out of that of earlier 
times and in turn conditioned that of later days. Too many 
of the older histories were written to uphold a particular 
system of aesthetics or to glorify a particular phase of artistic 
development, frequently in a particular country. Many of 
these books are valuable as expressions of the judgment of a 
critic or as records of the taste of an age. But for the be- 
ginner and the general reader they are often confusing. 
They place him at an unfair disadvantage and tend to warp 
his judgment. Discussions of aesthetic principles and state- 
ments of the consensus of critical opinion may properly find 
place in an elementary book, but expressions of purely per- 
sonal judgments and theories which have not been generally 
accepted should be eliminated so far as possible. The aim of 
the writers of this series has been to point out the qualities in 
the works of any period which have appealed most strongly to 
the creators of those works and to endeavor to emphasize 
what has enduring value. It is hoped that the resulting 
"objectivity" of the books will add materially to their use- 
fulness. 

The problem of illustration is always difficult. In recent 
years, histories of art and similar books have exhibited two 
opposite tendencies, the one toward a large number of illus- 



EDITOR'S INTRODUCTION xix 

trations on a very small scale, the other toward few illustra- 
tions, but those of large size. The former system has the 
advantage of bringing before the reader most of the buildings 
or statues or paintings mentioned in the text, the latter that 
of showing more clearly the details of individual works. In 
this matter the writers have tried, with the co-operation of 
the publishers, to steer a middle course, providing a con- 
siderable number of full-page illustrations for especially im- 
portant monuments and a much larger number of small cuts 
for others. They hope that they have ,hit upon a "golden 
mean." 

GEORGE H. CHASE. 

HARVARD UNIVERSITY, 
1917. 



AUTHORS' PREFACE 

During the last twenty years the origins of architecture 
have been pushed back another millennium, and its later de- 
velopment has been enriched by wholly new chapters. Minute 
research on a multitude of special points has modified or over- 
thrown generalizations of the nineteenth century which are 
still too often repeated. Scholars have been forced, for 
instance, to abandon the suppositions that Assyria and 
Etruria made any advance over Egypt and Greece in the use 
of the arch, that the proportions of the Greek orders evolved 
uniformly in a given direction, that the characteristic feature 
of Roman architecture was an inconsistent application of the 
orders to arched constructions. Similar instances from 
mediaeval and modern architecture could be cited, where new 
agreements have been reached on questions of fact. 

Equally important have been the changes of attitude on 
many questions of interpretation. The part of spiritual in- 
fluences and spontaneous creation in the formation of styles 
is now emphasized, to balance the one-sided affirmation, by 
nineteenth-century writers, of the influence of material 
environment. The raison d'etre of many forms is sought in 
a purely formal expressiveness, rather than in a supposed 
structural necessity. The idea of an analogy between the 
history of styles and the growth and inevitable decay of or- 
ganic life is now generally abandoned, and it is understood 
that the material must not be forced into conformity with 
any other misleading analogy. Most important of all, it ?a 
recognized that in the history of art, as in other branches of 
history, subjective criticism must give way to the impartial 
study of development in which historical influence is the 
criterion of importance. Freed from dogmatic appraisal, 
Roman architecture, Renaissance and baroque architecture, 
and, especially, modern architecture, can receive the exposi- 



xxii AUTHORS' PREFACE 

a 

tion to which their influence and their diffusion entitle them. 
The modern historian, like Chesterton's modern poet, gives 
his subjects not halters and halos, but voices. 

In the apportionment of space in this book there is a de- 
parture from the tendency of older works to discuss ancient 
styles at great length and pass over recent developments with 
few words. Here it has been thought better to give progres- 
sively greater emphasis and space as modern times are ap- 
proached. No date is suggested as marking a supposed 
death of traditional art; on the contrary, the development 
is followed to the present day, in a belief in unending creative 
vitality. Thus it is hoped that the professional architect and 
others already familiar with the subject may still find new 
matter of interest to them. 

In accordance with the usage of most recent writers, the 
term Renaissance architecture is confined to buildings of the 
Renaissance in its more restricted sense (to about 1550 or 
1600), and is not extended to cover the later developments 
of classical forms. The need of a general designation for all 
of the works of the following period, whether academic or 
free in character, is a strong one. German and Italian 
scholars have attempted to include them all by an extension 
of the term baroque architecture, but such an extension is 
a departure from the original sense of baroque and a viola- 
tion both of French and of English usage. In consequence 
the authors have ventured to propose a new term which is 
self-explanatory : post-Renaissance architecture. 

The attempt has been made to present each style as a thing 
of growth and change, rather than as a formula based on the 
monuments of some supposed apogee, with respect to which 
the later forms have too often been treated as corrupt. 
The general development of the style is first sketched 
with little description of individual monuments, and these are 
then illustrated and discussed more at length in sections 
devoted to the development of single forms and types. 

A chronological outline is added to each chapter, with a 
bibliographical note, including references to more extended 
guides to the literature of the subject. 

The illustrations have been selected, in conformity with 
recent tendencies both in architecture and in archaeology, to 



AUTHORS' PREFACE xxili 

show not merely isolated details and monuments, but the 
ensemble. Those which are not from photographs are re- 
produced, so far as possible, from the original sources, as 
noted in the list of illustrations. To the owners of copy- 
rights who have courteously permitted the use of their ma- 
terial the authors extend cordial thanks; also to Messrs. 
B. T. Batsford, Ltd., G. P. Putnam's Sons, Doubleday, Page 
& Co., and the Macmillan Co., for permission to reproduce 
other material. Messrs. Cram and Ferguson, Charles A. 
Platt, and Frank Lloyd Wright, as well as the American 
Academy at Rome and the Metropolitan Museum, have 
kindly furnished photographs which would otherwise not have 
been obtainable. Certain plates which could not be repro- 
duced directly have been drawn by Mr. M. B. Gulick and 
Mr. A. P. Evans, Jr. 

The portion of the book which deals with the Middle Ages 
(Chapters VI to IX) has been written by Mr. Edgell; the 
portion which deals with ancient and modern times, together 
with the chapters on Eastern architecture, by Mr. Kimball. 

F. K. 

G. H. E. 



A HISTORY 
OF ARCHITECTURE 



A HISTORY 
OF ARCHITECTURE 

CHAPTER I 
THE ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE 

From the beginning of its history architecture has had a 
threefold problem or aim: to build structures at once com- 
modious, strong, and satisfying to the artistic sense. Each 
of the phases of the problem offers its own possibilities and 
difficulties, rooted in natural conditions and universal human 
traits, and thus to a certain degree constant. As an intro- 
duction to the study of the varied historical solutions of 
the problem of architecture these constant factors deserve a 
brief discussion. 

The primary, compelling need, which brought and still 
brings the majority of buildings into existence, is of course the 
need of inclosed space sheltered from the weather. A roofed 
area, surrounded by walls, requires also certain other elements 
for practical usefulness doors, windows, chimneys. In all 
but the simplest buildings there must be interior partitions, 
separating rooms intended for various uses, and accommodated 
to these uses in their sizes and relationships. When these 
rooms are numerous, or occupy several stories, the provision of 
light and of intercommunication becomes complicated. To 
secure good light throughout the interior, the masses of 
building must be kept relatively thin or the rooms must be 
grouped about interior courts of greater or less area. In 
primitive buildings there may be no strict division of the 



2 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

functions of different rooms and courts, and it may be neces- 
sary to pass through a number intended for one use to reach 
one intended for other uses. In more advanced construction 
the functions become specialized, and a distinct class of ele- 
ments of communication is created. Corridors and stair- 
halls provide means of circulation which do not disturb 
the privacy of individual apartments. The provisions for 
the reception of strangers and for the carrying on of the 
service of the establishment are then also separated from the 
private portions of the building. 

Like these gradations in complexity of function, there are 
also gradations in geometrical organization, which affect 
convenience as well as appearance. The elements of the 
plan rooms and courts may be of quite irregular shape, 
juxtaposed without attention to their mutual relationships 
or to the resulting general outline. Elsewhere they may be 
made predominantly rectangular, the outline may be brought 
to some regular geometrical form, and communications be- 
tween the elements may be provided at points on their 
several axes. A further degree of organization may result 
from the carrying through of a general axis of symmetry 
common to the principal elements of the building, or possibly 
from the establishing of two or more important axes, usually 
at right angles. In the most highly developed buildings there 
may be a multitude of minor axes, related to these main axes 
and forming with them a complex but orderly system. Such 
schemes permit a clear oversight of the components of the 
whole, and a mental grasp of the arrangement, without which 
it might prove only a confused labyrinth. 

Essential even to mere provision of inclosed space, as well 
as to resistance against the various forces of disintegration, 
is a sufficient measure of strength. In the simplest of all 
forms of construction, a solid wall, the only tendency is for 
weight above to compress or crush the material below or to 
force it out at the sides. The remedy is to increase the sur- 
face over which a given pressure acts by thickening the wall 
until safety is amply attained. With foundations, where the 
soil is compressible, it is equally essential that the pressure 
shall everywhere have the same relation to the bearing power 
of the soil, otherwise unequal settlements and cracks will 



THE ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE 3 

result. As in any wall or pier the stones at the bottom have 
manifestly more weight to sustain than those above, there is 
a logical satisfaction and often a real necessity for making a 
wall thicker at the bottom than at the top, either by occasional 
increases or by a constant slope. Ordinarily the margin of 
safety allowed is so great that the mere weight of the material 
itself, except in very high walls, does not actually necessitate 
a slope, and other considerations, practical or artistic, may 
render it undesirable. Thus it is more usual to find vertical 
surfaces with increases of thickness only where concentrated 
weights, such as those of floors, must be upheld. Another 
occasion for increasing the thickness occurs when a material 
of greater compressive strength rests upon a weaker material, 
as when a story of cut stone rests on a basement of rubble or 
a foundation wall upon ordinary soil. These conditions are 
frequently responsible for the existence and the forms of 
horizontal moldings string courses or belt courses as they 
are called at the level of floors or at the junction of different 
materials and at the base. 

Instead of a continuous wall there may be a series of isolated 
supports circular columns or piers of other forms. With 
columns even more than with walls it is usual to find an 
increase of diameter toward the base or a ' 'diminution" toward 
the top. Here, also, it is common to find transitional mem- 
bers, the capital supporting the load above, the base spread- 
ing the weight on the substructure. 

Where openings are to be spanned, either in a wall or be- 
tween isolated supports, new problems arise. In a beam or 
lintel supported only at its ends the action of gravity pro- 
duces not only the usual crushing tendency upon those por- 
tions which bear on its supports, and which must be made 
large enough to resist this, but also produces a tendency to 
shear the beam across just at the point where the support ceases 
and a tendency to bend and finally to break it in mid-span. 
Against both these tendencies, stone, with its crystalline or 
granular structure, offers a resistance very feeble relatively 
to its weight. The tendency to break increases much more 
rapidly than the distance spanned, and the difficulty and cost 
of getting larger blocks likewise increases beyond all pro- 
portion. Thus stone lintels can be used but rarely for span- 



4 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

ning intervals of more than ten feet, and a clear span of 
twenty-four feet is the extreme instance. The lightness and 
fibrous nature of wood, on the contrary, make it well fitted to 
span long distances, provided the weight above be not too 
great. Iron and steel have in modern times made possible 
beams of immensely greater strength and span at relatively 
small cost. 

When masonry is to be used to bridge wide openings, or in 
any case when only small stones or brick are at command, some 
form of arch must be employed, and a new element of dis- 
integration, horizontal thrust, appears. A rudimentary 
form of arch is the corbeled arch, built up in horizontal 
courses, each projecting somewhat in front of the course 
below, finally meeting over the center of the opening. The 
true arch differs from this in having radiating joints, being 
composed, in principle, of wedge-shaped blocks called vous- 
soirs. It may be semicircular, elliptical, or pointed of tall 
or squat proportions. The weight of the crown of the arch 
tends to push the two sides apart with a force which is rela- 
tively greater in broad, low arches than in tall, narrow ones. 
The sides require to be abutted by masses of earth or masonry, 
to be brought into equilibrium by the counter thrust of other 
arches, or, failing these methods, to be connected by a tie- 
rod. In a continuous arcade, or series of arches resting on 
piers or columns, the thrusts neutralize each other and pro- 
duce merely vertical pressure on all the intermediate supports. 
A massive abutment is thus needed only at the ends, and the 
intervening piers may be more slender. 

Covering the spaces inclosed by the walls are the roofs, 
which take on a multitude of forms influenced by the climate, 
the materials, and the shapes below. Only in a rainless 
climate can roofs be perfectly flat and joints penetrate them 
without any overlapping protection. Under all other con- 
ditions there must be a slope of greater or less degree to 
carry off the water from rain or melting snow. If there is a 
continuous impervious covering like clay, tar, or soldered 
metal, the slope may be almost imperceptible, and the roof 
may still form a terrace, reasonably flat. If the covering 
material is of small, overlapping pieces like shingles, slate, 
or tiles, the roof, to insure the shedding of water, must have a 



THE ELEMENTS OP ARCHITECTURE 5' 

pronounced inclination. Where there is a deep fall of snow 
it is necessary either to make the roofs strong enough to sup- 
port a great weight or steep enough to throw off the snow 
before it accumulates dangerously. To assume merely that 
southern climates demand flatter roofs and northern ones 
steeper roofs is obviously too inaccurate a generalization. 
The climate, in most cases, is a less important factor than the 
covering material. The form of the roof may also be in- 
fluenced by the shape of the areas to be covered or, con- 
versely, the form of roof once adopted may govern the ar- 
rangement of the plan. A pitched or sloping roof requires 
relatively narrow and uniform buildings if the ridge is not to 
rise wastefully high and the form is not to become over- 
complex. A terraced roof permits the masses of building to 
be of any shape and size. In either case there are practical 
as well as artistic reasons for a special treatment where roof 
and wall meet With a terraced roof there is need of a 
parapet, breast-high; with a sloping roof there is need of a 
projecting cornice, to support a gutter or to keep the drip 
from the eaves clear of the walls. 

The support of the roof and its form on the interior raise 
further questions. If the width is small, beams may span 
directly from wall to wall, or two sets of inclined rafters, 
resting on the walls, may meet at the ridge. With greater 
widths there must either be intermediate supports, or trusses 
of wood or metal members so framed and braced as to be self- 
supporting over a wide span; or else, instead of either, there 
must be vaults of arched masonry. Vaults have the advantage 
of resisting fire, but they have horizontal thrusts which re- 
quire suitable abutment. Vaults of continuous hemispherical 
or semi-cylindrical form domes or barrel vaults necessitate 
a continuous abutment by thick walls. Vaults composed of 
intersecting surfaces or resting on arches, however, may 
have their thrusts concentrated at a few points, where they 
may be met by walls or projecting buttresses which are more 
efficiently disposed. Sometimes there is but a single covering 
to the building: a roof construction of beams and trusses 
appears on the interior, or vaults show their forms directly 
on the exterior. More often, however, greater freedom is 
desired to adapt exterior and interior coverings to their dif- 



6 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

ferent functions. Thus ceilings may be introduced below the 
roof beams, or independent roofs constructed above the 
vaults. 

Along with the desire for strength and practical usefulness 
goes often a conscious striving for artistic effect. Even in the 
most utilitarian buildings, indeed, there must always be a 
certain measure of choice in the selection of materials or of 
forms. Thus there is inevitably some expression of prefer- 
ences which are, consciously or unconsciously, artistic. It 
is the sum of such expressions, partly of conscious preference, 
partly of traditional usage, partly of natural conditions and 
practical necessity, which constitutes the artistic character of a 
structure. 

The artistic ideas which may be thus expressed are of many 
different sorts. The adaptation of the building to its practical 
functions, the purpose and relationships of its various parts, 
may be made clear. The specific character religious, civic, 
military, commemorative may be emphasized. The nature 
of the environment may be mirrored in picturesqueness or 
formality of design. The size or "scale" of the building may 
be unmistakably declared through features the size of which 
bears a necessary relation to the materials used or to the 
human figure. The treatment of the materials themselves 
may be such as to bring out all their characteristic possibilities 
of color, texture, or veining. The principles of the structural 
system may be revealed and the raison d'etre of every detail 
made evident. Finally there are the ideas of pure form, 
expressed in the mere sizes, shapes, colors, and light and 
shade. This domain of pure form is the one which archi- 
tecture shares with painting and sculpture. In architecture, 
however, the forms are not representative, but abstract and 
geometrical, and there is, besides, one possibility which none 
of the other arts possesses. It is that of creating forms of 
interior space, within which the observer stands. In all these 
architectural expressions and in their mutual relationships 
there may be a greater or a less degree of consistency, har- 
mony, and interest. Certain expressions are even incom- 
patible with others, and each fusion of expressions in a single 
building involves the sacrifice of many others, and is a unique 
creation. 



THE ELEMENTS OF ARCHITECTURE 7 

At a given period or in a given region, however, many of 
the elements remain constant. The use of certain materials 
or constructive systems may be imposed by the geologic 
formation, by climatic conditions, or by the isolation of the 
inhabitants. Even if there are few restrictions of this sort, 
there will be the force of custom, perpetuating a thousand 
peculiarities and methods of varied origin. Often there will 
be also the influence of older and of neighboring civilizations, 
steadily exercised in definite directions. Thus it comes about 
that, in the expression of their artistic instincts, the men of 
one time and one place have a common vocabulary of forms 
and tend to speak a common architectural language, in the 
same way that they tend to employ a common spoken lan- 
guage. It is these architectural languages, varying in every 
country and province and in every generation, which we mean 
when we speak of the historic styles of architecture. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

Works dealing with the elements and theory of architecture 

A popular work in English is J. Belcher's Essentials in Architecture, 
1907. Others addressed to a more professional audience are J. B. 
Robinson's Architectural Composition, 1908, and J. V. Van Pelt's 
Essentials of Composition, 26. ed., 1913. Systematic and fundamen- 
tal discussions occur in J. Guadet's Elements et theorie de /' architecture, 
4 vols., 3d ed., 1909, and L. Cloquet's Traite d' architecture, 5 vols., 
1898-1901. The Handbuch der Architektur contains similar material: 
pt. I, vol. 2, Die Bauformenlehre by J. Biihlman, 2d ed., 1901; 
and pt. IV, vol. i, Architektonische Komposition by H. Wagner and 
others, 3d ed., 1904. 

2 



CHAPTER II 
PREHISTORIC ARCHITECTURE 

Prom the origins of mankind in the mists of the preglacial 
period down to the beginnings of recorded history there was 
a gradual development lasting over great periods of time. 
The steps in the development were much the same among dif- 
ferent peoples, although their degrees of advancement at a 
given time varied greatly. Men passed through successive 
ages in which stone, bronze, and iron were used for tools and 
weapons, and in which corresponding advances were made 
in other branches of culture. The Egyptians and the peoples 
of Mesopotamia had already completed this development 
while the inhabitants of central Europe were still in the stone 
age, and Europeans in their turn have found the American 
Indians and other peoples still ignorant of bronze and iron. 
It is thus in central Europe that we are best able to trace the 
changes which, in more favored regions, took place at a much 
earlier time, and which in less favored regions are still in- 
complete. 

The stone age. During the earlier stone age, the paleo- 
lithic period, when instruments were still crudely chipped, 
men lived by hunting and fishing. They dwelt in caves or 
dugouts, or in tents of poles and hides. In the later stone 
age, or neolithic period, when they had learned to polish 
stone implements, to raise cattle, and till the soil, new methods 
of housing were added. Huts were built of poles and reeds 
plastered with clay, with thatched roofs. Sometimes the 
floors of these were raised above the ground on piles, for 
protection against hostile attack, as well as against animals 
and vermin. Sometimes the huts were, even built on piles 
over the water. In the Swiss and Italian lakes there were 
whole villages of these pile dwellings, the remains of which 



PREHISTORIC ARCHITECTURE 



show the rudimentary beginnings of carpentry. The dwell- 
ings were already surpassed in importance at this time, how- 
ever, by sepulchers of the dead and religious monuments. 
These were of stone, usually not composed of many small 
pieces, but "megalithic" of enormous blocks which singly 
sufficed for a wall or roof. Tomb chambers were made of a 
pair of such blocks with a covering slab constituting what 




\fflff 

K" 
&l 



' 



FIG. I STONEHENGE. (RESTORED BY HARTMANN) 

are called dolmens. Sometimes these were buried beneath 
a mound of earth, or were preceded by a covered corridor. 
Other monuments, which may well have had a religious 
significance, are the menhirs, or single standing pillars, and 
the cromlechs, or circles of stones. A menhir in Brittany had 
the extreme height of seventy feet. The most famous of the 
cromlechs is at Stonehenge near Salisbury in England (Fig. i). 
It had two concentric circles of tall standing stones, with 
lintels resting on them, minor circles of smaller stones just 
inside of each, and a great "altar stone" within. 

The ages of bronze and iron. With the discovery of the art 
of working metals began the bronze age, which made possible 
more advanced works of carpentry and masonry. This oc- 



io A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

curred in central Europe about 2000 B.C. Following villages 
of improved pile dwellings on land, such as the terramare 
of Italy with their walls and moats, came huts once more 
resting on the ground. These were at first circular or oval, 
but they gradually assumed a rectangular shape. The 
conical or domical roofs of the earliest huts were later re- 
placed, in northern climates, by a pitch roof with a longi- 
tudinal ridge. The introduction of iron, which took place 
in central Europe about the seventh century B.C., made but 
little change in the manner of building. Architecture there 
remained essentially primitive until it was influenced by off- 
shoots of the highly developed styles which grew up about the 
eastern Mediterranean. To study their rise will be the 
object of the following chapter. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

A comprehensive and authoritative work on prehistoric architect- 
ure is lacking. Monographs on individual sites and monuments 
abound, too numerous to be listed here. Reference must be made 
to certain general works covering the prehistoric period, such as 
Sir John Lubbock's Prehistoric Times, 7th ed., 1913; M. Hoernes's 
Primitive Man, English translation, 1900 (Temple Primers); and 
Urgeschichte der Kultur, 3 vols., 1912 (Sammlung Goschen); or to 
works which cover limited regions. Hoernes's Urgeschichte der 
bildenden Kunst, 26. ed., 1915, and E. A. Parkyn's Prehistoric Art, 
1915, unfortunately do not include architecture. For the develop- 
ment in prehistoric Europe, principally dealt with in this chapter, 
see, above all, J. Dechelette's Manuel d'archeologie pr6historique, 
celtique et romaine, 2 vols., 1908 ff. (primarily devoted to France, 
but with some references to other countries and full bibliographical 
notes), and S. Muller's Urgeschichte Europas: Grundzuge einer pra- 
historischen Archaologie, translated from the Danish, 1905; French 
translation: L' Europe prehistorique, 1907. For England consult 
R. Munro's Prehistoric Britain, 1914 (Home University Library), 
T. R. Holmes's Ancient Britain, 1907, or B. C. A. Windle's Remains 
of the Prehistoric Age in England, 1904. On the pile dwellings see 
R. Munro's The Lake Dwellings of Europe, 1890. 



CHAPTER III 
PRECLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE 

EGYPT 

The first notable development of architecture was reached 
in the fertile valley of the Nile. At the beginning of the 
third millennium before Christ, when the earliest of the great 
Egyptian royal tombs were building under a strong central- 
ized rule, the valley of the Tigris and the Euphrates seems 
not yet to have possessed any monuments comparable to 
them in workmanship or magnitude. The Great Pyramid, 
built by Khufu as his own burial-place in the years following 
2800 B.C., is not only the most considerable of all architectural 
works in bulk, but one of the most perfect in execution. 
Although over seven hundred and fifty feet on a side, it was 
laid out with such accuracy that Petrie reports its diver- 
gencies from exactness in equality of sides, in squareness, and 
in level, no greater than his own probable error in measuring 
it with the most modern surveying instruments. 

General characteristics. The course of excavations has re- 
vealed a variety in Egyptian art, during its three thousand 
years of active life, quite different from the uniformity which 
was at first supposed to exist, yet it is possible to summarize 
certain enduring characteristics of its architecture. This 
was largely conditioned by religious beliefs, which demanded 
the utmost grandeur and permanence for tombs and temples, 
the residences of the dead and of the gods, in contrast with the 
light and relatively temporary houses which sufficed for even 
the greatest of the living. Such permanence was sought by 
the almost exclusive employment of fine stone, which the 
cliffs of the Nile Valley furnished in abundance, and by the 
adoption, as the dominant constructive types, of the simple 



12 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

mass, and of the column and the lintel. The arch, occasion- 
ally used from the earliest times, was confined to substructures 
where it had ample abutment and was little in view. The 
architectural members, moreover, were generally of great 
size and massiveness, although sometimes of extreme refine- 
ment and in certain cases even of delicacy. Traditional ele- 
ments of composition in plan recurred in many types of 
buildings. These were the open court, often surrounded by a 
continuous interior colonnade or peristyle, and the rectangular 
room opening on its broader front, with its ceiling supported 
by columns. With the flat roofs which the rainless climate 
permitted, rooms could be juxtaposed without any other 
restraint than the necessity of light. Partly as a consequence 
of religious beliefs, partly doubtless from natural preference, 
the architectural members were usually covered with sculpture 
in relief, everywhere blazing with harmonious color. Archi- 
tecture formed an equal union with sculpture and painting. 
The rich flora of the Nile, especially the lotus and the papyrus, 
furnished the principal motives of ornament, and even sug- 
gested the form of structural members. 

Development. The architecture of Egypt, from its earliest 
traces to the Christian era, shows a continuity of character 
never destroyed and scarcely interrupted by any foreign in- 
fluence. The early Semitic invasion from Asia by which the 
structure of the Egyptian language is explained must have 
taken place long before our remotest knowledge. The varied 
development of Egyptian art was essentially a native one, 
resulting from the interaction and successive supremacy of a 
number of local schools, raised to prominence by the political 
importance of their centers. 

Thinite period. The earliest of these schools to attain a 
general predominence was that of This, a city about two- 
thirds of the way from the Delta to the First Cataract. This 
became the capital of Menes, who first succeeded in bringing 
under one rule the earlier kingdoms of the north and the 
south about 3400 B.C. His successors of the First and 
Second Dynasties, so-called, lived here for perhaps four 
hundred years. The slight remains of architecture preserved 
from this period indicate a primitive condition. Sun-dried 
brick was the principal material, although stone masonry and 



PRECLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE 13 

even the arch were soon introduced. The rudimentary forms 
of the tomb and of the temple display a similarity to the form 
of the house which persists fundamentally even in later times 
and indicates a common derivation from the simple dwellings 
of the people. 

Memphite period, or "Old Kingdom.' 1 With the transference 
of the seat of government to Memphis, a little south of modern 
Cairo, began the first of the great flowerings of Egyptian art. 
Under the kings of the Third Dynasty the royal tombs grad- 
ually took the form of pyramids, and with the first king of the 
Fourth Dynasty, Khufu, came the culmination of Memphite 
architecture in the Great Pyramid at Gizeh (Fig. 2). The 
buildings of this king and his immediate successors of the 
"Old Kingdom" set a standard of size and workmanship 
never afterward equaled. The architectural forms, though 
simple, were of the greatest refinement. The colonnade was 
employed in the courts and the halls of temples, and the 
characteristic and beautiful "papyrus" or "lotus bud" column 
first made its appearance. After a gradual decline Memphis 
lost its importance with the close of the Sixth Dynasty. A 
period of relative barrenness ensued, from which emerged 
about 2160 B.C. the powerful monarchs of the eleventh and 
later dynasties whose reigns constitute the "Middle King- 
dom." Their seat was Thebes, again in Upper Egypt, a little 
south of This. 

Theban period: "Middle Kingdom" and "Empire" With 
them began the long supremacy of Theban art, which domi- 
nated the development of Egyptian architecture, directly or 
indirectly, to the end of its history under the Romans. The 
invasion of the Asiatic "Hyksos" who overran the country 
caused an interim from about 1675 to 1575, but the empire 
which followed picked up the thread almost at the point 
where the Middle Kingdom had dropped it. Though the 
buildings previous to the invasion have been mostly swept 
away by subsequent rulers, they apparently furnished the 
prototypes of the temple and other buildings in their later 
form. On the expulsion of the invaders followed the age of 
greatest splendor, under the monarchs of the Eighteenth and 
Nineteenth Dynasties, whose monuments, reaching from the 
Fourth Cataract to the Euphrates, furnish the usual idea, of 



PRECLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE i$ 

Egyptian architecture. In the three hundred and fifty years 
following 1500 B.C. were built the great temples of Der-el- 
Bahri, of Abu Simbel, and of Medinet Habu, the delicate 
shrines of Elephantine, the superb halls and courts of Karnak 
and Luxor, the tombs of the valleys behind Thebes half, 
perhaps, of all that has been saved of Egyptian architecture. 
Columnar architecture was magnified to a scale seldom equaled. 
Columns sixty to seventy feet high in a few instances, with 
lintels of a clear span of twenty-four feet, were among the 
structural triumphs of this relatively brief period of world 
empire and artistic magnificence. At its close the artistic 
impulse had spent itself. The buildings of Ramses III., 
last of the great imperial Pharaohs, already show heaviness of 
design and carelessness of execution. Under the kaleidoscopic 
usurping dynasties that shortly followed Tanite, Libyan, and 
Nubian only an isolated monarch now and then had power 
to attempt a revival of the splendors of the imperial ar- 
chitecture. 

Saite period. In the midst of political decadence, however, 
a new artistic fermentation was beginning. After the ex- 
pulsion of Assyrian conquerors, about 660 B.C., under the rulers 
of Sais in the Delta, art sprang again into vigorous activity 
such as it had not known for five hundred years. Although 
the policy of these astute monarchs was everywhere to restore 
the Theban culture, even to revert to the style of the Old 
Kingdom, the originality of their artists was not to be denied, 
and new and beautiful modifications resulted. Persian 
domination followed, and the architecture of the period suf- 
fered almost complete destruction; but we can trace its 
innovations in the elaborate and diverse columns of the tem- 
ples built by the Ptolemies and the Romans. 

Ptolemaic and Roman periods. It was the character im- 
pressed upon it by the Saite builders that Egyptian architect- 
ure retained till it finally succumbed before the advent of 
Christianity. Greeks and Romans alike brought their own 
national forms, but these were unable to effect any sub- 
stantial change outside of the cities of the Delta. The native 
architecture was adopted by the conquerors themselves, at 
least for the temples of the traditional religion. Under the 
prestige of Alexandria, Egyptian dispositions, clothed in 



1 6 A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 

Greek detail, spread beyond the boundaries of Egypt. The 
peristylar court and hall, the clerestory, and other charac- 
teristic elements, became henceforth international. 

The tombs. Throughout this long history the most im- 
portant monuments were the tombs and the temples. Egyptian 
religious beliefs demanded shelter and sustenance for the 
dead as well as for the living. Hence, in the tomb, elaborate 
precautions were taken for the preservation of the body, and 
for the nourishing of the "ka," or vital force, now dissociated 
from it. The forms of the tomb varied in different districts, 
though they tended in every period to take the form custom- 
ary in the region which was dominant politically. In Lower 
Egypt the preference was for masonry structures erected on 
the plain; in Upper Egypt, for chambers and passages 
excavated in the rock of the valley walls. The masonry 
tombs were alike in presenting on the exterior a simple mass 
rectangular in plan and almost unbroken by openings^ they 
differed in geometrical form and in interior arrangement. 

Mastabas. The form of most frequent occurrence in the 
Old Kingdom was the one employed for the Memphite nobles, 
the so-called "mastaba." It was a low, flat-topped mass, 
varying in size with the importance of the occupant, and hav- 
ing its faces sloped back at an angle of about seventy-five 
degrees. The solid bulk of the mastaba contained at first 
merely the filled-up shaft to the tomb chamber below, and a 
small chapel for offerings. Later the upper chambers were 
multiplied for ceremonial and for the storage of provisions 
and household utensils. 

Pyramids. From the beginning of the Memphite dynasties 
the kings adopted distinctive forms which approached the 
pyramid. The first king of the Third Dynasty, Zoser, built 
his tomb at Sakkara in seven great receding steps; its last 
king, Snefru, erected one at Medum in three steps, another 
at Dahshur in true pyramidal shape, fixing the type for the 
rest of the period. The most striking group of the pyramids 
is that of the Fourth-Dynasty necropolis at Gizeh. Here 
stands the familiar group of three built by Khufu, Khafre, 
and Menkure the Cheops, Chephren, and Mycerinus of 
classical writers. Around them are the smaller pyramids of 
royalty and serried lines of mastabas built by the nobles. In 



PRECLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE 17 

the pyramids, as in the mastabas, the interior arrangements 
differ. They are alike in having the tomb chamber elabo- 
rately safeguarded by granite portcullises and misleading pas- 
sages. These, however, uniformly failed to protect the bodies 
against despoilers, often only a few generations later. The 
pyramids were preceded by massive chapels for services and 
offerings and approached by causeways of stone leading up 




FIG. 3 BENI HASAN. PORTICO OF A TOMB 

from the river. By size and by the very simplicity of their 
form these greatest of Egyptian monuments make an un- 
rivaled impression of grandeur and power. 

Rock-cut tombs. Under the Theban monarchs of the 
Middle Kingdom the existing local types of Middle and 
Upper Egypt were developed the pyramid-mast aba, a mas- 
taba with a small pyramid on top; and the tomb cut in the 
western cliffs (Fig. 3). Under the Empire this last type, 
adopted by the kings, became by far the most employed. 
Every wealthy Theban family had its concealed vault, pre- 
ceded by a small rock-cut chapel. To protect their bodies, 
the Pharaohs carried passages, gradually descending and 
interrupted by small chambers, for hundreds of feet into the 
cliffs. Their funerary chapels, however, became separated 
from the tombs themselves. They were erected on the plain 
before the cliffs fronting the river, and in time became com- 
parable to the temples of the gods on the opposite bank. 



i8 



A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 



The first of such chapels, built by Queen Hatshepsut in the 
years from 1500 to 1480, is one of the most original and most 
refined of all Egyptian monuments (Fig. 4). It lies in the 
valley known as Der-el-Bahri, and rises in three great colon- 
naded terraces to the sanctuaries cut in the rock. The 
architectural forms are of the simplest square or sixteen- 




FIG. 4 DER-EL-BAHRI. MORTUARY TEMPLE OF HATSHEPSUT. 
(RESTORED BY BRUNET) 

sided columns in long ranks but the proportions are so just, 
the effect so pure, as to suggest Greece in the days of Pericles. 
The temples. In the form finally reached under the Rames- 
sid Pharaohs of the Nineteenth and Twentieth Dynasties, 
the mortuary temples closely resembled the temples of the 
gods, likewise the product of a long evolution. The gods, 
like the dead, required shelter and food. They were housed 
with solidity and splendor, and served by the provision of 
meat and drink and diversion, all presented with increasing 
ceremonial. As it was the Pharaoh who provided the revenue 
for all this, so it was he who in theory made the presentation. 
It was made, in fact, by the priests, his representatives, the 
people participating only when, on feast-days, the offering 



GREAT TEMPLE OF AM M ON 




1 ; "'.ri 

j ; 

f 




20 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

was distributed in the temple court after being presented to 
the god. Though many of the elements of the temple seem 
to have been in use from the time of the Old Kingdom, and, 
already in the Middle Kingdom to have assumed somewhat 
their final relations, it is only the temples of the Empire and 
later times that are sufficiently preserved to give a visual idea 
of the whole. 

Imperial temples. At the great national center of Amon- 
worship at Karnak in Thebes (Fig. 5) there are many temples, 
the product of long growth. Several of the relatively smaller 




FIG. 6 KARNAK. CENTRAL AISLES OF THE HYPOSTYLE HALL OF THE 
GREAT TEMPLE OF AMON. MODEL IN THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM 



ones well display the similarities, as also the minor diver- 
sities, found in the temples of the Theban period. Each con- 
sists essentially of a small sanctuary at the back, flanked by 
cells for the minor divinities of the religious triad, by chapels 
and store chambers, and preceded by a colonnaded hall, the 
so-called "hypostyle hall" (Fig. 6) which turned its broad 
side to a square court surrounded by columns. The facade 
was composed of a great doorway between two tall quad- 
rangular towers, their faces sloping back from the perpendic- 
ular, together constituting a "pylon." Before the pylon 



PRECLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE 21 

stood obelisks, colossal statues of the king or the divinity, 
and wooden masts carrying long streamers; before these, 
again, were often long avenues of approach, lined with sculp- 
tured rams or sphinxes. As one passed inward from the sun- 
lit court, through halls successively smaller and lower, the 
light diminished till the sanctuary was in almost total dark- 
ness, admirably calculated to heighten the effect of religious 
mystery and awe. 

Special types. At the most important temples, such as those 
of Amon at Karnak and Luxor, successive monarchs vied in 
multiplying the elements. They built new and larger hypostyle 
halls and courts in front of the earlier pylons, until in the 
great temple at Karnak, under the Ptolemies, a seventh 
pylon was under construction. In a similar way at Philse, 
their favorite shrine, the Ptolemies and the Roman monarchs 
built many courts, pavilions, and the accessory buildings de- 
manded by the late religious cults. Here the irregularity of 
the island site forced departures from the usual formality, 
but, as elsewhere in Egypt in such cases, ingenious adaptation 
produced a composition of the greatest charm. An effect 
still further removed from the heaviness and solemnity usually 
associated with Egyptian architecture is found in the smallest 
temples. One of these, built by Amenhotep III. at Elephan- 
tine, now destroyed, is especially famous for beauty of pro- 
portion and dignified grace. 

Dwellings. The Theban palace is still too little known for 
cafe generalization. The Pharaohs seem to have preferred 
not to live in dwellings previously occupied, and the practice 
of abandoning old palaces for new ones, hastily improvised, 
led to the employment of a construction which has left but 
few remains. The villa of Amenhotep III. at Thebes has a 
rectangular outer wall inclosing a labyrinth of small courts, 
columned rooms, and dark cells, all built of sun-dried brick, 
plastered and richly painted. Wall paintings elsewhere show 
the houses of the wealthy, surrounded by shaded gardens. 
The quarters of the poorer classes were closely built in blocks, 
often on a regular plan. Their houses, reduced to lowest 
terms, comprised a small, square court, along the back of 
which lay a rectangular room with the entrance on its broad 
side. 



22 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

The column: origins. Interest in the details of Egyptian 
architecture centers in the development of the column, which 
the Egyptians were the first to employ, and which they 
treated with great mechanical skill and artistic taste. In the 
Fourth Dynasty we find square monolithic piers, without 
division or ornament of any kind the system of support and 
lintel at its lowest terms. The so-called Temple of the 
Sphinx, a waiting-hall at the foot of the causeway leading to 
the pyramid of Khafre, thus constructed, is effective by its 
proportio'ns and by the perfection of its workmanship. By 
the Fifth Dynasty we find the first circular columns, of 
types common throughout later Egyptian architecture. 
The motives of their designs were taken from the palm and 
from the papyrus or the lotus, palm leaves being carved up- 
right about the top of the shaft, bending gracefully under the 
weight of the abacus, or the shaft itself being made in the 
form of several lotus or papyrus stems bound together, the 
buds swelling at the top to form the capital. 

Later forms. Under the Middle Kingdom the most popu- 
lar form was a column abstractly geometrical polygonal in 
plan, or with concave vertical flutings. In either case it was 
crowned by a simple square abacus. Such columns, as at 
Beni Hasan and later Der-el-Bahri, have a rough resemblance 
to the Doric columns of Greece, which, however, seem to 
have been derived independently. Under the Empire all 
these types were still employed, the papyrus or lotus-bud 
form leading in popularity, but a new type was given the 
place of honor in the tall central aisles of the hypostyle halls 
(Fig. 6) . This was the column with a capital like an inverted 
bell, imitative of the flower of the lotus. A capital with heads 
of the cow-goddess, Hathor, was used in her shrines, and 
piers fronted by standing colossi were frequent, especially 
under the great Ramessids. The Saite and Ptolemaic archi- 
tects elaborated the capitals, especially the bell capital, by 
applying to the smooth surfaces motives drawn from native 
flora leaves, flowers, buds, in gracefully ordered profusion. 
They even employed different varieties in the same colonnade, 
though always in pairs, placed at equal distances on either 
side of tne axis. No attempt was made to develop a separate 
system of forms to accompany each type of column. The 



PRECLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE 23 

same type of cornice is found with all, a quarter-hollow, or 
cavetto, making transition from the vertical members to the 
horizontal projecting line of the roof. 

The peristyle. Although many Egyptian halls were sub- 
divided by ranges of columns extending the full depth of 
the room, an equally characteristic arrangement was that 
of an interior peristyle, or continuous surrounding file of 
columns. This arrangement, which was preferred in the 
case of open colonnaded courts, is a typically oriental dis- 
position, being found also in Mesopotamia and through- 
out the East. Owing perhaps to the guarded nature of 
Egyptian life and Egyptian cults, a similar surrounding 
peristyle was rare on the exterior. A single instance was 
the little temple of Elephantine. 

The arch. The arch form was used sometimes in tombs 
and notably in the sanctuaries of the temple of Seti I. at 
Abydos, but in all such important works it was merely a 
corbeled arch, cut out of projecting stones in horizontal 
courses. True arches abound in subterranean tomb chambers 
from the time of the Third Dynasty, apparently as early as 
any in Mesopotamia. The store chambers of the Ramesseum, 
the mortuary temple of Rameses II. at Thebes, present an 
extensive series of parallel barrel vaults resting on light in- 
termediate walls. For use in the superstructure, however, 
the true arch seems to have been thought too insecure. 

The clerestory. A device first invented by the Egyptians, 
destined to play an important r61e in later architecture, is the 
clerestory, introduced under the Empire. To light the wide 
hypostyle halls, unprovided with windows at the outside, 
the roof was raised over the three central aisles, admitting 
light through grated openings over the lower roofs at the 
sides (Fig. 6). 

Methods of construction. The Egyptian roofs were flat, as 
the rainless climate permitted. Those of the temples were 
constructed of slabs of stone resting directly on the lintels, 
dispensing with all wood. The compact soil rendered deep 
foundations unnecessary. Piers and columns, originally 
monolithic, were perforce, in the largest examples, built up 
like towers with rough filling, often none too solid. The 
masonry gradually lost the precision of the earliest monu- 



24 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

ments in the vast and hasty erections of the later Empire, but 
the constructive methods remained nearly constant. 

Decoration. The elements of decorative expression likewise 
remained substantially the same in different periods. They 
were based on natural forms, like the lotus and palm, or on 
conventional geometric lines, such as the spiral. The god's 
house, conceived as the world, had its walls painted with con- 
ventional landscapes, its ceiling spangled with stars. The 
legends of the gods and the exploits of the kings filled every 
available space, proclaiming in no modest way the glories 
of the builders, of the restorers, and of usurping monarchs who 
wished to shine by reflected light. 

The architect. During the whole of Egyptian history the 
architect was a man of importance, as might be expected when 
building formed so large a part of the monarch's activity. 
Inscriptions in tombs of the Fifth Dynasty show that in two 
cases, at least, the functions of prime minister, chief judge, 
and royal architect were combined. The mortuary inscrip- 
tion of the prime minister of Thothmes III., in recounting his 
duties, includes personal inspection of monuments under con- 
struction. Whoever the real designers were, they were far 
from being mere slaves of tradition, and some of them, like 
Sen-Mut, the architect of Der-el-Bahri, showed themselves 
men of the highest genius. 

It is to its strength and dignity, above all, that Egyptian 
architecture owes its effect. Less structural than sculptural 
in many of its forms, it nevertheless has breadth and monu- 
mental quality. At its best pure and subtle, it is seldom lack- 
ing in magnificence or even in some touch of sublimity, which 
is universally recognized in its major creations. 

MESOPOTAMIA 

The Tigris and the Euphrates supported a civilization per- 
haps even more ancient than that of Egypt. It is impossible 
to date the most primitive monuments of either country ac- 
curately enough to decide priority of origins. In the forma- 
tion of a developed style and the execution of monuments of 
the first magnitude, however, the peoples of the Mesopo- 
tamian valley lagged many centuries behind the Egyptians. 



PRECLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE 25 

Natural conditions and modes of construction. The natural 
conditions were in many respects less favorable than in 
Egypt. The absence of any good native building-stone or 
abundance of wood left sun-dried mud brick the best ma- 
terial available in large quantities. Torrential rains and 
frequent floods rendered constructions relatively imperma- 
nent, even though the walls were faced with burnt brick and 
the buildings were raised on huge platforms. In Babylonia 
in early times stone was almost impossible to secure. Even 
in Assyria the difficulty of bringing it from the mountains was 
so great as to prevent its being used ordinarily even for lintels. 
Wood, itself hard to obtain, had to' be used for columns and 
for ceiling beams, to support the thick roofs of clay. With 
the materials available, the only device which could have 
furnished a permanent covering of voids with great weight 
above was the arch. Its principle was known in Mesopo- 
tamia from the earliest times, and was employed frequently 
in subterranean vaults, in gateways and doors, where there 
was no lack of abutment. Whether spanned by wooden 
beams or by barrel vaults, the rooms were given by prefer- 
ence a long, rectangular form. Tradition dictated, as in 
Egypt, that the entrance to such rooms should be on the 
longer side; in other words, the rooms were broad and shal- 
low, rather than narrow and deep. Terraced roofs per- 
mitted the rooms to be massed in any convenient ar- 
rangement, without complicating the disposal of rain- 
water. Thus, as in Egypt, great aggregations of rooms 
and courts, rather than isolated blocks, were the rule. The 
ornamentation of buildings, like the construction, had to be 
largely of clay. 

Prevailing types. As with most early peoples, the temples 
were of great importance. A rather gloomy view of a future 
life, on the other hand, gave no encouragement to the build- 
ing of elaborate tombs. The palaces of the Assyrian kings 
were more massive in construction than those of Egypt, as 
befitted the greater relative importance of the life on earth. 
Constant exposure to invasion gave military architecture a 
development for which there was no occasion in Egypt. 

Development. In the history of Mesopotamian architecture 
four principal periods of activity may be distinguished, sue- 



26 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

cessively in Chaldea, in the "Old Babylonian" kingdom, in 
Assyria, and in reincarnated Babylon. 

Origins. The earliest Mesopotamian culture seems to have 
developed near the mouths of the rivers, in Chaldea, spreading 
over the lower half of the valley to embrace what later be- 
came Babylonia. The struggle between the primitive city 
states lasted much longer in this region than in Egypt, and 
unification was postponed till a full millennium after Menes 
had brought about the union of the Two Lands of the Nile. 
A difference of language in the cuneiform script has lent color 
to ancient tradition of a native Sumerian population, grad- 
ually giving way before an invading Semitic people which 
borrowed its civilization and its arts. The two existed side 
by side in the formative period and possibly may be but two 
branches of a single stem. 

Chaldea. Remains at the Sumerian center of Lagash, the 
modern Tello, include a building of the king Ur-Nina the 
oldest structure yet found in Mesopotamia which can be dated 
built perhaps 3000 years before Christ. There is also a 
fragment of the staged tower built by Gudea about 2450 B.C. 
incorporated in a later palace. The early Semitic religious 
center was at Nippur, where the ruins of the temple precinct 
include superposed remains of several staged towers, dating 
from the very earliest times. The general similarity of these 
buildings to the later buildings of Assyria and Babylon es- 
tablishes the essential continuity of Mesopotamian archi- 
tecture. 

Old Babylonian Kingdom. Although as early as 2650 B.C. 
the Semitic kings of Agade had extended their rule to the 
Mediterranean, the internal consolidation of Babylonia itself 
was not accomplished till about 2100, under the great king 
Khammurabi of Babylon. His city, hitherto relatively un- 
important, now became the center of a powerful state, the so- 
called Old Babylonian Kingdom. Plans of dwelling-houses 
from this period show already the characteristic Babylonian 
scheme of a square court with the principal room along its 
southern side. The streets and blocks then established re- 
mained unchanged throughout the history of the city. The 
kingdom flourished till about 1750 B.C., when it was over- 
run by Kassite invaders. 



PRECLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE 27 

Assyrian supremacy. The leadership next fell to Assyria, 
the northern half of the valley, which had been colonized by 
the Semites of the south about 2000, and which now began 
an independent career. The Asiatic conquests of Thothmes 
III. and his great successors in the fifteenth and fourteenth 
centuries brought both Assyria and Babylon in contact with 
Egypt, to which their kings sent gifts. By noo Assyria was 
strong enough to eject the Kassites from the south and for a 




FIG. 7 DUR-SHARRUKIN (KHORSABAD) THE PALACE OF SARGON. 

(RESTORED BY PLACE) 



brief period to rule over a united country. After an interrup- 
tion of two centuries she again assumed her aggressive policy, 
and under a series of strong kings had conquered all western 
Asia by 700. The capital, first at Ashur, was later more usu- 
ally at Calah, though royal residences were often maintained 
in both places and in Nineveh as well. Sargon II., who 
ruled from 722 to 705, founded for his capital a new city, 
Dur-Sharrukin, the modjern Khorsabad. His successor, Sen- 
nacherib, raised Nineveh to the primacy, which it retained to 
the downfall of the Empire. He was driven to destroy re- 
bellious Babylon, which, however, was restored by his son, 
Esarhaddon. Under Esarhaddon even Egypt was brought 



28 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE] 

beneath the Assyrian yoke for a brief period. The culmination 
followed in the peaceful days of Ashurbanipal (668-626). His 
palace at Nineveh, inferior only to that of Sennacherib, was 




FIG. 8 DUR-SHARRUKIN. THE PALACE OF SARGON. PLAN. (PLACE) 

adorned with bas-reliefs of remarkable animation and natur- 
alness. 

Dur-Sharrukm. The best preserved of all Mesopotamian 
monuments, the one which gives the most vivid idea of Assy- 



PRECLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE 29 

rian architecture in its maturity, is the palace of Sargon at 
Dur-Sharrukin, the modern Khorsabad (Figs. 7 and 8). The 
city, of which it was an integral part, formed a rectangle a little 
over a mile on each side, inclosed by a wall one hundred and 
fifty feet wide and sixty feet high, with battlements, towers, 
and outworks. Like most Mesopotamian structures, it had 
its corners toward the points of the compass, contrary to the 
practice in Egypt, where the sides faced the cardinal points. 

The palace of Sargon. The palace itself, on a huge plat- 
form in the middle of the northwest wall, covered an area 
of twenty-five acres. The platform was faced with massive 
blocks of limestone, here accessible, and limestone was also 
used as a plinth for the crude brick walls. A ramp and a 
monumental staircase led up from the city, through arched 
and towered gateways, to two great courts, about which the 
main divisions of the palace were grouped. The state apart- 
ments in the center, and the khan, or service, division at the 
eastern corner, can be identified with certainty. The walls 
were very thick, one story high, and at right angles. The 
rooms were relatively small and dark, opening through one 
another to minor courts, irregularly placed. Although the 
plan was very complex, and its chief quarters were kept 
separated, it lacked any highly organized system of com- 
munications and any extended symmetry or expression of the 
internal arrangements. 

The temples. On the same platform with the palace stood 
a second block of buildings, a group of temples, in close asso- 
ciation with the eiggurat, or lofty staged tower, "the link of 
heaven and earth," which was the most striking feature of 
Mesopotamian religious groups. In the temple block are three 
distinct suites, dedicated evidently to different divinities, 
each suite consisting essentially of a square court, a broad 
vestibule, and a long hall with a cell at the end, apparently 
the sanctuary proper. In these suites the household of the god 
was established, here sacrifices were offered, and here the 
most valuable votive offerings of the kings were deposited. 

The ziggurat. The special residence of the god himself and 
his consort was the chamber which crowned the ziggurat, 
"the house of the mountain." At Dur-Sharrukin the tower 
which supported this was formed of a single continuous ramp, 



30 A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 

square in plan, rising like a screw with seven turns. The 
walls were enameled successively white, black, purple, blue, 
vermilion, silver, and gold, symbolizing the heavenly bodies. 
The mass was one hundred and forty feet square at the base 
and rose twenty feet at each turn. Some Assyrian ziggurats 
seem to have had three or five stages; sometimes each of 
these was a level terrace connected with the others by stairs. 
The plans were now square, now rectangular. 

New Babylonian Kingdom. Within twenty years of the 
death of Ashurbanipal his empire had succumbed to the 
Medes. Babylon, which had assisted them, was left in- 
dependent and entered on a splendid renaissance. In the 
reign of her great king, Nebuchadnezzar, especially, from 
604 to 561, were built the magnificent walls, the temples, the 
palaces, the so-called "Hanging Gardens" which excited the 
admiration of Herodotus and other travelers, and the great 
ziggurat. The wealth of the Babylonian kings enabled them 
to burn brick and to bring stone from a distance, yet the 
fundamental constructive system remained unchanged. The 
palace plans show a somewhat more regular disposition than 
those of Assyria, with recurring suites of similar form for the 
living-apartments and access facilitated by corridors. The 
temples, which are square or nearly square in plan, have a 
central court, with the sanctuary and its vestibule lying 
usually along the southern side (Fig. 9) , much as in the plan 
of the Babylonian dwelling. The ziggurat of Babylon, like 
the one at Nippur, stands in a vast walled inclosure, pre- 
ceded by minor courts. In the palace of the citadel is a 
massive substructure with two series of parallel rooms, which 
retain unmistakable traces' of having been vaulted in brick. 
The excavators have sought to recognize in this unfamiliar 
arrangement the foundation of the Hanging Gardens, which 
would accordingly have obtained their sobriquet through 
astonishment at a method of support so novel to its observers. 
The revival of Babylonian glory was brief. In 538 the city 
fell before the all-conquering Persian, Cyrus, and the su- 
premacy of its native art came to a close. 

Roofs and vaulting. Throughout ancient times, as now, the 
normal method of roofing in Mesopotamia was by wooden 
beams supporting a mat of reeds, and then a thick bed of 



PRECLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE 



clay graded with a slight inclination to permit water to run 
off. Inscriptions tell of the bringing of beams of cedar, pine, 
and oak from Amanus and Lebanon to form the ceilings of 
temples and palaces. The earliest investigators made the 
unwarranted as- 
sumption that 
barrel vaults were 
employed in most 
of the rooms of the 
Assyrian palaces, 
an inference from 
their generally 
elongated shape 
and thick walls, and 
from the absence of 
any vestige of ceil- 
ing beams. A 
famous bas - relief 
at Nineveh, further- 
more, shows houses 
covered externally 
with egg-shaped 
domes, similar to 
those of the Sassa- 
nian buildings of 
Persia many cen- 
turies later. Re- 
mains of at least 
one such dome have 
been found which is 
thought to date 
from Sumerian 
times. It is now 
generally admitted, 

however, that even single vaulted rooms in Mesopotamian 
buildings were exceptional, and that the group of free-standing 
vaults in the palace at Babylon is, as far as we know, unique 
in the country. On the other hand, vaulted drains below- 
ground abound in both Assyrian and Babylonian times. 
These, which are sometimes semicircular, sometimes pointed 




FIG. 9 BABYLON. PLAN OF THE TEMPLE OF 

NINMAH. (AFTER KOLDEWEY) 



32 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

in section, are remarkable in being built in successive rings, 
which are not vertical, but inclined. By means of this in- 
clination the builders were enabled to carry their vault along 
over the void, without any necessity for wooden false-work or 
centering. Each course adhered to the preceding, one and 
was supported by it. It was merely necessary to have a wall 
or arch to start against. 

Columns. Columns were used but sparingly, as supports 
for light, isolated structures, and in porticos along the sides of 
a court. They were, for the most part, apparently, of wood, 
painted or covered with metal plates. Some fragments of 
stone columns have been found in Assyria with carved capitals 
and bases, usually of cushion form. A relief from Nineveh 
shows a small columned shrine having capitals with two pairs 
of scrolls or volutes, one above another. These are very 
similar to those of the later Ionic capital of the Greeks, and 
doubtless exercised an influence on it. 

Ornament. Winged bulls of stone carved in high relief 
were used to decorate the jambs of arched gateways and., the 
bases of towers. Friezes in low relief representing historical 
subjects or hunting scenes ornamented the state apartments 
of the palaces. Brick enameled in colors was also a favorite 
mode of surface decoration. At Dur-Sharrukin broad bands 
were placed around the arches; at Babylon a frieze of stalk- 
ing lions followed the processional street and representations 
of columns lined the walls of the palace. 

The assumption of all credit for Mesopotamian buildings 
by the monarch has kept in obscurity the men who built 
them. Their work is indeed less individual than official in 
character. By the very repetition of the great rectangular 
masses with their endless towers and battlements it gives a 
powerful expression of the size and grandeur of the Oriental 
monarchies* 

PERSIA 

The architecture of the Persians, who next succeeded to 
the domination of western Asia under Cyrus and other 
Achaemenian kings, borrowed certain forms from the con- 
quered regions Mesopotamia, Ionia, and Egypt. Never- 
theless, it retained a large native element, suggestive of a 



PRECLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE 33 

primitive columnar architecture of wood. Similar reminis- 
cences of wooden construction can be traced in Ionia and es- 
pecially in Lycia, but it seems less probable that the Persian 
forms were merely imitative of these than that all were 
descended from a more or less common type, the product of 
similar conditions. Wood and stone were both obtainable 
on the plateau of Iran, as on the coast of Asia Minor; wood 
was naturally used in early days, stone after the growth of 
wealth and power. In Persia the entablatures and roof 
framing remained of wood throughout the Achaemenian period, 
making possible the unusual slenderness and the wide spacing 
of the columns. As in Assyria and early Greece, the roof it- 
self was a thick mass of clay, terraced, with a very slight in- 
clination. Though the Persians drew some decorative forms 
from other countries, their chief source for them was Assyria. 
The winged bulls and bas-reliefs are but clumsily imitated; 
and even the polychrome friezes of enameled brick from Susa, 
the masterpieces of Persian art, are relatively crude beside 
their prototypes at Babylon. 

Development. The development of Achaemenian art follows 
the dramatic history of the dynasty. It appeared suddenly 
with Cyrus about 550 B.C., absorbing Mesopotamian and 
Ionian elements as he conquered those countries, and Egyptian 
motives a.fter the conquests of Cambyses. It disappeared as 
suddenly before Greek civilization on the collapse of the vast 
empire in its struggle with Alexander. 

Types of buildings. Zoroastrianism, the ancient religion of 
Persia, had no images and required neither true temples nor 
sepulchers. The Achaemenian kings, however, did not ob- 
serve the custom of exposing their bodies after death, as pre- 
scribed by the Avesta, and their monumental tombs are 
among the chief remains of Persian architecture. Still more 
important are the palaces, which reflect the proud absolutism 
of the Great King. 

Palaces. The Persian palaces at Pasargadse and Persepolis 
stood on great platforms like those of Assyria. Here these 
were built of stone and served at once to give military security 
and monumental setting (Fig. 10) . At Persepolis a vast double 
staircase leads up from the plain, giving access to the platform 
through a tall columnar porch flanked with winged bulls, 



PRECLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE 35 

On low platforms resting on the larger one stand three palaces, 
those of Darius, Xerxes, and Artaxerxes III. They are similar 
in general arrangement, with a large, square, columned hall, 
preceded by a deep portico and surrounded by minor rooms. 
Audience-halls. Independent of the palaces are the mag- 
nificent audience-halls of Darius and of Xerxes, each cover- 




Copy right, by Macmillan & Co. 
FIG. II PERSEPOLIS. TOMB OF DARIUS, NAKSH-I-RUSTAM. (JACKSON) 



ing more than an acre. In disposition they reproduce the 
central feature of the palaces, but on a greater scale. The 
hall of Darius has ten columns each way, inclosed by massive 



36 A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 

walls. A portico eight columns wide and two deep is flanked 
by colossal winged bulls. The hall of Xerxes has but six 
columns each way in the central portion, but has porticos 
the full width of this on three sides. With its columns thirty 
feet apart and almost seventy feet high, this building takes 
rank with the greatest columnar buildings of Egypt and of 
Greece. 

Tombs. The earliest royal tomb, supposed to be that of 
Cyrus a small gable-roofed cella mounted on seven great 
steps is obviously imitative of Ionian architecture. Those 
of later monarchs seem to have been inspired by the rock-cut 
tombs of Egypt. They are found in the cliff at the back of 
the palace platform at Persepolis, and near by in the rock now 
known as Naksh-i-Rustam (Fig. n). All are substantially 
similar, with a portico of four engaged columns carved about 
the door, a great bas-relief above, and a blank space of equal 
size below. Their chief interest lies in their representation of 
the Persian entablature of wood. With its architrave of three 
superposed bands, its projecting beam-ends above, this is 
clearly related in its origin to the forms of the Ionic entablature 
in Greece. 

Religious buildings. Though the ancient Persians had no 
true temples, their sacred fire needed a small inclosed shrine 
where it could be kept continually burning, and altars in the 
open air where it could be occasionally kindled for sacrifice. 
These may be recognized, perhaps, in the small square towers 
with blank windows, still preserved near Pasargadae and 
Persepolis, and in the altars of uncertain date at the rock of 
Naksh-i-Rustam and elsewhere. 

Columns. The Persian columns were slender, and crowned 
with a peculiar capital in which the heads and forequarters 
of two bulls are united back to back in the direction of the 
architrave. Beneath these in some examples were placed 
multiplied pairs of volutes on end, and then bells, upright 
and inverted, in incoherent sequence. Thus the capital 
became long out of all usual proportion to the shaft below. 

In its problems of the column and lintel Persian architecture 
was related to the classic architecture of Greece, which was 
roughly contemporary with it, and which carried its solutions 
much further in technical facility and refinement. 



PRECLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE 37 

THE AEGEAN 

The direct forerunners of the classic races of Greece, in 
civilization and in architecture, were the early inhabitants of 
the islands and coasts of the ^Egean, whom the later tribes 
with their iron swords deprived of their birthright. Con- 
trary to earlier belief, it now seems clear that civilization 
developed almost simultaneously all about the eastern Mediter- 
ranean, and remains have been found in Crete and Asia Minor 
contemporary with the earliest monuments of Egypt, though 
less advanced in artistic character. 

Development. Two principal periods may be recognized 
which show considerable differences in their types of archi- 
tecture. The earlier, during which Crete, in close touch 
with Egypt and Syria, was the leader, has been called the 
Minoan period, from the legendary sea king, Minos. The 
later period, the so-called Mycenaean, was that in which the 
inhabitants of the mainland cities, Mycenae, Tiryns, Argos, 
and others probably the Achaeans of the Homeric poems 
continued the culture of Crete after overthrowing its political 
supremacy. The long development of Minoan art, following 
the introduction of bronze about 3000 B.C., was cut off with 
the destruction of Knossos about 1400. Costumes sewed and 
fitted, plumbing scarcely rivaled again till the last half of the 
nineteenth century, are evidences of a surprisingly luxurious 
civilization. Its continuation on the mainland, somewhat 
less refined in life and art, lasted till the dark ages following 
the Dorian invasion, about noo. 

Types. In the patriarchal monarchies of the time the 
palaces were naturally the chief buildings. In Crete, where 
dominion rested on sea power, these were quite unfortified; 
at Mycenae, Tiryns, and Troy they were walled strongly and 
ingeniously against land attacks. Religious ceremonies do 
not seem to have required any highly specialized construc- 
tions. Interment was the ordinary funeral custom, but 
certain tombs excavated in the hillsides were given a monu- 
mental character. Building materials and climate placed 
little restriction on the choice of forms ; the column and lintel 
and the corbeled arch were employed exclusively. 

Oriental and European elements. Besides many peculiar na- 



38 A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 

tive elements, among which the entrance-portico opening on 
two adjacent sides is one of the most striking, Cretan 
architecture shows a number of features of Oriental character. 




FIG. 12 KNOSSOS. PLAN OF A PART OF THE PALACE. (EVANS) 



These include the flat roof, with the complex juxtaposition of 
rooms which it permits, and the court surrounded by a con- 



PRECLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE 39 

tinuous peristyle. The architectural dispositions of the main- 
land, on the other hand, show signs of a European origin; 
they can be traced without a break from the primitive hut com- 
mon to northern races. The isolated position of the prin- 
cipal rooms, with entrances only on one end, suggests that 
they were covered with gable roofs. The court, instead of 
forming a homogeneous ensemble, was a resultant of the 
surrounding units, with walls or porticos independent of one 
another. Although the dispositions in the two regions thus 
differ markedly, the decorative forms are largely the same, 
borrowed by the mainland, with the minor arts, from Crete. 

Crete. The palace at Knossos, the greatest of the Cretan 
centers (a portion of which is shown in Fig. 12), is in very 
truth a "labyrinth" which might well have given rise to the 
classic legend. About a long rectangular paved court are 
grouped rooms and tortuous passages in the greatest con- 
fusion. On the eastern side they were superposed in two 
stories, at least, the lower ones taking what light they have 
from narrow light-wells. The functions of many of the parts 
are still uncertain, but they seem never to have been logically 
grouped. The more important rooms were preceded by the 
characteristic corner- wise porticos already mentioned. The 
great staircase running through three stories, with its ramping 
colonnade, is a notable feature. Another is the "theatral 
area," a paved space with banks of steps on two adjoining 
sides, evidently intended for spectators. One of these is also 
found at the similar palace of Phaistos, which has its own 
features of special interest, among them the monumental 
flight of sixteen broad steps before the main entrance. At 
Gournia a whole city was unearthed, with simple houses of 
stone and baked brick, narrow, winding streets, and a small 
central palace and altar. 

The mainland. The citadel-palaces at Mycenae, Tiryns 
(Fig. 13), and other cities of later importance are irregular in 
plan, like the fortified summits which they crown, but they 
show certain recurring elements of similar form. Chief of 
these was the megaron, or men's hall, a square room with a 
hearth in the center and a vestibule and colonnaded portico 
in front, opening on the main court. Access to this court, as 
to the forecourt which might precede it, was obtained through 
3 



40 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

monumental gateways or propylaea. Each of these had a door 
which was protected, inside and out, by small porticos between 
flanking walls, or antae. 

Walls, openings, and vaults. The walls were sometimes of 
the finest cut stone, sometimes of sun-dried brick. Stone was 




FIG. 13 TIRYNS. PLAN OF THE ACROPOLIS. (RODENWALDT) 



used for fortress and retaining- walls, and for the base, at least, 
of the walls of dwellings. In the palace at Tiryns sun-dried 
brick bonded with wooden beams seems to have been used 
for the superstructure. The fortress walls were sometimes 
built of irregular blocks, the huge size of which gained them the 
name of Cyclopean. Sometimes they were of dressed stone, with 
either polygonal or rectangular blocks, as the natural cleavage 
of the stone suggested. Though they often used them, the 
Mycenaean builders were evidently doubtful of the strength 
of large stone lintels, and, not knowing the true arch, they 
were led to give an unparalleled development to the corbeled 
arch and vault, built of flat stones projecting over one another 
till they finally met. The lintel of the "Gate of Lions" at 
Mycenae, for instance, is relieved of any considerable weight by 



PRECLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE 41 

a corbeled arch (Fig. 14). Corbeled vaults were used over the 
narrow galleries in the walls of Tiryns and they were the 
favorite means of covering the chambers of important tombs. 
At Isopata in Crete the chambers are rectangular, and the 




FIG. 14 MYCEN^E. GATE OF LIONS 

two long sides curve together above to form the vault. The 
superior strength of a circular form was realized, and in some 
of the later tombs of Mycenae and Orchomenos there are 
" beehive" vaults nearly fifty feet in diameter. 

Column and lintel. The columns and architraves, both in 
Crete and elsewhere, were of wood, and have for the most 
part disappeared. The columns of the " Treasury of Atreus" 
show that stone was sometimes employed as well as wood; 
and that, in addition to cylindrical columns and columns of 
the usual type, larger at the base than at the top, there were 



42 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

also columns larger at the top than at the base. These 
contradict the structural tendency, yet the enlargement is so 
slight that they do not lack grace and piquancy. The stone 
capitals preserved have a square abacus supported by a 
circular cushion or torus, sometimes with a quarter-hollow 
beneath. The stone entablatures are evidently imitative of 
wooden construction, for the ends of round beams are repre- 
sented above the architrave. With mud-brick walls, wood 
was apparently used for facing the openings, as well as the 
ends of walls, or antae. 

Decoration. The fundamental elements of decoration were 
the spiral, the chevron, and the rosette, employed in bands 
or friezes. Another characteristic type of frieze was one 
consisting of pairs of palmetto ornaments back to back with 
a rectangular space between. In the triangular space above 
the lintel of the ''Gate of Lions" was a sculptured relief repre- 
senting a column, or altar, flanked by two lions (Fig. 14). 
Similar reliefs are thought to have occupied the corresponding 
spaces in other gateways and doorways, such as that of the 
'"Treasury of Atreus" (Fig. 15). 

Relation to Doric architecture. Many of the Mycenasan 
forms recur in the architecture of historic Greece, especially 
in the buildings of the Doric style, which was developed by the 
conquerors of the Peloponnesus. The plan of the propylasa 
is the same; the plan of the temple preserves the form of the 
Mycenasan megaron, with its arrangement -of columns in antis. 
;The Doric capital, the antae, the high wall base of upright 
stones, all show reminiscences of the earlier forms which in- 
dicate close imitation, if not actual continuity. As in so 
many instances, the arts of the conquered took captive the 
conquerors, though new vigor and new needs modified exist- 
ing types and produced new ones. The prehistoric architect- 
ure of the ^Egean is not, however, to be considered merely as 
a barbarous stage in the development of Greek classic archi- 
tecture. It was itself complete, adapted to the needs of 
contemporary civilization, with its structural and decorative 
systems thoroughly established. If it was surpassed in ex- 
pressiveness and organization by architecture of the classic 
period, it was not the less superior to the clumsy experiments 
of the dark ages which intervened. 



<>& 



FIG . 15 MYCEN.E. PORTAL OF THE "TREASURY OF ATREUS. 

(RESTORED BY SPIERS) 



44 



A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



The preclassical styles which had their seats in the Levant 
and western Asia developed in three main currents largely 
native and independent of one another. In their continuous 
life of two or three thousand years and more, it is a few brief 
periods to which we owe the vast proportion of enduring 
monuments. The Fourth and Eighteenth Dynasties in 
Egypt, the Assyrian culmination and the Babylonian renais- 
sance, the palace-building periods of Knossos and Mycenae, 
are some of the moments for which long centuries of political 
upheaval and artistic groping had prepared. In the first 
millennium before Christ their influence focussed on Greece, 
where was evolved a style destined to stamp indelibly the 
later architecture of Europe. 



PERIODS OF EGYPTIAN ARCHITECTURE 



Centers 



This 



Memphis 



Thebes 
Fayum 



I. Prehistoric period, to 3400 B.C. 1 

II. Thinite period, 3400-2980. Dynasties I. -II. 

III. Old Kingdom, about 2980-2475. Dynasties 

III.-VI. 
The pyramids Khufu, Khafre, Men- 

kure. 

First transitional period decline of the king- 
dom. Dynasties VII. -X. 

IV. Middle Kingdom, about 2160-1788. Dynas- 

ties XI.-XIL 
Early halls at Karnak. Tombs at Beni 

Hasan. Pyramids at Lisht. 
Second transitional period Hyksos invasion. 

V . Empire , about 1 5 80- 1 090 . Dynasties X VII I .- 

XX. 
Formative period, to Thothmes III. and 

Hatshepsut (1501-1447). 
Mortuary temple at Der-el-Bahri. 
" Processional Hall" at Karnak. 
Central period, culminating under 

Amenhotep III. (1411-1375). 
Court and Hypostyle Hall at Luxor. 
Temple at Elephantine. 

1 In the earlier periods, where there is still some uncertainty, the dating follows the 
" Berlin " system, the one most widely accepted. 



Thebes 



PRECLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE 45 

PERIODS OF EGYPTIAN 'ARCHITECTURE Continued 



VI. 



VII. 



Revolution under Ikhnaton (Amenhotep 

iv.) (1375-1358). 

Restoration under Dynasty XIX. Seti 

I., Ramses II. (1313-1225). 
Great Hall at Karnak. Temple at 

Abu-Simbel. 
Ramessid period. Dynasty XX. Ramses 

III. (about 1198-1167). 
Mortuary temple at Medinet-Habu. 

Third transitional period. Decadence 
under Libyan and Nubian em- 
perors. Assyrian conquest and 
supremcy, about 670-660. 

Renaissance, about 663-525. Dynasty XXVI. 
Psamthik. Fourth transitional period. 
Persian conquest. 

Graeco-Roman period, after 332 B.C. 
Ptolemaic period, to 30 B.C. 

Temples at Denderah, Edfou, and 

Philae. 

Roman imperial domination, to 395 A.D. 
Later buildings at Philae. 



Centers 
El Amarna 



Thebes 



Sais 



Alexandria 



PERIODS OF MESOPOTAMIAN AND PERSIAN 
ARCHITECTURE 



I. Prehistoric period, to about 3000 B.C. 

II. Primitive period development and 

struggle of city states in Baby- 
lonia, about 3000-1900. 
Palace of Gudea at Lagash, 

about 2450. 
Ziggurats at Nippur. 

III. Old Babylonian Kingdom, about 2100-1750. 

Kh ammurabi . 

Main lines of Mesopotamian architect- 
ure established. 

Kassite domination in Babylonia, about 
1750-1100, 



Lagash (Tello) 



Sumerian: Lagash 
Semitic: Agade, Nippur 



Babylon 



A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



PERIODS OF MESOPOTAMIAN AND PERSIAN 
ARCHITECTURE Continued 



IV. Rise of Assyria, about 1650-1100, culminat- 

ing in first conquest of Babylonia. 
Assyria overrun by Aramean nomads, about 
1050-900. 

V. Assyrian Empire, about 885-607. 

Conquest of western Asia completed by 

700. 
Palace of Sargon at Dur-Sharrukin, 

722-705. 

Destruction and rebuilding of Babylon. 
Conquest of Lower Egypt. Sennacherib, 

Esarhaddon. 
Palaces at Nineveh. 
Culmination under Ashurbanipal, 668- 

626. 

Palaces at Nineveh. 

Destruction of Nineveh by Medes and 
Babylonians, about 607. 

VI. New Babylonian Kingdom, about 607-538. 

Nebuchadnezzar II. 

Conquest of Babylon by Cyrus, King of Per- 
sia, 538. 

VII. Persian Empire, about 550-330. Achaeme- 

nian Dynasty. 

Period of Ionian and Mesopotamian in- 
fluence. Cyrus. 
Tomb of Cyrus at Pasargadse. 
Period of Mesopotamian and Egyptian 

influence. Darius, Xerxes. 
Palaces and tombs at Persepolis. 
Conquest of Persia by Alexander. 



Centers 
Ashur 



Nineveh 



Babylon 



Persepolis 



PERIODS OF ^GEAN ARCHITECTURE 

I. Prehistoric period, Stone Age, to about 

3000 B.C. 

II. Early Minoan, about 3000-2200. Beginnings 

of Bronze. Crete 

Second or burnt city on site of Troy. 



PRECLASSICAL ARCHITECTURE 47 

PERIODS OF ^GEAN ARCHITECTURE Continued 



III. 



Middle Minoan I., about 2200-2000. 

Earlier palaces at Knossos and Phaistos. 
Middle Minoan II., about 2000-1850. 

First culmination, ending with first de- 
struction of Knossos. 
Middle Minoan III., about 1850-1600. 

Later palace at Knossos built. 
Late Minoan I. and II., about 1600-1400. 
Later palace at Phaistos built, palace at 
Knossos remodeled. Rise of 
Mycenae, Tiryns, and other 
mainland cities. Fall of Knos- 
sos, about 1400. 

Mycenaean period, about 1400-1100. 

Megaron-palaces at Mycenae, Tiryns, 
Troy (sixth, or Homeric, city), 
etc. 

Dorian invasion of Peloponnesus. Ionian 
settlement of Asia Minor. Transi- 
tion to iron. 



Centers 



Crete 



Greek 
mainland 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

Of G. Perrot and C. Chipiez's monumental Histoire de Vart dans 
Vantiquite, the first six volumes, 1882-1894, deal with preclassical 
architecture (English translation by W. Armstrong, 1883-1894). 
Though superseded in many particulars, these volumes are still 
valuable, especially for their graphic restorations in perspective. 
The history of excavations is summarized in H. V. Hilprecht's 
Excavations in Bible Lands, 1903, which covers Egypt as well as 
Mesopotamia and Palestine. A special study of the columnar 
building, based on the latest researches, is G. Leroux's Les origines 
del'edifice hypostyle en Grece, en Orient et chez les Romains, 1913. 

Egypt. The only general work in English wholly devoted to 
Egyptian architecture is E. Bell's The Architecture of Ancient Egypt: 
a li historical outline" 1915. Another authoritative account ap- 
pears in G. Maspero's Art in Egypt, 1912, arranged chronologically, 
and including concise bibliographies of the individual periods and 
monuments. The same author's Manual of Egyptian Archeology, 
translated by A. B. Edwards, 6th ed., 1913, treats architecture 
systematically, by types of monuments. J. Capart's Vart egyptien, 



4 S A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

2 vols., 1909-1911, is an excellent collection of illustrations, accom- 
panied by bibliographical references. For the monuments in their 
historical setting see J. H. Breasted's A History of Egypt, 2d ed., 
1909; for a topographical treatment see the guides of Baedeker, 
1914, or Cook, 1911, as well as A. E. P. Weigall's A Guide to the 
Antiquities of Upper Egypt, 1910. A special study of constructive 
methods is A. Choisy's L'art de bdtir chez les egyptiens, 1904. 

Mesopotamia. The most recent general treatment is in P. S. P. 
Handcock's Mesopotamian Archeology, 1912, which also gives a brief 
history of the excavations. An earlier handbook, including also 
neighboring countries, is E. Babelon's Manual of Oriental Antiquities, 
translated by B. T. A. Evetts, new ed., 1906. The section of.Hil- 
precht's work already cited which deals with Mesopotamia, espe- 
cially with the monuments of Nippur, has been reprinted as The 
Excavations in Assyria and Babylonia, 1904. For the complementary 
work at Babylon see R. Koldewey's The Excavations at Babylon, 1914, 
translated by A. S. Johns, 1915. For the cultural background see 
M. Jastrow's The Civilization of Babylonia and Assyria, 1915. 

Persia. Babelon's Manual is supplanted by A. V. W. Jackson's 
Persia Past and Present, 1906. 

The dZgean. H. R. Hall's JEgean Archaeology, 1915, gives a com- 
prehensive view. Among the many special studies devoted to 
Cretan monuments, R. M. Burrows' The Discoveries in Crete, 1907 
(reprinted with addenda, 1908), may be named as a scholarly sum- 
mary, to its date; J. Baikie's The Sea Kings of Crete, 1910, as a good 
popular exposition. C. Tsountas and J. I. Manatt's The Mycenaan 
Age, 2nd ed., 1916, is the standard work on its period. For a sum- 
mary of the excavations aside from Crete see C. Schuchhardt's 
Schliemann's Excavations, translated by E. Sellers, 1891, and H. C. 
Tolman and G. C. Scoggin's Mycencean Troy, 1903. 



CHAPTER IV 
GREEK ARCHITECTURE 

The Greek architects devoted themselves above all to the 
problems of the column and lintel, creating forms which no 
later Western people has ever wholly forgotten. The open- 
air life which the climate invited, the simplicity of Greek 
ideals, made no demands for the covering of large spaces 
which the lintel could not meet, and the arch remained con- 
fined to minor uses. Respect for tradition kept the essential 
form of certain types relatively constant, and gave oppor- 
tunity for study of the more delicate problems of expression. 
Two separate systems of columnar forms, the Doric and the 
Ionic, were perfected in long development by the two prin- 
cipal branches of the Greek race. When these forms came 
to be common property, their details were not mingled, but 
kept distinct, as recognized "orders." A third order, the 
Corinthian, was a relatively late artistic creation. 

Natural conditions and materials. In Greece there was 
less external compulsion in the formation of the architectural 
style than there was in Egypt or Babylonia, where climatic 
conditions were extreme and the choice of building materials 
was restricted. Neither drought nor floods were customary; 
wood and stone were both available. Natural conditions 
still made themselves felt, of course, but in a more subtle 
way. The proportions of the structural members were in- 
fluenced by the strength and fineness of the stone available. 
In the West, and on the Greek mainland in early days, it was 
a coarse, porous limestone. In Ionia it was marble, rela- 
tively fine-grained and strong. At Athens marble came into 
general use in the fifth century. Even in early days, how- 
ever, the materials everywhere left a wide freedom in the 
choice of forms. 



So A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 

Personality and ideals of Greek architects. It is in Greece 
that the personality of individual architects first becomes clear, 
in spite of the limitations laid on them by tradition. They 
knew and discussed what they were about, as the titles of a 
long series of technical writings attest. Their underlying 
theory was a formal one, which hoped to have exhausted the 
significance of beauty in the phrase " unity in variety." The 
favorite instance of beauty was musical harmony with its 
physical laws. This found its closest analogy, among all the 
arts, in architecture. It is not surprising, therefore, that the 
quality sought among all others was symmetry, in a broad 
sense. The Roman writer, Vitruvius, who drew his material 
from Greek sources, defines symmetry as "the proper agree- 
ment of the same members of a work, and the proportional 
correspondence of the several parts to the form of the whole 
object." The Greeks kept units for different purposes dis- 
tinct, and could impress on each a homogeneous form, sym- 
metrical also in the modern restricted sense of having corre- 
sponding halves. They studied proportions to secure not 
only a general harmony in the relative massiveness or slen- 
derness of all the parts, but also a mathematical relation be- 
tween their dimensions an equality of ratios, or a common 
dividing module. The application of these unifying prin- 
ciples however, was not mechanical. Subtle modifications 
were introduced for the purpose of securing a still higher de- 
gree of organization, and sometimes for the sheer avoidance 
of too monotonous uniformity. 

Development. The development of the architecture of 
Greece was from uncertainty to extreme refinement, and then 
to a less restrained magnificence. The elements of the early 
monuments were gradually co-ordinated and harmonized, 
until the central moment was reached in Periclean Athens 
in the fifth century B.C. Then ensued a diffusion of energy 
in elaboration and variation of the accepted themes, a search 
for novel motives, accompanied by the solution of the new 
problems created by wealth and luxury. 

Periods. The chief races of historic Greece first appear 
about 1 100 B.C., on the ruins of the older ^gean civilization. 
The archaic or formative period of their characteristic styles 
began roughly with the beginning of the Olympic games, in 



GREEK ARCHITECTURE 51 

776, the first expression of national unity. It closed with the 
final repulse of the Persian and Carthaginian attacks in 480- 
479, which left the Greeks conscious of their powers and 
stimulated the production of their maturer works of art. 
The period of native development extended roughly till the 
Macedonian conquest of Greece and Asia, 338-323. The 
splendid expansion known as Hellenistic art, in which the 
Greek inheritance was modified by Asiatic influences, con- 
tinued until the Roman conquest, in the second century B.C., 
gave a new direction to Greek energies. 

Relation of Doric and Ionic architecture. Doric architecture 
and Ionic were at first distinct styles, and their subsequent 
intermingling should not obscure their separate origin and 
different fortunes. At the opening of the historic period the 
Dorians occupied the Peloponnesus and central Greece, hav- 
ing repressed certain of the earlier tribes and forced others to 
an eastward migration. The lonians occupied Attica, the 
central islands of the ^Egean, and the coast of Asia Minor 
opposite, called specifically Ionia; the ^Eolians the Asiatic 
coast to the north. It was in Ionia and the ^Eolian towns, 
under the influence of Asiatic models, that the style called 
Ionic had its rise, and to this territory and the neighboring 
islands it remained almost confined until late in the fifth 
century. All the rest of Hellas, including Attica, meanwhile, 
was engaged in developing another style, called by contrast 
the Doric, which had its roots in the national inheritance 
from native civilization. The Ionic might have been called 
provincial had not Ionia then stood in the lead in civilization, 
wealth, and art. She held firmly to her own style, so that 
but a single Doric temple is to be found on Asiatic soil. It 
was not until after the Athenian naval confederacy brought 
the two shores into more intimate relations that Ionic forms 
began to penetrate continental Greece to any considerable 
extent or to be influenced by those of Doric architecture. 

Archaic period, 776-479. The leaders in artistic productive- 
ness during the formative period in Greece were the Ionian 
cities of Asia Minor and the newly founded colonies, mostly 
Dorian, of southern Italy and Sicily. Their lands were more 
fertile, their inhabitants more enterprising, than those of 
Greece itself, so that they early attained a wealth and culture 



52 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

quite beyond the general simplicity of the mainland cities. 
Among the more important centers in Ionia may be mentioned 
Ephesus and Samos, with their gigantic early temples; in 
the west, Selinus, Akragas, Syracuse, Tarentum, and Paestum. 
On the mainland Athens alone, under the wise rule of Pisis- 
tratus, gave brief promise of taking rank with these. Aside 
from buildings of practical utility such as , fortifications and 
fountain houses, almost the only public monuments were the 
temples. Singly, or impressively grouped on the acropolis 
or in a sacred inclosure, they dominated the modest houses 
of the city. In harmony with the materials available, the 
Ionic forms were delicate, slender, and graceful, the Doric 
generally heavy both with full and sweeping curves in the 
capital. The adjustment of various details was still subject 
to great uncertainty, especially in the Doric order, with its 
unconquered difficulties and its local varieties in colonies 
under Achaean or ^olian influence. Only in the last years 
of the sixth century was a final solution approached. 

Central period: fifth century. The awakening of national 
consciousness after the Persian wars, and the fifty years of 
comparative peace that followed, inaugurated what has 
usually been considered the great period of Greek art. The 
rebuilding of the ruined monuments of northern and central 
Greece stimulated a rapid development to maturity during 
the fifth century. Ionia, to be sure, was slow in recovering, 
and built little; but elsewhere throughout Hellas there was 
the greatest activity. Though the western colonies retained 
their prosperity, the mainland now rapidly took the lead in 
art and culture. The spoils of victory contributed to the 
development of the great national sanctuaries, such as Delphi, 
Olympia, and Delos, with their temples, their propylaea, and 
their treasuries (Fig. 35). The evolution of the drama now 
first added the theater to the architectural problems. The 
forms of the Doric order assumed their normal relations, 
which imposed themselves wherever the style was used. 

Athens under Pericles, 461-430. At Athens, where the 
destruction had been most complete and the subsequent 
victory most fruitful, a happy combination of circumstances 
produced buildings of unique refinement. At precisely the 
moment when naval supremacy and Asiatic conquests were 




FIG. 1 6 ATHENS. THE PARTHENON, FROM THE NORTHWEST 




FIG. 17 ATHENS. THE PARTHENON. (RESTORED TO ITS CONDITION IN 
ROMAN TIMES. MODEL IN METROPOLITAN MUSEUM) 



54 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE - 

placing Athens in close touch with the rich art of her Ionian 
kinsmen, all of her sanctuaries were to be rebuilt. The 
marble of Mount Pentelicus, now first appreciated, furnished 
a worthy medium, permitting more slender forms. Ionic 
fervor infused the stately forms of Doric architecture with a 
new spirit of grace. The Ionic forms themselves were even 
employed, although radically modified by Doric traditions. 
The full advantage of the moment would not have been seized 




FIG. 1 8 ATHENS. THE ERECHTHEUM, FROM THE WEST 

had not the Athenian democracy been dominated by a man 
of the insight of Pericles. His diversion of the Delian treasure 
to the adornment of Athens won for him the denunciation of 
contemporaries, but made his city the admiration of the world. 
The Parthenon (Figs. 16 and 17), the Propylaea of the Acropo- 
lis, the temple of Athena Nike, and the Erechtheum (Fig 18), 
show the extreme refinement which Greek art maintained for 
a few years before seeking other less subtle expressions. 
The collaboration of Phidias and his school gave a noble and 
appropriate sculptured decoration. At the Piraeus, where 
Pericles had almost a free hand, he brought the whole city 



GREEK ARCHITECTURE 55 

into architectural composition, according to a rectangular 
street plan made by Hippodamus of Miletus. 

Central period: fourth century. The fourth century found 
the mainland exhausted by civil war, which continued with 
brief intervals till the Macedonian conquest, and gave little 
encouragement to building. At defeated Athens, especially, 
means were lacking for anything but immediate practical 
needs. It was from Athens, however, with her daring inno- 
vations, her wonderful monuments of the preceding period, 
that the other cities took their inspiration. Sparta and 
Thebes, which the turn of events successively brought to 
power, gave signs of entering on the patronage of art, although 
time did not permit them to accomplish much. The new 
cities of the Peloponnesus, Mantinea, Megalopolis, and 
Messene, are typical of the period. In the west, the Cartha- 
ginian destruction of Greek cities in Sicily in 409-406 was fol- 
lowed by a long paralysis, during which the palace of the 
tyrant Dionysius at Syracuse was almost the only important 
production. With the civic revival there toward the end of 
the fourth century some temple-building once more began. 
It was in the cities of Asia Minor, though they were again 
partly under Persian rule, that the greatest and most char- 
acteristic monuments of the time were erected. The re- 
building of the temples, many of which had lain in ruins for 
more than a hundred years, was commenced on a scale that 
overshadowed everything in the mother country. The Ionic 
temples at Ephesus and Priene were completed by the time 
of Alexander's invasion, 334; the temple at Didyma, near 
Miletus, the greatest of all, was begun immediately after. 
For the half-independent rulers of Caria, Greek artists laid 
out the city of Halicarnassus, and built there the colossal 
tomb of Mausolus which has given its name permanently 
to funerary architecture. 

Types of buildings in the central period. The temple still 
retained first place in importance, though not in the same 
degree as formerly. In Greece as well as in Asia, at the 
national religious centers, notably Olympia and Delos, im- 
portant monuments were added, and Epidaurus took rank 
with these through a group of new buildings designed by the 
sculptor Polyclitus the younger. In Asia the early native 



5 6 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

forms of the Ionic order were matured and developed. In 
Greece, the Doric, Athenian in proportion, remained most 
usual on the exterior. The atticized Ionic and the Corinthian 
were now used also, in interiors, and, above all, in the beautiful 
circular temples which became popular. In the west the 
traditional Doric was still used exclusively, with but little 
modification. Greater independence appears in the new 
types, responding to new requirements. Every city and every 
great sanctuary now aspired to have its theater in stone, a 
new monumental problem typical of rising standards of 
luxury and convenience. By the time of Alexander the 
stadion also was lined with stone. At Megalopolis a 'great 
covered assembly-hall was built by the Arcadians, with 
terraced seats for six thousand men. On the other hand, 
architecture entered the service of individuals, wealthy 
citizens vying with the princes of the monarchical states in 
the erection of elaborate houses and tombs. 

Hellenistic period. The years 334 to 323 witnessed Alexan- 
der's brilliant conquests, which opened the east to Greek in- 
fluence, not without a certain reaction on the art of Greece 
itself. Outer circumstances were never more favorable to 
art than in the new empires of his successors, where all was 
to be created, yet where every means was at hand. The new 
capitals, Alexandria, Antioch, and, later, Pergamon, became 
the centers of artistic activity, though Rhodes and the Ionian 
cities pressed them closely. In Greece itself the great heritage 
of earlier monuments and the prevailing financial exhaustion 
were unfavorable to building. The aspect of Athens, Delphi, 
and Olympia, for instance, remained practically unchanged. 
Only in regions now first raised to importance, such as yEtolia 
and Epirus, were many considerable monuments erected. 
In Sicily official art had its last after-glow under the later 
tyrants of Syracuse. 

Changes in problems. Everywhere architecture had to con- 
cern itself with problems in the design of whole cities. It fol- 
lowed the precedents earlier set by Hippodamus in the wide- 
spread adoption of a rectangular plan. Traffic and hygiene 
were considered, as well as appearance. At Alexandria the 
two chief streets had a breadth of over a hundred feet, with 
sewers and water-mains beneath, The city took on some of 



GREEK ARCHITECTURE 57 

the many aspects of a modern metropolis, with its museum 
and library, its great park, its vast harbor with the mole, and 
the great lighthouse called the Pharos. The embellishment of 
these cities gave opportunities which the architects employed 
in striving to outdo all previous works in splendor and mag- 
nificence. The execution of the great temples at Miletus and 
Magnesia, the gigantic altars of Pergamon and of Syracuse, 
the Serapeion at Alexandria within its vast colonnaded court, 
all fell in this period. Still more characteristic were the 
sumptuous palaces of the rulers and even of private citizens, 
the public buildings of every kind, council-houses, and gym- 
nasia. Philanthropy sometimes gave architecture a new direc- 
tion, as when parks and gymnasia were established to keep 
some benefactor of the city in grateful remembrance, the 
tomb or a commemorative monument being a central but 
subordinate feature. The market-places were surrounded by 
porticos and the chief streets even were lined with colon- 
nades. 

Changes in detail. Amid all this lavishness something was 
inevitably lost. The extreme refinements of form, the subtle 
curves, were succeeded by a richer ornament and a bolder 
membering. The result was technically more facile, more 
easily appreciated, and by these very qualities it was fitted 
to the needs of a sophisticated and complex civilization. The 
Ionic order, changed by return influences from Athens into 
its final shape, was now the favorite; the Corinthian order 
became more and more common. As the interchange of 
ideas increased, the form of the column was no longer de- 
pendent on racial tradition. Instead there grew up a prin- 
ciple by which the traditional forms, though kept distinct, 
were objects of free choice according to appropriateness of 
character. The arch and the barrel vault were used oftener 
and with greater boldness, but never without irreproachable 
abutment by solid masses of masonry or earth. It was at 
this time, above all, that theoretical writings multiplied, 
and mathematical formulation made the Greek system 
imitable in the barbarian world. Beyond the borders even 
of Hellenistic Greece, Parthia imitated her clumsily and Rome 
became her most faithful pupil. 

Graco-Roman period. Under the domination of the Ro- 



58 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

man Empire, the architecture of old Greek lands never wholly 
lost its individuality, although Roman emperors and con- 
noisseurs delighted to adorn Athens with new monuments. 
The transformations which continued to take place in Greece 
and Asia Minor were rather native developments, copied and 
domesticated at Rome, than importations from the capital. 
A thousand years after the age of Pericles, we shall see that 
Greek genius, rejuvenated by fresh influences from the 
Orient, had still vitality to produce a new architecture on the 
shores of the Bosphorus, after Rome itself had fallen in 
decay. 

Forms of detail. In Greek architecture great attention 
was directed to the form of individual details, to those of 
the columnar systems, above all, and knowledge of these and 
their relations is correspondingly necessary for intelligent 
study of buildings. 

Doric forms. The Doric forms show a fixity in their main 
lines that is not less surprising than the incredibly painful 
experimentation by which the precise canonical relations were 
finally evolved (Fig. 19). The constant elements which dis- 
tinguish the style are the capital, with its cushion or echinus, 
its heavy, square projecting abacus; the frieze, interposed 
between cornice and architrave, with its alternation of re- 
cessed metopes and fluted triglyphs; and the muiules or 
hanging plates on the under side of the cornice. The shaft 
of the column tapered from bottom to top, diminishing a 
fifth to a third of its lower diameter, usually with a slight 
curve or swelling, called the entasis. The line of the shaft 
was emphasized by vertical flutings, normally twenty in 
number during the central period, meeting on a sharp edge 
or arris. Until after the Periclean age the column remained 
comparatively stout, ranging in height between four and six 
times its lower diameter. Such a massive support could rest 
directly on a platform without seeming to need a transition, 
and a separate molded base was, in fact, added only in a very 
few exceptional cases. A common base, or stylobate, was 
always furnished, however, by raising any Doric portico at 
least one step above its surroundings. 

Formal relationships in the Doric order. Critics have been 
unanimous in recognizing in the mature Doric system an 




F1G jg THE GREEK DORIC ORDER 



6o A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

organic whole of the most expressive character. Its prin- 
ciple consists, above all, in the masterly balance of the vertical 
and the horizontal tendencies established by the columns 
and the entablature, and in the management of the transition 
between them. The vertical "movement" of the fluted 
column is arrested, and the horizontal movement of the 
entablature is foreshadowed, by the horizontal abacus. 
This is itself prepared for by the spreading echinus with its 
encircling bands at the base, and by the incision creating a 
neck below. The vertical lines of the columns are again taken 
up by the triglyphs, less strongly emphasized, but twice as 
numerous; once more arrested by their little cap, and finally 
echoed in the low mutules, doubled to form almost a con- 
tinuous line, in* which the transition is completed. Even the 
guttcs or "drops" beneath the triglyphs and mutules 
thought to be descendants of pins in primitive wooden fram- 
ing have equally their function in the stone entablature. 
They are ultimate mediating elements between horizontal 
and vertical. 

Structural expressions in the Doric order. Coupled with all 
these purely spatial relationships are equally subtle expres- 
sions of structural functions. The echinus seems to give 
elastic support; the triglyphs to act as a series of posts bearing 
the cornice, with the metopes as filling-plates between. In 
many cases, to be sure, such members fulfilled these functions 
only in appearance. The projection of the capital was re- 
lieved of any actual load by a slightly raised surface over 
the shaft. Triglyphs and metopes, instead of being articulate, 
were often cut on a single block. It was the visual emphasis 
on structure which was valued. 

The problem of the angle. The inherent difficulty of the 
mature Greek Doric system appeared when it was used in a 
colonnade turning at right angles, such as the temple peristyle 
which was its principal application. Since the thickness of 
the column and the architrave was greater than the width of 
the triglyph, some adjustment was necessary to bring the 
triglyph at the corner of the frieze, where it was felt to be 
needed both as a structural expression and as a musical 
cadence. The problem was variously solved: by widening 
the metopes near the corner; by spacing the triglyphs equally 



Doric Entablature 
From Ihe Parthenon 




Doric Entablature 

Retranslated into wood construction 




FIG. 2O THE GREEK DORIC ORDER, WITH A RETRANSLATION INTO 
WOOD. (AFTER DURM) 



62 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

from one corner of the frieze to the other and abandoning 
exactitude of axial relation of columns and triglyphs ; by con- 
tracting the spacing of the corner columns; and by various 
combinations of these methods. The adjustments neces- 
sary were so complex that it may well have been from this 
cause that noted architects of the fourth century, familiar 
with the Athenian solutions, but preferring a simpler arrange- 
ment, stigmatized the Doric style as unfit for the building of 
temples. 

Doric origins. The origin of many forms has been sought 
in a wooden construction which was superseded by the one of 
stone. Elements apparently imitative of the ends of wooden 
beams occur in the entablature (Fig. 20). The complete 
absence of any fragments of entablature among the ruins of 
certain monuments leads to the conclusion that entablatures 
of wood, sometimes incased in terra-cotta, were indeed oc- 
casionally preserved throughout the classical period. Classic 
writers mention also wooden columns in some buildings, 
notably the temple of Hera at Olympia. Here the testimony 
is confirmed by the remains, which show columns of every 
period in the same building, presumably inserted one by one 
as the wooden columns decayed. Columns of wood, however, 
can scarcely have suggested the form of the massive Doric 
column. The wooden supports which it replaced must have 
been of some different proportions and detail, now uncertain. 
For the capital, at least, Mycenaean forms furnished the pro- 
totype (cf. Figs. 15 and 21), as they did for the plan of the 
temple and its early mode of construction. Only certain 
minor motives of ornament can have been derived from 
outside of Greece, and these were forms like the fret, or 
meander, current in most primitive art, which the Greeks 
may well have invented independently. 

Doric development. The substitution of stone for wood and 
terra-cotta did not at once produce the consistent normal 
arrangement which has already been described. A long de- 
velopment preceded the central moment, and continued after 
this moment was past. This development proceeded steadily 
toward higher organization in such technical matters as the 
jointing of the stones, such problems as those presented by 
the corner triglyph, the profiling of the capital, the membering 



GREEK ARCHITECTURE 63 

of the entablature, and the carrying through of a module or 
common divisor of the dimensions; but it left great local 
freedom in the choice of proportions. Such matters as the 
ratio of diameter to height in the column, of diameter to inter- 
columination, of lower diameter to upper diameter, which 
were formerly thought to have evolved uniformly in the 
direction of increasing slenderness, openness, and vertically, 
are now seen to vary far more according to local traditions 
which remained relatively stable, influenced in part by the 
building material available. The idea of a universal trend 
in matters of proportion was one arising from the greater 
number of early monuments preserved from regions and cities 
where heavy proportions prevailed, and from the number and 
prominence of later monuments from regions like Attica, with 
their slender columns of marble. The later temples of the 
west, however, kept the massiveness of their columns along 
with their coarser material; those of the east likewise show 
no positive tendency. 

Archaic period. During the archaic period the capital 
retained the wide and bulging echinus of its Mycenssan 
ancestor, as well as the hollow beneath (Fig. 21). The 
architrave was narrow, flush with the upper face of the 




T of Demeter at Paestum T at ;Egina Parthenon 

Drawn with upper diameters equal 



T at Nemea 



FIG. 21 PROFILES OF GREEK DORIC CAPITALS, ARRANGED IN CHRONO- 
LOGICAL ORDER 



column or even set back from it; the triglyphs were broad, 
with the result that corner triglyphs could still be nearly on 
the axes of the columns. The resulting metopes, however, 
were scanty, so that the mutules over them had often to be 
less broad than those over the triglyphs. Little attention 
was paid to the ordering of the stone joints, which were, 
to be sure, covered by the coating of stucco always used with 



64 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

the porous limestone then employed. The search for a 
module began certainly by the middle of the period, although 
it was still tentative. Architects hesitated between the 
lower diameter and the mean diameter of the columns for its 
unit, and employed an independent system for the frieze. 

Central period. With the central period the hollow of the 
capital disappeared and the echinus took on a steeper, hyper- 
bolic profile of the utmost subtlety. The architrave lost the 
narrowness reminiscent of wooden origins, but, in widening, 
made the problem of a corner triglyph a serious one. In the 
solution adopted, a contraction in the spacing of the columns 
at corners became universal. The entablature took on its 
normal form, and the stone-jointing, exposed when marble was 
used, became regular, bearing an organic relation to the 
architectural forms. A single module based on the mean 
diameter of the column seems to have been applied throughout 
the columnar system, including the entablature. 

Late period. The forms thus fully established in the fifth 
century suffered but little subsequent change. Except in the 
west, to be sure, the Doric style was almost abandoned by the 
middle of the fourth century. It is perhaps due to influence 
from Ionic forms that a late Doric example on the mainland, 
in the temple at Nemea, shows such slender proportions 
the height of the column six and one-half times its lower 
diameter. Late capitals generally lack the subtlety of line 
of the mature form; their echinus is either almost straight 
or rounded into a quadrant. 

Ionic forms. The characteristic features of the Ionic 
columnar system, the enduring elements of contrast with the 
Doric, are especially the volute capital, the molded base, and 
the cornice, with its blocks or dentils. Unlike the Doric 
capital, the Ionic projects on two sides only, in the direction 
of the architrave. A pair of spiral scrolls or volutes forms a 
seemingly resilient intermediate between shaft and load. In 
the more customary form which became universal, these 
volutes were united across the top by a band, resting on a 
circle of leaves which later took the form of an echinus deco- 
rated with "egg and dart." The abacus consisted only of a 
narrow molded band. The slender shaft of the Ionic column 
always received an individual base. Among many forms, 



GREEK ARCHITECTURE 65 

the most widely adopted in later times was the Attic base 
two convex moldings or toruses, with a hollow or scotia be- 
tween. The shaft itself ranged from seven and one-half to 
ten lower diameters in height, with a slight entasis, and with 
twenty-four flutes, normally separated by small, flat fillets. 
The architrave was divided into three faces, each projecting 
slightly over the one below. The typical cornice was dis- 
tinguished by a row of small projecting blocks, which took the 
name of dentils from their suggestion of teeth. When a 
frieze was introduced between architrave and cornice it had 
no subdivision into isolated panels like the metopes, and was 
usually decorated with a continuous band of sculpture. 

Formal relationships in the Ionic order. The Ionic system, 
especially in the examples without a frieze, presents a har- 
monization of horizontals and verticals analogous to that of the 
Doric order, though not carried into such fine detail. The 
dentils correspond both to triglyphs and mutules, and serve 
the artistic functions of both. The capital is in some respects 
even better fitted than the Doric for the task of carrying a 
transverse lintel, for its projections are limited to the sides 
where support appears to be needed. The difference between 
its faces creates a difficulty, however, when a corner is to be 
turned a difficulty no less real than that created in the Doric 
order by the triglyphs. The usual solution adopted was to 
place pairs of scrolls on the two adjacent exterior faces, mak- 
ing the corner on which they met project diagonally, and 
letting the rear faces intersect in the interior angle. 

Ionic origins. The Ionic structural forms seem to have 
followed wooden prototypes still more closely than the Doric, 
even in the column and the capital (Fig. 22). The columns 
are relatively very slender; their capitals suggest the saddle- 
piece still found in heavy wooden framing. Indeed the oldest 
capitals show a simple block, rounded at the lower corners, 
with scrolls merely painted on the faces. The beam-ends in 
the entablature are unmistakable. The decorative forms, 
among which the scrolls of the capital are the most note- 
worthy, can be traced to origins in the interior of Asia. 

Ionic development. The Ionic development, like the Doric, 
was less a change of proportions in a definite direction than a 
change of character. The exuberance of the early examples 



66 



A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



was transformed into sleekness, coherence, and elegance, 
simultaneously with the taking up of Doric elements. The 
volutes of the early capital were widely projecting, leaving 
the echinus below exposed for its full circumference; later 
they were drawn in and reduced in relative importance. 
The frieze was first introduced into the entablature by the 
Athenian architects of the time of Pericles, as a result partly 
of their desire for richer sculptured decoration, partly of their 



Ionic entablature translated into wood consl ruction 




FIG. 22 IONIC ENTABLATURE, RETRANSLATED INTO WOOD. (AFTER 

DURM) 



Doric training. With a fine appreciation of structural expres- 
sions as well as of artistic suitability they suppressed the dentils 
when they used the frieze, since these would have no longer 
come opposite the ceiling beams, and would have seemed to 
crush the delicate figure sculpture employed. Later archi- 
tects were not so scrupulous, and Hermogenes, who trans- 
planted the Athenian innovations to Asia in the third century, 
used heavy dentils over a frieze of small figures (Fig. 23). 
The final harmonization was reached in the great temple at 
Pidyma, where the frieze was brought into scale with the 



GREEK ARCHITECTURE 



67 




dentils by a repeating decoration of large Medusa-heads 
with garlands festooned between. 

Corinthian forms. The Corinthian forms did not compose 
in Greece a system completely distinct. They were essentially 
independent inventions, by which one or another of the 
traditional Doric 
or Ionic forms 
could be replaced, 
and which their 
common tendency 
to richness fitted 
for use in com- 
bination. Earliest 
and most char- 
acteristic was the 
capital, consisting 
essentially of an 
inverted bell, sur- 
rounded by rows of 
acanthus leaves, 
with pairs of scrolls 
or volutes support- 
ing the corners of 
the abacus. The 
example from 
Epidaurus (Fig. 
24) shows the type 
which later be- 
came normal, with 
two rows of eight 
leaves each, placed 
alternately, exe- 
cuted with a sharp- 
ness and delicacy in which Greek carving is seen at its best. 
Further elements which, through association, contributed to 
the development of a new order, were the curved frieze, and 
the cornice with supporting brackets consoles, or modillions, 
as they are called. The ripened product of this development 
had a harmonious luxuriance and an adaptability to varied 
uses which gave it the advantage over the Doric and Ionic 







FIG. 23 MAGNESIA. 
DETAILS. 



TEMPLE OF ARTEMIS. 

(HUMANN) 



68 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

forms. Here there was neither the problem of a corner 
triglyph nor that of an angle capital. 

Formal relationships in the Corinthian order. As in the 
Ionic examples in which a plain frieze reinforced the tendency 
of the architrave, vertical and horizontal lines were strongly 
opposed rather than blended, but the capital, by its bell and 




FIG. 24 EPIDAURUS. CORINTHIAN CAPITAL OF THE THOLOS 

silhouette, carried the line of the shaft over into the en- 
tablature in a way which was none the less adequate. 

Corinthian development. The name Corinthian comes from 
Vitruvius, who relates the famous myth of the invention of 
the capital by Callimachus at Corinth, on a suggestion from 
acanthus leaves growing about a basket, with tendrils curling 
beneath a tile laid over it. As a matter of fact, the earliest 
example preserved is the single capital employed by Iktinos 
at Bassse, about 420, inspired very possibly by the later loti- 
form capital of the Egyptians, with whom the Athenians were 
in close touch in the middle of the fifth century. At Bassa3 
the Corinthian column is simply a variant employed side by 
side with the Ionic, under the same entablature of Attic-Ionic 



GREEK ARCHITECTURE 



69 



form. At Epidaurus and elsewhere, in the fourth century, 
it was often employed independently for an interior colonnade, 
and in 334 it was used on an exterior for the first time we 
know, in the delicate Monument of Lysicrates in Athens 
(Fig. 25). The earliest building still preserved in which 
Corinthian ordonnance was employed throughout on large 
scale is again at 
Athens, the gi- 
gantic temple of 
Zeus, carried up 
in the second cen- 
tury B.C. on the 
foundations laid 
long before by 
Pisistratus. As 
the work was 
done at the 
charge of the 
Sele'ucid em- 
peror, Antiochus 
IV., it may well 
be questioned 
whether the lost 
monuments of 
Antioch may not 
have afforded still 
earlier examples 
of a monumental 
use of Corinthian 
forms. These 

reached their greatest vogue and highest development under 
such Hellenistic sovereigns and their successors the Romans. 

Figure supports. In exceptional cases figures of men or of 
women were used as supports Atlantes or caryatids, as they 
are called with rich and graceful results. This was notably 
so in the " Porch of the Maidens" of the Erechtheum at 
Athens (Fig. 18). 

Size and proportion of members of the columnar orders. 
The size of members in all the orders varied greatly without 
much affecting their form. Examples of all three occur in 




FIG. 25 ATHENS. MONUMENT OF LYSICRATES 



70 A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 

which the columns are over fifty feet in height, as well as 
others in which they are less than fifteen. The distance from 
axis to axis of the columns ranged from five feet two inches 
in the temple of Athena Nike to twenty-one feet nine inches 
in the temple of Apollo at Selinus. The relation between 
height and spacing was for the most part an arbitrary and 




FIG. 26 AKRAGAS. TEMPLE OF OLYMPIAN ZEUS. (RESTORED BY E. H. 
TRYSELL, AFTER KOLDEWEY) 

formal one, rather than a variable one determined by the 
ultimate bearing power of the materials. In temples, the 
spacing of Doric columns was in general about one-half their 
height, that of Ionic columns about one-third their height. 
If structural considerations had been dominant the length 
of the lintels would have remained more nearly fixed, and the 
ratios would have tended to vary inversely as the height of 
the columns. The proportions of architraves are likewise not 
strictly dependent on any statical law, though marble archi- 
traves, and late architraves generally, are relatively somewhat 
thinner than the early ones of coarse limestone. Doric 
architraves of the mature period, whether of stone or marble, 
have a height of about one-third of their length; Ionic archi- 



GREEK ARCHITECTURE 71 

traves of the Hellenistic period, about one-quarter. Among 
the other factors involved there would seem thus to have been 
an increasing structural boldness. The variety in the propor- 
tions of constructive forms of different orders, the identity 
of proportions in the same order at different scales, are inr 
dications, however, of a wide margin of safety, a habitual 
generosity of strength. 

Walls. Aside from the employment of the column with its 
rich apparatus, Greek buildings were simple almost to bareness. 
The Greeks ordinarily applied no relief ornament to walls, 
but gained their effect by the regular jointing of finely coursed 
masonry. Smooth-faced blocks were used for the best work; 
but in heavy walls blocks dressed only at the edges, or with 
the joints emphasized by marginal draftings, were employed, 
a practice increasing as time went on. In cases where a wall 
and a colonnade were fused, with the columns attached or 
engaged to the wall, as in the west facade of the Erechtheum 
(Fig. 1 8) or the "Temple of the Giants" at Akragas (Fig. 26), 
this was usually due to exceptional causes, which over- 
balanced the Greek tendency toward simplicity of structural 
expression. Where the end of a wall had to support an 
architrave it was treated as a special member, the anta, with 
its own capital and base, differing from those of the column. 

Moldings. The base and the crown of the wall, the transi- 
tion between horizontal and vertical, were emphasized and 
rendered less abrupt by special members, ranging from a 
simple vertical plinth or fascia to an elaborate suite of carved 
moldings. These moldings (Fig. 27), of which we have 
already seen examples in the Doric echinus and the Ionic base, 
are among the most enduring of Greek creations. Based 
on the simple and universal forms of the convex, concave, 
and reverse curves, they attained distinction by subtle variety 
of contour, never following an obvious circular arc, and by 
judicious selection for the different functions of crowning, 
support, and footing. A characteristic instance is the em- 
ployment of the reverse curve, or cyma. The cyma recta, 
in which the thin concave portion projects, was ordinarily 
used only as a free crowning feature; whereas the curve in 
its other position, the cyma reversa, was used when strength 
was required. For the base of the wall in Doric buildings, a 

4 



A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 






:YMA 





high course of stones standing vertically, with a projecting 
plinth below, was used; in Ionic buildings, molded bases 
analogous to those of the antse, having as their most frequent 
constituents a torus or a reversed cyma, and a plinth. For 
the support of projecting beams or cornices the Doric builders 

used a characteristic 
hooked beak-molding, 
the Ionic builders the 
ovolo like the 
echinus in profile or 
the cyma reyersa. 
Richer combinations 
show a studied flow 
and contrast of line, 
punctuated by narrow 
flat fillets or half- 
round beads. 

Ornament. Empha- 
sis on the structural 
anatomy was also 

C^ v \tu-U % gained by carving and 

I painting. These were 
usually confined to 
restricted fields, as in 
the Doric and Ionic 
friezes, contrasting 
with the simplicity of 
the wall surfaces. 
Moldings themselves 
FIG. 27 GREEK AND ROMAN MOLDINGS. were thus enriched by 
(REYNAUD) painting in the Doric 

order, by carving, re- 
inforced by color, in the Ionic marble. The greatest judg- 
ment was exercised in the selection of motives of orna- 
mentation to accentuate rather than disguise the form of 
surface to which they were applied. Thus the fret, with its 
severe rectangularity, was reserved for flat bands. Curved 
moldings were decorated with motives having lines which 
were parallel or perpendicular to elements of the surface, or 
which repeated its profile the egg and dart for the ovolo, a 




7'ORUS 



FASCIA 



GREEK ARCHITECTURE 73 

heart-shaped leaf for the cyma reversa thus harmonizing 
from every point of view. 

Doors. Doors and windows were always square-headed 
when used monumentally in mature Greek times. They had 
their jambs sometimes vertical, but frequently inclined some- 
what inward, a device recognized by Hellenistic architects as 
increasing the apparent height. Important openings were em- 
phasized by a casing of bronze, or by projecting moldings 
similar to those of an Ionic architrave. These were carried 
not merely across the top, but down the sides as well, or even, 
in the case of windows, completely around. The ear, pro- 
duced by making the lintel project beyond the jambs, was a 
characteristic instance of Greek structural emphasis. 

Arches and vaults. In less highly finished constructions, 
such as town walls and substructures, corbelled arches and, 
later, true arches were often used. The oldest arched gate- 
ways preserved, in Acarnania, do not date before the fifth 
century. In the fourth century the barrel vault was used for 
certain subterranean tomb chambers. In the second cen- 
tury, among a number of vaults at Pergamon, occurs an 
arched bridge of the bold span of twenty-seven feet. Thus 
the arch, which was scarcely an element of Greek architecture 
in its first prime, was handled in Hellenistic times with 
steadily increasing technical mastery. 

Ceilings, roofs, gables, acroteria. The roofs of Greek build- 
ings were of tile, supported by wooden beams, which usually 
rested on intermediate walls or columns. A knowledge of 
the truss is not proved. In most cases the beams must have 
remained visible from below, though in some examples wooden 
ceilings with panels or coffers are possible. Where marble was 
at command its strength made stone ceilings over the temple 
porticos technically possible. In the north porch of the 
Erechtheum there are marble beams twenty feet in length. 
The gable roof, traditional from Mycenaean days, was usual; 
hip-roofs, with four slopes, were rare. The gables formed tri- 
angular pediments, with the cornice carried up the slope, and 
its members, except the crowning cyma, or gutter, running 
across horizontally also. The pediments were often filled with 
sculpture in relief or in the round, and the corners of the gable 
were accentuated by sculptured ornaments called acroteria. 



74 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Larger elements of composition. In the larger elements of 
composition Greek architecture showed the same conservatism 
as in the details. At the basis of the chief national forms lay 
the megaron, which remained the essential element of the 
Greek house after the Dorian invasion, as it had been in 
Mycenaean times. The long, narrow hall, either with a single 
nave or divided by longitudinal ranges of columns into two 
or three aisles, remained the most characteristic element of 
Greek plans, capable of varied applications. It was em- 
ployed for the temple, for the stoa, the most typical of 
Greek secular buildings, and commonly for any buildings 
which might be required for extraordinary purposes, such as 
the Athenian arsenal at the Piraeus. During the periods of 
native development the model was scarcely abandoned except 
under compulsion, in cases when it would have had disad- 
vantages too serious to be overlooked. Such cases occurred 
when a large company were to assist at a spectacle, as in cer- 
tain halls of mysteries, the theater, and the odeion, the forms 
of which were suggested directly by the practical require- 
ments. The exterior peristyle, a continuous enveloping colon- 
nade first adopted in the temples (Fig. 28), was the most 
striking element of exterior effect, finding later applications 
in tombs and monuments. The peristylar court and the 
square hall with an interior peristyle essentially Oriental 
motives became acclimated in Greece in Hellenistic times. 

Types of buildings. As the first people of democratic 
institutions, intellectual freedom, and athletic life, the 
Greeks first met and solved the architectural problems which 
these involve, creating the council-house, the theater, the 
stadium, and other persistent European types. Private 
life was relatively subordinate and domestic architecture 
was simple. Sepulchral monuments, in the best Greek 
time, were modest works of sculpture. All the resources 
of the state during its prime were lavished on the public 
buildings, above all, on the temples, the centers of civic 
life. Rising perhaps on the very site of a Mycenaean palace, 
the temple, open to every citizen, symbolized the new 
social order with its rich consequences for art. 

Religious buildings. The forms of the religious buildings 
were in part conditioned by the nature of the Greek cults, 



GREEK ARCHITECTURE 



75 



in part by traditions of primitive origin. In the worship 
of the chief gods, such as Zeus, Apollo, Athena, and Artemis, 
the principal ceremony was a sacrifice performed, not in a 
closed room, but on a great altar in the open air. A sanc- 
tuary of relatively small size sufficed for the house of the god, 
giving shelter to an image and to the more perishable or 




FIG. 28 P^ESTUM. THE GREAT TEMPLE, SO-CALLED "TEMPLE OF 
NEPTUNE." (CHIPIEZ) 

more valuable offerings. Though almost always open to 
the people, it was not intended for the assemblage of devo- 
tees. In the worship of certain infernal gods the ceremonies 
were performed behind closed doors, but in most of these 
mystery-cults the number of the initiated was small. 

The temple: essential elements. Under these circum- 
stances there was usually no difficulty in adopting the form 



76 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

of the house, the deep and narrow rectangular megaron, as 
the fundamental element of the temple namely, the cella 
or naos (Fig. 29 [i]). This was normally either undivided 
or divided into a central nave and narrow side aisles. 
Usually the cella was preceded by a vestibule or pronaos, 
with columns in antis (Fig. 29 [3], [6], etc.); less often it 
had a closed vestibule (Fig. 29 [i], [2], [5]) or none at all. 

The temple: normal form. Though this simple form alone 
sufficed for temples of minor importance, the type which 
became normal (Fig. 28) was elaborated by the addition 
of two other elements. The opisthodomos (Fig. 29 [6], [.8]) 
an addition at the rear corresponding to the pronaos, but 
ordinarily not communicating with the cella was obviously 
introduced in the interest of formal balance. The peristyle, 
a colonnade completely surrounding the ensemble so far 
described (Fig. 29 [5]-[8]), had no practical function suf- 
ficiently important to account for its origin. The origin 
should perhaps be sought in an open canopy supported by 
columns, like that over the early Christian altar. This may 
well have sufficed at first to shelter the image, and then 
have been magnified to cover an inclosing cell. Certain it 
is that in the temples of Doric style, in which the arrange- 
ment seems to have originated, the peristyle had an almost 
accidental connection with the cella. Although in front it 
had generally one column to correspond to each of the sup- 
ports behind, these columns stood in no exact relationship 
of position either to the walls or to the columns of the 
pronaos. 

The temple: other features. Other elements occasionally 
appeared in the temple, not limited to any special region 
or period. There might be an inner room of special sanc- 
tity, the adyton, housing the image and opening toward the 
cella (Fig. 29 [i], [2], [5]). A room similarly placed, but 
opening to the rear, was introduced in several temples, 
notably the Parthenon, to serve as a treasury under the pro- 
tection of the god. Intermediate between the simple cella 
and the peristylar temple were the prostyle temple, with 
columns running across the front, and the amphiprostyle 
form, where they were repeated at the rear as well. These 
were sometimes used as the best substitute for the peristylar 





. 


4 








1!! ^ III 6 


C 


F * * 


^ 




i 











i 






1 


T" T * ^ 








i 
I 


FIG. 29 VARIET 








j 


i 




1^^ 


> 

> 


|h 


j ^ 








M 
CO 



H 

n 
H 






K, 


] 

s> 


GREEK TEMPLE 




* 


j 


; 


PLANS OF GREEK TEMPLES 

<i>Selinus Me^aron of Demeter C.59ODC 
<2iLocri Primiiive cella C.575BC. 
c3>Rhamnus Temple oT Themis C.5OORC 
c4>Alhens Temple of Athena Nike C.435D.C 
c5>5elinus Temple "C" C.57OB.C.. 
<.6>Olympid Temple of Zeus C.470D.C. 
c7)Faeslum 5o called 'Ba.3iUca' c 57ODC. 
c8)MevQnesm Tern pie of Artemis c 22OB.C 






3 

a* 










* 




1... i . . 
... i . . 







78 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

arrangement when a rich effect was desired in a narrow 
space, as in the precinct of Athena Nike on the Acropolis 
at Athens (Fig. 29 [4]). 

The outer wall or colonnade of the temple was supported 
on a massive substructure, in the form of steps, three being 
the most common number (Fig. 28). These steps, propor- 
tioned to the size of the temple, were often too high to be 
climbed, and this necessitated a special flight of practicable 
steps or a ramp opposite the entrance (Fig. 26). Cella 
and peristyle together were covered by a simple gable roof, 
the gables or pediments serving as appropriate fields for 
sculptured decoration (Fig. 17). The temple was usually 
lighted only through its great door at the east, although a 
few Ionic temples, like the Erechtheum, certainly had 
windows as well (Fig. 18). Some others are known to have 
been "hypaethral," or without a roof over the cella, but 
this is now thought to have been due to incompleteness or 
to difficulties in the construction. 

The temple: size, proportions. In frontage few temples 
exceeded eighty to one hundred feet, although a half-dozen 
giants form a class by themselves with dimensions nearly 
equal, about one hundred and sixty by three hundred and 
fifty feet. Some peristylar temples are as narrow as forty- 
five or even thirty-five feet, while the temples without a 
peristyle, like the temple of Athena Nike, are sometimes 
but twenty feet or less. The normal "hexastyle" Doric 
fagade, of six columns, itself showed the most surprising 
elasticity; the Metroon with a width of thirty-four feet, 
and the temple of Zeus, with ninety-one feet, stand side by 
side at Olympia a disregard for relations of scale which 
was very characteristic of Greek architecture. Beyond one 
hundred feet the number of columns had to be multiplied, 
reaching eight in the Parthenon and in the great temple of 
Selinus, and ten in the Ionic temple of Apollo at Didyma. 
Even the smaller late Ionic temples have eight columns on 
the front on account of the width of their outer corridors. 
The length of the peristylar temples varied from a little 
more than twice the width to a little less than three times, 
no chronological tendency being traceable in this propor- 
tion. The ratio between the number of columns on the 



GREEK ARCHITECTURE 79 

flank and on the front also varied according to no general 
law, though such high ratios as 6 117 and 6 : 16 occur only 
in the oldest Doric temples, and the low ratio of 6 : n 
only in the most recent. The height of the temple facade 
usually ranged about half its width more for the temples 
with six columns, and less for those with more than six- 
more in any case for the Ionic than for the Doric. 

Development of the temple: archaic period. In the early 
stages of the development of the temple there was much 
local variety, not only in the columnar system, but in the 
general arrangement. In Greece proper the oldest temples 
of which the plans can be studied the Heraion at Olympia 
from before 700 B.C., the temple at Corinth from before 600 
already show the opisthodomos and the triple division 
of the interior, as well as the contraction of the corners of 
the Doric peristyle. In other parts of Hellas, however, 
many less sophisticated forms occur even at a much later 
time, which may well represent a more primitive stage of 
development adhered to through provincial conservatism. 
Early temples in Ionic regions frequently lacked the 
peristyle, which seems to have been developed in the 
mother country after the Ionian emigration, and to have 
been carried over afterward into Asia. Such great monu- 
ments as the archaic Artemision at Ephesus and the temple 
of Hera at Samos, both built in the sixth century, show the 
elaboration which the peristyle soon received on Ionic soil. 
In the colonies of the West, though they were founded later, 
the single-ended cella prevailed till the fifth century, and 
the problems of the peristyle were solved somewhat clumsily. 
A sharp difference in the diameter and in the spacing of the 
columns of the front and of the flank, sometimes found in the 
mother country, was here the rule during the archaic period; 
and the normal solution with sides and front spaced alike, 
and a contraction at the corners due to the triglyphs, does 
not come in until its close. In several outlying regions 
temples occur with the cella divided into two aisles by a 
single line of columns (Fig. 29 [2], [7]) obviously a more 
primitive device to support the ridge over a wide span than 
the division by two lines (Fig. 29 [6], [8]) which commended 
itself to more expert constructors as leaving an axial place 



8o A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

for the image. This latter arrangement appears very rarely 
in the West, most of the cellas there being undivided. 

Local traditions in temple design. An extreme instance of 
adherence to local traditions can be seen at Selinus, the out- 
post of Greece in western Sicily. Here were two primitive 
closed megarons, each with its adyton; and no less than 
seven peristylar temples in which the adyton is preserved, 
in three of them even after they had otherwise become com- 
pletely assimilated to the normal type. Two of the seven 
retained the closed vestibule as well, and all of the four 
archaic ones had an elaboration of the entrance front, 
either by a second transverse line of columns or by a 
prostyle development of the cella, which has few examples 
elsewhere. Partly as a result of this multiplication of 
features, the temples were all beyond the average propor- 
tion in length. Excepting one of the megaron-cellas which 
had a single division, only the gigantic temple of Apollo 
had interior colonnades. 

Temples of the central period. The fifth century saw the 
victory of the normal Doric arrangement for all peristylar 
temples. A pronaos and an opisthodomos in antis, a cella 
undivided or with three aisles, were everywhere adopted. 
The plans of the temple of Zeus at Olympia, the great 
temple at Paestum in southern Italy, and the little temple at 
^Egina off the coast of Attica, all three-aisled, are distin- 
guishable only by minor details. The same holds even 
more strongly for the temples with a single nave, such as 
the later temples at Akragas and the so-called Theseum at 
Athens. The great temple at Paestum is well enough pre- 
served to permit a reconstruction of substantially all its 
parts (Fig. 28). The interior colonnades, as in other con- 
temporary temples, were made by superposing two ranges 
of small columns. The lower range was united merely 
with an architrave, and the columns of the upper range con- 
tinued the taper of those below. 

Athens. The Athenian architects of the second half of 
the century began a series of unexampled innovations 
which, after raising the Doric temple to its greatest richness, 
ultimately set the Ionic in its place. With Pericles as the 
leader of the democracy, and the great sculptor Phidias in 




FIG. 30 ATHENS. PLAN OF THE ACROPOLIS. (KAUPERT) 



(i) Theater of Dionysus (19) Temple of Athena Nike 

(9) Stoa of Eumenes (20) Propylaea 

(10) Odeion of Herodes Atticus (28) Parthenon 



(39) Old Temple of Athena 

(40) Erechtheum 



82 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

the r61e of a minister of public works, the most cosmopolitan 
city in Greece infused new life into the temple form just 
as it was stiffening into a formula. The elements intro- 
duced were not from Ionia only. They include features 
directly reminiscent of Egypt the fruit perhaps of the 
Athenian expedition to Egypt in 454 as well as others 
essentially new. 

The Parthenon. The Parthenon (Figs. 16 and 17), which 
superseded a more conventional temple projected before 
the Persian wars, was designed by Iktinos and Kallikrates, 
and erected between 447 and 432. It had an exceptionally 
wide cella (Fig. 30 [28]) to give space for the colossal statue 
of Athena by Phidias. The interior colonnades of the cella 
were turned across behind the image, making the first 
peristylar hall in Greece. In the rear chamber the super- 
posed Doric ranges were replaced by Ionic columns, the 
greater relative height of which enabled a single support 
to reach the roof without too great diameter. On the ex- 
terior the Doric order was retained, with prostyle porticoes 
of six columns for pronaos and opisthodomos, and a peri- 
style of eight by seventeen columns. The use of marble 
made possible a ceiling of coffered stone, instead of wood, 
over the vestibules and outer corridors, and a richness of 
sculptured decoration hitherto unknown. 

Architectural refinements. A subtle upward curvature of 
the stylobate, early employed in the Heraion at Olympia 
and the temple at Corinth, was used in the Parthenon and 
in the smaller temple known as the Theseum, as part of 
an elaborate series of modifications in the horizontal and 
vertical members. The lines of the entablature were also 
curved upward in the center, as well as inward in plan. 
The columns were inclined backward toward the walls of 
the cella, those at the corner sloping diagonally. The 
walls themselves inclined, in sympathy with the pyramidal 
effect of the whole. The corner columns were,, moreover, 
slightly thicker than the others, giving a definite end to 
the colonnade. All these variations although very slight, 
like the entasis sufficed to recognize in the most delicate 
way every possibility of finer organization, and to give 
the work of art something of the character of a living thing. 



GREEK ARCHITECTURE 83 

Temple of Athena Nike. In the later temples of the 
Acropolis the Doric order was abandoned completely for 
the Ionic, which had newly become familiar. The first 
of these was the little temple of Athena Nik, the so- 
called "Temple of the Wingless Victory," built about 
435 by Kallikrates on the southwest bastion. It has a 
shallow cella with prostyle porticoes of four columns at 
each end (Fig. 30 [19]). Although it is the smallest of 
all Greek temples, its magnificent situation, its harmony 
of proportion with the substructure, its perfection of de- 
tail, enable it to hold its own worthily with its great 
neighbors. 

The Erechtheum. Another Ionic temple, dedicated to 
Athena and Erechtheus (Fig. 18), was built at intervals 
from 435 to 404 to take the place of the old temple north 
of the Parthenon. It was irregular in plan, corresponding 
to the variety of cults which it sheltered and the unevenness 
of the ground on which it stood (Fig. 30 [40]). It had a 
cella with a prostyle portico of six columns on the east, 
minor porches to north and south, and a wall with engaged 
columns on the west. In the famous Porch of the Maidens 
to the south, the sculptured supports show a masterly 
adaptation to their architectural functions. The six 
figures, four in front, stand all with their backs to the 
building. They rest easily on one foot, with the supporting 
leg, always the one on the outside, enveloped in vertical 
folds of drapery which serve the same artistic function as 
the flutes of a column. In the North Porch is the richest 
of all Ionic capitals, having a double spiral, and a carved 
necking of honeysuckle, or anthemion. The superb north 
doorway with its molded architrave enriched by carved 
rosettes is another striking feature. The columns of the 
north and west rise from levels different from the features 
of the east and south. The north portico, moreover, pro- 
jects beyond the corner of the cella, and includes a door to 
the sacred inclosure west of the building. Although the 
junctions show some lack of facility, the very attempt to 
combine a variety of forms in a building for complex uses 
was a novelty. The features evolved in the course of the 
attempt, such as the portico or porch used independently 



8 4 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

of the main facade, became favorite devices in the sub- 
sequent development of architecture. 

The temple at Basses. Beyond the borders of Attica, 
Iktinos was employed about 420 to design the temple of 
Apollo at.Bassae in the Arcadian mountains. It surpassed 
even the buildings of his native city in the novelty of its 
arrangements. Not only were both the Doric and the 
Ionic orders used, but for the first time that we know the 
rich Corinthian appeared as a third. The Ionic order was 
used for the interior of the cella, with columns the full 
height of the room, as it had been used in the treasury of the 
Parthenon. A change from free-standing columns to en- 
gaged columns in the interior was also begun, by attaching 
the columns to the wall by short cross walls. The Ionic 
capitals themselves are unlike any previously seen in Greece. 
They have volutes on all three exposed faces, permitting the 
colonnade to be turned across the cella without requiring 
a special corner capital. The nearest prototypes for the 
form of their volutes are in certain Egyptian scrolls. Egyp- 
tian models may also have suggested the single Corinthian 
capital, which crowns a column at the end of the cella 
under the same entablature with the Ionic columns. 

Sculptured decoration in Athenian temple design. The 
fifth-century Athenian temples also set new precedents in 
richness of sculptural features and in modes of introducing 
them. Hitherto decoration by figure sculpture had scarcely 
been employed, in Doric temples, except in the triangular 
fields of the two pediments, and in the series of metopes on 
the ends. The characteristic mode of decoration for Ionic 
buildings had been by continuous bands or friezes of 
figures, running around the external wall of the cella or 
its substructure. Now, in the design of the Parthenon, all 
the metopes of the external Doric order were filled with 
sculpture, and a continuous Ionic frieze was added around 
the cella just below the ceiling of the peristyle. In the 
Ionic temple of Athena Nike with its prostyle arrangement, 
whereby, cella and portico were united by a single cornice, 
Kallikrates did not confine the sculptured frieze to the 
cella, but carried it along above the architraves of the two 
porticoes. This first use of a sculptured frieze in the en- 



GREEK ARCHITECTURE 85 

tablature of the Ionic order, immediately followed by a 
similar use in the Erechtheum and in the interior of the 
temple at Bassae, soon influenced all current practice. 

Fourth-century temples. The revolutionary designs of the 
Athenian architects did not produce an instant or complete 
reformation in the temple elsewhere. The temples of the 
West remained little affected by them. At Segesta, and 
in the great temple at Paestum, built soon after 430, curva- 
tures and inclinations analogous to those of the Parthenon 
occur, but the Ionic order found no favor, even for in- 
teriors. In continental Greece the universal adoption of 
marble resulted in the use of stone ceilings for the peristyle, 
and of general proportions similar to those of the Attic 
buildings. The sculptor Skopas, in the temple of Athena 
Alea at Tegea, followed the lead of Iktinos by employing 
both the Ionic and the Corinthian columns as well as the 
Doric. The principal use of these, however, was in the 
new circular temples, or tholoi at Epidaurus, Olympia, and 
Delphi. 

Late temples in Ionia. The great temples of the Ionian 
renaissance naturally reverted to the early national types 
represented by the temple of Hera at Samos and the Arte- 
mision at Ephesus. With eight and sometimes ten columns 
on the front, they had two rows along the sides or else a 
width of corridor which would have sufficed for two (Fig. 29 
[8]). The columns were aligned with the antae both on front 
and sides, making possible a regularity in the ceiling beams 
which had never been attained in Doric temples. The 
curvature of the stylobate was taken over from Doric 
buildings in the Ionic temples of Priene and Pergamon; 
the use of half columns of Corinthian order for the interior 
of the cella was adopted in the temple of Apollo at Didyma. 
An element increasingly used was the podium or pedestal 
for the whole structure, with base and crowning moldings, 
which tended to take the place of the stylobate. 

Mystery temples. The hall-temples of cults which included 
initiation into certain mysteries were multiplied chiefly during 
the late period, though a few examples have come down from 
a much earlier time. For some of these, the conventional 
megaron-cella sufficed, either undivided or with longitudinal 



86 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

colonnades as at Samothrace. The peristyle could also be 
appropriated to mystic uses by the building of screen walls 
between the columns for a part of the height, as in one of the 
temples at Selinus. From this it was but a step to the 
arrangement of the Olympieum at Akragas, in which these 
screens were carried the full height, and the cella thus extended 
to the outer engaged colonnade (Fig. 26). The huge size of 
this temple and the consequent desire for an intermediate 
support, furnished by colossal male figures between the 
columns, may have been responsible for this complete closing of 
the peristyle. For the great hall of mysteries at Eleusis-, the 
traditional temple scheme was already abandoned in the time 
of Pisistratus for one which gave a greater capacity and a 
view of the ceremonies from all sides. A square room divided 
by seven rows of columns in each direction, with tiers of seats 
about the walls, served to house a large number of spectators, 
though the forest of columns left most of them but scant 
glimpses of the central space. 

Altars. The sacrificial altars before the great temples, at 
first of relatively small size, became, in Hellenistic times, 
monumental constructions, surpassing the temples them- 
selves in area and magnificence. In essence they comprised 
a platform for the sacrificants and a raised hearth above this 
for the burning of the offering. Especially noteworthy were 
the altars at Parion, over six hundred feet on a side, at Syra- 
cuse, almost the same distance in length, and at Pergamon, 
with a sculptured podium and a U-shaped Ionic colonnade 
surrounding the platform of sacrifice. 

Treasuries. In the pan-Hellenic religious centers the 
temple cellas could not hold a tithe of the offerings showered 
upon the gods, and the practice early grew up of erecting 
individual treasuries in which the gifts of each city might be 
deposited. These took the form of small temples, usually 
with two columns in antis, although occasionally prostyle. 
Each bore the stylistic impress of its city and of its time of 
origin. Ranged on their terrace at Olympia, or picturesquely 
disposed along the winding sacred way at Delphi (Fig. 35), 
they were among the most interesting features of the national 
sanctuaries. 

Temple inclosures, propyl&a. Monumental gateways, or 



GREEK ARCHITECTURE 87 

propylaea, with porticoes inside and out, gave access to the 
temple inclosures, and stoas for the shelter of pilgrms ran 
along the inner face of the walls. A fusion of these elements, 
unprecedented in its unified complexity, was attempted by 
Mnesicles in the propylaea of the Athenian acropolis (437- 
432). Though religious conservatism prevented the complete 
realization of his design, the part still standing shows its 
monumental qualities (Fig. 30 [20]). The greater temple 
precincts, often with many temples and altars, with groves 
of olive and ilex, with a forest of statues and ex-votos, formed 
ensembles -of grandiose effect (Fig. 35). 

Civil buildings. Special buildings for civil purposes were 
evolved relatively late in Greece, where assemblage in the 
open air was feasible, and where the temples served many 
civic functions. The most universal of the forms employed 
was the stoa, a long narrow hall like the megaron or the 
temple cella, but, unlike the cella, having an open colonnade 
in place of one of the side walls. In the varied uses of the stoa 
as shelter, market, and exchange, subdivision by a single 
range of columns did not present the same artistic and practical 
disadvantages as in the temple, and it remained the most usual 
interior arrangement. Stoas with a triple division, or in two 
stories, however, were not uncommon. Doric columns 
carrying stone architraves usually formed the outer colonnade ; 
Ionic columns taller and less closely spaced supported the 
wooden beams of the roof. In two-storied stoas the Ionic 
order was placed above the Doric, each having its full 
entablature. 

Agora. The agora, or market-place, originally serving po- 
litical functions also, was an open place of no fixed form, bor- 
dered on one or more sides by stoas. It was frequently placed 
in the angle of two principal streets, which passed through it 
along the sides. The several stoas were thus at first inde- 
pendent. Only in later days, in Ionia, was a closed area of 
regular plan with continupus surrounding colonnades adopted, 
following the Oriental type of a peristylar court. The agoras 
at Megalopolis, at Priene (Fig. 36), and at Magnesia (Fig. 31) 
show successive steps in this process of higher organization. 
Frequent adjuncts to the agora were shops at the back of the 
porticoes, and a temple or fountain in the central space; 



GREEK ARCHITECTURE 89 

near it were the bouleuterion or council-house and the other 
civic buildings * Often subsidiary markets for the sale of 
special classes of goods supplemented the principal agora. 

Council-houses. The bouleuterion, like so many other 
Greek buildings, was in origin a megaron. In the one at 
Olympia the older portion even conserved the primitive form 
of house, with an apsidal end and a single longitudinal 
colonnade. Later examples, such as the Phokikon at Daulis, 
were like the mature cella in having two rows of columns. 
Banks of seats were added between them and the lateral 
walls. The problem was essentially similar to that of the 
mystery temples and led ultimately, as in them, to abandon- 
ment of a longitudinal scheme and adoption of a concentric 
arrangement of seats facing a speaker's platform. At Priene, 
in the second or third century B.C., the seats paralleled three 
walls and the roof was carried by an interior peristyle a 
solution unified and technically satisfactory. At Miletus the 
seats were made semicircular, on the model of a theater, 
though the building itself was rectangular and the interior 
supports bore no relation to the seating plan. A monumental 
court and propylaea were added. None of these buildings 
accommodated more than a few hundred at most. A special 
problem was presented by the hall of the Arcadians at 
Megalopolis where several thousand were to be housed. The 
architect adopted a series of concentric colonnades and seats 
about three sides, but avoided obstructing 'the view as badly 
as in the hall of mysteries at Eleusis by placing the columns 
in lines radiating from the central point. The roof was of 
course of wood, and the solution, though practically satis- 
factory, was neither permanent nor monumental. 

Theaters. The Greek theater was a natural growth, corre- 
sponding to the growth of the drama from the primitive cult 
of Dionysus. The choral songs and dances from which the 
drama took its departure preserved their place in the ' later 
development, and were responsible for the importance of 
the original element of the theater the orchestra, or circle 
of the dance, in the center of which stood the altar. The 
other ultimate elements were the seats rising in concave tiers, 
the skene, opposite them, containing the dressing-rooms for 
the participants, and the proskenion, a platform before the 



90 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

skene, on which certain of the actors, or all of them, made their 
appearance. An early stage of development may be surmised 
in which a convenient hillside served for the auditorium, at 
first without any architectural features, later with seats of 
wood. In the fifth century, coincident with the dramatic 
reforms of ^Eschylus, the skene was introduced. In the 
time of Sophocles it still remained of wood with walls of 
painted canvas. Before long, however, monumental materials 
were substituted, and the elements were elaborated into the 
theater of the fourth century, which remained much the same 




FIG. 32 EPHESUS. THEATER DURING THE HELLENISTIC PERIOD. 
(RESTORED BY FIECHTER) 



in Hellenistic days. Even then the components were but 
loosely juxtaposed, not welded into a single unit. Greek 
modes of design were too naive to seek the union of parts 
having forms and functions so distinct. 

A typical Hellenistic theater. The theater at Ephesus 
(Fig. 32) shows the form which became customary in the later 
Hellenistic period. The orchestra was still laid out so as to 
include a complete circle, although the circle itself was no 
longer marked with a curbing, as in earlier examples. Around 
it were the stone seats, occupying somewhat more than a 



GREEK ARCHITECTURE 91 

semicircle, and resting directly on the hillside. They were 
divided concentrically at half their height by a passage, as 
well as radially by flights of steps, and were stopped at the 
sides by oblique walls. Between these and the buildings of 
the stage were passages for the entrance of the spectators and 
for the chorus when it was supposed to come from a distance. 
Tangent to the orchestra, opposite the auditorium, was the 
proskenion, about ten feet high, with small engaged columns, 
three doors for the entrance and exit of the chorus, and the 
remaining openings closed by wooden panels. The skene 
itself was a long narrow building, two stories high, with a 
series of large openings in the side toward the proskenion, 
three of them containing doors. The large openings, which 
in earlier days had framed somewhat naturalistic stage settings, 
were now given a more conventional filling of slender columns, 
the ancestors of the grouped decorative columns of the Roman 
stage backgrounds (cf. Fig. 47). 

Variety in theater designs. In other examples there was 
abundant variety. The site available did not always permit 
the auditorium to be regularly geometrical as at Ephesus; 
it was frequently irregular in its outer boundary and some- 
times in the layout of the seats themselves. The conformation 
of the ground often permitted subordinate entrances to the 
intermediate circular passage. Seats of honor might be 
provided about the orchestra, like the beautiful marble thrones 
of the theater of Dionysus at Athens. A stoa in which people 
could seek shelter, or promenade, might also be added some- 
where in the neighborhood of the skene. 

Size of theaters. In accommodation these open-air theaters 
far exceeded the theaters of modern times. At Athens there 
was room for 30,000 spectators; at Megalopolis for 44,000. 
Those in the rear rows were also much farther from the 
actors, but, in compensation, saw them from a lower angle 
than those in our upper galleries. The diameter of the 
auditorium ranged from two hundred to five hundred feet. 

Odeions. Related to the theater both in purpose and in 
the step-like arrangement of the auditorium was the odeion, 
a covered building for musical and oratorical contests. The 
first of the sort was the one built by Pericles in Athens. It 
seems to have had a conical roof, with interior supports. In 



92 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Graeco-Roman times buildings for such purposes became 
customary in cities of any considerable size. The smaller 
ones were rectangular, with curving stepped seats like a 
modern lecture or recital hall ; the larger ones were essentially 
covered Roman theaters, the most famous being the odeion 
built by Herodes Atticus against the Acropolis at Athens, in 
the second century after Christ (Fig. 30 [10]). 

Stadions. The athleticism of the Greeks did not fail to create 
its share of their monumental architecture. For foot-races 
the stadion was evolved, taking its name from the Greek 
furlong. It was laid out where the topography favored, with 
seats sometimes in a single bank, but preferably in two long 
parallel banks close together, connected by a semicircle. 
Where necessary the seats were built up artificially, either by 
walls or by mounds of earth, as at Olympia. Seats of stone 
or marble were a late addition, at Athens not until Roman 
times. The capacity varied from twelve thousand to fifty 
thousand. Hippodromes were also laid out on a similar plan 
but with a wide turn. Means scarcely sufficed for executing 
these in monumental materials during Greek times. The 
division in the center of the course remained a simple bank 
of earth, the starting barriers of wood. 

Other athletic buildings. The gymnasium and the pal&stra 
served for general exercise and preparation for the great games. 
Originally, and in strictness, the palaestra was the place for 
boxing and wrestling, but the two terms are often used inter- 
changeably. In primitive days a simple inclosure sufficed; 
later a stoa was added along one side; then others, backed by 
rooms. The arrangement was simplified in Hellenistic times 
by the substitution of a homogeneous colonnaded court', as at 
Olympia and Epidaurus. The side of the court facing the 
south was usually doubled in depth. The surrounding rooms 
furnished places for instruction, or for the assemblage of 
friends for readings or conversation. In one of them was the 
bath, with a simple tank or trough. Separate bathing 
establishments were not frequent or extensive until late 
Hellenistic times, when a luxurious elaboration ensued which 
furnished the prototypes for the great Roman thermae. 

Domestic architecture; the megaron house. The private house 
remained of secondary importance until well into the central 



GREEK ARCHITECTURE 93 

period, as a result of the almost exclusively political and 
public life of the men. It seems normally to have included a 
modest hall, the descendant of the megaron, and a court closed 
toward the street, besides minor rooms. The houses of Priene 
in the fourth century still show an ever-recurring type of 
megaron-house, with a portico in antis before the hall, dominat- 
ing the court as in Mycenaean times (Fig. 33). The entrance 



>S T R E L 







FIG. 33 PRIENE. "HOUSE xxxn". (WIEGAND) 

from the street was at one side, opening into a narrow corridor 
continued along the side of the court by a colonnade. Most 
of the rooms, however, could only be reached by passing 
through the open court. 

The house with a peristylar court. In the third century this 
type began to be superseded by one in which the court had a 
continuous peristyle, the Oriental arrangement. The megaron- 
hall was given up for a broad hall lying -along one side, as is 
seen especially at Delos (Fig. 34). The peristyle was the 
characteristic central feature of the kingly residences of the 
Hellenistic period like those of the Acropolis at Pergamon. 
All these dwellings alike turned a simple wall to the exterior, 
with few windows or none, and rarely a portico over the door. 
A second story over some portions was not uncommon. Wall 



94 



A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



painting is first mentioned in the time of Alcibiades, who is 
said to have confined a painter in his house until he decorated 
the walls. Later it became usual for the decoration of the 
interior, as at Pompeii in the Graeco-Roman period. 

Funerary architecture. Interment of the dead was the usual 
custom in Greece, although incineration was not unknown. 
The burial was for the most part in cemeteries on the plain 
outside the city gates. Democratic feeling demanded ' sim- 
plicity in the marking of the grave, so that, except for those 




FIG. 34 DELOS. HOUSE OF THE TRIDENT. (P. PARIS) 

of a few traditional heroes, the most elaborate monuments are 
to be found outside of Greece proper, in the late period when 
foreigners appreciated and employed Greek architects. At 
Athens an unpretentious slab, or stele, was the favorite type, 
carved with honeysuckle or acanthus ornament, and often 
decorated with symbolic sculptured reliefs. Toward the end 
of the fourth century the stone sarcophagus, already used in 
the Orient, appeared in Greece. The most famous examples 
are those of the group for the Hellenized rulers of Sidon, in 
which the details of the house or temple are imitated, as a 
setting for relief sculpture. The temple form was also 
employed at a larger scale for actual sepulchral chambers or 
chapels to the memory of a hero. These multiplied, from the 



GREEK ARCHITECTURE 95 

end of the fifth century, in Asia Minor, culminating about 350 
in the gigantic monument of the Carian King Mausolus. 
This had a peristylar cella supported on a lofty podium, or 
basement, and crowned by a pyramid of twenty-four steps 
bearing a quadriga, or four-horse chariot. Pliny gives the 
total height as one hundred and forty feet and the perimeter 
as four hundred and forty. Specially famous was the richness 
of its sculptured decoration, with no less than three friezes in 
relief, besides many free standing figures. The arrangement 
of a peristyle on a podium, made notable by this building, 
became a typical form for later monuments. 

Commemorative monuments. Similar forms were used in 
commemorative monuments, as in the monument of Lysicrates 
at Athens, erected in 335~334(Fig. 25). Here a circular super- 
structure was placed for the first time over a square base. 
The larger votive offerings at the national sanctuaries em- 
braced monuments of a variety of forms. A column was 
often used as the support for a figure, and monumental settings 
were created for groups of statues in hemicycles or exedra. 
All these are seen in rich array at Delphi (Fig. 35). 

Ensembles. The pan-Hellenic centers such as Delphi 
(Fig. 35), Olympia, and Delos included not merely religious 
buildings. Like the cities, they show Greek architecture in 
its ensemble. At Delphi the theater and the stadion were 
adjuncts of the sacred inclosure of Apollo; at Olympia a vast 
complex of athletic buildings grew up, with a council-house for 
the officials, lodgings for distinguished guests, fountains, 
stoas, and later even private residences. Delos was a port 
as well as a sanctuary, and had, besides its temples, its ware- 
houses, commercial clubs, and exchanges. On such ancient 
and sanctified ground above all at a site like Delphi, which 
owed its choice to a mountain fissure no great formality of 
arrangement could be expected. Great skill was shown, 
however, in adapting new buildings to the irregular disposition 
of the old, and there was a responsiveness to the topography 
which resulted in great picturesqueness. 

The cities. The same qualities distinguish the older cities, 
where the sites were chosen for military strength, and changes 
were made difficult by inherited restrictions. These cities 
were the work of time; their plans were the image of their 



GREEK ARCHITECTURE 97 

history. Although their domestic quarters remained poorly 
and closely built, the centers of civic life were enriched until 
they rivaled or surpassed the national places of pilgrimage. 
This was true ; above all at Athens, where the Acropolis gave 
an unrivaled setting to a group of superb works, rich in 



Citadel 
Temple of Athena 



Theater 

Upper Gymnasium 




Agora 
Lower Gymnasium 



Bouleuterion 
Stadium 



FIG. 36 PRIENE. BIRD'S-EYE VIEW. (RESTORED BY ZIPPELIUS) 

material, unique in perfection of workmanship and subtlety 
of form. The approach was from the west, the rock rising 
steeply on the other sides, with the theaters clinging to its 
southern flank (Fig. 30). In classic times a winding road led 
up, past the bastion of Athena Nike, to the Propylaea. Passing 
its porticoes and its central wall with the five huge gates, one 
came out on the summit of the rock, before the colossal statue 
of Athena Promachos. To the right was the Parthenon; to 
the left, differently turned to the light, the Erechtheum 
their simplicity and richness serving as mutual foils. Winding 



9 8 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

between them was the processional roadway, decked with 
hundreds of statues and offerings of the highest artistic merit. 

Town planning. The later cities show the influence of the 
Greek tendency to rationalize all things, to reduce them to 
universal and geometrical types. After the success of Hippo- 
damus with the regular plan of the Piraeus, he was employed 
at Thurii and Rhodes. Rectangular plans, at least for the 
principal streets, were adopted in most Hellenistic cities. 
Sometimes there were two main intersecting arteries, some- 
times several in each direction. No general rectangular 
outline of the whole city seems to have been sought. Though 
Aristotle notes that Hippodamus made provision for the 
proper grouping of dwelling-houses, it seems that this 
consideration remained subordinate, in Greek cities, to the 
spectacular grouping of public buildings. In the application 
of the newly discovered formulas the architects were not 
always scrupulous in regarding topographical conditions. 
At Priene (Fig. 36) the rectangular street plan was forcibly 
imposed on a steep hillside site, where the transverse streets 
became veritable stairways. Well preserved and conscien- 
tiously excavated, however, it gives us our best evidence of 
the aspect of a late Greek city, distantly suggesting the lost 
magnificence of Antioch and Alexandria. 

Like the Greek city-state, Greek architecture rested on the 
synthesis of a few elements only. Animated first by a simple 
adaptation to nature, later by self-confident reason, it sought 
and attained supreme clarity of expression within the restricted 
field which modest needs had suggested. 

PERIODS OF GREEK ARCHITECTURE 

Magna Grcecia and r j A 

<> ., Greece proper Ionia and Asia 

I. PRIMITIVE PERIOD, about 1 100-776 B.C. 
II. ARCHAIC PERIOD, about 776-479 B.C. 



Earliest peristylar 
, temple at Seli- 
nus, c. 575. 



Temple of Hera at 
Olympia, eighth 
century. 
Temple at Corinth, 

before 600. 

Athens under Pisistra- 
tus. 



Predominance of Ionia, 

to c. 550. 
Temple of Hera at 

Samos, c. 600. 
Older temple of Ar- 
temis at Ephe- 
sus, c. 560. 



GREEK ARCHITECTURE 



99 



Magna Gr&cia and 
Sicily 

II. ARCHAIC 

"Basilica" at Paes- 
tum, c. 560. 

Predominance of western 

colonies, c. 550-480. 

Great temple of 

Apollo at Seli- 

nus, begun after 

540. 

Canonical temples at 
Selinus, c. 500- 
480. 
Carthaginian war, 480. 



Greece proper 



Ionia and Asia 



PERIOD, 776-479 B.C. Continued 



Persian conquest of Jo- 



Temple of Olympian 

Zeus begun, c. nia, 546. 

530. 

Earlier Hall of Mys- 
teries, at Eleusis. 

Earlier temple of 
Apollo at Del- 
phi, c. 530-5I4- 

Persian wars, awaken- 
ing of continental 
Greece, 400-470. 
Older Parthenon at 
Athens, c. 490- 
480. 

Temple of Aphaia at 
^Egina, c. 490- 
480. 



in. CENTRAL PERIOD, about 479-330 B.C. 



Prosperity in Sicily, 

480-465. 

Temple of Olympian 
Zeus at Akra- 
gas, after 480. 
Temple of Apollo at 
Selinus com- 
pleted. 

'Civil war and war with 
Sicels, 465-444. 



Renewed prosperity in 

Sicily, c. 444-409. 
Great temple at Paes- 

tum, c. 430. 
Temple at Segesta, c. 

430-420. 
Temple of Concord 

at Akragas. 



National Unity, c. 470- 

460. 

Embellishment of Olym- 
pia, Delphi, and 
Delos. 

Temple of Zeus at 
Olympia, c. 468- 
56- 
Trophy of Plataea at 

Delphi. 

Athenian supremacy, 
age of Pericles, c. 
461-430. 
The Parthenon, 447- 

432. 
The Propylaea, 437- 

432. 
Temple of Athena 

Nike, c. 435. 
"Theseum," c. 430. 
Later Hall of Mys- 
teries at Eleusis. 
Laying out of the 
Piraeus. 



100 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



Ionia and Asia 



Ma.gn* Gratia and 

in. CENTRAL PERIOD, about 479-330 B.C. Continued 

Peloponnesian war; po- 
litical downfall of 
Athens, 431-404. 
The Erechtheum, c. 

435-404- 

Spread of Athenian in- 
fluence. 

Temple of Apollo at 
Bassae, c. 420. 



Fall of western Sicily be- 
fore Carthage, 400- 
406. 



Temple of Castor and 
Pollux at Ak- 
ragas, after 338. 



Temple of Athena 
Alea at Tegea, c. 
390- 

Temple, tholos, and 
theater at Epi- 
daurus, c. 350. 

Rebuilding of Man- 
tinea; building of 
Megalopolis and 
Messene, 370 ff . 
Macedonian conquest of 
Greece, 357-33$- 

Philippeion at Olym- 
pia, c. 336. 



Ionian renaissance, 

from c. 350. 
Mausoleum at Hali- 
carnassus, after 

353- 

Later temple of Ar- 
temis at Ephe- 
sus, 356-334. 
Temple of Athena at 
Priene, dedicat- 
ed 334- 

Conquest of the Persian 
Empire by Alex- 
ander, 334-330. 



IV. HELLENISTIC PERIOD, about 330-146 B.C. 



Altar of Hieron at 
Syracuse, 276- 

215. 

Roman conquest of Mag- 
no, Grcecia by 272, 
of Sicily by 241. 
Temple of Asklepios 
at Akragas, be- 
fore 210. 

Temple "B" at Seli- 
nus. 



Administration of Ly- 
curgus at Athens, 
338-322. 
Theater lined with 

stone. 

Stadion built, c. 330. 
Arsenal of Philon, c. 

330. 
Portico of Philon, 

Eleusis, 311. 
Adornment of Athens by 

Asiatic rulers. 
Temple of Olympian 
Zeus rebegun, 
174. 

Stoa of Attalos, be- 
tween i 59 and 
138. 

Destruction of Corinth 
by the Romans, 146. 



Spread of Greek in- 
fluence. 

Alexandria founded, 
332. 



Antioch founded,3Oi. 
Ephesus refounded, 

290. 
Pergamon, flourished 

esp. 241-138. 
Palace of Eumenes, 

197-159. 

Altar of Zeus, c. 180. 

Council-house at Pri- 
ene, c. 200. 

Bouleuterion at Mile- 
tus, between 175 
and 164. 



GREEK ARCHITECTURE 



101 



Magna Gratia and 



Greece proper 



Ionia and Asia 



v. GR^CO-ROMAN PERIOD, after about 146 B.C. 



Corinthian- Doric 
temple at Paestum, 
second century 

B.C. 



1 'Tower of the 
Winds" at Ath- 
ens, first cen- 
tury B.C. 

Adornment of Athens 
by Roman emperors 
and citizens. 
Arch of Hadrian, c. 

135 A.D. 

Buildings of Herodes 
Atticus : Seats 
of Stadion, c. 
i40A.D.,Odeion, 
c. 1 60. 

Exedra of Herodes 
at Olympia, 156 

A.D. 



Roman province of Asia 
organized, 133 B.C. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 



W. J. Anderson and R. P. Spiers's The Architecture of Greece and 
Rome, 26. ed., 1907, gives a consecutive historical account; A. Mar- 
quand's Greek Architecture, 1909, a technical analysis. More de- 
tailed and authoritative, with full bibliographical references, is 
J. Durrn's Baukunst der Griechen, 3d ed., 1910 (Handbuch der Archi- 
tectur, pt. II, vol. i). Perrot and Chipiez's Histoire de I' art dans 
Vantiquite, vol. 8, 1903, which includes the archaic architecture of 
Greece, with illuminating restorations. R. Koldewey and O. Puch- 
stein's Die griechischen Tempel von Unteritalien und Sicilien, 2 vols., 
1899, remains the final authority for the temples of the West. H. 
d'Espouy's Monuments antiques, vol. i, 1910, and Fragments d j archi- 
tecture antique, vol. i, 1896, pis. 1-25, vol. 2, 1905, pis. 1-30, contain 
a choice of the superbly presented restorations of Greek architecture 
made by pensioners of the French Academy at Rome, ensembles and 
details, respectively. Many of these drawings, however, involve a 
large measure of conjecture and embody architectural theories now 
abandoned. F. Noack's Die Baukunst des Altertums, 1910, includes 
very fine photographs of the Greek monuments, with brief text 
embodying the results of the latest researches. A topographical 



102 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

treatment is Pausanias's Description of Greece, translated with a com- 
mentary by J. G. Frazer, 6 vols.. 1898, reprinted 1913. Detailed 
lists of works covering individual sites and regions are given in 
K. Sittl's Archaologie der Kunst, 1895 (Handbuch der klassischen 
Altertums-Wissenschaft, vol. 6). Among studies of special topics 
may be noted W. H. Goodyear's Greek Refinements, 1912; G. Le- 
roux's Les origines de l y edifice hypostyle en Grece, etc., 1913; B. C. 
Rider's The Greek House: Its History and Development, 1916; and 
E. R. Fiechter's Die baugeschichtliche Entwicklung des antiken 
Theaters, 1914. On the planning of cities, see F. Haverfield's 
Ancient Town Planning, 1913, chapters 3 and 4. 



CHAPTER V 
ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 

Between Greek architecture and Roman architecture there 
is no such sharp distinction as between the various preclassical 
styles, which developed for the most part independently in 
regions relatively little in contact with one another. From the 
very beginning of Greek civilization Italy fell within the sphere 
of its influence, which was too potent to permit another 
independent beginning. The character of the Italian peoples, 
moreover, especially that of the Romans, who became 
dominant, was not such as to promise much initiative in the 
field of the arts. It was primarily political, war-like, common- 
sense, practical better adapted to receive than to create in 
matters aesthetic, though capable of remarkable developments 
in the science of planning and construction. At first Spartanly 
ascetic, the Romans became, as conquerors of the world, rich 
and luxurious, superposing on the admirable organization of 
their material life a culture derived from Greece and from 
the Orient. 

Relation to Greek forms. As they came in direct contact with 
the Greeks, by the conquest first of Southern Italy and 
Sicily, then of Greece and western Asia, the Romans realized 
the superior advancement of Greek architecture, as of Greek 
literature and sculpture, and sought to adapt its forms to 
their own monuments. In this adaptation the original 
structural significance tended to be lost, as in the later and 
more sophisticated days of Greece itself. Columns and en- 
tablatures were used as decorative adjuncts to a wall or to 
an arch, where they had no structural functions, but where 
they served both to give visible expression to the classical 
cultivation of their builders and to make a majestic and 
rhythmical subdivision of surface. First accepting the forms 
5 



io 4 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

of the columnar orders as they found them in Hellenistic 
Greece, the Romans proceeded to enrich them still further in 
ornamentation and in scale. The arch received a formal 
accentuation with moldings, to harmonize with the other 
members of the system. 

Importance of types of buildings. Among the Romans, how- 
ever, it was not so much the individual forms of detail which 
were significant as the many functional types developed in 
response to the varied needs of their more complex civiliza- 
tion, and in accordance with a logical analysis of its problems. 
First came an extraordinary expansion of engineering works, 
civil and military roads, bridges, drains, aqueducts, harbor- 
works, fortifications frankly adapted to their utilitarian 
functions, yet artistically satisfactory in expression of struct- 
ure, in broad handling of materials, in proportion. In the 
train of an active political and commercial life came more 
extended and magnificent solutions of the problems of the 
assembly-place and the market the forum and the basilica. 
For military and monarchical glorification the monumental 
types already employed by the Greeks were seized on and 
magnified, and a new type, the commemorative arch, was 
added to them. To provide an architectural setting for 
favorite amusements comedy, gladiatorial combats, races 
the Greek form of auditorium received diverse applications in 
theaters, amphitheaters, circuses, often built regardless of 
expense, whether the topography favored or no. To minister 
to increasing wealth, domestic architecture abandoned its 
early republican austerity for an Oriental luxury and splendor, 
culminating in the palaces and villas of the emperors. Their 
counterpart for the masses lay in the public bathing-estab- 
lishments or thermae, in which every form of refreshment and 
recreation was made accessible to thousands. 

Construction. In construction the Romans adapted their 
methods with great ingenuity and skill to operations on a 
large scale and to the problem of placing great numbers under 
cover from the weather. Taking up the arch and vault in a 
condition still rudimentary and cumbersome, they followed 
out its form through the elementary geometric possibilities 
and combinations, at the same time freeing themselves from 
bondage to the difficulties of cut-stone work. Building in 



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 105 

concrete enabled them to extend their undertakings and to 
deploy upon the surfaces of walls rich materials which could 
never have been obtained in sufficient quantity for con- 
structive uses. It also permitted them to vault great spans 
without interior supports, securing a new range of interior 
spatial effects, specifically Roman. 

Planning. In disposing the numerous units which manifold 
requirements called into being, the Romans progressed from a 
naive irregularity, like that of the early Greeks, through pro- 
gressively higher degrees of organization. Ultimately they 
far surpassed in this respect the Hellenistic Greeks who were 
their teachers. The functions of different rooms were 
specialized, their sequence carefully considered both from the 
practical standpoint and from the standpoint of spatial 
diversity and climax. Not content with establishing formal 
symmetry on a single axis, the architects introduced trans- 
verse axes and a variety of minor axial lines parallel to both 
the major ones, producing a highly complex unity of subor- 
dinated parts, with the greatest variety of effect. They ac- 
complished this not merely on level ground, but also on the 
most irregular sites, making a merit of difficult topographic 
conditions or artfully concealing the irregularities which re- 
sulted from them. 

Universality. Roman architecture became, like the Roman 
Empire, something universal. Race and climate were not 
greatly determining, for these were diverse, yet the official 
art, in spite of minor differences conditioned by local traditions 
and building materials, was surprisingly uniform. Itself 
largely adopted from the Greeks, it was imposed on other sub- 
ject peoples, and practised by artists of many racial stocks, 
who themselves contributed to its general development. 
Forms much the same were repeated, without sense of incon- 
gruity, in the sands of Africa, the foothills of the Alps, the 
forests of Germany. In this, as in so many other points, 
Roman architecture was like modern architecture material 
and urbane, frequently lacking in delicacy and imagination in 
detail, while preoccupied with larger questions of planning, 
construction, and mass. 

Periods of- development. In the development of Roman ar- 
chitecture three periods may be distinguished, in which, side 



io6 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

by side with native developments, Greek influence made itself 
felt in three different ways. Until about 300 B.C. the Romans 
shared with the Etruscans a diluted Hellenism mingled with 
Italic elements. From then till near the end of the republic, 
about two hundred and fifty years, they were absorbing from 
the western Greek colonies and from Greece itself the grammar 




FIG. 37 AN ETRUSCAN TEMPLE. (RESTORED BY HULSEN) 



of the orders, and struggling with the new problem of the 
arch. From the establishment of the empire to its fall they 
drew more and more on the Orientalized Hellenism of Asia, 
while making their own most important contributions. 

Earliest monuments to 300 B.C. The character of the earliest 
monuments of Rome must be deduced principally from con- 
temporary Etruscan works, which are known traditionally to 
have furnished their prototypes. The principal types are 
fortification walls with polygonal or ashlar masonry, accord- 
ing to the material available; gates, drains, and bridges, with 



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 107 

simple arches between generous abutments, as in contemporary 
Greece; temples with columnar porticoes and lintels of wood 
(Fig. 37) ; houses and tombs of a variety of native forms. 

The house. The most individual and most influential of 
these types was the dwelling, the ancestor of the Roman 
house of classic times. After the seventh century there are 
but few vestiges of houses of a northern character, similar to 
the primitive forerunners of the megaron in Greece. The 
characteristic form was one distinct from these, seemingly of 
Oriental origin the house with an atrium, having a central 
opening in the roof (cf. Fig. 54 [A]). The temple, on the other 
hand, was strongly influenced from Greece in at least two of 
its three forms. The first of these, the circular temple, has 
evident traditional relations with the circular hut, although it 
later received a peristyle in the manner of Greek examples. 
The second form, with a single rectangular cella, reproduced 
the typical Greek arrangement with few changes: the portico 
in front was made deeper and the colonnade was frequently 
omitted from the sides and always from the rear. The third 
form, with three parallel cellas (Fig. 37), may be looked on less 
as a new creation than an adaptation of the Greek scheme to 
the exigencies of a new cult. To constitute it, it sufficed to 
place prostyle cellas side by side, and to give their porticoes 
somewhat more depth. 

Arched construction. The arches and vaulted drains, such 
as the gateways at Perugia (Fig. 38), and the Cloaca Maxima 
in Rome formerly thought to descend from the legendary 
Roman kings and to antedate Greek examples of the arch 
are now placed in the fourth century at earliest. They repre- 
sent no constructive advance on the Greek arches, but show 
an effort to give architectural expression to the functions of 
the parts by a decorative emphasis on the keystone and 
springing stones, or by projecting members below the spring- 
ing and around the voussoirs the impost and label molding. 

Columnar system. The architectural forms of the columnar 
system reflected those of Greece, all three orders finding crude 
counterparts. Most important was the derivative of the 
Doric, which had always remained dominant in western 
Greece. It recurs in both of its later Greek forms: with the 
profile of the echinus reduced to a straight line and with it 



108 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

rounded into a quadrant ; without a base and with a molded 
base simplified from the Ionic order. It was the latter of 
these two forms, with rounded echinus and bases, which came 
to be regarded as specifically Tuscan, though Vitruvius, writ- 
ing in the time of Augustus, recognized that it was but a 
variety of the Doric. The triglyph frieze was sometimes cop- 




FIG. 38 PERUGIA. "ARCH OF AUGUSTUS" 

ied, though more usually the order had no frieze. Instead 
there were widely projecting eaves formed by the wooden 
beams and rafters, which, like the architraves themselves, were 
often cased in richly decorated terra-cotta plates (Fig. 37). 
A steep gable imitated the pediment, sometimes with figure 
sculpture. 

Republican developments, to about 50 B.C. Greek influence. 
In the later and more powerful days of the republic, con- 
structive and formal developments went on simultaneously. 
In the first aqueduct, built by Appius Claudius in 312 B.C., 
in the bridge of ^milius across the Tiber, 179-142 B.C., a 
series of arches was built side by side, their thrusts balancing 



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 109 

on the supporting piers. The revival of this principle, applied 
long before in the store-chambers of the Ramesseum at 
Thebes and in the great substructure at Babylon, was to 
prove of uncommon fruitfulness in later Roman architecture. 
Meanwhile Greek monuments were becoming directly ac- 
cessible to the Romans. Magna Graecia was conquered by 
272 B.C., Sicily by 241; Greece was taken under Roman 
protectorate in 196; Asia Minor became a province in 133. 
The spoils of Syracuse in 212, of Tarentum in 209, of conti- 
nental Greece in 196 and 167, and above all in 146, after the 
destruction of Corinth, opened the eyes of the Romans to the 
riches of Hellenic art and awakened a desire for imitation. 
Greek captives, and other Greek artists attracted by wealth 
and opportunity, furnished the requisite knowledge and skill. 
By the middle of the second century B.C. most of the archi- 
tects active in Rome were Greeks. 

Forms of detail. Their influence soon made itself visible 
in more authentic forms of detail and in a more sophisticated 
application of the orders generally. As early as 250 B.C. 
Greek details, individually correct, and effective in spite of 
their uncanonical combinations, appear in the sarcophagus of 
Scipio Barbatus. By the first century B.C. the use of con- 
ventional detail was universal, the forms of the orders were 
naturalized, so that conformity with Greek standards need 
no longer be taken as their criterion. The membering, as 
exemplified in the Tabularium in Rome, in the so-called temple 
of Fortuna Virilis, the circular temples of Rome and of 
Tivoli (Fig. 39), all from the first century B.C., may be exam- 
ined for characteristics specifically Roman. The peculiarities 
lie first in the freedom of combination of parts, the original 
significance of which was now long forgotten. There is, to 
be sure, always the canonical subdivision of the entablature 
into architrave, frieze, and cornice, even the Ionic order having 
uniformly a frieze. In general, the triglyphs are confined to 
the Doric order and its derivatives, though in certain cases 
they occur with the Ionic capital and even the Corinthian. 
Less striking forms, such as dentils, however, were transposed 
at will. If arbitrary canons were violated, reasonable dis- 
tinctions were not ignored, and the wealth of detailed forms 
liberated from inherited prescriptions was applied with un- 



no A HISTORY OP ARCHITFCTURE 

failing respect for appropriateness to position and expressive 
functions. 

Applications of the orders. A more characteristic feature 
lay in the freedom with which the columnar system as a whole 
was combined with the wall. The forms of the free-standing 
columns of the temple portico were repeated along the walls 




FIG. 39 TIVOLI. "TEMPLE OF VESTA" 

of the cella, to give the effect of a full peristyle (see Fig. 41). 
A similar unstructural use of the columnar forms had not 
been unknown even in the Greece of the fifth century and had 
since become frequent. Its adoption as the normal treatment 
of the temple, the outcome of a wish to secure a columnar 
effect in spite of the breadth of the Roman cella, was a wide 
extension of its use. 

The "Roman arch order." A still further extension lay in 
the use of columns on a wall with arches, or rather on the 
piers of a continuous arcade, usually in several stories, a scheme 
which became so common as to receive a special name, the 
Roman arch order. The Tabularium, the archive building of 



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE m 

the Capitol (78 B.C.), furnishes the first dated example. This 
scheme, which was later to find its most noted exemplification 
in the Colosseum (Figs. 40, 59) consisted of the application, 
to the piers of the arcade and to the horizontal bands opposite 
the floors, of the columns and entablatures of a Greek stoa 
with superposed orders. The mere superposition of ranges of 




FIG. 40 ROME. THE COLOSSEUM 

arches was itself almost if not quite as novel as the use of 
orders with them. It is really better justified to look on the 
arrangement as the strengthening of a Greek stoa to support 
vaulting, thickening the supports and building up arches 
between the columns a process similar to that by which the 
first engaged columns in Greece were produced. The neces- 
sity for greater strength lay in the desire to span the passage 
behind the facade by a more permanent means than the 
wooden ceilings and roofs of the Greeks, usually by a barrel 
vault, which sprang from above the crowns of the external 
arches across to the inner wall. This was indeed a notable step 



ii2 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

in construction, for the outward thrust had no such unim- 
peachable abutment as had the subterranean vaults of the 
Orient or the ends of the arcades in aqueducts and bridges. 
The experiment succeeded, nevertheless ; the resistance of the 
heavy outer wall proved more than sufficient. From the 
purely formal standpoint the arch order was equally success- 
ful, in spite of certain difficulties. The longitudinal vaults, 
being semicircular, rose perforce even higher than the top of 
the entablature in front of them, but this was overcome by 
the insertion of an attic with pedestals between the stories. 
The calm and dignified repetition of horizontals and verticals, 
mastering and co-ordinating the freer lines of the arches, the 
consistent molded treatment of entablature, impost, and 
pedestal, combine to form a system of powerful effect, in- 
dependent of the character of the individual details or of the 
contradiction of the structural expressions of lintel and arch. 

Domestic architecture. The private houses, which from the 
fourth century were built wall to wall in close blocks, followed 
the Etruscan model in having a central atrium with surround- 
ing rooms. At the rear was a small garden. Later a more 
elaborate inner portion, built about a court with a colonnade, 
the so-called peristylium, was added under Greek influence 
(Fig. 54 [C]). By the second century B.C. this composite type 
was the model for the ordinary dwellings of the well-to-do; 
from early in the first century the wealthy began to elaborate 
them into veritable palaces, with marble columns and pave- 
ments. On the other hand, the pressure of metropolitan life 
now forced the erection of tenements for the poor, in three 
or four stories. 

Other types. Throughout this period the principal monu- 
mental type remained the temple. Civil buildings, in Italy 
as in Greece, were late in developing. Political assembly and 
commercial intercourse alike took place at first in the open 
air. The senate, to be sure, which in the beginning met out 
of doors or in some temple, was housed at an early date in a 
special building, the Curia, which seems to have followed the 
scheme of the temple cella. By about 200 B.C. began the 
construction of basilicas, exchanges for the merchants, which 
became the seat of tribunals and gradually accumulated other 
uses. The first of which we know was built by Cato the Cen- 



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 113 

sor, in 184 B.C., and others quickly followed. Regarding the 
original form of these and, indeed, of all the basilicas of Rome 
prior to the days of Caesar, we have no certain knowledge. 

Grouping: town planning. The grouping of public buildings, 
such as the temples and basilicas which fronted the forum, 
the principal open space of the city, was an 1 irregular and 
accidental one, like that of the great sanctuaries of early 
Greece. Only in a town essentially Hellenistic, like Pompeii, 
was there a more uniform treatment such as that of the Ionian 
agoras, resulting from the inclosing of the forum, shortly be- 
fore 100 B.C., by columnar porticoes forming a long rectangle. 
Although the city of Rome, with its unexpected growth, con- 
formed to no regular plan, many towns showed in their general 
layout common characteristics derived from a principle con- 
secrated in Italy from the earliest times, division by two axes 
which crossed at right angles. Parallel to the principal 
streets which marked these axes were minor streets delimiting 
the house blocks; in one of the angles was frequently the 
forum, as at Pompeii. 

Imperial architecture, c. 50 B.C. to 350 A.D. Development. 
The transformation of Roman architecture to its imperial 
scale and splendor began with the buildings of Pompey and of 
Julius Caesar, in the middle of the first century B.C. Pompey 
erected in 55 the earliest stone theater, built up from the plain 
on an arched substructure ; Caesar did not content himself with 
adding a new basilica to the forum, and providing better 
quarters for the senate and other assemblies, but initiated 
the custom of adding an entirely new forum, beyond the time- 
honored buildings which prevented any enlargement of the old 
Forum Romanum. The buildings and rebuildings of Augus- 
tus were so numerous as to justify his boast that he found 
Rome of brick and left it of marble. Most noteworthy, per- 
haps, was the forum which bears his name (Fig. 44 [C]), with 
its octastyle Corinthian temple of Mars. Agrippa, his ablest 
minister, gave great attention to the aqueducts, and built the 
first of the great thermae. In Augustus's reign also the 
architect Vitruvius compiled, largely from Greek sources, his 
compendium of rules and maxims, designed to assist in the dif- 
fusion of correct principles. Under Nero the destruction of 
crowded quarters by fire gave opportunity for rebuilding them 



ii 4 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

on a regular plan, with better materials, lower houses, and 
wider streets. With the Flavian emperors, 69-96 A.D., the 
tendencies toward regal luxury of accommodations and toward 
elaboration of detail reached their height. Their palace on 
the Palatine hill with its magnificent vaulted halls, their 
temples and fora, in the entablatures of which there was 
scarcely a member left undecorated, the "Composite" capital, 
in which elements of the Ionic and Corinthian were combined, 
attest their striving for enrichment of form. Under Trajan, 
Hadrian, and the Antonines, while the magnitude of con- 
structive undertakings increased still further, there was a 
reaction in favor of Hellenic forms. In the gigantic Forum of 
Trajan (Fig. 44 [F]) itself composed on Oriental principles 
the great basilica dispenses with the vaulted arcades of earlier 
works, and employs a purely Greek system of column and 
lintel. The temples of the time bear entablatures in which 
the multiplicity of ornament is much reduced in some cases 
even to the point of austerity. 

Constructive advances. At the same time, however, Roman 
constructive science was proceeding with rapid stride, con- 
quering successively the difficulties of vaulting semicircular 
apses, circular rooms, and rectangular rooms requiring lateral 
openings. In the Pantheon of Hadrian, the halls of the 
imperial thermae of Trajan, Caracalla, and Diocletian, these 
elements attained vast size and monumental effects hitherto 
unattainable. In the thermae also Roman architecture 
achieved some of its greatest triumphs of logical planning at a 
great scale. The laying out of new towns gave opportunity 
to extend its principles, as in Hellenistic Asia, to the whole city. 

Prevalent types. The temples no longer appeared as the 
sole or even as the chief monuments. In spite of vast size 
and costly materials they had become secondary in importance, 
as an expression of the national life, which was administrative, 
commercial, pleasure-loving, and egoistic. Besides luxurious 
palaces and temples for self-deification, the emperors erected 
triumphal columns and arches, mausolea surpassing the 
original at Halicarnassus in size and magnificence, and in- 
dulged the populace with buildings for their favorite amuse- 
ments. 

Late imperial architecture. In the later monuments a new 



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 115 

logic gradually shows itself in the relations of arch and column, 
coincident with a fresh wave of Oriental influences sweeping 
over construction and detail alike. In the Pantheon and the 
thermae the arches are not framed in by entablatures and 
columns, but rest frankly on them; in the second century 
monuments of Syria and the palace of Diocletian on the 
Adriatic, at the beginning of the fourth century, further steps 
are taken in the elimination of the entablature and the bringing 
down of the arch directly on the head of the column (Fig. 58). 
Thus at the very end of its development Roman architecture 
attained, by the abandonment of its formal canons, the 
solution of the difficulties of expression which confronted it, 
laying the foundation for the development of the Middle 
Ages. 

Artistic centers. Throughout this long history the center of 
artistic activity had remained the city of Rome, which 
focussed the influences of Greece and the Orient. In the last 
days of the empire the balance of power inclined more and 
more to the east, and under Constantine, 306-337, the seat of 
administration was removed thither, to Byzantium or Con- 
stantinople, on the shores of the Bosphorus. The wealth and 
population of Rome rapidly fell away. The adoption of 
Christianity as the state religion in 330 caused the temples to 
fall gradually into disuse, and temples and public buildings 
alike were plundered for materials to build the great Christian 
basilicas, the only important fresh undertakings of the time. 
With the sack of Rome by the Goths in 410 and the Vandals 
in 455 the last vestiges of its imperial power were broken, 
and the abdication of Romulus Augustulus on demand of the 
barbarian chieftain Odoacer in 476 marked the end even of the 
nominal existence of the Roman Empire in the west. 

Character of important types. Whereas in Greece it is the 
development of the forms of detail, to which the Greeks gave 
the most scrupulous attention, which is of primary importance, 
in Rome it is rather the development of the great functional 
types which demands an intensive study. 

Temples. In Rome the temple was no more intended than 
in Greece for congregational worship, and the great size to 
which it ultimately grew was rather the result of a desire for 
imposing effect. The ritual, influenced by that of the Greeks, 



n6 A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 

left considerable liberty in form and orientation, though the 
image was preferably at the east. In matters of disposition 
the development was toward a steadily closer approximation 
to the Greek scheme with a continuous exterior peristyle. 
The Etruscan temples had never a colonnade at the rear, the 
Roman cellas, as early as republican times, were provided 
with a decorative disguise of engaged columns on the rear as 
well as on the sides, and this was retained in early imperial 




FIG. 41 NIMES. "THE MAISON CARREE" 



times. The best preserved and most famous example is the 
so-called Maison Carree at Nimes in southern France (Fig. 41), 
a hexastyle temple of rich Corinthian order, which shows that 
the Romans were not behind the Greeks in mastery of propor- 
tions and subtlety of form. The delicate curvatures of line 
and surface which relieved the regularity and varied the play 
of light and shade in Greek monuments recur in its plan. 
Other temples, like that of Mars in the Forum of Augustus, 
perpetuate a type already found in Etruscan times, and 
approaching the peristylar arrangement more nearly having 
a free-standing colonnade along the sides as well as the front, 
but not across the rear. The tendency was more and more 
toward a complete peristyle, still in use in half-Greek Pompeii 




FIG. 42 ROME. INTERIOR OF THE PANTHEON (RESTORED BY ISABELLE), 

SHOWING THE CONDITION AFTER THE RESTORATION OF SEVERUS 



n8 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

in the second century B.C. before the establishment of the 
Roman colony there, and appearing in Rome with the temple 
completed by Augustus in the Forum of Caesar. One of the 
most notable examples was the double temple of Venus and 
Rome built by Hadrian near the Forum. It had fronts of 
ten columns, and a cella with two chambers back to back, 
which were for the first time vaulted with barrel vaults. A 
magnificent decoration of half columns and statued niches 
along the interior walls is the lineal descendant of the interior 
colonnades of the early Greek cellas, through the temple at 
Bassae and the temple of Apollo at Didyma. A few temples, 
though rectangular, varied from the traditional arrangement 
in having the portico built against the long side, but this -was 
only from special exigencies. Both stylobate and podium 
were used as substructures; the roof remained steadily a 
gabled one, fronted by a pediment. In a few instances only 
were temples left roofless. 

Circular temples. A class of considerable importance was 
that of the round temples. The two well-known republican 
examples, in Rome and Tivoli (Fig. 39), do not differ greatly 
from similar buildings in Greece. Both are of the Corinthian 
order, with unvaulted cellas. The first Pantheon in Rome, 
built by Agrippa, must have been similar in principle, though 
on a far larger scale. The Pantheon which stands to-day, 
rebuilt by Hadrian (12 0-124 A. D.) and restored under Severus 
(202 A.D.), shows, on the contrary, an application of the new 
Roman constructive methods (Fig. 42). A single hemispher- 
ical dome spans the circular interior of over one hundred and 
forty feet diameter, its crown at just an equal height above 
the pavement. Light comes through a single eye at the top, 
through which rain may fall without causing any incon- 
venience, thanks to the area and volume of the interior. The 
massive walls are pierced by eight niches, alternately square 
and semicircular, originally arched across, with screens of 
Corinthian columns; the vault is deeply recessed with coffers 
diminishing as they ascend, and once decorated with bronze 
rosettes. A rich veneer of marble slabs over the constructive 
brickwork of the walls complements the unrivaled abstract 
unity of the general form. 

Temple inclosures. Although many early temples in Rome, 



120 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

and their successors on the same sites, stood directly on the 
borders of the Forum, it was preferred in later days to follow 
the practice of Hellenistic Greece and place the temple in a 
colonnaded inclosure, serving both to give shelter to the 
worshippers who watched the sacrifice and to heighten the 
architectural effect. At Pompeii, in the precinct of Apollo, 
this arrangement was a legacy from the Greek days of the 
town; in Rome it came in, with the peripteral temple, in the 
Forum of Caesar, which was at the same time a temple 
inclosure (Fig. 44 [B]). Later architects were not contented 
with the simple rectangular plan. In the Forum of Augustus 
they introduced great segmental exedrae to right and left; 
in the temple of Jupiter at Baalbek in Syria they added a 
second, hexagonal court in front of the principal one. 

Size of temples. In size the temples varied as much as those 
of Greece, and within much the same limits. No Greek 
temple, however, rivaled the one at Baalbek in the complexity 
and extent of its accessories, with which it covered in all a 
space a thousand by four hundred feet. 

Fora. The forum served at first for all forms of trade as 
well as for political assembly, and this remained true in the 
smaller towns. In the cities, and especially in Rome, the 
volume of trade forced the institution of subordinate fora for 
various classes of goods, leaving the forum civile for the bankers 
and for general business intercourse. About it were grouped 
the principal public buildings (Fig. 43). Thamugadi (Tim- 
gad), a colony planted by Trajan in Africa, shows the form 
which might be selected for the forum in imperial times, in a 
case where all was planned from the beginning a square 
court surrounded by an unbroken peristyle. In Rome, the 
supplementary fora civilia built by the emperors culminated 
in that of Trajan, designed by Apollodorus of Damascus, 
which included a vast complex of buildings for varied uses 
(Fig. 44 [F]). It followed in disposition, as has been recog- 
nized, the Egyptian temple scheme. First came a broad court, 
the forum proper, surrounded on three sides by a colonnade, 
on the flanks of which were enormous exedrae bordered with 
shops. Across the further side of the court, like the hypostyle 
hall of the Egyptian temple, lay a basilica of unequaled 
extent; beyond it, like the Egyptian sanctuary, was the temple 



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FIG. 44 ROME. THE FORUM ROMANUM AND THE FORA OF THE 
EMPERORS. PLAN. (RESTORED BY GROMORT) 



(A) Forum Romanum 

(B) Forum of Julius Caesar 

(C) Forum of Augustus 

(D) Forum of Vespasian 

(E) Forum Transitorium 

(F) Forum of Trajan 



(G) Area Capitolina 

(H) Comitium 

(1) Tabularium 

(2) Curia 

(3) Basilica Julia 

(4) Basilic^ /Emilia 



(5) Basilica of Maxentiu.? 

(Constantine) 

(6) Temple of Venus Genetrlx 

(7) Temple of Mars the 

Avenger 

(8) Basilica Ulpia 



122 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

of Trajan, surrounded by a second, oblong inclosure. Even 
the pylon and the obelisk had their counterparts in the monu- 
mental arch which gave access to the first court and the 
triumphal column which stood at the entrance to the second. 
There was a variety and technical dexterity of planning 
which the Egyptian prototypes had lacked. 

Adjuncts of the forum. As adjuncts to the Forum Romanum, 
which remained the political center, were the Curia or senate 
house, the Comitium for the meeting of the assembly, and the 
Rostrum from which orators addressed the populace. This 
platform, which stood at the end of the principal space toward 
the Capitol, was richly decorated with sculptured parapets 
and small commemorative columns, as well as with the ships' 
prows which gave it its name. On the pavement of the forum 
itself was a forest of statues, and such triumphal arches and 
columns as could find place, making, with the fagades of 
temples and basilicas, an effect as rich as those of the national 
sanctuaries of Greece. 

Basilicas. The basilicas, which served the varied neces- 
sities of intercourse under cover, were not uniform in plan, 
but were in general buildings of spacious interior, with col- 
umnar supports, not narrow and open on one side like a 
gallery or stoa, but broad and inclosed, like a hall. In Greece 
there were already a few buildings which fall under this 
definition, though they were not designated by the same name. 
They belonged both to the Greek type of plan, a deep hall 
with longitudinal colonnades, and an apse opposite the 
entrance, and to the Oriental type, a broad hall with an 
interior peristyle. In Rome the existing monuments also 
include examples of both types, to neither of which can a 
chronological priority be assigned. The Oriental type counted 
among its representatives two of the most conspicuous build- 
ings, the Basilica Julia in the Forum Romanum and the Basil- 
ica Ulpia in the Forum of Trajan (see Fig. 44 [3] and [8]). The 
Basilica Julia turned its long, principal facade to the Forum 
and was lined on the rear by a range of shops. Between was 
an oblong hall surrounded by two concentric vaulted corri- 
dors in two stories, of an ordonnance similar to that of the 
Tabularium. The impossibility of securing sufficient light in 
the central hall through the lateral openings gives rise to the 



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 123 

assumption that its ceiling was raised on a clerestory with 
windows above the flat roofs of the aisles, as in the Egyptian 
temples and in certain late Greek buildings which show 
Egyptian influence. The building was exceptional in having 
such an open treatment of the exterior, arising partly, doubt- 
less, from a desire for a rich effect suitable to its conspicuous 
position. Similar in its general plan to the Basilica Julia was 
the Basilica Ulpia, in spite of its having columns and lintels in- 
stead of piers and an arch order. The central space, although 
over eighty feet in span, was doubtless covered by a wooden 




FIG. 45 ROME. BASILICA OF MAXENTIUS, OR CONSTANTINE. (RESTORED 

BY D'ESPOUY) 

roof. A unique addition was that of the great apses at 
either end. The Basilica ^Emilia, which forms a pendant to 
the Basilica Julia by its position in the Forum, and owes its 
existing form to much the same time, seems to show the con- 
trary plan of a narrow and deep hall, turning its flank to the 
Forum, and having its galleries along two sides only. The 
same variety could be traced through the provincial examples. 
The basilica of Maxentius. Unique in its structure among the 



124 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

basilicas was one in the Sacred Way begun by Maxentius and 
completed by Constantine (Figs. 44 [5] and 45). A vault was 
substituted for the wooden roof over the nave, the vaulting 
system being taken over almost intact from its earliest repre- 
sentatives, the great halls of the baths in which we shall 
study it. There are but three bays in a length of nearly two 
hundred feet, and the clear span of the nave is over seventy- 
five feet. In spite of the considerable modifications necessary 
in the form of the points of support and of the clerestory, the 
essential scheme of the basilica is recognizable. It belonged 
originally to the Greek type, with aisles along two sides only, 
the entrance on one of the narrow ends, and an apse opposite. 
As completed by Constantine it had a second entrance in 
the center of the broad side toward the Forum, and a second 
apse opposite this, producing a hybrid plan. In the adoption 
of the fire-proof and permanent methods of covering which had 
been developed in other classes of buildings the Basilica of 
Maxentius marks a notable progress, prophetic in many ways 
of the development of the Christian basilica into the mediaeval 
vaulted church. 

Theaters. The preconditions of the development of the 
Roman theater, in its differences from the Greek theater, are 
to be found in the native Italic drama and the method of its 
presentation in early Rome. As the audience at first stood on 
level ground during the performance, the stage had to be of a 
moderate height. As there was no chorus there was no 
necessity for an open space or orchestra before the stage. 
The first inclosed theaters were of wood, doubtless rectangular, 
with seats parallel to the stage and soon arranged in ascend- 
ing tiers (Fig. 46). Stage and auditorium were easily brought 
into architectural unity and under a single roof. No great 
change in principle was involved in the substitution, within the 
rectangular building, of segmental or circular seats, as seen 
in the small theater at Pompeii, built soon after 80 B.C., under 
the influence of the existing Hellenistic theater close by. 
As the dimensions increased, an awning or velarium had to be 
substituted for a wooden roof, but the walls of the building re- 
mained of equal height, and the one at the rear of the stage, 
the seance frons, decorated with columns in imitation of the 
background of the Greek stage, had to be treated in two or 



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 



125 



three stories. This was the state of the Roman theater 
when, just before the end of the republic, a single building 
established the final form. 

Stone theaters in Rome. The theater of Pompey, the first 
stone theater in Rome, built in 55 B.C., is stated to have fol- 
lowed the model of the theater at Mitylene. The features de- 
rived from this prototype, however, can have been merely 




FIG. 46 SCHEMATIC REPRESENTATION OF THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE 
ROMAN THEATER. (FIECHTER) 

(B) Stage (S) Senatorial seats (C) Cavea (P) Passages (T) Tribunalia 

the general idea of the building, with a vast colonnaded court 
for promenading, and, especially, the dominating circular form 
of the auditorium. With this came the orchestra, which, 
however, was reduced as much as possible, to a semicircle. 
The Roman element retained was the close structural union 
of the auditorium with the stage, the walls of which doubtless 
rose to the full height of the seats. A necessary prerequisite 
for the execution of the auditorium in stone, on a plain, was 
the development of the Roman technique of vaulting, by 
which the seats were supported far above the ground, and by 
which radial openings were left for passages and stairs to 
the upper ranges. For the facade the scheme of the Tabula- 
rium, with arches and columnar decoration, was adopted, as 
later in the Colosseum (Fig. 40). Thus whereas in Greece 
orchestra and circle of seats were the primitive elements and 



126 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

the stage with its accessory buildings was a later development, 
in Rome the stage was the original component, and the 
orchestra and circular auditorium were additions taken over 
from Greece. The product of the synthesis, as exemplified in 
the three great theaters of the city of Rome those of Pompey, 
Marcellus, and Balbus or in the theater at Ostia (Fig. 47), 
was a creation which had its own merits, not only in adaptation 




FIG. 47 OSTIA. THE THEATER. (RESTORED BY ANDRE) 

to the requirements of the Roman drama, but in unity of 
design and splendor of external and internal effect. 

Theaters in the provinces. In the provinces the same scheme 
was repeated, although less ample means usually resulted in 
the use of convenient hillsides to support at least a part of the 
auditorium, as at Verona, and at Orange in France. In most 
of the eastern examples the looseness of connection in plan 
persisted in spite of the adoption of a high stage background. 
At Aspendos in Asia Minor, however, the interior shows the 
full Roman type, with one of the richest developments of the 
sc&na frons. In contrast to most Augustan and later western 
stage backgrounds, which show an ever greater elaboration of 



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 127 

three great niches enframing the doors, this shows the ten- 
dency of the east to multiply openings and columnar subdi- 
visions while retaining the flat wall surface. In both cases the 
scasncB frons was no longer a resultant, a means, but an end in 
itself, resulting only 'remotely from suggestions from the 
drama, treated rather in accordance with the general decora- 
tive conceptions of imperial architecture. 

Amphitheaters. Among the Romans the drama was second- 
ary to the more exciting amusement of gladiatorial com- 
bats, introduced from Campania in the third century and 
held at first in the forum or the circus. In the provision of 
special architectural arrangements for such contests Rome was 
also behind Campania, for in Pompeii an elliptical arena with 
stepped seats was begun soon after 80 B.C., whereas in Rome it 
was not until 58 B.C. that two theater audit oria of wood, facing 
each other, were built to form the first amphitheater of the 
city. The games of Caesar were still celebrated within 
wooden stands, and it was not until the time of Augustus, 
29 B.C., that Rome had its amphitheater in stone. Although 
in Pompeii, however, the arena was largely excavated in the 
earth, and the rear seats were supported on solid masonry, 
in Rome the amphitheater was built up from the plain like 
the theaters, with a richly arcaded exterior. 

The Colosseum. The Flavian amphitheater, known as the 
Colosseum, which succeeded that of Augustus in the years 
70-82 A.D., shows this arrangement in its final and most 
splendid form (Fig. 40) . About the elliptical arena rose three 
successive tiers of seats separated by high parapets, and 
crowned, very probably, by an encircling colonnade. On the 
exterior were, first, three stories of open arcades decorated 
with the arch order, Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian. A fourth- 
story wall, perhaps originally of wood, was treated with 
Corinthian pilasters. Corbels near the top carried wooden 
masts which probably supported the immense velarium, and 
formed the necessary visual crown for the uniformly repeated 
orders below. The regular spacing of the tiers, diminishing 
rhythmically in perspective, and the unbroken sweep of the 
cornices about such a vast surface, gave an unequaled majesty 
and dignity, which justified the identification of the Colosseum 
with the power of Rome itself. Structurally the triumph was 



128 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

no less remarkable. The elliptical plan required every one of 
the radial passages and every foot of the concentric vaults to 
differ from its neighbors, yet much was executed in stone, ac- 
curately cut to the most difficult geometrical shapes. In the 
third arcade, where practical necessities prevented the carry- 
ing of a concentric barrel vault above the arches of the facade, 
as had been done in the previous stories, the vault was dropped 
to the same level as the arches and penetrated by continua- 
tions of them. The resulting form, the groined vault, here 
appearing for the first time in Italy, had general advantages 
which were soon manifest, in that it required for its support, 
not a continuous massive abutment, but isolated piers on 
which the thrusts were concentrated. After the form of the 
amphitheater in the capital, others were erected in the Italian 
and provincial cities, notable remains existing at Verona, 
Nimes, Aries, and many other places. These had seats for 
twenty to twenty-five thousand spectators, while the greatest, 
in Rome and Campania, had a capacity of twice that number. 

Circuses. Mightier still were the circuses for chariot-racing, 
the oldest of Roman amusements, first held in the^ valley 
between the Palatine and the Aventine hills, where in the 
course of years was built the Circus Maximus, with seats 
ultimately for two hundred thousand spectators. The course 
was long and narrow, with a sharp turn like that of the Greek 
stadion, to the seating arrangements of which those of the 
circus also conformed. Down the center of the course was the 
barrier, or spina, separating the stretches, adorned with 
obelisks and monuments; at the end opposite the turn were 
the starting arrangements, with individual cells for each 
chariot, in a segment focussing on the first corner. The 
exterior was on a system like that of the theaters and amphi- 
theaters. 

Baths and therma. The Roman bathing establishments 
progressed from the simplest utilitarian structures to luxurious 
institutions, offering facilities not only for bathing and physical 
exercise, but for the social intercourse of a modern cafe or 
club. Examples from the later days of the republic at 
Pompeii show, at a small scale, the typical complement of 
rooms and their arrangement. A court, or palaestra, for ex- 
ercise was accompanied by a series of rooms in which dif- 



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 129 

ferent temperatures were maintained: the frigidarium, the 
tepidarium, the caldarium. The frigidarium contained the 
cold plunge bath, the caldarium the hot baths, the tepidarium 
served to lessen the shock in passing from one to the other and 




FIG. 48 ROME. THERMAE OF CARACALLA. PLAN. (RESTORED BY BLOUEX) 



(A) Entrance 
(B, B) Porticoes 
(C, C) Private baths? 
(D, D) Vestibules 



(E, E) Apodyteria 

(F, F) Peristyles 

(G) Tepidarium 

(H) Caldarium 



(J) Frigidarium 



(M) 
(N) 



Halls for exercise 

Stadium 

Reservoirs and aqueduct 



also might contain basins for those who found the cold bath 
too severe. A dressing-room the apodyterium and a steam 
bath the laconicum were further desirable features. In 
baths intended for both men and women two suites of these 
rooms were provided, their caldaria abutting near the furnace, 
with the other rooms successively more distant from it. 
The thermos of Caracalla, 2/7 A. D. In the thermae of im- 



i 3 o A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

penal times, initiated by Agrippa, all these features were 
magnified to enormous scale and combined with those of the 
Greek gymnasium. The bathing establishments proper were 
surrounded by vast inclosures with shaded walks, exedrae, and 
areas for various games. Among the dozen thermae in which 
successive emperors tried to outdo one another, those of 
Caracalla are distinguished both by their fair preservation 
and by the logic and the formal interest of their plan (Fig. 48). 
The three principal elernents, each unique, were placed on the 







FIG. 49 ROME. THERMS OF DIOCLETIAN. TEPIDARIUM. (RESTORED 

BY PAULIN) 



main axis in an ascending series, the frigidarium with flat 
ceiling or open to the sky, the tepidarium with groined vaults, 
the caldarium with a dome and niches like those of the Pan- 
theon. To left and right were vestibules and dressing-rooms, 
with two great peristylar palaestras surrounded by minor 
rooms, still of large size. The tepidarium, as the room of 
medium temperature, was seized on as the key to the circula- 
tion of people, and its axis was taken as the principal trans- 
verse line of the plan, prolonged through the peristyles and 
their exedras. Separate access to the courts was provided from 
both front and side, and the rooms of the rear were opened 
freely to the gardens by means of colonnades. The gardens 
themselves had their axes emphasized by the stands opposite 



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 131 

the projecting caldarium, and by subordinate exedrae. The 
variety of form of the units and the rich interplay of the axes 
have been an inspiration for the complex and elaborate plans 
of modern t'mes. 

The tepidarium. Most fruitful for later developments was 
the typical form of the tepidarium, repeated in the baths of 
Diocletian (Fig. 49) for the caldarium as well. Its length was 
divided into three bays marked by enormous columns, each 
with a fragment of entablature which served as impost for 
the groined vaults. These had the form of a longitudinal 
cylinder intersected by three transverse cylinders, spaced a 
short distance apart and projecting slightly beyond the inter- 
sections. The square mass of masonry between the diago- 
nally descending groins rested on the entablatures of the col- 
umns. The entire outward thrust of the vaults, concentrated 
on these points, was sustained by the deep transverse walls 
behind them, which were carried up as visible buttresses high 
above the roofs of the neighboring rooms. These struck in 
at the height of the spring of the vaults, leaving the semi- 
circular spaces beneath the crown free for great clerestory 
windows in each bay and at the ends. The spaces between the 
buttress walls were filled with barrel-vaulted niches, across 
which were carried screens of relatively smaller .columns which 
emphasized the great scale of the main order. As in the 
Pantheon the vaults were richly coffered, the walls incrusted 
with marble. 

Aqueducts. Bridges. The aqueducts which furnished the 
water supply necessary for the baths and for the general use 
of a Roman city were for the most part not on a pressure sys- 
tem, but were carried into the city at a high level after being 
brought with a gradual fall from elevated sources. For a city 
in the midst of a- plain, like the metropolis, this necessitated 
the support of a great length of the water channel at a con- 
siderable height above the ground. The uniform ranges of 
arches on tall piers, by which this necessity was met, show 
construction in stone or concrete devoid of every extraneous 
ornament, yet impressive by the ruggedness of the material 
and the straightforwardness with which constructive methods 
are confessed. Where the aqueduct had to be carried across 
a deep valley there was an added interest due to the varied size 



A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



of the arches which frankly took advantage of the best footing. 
The most famous instance is the Pont du Gard at Nimes 
(Fig. 50), where there are three ranges of arches one above 
another, the whole a sixth of a mile long and over a hundred 
and fifty feet above the stream in the valley. Of the heavy 
voussdired arches of stone in the two lower ranges, the pair 
over the river are distinguished by a visibly greater width than 
the others, those next the slopes by a corresponding reduction. 




FIG. 5O NIMES. THE " PONT DU CARD" 



The imposts are placed freely at whatever heights the spans 
demanded. The upper range of uniform smaller arches leads 
up to the quiet cadence of the sky-line, like Doric triglyphs 
intermediate between columns and cornice." Much the same 
problems as in the aqueducts recur in the highway bridges, 
and the same division of types recurs. The bridges over wide 
rivers with low banks have a uniform series of arches, some- 
times with the piers lightened by minor arches supporting 
the roadway, as in the Pons Mulvius at Rome; those over 
deep ravines have a single arch or several of sharply graded 
size, as at Narni. The ends of the principal pier might be 
decorated with a monumental arch or a small shrine. 



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 133 

Monuments: the column; the trophy. The desire of the 
Romans for military glorification early caused them to 
appropriate the Greek votive column for monumental use. 
To commemorate a naval victory, Duilius, in 260 B.C., erected 
a column decorated with the prows of captured ships, a rostral 
column, as it was called. The greatest of the columnar 
monuments were those of Trajan and of Marcus Aurelius and 
Faustina, each consisting of a marble Doric shaft on a square 
sculptured pedestal. They carried, at a height of over one 
hundred feet, gilded statues of their founders, and were 
decorated with continuous spiral reliefs celebrating their 
campaigns. From the Greeks also came the custom of erecting 
on the battlefield a trophy of victory, composed of armor and 
weapons, or imitated from them in stone. The possibility 
of a further monumental development of the trophy lay in its 
pedestal, which was elaborated to an even greater extent than 
in the Hellenistic examples. In the trophy of Augustus, near 
Monaco, a circular peristyle in two stories on a tall square 
basement, and with a steep conical roof, supports the trophy 
proper at a great height. 

The arch. A more characteristically native monumental 
type was the commemorative or "triumphal" arch, originally 
of temporary character and perishable materials, erected to 
welcome a returning victor as he passed through Rome in 
triumphal procession. In the imperial period such arches, 
made permanent in stone, were used for various commemora- 
tive purposes, in all parts of the empire. The earliest 
examples, from the time of Augustus, show the arch framed, 
as in the Tabularium and the theaters, by two columns and 
an entablature, perhaps with a pediment. In any case there 
was a pedestal or attic above, serving as a support for statues. 
Soon a second column was added on either side of the original 
pair, inclosing a rectangular field the classic instance being 
the Arch of Titus in Rome (Fig. 51). The columnar 
apparatus, here frankly decorative, is handled with the greatest 
mastery of form. Emphasis is given the central opening by 
the projecting architrave, uniting the inner columns and 
casting a deep shadow over the relief sculpture in the triangular 
spandrels below. The silhouette is enriched by the breaking 
of the entablature about the corner columns, while they are 



134 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

united with their neighbors by the simple pedestal which quiets 
the variety above and rests firmly on the earth. As the 
necessary completion above, one must imagine the quadriga, 
a bronze chariot with four horses and sculptured figures. A 
further development of the monumental arch was the widening 
of the side bays and the insertion of subordinate arches in 
them, as in the Arch of Domitian, near the Colosseum, later 
appropriated by Constantine. Here pedestal and entablature 




FIG. 51 THE ARCH OF TITUS 



break about all four columns, and the unity depends on the 
rhythmical symmetry of the arches. Later, and in the 
provinces, the designers of arches sought to exhaust the 
possibilities of combination of the arch and column. 

Gates. The motives of the triumphal arch were also carried 
over to the city gates, which had often in the days of the 
Roman peace rather a symbolical than a military significance. 
Even a gate which retained its fortified character, like the 
Porta Nigra in Trier on the German frontier, was given a 
monumental expression by columnar adornment (Fig. 52). 



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 

The main openings and the windows of towers and galleries 
are enframed as in the Colosseum, but with greater sternness 
and sobriety. 

Grave monuments. The same instinct that created the 
commemorative columns and arches shows itself in the grave 




FIG. 52 TRIER. PORTA NIGRA 

monuments, which in imperial times took on a magnificence 
even greater than in Hellenistic Greece. Both burial and 
incineration were practised, and richly decorated urns and 
sarcophagi were employed. These were but secondary in 
many cases, however, to large constructions containing the 
tomb chamber, and taking the most varied forms. Patrons 
and artists drew their suggestions from the tombs of every 
people with whom the Romans had come in contact the 
Asiatic and Etruscan tumulus, the Egyptian pyramid, the 
Greek peristylar monument and exedra, the temple, both 
6 



1 36 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

rectangular and circular. All these appeared in rich array 
lining the streets which led across the Campagna from 
the gates of the city. Only in special cases, such as 
those of the emperors, was interment within the walls 
permitted. 

The tumulus type. It was the tumulus, the primitive mound 
of earth, girt at the base by a circular wall of stone, which 




FIG. 53 ROME. MAUSOLEUM OF HADRIAN. (RESTORED BY VAUDREMER) 



was selected by Augustus for his mausoleum, erected on the 
Campus Martius in 28-26 B.C. In this and other Roman 
examples, however, the cylindrical substructure is developed 
into the principal member, and itself raised on a massive square 
pedestal after the manner of the Hellenistic circular monu- 
ments. The mausoleum of Augustus had a marble drum of 
three hundred feet diameter, bearing a cone of earth planted 
with cypress trees and crowned with a colossal statue of the 
emperor. Even more splendid was the mausoleum of Hadrian 
(Fig. 53), which still subsists in the Castle of Sant' Angelo. 



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 137 

Its wall was decorated with an order, its cone was of marble 
steps surmounted by a quadriga. 

The temple type. In the erection of tombs of temple form 
the rectangular type was less employed than the circular. 
The most elaborate was the mausoleum of Diocletian in his 
palace at Spalato, about 300 A.D., the domed interior richly 
membered with superposed columns, the octagonal exterior 
with a peristyle and a projecting portico. As in other tombs 
of this class, the cella was used for memorial services, the 
sarcophagus was deposited in a second chamber below. A 
notable step was taken in the tomb of Constantia, the daughter 
of Constantine the Great, who died in 354. The wall on 
which the dome rests is broken through, and instead of the 
arched niches there are deep arches supported on pairs of 
columns united in the thickness of the wall by an entablature. 
The central space is surrounded by a continuous aisle, the 
clerestory of the basilica is carried over into a circular building, 
creating new spatial effects of which Christian architecture 
was to make great use (Fig. 71). 

Domestic architecture. The Roman town house may best 
be studied at Pompeii, where the debris of the eruption of 
Vesuvius, 79 A.D., has preserved almost intact a great number 
of dwellings of every class, ranging over a period of three 
hundred years. The type of plan was already essentially 
fixed in the second century B.C., and varied less with time than 
with the means of the owner and the exigencies of the site. 
The poorer folk, many of whom in Rome were crowded in high 
tenements, here lived over their shops along the street, or had 
a small atrium and a couple of rooms of their own. The 
middle class had still to content themselves with the arrange- 
ments which served for the best in the earlier days of the 
republic an atrium and surrounding rooms with a small 
walled garden at the rear. The entrance was by a narrow 
passage between rented shops. The atrium was a large 
oblong room with a roof sloping inward to a central opening, 
generally of the Tuscan type, supported on beams from wall 
to wall. Primitively this had been the principal living-room, 
containing the hearth, the smoke of which escaped through a 
small opening in the roof. With the transition to urban 
conditions the size of the opening was increased to light the 



138 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



surrounding rooms, with the result that more sheltered living- 
rooms had to be provided. To left and right of the atrium 
were small sleeping-rooms, cubicula, opening from it. Behind 
these, forming lateral extensions of the atrium, were two 
alcoves or ales, put to various uses, survivals perhaps of the 

day when the house stood 
isolated, and light could be 
introduced from the sides. 
At the rear was the tablinum, 
the reception-room, used 
also in smaller houses as a 
family living-room. A 
second story, with minor 
rooms, was sometimes added. 
Larger houses. In the 
houses of a wealthier class 
not only was the atrium en- 
larged, but the entire ap- 
paratus of a Hellenistic 
house on the Delian model, 
with peristyle, exedras, and 
triclinium, or dining-room 
with three couches, was 
added to the rear. Four 
columns were often added 
at the corners of the atrium 
opening, creating the tetra- 
style type of which Vitruvius 
speaks, or even more than 
four, making the room like 
a Greek court, as appears 
FIG. 54 POMPEII. HOUSE OF PANSA. in the name, Corinthian 
PLAN atrium, then applied to it. 

The family came more to 
leave the original atrium to 
clients and visitors, and to withdraw to the rooms surround- 
ing the peristyle, which were supplemented perhaps by a 
second atrium, beside the first, about which the domestic 
apartments were grouped. The most elaborate houses filled 
an entire block, with a more extensive garden behind the 




(A) Atrium 

(B) Impluvium 



(C) Peristyle 

(D) (Ecus 



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 139 

peristyle. Such a one, showing a high development of the 
Pompeian house in differentiation of functions and guarding 
of privacy, is the so-called House of Pansa (Fig. 54). 

Decoration of houses. To the exterior the houses turned a 
blank, plastered wall, with few small windows, perhaps a 
richer door frame. The interior walls, on the other hand, 
where they could not be of costly marbles, were richly painted, 
at first in imitation of these, later with mythological scenes, 
in a setting of attenuated architectural forms which were 
suggested in the first instance by the architectural decorations, 
of the stage. 

Villas. In more intimate relation to the landscape were the 
villas on the outskirts of the city, with terraced courtyards, 
gardens, and orchards. Others, less formal, served as retreats 
in the country or by the seaside. The larger villas went far 
beyond the satisfaction of practical needs, with luxurious 
provision for dining, bathing, exercise, and amusement. 
Especially was this true of the imperial villas, of which the 
villa of Hadrian at Tivoli gives the best idea (Fig. 55). It 
included, besides the living quarters and festal suites, reproduc- 
tions of the most famous buildings of Greece and of the Orient, 
capriciously strewn over a picturesque topography. There 
were two theaters, libraries, a stadium, thermae, a so-called 
academy, and a long canal, bordered by porticoes and 
terminated by a great niche, in imitation of Canopus, a suburb 
of Alexandria. The imitations seem to have been less literal 
than suggestive, however, as all was executed in Roman 
technique of brick and concrete and designed with a facility 
in the combination of vaults and the composition of plans 
which is purely Roman. 

The palaces of the C&sars. The palaces of the emperors in 
Rome, established on the Palatine Hill (Fig. 56), owe less to 
the Roman house than to the palaces of eastern capitals such 
as Alexandria, Antioch, and Pergamon. Begun by Augustus, 
they were extended by Tiberius and many later emperors, 
especially Domitian, who built the great series of state apart- 
ments in the center. Caligula sought to connect the Palatine 
with the Capitol by a bridge, to secure easier access to the 
temple of Jupiter Capitolinus; Nero united the imperial 
gardens on the Esquiline with the Palatine by building in the 



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 141 

intervening valley, where the Colosseum later stood, his 
Golden House with its luxurious park. Though these exten- 
sions were not permanent, the Palatine itself was covered with 
magnificent buildings, including several temples. The state 



H -- 
..;br4-,..; 
-t,-,-l.^.-,1: :r 

" 




FIG. 56 ROME. PALACES OF THE CAESARS. PLAN. (RESTORED BY 

DEGLANE) 



apartments formed an oblong block fronted with a long 
colonnade toward the central area. In the center of the fagade 
was the audience-room, having a barrel vault a hundred feet 
in span, the walls richly adorned with columns and niches. 
To right and left were the basilica or imperial tribunal, the 
lararium or private chapel. Behind this suite lay a square 
peristyle, at the rear a triclinium, opening into supplementary 



1 42 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

rooms. The private apartments of the emperor occupied 
another block centering on a court ; beyond them was the so- 
called Stadium, an inclosed garden surrounded by porticoes 
and dominated by a great vaulted exedra. 

The palace of Diocletian at Spalato. A very different 
arrangement is that of the Palace of Diocletian (Fig. 57) at 
Spalato in Dalmatia, on the shores of the Adriatic, to which 
the emperor retired in 305 on laying down his authority. The 




FIG. 57 SPALATO. PALACE OF DIOCLETIAN. (RESTORED BY HEBRARD) 



security of the empire was no longer certain, the palace followed 
the lines of a fortified camp. It forms a rectangular walled 
inclosure quartered by two colonnaded streets at right angles, 
with gates and towers at the middle points of the landward 
sides. Along the seaward face runs a long colonnade behind 
which are the imperial apartments, also reached from a 
monumental vestibule at the head of the longitudinal street. 
Next them, fronting each other in balancing inclosures which 
filled the remainder of this half of the palace, are a temple, 
serving as the imperial chapel, and the mausoleum for the 
emperor. Beyond the transverse streets are quarters for 
service and for the guards; around the outer walls are store- 



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 143 

chambers, reached from a passage which makes the circuit. 
In the forms of detail eastern influence is seen, and the develop- 
ments of late Roman architecture in new relations of arch and 
column appear most clearly (Fig. 59). 

Ensembles, town planning. The Romans of imperial times 
were not satisfied even with the extended and complex 
symmetry which they had given to individual units such as 
the palaces, thermae, and fora, but sought to organize their 
relations to one another and to give the whole city a coherent 
plan. Rome as a whole was too vast and too consecrated 
for this, but in certain portions a unification was effected. 
Thus a splendid fagade, ingeniously planned, was built before 
the irregular buildings of the Palatine, to give them a sym- 
metrical aspect from the Circus Maximus. More fundamental 
was the consistent treatment of the island in the Tiber, to 
suggest a vast galley, with prow and stern. Its buildings 
were disposed about a series of connected courts, artfully 
devised to mask the actual irregularity of the plan. On a far 
greater scale were the harbor works and warehouses of Ostia, 
at the mouth of the Tiber, of which the hexagonal Port of 
Trajan surrounded by uniform buildings was the most 
systematic. Newly founded towns, especially those of a 
semi-military character like Augusta Praetoria (Aosta), in the 
foothills of the Alps, and Thamugadi (Timgad) in Africa were 
laid out in rectangular form bisected by the principal streets 
with others parallel to them. They marked a formal progress 
over Hellenistic towns in the regularity of their outline as well 
as of their minor subdivisions. 

Individual forms. Although the individual forms of Roman 
architecture fall behind their combinations in interest, as 
behind the forms of the Greeks in originality, they were 
by no means slavish imitations. In many instances a 
further formal development took place, in others, new 
structural functions produced new or modified expressions. 
For purely utilitarian purposes, post, lintel, and arch were 
used without ornament in a manner as simple and as 
effective as the primitive system of the waiting-hall of the 
pyramid of Khafre in Egypt. In Roman Africa and Syria 
are many instances of square monolithic piers with square 
lintels, repeated perhaps in several stories, which, like the 



i 4 4 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

arches of the aqueducts, have no other treatment than the 
constructive membering. 

Walls, doors, windows. The problems of a richer expression 
for the wall and for the post and lintel had already been solved 
in an exemplary way by the Greeks, whose solutions were too 
accessible and too authoritative to be ignored. In these 
features the innovations of the Romans were relatively minor. 
They made more frequent employment of grooved or rusticated 
joints, of cap and base moldings, following the Hellenistic 
tendencies. The profiles of their moldings were less studied 
and subtle, conforming more closely to arcs of circles than to 
elliptical arcs and other conic sections. Doors and windows 
followed late Greek examples in having a molded architrave 
of stone. A frieze and cornice were often added, sometimes 
elaborated by the addition of curved brackets or consoles, or 
of a pediment. For windows and niches an even richer treat- 
ment was devised, the tabernacle of two free standing columns 
with an entablature and pediment triangular or segmental 
best seen in the interior of the Pantheon (Fig. 42). 

The Doric order. The Doric order, whether in its Greek or 
its Tuscan form, was little used in imperial times, except in the 
lower stories of buildings with superposed orders, where its 
relative massiveness still gave it the preference. An occasional 
example shows the echinus of the capital ornamented with 
egg and dart and the other members multiplied and enriched. 
The difficulties created by the corner triglyph were overcome 
in imperial times by placing it on the axis of the column in 
spite of its leaving a fragment of metope beyond, thus 
sacrificing functional expression to formal regularity. In the 
amphitheaters, with their continuous unbroken sweep, this 
problem did not arise. 

The Ionic order. The Ionic order followed the precedents 
of Hermogenes in having always a frieze, and a capital with 
relatively small volutes and a low connecting band, which in 
Roman examples finally lost all its curvature. The Attic base 
was preferred. The angular capital originated by Iktinos, 
with volutes on all four sides projecting diagonally, was 
frequently employed where the colonnade had corners to 
turn. 

The Corinthian order. The Corinthian order was the one 



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 

which comported best with the love of magnificence which 
the imperial Romans shared with the Hellenistic monarchs, 
and was used almost exclusively in the later monuments. 
The scheme of capital generally preferred was that of the 
example from Epidaurus, 
with two alternating 
rows of eight leaves each, 
but the spirit of the ex- 
ecution was bolder, the 
leafage more luxuriant. 
Each building still fur- 
nished a problem for it- 
self and showed its own 
design of capital. Among 
the many superb ex- 
amples, that of the 
temple of Castor and 
Pollux in the Forum 
Romanum may be given 
as representative (Fig. 
58). A second common 
type was that of the 
Temple of Vesta at 
Tivoli, with the upper 
leaves close down on the 
lower, and with a 
crinkled, parsley -like 
serration. A variant of 
the Corinthian was the 
so-called Composite 
capital in which the 
echinus and diagonal 
scrolls of an angular 

Ionic capital were placed above the rows of leaves, as in the 
Arch of Titus. This attempt to secure still greater richness in- 
volved a sacrifice of the organic connection of scrolls and leaf- 
age in the original. In the Corinthian entablature the dentils 
became secondary to great brackets or modillions, sometimes 
treated as molded blocks, sometimes as scrolls decorated with 
leafage, as in the Temple of Castor and Pollux. In the temples 




FIG. 58 ROME. CORINTHIAN CAPITAL 
AND ENTABLATURE FROM THE TEMPLE 
OF CASTOR AND POLLUX. (RESTORED 
CAST IN THE METROPOLITAN MUSEUM) 



i 4 6 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

at Baalbek there are consoles in the frieze as well. Entablature 
and capital alike took part in the stylistic developments of 
the imperial period the passion for decoration of the Flavians, 
the puristic reaction under Hadrian and the Antonines. The 
temple of Antoninus and Faustina, 141 A.D., has neither 
modillioGB nor dentils. 

Pilasters. The Roman counterpart of the anta was the 
pilaster, which, instead of being studiously distinguished from 
the column in width of side and profile of capital, was imitated 
directly from it. Late Hellenistic and republican buildings 
show the pilaster used not only to respond to the columns of a 
temple portico but to form a similar termination at the rear 
corners of the cella, and to continue the rhythm of the spacing 
between in the same manner that engaged columns were used. 
Pilasters were used also, instead of engaged columns, in various 
buildings of the empire where lack of means or a desire for less 
accentuation suggested the substitution. 

The arch. In the formal elaboration of the arch and its 
combination with the column the Romans had new problems, 
the solution of which, as we have seen, occupied the whole 
course of their history. After the simple treatment of republi- 
can times in which a projecting molded course of stone was 
added at the outside of the voussoirs, the voussoirs themselves 
were rpslded to form an archivolt, a ring having a section 
like thaft Aof the columnar architrave. In a similar way the 
impost was given a form like a capital or bed molding, with 
members suited to the function of support, and the keystone 
was often treated as a console. The enframement of the arch 
by column and lintel, although characteristic of the central 
period of Roman art, was not the final scheme. In the 
Pantheon the entablature itself was used as the impost of an 
arch; at Palmyra it was bent into an archivolt spanning the 
wide central opening of a portico. In the thermse a fragment 
of entablature served to lengthen the column and give a larger 
bearing for the springing of a vault ; in Syria and at Spalato 
this fragment was reduced to a mere molded stilt-block, and 
finally omitted altogether, so that the arches came down 
directly on the heads of the columns (Fig, 59). The column 
thus gradually attained a relation with the arch as structural 
as its original relation with the lintel. 



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE i 47 

Wall membering. The relation of the columnar form to 
wall membering proceeded in the opposite direction from the 
common starting-point; the contradiction of expressions was 
reconciled by removing every structural suggestion and 
leaving the decoration undisguised. In the arch of Domitian 
(Constantine) and in the Forum Transitorium, begun by 




Colosseum Pa.n1heon Thermee SpaUto SpeJolo Spalalo 
Roman arch order Cenr^l niche ofCamcalia. Cerrtral arch PorUx evurca Street arovdc, 
c/OAJX C.125AJ). O.E.15A.D. C.500AJ) 

FIG. 59 DEVELOPMENT IN THE RELATIONS OF ARCH AND COLUMN IN 

ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 



Domitian, the columns, instead of being engaged against the 
wall, stand free in front of it, supporting merely an end of 
entablature and an attic or a statue over it. In the free 
composition of the stage backgrounds this tendency went still 
further; the whole apparatus of colonnettes and tabernacles 
was obviously a mere decorative application. Tabernacle 
work of this sort came more and more to supersede, for the 
enrichment of fagades, the treatment with engaged columns 
of the full height of the wall. In the north gate at Spalato, 
finally, the niches and colonnettes are no longer carried down 
to the ground, but are supported merely on projecting brackets 
or corbels. Meanwhile other forces had been at work. The 
fondness for Greek art in the second century led to the omission 
of any columnar subdivision of the wall in certain cases. The 
temple of Antoninus and Faustina, although prostyle, has 
pilasters only at the corners of the cella. The use of brick and 
concrete, plastered over with stucco, in vast constructions 



148 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

such as the thermae and the Villa of Hadrian, encouraged the 
limitation of membering to the openings, where columns and 
pilasters fulfilled their original functions. The tendency was 
thus, by various paths, toward frankness of constructive ex- 
pression, in spite of conditions far more complex than those in 
which the Greeks had achieved their early structural purism. 

Elements of plan and space. For elements of plan and space 
the Romans drew both on Greece and on the Orient ; they later 
made important contributions of their own. The temple 
cella and the basilica with longitudinal colonnades, the 
exterior peristyle, were of Greek origin ; the peristylar hall and 
court, the clerestory, of Oriental origin. On the other hand, 
the forms suggested by vault construction, the apse, the circle, 
or polygon, with abutting niches, the groin-vaulted rectangle 
with side compartments, were Roman in development. In 
one or two cases a dome was placed over a square room, in the 
form of a circumscribed hemisphere intersected by the planes 
of the four walls in the manner later familiar in the Byzantine 
domical vaults. The forms of vaults were ordinarily kept 
rigidly geometrical, and, in consequence; they often determined 
the precise proportions of the rooms below. Thus with 
groined vaults, in which cylindrical surfaces were employed, 
the line of intersection fell in a plane only when the two 
cylinders were of equal diameter. As a result the Romans 
employed them by preference only over square bays. The 
vaults first made possible a plastic handling of interior space, 
in which wall and ceiling blend in coherent unity, and adjacent 
elements open freely into one another. It was characteristic 
of the Romans to emphasize strongly the predominance of 
the central element of a group, the surrounding units being 
rather shallow bays than long arms, having themselves but 
minor subdivisions. A favorite treatment was with niches 
alternately square and semicircular in plan. 

Architectural treatment of vaults. The vaulted interior 
involved new problems in detail and exterior treatment as 
well as in construction. The vault, like the arch, usually 
received an impost which was either a full entablature, 
supported by an order which enriched the wall below, or else 
a string course composed somewhat on the lines of a cornice. 
The vaultmg surfaces themselves were generally unbroken by 



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 149 

any projecting ribs, having merely a recessed pattern of 
coffers (Fig. 42). Externally, barrel vaults were generally 
covered by gable roofs. Groined vaults at large scale, as in 
the tepidaria, had lateral gables over each bay, intersecting 
the main longitudinal roof and producing valleys by which 
the rain was discharged over each pier. The tendency was 
increasingly to rest the tiles of the roofs directly on the massive 
shell of the vaults, fashioned in inclined planes to receive them. 
In the case of large domes, like that of the Pantheon, the curved 
form was retained on the exterior, the upper portion being a 
saucer-like zone girded by several monumental steps, which 
carried the visual support to the high exterior wall. 

Construction in brick and concrete. For the vast under- 
takings at the capital, and in other parts of the empire where 
stone was not rendered by natural conditions the inevitable 
building material, methods of construction were developed 
which lent themselves admirably to the scale of operations 
and to the character of the labor supply. A building of the 
extent of the thermae of Caracalla could not be erected wholly 
by skilled craftsmen as, relatively, the Parthenon had been, 
nor could it be built wholly of marble. The methods used in 
the mass of the construction had to be adapted to large forces 
of slaves and unskilled men, directed by trained superin- 
tendents. These conditions were happily fulfilled by the 
employment of brick, with mortar often so thick as to produce 
practically a concrete, or of concrete in which the cement 
itself was the essential element, binding an aggregate of loose 
and small materials into a monolith. The volcanic pozzolana 
furnished a cement which left nothing to be desired in strength 
and quickness of setting. 

Wall construction. The Roman bricks were very large, 
usually square, about a foot on a side, but often triangular, 
to secure a better bond between face and backing. In some 
walls the bricks were left to form the final exterior surface, but 
more usually they were covered with a coating of stucco or 
a veneer of marble slabs. Walls of concrete were constructed 
by depositing or pouring the mixture, in a semi-liquid state, 
into temporary forms built of wood, which were devised so 
that as much as possible of the lumber could be used repeatedly. 
They were usually faced with brick or stone fragments in 



150 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Some form, and then generally coated or veneered in the same 
manner as brick walls. The kinds of facing received special 
names according to the pattern produced on the surface 
opus reticulatum for small squares of stone standing on their 
corners in diagonal lines, opus spicatum for kernel-shaped 
fragments in herringbone pattern while the general name of 
opus incertum was reserved for a treatment with fragments 
of no regular form. Bonding courses of brick .were often laid 
at intervals to tie the facings firmly to the body of the wall, 
and angles were sometimes reinforced with brick or stone in 
the form of quoins, or blocks of alternating length toothed 
into the mass. 

Vault construction. In the construction of vaults the use 
of small materials in thick mortar presents constructive 
advantages greater even than in the construction of walls, for 
it obviates greater difficulties in the individual shaping of the 
elements. A vault of concrete alone, however, lacks any 
arching action until it has set, and bears with its full weight 
on the temporary wooden form or centering, which has to be 
correspondingly cumbersome and wasteful. The Romans 
worked to avoid this by constructing first, over light centering, 
a framework of brick arches, with projections or cells to secure 
a good bond with the concrete, a great part of the weight of 
which was thus removed from the wooden supports (Fig. 60) . 
In groined vaults of this sort ribs of brick reinforced the chief 
constructive lines; in domes they followed principally the 
elements of the surface. Once the concrete had thoroughly 
hardened, of course, such ribs of brick had fulfilled their 
purpose and no longer served any special structural function, 
being merged in the mass of the vault. Coffers were even cut 
through them without affecting stability. A second principle 
was sometimes followed which did not demand even an 
unbroken surface in the centering, but required merely a light 
form of slats spaced openly. Over these was laid a layer of 
flat tiles, touching each other only at their edges yet strongly 
cemented; over these another and perhaps another, forming 
a skin of no great thickness but of surprising strength (Fig. 61). 
This supported the concrete placed upon it until it had 
hardened, and formed a permanent interior facing to the 
vault. 



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 



Ornament. In their enrichment of moldings and surfaces 
the Romans followed, as in so many other matters, the 
tendencies initiated by the Asiatic Greeks. The moldings, 
like those of the Greek Ionic order, were carved in marble with 
decorative forms suggested by their profiles. The egg and 
dart and other familiar forms recur, made fuller and rounder 
in harmony with the moldings themselves, and more luxuriant 








FIG. 6O ROMAN CELLULAR VAULT. 
(CHOISY) 



FIG. 6l ROMAN LAMINATED 
VAULT. (CHOISY) 



in accordance with Roman taste. In place of the painted 
polyChromy of the Greeks came a polychromy of richly 
colored marbles, especially in interiors, which was more 
sumptuous and had the advantage of permanence. Shafts of 
columns, pavements and walls, exhibited variegated and 
precious materials employed not only with mastery of pattern 
and color, but with discriminating avoidance of structural 
pretense. Dark and richly veined shafts were left unfluted to 
exhibit the beauty of their material. For the veneering of 
brick or concrete walls marble blocks were sawn thin to make 
the most of limited material, and large slabs were applied with 
a freedom of jointing and an absence of bond that gave no 
false suggestion of ashlar masonry. 

Local variety. Although the official art of the capital was 
diffused through the empire in much the same way as the 
official Latin tongue, this did not preclude the existence of 
provincial varieties or dialects, or the maintenance in the more 
civilized East of a Greek tradition which held its own with 
Roman developments. 

The West. Provence. Germany. In the West it was less 



152 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

any survival of pre-existing styles than the influence of the 
available materials which resulted in special characteristics 
in certain localities, and these were naturally rather in matters 
of construction than in matters of form. Thus in Provence, 
the Rhone valley region in the south of France, an abundance 
of fine limestone and an absence of clay gave rise to many 
technical expedients. In the lower arcade of the amphitheater 
at Aries a flat ceiling of long slabs is substituted for the usual 
concentric barrel vault; in the upper arcade radial barrel 
vaults are supported on stone beams spanning the corridor. 
The barrel vaults, in this and other instances, do not have 
their stones bonded together lengthwise, but are made up of 
independent rings of voussoirs side by side, which could be 
erected one by one on a movable centering used over and over. 
In the so-called Baths of Diana at Nimes the rings are not kept 
in a single cylindrical surface, but the alternate ones rest on 
those between, and could thus be laid on them afterward 
without any centering of their own. In Germany the more 
severe climate led to a greater degree of inclosure and the 
adoption of devices for artificial heating. The thermae and 
the palace of Constantine at Trier are lacking in colonnaded 
openings to the exterior, and have double outer walls with 
exceptional facilities for circulating warm air in the cavities. 
Although late constructive developments in general were 
tending to require massive outer walls as a support for vaults, 
it is not fanciful to suppose in these instances an influence from 
climate also. 

The East. Syria. The East had itself furnished the 
originals for many Roman forms and types, and continued to 
contribute to them during the imperial period. On the other 
hand certain arrangements of Roman origin, like the closed 
theater with its union of seats and stage, found their way 
eastward. Besides buildings purely * Greek, like many of the 
temples, and purely Roman, like the Odeion of Herodes 
Atticus in Athens, every degree of mixture appears, as in the 
Greek theaters to which Roman stages were added. In 
Egypt the ancient native art still persisted for religious 
buildings, as in Hellenistic days. A hotbed of eastern develop- 
ments was Syria, in touch with the interior of Asia where a 
new artistic fermentation was beginning. Of the cities which 




FIG. 62 MOUSMIEH. PR^TORIUM. (DE VOGUE) 



154 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

reflected Hellenistic architecture, Palmyra, the flourishing 
caravan station of the oasis in the Syrian desert, still gives a 
vivid picture. The principal, streets are lined from end to 
end with tall Corinthian columns, forming porticoes on either 
side with richly profiled arches at the intersections and 
termini. The details of the temples there and at Baalbek 
show the new spirit that, coming from the Orient and 
spreading westward, broke through the clas'sical canons. 
At Palmyra the entablature springs as an arch over the 
wide central opening of the portico; at Baalbek the carv- 
ing loses the projection and play of surface always char- 
acteristic of Greek and Graeco-Roman ornament and tends 
to be incised below the plane of the surrounding sur- 
face the background plane disappears. In other Syrian 
buildings, especially in the woodless Hauran district, the 
departures from the style of the capital are still more 
marked. The praetorium or guard -house at Mousmieh 
(Fig. 62) has vaults resting on columns with only a block, 
instead of a classic entablature, above them; the basilica 
at Chaqqua is roofed entirely with stone slabs resting on 
arches as devoid of extraneous adornment and as freely 
adapted to their constructive functions as those of the 
bridges and aqueducts. 

Influence of Roman architecture. The wide diffusion of 
Roman architecture, its magnificent associations, and its 
flexibility in meeting new and complex problems makes it 
easy to understand the wide influence which it exercised, both 
on the peoples who immediately succeeded to the Roman 
possessions and on those who sought, many centuries later, 
to revive Roman culture. Under the Byzantine rulers of 
the East the empire still lived on, and its architecture - 
had a direct continuance, though its forms were rapidly 
modified by forces already at work there. In the West 
the Christian monuments of the last emperors furnished 
the point of departure for the architecture of the Teutonic 
invaders, the indebtedness of which to Rome is well sug- 
gested by the name Romanesque. 



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 155 

PERIODS OF ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 

All buildings are in the city of Rome unless otherwise stated. 

Early republican period, to about 300 B.C. Etruscan influence- 
First temple of Jupiter Capitolinus, dedication ascribed to 

510 B.C. 

Sack of Rome by the Gauls, 390 B.C. 
"Wall of Servius." 



Cloaca Maxima. 



Fourth century B.C.? 



"Arch of Augustus" at Perugia. 
Aqueduct of Appius Claudius, 312 B.C. 

II. Later republican period, about 300 B.C. to 50 B.C. Greek 

influence. 
Conquest of Magna Graecia by 272, Sicily by 241; destruction 

of Corinth, 146; Province of Asia organized, 133 B.C. 
Rostral column of Duilius, 260 B.C. 
Basilica of Cato the Censor, 184 B.C. 
Bridge of ^milius, 179-142 B.C. 
Pons Mulvius, rebuilt no B.C. 
Porticoes of Forum at Pompeii, before 100 B.C. 
Temple of Hercules at Cori, soon after 100 B.C. 
Basilica at Pompeii, before 80 B.C. 
Small theater at Pompeii, 80 B.C. 
Amphitheater at Pompeii, after 80 B.C. 
Tabularium, 78 B.C. 

Temple of "Fortuna Virilis." 1 Toward middle of the first 
Circular temple at Tivoli. J century B.C. 

First amphitheater in Rome (of wood), 58 B.C. 
Theater of Pompey, 55 B.C. 

III. Imperial period, about 50 B.C. to 350 A.D. Oriental influence. 

Basilica Julia and Forum of Julius, dedicated (unfinished) 

46 B.C. 

Amphitheater of Statilius Taurus, 30-29 B.C. 
Augustus, 27 B.C.-I4 A.D. 

Mausoleum of Augustus, 28-26 B.C. 

"Baths of Diana," Nimes, 25 B.C. 

Theater of Marcellus, dedicated n B.C. 

Forum of Augustus and Temple of Mars the Avenger, 
dedicated 2 B.C. 

"Maison Carree," Nimes, 4 A.D. 

Thermae of Agrippa. 

Pont du Gard, Nimes. 



156 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Nero, 54-68 A.D. 

Burning of Rome, 64 A.D. 
" Golden House" of Nero, 64 /. 
Flavian emperors (Vespasian, Titus, Domitian), 69-96 A.D. 

Greatest richness of detail. 
Colosseum, 70-82 A.D. 

Destruction of Pompeii and Herculaneum, 79 A.D. 
Temple of Vespasian, 80 A.D. 
Arch of Titus, dedicated 81 A.D. 
Palace of the Flavians on the Palatine. 
Arch of Domitian. 

Forum Transitorium, completed by Nerva, 98 A.D. 
"Good emperors." 
Nerva, 96-98 A.D. 
Trajan, 98-117 A.D. 

Thamugadi (Timgad) founded 100 A.D. 
Forum of Trajan and Basilica Ulpia, dedicated 113 A.D. 
Column of Trajan, 113-117 A.D. 
Thermae of Trajan. 
Port of Trajan at Ostia. 

Hadrian, 117-138 A.D. Return to Hellenism in details. 
Pantheon, 120-124 A.D., modified 202 A.D. 
Mausoleum of Hadrian. 
Villa of Hadrian at Tivoli. 
Temple of Venus and Rome. 
Temple of Castor and Pollux. 
Antoninus Pius, 138-61 A.D. 

Temple of Antoninus and Faustina, 141 A.D. 
Buildings of Herodes Atticus in Greece, c. 140-160 A.D. 
Principal group at Baalbek. 
Marcus Aurelius, 161-80 A.D. 

Column of Marcus Aurelius/ 
Septimius Severus, 193-211 A.D. 

Arch of Severus. 
Caracalla, 211-17 A - D - 

Thermae of Caracalla. 
Gallienus, 260-68 A.D. 

Porta Nigra, Trier, c. 260. 
Aurelian, 270-75 A.D. 

Wall of. Aurelian. 
Diocletian, 284-305 A.D. 
Thermae of Diocletian. 
Palace of Diocletian at Spalato. 



ROMAN ARCHITECTURE 157 

Maxentius, 306-312 A.D. 

Basilica of Maxentius (Constant! ne). 
Constantine, 306-337 A.D. 

Arch of Domitian rebuilt, 312 A.D. 

Christianity made the state religion, 330 A.D. 

Capital removed to Constantinople (Byzantium). 

Tomb of Constantia (died 354 A.D.). 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

The most authoritative general account of Roman architecture 
is J. Durm's Baukunst der Etrusker und Romer, 2d ed., 1905 (Hand- 
buck der Architektur, pt. II, vol. i), which also supplies references to 
discussions of individual questions and monuments. Anderson and 
Spiers's Architecture of Greece and Rome, 2d ed., 1907, and F. 
Noack's Baukunsi des Altertums, 1910, are richly illustrated, both 
arranged primarily by classes of buildings. General works containing 
measured drawings of Roman buildings are A. Desgodetz's Les 
edifices antiques de Rome, first published 1682 and several times re- 
issued; G. L. Taylor and E. Cresy's The Architectural Antiquities of 
Rome, 2 vols., 1821-22; Restaurations des monuments antiques, 8 vols., 
1877-90; H. d'Espouy's Fragments d' architecture antique, 2 vols., 
1896-1905; Monuments antiques, vols. 2 and 3, 191012. 

Among studies of special types or problems may be mentioned 
G. Leroux's Les origines de V edifice hypostyle, 1913 (for the basilicas); 

E. R. Fiechter's Die baugeschichtliche Entwicklung des antiken Thea- 
ters, 1914; A. Choisy's L'art de bdtir chez les Romains, 1873 (for 
constructive methods); P. Gusman's Uart decoratif de Rome, 1908; 

F. Haverfield's Ancient Town Planning, 1913. A. Mau's Pompeii, 
translated by F. W. Kelsey, 2d ed., 1902, is especially important for 
Roman domestic architecture and interior decoration. 

The unique importance of the city of Rome and the wide geo- 
graphical distribution of Roman architecture makes topographical 
works of special importance. Detailed lists of those published down 
to its date are contained in K. Sittl's Archdologie der Kunst, 1895 
(Handbuch der klassischen Altertums-Wissenschaft, vol. 6). Recent 
works covering the city of Rome are H. Jordan and Chr. Hiilsen's 
Topographie der Stadt Rom, 2 vols. in 4, 1871-1907 (the most au- 
thoritative work for the sections covered by the latest volume); 
and S. B. Platner's Topography and Monuments of Ancient Rome, 
2d ed., 1911. The panorama published by J. Buhlmann and 
H. Wagner, Das alte Rom, 1892, gives a graphic idea of the city in the 
time of Constantine. For the other principal regions see A. L. 



1 58 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Frothingham's Roman Cities in Italy and Dalmatia, 1910; T. A. 
Cook's Old Provence, 2 vols., 1905; Lancoronski's Stadte Pamphyliens 
und Pisidiens, 2 vols., 1890-92 ; H. C. Butler's Architecture in Northern 
Central Syria and the Djebel-Hauran, 1903; A. Graham's Roman 
Africa, 1902; and S. Gsell's Les monuments antiques de VAlgerie, 
2 vols., 1901. 

Of the Roman treatises on architecture preserved from antiquity 
the most useful editions in English are Vitruvius's Ten Books on 
Architecture, translated by M. H. Morgan, 1914; and Frontinus's 
Two Books on the Water Supply of the City of Rome, translated, with 
explanatory chapters, by C. Herschel, 1899. 



CHAPTER VI 
EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE 

The medieval point of view. As we approach the study of 
early Christian architecture, and indeed of all medieval 
architecture, we must note at the outset a change in the point 
of view of the designer and builder which strongly impresses 
the finished work. Medieval architecture, compared with 
earlier and later styles, represents the spontaneous expression 
of the artistic ideals of a community rather than the genius 
of an individual or a number of architects. This does not mean 
that the individual lost all importance, but that his importance 
varied more, and was never so great as in earlier and later 
periods. Moreover ecclesiastical architecture is of strongly 
predominant importance. Again, this does not mean that 
medieval secular architecture may be neglected, for at certain 
times and in certain places it rivals contemporary ecclesiastical 
architecture in interest, but on the whole the main interest of 
medieval architecture is in the ecclesiastical work, and the 
student is justified in devoting the major part of his time to 
the study of the churchly rather than the secular buildings of 
the Middle Ages. 

Classification. Early Christian and Byzantine architecture. 
The earliest of what are generally classed as the medieval 
styles are the early Christian and the Byzantine, the former 
perhaps slightly antedating the latter. Historians have 
tended to make a sharp division between the two, and to treat 
them as distinct and independent movements. The early 
Christian, frequently also called the Christian-Roman, is 
regarded as the typical style of the early Christian Church; 
the Byzantine is considered a very different organic style, 
forming a link between classic architecture and the flexible 
vaulted styles of the Romanesque period, This classification, 




Bo^ra - Stefano Rptondo 5. Pietro in 

Kpine Viacoli - pme 

FIG. 63 PLANS OF EARLY CHRISTIAN CHURCHES 



EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE 161 

to obtain a superficial clearness, often engenders a profounder 
confusion. On account of it one is apt to forget that early 
Byzantine is ipso facto early Christian architecture, that its 
roots go back as far as those of the architecture of Christian 
Rome and indeed coincide with them, in short that the two 
styles are roughly contemporary, frequently interacting, and 
really somewhat variegated manifestations of the same artistic 
movement. These facts understood, however, the separate 
classification of the two styles will be found useful. Taken 
together the two might be called the medieval architecture of 
Rome and the East. 

Lack of self-consciousness in the early Christian style. The 
absence of self-consciousness in medieval architecture was 
never more marked than in the early Christian style. No art 
was ever a more direct result of environment and need. 
During the period of gestation, so to speak, of Christian art 
the Roman Empire was hastening toward disintegration. In 
other words, classical authority was weakening. At the same 
time the old Latin stock was being transformed by fresh blood 
from the East and West into a race barbaric, perhaps, but 
susceptible to new ideas and ideals. From the West came 
energy; from the East thought. By far the most significant 
importation from the East was Christianity itself. At home 
in the East, at Rome it was at first only one of the weaker 
Eastern sects. The beginnings of its art, therefore, like the 
beginnings of its ritual, are wrapped in a baffling obscurity. 
To conquer, it had to struggle fiercely, and it learned to be not 
only ruthless but infinitely adaptable. These characteristics, 
impressed upon the early religion, became marked in the 
architecture, and never more so than after 330 when the Chris- 
tian religion emerged triumphant. In the East, however, as 
one might expect, the struggle was less violent, and the archi- 
tecture was therefore at once more spontaneous and more 
suited for subsequent development. 

Weakening of classical authority. From the very beginning, 
both in East and West, the weakening of classical authority 
was of the highest importance. The Romans, in combining 
the trabeated architecture of Greece with the arch, had used 
both elements according to consciously formulated, if varying, 
canons. With the decline of the empire these canons became 



rtl 




EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE 163 

first ignored, then forgotten. The result was decadence from 
the Roman point of view, but possibility of infinite develop- 
ment from the Christian. One of the first results was the free 
combination of the column and the arch, anticipated in late 
Roman imperial work. Set rules once removed, these elements 
could not only be subjected to many combinations, for example 
the springing of an arch direct from a capital without the 
intervening entablature, but could also be varied in scale, 
shape, and manner of use. From this the invention of new 
forms was a logical step, and flexibility, the keynote of medieval 
architecture, was obtained. The inevitability of this tendency 
in Christian architecture is proved by the same tendency in 
late classical work. 

Basilican and central types. The way being paved by 
classical building of this sort, Christianity soon evolved a new 
architecture adapted to its needs and incidentally expressive 
of its ideals. In general the buildings thus produced may be 
divided into two classes, according to whether they were 
designed with reference to a longitudinal or a central vertical 
axis. The former we may call the basilican, the latter the 
central type. The basilica, with its long lines centering atten- 
tion on the apsidal end of the church, the altar, the pulpits, 
the bishop's chair, and the chancel reserved for the clergy, is 
perfectly adapted for the ordinary ritual of the Christian 
church. Every detail of such a building, invented or 
borrowed, is a direct result of the needs of the service. Receiv- 
ing its first development in Rome, the basilican ideal persisted 
in the West, and it is significant that from the liturgical point 
of view the finished Gothic cathedral is but a vastly 
complicated and organized ramification of the basilican type. 
The central type received its greatest development in the 
East. In plan it might be circular, polygonal, or in the form 
of a cross with equal arms. Buildings of such character 
concentrated attention on the central vertical axis and were 
best adapted for tombs, baptistries, and inclosures of sacred 
spots. Although not so well suited for the needs of the 
Christian liturgy as the' basilican, this type was frequently 
designed with only a liturgical purpose in view, and at times, 
especially in the East, the two types were combined in a man- 
ner which makes classification difficult. Thus the domed 



1 64 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

basilicas of Anatolia partake of elements of both schemes, 
and Hagia Sophia at Constantinople itself might be classified 
under both heads. 

Material and construction. In material and construction 
the Western buildings were the lighter. Brick was the usual 
material in Rome, and vaulting was confined to the apse. 
Nave and aisles were wooden-roofed. In the East vaulting 
was the rule, and the use of heavy cut stone, .brick, and terra 
cotta was common, though the timber roof often appears as 
well. The Eastern buildings were more pretentious on the 
exterior than the Roman. The drab brick and the .plain 
walls of the latter made the exteriors unobtrusive if not actually 
unsightly. The interiors, on the other hand, were lavishly 
decorated. 

Conservatism and possibilities of development. The Roman 
type of building crystallized early, and gives the impression of 
a finished product. The Eastern type, perpetually changing, 




FIG. 65 ROME. SAN CLEMENTE. PLAN SHOWING THE ATRIUM 

on the whole represents a step in the development to some- 
thing new. From the Eastern style the Byzantine could 
develop. The Western, though offering suggestions of un- 
limited value to the Romanesque and Gothic styles, remained 
for centuries self-sufficient. 

The Christian-Roman basilica. Turning to concrete exam- 
ples, let us examine first the buildings in Rome. The ideal 
Christian-Roman basilica is easy to describe. In plan 
it was an oblong rectangle, divided into three or five aisles, 
and provided at the end with a semicircular apse. In the 
finished examples, such as old Saint Peter's and Saint Paul's 



EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE 165 

Outside-the- Walls, a rudimentary transept, or bema, slightly 
salient at the sides, was introduced between the rectangular 
building and the apse, giving the plan a form approximating 
that of the Latin cross. In front of the building was a covered 
vestibule, or "narthex," and before that a peristylar "atrium," 
open to the sky, with a font in the center. The atrium, an ex- 
ample of which may be seen at San Clemente (Fig. 65), was for 
penitents and the unbaptized, and it gave at the same time a 
dignified seclusion to the church. Penitents might also enter 
the narthex. The rear of the nave was reserved for the cate- 
chumens, or neophytes, while the faithful generally took their 
places in the side aisles. The apse, bema, and often the upper 
nave were reserved for the officiating clergy. This space was 
inclosed by a railing, the "chancel," which frequently ran far 
down into the nave. At the very back of the apse, facing the 
congregation and on the longitudinal axis, was the bishop's 
chair, or cathedra. Before it, usually at the intersection of the 
apse and the bema, was the altar of marble, covered with a 
simple marble canopy, the ciborium. Flanking the chancel 
were two pulpits, or ambones, from which the gospels were 
read and the sermons preached. The common material for 
all this church furniture was marble, inlaid with mosaic, which 
has been given the suggestive name of opus Alexandrinum. 
Occasionally two rooms, the diaconicon and the prothesis, were 
placed on either side of the apse. 

Elevation. In elevation the nave of the basilica was much 
higher than the side aisles, permitting a broad clerestory 
through which light was admitted by windows, fitted with 
wooden grilles, thin, perforated, marble screens, or even oiled 
cloth. The aisles were covered with slanting roofs, usually 
hidden from the floor by flat ceilings. The triangular space 
thus obtained between the aisle ceiling and roof constituted the 
"triforium." At times the triforia were sufficiently roomy to 
permit the superimposition of galleries on the aisles, and these 
were reserved for the catechumens or for the segregation of 
women (gynac&a). The clerestory walls were carried on 
columns, generally antique, which separated the nave from the 
aisles. Sometimes the system was trabeated ; sometimes, as 
in old Saint Peter's, the columns bore archivolts on which the 
walls were set. Nave and bema were covered with gable roofs, 



1 66 A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 

reinforced with trusses, and generally, though frequently at a 
period later than the original building, hidden from the floor 
by richly coffered and gilded ceilings. The semicircular apse 
alone was vaulted. 

Decoration. Ample compensation for the dull exterior of 
the basilica was made by the gorgeous polychromatic decora- 
tion of the interior. The pavement consisted of marble flags 
and tesserae, in divers brilliant colors and ingeniously compli- 
cated geometric designs. The columns were of precious 
marbles, fluted or unfluted, varying even in scale according to 
whether or not the builders could steal, for the greater glory of 
God, a homogeneous set from some pagan building. In like 
manner the capitals varied, frequently not even fitting the 
columns that bore them, and the entablature above was often 
composed of unrelated pilfered classical fragments. That such 
an apparently accidental hodge-podge should form an 
extremely harmonious and decorative whole testifies strongly 
to the underlying good taste of the Christian builder. Finally 
the wall spaces, and especially the concave surfaces of the 
apsidal semi-domes, were covered with glass mosaic, gold- 
backed and flashing with brilliant color. Sacred personages, 
especially the Saviour, were thus portrayed, and eventually 
whole cycles of biblical history were taught by means of 
pictured mosaic. This mosaic, like the opus Alexandrinum, 
was in origin essentially Eastern. 

Origin of the Christian-Roman basilica. The origin of the 
Christian basilica is somewhat obscure. Superficially the 
type seems to have sprung into completed being with the reign 
of Constantine, but this merely proves that the preliminary 
steps in its development have been lost. The most obvious 
theory of the creation, dating back to Leon Battista Alberti, is 
that the Christian architects merely took over and copied the 
ancient Roman classical basilica. The ancient civil basilicas, 
however, were of two sorts, one Eastern in origin and the other 
Western, or Hellenic. The plan of the latter strongly suggests 
the Christian basilica, and it is reasonable to suppose that the 
later building was derived from the Greek civil basilica of the 
classic times. . The Christian building seems to have been 
modified in detail, however, by the imitation of some of the 
forms of the Roman house, wherein the early Christians were 




FIG. 66 ROME. SAINT PAUL'S OUTSIDE-THE-WALLS. INTERIOR SEEN 
FROM THE ENTRANCE 




FIG. 67 ROME. SAN LORENZO FUORI-LE-MURA. EXTERIOR 

7 



1 68 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

wont to worship, and by the invention of new forms for bettef 
fulfilment of liturgical needs. 

Variations. Within the fixed limits of the type thus set 
there was room for considerable individual deviation. Indeed 
no two of the many basilicas in Rome are precisely the same. 
Some, like old Saint Peter's (Fig. 63), had five aisles; others, 
like Santa Maria Maggiore, had but three. At times, as in 
Santa Maria Maggiore, the architrave appears; at times the 
archivolt takes its place, as in Saint Paul's Out side-t he- Walls 
(Figs. 64 and 66). In general as time went on the archivolt 
more and more took the place of the architrave. In many 
of the smaller buildings, like the eighth century church 
of Santa Maria in Cosmedin, the bema was omitted. An- 
other remarkable deviation appears in the same building, 
where the colonnade is broken and piers are inserted at 
regular intervals. Occasionally the side aisles were finished 
with smaller salient apses suggesting Syriac or Egyptian 
influence. Such an arrangement appears in San Pietro in 
Vincoli (Fig. 63). Galleries above the aisles, more typical 
of the Orient than the Occident, are to be found in San- 
t'Agnese fuori-le-mura (Fig. 64). 

Orientation of the Christian church. An interesting, if 
freakish, variation occurs in San Lorenzo fuori-le-mura (Figs. 
63, 67, and 68). Here two churches, an early one and a later, 
oriented in opposite directions and juxtaposed apse to apse, 
have been joined into a single building. In early times, 
especially in buildings constructed under the influence of 
Constantine (Saint Peter's, Saint Paul's, the Lateran, San 
Lorenzo), the facade and not the apse was placed to face the 
east. Soon, however, the orientation was fixed with the apse 
to face the east, and this scheme was followed whenever 
possible throughout the Middle Ages. 

The Christian-Roman basilica in Italy outside of Rome. The 
Christian-Roman basilica is best studied at Rome, but is 
found throughout the empire frequently alongside of, and 
contemporaneous with, buildings of a different style. Only 
in Rome, however, did it show so completely the conservatism 
which is one of its most marked characteristics. In Ravenna, 
for example, we find the sixth century church of Sant' Apolli- 
nare Nuovo (Fig. 69) essentially basilican in form, yet so 




FIG. 68 ROME. SAN LORENZO FUORI-LE-MAURA. INTERIOR 




FIG. 69 RAVENNA. SANT* APOLLINARE NUOVO. INTERIOR 



i;o A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Byzantine in detail that the work might be classified under 
either head. 

The Roman building of the central type. In Rome buildings 
of the central type, though they are to be found, never attained 
anything like the importance of the basilicas. The most 
characteristic example of the type in Rome is the church of 
San Stefano Rotondo (Figs. 63, 64, and 70). This structure, 




FIG. 7O ROME. SAN STEFANO ROTONDO. INTERIOR 



consecrated in 468, had originally the form of two concentric 
aisles inclosing a cylinder raised above them to form a clere- 
story. The whole was wooden-roofed, and in cross-section 
would have precisely the appearance of a basilica. Designed 
as a church, the ineptitude of this form of building from the 
ritualistic point of view is eloquently voiced by its centuries 
of almost complete disuse. That buildings of the central 
type, vaulted throughout, were constructed in Rome is proved 
by the church of Santa Costanza (Fig. 71). Outside of Rome 
the buildings of the central type are generally so obviously 



EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE 171 

Oriental in inspiration that they are best discussed under 
the diffusion of Eastern influence. 

The East. Geographical divisions. The study of Eastern 
architecture offers a very different problem. In the nearer 
Orient one finds no conservative, well-developed style awaiting 
definition. Generally speaking, the early Christian architect- 
ure of Rome was static, that of the East dynamic. In the 
East architecture was in a state of flux, or rather progression, a 
style changing almost as one seeks to fix its type. Moreover, 




FIG. 71 ROME. SANTA COSTANZA. SECTION SHOWING THE CONSTRUCTION 

local variations were striking, and the first step toward clear- 
ness involves a subdivision of the East into three distinct 
regions; Anatolia, Syria, and Egypt. The first, in the north, 
corresponds to Asia Minor, and its artistic center was Ephesus. 
The second, farther south and including Palestine, was 
guided artistically by Antioch. Alexandria controlled the 
third. A fourth broad division might be made of northern 
Africa, not so important historically, yet affording many 
examples of early Christian art. 

The Syrian basilica. Beginning with Syria, let us first 
consider the basilica. Here, besides examples very like the 
Roman buildings, other structures appear, absolutely new in 



i 7 2. A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

the history of art. Only within comparatively recent times 
has attention been directed to Antioch and the so-called 
"dead cities" of Syria, where receding civilization has left 
ruins, and often well-preserved buildings, as impressive as any 
to be found in Pompeii. In the typical Syrian basilica the 
atrium was abandoned and a covered porch, flanked by two 
monumental towers, was substituted for the narthex. A 
unique fagade, very suggestive of later medieval architecture, 




FIG. 72 TOURMANIN. THE BASILICA RESTORED 

was thus obtained. In the interior, generally three-aisled, the 
Greek colonnade gave way to great piers, bearing an arcade, 
sometimes 'double and wide of span, giving an impression of 
great space. Between the clerestory windows corbels often 
bore colonnettes which ran up to receive the transverse beams 
of the timber roof and gave the structure something of the 
feeling of logical articulation so commonly associated with the 
organic Romanesque and Gothic styles. There were generally 
three apses at the east end, usually round, though occasionally 
square, in plan, and at times horseshoe-shaped. 



EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE 173 

Examples. Good examples of Syrian basilicas may be seen 
at Ruweiha, at Mchabbak, and at Tourmanin (Fig. 72). 
Perhaps the finest example of the Syrian facade is that of 
Tourmanin, and the most complete, and probably the best 
single example of Syrian architecture, is the church of Khalb- 
Louzeh (Fig. 63). In the Hauran, on account of the scarcity 
of wood, an even more remarkable development took place, 




FIG. 73 KALAT-SEMAN. THE BASILICA OF SAINT SIMEON STYLITES 

and one finds buildings constructed entirely of monumental 
cut stone. Transverse arches were thrown across the naves, 
and these supported roofs of stone flags laid parallel to the main 
axis of the building. The timber roof then entirely disappeared. 
The originality of these buildings really indicates a reversion 
of the Orient to its native genius. 

Buildings of the central type in Syria. The buildings of the 
central type in Syria were equally important. Const antine 
himself set the style with the famous church of the Holy 
Sepulchre, crowned with a dome supported on an interior 



174 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

colonnade, and surrounded by a circular aisle carrying a 
gallery above it. Two buildings of capital importance in the 
history of architecture are the churches of Ezra and Bosra 
(Figs. 63 and 64) in Syria. The former is in plan an octagon 
inscribed in a square. The octagon drum is covered by an 
egg-shaped dome, the transition from the drum to the dome 
being made by squinches. A salient apse, semicircular within 
and three-sided without, appears at the east end. The system 
of Bosra is even more ingenious. The plan is' that of a circle 
inscribed within a square. The great central dome was 
carried on eight pillars, and M to neutralize its thrust, was sur- 
rounded by an annular barrel vault, fortified by four semi- 
circular exedrae at the angles of the square. Three apses were 
placed at the east end. Perhaps the most perfect of the 
Syrian buildings of the central type was the monastery of 
Saint Simeon Stylites (Fig. 73). Round an octagonal court, 
in the center of which was the column of the famous ascetic, 
four great three-aisled basilicas were placed to form a gigantic 
Greek cross. The eastern arm, finished with three apses, was 
the church proper; the others were reserved for pilgrims. 
The extraordinary fertility of invention in these buildings 
shows the beginning of an attempt to produce a satisfactory 
ecclesiastical building of the central type. The architects of 
Byzantium were to be preoccupied largely with this problem. 

Syrian decoration. The Mschatta frieze. Not less significant 
was the decoration of the Syrian building. We have seen at 
Spalato, imported from Syria, the modification and free use 
of classic detail to embellish the exterior of an edifice. The 
same procedure was maintained with infinite variations in 
Syria proper. Moreover, the Syrians evolved a new scheme 
of sculptured decoration, superbly shown in the frieze from 
Mschatta (Fig. 74) now in the Berlin museum, wherein classic 
and Oriental motives are combined in the richest of patterns 
and crisply cut in low relief. Polychromatic decoration, too, 
was common in Syria. In short, the region showed, at an 
early date, new developments in architecture which unques- 
tionably aided in paving the way for the* Byzantine style, and 
perhaps even for the remote Romanesque of Europe. 

Early Christian architecture of Egypt. In plan and con- 
struction the buildings of Egypt show far less ingenuity than 




FIG. 74 BERLIN MUSEUM. THE FRIEZE FROM MSCHATTA. (STRYZ- 

GOWSKl) 



1 76 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

those of Syria. An interesting class of Egyptian monuments 
is marked by the use of an immense trefoil-shaped sanctuary, 
divided from the three-aisled nave by a wide transept. The 
trefoil sanctuary, however, may well be an importation from 
Syria. One Alexandrian invention, the cistern with its cover 
supported on columns, was caused by local needs and destined 
to exert a strong influence in Constantinople. The special 
importance of Egypt lay in the decorative schemes evolved 
there. For centuries Alexandria had been the center of a 
school of lively pictorial decoration. To this was added in the 
early Christian centuries brilliant work in glass mosaic and 
inlaid marble. Thus equipped, Egypt was able to dower both 
Byzantium and Italy with the rich polychromatic interior 
decoration which became the vogue practically throughout 
Christendom. 

The basilica in Anatolia. In Anatolia the architects proved 
themselves structurally the most inventive of all. The con- 
trolling city was Ephesus, but the sites where the architecture 
may be studied are very numerous, the best perhaps being 
Bin-bir-Kilisse (the thousand and one churches), in the plain 
of Konieh in southeastern Anatolia. Here the majority of 
the basilicas recall the buildings of Syria. They are generally 
three-aisled with a single strongly salient apse, either circular 
or polygonal. At the entrance to the nave is a porch flanked 
by two towers. All this might be Syrian, but the Anatolian 
strikes his special note by vaulting his structure, and numbers 
of these buildings have heavy barrel vaults over nave and 
aisles. An excellent example of this type of building may be 
seen at Daouleh. Side by side with these vaulted structures, 
however, may be seen the Grasco-Roman type, with atrium, 
brick walls, and timber roof. 

The central type in Anatolia. Anatolia, too, abounded in 
buildings of the central type. We have an interesting descrip- 
tion of a Martyrium, written in the fourth century by Gregory 
of Nysa. The monument was to be cruciform, the arms of the 
cross bound at their intersection by semicircular niches, and 
a conical dome was to cover the crossing. The use of the 
conical dome suggests the influence of Persia, and indeed 
the most significant element in Anatolian architecture is the 
Persian. The Syrian conical-domed buildings, like the 



EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE 177 

churches of Ezra and Bosra, may have been copied from 
Anatolia or themselves inspired direct from Persia. Many 
variations of Gregory's scheme may be seen to-day, especially 
at Bin-bir-Kilisse. 

The Anatolian domed basilica. Historically the most inter- 
esting of the types evolved in Anatolia, however, is what has 
been called the domed basilica. The first step in its develop- 
ment was made by placing a square bay before the apse to 
enlarge the presbyterium, and adding galleries above the aisles 
for the faithful. To give a lighter effect to buildings of such 
large dimensions, without weakening the barrel vaults by 
piercing them with windows, the architects hit on the scheme 
of breaking the barrel vault with a dome, and thus the domed 
basilica, destined to exercise an enormous influence on later 
architecture, came into being. A perfect example of the type 
may be seen at Kodja-Kalessi (Fig. 63), where the dome oc- 
cupies two bays of the nave. The same type, constructed 
in brick, occurs in Saint Clement's at Ancyra. In both the 
dome is carried on squinches. On the other hand, at Saint 
Nicholas of Myra, and at Dehr-Ahsy in Syria, we find domed 
basilicas with the domes carried on pendentives. 

The problem of the dome. Many and ingenious were the 
solutions of the problem of the dome in Anatolia. Materials 
were varied, and bricks and terra-cotta, adopted from neighbor- 
ing Persia, were used to reduce the thrusts of heavy domes. To 
make the transition from the square or polygon below to the 
round dome above, the architects adopted many methods. 
Squinches were commonest, sometimes merely of flat stones 
laid across the angles of the square, reducing it to a polygon, 
and then other stones laid across the angles of the polygon, 
making them still more obtuse, until in successive courses the 
mass was coaxed into the roughly circular form necessary to 
receive the base of the dome. Sometimes arches were thrown 
across the angles of the square or polygon, and again, when 
the dimensions were sufficiently small, single blocks at the 
angles were hollowed out in pendentive form. 

The pendentive. By far the most important solution of the 
problem, however, was the true pendentive. In mathematical 
terms a pendentive is a segment of a hollow hemisphere, the 
diameter of which is equal to the diagonal of the square to be 



J78 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

.covered. In non-technical language, however, the member 
is not so easy to describe. Imagine a square to be covered by 
a dome of such dimensions that its edge would touch the 
square only at the four corners. Obviously the dome would 
project beyond the four sides of the square. Imagine all 
portions of the dome projecting beyond the sides of the square 
to be shaved off vertically, and the result would be a penden- 
tive dome, or, technically, a continuous dome on pendentives. 




FIG. 75 RAVENNA. THE MAUSOLEUM OF GALLA PLACIDIA. DRAWING 
OF THE EXTERIOR 



Imagine then the top of the pendentive dome to be sliced off 
horizontally at a point just above the crowns of the lateral 
arches caused by the vertical cuts. The result would be four 
spherical triangles or pendentives, segments of a sphere, the 
diameter of which would equal the diameter of the square 
below. On these a true dome could be placed, producing a 
dome on pendentives (Fig. 64). 

The origin of the pendentive. The pendentive was destined 
to become one of the most marked characteristics of Byzantine 



EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE 179 

architecture. Though its origin is open to dispute, it must 
have been the logical outgrowth of the Persian vaults of light 
material without centering. The strong probability is that 
the architects of Anatolia, in close contact with the Orient, 
independently created this most important member. 

Diffusion of Oriental influence in the West. Buildings at 
Ravenna. Through the influence of commerce and monas- 
ticism the fourth, fifth, and sixth centuries were marked by a 
widespread diffusion of Oriental influence in the West. Al- 
though it appears, as we have noted, in the fourth century 
palace of Diocletian in Spalato, and again later in R,ome in the 
decorations of the basilicas, and especially in the buildings 
of the central type, its full force in Italy is best judged in the 
architecture of Ravenna. Here two buildings of the mid- 
fifth century, the Mausoleum of Galla Placidia (Figs. 63 and 
75) and the so-called Baptistry of the Orthodox, attest the 
almost complete domination of Oriental inspiration in this 
Western city. The former, now the church of Santi Nazzaro e 
Celso, is Greek cruciform in plan, the crossing being covered 
with a continuous dome on pendentives, ingeniously con- 
structed of hollow terra-cotta amphorae inserted one within 
another. The material alone establishes the influence of the 
Orient, especially of Persia. The exterior is plain, the brick 
walls being lightened somewhat by blind arcades. Externally 
the dome appears as a square. The interior shows a com- 
plete incrustation of precious glass mosaic in the Alexandrian 
manner. The Baptistry of the Orthodox (San Giovanni in 
Fonte) is a polygonal structure, with a dome constructed like 
that of the tomb of Galla Placidia. 

Mingling of early Christian and Byzantine elements. Al- 
though in point of time such works fall within the early 
Christian period, to classify them merely as early Christian 
would produce a deep misconception of their architectural 
significance. Already they anticipate so many elements of 
the Byzantine style that they might as justly be called By- 
zantine. This does not mean that they were importations 
from Constantinople. On the contrary, they were Italian 
products of the same Eastern influences that were already at 
work in Constantinople to produce the Byzantine style. 

Conclusion. Early Christian architecture may, therefore, 



180 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

be regarded from two points of view. From one it is a self- 
sufficient style, amply providing the early Church with build- 
ings beautiful in themselves and even finer in their complete 
fulfilment of the needs for which they were designed. Re- 
garded from this point of view, the Christian-Roman basilica is 
the supreme product of early Christian architecture. From 
the other and broader point of view, the early Christian style 
is a link in the great architectural chain, connecting the weak- 
ening classic art with the vigorous new style of Byzantium. 
Especially the buildings of Eastern Christianity, experimental, 
lawless in their disregard of classic tradition, at times even 
crude though always full of promise, herald in no uncertain 
tone the advent of the art so soon to appear in Constantinople. 

CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF EARLY CHRISTIAN 
MONUMENTS 

It must be noted that it is often impossible to date medieval monu- 
ments exactly, and we must frequently be satisfied with the half 
century or century in which a building was erected. A single date, 
without qualification, refers to the beginning of the portion of a 
building referred to in the text. In general it is always well to 
remember that an error in dating a medieval monument is apt to 
give the monument greater antiquity than it deserves. 



ITALY 

Rome, Old Saint Peter's. Consecrated 326. 

Rome, Santa Costanza. Built 323-337; rebuilt 1256. 

Rome, Saint Paul's Outside-the- Walls. Founded 386, but rebuilt 

1823. 

Rome, Santa Maria Maggiore. Rebuilt 432-440. 
Rome, San Pietro in Vincoli. Founded ca. 450. 
Ravenna, Mausoleum of Galla Placidia. Ca. 450. 
Ravenna, Baptistry of the Orthodox. Mid-fifth century. 
Rome, San Stefano Rotondo. 468-483. 
Ravenna, Sant' Apollinare Nuovo. Soon after 500. 
Rome, San Lorenzo Fuori - le - Mura. Rebuilt 578; remodeled 

1216-27. 

Rome, Sant' Agnese, Fuori-le-Mura. Rebuilt 625-638. 
Rome, San Clemente. Rebuilt 1108. 



EARLY CHRISTIAN ARCHITECTURE 181 

THE EAST 

Jerusalem Church of the Holy Sepulchre. 312-337. 

Ruweiha. Fourth century. 

Kodja-Kalessi. Fourth or possibly fifth century. 

Mschatta Frieze. Possibly fourth, possibly sixth century. 

Mchabbak. Fifth century. 

Daouleh. Fifth century (?). 

Saint Simeon Stylites. End of fifth century. 

Ancyra, Saint Clement. Fifth century (?). 

Myra, Saint Nicholas. Fifth century (?). 

Bosra. 512. 

Ezra. 515. 

Tourmanin. Sixth century. 

Khalb-Louzeh. Sixth century. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

A. Michel's Histoire de Vart, vol. i, pt. i, 1905, contains valuable 
articles by Andre Perate and Camille Enlart summarizing early 
Christian art, including architecture. H. Marucchi's Basiliques et 
eglises de Rome, 1002, is an authoritative work, forming vol. 3 of the 
author's series, Elements d'archeologie chretienne. A. Venturi's 
Storia dell'arte italiana, vols. i and 2, 1901 and 1902, contain an 
account of early Christian architecture in Italy. G. T. Rivoira's 
Le origini delta archittetura lombarda, vol. i, 1901, is an exhaustive 
study of the origins of Italian medieval architecture by an eminent 
scholar, who believes that these origins, whether they involve early 
Christian or Byzantine architecture, are Occidental rather than 
Oriental. G. Leroux's Les origines de V edifice hypostyle en Grece, en 
Orient, et chez les Remains, 1913, is a scholarly work, important for the 
light it throws on the origin of the Christian-Roman basilica. W. 
Lowrie's Monuments of the Early Church, 1906, is a skilfully arranged 
hand-book of early Christian art, with architecture soundly treated. 
A. L. Frothingham's Monuments of Christian Rome, 1908, is another 
hand-book with good summaries of the histories of the monuments. 
M. de Vogue's Syrie centrale, 1865-77, a monumental and ground- 
breaking piece of scholarship, now somewhat out of date, is the 
most important of the author's many publications dealing with 
early Christian architecture and other arts in Syria. By H. C. 
Butler are two works Architecture and Other Arts, 1903, and Ancient 
Architecture in Syria, 1907. The former is the publication of an 
American expedition to Syria in 1899; the latter is the second divi- 



1 82 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

sion of the "Publications of the Princeton Expedition to Syria, in 
1904-1905." Both works present masses of new material in the 
most elaborate way, and are worthy successors of the publications of 
de Vogiie. J. Stryzgowski's Orient oder Rom, 1901, Kleinasien, ipoj, 
and Byzantinische Denkmaler are publications, the last a series of pub- 
lications, by an original scholar of encyclopedic information. Though 
the works deal more with Byzantine than early Christian monu- 
ments, they are important for both, especially on account of the 
author's thesis, successfully defended, that the creative impulse in 
early Christian and Byzantine art came from .the Orient. C. 
Diehl's Manuel d'art byzantin, 1910, is a highly authoritative synthe- 
sis of the history of Byzantine art, with a valuable discussion of the 
early Christian architecture of the East as an introduction/ O. 
Wulff's Altchristliche Kunst, 1914 (Handbuch der Kuntwissenschaft), 
ch. 4, Die altchristliche Baukunst, is the most recent summary of all, 
with exhaustive references to the latest discussions of individual 
points. 



CHAPTER VII 
BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE 

Origins. Byzantine architecture came, like the Wise Men, 
out of the East, the roles of the Magi being played by the 
three great cities : Alexandria, Antioch, Ephesus. From the 
first of the three came the polychromy which remained a char- 
acteristic of the style from beginning to end. The second sup- 
plied the Byzantine ideal of sculptured decoration, flat, crisply 
cut relief and an all-over covering of the surface. The third, 
most important of all, gave the structural elements which the 
Byzantine architects fused, systematized, and developed for 
ten centuries. 

Centralization. Although the style was diffused over a vast 
area, from Armenia to France and from Russia to Africa, the 
nerve center remained practically always at Constantinople. 
To this centralization are due the main characteristics and 
general homogeneity of the style. Byzantium took the ideas 
of the Orient, handled them with the lavish means and broad 
conceptions of Rome, and welded them with a refinement 
literally neo- Attic. The result was a new art, but, like the 
Roman, a distinctly imperial one. Architecturally as well as 
politically, Constantine supplanted imperial Rome by im- 
perial Constantinople. 

Ecclesiastical and secular work. Byzantine architecture was 
primarily ecclesiastical, but this generalization must often be 
qualified. During the reigns of important emperors, such as 
Constantine (323-337), Justinian (527-565), and Basil I. (867- 
887), civil architecture played an extremely important part. 
The churches exercised a greater influence on other styles than 
civil buildings, and were often preserved when the civil build- 
ings were destroyed, but this fact should not blind us to the 
importance of the non-ecclesiastical work. 



1 84 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Lack of self-consciousness of the style. Whether lay or ec- 
clesiastical, however, Byzantine architecture was on the 
whole unself conscious. Lavish as the decoration might be 
in church or palace, the important consideration was always a 
satisfactory solving of structural needs, and this became the 
real, if unconscious, canon of Byzantine esthetic, theory. 
Moreover, the style tended to be corporate rather than in- 
dividual, though not to nearly so complete an extent as the 
medieval styles of western Europe. Especially in the earlier 
period individuals were apt to dominate the works, but later 
craftsmen and obscure architects were given very free rein, 
and even in the earliest times the individual appears as the 
voice of the civilization rather than its teacher. 

Conservatism and development. Byzantine art has generally 
been considered rigidly conservative. It was, in truth, con- 
servative, yet only in so far as conservatism was not incon- 
sistent with development. Nothing could be more mistaken 
than the too common conception of the Byzantine style as one 
which crystallized in the sixth century and continued as a 
chain of monotonous repetitions until the fifteenth. The art 
was always conscious of and taught by its past, but it never 
slavishly copied its past, and development was none the less 
steady for being slow. 

Materials. The materials used in Byzantine architecture 
were very varied. Brick and mortar were commonest and 
most expressive of the ideals of the style. By means of 
light, porous material the architect got his most striking 
effects, and mortar joints were frequently increased to the 
width of the bricks bonded. Concrete was used for cores, 
but the rigid concrete vaults of the Romans disappeared. 
Cut stone was used freely, but nearly always as an adjunct 
to other material. A homogeneous use of ashlar was prac- 
tically unknown in Byzantine architecture outside of cer- 
tain restricted regions, notably Greece and Armenia. For 
purposes of decoration the Byzantine architects used mosaic 
and marble, the latter sometimes carved in flat, tapestry- 
like relief, sometimes applied as a veneer. In the later style 
decoration in brick became common, and wall surfaces were 
enriched with an infinity of patterns in brick, or brick alter- 
nating with cut stone. The absence of formulated esthetic 



BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE 185 

criteria gave full play to the . invention and good taste of 
the designers. 

Structure. The originality and fertility of the Byzantine 
architect never shows more happily than in the solving of 
problems of structure. The style was essentially a vaulted 
one, and the most important form of vault was the dome. 
Wood being scarce, the problem of centering was serious, and 
the architects, taking their cues from Anatolia and Persia, 
soon learned to construct important vaults without centering. 




FIG. 76 RAVENNA. SAN VITALE. EXAMPLES OF BYZANTINE CAPITALS 



To that end they developed the lightest and most durable ma- 
terials, bound by thick, adhesive mortar joints. Then by 
completing the vaults in successive, concentric, self -sustaining 
rings, by slanting brick courses so as to require little or no sup- 
port from below, and by the invention of ingenious devices for 
the definition of vault surfaces during the process of construc- 
tion, the architects succeeded almost entirely in eliminating 
the necessity* for centering. Moreover, the stability of the 
finished structure was further insured by an equilibrium of 
thrusts. Domes and vaults were grouped compactly and 
logically, their thrusts opposing one another, and the thrusts 
of a great central dome were neutralized and carried off by a 



1 86 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

number of subordinate domes grouped round it. The style 
thus had, especially in the later period, a large measure 
of that structural logic which one associates with Gothic 
architecture. 

Supports. The same logic was shown admirably in the use 
of supports. The use of squinches for the support of domes 
was inherited from the East and continued with variations 
throughout the entire development of the style. Far more 
important in the history of architecture was the use of the 
pendentive. To the Byzantines belongs the credit of recog- 
nizing the full possibilities of the pendentive, and the use of 
these members as a support for a superimposed dome was in- 
augurated in Byzantium (Fig. 64). 

Capitals. Moreover, the logic of the architects was not 
confined solely to the immediate supports of the dome. The 
capitals, which carried the weight of the vault, were of an 
entirely new and logical design. Unlike the Roman entabla- 
ture with its merely crushing weight, the mass which the By- 
zantine capital had to carry was heterogeneous and exercised 
a variety of thrusts in many directions. To meet this mass 
the architects first designed a sturdier Corinthian capital, 
with a wider abacus. Next they added a heavy thrust block, 
like an inverted, truncated pyramid, to make the transition 
from the capital to the mass above. Capitals of this sort 
may be seen in the Eski-djouma in Salonica. The idea of the 
impost came from Syria, where the use of such members was 
current in the fifth century, the Syrians in turn having prob- 
ably received it from Persia. A further step was taken in 
San Vitale at Ravenna (Fig. 76), when the Corinthian char- 
acter of the capital was almost abandoned, and it was shaped 
like a richly ornamented impost block. Finally, at Hagia 
Sophia at Salonica, the form appears on which all Byzantine 
capitals were, based, an impost block, carried on a broad, thin 
abacus, whence the load is transmitted to a high, convex bell, 
broad at the top and slender at the base where it meets the 
slender shaft. The form thus invented combines elements of 
the three Greek classic forms, and is both apt and beautiful. 
It was, moreover, flexible, and capable of infinite variety, 
from the stern simplicity of the rudimentary capitals in the 
cistern of Bin-bir-direk to the rich profusion of the melon, bird 



BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE 



187 



acanthus capitals of the fully 



and basket, and wind-blown 
developed style. 

Types of ecclesiastical buildings. Since the Byzantine ec- 
clesiastical buildings surpass all other sorts in importance, 
we must devote most of our study to them. The types 
created were diverse. In the earlier period the type developed 
from the domed basilica of 
Anatolia was the favorite, 
the most famous example 
being Hagia Sophia at 
Constantinople. In the 
so - called second golden 
age, in the ninth, tenth, 
and eleventh centuries, 
the Greek-cross plan be- 
came the fashion, although 
both types existed in both 
periods. Sometimes the 
plan was that of a Greek 
cross inscribed within a 
square, the cross marked 
in the actual building only 
by the clerestory. At 
other times a true Greek 
cross was designed on plan. 
In the beginning the so- 
called triconch or " three- 
shell" plan, with a trefoil 
division of the apsidal 
end, was popular, and this 

type persisted, with modifications, throughout the history of 
the style. The true basilican plan, though not wholly for- 
gotten, was never popular. Circular and polygonal buildings 
were also designed, but by far the most popular form of build- 
ing of the central type was the Greek cross. 

Churches earlier than Hagia Sophia of Constantinople. Al- 
though Hagia Sophia may be regarded almost as the proclama- 
tion of Byzantine architecture, it was preceded by a number of 
buildings outside of as well as within Constantinople that 
heralded the approaching style. We have already noted 




FIG. 77 CONSTANTINOPLE. 
SERGIUS AND BACCHUS. 



SAINTS 
PLAN 



A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



Ravennate buildings which might well be called Byzantine. 
Similarly the Stoudion basilica, built in Constantinople in 
463, although it conforms to the Hellenistic type and retains 
the post and lintel system, is Byzantine in spirit, and the 
purely Byzantine church of Saints Sergius and Bacchus in 
Constantinople (Fig. 77) slightly antedates Hagia Sophia. 

This building recalls the churches 
of Ezra and Bosra (Figs. 63 and 
64) in Asia Minor, but is more 
skilfully planned and executed. 

Saint Irene, Constantinople. In 
532 Justinian caused the building 
of another church, Saint Irene, in 
Constantinople (Fig. 78), which 
brings us still nearer the full- 
fledged Byzantine style. The 
architect of Saint Irene was prob- 
ably inspired by the church of 
Hagia Sophia at Salonica, a build- 
ing which probably antedates 
somewhat its great namesake in 
Constantinople. Both Saint 
Irene and Hagia Sophia at 
Salonica are variants of the 
Anatolian - domed basilica. In 
Saint Irene the domes are abutted 
2oMtr. by barrel vaults grouped about 
FIG. 78 CONSTANTINOPLE, them in the shape of a cross, and it 
SAINT IRENE. PLAN seems possible that we have here 
the germ of the Greek-cross form. 

Hagia Sophia. All these buildings appear insignificant, 
however, beside the "Great Church," the church of the 
Divine Wisdom, Hagia Sophia at Constantinople. This build- 
ing embodies more fully than any other the full-fledged 
Byzantine style of the first golden age. Justinian began it in 
532, to replace a Constantinian church of the same name which 
had been destroyed in the Nika sedition. Anthemius of 
Tralles and Isidorus of Miletus were the architects, both of 
Anatolian origin. The church was completed in five years and 
dedicated with the most impressive ceremonies and amid 






BIN II IU ILL 

KILIJSE-DJAMI CONSTANTINOPLE. MANASSIA 




SAN VlTALL TlAVENNA 



LlTTLtMETROPOUi 

ATMEJSS 




Are LA CHAPLLLE. 



FIG. 79 PLANS OF BYZANTINE CHURCHES 



BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE 



191 



general thanksgiving December 27, 537, by Justinian. In 
558 the central dome fell, but a nephew of Anthernius rebuilt it 
according to a somewhat less ambitious design, and the church 
was reconsecrated by the Emperor in 562. 

Plan and construction. In plan (Fig. 79) Hagia Sophia 
occupies a great square which, excluding the apse and the 
narthex, measures about 250 by 240 feet. A double narthex, 
galleries, and an atrium precede the nave. In the center is 




FIG. 8 1 CONSTANTINOPLE. HAGIA SOPHIA. EXTERIOR 

reared a great dome on pendentives, 107 feet in diameter, 
carried on four huge piers, 25 feet square, and abutted east and 
west by two half-domes of the same diameter as the central 
dome (Fig. 80). These mark the longitudinal axis of the 
building. Abutment to the north and south is supplied by 
four tremendous buttresses of marble-faced rubble. The half- 
domes are in turn abutted at the springing by paired smaller 
half -domes, and thus, partly by opposing thrust to thrust and 
partly by carrying off the thrust of the great dome in descend- 
ing stages to the outer wall and the ground, the whole struct- 
ure is admirably stabilized. At the east end a salient apse, 



1 92 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

polygonal on the exterior, opens into the eastern half-dome. 
Right and left of the central dome and its half-domes are 
aisles, groin-vaulted, and surmounted by galleries which are 
covered with domical vaults. At present four minarets of an 
incongruous Turkish design stand free at the four corners of 
the building. 

Exterior. Although the apex of the dome is 180 feet above 
the pavement, the external appearance of the building is 




FIG. 82 CONSTANTINOPLE. HAGIA SOPHIA. 
TOWARD THE APSE 



INTERIOR LOOKING 



squat (Fig. 81). The Byzantine architect of the first golden 
age fully appreciated the difficulty of properly abutting a lofty 
dome, and seldom sought to make the dome a striking feature 
externally. The dome of Hagia Sophia, less than a semicircle 
in cross-section, is in height from springing to crown but 47 
feet. The external effect, however, is none the less fine, 
combining monumentality with compactness and a strong 
feeling for the esthetic value of sturdy, frankly safe con- 
struction. 



BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE 193 

Interior. The interior, on the other hand, gives a strong 
impression of height (Fig. 82). The ring of small openings 
piercing the base of the dome lightens the whole structure, 
so that the dome appears almost miraculously suspended over 
the great central void. Moreover, the columns of various 
proportions in ground story and galleries give a much-needed 
scale, which permits the eye easily to grasp the monumental 
proportions of the building. 

A domed basilica. Although Hagia Sophia is roughly square, 
it is not properly of the central type, but is planned with refer- 
ence to a longitudinal axis, and therefore fulfils the liturgical 
ideal of the early Christian basilica. It may be regarded as 
the supreme Byzantine development of the Anatolian domed 
basilica. 

Decoration. The decoration of Hagia Sophia, true to the 
ideals of the first golden age, is drab on the exterior, but 
brilliant on the interior. The exterior is now painted in 
horizontal black bands, but in the original design there was no 
attempt at enlivening the wall surfaces with colors or even 
patterns in the material used. The interior, on the other 
hand, was gorgeously decorated with veneered marbles and 
glass mosaic. The marble, sawn thin, was highly polished 
and skilfully placed so that reversed patterns from the veining 
of a single block were juxtaposed. Above the ground story 
the interior was crusted with gold-backed, glass mosaic, now 
unfortunately whitewashed by the Turks. The capitals and 
some of the surfaces were decorated with crisp carving in flat 
relief, suggesting the art of Syria. Occasionally the interstices 
of the carving were filled with black marble, further accenting 
the already sharp impression of light and shade. 

The Holy Apostles, Constantinople. Although Hagia Sophia 
was the greatest and most typical building of the first golden 
age, many other buildings were constructed during this period, 
some of them of the greatest importance historically. The 
most significant building after Hagia Sophia was another 
work of Anthemius and Isidorus, the church of the Holy 
Apostles in Constantinople (Figs. 83 and 84), destroyed by the 
Turks to make way for the mosque of Mohammed II. This 
building, known to us by descriptions and a manuscript 
illumination (Fig. 83), was in the form of a Greek cross obtained 



i 9 4 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



by the intersection of two basilican naves, vaulted and aisled 
(Fig. 84). Over the crossing was a dome pierced with 
windows, and over each arm another dome, probably blind. 
The type thus suggested was never received with much favor 
in the first golden age, but it unquestionably formed the basis 

for numerous 
churches which 
were erected in 
later Byzantine 
architecture. 
Saint Mark's in 
Venice is but a de- 
velopment of the 
lost church of the 
Holy Apostles. 

Building of Jus- 
tinian's age outside 
of Constantinople. 
The important 
architecture of 
Justinian's time 
was not, however, 
confined to Con- 
stantinople or 
even to the East. 
At Parenzo in 
Istria Bishop Eu- 




FIG. 83 ROME. THE VATICAN. MANUSCRIPT 
ILLUMINATION SHOWING THE INTERIOR OF THE 
CHURCH OF THE HOLY APOSTLES AT CONSTAN- 
TINOPLE. (DIEHL) 



phrasius raised an 
important church 
in the beginning 
of the sixth cen- 
tury, basilican in 

form, but Byzantine in spirit and decoration. Italy played a 
still more important r61e in this period, and the buildings 
at Ravenna scarcely yield in beauty and creative genius to 
those of Constantinople. 

Buildings at Ravenna. Two buildings in Ravenna, the 
churches of Sant' Apollinare in Classe and Sant' Apollinare 
Nuovo (Fig. 69), are of basilican plan and Byzantine detail 
and decoration. The latter was commenced under Theodoric 



BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE 195 

(493-5 26 )> but was decorated by Byzantine workmen. The 
former was consecrated in 549. By far the most important 
Ravennate church of the period, however, was San Vitale 
(Figs. 79 and 80), begun between 526 and 534 and finished in 
547, a building showing great originality and destined to exer- 
cise strong influence on subsequent architecture. It is in the 
form of an octagon crowned with a dome on a drum, carried 
by eight stout pillars. 
These pillars are bound 
one to another by an 
ingenious system of 
exedrae similar to those 
of vSaints Sergius and 
Bacchus. To diminish 
the thrust, the dome 
is constructed as in the 
tomb of Gal la Placidia, 
of long terra cotta 
amphorae, fitted one 
into another. Each 
pier is bound to the 
external wall by an 
arch, and each salient 
angle is strengthened 
with a pier buttress. 

Later architecture of the first golden age. The death of 
Justinian did not interrupt the architectural activity which 
his reign initiated. The art continued to show both vitality 
and originality. At Constantinople the mosque of Kalender- 
hane-djami, probably once the Diaconessa, built by the 
Emperor Maurice, dates at the latest from the seventh century, 
and shows a reversion to the domed basilican type. From the 
same period comes the ancient church of Saint Andrew now 
the mosque of Hodja-Moustapha-pasha with a great central 
dome, abutted like Hagia Sophia's by half domes. 

Development in Armenia. Outside of Constantinople the 
art flourished in this period, and especially showed originality 
in Armenia. The cathedral of Etschmiadzin (Fig. 79), with 
its Greek cross inscribed in a square and the four arms 
terminated by salient apses, certainly influenced the tenth 




FIG. 84 CONSTANTINOPLE. THE HOLY 
APOSTLES. PLAN, RESTORED 



i 9 6 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

century churches of Mount Athos, and appears to be imitated 
in the ninth century French church of Germigny-les-Pres. In 
its present form Etschmiadzin dates from the seventh century. 
The seventh century architecture of Armenia showed so much 
vitality that there is little doubt that it strongly influenced 




FIG. 85 AIX-LA-CHAPELLE. CHARLEMAGNE'S CHAPEL. INTERIOR 



Constantinople itself, as well as Byzantine architecture out- 
side of the central city. 

The Iconoclastic controversy. Diffusion of the Byzantine 
style in Europe. In 726 the development of Byzantine art 
was impeded, though not arrested, by the beginning of the 
Iconoclastic controversy. Though Leo the Isaurian's decree 



BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE 197 

was directed against images, all the arts were affected, and 
architecture in Constantinople went through a period of semi- 
stagnation which was not relieved until Theodora's restoration 
of image worship in 842, and not really removed until the 
accession of the Macedonian dynasty in 867. Nothing better 
illustrates the vitality of Byzantine architecture than its 
diffusion in this dark period. The very throttling of the art 
at home tended to spread it abroad, and what Constanti- 
nople lost the Occident of the Carolingian Renaissance gained. 
From the very beginning of the ninth century dates Charle- 
magne's fine chapel at Aix-la-Chapelle (Figs. 79, 80, and 85), a 
direct imitation of San Vitale. Somewhat later Germigny- 
les-Pres was planned on lines suggested, as we have seen, by 
the Armenian architecture of the seventh century. Byzantine 
architecture was, therefore, not arrested,' but merely tempo- 
rarily ceased to center in Constantinople. 

The second golden age. With the accession of the Mace- 
donian dynasty Constantinople resumed her sway, and there 
began what is generally known as the second golden age of 
Byzantine art. Prosperity came once more to the empire, 
power to the ruling house. Fresh Oriental influence vivified 
the art, and architects sought inspiration in the monuments of 
the past. Inspiration was, however, far removed from 
imitation. The architecture of the second golden age differs 
widely from that of the first, and ably demonstrates the 
dynamic power of the art. 

Changes in plan. In the second golden age the basilican 
plan entirely disappeared. The octagon went with it, and the 
triconch type occurred only in a radically modified form. 
Even the domed basilican type became very rare, although the 
ninth century church of Saint Theodosius (now the Gul- 
djami) at Constantinople shows it. 

The Greek cross plan of the second golden age. By far the 
favorite plan was the Greek cross, but this differed essentially 
from the earlier Greek cross as seen in the mausoleum of Galla 
Placidia and the church of the Holy Apostles. In the older 
form the arms of the cross appear in the contours of the plan, 
and subordinate domes are placed on each arm of the cross. 
In the latter, the re-entrant angles are filled on plan, the ground 
story plan being square and the cross appearing only in the 



i 9 8 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

upper stories. The arms of the cross are covered with barrel 
vaults, and the subordinate domes are placed in the angles 
between the arms. The plan is thus a Greek cross inscribed 
within a square, with a central dome and four domes, often 
hidden, at the angles. The thrusts of the subordinate domes 
and barrel vaults tend to neutralize one another, and all 
oppose the thrusts of the central dome. Thus the whole 
system is so logical and organic that one is reminded of the 
organic systems of Romanesque architecture. . The germ of 
the typical Greek cross building of the second golden age is to 
be found, therefore, not in the classic example of the Greek 
cross of the first golden age, the church of the Holy Apostles, 
but in the domed basilica, and especially in such a building as 
Saint Irene at Constantinople (Fig. 78). 

Changes in expression. Along with this change in. plan there 
came a change in architectural expression. The vertical line 
was accented. The height of the building became greater in 
proportion to its breadth. Domes were constantly raised upon 
drums, and became striking features externally. The logical 
spirit of the construction was reflected in the lines of the 
exterior. Thus a curved vault in the interior was represented 
on the exterior not by a gable, but by a curved line. As the 
construction became more daring the scale decreased, and the 
buildings of the second golden age were, in general, much 
smaller than those of the first. Finally, the whole exterior 
was regarded as suitable for decoration, polychromy was 
applied to it, and the texture of the wall received especial care. 
Bricks of various shapes and colors were used and ingenious 
patterns devised, so that the exterior of a twelfth century 
Byzantine church bears but slight resemblance to that of one 
of the sixth. 

La Nea. La Nea (Fig. 79), the "new church" of Basil I. 
(d. 886) , was to the second golden age what Hagia Sophia was 
to the first. Unfortunately it has been destroyed, but we 
know its plan from descriptions. It was in the form of a 
Greek cross, with a central dome and four smaller domes set 
in the angles between the arms of the cross. Unquestionably 
this building set the type for the majority of the churches 
that followed. 

Evolution of the type. The evolution of the type can be 



BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE 199 

traced in extant monuments. It appears in a rudimentary 
form in a church at Skripou in Bceotia, dated 874, which lacks 
subordinate domes, and is heavy in construction, but which 
shows the Greek cross plan with barrel- vaulted arms. It may 
be seen fully developed in the Kilisse-djami (formerly the 




FIG. 86 CONSTANTINOPLE. THE KILISSEDJAMI. VIEW FROM THE EAST. 

(EBERSOLT) 



Theotokos) in Constantinople (Figs. 79 and 86), dating from 
the first half of the tenth century. Here appear both barrel- 
vaulted arms and angle domes. The exterior lines are 
harmoniously curved, and the surfaces finely treated in alter- 
nate bands of brick and ashlar. 

Examples. The Greek cross within a square continued the 
favorite church plan throughout the Macedonian and 
Comnenian dynasties. One sees it in the small church of 
Saint Luke at Stiris in Phocis (Figs. 84 and 87), dating from 
the second half of the eleventh century, and later, in the 
epoch of the Comnenes, it appears finely developed in the triple 
church of the Pantocrator, built about 1124 in Constantinople 

8 



200 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

by Irene, empress of John Comnenus. Of the three buildings 
which form this work two, those on the north and south, are 
perfect examples of the classic plan of the second golden age. 
The central church has but two domes. 

Variations. It must not be supposed, however, that the 
favorite type was slavishly copied everywhere in the later 
period. The commonest variation was the omission of the 




FIG. 87 STIRIS (PHOCIS), MONASTERY OF SAINT LUKE. VIEW FROM 
THE EAST SHOWING THE TWO CHURCHES. (SCHULTZ AND BARNSLEY) 



four subordinate domes, and some of the most beautiful 
Byzantine churches are of this form. The finely composed 
Nea Moni at Nauplia is of this type, as well as the better 
known churches of Saint Theodore and the Little Metropolis 
(Figs. 79 and 80) at Athens. All of these date from the 
twelfth century. 

The squinch group. Another variation in the churches of 
this period might be called the squinch group. In these the 
dome is broader in diameter and is carried on a sixteen-sided 
drum, and the proportions are squatter than in the other 
churches of the period. To this genre belong the monastery 



BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE 201 

of Saint Luke at Stiris (Fig. 87), the Nea Moni of Chios, and 
the fine church at Daphni, near Athens. 

Churches at Athos. The churches of Athos and the vicinity* 
with their semicircular apses terminating the lateral arms of 
the cross, form another group. One, the catholicon of Lavra, 
deserves special mention. It is a three-aisled building, the 




FIG. 88 VENICE. SAINT MARK. PLAN 



three-fold division being indicated on the exterior by arcades, 
and it thus appears to combine the types of the Greek cross 
and the domed basilican churches. 

Saint Mark's, Venice. By far the most important example 
of a variation from the favorite plan of the second golden age 
occurs in the famous church of Saint Mark in Venice (Fig. 
88), begun in 1063. This building is a frank reversion to the 
plan of Anthemius' church of the Holy Apostles at Constanti- 
nople. The plan is that of a Greek cross defined on the ground 
story, with a dome on pendentives in the center and a 
smaller dome on pendentives over each arm of the cross. A 



202 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

galleried narthex embraces three sides of the western arm of 
the cross. The great piers which carry the dome are pierced 
to give greater space in the ground story, and are connected 
by galleries, the width of the piers, carried on marble columns. 
Light is admitted through rings of openings round the bases 




FIG. 89 VENICE. SAINT MARK. VIEW FROM THE PIAZZA 

of the domes, which are less than semicircular. On the 
exterior (Fig. 89) the domes are masked by false domes of 
wood, lead covered, which form a striking feature of the church 
as seen from the Piazza. Within (Fig. go), the decoration is 
extremely rich, veneered marbles and precious mosaics being 
used as freely as in Hagia Sophia at Constantinople. The 
exterior, with its clustered marble columns, polychrome 
marble veneer, and flashing mosaic, is as lavishly decorated as 
the interior. The building as it stands is by no means homo- 
geneous. There are many Gothic details in the facade, and 
some of the mosaics date from the Renaissance and even 
from modern times. 

Byzantine influence in Aquitaine. Saint Mark's, or its 



BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE 



203 



prototypes, appears strongly to have influenced Occidental 
architecture. In France the twelfth century church of Saint 
Front at Perigueux (Fig. 99) repeats almost verbatim the plan 




FIG. QO VENICE. SAINT MARK. INTERIOR LOOKING TOWARD THE APSE 



of Saint Mark's, though then arthex and all the polychrome 
decoration within and without are omitted. Many other 
buildings of Aquitaine were similarly constructed, so that the 
architecture of that region might be classified alike under the 
headings of Byzantine and French Romanesque. 

Georgia and Armenia. Among the most original buildings 



204 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



of the second golden age are those of Georgia and Armenia. 
Some are very early in date, for example the church of 
Pitzounda on the Black Sea, probably of the tenth century, 
and that of Akthamar on Lake Van (Fig. 91), surely of the 

tenth. In these 
buildings the 
Greek cross form 
was used most 
freely, though 
older forms such 
as the domed 
basilica and the 
three shell type 
survived. In 
other respects, 
however, these 
buildings showed 
striking original- 
ity. The central 
dome, raised on a 
lofty, ashlar-built, 
many-sided drum, 
became almost a 
tower. On the 
exterior it often 
appeared, as at 
Akthamar, as a 
sharply pointed 
cone. The apse 
often ceased to be 
salient, and be- 
came but a tri- 
angular cut in the thickness of the wall. The use of brick at 
times disappeared entirely, and the buildings were constructed 
of homogeneous cut stone, even the roof tiles being of this 
material. The exteriors, in a manner hitherto unknown in 
Byzantine architecture, were decorated with crisp cut relief, 
suggesting the earlier art of Syria. So great was the origi- 
nality of this Georgian and Armenian architecture that of late 
a theory has been advanced, not without plausibility, that 




FIG. 91 AKTHAMAR (LAKE VAN). 
SEEN FROM THE SOUTHEAST. 



THE CHURCH 
(LYNCH) 



BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE 205 

from this region came the creative geniu% which controlled 
all the Byzantine architecture of the second golden age. 

The "Byzantine Renaissance." Byzantium's brilliant pros- 
perity under the Macedonian and Comnene dynasties and the 
second golden age came to an end in 1204, when the disgraceful 
fourth crusade was diverted to Constantinople and the city 
sank into ruins. Not even this great disaster, however, could 
utterly crush the Byzantine spirit or the vitality of Byzantine 
art. Culture rose again on the ashes of the city and in the 
later thirteenth, the fourteenth, and the early fifteenth centu- 
ries came the period known as the "Byzantine Renaissance." 
Constantinople, however, was weak. Her scientists and men 
of letters were eminent, but she lacked money for architect- 
ural enterprises. Thus we find the more important buildings 
of the last Byzantine period outside of Constantinople, in 
Greece, in the Balkan states, in Asia Minor. Divergences 
occur in these buildings, caused by local taste and material, 
but the style still has strong unity. Moreover, the art 
continued to develop and never sank to mere repetition of 
earlier works. 

Plans. The Greek cross plan continued to be, on the whole, 
the favorite. At the same time there was a frequent reversion 
to the old domed basilican type. Especially at Trebizond, 
in such churches as Hagia Sophia and the Chrysokephalos, 
the western arm of the cross was lengthened, aisles were added, 
and the longitudinal axis of the building emphasized. At 
Athos a development suggesting the ancient Syrian three- 
shell plan occurred. 

Elevations. In elevation the churches of this last period 
showed striking changes. The vertical line was unsparingly 
accented. Frequently, as at Manassia in Serbia (Figs. 79 
and 92), the ground story was made very high, and sub- 
divided by thin vertical engaged columns suggesting narrow 
pilaster strips. The drum became startlingly elongated, and 
the dome, for safety's sake, made smaller. In some Serbian 
buildings, for example Ravanitsa (Fig. 80), Manassia (Fig. 92), 
and the church of the Archangel s near Uskub, the dome is almost 
invisible and the drum has the appearance of a slender tower. 
In other cases the drum is lowered, the diameter of the dome 
widened, and the whole surmounted with a cone. The massy 



206 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



appearance of this form, as at Hagia Sophia at Trebizond, 
makes it still a striking almost donjon-like feature of the 
exterior. 

Decoration. Decoration as well underwent a change. 
Mosaic, being very costly, was less freely used, and the cheaper 

medium of fresco 
came into great 
vogue. Some of 
the frescoes, for 
example those at 
Mistra (the Perib- 
leptos) , bear com- 
parison with those 
of contemporary 
Italy. On the ex- 
terior polychrome 
marble was almost 
completely aban- 
doned, to give 
place to the richest 
decoration in mul- 
ticolored and pat- 
terned brick that 
the style ever in- 
vented. At times 
even glazed tiles 
were intermingled 
with the brick, 
and the exterior 
of such a church 
as Saint Basil's at 
Arta is a brilliant 

example of the beautiful effects which the later Byzantine 
artist could get by the refined color and texture of his 
surfaces. 

Inspiration. Of late years several theories have been 
advanced to explain the inspiration of this extraordinary last 
burst of activity in Byzantine art. By far the most plausible 
is that western Europe at last paid off a part of its heavy debt, 
and returned to Byzantium something in the way of in- 




FIG. 92 MANASSIA (SERBIA). (POKRYCHKIN) 



BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE 207 

bpiration. The prevalence of the three-aisled building in 
Byzantium, the almost Gothic emphasis on the vertical line, 
the resort to fresco such as was common in Italy, all support 
a theory suggested by the close political and cultural ties 
which bound fourteenth and fifteenth century Constantinople 
to western Europe. On the other hand it is as reasonable to 
suppose that the creative genius and vitality which Byzantine 
art showed in its first two great periods also produced the 
third, and remained at work down to the fateful year of 1453, 
when the weakened city, abandoned by Christian Europe, 
surrendered to the Turk. 

Secular building. The early palace. Albeit the historical 
importance of Byzantine architecture lies primarily in the 
ecclesiastical buildings, the style also showed great originality 
and activity in its secular works. The building of great palaces 
accompanied the building of great churches. Constantine 
set the example by raising a magnificent palace in the new 
city, of which now there is no trace, but which must have 
followed the general lines laid down by Diocletian at Spalato. 
We know the appearance of an early Byzantine palace from 
the mosaic in Sant' Apollinare Nuovo at Ravenna, representing 
the palace of Theodoric, now destroyed. This mosaic 
shows us a long, arcaded structure composed of a central porch 
with a gable and two wings. The wings are two-storied, 
with square windows in the second story arcade. Apparently 
exigencies of space suppressed the Syrian court, and the 
colonnade opened directly on the street. 

Secular building in Justinian's time. Shortly afterward, 
the reign of Justinian produced a great burst of secular building 
in Constantinople. At this time the Senate was built, all in 
white marble, the baths of Zeuxippus were splendidly decorated 
in marble polychrome, the baths of Arcadius were restored, 
and aqueducts were raised which rivaled those of the 
Roman Campagna. 

The cistern. The need for storing water produced a unique 
type of civil building in Constantinople: the cistern. The 
earliest was apparently the Cisterna Maxima, constructed 
under the forum in 407. As the size of these cisterns increased 
they became really important monuments of architecture, 
daring in plan and delicate in detail. The cistern called 



208 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Pulcheria, built in 421, had a surface of over 1000 square 
metres and the vault was carried on thirty granite columns. 
In less than a century, however, the ambitions of the architects 
produced such tremendous works as the cistern of Bin-bir- 
direk (the thousand and one columns) with a surface of over 
3500 square metres. The idea of these colossal works came 
from Alexandria, but their development in Constantinople was 
absolutely unprecedented. They prove the engineering genius 
of the Byzantines to have been no whit inferior to that of the 
Romans. 

Palaces of the second golden age. In the second golden age 
the activity in secular building was as great as in the first. 
Basil I. ushered in the age by building a new palace, the 
Cenourgion, to the splendor of which many writers have 
testified. To this he added many buildings, the Pentacou- 
bouclon, the so-called Pavilion of the Eagle, the treasury, and 
others. Later Nicephorus Phocas raised the Boucoleon on 
the shore of the Sea of Marmora. Starting with a small 
building already on the site, this Emperor produced a palace 
at once lavish in its appointments and donjon-like in its 
strength. Each generation added something to the Sacred 
Palace or other imperial residences. In the twelfth century 
the Sacred Palace was somewhat neglected, and the Comnenes 
built the Blachernae, a palace at the end of the Golden Horn. 
Enthusiastic accounts of crusaders attest the beauty of this 
building, and in the graceful architectural fragment which 
the Turks call the Tekfour-Serai we probably have an extant 
part of the original. This ruin shows a refined pattern and 
surface texture in brick and ashlar similar to that of the 
churches of this period. 

The Sacred Palace. Much has been written about the 
appearance of the Sacred Palace (Fig. 93), yet archeologists 
are still disputing as to its plan. Indeed the term "Sacred 
Palace," indicating as it does a single building, is confusing. 
The work was a conglomeration of buildings, lay and ecclesi- 
astical, heterogeneous in plan, dimensions, and date, covering 
a total area, roughly triangular in shape, of over 400,000 
square yards. One side was bounded by the Sea of Marmora, 
and one by the Hippodrome, a gigantic structure 1400 feet 
in length, easily capable of holding 80,000 persons. The 



BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE 209 

third side faced the city, but was protected from the poorer 
quarters by terraces and gardens. Within were churches, 
fora, schools, council chambers, gardens, and even a private 




FIG. 93 CONSTANTINOPLE. PLAN OF THE SACRED PALACE, RESTORED. 

(EBERSOLT) 

hippodrome. The general effect must, therefore, have been 
bewilderingly complicated, and not wholly'unlike that of the 
Kremlin to-day. Both to the complication of the plan and 
the unbelievable richness of the decoration numerous descrip- 



2io A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

tions of visitors testify. The complexity of the plan served 
to exaggerate the tremendousness of the site. Recognizing 
this the emperors were wont to have visiting ambassadors 
led through hall and court, where luxury succeeded luxury 
and richness surpassed richness, until they finally reached 
the royal presence in the Chrysotriclinium, an octagonal 
domed hall, decorated, if accounts of eye-witnesses can be 
believed, in gold, enamel, and precious stones beyond the 
wildest dreams of the Thousand and One Nights. 

Later palace building. After the sack of the city in 1204 
the Sacred Palace never recovered its pristine splendor. 
Palace building received a fatal set-back. At the same time 
numerous Prankish chateaux sprang up in Byzantine territory 
and influenced Byzantine civil architecture. The latest 
Byzantine palaces partake, therefore, more of the fortification 
than of the palace proper. 

Fortifications. It must not be supposed, however, that 
warlike architecture had been neglected in the earlier periods 
of the Byzantine style. The willingness of the Byzantine 
architect to suppress, for reasons of defense, the graceful in 
favor of the strong is well proved by the great enceinte of 
Constantinople, much of which dates back to the reign of 
Theodosius II. (408-450). Africa especially retains monu- 
ments of early Byzantine military architecture which were, 
in their day, absolutely impregnable. Of such a type are 
the citadels of Lemsa in Tunisia, and of Haidra (Fig. 94). In 
the second golden age the still extant works of Manuel 
Comnenus at Constantinople show the same power of military 
design at home. 

The ensemble. In the period of Constantine and Justinian 
the general appearance of Constantinople must have been, 
aside from topographical variations, not unlike that of Rome. 
The Roman constructive sense and broad grasp of the essen- 
tials of city planning were inherited by the Byzantines. In 
the later period, however, the city must have assumed an 
appearance of inchoate complexity. Within the inclosure of 
the Sacred Palace, building after building was added, until 
all semblance of -a synthetic plan was lost. Without, the 
same lack of a logical scheme prevailed and, except for differ- 
ences in architectural detail and material, the Constantinople 



BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE 211 

of Basil 1 1. must have looked much like the Stamboul of to-day. 
Streets had become narrow and irregular, houses crowded, 
and the broad planning of classical antiquity had given way 
to the apparently thoughtless and illogical grouping of houses 
characteristic of so much of the building of the Middle Ages. 

The dwellings of the rich. No examples of the less palatial 
Byzantine habitations remain, but illuminated manuscripts 




FIG. 94 HAIDRA. THE FORTIFICATIONS, RESTORED. (DIEHL) 

give us some idea of the appearance of the houses of the 
wealthy. They were apparently not unlike those still to be 
found in the "dead cities" of Syria. The houses were of two 
or three stories, 'the facades ornamented with porticoes. 
From the ninth to the twelfth century open loggias decorated 
the upper stories and towers or lateral pavilions often flanked 
the main building. Balconies projected over the street, and 
the roofs were sometimes steep, sometimes terraced, and some- 
times ornamented with small domes. Windows were square, 
with small squares of glass set in grilles. The prevailing 
materials were brick and marble. The fagades were generally 
of combined brick and marble, and the floors of one or the 
other material. The outer doors were of nail-studded iron; 



212 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

the inner of wood, carved, paneled and inset with plaques. 
The better dwellings were, therefore, both luxurious anil 
graceful. 

The poorer quarters. If, however, the public buildings and 
habitations of the rich were splendid, the dwellings of the 
poor were of the meanest, and the parts of the city used by the 
common citizens ill built, vilely planned, and worse kept. If 
we may believe contemporary accounts, such as that of Eudes 
de Deuil, who visited the city in 1147, i n the common quarters 
the housetops often met above the streets, and the streets 
themselves were indescribably filthy, at times even barred 
by pools of mud in which men and beasts were drowned. 
The odors were noisome, and the streets unlighted at night, 
so that from sundown to sunup they were wholly given over to 
thieves, cutthroats, and yammering scavenger dogs like those 
which infest Constantinople to-day. If the reader could, by 
some strained flight of fancy, imagine a combination of present 
day Stamboul, the Campo Marzo region in Rome, and the 
Tatar city in Pekin, he would probably have a not inaccurate 
idea of the ensemble of twelfth century Constantinople. 

The influence of Byzantine architecture. No discussion of the 
Byzantine style would be complete without a word about the 
powerful influence which the art exerted on contemporaneous 
and subsequent architecture. At times, as in Aix-la-Chapelle 
(Figs. 79, 80 and "85) and Germigny-les-Pres, as in Saint Front 
de Perigueux (Fig. 99) and many of the churches of Norman 
Sicily, this influence showed itself as little more than imita- 
tion. A subtler influence is recorded in the acceptance by the 
West of the unformulated principles which underlay both the 
forms of detail and the constructive scheme of the Byzantine 
building. The Byzantine architect, rejecting all single forms 
of the classic capital, evolved by a gradual combination of all 
the elements of the classic capital a new form suited to new 
needs. The Gothic capital is but a refinement of the 
Byzantine, or rather a further development along the lines laid 
down by the Byzantine. The Romanesque and Gothic 
development of the vault, too, was made possible by the flexible 
treatment of the vault inaugurated by the Byzantines. Even 
the basic Gothic principle, the stabilizing of a complex vaulted 
system by means of an equilibrium of opposing thrusts, finds 



BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE 213 

its antecedent, as we have seen, in the Byzantine architecture 
of the second golden age. 

Influence on later styles. Moreover, Byzantine influence on 
other styles was not confined to the contemporary Middle 
Ages. We shall see that Renaissance and modern architecture 
are largely indebted to Byzantium. In the Balkans, in 
southern Russia, and in Greece, where the style was native, 
the recurrence to it has been constant, and such a building as 
the New Metropolis at Athens, though a debased imitation of 
older work, has the merit of being a wholly natural reversion 
to a native art. Finally, even Saracenic architecture must 
acknowledge a great debt to Byzantine. 

Significance of Byzantine architecture. The importance of 
Byzantine architecture is, therefore, threefold. It may be 
regarded as an important link between the Roman and 
Romanesque styles, as a source of inspiration in contemporary 
and subsequent architecture, and finally as a powerful and 
self-sufficient art in itself. On the whole, writers have tended 
to emphasize the first two points of view at the expense of the 
third. The result has been a stressing of the architecture of 
the first golden age before the development of the great 
medieval styles of western Europe, and a neglect of the equally 
important Byzantine architecture which postdates the Icono- 
clastic controversy. The dynamic quality of the art has 
largely been overlooked, and the style invested with a false 
conservatism which recent writers on Byzantine architecture 
are only beginning to dispel. It is well, therefore, especially 
in a general history of architecture, to emphasize the fact that 
the Byzantine style was not only an architecture of transition, 
but especially an independent, self-sufficient art which showed 
ever new vitality from the age of the first Constantine in the 
fourth century to that of the last in the fifteenth, and, in a 
sense, shows it even to-day. 

CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF MONUMENTS 

Early Period, to the Accession of Justinian in 527 

Constantinople, Palace of Constantine. 3 2 3~337- 
Constantinople , Senate . 3 23-337. 
Constantinople, Cisterna Maxima. 407, 



2i 4 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Constantinople, Cisterna Pulcheria. 421. 

Constantinople, Walls of Theodosius. First half of fifth century. 

Constantinople, Eski-djouma. First half of fifth century. 

Constantinople, Stoudion basilica. 463. 

Ravenna, Sant' Apollinare in Classe. Begun before 526. 

Ravenna, Palace of Theodoric. Begun before 526. 

First Golden Age, Inaugurated by Justinian, 527-726 

Constantinople, Bin-bir-direk cistern. 528. 

Ravenna, San Vitale. 526 or 534-547. 

Salonica, Hagia Sophia. C. 530. 

Constantinople, Saint Irene. 532. 

Constantinople, Hagia Sophia 532-562. 

Cathedral of Parenzo (Dalmatia). 540. 

Constantinople, Holy Apostles. 536-546. 

Ravenna, Sant' Apollinare Nuovo. 549. 

Constantinople, Saints Sergius and Bacchus. First half of sixth 

century. 

Constantinople, Baths of Zeuxippus. First half of sixth century. 
Lemsa (Africa), Fortifications. Sixth century. 
Haidra (Africa), Fortifications. Sixth century. 
Saint Gregory, near Etschmiadzin (Armenia). 640-666. 
Constantinople, Kalender-hane-djami (the Diaconessa of Emperor 

Maurice?). Seventh century. 
Constantinople, Hodja - moustapha - pasha (Saint Andrew's). 

Seventh century. 
Cathedral of Etschmiadzin (Armenia). Begun in fifth, restored 

in seventh century. 

Age of Iconoclasm, 726-842 

Aix-la-Chapelle, Charlemagne's Chapel. 796-804. 
Germigny-les-Pres (France). Ninth century. 

Second Golden Age, Inaugurated by Basil I., 867-1204 

Constantinople, "La Nea" (Basil I.). Before 886. 
Constantinople, Cenourgion (Basil I.). Before 886. 
Constantinople, Pentacoubouclon (Basil I.). Before 886. 
Constantinople, Gul-djami (Saint Theodosius). Second half of 

ninth century. 
Skripou (Boeotia). 874. 
Constantinople, Boucoleon (Nicephorus Phocas, Emperor). 963- 

969. 

Akthamar, Lake Van (Armenia). Tenth century. 
Pitzounda (Armenia). Tenth century.? 



BYZANTINE ARCHITECTURE 2 1 5 

Lavra, Catholicon. End of tenth or beginning of eleventh century. 
Stiris (Phocis), Great Church of Saint Luke. Beginning of eleventh 

century. 

Chios, Nea Moni. Mid-eleventh century. 
Venice, Saint Mark's. Begun 1063. 
Stiris (Phocis), Theotokos (Small Church of Saint Luke). Second 

half of eleventh century. 

Constantinople, Kilisse-dj ami .Second half of eleventh century. 
Daphni. End of eleventh century. 
Perigueux (France), Saint Front. 1120. 
Constantinople, Pantocrator. 1 1 24. 
Nauplia, Nea Moni. 1144. 
Athens, Saint Theodore. Mid-twelfth century. 
Athens, Little Metropolis. Mid-twelfth century. 
Constantinople, Palace of the Blachernae (Manuel Comnenus). 

Soon after 1143. 
Constantinople, Walls of Manuel Comnenus. Soon after 1143. 

Byzantine Renaissance, mid-thirteenth century 1453 

Arta, Saint Basil. Thirteenth century. 

Trebizond, Hagia Sophia. Thirteenth century. 

Trebizond, Chrysokephalos. Thirteenth century. 

Ravanitsa (Serbia). 1381. 

Uskub (Serbia), Church of the Archangels. Fourteenth century. 

Mistra, Peribleptos. End of the fourteenth century. 

Manassia (Serbia). 1407. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

A. Michel's Histoire del'art, 1905, vol. i, pt. i, contains a brilliant 
summary of the history of Byzantine art, by Gabriel Millet. C. 
Texier and R. P. Pullan's Byzantine Architecture, 1864, is a monu- 
mental work, now out of date, with excellent text and superb litho- 
graphic plates of a wide range of Byzantine monuments and details. 
A. Choisy's L'art de bdiir chez les Byzantins, 1883, is an old but au- 
thoritative work, well illustrated and especially important for Byzan- 
tine construction. J. Stryzgowski's Kleinasien, 1003, an d Byzanti- 
nische Denkmaler are important recent publications of research, 
already noted, emphasizing the Eastern origin of Byzantine art. 
C. Diehl's Manuel d'art byzantin, 1910, an authoritative, scholarly, 
up-to-date handbook, embodies the results of ancient and modern 
research in the Byzantine field. T. G. Jackson's Byzantine and 
Romanesque Architecture, 1913, is an up-to-date, scholarly, and 



216 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

readable work, liberally illustrated. Charles Bayet's Uart byzantin, 
1884, is a handbook of Byzantine art, of great range and catholicity, 
though out of date. G. T. Rivoira's Le origini delta architettura lom- 
barda, 1901-07, already noted, is even more important for Byzantine 
than for early Christian art. A. Venturi's Storia dell' arte italiana, 
vol. 2, 1902, is a scholarly and well-illustrated volume on Italian 
art from the sixth to the eleventh centuries, publishing much original 
material and important for Byzantine architecture in Italy. F. 
de Verneihl's L' architecture byzantine en France, 1851, though out 
of date, discusses in an able way the churches' of Byzantine 
character in central France. W. Salzenberg's Altchristliche Bau- 
denkmaler wn Konstantinopel vom 5. bis 12. Jahrhundert, 1854, is 
an out-of-date but authoritative and interesting work. A. van 
Millingen's Byzantine Churches in Constantinople, 1912, is a scholarly, 
readable, and well-illustrated volume on the churches of Constan- 
tinople; the same author's Byzantine Constantinople, 1899, is an 
interesting work on the Byzantine monuments of the city of Con- 
stantinople. L. de Beylie's L'habitation byzantine, 1902, with a 
Supplement in 1903, is a monumental and superbly illustrated work 
on the Byzantine dwelling. W. R. Lethaby and H. Swainson's 
Sancta Sophia, 1894, an exhaustive monograph on the most important 
monument of the earlier Byzantine period, is here mentioned on ac- 
count of the light it throws on Byzantine architecture as a whole. 
J. Ebersolt's Le grand palais de Constantinople, 1910, a modern and 
ingenious monograph on the Sacred Palace at Constantinople, is 
important for an attempted historical arrangement of the many 
buildings in the inclosure. It is the last, but perhaps not the final, 
word on the subject. E. A. Grosvenor's Constantinople, 1900, is 
a popular and readable book on the city, with fine reproductions and 
interesting accounts of the monuments. G. Barker's The Walls of 
Constantinople, 1910, is an interesting history and description, well 
illustrated, of the defenses of the city. J. B. Bury's A History of 
the Eastern Roman Empire, 1912, a history of the empire, will be 
useful for those who need to acquire the proper historical back- 
ground for a study of Byzantine art. 



CHAPTER VIII 
ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 

Definition. A discussion of Romanesque architecture 
inevitably begins with a definition of the term Romanesque. 
The name, though an accepted one, and apt when understood, 
is nevertheless confusing to the beginner. Comprehension 
comes most quickly when we compare Romanesque architect- 
ure to the Romance languages. After the break-up of the 
Roman Empire there ensued a period of cultural confusion. 
From this confusion homogeneous nationalities slowly emerged. 
Based on Latin civilization, quickened oy northern energy, 
modified and differentiated one from another by conditions 
of race and geography, nations arose. These nations possessed 
each a speech also based upon Latin yet differing from the 
speech of other nations similarly based. Thus the Romance 
languages, reminiscent of Rome, yet individual and national 
in character, came into being. Precisely the same phenomena 
appear in architecture, based upon Roman as a point of 
departure, but differing from it, each school being individual 
and expressive of the peculiar genius of the race which pro- 
duced it, yet all bound by a common root and thus included 
in a common classification: Romanesque. 

Date. This much understood, new difficulties begin. From 
the break-up of Roman civilization in the fifth century to the 
clearly defined rise of the nations about 1000 there occurred 
a formative period in which chaos was more frequent than 
order, yet in this period language was spoken and written, 
buildings erected. At times, as during the reign of Charle- 
magne (the Carolingian Renaissance), civilization in this 
period was even brilliant. Should one call the speech of this 
period Romance; its architecture Romanesque? In very 



218 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

general classifications all west-European architecture, outside 
of mere Byzantine imitation, roughly from 500 to 1 150, is called 
Romanesque. The field may then be subdivided, the period 
of later development from 1000 to 1150 placed by itself, and 
the earlier architecture classified as Carolingian, Carolingian 
and Ottoman, or even pre-Romanesque. Once the distinction 
is comprehended the danger disappears. 

Relation of Romanesque to Gothic. The comprehension and 
appreciation of Romanesque architecture has been more 
hindered, albeit innocently, by writers on Gothic architecture 
than by anything else. One of the most brilliant, Quicherat, 
summed up the style in the clever yet misleading definition 
that has appeared in every subsequent book on the subject. 
According to the French archeologist, Romanesque is an 
architecture that, retaining elements of Roman, has ceased to 
be Roman, and anticipating elements of Gothic, is not yet 
Gothic. Every phrase of this definition is true, yet its total 
is pernicious, as it overlooks the self-sufficiency of the Roman- 
esque style and relegates it to the position of a mere architect- 
ure of transition. Nothing more clearly shows its weakness 
than its over-emphasis of organic Romanesque styles, such as 
Lombard, which led up to Gothic, and its utter inapplicability 
to some of the most monumental, if inorganic, styles such as 
the Tuscan. 

Organic and inorganic architecture. The distinction between 
what is called an organic and an inorganic style of architecture 
may well be made here. An organic architecture is a vaulted 
one, the vaults supported by ribs, buttresses, and piers, and 
the latter deliberately arranged with sole reference to the needs 
of supporting the vault and opposing its thrusts. Such an 
architectural system, so often compared to the bony structure 
of a living organism, deserves the adjective organic. An 
architectural system may, however, be more or less convincingly 
organic. The omission of one or more structural ribs in a 
vault, the maladjustment of one or more supports to the 
thrusts which they are designed to meet, may mar the organic 
feeling of the system but not destroy it. On the other hand 
a very splendid building may be completely inorganic, like the 
cathedral of Pisa, which is covered with a timber roof carried 
on a simple wall. Romanesque architecture must, therefore, 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 219 

be studied for itself alone and not as a result of what has gone 
before or as an excuse for what is coming after. 

National feeling. This point must be insisted upon the more 
strongly, since so much of the charm of the study of 
Romanesque comes from the variety of the style. The causes 
of these variations were, of course, historical and geographical. 
In the early period, so often called pre-Rornanesque, from 500 
to 1000, European architecture showed considerable homo- 
geneity, but naturally with the growth of separate nations 
came a growth of national styles; and within the nations, 
often sharply divided into districts which were themselves 
regna in regno, there grew up local styles of great individuality 
and charm. Thus Romanesque is, outside of France where 
organic Gothic developed, perhaps the most distinctly national 
of each country's architectural styles. 

Ecclesiastical interest. The study of Romanesque is much 
simplified by one fact. In no other style, not even Gothic, is 
the interest so confined to ecclesiastical architecture. So true 
is this that in a brief discussion of medieval architecture, 
secular architecture is most profitably studied in its Gothic 
aspects, leaving the student free in the Romanesque period to 
concentrate on the vastly more important church and monastic 
buildings. 

Corporate quality. The style was not only a natural and 
religious expression, it was an expression of the common ideals 
of the whole people. In other words it was distinctly 
corporate. A magister operarius directed the works, but great 
freedom was allowed his swarms of assisting craftsmen. The 
result was variation and inequality of workmanship, but for 
that very reason a freshness lamentably lacking in many an 
otherwise impeccable modern work. 

Architectural refinement. This freshness, which seems to 
invest Romanesque, and indeed all medieval buildings, may 
come partly as well from the assymmetrical quality of the work. 
Whether or not the variations in plan, in the heights of columns 
and of arches and the like, which may be observed in practi- 
cally all medieval buildings, is the result of inaccurate measure- 
ments, settling of members, or deliberate design after the 
manner of Greek architectural refinements, the result is a 
living quality, a sense of movement and picturesqueness that 



$20 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

banishes all monotony and keeps the building vitally 
interesting when more painstaking and elaborate works seem 
dry as dust. 

General characteristics. Though the plans of Romanesque 
churches are widely diverse (Fig. 99), all are a development of 
the arrangement with special reference to liturgical needs 
embodied in the Christian-Roman basilica. In general, 
buildings of the central type were confined to baptistries 
and tombs, and when churches of this type occur, they 
represent Byzantine influence. The round arch, as opposed 
to the Gothic pointed arch, is a general characteristic 
of Romanesque, though many examples of pointed arches 
occur in the style. 

Classification. Although many classifications of Roman- 
esque have been offered, the main divisions of the movement 
at the period of its great development in the eleventh and 
twelfth centuries are fairly clear. Italy had a style of her own, 
subdivided roughly into the northern, central, and southern. 
Germany, too, had an individual style, on the whole semi- 
organic in the Rhine Valley and inorganic elsewhere. France 
offers the most complicated problem of classification, with no 
less than six main subdivisions in her Romanesque art. In the 
south we find a distinct Provengal style, highly classic in 
feeling. Farther north we find the Auvergnat, most precocious 
of the French schools, which may be classified with that of 
Languedoc, the artistic center of the latter being at Toulouse. 
In Aquitaine another school grew up, showing marked Byzan- 
tine affiliations, although some modern writers have urged an 
autochthonous growth for the Aquitanian churches. Still 
another subdivision may be made of Burgundy, with its 
emphasis on monastic architecture. In the north two highly 
organic styles developed, the most precocious being the 
Norman, the most finished that of the district around Paris 
called the He de France. England afforded a very homo- 
geneous type of Romanesque, which may be regarded as 
an offshoot of Norman, and Spain had an individual style 
largely imported from Languedoc, though influenced, espe- 
cially in the south, by Eastern architecture. 

Carolingian architecture. A closer examination of the style 
in its various manifestations must begin of course with the 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 221 

art which we have called Carolingian or pre-Romanesque, or 
which might perhaps better be called by a more neutral and 
less descriptive term the art of the dark ages. This art, 
though occasionally it takes on something of a national aspect, 
as in the Saxon architecture of England, was European rather 
than national. Moreover, some of the most important 
monuments of the style, like Charlemagne's chapel at Aix-la- 
Chapelle (Figs. 79 and 85) or the church of Germigny-les-Pres, 
we may pass over lightly, since they only emphasize how 
closely at times Byzantine architecture was copied. 

New developments. There was, on the other hand, much 
building in the period which strikes a new note. The basilican 
plan was not merely used, it was developed. Apses were often 
added at the west end, free-standing towers or turrets were 
included, and often the bema was exaggerated to produce 
the T form of plan so common in German architecture of the 
Carolingian epoch (Salvatorskapelle, Frankfort). With the 
accumulation of relics, the need for more altar space led to a 
multiplication of chapels, in the form of absidioles. Sometimes 
these radiated from the rounded east end of the church (Saint 
Martin, Tours), sometimes they were given a place in the 
T-shaped bema. With the elaboration of the liturgy, 
ceremonial demanded an ambulatory for processions round the 
apsidal end, and this important member was included. The 
diaconicon and prothesis of the early Christian basilica soon 
became the sacristy and vestry of the later works. 

Saint Gall. By far the most illuminating example of 
Carolingian architecture is the ninth century monastery of 
Saint Gall (Switzerland) known to us by a manuscript plan 
(Fig. 95). This drawing shows the main characteristics of 
the projected monastic church and the subordinate buildings 
about it. The church itself is of the modified basilican plan, 
with three aisles, an eastern and a western apse, two flanking 
western towers, an exaggerated bema, ambulatory about the 
eastern apse, and flanking vestry and secretary's room. The 
complicated plan of Saint Gall is useful, too, in emphasizing 
the importance of the monastery and, indeed, the strength of 
the monastic system in this period. The church is but the 
most prominent building among a host of others. About it 
are packed separate structures, shops, baths, kitchens, stables, 



222 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



hospitals, servants' and guests' quarters, vegetable and flower 
gardens, in fact everything which could contribute to make 
the monastery a self-sufficient, self-sustaining community. 




COW ,bA>Ct 

d D 


] 

b 







Existing monuments. We are not, however, confined to 
plans for our knowledge of the architecture of the dark ages. 
Many extant monuments, though usually damaged and 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 223 

marred by alteration, remain to show us what the original 

work was like. In France at Beauvais the so-called Basse- 

ceuvre is one of the best known examples of the architecture 

of the dark ages, though the building is so severe in design, 

with its plain walls and timber roof, that it aids little in the 

study of Carolingian buildings. Perhaps the most highly 

developed type of Carolingian 

church is that of Montier-en- 

Der (Upper Marne), where a 

large proportion of the tenth 

century building is preserved 

for the student. Among the 

many German examples of this 

art perhaps the one most 

worth emphasizing is Lorsch 

(Rhine Valley, near Worms, 

Fig. 96). Here the facade of 

the basilican gate is preserved 

in its original form. 

Carolingian decoration. 
These fragments show us other 
innovations and contributions 
made to architecture by this 
style, the most striking being 
the triangular decoration, an 
easily recognized characteristic 
of the architecture all over 
Europe. Windows were framed 
in triangles, gable -like trian- 
gular decoration applied in re- 
lief to the walls, and the walls 

themselves composed of lozenges, sometimes vari-hued, with 
the emphasis on triangular form. The important billet mold 
appeared for the first time, and the window design of two 
lights, separated by a column and embraced by an arch, is 
reiterated and handed on to Romanesque and Gothic. This 
form may well have originated, in the campanili of Carolingian 
Italy. 

Pre-Romanesque architecture of England. On account of 
geographical conditions, the pre-Romanesque architecture of 




FIG. 96 LORSCH. ONE BAY OF 
THE BASILICAN GATE 



224 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

England shows an individualistic tendency. Such monuments 
as Earl's Barton (Fig. 97) are not to be confused with con- 
temporary continental monuments, though they were founded 
on Roman traditions, modified by barbarian ideas. Towers 
were frequent, the angles re-enforced by the very characteristic 

Saxon long-and-short work, 
of stone slabs embedded al- 
ternately horizontally and 
vertically. Walls were also 
decorated with strongly 
salient strips of stone, some 
placed vertically and running 
from the ground to the sum- 
mit, some banded horizon- 
tally round the building. 
Openings were divided by 
clumsy wall shafts, almost 
barrel-shaped and strongly 
suggesting wooden forms. 
The masonry handling in 
the Saxon buildings was ex- 
tremely rude, but the style 
was sturdy and might well 
have developed into one of 
great beauty had its evolu- 
tion not been arrested by 
the Norman conquest. 

Pre-Romanesque architecture of Spain. Geography affected 
the Carolingian architecture of Spain as well. The peninsula, 
like the island of Sicily, was always a battle-ground between 
races and civilizations, and a bridge over which Oriental 
influence entered Europe. The Spanish architecture of the 
dark ages, like that of the north, developed the basilican 
plan, but showed decidedly individualistic tendencies in 
arrangement of detail and especially in decoration. Barbaric 
elements came with the Visigothic occupation, and to them 
were soon added a decided Oriental influence, especially in 
decoration. Sassanian ideas crossed the straits of Gibraltar 
as easily as Tarik himself. As a result we find horseshoe 
arches, fluted scallop shells, and other details which give the 




FIG. 97 EARL'S BARTON. THE TOWER 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 225 

architecture a semi-exotic character. Extant monuments are 
abundant. Among the most interesting may be named the 
church of Santullano (Oviedo), San Miguel de Linio (near 
Oviedo), and Santa Maria de Naranco (Fig. 98), near San 
Miguel. 

Architectural activity about 1000 A.D. Although undue 
importance has been given to the effect on building of the safe 




FIG. 98 SANTA MARIA DE NARANCO. PLAN 

passage of the year 1000, when so many people, relying on a 
passage in the Apocalypse, oelieved the end of the world was 
at hand, the date is, in round numbers, a good one for the 
beginning of Romanesque architecture proper. Building 
received an extraordinary impetus about that time. The fact 
may be accounted for in many ways, but chiefly by the growth 
of the individual nations and the economic prosperity which 
their comparatively orderly governments insured. 

Priority. In this later Romanesque, Italy, Germany, and 
France each claims priority for its own style, and the contro- 
versy is complicated by the fact that almost all the monuments 
have suffered from repair, restoration, addition, and alteration 
more or less complete. The majority cannot be dated by 
documents and the minority which can may have suffered 
from a subsequent, undated alteration. In general Brutail's 
rule is excellent: a documented building cannot be earlier 
than the date of its document, but may be, and generally is, 



226 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

later. The critic must proceed with extreme caution, checking 
documentary against internal evidence, and vice versa, 
avoiding as far as possible the mistakes which come from pre- 
conceived ideas, and above all steeling himself against the 
appeals of a patriotic bias. 

Lombard Romanesque. On weighing the evidence, the 
oldest theory seems not only the most convenient but the 
most plausible, and we may assume the priority of Lombard 
Romanesque and begin our discussion with that style. This 
gives the credit of creative genius to Italy, but insists upon the 
necessity of Germanic (Lombard) blood to quicken this genius. 
Opponents of the theory call attention to the fact that Lombard 
architecture as designed in the eleventh century is highly 
organic, that the style soon lost this organic quality, that the 
movement died prematurely, and that Italian architecture has 
always been distinguished from northern by its fondness for 
inorganic forms, but all these phenomena may be explained 
by the weakening of the Lombard stock and the commercial 
decline of Lombardy coincident with the struggle between 
the empire and the papacy. 

Characteristics. The ribbed vault. What then were the main 
characteristics of this architecture? Since it was organic it- 
was, of course, vaulted, the favorite form being the domical 
groin vault. This form we have seen developed in Byzantine 
architecture, as in the vaults over the aisles of Hagia Sophia, 
from the heavy concrete vaults of the Romans. To the simple 
groin vault the Lombard architecture added strongly salient 
ribs, reinforcing the groin angles and binding the vault sides. 
They thus created a set of six ribs in all: two longitudinal or 
wall ribs; two transverse which crossed the nave at right 
angles to the long axis of the building; and two diagonal or 
groin ribs, which met in the center of the vault and divided 
it into four cells. The advantage of these ribs can hardly be 
exaggerated. They could be built separately and act as 
centering for the construction of the web. They were inde- 
pendent of the latter, which rested largely upon them, and 
thus the web could be thinned and the vault shell made much 
lighter. They concentrated the vault thrusts at, or near, the 
springing of the ribs, where the architects contrived to meet 
them with salient pier buttresses, and they divided the whole 




MORJENVAU 



MAINZ 
FIG. 99 PLANS OF ROMANESQUE CHURCHES 



228 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

vault of a building into separate compartments or bays, so 
that a crack or fault in one bay was not liable to spread to 
another. 

Compound supports. Such a modified vault demanded a 
modified support. An aggregate of ribs of different sizes, 
springing in different directions, could be gathered only 
clumsily on a round column or a square pier. A compound 
pier was needed and produced. In Santl Ambrogio at Milan 
(Fig. 10 1), for example, we find a pier compounded with an 
engaged pilaster on the nave side to bear the transverse rib, 
flanked by two engaged shafts to carry the diagonal ribs- On 
the northern and southern faces an engaged pilaster carries 
the longitudinal rib, and against it an engaged column bears 
the arches of the ground story archivolt. On the aisle side 
an engaged pilaster and shaft carry respectively the transverse 
and diagonal ribs of the aisle vaults. The capitals of these 
shafts face in the direction in which the ribs spring, hence the 
capitals of the shafts which carry the diagonals are set obliquely 
to the main axis of the building. In short, logic appears in 
every member, and structural logic, a term we shall often be 
forced to use, is emphasized. 

The alternate system. The same structural logic inspired 
another characteristic of Lombard architecture, destined to 
have far-reaching influence on later styles: the alternate 
system. On plan the naves were roughly twice the width of 
the aisles. It occurred logically to the architects that by 
having two bays in the aisles to balance one in the nave they 
could make their vaults square (Sanf Ambrogio, Fig. 99). 
This necessitated, however, an intermediate pier to carry the 
ribs of the aisle, vaults where their springing did not meet 
those of the nave vaults. Obviously this intermediate pier 
did not need the complicated form or the robustness of the main 
piers, hence smaller and simpler piers alternated between 
larger and more complicated ones, and the alternate system 
of vaults and piers was created. This system was used with 
great success in Romanesque and Gothic architecture when two 
bays of the aisle balanced one bay of the nave. 

The pilaster strip. A new structural system required new 
members, therefore the pilaster strip, whether against a pier 
to receive a member of the vaulting system, or appearing on 



230 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

the exterior as a buttress, received unprecedented develop- 
ment. 

Decoration. Aside from the fundamentally organic quality of 
the Lombard building, which is its most important character- 
istic, the style developed a very original decorative scheme. 
Corbels were used unsparingly. Arched corbel tables were 
run under the eaves and following the rake of the pitched gable 
roofs. Decoration was attained by means of arcades, some- 
times open, but mpre often blind. 
Doors were enriched with porches, 
covered with gables supported by 
columns, which were themselves 
carried on the backs of sculpt- 
ured lions. Sculpture, some- 
times of a very rude sort, some- 
times with Byzantine refinement, 
played a not unimportant part, 
but it was chiefly confined to 
portals, lintels, capitals, and the 
like. On the exterior color was 
generally eschewed. For decora- 
tive effect on the exterior the 
builders relied on architectural 
detail, carving, and differentia- 
tion of textures in the arrange- 
ment of fairly monochromatic 
material. Mosaic and marble 
veneer were excluded from the 
interiors, but these were enlivened 
with painting, now almost wholly 
gone, which must, in the original, 
have been garish. Further enlivenment of the interior was 
obtained by rich church furniture, sometimes of carved 
marble, or backed with ivory, sometimes of exquisitely 
modeled stucco, and at times even incrusted with silver, 
gold, and enamel. 

San? Ambrogio at Milan. Turning to the monuments 
which exhibit the style, we find the best known and most 
perfect example in Milan in the church of Sant' Ambrogio 
(Figs. 99, 100, 101, 102, and 103). This building has of late 




Copyright by Macmillan & Co. 

FIG. 101 MILAN. SANT' AM- 

BROGCO. DRAWING OF ONE 

BAY SHOWING VAULT RIBS AND 
SUPPORTS. (MOORE) 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 



231 



years figured largely in archeological dispute. It, and the 
neighboring and equally typical San Michele of Pavia, were 
long considered to date from the mid-eleventh century, 
but modern archeology tends to date the vaults of- Sant' 




FIG. 102 MILAN. SANT* AMBROGIO. INTERIOR LOOKING TOWARD 

THE APSE 



Ambrogio from the second quarter of the twelfth. They 
would thus be antedated by Romanesque monuments of 
Normandy. The point is not as important as at first appears, 
for the form of the vaults would have been determined by the 
time the first tier of stones in the piers was placed. The piers 
themselves reveal this. Moreover, such finished monuments 
could not spring spontaneously into being, but would imply 
a long development of experimental building before them, 
and modern research has revealed a number of examples of 
ribbed vaults of the eleventh century in Lombardy, some 
of them even constructed in the second quarter of the 

century. 
9 



A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



Plan and elevation. In plan (Fig. 99) Sant' Ambrogio is 
basilican, with three groin vaulted bays in the nave, a crossing 
with an octagonal lantern, and a short choir of half a bay. 
Two bays in the aisles correspond to one in the nave. The 
eastern termination has a great semicircular apse, flanked by 
two smaller apses of the same shape, on the axis of the aisles. 




FIG. 103 MILAN. SANT AMBROGIO. EXTERIOR 



This form, typically Carolingian, surely belongs to the ninth 
century building. There is no clerestory, the space being 
occupied by a large triforium gallery, the vaults of which 
receive the thrusts of the nave vaults and transmit them to 
the salient pier buttresses attached to the walls. The nave 
vaults (Fig. 100), very domical, have a full complement of 
transverse longitudinal and diagonal ribs. The aisle vaults 
are groined without diagonal ribs. The facade shows an open 
narthex, with an open gallery above it. The first story is 
divided from the second by a horizontal string-course, with an 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 233 

arched corbel table, and a similar corbel table follows the 
rake of the gable. Pilaster strips to the first story, and 
engaged shafts to the roof, divide the facade vertically into 
five sections. The octagonal lantern is decorated with two 
open galleries, and attached to the church is a square campanile 
reinforced at the angles by pilaster strips, divided horizontally 
by string-courses with corbel tables, and vertically by engaged 




FIG. 104 VERONA. SAN ZENO. GENERAL VIEW 



columns. The church has an atrium with vaulted portico 
which prevents a distant view of the fagade. 

Architecture outside of Milan. The farther removed it was 
from Milan the less organic Lombard architecture tended to 
become. San Michele of Pavia, to be sure, exhibits an 
organic feeling fully the equal of Sant' Ambrogio. Perhaps 
the most original church after these two was Sant' Abondio at 
Como, which affords one of the most pleasing and monumental 
designs of the style. This building has a fivefold vertical 
division of the facade, corresponding to the five aisles of the 



234 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

interior, a well-proportioned clerestory, and fine twin campanili 
symmetrically arranged. It is, however, unvaulted. 

The Maestri Comacini. One might expect monumental 
architecture at Como and, indeed, throughout Lombardy, on 
account of the Maestri Comacini, a famous band of workmen 
first mentioned by the Lombard King Rotari (636-652), the 
name of which suggests an origin on a little island, "Isola 
Comacina, " in Lake Como. The importance of this myste- 
rious band has probably been exaggerated, but there seems 
little doubt that it was largely influential both in the creation 
and in the spreading abroad of the Lombard style. 

Reversion to inorganic type. Throughout northern 'Italy 
the Lombard style held sway, stretching west into Piedmont 
and east into Emilia and the Veneto. In later monuments, 
however, as well as in those distant from Milan, there was a 
reversion to an inorganic type. At the same time the works 
tended to become more monumental, more showy. Parma 
cathedral (1117), with its lofty if inept vaults bound with 
tie-rods, its broad facade, its soaring campanile, has, at least, 
a superficial impressiveness that is denied the more organic 
but less obtrusive Sant' Ambrogio. Similarly Modena (conse- 
crated 1184), on account of well-proportioned facade and 
profuse sculpture, is more monumental in effect than the 
Milanese building. 

San Zeno, Verona. Perhaps the most pleasing and the 
least organic of all Lombard Romanesque buildings is San 
Zeno at Verona (consecrated 1138, Fig. 104). This church 
has probably the most satisfactory proportions of any building 
of its class. Its portal is ennobled by a gabled porch of the 
type popular in this style, and quite probably invented in 
Verona. The exterior is further enhanced by a free-standing 
campanile, decorated with vertical pilaster strips and hori- 
zontal strips of alternating red and white marble. The 
interior with its great height and raised crypt is impressive, 
but the inorganic quality of the building is revealed by its 
timber roof, trussed after the manner of the frame of a ship, 
and still retaining faint traces of its original painted 
decorations. 

Tuscan Romanesque. Farther south we next come to the 
architecture of central Italy which, for convenience, we may 



236 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

call Tuscan, though it overstepped the limits of what is now 
the Tuscan province/. The student will at once be struck with 
the inorganic quality of the style. The plans are chiefly 
basilican, and the architects strongly preferred the timber roof 
to a vaulted structure. At the same time the buildings were 
often extremely monumental in size and striking in decoration. 
In lieu of organic originality the Tuscan Romanesque offered 
a gorgeousness in striking contrast to the comparatively drab 
appearance of the art of the north. 

Decoration, general character. This effect was obtained 
principally by means of polished marble panels, and a. pro- 
fusion of arcades, blind and open, applied to the exterior. The 
exterior of such a building as the cathedral of Pisa is covered 




FIG. IO6 PISA. CATHEDRAL. PLAN 



with arcades, and the material used is colored marble applied 
in panels, squares, lozenges, and all manner of pure design, 
so brilliant in color as literally to be dazzling (Fig. 105). 
Interiors were generally basilican, the walls enlivened with 
horizontal strips of light and dark. Domes over the crossing 
were common, but nave vaults rare. At times one feels a 
certain amount of Lombard influence in central Italy, as at 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 237 

Toscanella and Montefiascone, but in general the style k 
very individual. 

The group at Pisa. The cathedral. The best point of 
departure for a study of Tuscan Romanesque monuments is, 
of course, the cathedral group at Pisa (Figs. 100, 105, 106, and 




FIG. IO7 PISA. CATHEDRAL. VIEW OF THE INTERIOR LOOKING 
TOWARD THE APSE 

107), where the cathedral, the leaning tower and baptistry 
offer the most resplendent examples of the style. The 
cathedral is five aisled basilican (Figs. 100 and 106). Its 
exterior arcades vary slightly in height and spacing, looking 
almost as though they were drawn and constructed free-hand. 
The building is wooden-roofed, but over the crossing is an 
egg-shaped dome curiously small for so large a nave. The 
wide transepts afford a striking feature. The effect of the 
exterior (Fig. 105) is one of rich color and interesting design. 
The interior (Fig. 107), however, is decorated with the typical 



238 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

bands of light and dark marble, the contrasts being so strong 
as to shock the eye rather than please it. 

The Leaning Tower. The same decorative system, open 
arcades with colored marble veneer, is applied in concentric 
rings to the campanile (Fig. 105). Though there is still dispute 
as to whether the lean of this famous monument is caused by 
settling of the foundation or was included in the original de- 
sign, the latter explanation seems the better attested, and there 
is little doubt that the builders chose to make one of Italy's 
most beautiful towers into architecture's most famous freak. 

The Baptistry. The baptistry is not so important for pur 
study as the other two monuments of the group, since it 
belongs partly to the Gothic period. The peculiar shape of 
the roof is caused by a unique system of doming, the building 
being first covered with a cone of masonry, exerting slight 
thrust, and then the superficial effect of a dome attained by 
springing a segment of an annular vault over the aisle, from 
the cornice, or upper string-course, to a point about two-thirds 
the way up the masonry cone. 

Buildings at Florence. Florence affords a local variation 
of the style, the best example being the church of San Miniato 
al Monte. This building follows the general scheme of decora- 
tion of the style, with a variant in the emphasis on the square 
in pure design. It also emphasizes another element noticeable 
in Tuscan Romanesque: the imitation of classical form. 
Some of the columns and pilasters follow the Corinthian order 
so closely that they look almost like pilfered fragments of 
ancient structures, and we can understand why the term 
"proto-Renaissance" has been applied to the age which pro- 
duced such works. In another Florentine building, in the 
same style, the baptistry of San Giovanni, this classic feeling 
is still stronger, and has led some authorities even to consider 
the reconstruction of about 1200 less important than is gener- 
ally supposed, and to argue that the present structure dates 
back to the late classical period. The ingenious doming of 
the building, with its double shell and stiffening barrel vaults 
between the ribs, influenced Brunelleschi in his design for 
the dome of the cathedral of Florence. 

South Italian Romanesque. Finally, in the third subdivision 
of Italian Romanesque, that of southern Italy and Sicily, or 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 239 

of the Two Sicilies, as the region is generally called, geography 
plays an important part. Since the beginning of Medi- 
terranean history this region has been fought over by con- 
flicting races. Here barbarian, Greek, Phoenician, Roman, 
Goth, Byzantine, Italian, Moslem, and Norman battled, 
prevailed, succumbed, and disappeared. The result was a 




FIG. 1 08 CEFALU. CATHEDRAL. VIEW OF THE WEST END 

lawless and confused society, and an art that combined 
Oriental and Occidental ideas. Although a hybrid, it actually 
succeeded in blending harmoniously the ideals of a half- 
dozen races, and we may find in a single building Lombard 
corbel tables, Norman interlacing arches, classic capitals, 
Byzantine mosaics, and Saracenic domes. If one's idea of 
Italian Romanesque is confused, it is a correct one. 

The style in Sicily. In general the admixture of styles shows 
more clearly in Sicily than in southern Italy. At Cefalu 
(Fig. 1 08), for example, we find the Norman flanking towers 



240 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

embracing the facade, the Norman interlacing arches, and the 
Moslem dome. One need not, however, leave Palermo, and 
its suburb, Monreale, to study Sicilian Romanesque in its 
most typical form. The cathedral, to be sure, is almost 
wholly spoiled by baroque alteration, but in the Cappella 
Palatina in the royal palace south Italian Romanesque appears 
in its most harmonious blend. The plan of this chapel is 




FIG. IO9 MONREALE. CATHEDRAL. VIEW OF THE INTERIOR LOOKING 
TOWARD THE APSE 



basilican, its pavement is of marble inlay, and its walls are 
covered with precious Byzantine mosaics. The modified 
Corinthian columns which divide the nave from the aisles 
are low, the archivolts which they support are lofty with 
pointed arches, here surely of Saracenic origin. The interior, 
completely incrusted with marble and mosaic, gives an 
impression of unsparing richness. 

Monreale. Probably the finest example of the style, how- 
ever, is the cathedral of Monreale (Figs. 99, 109, and no), 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 241 

some five miles from Palermo, founded in 1176. This church 
is of Latin cross plan and wooden roofed. The pavement is 
marble, the dadoes are marble veneered, and the upper walls are 
incrusted with mosaic. The arches of the main archivolts 
are much stilted and pointed. The exterior shows Norman 






FIG. IIO MONREALE. CATHEDRAL. SYSTEM OF THE NAVE AND THE 
EXTERIOR OF THE CHOIR 

fagade towers and interlacing, Saracenic decoration and 
construction. Adjoining the church is a cloister, with a portico 
carried on a series of paired columns richly carved in shaft 
and capital, and adorned with glass and marble mosaic. 
Such cloisters form specially charming features in many south 
Italian Romanesque churches, though they are to be found 
elsewhere in Romanesque work. 



242 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

German Romanesque. The Romanesque of Germany is, 
on the whole, much more homogeneous than Italian, and the 
most distinctly national of the country's styles. The Roman- 
esque style there was exceedingly prolific, and lingered longer 




FIG. Ill COLOGNE. SAINT MARY OF THE CAPITOL. PLAN 

than in any other country. Its unity and strength may be 
explained by the unity and political power of Germany 
beginning in 919 with the reign of Henry the Fowler and 
lasting through the period of the Ottos and the later Henrys. 




FIG. 112 PAULINZELLE. PLAN 



In studying it we must seek to distinguish the Germanic 
elements from those which represent importation from out- 
side. The former came from a development of the native 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 243 

Carolingian style ; the latter appear in the increasing tendency 
to use an organic Lombard structural system, and in a certain 
amount of Byzantine imitation. The last was not nearly so 
common in the later Romanesque as in the Carolingian epoch, 
though certain buildings, especially those at Cologne, with 





-f, 



? ] ] ? ? Tn>r. 

Saint Michael, Hildesheim 

FIG. 113 SYSTEMS OF GERMAN ROMANESQUE CHURCHES 

their apse-like transepts recalling the triconch churches of 
Syria and Egypt, seem surely to represent Oriental influences. 
General characteristics. The most striking and typically 
German characteristic of the style is its complexity and 
picturesqueness, acquired by a multiplication of architectural 
members. Apses were placed at the west as well as the east. 
Lanterns not only covered the crossing, but were placed at 
the west end of the building. Towers, and especially turrets, 
at both ends were common. These elements, as we have seen, 
are of Carolingian derivation. Even the churches which seem 
to reflect most clearly Oriental influence develop the complexi- 
ties of Carolingian prototypes, which were themselves 
influenced by the East. Thus the Holy Apostles at Cologne 



244 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

is but a development of Saint Mary of the Capitol (Fig. in), 
and combines Germanic complexity with the main dispositions 
of an Oriental plan. The earliest German Romanesque 

buildings are generally basilican 
and tended to retain the timber 
roof; the later are partially or 
even completely organic. Gen- 
erally, however, the organism 
of a church is marred by the 
omission of one or more struct- 
ural members. This organic 
quality, appearing late as it 
does, may be explained as an 
imitation of Lombard work. 
In general the more organic as 
well as the more monumental 
churches are to be found in the 
valley of the Rhine. 

Basilican churches. Turning 
first to the basilican churches 
we find them all alike in this 
lack of organic feeling, but dif- 
fering widely in the disposition 
of detail. Thus the Collegiate 
Church of Paulinzelle (Figs. 
112 and 11-3) shows a blind 

triforium and a uniform system of massive columns divid- 
ing the nave from the aisles. The Collegiate of Gernrode 
has a triforium gallery, reduced clerestory windows, and an 
alternation of a column with a square pier in the ground story 
arcade. Further variety is offered by Saint Michael, Hildes- 
heim (Figs. 99 and 113), which reverts to the blind triforium, 
but places two columns between the square piers in the main 
arcade. At Driibeck (Fig. 114) we note the simpler alterna- 
tion of single column and pier, but the arches from pier to 
column are embraced by great blind arches of double width 
and height which spring from pier to pier. Variation is, 
therefore, almost infinite in these churches, but all are alike in 
the heaviness of their systems, the massiveness of their walls, 
and in their simple wooden roofs supported on trussed timbers. 




Rhr. 



FIG. 114 DRUBECK. DRAWING OF 
ONE BAY, SHOWING THE SYSTEM 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 245 

The organic architecture of the Rhine. As a foil to these 
basilican churches one may turn to the great vaulted churches 
of the Rhine Valley: Speyer, Worms, and Mainz. These 
combine most happily the Lombard vaulted system with 
German picturesqueness. Speyer (Figs. 100, 115, 116, and 
117) has an organic vaulted system, complete but for the 
missing diagonal ribs. It has a lantern over the crossing, two 
square towers at the east end, two more at the west, a western 
transept and a western lantern. Despite its complexity the 




FIG. 1 1 5 SPEYER. PLAN 



building is compactly arranged and monumental in effect. 
Worms (Fig. 116) shows as great complexity as Speyer, and 
moreover has a full complement of ribs. Both exhibit the 
alternate system, the intermediate piers on the nave side 
having engaged shafts which support an archivolt embracing 
the clerestory windows. Later than either of the preceding, 
and perhaps most imposing of all, is the cathedral of Mainz 
(Figs. 99, 1 1 6, and 118). Here the arches are freely pointed, 
and complexity is carried to the extreme, the church having its 
full complement of turrets, western lantern, western apse, 
and the like. The western apse adds picturesqueness, but 
mars the design of the facade, as the flanking doors are mere 
insignificant inlets for worshippers as compared to the wel- 
coming portals of French .churches. 

Summary of German Romanesque. To understand German 
Romanesque, therefore, one must above all keep in mind the 
two divisions of elements: those developed from the Caro- 





1 




ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 247 

lingian, and those which are imported; the latter may be sub- 
divided roughly into Byzantine and Lombard. At times all 
three may combine in a single building, as in the church of the 
Holy Apostles at Cologne, where we find a semi-organic 
system, native picturesqueness, and a three shell east end 
which suggests Syria, but by keeping the main divisions in 
mind we may analyze and 
comprehend the host of 
Romanesque monuments 
which Germany offers. 

Approach to the study of 
French Romanesque. As we 
approach the discussion of 
French Romanesque, clear- 
ness suggests that we begin 
with the southern styles and 
work toward the northern. 
This will, at times, falsify 
chronology, but the pro- 
vincial styles of France are 
so nearly contemporaneous 
that the fault is not a seri- 
ous one, and the advantages 
of examining the southern 
styles first are great. The 
southern and central styles 
have one important com- 
mon characteristic: predi- 
lection for the barrel vault 
and consequently inorganic 
feeling. 

Provence. One may characterize Provencal Romanesque 
as the most classic of all Romanesque styles. It was in- 
evitable in a district which still preserves the Pont-du-Gard, 
the Baths of Diana at Nimes, the amphitheater at Aries, the 
triumphal arch at Orange, and countless other monuments of 
Roman antiquity, that architects should be influenced strongly 
by the examples constantly before their eyes. The result was 
not only a predilection for the barrel vault, especially the 
barrel vault supported on transverse semicircular arches, as 




FIG. 117 SPEYER. CATHEDRAL. VIEW 
OF THE INTERIOR LOOKING TOWARD 
THE APSE 




FIG. Il8 MAINZ. CATHEDRAL. VIEW FROM THE NORTH 




FIG. 119 ARLES. SAINT TROPHIME. THE MAIN PORTAL 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 



249 



in the Baths of Diana, but also for detail strongly classical 
in feeling. 

Monuments. An examination of the monuments emphasizes 
this fact. The fagade of Saint Trophime at Aries (Fig. 119) 
has capitals which are almost true Corinthian and a suggestion 
of entablature that is modified, not debased, classic Roman. 
The interior is barrel vaulted, with transverse arches, but the 
barrel vault is pointed in cross section. Saint Gilles (Gard) 
boasts a fagade similar to Saint 
Trophime, but more elaborate. 
Here even the masonry recalls classic 
Rome, and the main portal is flanked 
by channeled pilasters of almost 
deceptively classic character. Some 
of the Corinthian columns, too, need 
only a delicate entasis to appear 
stolen from a classic edifice. These 
are well-known examples, and the 
more obscure reiterate the same 
effects. The word "Romanesque" 
in its literal sense applies more 
aptly to the Provengal style than 
to any other. 

Auvergne. Farther north and 
west a somewhat different develop- 
ment was taking place. In Auvergne 
we find the same predilection for 
barrel vaults, but new dispositions 
in plan. The Auvergnat churches, 
as one would expect in the earliest 




of the French Romanesque styles, TRANSVERSE SECTION, snow- 
have a Carolingian affiliation and ING H^LF - BARREL VAULT 

. OVER THE AISLE 

something of the picturesqueness 
of the Romanesque of the Rhine. 

Apses are provided with ambulatories and radiating absidioles, 
and absidioles are often added to the eastern walls of the 
transepts. At the same time the barrel vault is treated 
with more freedom. The nave is usually covered with a 
barrel vault, but the aisles are often provided with but 
half -barrel vaults which thrust inward and counteract 



A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



the thrust of the vault of the nave (see Fig. 120). An in- 
evitable result of this arrangement was inadequate lighting. 
Light was admitted through the ground story windows, 
and through windows in the trif orium gallery beneath the half- 
barrel vaults, but by the time it had filtered into the nave it 
was much weakened, and most Auvergnat churches give one 

the sensation of a black 
cloud overhanging the nave, 
an effect which, if not cheer- 
ful, is at least impressive. 
The individual members and 
general construction of the 
Auvergnat church, according 
with its early date, are gen- 
erally very massive, another 
fact which again makes the 
churches impressive, if some- 
times ungraceful. The ex- 
terior is lightened by the 
absidioles, stepped lanterns, 
arcades, and general multipli- 
cation of members, which give 
the building picturesque- 
ness. 

Monuments. The best 
known and historically most 
interesting of Auvergnat 
churches is N6tre Dame du Port at Clermont-Ferrand (Figs. 
120 and 121). It is a heavy, barrel- vaulted, ill-lighted but 
impressive church, with a multiplication of absidioles and the 
general picturesqueness which well typifies the style. Other 
monuments, as illuminating if less famous, are numerous. 
Among them we must mention Saint Saturnin, and Orcival 
(Puy-de-D6me). 

Languedoc. Closely allied to the style of Auvergne is that 
which we may call, for want of a better name, the school of 
Languedoc, though the district involved embraces a vast 
territory from Auvergne to the Pyrenees. The styles of 
Auvergne and Languedoc have often with reason been classi- 
fied together, but the latter tends to a more monumental 




FIG. 121 CLERMONT-FERRAND. NOTRE 
DAME DU PORT. VIEW OF THE EAST END 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 251 

scale, and greater delicacy in single members and sculptured 
detail. The most prominent example of this style is, of course, 
Saint Sernin at Toulouse (Figs. 100 and 122), a five aisled! 
barrel-vaulted structure with a lofty and very graceful lantern 
over the crossing. The building is on so elaborate a scale, and 
exhibits so great delicacy of material and detail, that one does 
not at first identify it as a 
close relative of the buildings 
of neighboring Auvergne, yet 
such it is. The architectural 
sculptures alone of Lan- 
guedoc would differentiate 
the buildings of that district 
from those of Auvergne. 

Aq^litaine. Byzantine 
character of the building. 
North of Languedoc and 
west of Auvergne we find a 
very vigorous and distinct 
school flourishing in Aqui- 
taine. The Aquitanian 
buildings have generally been 
characterized as the most 
Byzantine of French Ro- 
manesque churches. Saint 
Front at Perigueux (Figs. 99 
and 123) has repeatedly been 

called a direct copy of Saint Mark's at Venice, and the numer- 
ous other churches of the district, with their domes on penden- 
tives so unique in French Romanesque, have been said to be 
inspired by Saint Front. To this theory a reaction has lately 
set in. Saint Front postdates many of the buildings in the 
neighborhood with the same characteristics, and there are great 
differences between the so-called Byzantine details of these 
buildings and the details of the real Byzantine buildings 
whence they are supposed to be derived. These facts have led 
certain scholars to conclude that the domed churches of 
Aquitaine owe no more to Byzantium than the Romanesque 
of the rest of France, but convincing as these arguments at 
first seem, they can be overthrown by the juxtaposition of the 




FIG. 122 TOULOUSE. SAINT SERNIN. 
THE INTERIOR SEEN FROM THE WEST 



252 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

plans of Saint Mark's and Saint Front (Figs. 88 and 99). 
We note the salient Greek cross, the barrel vaults, the central 
dome on pendentives, and the four subordinate domes on the 
arms of the cross. Such similarities are not coincidences. 
Probably Saint Front is not a copy of Saint Mark's; surely, 
however, the two are inspired by a Byzantine original, quite 




FIG. 123 PERIGUEUX. SAINT FRONT. GENERAL VIEW FROM THE 

SOUTHEAST 



possibly the church of the Holy Apostles at Constantinople. 
Certainly it is correct to classify the Romanesque of Aquitaine 
as most Byzantine in character. 

Originality of Aquitanian architecture. Not all the churches 
of Aquitaine, however, have the Greek cross plan or even the 
domes on pendentives which mark the style as Byzantine in 
character. In the cathedral of Angouleme, for example (Fig. 
99), the dome vaults are arranged in the form of a Latin cross, 
and at Notre Dame la Grande at Poitiers (Fig. 124) the dome 
on pendentives is abandoned in favor of the barrel vault. 
The churches of the region are, nevertheless, bound into one 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 253 

style by the system of decoration, curious cone-shaped turrets 
with scale-like tiles, bossy masonry, and a unique inter- 
mingling of architectural and figure sculpture as ornament 
over portals and windows. 

Burgundy. We may conclude our examination of southern 
and central French Romanesque with a brief review of the 
Burgundian style. 
As might be ex- 
pected from geo- 
graphical consid- 
erations, this style 
is the most or- 
ganic of the south- 
ern-central group, 
and therefore 
makes a good 
transition to the 
study of the art 
of Normandy and 
the He de France. 
The characteris- 
tics most worthy 
of emphasis are its 
accent on monas- 
tic architecture, 
its increasingly 
organic quality in- 
volving frequent 
use of the groin FIG. 124 POITIERS. NOTRE DAME LA GRANDE. 
vault, its original- VIEW OF THE WEST END 

ity in the hand- 
ling of the barrel vault, and its vigorous, racy sculptured 
decorations, especially as applied in the vestibule or narthex, 
a feature which received unprecedented development at the 
hands of the Burgundian architects. 

Cluny. The abbey of Cluny (Figs. 99 and 100) was, 
perhaps, the most typical Burgundian church. It was 
founded in 1089, destroyed in 1125, and rebuilt in 1130. 
Unfortunately it was razed during the French Revolution, but 
we know it by drawings and descriptions. It was five-aisled, 




254 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

the nave covered with a barrel vault and the aisles with groin 
vaults. Its transepts were double, those to the east smaller 
than those to the west, giving the plan the archiepiscopal- 
cross form so common in English Gothic buildings. Round 
the ambulatory were five absidioles, and others were added 
on the eastern faces of the transepts. The nave was preceded 
by an elaborate narthex of five bays. There was a lantern 




FIG. 125 VEZELAY. CHURCH OF THE MADELEINE. THE INTERIOR SEEN 
FROM THE VESTIBULE 

over the crossing, towers over the transepts, and towers were 
placed at the west end. The impression of the building must 
have been not unlike that of a Rhenish church of the period, 
and, indeed, a connection between the two has often been 
urged. 

Extant Burgundian monuments. Burgundy possesses, how- 
ever, many extant monuments in which the style may be 
judged. The cathedral of Autun, for example, exhibits an 
elaborately ornamented narthex, and a nave in the form of a 
pointed barrel vault. An ingenious variant in the treatment 
of the barrel vault may be seen at Saint Philibert at Tournus. 
The gravest fault of the longitudinal barrel vault over a nave 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 255 

is its tendency to suppress, usually entirely, the window 
openings in the clerestory. In Saint Philibert this difficulty 
is avoided by roofing the nave with a series of sections of barrel 
vaults, placed at right angles to the long axis of the building. 
These sections mutually abut one another, and their wall 
arches leave ample room for clerestory openings, but the 
esthetic effect of the series of transverse arches is unhappy, 
and the experiment was not copied in other buildings. 

Vezelay. The best known and the most interesting his- 
torically of the Burgundian buildings is the abbey church of 





FIG. 126 ROMANESQUE ORNAMENT 

Vezelay (Fig. 125). Here we find the Burgundian narthex, 
with its richly sculptured decoration, but the barrel vault 
disappears entirely, even the great bays of the nave being 
covered with groin vaults. The groins lack ribs, so that the 
system is only partially organic, but despite the lack we feel 
an increase in organic interest which signals the approach of 
the northern styles. 

Northern French Romanesque. Normandy. As we have 
seen, northern French Romanesque falls naturally into two 
divisions, the Norman and that of the He de France. We 
shall begin with the former. The most marked characteristics 
of fully developed Norman Romanesque are its strong sense 
of structural logic and its inventiveness. No style which we 
have examined, except the Lombard, has been marked so 
strongly by the former, and it seems clear that Lombard 
architecture exercised a strong influence on the Romanesque 
of Normandy. Those who urge an autochthonous growth for 



256 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

the Norman style run counter to what we know of Norman 
history. Lanfranc, for example, one of the most famous of 
Lombards, established himself successively at Bee, Caen, and 
Avranches, and, after the Conquest, became archbishop of 
Canterbury. He was followed in the same places by Anselm 

__ of Aosta, afterward canonized. 
Unquestionably such men as these 
carried Lombard influence into 
Normandy, though this fact 
should not blind us to the pre- 
cocity and inventiveness of the 
Norman style. 

Norman originality. Ribbed 
vaulting, the alternate system, 
compound piers, are features com- 
mon both to Lombard and Nor- 
man. To the latter, however, 
belongs the credit of inventing a 
new vault form, specially adapted 
to the alternate system. In the 
nave of the Abbaye-aux-Hommes 
(Saint Etienne) at Caen (Figs. 99, 
128, and 130), it occurred to the 
builders to throw an intermediate 
transverse rib from the inter- 
mediate pier, dividing the vault 
surface into six cells instead of 
four. In this system the crowns 
of the lateral cells run obliquely, 

instead of at right angles to the long axis of the building. 
The vault surfaces are somewhat distorted, but the win- 
dow space was enlarged, and the aptitude of the form to 
the alternate system is attested by the number of Gothic 
buildings in which the two are combined (see plan of Paris 
cathedral, Fig. 139). Normandy also developed a number of 
decorative motives. The billet mold was adopted from 
Carolingian architecture, and new forms such as the dog-tooth, 
zigzag, and interlacing arcade were invented (Fig. 126). The 
technique of stone cutting and stone fitting, too, was notably finer 
in Normandy than in contemporary schools of Romanesque, 




t 1 i * 3 ion- 

FIG. 127 JUMIEGES. ABBEY 
CHURCH. THE SYSTEM 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 257 

Jumieges. The earliest important extant example of Nor- 
man Romanesque is the abbey church of Jumieges (Fig. 127). 
In this building, now a ruin, we find the alternate system. 
Although the church was designed for a timber roof, a com- 
pound engaged shaft runs from the main piers, through the 
clerestory, to the level of the cross beams of the roof. It is 




t i 

Abbaye-aux-Dames 



FIG. 128 - CAEN. THE ABBEY CHURCHES. 



Abbaye-aux-Hommes 
SYSTEM OF THE INTERIORS 



probable that we have here a reminiscence of the early 
Lombard wooden-roofed church in which the roof was sup- 
ported, at least partially, by stone arches thrown across the 
nave. 

The Abbaye-aux-Hommes at Caen. Sexpartite 'vaults. At 
Caen the so-called Abbaye-aux-Hommes (Figs. 99, 128, and 
129), built and dedicated to Saint Stephen by William the 
Conqueror, gives us the most complete example of the style. 
Though the church was founded in the eleventh century, the 



258 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



vaults are a reconstruction of the first half of the twelfth. 
The original building was wooden-roofed but had the inter- 
mediate engaged shaft, which occurs in Lombardy, and there 
supports only the corbel table of the triforium string. It is 
reasonable to suppose that the presence of the intermediate 

shaft suggested 
the intermediate 
rib, and the Nor- 
man invention of 
the sexpartite 
vault (Figs.. 99, 
128, and 129) was 
the result. In the 
Abbaye - aux- 
Hommes there 
are also numerous 
passageways in 
the thickness of 
the walls, which 
give access to the 
clerestory win- 
dows and other 
parts of the 
church, and an 
open lantern over 
the crossing. 
These features 
are almost surely 
Norman innova- 
tions. 

The Abbaye-aux-Dames at Caen. Rudimentary flying but- 
tresses. As a pendant to the Abbaye-aux-Hommes, William's 
wife, Matilda, built the church of the Trinity, called the 
Abbaye-aux-Dames (Figs. 100 and 128). This church, on a 
smaller scale than Saint Etienne, is more compactly composed 
and more profusely and delicately ornamented. The archi- 
tects of La Trinite invented one feature of the greatest signifi- 
cance. In the Abbaye-aux-Hommes the builders had tried 
to abut the thrust of the nave vaults by a half-barrel vault 
over the triforium galleries, a system which we have already 




FIG. 129 CAEN. SAINT ETIENNE. VIEW OF THE 

INTERIOR LOOKING TOWARD THE APSE 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 259 

noted in Auvergne and Languedoc (Notre Dame du Port, 
Clermont-Ferrand; Saint Sernin, Toulouse). The thrust of such 
a half-barrel vault, being continuous, well meets the con- 
tinuous thrust of the barrel vault of the nave, but the thrusts 
of a groin vault, like that of the Abbaye-aux-Hommes, are 
not continuous. They are concentrated at the intersection 
of the ribs, and the half -barrel 
vault is, therefore, useless, 
except at and near points 
coinciding with the intersec- 
tion of the ribs. Recognizing 
this fact, the builders of the 
Abbaye-aux-Dames omitted 
all portions of the half-barrel 
vault where it was not needed 
to abut the thrusts of the 
nave vault. The result was 
a series of arches, hidden 
under the lean-to aisle roof, 
which carried the thrusts of 
the nave vaults over to the 
pier buttresses set against 
the outer walls of the aisles 
(Fig. 100). Hidden and rudi- 
mentary as these members 
are, they are nevertheless 
embryonic flying buttresses, 
and to Norman Romanesque 
belongs the credit of invent- 
ing this important feature. 

Romanesque architecture of England. English originality. 
Before passing on to the architecture of the He de France we 
must pause to note the Romanesque architecture of England. 
The transition is wholly logical, for, although England and 
Normandy are now politically divided, during the later Roman- 
esque period they were one. Naturally the architects of 
William the Conqueror created buildings of the same style in 
England a few years after the Conquest as they had in Nor- 
mandy a few years before. It must not be supposed, however, 
that Norman Romanesque underwent no modifications in 




FIG. I3O IFFLEY. PARISH CHURCH. 
VIEW OF THE WEST END 



260 



A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 



England. England often borrowed, but seldom slavishly 
copied. Norman Romanesque in England became more 
massive, as though the heavy Saxon architecture which it 
superseded had influenced it. Sometimes this massiveness 
was emphasized by extreme bareness and absence of decora- 
tion, as in Saint John's chapel in the Tower of London; some- 
times it was disguised by a luxuriant profusion of Norman 




FIG. 131 DURHAM. CATHEDRAL. PLAN 



decorative motives, as in the parish church of Iffley (Fig. 130). 
In general the style tended to abandon the structural logic of 
Normandy and to revert to wooden roofs. Even in vaulted 
Durham (Figs. 131 and 132), the finest and most homogeneous 
of the Anglo-Norman cathedrals, the alternate system was 
used with an illogical, if ingenious, vault system. No trans- 
verse ribs are thrown from the intermediate piers and the 
latter have no engaged shafts. Extra diagonals, however, 
spring from corbels above the intermediate piers, and the 
result is what one might call either two imperfect quadri- 
partite vaults or a single septapartite one. The transverse 
arches of Durham are pointed, a phenomenon quite common 
in later Anglo-Norman churches. English Romanesque does, 
therefore, show originality, despite its close relation to Norman. 
Romanesque of the lie de France. Returning to France, we 
may now take up the most completely organic of all Roman- 
esque styles: that of the lie de France. One may think of 
it as the most, or the least, finished of styles, according to 
whether one thinks of it as completed Romanesque or rudi- 
mentary Gothic. The problem is greatly complicated by the 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 261 

fact that in this region Gothic architecture developed, and the 
Romanesque buildings from which it sprang were usually 
either altered during the later Gothic period or modified by 
the architectural experiments by means of which finished 
Gothic was reached. Much that might otherwise come under 
the head of Romanesque architecture of the He de France must 
be discussed in connectipn with developing Gothic, and may, 




FIG. 132 DURHAM. CATHEDRAL. GENERAL VIEW FROM THE SOUTHEAST 

therefore, be omitted here. In general the Romanesque 
monuments of the region are not large in scale or striking in 
esthetic effect. To an even greater degree than in the build- 
ings of Lombardy their greatest interest is historical, in the 
light they shed on future organic styles, and this impression 
is greatly exaggerated by the destruction and alteration of so 
many of the finest buildings. 

Earlier and later buildings. The earlier buildings of the 
He de France were not organic, and inorganic buildings were 
erected even contemporaneously with those of the budding 
Gothic style. Such a church as Vignory, for example, is 
timber-roofed, with massive piers, plain walls, and no organic 
structure whatever. In the second half of the eleventh 



262 A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 



century, however, a highly organic style appeared. The idea 
of organic vaulting, with logical piers, probably came from 
Normandy, though the Norman alternate system was not 
taken over and does not appear in the He de France till the 
Gothic period. Ideas of plan, notably in the ambulatories, 
and decoration were borrowed from the south. 

Development of the style. The development of the style was 
one of increasing delicacy and nicety of adjustment of load to 
shaft. At times, as at Saint-Loup-de-Naud, the vaults and 

piers are massive and clumsy 
in appearance, but always 
exactingly logical in arrange- 
ment. In finished examples, 
as at Saint Remi, Reims, the 
shafts are slender, delicately 
cut, and delicately adjusted 
to the load they bear. 

Full development. Saint 
Remi, however, like most 
examples of the style, is not 
homogeneous. The fine 
Romanesque shafts and piers 
carry not Romanesque but 
Gothic vaults, which really 
emphasize the structural 
good taste of the former, so 
well do the two harmonize. 
In like manner the church 
of Saint Etienne, Beauvais, 
FIG. 133 BEAUVAIS. SAINT ETiENNE. one of the most famous 
DRAWING OF ONE OF THE AISLE VAULTS Romanesque monuments of 

AND ITS SUPPORTS. (FROM MOORE) the ^^ ig finished with 

Gothic vaults. The elegance of the Romanesque portions, 
however, especially the side aisles (Fig. 133), shows the ad- 
vanced point which the style reached in the district. 

Morienval. The beginnings of Gothic. One of the best 
known examples of the style is the little church of Morienval 
(Fig. 99). The nave is covered with an early Gothic vault, 
but the north aisle (Fig. 134) retains its Romanesque vault, 
lacking diagonal ribs, though the diagonals are supported by 




Copyright by Macmillan & Co. 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 263 

a pilaster strip in the pier. In the same aisle one may note 
a tendency to stilt the transverse rib in order to raise its crown 
nearer the level of the crown of the vault, a tendency which 
we might also have noted in the aisle vaults of Saint Etienne 
at Beauvais (Fig. 133). Here we reach a limbo in which 
organic Romanesque and the most rudimentary Gothic meet. 
If we but walked from the 
north aisle of Morienval to 
the apsidal ambulatory of 
that church we might see a 
transverse arch not only 
stilted that its crown may 
approach the crown of the 
vault, but also for the same 
reason pointed. With this 
observation we should pass, 
however, from the consider- 
ation of Romanesque to that 
of Gothic architecture. 

Spanish Romanesque. 
Before bringing to a close 
the discussion of the schools 
of Romanesque architect- 
ure, a word is necessary 
with regard to Spain. In 
general Spanish Roman- 
esque represents an impor- FIG. 134 MORIENVAL. PARISH 
tation of the styles of Au- CHURCH ' VIEW OFTHE NORTH AISLE 
vergne and Languedoc. 

The most famous of the Spanish churches, that of Santiago 
at Compostela (Fig. 135), strikingly resembles Saint Sernin 
of Toulouse. Just as the English modified the Norman, so 
the Spanish modified the southern French, and impressed 
it with their own nationality. In a temperate climate 
roofs became flatter, so that at times the triforium space 
was practically eliminated and its openings made into win- 
dows, as in the Colegiata of San Isidore at Leon (Fig. 
136). Forms specially characteristic of Spain, such as the 
so-called Visigothic horseshoe arch, were used, and above all 

sculptured decoration became profuse. Undercutting was 
10 




264 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



deepened, edges sharpened, forms crowded, until the decora- 
tion attained that sparkling character so typically Spanish. 
The common phenomenon, therefore, of Spanish naturaliza- 
tion of immigrant forms never appears more strikingly than 
in the case of Romanesque architecture. 

Development of single features . Obviously in an architecture 
so heterogeneous as Romanesque it is impossible to trace a 

strictly chronological 
development of any 
single feature, or 
group of features. 
Nevertheless, at the 
risk of repetition, it 
will be well to note 
the progress made by 
the style in the devel- 
opment and adapta- 
tion of certain details 
or features of churchly 
architecture. 

Plans. The discus- 
sion of the plan may 
be dismissed sum- 
marily with the state- 
ment that the style 
offered material for 
almost all subsequent 
types of church plans. 
The prototype of the 
finished French 
Gothic building, with 
its complicated 
chevet, ambulatory, 

and radial chapels, is to be found in southern French Roman- 
esque, just as the favorite English archiepiscopal-cross plan 
is to be found in Burgundy. 

Vaults. The progress in vault forms was as marked. 
Besides innovations and modifications of barrel vault forms, 
such as pointed barrel vaults and cross barrel vaults, we find 
Lombardy and Normandy developing the Byzantine domed 




M ni- 



135 COMPOSTELA. SANTIAGO. PLAN 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 265 

vault into the organic, domical groin vault of quadripartite 
or sexpartite form, and handing on to Gothic the ideas neces- 
sary for its future development. Ingenuity and originality 
were shown even in the trussed wooden roof, and it was given 
new and interesting forms, as at San Zeno in Verona. 

Supports. Corresponding to the ribbed vaults, we find the 
supports developing, with compound members for a compound 





5 to 2QV\- 01 2 * SHI- 

FIG. 136 LEON. SAN ISIDORO. PLAN AND SYSTEM 

rib system. We find the Lombard alternate system brought 
into accord with the sexpartite vault, and the shaft capitals 
signaling the direction of the springing of the ribs. Chrono- 
logically we may note a steady refining of the proportions of 
the supports, suggesting approaching Gothic, which culminates 
in the delicate proportions of the best Romanesque of the 
He de France. 

Buttresses. The progress of the buttress was no less 
remarkable. Lombardy supplied the pilaster strip against 



266 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

the outer wall, used as a buttress, which was the germ of all 
future development. This pilaster or pier buttress was 
steadily deepened and strengthened. At the same time 
numerous solutions of the problem of carrying the thrusts of 
the nave vaults to the aisle walls and the buttresses were 
made. In Lombardy this was done by omitting the triforium 
and carrying the thrusts of the nave vaults over to the gallery 
vaults, and thence to the outer wall. In Auvergne and else- 
where the same problem was solved by barrel vaults and half- 
barrel vaults over a triforium gallery, binding in the great 
vault of the nave. Finally, at the Abbaye-aux-Dames, the 
continuous half-barrel 1 vault, illogical for the abutment of a 
groin vault, was cut into sections, and these sections, or 
rudimentary flying buttresses, were placed under the aisle 
roofs to neutralize and carry off the concentrated thrusts of 
the groin vaults of the nave. 

Construction. With the refinement and development of 
details went a lightening of the building as a whole. As the 
parts became more slender, the whole became less massy. 
This development did not proceed equally in all regions, nor 
did it even proceed chronologically. There were, as we have 
seen, massy, inert buildings in the He de France. The 
tendency was, however, to convert the heavy early type into 
a lighter one presaging the Gothic building. 

Fa^a(^s.\ The design of the fagade progressed notably in 
this period. In spite of their organic structure, the Lombard 
buildings were masked behind illogical and often unsightly 
fagades, though some of the later Lombard churches, like San 
Zeno, have well-proportioned facades which reveal the inner 
structure of the building. Logical fagade composition re- 
ceived its fullest Romanesque development in Normandy 
where, as in the Abbaye-aux-Hommes, the vertical divisions 
of the interior are marked on the exterior by pilasters, the 
horizontal by rows of windows, the pitched roof revealed by a 
gable, and the whole flanked by two monumental towers. All 
the germs are here which were developed into the complete 
Gothic facade. At the same time facades which lacked 
organic expressiveness and logic, but added other beauties, 
were being designed in other styles of Romanesque. Thus the 
Tuscans designed rich polychromatic fagades, adorned with 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 267 

arcades, and the Germans picturesque ones with a profusion 
of turrets, apses, and the like. 

Lanterns and towers. Meanwhile lavish invention was 
devoted to lanterns and especially to bell towers. In Italy the 
latter were constructed at a very early date round and free- 
standing. In the north these turret-like members, even in 
Carolingian times, were incorporated with the building. 
Eventually the square or angular tower became the favorite, 
and infinite variations were played on it. At times the tower 
was merely carried up in a series of stepped squares and 
topped by a pyramid as at Morienval. Again it was square, 
but its pointed roof polygonal, the angles being filled with 
little polygonal members, themselves covered with peaked 
roofs, as at Beaulieu-les-Loches. A variant of this type 
appears at Auxerre, where the square tower is surmounted by 
a polygon, and the tapering roof springs from that. Some- 
times the round tower, ornamented with blind and open 
arcades, is used in France (Uzes) ; sometimes the round turret 
above a square and crowned with a cone appears (Saint Front, 
Perigueux). In the most elaborate examples stepped square 
is placed on square, stepped polygon on polygon, until as at 
Jumieges, the towers produce an aspiring effect very suggestive 
of Gothic. 

Openings. In openings we must note a constant elaboration 
of the splaying characteristic of Carolingian architecture. In 
the latter a splay to aid in the distribution of light was intro- 
duced by means of a simple chamfer. In later Romanesque 
the splay was deepened, and was obtained frequently in 
window and door by means of multiple orders. It was thus 
given architectural dignity as well as utility. Compound 
openings, too, were evolved, sometimes of two lights, some- 
times of two lights embraced by a blind arch, and in variants 
of this motive. At the same time portals were ennobled by 
elaborate porches, the finest being those of Lombardy and 
Burgundy. 

Decoration. New decorative schemes also came into being. 
Figure and foliate sculpture was applied to the exterior, at 
times haphazardly as in Lombardy, at times with extraor- 
dinary subservience to architectural expression, as in Pro- 
vence and Languedoc. In addition, new motives in pure 



268 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

design, like the Norman zigzag and dog-tooth, were applied 
to the exterior and the interior. For the interior new sculpt- 
ured capitals were invented, some of them modified classic or 
Byzantine, some in original foliate designs, and many more of 
the "storied capital" type in which the purpose was didactic 
as well as decorative and the sculptures represented ecclesiasti- 
cal, mythological, and unidentifiable scenes of the greatest 
raciness and originality. Polychromy was obtained in the 
interiors by means of paint. On the exterior its use varied 
with the style. The Tuscan architects got fine exterior 
effects by the use of polychromatic marble veneer. Outside 
of Tuscany polychromy played a less important part on the 
exterior, though fine effects were obtained by the use of several 
sorts of stones (Sicily), by patterned brick (Languedoc) and 
the like. 

Secular architecture. The ensemble. For several reasons we 
may omit almost entirely any consideration of the secular 
architecture and the ensemble in the Romanesque period. 
In the first place the extant Romanesque secular monuments 
are few, and nearly all altered. In the second place they 
differ slightly, except in the application of detail, from the 
much more numerous Gothic buildings of the same type. 
This does not mean that there are no monuments by which 
we may judge Romanesque secular architecture. One needs 
but look at the enceinte of Avila (Castile, Fig. 137) to see 
Romanesque secular building, and get an idea of the 
appearance of a Romanesque city seen from without. The 
impression will, however, be very much like that obtained from 
a similar town, say Carcassonne (Fig. 178), of the Gothic 
period. Single secular monuments, in whole or in part, 
notably castles such as the Wartburg at Eisenach, exist 
for the archeologist, and show distinctive arrangements 
especially in the court and court facades, but it seems 
more sensible to discuss the whole question of medieval 
civil and domestic architecture in connection with the Gothic 
period. 

The influence of Romanesque. Finally, something should 
be said about the influence of Romanesque architecture on 
subsequent styles. The influence of organic Romanesque on 
organic French Gothic has, of course, always been emphasized, 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 269 

but other equally significant examples of the influence of this 
architecture on later art have been overlooked. Few people, 
as they admire the gorgeously polychromatic Gothic cathedrals 
of Tuscany with their striped interiors, realize that these 
buildings are comparatively slight modifications of the Tuscan 
Romanesque style. In England the massive Norman con- 




FIG. 137 A VILA. GENERAL VIEW OF THE FORTIFICATIONS 

struction was handed down to the Gothic style, though it was 
disguised by what was, after all, but an applique" of pointed 
detail. In German Gothic, where it is not mere imitation 
of French work, we note the picturesqueness of Rhenish 
Romanesque. 

Self-sufficiency of the style. Although at the conclusion of 
our study we are led inevitably to assert the influence of 
Romanesque on later architecture, we should be at the greatest 
pains to avoid the common error of thinking of the architecture 
merely as one of transition. It was a heterogeneous art, and 
consequently well able aptly to express the genius of not one 
but many races. Nevertheless, whatever its subdivisions, 



270 A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 

it was primarily a self-sufficient, independent style. To re- 
gard it in any other light is wholly to miss its meaning. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF MONUMENTS 

For convenience monuments of a single country are grouped 
together, with the exception of Saint Gall (Switzerland), which is 
placed under Germany. When a date is given exactly and without 
qualification, it refers to the beginning of the portion of the building 
referred to in the text. Often round numbers, half centuries or 
centuries, are all that are possible or necessary, and at times, when a 
building has been remodeled in the period under discussion, several 
dates are given. In general it will be well to call to mind again that 
an error in dating a monument usually tends to give it greater an- 
tiquity than it deserves. 

ITALY 

Milan, San Satiro. Eighth century. 
Como, Sant' Abondio. C. 1035-95. 
Toscanella, San Pietro. 1039-93. 
Pisa, Cathedral. Begun 1063. 

Milan, Sant' Ambrogio. 1098 to mid-twelfth century. 
Modena. Begun 1099; consecrated 1184. 
Florence, San Miniato. 1013 and later. 
Parma. 1117. 

Pa via, San Michele. 1127 (?). 
Palermo, Cappella Palatina. Before 1132. 
Verona, San Zeno. Begun 1138. 
Cefalu. 1145. 
Pisa, Baptistry. 1153-78. 
Pisa, Campanile. Begun 1174. 
Monreale. 1 1 74-89. 

Florence, Baptistry. Founded seventh or eighth century; re- 
modeled c. 1 200. 

GERMANY 

Lorsch (porch). 774. 

Aix-la-Chapelle (Charlemagne's chapel). 796-804. 

Frankfort, Salvatorskapelle. 8 5 2 . 

Saint Gall (Switzerland). Ninth century. 

Cologne, Saint Mary of the Capitol. After 1000. (Founded 700.) 

Cologne, the Holy Apostles. Eleventh to thirteenth century. 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 271 

Eisenach, Wartburg. Built 1067; rebuilt 1130-50; remodeled 1190. 

Hildesheim, Saint Michael. Built 1001-33; remodeled 1186. 

Speyer. Founded 1030; remodeled twelfth century. 

Drubeck. Early twelfth century. 

Gernrode. Founded ninth century; rebuilt twelfth century. 

Paulinzelle. Twelfth century. 

Worms. Twelfth century. 

Mainz. Begun 978; largely thirteenth century. 

FRANCE 

Beauvais, Basse-GEuvre. Eighth century (?). 

Germigny-les-Pres. 801-806. 

Montier-en-Der. 960-998. 

Vignory. 1050-52. 

Jumieges. Begun 1040; consecrated 1067. 

Clermont-Ferrand, Notre Dame du Port. Mid-eleventh century. 

Toulouse, Saint Sernin. Begun 1080; worked on in twelfth and 

thirteenth centuries. 
Cluny. 1089. 

Poitiers, Notre Dame la Grande. End eleventh century. 
Tournus, Saint Philibert. Eleventh and twelfth centuries. 
Beaulieu-les-Loches. Eleventh and twelfth centuries. 
Angouleme. 1 105-28. 
Perigueux, Saint Front. C. 1120. 
Vezelay. Rebuilt 1132. 

Caen, Saint Etienne. Begun 1064; vaults c. 1135. 
Caen, La Trinite. Begun 1062; remodeled c. 1140. 
Reims, Saint Remi. : Romanesque parts mo. 
Morienval. Older part c. 1080; later 1122. 
Auxerre, Saint Germain. Tower, early twelfth century. 
Autun. First half of the twelfth century. 

Beauvais, Saint Etienne. Vaults 1180, but building planned earlier. 
Saint Gilles. Late twelfth century. 
Saint Saturnin. Twelfth century. 
Uzes. Tower, twelfth century. 
Aries, Saint Trophime. Nave, first half of the eleventh century; 

porch second half of the twelfth. 

ENGLAND 

Earl's Barton. Early eleventh century (?). 

London, The Tower, Saint John's Chapel. End of the eleventh 
century. 



2 72 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Durham. C. 1096-1133. 
Iffley. Late twelfth century. 

SPAIN 

Santullano. Ninth century. 
San Miguel de Linio. Ninth century. 
Santa Maria de Naranco. Late ninth century. 
Avila, the Walls. 1090-99. 

Compostela, Santiago. Begun 1075; finished 1128. 
Leon, San Isidore. End of the eleventh, beginning of the twelfth 
century. 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

A. Michel's HistoiredeVArt, vol. i, pt. 2, 1905, contains a brilliant 
and authoritative summary, by Camille Enlart, of Romanesque 
architecture. F. von Reber's History of Medieval Art, 1886, is a 
general history, now out-of-date, but still useful, and especially 
good on German medieval architecture. E. E. Viollet-le-Duc's 
Dictionnaire raisonne de V architecture, 1884-88, although in dictionary 
form, is a history of architecture in many volumes, profusely illus- 
trated, and representing probably the most monumental piece of 
research in the field of medieval archeology. G. Dehio and G. von 
Bezold's Kirchliche Baukunst des Abendlandes, 1892-1901, is a 
scholarly and comprehensive work, with many plates useful for the 
architect and student. J. A. Brutail's Uarcheologie du moyen age, 
1900, is a cautious and shrewd study in medieval archeology, tending 
to correct the mistakes and exaggerations of earlier and more monu- 
mental works. A. Marignan's Les methodes du passe dans Parche- 
ologie franqaise, 1911, on the other hand, is an iconoclastic book 
attacking the so-called orthodox school of medieval archeology in 
France. It is interesting as representing a healthy reaction against 
dogmatism, but not convincing. J. Quicherat's Melanges d'arche- 
ologie, vol. 2, Moyen age, 1886, is one of the earlier synthetic books 
on medieval architecture, important at the time of publication and 
not to be neglected to-day. Anthyme Saint-Paul's Les ecoles romanes 
(Annuaire d'archeolo^ie francaise, 1878) is a similar early work of 
research, by one of the most brilliant of the French archeologists. 
L. Courajod's Origines de Vart romane et gothique, 1889, a scholarly 
work, is more important for Gothic than for Romanesque art, but 
valuable for the study of either. T. G. Jackson's Byzantine and 
Romanesque Architecture, 1913, already cited, devotes more space to 
Romanesque than to Byzantine architecture. F. M. Simpson's A 



ROMANESQUE ARCHITECTURE 273 

History of Architectural Development, vol. 2, Medieval, 1909, presents 
a summary of medieval architecture, especially clear in the study of 
the development of details. C. H. Moore's The Character and 
Development of Gothic Architecture, 1906, is a powerful study in Gothic 
architecture, with some treatment of Romanesque in the early 
chapters. A. K. Porter's Medieval Architecture, 1909, in two large 
volumes, lavishly illustrated, represents painstaking research in the 
field. It is important, however, only for organic architecture. 

R. Cattaneo's L ' architettura in Italia dal secolo VI. al mille circa, 
1889, is a profound piece of research in the field of Italian medieval 
architecture, especially important for Lombard Romanesque. F. de 
Dartein's L' architecture lombarde, 1865-82, is an early but profound 
study of Lombard Romanesque architecture. G. T. Rivoira's 
Le origini delta architettura Lombarda, 1901-7, already cited, is of 
great importance for the study of Lombard Romanesque. A. 
K. Porter's four-volume work, Lombard Architecture, 1917, including 
an exhaustive portfolio of splendid illustrations, is the most modern 
work on the subject, and by a scholar of universally recognized au- 
thority. A. Ventures Storia delVarte Italiana,vol. 2 and 3, 1902 and 
1 904, are subdivisions of an encyclopedic history of Italian art, already 
cited, important for the publication of new material and profuse 
illustrations. E. Bertaux's L'art dans Vltalie meridionale, 1904, 
presents an exhaustive publication of research in the field of south 
Italian medieval architecture. It was followed in 191 1 by A. A vena's 
Monumenti deiritalia meridionale, covering all the monuments of 
the district, but especially important, both in text and superb illustra- 
tions, for Romanesque architecture. C. A. Cummings's A History 
of Architecture in Italy, 1901, is a popular, accurate, and well-illus- 
trated work on Italian medieval architecture. There are two volumes, 
the first important for Romanesque architecture. 

H. Otte's Geschichte der romanischen Baukunst, 1874, though old, 
is an exhaustive and scholarly work on German Romanesque archi- 
tecture. A. von Haupt's Die Baukunst der Germanen von der Volk- 
erwanderung bis zu Karl dem Grossen, 1909, is a modern work by a 
profound student of the architecture of the dark ages, using the 
term "German" in the broadest sense, and discussing the architect- 
ure ^.throughout Europe. R. Adamy's Die frankische Thorhalle zu 
Lorsch, 1891, an exhaustive work on a single monument, is here 
mentioned on account of the light it throws on the whole move- 
ment of the architecture of the dark ages. B. Ebhardt's Deutsche 
Bur gen, 1901, is an illuminating work on the German medieval 
castle. 

C. Enlart's V architecture religieuse en France, 1902, is an exhaus- 
tive study of French medieval church architecture, really carrying 



274 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

on the work of Viollet-le-Duc. The same author's L' architecture 
civile et militaire en France, 1904, is a similar work on medieval 
secular architecture. R. de Lasteyrie's L 'architecture religieuse a 
I'epoque romane, 1912, is the most up-to-date and authoritative 
work on Romanesque architecture, devoted principally to the style 
in France. J. Baum's Romanesque Architecture in France, 191 2, pre- 
sents a collection of excellent reproductions of French Romanesque 
buildings, with an introduction (translated) by Dr. Julius Baum. 
F. de Verneihl's L' architecture byzantine en France, 1851, gives the 
old point of view of Aquitanian architecture in a scholarly way. 
H. . Revoil's L 'architecture romane dans le midi de la France, 1873, is 
an old but exhaustive work on the Romanesque architecture of south- 
ern France. V. Mortet's Recueil de textes relatif a V architecture en 
France, 1911, presents a collection of original documents, relating to 
the nth and i2th century architecture of France, in an illumi- 
nating way. V. Ruprich-Robert's L 'architecture normande, 1884-89, 
is a monumental book of research on French and English Norman 
Romanesque architecture, lavishly illustrated. 

T. Rickman's An Attempt to Discriminate the Styles of Architecture in 
England, 1881, a work now out of date and more important for 
Gothic than for Romanesque architecture, is significant as a step in 
the analysis of English church architecture. Similarly, E. Sharpe's 
The Seven Periods of English Architecture, 1871, a more elaborate 
classification of English medieval architecture, is more important 
for Gothic than for Romanesque. G. G. Scott's English Church 
Architecture, 1881, is a synthetic work by a learned author, devoted 
primarily to Gothic architecture, but treating Romanesque. C. H. 
Moore's The Medieval Church Architecture of England, 1912, is a 
broad elaboration of the point of view toward English medieval 
architecture revealed in the author's Gothic Architecture. It is a 
somewhat biased but up-to-date and scholarly book. F. Bond's 
An Introduction to English Church Architecture, 1913, is an exhaustive, 
scholarly, and up-to-date work, lavishly illustrated, on English church 
architecture from the eleventh to the sixteenth century. J. D. 
Mackenzie's The Castles of England, 1887, an exhaustive, elaborate, 
and richly illustrated volume, is excellent for the study of the English 
medieval castle. 

V. Lamperez y Romea's Historia de la Arquitectura Cristiana Es- 
panola en la Edad Media, 1909, is by far the most original and exhaus- 
tive work on medieval Spanish architecture. A. G. B. Schayes's 
Histoire de V architecture en Belgique, 1850-60, a work of several 
volumes, now out of date, is still the important authority on the 
medieval architecture of Flanders. 



CHAPTER IX 
GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 

Origin of the term. The word "Gothic," applied to art, 
originated as a term of opprobrium. From the beginning of 
the Renaissance to the romantic revival in the nineteenth 
century medieval art was regarded as barbaric. The most 
striking as well as the most numerous monuments of medieval 
architecture were those of the pointed style, and these came to 
be called "Gothic" as a synonym for "barbaric." It is in 
this sense that Moliere speaks of 

. . . Le fade gout des monuments gothiques 
Ces monstres odieux des siecles ignorants 
Que de la barbaric ont vomis les torrents. . . .* 

Boileau, La Bruyere, Rousseau, attacked Gothic art with a 
violence at once bitter and illuminating. By the time taste 
changed the word was fixed. Now the oblivion which 
generally shrouds the origin of the name is perhaps the best 
proof of the vindication of the art. 

Priority of France. At the period of its development, 
Gothic architecture was generally called "French work" 
(opus francigenum) and the priority of France in the style is 
thus attested. For this reason some writers have urged that 
the style be called not Gothic, but French. Such a change 
would be, however, not only impractical but misleading. As 
a variant of this classification, it has been suggested that the 
word Gothic be retained, but that it be applied only to the 

1 The rank taste of Gothic monuments, 
These odious monsters of the ignorant centuries, 
Which the torrents of barbarism spewed forth. 




FLORENCE, 



SALISBURY 



FIG. 138 COMPARATIVE PLANS OF GOTHIC CATHEDRALS IN FRANCE, 
GERMANY, ITALY AND ENGLAND 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 277 

architecture of the He de France, and that the contemporary 
styles outside of France be called merely "pointed architect- 
ure." In support of this attitude it has been pointed out 
that fundamentally organic architecture was developed in the 
He de France, and the so-called Gothic styles of other countries 
either consisted of imitation of this or of a superficial applica- 
tion of pointed or Gothic detail to buildings which were con- 
structed according to Romanesque principles. 

Definition of organic Gothic. There are, however, grave 
objections to this point of view. Regarded strictly from the 
point of view of organic structure, Gothic is a system of vaults, 
supports, and buttresses, the supports being strong enough to 
bear the crushing weight of the vaults only, and the stability 
of the structure maintained chiefly by an equilibrium of 
counterthrusts. Such a system is to be found perfected only 
in the He de France or in imitations of the architecture of 
that district. Many buildings of the same age, however, 
though they lack the complete organism of the French, display 
the same characteristics, especially the consistent use of the 
pointed arch. In France the systematic use of the pointed 
arch became general for structural reasons. In other countries 
that member was used unstructurally, apparently for esthetic 
reasons, but this does not justify the argument, which so often 
appears in books, that the use of the pointed arch outside of 
the He de France represents but a superficial application of 
French detail to Romanesque building by architects who did 
not understand the structural reasons which underlay the use 
of this detail in France. As we have seen, the pointed arch 
was used in the Romanesque period, and its use for esthetic 
purposes in England developed synchronously with its use 
for structural reasons in prance. 

French the great organic Gothic, but not the only Gothic style. 
Use of the term. We must, therefore, avoid the mistake of 
calling Gothic architecture solely French, or French Gothic 
the only Gothic. Aside from the futility of tilting at firmly 
established terms, a broader application of the term is more 
convenient. We may consider Gothic architecture that style, 
specially marked by the general use of the pointed arch, which 
in all European countries succeeded the Romanesque style, 
and flourished until it was in turn superseded by the style of 




S. ELISABETH AURBwo 







FIG. 139 PLANS OF GOTHIC BUILDINGS 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 279 

the Renaissance. We may then subdivide the field and 
examine the characteristics of the art in any one region. In 
so doing, however, we must inevitably emphasize the struct- 
ural superiority and priority of the organic architecture of 
the lie de France. 

Esthetic effect of revealed structure. So true is this of the 
Gothic of the lie de France that the chief esthetic effect of 
the buildings of that district is felt in the logical expression 
of the structure. Outside of France this is not true, except 
in works clearly under French influence. 

Lack of self -consciousness . Whether governed by structural 
or esthetic considerations, the Gothic style was developed 
inarticulately. Its architects did not seek to formulate, at 
least in writing, the ideas which their buildings expressed. 
Though the pointed arch almost completely superseded the 
round one, there was no audible condemnation of the Roman- 
esque art of the past, as the Gothic art was later condemned 
in the period of the Renaissance. 

Socialistic character. This naivete may well have been 
caused by the corporate quality of the work, for the Gothic 
cathedral, like the Romanesque, was the expression not of 
an architect, or a patron, but of a community. It is signifi- 
cant that, though archeology has often published the names 
of the architects, or magistri operarii, of the great Gothic 
cathedrals, these names are almost universally unfamiliar 
and unnoted. The cathedrals of Amiens and Reims are as 
well known as those of Florence and Rome, yet people who 
would be ashamed not to know about Brunelleschi or Bramante 
would look blank at the mention of Robert de Luzarches or 
Jean-le-Loup. In a sense Gothic art is strongly socialistic. 

Ecclesiastical and secular interest. Although the main 
interest in the Gothic period is in ecclesiastical building, it is 
not so completely so as in the Romanesque period preceding 
it. Especially in late Gothic times civil and military buildings 
attained great importance. The scholar must, therefore, 
examine not only churches and monasteries, but town and 
guild halls, castles, manors, farms, city houses, and even well 
heads and gibbets to gain anything like a complete acquaint- 
ance with the style. Moreover it must not be assumed that 
the craftsmen employed even on the churches in the Gothic 
















SEVILLE 



R> 80 OO 100 








FLORENCE 



SALISBURY AMIENS 

FIG. 140 SECTIONS AND SYSTEMS OF GOTHIC BUILDINGS 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 



281 



period were ecclesiastics. Great bands of lay builders, like 
the maestri comacini, traveled from place to place as they 
were employed successively on one great building after another. 
This fact, and the frequent presence of blasphemous and 
obscene carvings in Gothic churches, has given rise to a theory 
that Gothic architecture is essentially a style of lay construc- 
tion, and repre- 
sents a revolt 
against the monk- 
ish domination of 
an earlier age. 
The facts do not 
bear out such a 
theory, nor does 
the profoundly 
religious expres- 
sion of the fin- 
ished building. 

Gradual em- 
phasis on revealed 
structure. Though 
in France the most 
important expres- 
sion of the devel- 



oped cathedral lay 
in the self -revela- 
tion of its struct- 
ure, the realiza- 
tion of the esthetic 
importance of re- 
vealed structure FIG. 
did not come to 
the builders im- 
mediately. In the beginning such essential structural mem- 




141 AMIENS. . WEST FRONT OF THE 
CATHEDRAL 



bers as flying buttresses, which later came to be one of the 
most important features externally, were concealed. The 
evolution of Gothic from Romanesque may be traced by the 
gradual acceptance of revealed structure as the most im- 
portant aid to esthetic effect. 

Aspiring quality. The aspiring quality of the art has often 



282 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

been noted. The emphasis on the vertical line, the soaring 
expression of the architecture, inevitably suggest all that was 
finest in the religious ideals of the Middle Ages. To see, 
however, in the vertical lines and branching ribs of the Gothic 
church a reflection of the poetic sylvan setting of primitive 
pagan ceremonies is to wander in the realms of pure fancy. 
Aside from the source of inspiration, however, the Gothic 
architect was very clever at gaining the effects he sought. 
Desiring height, above all, he narrowed his naves and tapered 
his piers to exaggerate this effect. The desired impression 
of size he got by including and multiplying small members 
admirably adapted to give scale. 

Date. In date the Gothic period extended roughly from 
1150 to 1550. Certain indications of the approaching style 
do, of course, antedate the mid-twelfth century, just as certain 
isolated structures in the Flamboyant Gothic style postdate 
the mid-sixteenth, but in general the four centuries indicated 
compass the style. 

Homogeneity. Gothic architecture had a national homo- 
geneity much greater than Romanesque. Though there are 
local schools of Gothic in France, they do not differ one from 
another so markedly as did the Romanesque, nor are they as 
numerous. This fact is precisely what history would lead us 
to expect. In the later Middle Ages nations themselves had 
become more homogeneous. Central authority became 
stronger, language purer, and individuals more conscious of 
their own nationality. In districts where less federal authority 
was felt and where national consciousness was less awakened, 
as in southwestern France, it is significant that local schools 
of architecture differed especially from the national style. As 
always, we find architecture recording history, and history 
impressing architecture. 

General development. Before attempting even a classifica- 
tion, it will be well to say a word about the development of 
the style as a whole. Our point of departure must clearly be 
the transitional architecture of the He de France. Although 
many English writers have called attention to the early use 
of the pointed arch in England, the English buildings can, 
nevertheless, be regarded as Romanesque and not transitional 
Gothic. Subsequent variations of the style sometimes neglect- 




FIG. 142 AMIENS. THE CATHEDRAL. VIEW OF THE INTERIOR, LOOKING 
INTO THE APSE 



284 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

ed organic structure, but organic structure plays so funda- 
mental a role in the art that to the country which developed 
it belongs priority in the style. The late twelfth century and 
the early thirteenth saw the transition and development of 
the organic Gothic style in the He de France. By 1220 (the 
date of the foundation of Amiens cathedral) the style was well 
understood, and the thirteenth century is the age of early but 
fully developed Gothic. Building in this style, with refine- 
ment and superficial modification, continued in France through 
the fourteenth century, but toward the close of the period a 
radical change came over the art. Flamboyant architecture 
was developed, having been introduced from England. 

Development in England. Origin of continental Flamboyant 
architecture. England, as we have seen, used the pointed 
arch at an early period, but the first truly Gothic buildings on 
British soil represent French influence. The early style, 
called early English, or Lancet, coincided with the thirteenth 
century. The form of English Gothic, however, soon changed. 
The Englishmen in power in the late Middle Ages were scarcely 
more than naturalized Frenchmen and inevitably borrowed 
from France. Quite as inevitably, however, they changed 
what they borrowed and impressed it with their own genius. 
In the fourteenth century, therefore, the English Gothic style 
assumed a new expression, and the Decorated style came into 
being. Toward the end of the century Decorated details 
were copied in France, and the fifteenth century Flamboyant 
(or flaming) style was developed along lines suggested by the 
late Decorated or Curvilinear style in England. This Flam- 
boyant style spread from France all over the continent, and 
is characteristic of fifteenth and sixteenth century architecture 
outside of England. England, once more asserting her 
originality, developed in the fifteenth century the Perpendicu- 
lar style which flourished there until the advent of the 
Renaissance. 

Classification. France. With this general development in 
mind, we may attempt a fuller classification, and number the 
various centers of activity in the Gothic period. France we 
have put at the head, and in France we must give priority 
to the He de France. Normandy nearly kept pace with the 
He de France in creative activity, and Picardy and Artois can 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 285 

scarce be classified apart from these two. Together these 
districts formed the home of developing organic Gothic. Other 
divisions are less important. Burgundy had a style of its own, 
retaining the porches, often the square ends, and other feat- 
ures reminiscent of Burgundian Romanesque. Another divi- 
sion might be made of Champagne, midway between Bur- 
gundy and the He de France, though approaching so close to 
the latter architecturally that the subdivision is hardly neces- 
sary. A very original style, the so-called Plantagenet, flour- 
ished in southwestern France, and was marked by the use of 
aisles the height of the nave, by unusual domed vaults, and 
other peculiar features, showing strong English affinities. 
Still another style developed in the south, bare in decoration 
and characterized by a free use of terra cotta. Further divi- 
sions might be made of Brittany, architecturally as well as 
geographically close to Normandy, and central France, where 
flourished a hybrid partaking of the characteristics of many 
styles. We must, therefore, note that, though Gothic archi- 
tecture had more national homogeneity in France than Ro- 
manesque, it did vary decidedly according to the district, and 
the point must be more insisted upon, since we must concen- 
trate attention on the structurally important architecture of 
the north and are in danger of forgetting the divergences of 
the style in other parts of the country. 

England, Germany, Italy, and Spain. Outside of France 
the problem is simpler and the style varied with the period 
rather than the district. In England, for example, though 
the Perpendicular style differed widely from the Lancet, each 
is found throughout the country during its period. In Ger- 
many we find generally an imitation of French work. At 
times this imitation is almost slavish, as in the cathedral of 
Cologne; at times it is very free, as in the so-called Hallen- 
kirchen. One may, therefore, subdivide the German buildings 
into two groups, the one imitative, the other with a strongly 
native flavor. In Italy Gothic architecture began as an 
importation of the French Cistercian style, but was almost 
immediately modified to suit the esthetic demands of the 
Italians. Here geography played some part, as in Tuscany, 
where the Tuscan Romanesque so stamped the Gothic art of 
the district, but the chief variation was caused by the 



286 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



individual source of inspiration and by date. In Spain the 
style was generally homogeneous. In the beginning it was an 
importation from Languedoc and Auvergne, soon modified, 
especially in the south, however, by Moorish detail and 
Spanish taste. 

Gothic in other countries. In the Low Countries Gothic was 
imported from France and shows little originality except in 
secular architecture. The town halls and guild halls of 
Flanders, however, show an originality which gives the district 
real importance. Finally, attention must be called to the 





DOMICAL RIBBED VAULT DEVELOPED GOTHIC VAULT 

FIG. 143 EXAMPLES OF MEDIEVAL VAULTS 



important architecture which was built, and much of which 
still remains, in the Holy Land, in Cyprus, Rhodes, Crete, 
and other islands of the Mediterranean. For these monuments 
we have, of course, to thank the crusaders. 

Importance of the development of details. Unfortunately for 
the logical student, one cannot select a number of buildings 
which exhibit in chronological order the steps in the develop- 
ment of organic Gothic architecture. Progress was so rapid and 
buildings so seldom homogeneously completed that the ad- 
vance, of the style may best be illustrated by selecting one or 
more details from many buildings. One may then arrange 
these details to show the steps in the development of organic 
Gothic, even though the arrangement be not necessarily 
chronological. Archeologists may dispute as to the locality 
and date of the first single flying buttress, but for us it will be 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 



287 



enough to recognize that the single flying buttress, occurring 
as it does in many buildings, represents a structural step 
between the hidden flying buttress and the double one. 
With a grasp of the development of the important Gothic 
features, we are 
then in a position 
to reconstruct a 
fully developed 
organic Gothic 
building, or, if we 
prefer concrete 
examples, to un- 
derstand why the 
naves of Amiens 
(Figs. 138 and 
142) and of Reims 
(Fig. 144) have 
been considered 
perfect examples 
of the fully devel- 
oped early style. 

The vault. The 
most important 
single feature of 
the Gothic build- 
ing is, of course, 
the vault. Indeed 
the whole study of 
Gothic architect- 
ure hinges upon FIG j^ REIMS. THE CATHEDRAL. VIEW OF 
the treatment of THE VAULTS AFTER THE FIRST BOMBARDMENT IN 
the vault and its J 9 14 ' SHOWING THE LEVEL CROWNS OF DEVELOPED 

, T GOTHIC VAULTS 

abutment. In 
connection with 

the Romanesque architecture of the He de France we 
have seen that architects came to realize that the vault 
with level crowns could be made lighter and constructed 
more flexibly than the domical vault. To make the 
crowns of the vault level it was necessary obviously to 
raise the crowns of the transverse and longitudinal arches. 




288 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



This could be done either by stilting or by pointing these 
arches or by doing both. When the pointed arch was 
thus structurally used for the first time transitional Gothic 
began. Just where or just when this first occurred it is im- 
possible to say. That the process was slow and experimental 
can be proved by many monuments, like the churches of 

Creil, Langres, and Morien- 
val, where the transverse 
arches are not sufficiently 
pointed, and are pieced out 
by flat walls built above 
them, which raise the crowns 
of the arches to a point level, 
or nearly level, with the point 
of intersection of the diagonal 
ribs or, in other words, the 
crown of the vault. Once this 
plan was tried and found suc- 
cessful, the advantages of the 
level - crowned vault were 
realized and the use of this 
graceful, essentially Gothic 
form became the rule (Figs. 
140, 143, and 144). 

The abutment. With the 
copyright by Macmiiian & Co. creation of a lighter, loftier 

FIG. 145 SECTION OF GOTHIC VAULT- form Q f ft came a more 

ING CONOID, SHOWING THE DIREC- , . . . ., 

TIONS OF THE THRUSTS AND THEIR searching study of its abut- 
ABUTMENTS ment. Even when the hid- 

den flying buttress was used in Norman Romanesque the 
thrusts of the vault were but partially concentrated on 
it, and much of the resistance to them was supplied by a 
sturdy wall. The Gothic architect was slowly feeling his way 
toward a complete elimination of the wall, the place of which 
was ultimately to be taken by stained glass, and his greatest 
problem was the concentration of the vault thrust on the 
buttress which was to oppose it. 

Stilting of the longitudinal rib. The solution of the problem 
came in the stilting of the longitudinal ribs. In Romanesque 
architecture all ribs sprang from the same level. A horizontal 




GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 



289 



section of the vault and its infilling some feet above the 
springing, at a point where the ribs had had a chance to 
spread, would be square. The whole mass exerted a thrust 
outward, however, so that a buttress to oppose it had to have 
a face as broad as one side of the square, or as the distance 
from one diagonal 
at the given level 
to the other at the 
same level. By 
the stilting of the 
longitudinal rib 
all this was 
changed. While 
the diagonal ribs 
began to spread 
at the main im- 
post the two long- 
itudinals ran up 
vertically some 
distance before 
springing, thus 
pinching in the 
vault on the wall 
side. A cross- 
section of the 
vault and its in- 
filling, or vaulting 

conoid as we may FIG . ^5 SAINT LEU D'ESSERENT. VIEW OF THE 
call it at a point INTERIOR, SHOWING THE VAULTS AND, THROUGH 
some distance THE WINDOWS ' THE FLYING BUTTRESSES 
above the main 

impost, would be not square, but triangular, one angle 
of the conoid touching the wall (Fig. 145). The oblique 
thrusts of the diagonal ribs thus met and pushed out at right 
angles to the long axis of the building in the direction of the 
thrust of the transverse rib, and all these thrusts were con- 
centrated on a narrow surface against which the narrow face 
of an opposing buttress could be placed. The stilting of 
the longitudinal rib thus accomplished what the architect 
most desired a perfect concentration of the vault thrusts 




2 go 



A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



against a narrow surface. Such a form involved a warping of 
the vault web, and its surface now took on the peculiar, plow- 
share form, difficult if not impossible to describe geometri- 
cally, but which the builders soon learned to construct with 
remarkable skill (Figs. 142 and 146). 

Flying buttresses. While the vault with its concentrated 
thrusts was being evolved, architects were no less busy in 




SE.TIENNE CAEN .SEMJS 



PARIS 



ABBEVILLE 




5-AMBROGIO 



S.GEHJMEU DE FLY S .GERMAIN DE.S PRES 



REIMS 



FIG. 147 ARRANGEMENT OF MONUMENTS AND DETAILS TO ILLUSTRATE THE 
DEVELOPMENT OF THE BUTTRESS AND THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE FACADE 



developing buttress forms to stabilize it. The hidden flying 
buttress, designed to carry the thrust over the aisle roofs to 
pier buttresses on the outer wall, was to hand in Norman 
Romanesque, and though this type was wofully inadequate, it 
was adopted in a modified and refined form in the transitional 
church of Saint Germer-de-Fly. Obviously such buttresses 
touched the wall at a point too low properly to meet the thrusts 
of the nave vault, and the architects soon raised them above 
the aisle roof, as at Saint Germain-des-Pres, Paris, where they 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 



291 



appear on the exterior as genuine flying buttresses. A virtue 
was then made of necessity, and the flying buttresses were 
soon one of the most esthetically expressive as well as struct- 
urally important features of the building. 

Their development. Structural logic ruled their develop- 
ment. Architects, knowing that the chief points of thrust of 
an arch or vault were at the 
springing and at the haunch, 
soon abandoned the single but- 
tress, with its single arch, and 
composed a double one, with an 
arch to oppose the thrust of the 
vault at the springing and an- 
other for that at the haunch. 
When the buttresses sprang 
over a single aisle this form was 
adequate; when the aisles were 
double the first pair of arches 
came to an end between the 
inner and outer aisles, where a 
pier was placed, and two more 
arches, repeating the first two, 
carried the thrusts to the outer 
wall. The former system may 
be seen in the nave of Amiens, 
the latter in the apsidal end of 
Reims (Fig. 147). When there 
were no aisles, as in the Sainte 
Chapelle in Paris, the pier but- 
tress was adequate and was re- 
tained (Figs. 139 and 148). 

Their form and decoration. At the same time the forms of 
the buttresses were refined. Their regular pitch was estab- 
lished, and they were made to carry, by means of covered 
channels, the water which gathered on the nave roofs. At the 
extremity of the buttresses this water was thrown clear of 
the face of the wall from the mouths of widely projecting 
gargoyles, grotesquely carved. The backs of the buttresses 
were decorated with crockets, and the tops of the great pier- 
buttresses, to which the arches sprang, were weighted with 




FIG. 148 PARIS. THE SAINTE 
CHAPELLE. TRANSVERSE CUT 



2 9 2 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

pinnacles. The outer side of these great piers was given 
many set-offs, which tended to resist the weather and carry 
off the vault thrusts more easily to the ground. 

The apse. After one has grasped the development of the 
vault and the abutment, that of other features is easy to 
understand. A single principle holds for all: the fulfilment 




CHARTRES 



FIG. 149 PLANS OF THE EAST ENDS OF FIVE GOTHIC CHURCHES, ILLUS- 
TRATING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE CHEVET 



of structural needs and the recognition of the esthetic value 
of such a fulfilment frankly revealed. Let us examine, for 
example, the development of the apse. Nothing is more 
characteristically Gothic than the tremendously complicated 
chevet or east end of the French Gothic building, yet it was 
attained simply and logically (Fig. 149). The primitive form 
of apse, as we have seen it in early Christian times, was a 
semicircular wall covered with a half -dome. At the period 
of the earliest transitional Gothic, the form of the half -dome 
was changed and the vault given cells resembling the gores of 
a melon, which were carried on ribs in harmony with the other 
vaults. Such a form, though not necessarily the oldest 
example, appears at Saint Martin-des-Champs, Paris. The 
process then became one merely of deepening the cells, or 
raising their crowns, until eventually they reached the level 
of the intersection of their ribs. An intermediate stage may 
be seen at Saint Germer-de-Fly, a fully developed example at 
Amiens. 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 293 

Arrangement of the apsidal ribs. At first the intersection of 
the apsidal ribs came at a point touching the last transverse 
rib of the choir, as at Saint Germer. This gave the ribs the 
dangerous appearance of all thrusting against the last trans- 
verse arch of the choir. The defect was remedied in many 
ways, but most successfully at Amiens, where the apse was 
made more than semicircular, and two ribs sprang obliquely 
from the last choir imposts to meet the apsidal ribs at their 
intersection. All the ribs were then radii of a circle (Fig. 149). 

The ambulatory and apsidal chapels. Meanwhile the 
ambulatory and apsidal chapels developed apace. The vaults 
of the former, being not rectangular but trapezoidal, offered 
some difficulty, since the diagonal ribs would not meet at the 
center of the vault. This was remedied by breaking these 




PAWS o1h PIER PARIS 71h PIER AMIENS BEAUVALS 

FIG. I5O PLANS ILLUSTRATING THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE GOTHIC PIER 

ribs at the intersection and thus forcing them to meet at the 
vault center. A similar arrangement sufficed for the ribs of 
the irregularly shaped apsidal chapels (Fig. 149). 

The pier. The common sense of the Gothic architect and 
his willingness even to compromise never show more clearly 
than in the treatment of the piers. The most logical arrange- 
ment was to give each member in the vault a place in the 
compound pier, and carry all to the ground. Such a cluster 
of supports, however, took up much floor space and obstructed 
the view of the worshipper. Accordingly the builder first 
grouped all his shafts at the ground story impost, and gave 
his main pier a semicircular form. Feeling, however, that 
more support was needed, he first added (at the sixth pier of 
the nave of Paris) a single engaged shaft on the nave side to 



294 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



carry the weight of the nave ribs to the ground. At the 
seventh pier of the same building he added three more engaged 
shafts on the three remaining sides of the round pier, and the 
fully developed Gothic form was created and needed only 
refinement (Fig. 150). The old Romanesque system of each 
rib being represented to the ground in the pier recurred, 




50J5&OM& 



AMIENS 




FIG. 151 THE DEVELOPMENT OF THE WINDOW OPENING. 
PLATE AND BAR TRACERY 



EXAMPLES OF 



however, in French Flamboyant Gothic and in English 
Perpendicular. 

The opening. Plate tracery. The Gothic system of construc- 
tion tended inevitably toward the suppression of the wall. 
With the perfect concentration of thrust, the function of the 
wall became one merely of excluding the weather, and this 
could be done as adequately by glass as by stone. Moreover 
the northern builder desired glass, as the southern fresco, for 
story-telling and didactic purposes. The result was an almost 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 295 

complete substitution of stained glass for stone wall, and the 
building became as it were a vaulted glass cage. The unit for 
the development of the opening was the window of two lights, 
separated by a column and embraced by an arch. In 
Romanesque, and even in Byzantine, architecture the stone 
tympanum above the lights had been pierced with a third 
opening. In early Gothic these openings received complicated 
geometric forms, and plate tracery, a tracery consisting of 
openings in geometric design pierced in a thin plate of stone, 
was the result. 

Bar tracery. While the architecture was still developing, 
however, architects gradually discovered that a more compli- 
cated and beautiful tracery could be designed if the system 
of merely piercing a stone tympanum were abandoned, and 
a new tracery of thin stone bars, ingeniously interlocking on 
the principle of the arch, were substituted. The substitution 
of bar for plate tracery became general in the later transitional 
period, and remained constant in Gothic architecture. The 
stone bars, or mullions, were cut very thinly and delicately, and 
were merely an enframement for the glass. The bits of glass, 
in the thirteenth century scarcely ever more than six inches 
long, were joined by leads which at once bound them and 
supplied most of the drawing in the design. The whole was 
then set in the tracery. The swiftness with which bar tracery 
was accepted is proved in the cathedral of Paris by the juxta- 
position of windows with plate and bar tracery in bays differing 
only slightly in date. Good examples of plate tracery may be 
seen at Soissons, and of bar tracery at Amiens and later 
buildings (Fig. 151). 

Wheel and rose windows. Bar tracery also made possible 
the enormous wheel or rose windows which commonly occurred 
in the west end of the churches of the He de France. At first 
the designs for these were severely geometric, but later, 
especially in the Flamboyant period, the lines were freer and 
bewilderingly complicated. Chartres and Reims afford good 
examples of the early wheel window; the later rose may be 
seen at Amiens (Fig. 141) and elsewhere. As the style 
developed, the passion of the builders for lightness caused 
them to fill even the triforium with glass. This space, 
generally blind on account of the lean-to roof over the aisle, 

ii 



29 6 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



was opened by covering the aisle with a gable instead of a 
lean-to. In fourteenth century buildings, as at Troyes, the 
triforium is, therefore, lighted like the clerestory. 

The facade. The development of the design of the west 
front kept pace with that of the other elements of the building. 
Logic demanded a preservation of the 
tripartite division of the facade, both hori- 
zontally and vertically, to indicate the in- 
terior division of the nave and aisles and 
the three stories. Development was in the 
direction of refinement and expressiveness. 
The splaying of the openings was deepened, 
and porches with a deep splay and covered 
with canopies were placed in front of 
portals. Openings were enlarged until 
they took up practically all the space be- 
tween the buttresses which marked the 
vertical division of the building. In time, 
as at Reims and later buildings, the bases 
of these buttresses were lost in the splay- 
ing of the porches, and the gables in the 
porch roofs were increased in size and im- 
portance until they became striking archi- 
tectural features. Flanking western towers 
increased in size, and were bound by a 
stone gallery, open, which revealed the 
gable roof of the nave. To understand 
the development of the west front, one 
needs but examine the fronts of the Abbaye- 
aux-Hommes at Caen, of the cathedrals of 
Senlis, Paris, Amiens, and Reims in that 
order. Add a later work, like the west 
front of Abbeville, as an example of the 
Flamboyant development, and the progres- 
sion will be self -revealed (Fig. 147). 

The spire. The spire developed in like manner. Roman- 
esque architecture had shown many complicated forms of 
spires. The Gothic development was merely toward the 
substitution of the pointed arch, with its vertical accent, for 
the round one, and in general toward a more skilful suppression 



FIG. 152 CHARTRES. 
THE SOUTHERN SPIRE 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 



297 



of all horizontal lines which might hamper the eye from being 

led upward (Fig. 152). In some of the most perfect examples, 

as at Senlis (Fig. 153), the transition between the square tower 

and the octagonal spire is made with great subtlety, the angles 

being filled with miniature towers and spires, and the vertical 

lines of these re-echoed and carried up by gables set against 

the faces of the sloping octagonal spire above. Although the 

spire changed in detail, and in later works we find extreme 

delicacy and openwork 

treatment, the ideal and the 

general tendency remained 

the same. In addition to 

the western towers and 

spires, tower -like lanterns 

were often placed over the 

crossing, though this detail 

is niuch more characteristic 

of England than of France. 

In France the crossing was 

more often marked by a 

slender Jleche of stone, or of 

wood and lead. 

Capitals and their decora- 
tion. The development of 
other details in the building 
harmonized with that of 
those which we have studied. 
New loads demanded new 

capitals, and forms were developed, based essentially on Byzan- 
tine types, but none the less original. The capital was given 
greater height, greater slenderness below, and greater breadth 
above. It was decorated with foliate and animal sculpture, 
more generally the former, carefully studied from nature. In 
the early work, unfolding, bud-like forms were preferred, and we 
find the young water-cress or unfolding fern carrying the four 
angles of the abacus. As the style progressed the sculpture 
became more naturalistic and less expressive functionally. 
Still later the forms became brittle, suggestive of the withered 
leaf, but at all times the carving was crisp and delicate. 
Esthetically the foliate work gave infinite life and vitality to 




FIG. 153 SENLIS. THE SPIRE 



298 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

a style which might otherwise have been but logically 
satisfactory. 

The use of sculpture. The didactic as well as the esthetic 
value of sculpture was fully recognized and, as a result, carving 
was profuse all over the building. It is not mere rhetoric 
to say that the Gothic cathedral summed up all the learning, 
all the science, of the Middle Ages. The decorative purpose 
of the sculpture was, however, never lost. With all the 
freedom and naturalism of single details the whole, whether 
on porch, gallery, or roof, was designed with strict reference 
to esthetic effect. At times all didactic purpose appears to 
have been lost, and we find sculptures, like the grotesques and 
gargoyles, which are the result of a free play of the carver's 
fancy and joy of creation. These works give the impression 
of a building always peopled. On account of them the Gothic 
cathedral is never empty, never dead. 

Moldings. As one would expect, such a completely new 
system of architecture exhibited a completely new system of 
moldings. Since he was not bound by precedent, the 
architect studied and conventionalized nature, and created 
moldings which gave the most masterly effects of light and 
shade. The general system was that of the inclosure of convex 
curves within concave ones, and the resultant profiles remind 
one of vegetable forms such as fruits in a pod, or buds in a 
calix. Sculpture and molding appeared, of course, on the 
exterior as well as on the interior. Parapets were evolved, to 
serve the crowning function of the classic cornice, and pinnacles 
were applied to many parts of the building, especially the 
buttress piers. The latter were decorated with bud-like forms 
called crockets, and were topped with ornate finials. 

Polychromy and stained glass. Polychromy played a much 
more important part than is generally recognized in Gothic 
architecture. Of course, the most gorgeous polychromatic 
effects were obtained by a complete infilling of window space 
with rich stained glass. An infinity of subjects was repre- 
sented, but representation wa's always subordinated to pure 
design. Some of the most masterly of the world's designs in 
color may still be seen in the interior of Chartres. The color, 
sometimes flaming, sometimes hushed, played vividly upon the 
religious imagination. How much is lost with the destruction 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 299 

of stained glass may be gauged by comparing the interior of 
Chartres, where the glass is largely preserved, with that of 
Amiens. Although the latter is probably the more perfect 
building architecturally, its effect, as the cold light streams in 
from the white glass of the windows, is vastly less impressive 
than that of Chartres. The rich polychromy of the stained 
glass was fortified by painting the stone members of the 
interior. Almost all traces of the original painting of medieval 
interiors is lost, and modern attempts to restore it, as in the 
Sainte Chapelle at Paris, have generally been gaudy and 
displeasing. 

Fourteenth century Gothic in France. By the end of the 
thirteenth century, with the raising of such structures as 
Amiens and Reims (Figs. 141, 142, and 154), Gothic architect- 
ure in France attained a full development. The architecture 
of the succeeding century may be sketched summarily. The 
fourteenth century in France was a period of refinement rather 
than of change. Vaults and ribs became lighter, foliate 
sculpture unfolded and further accented the vertical tendency, 
and tracery became so frailthat long bars were made mono- 
lithic for safety's sake. In some churches, as at Chartres 
(Fig. 155), the chapel of the Virgin at the end of the 
chevet took on especial importance and became almost 
a separate little church. In general, however, the plan 
of the buildings remained the same, and no decided change 
occurred until the fifteenth century. Before we examine 
the later art, we must take up the Gothic architecture of 
England. 

English Gothic. General characteristics. Gothic architect- 
ure in England may be subdivided into three styles, corre- 
sponding to the thirteenth, fourteenth, and fifteenth centuries. 
Before we examine individually any one of these, how- 
ever, it will be well to note certain main characteristics of 
the art as a whole. These will show how widely divergent, 
even at an early period, English Gothic was from French. 
First and foremost one must notice a difference in structural 
principle. Organic Gothic, in the sense that we have studied 
it in France, was not developed in England. There is, for 
example, hardly a fully developed flying buttress system on 
the island. To the end the Englishmen depended on Roman- 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 



301 



esque sturdiness for structural safety, and this inevitably gave 
a different expression to the building. 

The plan. In the plan the English building was long, or 
rather appears to be long on account of its narrowness (Fig. 
157). Though Salisbury and Amiens are approximately the 
same in length, the former appears much longer. The English 
building was given boldly projecting transepts, and the 
transepts were generally doubled, the shorter east of the 
longer, giving the church the archiepiscopal-cross form which 




FIG. 155 CHARTRES. CATHEDRAL. PLAN 



we have met in Burgundian Romanesque. The east end of 
the English church was almost invariably square, and this, 
like the archiepiscopal cross, seems surely to represent a 
Cistercian influence. The same phenomenon may be observed 
earlier in English Romanesque, as at Durham. In elevation 
the English building was much lower than the French (Fig. 
140), though the same narrowness which increased the im- 
pression of length increased the impression of height. The 
English works abounded in towers, and a very striking feature 
was early made of a great square stone lantern above the 
crossing. 

The vaulting system. Facades. The English vaulting system, 
except in a few early instances, was more complicated, if less or- 
ganic, than the French. Ribs soon came to be used even more 
for decorative than for structural purposes and applied from 
the point of view of pure design. Fagades became decorative 



302 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

screens, hiding rather than revealing the arrangement behind 
them. Though sometimes extremely effective, these facades 
suffered as entrances, and portals shrank to comparatively 
tiny openings, mere possibilities of ingress rather than portals. 
Although occasionally the fagades were adorned with sculpt- 
ures, as at Wells, in general sculpture played a far less 




FIG. 156 SALISBURY. THE CATHEDRAL, SEEN FROM THE NORTHEAST 



important part in England than in France. Even in the 
interiors sculpture was scant, and the result was a certain 
bareness and less vitality than in French work. 

The site. To make up for this the English building was, on 
account of its complicated plan, extremely picturesque, and 
was almost invariably placed on a fine site, which was cared 
for at the time the building was erected and has been cared for 
ever since. Whether or not this may be accounted for by the 
fact that so many of the English churches were of monastic 
foundation is unimportant. To any one who has seen the finest 
buildings of France masked by the unsightly structures which 
are permitted to crowd about them, the beautiful placing of 
the English buildings will come as a great relief. 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 



The Early English style. French influence. We may now 
take up the various styles of English Gothic. As we have 
seen, in the beginning French importation plays an important 
part, though at times it is, so to speak, once removed. Thus 
even the dependence of English Gothic on English Romanesque 
is ultimately a dependence on Norman Romanesque. In 
other cases, as at Canterbury, the influence is much more 




FIG. 157 SALISBURY. 



INTERIOR OF THE CATHEDRAL, LOOKING TOWARD 
THE EAST END 



concrete. Here William of Sens, a Frenchman as his name 
reveals, was called to build the church, and on his death an 
Englishman, taught by him, took up the work. The building 
of Lincoln was ordered by Bishop Hugh, a Frenchman, and the 
architect was Geoffrey de Noyers, whose name proves his 
extraction, even though he may have been born in England. 
In short we may say that in origin the Early English style is 
a combination of French and Anglo-Norman influences. 

Character of Early English architecture. The most striking 
characteristic of the style is its simplicity. Sculpture is 
scant, decoration restrained, and the effect of the building 
depends on fine proportion and severe dignity. The openings 



304 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

are generally high and narrow, or lancet-shaped, and are so 
characteristic that the style is frequently called the Lancet 
style. The construction is very sturdy. Frequently shafts 
were not brought down even to the main impost. The 
massiveness of the round piers was frequently disguised, how- 
ever, by clusters of shafts, engaged or free, about them. 

These shafts were often 
made of the dark Purbeck 
marble which was the de- 
light of the English builder. 
The Early English 'style 
may be studied in the more 
important parts of Canter- 
bury, Lincoln, and Wells, 
and in other monuments. 
Salisbury, however, which 
was begun in 1220, the year 
of the foundation of Amiens, 
and was practically finished 
by 1258, is the most homo- 
geneous building in the style 
(Figs. 138, 140, i56,andi57). 
The Decorated style. By 
the end of the thirteenth 
century the severity of the 
Early English style was 
abandoned and the Dec- 
orated style, sometimes called the Geometric, and, in its 
later aspect, the Curvilinear, took its place. It was marked 
by a profusion of ornament. Ribs were multiplied, and 
liernes and tiercerons, or intermediate ribs, were run from rib 
to rib, or from rib to impost. Arches received many orders, 
and were enriched with complicated moldings. Above all, 
openings were enlarged and fitted with elaborate tracery design. 
This tracery, profuse as it was, at first followed severe geo- 
metric patterns, but later it grew more riotous, and eccentric 
curves were introduced. In time the wavy-lined tracery 
became the rule, arid interlaced arcades with ogee curves 
became common. The general effect was richer and less 
orderly than that of : the Early English style. There are no 




FIG. 158 LINCOLN. THE CATHEDRAL. 
THE ANGEL CHOIR 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 



305 



homogeneous Decorated cathedrals, but large portions of 
buildings, like the famous angel choir of Lincoln (Fig. 158), 
the nave of Lincoln, and the west front of York Minster, 
exhibit the style. 

The Perpendicular style. Despite its richness the Decorated 
style was destined to be driven out in the fifteenth century by 
the Perpendicular, the last, and in some 
respects the most original, of the English 
styles. In this style unsparing emphasis 
was laid on the vertical line. This is 
well seen in one of the earliest works of 
the style, the choir at Gloucester (Fig. 
159). Ribs were brought direct to the 
pavement. Openings were tremendously 
enlarged, and filled with tracery com- 
posed of vertical bars, which ran from 
top to bottom, joined at intervals by 
shorter horizontal members. The effect 
was to emphasize not only the perpen- 
dicular but the rectangle. 

Vaults and supports. Vaults received 
the most complicated treatment in the 
history of Gothic. Liernes and tiercerons 
were multiplied until it became almost 
impossible to distinguish the functional 
ribs from the decorative. Indeed there 
scarcely were functional ribs, for the 
vaults were practically homogeneous, 
with an applique of decorative ribs. At 
the same time the "fan vault" (Fig. 161) 
was developed the most famous vault 
form of the style. The name is both 
descriptive and misleading. In a fan 
vault the ribs radiate fanwise from the main impost. The 
vaulting conoid is, however, nearly circular, so the ribs 
branch to follow roughly the lines of an inverted concave 
cone. The effect from below is very like that of the branch- 
ing foliage of a tree, and the form is one of the most beau- 
tiful in English Gothic. With the complication of the ribs 




FIG. 159 

GLOUCESTER. THE 
SYSTEM OF THE CHOIR 



3 o6 A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 



came further ramifications. Keystones, for example, were 
designed as large pendent stones, safe, since monolithic. 
Openwork, too, in the members of vault and support, be- 
came common. 

Arches. Arches were given new forms. They were flattened, 
struck from several centers and sometimes came to a flattened 

point like a depressed ogee. 
The flattened, so-called 
"Tudor" arch became a 
great favorite at a later 
date. At the same time 
the square east ends were 
finished with tremendous 
windows, filled with Perpen- 
dicular tracery, 

Examples. Examples of 
the Perpendicular style are 
more numerous than those 
of the Decorated. One of 
the best is Henry VII. r s 
chapel, Westminster (Fig. 
1 60), and an equally fine 
and consistent specimen is 
Saint George's chapel, 
Windsor. Perhaps the fin- 
est of all is Gloucester, 
where transept, choir, and 
cloisters (Fig. 161) are in 
the Perpendicular 
style. The last named 

offer some of the most perfect specimens of the fan vault in 
England. 

Flamboyant Gothic. The style in France. Turning to France 
we may now study the Flamboyant style. No new construc- 
tive principle is here involved, the style being one merely of 
a new arbitrary decorative system, the basis of which is an 
opposition of curve to counter-curve. All the germs of French 
Flamboyant are to be found in English Curvilinear. French 
vaults became complicated. Liernes and tiercerons were intro- 
duced, although the tendency was to join rib to rib, rather than 




FIG. 1 6O LONDON. WESTMINSTER 
ABBEY. HENRY VII. *S CHAPEL 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 



307 



rib to impost. Above all, the lines were wavy and the ogee arch 
common. The pointed arch, especially in the interlaced arcade, 
had an alternate concave and convex profile. Openwork, 
whether in porch gable, spire, or abutment, became common, 
and extraordinary lace-like effects were obtained. The 
expression was one of delicacy rather than strength, and a 
certain nervous restlessness is added. The flattened arch 




FIG. l6l GLOUCESTER. THE CATHEDRAL. INTERIOR OF THE CLOISTERS 

became very common. Local differences broke down, and 
the same Flamboyant style was applied in all localities of 
France. It was a unified France which saw the elements of 
the style and accepted them from England. 

Examples. The first clearly Flamboyant building in France 
is the chapel of Saint John in Amiens cathedral, built from 1337 
to 1375. Thence the style spread abroad, good examples 
being the cathedrals of Quimper, Nantes, and Chambery, 
Saint Ouen at Rouen (Fig. 162), and the church of Saint 
Vulfram, Abbeville (Fig. 163). These are all of the fifteenth 
century, but the style continued vigorous until long into the 
sixteenth. Saint Maclou at Rouen (Fig. 164), one of the 
finest of French Flamboyant buildings, was not completed until 



3 o8 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

1541, and the Flamboyant south transept of Beauvais dates 
from 1548. The dates of these later buildings are especially 
interesting, since they coincide with what is generally con- 
sidered the Renaissance in France. 

German Gothic. Original and imitative 
qualities. When we approach the sub- 
ject of German Gothic we find that dif- 
ferent conditions produced different re- 
sults. The Germans accepted Gothic 
with reluctance. They already had a 
vigorous, highly original style in their 
Romanesque, which expressed their na- 
tional genius. The Gothic movement in 
Germany was, therefore, a late one, and 
the period of transition, when Gothic 
was being accepted, was long. Ger- 
many generally owed her Gothic to 
France, and we are even indebted to a 
German for the phrase "opus franci- 
genum' ' as a description of Gothic. This 
does not mean, however, that the Ger- 
man style does not show originality, and 
frequently differ widely from the French. 
For purposes of classification, as already 
suggested, one may divide the German 
Gothic buildings into two classes, original 
and imitative, according to the degree 
of originality in the work. 

Early monuments. As one would ex- 
pect, the early German Gothic buildings 
showed a high degree of originality. 
They represent a reminiscence of Ger- 
man Romanesque with a free applica- 
FIG. 162 ROUEN. SAINT tion of French Gothic detail. Such a 
OUEN. SYSTEM ca thedral as Bamberg (Fig. 165), for 
example, shows a clear compromise be- 
tween two architectural styles, the Gothic character showing 
only in the consistently pointed vaults and arches and in the 
moldings. Nor is Bamberg an isolated example. Many 
other churches of approximately the same date, among them 




ttf 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 



309 



the cathedrals of Naumburg and Minister (Fig. 166), exhibit 
the same compromise between French Gothic and German 
Romanesque, though they differ in detail, as German Roman- 
esque buildings differ one from another. As time went on 
the tendency to 
imitate French 
forms became 
more marked. 

Imitative works. 
By far the best 
known of the so- 
called imitative 
monuments are 
copies, more or 
less free, of the 
churches of north- 
ern France. What 
has often been 
called the first 
purely Gothic 
church of Ger- 
many was built 
between 1227 and 
1243, at Treves, 
in fairly faithful 
imitation of the 
church of Saint 
Yved at Braisne. 
The minsters of 
Strasburg and 

Freiburg (Figs. 167 and 168) soon followed it, the latter 
largely dependent on the former, but both harking back to 
the abbey of Saint Denis as a prototype, though in neither 
building do we meet mere copyism. Perhaps the most 
imitative of all the German cathedrals is Cologne (Fig. 138), 
reproducing the system of Amiens with great fidelity and 
possibly even begun by a Frenchman. This cathedral has, 
however, more homogeneity than Amiens, and diverges from 
it in many minor details. 

The Hallenkirchen. Probably the least imitative and most 




FIG. 163 ABBEVILLE. SAINT VULFRAM. 
WEST PORTALS 



THE 



3 io A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

native Gothic churches of Germany were the Hallenkirchen, 
or hall churches. These were three-aisled buildings, with 
domical vaults, the aisle vaults being as high as those of the 
nave, and the building thus having the appearance of a great 
hall. It is probable that they were originally inspired by the 
churches of much the same sort characteristic of southwestern 

France. However this may 
be, the Hallenkirchen were 
developed in Germany and 
increased in popularity from 
the early Gothic through the 
Flamboyant period, and be- 
came the most character- 
istically German of all the 
Gothic types. The first 
frankly Gothic example 
seems to have been the 
church of Saint Elizabeth at 
Marburg (Figs. 139, 169, and 
170), erected between 1235 
and 1283. Here, as though 
to emphasize the native Ger- 
man quality of the type, the 
plan is made three shelled, 
with a polygonal apse the 
breadth of the aisleless choir, 
and transepts of the same 
size with polygonal .ends. 

This type was later extensively followed, as in the Wiesen- 
kirche at Soest, and the church of Saint George at Nordlingen 
(Fig. 170), and on account of its simplicity it found particular 
favor in districts where brick was the chief building material. 
Fourteenth century Gothic in Germany. In the fourteenth 
century Gothic art, so reluctantly accepted in Germany, 
expanded prodigiously. Fourteenth century German Gothic 
did not, however, show great originality. The period was one 
of expansion rather than progress. As in France, progress was 
in the direction of lightness, and forms at times became almost 
emaciated. Sculpture aped the prevailing French mode, 
exaggerating the French grimace, and foliate carving flung 




FIG. 164 ROUEN. SAINT MACLOU. 
VIEW OF THE WEST FRONT AND SPIRE 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 



off all restraint. On the other hand the plans were kept 
simple and the Hallenkirche was a great favorite. Among the 
most original monuments of the period may be mentioned the 
cathedral of Ulm, built in 1377. As types of the fourteenth 
century Hallenkirchen we may mention the church of the 







X' :>'-. .'"lf>N 

j^/MS? 





01 I 1 * 5 

FIG. 165 BAMBERG. CATHEDRAL. PLAN AND SYSTEM 



Holy Cross at Gmund, and that of Saint Lawrence at 
Nurnberg. 

Fifteenth century Gothic in Germany. The fifteenth century 
Gothic of Germany, except for the importation of some Flam- 
boyant French details, developed from that of the fourteenth. 
The style was in large measure independent, and was able to 
influence even Italy and France. In general the art was a culmi- 
nation of the lightness aimed at in the fourteenth century. 
Columns were simplified to the point of nudity, forms thinned, 
but combinations of members became extraordinarily complex. 
Thus without direct imitation the style approached the 
character of English Perpendicular Gothic. Vaults, for 
example, were often merely barrel vaults interpenetrated at 



3 i2 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

right angles by other barrel vaults of less height, and the inner 
surfaces of both covered with a network of decorative ribs. At 
the same time a decorative system of lozenge-like paneling 
was developed which bears the closest analogy to the English 
Perpendicular paneling. The Hallenkirche, always popular, 
now received its greatest development. At the same time 
the technique of the builders and carvers became very skilful, 

and they were generally 
regarded in other coun- 
tries as the equals if not 
the superiors of the 
French. 

The fifteenth century 
Hallenkirche. As ex- 
amples of the Hallenkirche 
in the fifteenth century 
one may cite the five- 
aisled Liebfrauenkirche of 
Mulhausen, the cathedral 
of Munich, and many 
others. Even where the 
clerestory is preserved, 
however, the fifteenth 
century building appears 
scarcely less distinctively 
German, and one would 
never mistake the vaults 




FIG. I66-MUNSTER. CATHEDRAL. SYSTEM of Saints p eter 

at Gorlitz (1423 97) 

or those of the church of Saint Mary at Halle (1535-54), 
with their thinned members and lozenge decoration, for any- 
thing but German. 

Spanish Gothic. The history of the Gothic in Spain is 
analogous to that of the style in other countries outside of 
France. There occurred the same importation of French 
detail, the same modification of the art according to local 
needs, climate, and national taste. In the beginning the 
importation from France and especially from Auvergne and 
Languedoc was very marked, but soon inspiration came from 
all over France, 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 313 

General characteristics. Many special characteristics, how- 
ever, differentiated the Spanish church from its French model, 
and gave it originality. Exigencies of climate as well as the 
abundance of classical monuments suggested a flattening of 
roofs and an accenting of the horizontal. Large window space 
was not needed in a sunny climate, and often the clerestory 
almost disappeared. The triforium was frequently suppressed, 
as suggested by the almost 
flat aisle roofs. With the 
accent on the horizontal 
line and the contraction of 
openings, came inevitably 
broad wall surfaces, which 
increased the classic feeling 
of the edifice. There is a 
diminishing of Gothic rest- 
lessness and an increase of 
classic repose in the Spanish 
work. Decoration, on the 
other hand, took on a char- 
acteristically Spanish 
sparkle. Undercutting was 
deep, edges crisp, contrast 
strong, and broad contrasts 
arranged between profusely 
decorated and wholly bare 
surfaces. Carving became 
especially exuberant during 
the Flamboyant period, and 

a steadily increasing Saracenic influence tended to exaggerate 
the already exotic quality of the forms. 

The interior. The interior of the Spanish church was 
generally dark and roomy. Piers were widely spaced and 
massy, vaults lower than in France. , Peculiarities of the 
Spanish buildings were the capilla mayor and the coro. The 
former was the apsidal chapel, bounded by the ambulatory, 
almost completely screened from the rest of the church. The 
latter was an equally screened choir, arranged west of the 
crossing. These features tended to break up the interior and 
render its size more difficult to appreciate (Fig. 171). 




FIG. 167 FREIBURG. THE MINSTER, 
SEEN FROM THE SOUTHEAST 



314 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



Twelfth century Spanish Gothic. As one might expect, the 
twelfth century Spanish buildings are somewhat chaotic. In 
Catalonia, for example, the abbeys of Poblet and Santa Creus 
were founded by monks from near Narbonne, and show the 

influence of the architecture of Langue- 

doc. On the other hand, the Cistercian 
churches of Alcobaza (Portugal) and 
Las Huelgas, near Burgos, display the 
strongly domical vaults and nave and 
aisles of equal height which south- 
western France gave alike to them and 
to Germany. 

Thirteenth century Spanish Gothic. 
In the thirteenth century inspiration 
came from northern France, and Span- 
ish architecture, without losing its own 
identity, rivaled French. The best 
known and finest works of the period 
are the cathedrals of Burgos, Toledo 
(Fig. 171), and Leon. The inspiration 
for the first two came from Bourges; 
that of the last from buildings farther 
north in the He de France and Cham- 
pagne. Burgos and Toledo resemble 
each other closely. The former was 
founded in 1226, the latter somewhat 
later, and the same architects may 
well have worked upon both. Leon 
cathedral is more eclectic than Burgos 

Oor Toledo, though it shows the influ- 
lii f ? t ftttr. ence Chartres more than that of 
any other single French building. It 
does not suggest any dry eclecticism, 
however, but father has the spon- 
taneity of its great French prototypes, 

and seems to spring, as they do, from fine models only 
slightly earlier in date. 

Fourteenth century Spanish Gothic. In the fourteenth 
century Gothic of Spain there appeared the same tendencies 
as in France, although refinement never went so far in the 




FIG. 168 FREIBURG 
THE MINSTERS SYSTEM 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 



former country as in the latter. The influence of northern 
France weakened somewhat, and we find such works as the 
cathedral of Gerona, begun in 1316, inspired once more by the 
architecture of southern France. 

Fifteenth century Spanish Gothic. The prosperity of Spain 
during the fifteenth century favored architectural develop- 
ment. As in Ger- 
many, we feel 
much originality 
in the later work. 
This is attained by 
an emphasis on 
the qualities which 
we have called 
characteristically 
Spanish. Flat 
roofs became more 
common, carving 
more sparkling, 
buildings more 
spacious. The 
octagonal lantern 
came to be a very 
prominent feature, 
as at Barcelona 
and Valencia. 
The openwork 
detail of French 
Flamboyant was 
specially suited to 
Spanish taste, and 

was very characteristic of late Spanish Gothic. The best 
known examples are the openwork spires of Burgos, begun in 
1442, imitated not from a French work but a German one, the 
cathedral of Cologne. The most ambitious church of fifteenth 
century Spain, the cathedral of Seville (Figs. 139, 140, and 172), 
was begun in 1401. Here the warm climate of Andalusia and 
the Moorish influence of a country long under Moslem domina- 
tion exaggerated the typically Spanish characteristics of the 
architecture. Roofs are never so flat, piers never so widely 




FIG, 169 MARBURG. SAINT ELIZABETH. THE 
INTERIOR, LOOKING TOWARD THE APSE 



3 i6 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

spaced, interiors never so gloomy, as at Seville. The detail 
has a specially Moorish eccentricity. Indeed the Spaniards 
combined Moorish and Christian detail so skilfully that 
buildings like the famous Sevillan Giralda (Fig. 172) present 





Marburg, Saint Elizabeth Nordlingen, Saint George 

FIG. I/O SYSTEMS OF HALLENKIRCHEN 

a harmonious whole when actually constructed in several 
different and seemingly antagonistic periods. 

Origin of the Gothic style in Italy. In no country were the 
fundamentals of the Gothic structural systems as completely 
disregarded as in Italy, nevertheless the style attained there 
a strong position and produced monuments of great charm. 
It was, however, purely adventitious. Italy was the home 
of classical Roman architecture. It received Romanesque 
readily, but gave it so strong a flavor of classic art that the 
style, as we have seen, has often been called that of the proto- 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 



317 



Renaissance. Italy had always been prone to classic 

revivals, and in the Romanesque period showed signs of being 

ready for the greatest of them all the Renaissance when 

the peninsula was overwhelmed by the wave of Gothic fashion, 

and for two centuries the pointed style was supreme. It 

was, however, an imported, 

foreign fashion, just as 

fashion in dress at the same 

time was imported from 

Paris. It arrived in almost 

complete purity, at the 

hands principally of the 

Cistercians, who settled at 

Fossanova in Latium (1187), 

and thence spread to Casa- 

mari near Rome (1217), San 

Galgano in Tuscany (soon 

after 1217), and other sites. 

These monks built Cistercian 

Gothic churches of an early 

but monumental sort, and 

roused the Italian taste for 

the pointed style, but Italian 

taste promptly modified the 

style imported. 

General character of Italian 
Gothic. The Italian archi- 
tects had little sense of 
logical structure, and thus 
produced buildings which 
included meager buttress 
systems, tied vaults, and 

lacked all that the French considered most important 
in the Gothic style. Along with this lack of structural 
sense went a disguised but recognizable classical feeling. 
Classical detail gave way, but classical arrangements and 
emphasis were retained. The horizontal line, as in Spain, 
was emphasized. Intercolumniations were broadened, with 
a consequent loss of scale. Wall spaces were broad, openings 
small, and interiors gave an impression of roominess which 




FIG. 171 TOLEDO. CATHEDRAL. 
VIEW OF THE INTERIOR, LOOKING 
TOWARD THE APSE 



3 i8 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

frequently went over into bareness. Climate, as well as 
classical reminiscence, played a large role in these changes. 
Since openings were small and wall spaces broad, stained glass 
was neglected. Its place was taken by mosaic, and especially 
by fresco, or painting in water color on wet plaster, which 
began as a cheap substitute for mosaic. The timber roof was 




FIG. 172 SEVILLE. THE CATHEDRAL AND GIRALDA TOWER, SEEN FROM 
THE SOUTHWEST 



often substituted for the vault. Facades became gorgeous 
screens, richly decorated in carved marble and glass mosaic, 
behind which the church often seemed vainly to attempt to 
conceal itself. The Italian Gothic style varied geographically, 
being simpler in the north, and emphasizing polychromy in 
central Italy. It also varied chronologically. We find very 
simple buildings in the early Cistercian period, and very 
ramified ones when Flamboyant Gothic came into vogue. 

Early Gothic architecture in Italy. Perhaps the best example 
of the early Cistercian building in Italy is the church of San 
Martino, near Viterbo, built in the mid-thirteenth century. 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 



About the same time the church of Saint Francis was built 
at Assisi (Fig. 173), and the Italian modification of French 
structure began. In proportion and general external effect 
this building might be Romanesque. In the second half of 
the century many Gothic buildings were raised, the most 
interesting of which is the cathedral of Siena. Here one sees 




FIG. 173 ASSISI. SAN FRANCESCO. PLAN 



a good example of the Italian screen-like facade, decorated in 
carved marble and pplychromy, and the striped marble interior 
characteristic of Tuscan architecture. Many minor churches 
were constructed in imitation of the cathedral buildings. In 
the north an architecture with more organic feeling was 
developed at Bologna, where the church of Saint Francis 
(1236-40) shows a real buttress system. In the south 
Cistercian ideas were mingling with architectural ideas from 
the Latin Orient, and, as always in southern Italy, the result 
was an interesting architectural hybrid. 

Fourteenth century Italian Gothic. Fourteenth century 
Gothic in Italy, as elsewhere, developed chiefly from the local 
architecture of the preceding century. In Florence we find 
the cathedral (1296-1367) exaggerating the Italian trend 
toward wide intercolumniations, bare interiors, and the 



320 A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 

Tuscan violent polychromy applied to the facade (Figs. 
138, 140, 174, and 189). The triforium was omitted, the 
clerestory reduced, and the openings greatly diminished in 
size. The plan was given a trefoil shape which reveals Ger- 
manic influence (compare Figs, in and 138). The free 
standing clock tower, Giotto's "Lily Campanile," is one of 

the most graceful 
examples of the 
Italian polychro- 
matic pointed 
style. In Umbria 
the cathedral of 
Orvieto (Fig. 
175), dating from 
the end of the 
thirteenth and 
the beginning of 
the fourteenth 
century, shows an 
imitation of Siena. 
The wooden roof 
was frankly used 
here, however, 
and the contrast 
of interior stripes 
is less violent 
than in Siena. 
The body of the 
church is unob- 
trusive, the facade 
one of the most 
gorgeous and 

least spoiled by modern restoration. The combination of 
the two is marred by inevitable incongruity. In the north 
important Gothic work was done in Venice, in the church of 
Saints John and Paul, and in other towns. At the very end of 
the century the graceful Carthusian abbey of Pavia was begun, 
with its triconch ending, lanterns, and exterior galleries, which 
reveal the influence of Germany once more. 

Fifteenth century Italian Gothic. This influence becomes 




FIG. 174 FLORENCE. THE CATHEDRAL. VIEW 
OF THE INTERIOR, LOOKING TOWARD THE APSE 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 



321 



most important in the fifteenth century. Important secular 
architecture in Flamboyant Italy is seen in many buildings, 
but the ecclesiastical architecture of the period is best summed 
up in the cathedral of Milan (Fig. 176). In this work Italian, 
French, and German influences mingle. The Italian lofty 
ground story and wide intercolumniation were retained. 
The triforium disappeared and the clerestory was reduced. 
Windows were kept small and tie-rods were used to hold in 
the vaults. The workman- 
ship is German, the Flam- 
boyant detail French, modi- 
fied by Germans. On the 
exterior the vertical line was 
unsparingly emphasized, as 
in English Perpendicular, 
though the detail is Ger- 
man in character. Pitched 
roofs were abandoned in 
favor of flat ones, but the 
Consequent horizontal lines 
were disguised by a multi- 
tude of pinnacles. The 
material was fine marble 
throughout, and the carv- 
ing was so delicate and 
profuse in figure work, pin- 
nacle, and detail that a very 
lace-like effect was obtained. 

Long before the completion of Milan cathedral the Renais- 
sance was in full sway in Florence, and it is to the credit of 
the Milanese that they finished a structure so harmoniously 
at so late a date. 

Gothic architecture of the Latin Orient and elsewhere. There 
are many subdivisions of the Gothic style which we have had 
time merely to mention in connection with our classification, 
and the discussion of which we shall have to omit. It will 
be well, however, at least to call attention to the fact that 
Gothic architecture of real interest was produced in Austria, 
Scandinavia, Switzerland, and elsewhere. The regret is 
especially keen that we have thus summarily to dismiss the 




FIG. 175 ORVIETO. THE CATHEDRAL 
FRONT, SEEN FROM THE SOUTHWEST 



322 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Gothic architecture of the Latin Orient. The crusaders 
carried their builders with them, set up Western civilization 
in the nearer East, and the result was a series of imposing 
Gothic monuments, ecclesiastical and secular, in Palestine and 
Syria and in the Mediterranean islands. Even when the tide 
of conquest turned and the Occidental invaders were being 




FIG. 176 MILAN. EXTERIOR OF THE CATHEDRAL 



driven out, they carried on their building operations, as at 
Gaza, until the last days of their occupation. The turning 
of this tide meant, however, that Gothic buildings were to be 
rare in Palestine and on the mainland, and frequent and more 
complete on the islands where the Occidentals held longer 
sway. 

Secular architecture. As always in the Middle Ages, ecclesi- 
astical architecture is more important than secular in the 
Gothic period, but this very fact has caused writers to over- 
emphasize medieval ecclesiatical art at the expense of secular. 
At times the secular monuments rival the ecclesiastical in 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 323 

importance. In every period, of course, the character of the 
detail of the secular buildings corresponded to that of the 
ecclesiastical buildings. Quite as obviously the progression 
from early to late date was one from 'comparative simplicity 
to greater complication. Different sorts of secular works 
received greater emphasis according to the period. In the 
Romanesque and early Gothic periods interest centers almost 
entirely on buildings, public or private,. of a military character. 
In the later periods, especially in the latest Flamboyant, when 
civic order was the rule and the individual felt himself secure, 
lay monuments largely lost their military character, and one 
finds the greatest development of the medieval town and 
guild hall, and the slightly fortified palace of the petty noble 
or merchant prince. The powerful nobles continued to build 
well-nigh impregnable castles until the centralization of power 
in the king forbade such monuments. We shall be able to 
give only the main characteristics of each type of secular 
monument, with the mention of a few distinctive examples, 
and point out roughly the periods in which each type attained 
its greatest importance. 

The fortified town. The most imposing secular monuments, 
and of course among the earliest, are the fortified towns. The 
fortifications of a town were so composed with a view to defense 
that the whole became a unit, and it is not fanciful to think of 
the town as a single monument. The principle was that of 
surrounding the town with walls, especially strong wherever 
the town was unprotected by natural defenses such as cliffs 
or rivers, and of fortifying angles of the walls by salient towers 
which provided for enfilading fire on besiegers attacking the 
curtain wall between the towers. We have already noted 
such a system at Avila, in the Romanesque period, and 
Variations were infinite. Secondary walls of defense were 
built outside the stronger inner walls. Beyond the outer walls 
moats were dug, and frequently filled with water. Access to 
the space between the inner and outer walls was provided by 
drawbridges, ramps, and triple or quadruple gates, covered 
with stone galleries, pierced with openings, through which 
missiles might be dropped on the heads of invaders. Once an 
entrance had been forced within the outer wall, the invader 
found himself in a cul-de-sac, exposed to the fire of the inner 



A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



defenders until such time as he could pierce the vastly stronger 
inner fortifications. If at last he succeeded in winning the 
inner works he might take the town, but had yet to besiege the 
citadel, a strong fortress placed in the strongest position in 
the town, into which the defending military retreated. 

Aigues-Mortes and Carcassonne. Examples of fortified 
towns are to be found in most European countries, though the 




FIG. 177 AIGUES-MORTES. GENERAL VIEW OF THE CITY AND FORTI- 
FICATIONS 



finest and most complete are in France. Here two examples 
far surpass the others: the towns of Aigues-Mortes and 
Carcassonne. The former (Fig. 177), founded in 1246 by 
Saint Louis, presents fortifications in the form of a rectangle 
roughly 600 by 150 yards, with twenty well-preserved towers, 
some square and some round. The moat has disappeared, 
but the machicolations and inner galleries for defensive fire 
may still be studied, as well as the defenses of the ten gates. 
The monotonous regularity of the plan shows that the pictu- 
resque irregularity of most medieval secular building was the 
result of the architect's adapting himself to eccentricities in 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 



325 



site or warping his building to take military advantage of such 
eccentricities. Where the site is a plain, architectural irregu- 
larities disappear. For an example of the picturesque and 
irregular town site, the Cite of Carcassonne (Fig. 178) will 
serve our need. Here the fortifications date in part to the 
Visigothic period in the fifth century and were frequently 
reconstructed up to the four- 
teenth century. They were 
skilfully restored in the mid- 
nineteenth century by 
Viollet-le-Duc. The site was 
by nature lofty and inacces- 
sible, and man exaggerated 
this inaccessibility to a pict- 
uresque degree. No one 
part of the fortification re- 
peats any other part. 
Ramp, curtain-wall, turret, 
and cul-de-sac all conform 
so skilfully to the natural 
advantages of the terrain 
that human handiwork ap- 
pears part of bed-rock, or 
bed-rock part of the human 
structure. The outer en- 
ceinte is more than 1600 
yards in circumference, and 
the^ inner more than 1200. 
The walls are fortified by 

fifty round .towers and the whole dominated by the citadel. 
The major portion of the work dates from the late twelfth 
and the thirteenth centuries. The whole affords the most 
imposing, and in some respects the most interesting, secular 
monument of the Gothic period which has come down to us. 

The castle. The chief characteristics of the castle coincide 
with those of the fortified town. In the fully developed 
examples one finds the outer and inner walls, the towers 
fortifying the wall angles, the moats, machicolations, corbelled 
galleries, and ramps, such as the towns afforded. Even the 
town citadel is reflected in the donjon. This, however, was 




FIG. 178 CARCASSONNE. LA CITE. 
VIEW OF THE FORTIFICATIONS 



326 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

placed either at the least accessible part of the site or at the 
weakest, the idea in the latter case being further to strengthen 
the weakest part. Not all castles have this completeness. In 
the Romanesque period castles were simpler than in the Gothic, 
and even before the Romanesque period there were castle- 




FIG. 179 COUCY. GENERAL VIEW OF THE CASTLE GROUNDS, SHOWING 
THE DONJON BEFORE ITS DESTRUCTION IN IQI7 



like defenses, mounds protected by earthworks, ditches, and 
palisades. These mounds and ditches often became part of the 
system of defenses of castles subsequently raised upon the 
sites. Some castles lacked donjons; some retained the square 
keep in preference to the round. In the earlier castles the 
systems of defense were single ; later they became concentric. 
Diversity was great, but fundamental characteristics were the 
same. 

Examples of Gothic castles. Coucy. Many countries exhibit 
important and well-preserved examples of the medieval cas- 
tle. In England there are many, both of the Norman and 
of later periods, among which we may emphasize the castle 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 



327 



of Harlech, one of the most stupendous fortresses of the Middle 
Ages. The medieval builders learned much of fortress 
building in the crusades, and the Latin Orient contains 
some of the most impressive remains of military architect- 
ure. As so frequently in medieval architecture, France 
offers perhaps the finest monuments of all, especially good 
examples being the castles 
of Pierrefonds and Coucy 
(Figs. 139 and 179). Pierre 
fonds has been restored by 
Viollet-le-Duc, and, though 
in a sense a false document, 
presents a most vivid recon- 
struction, on the part of a 
profound medievalist, of a 
Gothic castle. The more 
impressive Coucy, blown up 
by Mazarin, is in ruins. Its 
donjon, 210 feet in height, 
with walls in some places 34 
feet thick, still stands. 1 Such 
a building, before the days 
of gunpowder, was literally 
impregnable, and Coucy was 
never taken. To understand 

the spirit which dominated FIG - l8 A MEDIEVAL TOWN HOUSE. 

... , ,, , , * (VIOLLET-LE-DUC) 

the medieval castle, and the 

consequent architectural ex- 
pression which it attained, one needs but read the motto of 
the Sieurs de Coucy: "Roi ne suys, ne prince, ne due, ne 
comte aussi; je suys le Sire de Coucy."' 

So superbly insolent a motto was justified by the lordship 
of such a building. 

Later castles. As time went on the nobles lightened the 
appearance of their dwellings and sacrificed somewhat, though 
never to a dangerous extent, the defensive character of the 

!It is reported (April, 1917) that the retreating Germans have razed 
completely this famous monument. 

2 1 am not king, nor prince, nor duke, nor even count; I am the Lord 
of Coucy. 

12 




328 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

work. For instance the castle of Jean-de-Berry at Mehun- 
sur-Y&vre, built in 1386 and known to us by an illumina- 
tion, succeeded in combining late Gothic delicacy with 
adequate defense. Defense was, however, still the underly- 
ing idea. 

The town house. The need of defense lay like a shadow 
athwart all civil architecture. The town house (Fig. 180) was 

arranged for de- 
fense, not against 
soldiers but against 
roisterers and 
ruffians. The en- 
trance was raised 
well above the 
street and the 
stairs arranged 
along the flank of 
the wall. Before 
reaching the plat- 
form on which the 
door opened, the 
way was blocked 
by an open grille, 
through which a 
pike could be 
thrust to repel un- 
desirables. In the 
town house exi- 
gencies of space caused the upper story to expand, and, 
carried on beams or corbels, to overhang the street in the 
manner already noted in medieval Constantinople. This 
scheme was followed whether the house were of stone or 
of wood. 

The peasant's house. The country peasant's house (Fig. 
181) commonly had the same raised doorway, flanking stair- 
way, and platform for defense as the city house. There was 
generally no connection between the upper story and the 
ground story, the latter being used for the animals. The walls 
and gable ends were often of monumental cut stone ; the roofs 
usually steeply pitched and thatched. Such peasant houses 




FIG. l8l THE COUNTRY DWELLING OF A MEDI 
EVAL PEASANT. (VIOLLET-LE-DUC) 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 



329 






had all the charm of picturesqueness, honesty, and directness 
in fulfilling architectural needs. 

The fortified manor. Of more ambitious dimensions and 
defenses were the country fortified manors. These were 
generally square, with turrets at the corners, reaching to the 
ground or carried on corbels. The manor was surrounded by 
a moat, and the approach to the small gate made by means of 
a draw. Within was an open court. Such a type of dwelling 
may be seen at Saint Medard- 
en-Jalle (Fig. 182), near 
Landes, and at Camarsac 
(Gironde) . 

Municipal and corporation 
halls. Especially in the later 
Middle Ages the municipal 
and corporation halls at- 
tained great importance. 
The Hotel de Ville of France 
and Flanders, the Palazzo 
Pubblico of Italy, the 
Rathaus of Germany, re- 
ceived monumental treat- 
ment. Of the same sort were 
the guild halls, semi -com- 
munistic in character, which 
were common in free towns 
all over Europe, but especi- 
ally in Flanders. The hall 

survived or fell with the town, and was not intended to 
resist assault if the town were taken, consequently plans were 
more regular, esthetic considerations were more emphasized. 
The buildings lacked the frowning character of fortified works, 
were more delicate, more profusely ornamented, and better 
mirrored the contemporary style. This is especially true in 
the buildings of late date, and the finest belong to the Flam- 
boyant period. 

The town and guild halls of Flanders. The town halls were 
generally of fairly regular plan. The lower story was usually 
the record office. In Flanders a bejfroi, or clock tower, with a 
bell for summoning the citizens, was a common adjunct. The 




FIG. 182 SAINT MEDARD-EN-JALLE. 
SKETCH OF THE MANOR. (VIOLLET- 
LE-DUC) 



330 A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 

buildings were usually two or more stories in height, with the 
central portion carried up as a tower which started square and 
became octagonal. Roofs were very steep, and generally 
supplied with picturesque dormers. Among the fine Flemish 
halls we may mention those of Ghent (1481), Brussels (1401- 




FIG. 183 YPRES. THE CLOTH HALL AS IT APPEARED BEFORE THE BOM- 
BARDMENT OF 1914 

55), and Louvain. The trade and guild halls of Flanders 
usually differed only in interior arrangement from the town 
hall, and were frequently taken over at a later date, and used 
as town halls. The finest of all the Belgian trade halls was the 
so-called Cloth Hall of Ypres (Fig. 183), dating from the 
thirteenth century, but almost wholly destroyed by shell 
fire in 1914. 

Halls and mansions of France. In France we find the same 
types of monuments, especially important in the Flamboyant 
period. These buildings were erected as town halls, as trade 
halls, or often merely as private residences of the very wealthy 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 331 

bourgeois. The private mansion usually lacked the beffroi 
of the town hall, otherwise the buildings were similar. The 
main unit was the bay of two or more stories. Tiers of 
windows were divided by buttresses with Flamboyant detail, 
the Flamboyant arch, with delicate and eccentric curves, 
being used throughout. The favorite form of window was the 
transom or cross window, the light being divided by an up- 
right mullion in the center, and a cross-bar of stone one- 




FIG. 184 BOURGES. MAISON DE JACQUES COEUR 

third of the distance from the top. Each window was thus a 
rhythmic reproduction of the one below. Roofs were very 
steeply pitched, and provided with dormers which repeated 
the motifs of the windows perpendicularly below them. In the 
courtyard the ground story arcade was usually open. Plan 
and skyline were broken by pavilions, and by elaborate 
chimneys. The whole effect was delicate, orderly, yet 
picturesque. Good examples of this Flamboyant French 
secular architecture may be seen at Paris in the H6tel Cluny, 



332 



A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



at Rouen in the Palais de Justice, and at Bourges in the 
Maison de Jacques Coeur (Fig. 184). 

Domestic architecture in England. In England, as in France, 
domestic architecture followed civil architecture in detail. At 
first the mansions were built around a court, but the entrance 
side of the square came to be omitted, and irregularities were 
soon introduced. The trend was toward picturesqueness, irregu- 




FIG. 185 FLORENCE. THE PALAZZO VECCHIO 

larity, and small scale, so that the Tudor houses give a greater 
impression of intimacy than any works on the continent. The 
Middle Ages thus prepared the way for later English domestic 
work, and such a building as Compton Wynyates, though 
medieval in detail, is Renaissance in spirit. 

Secular architecture in Italy. Municipal individuality. In 
Italy, as in Flanders and France, there was little difference 
architecturally between the town hall, the ducal palace, and 
the private residence of the wealthy citizen, and the same 
building often combined two or more functions, Differ- 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 



333 



ences came from date, and above all from geography. 
Nothing more clearly shows the independence and self- 
sufficiency of the Italian medieval civic spirit than the way in 
which each city arrogated to itself a peculiar type of secular 
architecture, a fact which held true when towns were near 
together and in constant communication. In certain general 
ways all Italian medieval 
mansions resembled one an- 
other. They were usually 
regular in plan, built round 
a court, and provided with 
a campanile incorporated or 
free standing. Divergence 
occurred principally in the 
arrangements of details in a 
bay, in the treatment of de- 
tail, and in the general ex- 
pression of the building. 

Domestic architecture of 
Florence and Siena. In Flor- 
ence, as we may see by the 
Palazzo Vecchio (Fig. 185) 
or the Bargello, the appear- 
ance of the building was for- 
bidding. There was no di- 
vision of the exterior into 
bays, and the stone used 

was dark and roughly rusticated. The characteristic window 
had two lights, separated by a mullion and embraced by a 
pointed arch, the intrados and extrados of which were not con- 
centric but wider apart at the crown than at the springing. On 
the other hand, the Palazzo Pubblico of Siena (Fig. 186) shows 
that the Sienese architect, like the Sienese painter, sought 
more graceful and less forbidding forms. The material 
received a finer finish, and the use of brick was common. The 
campanile was made more slender and loftier. The window 
form was a design of three lancet-like lights, with very pointed 
arches and delicate cusps, embraced by a single highly pointed 
arch with concentric intrados and extrados. Each town thus 
sought a native form, especially of window opening, for its 




FIG. 1 86 SIENA. THE PALAZZO 
PUBBLICO 



334 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

own, and originality is always found except where one city was 
able to force its ideas upon another. 

Secular buildings of Venice. The most famous, and in many 
ways the most charming and original Italian secular buildings 
of the Middle Ages were those of Venice. These, like so much 
secular work, attained greatest heights during the Flamboyant 
period, and the secular buildings were new in general expres- 




1 1 1 i i 



I I II ! 1 1 



FIG. 187 VENICE. THE PALAZZO DUCALE 



sion as well as detail. Ground story arcades were almost 
invariably left open, and, as the eye ascended, the building 
became less broken, so that the effect was to reduplicate by 
the reflection of the canals the most complicated parts of the 
architecture. Rich but harmonious polychromy was used to 
fortify crisp carving. Sometimes exteriors were veneered with 
polished marble, sometimes terra cotta, or smaller stones in 
two colors giving the impression of terra cotta, were used. 
The most sinuous and graceful of ogee curves was used for 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 335 

openings and arches, the curves counterpoised by delicate 
cusps, giving the actual opening a pointed trefoil form. Such 
arches were commonly interlaced, and the consequent quatre- 
foils between them were cusped and given round or slender 
pointed form. Roofs, like all Italian palace roofs, were kept 
flat. In lieu of cornices the roof edges were decorated with 
conventionalized spiny battlements, of colored stone or even 
wood, which added to the piquancy of the effect. In a sense 
all the Venetian medieval palaces were offshoots of the 
Palazzo Ducale (Fig. 187). This most monumental of secular 
buildings in Venice set the fashion which was followed with 
delicate variation and refinement in many other buildings, and 
from Venice the style spread over the Venetian contado. 

Other Gothic monuments. Though we must here bring to a 
close our discussion of medieval secular architecture, it is 
necessary to point out the existence of numerous monuments 
of medieval art, usually wholly forgotten, which aid in a com- 
prehension of the style. Bridges, such as that at Avignon or 
the Pont Valentre (Fig. 188) at Cahors, are often really great 
monuments of Gothic architecture, combining the needs of 
defense with logical construction and fine proportions. 
Sirnilarly much can be learned from boundary monuments, 
lanternes des morts (monuments to signalize the presence of 
a cemetery), well heads, dove-cotes, and even latrines. In 
short the mass of material is enormous, and a little explored 
field is open to the student of medieval secular architecture. 

The medieval ensemble. P-icturesqueness and its cause. As 
one would expect, the ensemble in medieval times is note- 
worthy for its irregularity and picturesqueness. Buildings 
as a group were not planned in an orderly way, except in the 
case of buildings for defense, when everything gave way to 
a definite scheme. Even here, as we have seen, the result was 
generally asymmetrical, except where the terrain was abso- 
lutely without variety. The picturesqueness of the medieval 
ensemble was not, however, the result of mere haphazard 
grouping. It came principally from a logical conformity to 
the peculiarities of the site, and is allied to the structural logic 
which produced the Gothic cathedral. For example, if a 
Gothic architect were designing a bridge he would not design 
a symmetrical one with an even rise and fall, and force his 



336 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURK 

workmen to place it across a river of any sort of bottom. He 
would consider first the river bottom, discover the position of 
the channel, and then design the bridge with the arch of 
longest span over the channel. If this were toward one 
bank, as it frequently was, the result was asymmetry and 
picturesqueness, but picturesqueness created and governed by 




FIG. 1 88 CAHORS. THE PONT VALENTRE 



structural good sense. The picturesqueness of the ensemble 
was similarly governed. Those who regard the medieval town 
plan as merely haphazard have as their ideal a construction 
which, by means of leveling, grading, and difficult engineering, 
oftentimes destroys the local flavor of the site in order to pre- 
pare for an artificial grouping. The medieval architect, from 
whatever motive, preferred to harmonize buildings to site 
rather than vice versa, and as a result the medieval ensemble 
more frequently looks as though it belonged properly to the 
country than the ensemble at an earlier or a later date. 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 337 

The influence of Gothic structural principles. The in- 
fluence of Gothic architecture on later styles was of many 
sorts. The subtlest, and perhaps the most important, was the 
influence of Gothic structural principles. These, once learned, 
could never wholly be forgotten. Even at a period when 
Gothic itself was despised, Gothic structural designs lived, 
were freely applied, and, it must be confessed, were often 
wofully misunderstood. Even the Gothic details, moldings, 
carving and the like, left their impress on later detail, especially 
in the early Renaissance. 

Influence of Flamboyant Gothic in France. Turning to more 
concrete examples of Gothic influence, the importance of the 
Flamboyant style in the history of architecture has never 
properly been emphasized. Outside of Italy, where, the 
Renaissance was a natural classical revival, Flamboyant 
Gothic determined the most significant expression of later 
architecture. In the early Renaissance the system was but 
one of a superficial application of imported Italian Renaissance 
detail to a structure fundamentally and in significant motifs 
Flamboyant Gothic. One need only compare the Hotel 
Cluny with the Chateau de Chenonceau to prove this. Even 
much later, when the Renaissance in France became more 
formal, essentials of Flamboyant Gothic remained. If we 
analyze, say the formal portions of the Louvre, and ask our- 
selves what gives the building its peculiarly French flavor 
despite its classic detail, we shall be forced to reply the steep 
roofs, the dormers, the broken skyline, the pavilions. All of 
these are of native medieval French origin, and withstood the 
assaults of Italian classicism. 

Influence of fifteenth century Gothic elsewhere. What is true 
in France is true elsewhere. The Perpendicular Tudor house 
determined the form of the Early English Renaissance dwell- 
ing. The picturesqueness, the irregularity, the small scale 
which we associate with English domestic architecture, is of 
medieval origin, and the modern Englishman reverts to it as his 
national style. In Germany and the Low Countries the stepped 
gables and picturesqueness of medieval architecture were but 
overlaid with classical detail. In Spain the Plateresque style 
was the freest warping of classic detail to make it fit the lines 
of Flamboyant Spanish Gothic. Flamboyant Gothic was, 



338 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

therefore, one of the most influential of the world's styles, and 
its power is by no means spent. 



CHRONOLOGICAL LIST OF MONUMENTS 



FRANCE AND FLANDERS 

Morienval. Earlier parts c. 1080; later c. 1120. 

Saint Germer de Fly. 1130-60. 

Paris, Saint Martin des Champs. c. 1136. 

Creil. c. 1140. 

Senlis. c. 1155-91. 

Paris, Saint Germain des Pres. Dedicated 1163; some parts con- 
siderably earlier. 

Paris, Cathedral. 1163-1235. 

Avignon, Pont Saint Benezet. 1177-85. 

Langres. Twelfth century. 

Carcassonne, Fortifications. Chiefly late twelfth and thirteenth 
centuries. 

Soissons. Choir finished 1212; rest mid-thirteenth century; spire 
c. 1160. 

Chartres. Facade c. 1145; rest chiefly 1194-1260; earlier spire c. 
1250; later spire 1507-14. 

Reims. 1 2 1 1-90. 

Amiens. 1 2 20-88. 

Coucy. Early thirteenth century. 

Aigues-Mortes. -Town founded 1246; fortifications begun 

Paris, Sainte Chapelle. Dedicated 1248. 

Saint Medard-en-Jalle. First half of the thirteenth century. 

Ypres, Cloth Hall. Thirteenth century. 

Camarsac. Late thirteenth or early fourteenth century. 

Rouen, Saint Ouen. 1318-39 and later. 

Amiens Cathedral, Chapel of Saint John. 1373-75. 

Mehun sur Yevre, Castle of Jean de Berry. 1386. 

Pierrefonds. c. 1390. 

Cahors, Pont Valentre". Fourteenth century. 

Brussels, Hotel de Ville. 1401-55. 

Louvain, Hotel de Ville. 1448-59. 

Abbeville, Saint Vulfram. Begun 1480. 

Ghent, Hotel de Ville. 1481. 

Paris, Hotel Cluny. 1490. 

Quimper. Chiefly fifteenth century. 

Nantes. Chiefly fifteenth century. 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 339 

Chambery. Chiefly fifteenth century. 

Bourges, Maison de Jacques Cceur. End of the fifteenth century. 

Rouen, Saint Maclou. Finished 1541. 

Beauvais Cathedral, Flamboyant transept. 1548. 

Troyes. Sixteenth century. 

ENGLAND 

Canterbury. Begun 1175. 

Lincoln. Early English Work. 1185-1200. 

Salisbury. 1 2 20-58. 

Wells. Dedicated 1239. 

Lincoln Cathedral, Angel Choir. 1255-80 

York, choir and west front. 1261-1324. 

Harlech Castle. c. 1300. 

Gloucester. transepts and choir 133 1-3 7 ; cloisters 135 1-1412. 

Windsor, Saint George's Chapel. 1481-1537. 

London, Westminster Abbey, Henry VII. 's Chapel. 1500-12. 

Compton Wynyates.- 1520. 

GERMANY 

Bamberg. 1185-1274. 

Miinster. 1 2 2 5-6 1 . 

Marburg, Saint Elizabeth. 1235-83. 

Naumburg. Nave before 1249; choir 1250-1330. 

Cologne. Begun 1248; choir consecrated 1322; much work modern. 

Strasburg. 1250-75; facade 1275-1318. 

Freiburg. Nave 1260; choir 1354. 

Treves. Remodeled thirteenth century. 

Soest, Wiesenkirche. Founded 1314. 

Ulm. Begun 1377; finished sixteenth century. 

Gmtind, The Holy Cross. Fourteenth century. 

Miilhausen, Liebfrauenkirche. Fourteenth and fifteenth centuries. 

Niirnberg, Saint Lawrence. Begun end of the thirteenth century; 

nave 1403-45; choir 1445-72. 
Gorlitz, Saints Peter and Paul. 1423-97. 
Nordlingen, Saint George. 1427-1505. 
Munich, Frauenkirche. 1468-88. 
Halle, Saint Mary. 1535-54. 

ITALY 

Fossanova . 1187. 

Casamari . 1217. 

San Galgano. c. 1220. 



340 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Assisi, Saint Francis. 1228-53. 

Venice, Santi Giovanni e Paolo. Begun 1234. 

Bologna, Saint Francis. 1236-40. 

Siena. c. 1245-84. 

Viterbo, San Martino. Mid-thirteenth century. 

Florence, Bargello. Begun 1255. 

Siena, Palazzo Pubblico. 1289-1309. 

Florence, Cathedral. 1296-1367. 

Orvieto. End of the thirteenth and beginning of the fourteenth 

centuries. 

Florence, Giotto's Campanile. Designed 1334-36. 
Venice, Palazzo Ducale. Founded 814; outer walls rebuilt 1340; 

west facade early fifteenth century. 
Milan. Founded 1386; finished sixteenth century. 
Pavia, Abbey Church. Begun 1396; finished in the Renaissance. 



SPAIN AND PORTUGAL 

Alcobaza (Portugal). 1148-1222. 

Santa Creus. 1157. 

Seville, Giralda. 1184-96; remodeled 1568. 

Las Huelgas en Burgos. 1187-1214. 

Poblet. Second half of the twelfth century. 

Burgos. Founded 1226. 

Toledo. c. 1236. 

Barcelona. 1 298-1420. 

Leon. c. 1300. 

Gerona. 1316. 

Seville. Begun 1401. 

Burgos Cathedral, spires. Begun 1442. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

In A. Michel's Histoire de I' Art, vol. 2, pts. i and 2, and vol. 3, 
pt. i, 1906-07, are excellent and authoritative accounts of the de- 
velopment of Gothic architecture, and of the character of the art 
in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries and the Flamboyant period. 
The bibliographies are especially valuable. E. E. Viollet-le-Duc's 
Dictionnaire raisonne de V architecture, 1884-88, already quoted, cov- 
ers much more than Gothic, but, in dictionary form, is one of the most 
monumental pieces of research in Gothic. As an original source 
Villard de Honnecourt's Album, 1906, and earlier editions (written in 
the thirteenth century), is the most interesting and important. K. 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 341 

Schnaase's Geschichte der bildenden Kunst, 1866-76, presents two vol- 
umes on medieval architecture, out of date but important. One of the 
most illuminating and best illustrated general works, G. Dehio and 
G. von Bezold's Kirchliche Baukunst des Abendlandes, 1884-99, has 
already been quoted. Similarly B. and B. F. Fletcher's History of 
Architecture, 1905, has been quoted, and is specially useful for English 
Gothic v F. vom Reber's History of Medieval Art, 1886, covers the whole 
field but emphasizes German architecture. F. M. Simpson's History of 
Architectural Development, vol. 2, 1909, is useful for the study of details 
of structure. C. H. Moore's Gothic Architecture, 1906, is one of the 
most important and profound works on the subject, tending, however, 
to over-emphasize structural logic, and cursory and unsympathetic 
in the treatment of the art outside of thirteenth-century France. 
A. K. Porter's Medieval Architecture, 1912, already cited, treats the 
subject frankly from the structural point of view and is a monumental 
and up-to-date piece of. scholarship. J. Quicherat's Melanges 
d'archeologie, vol. 2, Moyen-dge, 1886, is one of the most important 
early studies of the Romanesque and Gothic styles. It was followed 
by L. Courajod's Origines de Vart roman et gothique, 1889, a shrewd 
though out-of-date analysis of the origin of the styles. Both works 
emphasize the art in France. L. Gonse's Uart gothique, 1890, is a 
monumental volume covering all Gothic art, but specially useful 
for the study of French Gothic. J. A. Brutails' Uarcheologie du 
moyen-dge, 1900, has already been quoted as a clever study of the 
methods of medieval archaeology, as well as A. Marignan's Les 
methodes du passe dans Varcheologie franqaise, 1911, the most extreme 
though somewhat discredited work on the subject. 

E. Corroyer's Architecture gothique, 1891, is an out-of-date but 
compact and interesting little volume on Gothic architecture in 
France and Flanders. The best modern histories of medieval, and 
especially Gothic, architecture in France are C. Enlart's Architecture 
riligieuse en France, 1902, and Architecture civile et militaire en 
France, 1903, encyclopedic works of research which are worthy 
successors to the publications of Viollet-le-Duc. For the thirteenth 
century E. Male's Uart religieux en France au XIII. siecle, 1902, is 
especially fine. The Abbe Bossebceuf's U Architecture Plantagenet, 
1897,' affords an interesting study of a specially significant local 
variety of the style. G. H. West's Gothic Architecture in England 
and France, 1911, is a small but well-arranged and fair-minded study 
of the architecture in both countries. 

Although wofully out of date, J. Britton's The Cathedral Antiquities 
of Great Britain, 1836, is a five-volume work of real value for the 
study of English Gothic. E. Sharpe's The Seven Periods of English 
Architecture, 1871, and T. Rickman's An Attempt to Discriminate the 



342 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Styles of Architecture in England, 1881, cited under Romanesque, are 
immensely more important works of research in the styles of English 
Gothic. G. G. Scott's English Church Architecture, 1881, despite its 
date, is a valuable work on the English style. E. S. Prior's A History 
of Gothic Art in England, 1900, is a valuable and modern synthetic 
work. R. and J. A. Brandon's An A nalysis of Gothic A rchitecture, 1903 , 
is a profusely illustrated work, especially useful for the study of detail. 
F. Bond's Gothic Architecture in England, 1905, is one of the most 
scholarly of the modern books on the style, and it was succeeded by 
the author's English Church Architecture, 1913, the most modern and 
probably the most valuable work to-day on English medieval archi- 
tecture. C. H. Moore's Medieval Church Architecture of England, 
1912, is an important book by the great Gothic scholar amplifying and 
modifying somewhat the author's views on English Gothic expressed 
in earlier publications. G. H. Polley & Co.'s English Gothic Archi- 
tecture and Ornament, 1897, presents a valuable collection of plates 
for the study of the style. G. T. Clark's Medieval Military Archi- 
tecture in Great Britain, 1884, though out of date, is a scholarly work 
in a special field. Bell's Cathedral Series will be found useful as 
presenting a long series of monographs on single buildings. 

W. Liibke's Geschichte der deutschen Kunst, 1880, is a monumental 
work, out of date but authoritative in the treatment of German 
Gothic. H. Otte's Handbuch der kirchlichen Kunst-Archdologie des 
deutschen Mittelalters, 1883, though very general and old-fashioned, 
is still useful for the student. H. Bergner's Kirchliche Kunstal- 
tertiimer in Deutschland, 1905, is an encyclopedic and modern work 
covering the German field of ecclesiastical architecture. Burger - 
liche Kunstaltertumer in Deutschland, 1906, by the same author, 
discusses the secular art. C. Schaefer and 0. Stiehl's Die muster- 
gUtigen Kirchbauten des Mittelalters in Deutschland, 1901, is a superbly 
illustrated folio. An equally valuable folio is H. Hartung's Motive 
der mittelalterlichen Baukunst in Deutschland, 1904. B. Ebhardt's 
Deutsche Bur gen, 1901, already cited, is useful for the study of 
castellan architecture. 

C. E. Street's Gothic Architecture in Spain, 1865, is one of tne fi rst 
great works of research in Spanish Gothic. V. Lamperez y Romea's 
Arquitectura Cristiana en la Edad Media, 1909, already cited as the 
most valuable work on Spanish medieval architecture, is as authori- 
tative on Gothic as on the earlier styles. 

C. E. Boito's Archittetura del medio evo in Italia, 1880, is an ancient 
and limited but still useful work on the Italian medieval field. C. C. 
Gumming 's A History of Architecture in Italy, 1901, treats the Gothic 
architecture in as popular and able a way as the earlier styles. 
C. Enlart's Origines }ran$aises de V architecture gothique en Italie, 1894, 



GOTHIC ARCHITECTURE 343 

is still the most important and illuminating book on the origins of 
Italian Gothic. G. E. Street's Brick and Marble in the Middle Ages, 
1874, is an interesting volume on the medieval architecture of Italy, 
with some discussion of the northern styles. G. R. de Fleury's 
La Toscane au moyen dge, 1873, is a superbly illustrated folio work on 
medieval Tuscan architecture. C. E. Norton's Church Building in 
the Middle Ages, 1902, itself a work of art on account of the author's 
style, presents an interesting description of the building of the 
cathedrals of Venice, Siena, and Florence. E. Bertaux's Vart dans 
I'ltalie meridionale, 1904, covers the monuments of southern Italy 
in an interesting and scholarly way. 

A. G. B. Schayes's Histoire de V architecture en Belgique, 1850-60, 
already quoted, is of great value for the study of Gothic architecture 
in Flanders. C. Enlart's Vart gothique en Chypre, 1899, is a scholarly 
work illuminating as a study of the Gothic architecture built in the 
East by the crusaders. 



CHAPTER X 
RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 

The architecture of the period of the Renaissance was, 
in a greater measure than any other art, veritably a rebirth 
of the forms of classical antiquity. This involved, however, 
neither a sharp interruption of the developments of the Middle 
Ages nor a negation of originality and modernity. Most of the 
forces which tended to bring about the new era in Europe were 
already at work in the later Middle Ages and were thus not 
primarily results of the revival of classical learning. The 
decay of the medieval church and empire, the decline of the 
feudal system and the rise of nationalities and languages, were 
movements which appeared everywhere in the fourteenth and 
fifteenth centuries, along with a more human and a more 
naturalistic view of life. The growing tendency nowadays to 
regard Dante, Giotto, and the sculptors Pisani as true men of 
the Middle Ages essentially at one with the poets of Provence, 
the painters of Burgundy, and the carvers of the portals at 
Reims emphasizes the continuity of the Renaissance with 
medievalism. In many of these men there mingled with the 
Christian and northern tendencies other tendencies which 
were pagan and classical, forming a steady undercurrent 
throughout the Middle Ages. It needed merely a change in 
the relative strength of these tendencies to bring the classical 
current to the surface. By the early years of the fifteenth 
century this change was accomplished in Italy, and art and 
literature alike were profoundly influenced. The humanists, 
who tried to reconstitute a free and natural life by the aid of 
Greek and Roman literature, had their counterparts in 
Brunelleschi, Donatello, and Masaccio, who enriched the arts 
not only by observation of nature but by study of the works 
of ancient Rome. 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 345 

Retrospective, traditional, and original elements. In architect- 
ure there resulted an imitation of the Roman vocabulary of 
architectural forms, employed in part for the translation of 
ideas fundamentally medieval, in part for the expression of 
ideas essentially novel. Medieval dispositions clothed in 
details of the classic orders, medieval craftsmanship exercised 
in the application and variation of classical motives of orna- 
ment, are characteristic of much Renaissance work, especially 
work that is early or removed from the center of origin. Even 
more characteristic, however, are the new conceptions in the 
composition of space and in the modeling of surface, which 
are embodied both in some of the earliest productions and in 
many mature ones. These conceptions, although likewise 
realized in forms inspired by antiquity, were themselves quite 
modern. Even the forms of detail, supposedly classical, 
differed inevitably in a hundred respects from those which 
furnished their ideals. The uses to which buildings and forms 
necessarily correspond were likewise different in many respects 
from those of preceding periods. The relative importance of 
the various types of buildings was radically changed, the 
church, though still of great importance, being rivaled by the 
luxurious private dwellings of merchant princes, churchmen, 
and nobles. Thus, in spite of retrospective and traditional 
elements, it was the novel elements which predominated in 
the new architectural synthesis. 

Contrasts with medieval architecture. Compared with the 
medieval architecture which preceded it, Renaissance archi- 
tecture was less concerned with problems of structure and 
more with those of pure form. As in the case of Roman 
architecture, the forms of detail were sometimes used as 
trophies of classical culture, with relative indifference to their 
original structural functions. The forms were not merely ends 
in themselves, however, but means for a rhythmical subdi- 
vision of space, more complex and more varied than either 
ancient or medieval times had known. A further contrast 
between the Middle Ages and the Renaissance, though one 
which has often been exaggerated, lay in the relation of the 
designer to his work. The architect, in the ancient and in 
the modern sense, reappeared. We now realize that in both 
the Middle Ages and the Renaissance the general design was 



346 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

controlled by a single mind, and that in both periods there 
were sculptured details of which the design was left to the 
initiative of individual sculptors. Unlike the medieval master- 
builder, however, the Renaissance architect did not himself 
work on the scaffold, whereas he did dictate, in a greater 
measure than his predecessors, the form of many uniform 
details. 

Centers and diffusion. The center of the new movement was 
Italy, where the forces everywhere at work had their effect 
earlier than in countries less richly endowed with the heritage 
of antiquity. During the fourteenth and fifteenth centuries 
Florence was the intellectual capital of the peninsula, as well 
as one of the greatest commercial powers in Europe. It was 
in Florence that the Renaissance in architecture had its birth, 
and it was the Florentine school which dominated the style 
down to the year 1500. With the beginning of the sixteenth 
century papal Rome, now fully recovered from the exile of 
the popes and the schism of the church, assumed the leader- 
ship which it retained to the end of the Renaissance period. 
By the same time the new architectural forms had been 
adopted, with characteristic local modifications, throughout 
Italy, and had begun to penetrate France, Germany, and 
Spain. In these countries and in England, where the introduc- 
tion came still later, it was many years before the transition 
from medieval forms was effected. Thus the phases of 
Renaissance architecture in different lands do not coincide in 
time, and, 'outside of Italy, forms of later origin sometimes 
mingle with those of truly Renaissance character. Both for 
these reasons, and because of strongly marked national 
differences, the several countries may best be considered 
successively. 

Italy. The soil in Italy was particularly favorable for a 
revival of the forms of classic architecture. The remains of 
ancient buildings existed on every hand, in far greater com- 
pleteness than they do to-day. They still served, as they had 
in the time of Constantine, as sources from which not only 
stone and lime but also columns, entablatures, and archi volts 
could be obtained ready made. Partly for these reasons, 
partly because of racial inheritance, the feeling for classical 
architecture had never wholly died out in Italy, and Gothic 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 347 



forms had been employed only with radical modifications which 

brought them nearer to the classic spirit. All this was 

especially true in Florence, which prided itself on direct de- 

scent from Etruria and Rome. The buildings of the eleventh 

and twelfth centuries the Baptistry, San Miniato are so 

classical in their 

details as to have 

been described 

as " proto- 

Renaissance." 

Even during the 

Gothic period 

in the cathedral 

and the Loggia 

dei Lanzi 

there was a lar- 

geness of scale 

and of interior 

space which is 

more classic 

than medieval. 

The round arch 

and other clas- 

sical details and 

forms of orna- 

ment still per- 

sisted. 

The early Re- 
naissance. Bru- 
nelleschi's dome. 




FIG. 189 FLORENCE. CATHEDRAL 
SOUTHEAST 



, FROM THE 

It involved no 
break with 

Florentine medieval traditions when Filippo Brunelleschi 
(1379-1446) made his proposal, in 1406, to vault the 
central octagon of the cathedral" of Florence, which the 
builders had long feared to attempt. Although he had 
astonished his contemporaries by studying and drawing the 
ancient buildings of Rome, there was little in his solution which 
was not medieval in inspiration, except the boldness of span 
which he had observed in the Pantheon. His direct prototype 



348 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



was the dome oft he baptistry of Florence, also octagonal, 
with intermediate ribs on each face and arches spanning 
between them. He proposed a dome in two shells with 
segment al arches in each of the eight faces, and ribs with iron 
anchors supporting the inner shell. By giving a steep curve 

to the dome he 
was enabled to 
construct it, as 
Byzantine vaults 
had been con- 
structed, without 
centering. The 
whole was raised 
on a high drum 
with circular 
windows, and 
surmounted by a 
lantern feat- 
ures in them- 
selves not new, 
but carried out 
on a larger scale 
and with some- 
what more classi- 
cal details (Fig. 
189). 

Brunelleschi's 
other works. The 
first true, monu- 
ments of the Re- 




FIG. 190 FLORENCE. INTERIOR" OF SAN LORENZO 



naissance were 

the other works which Brunelleschi undertook while the 
dome was progressing. In these from the beginning, with 
no period of transition or hesitancy, appeared the classical 
forms of columns, pilasters, entablatures, all very clearly 
understood, though used with a freedom like that of late 
Roman architecture. In front of the Spedale degli Innocenti, 
the foundling hospital, he constructed in 1421 a portico with 
circular archivolts descending on the heads of Corinthian 
columns. The end bays are enframed by pilasters in the 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 



349 



manner of the Roman arch order, and the windows of the upper 
story, in the axis of each bay, have architraves and pediments 
of classical form. In the church of San Lorenzo (begun about 




FIG. 191. FLORENCE. PAZZI CHAPEL 

1425) Brunelleschi reverted to the type of the early Christian 
basilica, using a wealth of classical detail (Fig. 190). The aisle 
walls and chapel openings are treated with an arch order ; the 
nave arches descend on fragments of entablature which re- 
spond to the entablature in the aisle. The aisles are covered 



350 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

with domical vaults and the crossing with a dome on penden- 
tives. The Pazzi chapel at the church of Santa Croce, like 
the sacristy of San Lorenzo (both from about 1429), has a 
membering of the wall by pilasters and entablatures (Fig. 191). 
They carry pendentives and a dome, which, however, is 

constructed 
like the apse 
vaults of a 
Gothic church. 
In the portico 
before the 
chapel reap- 
pears for the 
first time the 
colonnade with 
a horizontal 
entablature. 
Another of 
Brunelleschi's 
designs, Santa 
Maria degli 
Angeli (1434), 
is the first 
building of 
modern archi- 
tecture to fol- 
low the mode 
of composition 
about a central 
vertical axis, so 
common in late 
Roman and 

early medieval times (Fig. 207). It initiates the long series 
of experiments in the combination of different forms of in- 
terior space, free from practical or liturgical restrictions. 

Palace designs. Brunelleschi's palace designs are relatively 
less classical, except in their strict balance and the vertical 
alignment of their windows. His Palazzo Pitti has a range 
of vast rusticated arches reminiscent of the Roman aqueducts. 
The typical palace of the time is the Palazzo Medici (now 




FIG. 192 FLORENCE. PALAZZO MEDICI-RICCARDI 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 351 

Palazzo Riccardi) by Michelozzo, begun in 1444 (Fig. 192). 
Its unbroken rusticated wall with windows of paired arches 
resting on colonnettes are features of medieval derivation, 
whereas the emphasis laid on the horizontal divisions and the 
details of the 
colonnettes and 
the cornice are 
inspired by an- 
tiquity. 

Alberti. A 
more strictly 
classical t e n - 
dency was intro- 
duced by Leon 
Battista Alberti 
(1404-72), a 
gifted Floren- 
tine humanist, 
long in exile. In 
his paganization 
of the church of 
San Francesco 
at Rimini (1447) 
he adopted, for 
the flank, a mas- 
sive range of 
classic piers and 
arches, for the 
facade, the triple 
motive of a 
Roman tri- 
umphal arch with engaged columns and a broken entab- 
lature. He also projected, as a termination for the build- 
ing, a circular domed room of the proportions of the 
Pantheon, a form which he later emphasized in the church 
of the Annunziata in Florence (1451). For the facade of the 
Palazzo Rucellai in Florence (1451-55) he imitated for the 
first time the superposed engaged orders of the Tabularium 
and the Roman amphitheaters (Fig. 193). Pilasters and 
entablatures were applied to the typical rusticated wall with 




FIG. 193 FLORENCE. PALAZZO RUCELLAI 



352 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

grouped windows. The main cornice was still strongly 
emphasized in relation to those between the stories. Another 
time-honored scheme which Alberti revived was the Greek- 
cross plan, with four equal arms, in the church of San Sebas- 
tiano at Mantua (1459). In Sant' Andrea at Mantua, begun in 
1472, he again made use of the triumphal arch motive, not 
only in the porch, but also on the interior walls of the nave, 




FIG. 194 MANTUA. SANT' ANDREA. INTERIOR 



where a rhythmic alternation of broad arched chapels and 
narrow bays bordered by pilasters was introduced (Fig. 194). 
For the first time in a Renaissance church the nave itself was 
vaulted in a classical manner, with an unbroken coffered 
barrel vault. First in modern times also were Alberti's 
writings on architecture, which have fundamentally influenced 
both theory and practice even to the present day. 

Other Florentines. The followers of Brunelleschi and Alberti 
in Florence Simone del Pollaiuolo, called Cronaca, Giuliano 
da San Gallo and his brother Antonio, with many others - 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 



353 



employed the new classical forms expertly, but without con- 
tributing many elements which were new. They were 
occupied rather with making new combinations with the 
elements already created. Thus in the octagonal sacristy of 
Santo Spirito in Florence, by Giuliano da San Gallo and 




FIG. 195 THE CERTOSA NEAR PA VIA.. FACADE 

Cronaca (1489-96), a rhythmical grouping is introduced in a 
building of the centrally balanced type, by an alternation of 
niches and shallow recesses. Giuliano created the first of 
the monumental country villas, the Villa Poggio at Cajano 
(1485), with a great barrel-vaulted hall which was then a 
novel feature in domestic architecture. On the exterior this 
came to expression through a pedimented portico imitating 
the classic temple front, though not projecting before the plane 
of the wall. In Cronaca' s church of San Francesco al Monte 
in Florence (1487) the tendency to rhythmical grouping led 
to an alternation of triangular and segmental pediments in 
the enframements of the clerestory windows, 



354 



A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



Other schools. Lombardy. Outside of Tuscany, except for 
isolated works of the Florentine school, the new forms were 
only adopted gradually after the lapse of some time, and then 
often for their more superficial decorative qualities. In north 
Italy, smallness of scale, freedom in modifying the forms and 
proportions of the orders, and richness of sculptured orna- 




FIG. 196 VENICE. PALAZZO VENDRAMINI 



mentation are the outstanding features. In Lombardy, where 
the Florentine details first found a wide application, they 
remained for the most part, throughout the fifteenth century, 
a mere clothing for medieval dispositions. In the facade of 
the Certosa at Pavia, begun probably in 1493, the details are 
of a lavishness and multiplicity elsewhere unequaled, smother- 
ing the architectonic outlines (Fig. 195). About 1490 began 
a change, under the leadership of Donate Bramante (1444- 
1514). Inspired by the works of Brunelleschi and Alberti, 
he took up the main thread of development. In the sacristy 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 



355 



of Santa Maria near San Satiro in Milan and other churches 
he made important contributions to the problem of buildings 
composed about a central axis. At Abbiate Grasso (1497) 
he prefixed to the church a great arched porch, recalling an 
ancient exedra. It was supported on pilasters which here, 
for the first time, 
were coupled or 
grouped in pairs. 

Venice. Venice 
scarcely took up 
the new forms be- 
fore 1470, when 
the family of 
architects called 
Lombardi began 
their work there. 
In general their 
work is a transla- 
tion of the local 
Byzantine and 
Gothic motives 
into pseudo-classic 
forms, carried out 
with rich marble 
incrustation. The 
Palazzo Vendra- 
mini'(i48i) is per- 
haps its best repre- 
sentative (Fig. 
196). As in the 
Palazzo Rucellai, 
the facade is dec- 
orated with superposed orders; but here engaged columns, 
resting on pedestals in the lower stories, are elements of closer 
similarity to ancient examples. On the other hand the arches 
are subdivided by tracery, which is essentially medieval in 
spite of its classic details. As usual in Venice, the retention 
of a threefold subdivision of the width results in a com- 
plicated rhythmical grouping of the supports. 

Rome. Rome first experienced an artistic revival during 




FIG. 197 ROME. LOGGIA OF THE CHURCH OF 
SAN MARCO 




Copyright by the American Architect and Building News Co. 

FIG. 198 ROME. "TEMPIETTO" AT SAN PIETRO IN MONTORIO 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 



357 



the papacy of the humanist, Nicholas V. (1447-55). He began 
a rebuilding of the Vatican and proposed to replace the 
crumbling basilica of Saint Peter by a new edifice. The monu- 
ments which followed, such as the Palazzo Venezia and the 
vestibule of the church of San Marco (Fig. 197), although they 
retain medieval elements, include also the most literal repro- 
ductions of the antique yet attempted. "Their superposed 




FIG. 199 ROME. SAINT PETER'S. INTERIOR 



porticoes in the Roman arch order successfully imitate 
Roman examples in their proportions as well as in their break- 
ing of the entablatures and pedestals at each engaged column. 
In the Palazzo Cancelleria (1486-95), where the system of the 
Palazzo Rucellai, with its slighter relief, was followed, elements 
of novelty were introduced. A continuous alternation of wide 
and narrow spaces between the pilasters the "rhythmical 



358 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

bay" which Albert! had employed in an interior was em- 
ployed on the fagade, and terminal masses of slight projection, 
"end pavilions," appear for the first time. 

The "High Renaissance." Bramante. The second, mature 
period of the Renaissance, the "High Renaissance" as it is 
sometimes termed, began at Rome with the papacy of Julius 
II. (1503-13) and Leo X. (1513-21). Their lavish court and 







FIG. 2OO ROME. PALACE OF RAPHAEL. (RESTORED BY HOFFMANN) 



great undertakings attracted to the city the finest talent of 
all Italy, -including Bramante, Raphael, Leonardo da Vinci, 
and Michelangelo. Bramante was the moving spirit in the 
creation of the new Roman school of architecture, as Brunelles- 
chi had been of the Florentine school. In his first attested 
design in Rome, the shrine at the place of Saint Peter's martyr- 
dom, Bramante outvied all his predecessors in classical ardor, 
by adopting the scheme of a Roman circular temple with 
its peristyle (Fig. 198). This so-called "Tempietto," at the 
church of San Pietro in Montorio, is surmounted by a dome on 
a tall drum, and was intended to be surrounded by a circular 
colonnaded court. 

Bramante' s later works. Bramante was soon intrusted with 
the two most ambitious schemes of Julius, the extension of the 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 359 

Vatican and the rebuilding of Saint Peter's, so long proposed. 
To unite the Vatican with the Belvedere he designed a court 
almost a thousand feet in length, surrounded by superposed 
galleries with the rhythmical triumphal-arch motive, and 
terminated by a vast semicircular niche like those of the 
Roman thermae 
(Fig. 222). The 
rise of the 
ground within 
the court was 
given a novel 
treatment by 
high terrace 
walls and balus- 
traded flights of 
steps. In the 
new Saint Pe- 
ter's Bramante 
thought less of 
meeting tradi- 
tional liturgical 
requirements 
than of creating 
a monument to 
the glory of 
God, the found- 
er, and the 
church. For 
this purpose he 
chose his favor- 
ite form of the 
centrally composed building, magnified and elaborated. He 
proposed, in the words of his own metaphor, to raise the 
Pantheon above the vaults of the Basilica of Maxentius (Fig. 
199). His studies for the building involved new solutions of 
a great number of current problems, and were a school for the 
whole younger generation of architects. Toward the end of 
his life he also gave new suggestions for palace design in the 
projected building for the papal courts of justice, with its 
gigantic rusticated blocks in the ground story. 
13 




FIG. 2OI ROME. 



LOGGIA OF THE VILLA MADAMA. 
INTERIOR 



360 A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 

Raphael and Peruzzi. The principal followers of Bramante, 
although strongly influenced, likewise made new contributions 
to the general development. Raphael (1483-1520), Bra- 
mante's nephew and protege, embodied some of Bramante's 




FIG. 2O2 ROME. PALAZZO DELL* AQUILA. (RESTORED BY GEYMULLER) 



ideas for Saint Peter's in the little Chigi chapel at the church of 
Santa Maria del Popolo. His own palace (Fig. 200), executed 
with Bramante's aid, had the ground story treated as a heavy 
rusticated basement, and the principal story the piano nobile 
emphasized by coupled engaged columns. On Bramante's 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 361 

death in 1514 Raphael succeeded to the architectural dictator- 
ship. In executing the loggias of the Court of San Damaso at 
the Vatican, he revived the stuccoed decorations of the Roman 
interiors, then recently discovered. Thus arose the graceful 
compositions of leafage, figures, and small medallions imitated 
by his pupils at the Villa Madama (Fig. 201) and elsewhere. 
In the Palazzo dell' Aquila similar decorations were applied to 
a facade, in which there was also a rich alternation of niches 
and pedimented tabernacles (Fig. 202). The large engaged 
column, there restricted to the shop fronts of the basement 
story, disappears entirely in Raphael's design for the Palazzo 
Pandolfini in Florence. With its tabernacles relieved against 
a stuccoed wall having angle quoins, this was the model for 
many later Roman palaces. The Villa Madama, begun from 
Raphael's designs and left unfinished, had for the first time an 
intimate architectural connection between house and gardens. 
This was achieved not only by elaborate axial relationships, 
but by terraces, stairs, and niches recalling the Villa of Hadrian 
at Tivoli. Peruzzi, who outlived the youthful Raphael by 
sixteen years, continued the development in the direction of 
greater freedom in plan and in fagade. The Villa Farnesina, 
which seems probably to be his design, has end pavilions 
suggested by those of the Cancelleria, but projecting two bays, 
so as to inclose a U-shaped court. His plan for the two 
palaces for the Massimi in Rome (1529), on an irregular site, 
shows a remarkable facility in the adaptation of classical 
elements (Fig. 203). In one the fagade is curved to follow the 
line of the street, and a multitude of consoles in the enframe- 
ment of windows and doors begin to relieve the strictly geo- 
metrical lines of earlier architectural forms. All these 
tendencies find their strongest expression in Michelangelo, 
and doubtless depend, in large measure, on his earliest archi- 
tectural designs, which had been for the fagade of San Lorenzo 
in Florence (1514) and for the Medici chapel there (1521-29, 
Fig. 204). These, however, with his other buildings, form 
the point of departure of the following phase of style, the 
baroque, and thus must be discussed later. 

Other schools. Venetia. The architects of the High Renais- 
sance in the rest of Italy took their inspiration from Rome, as 
those of the early Renaissance had from Florence. The 



362 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

grammar of classical forms was now everywhere understood, 
and thus local differences are less marked, but characteristic 
schools nevertheless existed. Most notable of these was that 
of Venetia, headed by two other disciples of Bramante, 
Sanmicheli (1484-1559) and Sansovino (1486-1570). These 
men followed the more robust use of the orders in the work of 




FIG. 203 ROME. MASSIMI PALACES. PLAN 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 363 

Bramante and Raphael. Thus in Sanmicheli's Palazzo Pom- 
pei in Verona (1530) and Sansovino's Palazzo Cornaro della 
Ca' Grande in Venice (1530), we have a reminiscence of 
Raphael's own palace. Sanmicheli initiated a long series of 
designs of a still more rugged character by his notable city 
gates for Verona (1533 /.), with rusticated columns which 




FIG. 204 FLORENCE. MEDICI CHAPEL AT SAN LORENZO 

are the embodiment of military strength. In the Palazzo 
Grimani at Venice (Fig. 205) he restudied the scheme of the 
earlier Palazzo Vendramini, eliminating the medieval sur- 
vivals and endowing all the forms with a truly classical spirit. 
Sansovino took the Tabularium of the Capitol in Rome as 
his model for the Library of Saint Mark (Fig. 206), which gives 
the effect of an open arcade in two stories. The employment 
of subordinate engaged columns to support the imposts of the 



364 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

upper story, and the wealth of ornamental sculpture, are 
features of this extreme yet characteristic product of the 
Renaissance. 

Types of buildings. Churches. The longitudinal type. As 
strands in the general tendency in matters of style ran the 
individual developments of single types of buildings, which 




FIG. 205 VENICE. PALAZZO GRIMANI 

offer some further points of importance. The churches here 
fall into two groups, those composed about a longitudinal 
axis and those composed about a central axis. It was the 
former of these groups which represented the continuance of 
medieval tradition and thus offered less of novelty. Brunelles- 
chi contributed to it by reviving the basilican scheme of 
Constantine's day, with a flat ceiling in the nave and the 
addition of domical vaults over the aisle bays. Although in 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 



365 



San Lorenzo (1425) the T-shaped plan of the first basilicas 
was adhered to, in Santo Spirito (1435) the full Latin cross 
of the Middle Ages was adopted, with square ends to the arms 
and the aisles carried completely around them. A vaulting 
of the nave with a barrel vault, then considered the most 




FIG. 206 VENICE. LIBRARY OF SAINT MARK 

classical, was possible only with suppression of the aisles. A 
membering of the nave walls and a richer spatial effect was 
furnished in such cases by lateral chapels. This was the case 
in Brunelleschi's church of the Badia at Fiesole, completed in 
1463, where the chapels were all alike, and in Alberti's Sant' 
Andrea at Mantua, which initiated the rhythmical system of 
piers. In San Salvatore in Venice (1506) this rhythmical 
scheme was applied to a three-aisled church by the employ- 
ment of the vaulting scheme of Saint Mark's. Already in these 



3 66 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

churches appeared the characteristic tendency of the later 
long-naved churches. This was toward a development of 
the crossing, choir, and transepts on the lines of a building of 
central type with equal arms. 

Basilican facades. The facades of the basilican churches 
also presented a problem. Those of the earliest architects 
remained in crude brickwork awaiting some ambitious com- 
pletion. Alberti was the one who established the general 
type: an order or superposed orders, with the doors and 
windows in the intervals. Usually there was a pediment and 
often there were great volutes opposite the aisle roofs, uniting 
the aisles with the clerestory. In some cases an arcaded 
portico was prefixed, with the inevitable Roman arch order. 

Churches of the central type. The church composed on a 
central axis was perhaps the most characteristic problem of 
the Italian Renaissance (Fig. 207). The solutions were based 
either on a central octagon with an octagonal dome or cloister 
vault, or on a square central space with a dome on pendentives. 
In the first example Brunelleschi's Santa Maria degli Angeli 
(1434) the eight subordinate spaces are of equal importance. 
They themselves have minor elements in the form of niches, 
which are connected by unimportant doors. Similar in their 
co-ordination of the subordinate spaces are the churches of 
Greek cross type, beginning with Alberti's San Sebastiano 
(1459) and finding their ultimate expression in churches by 
the elder San Gallo. Beginning with the sacristies by San 
Gallo and by Bramante, however, there is usually an alterna- 
tion in the subordinate spaces, which tend to become more 
elaborate, but in general have no connection with one another 
except through the central space. An intermediate between 
the square and octagonal schemes was created by Bramante's 
cutting off the corners below the pendentives in the crossing 
of Saint Peter's. His further innovations were anticipated 
somewhat in manuscript studies of Leonardo da Vinci, where 
he attempted to canvass systematically all possible combina- 
tions of domes and subordinate spaces. Here Leonardo 
progressed to centrally composed buildings of the second 
degree, that is, to groups in which the subordinate spaces are 
themselves composed of minor features about a central axis. 
It was a still more elaborate composition of this sort which 



ROME 

BRAMANTEi FIR3T 

STUDY 




FIG. 207 THE DEVELOPMENT OF RENAISSANCE CHURCHES OF 
CENTRAL TYPE 



3 68 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Bramante undertook in Saint Peter's. Between the four arms 
of a great Greek cross he placed four smaller Greek crosses 
opening into the arms of the larger one, and having themselves 
a minor zone of niches. Although a means of circulation 
about the central space was incidentally provided, it was not 
in an aisle of co-ordinated bays, but involved periodic emer- 
gence into the arms of the great cross. The variety of spatial 
effects was thus greatly increased, while each portion of the 
church retained a strong individual unity. 

Palaces. The characteristic problem of the Renaissance in 
domestic architecture was the town palace of the merchant 
prince, the petty tyrant, or the dignitary of the church. Such a 
building had to rise in several stories on a limited site, bounded 
by one or more streets and usually by party walls, and had to 
offer security against the turbulent factions of the city. Like 
its predecessors of the medieval towns, it had thus to open 
about a court, and to be closed on the exterior. In the typical 
plan the court was rectangular, with surrounding arcades 
which gave a covered communication at least between the 
rooms of the ground story. In general, no one of the rooms 
greatly surpassed the others in size and importance, although 
toward the end of the period there was a tendency to introduce 
a principal hall or gallery. The fagade even then took no 
cognizance of the internal divisions but retained a uniform 
spacing of the axes. All these qualities are summarized in the 
largest of the Roman palaces, the Palazzo Farnese by Antonio 
da San Gallo the younger (c. 1520-80). Without embodying 
any radical innovations, it had a wide influence in the diffusion 
of the type (Figs. 208, 209). It stands free on all sides, with 
passages to the court at the center of each face, the principal 
one having a barrel vault with colonnaded aisles. The square 
court itself has the scheme of the Colosseum in three stories, 
Doric, Ionic, and Corinthian, the two lower ones with the arch 
order, the upper one with pilasters and pedimented windows. 
On the facade the scheme of Raphael's Palazzo Pandolfini was 
adopted, but with an additional story and a strong emphasis 
on the central axis. In the Roman palaces from the time of 
Bramante the stories of minor importance began to secure 
recognition in the facade. A low uppermost story for the 
servants was given small windows beneath the entablature 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 369 

of the upper order, as in the Cancelleria, or in the frieze of 
the main cornice, as in the Farnesina. In stories of which 
the full height was needed only for certain larger rooms, it 
became customary to halve the height for the smaller rooms, 
securing over them a half story or mezzanine. The windows 
of such mezzanines, which first appear, much subordinated, 




FIG. 2O8 ROME. PALAZZO FARNESE 

in the palaces of Raphael, tended to attain increasing inde- 
pendence. In Venice, as we have seen, the inherited palace 
type was an exception to the rule which prevailed elsewhere. 
Instead of a monumental court there was a large principal 
room in the center of the front, extending deep into the 
building. At the sides were minor suites, and the threefold 
division was characteristically expressed on the facade. 

Villas. The increasing security of the country permitted, 
even in the early days of the Renaissance, the erection of villas 
outside the city walls. The earliest of these, near Florence. 
Villa Carregi by Michelozzo, is still somewhat irregular 



370 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

in plan, but has projecting loggias which are suggestive of 
later developments in the union of house and garden. Such 
projections, however, were relatively infrequent. The house 
tended to remain a unity by itself, as at Cajano, and the 
gardens were laid out without much reference to the axis of 
the building. Only at the end of the period, in the Villa 
Madama, does the architectural scheme tend to assert itself 
also in the garden, in the manner so characteristic of the later, 
baroque villas. 

Public buildings. Some further important types were the 
municipal palaces and the public hospitals. An open loggia 
on the exterior, as in Brunelleschi's Spedale degli Innocenti, 
was the symbol that such buildings belonged to the public. An 
early Renaissance example outside of Florence is the Loggia 
del Consiglio at Verona, attributed to Fra Giocondo (1476). 
It has arches descending on small columns, and an upper 
story of typical north Italian richness of detail. In the 
Palazzo Comunale at Brescia a similar scheme is realized with 
more classical forms, the arch order with projecting half- 
columns below, a second story with pilasters and tabernacle- 
like window enframements. The series really includes the 
library in Venice (Fig. 206), where the upper story is also 
arcaded. A final solution, in which open loggias in two stories 
completely surround the building Palladio's "Basilica" at 
Vicenza (Fig. 225) stands at the threshold of the following 
period (1549)^ 

Town planning. The town planning of the Renaissance was 
limited for the most part to the leveling and straightening of 
streets in existing towns, with the sweeping away of booths and 
minor constructions which encumbered the surroundings of 
churches and public buildings. Open squares before important 
new buildings, which would permit an appreciation of their 
symmetry, were early desired, but were obtained in few 
instances. Where a square was bordered by porticoes these 
were kept distinct, and were not continuous as they had been 
in Hellenistic and late Roman times. The buildings them- 
selves formed the unities, and not the square. In the rare 
cases where new towns or quarters were to be laid out, 
regularity and symmetry were preferred. The civic group 
at Pienza (1460-63) is the most notable of the schemes which 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 371 



came to execution. Here the episcopal palace and the palace 
of the Piccolomini balance on either side of the cathedral 
piazza, which has its sides converging toward the spectator, 
as in some of the most famous of the baroque squares. 

Individual forms. The forms of Renaissance architecture 
(Figs. 210, 211), although inspired by those of Rome, were 
no more literal 
imitations of them 
than the Roman 
forms themselves 
had been imita- 
tions of Greek 
forms. Partly be- 
cause of medieval 
survivals, partly 
because of inade- 
quate knowledge 
of antiquity, 
partly even in 
criticism of the 
antique, the archi- 
tects of the Re- 
naissance modified 
the classical forms 
so that they are 
unmistakably 
theirs. In simpler 
buildings, to be 
sure, there was 
sometimes scarce- 
ly a detail which 
would betray the 
dependence of the 
period on Rome. 
The facade of the 

Palazzo Pitti might seem suggested merely by material and 
function. In later and richer buildings there is still always 
some nuance, even aside from the fresh combinations, in which 
is visible the originality of the Renaissance. 

Walls. The continuous wall received much characteristic 




FIG. 2O9 ROME. PALAZZO FARNESE. PLAN 



372 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

treatment both in the early and in the High Renaissance. 
During the early phase the usual method was that of rustica- 
tion an artistic modification of the medieval practice of 
leaving the stones quarry-faced, with merely the joints 
dressed. In the Palazzo Pitti there is a gradation in the 
projection of the stones in successive stories, the lower ones 
reaching in extreme cases a projection of over two feet. In 
the Palazzo Medici (Riccardi) there is a more pronounced 
gradation, with rough blocks in the lower story, rectangular 
grooving, like that of some Roman examples, in the inter- 
mediate story, and smooth ashlar in the upper story (Fig. 
192) a system considerably imitated in later Florentine 
structures. The buildings mentioned have courses of irregu- 
lar height and stones of differing lengths. Not until toward 
1500, in the Cancelleria and other buildings of the time, was 
a perfectly uniform system of jointing adopted. Meanwhile 
another system of exterior wall treatment had been gaining 
ground, the use of stucco for the main surface, as it had been 
used from the beginning in interiors. Against this stuccoed 
surface was contrasted the stonework about the openings, and, 
later, tiers of rusticated blocks or quoins at the angles of the 
building. In the Palazzo Pandolfini and the Palazzo Farnese 
angle quoins were made of alternating lengths, bonding into 
the wall. In late works of Raphael and his school the stucco 
itself was modeled into festoons and medallions, still subordi- 
nate, however, to the window enframements. 

Moldings. As in Roman architecture, the foot and the 
crown of the wall, as well as minor divisions, were marked by 
horizontal moldings. The machicolated and battlemented 
cornices of the Middle Ages gave place to cornices with a bed 
molding, corona, and cyma on Corinthian lines (Fig. 211). 
Between the stories were carried string-courses, likewise made 
up of classical elements. As time went on there was an 
increasing approximation to the full membering of the orders. 
Thus, whereas the Palazzo Medici has a cornice only, the 
Palazzo Strozzi (1489-1507) has also a frieze, and many later 
buildings, even without columns or pilasters, have a full 
entablature of classic type. In the same way it became 
customary to employ in the arch order, in tabernacle windows, 
and elsewhere, a pedestal with its own cap and base moldings, 




FIG. 2IO EARLY RENAISSANCE DETAILS. (AFTER GROMORT) 

I. Cornice of the Palazzo Medici (Riccardi), Florence. 2. Cornice of the Palazzo 
Strozzi, Florence. 3. Faience medallion by Delia Robbia. 4. Flagstaff bracket from 
Palazzo del Magnifico, Siena. 5, 6. Capitals from the porch of the Cathedral at Spoleto. 
7. Lantern from the Palazzo Strozzi, Florence. 8. Capital and entablature from a tomb 
in the Badia, Florence. 9. Window from the Palazzo Strozzi, Florence. 10. Cornice of 
the Palazzo Pitti, Florence. 



374 A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 

like those in the upper stories of the Colosseum. The profiles 
of individual moldings increase in delicacy of line and truth 
to antique principles until in the works of Raphael and 
Peruzzi there is a refinement suggestive of Greek models. 

Openings. The openings at first were predominantly 
arched. Medieval traditions preserved a strong influence in 
the retention of a ring of deep voussoirs, the sinking of the 
profile in the wall, and the persistence of a central colonnette 
with tracery-like arches (Fig. 210). In walls of stucco and 
in interiors, however, the projecting classical architrave early 
asserted itself, and rectangular and circular-headed windows 
without subdivisions made their appearance. A more elabo- 
rate treatment, which was destined to become normal, was the 
enframement of openings by an order, often with a pediment. 
This had been revived during the Middle Ages in the baptistry 
of Florence and was employed by Brunelleschi in the doors of 
the sacristy of San Lorenzo. For its use about a window or 
niche, the tabernacles of the interior of the Pantheon, with 
their common pedestal, gave the model followed in the Palazzo 
Pandolfini and others of its type (Fig. 211). The use of ears 
on an architrave began with Raphael, and consoles to support 
the cornice in doors and windows came with Michelangelo 
and Peruzzi. 

The orders. The men of the Renaissance distinguished 
five orders, elaborating the vague suggestions of Vitruvius 
regarding an Etruscan or "Tuscan" and a composite order. 
The favorite order of the early Renaissance was the Corinthian. 
The smaller capitals in this order, although more classical 
than those of the Middle Ages, were still greatly modified 
in comparison with ancient examples. Especially frequent 
was a capital with but a single row of leaves, often with 
dolphins or other fantastic substitutes for the volutes. In a 
series of such capitals each one was often individually designed, 
as in medieval composition (Fig. 210). With Alberti came a 
wider use of the other orders, due to their superposition as in 
the amphitheaters, although the strict sequence of Doric, 
Ionic, and Corinthian was not always followed. From the 
time of Bramante the Doric order obtained the preference, and 
the forms of all the orders became more strictly classical. 
There was also a tendency to increase the scale of the orders 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 



375 



and to subsume more than a single story in the height of one 
order. In the interior of churches the use of a single order 
reaching to the spring of the vaults was a legacy from medieval 
churches with their vaulting shafts. It persisted when, in 
Bramante's studies for Saint Peter's, he introduced subordi- 




FIG. 211- 



DETAILS. (AFTER GROMORT) 



-"HIGH RENAISSANCE 

1. Cornice of the Palazzo Farnese, Rome. 

2. Window of the Palazzo Pandolnni, Florence. 



Corner of the Library of Saint Mark, Venice. 



376 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

nate superposed orders, and it appeared on the exterior as well. 
In civil architecture, also, the employment of a single inclusive 
order was approached, although during the Renaissance 
proper there was scarcely more than a mezzanine combined 
with the principal story. At the other extreme from the 
employment from these "colossal" orders was the use of 
miniature columns to carry the coping of a parapet (Fig. 210). 
In the villa at Cajano and later buildings, however, these 
colonnettes were replaced by the vase-like forms known as 
balusters (cf. Fig. 211), creations of the Renaissance, which 
have ever since retained their importance. 

Arch, lintel, and column. The architects of the Renaissance 
rarely made use of the free horizontal lintel, except in loggias 
where there was no vaulting or superincumbent wall. They 
preferred at first to spring arches from column to column, later 
to enframe the arch by an order with pilasters or engaged 
columns. In this they reversed the sequence of development 
in Roman architecture. In the last years of the period, 
however, the desire for richness led them to substitute an 
entablature for the impost in the arch order and place a minor 
column below it. Thus was devised the so-called "Palladian 
motive" of a central arch resting on the entablatures of lateral 
square-headed bays, which first appeared in the Pazzi Chapel 
and found its definitive use in Palladio's Basilica at Vicenza 
(Fig. 225). 

Wall membering. In the use of columnar forms for the 
membering of a wall, the tendency of development was in the 
same direction as in Roman architecture. Whereas, beginning 
with Alberti, a subdivision by pilasters and entablatures was 
usual, after 1500 there was a reversion to wall surfaces without 
other orders than those of the window enframements. In 
Bramante's palaces the order is omitted in the ground story, 
which once more has merely a frank rustication; and in the 
Pandolfini and many later palaces the effect is dependent 
entirely on tabernacle-work, as it had been in the late Roman 
stage backgrounds. In High Renaissance palaces, to be sure, 
the engaged column was often substituted for the pilaster, but 
this was followed by the use of columns standing quite free of 
the wall and thus clearly betraying their decorative character. 
The scheme of the arch of Domitian (Constantine) was thus 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 377 

repeated in a playful manner in Sansovino's Logetta in 
Venice (1540). 

Proportions. With the revival of classical forms came a 
revival of classical proportions, and still more of the classical 
system of proportions. Alberti and others inculcated the 
use of integral ratios, and the modular system of Vitruvius 
for determining the members of the orders. However much 
the architects of the period felt free to depart from such 
mathematical proportions in actual practice, there can be no 
question that they gave great attention to geometrical 
similarity in the designing of masses and openings. There 
results in many works a musical harmony of forms like that of 
Periclean architecture. 

Ornament. The love of ornament, both in sculpture and in 
color, which was characteristic of Italy throughout the Middle 
Ages, persisted in the Renaissance. Classical models were 
here taken up even more readily than for the larger forms of 
architecture. Garlands, rosettes, arabesques, candelabra, and 
acanthus foliage were carved with a knowledge and freedom 
which showed them to have become true possessions of the 
Renaissance artist (Fig. 210). Notwithstanding their own 
abilities as sculptors and ornamentalists, the early Florentine 
architects kept the carved detail strictly subordinate to the 
architectural forms. In Lombardy this was less often the 
case. There even the pilaster itself was paneled to receive 
an arabesque. In Rome under Bramante the abstract archi- 
tectural forms tended to supersede floral ornament altogether. 
The Tempietto of Bramante shows not a leaf on the exterior. 
Under Raphael and Michelangelo, on the other hand, decora- 
tive features once more reasserted themselves in the fagade 
(Fig. 202), and in the loggias of the Villa Madama and of the 
Vatican they reached perhaps their highest development 
(Fig. 201). 

Spatial forms. The same preoccupation with proportions 
which appeared in the study of facades showed itself in the 
determination of the forms of interior space. Except in 
churches, rectangular shapes were almost the only ones em- 
ployed. Simple integral ratios were recommended for the 
relations of the length and height of rooms to their width. In 
general each element formed a unit completely independent, 



378 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

without any spatial connection with others. The stairs, 
which might have furnished such a connection, were either 
based on the spiral stairs of the Middle Ages or were in narrow 
runs inclosed between walls. 

Vaults. The technical difficulties of vaulting, after the 
vast experience of the Middle Ages, troubled the men of the 
Renaissance but little. They were free to choose those forms, 
whether classical or medieval, which comported best with their 
feeling for the composition of space. The one most preferred 
was the dome. Except in the attempts of Alberti to imitate 
Roman examples, this was usually employed over a square 
plan either as one of a series of domical vaults supported on 
cross-arches or as a dome on pendentives at the central point 
of a plan. From the time of Bramante's studies for Saint 
Peter's his solution of the problem of a dome on pendentives 
with an enlargement of the central space by short diagonal 
faces below the pendentives was widely adopted. The barrel 
vault, which frequently appeared over the arms of cross-plans 
and elsewhere, was likewise seldom given its unbroken con- 
tinuity but was banded with cross-arches at each bay after the 
medieval fashion. Penetrations of the vaulting surface, which 
might have given light directly in the vault, were as rare as 
in Roman architecture. The groined vault, too, was little 
favored, appearing almost solely in the interior arcades of 
courts, where it was necessary to have a concentrated thrust 
which might be met by iron rods at each bay. On the other 
hand the cloister vault, a square or octagonal dome, was widely 
used, as well as the apse, which might be either semicircular 
or semi-octagonal. A rich combination of vault forms with 
supporting members perfectly adapted to them occurs in the 
loggia of the Villa Madama (Fig. 201), in which appears also 
a characteristic decoration of arabesques in stucco. 

External treatment of the dome. The only one of the vaults 
which rose above the roofs, and thus required an external 
expression, was the central dome, usually on pendentives. In 
the cathedral of Florence this already dominated the exterior 
in a way which set the model for all the great domes of the 
period. In minor buildings like the Pazzi chapel the dome 
might still spring directly from the pendentives and be in- 
closed in a conical roof, but in more important examples a 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 379 

drum was unfailingly introduced, lighting the space below and 
raising the dome into prominence. The curve of the dome was 
then shown on the exterior. Bramante, in his Tempietto, 
treated the drum with pilaster-like panels inclosing windows 
and niches alternately. For Saint Peter's he placed around 
the drum a full exterior peristyle. This rose above the center 
of the curve, and was surmounted by a pedestal and steps, so 
that the dome has the saucer-effect of the Pantheon and other 
Roman examples. This form, however, remained without 
imitators, for the tendency was rather to increase both the 
steepness of the curve and the height of the drum. Thus the 
model made by San Gallo for the dome of Saint Peter's had 
its base encircled by a Roman arch order in two receding 
stories, and was crowned with a vast lantern which gave the 
whole mass an almost conical aspect. 

Roofs. The roofs in Italy had relatively little importance 
in the composition of individual buildings, being either low 
in pitch or else quite flat and bordered with balustrades. In 
the general effect of town and landscape, however, their red 
tiles made a striking contrast with the prevailing whiteness 
of the walls. 

General character of Renaissance forms. Through the spatial 
forms of the Renaissance, the massing, the forms of detail, 
runs a consistent character, which might be expressed as the 
internal unity of each element and the unchangeableness of its 
impression on the observer. The isolation of each spatial 
element by bounding arches, the preference for self-centered 
domical forms and for centrally composed buildings, the self- 
sufficiency of each story and each bay, the unbroken enframe- 
ment of openings and gables, the lack of projecting masses 
which might make transition between a building and its 
surroundings, and render its effect changeable with changing 
points of view all these are manifestations of a definite 
feeling regarding form, which distinguishes the Italian Renais- 
sance from both preceding and following periods. 

France. The country outside of Italy which was earliest 
and most deeply affected by the Renaissance was France. 
The Latin element in the population was here predominant, 
and Latin culture was reassimilated with such readiness as to 
find a new home. The centralized power of the crown gave 



3 8o A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

opportunity for undertakings on a scale unrivaled elsewhere 
outside of Rome, and for the calling from Italy of artists of the 
first class. At the same time it determined the character of 
the predominant architectural type, the chateau of the king 
or the court noble. 

Development. Transitional period, 1495-1515. It was the 
claims of the French kings to Italian territory, leading to a 
series of invasions by Charles VIII. , Louis XII. , and Francis I., 
which revealed to them the splendor and luxury of Italian art, 
and led to the successful establishment of Renaissance forms 
in France. The process was a gradual one, occupying a period 
of twenty years from the return of Charles VIII. in 1495. 
During this time the predominant character of the buildings 
remained Gothic, but Renaissance details mingled with the 
Gothic forms in ever increasing proportions. An early 
instance of such a mixture is the wing built by Louis XII. in 
the chateau of Blois (1503, Fig. 212). Here the classical 
influence appears in little else but the elliptical form of the 
arches and the delicate arabesque panels which decorate the 
piers. At the chateau of Gaillon pilasters and entablatures 
imitate the arch order and other classical features. 

Early Renaissance, 1515-45. Francis 7. With the reign 
of Francis I. (151547) coincides the early Renaissance, in 
which, although the structure and disposition of buildings 
were still fundamentally Gothic, they were completely clothed 
in a garb of pseudo-classical forms. The irregular plans, 
round towers, and high, steep roofs with dormers persisted, 
but the stories were treated with superposed orders of delicate 
pilasters and entablatures, the main cornices were emphasized 
with an aggregation of Italian elements. The center of 
activity remained in the royal residences of the Loire valley. 
The earliest phase of the style is well illustrated in the wing of 
Francis I. at Blois (1515-19), with the magnificent spiral stair- 
way in classical masquerade (Fig. 212). At the chateau of 
Chambord, constructed in 1526-44, the detail was similar, 
but the plan was for the first time rigidly symmetrical. In the 
chateau of Ecouen (1531-40), likwise symmetrical, square 
towers or angle pavilions took the place of round ones, and the 
Chateau Madrid near Paris was lent a truly Italian air by its 
graceful exterior arcades resting on columns like those of a 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 



381 



Florentine court. Owing to the conquest of Milan by Francis 
and to his patronage of north Italian artists, it was the 
influence of Lombardy which predominated in the detail. The 
paneled pilasters and florid ornament of the Loire chateaux 
are the descendants of those at San Satiro and the Certosa 
(Fig. 195)- 

The High Renaissance, 1545-70. Henry II. In the last 
years of Francis and the following 'reign of Henry II. came a 




FIG. 212 BLOIS. COURT OF THE CHATEAU, SHOWING WINGS OF 

LOUIS xii (AT BACK) AND FRANCIS i (AT LEFT) 

change, due to the assimilation of the style and to the influence 
of the Roman school of Bramante. The Italian masters now 
brought to France represented this tradition Serlio the 
pupil of Peruzzi, Primaticcio the pupil of a disciple of Raphael. 
For the first time, also, Frenchmen assumed the r61e of archi- 
tect in the modern sense. Jean Goujon, Pierre Lescot, 
Philibert de TOnne, Jacques Androuet du Cerceau, and Jean 
Bullant were not mere master builders. Most, if not all, of 
them had been in Italy and had studied the designs of the 
Roman masters; some of them held high court appointments. 
Their buildings show a mastery of the grammar of classical 



382 A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 

forms and an ability to use them freely to secure new effects 
which were characteristically national. These depended 
partly on differing climatic conditions, which required lower 
rooms, larger windows, and tall chimney stacks, and partly 
on tradition, which still caused the retention of projecting 
pavilions with high individual roofs. 

First designs. The earliest work to show the characteristics 
of the High Renaissance is the H6tel de Ville in Paris, begun 
from a model by Domenico of Cortona (called Boccador) in 
1531. The motive was suggested by Raphael's Palazzo dell' 
Aquila, with a Roman arch order below and niches between 
the windows of the main story. By 1 535 a Frenchman himself 
had caught the spirit of classicism, as Goujon showed in his 
tomb for Louis de Breze at Rouen. At Ancy-le-France 
(1538-46) Primaticcio regularized the scheme of the French 
chateau, not only in the strictly rectangular plan but in the 
uniform intercolumniations of the exterior and the rhythmical 
bay treatment of the court. At the same time De rOrme, in 
Saint Maur-les-Fosses, introduced the rusticated orders of 
Sanmicheli. At Bournazel in the south, about 1545, the 
neighboring classical monuments stimulated a treatment of 
the triumphal arch motive with engaged columns, which was 
truly classical in its monumentality. The most characteristic 
design of all was that for the rebuilding of the Louvre in Paris, 
the work of Lescot and Goujon (Fig. 213). Here there was 
the subtlest mingling of French and Italian traditions. The 
lower stories with their superposed orders, their pedestals 
and pedimented windows recall Bramante and Raphael. 
The projecting motives which mark the end bays and the 
center suggest those of the Cancelleria, as well as the French 
tower-pavilions. The delicacy of profiling rivals that of 
Peruzzi. The great size of the windows, the pediments which 
terminate the attic, are of northern origin, while the emphasis 
which results from the use of both pilasters and engaged 
columns is a novel contribution by Lescot. 

Later developments. Still more advanced developments, 
parallel with contemporary movements in Italy, were the later 
designs of Primaticcio, Bullant, De 1'Orme, and Du Cerceau. 
In the chateau of Monceaux the Italian master employed for 
the first time in France in the same year that Michelangelo 




FIG. 213 PARIS. COURT OF THE LOUVRE. (ORIGINAL CONSTRUCTIONS 
OF LESCOT AND GOUJON) 



384 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

designed his palaces on the Capitol (1547) the "colossal 
order" rising through two stories to the main cornice. A 
similar use of free standing columns occurs in the monumental 
frontispiece erected by Bullant at Ecouen (about 1564) and 
elsewhere. Domed chapels were built by De rOrme at Anet 
(1548) and by Primaticcio at Saint Denis (1559^.)- Finally 
came the vast symmetrical plans grouped about a multitude 
of courts, designed by de FOrme for the Tuileries (1564, Fig. 
214), and by Du Cerceau for Charleval (1572), which surpassed 
anything projected in Italy. 

Types of buildings. Chateaux. The Renaissance chateau 
developed, as its name implies, from the fortified castle of 
the Middle Ages. Although no longer planned to withstand 
a siege, it was still made secure against marauders by a moat 
and gate-house, and preserved the arrangement about a court 
and at least a reminiscence of the earlier fortified towers at 
the angles. The staircases, at first spiral like those of the 
Middle Ages, were later arranged in straight flights. Access 
^ to individual rooms could usually be obtained only by passing 
through others, for even the open air circulation provided by 
the arcades of an Italian courtyard was usually absent. A 
principal hall or gallery for functions of state was provided, 
often monumental in its size and treatment, like the gallery 
r of Henry ID at Fontainebleau. A forecourt outside the moat 
accommodated the service functions. 

City hotels. Although at this time the court still resided 
mostly in the country, town houses of some pretensions were 
built by officials and wealthy merchants. These, such as the 
H6tel d'Asaezat at Toulouse, were unlike the Italian town 
houses which faced directly on the street. They followejLthe: 
larger medieval houses of France in facing on a court which 
was separated from trie street by a screen wall with an arched 
carriage entrance. 

Churches. During the early Renaissance church architect- 
ure remained fundamentally Gothic, with a mere substitution 
of classical details, poorly understood. Saint Eustache in 
Paris, a typical example, still has a plan like that of Notre 
Dame, with groined vaults and flying buttresses. Many of 
these buildings are not the less effective from their combina- 
tion of supposedly incongruous elements, The same character 



f 




10 ? 10 20 }0 40 50 



100 

-'METRES 



FIG. 214 PARIS. THE TUILERIES. (DE L'ORME's PLAN) 



3 86 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

persists in most churches of the High Renaissance, but the 
few designed by the court architects show the new spirit. 
Thus the facade of Saint Nizier at Lyons (1542) has a great 
niche with massive half-columns, and the Mausoleum Chapel 
at Anet (1566) is classical both in its simple rectangular plan 
and its front with pilasters and attic. De l'Orme's chapel 
in the park of Villers-Cotterts had a circular dome with three 
semicircular chapels and a free-standing pedimented portico 
the earliest in France, more advanced in classical character 
than most Italian designs. His Palace Chapel for Anet had 
again a circular central space, but with the arms of a Greek 
cross. For the Mausoleum of the Valois at Saint Denis, 
Primaticcio adopted a plan like that of Brunelleschi's Santa 
Maria degli Angeli, with six niched chapels and a gallery about 
a central dome. The architectural membering here, both 
inside and out, was of the richest and purest classical forms, 
and the building ranks among the most important of all the 
centrally composed buildings of the Renaissance. 

Details. In France where the climate scarcely permitted 
the open loggias of Italy, the free-standing column with either 
lintel or arch was very rare. So too, during the Renaissance, 
was the simple wall, for columns and entablatures were 
indispensable elements of decoration. The membering of the 
wall, perhaps in combination with rustication, was the major 
problem of the time among questions of detail. In the solu- 
tion of it, alternation in some form was the favorite device. 
The earlier chateaux, treated with pilasters, had windows over 
one another in one bay, then blank panels in the next bay. 
Later the true rhythmical bay scheme in all its variants was 
adopted. The rusticated column introduced by De 1'Orme 
was exalted by him into a sixth order, which he called the 
"French order" (Fig. 215). Unlike most of the Italian 
examples, some of the French ones are of the greatest delicacy 
of carved enrichment. In the early Renaissance the Corin- 
thian order had the same preference which it enjoyed in Italy; 
later no one order was specially favored. The low ceilings 
usual in France, with the prevailing secular character of 
French architecture, gave little opportunity for a development 
of vaulting. The flat ceilings were treated as in Italy with 
elaborate coffering. A striking feature of contrast with Italian 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 387 

architecture was the high roof with its dormers, gables, and 
chimneys. The dormer was treated first with pilasters bearing 
pinnacles, and with elaborate gables and finials; later it was 
given merely the form of a pedimented window. The balus- 
trade above the cornice gave place to an ornamental cresting. 
A common feature making transition be- 
tween the wall and the roof was a row of 
pediments which crowned repeating mo- 
tives below, as in the Louvre. Such ele- 
ments were sufficient by themselves to 
endow French buildings, no matter how 
strictly classical in their ordonnance, with 
a characteristically national aspect. 

Spain. In Spain, as in France and other 
countries outside of Italy, there was a 
mingling of Italian forms with those al- 
ready existing in the native medieval archi- 
tecture. Here, however, the medieval 
style itself included a large admixture of 
Moorish forms. Moriscoes, until their ex- 
pulsion in 1610, remained prominent 
among artificers, and thus had their in- 
fluence on the Renaissance forms as well. 
Thus arose the Plateresque or silversmith's 
style, so called from the intricate and deli- 
cate ornament abounding in it. This, 
which corresponds with the early Renais- 
sance, extended from about 1500 to 1560. 
A notable example is the Town Hall at 
Seville (Fig. 216), built in 1527-32. Here 
there is an application of engaged orders 
in two stories which in its main lines is 
thoroughly grammatical, but which has pilasters, columns, 
window enframements, and panels alike covered with the 
richest arabesques and candelabra-like forms. Even more 
characteristic in its mode of composition is the doorway of the 
University at Salamanca. Here the ornament is massed in a 
great panel above the opening, which contrasts with the 
broad neighboring surfaces of unbroken masonry. Other 
notable features of the style are open arcaded loggias which 




FIG. 2 1 5 PARIS. DE- 
TAIL FROM THE TUI- 
LERIES. (PLANAT) 



3 88 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

often terminate a fagade, as in the Casa de Monterey at 
Salamanca (1530), and the courts or patios surrounded by 
galleries which are found in all important buildings. Forms 
like those of the High Renaissance in Italy first appeared in 
the palace begun for Charles V. in the Alhambra (1527), by 
Pedro Machuca. This building is square in plan with a circular 




' FIG. 2l6 SEVILLE. TOWN HALL 

colonnaded court having superposed orders, Doric and Ionic 
(Fig. 217). In purity and classical quality the building holds 
its own with contemporary monuments of Italy. From this 
time occasional buildings continued the stricter classical 
tendency, the most famous examples of which really belong to 
the succeeding period. 

Germany and the Low Countries. In Germany the multitude 
of small states resulted in great variety in the degree to which 
Renaissance principles were assimilated, and in the stage of 
advancement in different regions. The Belvedere built at 
Prague about 1536 shows a full exterior peristyle with arches 
descending on columns, all of Florentine aspect. Such designs 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 



389 



were but isolated exceptions, however. In most buildings 
the Italian forms were strongly modified, and the medieval 
element was much more persistent than in France. The 
wing built by the Elector Otto Heinrich (1556-59) in the 
castle at Heidelberg shows a combination of elements derived 




linn 



FIG. 217 GRANADA. PALACE OF CHARLES V. COURT 

from Bramante and his school with other elements from 
Lombardy (Fig. 218). Three superposed orders, the two lower 
ones with pilasters, recall the Cancelleria, but every second 
support is replaced by a corbel and a statued niche like those 
introduced by Raphael. In the lower story the pilasters are 
rusticated, in the following story they have arabesque panels. 
The window enframements with their candelabra mullions 
recall the Certosa at Pavia. A similar character prevailed 
in most buildings of the later sixteenth century, which began 
to be influenced by the baroque movement in Italy. The 



A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 



baroque spirit, as we shall see, was indeed akin to that of the 
German Renaissance craftsmen, as their ready assimilation 
of the forms of herms, "cartouches," and broken pediments 
reveals. The wing at Heidelberg built by Friedrich IV. 
(1601-07), where such features appear, shows at first glance 




FIG. 2l8 HEIDELBERG. 



WING OF OTTO HEINRICH IN THE 
CASTLE 



but little difference from its predecessor. The Peller house 
at Niirnberg (1625) shows the continued vitality of the 
Renaissance as applied to one of the most common problems 
in Germany, the dwelling of the wealthy town merchant 
(Fig. 219). Its superposed orders, enframing the windows, 
run up continuously into the great stepped and ornamented 
gable, which still proclaims a descent from the Middle Ages. 
In Flanders and Holland, except for the more frequent use of 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 39 i 

brick, the general character of the work is similar to that 
of Germany. 

England. Development. The latest of the great Western 
nations to feel the effects of the Renaissance in architecture 
was England, isolated and always conservative. Italian 
sculptors were employed by Wolsey and Henry VIII., and their 




FIG. 219 NURNBERG. PELLER HOUSE 

influence made itself felt, as at Hampton Court (1515-40), 
in the carved details of many buildings which remained 
essentially Gothic. Meanwhile the spirit of classical sym- 
metry was appearing in the plans, and shortly before the 
accession of Elizabeth in 1558 the forms of the orders began 
to be imitated and applied to the facades of buildings. The 
Italians had meanwhile gradually departed, but Flemings and 
Germans began to take their places, and at least one English- 



39* A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

man, John Shute, went to Italy to study architecture (1550). 
His First and Chief Grounds of Architecture (1563) was based 
on Vitruvius and gave diagrams of the orders. Sir Thomas 
Gresham secured from Flanders the design of the Royal 
Exchange (1567-70), which had a court of Florentine aspect, 
with arches resting on columns below, 'pilasters and statued 
niches above. In Longleat House (1567-80) the whole ex- 
terior, in three stories, was treated with superposed orders of 
grammatical form and proportions, and many porches and 
doorways from less elaborate houses of just this period show 
that the classical forms were well understood. It. is this 
phase of style, lasting but a very few years, which really 
corresponds to the High Renaissance in Italy and France. 
The tide of baroque ornament which was already inundating 
the Continent swept over England also before either the 
medieval or the Renaissance currents had spent their force. 
The architectural books of De Vries (1559-77) and other 
Flemings and Germans full of the new and bizarre combina- 
tions of classical elements, scrolls, cartouches, and "strap- 
work," imitating cut leather were widely followed. 

Types. While in its details the architecture of Elizabeth 
and James I. thus passed from medieval to post-Renaissance, 
in its practical problems and types it forms unmistakably a 
unit, governed by the life of the Renaissance itself the pe- 
riod of Spenser, Shakespeare, and Raleigh. Although the 
monarchy was powerful enough to insure peace, the landed 
aristocracy remained of great wealth and importance. The 
country houses of nobles and gentlemen, often on a vast scale, 
were the principal creations of the period. These men were 
less interested in religious than in mundane things, so that new 
churches were few and they remained almost purely Gothic. 

The house. The Elizabethan and Jacobean houses were 
developed from the medieval fortified manors by making them 
more symmetrical and more open, and by ornamenting or over- 
laying certain portions with classical details. The basic 
arrangement was a square court, on one side of which, opposite 
the gate-house, was the great hall, where master and servants 
ate and mingled. At one end of the hall was the entrance 
passage or ''screens," at the other the dais for the high table, 
with its fireplace and bay window. Beyond, in either direc- 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 



393 



tion, were the kitchens and the private apartments, respec- 
tively, and along the sides of the court were lodgings reached 
only by passing through those intervening or through the 
open air. In the second story, approached by the principal 
staircase near the dais, was the long gallery, a luxurious feature 
first introduced at 
Hampton Court. 
This often at- 
tained a length of 
over two hundred 
feet, with a width 
of but sixteen to 
twenty - five. In 
the earlier ex- 
amples there was 
no attempt to 
secure formal 
symmetry either 
in plan or in eleva- 
tion. At Sutton 
Place (1523-25) 
the court was 
made for the first 
time rigidly sym- 
metrical, and this 
later became the 
rule also for the 
external fagades, 
so far as they could 
be appreciated in 
any single view. 
The gate - house 
and "screens" 
were centered on 
the main axis, the bay window of the dais was repeated on 
the other side of the court. At Montacute (1580) and many 
later houses, the lodgings inclosing the court were omitted 
and the house was opened freely in all directions. With the 
porch and with projections on the garden side the plan thus 
became E or H-shaped (Fig. 220). Medieval elements re- 




FIG. 220 MONTACUTE HOUSE. (GOTCH) 

i. Hall. 2. Drawing-room. 3. Large dining-room. 4. Small 
dining-room. 5. Smoke-room. 6. Pantry. 7. Kitchen. 8. Ser- 
vants' Hall. 9. Porch. 10. Garden house. 



394 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

mained important in the aspect as well as in the plan, for a 
multitude of high roofs, gables, dormers, turrets, chimney 
stacks, and bay windows diversified the skylines and the wall 
surfaces. Even at Longleat, the most classical of all the 
houses, the mullioned bays still tell more powerfully than the 




FIG. 221 HATFIELD HOUSE 



engaged orders. In others which were more typical, like 
Hatfield House (1611, Fig. 221), the elements are almost 
purely medieval, and what has transformed the whole into 
something new and characteristic is only the classical spirit 
of symmetry and order. 

PERIODS OF RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 



ITALY 

I. Early Renaissance, c. 1420-1500. 
Florentine school. 

Filippo Brunelleschi, 1379-1446. 
Spedale degli Innocent i, 1421. 
San Lorenzo, begun about 1425. 
Pazzi Chapel and Sacristy of San Lorenzo, 
c. 1429. 



Centers 



Florence 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 395 



ITALY (Continued) 

Santa Maria degli Angeli, 1434. 
Santo Spirito, 1435. 
Palazzo Pitti, c. 1440 (?). 
Michelozzo di Bartolommeo, 1396-1472. 

Palazzo Medici (Riccardi), begun 1444. 
Leon Battista Alberti, 1404-72. 
San Francesco at Rimini, 1447. 
SS. Annunziata at Florence, 1451. 
Palazzo Rucellai at Florence, 1451-55. 
San Sebastiano at Mantua, 1459. 
Sant' Andrea at Mantua, 1472. 
Giuliano da San Gallo, 1445-1516. 
Villa Poggio at Cajano, 1485. 
Sacristy of Santo Spirito at Florence 

(with Cronaca), 1489-96. 
Palazzo Strozzi at Florence (with others), 

1489-1507. 
Simone del Pollajuolo (called II Cronaca), 

1457-1508. 

San Francesco al Monte at Florence, 1487. 
Antonio da San Gallo the elder, 146 1(?)- 

1534- 

San Biagio at Montepulciano, 1518-37. 
Luciano da Laurana, d. c. 1482. 

Ducal Palace at Urbino, 1468-82. 
Venetian school. 

Pietro Lombardo, c. 1435-1512. 
Palazzo Vendramini, 1481. 
Santa Maria dei Miracoli, 1481-87. 
Lombard school. 

Fra Giocondo, c. 1433-1515. 

(?) Loggia del Consiglio at Verona, begun 

1476. 

Giovanni Antonio Amadeo, 1 44 7- 1 5 2 2 . 
Facade of the Certosa at Pavia (with 

others), begun 1493. 
Donato Bramante, 1444-1514. 

Sacristy of Santa Maria near San Satiro, 

Milan, 1489-98. 
Choir of Santa Maria delle Grazie, Milan, 

1492-99. 
Santa Maria at Abbiate Grasso, 1497. 



Centers 



Florence 



3 g6 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



ITALY (Continued) 

Rome. 

Palazzo Venezia and Church of San 

Marco, 1455-66. 
Palazzo Cancelleria, 1486-95. 
II. "High Renaissance," c. 1500-40. 
Roman school. 

Donato Bramante (1444-1514), from 1499. 
Cloister of Santa Maria della Pace, 

1504. 
Tempietto at San Pietro in Montorio, 

1500-02. 
Court of the Belvedere at the Vatican, 

begun 1506. 

Saint Peter's, begun 1506. 
Palazzo Caprini, 
Raphael, 1483-1520. 
Saint Peter's, 1514-20. 
Loggias of the Court of San Damaso at 

the Vatican. 
Palazzo delF Aquila. 
Villa Madama, begun 1520. 
Palazzo Pandolfini in Florence, begun 

c. 1520. 

Baldassare Peruzzi, 1481-1536. 
Villa Farnesina in Rome, 1509-11. 
Palazzo Albergati in Bologna, 1522. 
Palazzi Massimi at Rome, 1531. 
Antonio da San Gallo the younger, 1482- 

1546. 

Palazzo Farnese in Rome, c. 1520-80. 
Venetian school. 

Michele Sanmicheli, 1484-1559. 
Gates of Verona, 1533 /. 
Palazzo Pompei at Verona, 1530. 
Palazzo Grimani at Venice, completed 

1539- 
Jacopo Sansovino, 1486-1570. 

Palazzo Cornaro della Ca' Grande at 

Venice, 1530. 

Library of Saint Mark's at Venice, 1536. 
Logetta of the Campanile at Venice, 

1540. 



Centers 



Florence. 



Rome 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 



397 



FRANCE 

I. Transitional period, c. 1495-1515. 

Invasions of Italy by Charles VIII., 1494- 

95, and by Louis XII. , 1499-1504. 
Wing of Louis XII. at Blois, 1503. 
Chateau of Gaillon, 1497-1510. 

II. Early Renaissance, c. 1515-45 (Francis I., 1515- 

47). 

Wing of Francis I. at Blois, 1515-19. 
Chateau of Chambord, 1526-44. 
Chateau of Ecouen, 1531-40. 
Chateau Madrid near Paris, 1528-0. 1565. 
Saint Pierre at Caen, 1518-45. 
Saint Eustache at Paris, begun 1532. 

III. "High Renaissance, "c. 1545-70. 

Domenico of Cortona (Boccador), d. 1549. 

Hotel de Ville at Paris, begun 1531. 
Jean Goujon, d. between 1564 and 1568. 

Tomb of Louis de Breze at Rouen, 1535. 
Pierre Lescot, 1510 (?)~78. 

Court of the Louvre (with Goujon), 

1546-76. 
Francesco Primaticcio, 1490-1570. 

Chateau of Ancy-le-France, 1538-46. 

Chateau of Monceaux-en-Brie, i547~55- 

Tomb of the Valois at Saint Denis, 1559 jf. 
Philibert de 1'Orme, b. between 1510 and 
1515; d. 1570. 

Chateau of Saint Maur-les-Fosses, c. 1545. 

Chateau d'Anet, 1548-54. 

Tuileries at Paris, begun 1564. 
Jean Bullant, c. 1525 (?)~78. 

Chateau d'Ecouen, porticoes, c. 1564. 
Jacques Androuet du Cerceau, b. c. 1510; 
d. after 1584. 

Chateau of Verneuil, 1 565 jf. 

Chateau of Charleval, 1572-74. 



Centers 



Loire valley 



Paris 



I. 



SPAIN 



Early Renaissance, "Plateresque," c. 1480-1530. 
Enrique de Egas, c. I455~i534- 

Portal of the Hospital of Santa Cruz, before 1514. 
Portal of the University in Salamanca, 1515-3' 



398 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

SPAIN ( Continued) 

Alonso de Covarrubias, c. 1488-1564. 

Archiepiscopal palace in Alcala de Henares, 1534. 

North facade of the Alcazar in Toledo, 1537. 

Palacio Monterey in Salamanca. 

Town Hall in Seville, 1546-64. 
II. High Renaissance, c. 1530-70. 
Diego de Siloe, c. 1500-63. 

Cathedral of Granada, 1528 jf. 
Pedro Machuca. 

Palace of Charles V. in Granada, 1526-33. 

GERMANY 

I. Early Renaissance, c. 1520-50. 

Belvedere at Prague, 1534^. 
Palace at Landshut, 1536-43. 
Portal of the Castle at Brieg, 1552. 

II. High Renaissance, c. 1550-1600. 

Otto Heinrichsbau at Heidelberg, 1556-63. 

Portico of the Rathaus in Cologne, 1569-71. 

Rathaus in Liibeck, 1570 jf. 

Rathaus in Rothenburg-ob-der-Tauber, 1572 Jf. 

Friedrichsbau at Heidelberg, 1601-07. | With baroque feat- 

Peller House in Nurnberg, 1605. J ures. 

ENGLAND 

Henry VIII., 1509-47. Isolated examples of Italian ornament. 

Hampton Court, 1515-40. 

Palace of Nonesuch, c. 1537-50. 

Screen in King's College Chapel, Cambridge, 1532-36. 
Elizabeth, 1558-1603. 

Burghley House, dormers, 1556 Jf. 

Royal Exchange in London, 1566-70. 

Longleat, 1567-80. 

Kirby Hall, 1570-1640. 

Montacute House, 1580-1610. 

Wollaton, 1580-88. 
James I., 1603-25. 

Bramshill, 1605. 



Hatfield House, 1611. 
Audley End, 1616. 
Blickling Hall, 1619-20, 



With baroque features. 



RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 399 
BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

Renaissance architecture in general. Aside from series of which 
the individual volumes are listed below there may be mentioned es- 
pecially P. FrankPs Die Entwicklungsphasen der neueren Baukunst, 
1914 (a study of development), and C. H. Moore's Character of 
Renaissance Architecture, 1905 (an unsympathetic estimate). 

Italy. The most recent and authoritative works are almost ex- 
clusively in foreign languages. Scholarly general works are H. 
Willich's Baukunst der Renaissance in Italien, 1914 (Handbuch der 
Kunstwis sens chaff) , J. Burckhardt's Geschichte der Renaissance in 
Italien (Geschichte der neueren Baukunst}, 5th ed., 1912 (both with 
emphasis on development), and J. Durm's Baukunst der Renaissance 
in Italien (Handbuch der Architektur} , 2d ed., 1914 (with emphasis 
on technical analysis) . A competent brief sketch of the development 
is P. FrankPs Die Renaissance- Architektur in Italien, vol. i, 1912 
(Aus Natur und Geisteswelt} . W. J. Anderson's The Architecture 
of the Renaissance in Italy, 4th ed., 1909, and G. Gromort's Histoire 
abrege de ^architecture de la renaissance en Italie, 1913, are richly 
illustrated works, which, however, repeat many statements now 
generally considered erroneous. Among numerous monumental il- 
lustrated folios covering special regions may be mentioned: P. 
Letarouilly's Edifices de Rome moderne, 3 vols., 1868-74, the engrav- 
ings of which are supplemented by photographs in H. Strack's 
Baudenkmdler Roms des XV. -XIX. Jahrhunderts, 1891; C. Stegmann 
and H. von Geymuller's Architektur der Renaissance in Toscana, 
ii vols., 1885-1908; and R. Reinhardt, RaschdorfT, and others' 
Palast- Architektur von Ober-Italien und Toscana vom XV. bis XVII. 
Jahrhundert, 5 vols., 1886-1911. H. Strack's Central-und Kuppel- 
kirchen der Renaissance in Italien, 2 vols., 1882; W. Limburger's 
Die Gebaude von Florenz, 1910, and B. Patzak's Die Renaissance-und 
Barock-Villa in Italien, vols. 2 and 3, 1908-12, are careful monographs. 

France. The fundamental works are W. Lubke's Geschichte der 
Renaissance in Frankreich, 2d ed., 1885 (Geschichte der neueren 
Baukunst}, and H. von Geymuller's Die Baukunst der Renaissance 
in Frankreich (Handbuch der Architektur}, 2 vols., 1898-1901. W. H. 
Ward's The Architecture of the Renaissance in France, 2 vols., 1911, 
embodies Geymuller's researches in English, with numerous illus- 
trations. R. Blomfield's History of French Architecture, 1498-1661, 
2 vols., 1911, suffers from failure to employ the discussions in Ger- 
man. C. T. Mathew's The Renaissance under the Valois, 1893, is 
still valuable for its fine illustrations. Among the many collections 
of measured drawings may be mentioned those of Berty, Rouyer 
and Darcel, Daly, and Sauvageot. Large photographs are provided 



400 A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 

by C. Martin's La Renaissance en France, 2 vols., 1910-12, and the 
relevant section of C. Gurlitt's Die Baukunst Frankreichs, 4 vols., 
1896-1900. The chateaux are treated specifically in two works by 
Victor Petit (lithographs), in H. Saint Saveur's Chateaux de France 
(photographs), and, for the smaller buildings, in L. C. NewhalPs 
The Minor Chateaux and Manor Houses of France of the XV. and XVI. 
Century, 1914. Urban dwellings are covered by P. Vitry's Hotels 
et maisons de la renaissance franQaise, 2 vols., 1911-12. The field 
of biography is particularly rich, in the works of Berty (1860), 
Destailleur (1863), Lance (1872), Bauchal (1887), and Vachon (1910). 

Spain and Portugal. A. Byne and M. Stapley's Spanish Architect- 
ure of the Sixteenth Century, 1917, chiefly devoted to the Plateresque, 
may be supplemented by the sketch prefixed to O. Schubert's Ge'schich- 
te der Barock in Spanien, 1908. Further illustration is furnished by 
M. Junghandel's Die Baukunst Spaniens, 3 vols., 1889-98; C. Uhde's 
Baudenkmaler in Spanien und Portugal, 2 vols., 1892; and A. Haupt's 
Die Baukunst der Renaissance in Portugal, 2 vols., 1890-95. The 
Monumentos arquitectonicos de Espana, 1859-81, is a vast series pub- 
lished at the expense of the state. 

Germany. The two fundamental accounts are W. Liibke's Ge- 
schichte der Renaissance in DeiJschland (Geschichte der neueren Bau- 
kunst}, 2d ed., 2 vols., 1882, and G. von Bezold's Die Baukunst der 
Renaissance in Deutschland, Holland, Belgien und Ddnemark (Hand- 
buch der Architektur} , 2d ed., 1908. Monumental folios of illus- 
trations are A. Ortwein and A. Scheffer's Deutsche Renaissance, 9 
vols., 1871-88; K. E. O. Fritsch's Denkmdler deutscher Renaissance, 
4 vols., 1891; and A. Lambert and E. Stahl's Motive der deutschen 
Architektur des XVI., XVII., und XVIII. J ahrhunderts , vol. i, 
1890. A work in briefer compass is J. Hoffman's Baukunst und 
dekorative Skulptur der Renaissance in Deutschland, 1909. 

England. For the Renaissance proper the principal account is 
J. A. Gotch's Early Renaissance Architecture in England, 2d ed., 
1914. R. Blomfield's History of Renaissance Architecture in Eng- 
land, 1500-1800, 2 vols., 1897, includes a briefer discussion of the 
period in question. An abridged edition in one volume was issued 
in 1904. Large photographs are furnished by Gotch's Architecture 
of the Renaissance in England, 2 vols., 1894; C. Uhde's Baudenkmdler 
in Gross Britanien, 2 vols., 1894; and T. Garner and A. Stratton's 
The Domestic Architecture of England During the Tudor Period, 
3 vols., 1908-11. Other discussions of the domestic architecture of 
the Renaissance in England occur in Gotch's The Growth of the 
English House, 1909, and H. Muthesius's Das englische Haus, 
vol. i, 1904. The Renaissance garden is covered by H. I. Triggs's 
Formal Gardens of England and Scotland, 1902. 



CHAPTER XI 
POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 

By the middle of the sixteenth century the spiritual forces 
of the Renaissance in Italy were exhausted, and new forces 
began to determine the cultural development. Men no longer 
dreamed of a literal resurrection of pagan Rome, but were 
confronted by the revival of militant Christianity in the 
Reformation and the counter-Reformation. With the growth 
of centralized states came absolutism on the part of the 
monarchs, elaboration of their courts, and the final establish- 
ment of domestic security and of modern city and country 
life. 

Architectural changes. Simultaneously with the beginning 
of these cultural changes, architecture also underwent changes 
which were not less fundamental. Classic forms, indeed, 
still remained elements of the design, and conformity to 
classical canons still remained the ideal in some quarters. The 
feeling as to what constitutes a classical character, however, 
was changed, the elements became materials which could be 
recombined or played with freely, and emphasis was trans- 
ferred to other qualities than purity of detail and geometrica^ 
simplicity, ^Hrst among these qualities was a heightened 
unity in the composition of single buildings, and extension of 
the scope of the composition to include their surroundings, or 
even whole quarters or whole towns. There was a correspond- 
ing decrease in the isolation and self-sufficiency of individual 
parts of a composition: the subdivisions of interior space 
tended to melt away; the lines of cornices and string-courses 
were interrupted, or architraves, pediments, and orders were 
broken by rustic blocks. Facades no longer conformed to a 
single plane, but had a boldness of relief which resulted in an 
aspect varying with every movement of the observer. Practi- 



402 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

cal requirements became more specialized and the forms of 
rooms began to be differentiated so as to stand in an organic 
relation with their functions. 

Academic and baroque tendencies. Sharing these qualities, 
which give the fundamental unity to the style of the time, are 
buildings of two diverse tendencies, opposed to each other in 
their relations to classical architecture. On one hand was the 
academic tendency, which perpetuated the striving of the 
Renaissance for accurate reproduction of classical features 
and for the establishment of mathematical canons of pro- 
portion. On the other hand was the so-called baroque 
tendency, which was to disregard classical dispositions ' and 
theoretic rules alike, and to use the forms of the orders as 
elements of a plastic modeling of masses. Such tendencies 
to strictness and to freedom -within a style offered nothing new 
in principle, having been indeed always present in greater or 
less measure. Only the sharpness of their antithesis was 
hitherto unusual, and even this did not prevent a great variety 
of compromises both in individual buildings and in the work 
of national schools. 

An inclusive term. In English the designation baroque has 
always been applied only to the works of the freer tendency, 
and not, as in German and Italian, to all the works of the 
period. The other works, considered as still belonging to the 
Renaissance, have thus too often been separated from those 
which were not only contemporary with them, but shared 
with them most of their fundamental qualities. It has here 
been thought better to preserve the historical unity of the 
period, and to adopt a name for it post-Renaissance which 
expresses merely its chronological position and its artistic 
patrimony. 

Centers and diffusion. As in the Renaissance, the new 
movements first acquired form and momentum in Italy. In 
northern lands, where the Renaissance itself was associated 
with the Reformation, they scarcely appeared until the time 
of the wars of religion. Unlike the Renaissance, however, they 
produced results elsewhere equal in importance to those in 
Italy. Spain, France, and England had meanwhile become 
highly centralized nations, which successively attained world 
power, while Italy and Germany remained torn by internal 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTUR) 

struggles. During the central years of the period! 
dominated European politics and European culture, anu *, 
thus the French version of contemporary ideas which, in 
later years, had the greatest influence. 

Italy. Academic origins. The germs of both academic and 
baroque tendencies existed in Italy well within the Renais- 
sance period. The forerunners of academicism were Alberti 
and the early editors and commentators of Vitruvius. All 
these were concerned largely with the fixing of normal forms 
and proportions for individual architectural members. After 
1500 the editions and translations of Vitruvius multiplied 
rapidly, and belief in the infallible authority of the Roman 
writer increased to a fantastic extent best seen in passages in 
the writings of Serlio, appearing 1537-75. The rules were to 
be followed even when they were in conflict with the teachings 
of ancient monuments. By 1542 the adherents of formal 
theory were sufficiently numerous and self-conscious to found 
a Vitruvian academy in Rome. 

Baroque origins. Michelangelo. Against this academic ten- 
dency there arose a powerful champion in Michelangelo. 
He boldly proclaimed his ambition "to burst the toils and 
chains" which architecture had suffered to be laid upon itself 
and his intention to hold himself bound by no rule ancient 
or modern. Already, in his designs for the facade of San 
Lorenzo (1514) and for the interior of the Medici chapel in 
Florence (1521-34, Fig. 204), he had shown a new freedom. 
In one it was the richer relief of free-standing columns and 
sculpture, here used for the first time as decorative forms in a 
Renaissance fagade. In the other it was the unconventional 
use of classical details in the filling of the main architectural 
framework. Entablatures were broken, architraves and friezes 
omitted at will, proportions were modified, and a multitude 
of consoles were introduced. Within the tabernacles above 
the doors the inner enframement penetrates even the hori- 
zontal cornice and rises into the tympanum of the pediment. 
In the sarcophagi of the Medici chapel Michelangelo even 
gave a suggestion for breaking the upper cyma of a pediment, 
which he and others soon proceeded to do. Similar liberties 
of detail appear in another of his designs at this period, not 
completed after his death the vestibule of the Laurentian 







ti a .'. '$"15* VT\ \-%\V~ 
MftW^ 
m^x w * JTI^y^Vy. * \W- ..::::... 
,::>/' ^ Jr ' ; x* *\J^% A'- &/' .::...;?.:... 



R :/ 



IpT 12 :ii:i-^ 

IJfl^;} M *.;.-.., 



FIG. 222 ROME. PLAN OF SAINT PETER'S AND THE VATICAN. (GROMORT) 



A. Basilica of Saint Peter 

B. Piazza of Saint Peter 

C. Court of the Belvedere 



D. Court of San Damaso (with the 

Loggias of Raphael) 

E. Villa Pia 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 405 

Library in Florence. An even more striking innovation here 
was the placing of the stairs, free on all sides, in the center of a 
room which rose through two stories. 

Michelangelo's later work. Saint Peter's. The second and 
more important period of Michelangelo's architectural work 
began on the death of Antonio da San Gallo (1546), when he 
succeeded to the direction of Saint Peter's and the papal build- 




FIG. 223 ROME. SAINT PETER'S DOME FROM THE EAST 



ings generally. He was already seventy-one years of age, yet 
he survived and continued to develop for eighteen years 
more. In Saint Peter's (Fig. 222) he reverted to the centrally 
composed scheme of Bramante which had been modified as a 
result of liturgical considerations He omitted the outer 
aisles and chapels hitherto proposed and restored the single 
colossal order on the exterior. For the domes proposed by 
Bramante and San Gallo he substituted one of his own design, 
embodying many novel features (Fig. 223). It followed the 
dome of Brunelleschi in having more than a single shell and in 



4 o6 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

having a system of deep ribs with lighter filling. Michel- 
angelo, however, took advantage of the multiplicity of shells 
to give the exterior of the dome a steeper pitch than the in- 
terior, and he gave the ribs a visible expression both inside 
and out. Instead of a continuous exterior peristyle he placed 
around the drum a series of buttress-like masses, one at 




FIG. 224. ROME. THE CAPITOL 



each rib. The result was a dome of new and more soaring 
aspect, which has remained an almost universal model for the 
following centuries. 

The Capitol. Of scarcely less influence was Michelangelo's 
work on the Capitoline Hill in Rome (begun 1546). Here on 
the saddle between the two summits he created a monumental 
group hitherto unrivaled in its unity (Fig. 224). Taking a 
suggestion, perhaps, from the square at Pienza, he made the 
sides of his square diverge toward the Palazzo del Senatore 
which formed the background for a rich display of ancient 
sculpture. To right and left were palaces identical with 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 407 

each other, harmonious with the principal one, yet subordi- 
nated to it in height and scale. In these, for the first time in a 
secular building of the Renaissance, the fagade was conceived 
as a whole in the manner of a Roman building, with podium, 
columns, and entablature. The stories are not individual 
units superposed on one another, but are created by the divi- 
sion of the larger unity. The horizontal subdivisions are in- 




FIG. 225 VICENZA. THE BASILICA 

terrupted by the continuous vertical lines of the great pilasters. 
Another notable feature of the whole composition is the 
emphasis on the central axes given by features of greater size 
and relief, or by progressive increase in size. The great 
double stair of the Palazzo del Senatore which contributes so 
much to this emphasis was itself novel and influential. 

Establishment oj ike tendencies. Palladia. In the younger 
generation which surrounded and succeeded Michelangelo 
the dual tendencies of the day became firmly established. 
Although the free or baroque tendency had the greater fol- 
lowing, the stricter or academic tendency did not yield until 



4 o8 A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 

its greatest master had created models which later had wide 
influence. This master was Andrea Palladio of Vicenza 
(151880). He had in his youth given to the Roman remains 
the most intensive study so far attempted. His earliest 
building, the Palazzo della Ragione, or Basilica, at Vicenza 
(Fig. 225), although continuing certain traditions of the 




FIG. 226 VICENZA. VILLA ROTONDA 



Renaissance, closely approximates a basilica of Roman times. 
There is no doubt that he chose this as his model precisely 
because of the identity in the uses of the buildings. In his 
subsequent designs there can be traced the influence of 
Michelangelo as well as of the antique. In some palaces he 
employed the colossal order, in others, where he still retained 
an order for each story, he omitted the pedestal between and 
allowed the lines of the balustrade to be interrupted by the 
columns. In either case he frequently added an upper story, 
treated as an attic like those of the Roman triumphal arches. 
He carried the interruption of the architectural lines even 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 409 

farther than Michelangelo, permitting the windows of the 
upper story to penetrate into the main entablature, and 
breaking the entablature at each bay of the great order. 
While he thus reduced the independence of individual mem- 
bers, he tended to decrease the isolation of the whole building. 
Instead of emphasizing the corner of the building he often 
weakened the expression there, making the work not a mi- 
crocosm, like the Renaissance palaces, but a fragment of the 
cosmos. Something of the same character appears in Palla- 
dio's designs for churches and villas. In the villas, for in- 
stance, he treated the service buildings surrounding the house 
as wide-flung colonnaded wings which unite house and land- 
scape. In both churches and villas Palladio made an attempt 
to imitate the ancient pedimented temple front. The Villa 
Almerigo or "Villa Rotonda" near Vicenza has even free- 
standing porticoes with a front of six columns (Fig. 226). 
This villa, composed about a central axis, with a domed central 
salon, served as a prototype for many others in northern lands. 

Palladia's writings. Palladio's influence was exercised 
chiefly through his Four Books on Architecture (1570). In 
these he not only gave a codification of the orders which was 
widely adopted, but furnished the first considerable body of 
measured drawings of ancient buildings, and instituted a new 
custom by publishing engravings of his own works. 

Vignola, Vasari, Alessi. Other men who aided in the es- 
tablishment and diffusion of the new tendencies were Vignola, 
Vasari, and Alessi, all disciples of Michelangelo. Vignola, 
who measured ancient fragments in the interest of the Vitru- 
vian academy, and who published perhaps the most in- 
fluential canon of the orders, showed in his buildings great 
freedom of invention. At Caprarola (1547) he took a sug- 
gestion from new methods of fortification to build a five- 
sided castle, with a circular court. In the Villa di Papa 
Giulio (1550) he made a rich use of semicircular forms, and 
in the church of Sant' Andrea he employed an elliptical dome. 
Vasari, best known for his biographies of artists, also created 
in his buildings many new spatial effects. His court of the 
Uffizi in Florence, built to house the officials of the ducal ad- 
ministration, was opened freely at one end, and partially at 
the other, in contrast to the inclosed courts of earlier palaces. 



410 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Alessi began the creation of modern Genoa by his palaces with 
their arcaded courts and their elaborate stairways. His 
Palazzo Marino in Milan (Fig. 227), with its lavish use of 
panels, masks, garlands, and consoles to organize and enliven 
the wall surfaces, had the widest influence on Renaissance 
architecture north of the Alps. In the works of these three 




FIG. 227 MILAN. PALAZZO MARINO. COURT 



men rustication commenced to attack the orders and the 
window enframements. It broke through the shafts and 
architraves, which appeared only at the capitals and bases, 
in the corners, or between the blocks. Sculptured figures, or 
herms with a sculptured bust and tapering shaft, began to 
replace pilasters and enframements, although geometrical 
forms and classical dispositions still dominated. 
Baroque supremacy. The years from 1580 to 1730 in Italy 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 411 

were years of undisputed supremacy for the baroque. Build- 
ings in which classical forms were strictly followed did indeed 
appear occasionally, even among the works of the great mas- 
ters of the free tendency, but they were exceptional. In 
general the greatest liberty was assumed in planning and in 
membering. This liberty, which has so often been conceived 
as mere caprice or license, resulting in a dissolution or degenera- 
tion of Renaissance forms, may better be looked on as a 
positive, constructive process. It was an effort, thoroughly 
conscious of its aims and studious of its means, to follow to 
extreme consequences the search for those qualities of molten 
unity and variety of aspect which were ideals of the period as 
a whole. In this striving, geometrical complexity took the 
place of simplicity, ever-varying diagonal views resulted from 
curvatures in plan, ever- varying silhouettes resulted from 
curves and projections in elevation. The substitution of 
swelling, leather-like cartouches for simple shields and panels, 
the appearance of twisted columns, the overflowing of archi- 
tectural lines by sculpture, or the substitution of sculptural 
forms for the architectural frames themselves, the use of 
richly veined and colored marbles and of gilding are but several 
manifestations of a consistent tendency. The aim of the 
academists was never to surprise; the aim and the achieve- 
ment of the baroque masters was to surprise continually. 

Delia Porta, Maderna. Among the first constructions to 
feel the new spirit were those of the villa gardens, where long 
before the end of the sixteenth century the architecture lost 
its formality in a riot of sculpture, artificial rock-work, and 
broken silhouettes. The penetration of similar motives into 
monumental architecture soon followed. In the fagade of the 
church of the Gesu in Rome, designed by Delia Porta (c. 1573), 
there are pediments one within another on the same entabla- 
ture. In the terminal fountain of the Acqua Paola, not- 
withstanding its severe classical models, the outline is boldly 
animated by consoles and finials. The fagade of Saint Peter's 
added by Maderna (1606-26) has a graduated increase of re- 
lief toward the center and a complexity of rhythm in the setting 
out and subdivision of its bays which defies any casual analysis. 
Its skyline dissolves in balustrades, statuary, and cartouches. 

Bernini, Borromini. The many-sided artist who dominated 



4 i2 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

the later years of the baroque movement was Gian Lorenzo 
Bernini (1598-1680). Equally distinguished in sculpture and 
in architecture, he broadened the scope of architectural ex- 
pression to a range hitherto unknown. The canopy over the 
altar of Saint Peter's (1624-33) with its twisted and floriated 
columns, its crown of consoles and its bronze hangings (Fig. 
199), is at the opposite pole from his colonnades of the square 
in front (1656-63), unrelieved in their Doric simplicity. A 
common quality is present, however, in the conception of 
every part as a fragment, requiring the others to complete it. 
No part by itself is symmetrical. The twisted columns turn 
in opposite directions, one half -ellipse of the colonnades de- 
mands the other (Fig. 222). Rarely are opposite sides of a 
motive in a single plane or parallel. The colonnades converge 
toward the square of Saint Peter's, the faces of the Palazzo 
Ludovisi (Montecitorio) recede equally on each side, the 
lines of the Scala Regia of the Vatican converge toward a 
single vanishing-point. Similar devices appear also in the 
work of Bernini's contemporary, Francesco Borromini. His 
fagade for Sant' Agnese in the Piazza Navona at Rome 
(1645-50) has all its lines curved in plan; his plan for Sant' 
Ivo (1660) is a combination of triangles and arcs which con- 
tinually presents something unexpected. 

The baroque supremacy outside of Rome. Although Rome 
itself was the center of the baroque movement, other Italian 
cities were quick to feel its influence. The extent to which it 
was welcomed varied greatly with the local traditions or lack 
of traditions. Thus in Piedmont, in Genoa, and in the south, 
where the school of Bramante had never become firmly es- 
tablished, the baroque was unrestrained. In Turin especially 
the works of Guarino Guarini, such as the Palazzo Carignano 
(1680) with its double reverse curve in facade, went to ex- 
tremes. In Florence, on the other hand, the baroque scarcely 
obtained a foothold, and in Venice the tradition of Sansovino 
restricted it to a few examples. The most notable of these, 
the church of Santa Maria della Salute (1631-82) by Lon- 
ghena, by its position at the head of the Grand Canal, has, 
however, a high importance in the aspect of the city (Fig. 228). 
Eight-sided, with its central dome buttressed by great scrolls 
carrying statues, and with a second large dome over its choir, 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 413 

it has captivated successive generations of artists by its ever- 
changing perspectives. 

Compromise: Juvara, Galilei, Vanvitelli. In the eighteenth 
century the academic tendency in Italy was strengthened by 
return influences from France and from England. A touch 
of this appears in the work of Filippo Juvara (1685-1735), 




FIG. 228 VENICE. SANTA MARIA DELLA SALUTE 



whose buildings in Turin include the great domed church of the 
Superga (1706-20). Another of the leading Italian architects 
of the eighteenth century was Alessandro Galilei (1691-1737), 
who had worked in England under Vanbrugh and represented 
the same compromise between academic and baroque ten- 
dencies. His facade for the church of the Lateran in Rome is 
strict in its use of classical elements and in its geometrical 
regularity, but has a free skyline and complicated grouping. 



A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

The splendor of Versailles under Louis XIV. tempted Italian 
princes to imitation. The most notable of the resulting coun- 
try palaces is that of Caserta near Naples by Luigi Vanvi- 
telli, begun in 1 7 5 2 . The plan of building and gardens embodies 
French elements, the membering of the long facades is dryly 
Palladian. The cycle through freedom back to strictness was 
soon to be completed. 

Types of buildings. Churches. The Counter Reformation 
was a period of feverish building of churches, and of a return 
to a more liturgical conception in their design. The longitud- 
inal type of plan was once more preferred, as in the Middle 
Ages. Naves were added to some Renaissance churches 'of 
central type as ultimately to Saint Peter's itself (Fig. 222). 
The crossing of nave and transept tended to lose its inde- 
pendence. In new designs the central type was rarely adopted 
except for votive churches like the Superga and the Salute. 
In the Salute the radial chapels were no longer isolated, 
but united to form a single encircling aisle, the first of its kind 
since Byzantine days. Throughout the churches the self- 
centered domical vaults gave place to groined vaults with 
their centrifugal tendency, barrel vaults were interrupted by 
penetrations, galleries tended to unite the bays at the aisles 
and even to project into the nave. A broad nave and shallow 
transepts gave space for a congregation corresponding to the 
increased importance of the sermon. The whole plan tended 
increasingly to conform to a single rectangle, usually sub- 
divided, to be sure, but into parts having no strong unity of 
their own. The facades, too, were treated as units, with 
little precise relation to the subdivision of the interior. The 
Renaissance scheme of using superposed orders in the center 
with consoles to make transition from the lower order at the 
sides was adhered to in many cases. Even more character- 
istic, however, was the employment of a single order the 
full height of the nave, masking the unequal heights of nave 
and aisles. The bell tower was no longer designed as a separate 
unit, but was combined with the facade and repeated on 
either side as in northern church fronts. In the treatment of 
fagades and still more of interiors there was often a lavishness 
of figure sculpture and of painting which was mundane and 
theatrical, perhaps, but remarkably facile and decorative 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 415 

(Fig. 229). The Jesuits, who led in the reactionary religious 
movement, adhered to florid Italian models in their churches 
in other countries, and thus gave the baroque an international 
character as the "Jesuit style." 

Palaces. In the town palaces the principal innovations of 
the post-Renaissance period lay in planning. Vestibule, 




FIG. 229 ROME. SAN CARLO A' CATINARI. CHAPEL OF SANTA CECILIA- 

(RICCI) 



court, and stairs were no longer isolated, but combined in a 
suite which gave unity to the entire building. Genoese 
examples, like the University (1623), are the most notable. 
Many palaces, such as that of the Barberini in Rome, have 
more than a single file of rooms in a block and a multitude of 
stairways which permit independent access and privacy. The 
stereotyped plan with a single central court was no longer 
followed exclusively, and the courts were no longer always 
inclosed, but opened on one side toward either street or 



4 i 6 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

garden. This was the case, for instance, with the court of 
the Palazzo Pitti in Florence, executed by Ammanati in 1 526. 

Villas. The characteristic creation of the period in domestic 
architecture was the villa, in which house and garden were now 
inextricably combined. Usually on hillside sites, and with an 
abundant supply of water, the villas included a series of 
terraces, steps, pools, and fountains, all highly organized in 
accordance with a unified axial system. The house or casino 
might be either at the top or at the bottom of the slope, or 
even part way between; there might be a level parterre of 
flowers, or terraces only, as the ground permitted. A char- 
acteristic example of artful variety within modest dimensions 
is the Villa Lante near Viterbo, designed by Vignola (begun 
1566, Fig. 230). Here a parterre with a central fountain and 
basins occupies the lower third of the length. To left and 
right of the first ascent stand the two casinos which provide 
the living quarters, and above rise terraces of differing widths 
and heights, connected on the main axis by features in which 
steps and falling water are ingeniously intermingled. Ramps 
and stairs offer numerous alternative means of ascent and 
descent. The Villa Pia in the gardens of the Vatican, with its 
oval court and curved ramps, is another such unexampled 
background for the art of living (Fig. 222 E). 

Fountains. Fountains occurred not only in the villas but 
everywhere in the cities, multiplied and diversified as never 
before. For large volumes of water or small, for high pressures 
or low alike, treatments were found which gave the water 
itself the chief place in the design, however rich and free the 
architecture or sculpture. 

Theaters. A novel problem in modern times was to give 
an architectural treatment to the theater. The classical 
precedents suggested to Palladio, for his Teatro Olimpico in 
Vicenza (1580), a close imitation of the interior of a Roman 
theater, with cavea, encircling colonnade at the rear, and 
architectural sccence frons. An addition quite in the spirit of 
the time was that of constructed architectural perspectives 
visible through openings of the stage. The theater at Parma 
(1618) has a deeper auditorium and a single wide opening to 
a stage for movable scenery. Equally significant is the 
replacing of the rear colonnade by arcades in two stories. 



4 i8 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

From these grew in the eighteenth century the tiers of indi- 
vidual loges which still form the characteristic treatment 
of the Italian theater interior. No attempt to secure an 
exterior expression was yet made. 

Town planning. An ultimate extension of baroque prin- 
ciples was the inclusion of the whole city in a single architect- 
ural composition. Efforts of the sort had mostly to remain 
in the ideal stage, like the Citta Ideate of Bartolomeo 
Ammanati (151192) whose Ponte Santa Trinita in Florence 
inaugurated a new lightness and grace in bridge building. 
Less fantastic than the cities on paper, but still ambitious, 
were the corrections undertaken in existing cities, above all in 
Rome. These, which had been begun in a small way by Julius 
II., were continued on a vast scale by his successors. They 
included the Piazza of Saint Peter's and the Piazza del Popolo, 
both begun by Bernini about 1656, the Spanish Steps, and the 
port of Ripetta on the Tiber. In all these there appear the 
grandiose unity and variety of form so characteristic of the 
period. 

Individual forms. The governing conception of the post- 
Renaissance period in Italy was that each individual element 
was but a fragment, and that a high degree of unity in the 
parts was damaging to the unity of the whole. This concep- 
tion was essentially in conflict with the antique conception 
of unity, which did not preclude parts sufficient unto them- 
selves. It thus came about that the structural expressiveness 
of many forms had to yield to the imperative demand for 
dismemberment and coalescence. Thus as in Roman archi- 
tecture, by comparison with Greek, purity of detail was 
rendered less important by the mode of composition. 

Walls. The period in Italy was distinguished by a wide use 
of stucco, not only for wall surfaces, as in the Renaissance, 
but for all the members of openings and orders. This 
extension of its use resulted in the first instances from economy, 
but it was turned to advantage in the execution of luxuriant 
modeled decoration. Rustication was rarely used except in 
quoins or about the openings. In interiors the incrustation 
of walls with marble veneering was revived, inlaid patterns 
giving a striking contrast. 

Openings. In the enframement of the openings few Italian 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 419 

designers followed the practice of Palladio in retaining a 
simple rectangular architrave, perhaps with a frieze and 
cornice. Even Palladio himself multiplied ears and consoles 
and employed a bulging or pulvinated frieze. His con- 
temporaries were already elaborating enframements with 
rusticated architraves, broken pediments, and herms or 
figure sculpture, which soon became the rule. 

Columns and wall membering. The general relations of 
column, arch, and wall remained much the same as in the 
Renaissance period, except for the frequent use of a "colossal" 
engaged order. Free-standing colonnades with horizontal 
lintels appear but seldom, although notably in the Piazza of 
Saint Peter's. Columns bearing arches remained in favor for 
courtyards, but the supports were now usually grouped in 
pairs, a motive especially favored by Alessi. In the membering 
of fagades the tendency toward grouping the members, which 
had begun with the coupled columns of Bramante, was carried 
much further. The pilaster was reinforced by slight breaks 
in the wall at either side, or groups of shafts and pilasters 
were composed, like the grouped piers of the Middle Ages. 
In interiors these once more gave individual support to the 
various members of a vault, on exteriors they served, with 
the corresponding breaks in entablatures and balustrades, to 
enliven the silhouette. 

Stairs. A special production of the period was the monu- 
mental stairway, either inside a building or outside. Michel- 
angelo's stairways at the Laurentian Library and at the Capitol 
gave the suggestion, which was quickly taken up in many 
different ways. Thus, in the Villa d'Este at Tivoli (about 
1550), the two arms of a symmetrical stairway are bent into 
semicircles; at the Villa di Papa Giulio, into quadrants. 
Then followed the stairs with two arms side by side, and with 
three arms winding up against the walls of a rectangular 
room as in the Palazzo Barberini (about 1630). Further 
possibilities lay in a symmetrical doubling of these schemes, 
first attempted in the cloister of San Giorgio Maggiore in 
Venice by Longhena ( 1 644) . In the Genoese palaces the stairs 
through several stories were brought into a single composition 
by the breaking through of all surrounding walls, and the 
carrying of the upper flights on bridge-like vaults. 



420 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Spain. Academic architecture. The conquest of the Indies 
made Spain, by the middle of the sixteenth century, the 
greatest power in Europe. Philip II. gave expression to this 




FIG. 231 THE ESCURIAL. PLAN 



power by the building of the Escurial (1563-84), comprising 
a votive church and mausoleum, monastery, and palace, with 
every needful dependency for the service of both church and 
state (Figs. 231, 232). Its building lay chiefly in the hands of 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 421 

Juan de Herrera (1530-97), whose work, severely academic 
in its forms, established the post-Renaissance tendencies in 
Spain. In the Patio of the Evangelists, to be sure, he em- 
ployed the Roman arch order with equal bays and unbroken 
entablatures, but elsewhere the membering abounds in the 







FIG. 232 THE ESCURIAL 

complex grouping of supports, the breaking of horizontal 
members, the uniting of interior spaces by penetrating vaults, 
and the multiplication of aspects in perspective by the com- 
bination of dome and towers. 

Baroque supremacy. Herrera' s sobriety was soon super- 
seded by baroque freedom, which ultimately in the hands of 
Joce Churriguera (1650-1723) became the boldest license. 
The national traditions of the Plateresque were reflected in 
the " Churrigueresque " style, which paid less attention to the 



422 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

creation of new forms of plan and space than to the luxuriant 
elaboration of detail. It reached its fullest development in 
the great portals and altar-pieces, such as the high altar of 
the church of El Salvador in Seville (Fig. 233). 

Reaction. The accession of the Bourbons in 1714, which 
marked the end of Spanish domination in politics, brought 

also a subordination 
of Spanish tenden- 
cies in art. The 
palaces of the new 
rulers at La Gran j a 
and Madrid imitated 
not only the world- 
liness of Versailles 
but its architectural 
formalism. The 
baroque tendency, 
which comported so 
well with national 
sympathies, per- 
sisted nevertheless, 
now creating novel 
forms of interior 
space, and still fill- 
ing the framework of 
the orders with an 
exuberance of orna- 
ment. 

France. In France 
there came first a 
brief period of 
baroque supremacy. 
This was of rela- 
tively short duration, however; a compromise was soon 
reached, and the ultimate victory of the academic ten- 
dency camel earlier than in Italy and was more complete. 
Even during the years of compromise the academic ten- 
dency predominated, although in the later of them the 
freer tendency once more asserted itself vigorously, in the 
phase known as the rococo. The conventional subdivision 




FIG. 233 SEVILLE. ALTAR OF THE CHURCH 
OF EL SALVADOR. (SCHUBERT) 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 423 

of the period in France into phases designated by the names 
of the kings conforms tolerably well with this development, 
although the duration of the phases by no means corresponds 
exactly to that of the reigns. In general the baroque su- 
premacy may be identified with the style of Henry IV. and 
Louis XIII. ; the compromise, in its earlier and stricter form, 
with the style of Louis XIV., in its later and freer form, with 
that of Louis XV.; the ultimate victory of the academic, 
with the style of Louis XVI. 

Establishment of academic and baroque tendencies. Already 
in the later work of native masters of the High Renaissance, 
as we have seen, there were signs of the appearance of post- 
Renaissance tendencies. On one hand De 1'Orme and Bullant 
had written treatises discussing the proper form and propor- 
tions of classical members. On the other hand De TOrme 
and Du Cerceau had employed at the Tuileries and at Charle- 
val many of the forms of the school of Michelangelo, such as the 
herm, the rusticated architrave, and the broken pediment. 

Baroque supremacy. Henry IV. With the resumption of 
building under Henry IV. after the religious wars (about 1600), 
the strict classical forms had everywhere yielded to those of 
the triumphant baroque of the day in Italy. It was rarely, 
however, that baroque principles governed the whole composi- 
tion. In the typical buildings of the time of Henry IV., only 
the details of the baroque were applied to the simplest 
rectangular masses. A combination of brick and stone came 
in through the close affiliation with Protestant Holland. 
Examples of these characteristics are Henry IV.'s additions 
to Fontainebleau, as well as his buildings about the Place 
Royale and the Place Dauphine in Paris. All these have a 
simple treatment of rusticated quoins at the corners and at 
the openings, with occasional use of consoles, rusticated archi- 
traves, and broken pediments at small scale. The internal 
decoration went much further toward Italian freedom. In the 
treatment of doors and chimneys, enframements were doubled, 
members broken and interwoven, consoles and cartouches 
multiplied. Other developments which recall contemporary 
Italian movements lay in planning. At Saint Germain, 
Du Perac built for Henry a series of vast terraces and steps 
recalling those of the Villa d'Este. For the improvement 



424 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

of Paris, which henceforth became the focus of national life, 
the king laid out the two great squares already mentioned. 
They were surrounded by buildings of unified design the 
first of a long series of similar enterprises in town planning. 

Louis XIII. Under Louis XIII. (1610-43) the baroque 
influence still preponderated, although to a degree which 
gradually decreased. A more frequent use was again made of 
the orders, and the baroque elements were confined within the 
fields marked out by them. The leading architect of the 
earlier years of the reign was Salomon de Brosse (d. 1626). 
For Catherine de' Medici he built the Luxembourg Palace 
(1616-20), which she wished to resemble the Pitti Palace in 
Florence. The drawings which she secured from Italy did 
indeed have their influence, for there were many points of simi- 
larity between the work of De Brosse and that of Ammanati. 
The open court, the superposed rusticated orders, the 
rusticated arches, flat and semicircular, as well as the rigidity 
of the architectural framework, all reappeared. The general 
grouping and the broken silhouette of the palace, with its 
many pavilions and high roofs, were, of course, wholly French. 
In De Brosse's facade for the Gothic church of Saint Gervais 
he also showed the influence of the freer Italian tendency as 
exemplified in the Gesu, which furnished the model for most 
later French church facades. The conservative French 
tendencies were represented by the earlier designs of Jacques 
Lemercier (1585-1654). His enlargement of the court of the 
Louvre (162430) was on the system established by Lescot, 
with the addition of a few baroque elements; his vast sym- 
metrical chateau of Richelieu depended solely, for its wall 
treatment, on rusticated enframements with a filling of stucco. 

Reaction. In the later years of the reign of Louis XIII. 
there was already a strengthening of the academic tendency 
which resulted in compromise. That this should have been so 
at the very moment when the baroque in Italy was receiving 
its greatest development was due to several causes. Among 
these perhaps the strongest was the growing tendency of 
France toward absolutism and organization in every field 
the monarchy, the church, the arts in general. An instance 
was the founding of the French Academy (1635), having for 
its object "to give certain rules to our language and to render 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 425 

it pure." Similar in its direction was the fundamental French 
belief in ''reason" and "good sense," more sympathetic with 
the logic of the Italian academists than with the emotional 
liberty of the baroque masters. The renewed imitation of 
classical models in the drama, beginning with Corneille about 
1635, coincides with the return to the stricter following of 
classical forms in architecture. The Frenchmen who went to 
Rome no longer studied contemporary architecture so much as 




FIG. 234 BLOIS, WING OF GASTON D'ORLEANS 

the work of the High Renaissance masters, with whom they 
shared a direct interest in Roman buildings. The academic 
writings of the Italians were diligently read and compared. 
Freart de Chambray, who had been sent to Rome in 1640, 
published the first complete translation of Palladio (1650), 
and also a parallel of the canons of ten of the principal theorists. 
Compromise. Frangois Mansart. Style of Louis XIV . The 
leader in the return to academic purity in architectural prac- 
tice was Frangois Mansart (1598-1666). His wing for Gaston 
d'Orleans in the chateau of Blois (1635-40) depends for its 



426 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

effect almost solely on the proportions and the sober member- 
ing of the superposed orders (Fig. 234). Except for an 
increase in the height of the entrance pavilion and for the 

I single cartouche in the center, all the architectural lines, even 
those of the roofs, carry through without interruption. Rusti- 
cation and dormers are alike absent, and baroque influence 
appears only in the decorative carving. Mansart's purism 
in the use of the orders persisted in his work at the church of 
the Val-de-Grace in Paris (begun 1645), although the general 
scheme is that of the baroque churches of Italy, and baroque 
consoles occur both in the facade and in the dome. Hence- 
forth, throughout the reign of Louis XIV., the compromise 
between academic and baroque tendencies prevailed on much 
the same terms. On the exterior, and even in the larger 
membering of the interior, the academic framework dominated 
the design; baroque forms were confined to the decoration. 

Le Vau. A step beyond Mansart in the direction of 
pronounced post-Renaissance character was taken by Louis 
Le Vau (1612-70) who was the court architect after the death 

h of Lemercier. Whereas Mansart used always an order to 
each story, Le Vau rarely failed to introduce a " colossal 
order," rising from a low plinth to the main cornice. This 
was, indeed, no new thing in French architecture, but it was 
a feature which had fallen into disuse during the baroque 
supremacy. Le Vau employed it in the chateau of Vaux-le- 
Vicomte, in the south facade of the Louvre (1664), and in the 
College des Quatre Nations (1660-68). In all these cases, 
however, only one or more pavilions have the large order and 
the rest of the building is treated with superposed orders or 
no order at all. 

The Louvre. Perrault. For the principal front of the 
Louvre it was felt that something grander was necessary. 
After the rejection of many designs by native architects, it 
was finally decided to summon Bernini from Rome. His 
design, produced in 1665, involved the destruction of much of 
the existing building. It proposed the rebuilding of the court 
with a single gigantic order rising from the ground, and the 
treatment of the exterior with an order of equally large scale, 
raised on a rusticated basement. The execution of this 
scheme was soon abandoned as impossibly extravagant, and 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 427 

a new design was prepared by Claude Perrault, a savant who 
had turned his attention to architecture. He profited by the 
lesson Bernini had given in unity of design and largeness of 
scale, but adapted his fagade better to the existing work and 
gave it a more uniform membering and proportions (Fig. 
235). Like Bernini he placed a large Corinthian order, in- 




FIG. 235 PARIS. COLONNADE OF THE LOUVRE 



eluding the two upper stories, over a basement the height of 
the ground story, and used a flat roof behind a balustrade. 
Unlike Bernini, however, and indeed for the first time in 
modern architecture, he did not merely decorate the wall with 
an engaged order, but employed a free standing colonnade in 
front of it, like -that of a peristylar temple. He followed De 
Brosse and Mansart in employing coupled columns, but gave 
them larger scale and more Roman detail. He also gave a 
new impress to the five-part scheme for long facades. This 
had grown up in France from the medieval castle with its 
corner towers and central gate-house, and had so far pre- 
served a medieval massing. Perrault treated it with but 



428 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

slight projection to all the pavilions, and with a pediment over 
the central one a formula which has remained usual to 
this day. 

The academies. The predominance of principles of law and 
order based upon the antique was fortified by the formation 
in 167 1 of the Academy of Architecture, to complete the system 
of organization begun in literature by the founding of the 
Academic Frangaise. A further reinforcement of classical 




FIG. 236 VERSAILLES. THE PALACE FROM THE PLACE D'ARMES 

influence came through the establishment on a regular footing 
of the custom of sending promising artists to complete their 
studies in Rome. Thus arose the French Academy in Rome, 
chartered in 1677. 

Versailles. J. H. Mansart. From the commencement of 
his personal administration in 1661, Louis XIV. began the 
development of the chateau built for his father at Versailles, 
for which he had a special preference. Ultimately he made it 
his permanent residence and the seat of his government. The 
original chateau, a simple structure of brick and stone, had to 
be many times enlarged, although it retained much of its 
original aspect toward the fore-court, and inevitably had an 
influence on the scale of the later work (Fig. 236). The 
extensions, begun by Le Vau, were completed by Jules 
Hardouin Mansart, a great-nephew_oJ_Frangois. The system 
of membering finally adopted for the long unbroken facades 



1 



430 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

toward the garden was that of a rusticated basement, an order, 
and an attic with balustrade. The interest of the building, 
however, lies less in the architectural treatment of the exterior 
than in the plan, with its multiplicity of functions (Fig. 237). 
The problem was to provide quarters not only for the king and 
the princes of the blood, but also for the entire court, with 
offices for the ministers, provisions for service, immense 
stables, a chapel, and ultimately a theater. In addition there 
were, on one side, the garden and park, on the other side, the 
town, newly founded both alike symmetrical on the main 
axis of the palace. Never before, even at the Escurial, had 
there been a single composition on such a vast scale. The 
interior decoration was of a corresponding richness. Here, 
more than on the exterior, appeared the baroque elements 
which still characterized contemporary architecture. Thus in 
the ceiling of the long Galerie des Glaces, decorated by Charles 
Le Brun (Fig. 238), there was an abundance of broken pedi- 
ments, consoles, and free sculpture. In extent and luxurious- 
ness alike, Versailles established an ideal which every prince 
in Europe soon dreamed of realizing. 

Outbreak of the free tendency. Louis XV. Rococo. The 
extreme formality imposed on life and art by Louis XIV. 
provoked a new outbreak of the free tendency under his 
successor. It took many suggestions from the late ' Italian 
baroque of Borromini and his followers, which had hitherto 
been little favored in France. The earliest and most pro- 
nounced manifestations of the movement occur in interior 
decoration. Curves were multiplied both in plan and in 
elevation; architectural lines were broken and were over- 
flowed by sculpture. The pompous apparatus of column and 
entablature was banished from interiors, arid replaced by a 
more delicate and intimate treatment with panels, cartouches, 
and floriated scrolls (Fig. 242). The prevalence of shell-woiK 
or rocaille led to the designation rococo, applied loosely to all 
the work of free tendencies which resulted from the new 
movement. Efforts were not wanting to remodel external 
architecture on similar lines. In many of the designs of 
J. A. Meissonier (1693-1750) vertical and horizontal members 
are alike abandoned in favor of flowing reverse curves. In 
France, however, this extreme was not reached in the exterior 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 431 

of any building actually executed. The orders were retained 
on the facade, with only a slightly greater liberty of detail. 
The spirit of freedom showed itself on the exterior mainly by 
an increased use of curved and angular elements of plan, and 
by an exuberance of ornament within the bays and above the 
cornice. All these characteristics are specially well exemplified 




FIG. 238 VERSAILLES. THE GALERIE DBS GLACES 



in the notable group of buildings erected for Stanislas, Duke of 
Lorraine, at Nancy (1750-57). 

Academic victory. Louis XVI. Contemporary with the 
lr. er years of the rococo and well within the reign of Louis XV. 
there was a new reaction against the extravagance of the free 
tendency, associated with the name of his successor. The 
design of Servadony for the fagade of Saint Sulpice in Paris 
(1732-45) showed in its two lower stories of columns and arches 
a classical strictness and majesty unusual at the time, and a 
similar character appeared in the Hdtel Dieu by Soufflot at 
Lyons (1737). In the work of Jacques Anges Gabriel, falling 
in the years 1752 to i77o,the tendency won a complete victory, 



432 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

and the academic system received its ultimate development. 
Gabriel's designs for the Place de la Concorde (Fig. 239), 
for the Ecole Militaire in Paris, the Palace at Compiegne, the 
Theater at Versailles, and the Petit Trianon (Fig. 240) form 
a body of work unrivaled for the purity of academic detail 
and ornament. In most of them he followed the scheme 
consecrated by Perrault an order embracing two stories 




FIG. 239 PARIS. PLACE DE LA CONCORDE 

above a high basement. In the handling of the order itself, 
in some cases, he secured Perrault's touch of Roman magnifi- 
cence. Often he restricted the order to the principal pavilion, 
and left the remaining walls unbroken except by the slender 
and elegant window enframements. Before the accession 
of Louis XVI. even the interiors of buildings had lost their 
luxuriant freedom. At the same time there began a change 
in character, both within and without, due to the literal 
imitation of classical motives, which brought rococo and 
academic movements alike to an end. 

Types of buildings. Chateaux. The close of the religious 
wars once more made it safe to live in the country, and per- 
mitted a new and freer development of the chateau. From this 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 433 

time until Louis XIV. made constant residence at court a 
necessity, the nobility built many chateaux which correspond 
to the countless manor houses of England. While some of 
the larger of these retained the inclosed court, the tendency 
was to omit the block on the fourth side and to shorten the 
arms, so that in many of the smaller examples only the main 




FIG. 240 VERSAILLES. PETIT TRIANON 



block was left. On the other hand the main block itself was 
made thicker, with a double file of rooms, so that it was no 
longer necessary to traverse private apartments. The main 
staircase, which in Francois Mansart's designs still occupied 
the center, was pushed to one side in favor of a monumental 
vestibule. The functions of rooms became increasingly 
specialized. The salon or reception-room now made its 
appearance, and was accorded the place of honor in the center, 
facing the gardens. From the time of Le Vau it was given an 
elliptical form, projecting so that it commanded a view to the 
sides as well. The regime established by Louis XIV. affected 



434 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

chateaux in two opposite ways. On one hand, at Versailles, 
it magnified the chateau into the modern palace. On the 
other hand it produced in the neighborhood of the palace a 
number of small but elegant chateaux serving as retreats for 
recreation or privacy, like the casinos of the Italian villas. 
Marly, the Grand Trianon, and the Petit Trianon (Fig. 240) 
are examples showing the increasing desire for intimacy, which 
ultimately resulted in the rustic hamlet of Marie Antoinette. 

Gardens. The gardens themselves were given a new and 
magnificent treatment. This was inaugurated by Andre le 
N6tre at Vaux and developed by him at Versailles and the 
other royal residences. It involved a general increase in 
scale, the introduction of canals, basins, cascades, and foun- 
tains of great size, and an extension of the garden scheme over 
all the neighboring countryside by means of a system of 
radiating and intersecting allees. The reaction from splendor 
apparent in the building of the Trianon had later its expression 
in the gardens. The informal or landscape garden of England 
was adopted, as a more fitting milieu for the playful phases 
of court life. 

Hotels. The development of Paris into a national metrop- 
olis gave an impetus to the development of the city resi- 
dence or hotel, which often rivaled a chateau in the extent 
of its court and gardens. The ambitious examples, large and 
small alike, preserved the fore-court and screen toward the 
street, with the living-rooms in a block facing the garden at 
the rear. The same internal changes in the direction of 
greater convenience took place in the hdtel as in the chateau. 
Great ingenuity was exercised in making separate provision 
for all the varied functions of the establishment, often on 
limited and irregular sites. Stables and service quarters were 
provided with subsidiary courts of their own, where the 
dimensions at all permitted. The minor houses on narrow lots 
were also given the architectural expression in classic forms 
which has governed the aspect of cities to this day. Some- 
times whole ranges of houses were treated uniformly as the 
surrounding walls of a monumental square ; at other times 
there was but a single facade, usually of three bays. In 
either case the favorite division of height, a basement story 
with two others above, corresponding to an order, was adopted. 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 435 

As land values rose, apartment houses in four and more stories 
were built, conforming to the same architectural scheme, but 
with mezzanines and attics. 

Churches. The church in France during the seventeenth 
and eighteenth centuries was less significant than either the 
state or society, yet a certain number of notable religious 
buildings were undertaken. The parish churches had the 
basilican plan, as well as the facade in two stories with consoles 
or twin towers, characteristic of contemporary basilican 
churches in Italy. The more important churches of the time 
were those which either had a votive character, like the Val-de- 
Grace (begun 1645), or were chapels attached to an institution, 
like the churches of the Sorbonne (1635-53), the College des 
Quatre Nations (1660-68), and the Hopital des Invalides 
(1692-1704). They were thus relatively free from liturgical 
restrictions and could fulfil their monumental functions 
through the adoption of a dome. All four of these just 
mentioned have the high drum and external silhouette in- 
augurated by Saint Peter's. The Sorbonne and the Val-de- 
Grace, both of which have basilican naves, have two-storied 
facades like those of the basilican churches. In the new 
chapel of the Invalides this scheme was retained even though 
the church was a composition of purely central type, without 
aisles or galleries. Only at the College des Quatre Nations 
was the single order employed. The plans of all these domed 
churches offer interesting examples of the tendencies of post- 
Renaissance days toward the multiplying of interrelations 
between the parts, rather than the preserving of their indi- 
vidual unity. At Versailles there were special reasons why 
a dome could not be introduced. The palace chapel had to 
yield the axial position to the state bedroom of the king, and 
thus could not receive a development which would injure too 
much the symmetry of the whole group. The solution adopted 
by Mansart, a basilican plan, with galleries treated as tall 
colonnades above the low arcaded aisles, was novel in church 
design, yet quite in accordance with the general formulae of 
the period. 

Ensembles. Planning. The design of vast unified en- 
sembles, which had begun in French architecture with De 
rOrme, was even more characteristic of the post-Renaissance 



i 



436 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

period. The great chateaux like Versailles and the Louvre 
were not the only examples. The H6pital des Invalides in 
Paris, which furnished accommodation for six thousand dis- 
abled soldiers, and the Ecole Militaire, also on an enormous 
scale, were symmetrical compositions about a series of courts. 
The systems of subordinated axes reached a high degree of 
organization, as in the vast Roman ensembles. An equal 
skill was shown in the handling of diagonal axes, and in the 
union of elements in irregular plans by means of circular and 
elliptical features. 

Town planning. The creation of squares surrounded by 
private buildings of uniform design, begun by Henry IV., was 
continued under his successors. His Place Royale and Place 
Dauphine were both rectangular in plan. A project of his 
which was never realized, however the Place de France 
involved a semicircular space at the entrance to the city, with 
avenues radiating to every quarter. A similar conception was 
embodied by Louis XIV. in the circular Place des Victoires 
(1684-86). The Place Louis le Grand or Place Vendome was 
a rectangle diversified by the cutting off of the corners diago- 
nally, and ornamented by engaged columns and pediments at 
the axial points. The Place Louis XV., or Place de la Con- 
corde, was conceived, like these last two, primarily as a setting 
for a monument. Its buildings occupy only one side, but with 
their free standing colonnades like those of the Louvre they 
have a richness unapproached in the other examples. In the 
provincial towns squares and quais were also treated as unified 
compositions; at Nancy even a whole series of squares was 
brought into one design, comparable in extent and complexity 
to the greatest of the Roman fora. Thus was expressed the 
fondness of the time for order and subordination, as well as 
for the absorption of individual unities in a larger unity. 

Construction. Except for the period of Henry IV., when 
Dutch influence caused the adoption of brick even in some 
regions where stone was more easily obtainable, stone was 
used almost exclusively in monumental constructions. The 
softness and fine texture of the French limestone permitted' 
carving almost as free and delicate as if in marble. Marble 
itself was used but seldom, and then only as a precious adorn- 
ment, for instance, in the shafts which distinguish the central 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 437 



blocks at Versailles and Trianon. The ease of working the 
stone, as well as the geometrical skill of the French builders, 
resulted in the use of cut stone for vaulting to an extent no- 
where else approached. The science of stone-cutting or 
stereotemy was thus developed to the highest point. 

Details. The conception of general unity in exterior treat- 
ment was not often pushed, as in Italy, to the destruction of 
the unity of single details such as the enframements of doors 





FIG. 241 PARIS. PORTE SAINT 
DENIS. PRINCIPAL FRONT 



FIG. 242 VERSAILLES. DE- 
TAIL OF THE APARTMENTS 
OF LOUIS XV. 



and windows. After the brief period of baroque supremacy 
such details followed classical or Palladian models with but 
little modification, and equaled them in harmony of propor- 
tion and profiling. The spirit of the time appeared, never- 
theless, in the fondness for the use of ears and consoles, and 
for the coupling and grouping of supports. It appeared also 
in the frequent use of transitional members. Thus in the 
facade of the Petit Trianon (Fig. 240) a subordinate break 
was introduced on either side of the main projecting portico, 
and a similar though minute break was made in the architraves 
of the side windows. The same rationalistic sentiment which 
found interrupted pediments repugnant sometimes demanded 
the omission of the orders altogether where the column would 



438 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

not fulfil its original function as an isolated support. An 
example is the Porte Saint Denis in Paris (Fig. 241), in which 
the Roman scheme of triumphal arch was expurgated by 
substituting for the columns large tapering panels decorated 
with sculptured trophies. This distinctively national 
tendency, which gradually gained strength during the 
eighteenth century, was one which bore much fruit in the 
following period. 

Interiors. In interiors the unity of design between wall 
treatment and furniture was a novel and striking feature. 
During the prevalence of the rococo, indeed, interior unity was 
carried to the extreme the shape of the room, the motives of 
its paneling and the lines of the furnishings being all based 
on similar curves, which precluded any individual self-suffi- 
ciency in the parts (Fig. 242). Under Louis XV. and Louis 
XVI. the desire for intimacy led to a reduction in the size and 
height of the rooms, in which elegance was sought rather 
than splendor. 

England: baroque supremacy. Jacobean architecture. The 
first of the post-Renaissance forms to reach England were the 
baroque cartouches and strap-work from Germany, which, as 
we have seen, were lavished on buildings still fundamentally 
Gothic in their disposition (Fig. 218). The reign of James I. 
(1603-25) thus constitutes a period of baroque supremacy, 
analogous to that of Henry IV. in France. As in France, also, 
this baroque predominance was brief, and was soon succeeded 
by a compromise in which academic elements predominated. 

Introduction of academic forms. Inigo Jones. The intro- 
duction of academic forms into England was essentially the 
work of one man, Inigo Jones (1573-1652). His architectural 
career began after a journey to Italy in 1613 and 1614 in which 
he visited Rome and Vicenza, studied the writings of Palladio 
and others, and became acquainted with Maderna and the 
other foremost contemporary architects of Rome. He was 
thus subjected both to the academic influence and to the 
baroque, and both affected his work. The resulting com- 
promise, however, was not, as in France, one based on the 
forms already in use in the country, but one based directly on 
the forms current in Italy. Thus England was endowed, as 
early as 1620, with buildings more advanced in point of style 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 439 

than those of any other country than Italy itself. The most 
noted of Jones's designs was for the palace at Whitehall (1619), 
a vast composition resembling De FOrme's for the Tuileries. 
The only portion executed, the Banqueting Hall (Fig. 243), 
had a characteristic Palladian facade with orders in two stories, 
a flat balustraded roof and an entablature broken about the 




FIG. 243 LONDON. THE BANQUETING HALL, WHITEHALL 



supports. Jones's free-standing Tuscan portico of Saint 
Paul's, Covent Garden, his "Queen's House" at Greenwich, 
as well as his gigantic portico for the old Cathedral of Saint 
Paul, represent his academic side. His design for King 
Charles's block at Greenwich Hospital, however, closely follows 
Maderna's facade of Saint Peter's, and the gate at York Stairs, 
with other minor works and interior designs, shows pronounced 
baroque characteristics. 

Sir Christopher Wren. Until after the Civil Wars Jones's 
work remained almost isolated. With the Restoration, 
however, began the activity of Christopher Wren (16321723), 
a distinguished mathematician, whose chief training in archi- 
tecture was derived from books and from a visit to Paris in 
1665, the very year of Bernini's triumphant reception there. 



440 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

It was natural that in him, as in Inigo Jones, academic and 
baroque influence should mingle, the baroque element being 
even stronger than in his predecessor. In certain designs, to 
be sure, such as the Library of Trinity College, Cambridge, 
with its reminiscence of the Library of Saint Mark, he re- 
mained strictly academic; and in the Monument in London, 
commemorating the great fire of 1666, he anticipated later 
classical movements by an imitation of the column of Trajan. 




FIG. 244 LONDON. SAINT PAUL S CATHEDRAL. PLAN 



In his towers and spires, however, in his fondness for the 
combination of brick and stone, and above all in the luxuriant 
detail of his interiors, he shows the influence of contemporary 
Italy and the Low Countries. 

Saint Paul's. Wren's most important commission was the 
rebuilding of Saint Paul's, 16681710. His first design for it 
was a great octagonal domed church with an encircling aisle, 
like Santa Maria della Salute in Venice, but with even greater 
multiplicity of connections and variety of spatial effect. This 
proved too radical for the clergy, as Bramante's and Michel- 
angelo's central schemes for Saint Peter's had proved, and a 
longitudinal scheme had to be substituted (Fig. 244). The 
dome, however, remained a dominant feature, including the 
whole width of both nave and aisles as in the cathedral of 




i 



By courtesy of London Stereoscopic and Photograph Co. 
FIG. 245 LONDON. SAINT PAUL'S CATHEDRAL 



442 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Florence. Its external form in the earlier projects seems to 
have been derived from San Gallo's model for Saint Peter's, 
but in its final form (Fig. 245) it was influenced rather by 
Bramante's designs. Like Bramante's Tempietto at San Pietro 
in Montorio, it has a peristyle of free-standing columns with 
a balustrade, a paneled drum, and flat ribs on the dome 
proper. The vastly larger scale of Saint Paul's gives the 
composition a new majesty. For the facade Wren adopted the 
two-storied scheme of most of the Italian churches of the time, 
with twin towers similar in composition to those of Sant' 
Agnese at Rome and other baroque examples. The super.- 
posed porticoes of coupled columns in the center, however, 
had more of the academic dignity of Palladio and Perrault. 
The basilican arrangement of the interior, with the flying 
buttresses made necessary by the clerestory, Wren felt it 
necessary to mask by carrying his second story order around 
the exterior. The interior dome also fell far below the 
exterior one, which was formed of timber framework over a 
cone of brick supporting the lantern. Thus frankness of 
construction was sacrificed to gain the complete liberty of 
design which the post-Renaissance artist demanded for both 
interior and exterior. 

Vanbrugh. The dual tendencies of the period appear in 
heightened contrast in the work of Sir John Vanbrugh, who 
took up architecture at thirty-five, after a brilliant success as 
a writer of comedies. In his vast designs for Castle Howard, 
Blenheim Palace (Fig. 246), and other houses of the aristoc- 
racy, he carried to the limit the scale of orders and rooms, the 
picturesque composition of masses, and the support of the 
main mass by subordinate colonnades and dependencies. 
Baroque features abound in the treatment of the cupolas and 
the skyline generally, whereas the porticoes and colonnades 
are often of strictly classical ordonnance. A classical portico 
of this sort, without any combinations with baroque elements, 
appears in the Clarendon Press building at Oxford, designed 
by Vanbrugh and his pupil Nicholas Hawksmoor about 1710. 

Academic supremacy. ' ' The Palladian style. ' ' The influence 
of the universities, indeed, was squarely on the side of the 
classical and academic, and the same was true of the noble 
amateurs for whose schooling the "grand tour" to Italy had 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 443 

become indispensable. The most influential of these was 
Lord Burlington (1695-1753) who purchased Palladio's draw- 
ings in Vicenza, issued an edition of his writings in 1715-16, 
and of his restorations of ancient buildings in 1730. He also 
assisted the architects of Palladian tendencies Colin Camp- 
bell, William Kent, and others by commissions and by help- 




no. 246 BLENHEIM PALACE FROM THE FORE-COURT 



ing in the publication of their designs. Burlington House in 
London by Campbell, 1716-17, shows direct following of 
Palladio's designs. The favorite of these was his Villa 
Rotonda, which was reproduced both by Campbell and by 
Burlington himself. For the .assembly rooms at York, 
Burlington adopted an imitation of Palladio's " Egyptian 
Hall," surrounded by colonnades in two stories. The free- 
standing portico as used by Palladio became the rule for the 
great houses of the nobility (Fig. 247) and for churches as 
well. Henceforth throughout the century in England academic 
purity of detail was carried to the point of banishing all 
decorative sculpture from the facades, which depended for 



444 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

their effect solely on abstract composition and proportion. 
Thus England anticipated by a generation or more the victory 
of academism and the advent of classicism in other countries, 
and was in a position to exercise on them a powerful return 
influence. 

Domestic architecture. The great houses. The post-Renais- 
sance period after the Restoration was the heyday of the 
English landed aristocracy, and it was natural that the 
.characteristic type of the period should have been the great 
country house. The royal palaces scarcely surpassed many 
other seats in size and splendor and may well be considered 
with them. In the development considerations of form took 
first place, and the interior was arranged as well as possible 
without disturbing the facades. The first building of the new 
order was the Queen's House at Greenwich, designed in 1617. 
It was a solid rectangular block, with a central colonnaded 
loggia over a high basement, and with a flat roof and balus- 
trade a revolutionary contrast to the typical Jacobean house, 
its tall wings, bays, and gables. In his designs for Whitehall, 
Jones employed superposed orders; in those for the later 
buildings at Greenwich, a colossal order and attic. In Somer- 
set House, as executed, he adopted pilasters running through 
two stories, over an arcaded basement. The plans made 
certain advances in the direction of convenience and privacy 
the files of rooms were doubled in many of the blocks, and 
corridors were often added. Palladio's scheme of dependencies 
on either side of the fore-court, connected with the house by 
colonnades, was also adopted. Of the Italian formulas for 
facades introduced by Jones, the favorite was the one which 
had the added prestige of its adoption in the Louvre the tall 
order over a basement story. This was used by Wren at 
Hampton Court (1689-1700), and was reverted to (after 
Vanbrugh's preference for the colossal order) by the later 
Palladians. In the larger houses of Vanbrugh, there was a 
modification of the block-like mass of the main house by wings 
providing long suites of state apartments toward the gardens, 
on the model of those at Versailles. At Blenheim, indeed, 
these wings were also turned forward along the sides of the 
house; and the kitchens and stables were pushed still farther 
forward, and grouped about independent courts on either 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 445 

side of a second fore-court like the Cour Roy ale at Versailles. 
Unlike Versailles, however, Vanbrugh's houses had an emphasis 
on the central and terminal masses which makes them much 
more lively in silhouette (Fig. 246). With the return to 
Palladianism came the adoption of the great free-standing 
pedimented portico, often of six Corinthian columns, as at 




FIG. 247 PRIOR PARK NEAR BATH 



Prior Park near Bath, built in 1734 (Fig. 247). In other 
Palladian houses the arrangement was still more schematic 
even symmetrical on both axes sometimes with four outlying 
blocks, as at Holkham. The service quarters were now 
provided for in the basement story, less frankly confessed but 
more convenient in their relation to the living-rooms. 

Smaller houses. Besides the multitude of great houses with 
their weight of academic apparatus, there was an even greater 
number of unpretentious houses in many of which no orders 
at all were used. Even those attributed to Jones and Wren are 



446 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

merely straightforward compositions of wall and openings 
of stone, of brick, or of brick and stone sometimes with 
classical architraves, but sometimes without even these. 
Leaded and mullioned windows were abandoned for painted 
wooden sashes, and classical detail was restricted to the 
pilastered doorway and main cornice. In the simpler examples 
there might even be nothing specifically classical except the 
general regularity and symmetry, as, for instance, in Clifford 




FIG. 248 CLIFFORD CHAMBERS 

Chambers (Fig. 248), where the "vernacular" style is seen in 
a typically cultivated and luxuriant natural setting. 

Gardens. The earlier gardens of the period in England were 
under foreign influence successively Italian, with terraces, 
statues, and fountains; Dutch, with yews clipped in fantastic 
shapes; and French, with the long allees and canals of Le 
Notre. In the early years of the eighteenth century, under 
the leadership of writers like Shaftesbury, Addison, and Pope, 
began the modern appreciation of natural landscape, and in 
its wake came the creation of the informal landscape garden 
a new type, specifically English. The great formal gardens 
were gradually remodeled until the houses stood immediately 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 447 

in naturalesque grounds, where every stratagem was employed 
to create pleasing vistas and a constant variety of character. 
A multitude of minor decorative structures, among which 
playful reproductions of classical temples began to appear, 
served still further to diversify and enliven the grounds. 

Parish churches. Church building was uncommon in Eng- 
land during the post-Renaissance period, except in London. 
There the vast growth of the city and the havoc wrought by 
the great fire of 1666 made many new structures necessary. 
They presented a problem, which even the established church 
in England shared with the Protestants of France and Ger- 
many: to build in Renaissance forms a church primarily 
adapted for preaching. In the first example, the church of 
Saint Paul's, Covent Garden (1631), Jones came nearer the 
Palladian ideal of a reproduction of the classic temple than 
had Palladio himself. It proved an isolated exotic. Wren 
solved the problem, by the adoption of broad and compact 
plans, little encumbered by columns, yet of the greatest 
variety and ingenuity of forms. A basilican arrangement 
with a barrel-vaulted nave, as in Saint Bride's, is not un- 
common in them, and a dome supported on columns and 
diagonal arches is occasionally found, as at Saint Stephen's, 
Walbrook. Galleries were frequently added to increase the 
seating capacity. On the exterior Wren usually retained the 
bell tower and subordinated the architectural treatment of the 
rest of the church to the rich development of its upper portion. 
He sought to retain the expressive effect of the Gothic spire by 
facile combinations of classical elements in decreasing stages. 
The first and most influential of these steeples was that of 
Saint Mary-le-Bow (Fig. 249), which has the transition from 
the square belfry stage masked by angle finials, and the further 
reduction in diameter accomplished by a range of consoles. 
The later development of the type took place through the 
elimination of Gothic or baroque elements in the steeple and 
through the addition of a portico and other classical members 
to the body of the edifice. All these changes best appear in 
the churches of James Gibbs, whose church of Saint Mary-le- 
Strand has a treatment of the exterior by superposed orders 
based on that of Saint Paul's. His design for Saint Martin- 
in-the-Fields' has a hexastyle Corinthian portico and a steeple 



44 8 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

in which the transition from square to octagonal is even more 
subtly accomplished than in those of Wren. It became the 
prototype of many others. 

Town planning. The unified planning of many buildings, 
so characteristic of the period, began in England with Inigo 
Jones's design for Covent Garden a square surrounded by 
open arcades, which are treated as the basement for pilasters 
running through two stories above. For the rebuilding of 
London after the great fire of 1666, Wren prepared a plan 
based on the radiating principle already adopted in France, 
but the multitude of private interests affected prevented its 
execution. Unified streets and squares, however, continued 
to be built by the great landed proprietors, whose system of 
ground rent favored this method. The ultimate scope of 
such enterprises is best seen outside of London, at Bath, where 
the architect John Wood created not only squares, but also 
"circuses" and "crescents" with coherent academic fagades 
treated with pilasters or superposed columns. 

Details. The period of compromise between academic and 
baroque tendencies in England was generally marked by strict 
following of the forms and proportions of the orders themselves, 
but by considerable license in the other details, especially in 
interiors. Thus, although twisted columns, for example, 
appear in but few instances (as in the porch of Saint Mary's 
Church, Oxford, attributed to Inigo Jones), broken and scroll 
pediments, architraves with rusticated key-blocks, and free 
combinations of consoles often occur. In the interiors by 
Wren, such features are combined with the most lavish and 
exuberant carving, the work of Grinling Gibbons, a spiritual 
descendant of Bernini and the Italian decorators. In all this 
work appears the characteristic post-Renaissance feeling for 
interdependence, transition, and fusion of the parts in an 
indissoluble whole. With the Palladian movement in the 
eighteenth century, however, came a tendency to abandon 
this mode of composition, even to expurgate the works of 
Palladio himself, who had followed it so far as academic forms 
permitted. Thus the use of pavilions, the breaking of cornices 
at engaged columns, the use of ears and consoles, and of string- 
courses interrupted by pilasters was gradually abandoned. 
Unbroken cornices and self-sufficient doors and windows 








By courtesy of London Stereoscopic and Photograph Co, 
FIG. 249 LONDON. SAINT MARY-LE-BOW 



450 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

tended to rule in buildings themselves standing proudly self- 
sufficient, with little transition to their environment. 
Academism thus here first gave place to the new classicism 
which was destined to succeed it. 

Germany. Baroque architecture: c. 1580-1730. In Ger- 
many, after the introduction of baroque forms from Italy, 

about i 580, the 
baroque spirit main- 
tained a complete 
ascendancy. At 
first it was the in- 
fluence of Alessi and 
of north Italy which 
dominated, and 
which, united with 
survivals of medi- 
evalism, produced 
such characteristi- 
cally German build- 
ings as the Fried- 
richsbau at Heidel- 
berg (1601-07), and 
the Rathaus at 
Augsburg (1614- 
20). The Thirty 
Years' War (1618- 
48) with its unpar- 
alleled devastation, 
however, brought 
all building in Ger- 
FIG. 250 DRESDEN. CENTRAL PAVILION OF many to a stand- 

THE ZWINGER ^ ^ destroyed 

architectural tradi- 
tion itself. Meanwhile, in the south, the Catholic princes 
had summoned to their aid the Jesuits of Italy, bring- 
ing with them Italian architects and their maturer baroque. 
Thus in 1606 Vincenzo Scamozzi, a disciple of Palladio, 
prepared a plan for the cathedral of Salzburg, which was 
executed in 1614-34, with forms reminiscent of II Gesu in 
Rome. Italian architects built at Prague the Waldstein 




POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 451 

Palace (1623-29) with its great garden loggia of arches on 
coupled columns; and later, in Munich, the Theatine Church 
(1663-75) with its two-story facade, its tall dome and Western 
towers with multiplied consoles. An independent German 
version of the baroque did not flourish until after 1700, when 
a group of masters arose 
who showed a facility in 
this medium of expression 
scarcely equaled even in 
Italy. Andreas Schluter 
imbued the royal palace in 
Berlin with the exuberant 
decorative spirit of his 
sculptures, Matthaus Pop- 
pelmann attained in the 
Zwinger at Dresden (1711 
22) the ultimate fusion of 
all the elements through the 
incompleteness and mutual 
dependence of every one 
(Fig. 250). Georg Bahr 
brought to a brilliant culmi- 
nation the development of 
the Protestant auditorium- 
church by his Frauenkirche 
at Dresden (Fig. 251), with 
its rotunda and storied in- 
terior galleries, its unique 
and successful transition 
from mass to dome. In 
Vienna, Johann Fischer von 
Erlach, the pioneer historian 

of architecture, showed a more eclectic spirit as in the employ- 
ment of a classical portico, and of imitations of the column of 
Trajan, as elements in his church of San Carlo Borromeo 
but in general baroque conceptions dominate wholly. 

Rococo. French influence: c. 1730-70. From about 1730, 
this native growth was submerged, thanks to the overpower- 
ing prestige of France, by an influx of French architects and. 
French influence. These men were adepts in the free rococo 




FIG. 251 DRESDEN. FRAUENKIRCHE 



452 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

decorations of Louis XV. and, unlike their fellow extremists 
who remained in France, were not restrained by academic 
tradition from carrying over their curvilinear style to exteriors. 
On the contrary the prevailing native baroque encouraged 
them to indulge their tendencies in graceful chateaux like the 
Amalienburg by Francois de Cuvillies, which have no counter- 
part outside of Germany. 

Rise of academism. English influence. Frederick the 
Great (1740-86) turned not only to France but to England, 
which in the later eighteenth century began to set the mode 
even for France itself. The Royal Opera House in Berlin 
(1743) has a pedimented Corinthian portico of six columns, 
severe classical niches, and almost complete absence of 
sculpture. The final victory of this academic tendency, 
presaging that of classicism itself, appears in the decorative 
towers of the Gendarmenmarkt in Berlin (i 780^.) by Karl von 
Gontard, in which are mingled reminiscences of the tall domes 
of Wren and SoufHot. 

PERIODS OF FOST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 

ITALY 

I. Establishment of academic and baroque tendencies, c. 1540-80. 
Michelangelo Buonarroti, 1475-1564. 

Studies for the facade of San Lorenzo at Florence, 1514^. 

New Sacristy of San Lorenzo (Medici Chapel), 1521-34. 

Laurentian Library at Florence, 1524-71. 

Saint Peter's at Rome, 1546-64. 

Palaces and square of the Capitol at Rome, 1 546 jf. 

Santa Maria degli Angeli at Rome, 1559. 

Porta Pia at Rome, 1559. 
Andrea Palladio, 1518-80. 

Basilica at Vicenza, 1549. 

Palazzo Valmarana at Vicenza, begun 1556. 

San Giorgio Maggiore at Venice, 1565. 

II Redentore at Venice, 1577. 

Villa Almerigo (Villa Rotonda) near Vicenza, 1570-89. 

Teatro Olimpico at Vicenza, 1580-84. 
Giacomo Barozzi da Vignola, 1507-73. 

Palace at Caprarola, 1547. 

Villa di Papa Giulio at Rome, 1550. 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 453 

Sant' Andrea at Rome, 1550. 

Villa Lante near Viterbo, begun 1566. 

II Gesu at Rome, 1568. 
Giorgio Vasari, 1511-74. 

Court of the Uffizi irl Florence, 1560-80. 
Galeazzo Alessi, 1512-72. 

Palazzo Sauli at Genoa, c. 1550. 

Santa Maria di Carignano at Genoa, begun c. 1552. 

Palazzo Marino at Milan, 1568. 
Bartolomeo Ammanati, 1511-92. 

Ponte Santa Trinita at Florence, 1567-70. 

II. Baroque supremacy, c. 1580-1730. 

Giacomo della Porta, 1541-1604. 

Design for facade of II Gesu at Rome, c. 1573. 
Domenico Fontana, 1543-1607. 

Acqua Paolina, 1585-90. 
Carlo Maderna, 1556-1639. 

Facade of Saint Peter's at Rome, 1606-26. 
Giovanni Lorenzo Bernini, 1598-1680. 

Baldachino of Saint Peter's at Rome, 1624-33. 

Colonnades of Saint Peter's, 1656-63. 

Scala Regia in the Vatican, 1663-66. 

Palazzo Ludovisi (Montecitorio) , 1642-1700. 
Francesco Borromini, 1599-1667. 

Remodeling of Palazzo Spada at Rome, 1632. 

San Carlo alle Quattro Fontane, 1640. 

Sant' Agnese at Rome, 1645-50. 
Guarino Guarini, 1624-83. 

Palazzo Carignano at Turin, 1680. 
Baldassare Longhena, 1604-82. 

Santa Maria della Salute, 1631-82. 

III. Compromise, c. 1730-80. 

Filippo Juvara, 1685-1735. 

The Superga near Turin, 1706-20. 

Palazzo Madama at Turin, 1718. 
Alessandro Galilei (1691-1737). 

Facade the Church of the Lateran, 1 734. 
Luigi Vanvitelli, 1700-73. 

Palace at Caserta, 1752 Jf. 

SPAIN 

I. Academic architecture, c. 1570-1610. 
Juan de Herrera, c. 1530-97. 



A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

The Escurial, 1563-81. 
Cathedral in Valladolid, 1585 /. 
Exchange in Seville, 1584-98. 

II. Baroque supremacy, c. 1610-1750. 

Juan Gomez de Mora, d. 1647. 

Jesuit college and church in Salamanca, 1614 (-1750). 
Jose Churriguera, 1650-1723. 

Catafalque for Queen Maria Luisa, 1689. 

Town Hall of Salamanca. 
Pedro Ribera. 

Facade of the Hospicio Provincial in Madrid, 1772 (-1799). 
Ventura Rodriquez, 1717-85. 

San Marcos in Madrid, 1749-53. 

San Francisco el Grande in Madrid, 1761. 

III. Reaction, c. 1730. 

Filippo Juvara and Giovanni Battista Sacchetti, d. 1766. 

Royal Palace at La Granja, 1721-23. 

Royal Palace at Madrid, i734jf. 
Pedro Caro, d. 1732. 

Palace at Aranjuez, 1727 (-78). 

FRANCE 

I. Baroque supremacy, c. 1590-1635. 

Henry IV., 1589-1601. 

Etienne du Perac, c. 1540-1601. 

Palace and Gardens at Saint Germain, 1594. 
Claude Chastillon, 1547-1616. 

Place Royale at Paris, 1604. 
Louis XIII., 1610-43. 

Salomon de Brosse, b. between 1552 and 1562, d. 1626. 

Luxembourg Palace, 1616-20. 

Facade for Saint Gervais in Paris, 1616-21. 
Jacques Lemercier, 1585-1654. 

Enlargement of the Court of the Louvre, 1624-30. 

Chateau de Richelieu, 1627-37. 

Church of the Sorbonne, 1635-53. 

II. Compromise, c. 1635-1745. 

Stricter phase, c. 1635-1715. 

Francois Mansart, 1598-1666. 

Wing of Gaston d'Orleans at Blois, 1635-40. 
Chateau of Maisons near Paris, 1642-51. 
Church of the Val-de-Grace in Paris, begun 1645. 
Louis XIV., 1643-1715. 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 455 

Louis le Vau, 1612-70. 

Chateau of Vaux-le-Vicomte, c. 1656-60. 

College des Quatre Nations at Paris, 1660-68. 

Continuation of the Louvre, 1664-70. 

Remodeling of Versailles (Cour de Marbre), 1665-70. 
Claude Perrault, 1613-88. 

Colonnade of the Louvre, 1665. 
Jules Hardouin Mansart, 1646-1708. 

Second remodeling of Versailles, 1678-88; chapel, 
1699-1710. 

Dome of the Invalided at Paris, 1692-1704. 
Francois Blondel, 1618-86. 

Porte Saint Denis at Paris, 1672. 
Freer phase, rococo, c. 1715-45. 
Louis XV., 1715-74. 
J. Aubert, d. 1741. 

Stables at Chantilly, 1719-35. 

Hotel Biron at Paris, 1728. 
Girardini, dates uncertain. 

Palais Bourbon at Paris, 1722. 
Germain Boffrand, 1667-1754. 

Hotel d'Amelot at Paris. 
Emmanuel Here de Corny, 1705-63. 

New quarter at Nancy, 1750-57. 
III. Academic victory, 1745-80. 
Louis XVI., 1774-92. 
Jean Nicholas Servadony, b. 1695 or 1696, d. 1766. 

Facade of Saint Sulpice in Paris, 1732-45. 
Jacques Germain Soufflot, 1709-80. 

Facade of the Hotel Dieu at Lyons, 1737. 

Saint Genevieve (the Pantheon) at Paris, 1757-90 (see 

Chapter XII). 
Jacques Anges Gabriel, 1698-82. 

Ecole Militaire in Paris, 1652 jf. 

Palace at Compiegne, 1652-72. 

Theater, etc., at Versailles, 1753-70. 

Petit Trianon, 1762-68. 

Palaces of the Place de la Concorde in Paris, 1762-70. 
Jacques Denis Antoine, 1733-1801. 

The Mint in Paris, 1771-75. 

ENGLAND 



16 



Baroque supremacy, c. 1600-20. 
(See English Renaissance architecture, under James I.) 



456 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

II. Compromise, c. 1620-1720. 

Inigo Jones, 1573-1652. 

Queen's House in Greenwich, 1617-35. 

Whitehall Palace in London, 1619-22. 

Square and church of Saint Paul, Covent Garden, 163-1. 

Portico of old Saint Paul's Cathedral in London, 1633 /. 

King Charles's Block at Greenwich, 1637. 

Somerset House in London, 1636-38. 

Wilton House, 1647. 
Sir Christopher Wren, 1632-1723. 

Sheldonian Theater at Oxford, 1663-68. 

Plan for the rebuilding of London, 1666. 

Saint Paul's Cathedral in London, 1668-1710. 

The Monument in London, 1671. 

Temple Bar in London, 1671. 

City churches in London, 1670-1711. 
Saint Stephen's, Walbrook, 1672-79. 
Saint Mary-le-Bow, 1680. 
Saint Bride's, 1680-1702. 

Buildings at Greenwich, 1676-1716. 

Library of Trinity College, Cambridge, 1678. 

Hampton Court, 1689-1703. 
William Talman, fl. 1670-1700. 

Chatsworth, 1681. 
Sir John Vanbrugh, 1666-1726. 

Castle Howard, 1702-14. 

Blenheim Palace, 1705-24. 
Nicholas Hawksmoor, 1661-1736. 

Clarendon Press at Oxford (with Vanbrugh), c. 1710. 

III. Academic supremacy, c. 1720-70. 

Richard Boyle, Earl of Burlington, 1695-1753. 

General Wade's house in Bath, 1723. 

Villa at Chiswick, 1729. 

Assembly rooms at York, 1730-36. 
Colin Campbell, c. 1729. 

Burlington House in London, 1717. 

Wanstead, 1720. 

Mereworth Castle, 1723. 
James Gibbs, 1628-1754. 

Saint Martin-in-the-Fields' in London, 1721-26. 

Radcliffe Library at Oxford, 1737-47. 
William Kent, 1684-1748. 

Holkham, 1734. 

Horse Guards in London, begun 1742. 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 457 

John Wood, c. 1704-54. 

Prior Park near Bath, 1734. 

The Circus at Bath, I754jf 
George Dance the elder, 1698-1768. 

Mansion House in London, 1739-53. 
James Paine, 1725-89. 

Worksop Manor House, 1763. 
Sir William Chambers, 1726-96. 

Rebuilding of Somerset House in London, 1776-90. 



GERMANY 

I. Baroque architecture, c. 1580-1730. 

Michaelskirche in Munich, 1583-97. 

Friedrichsbau at Heidelberg, 1601-07. 
Elias Holl, 1573-1646. 

Rathaus in Augsburg, 1614-20. 
Vincenzo Scamozzi. 

Design for the Cathedral of Salzburg, 1606, executed 

1614-34. 
Antonio and Pietro Spezza. 

Loggia of the Waldstein Palace at Prague, 1629. 
Enrico Zuccali, 1643-1724. 

Theatine Church in Munich, 1663-75. 
Andreas Schliiter, 1622-1714. 

Royal Palace in Berlin, 1699 jf. 
Johann Bernard Fischer von Erlach, 1650-1723. 

Palace of Prince Eugene at Vienna, 1703. 

Church of San Carlo Borromeo in Vienna, 1716-37. 
Matthaus Daniel Poppelmann, 1662-1736. 

Zwinger in Dresden, 1711-22. 
Georg Bahr, 1666-1738. 

Frauenkirche in Dresden, 1726-40. 
Balthasar Neumann, 1687-1753. 

Schloss Bruchsal, 1722-43 (partly rococo). 

II. Rococo, c. 1730-70. 

Francois de Cuvillies the elder, 1698-1768. 

Amalienburg near Munich, 1734-39. 
Pierre de la Guepiere. 

Schloss Monrepos near Ludwigsburg, 1760-67. 

Schloss Solitude near Stuttgart, 1763-67. 
Georg von Knobelsdorff, 1699-1753. 

Neues Schloss at Charlottenburg, 1740-42. 

Sanssouci, begun 1745. 



458 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

III. Rise of academism, c. 1740-80. 

Georg von Knobelsdorff, 1699-1753. 

Royal Opera House at Berlin, 1743. 
Karl von Gontard, 1738-1802. 

Commtms at Potsdam, 1765-69. 

Towers in the Gendarmenmarkt in Berlin, 1780. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

General works covering the period are G. Ebe's Die Spat-Renais- 
sance, 2 vols., 1886; C. Gurlitt's Geschichte des Barockstiles, des Rococo 
und des Klassizismus (Geschichte der neueren Baukunsf), 3. vols., 
1887-89, of which the individual volumes are listed below, and 
P. Frankl's Die Entwicklungsphasen der neueren Baukunst, 1914. 
Further illustrations are provided by R. Dohme's Barock- und Rococo- 
Architektur, 3 vols., 1892. Books dealing with but one of the com- 
plementary tendencies of the times are P. Klopfer's Von Palladia bis 
Schinkel: eine Charakteristik der Baukunst des Klassizismus (Geschichte 
der neueren Baukunst}, 1911, and M. S. Briggs's Baroque Architecture, 
1914. Discussions of the relation of the tendencies are H. Wolfflin's 
Renaissance und Barock, 1888, 2d ed., 1907; A. Schmarzow's 
Barock und Rokoko, 1897, and K. Escher's Barock und Klassizismus, 
1910. 

Italy. Gurlitt's volume, Geschichte des Barockstiles in Italien, 
1887, is still the principal historical account, which may be supple- 
mented by the Italian sections of the other general works, and by the 
photographs reproduced in C. Ricci's Baroque Architecture and Sculpt- 
ure in Italy, 1912. Specially concerned with Rome are A. RiegPs 
Die Entstehung der Barockkunst in Rom, 1908, and Escher's Barock 
und Klassizismus. For the villas and gardens see M. L. Gothein's 
Geschichte der Gartenkunst, 2 vols., 1914, .Chapter VII; H. I. Triggs's 
The Art of Garden Design in Italy, 1906, and G. Lowell's Smaller 
Italian Villas and Farmhouses, 1916. 

France. The work of Ward on Renaissance architecture and (to 
a less degree) the works of Geymuller and Blomfield cover the post- 
Renaissance period as well. Two works by H. Lemonnier, Uart 
franqais au temps de Richelieu et de Mazarin, 1893, and L'art franqais 
au temps de Louis XIV., 191 1, include architecture with the other arts. 
Topographical works with large photographic reproductions include 
those of L. Deshairs on Bordeaux, Dijon, and Aix, and those of R. le 
Nail and C. Gurlitt on Lyons. F. Contet's Les meux hotels de Paris, 
10 vols., 1908-14, partially covers Paris in a similar way, while each 
of the great royal palaces has several works devoted especially to it. 



POST-RENAISSANCE ARCHITECTURE 459 

Three works by P. Planat: Le style Louis XIV., Le style Louis V. y 
and Le style Louis XVI., 1907, give similar plates for the periods 
indicated by their titles. Garden architecture is treated in M. 
Fouquier's De I'art des jardins du XVe au XXe siecle, 1911, and in 
H. Stein's Les jardins de France. The general biographical works 
covering French architects are supplemented by E. F. Dilke's French 
Architects and Sculptors of the XVIII. Century, 1900. 

England. The principal work is R. Blomfield's History of Renais- 
sance Architecture in England, 1500-1800, 2 vols., 1897, of which the 
major part is devoted to the period after 1615. It includes a full 
bibliography of contemporary and modern works. A series of large 
photographs and measured drawings is furnished by J. Belcher 
and M. E. Macartney's Later Renaissance Architecture in England, 
2 vols., 1897-1901. Domestic architecture is specially treated in 
M. E. Macartney's English Houses and Gardens in the 17 th and i8th 
Centuries, 1908; H. Field and M. Bunney's English Domestic Archi- 
tecture of the XVII. and XV III. Centuries, 1905 (smaller buildings) ; 
T. V. Sadlier and P. L. Dickinson's Georgian Mansions in Ireland, 
1915; M. A. Green's The Eighteenth Century Architecture of Bath, 
1904; and A. E. Richardson and C. L. Gill's London Houses from 
1660-1820. For individual biography see E. B. Chancellor's The 
Lives of the British Architects, 1909. 

Spain. O. Schubert's Geschichte des Barock in Spanien (Geschichte 
der neueren Baukunst), 1908, is the authoritative discussion. Further 
illustrations are furnished by the works of Uhde, Junghandel, and 
others listed under the Renaissance in Spain. 

Germany. Ample illustration is furnished by Dohme's work, 
mentioned above; by Lambert and Stahl's Motive der deutschen Archi- 
tektur, vol. 2, 1892; P. Schmoll and G. Staehelin's Barockbauten in 
Deutschland, 1904; O. Aufleger's Silddeutsche Architektur . . . im 
XVIII. Jahrhundert, 2 vols., 1891-95; and, in more convenient 
compass, in H. Popp's Architektur der Barock und Rokokozeit in 
Deutschland und der Schweiz, 1914. P. Schumann's Barock und 
Rokoko, 1885, is specially devoted to Dresden. J. Braun's Die 
Kirchenbauten der deutschen Jesuiten, 2 vols., 1908-10, covers a 
notable series of churches. C. Gurlitt's Historische Stadtebilder , 
ii vols., 1901-09, is largely devoted to German cities important in 
this period. 



CHAPTER XII 
MODERN ARCHITECTURE 

The mid-eighteenth century witnessed the beginnings of a 
series of changes, political and cultural, scarcely less important 
than those of the fifteenth century. Although many of these 
movements were extensions or logical consequences of those 
of the Renaissance, their importance and approximately 
simultaneous appearance justify the idea that they constitute 
the beginning of a new era, specifically modern. The freedom 
of inquiry applied in the Renaissance to letters and art, and 
in the Reformation to religion, was now applied to history, 
politics, and science. A multitude of individual tendencies 
combined to initiate the age of archeological discovery and 
historical research, of revolution and democracy, of natural 
science and invention, of capitalism and colonial empire. 
These were destined to affect not only the stylistic aspect of 
architecture, but equally the nature of the prevailing types of 
buildings and methods of construction, as well as the extent 
to which these were diffused over the world. 

General characteristics. Although the kaleidoscopic inter- 
play of forces makes it difficult to generalize regarding the 
architectural characteristics of the period, they may be con- 
ceived broadly as the result of a synthesis of retrospective 
and progressive tendencies, which exist side by side, not 
unlike the academic and baroque tendencies in the previous 
period. In matters of form and detail it is the newly won 
historical understanding of previous styles which has been 
chiefly influential, resulting in a series of attempted revivals 
followed by a season of eclecticism. In matters of plan 
and construction, however, the growth of material civilization 
and the development of new forms of government and com- 
merce have produced a multitude of novel types of buildings 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 461 

as well as constant changes in the form and importance of 
the old types, making every supposed revival unconsciously 
a new creation. Finally there has begun a conscious move- 
ment to give the new functional types and structural systems 
an expression that shall also be novel and entirely charac- 
teristic. 

Complexity of development. It thus comes about that, 
within a century and a half of coherent development in 
practical matters, there is a series of subordinate phases 
distinguished by very different forms of detail. Although a 
greater or less number of these phases might be distinguished, 
the principal ones may be considered as four, corresponding 
generally to literary and cultural phases: classicism, roman- 
ticism, eclecticism (all outgrowths chiefly of the historical 
attitude), and functionalism (primarily an outgrowth of 
natural science). As each of these phases, like the academic 
and baroque movements, varies in character and duration in 
different countries, it becomes even more difficult to preserve 
a strictly chronological and local order during the discussion 
of the most modern architecture than it is during the dis- 
cussion of the architecture immediately preceding. In view 
of the fundamentally international character of the archi- 
tectural tendencies, and their uniform order of predominance 
in all countries, it is more fruitful to consider the individual 
movements in their general sequence rather than individual 
countries one by one. The continuity of development in 
any given individual type, and the simultaneous existence and 
interplay of movements in any given country, scarcely less 
characteristic, may be indicated by the way. 

Classicism: study of classical 'monuments. The first of the 
modern movements to affect architectural forms was the 
flood of archeological discovery and publication in the middle 
of the eighteenth century. Hitherto the fund of knowledge 
concerning ancient buildings, aside from the details of the 
orders, was surprisingly small. Writers and engravers, in 
general, had been chiefly concerned with the construction of 
academic theories, or the representation of the buildings of 
their own day both supposedly based on the antique, but 
really departing from it with the greatest freedom. Palladio, 
to be sure, had published rationalized restorations of the 



4 62 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Roman temples as early as 1570, and in 1682 Desgodetz had 
issued his far more accurate drawings of the monuments of 
the city of Rome. These were but isolated forerunners, how- 
ever, of the multitude of works which now commenced to 
appear, many of them illustrating buildings hitherto unre- 
garded or entirely unknown. In 1730 Lord Burlington 
brought out many of Palladio's drawings of Roman buildings 
which had lain a century and a half in manuscript. In 1741 
the engraver Piranesi issued his first plates, the commence- 
ment of a colossal series of views of ancient ruins and frag- 
ments, which placed before the public the great wealth of 
Roman architecture in Italy, and, with their striking artistic 
qualities, powerfully stimulated the vogue of the antique. 
In the fifties there began to appear illustrated works dealing 
with Herculaneum, and later with Pompeii, the boiried Cam- 
panian cities which exhibited Roman art in a way so much 
more lively and intimate than the ruined and despoiled monu- 
ments of the capital. The knowledge of Roman architecture 
was further enriched by the study and publication of the 
temples at Palmyra and Baalbek by Wood and Dawkins 
(1753 and 1757) and of the palace at Spalato by Robert Adam 
and Clerisseau (1764) buildings differing widely in com- 
position and detail from the conventional conceptions of the 
academic theorists. Scarcely later came the revelation of 
Greek monuments, hitherto known only by the vague ac- 
counts of a few travelers. In 1750 and 1751 Cochin and 
SoufHot were drawing and measuring at Paestum; Stuart and 
Revett were at Athens. A few years later publications re- 
garding these and other sites began to pour forth. Leroy's 
Athens appeared in 1758, the first volume of Stuart and 
Revett 's Antiquities of Athens in 1762, Major's P cesium in 
1768, Chandler's Ionia in 1769, with a stream of successors 
of the same character reaching well into the nineteenth 
century. At the same time the Comte de Caylus and Winckel- 
mann were laying the foundations of archeology and of the 
history of art, Winckelmann asserting for the first time the 
superiority of Greek architecture and sculpture over those of 
the Romans. 

Reaction against the baroque and against academic formula. 
The increasing appreciation of antiquity was coincident with 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 463 

independent tendencies, already visible in contemporary 
architecture. The rationalistic advocacy of the primitive 
orders by Laugier in 1752, the appeal for a "noble simplicity 
and quiet grandeur" which Winckelmann made in 1755, were 
based rather on antithesis to contemporary art than on a real 
knowledge of the art of the ancients. The reaction from the 
extreme crescendo of the baroque had already begun, even in 
Italy, in such works as the Superga and the facade of the 
Lateran. In France the manner of Servadony prevailed over 
the rococo, while in England the reversion from Wren and 
Vanbrugh to strict Palladianism was universal. It was felt 
that, in the striving for animation, picturesqueness, and 
originality, dignity and earnestness had been lost. It was 
these sober qualities, which so many were seeking, that were 
now found superlatively exemplified in certain of the works of 
antiquity. 

Characteristics and development of classicism. The result 
was that the current of practice was turned toward the closer 
imitation of classical forms, and ultimately even of classical 
dispositions and ensembles. Architects approached the 
antique directly, and not through Palladio or Vitruvius. 
Hitherto the orders had been used principally in the decoration 
of wall surfaces ; columns and pilasters had been freely grouped 
and often placed above a high basement. The temple por- 
tico, except in England, where the example of Palladio was 
directly followed, had been used very rarely or not at all. 
Now, on the other hand, it became almost essential, its 
columns closely and equally spaced, rising directly from the 
ground. The membering of walls was renounced in favor of 
the simplest jointing or rustication. Forms like those of the 
rectangular temple and the Pantheon, determined for the 
most part in advance, had now to be employed to meet not 
only the traditional problems of the church, the school, and 
the dwelling, but also a multitude of new problems in the 
legislative and other governmental buildings, the banks, 
exchanges, and commercial structures, the museums and 
theaters, assembly and concert halls, the prisons and institu- 
tions which great political, economic, and social changes were 
bringing into being. Academic conservatism, especially in 
France, however, hindered the literal imitation of ancient 



464 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

precedent, just in proportion as it differed from the currently 
accepted canons. Thus, although the Roman and the Greek 
tendencies ran side by side almost from the beginning, the 
Roman remained predominant until shortly before 1820. 
Even then, when Greek forms surpassed the Roman in 
popular favor, important monuments of Roman character 
still continued to be built. 

Roman supremacy. The beginnings in France. The clas- 
sical reform of architecture began coincidently in France and 
England about 1760. In Sainte Genevieve, in Paris (1759-90), 
Soufflot thought to imitate the portico and dome of the 
Pantheon in Rome (Fig. 252). For the first time in France 
there is a free-standing portico of the full height of the facade, 
its Corinthian columns no less than sixty-two feet high. 
This soon had its successors in such buildings as the Grand 
Theatre at Bordeaux (1777-80), by Victor Louis, with its co- 
lossal portico of twelve columns, and in the urban dwellings of 
Roman cast. The characteristic features of these houses, a 
peristylar cour d'honneur with a triumphal arch at the grille, 
a temple portico at the door, and a saucer dome over the 
circular projecting salon toward the garden, are well com- 
bined in the H6tel de Salm (1782-86), now the Palace of the 
Legion of Honor. The interiors lost the flowing lines of the 
rococo and turned to the delicate, simple paneling and refined 
imitation of antique motives which mark the style of Louis 
XVI. 

The beginnings in England. In England Robert Adam and 
his brothers (1760^.), although they created no building of 
such monumental quality as Sainte Genevieve in Paris, gave a 
powerful stimulus to the employment of more strictly Roman 
forms, especially for the treatment of interiors. Free-standing 
columns, coffered vaults and domes, statued niches and bas- 
reliefs marked the principal rooms even of private dwellings 
(Fig. 255), while a delicate surface decoration of vases, 
griffins, and garlands in stucco, with Wedgwood medallions 
and slender furniture designed in harmony, lent the rest an 
air of unusual distinction. Although Piranesi and others had 
anticipated many of these features or assisted the brothers 
Adam with them, it was the skill of the Adams which first 
welded them into a coherent style. Almost simultaneously 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 465 

came the first work inspired by Greek models, in a few designs 
by Stuart and by Revett. These for the most part, however, 
were composed on traditional Palladian lines, the details of the 
orders, the employment of antae and anthemia, the purity of 
decoration, being the principal innovations. This refinement 




FIG. 252 PARIS. CHURCH OF SAINTE GENEVIEVE. (THE PANTHEON) 

and severity, with a preference for the heavier orders, grad- 
ually permeated the academic style of building, which still 
long continued. 

Literal imitation of classical models. Monuments. Mean- 
while, however, a more strict imitation of classical examples 
was beginning, extending not merely to individual details and 
elements, but to whole monuments. This appeared first in 
the sentimental or landscape gardens, which were decorated 
with miniature classic temples and ruins. Stuart enriched the 
repertoire with the Monument of Lysicrates and other Athen- 
ian types. Ledoux, in his octroi gates and stations for 
Paris (1780-88), made liberal use of classical motives the 



4 66 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

triumphal column, the exterior peristyle, the circular temple 
even using the Greek Doric column without a base. Lang- 
hans took the Propylaea at Athens as his model for the Brand- 
enburg Gate in Berlin (1788-91), although he used a more 
Roman type of column and introduced other notable changes 
which resulted in an original creation (Fig. 253). The French 




FIG. 253 BERLIN. BRANDENBURG GATE 



Republic and its successors, with their studied imitation of 
Rome, naturally reproduced its monuments also; and Na- 
poleon outdid all others with the column of the Place Venddme 
(1805-10), modeled on that of Trajan, the Arc du Carrousel 
(1806), modeled on the Arch of Domitian (" Const antine"), and 
finally the colossal Arc de 1'Etoile by Chalgrin (Fig. 254). In 
contrast to most of its predecessors this showed great freedom 
in the rendering of the antique motive, with a puristic tendency 
very characteristic of French architects of the revival period. 
Other literal imitations. Even in buildings intended for 
practical use, the literal following of classical prototypes began, 
on the initiative of rulers and statesmen. Catharine II. 
commissioned Clerisseau in 1780 to design her a dwelling 
which should be strictly Roman. For his Temple of Glory, 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 467 

now the church of the Madeleine, Napoleon insisted on the 
selection of the design by Vignon (1807), a peristylar Corinthian 
temple with its interior treatment suggested by the halls of 
the thermae. The design of the Bourse ( 1 808-2 7 ) also included 
an external peristyle, but its great breadth did riot permit a 
pediment. In all these works Roman forms were- employed, 




FIG. 254 PARIS. ARC DE TRIOMPHE DE I/ETOILE 

although in the interiors of the Empire style developed by 
Percier and Fontaine on the lines of the Adams and Louis 
XVI. Greek decorative elements were abundant, and even 
Egyptian forms became popular as a result of Napoleon's 
Eastern campaign. 

The Greek supremacy. The Greek supremacy began after 
the Napoleonic wars, with important works first in England 
but later especially in Germany. Again, as in the case of 
the Roman revival, the use of Greek orders and larger ele- 
ments preceded the bodily imitation of the temple. Among 
British buildings the high school at Edinburgh (1825-29), by 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 469 

Thomas Hamilton, is especially noteworthy, no less for its 
plastic handling of Greek forms in the wings and terraces than 
for its reproduction of the portico of the Theseum in the 
central feature (Fig. 257). In Germany a great personality, 
Friedrich Schinkel, succeeded in combining classical spirit 
with modern requirements in a series of works of which the 
Royal Theater in Berlin (1818-21) is perhaps the most 
notable (Fig. 258). Later, under the patronage of Ludwig I. 
of Bavaria, Leo von Klenze carried still further the imitation 
of classical ensembles, culminating in the Walhalla at Regens- 
burg (1830-42), a reproduction of the Parthenon, raised on a 
mighty terraced substructure. The idea of such a reproduc- 
tion had long captivated designers: Gilly had proposed it as 
early as 1797 for a memorial to Frederick the Great; the 
National Monument in Edinburgh had been begun in accord- 
ance with it in 1829. 

Reaction from literal classicism. With these buildings, most 
of them, to be sure, commemorative monuments without 
exacting practical functions, the high tide of classicism was 
reached, and a reflux set in toward more rationalistic use of 
classical forms. The temple portico was abandoned, and the 
Greek suggestion appeared only in the fondness for the Doric 
order, the delicacy of the projections, the elegance of the 
profiles. In France, where the Roman tendency was strongest 
and the academic resistance to actual copying was most 
tenacious, this last phase of the classical movement was the 
first in which Greek influence was really much felt, and it thus 
received the name of neo-grec. By other tendencies which 
they incorporate, however, as well as by their date, the neo- 
grec buildings belong, in spite of the name applied to them, 
less with the revivalist movement than with the following 
phases of eclecticism and functionalism. 

Types of buildings during the classical movement: adminis- 
trative. Counter to the extreme formal tendency of classicism 
to assimilate all buildings to a single classical type there 
had constantly been the utilitarian tendency to differentiate 
types of buildings more and more in accordance with their 
increasingly specialized functions. This had already begun 
under the old regime, but it was powerfully stimulated by the 
Revolution, which detached many governmental functions 




FIG. 257 EDINBURGH. THE HIGH SCHOOL. (RICHARDSON) 




FIG. 258 BERLIN. J ROYAL THEATER 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 471 

from the palace, and threw theaters and museums open to all. 
The earliest of modern administrative buildings, distinct from 
the palace, were developed in Great Britain, where the Ad- 
miralty, Somerset House, and a number of other buildings 
fall quite within the period of academic supremacy. Even in 
France, however, specialized governmental functions had also 
commenced to find monumental expression, in the Mint (1771- 
75) and in the rebuilding of the Palace of Justice after 1776. 
All of these buildings, however, are essentially on the scheme 
of the palace, as their multitude of small rooms permits; and 
even the latest of thenr have merely a Doric solidity and 
earnestness to suggest this specific character. A more pro- 
nounced suggestion of governmental functions was first given 
in the grandiose fagade of the Four Courts in Dublin, with its 
commanding portico and classical dome, built by James 
Gandon in 1784-96. 

Legislative buildings. Such a new expression for govern- 
mental functions was soon found also in legislative buildings, 
where one or more large deliberative halls forced the adoption 
of a great scale. The Parliament House at Dublin had led 
the way as early as 173039, with an arcaded portico and a 
domed hall suggested by the Pantheon, but carried out with 
Palladian forms. The seats were arranged in a semicircle 
in one-half the octagonal room. For the meeting of the States- 
General at Versailles in 1789, an impressive basilican room 
with Doric columns was improvised within an indifferent 
building. Here at first the throne was at one end, the seats 
along the other three sides; but when the body was recon- 
structed as the National Assembly the chair was moved to 
the center of a long side and the seats arranged in a double 
horseshoe. The hall with semicircular form, on the lines of a 
Roman theater, was afterward developed in the deliberative 
halls of the Palais Bourbon in Paris, 1795-1833, and was 
widely followed on the Continent. For the unicameral 
legislative building a powerful external expression was found 
in the Corinthian portico of twelve columns prefixed to the 
Palais Bourbon in 1807. 

Prisons. Related to political movements was the agitation 
for the reform of methods of punishment, first by the substitu- 
tion of imprisonment for the death penalty in many cases, 



472 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

and later by the improvement of the prisons which this new 
order had caused to multiply. Characteristic of the first phase 
was Newgate Prison in London (1770-82), designed by George 
Dance, which, with its vast rusticated walls and narrow door- 
ways, was the very embodiment of force (Fig. 259). Hu- 
manity, sanitation, or reformation of the prisoners, however, 
had little consideration until well into the nineteenth century, 
and the form of prison which then resulted was very different. 
Ideas of correction through solitary confinement or disciplined 
labor ultimately caused, about 1835, the universal adoption of 
individual cells and of a highly organized system of separate 
workrooms and yards for various classes of prisoners. 

Banks, exchanges, and commercial structures. Other novel 
structures were called into being by the commercial and 
capitalistic developments of the age, and proved to find con- 
genial garb in the prevailing classical mode. The monumental 
portico placed before the bank or exchange suggested the power 
of finance or the stability of credit, while the blank walls 
which classical purism had made its own exactly met the 
necessities of vast docks and warehotises. In the rebuilding 
of the first and greatest of the modern financial institutions, 
the Bank of England (1788-1835), Sir John Soane had to 
design a windowless exterior, with a multitude of great halls 
and light courts. Although the general external treatment 
with columns and blank windows is less frank than some other 
solutions of similar problems, certain features, like the Loth- 
bury Angle (Fig. 256) or the Lothbury Courtyard, are master- 
pieces of free composition with classical forms, while the 
interiors are full of dignity. The Bourse in Paris and the 
Royal Exchange in London (1840-44), with their colossal 
porticoes, continued the monumental tradition. The utili- 
tarian side of commerce had its most notable embodiment in 
the Halle au Ble in Paris (1783), a circular, domed market- 
hall, destitute of extraneous adornment, but effective by its 
very simplicity and adaptation to purpose. 

Theaters. Not less novel were the theaters, museums, and 
concert-halls, which responded to the growth of democracy 
as well as to the development of music and of archeology. 
Such features had hitherto usually been adjuncts of the palace ; 
now they became detached, and subjects for special treat* 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 473 

ment. The first of the independent theaters to receive a 
monumental exterior had been the Royal Opera in Berlin 
(1741-42), for which Frederick the Great had insisted on an 
English Palladian form. The Grand Theatre at Bordeaux 
(1777-80), with its still more classical treatment, was followed 
in the Odeon in Paris (i 799-1802) and in many others, especial- 
ly in France and England. All these were cubical masses, into 




FIG. 259 LONDON. OLD NEWGATE PRISON. (RICHARDSON) 

which stage, auditorium, foyer, and vestibule were fitted. 
A more varied form made its appearance in Schinkel's Royal 
Theater in Berlin (1818-21), with which a concert-room, ball- 
room, and refreshment-rooms had also to be incorporated 
(Fig. 258). Wings containing these adjuncts were added to 
the main mass, which dominates them by its high-gabled 
clerestory, its monumental steps, and its Ionic portico, all 
treated with Hellenic forms of slight relief and with severely 
classical ornaments. The ultimate classical solution of the 
theater problem in Germany was a different one, for which, 
not the temple portico, but the ancient theater itself served as a 
model. In this scheme the circular end of the auditorium, 
with its surrounding corridor, formed the fagade, clearly in- 
dicating the nature of the building, but involving considerable 



474 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

sacrifices in the vestibules, foyers, and stairs which had 
become such prominent features of the modern theater. The 
most notable example, the old Court Theater in Dresden 
(1838-41), shows the persistence of this type even when strict 
classical forms were not employed (Fig. 264). 

Museums and concert-halls. In giving the museum an in- 
dependent form Germany led the way, even in the eighteenth 
century. In the early nineteenth it created two notable 
monuments, the Glyptothek in Munich by Von Klenze 
(1816-30) and the Old Museum in Berlin by Schinkel (1824- 
28). These were both severe compositions in the Greek 
Ionic order, which was used also in the British Museum 
(1825-47), designed by Sir Charles Barry. For the problem 
of the concert-hall, Schinkel had given a solution of the 
greatest elegance in connection with the theater in Berlin. 
An auditorium for vast popular concerts is the principal 
feature of Saint George's Hall in Liverpool (183 8-5 4) 'which in- 
cludes also a smaller recital-hall, two court-rooms, and public 
offices. The exterior by the gifted and youthful Elmes 
with its two vast Corinthian porticoes, its commanding attic, 
its magnificent terraces and approaches, is justly famous as 
among the most monumental of all modern structures (Fig. 
260). 

Other types. Churches. For the problems already conse- 
crated by time the church, the college, the house, or palace 
classicism did not achieve new solutions of the same impor- 
tance. This was partly because the satisfactory solutions al- 
ready attained in the previous period tended to be followed, 
partly because the problems themselves were becoming 
secondary to the new ones of the age, and partly because 
other forces tended before long to take these very problems 
entirely out of the hands of the classical architects. In the 
church, as elsewhere, the imitation of classical models was 
attempted, both the rectangular-temple type and the Pantheon 
type being followed. One of the most notable of the re- 
vivalist churches was Saint Pancras in London, in which the 
beautiful details of the Erechtheum were imitated the North 
Porch for the entrance portico, the Porch of the Maidens for 
the sacristies, with the Athenian Tower of the Winds, twice 
repeated, for the steeple. Chalgrin, in the church of Saint 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 



475 



Philippe du Roule in Paris, was inspired by the Christian- 
Roman basilica, initiating a notable series. Others, however, 
followed the established academic types, with a tall central 
dome or two western towers, merely adopting a more classical 
portico and details. 

Domestic architecture. Few palaces were built during the 
period which classicism shared with revolution. Even Na- 
poleon contented himself with remodeling the interiors of 
three among the many palaces left by the old regime. The 




FIG. 260 LIVERPOOL. SAINT GEORGE'S HALL. (RICHARDSON) 



great country mansions henceforth likewise multiplied less 
rapidly, although magnificent town houses continued to be 
built. Like the hotels under Louis XVI., already described, 
all these had usually a portico of Roman or Greek detail, and 
often a circular salon suggested by the Pantheon. The less 
ambitious town houses, solidly built up in blocks, had usually 
a most restrained treatment, depending on the proportions of 
stories and openings alone. Often the town-planning tradi- 
tions of the previous period were continued by the unified 
design of the houses in whole streets and squares, as in the 
Adelphi and Regent's Quadrant in London, or the Rue de 
Rivoli in Paris. Colonnades or arcades were now sometimes 



476 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE - 

adopted in the lower story, to shelter the foot passengers and 
to increase the effect of Roman magnificence. In the minor 
European country houses, a type most frequent in England, 
there was some attempt, about 1820, to imitate the temple, 
although not without breaking its unity by projections or 
wings. All these types of domestic architecture, however, 
as well as the classical types of churches, were gradually swept 
away by the rise of romanticism, which for a time even bade 
fair to prevail in modern architecture as a whole. 

Romanticism: cultural changes. Romanticism in architect- 
ure, like classicism, had its precursors and companions in 
cultural and literary movements. Their origins in some 
cases were quite as early as those of the neo-classical tendency. 
The modern appreciation of landscape and the idea of the 
landscape garden had begun early in the eighteenth century. 
Sentimentalism came in toward the middle of the century with 
Richardson and Gray, and on the Continent, in the sixties, with 
Rousseau, who also transplanted and quickened the cult of 
nature. At the same time England and Germany awakened 
to an appreciation of their northern, national heritage, the 
mythology and legend, the history and art of the Middle 
Ages. The importance of the Goths for the cultural develop- 
ment of Europe was affirmed in the dialogues of The Investi- 
gator in 1755; the principle of nationalism in history, litera- 
ture, and art was announced by Herder and his friends in 
Von detitscher Art und Kunst in 1773. The ideas thus im- 
planted, however, did not bear their full fruit, even in litera- 
ture, until the beginning of the nineteenth century, with 
Wordsworth and Coleridge, Byron and Scott, with the Ger- 
man romanticists who influenced Madame de Stael, and, 
through her, made way for Hugo and the French of the 
thirties. With all these men the emotion and enthusiasm of 
the individual, rather than the following of academic rules, 
were proclaimed as the springs of artistic success. The emo- 
tional upheaval was naturally accompanied by a revival of 
religious faith, which found its expression both in the glori- 
fication of traditional Christianity by Chateaubriand and in 
the preaching of a personal and naturalistic belief by Schleier- 
macher. 

The medieval revival in architecture. Picturesqueness and 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 477 

naturalness, nationality and religion, all seemed embodied, 
not in classic architecture, but in Gothic, then a synonym for 
the art of the Middle Ages. A revival of medieval architecture 
in northern lands thus grew out of racial and contemporary 
conditions, as the renaissance of classic architecture had 
developed in the Italy of the fifteenth century. Moreover, 
just as classic architecture had never quite died out in Italy 
during the Middle Ages, but had lingered to provide a con- 
genial soil for the revival, so Gothic architecture had never 
quite ceased to be practised, especially in England. Traditional 
survivals of Gothic had continued in country churches and in 
the Oxford colleges until the time of the Restoration, and the 
reconstruction and repair of buildings in the old style went on 
under Sir Christopher Wren and even in the middle of the 
eighteenth century. At the same time a historical interest 
in the heritage of medieval monuments was evidenced by 
antiquarian works such as the Monasti on Anglicanum (1655- 
73) and publications dealing with individual towns and 
cathedrals. Neither the books nor the buildings show any 
very accurate knowledge of medieval forms of detail or prin- 
ciples of construction, yet they furnished a living stock on 
which the romantic idea could be grafted. It thus came 
about that England, where the romantic movement in litera- 
ture was earliest and strongest, was also essentially the home of 
romanticism in architecture. 

Origins. Pseudo-Chinese and Gothic designs. The earliest 
purely voluntary departures from classical architecture in the 
eighteenth century had scarcely the serious motives of later 
efforts, being suggested rather by search for novelty and 
modishness, in the sportive, trivial structures which the taste 
of the time demanded for garden shelters and the assemblage 
of intimate parties. The reports of Eastern travelers had 
aroused enthusiasm for things Chinese, and as early as 1740 
designs for porticoes and pavilions supposedly Chinese were 
being executed side by side with miniature classic temples, 
both in France and England. By 1750 others supposedly 
Gothic appeared in England, as similar to the pseudo-Chinese 
in their fantastic flourishes as they were dissimilar to their 
prototypes, still so imperfectly understood. In the land- 
scape gardens which were already universal in England, such 



478 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

buildings now began to acquire a 'sentimental significance, as 
expressing to the beholder different moods which the scenes 
were designed to evoke. The Gothic, symbolizing the ideals 
of rusticity and unworldliness which were then fashionable, 
rapidly gained ground. 

The Gothic revival in England. First phase, c. 1760-1830. 
The castellated style. The first to extend the imitation of 
Gothic to a building of more important type was Horace 
Walpole, in the remodeling of his villa, Strawberry Hill 
( 1 7 53-76) . He was inspired by the same enthusiastic admira- 
tion of the Middle Ages which appears in his pioneer historical 
romance The Castle of Otranto (1764), and he hoped to 
give a model of pure Gothic in contrast to the ignorant per- 
versions which were in vogue. With this idea he imitated 
porches and battlements, doors, ceilings, and chimney-pieces 
from old work, but with complete unconsciousness of their 
inconsistency in periods of origin, and even with utter disregard 
for the original purposes of the designs. The resulting "castel- 
lated style," as it was called, was widely adopted in country 
seats, on many of which such well-known academic architects 
as George Dance and Sir William Chambers were employed. 
At the same time the first churches with similar forms were 
undertaken. 

Ecclesiastical influence. In the last quarter of the eighteenth 
century new. forces furthered the movement, while giving it 
a more ecclesiastical cast. A new generation of antiquaries 
poured forth works on the medieval churches, at once more 
numerous and more adequately illustrated than those of a 
century earlier. Attention was attracted to the repair of the 
structures themselves, and restorations were attempted, 
although with insufficient knowledge and often with disastrous 
results. James Wyatt, the chief of the restorers, had also a 
great vogue as an architect of domestic buildings. Ecclesi- 
astical names were often given to these, and the details of their 
windows, buttresses, and towers were derived rather from 
churches than from the old manorial halls. Fonthill Abbey 
(1796-1814), the extravagant creation of the romancer William 
Beckford, was the most famous of these; Eaton Hall (1803- 
14) was another noteworthy example (Fig. 261). Although 
religious feeling in England at this time was still at a low ebb, 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 



479 



and new churches were few, an increasing number of these 
followed the Gothic style, as it was then understood. 

Literal imitation of medieval models. A great improvement 
in grammatical accuracy of detail, as well as an appreciation 
of chronological consistency of style, followed the publication, 
in 1819 and 1820, of Rickman's Attempt to Discriminate the 
Styks of English Architecture, and of Pugin and Willson's 




FIG. 26l EATON HALL BEFORE ALTERATION IN 1870. (EASTLAKE) 



Specimens of Gothic Architecture. These books, which 
provided for the first time a tolerable historical account of the 
development of the style, and accurate geometrical drawings 
of its examples, opened an era of literal copying of whole 
features, conscientiously culled from this or that period, most 
frequently the later Perpendicular. The inclusion of drawings 
of domestic work helped bring about an abandonment of the 
ecclesiastical forms previously adopted for dwellings, in favor 
of a domestic treatment dependent on the grouping of masses, 
gables, and chimneys the so-called " baronial style." In 
planning, which was still dominated unconsciously by classical 



480 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

ideals, a strict symmetry was preserved; while in construction 
and decoration lack of means and of sympathetic craftsmen 
prevented a reproduction of the spirit of the rich medieval 
work chosen for imitation. 

Second phase, 1830-70. Pugin. The second and far more 
important phase of the revival opened with the work of 
Augustus Welby Pugin, a son of the elder Pugin. He displayed 
at once a freedom and fertility of invention with Gothic forms 
which had hitherto been unknown, and a zeal for their ex- 
clusive adoption which had the force of religious fanaticism. 
In his designs, 1830-52, he sought and attained a medieval 
picturesqueness of plan and mass; in his studios he trained 
carvers and metal-workers to execute the details of his facile 
designs; in his writings he preached the revival of Christian 
architecture, as he called it, for civil as well as for religious 
and domestic buildings. At the same time began the revival 
of ritual in the Anglican church, and the study of church 
architecture in relation to ritual arrangements. As a result 
of all this, Gothic became the accepted style not only for 
country residences but for churches, which recovered alike 
their medieval functions and their medieval form. Archi- 
tects, many of whom henceforth devoted themselves exclusive- 
ly to Gothic, began to design, within the accepted English 
Gothic modes, with greater confidence in themselves. 

The Houses of Parliament. Simultaneously with the first 
of Pugin's publications (1836), the cause of medievalism 
achieved a triumph in the retention of the Gothic style in the 
rebuilding of the palace at Westminster the new Houses of 
Parliament, executed between 1840 and 1860 (Fig. 262). The 
architect, Sir Charles Barry, was a man experienced in design 
with classical as well as with Gothic forms, and the building 
was currently described as having Tudor details on a classic 
body. The emphasis in massing, however, is by no means of a 
classical type, for it is laid not on the essential components of 
the plan, the two chambers, but on towers which mark the 
royal entrance and support the clock. Notable qualities of 
the design are the practical solution of extremely complex 
problems in plan, including accommodation to portions of 
the old structure still remaining, and the picturesque employ~ 
ment of the magnificent river site. The employment of 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 481 

medieval forms in a national monument of such importance, 
of course, gave the revival another great impetus. 

Ruskin. An impulse of different sort, yet equally or more 
powerful, was given meanwhile by the writings of John Ruskin. 
In his Seven Lamps of Architecture (1849) and his Stones of 
Venice (1851) he urged a return to the methods as well as the 
forms of the Middle Ages, and this not simply on grounds of 
religion or of ritual, but even of morality. The emancipation 




FIG. 262 LONDON. HOUSES OF PARLIAMENT 

of the individual craftsmen from the modern industrial system 
was to be at once an end in itself and a means to the attainment 
of true beauty in architecture. This was proclaimed to lie 
not in abstract qualities, such as proportion, but in honesty 
of materials and of structure, and in evidence of human 
devotion and thought, appearing above all in the sculptured 
and painted details. Such an animation of detail and color 
he found especially in the marble capitals and polychrome 
walls and mosaics of Italy, to which his admirers soon turned 
for inspiration. It was at the moment when architects were 
wearying of the restrictions of antiquarian national precedent, 
and seeking a greater liberty of invention. Thus many who 



482 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

were impatient with Ruskin's principles took advantage of 
this or that individual suggestion. 

Victorian Gothic. The result of all these forces was the so- 
called Victorian Gothic, distinguished by great elaboration of 
detail, polychromy of materials, including marble, brick, and 
encaustic tiles, and a leaning toward Italian forms of "surface 
Gothic" rather than the northern "linear Gothic." Among 
the leading exponents of the style were Sir Gilbert Scott 
(1811-78) and his pupil George Edmund Street (1824-81), 
who in long and active careers ran through a number of its 
phases; and William Butterfield (1814-1900) who strove to 
create a novel development with a variety of Gothic . and 
modern elements. Scott and others of the group even ex- 
tended their practice beyond the bounds of England by success- 
ful competition against Continental architects of all schools. 

" The battle of the styles" By 1855 the adherents of Gothic 
were strong enough to challenge the supremacy of classic 
architecture in secular buildings generally. To the growing 
conviction that each style was exclusively appropriate to 
certain uses the Gothic to churches, colleges, and rural 
architecture, the classic to public buildings and urban dwell- 
ings they opposed the traditional belief that a single style 
must prevail, and maintained that the Gothic was superior for 
all purposes. Thus the "battle of the styles," which had, 
enkindled over the Houses of Parliament, continued to be 
fought in a wider field, and with a zeal unknown outside of 
England. The Gothicists were not without their successes, 
for although Lord Palmerston finally forced Scott to substitute 
a classical scheme for his accepted Gothic design for the 
Foreign Office (1858-73), victories soon followed in the 
Manchester Assize Courts (1859-64) and Town Hall (1868- 
69), both by Alfred Waterhouse. In the sixties the influence 
of Viollet-le-Duc and of French Gothic, with its greater 
structural logic, gave the movement a fresh element .of strength 
as well as fresh material. With the adoption of Street's 
design for the national Law Courts in 1868, the adherents of 
Gothic felt their cause vindicated. The building proved, 
however, to mark the end of their supremacy. By the time 
of its completion, 1884, it met little but condemnation, and 
the conclusion was outspoken that Gothic was unfit for public 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 483 

buildings. The fundamental cause lay less in certain defects 
in the building than in the gradual change of public taste. 
The belated enthusiasm of the revivalists could no longer 
withstand the eclecticism which elsewhere prevailed so widely, 
and which had steadily gained strength even in England. 

Romanticism in Germany; Gothic and Romanesque. On the 
Continent the medieval revival was most vital in Germany, 
where, as in England, it was associated with a nationalistic 
movement. Goethe's youthful panegyric on the cathedral 
of Strasburg (1773) long remained alone, however, and it was 
not until after the Wars of Liberation that the brothers 
Boisseree awakened a general interest in the artistic monu- 
ments of the German past. Pseudo-Gothic buildings had 
appeared as accessories to the landscape gardens on English 
models since their introduction about 1770, but the Gothic 
style was not seriously considered for important buildings 
before the time of Schinkel, who made a Gothic project for 
the cathedral of Berlin in 1819. Of his two projects for the 
Werderkirche (1825), the Gothic and not the classical one was 
chosen. The exterior, as was to be expected, was Gothic 
rather in detail than in spirit and constructive principle. The 
interior was conceived with an insight in advance of the day. 
Henceforth the style was frequently employed, with steadily 
increasing knowledge, in the building of churches, and 
occasionally in other buildings, although it never became 
universal, and even as the medium of romantic expression had 
to share honors with the still more national Romanesque. 
The strongest supporter of the Romanesque was Friedrich 
von Gartner in Munich (1792-1847), whose buildings, how- 
ever, show a large measure of Italian influence. The most 
notable modern Gothic church in German lands, which may 
still be considered an outgrowth of the revival, is the Votive 
Church in Vienna, built by Ferstel in 1853-79, on the scheme 
of a cathedral with western towers and spires. 

Romanticism in France. In France before the romantic 
outburst of the thirties the strength of classical architecture 
was so great that, although the "hamlets" of Trianon and 
Chantilly initiated, as early as 1775, garden architecture on 
English models in a style supposedly Gothic, the mode long 
remained without serious adoption. Meanwhile, however, 



484 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

the Musee des Monuments Francais, collected by Alexandre 
Lenoir from the churches and chateaux destroyed by the 
Revolution, was revealing to the French the glories of their 
own medieval art; and the Histoire de Vart of Seroux d'Agin- 
court (1811-23), the first general work devoted to the arts 
of the Middle Ages, registered a new appreciation of them. 
By 1825 such a work as the chapel at Les Herbiers in Vendee 
could be constructed, with tolerable knowledge of the details 
of French Gothic, although still with rigid classical symmetry. 
A more popular appreciation was stimulated by Victor Hugo's 
Notre-Dame de Paris in 1831, and a more scientific under- 
standing was created by the archeologists De Caumont and 
Lassus, and above all by the architect Viollet-le-Duc (1814- 
79), who developed, in the years following 1840, a wide 
activity as a restorer of medieval buildings and as a writer on 
the art of the Middle Ages. In his great Dictionnaire de 
r architecture fran$aise du XI. au XVI. siecle (1854-68) he 
emphasized the idea that the principles of Gothic architecture 
were essentially structural, and thus his influence tended to 
make current designs in the style more logical and organic. 
By Louis Napoleon's appointment of Viollet-le-Duc to a 
professorship at theEcole des Beaux- Arts the Gothic movement 
received an official sanction in the very citadel of the academic 
forces, but the opposition was so strong that even the Emperor 
was forced to abandon his attempt. On the whole, few new 
buildings resulted from the Gothic movement, and these were 
almost exclusively churches. The most striking of them is 
Sainte Clotilde in Paris (Fig. 263), built in 1846-59 by the 
architects Gau and Ballu, with twin spires and fourteenth 
century detail. This church, however, is relatively frigid 
compared with some examples from the last days of the 
movement, after 1860. 

Influence of the romantic movement on the development of 
types of buildings. The types of buildings to which the 
romantic movement contributed were almost exclusively those 
having direct precedents in the Middle Ages such as churches, 
schools, town halls, and dwellings. Even in these types the 
development was largely a formal one, the dispositions remain- 
ing close to those of medieval times, as the national character 
of the precedents and the relative stability of the problems 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 



485 



permitted. It was, indeed, precisely the superiority of 
medieval dispositions in fulfilling the needs of modern life 
which the Gothicists maintained as one of their chief theses. 
Their innovations respecting plan and structure were thus, 
for the most part, novel only in relation to the classical forms 
which had immediately 
preceded them, since 
medieval dispositions 
and modes of construc- 
tion were generally fol- 
lowed as well as medieval 
forms of detail. So in 
the church Catholic, and 
even beyond it, the long 
aisled naves and chancels 
of the Middle Ages sup- 
planted the domes and 
halls of the Renaissance 
and of Protestantism. 
Other types were influ- 
enced in certain lands 
only. In England the 
flexible scheme of the 
Tudor or Elizabethan 
manor, with its freedom 
in the fenestration and 
in the treatment of ser- 
vice quarters, replaced 
the strict symmetry of 
the Palladian house. FIG - 263 PARIS. SAINTE CLOTILDE 
The old residential col- 
leges of Oxford and Cambridge were followed in the further 
development of these institutions and of the English board- 
ing schools. In Germany the late Gothic town halls and 
guild halls of the country and of Flanders were taken as 
models for new constructions devoted to similar uses. 

Eclecticism: conditions and ideals. Long before the force 
of the romantic movement had spent itself, it had become 
but one of many forces influential in architectural style, 
united only as emanations of a general eclecticism. This 




486 A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 

freedom of selection from a number of styles was just as surely 
grounded in the conditions of the time as the uniform adherence 
to a single style had been in some earlier times. A choice 
between two styles, to be sure, had often been offered to 
architects before, as when Gothic art was introduced into 
Italy in the thirteenth century or Renaissance art into the 
north in the sixteenth. The mere alternative of neo-classic 
or revived Gothic was thus of itself nothing new in kind; the 
novelty was that the struggle between them did not end, as it 
had always done before, in the triumph of either one, but that 
both continued, subdivided further, and received the addition 
of still others. The reason lay in the growth of historical 
knowledge, one of the most characteristic creations of 
modernity, which, for the first time, made the forms of many 
styles thoroughly familiar to a single generation. This had 
already contributed largely to the growth of classicism and 
romanticism, and to their increasing differentiation into Greek 
and Roman phases, Gothic and Romanesque phases, with 
further alternatives offered by subordinate chronological and 
local varieties constituting in themselves a field for the 
exercise of a certain measure of eclecticism. To these the 
historical spirit now added other styles unconnected with the 
neo-classic and romantic programs, and soon created among 
designers the conscious principle of complete freedom of 
choice between the various historical styles. This expressed 
itself first in the sheer desire to create a collection of historical 
imitations; it passed to the adoption of a given style on 
grounds of personal preference or supposed appropriateness to 
the problem in hand, later sometimes to the combination of 
elements from a number of styles and the creation of a hybrid 
which might serve as a personal medium of expression. 

Origins of eclecticism in architecture. The beginnings of this 
wider knowledge and wider eclecticism themselves can be 
found quite early in the eighteenth century, when the Viennese 
architect, J. B. Fischer von Erlach, published his pioneer 
Entwurff einer historischen Architektur, 1721, including illustra- 
tions, systematically arranged, of pre-classical, Eastern, and 
Greek buildings, as then understood, besides those of Rome and 
of contemporary France and Germany. The eighteenth- 
century gardens at Kew and elsewhere contained imitations 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 487 

of Moorish pavilions and Turkish mosques, as well as their 
Greek, Roman, Gothic, and Chinese structures. Such exotic 
models were obviously unsuited for any wide adoption, 
however, and the same was true of the Egyptian motives 
made popular by Napoleon's Eastern campaigns. 

The "Italian style." Serious productions outside the 
classical and romantic movements resulted first from the study 
of the Italian styles of the Renaissance. Appreciation of 
these was a by-product of the Italian sojourn which formed 
part of the traditional education for clients as well as for 
architects. The classicists appreciated first the buildings of 
the High Renaissance, at once most classical and most in view 
in the tourist centers, Rome and Venice. Percier and Fontaine, 
in two works devoted to the Roman palaces (1798) and villas 
(1809), were among the earliest to call attention to the style 
and to make drawings available for imitation. The romanti- 
cists, a little later, extended their admiration from the medieval 
buildings of Italy to those of the earliest Renaissance in 
Florence. Fruits of these appreciations were as usual a 
decade or two in appearing in current practice. By 1820, 
however, the old Opera House in Paris was built in the style 
of the Basilica at Vicenza, and numerous other buildings 
recalled the arch orders or columnless facades of the Italian 
palaces. Germany took the lead in 1825-30, with buildings 
by Klenze and Gartner in Munich the Pinakothek with its 
pilastered arches, the Konigsbau, the Ministry of War, and the 
Royal Library, with their novel suggestion of the Pitti Palace 
and other Florentine designs. In England the Italian manner 
came in with Barry, who adopted it as the most suitable ex- 
pression for the London clubs, of which his Travelers' Club, 
1829-31, initiated a long series. 

Later developments. With the advent of the "Italian" 
style, as it was called, the field was open for imitations and 
inspirations of the greatest variety. The material was 
furnished not only by individual observation but by a multi- 
tude of special publications concerning monuments of the 
most diverse styles. In practice a general tendency to 
follow more and more recent styles, like the baroque, aca- 
demic, and rococo, may perhaps be discerned following the 
repetition of history already begun by the successive imita- 

17 



4 88 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

tion of classic, Gothic, and Renaissance; but the development 
is neither a universal nor a regular one. It thus becomes 
necessary to sketch the trend of subsequent developments in 
each country singly, rather than to seek to follow this or that 
stylistic thread, often confusedly interwoven with others even 
in the work of an individual architect. Although manifesta- 
tions of the eclectic movement appear in all countries, there 
are marked differences in its strength. Germany, whose 
scholars took the lead in historical study of architecture, gave 
itself freely to experiment with varied historic modes of 
expression, whereas England, torn by its furious struggle 
between classicism and romanticism, came late to a really 
eclectic standpoint, and France, more than the others, re- 
mained true to the classical tradition. In proportion to the 
adoption of eclectic practice there appeared another general 
phenomenon which may be noted here once for all. This was 
the increasing gulf between the few designs of trained archi- 
tects and the great mass of buildings erected by men who 
were no longer sustained by a traditional knowledge of any 
one or even two sets of forms, and who could not adequately 
master others even if they would. 

Germany: Munich. In Germany, eclecticism dominated 
architectural practice from 1825 to 1890. Within this time 
falls the phenomenal growth of German cities, which thus 
bear deeply the impress of the movement. The first of them 
to receive it was Munich, essentially the creation of Ludwig I. 
(1825-48), under whose personal inspiration Klenze and 
Gartner turned now to Greece, now to Italy, now to the Mid- 
dle Ages. Ludwig's successor, Maximilian II. (1848-64), gave 
his eclecticism a different form, wishing to create a new style 
by a combination of elements from the older ones. The task 
fell to the architect Burklein, whose buildings are effective in 
their balanced yet picturesque composition and in their 
rhythmical subdivision into bays, but suffer so much from their 
poverty of execution as to have discredited the attempt. 

Dresden and Vienna. A man of powerful personality, 
Gottfried Semper (1804-79), na cl meanwhile turned the scale 
in favor of the Italian Renaissance by his buildings in Dresden, 
especially the Court Theater (1838-41, Fig. 264). Semper 
was also one of the creators of modern Vienna, in the vast 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 



489 



buildings of the magnificent Ringstrasse on the lines of the 
fortifications removed in 1858-60. A beginning had been 
made in Ferstel's Votive Church and in the Opera House 
built by Van der Null and Siccardsburg in 1861-69, with forms 
reminiscent of the French Renaissance under Francis I. 
Semper, in his designs for the extension of the Imperial Palace, 
with the Court Theater (1871-89) and the Museums of Art 
and of Natural History (1870-89), continued to draw his 




FIG. 264 DRESDEN. OLD COURT THEATER. (SEMPER) 

suggestion from the Italian styles, but now with a strong 
leaning toward the grandiose effects of the baroque. Among 
the later buildings of the Ringstrasse are the Rathaus (1873- 
83), built by Friedrich Schmidt with German Gothic forms, 
the University and the Palace of Justice, with a mixture of 
French and Italian Renaissance forms, and the Houses of 
Parliament (1874-83) with the forms of neo-Hellenism. 

Berlin, Leipzig, and Strasburg. With the founding of the 
German Empire began a period of predominance for Berlin, 
distinguished especially by the building for the Reichstag 
(1882-94) by Wallot, and of the cathedral (1888-95) b Y 
Raschdorff. The architectural forms adopted as a basis, 



4Qo A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

sometimes academic, sometimes Renaissance, were as a rule 
greatly modified by the influence of the baroque, and showed 
the study of German even more than of Italian examples. 
This style, backed by the influence of the court, has remained 
in favor for governmental buildings in spite of the efforts of 
the modernists. One of its principal contemporary adherents 
is Ludwig Hoffmann, who achieved success with the Imperial 
Supreme Courts in Leipzig (1884-95) an d still retains the 
leadership of the conservatives. A third monumental creation 
of the new German Empire is the imposing group of buildings 
erected in Strasburg about 1890, in academic and baroque 
forms. For religious buildings the medieval styles' have 
continued to be generally preferred, while for town halls late 
Gothic or German Renaissance forms have been frequently 
employed. 

Eclecticism in England. In England eclecticism remained 
for a long time less the result of conscious tolerance than the 
unintentional product of warring factions, each of which 
insisted on the universal superiority of its chosen style. The 
classical side was chiefly maintained, after 1840, by adherents 
of a somewhat free rendering of antique or Italian motives, 
allied to the French neo-grec. Their principal representatives 
were Cockerell, best known for his restrained designs for 
branches of the Bank of England, and Pennethorne, whose 
University of London (1869), originally designed in Gothic 
forms, retains a vertical movement in its rich Venetian garb. 
Although Victorian Gothic also had its wide variety of proto- 
types, final acceptance of the principle of general liberty of 
choice scarcely came before 1870. The style which then 
obtained the preference was no one of those previously favored, 
but the so-called " Queen Anne." This took its suggestion 
from the vernacular, half -classic English domestic architecture 
of the late seventeenth and early eighteenth centuries, but 
sought a free adaptation to practical requirements and left 
considerable liberty to the personality of the individual 
architect. Such individuality was also exercised in certain 
experiments with other styles, while the Gothic, on the whole, 
remained the rule for churches, as it remains in England even 
to the present day. 

"Queen Anne" and ''Free Classic." The creators of the 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 



491 



Queen Anne were Eden Nesfield, in his lodges at Regent's 
Park (1864) and Kew (1866), and Norman Shaw in his office 
building, New Zealand Chambers (1873, Fig. 265). These 
buildings had the frank expression of a variety of materials 
which the Gothic school had initiated, forms recalling the 
Dutch character which reigned in the English architecture of 
William and Anne, and an individuality of combination which 
was modern. The union was timely, and buildings in the same 
general manner multiplied. They included not only residences, 
to which the founders of the style and many others devoted 
themselves with results of uncommon 
livableness, but also more ambitious 
buildings such as banks and theaters, 
in which its residential origin and 
smallness of scale rendered it less 
monumental th.an picturesque. A 
higher degree of monumentality be- 
gan to be sought during the nineties 
through the reintroduction of Palla- 
dian elements. Thus was produced 
the so - called ' ' Free Classic " a 
species of baroque in which individual 
liberty continued to hold a large 
place which has dominated the 
public and urban architecture of 
England until very recently. Among 
its adherents may be mentioned John 
Belcher, whose Institute of Chartered 
Accountants, 1895, was the manifesto 
of the school, and Sir Aston Webb. 
Within the last five years a tendency 
has been visible to return to more 
strictly academic forms, encouraged 
by the teaching of the Ecole des 
Beaux- Arts and the reversion to clas- 
sical architecture in America. The fagade of the Royal Auto- 
mobile Club (191 1), modeled on the buildings of the Place de la 
Concorde, is one of the earliest and most striking instances. 

Other styles. Beside this main tide of eclecticism in England 
has run a continuance of the medieval tradition now no longer 




FIG. 265 LONDON. NEW 
ZEALAND CHAMBERS. 

(MUTHESIUS) 



49 2 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

regarded as a counter-current in the building of country 
houses and churches. Here Sedding, Bodley, Pearson, and 
others have worked within a chosen range of historic national 
forms, scrupulously respecting honesty of materials and work- 
manship. They have contrived to give their designs a personal 
impress and at the same time to come nearer the spirit of the 

old masters than had 
their predecessors 
whose imitations were 
more literal (Fig. 267). 
The simple country 
parish churches es- 
pecially they have en- 
dowed with a devo- 
tional character and a 
suitability to the land- 
scape which had 
hitherto escaped 
modern architecture 
(Fig. 268). As the 
Anglican church has 
appropriated the 
medieval architecture 
of England, the 
Roman church there 
has turned to other 
styles. Thus, since 
1895, in the cathedral 
of Westminster, J. F. 

Bentley has employed forms predominantly Byzantine, securing 
an interior of vast spatial effect and deeply religious character 
(Fig. 266). The various dissenting sects have continued their 
traditions by following mainly the current classical or baroque 
styles. Until recently it was not wholly unusual to find more 
exotic styles essayed in secular architecture as well as in re- 
ligious. Thus Alfred Waterhouse employed a personal variety 
of Romanesque in his monumental Museum of Natural History 
at South Kensington, and Aston Webb and Ingress Bell made 
use of a modified French Renaissance in the Law Courts at 
Birmingham. Of late years, however, eclecticism in England 




FIG. 266 LONDON. WESTMINSTER CATHEDRAL 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 493 

has become less personal, and the individualists are to be found 
rather among those who abjure all historic forms. 

Eclectic-ism in France, Secular buildings. In France, where 
congruity with a taste developed on classical architecture is 
the criterion of every experiment in other styles, eclecticism 




FIG. 267 FLETE LODGE, NEAR HOBLETON. (MUTHESIUS) 

was relatively a matter of nuances, except in churches and 
country villas. The Italian manner of the thirties was 
followed by a mingling of Italian and Greek influences in the 
so-called neo-grec. Labrouste, Due, and Duban, the first 
pensioners of the French Academy to study the temples of 
Paestum and other Greek monuments, were the leaders of the 
movement in France. It found expression in Duban's 
Bramantesque work at the Ecole des Beaux- Arts (1832-62) 
and Labrouste' s refined facade of the Library of Sain.te Gene- 
vieve (1843-50, Fig. 269), where Greek delicacy of profiling 
was employed in a facade reminiscent of the Tuscan palaces. 
The contemporary interest in things romantic and national 
led to a revival of the style of the French Renaissance, stimu- 



494 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

lated especially by the enlargement of the Hotel de Ville in 
Paris (1836-54) and its rebuilding after the Commune. Under 
the Second Empire a powerful impulse toward the baroque, 
which so well expressed a luxurious society, was given by a 
genius of the first order, Charles Gamier. In the Paris 
Opera (1861-74, Fig. 270) he took suggestions from the late 
Venetian forms, in the Casino at Monte Carlo, from the 




FIG. 268 HOARCROSS. CHURCH OF THE HOLY ANGELS 

Roman baroque, employed with a technical facility and a 
orofusion of detail which were his own. In the widened 
conception of the classic which still dominated French archi- 
tecture on its formal side, the influence of Gamier has long 
continued to be felt. Thus the Musee Galliera by Ginain, 
the Petit Palais des Beaux- Arts by Girault (1900), in the main 
perpetuate his traditions. 

Churches. In the building of churches the identification of 
Christianity with the Middle Ages led to wider departures 
from the classic than in secular buildings, even where romanti- 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 495 

cism did not dictate the adoption of Gothic. The Romanesque 
was chosen as a compromise even before 1840, and after that 
date churches in that style multiplied in the metropolis as 
well as in the provinces. The variant which came to be 
preferred was one reminiscent of the buildings of Angouleme 
and Aquitaine, with their suggestion of Byzantine forms. 
The most conspicuous example is the great church of the 




FIG. 269 PARIS. BIBLIOTHEQUE SAINTE GENEVIEVE 

Sacred Heart at Montmartre by Abadie and Daumet, begun 
in 1873 (Fig. 271). Its elevated site, lofty domes, and gleam- 
ing whiteness make it a striking object in the panorama of 
Paris. In other churches of the latter half of the century, 
such as Saint Augustin and Sainte Trinite, Renaissance forms 
have reasserted themselves, although rarely without being 
tinged by Byzantine or other medieval influences. Finally 
in the commemorative chapel for the victims of the Charity 
Bazaar fire, Guilbert has expressed the devotions of the 
fashionable world in the facile modern baroque. 

Domestic architecture. Domestic architecture has also had 
its experiments with Gothic and other styles, but, so far as 
urban dwellings are concerned, has tended to revert to the 
French urban architecture par excellence, that of the eighteenth 



496 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

century, which still responds almost completely to needs 
which have changed but little. The small country villa or 
cottage, however, has presented a problem relatively new to 
the French, which they have tried, with less success, to solve 
by picturesque designs suggested by English or Swiss examples. 




FIG. 270 PARIS. OPERA HOUSE 

Other European countries. Belgium. Italy. In other Euro- 
pean countries there are certain buildings which must not be 
overlooked, the products of national movements of importance. 
Thus in Belgium the prosperity experienced under Leopold II. 
(1865-1909) resulted in a sumptuous rebuilding of Brussels. 
The most notable of the new constructions was the huge 
Palais de Justice (1866-83), by Poelaert. Here an eclectic 
modification of classic forms by an admixture of elements 
suggesting the Orient has produced effects of the most monu- 
mental character (Fig. 272). Italy, on its achieving liberty 
and unity in 1861, entered a period of development which had 
also its consequences in the arts. The monument to Victor 
Emmanuel II. in Rome by Count Giuseppe Sacconi, begun in^ 



!> O 

S 




T I 







498 A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 

1884 and dedicated in 1911, was designed to symbolize the 
triumph of Italian nationality. Rivaling the work of Poelaert 
in vastness, it also shows his influence in the forms of detail, 
at once classic and novel (Fig. 273). The two buildings are 
the most notable examples of the younger phase of eclecticism, 
which, not content to adopt historical styles in their integrity, 
has wished to make new syntheses of historical elements. 

Contributions of the eclectic movement to the development of 
types of buildings. The specific contributions of the eclectic 
movement to the development of types of buildings were 
necessarily formal, and, to a large degree, second-hand. Thus 
the movement in general placed the seal of its approval on the 
types already created by the classical movement for govern- 
ment buildings, banks, exchanges, and theaters, on the types 
created by the romantic movement for churches, town halls, 
and rural dwellings. In such buildings the changes introduced 
by eclecticism were relatively slight, such as the tingeing of 
classicism by Palladian or baroque forms, or the replacing of 
Gothic forms by those of the northern Renaissance. For 
certain types, to be sure, these eclectic molds have become 
very firmly established. The French town hall has become 
almost uniformly an adaptation of national Renaissance forms 
as found in the old Hotel de Ville of Paris. Administrative 
buildings for government departments, which have multiplied 
during the period all over the world, have acquired an inter- 
national physiognomy of Renaissance or post-Renaissance 
motives. Many types but newly created, such as modern 
universities, public libraries, baths and welfare institutes, 
railway stations and hotels, received their first treatment in 
these preferred styles of eclecticism, and have tended to retain 
the impress. In one young and notable group, the museums 
of history and art, a peculiar appropriateness has been felt in 
employing forms characteristic of the age or region from which 
objects exhibited come, and the same tendency has manifested 
itself in the national and local buildings at international 
expositions. In buildings, the exteriors of which are clothed 
in one or another garb of historic form, the plans often show, 
of course, the most novel adaptation to purely modern require- 
ments. The striving to make this adaptation and to bring it 
to expression in the massing and subdivision of the exteriors 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 



499 



is, however, really opposed to the underlying ideas of eclecti- 
cism and may best be considered as manifestations of the 
movement toward functionalism. 

Functionalism. Fundamentally different in direction from 
the eclectic movement, which forms part of the historical 
tendency of modern times, there has developed in architecture 
another movement, which is part of the tendency toward 




FIG. 273 ROME. MONUMENT TO VICTOR EMMANUEL II. 



natural science. It is at one with the biological concept of 
the adaptation of form to function and environment. Adapta- 
tion in both these respects conforms to the philosophical con- 
cept of function the dependence of a variable trait on other 
variables. The conscious endeavors in modern architecture 
to make the forms of individual members correspond to their 
structural duties, to make the aspect of buildings characteristic 
of their use and purpose, to make the style of the time expres- 
sive of the distinguishing elements in contemporary and 
national culture, may thus be inclusively designated by the 
name functionalism. 



500 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Early structural purism. In its narrower meaning, as a 
striving for truth and frankness of expression in structure, the 
functionalist tendency has been present in many earlier styles, 
like the Greek and Gothic. It is thus not incompatible with 
the modern use of historic forms. Such a structural purism 
indeed has been, as we have seen, a notable characteristic of 
French architecture since the seventeenth century a rule of 
"reason " and "good sense." It manifested itself in the restric- 
tion of the column by Soufnot and Chalgrin to its original 
function as an isolated support, in rationalization of the 
Roman triumphal arch at the Porte Saint Denis and the Arc 
de 1'Etoile. The same tendency appeared among the partisans 
of Gothic architecture, who claimed a superiority for their 
style in functional expressiveness. The writings of Pugin, 
indeed, state the structural theory in completeness: "There 
should be no features about a building which are not necessary 
for convenience, construction, or propriety," and "All orna- 
ment should consist of enrichment of the essential construction 
of the building." The conclusion drawn by Pugin, however, 
was that Gothic forms should be employed, and this was the 
burden also of the early rationalistic writings of Viollet-le-Duc. 
Likewise content with an inspiration from historical forms 
were Gottfried Semper and William Morris, although their 
writings were contributing powerfully to the idea of a purely 
modern style based on considerations of material and 
technique. 

The theories of environment and evolution. Reaction against 
historical tendencies. For the development of such a modern 
style a broader cultural foundation had gradually been in 
process of creation since the later days of the eighteenth 
century. Herder and Madame de Stael enunciated the 
principle of national individuality and organic evolution in 
literature; Hegel generalized the doctrine into a philosophy of 
history and art; Schnaase made concrete application of it 
in his Geschichte der bildenden Kunste (1843-64), where he 
traced for the first time the relation of the art of different 
countries to environment, race, and beliefs. Taine gave the 
idea its ultimate formulation and a wide popularity. Parallel 
with all this there came recognition of the importance of 
evolution and environment in the natural world, culminating 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 501 

in the biological theories of Darwin, and also the application 
of the principle of nationalities in .political affairs, in the 
unification of Italy and Germany. The reaction against 
historical tendencies of all sorts showed itself likewise in 
creative art, in the radicalism of Nietzsche, Zola, Ibsen, and 
Tolstoi in literature, of Millet, Manet, and Chavannes in 
painting, of Meunier and Rodin in sculpture, and Wagner 
in music. 

Modern material civilization. At the same time came the 
marvelous material development of the nineteenth century, 
depending on utilitarianism and applied science, which has 
changed with ever increasing rapidity the existing social 
conditions, the prevailing types of buildings, the materials, 
and the structural systems. Everything has contributed to 
the concentration of population in cities, which, especially 
in America and in Germany, have had the most fabulous and 
sudden growth. While the middle class has multiplied and 
reached a degree of comfort hitherto unknown, there has 
developed on the one hand an aristocracy of wealth and on the 
other an organized proletariat. Capitalism has brought with 
it vast factories, stores, and office buildings, steam transport 
has created railroad and dock buildings, palatial hotels for 
travelers, and great international expositions. Sanitation and 
altered social theories have revolutionized the building of 
schools, hospitals, asylums, and prisons, as well as the housing 
of the working classes. Philanthropy has endowed free 
libraries, settlements, and welfare institutions of all sorts. 
Economic pressure has led to a striving for the most efficient 
employment of space, time, and technical resources. The 
generous excess of strength characteristic of most earlier styles 
has become often impractical. The employment of iron and 
steel has brought new possibilities in the spanning of openings 
and interior space, and a new statical theory, which has fun- 
damentally altered esthetic principles as well. Other new 
materials have multiplied daily, while cheap transportation 
has made them available everywhere and tended to break 
down local peculiarities. 

Characteristics of functionalism in architecture. Since the 
middle of the nineteenth century all these forces have produced 
a body of architecture which, in spite of its variety, has a 



502 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

fundamental unity in its striving for functional expression. 
Sometimes the attempt has been to give to new materials like 
steel or glass, or new systems of construction like reinforced 
concrete, a form suggested by their own properties. Some- 
times the effort has been to express on the exterior of buildings 
the function of each of their component elements, and to 
endow each building as a whole with a specific character in 




FIG. 274 PARIS. READING-ROOM OF THE BIBLIOTHEQUE NATIONALS 

conformity with its purpose. More recently there has been 
a tendency not to remain satisfied unless all the forms em- 
ployed, even in the solution of time-honored problems, owe as 
little as possible to the historic styles, and thus are peculiarly 
and emphatically modern. 

Development of functionalism. Expression of structure. At 
the outset of the development of functionalist architecture its 
principles were broadly stated, but the application made of 
them was relatively limited. With the conviction that the 
historic styles of architecture were outgrowths of contemporary 
conditions of race, climate, religion, and society, there had 
arisen a belief that imitation of those styles in modern build- 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 503* 

ings was inappropriate, and that a wholly new style must be 
developed, suggested by modern conditions and modern 
problems. This was the later gospel of Viollet-le-Duc in his 
Entretiens sur V architecture (1863-72), and of Fergusson in 
his History of Architecture (1865-67). The scientific and 
utilitarian tendency of the day, however, made the criterion 
of style primarily a matter of structural system, and the hope 
of the advocates of modernity of style thus lay in the effort to 
find suitable expression for new methods of construction. 

Construction in iron. The novel constructive material of 
the day was, of course, iron, whether cast or wrought, which 
had been coming into use for utilitarian constructions since 
the early years of the century. The dome of the Halle au 
Ble in Paris had been reconstructed in iron in 1811, the Menai 
Suspension Bridge, with its unprecedented span, had been 
built in 1819-26. Although the elaborate mathematical 
calculations of strength in the new material tended to with- 
draw such constructions from the architect's domain, efforts 
were not lacking on the part of architects, even before the 
theoretical writings just mentioned, to employ iron in a 
manner at once frank and artistically satisfactory. The most 
notable instances of this were the great reading-rooms of the 
Library of Sainte Genevieve (1843-50) and of the Biblio- 
theque Nationale (1855-61, Fig. 274) where Labrouste 
employed iron columns, very slender and widely spaced, sup- 
porting spherical vaults of metal plates. In these buildings 
the facades were of masonry, with no exterior expression of 
the iron work. In the great market buildings known as the 
Halles Centrales, by Ballu (1851-59), the exterior also dis-! 
played its construction of iron columns covered with zinc. 
It was arid, yet in harmony with the practical character of 
the buildings. Of metal alone, and only made possible by 
metal, have been the more recent suspension, arch, and canti- 
lever bridges, with their enormous spans, as well as the 
gigantic Eiffel Tower in Paris (1889), which, like many of the 
bridges, combines grace with absolutely frank confession 
of structure. 

Glass and iron. For inclosed buildings wider possibilities 
were secured by the use of glass as a filling between the 
supports. Structures of glass and iron had early been intro- 



504 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

duced for the cultivation of plants, and a similar structure was 
suggested by the horticulturist Paxton for the international 
exposition at London in 1851. There resulted a sort of vast 
conservatory, which was made permanent in the Crystal 
Palace at Sydenham, 1852-53, and was widely influential in 
stimulating construction in glass and iron or steel. In some 
later buildings the roof only was of glass, as at the Palais de 
T Industrie for the Paris Exposition of 1855 an d a multitude of 
later museum buildings, consisting in effect of vast covered 
courts. In other buildings the roof was largely solid, the walls 
almost entirely of glass, as in the buildings of the Paris Exposi- 
tion of 1878. There has been a general tendency, owing to 
excess of sunlight, heat and cold, to recede from the extreme 
areas of glass at first employed, but in urban shop fronts where 
light and exhibition space are naturally the great desidera- 
ta, the glass has been kept at a maximum. A notably suc- 
cessful solution of such a problem with visible structural steel 
work is the Grand Bazar de la rue de Rennes, in Paris (Fig. 
276). 

Stone and iron. Experiments to devise novel structural 
systems with materials long in use, or with a combination of 
old and new materials, have also not been wanting. In the 
Vestibule de Harley (1857-68) at the Palais de Justice in 
Paris, J. L. Due employed a system of ribbed stone vaulting 
which was neither Gothic nor classical, but resulted from an 
independent analysis of his structural problem. Viollet-le- 
Duc himself made designs showing the frank employment of 
iron in connection with walls and vaults of masonry and tile, 
which were a good deal followed, although mainly in utilitarian 
constructions. 

Ferro-concrete. A further application of steel has been in 
connection with concrete. The employment of Portland 
cement as a building material, which rapidly increased in the 
later years of the nineteenth century, gave to concrete a much 
greater compressive strength. During the same time inventors 
were attempting to strengthen the concrete still further by 
building in a network of iron rods. This composite construc- 
tion, popularized by the Frenchman Joseph Monier after 1868, 
has received the names ferro-concrete, armored concrete, or 
reinforced concrete. Its merit consists in that, it .employs steel 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 505 

and concrete in such a way that each material contributes the 
elements of strength for which it is best fitted the concrete, 
compressive strength and indifference to fire, the steel, tensile 
strength and resistance to shearing. Theoretical study and 
practical experience have kept pace in the design and construc- 
tion of piers, girders, floor slabs, and arches of the new material, 
which combines the possibility of wide spans with cheapness 
and security. The method of execution is the pouring of the 
freshly mixed, semi -liquid concrete in temporary forms of 
wood or metal, within which have first been placed the rein- 
forcing bars, in the position where tensile or shearing stresses 
may occur. The temporary forms constitute one of the 
greatest items of expense, and, since they cannot be eliminated, 
current experiments are now directed to the devising of forms 
which may be used over and over. Owing to the fact that the 
steel reinforcement of each member is already incorporated 
in a protecting mass of concrete, and owing to the difficulty of 
casting thin walls of the material, there is less temptation with 
ferro-concrete than with other fireproof systems to disguise the 
essential members of the framework with enveloping walls. 
Aside from this frank articulation of structure, a variety of 
characteristic decorative treatments has been devised, such as 
the embedding of tile patterns in the surface of the concrete, 
and the creation of grooves by blocks nailed inside the forms. 
Thus, especially for utilitarian buildings, some highly interest- 
ing results have already been attained both in light and in 
massive construction. 

Other materials. Independent of the novel structural 
systems, and earlier than the latest developments just 
described, came a revival of certain neglected materials, 
especially brick and terra cotta. Philip Webb initiated the 
movement by using brick in William Morris's ''Red House" 
at Bexley Heath (1859). In the architecture of England and 
America during the following period it has received a variety 
of interesting treatments through the use of different bonds, 
the varying of the width, depth, and color of the mortar 
joints, and the employment of a variety of colors and patterns. 
Terra cotta, hitherto used mainly for friezes and ornamental 
detail, became available, as a result of improved methods of 
manufacture, for whole buildings, the Museum of Natural 



506 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

History at South Kensington (1868-80) being a notable early 
example. The possibilities ultimately reached impervious 
white structural terra cotta, besides a wide range of permanent 
colors with the advantages of cheapness, resistance to fire, 
and ease of reproducing ornament have given the material 
an ever increasing popularity. Efforts to give it also a 
characteristic expression, through frank recognition of its 
differences from stone masonry, have produced many interest- 
ing results. 

Expression oj use and character. Deeply rooted, like the 
striving for structural expression, has been the attempt to 
secure expression for the use and character of buildings. 
Goethe had praised the expression of character as the highest 
merit in architecture; the Italian critic Milizia, with Ruskin 
and Viollet-le-Duc, had applied this principle specifically to 
the expression of the central purpose and determining condi- 
tions of the building in hand. The eclectics already recognized 
the principle in part when they chose for different types of 
buildings the several historic styles which seemed most 
appropriate to their general purposes. The pioneers of 
structural functionalism inevitably gave to many types of 
structures, especially those with exacting utilitarian require- 
ments, an impress which was characteristic of their uses. The 
desire for expression of function has gone much farther, how- 
ever, influencing the plan and massing as well. It has become 
the object of architects not merely to make the interior ele- 
ments adapted to their purpose in extent, in height, and in 
relation to one another, but also to emphasize the existence 
of each of these elements on the exterior and to indicate their 
nature and relationships in such a way that the purpose and 
arrangement of the building might be unmistakable. For the 
functionalist movement the practical development and the 
formal development of types of buildings have thus become 
logically inseparable. 

Contributions of the functionalist movement to the development 
of types. Theaters. With the multiplication and specializa- 
tion of requirements and types of buildings, it becomes im- 
possible even to mention all those of importance. It must 
suffice to discuss one or two which are representative of the 
transformations which have taken place in types already 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 507 

existing and of the creation of wholly new ones. The the- 
ater is a type which, already highly developed during the 
classical movement, has retained its importance and under- 
gone characteristic modifications. The first of these was in 
external expression. Semper felt that the stage, with its 
fundamental importance and immense extent, should no 
longer be kept under a single roof with the auditorium, but 
deserved independent recognition, which the growing practical 
necessity for great height has made permanent. In the 
Paris Opera (186174) Garnier carried still further the idea 
of characterization, emphasizing on the exterior the form of 
the auditorium as well, so that foyer, auditorium, and stage 
form an ascending series, while the stage entrance, dressing- 
rooms, and administrative offices are all given a frank and 
suitable expression (Figs. 270 and 275). 

Inner modification of the theater. The internal elements, the 
auditorium and the stage, have likewise been modified, espe- 
cially in those theaters unconnected with court functions and 
not intended for the production of operas of a conventional 
sort. Democratic conditions have here tended to do away 
with the tiers of private loges grouped in a horseshoe, and to 
make the house more nearly fan-shaped, so as to give all as 
favorable a view as possible of the stage. A similar arrange- 
ment has been introduced, for somewhat different reasons, in 
the theaters specially built for performance of the music- 
dramas of Richard Wagner at Bayreuth and Munich. In 
these, as in an ancient theater, the seats rise in a single slope. 
The technical apparatus of the stage, where traditional arrange- 
ments had retained their hold until the last quarter of the 
nineteenth century, was suddenly transformed by the substi- 
tution of metal for wood and of electric motive power for 
manual strength. The revolving stage has rnade possible a 
hitherto unhoped for rapidity in the change of scenes, while 
electric lighting has opened the way for a thousand new optical 
effects. 

Railway stations. Railway stations had their origin only 
in the thirties; they at once assumed, of necessity, the two 
fundamental forms which still exist terminal stations and 
way stations. For both, if they were of sufficient importance, 
a single train-shed spanning tracks and platforms was soon 




FIG. 275 PARIS. OPERA HOUSE. PLAN 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 509 

adopted, and, with the multiplication of tracks and the 
employment of iron trusses, spans of over two hundred feet 
were reached early in the fifties. The part of the station 
containing the waiting-rooms and offices gave opportunities 
for monumental treatment which architects were quick to 
realize, as in the classic hall of Euston Station in London, 
built by Hardwick in 1847. I n the Gare de 1'Est in Paris 
(1847-52) a great gable containing a single arched window 
expressed on the facade the form of the train-shed behind, and 
a similar motive received magnificent treatment on a larger 
scale in the Gare du Nord (1862-64). At terminal stations 
with the main building at the head of the tracks the two sides 
have generally been used in Europe for arrival and departure, 
respectively, with specialized conveniences for passengers of 
a number of different classes. In way stations, and in terminal 
stations where space has not permitted the main building to 
be at the end, a depression or elevation of the tracks has made 
possible direct access to all the platforms. Where steam is the 
motive power the smokiness of the inclusive train-sheds has 
led increasingly to the substitution of low individual "umbrella- 
sheds" with long narrow slots close above the stacks. Where 
electric power has been adopted, on the other hand, there has 
been a reversion to the more monumental single hall, as in 
che Gare du quai d'Orsay, Paris, opened in 1901 (Fig. 278). 
In the giving of expressive form to such practical requirements, 
often far from the traditional domain of architecture, lie a 
great number of the problems presented by the multiplicity 
of modern types of buildings. 

Expression of modernity and nationality. Although the 
endeavor to find appropriate expression for new types and 
new systems of construction has inevitably given a modernity 
of character to much current architecture, the forms of detail 
in traditional materials have long continued to be drawn from 
historical precedent, and many conventional types have 
retained a historical imprint whether classical, medieval, 
or Renaissance. The broad principle enunciated by Semper, 
"The solution of modern problems must be freely developed 
from the premises given by modernity,'* has not yet been 
pushed, any more than it was by its author, to its ultimate 
conclusions. During the last decade of the nineteenth 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 



century, however, the conviction has deepened that, as Otto 
Wagner has expressed it, "Modern art must yield us modern 
ideas, forms created by us, which represent our abilities, our 
acts, and our preferences." 

In forms based on material and structure. Within the move- 
ment there are two diverse tendencies, having otherwise little 




FIG. 278 GARE DU QUAI D'ORSAY. INTERIOR. (LE GENIE CIVIL) 

in common. One, represented by Wagner and his followers 
in Germany, by Sullivan in America, and by the spiritual 
descendants of Morris and Viollet-le-Duc in England and 
France, holds to the belief that "The modern architecture of 
our time seeks to derive form and motives from purpose, con- 
struction, and materials. If it is to give clear expression to 
our feelings it must also be as simple as possible. Such 
simple forms are to be carefully weighed against one another, so 
as to secure beautiful proportions, on which almost solely 
the effect of our architectural works depends." In the works 



5 i2 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

of these men only the traditional emphasis on base and 
cornice is retained. The enframement of windows and the 
demarcation of individual stories is generally avoided, and 
the forms of detail at the bases and crowns of the piers, at the 
doors and cornices, are individual ones suggested by the 
natural properties and technical treatment of the materials. 

In plastic forms to which construction is subservient. The 
other modernist school holds quite a different view. Its 
fundamental theory, stated by L. A. Boileau as early as 1889, 
is that, "instead of constructing first, without preoccupation 
with the final appearance, promising oneself to utilize the 
ingeniousness of the construction as the decoration, one should 
relegate the ingenuities of structure to a position among the 
secondary means, unworthy of appearing in the completed 
work." This school attributes to a material a degree of artis- 
tic value in proportion as it is more plastic, more susceptible 
of receiving the impress of 'the personal sentiment of the 
artist. To this branch of modernism belonged the early 
phase known specifically as Van nouveau, in which curved 
lines suggested by plant forms played so great a role. To it 
belong also the current works of Van de Velde and others, 
who treat their forms almost like flesh, with cartilage-like 
formations at the points of junction. These might be de- 
scribed as baroque without the classical elements. At the 
Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, although classical forms are 
retained, much sympathy prevails for the scenic theory of this 
school of modernists, with which, indeed, most modern classic 
architecture has really much in common. Thus at the Paris 
Exposition of 1900 the bizarre masking of the structural forms, 
which at earlier French expositions had themselves been taken 
as the basis for decorative treatment, was less a retrograde 
movement, from the modernist standpoint, than the triumph 
of a different phase of modernism. 

Besides the consistent followers of these two systems there 
is, as always, a multitude of practitioners whose convictions 
are a mixture of elements not wholly concordant, and who 
are united only in the rebellion against historical forms. 

Development of modernist forms. The origins. England. 
The forerunners of modern individual treatment in architect- 
ure were the disciples of Morris in England, who in 1888 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 



instituted the Arts and Crafts Exhibition for the display of 
works of handicrafts and interior decoration in forms created 
by their own makers. The first attempts to make use of 
original forms on the exterior of buildings were made almost 
simultaneously in 1892 and 1893 by C. Harrison Townsend 
in London, Paul Hankar and Victor Horta in Brussels, and 




FIG. 279 BROADLEYS ON LAKE WINDERMERE (MUTHESIUS) 

Louis Sullivan in Chicago. Townsend took his departure 
from the Romanesque forms of the American, Richardson, 
and transformed them by novel treatment of the projections, 
by fertile original ornament, and by a rich use of color. In 
England the new departure has proved too radical for popular 
taste, in spite of the preparation made by the craft guilds, and 
few architects have pursued its ideals. The chief of them, 
C. F. A. Voysey, however, has had much success in his chosen 
field of the dwelling (Fig. 279), in which he has adhered most 
strictly to the idea of economy, yet has secured interesting 
effects by his employment of rough cast, woodwork painted 



5 i 4 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

in broad but unhackneyed colors, and individual designs for 
hangings, furniture, and hardware. 

Belgium and France. The Belgians introduced somewhat 
fantastic combinations of curved lines, and experimented at 
the same time with steel work in connection with brick, 
concrete, mosaic, and colored glass. They gave the first 
impulse in both France and Germany, although English models 




FIG. 280 VIENNA. 



Copyright by Delphin-Verlag 
STATION OF THE METROPOLITAN RAILWAY. (LUX) 



were followed in rural domestic architecture and independent 
creations soon outweighed all external contributions. The 
Belgian influence made its way to France about 1896 under 
the name of Vart nouveau. First felt in the minor arts, it 
soon invaded architecture in the light and graceful structures 
of glass and steel designed since 1898 by Hector Guimard to 
serve as entrances to the Paris underground "the Metro." 
After the first enthusiasm for the new forms, however, few 
buildings in France have shown so pronounced a break with 
tradition. The new leaven appears mainly in a greater 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 515 

freedom within the academic style itself, which France, with 
its Latin elements and its faithfulness to classical tradition 
during the nineteenth century, regards, not without some 
reason, as a national style of its own. 

Germany: Vienna. It is in Germany that the movement 
has taken deep root, so that, in spite of its foreign origins, it is 
already regarded by artists, if not by the government, as an 
expression of the Teutonic spirit in rebellion against the Latin 
domination of classic architecture. The pioneer has been 
Otto Wagner in Vienna, whose inaugural address as professor 
at the Academy in 1894 was a declaration of independence 
from the historical styles. His stations for the Metropolitan 
Railway (1894-97) were frankly developed from purpose, en- 
vironment, and modern materials, with little ornament, and 
that freely invented (Fig. 280) . The formation of the Viennese 
"Secession" in 1897, for which Wagner's pupil, Joseph 
Olbrich, designed an exhibition building of novel type and 
fresh decorative conception, inaugurated an analogous ten- 
dency in painting and in handicraft, which gave the archi- 
tectural movement much support. Joseph Hoffman, another 
pupil, founded in 1903 the '-Viennese Workshops" on the 
lines of Morris's establishment, and has had wide influence in 
domestic architecture and interior decoration. Although 
Wagner achieved in the Postal Savings Bank (1905) a notable 
expression of steel construction and marble veneering, official 
conservatism has prevented the execution of other monumental 
projects of the first order, and the buildings in Vienna which 
are most advanced in functionalist tendencies have hitherto 
been due to private initiative. 

North Germany. The same has been generally true in 
North Germany, where the first striking success of the move- 
ment was in the Wertheim department store in Berlin, built 
by Alfred Messel at intervals from 1896 to 1904 (Fig. 277). 
Although historic forms at first baroque, later Gothic here 
furnished the suggestions, all have been so transformed that 
the impression is predominantly modern. Active official en- 
couragement was first given the movement by Grand Duke 
Ernst Ludwig of Hesse-Darmstadt, who called Olbrich, Peter 
Behrens, and others to Darmstadt, and gave them a free hand. 
Their initial exposition of domestic architecture and handi- 



5 i6 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

craft in i go i was the beginning of a widespread reform in these 
fields, largely on English lines, but less affected by medieval- 
ism and saturated with new decorative conceptions. Free 
from historic suggestion, and thus pronounced in its mo- 
dernity, is the expression of the nature of the factory found 
in 1909 by Behrens in his turbine factory for the General 




Copyright by G. Muller & E. Rentsch 

FIG. 28l BERLIN. TURBINE FACTORY OF THE GENERAL ELECTRIC COM- 
PANY (AEG). (HOEBER) 

Electric Company (AEG) in Berlin (Fig. 281). The single 
vast hall has its great areas of glass confined between angular 
masses of concrete, and the forms of its trusses and steel 
columns are expressed with unusual frankness and skill. 
With the great majority of professional architects in Germany 
now participating in the modernist movement, only the per- 
sonal intervention of the Emperor in the case of public works 
has prevented it from prevailing there almost universally. 

At the moment of cessation of architectural activity in 
Europe due to the great war, two contrary tendencies were 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 517 

struggling for mastery in matters of style. One emphasizes 
the elements of continuity with the past, the other the ele- 
ments of novelty in modern civilization. In the Germanic 
countries it is the radical emphasis on novel elements which 
has secured the advantage, in France and England it is the 
conservative emphasis on continuity which on the whole 
retains the supremacy. In view of the currently intensified 
nationalism, it is natural to expect that these national dif- 
ferences will be cultivated and perpetuated at least for a time. 
The underlying elements of internationalism existing in the 
community of practical problems, materials, and structural 
systems, and. the essentially international character of both 
the conservative and the radical movement, however, would 
seem to indicate that this particularism will be relatively 
temporary. Whether the present conservative or the present 
radical tendency may ultimately be victorious, we may be sure 
that change in architectural style is bound to be constant, 
and that architecture will remain a living art, not less expres- 
sive of the complicated texture of modern life than it has been 
of the life of earlier and simpler periods. 



PERIODS OF MODERN ARCHITECTURE 



FRANCE 

Classicism, c. 1780-1830. 

Tacques Germain Soufflot, 1709-80. 

Sainte Genevieve (the Pantheon) at Paris, 1757-90. 
Victor Louis, 1736-1802. 

Grand Theatre at Bordeaux, 1777-80. 

Colonnades of the Palais Royal in Paris, 1781-86. 
Charles Nicholas Ledoux, 1736-1806. 

Gates of Paris, 1780-88. 
Pierre Rousseau, b. 1750, d. after 1791. 

Hotel de Salm (Palace of the Legion of Honor) in Paris, 

1782-86. 
Jean Francois Therese Chalgrin, 1739-1811. 

Saint Philippe du Roule in Paris, 1769-84. 

Arc de 1'Etoile, 1806-36. 
Barthelemy Vignon, 1762-1829. 

Madeleine at Paris, 1807-42. 



5 i8 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Alexandra Brongniart, 1739-1813. 

Bourse in Paris, 1808-27. 
Charles Percier, 1764-1838, and Pierre Fontaine, 1762- 

1853- 

Arc du Carrousel in Paris, 1806. 
Chapelle Expiatoire in Paris, 1815-26. 

II. Romanticism, c. 1830-65. 

Chapel of Les Herbiers in Vendee, 1825. 
Francois Christian Gau, 1790-1854. 

Sainte Clotilde in Paris, 1846-59 (with Theodore Ballu, 

1817-85). 
Eugene Emmanuel Viollet-le-Duc, 1814-79. 

Restoration and fleche of Notre Dame in Paris, 1857 Jf. 

III. Eclecticism, c. 1820-1900. 

Italian phase. 

Old Opera House in Paris, 1820. 
Neo-grec phase. 

Jacques Felix Duban, 1797-1870. 
Ecole des Beaux-Arts, 1832-62. 
Theodore Labrouste, 1799-1875. 

Bibliotheque Sainte Genevieve in Paris, 1843-50. 
Joseph Louis Due, 1802-79. 

Completion of the Palais de Justice at Paris, 1857-68. 
French Renaissance phase. 

Jean Baptiste Leseur, 1794-1883. 

Enlargement of the Hotel de Ville at Paris, 1836-54. 
Baroque phase. 

Charles Gamier, 1825-98. 

Opera House in Paris, 1861-74. 
Casino at Monte Carlo. 
Paul Ginain, 1825-98. 

Musee Galliera in Paris, 1878-88. 
Charles Girault, 1851-. 

Petit Palais des Beaux- Arts in Paris, 1900. 
Byzantine phase. 

Paul Abadie, 1812-84. 

Church of the Sacred Heart, Paris, i873~date. 

IV. Functionalism, c. i85o-date. 

Theodore Labrouste, 1799-1875. 
Reading-rooms of the Bibliotheque Sainte Genevieve, 

1843-50, and Bibliotheque Nationale, 1855-61. 
Joseph Louis Due, 1802-79. 

. Vestibule de Harley in the Palais de Justice at Paris, 
1857-68. 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 519 

Victor Baltard, 1805-74. 

Halles Centrales in Paris, 1852-59. 
Buildings of the Paris Expositions of 1878 and 1889. 
Alexandra Eiffel, 1832-. 

Eiffel Tower at the Paris Exposition of 1889. 
Hector Guimard, 1867-. 

Stations of the Paris Underground Railway ("Metro"), 

1898 /. 
Auguste Perret, 1874-, and Gustave Perret, 1876-. 

Theatre des Champs Elysees, 1912. 



ENGLAND 

I. Classicism, c. 1760-1850. 

Roman phase. 

Robert Adam, 1728-92, and James Adam, d. 1794. 

Screen for the Admiralty in London, 1760. 

Remodeling of Kedleston, 1761-65. 

Record Office in Edinburgh, 1771. 

The Adelphi in London, 1772. 

University Buildings in Edinburgh, 1778^. 
Sir John Soane, 1753-1837. 

Bank of England in London, 1788-1835. 
Harvey Lonsdale Elmes, 1814-47. 

Saint George's Hall in Liverpool, 1814-54. 
Greek phase. 

James Stuart, 1713-88. 

Chapel at Greenwich Hospital. 
Thomas Harrison, b. 1744. 

"The Castle" at Chester, 1793-1820. 
Thomas Hamilton, 1785-1858. 

High School at Edinburgh, 1825-29. 
Sir Robert Smirke. 

British Museum in London, 1825-47. 

II. Romanticism, c. 1760-1870. 

First phase, c. 1760-1830. 

Strawberry Hill, 1753-76. 
Fonthill Abbey, 1796-1814. 
Eaton Hall, 1803-14. 
Second phase, c. 1830-70. 

Augustus Welby Pugin, 1813-52. 
!8 Church of Saint Augustine, Ramsgate, 1842. 



520 A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 

Sir Charles Barry, 1795-1860. 

Houses of Parliament in London, 1840-60. 
Sir Gilbert Scott, 1811-78. 

Church of Saint Giles in Camberwell, 1842-44. 
William Butterfield, 1814-1900. 

All Saints', Margaret Street, in London, 1849. 
George Edmund Street, 1824-81. 

Law Courts in London, 1868-84. 
Alfred Waterhouse, 1830-1905. 

Assize Courts in Manchester, 1859-64. 

Museum of Natural History in London, 1868-80. 

III. Eclecticism, c. i83o-date. 

Italian and neo-grec phase. 
Sir Charles Barry, 1795-1860. 

Travelers' Club in London, 1829-31. 
Charles Robert Cockerell, 1788-1863. 

Taylor and Randolph Buildings, Oxford, 1840-45. 

Branch Bank of England, Liverpool, 1845. 
Sir James Pennethorne, 1801-71. 

University of London, 1866-70. 
Queen Anne phase. 

Eden Nesfield, 1835-88. 

Lodges at Regent's Park, 1864, and Kew, 1866. 
R. Norman Shaw, 1831-1912. 

New Zealand Chambers in London, 1873. 

IV. Functionalism, c. 1850 to date. 

Sir Joseph Paxton, 1803-65. 

Crystal Palace in London, 1851. 
C. Harrison Townsend. 

Bishopsgate Institute in London, 1893-94. 

Horniman Museum in London, 1900-01. 
C. F. A. Voysey, 1857-. 



GERMANY 

I. Classicism, c. 1770-1840. 

Roman phase, c. 1770-90. 

Abbey Church at Saint Blasien, 1770-80. 
Deutschhauskirche in Niirnberg, 1785. 
Greek phase, c. 1790-1840. 

Karl Gottfried Langhans, 1733-1808. 
Brandenburg Gate in Berlin, 1788-91. 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 521 

Friedrich Gilly, 1771-1800. 

Proposed memorial for Frederick the Great in Berlin, 

1797. 
Karl Friedrich Schinkel, 1781-1841. 

Royal Theater in Berlin, 1818-21. 

Old Museum in Berlin, 1824-28. 
Leo von Klenze, 1784-1864. 

Glyptothek in Munich, 1816-30. 

Walhalla at Regensburg, 1830-42. 

II. Romanticism, c. 1825-50. 

Karl Friedrich Schinkel, 1781-1841. 

Gothic project for the Cathedral of Berlin, 1819. 

Werderkirche in Berlin, 1825. 
Friedrich von Gartner, 1792-1847. 

III. Eclecticism, c. 1830-1900. 

Italian Renaissance phase. 
Leo von Klenze, 1784-1864. 

Pinakothek in Munich, 1826-33. 

Konigsbau in Munich, 1826-35. 
Friedrich von Gartner, 1792-1847. 

Royal Library in Munich, 1832-43. 
Gottfried Semper, 1804-79. 

Old Court Theater in Dresden, 1838-41. 
Gothic and northern Renaissance phase. 
Heinrich von Ferstel, 1828-83. 

Votive Church in Vienna, 1853-79. 
Friedrich von Schmidt, 1825-91. 

Rathaus in. Vienna, 1873-83. 
Baroque phase. 

Gottfried Semper, 1804-79. 

Extension of the Imperial Palace in Vienna, 1870 jf. 

Court Theater in Vienna, 1871-89. 
Paul Wallot, 1841-1912. 

Reichstag Building in Berlin, 1882-94. 
Ludwig Hoffmann, 1852. 

Imperial Supreme Courts at Leipzig, 1884-95. 

IV. Functionalism, c. i85o-date. 

Otto Wagner, 1841-. 

Stations of the Stadtbahn in Vienna, 1894-97. 

Postal Savings Bank in Vienna, 1905. 
Alfred Messel, 1853-1909. 

Wertheim store in Berlin, 1896-1907. 



522 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Joseph Olbrich, 1867-1908. 

Secession gallery in Vienna, 1897. 

Tietz store in Diisseldorf, 1906-08. 
Peter Behrens, 1868. 

House in Darmstadt, 1901. 

Turbine factory in Berlin, 1909. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

The two final volumes of D. Joseph's Geschichte der Baukunst, 1902, 
bear the title Geschichte der Baukunst des XIX. Jahrhunderts, and 
constitute the only historical work devoted to modern architecture as 
a whole. One may also consult the modern section of K. O.'Hart- 
mann's Die Baukunst in ihrer Entwicklung . . . bis zur Gegenwart, 
vol. 3, 191 1. Both of these are naturally fullest on work in Germany. 
L. Magne's L 'architecture franqais du siecle, 1889, covers France to 
its date. For the development of special types, in general, or in 
single countries, see A. G. Meyer's Eisenbauten: ihre Geschichte und 
^Esthetik, 1907; H. Muthesius's Das englische Haus, 3 vols., 1904-05, 
and his Die neuere kirchliche Baukunst in England, 1906. 

Classicism. P. Klopfer's Von Palladia bis Schinkel (Geschichte der 
neueren Baukunst), 1911, gives a general survey of the movement, 
with accounts of the development of individual types of buildings. 
L.Hautecoeur's Rome et la renaissance de I'antiquite a la fin du XVI He 
siecle, 1912, which discusses the genesis of the movement, and its 
beginnings in France, may be supplemented by F. Benoit's L'art 
franqais sous la revolution et I'empire, 1897. A. E. Richardson's 
Monumental Classic Architecture in Great Britain and Ireland During 
the XVIII. and XIX. Centuries, 1914, covers the period in England; 
and P. Mebes's Um 1800. Architektur und Handwerk . . ., 2 vols., 
1908, gives a partial survey of the work in Germany. 

Romanticism. The history of the romantic movement in archi- 
tecture has received special treatment only in the case of England, 
in C. L. Eastlake's History of the Gothic Revival, 1972; in H. Muthe- 
sius's Die neuere kirchliche Baukunst, Das englische Haus, vol. i, 
1904, and Die englische Baukunst der Gegenwart, 1900, vol. i. The 
early transplantation of the movement to the Continent best appears, 
although incidentally, in M. L. Gothein's Geschichte der Gartenkunst, 
1914, vol. 2, chap. 15. For its later progress there one must turn to 
the general histories of Hartmann and Joseph. 

Eclecticism. Two works devoted to illustrations of German build- 
ings of this phase are H. Licht's Architektur Deutschlands . . . der Neu- 
zeit, 2 vols., 1882, and H. Rtickwardt's Faqaden und Details moder- 



MODERN ARCHITECTURE 523 

tier Bauten, 1892. A similar work for England is Muthesius's Die 
englische Baukunst der Gegenwart, 2 vols., 1800, supplemented by 
his other works listed above. For France one may consult the 
works of Cesar Daly or R. Self ridge's Modern French Architecture, 
1899, a collection of photographs of buildings from the period, largely 
domestic. 

Functionalism. The theories of "character" and structure de- 
veloped by Ruskin, Viollet-le-Duc, and others are discussed, although 
rather unsympathetically, in G. Scott's The Architecture of Hu- 
manism, 1914. Some of the applications made in practice appear in 
F. Billerey's paper, Modern French Architecture, in the Journal of 
the Royal Institute of British Architects, 191213, 3d series, vol. 20, 
pp. 317-45. The influence of iron in architecture is most fully 
discussed in A. G. Meyer's Eisenbauten: ihre Geschichte und ^Esthetik, 
1907. The pioneer works of "modernist" character in England and 
Belgium are described in Muthesius's Die englische Baukunst der 
Gegenwart and in H. Fierens-Gervaert's Nouveaux essais sur I' art con- 
temporain, 1903. The manifesto of the movement in Germany was 
Otto Wagner's Moderne Baukunst, translated by N. C. Ricker, 1901. 
Its later development there may be traced in Karl Scheffler's Moderne 
Baukunst, 2d ed., 1908, and in the biographies of Wagner, by J. A. 
Lux, 1914, and of Peter Behrens, by F. Hoeber, 1913. For the work 
in America see the note to Chapter XIII. 



CHAPTER XIII 
/ 

AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 

Pre-colonial architecture. Yucatan. Long before European 
explorers and colonists crossed the Atlantic there flourished in 
America civilizations which, although still ignorant of iron 
or even of bronze, had a highly developed architecture. The 
first, and in some respects the greatest, of these was that of 
the Maya, whose center was in modern Yucatan. They 
flourished in the early centuries of the Christian era, and 
their great buildings were in ruins long before the arrival of the 
Spanish conquerors. Their colossal structures at Palenque 
(Fig. 282), Chichen Itza, and elsewhere reveal an ability to 
transport and work stones of great size, to employ the column 
and the corbeled vault, and to devise symmetrical plans of 
some complexity. Religious structures came first in impor- 
tance; even the royal palaces were secondary. A character- 
istic feature was the raising of all buildings of importance on 
great substructures, often with sloping faces or in the form 
of a stepped pyramid. A broad and steep staircase on the 
principal face led to the upper platform. Here stood the 
building proper, of massive rubble-concrete faced with stone 
(Fig. 283). The arrangement of the plan was conditioned by 
the use of the corbeled vault to cover all interior spaces. 
This resulted in narrow rooms which could be extended in- 
definitely in length, but which had to be multiplied one behind 
the other to secure greater depth. Openings to the exterior 
or between the chambers were spanned with lintels of wood 
or stone, or by smaller corbeled arches. On the exterior a 
belt course marked the line of the impost within, and the 
space opposite the tall vault was often treated as a broad 
frieze with relief decoration. A unique feature was the "roof 
comb," a long pierced wall rising along the center of the ter- 



AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 



525 



raced roof. Most of the principal buildings were temples, 
although monasteries and palaces on a large scale were also 
erected. 

Mexico. Successive invading tribes, less civilized than the 
Maya, fell heir to their art, and diffused their own versions of 




FIG. 282 PALENQUE. SKETCH PLAN OF THE PALACE AND TEMPLES. 

(HOLMES) 

it throughout Mexico. The buildings of the Toltec and later 
the Aztec were on an equal scale with those of the older civiliza- 
tion, but show less refinement and constructive skill. The 
terrace and pyramid substructures, the relief decoration, the 



526 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

general types of plan with long, narrow rooms, were retained. 
Often the building or rooms were grouped around quadrangles 
and courts. In general the corbeled vault was abandoned, 
and the terrace roofs of concrete were supported by wooden 




FIG. 283 TRANSVERSE SECTION OF A TYPICAL MAYA BUILDING. 

. (HOLMES) 

The upper part of the pyramid is shown with the stairway at the left. a. Lower wall-zone 
pierced by a plain doorway, b. Doorway showing squared and dressed stones of jamb. 
c. Wooden lintels cut midway in length, d. Doorway connecting front with back chamber 
and showing position of cord holders, e. Inner face of arch dressed with the slope. /. Ceil- 
ing, or cap-stones of arch. g. Lower line of molding, a survival of the archaic cornice. 
h. Decorated entablature zone. *'. Upper moldings and coping. j, k. False front with 

with " 



decorations, (occasionally added). /. Roof -crest 



decorations, (occasionally added). 



beams. The varied character of the materials available re- 
sulted in many local differences in construction. At Mitla, 
for instance, large stones could be had for columns and lintels; 
in some other places stone could scarcely be found suitable for 



AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 527 

facing, and mud brick or adobe had to be used, decorated with 
stucco and color. These native developments came to an end 
with the conquest of Mexico by the Spaniards beginning in 1 5 19. 

Peru. In Peru the Spaniards, on their conquest of the 
Inca empire in 1532, found another well-developed style of 
architecture, with an independent development of many 
centuries. Palaces, fortresses, and cities rivaled one another 
in importance. Polygonal walls of vast blocks, rising in many 
terraces, guarded the pass of the Andes at Ollentaitambo. 
Houses and palaces were built around courts, sometimes with 
a second story receding from the first and supported on 
corbeled vaults. Windows and niches with inclined jambs 
were notable features. 

Colonial architecture. With the coming of the European 
colonists to the New World a problem new and unique in 
modern times was created for architecture ; civilized men had 
to face conditions which were absolutely primitive and to 
struggle against odds for the attainment of traditional ideals 
of building. As a result there was everywhere a pioneer stage, 
in which the settlers seized the first means at hand adobe, 
logs, or even turf and built as simply as. would serve primary 
needs of shelter and worship. Later they sought to replace 
such modes of building by those of their mother country, but 
these were inevitably modified to a greater or less degree by 
differences in the materials available, and in economic and 
social conditions. The duration of the pioneer period itself 
varied greatly with the character and support of the colonists, 
and with the resources and climate of the country. 

Spanish colonial architecture. Development. In the con- 
quered empires of Mexico and Peru, where wealth and a 
large civilized native population already existed, the Spanish 
were soon able to establish their own architecture, and even to 
erect monuments rivaling those of the mother country in size 
and number. Desire to implant the Catholic faith gave 
prominence from the very beginning to churches. The ear- 
liest ones, including doubtless the small church erected in 
1524 on the foundations of the great Aztec temple in Mexico 
City, showed reminiscences of the Plateresque and even of 
Gothic and Moorish details. Such buildings were soon re- 
placed by more elaborate structures, designed either by the 



528 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

court architects in Spain or by others of scarcely less ability 
who emigrated to the New World. Thus, for the cathedral 
of Mexico, two successive designs were sent from Spain, in 
1573 and 1615, the second by Juan Gomez de Mora (Fig. 284). 
The cathedral at Lima (1573) and many other buildings were 
designed on the spot by Francisco Becerra, a disciple of 
Herrera. The successive transformations of style in Spain 




FIG. 284 MEXICO CITY. CATHEDRAL, WITH SACRISTY (RIGHT) 

were faithfully reflected in the Spanish colonies, usually a few 
years later, with baroque tendencies naturally predominating. 
In 1749, when Lorenzo Rodriguez began the great sacristy of 
the cathedral of Mexico, he employed a most luxuriant ag r 
gregation of baroque details for the facades (Fig. 284). By 
1797, however, when the towers of the cathedral were added, 
the academic reaction was supreme; and the work of the last 
of the great colonial architects, Francisco Eduardo Tres- 
guerras (1745-1833), shows a handling of academic elements 
reminiscent of that of Chalgrin. 



AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 529 

Types of buildings. The dominant type of church was the 
basilican, as in the cathedral of Mexico a solid rectangle with 
a barrel-vaulted nave and transepts, having penetrations at 
each bay, domed compartments in the aisles, and chapels be- 
tween the buttresses. Twin western towers, as here, were 
frequent elsewhere, and a dome over the crossing was a 
general feature. Domed churches of central type were also 
not wanting. A special development of the central type 
occurs in the sacristy of the cathedral of Mexico, the Sagrario 
Metropolitan. This consists of a Greek cross inscribed in a 
square, with an octagonal dome over the crossing, barrel- 
vaulted arms, and minor domes in the angles of the cross. 
Secular and domestic buildings followed those of the mother 
country in being composed about an arcaded court or patio. 

Florida. The outpost of Spain in North America, Saint 
Augustine, founded in 1565, was not without structures of some 
architectural pretensions, although these were of relatively 
utilitarian character. The old fort, with its rusticated bas- 
tions, and the molded and paneled posts of the city gate still 
stand, as well as a simple house or two with whitewashed 
walls and wooden balconies. 

New Mexico. In the remote interior of New Mexico archi- 
tecture was still more primitive. Here the native popula- 
tion was sparse and relatively poor, so that little tempted the 
Spaniards to the region except missionary zeal. The first 
mission church, at San Juan de los Caballeros, was built in 
1598, and the country was well covered by 1630. These 
buildings were merely cubical structures of adobe, or mud 
brick, perhaps with a simple belfry, built by the natives under 
supervision of the Franciscan fathers. Even the cathedral 
of Saint Francis at Santa Fe (1713-14) differed from these 
chiefly by its larger scale. Its doorway and its twin western 
towers were alike destitute of classical details, and ornament 
was reserved for the altar, a distant reminiscence of the 
lavish examples of Spain and Mexico. 

California. In Alta California colonization was not at- 
tempted until 1769, when Padre Junipero Serra established at 
San Diego the first of the series of missions which ended in 
1823 with San Francisco Solano, north of San Francisco Bay. 
The first chapels of brush and the wooden frames for bells 



53 o A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

were soon replaced by adobe structures of a single nave, with 
roofs of poles covered with clay or reeds. As the missions 
flourished and the number of Indian converts who worked 
under the direction of the fathers increased, larger and more 
imposing buildings replaced these. Thus at Santa Barbara 
the first chapel, dedicated in 1787, was enlarged in 1788, re- 
built in 1793 and again in 1815-20, when the present church, 




FIG. 285 SANTA BARBARA. MISSION AND FOUNTAIN 

the largest and best constructed in the province, was built 
(Fig. 285). In it the baroque survivals which appear in the 
crude fagades of the earlier churches are superseded by an 
attempt at classical elegance the low pediment with the six 
engaged Ionic columns. Single or twin towers, pierced belfry 
walls, as at San Gabriel, long arcaded corridors or cloisters, 
as at San Juan Capistrano, are characteristic features of the 
California buildings, which are otherwise dependent for their 
effect on the broad surfaces and massive buttresses of their 
walls. 

French and Spanish colonial architecture in Canada and 
Louisiana. The French pioneers in North America were in 
general hunters and traders rather than settlers, and they built 
correspondingly little. At Quebec, which was founded in 
1608, a considerable town gradually developed, however, 



AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 



with churches, monastic and collegiate buildings, arid palaces 
for the intendant and the archbishop. These had for the 
most part the simple wall surfaces and detail of the period 
of Louis XIII., although in the more elaborate interiors there 
was the rich pilaster treatment of the following reign. New 
Orleans was not founded until 1718. The typical house 




Copyright, American Architect and Building News Co. 
FIG. 286 NEW ORLEANS. THE CABILDO 



there was one surrounded by roofed verandas with light sup- 
ports, sometimes in a single story, sometimes in two stories. 
The cession of Louisiana to Spain in 1764, almost simultaneous 
with the loss of Canada to England, made the later architect- 
ure of these French colonies fall under foreign domination. 
Thus in New Orleans after the great fire of 1788 the buildings 
about the Place d'Armes were rebuilt on a coherent plan, in 
the contemporary style of Spain. The Cabildo or city hall 
(1795, Fig. 286) had two stories of open arcades, with the 
arch order and a pediment, all originally of quite a classical 
aspect. 

Dutch colonial architecture in New Netherlands. 1624-64. 



532 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

The Dutch, who founded Albany in 1624 and settled on Man- 
hattan Island in 1626, naturally tended to follow the mode of 
building of their mother country, still full of medieval reminis- 
cences. Although the majority of buildings long remained of 
wood, thatched with reeds, a few houses of stone were soon 
built, and later bricks were frequently used. In these ma- 
sonry structures the stepped gable toward the street, so com- 
mon in Holland, was adopted, as well as the tile roof. The 
most conspicuous building, the "Stadt-Huis" erected for the 
city tavern in 1642 and converted into a city hall in 1653 
conformed to this type. It had vertical banks of small 
segment al-headed windows in pairs, and a simple 'open 
cupola to contain the bell. Although architecture had thus 
made little progress before the English conquest of 1664, there 
were the seeds of an independent growth which developed 
later under English rule. 

Architecture in the English colonies. Seventeenth century. 
The English colonies in America were at first widely separated, 
as well as very different in their character and purposes, so 
that there was much diversity of architecture even in those 
where the settlers were mainly of English birth. Certain 
general characteristics hold for all, however, among them the 
essentially medieval nature of all the buildings of the seven- 
teenth century. This could scarcely have been otherwise, 
in view of the fundamental medievalism of most building in 
England during the century, outside of London and of court 
circles. England had been the last country to adopt Renais- 
sance forms of detail, and was much later still in adopting 
classical types of plan and mass. Throughout the seventeenth 
century in England the country churches built were Gothic, 
and the rural cottages and minor country seats were medieval 
in all but a few applied details and a tendency to symmetry. 
Even in London, we may recall, the first classical church was 
not built until 1630, and it had no imitators until after 1666. 
Small wonder, then, if the colonists, themselves largely from 
the rural districts, erected buildings which, stripped of almost 
every detail not structurally indispensable, revealed their 
basic medievalism. A corollary of this, and of the relatively 
primitive state of society, was the general absence of profes- 
sional architects and the dependence of the craftsmen builders 



AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 533 

on tradition in matters of style and workmanship. Another 
general trait in the seventeenth century was the almost uni- 
versal prevalence of wood as a building material, even in 
regions where the later monuments which are preserved are 
of masonry. In contrast, with England the new continent was 
densely forested, so that in clearing land for cultivation timber 
was felled ready to hand. The immediate introduction of saw- 
mills in populous centers made plank still less expensive than 
otherwise, so that for years, and even to this day, brick and 
stone have stood at a disadvantage in cost far greater than 
anywhere in Europe. 

Virginia and the South. Virginia had at the start the back- 
ing of a powerful trading company and the advantage of a 
unique staple crop, tobacco, which soon became enormously 
valuable for export. With the outbreak of the civil war in 
England, the colony, with Maryland, became a refuge for the 
royalists, many of them possessing some means. Neverthe- 
less architectural progress was very slow. From the founding 
of Jamestown in 1607 the home authorities made constant 
efforts to establish towns and require buildings of brick. 
The absolute necessity of a plantation system, however, 
forced the inhabitants to scatter along the navigable rivers 
and made mechanics of any kind scarce. Framed houses 
only began about 1620 and were still uncommon in 1 63 2 . Clay 
and some brick makers there were, yet the first house wholly 
of brick does not seem to have been built until 1638. The 
typical Virginia house of the seventeenth century was a 
rectangular framed building of very moderate size, devoid of 
any architectural ornaments, and with a great chimney of 
brick at each end. The buttress-like form of these chimneys, 
with the steepness of the roof, proclaimed the medieval basis 
of the design. This is even more pronounced in the oldest of 
the Virginia churches still remaining, Saint Luke's, Smithfield, 
which includes some bricks of 1631, although it is very doubt- 
ful if the whole fabric was built so early. With its pointed 
and mullioned windows this is unmistakably an English parish 
church of the outgoing Gothic, in spite of the quoins of its 
tower. In Maryland and Carolina the same general history 
was later repeated, bricks of local manufacture being gradu- 
ally adopted by the wealthier planters. Although Carolina 



534 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

was not settled until after 1660, and large houses were not 
built until near 1700, one or two of them still show the fan- 
tastic curved gables of the Jacobean manors. 

New England. In New England buildings entirely of brick 
and stone were especially rare, but permanent framed build- 
ings of wood were erected almost immediately after the found- 
ing of Plymouth (1620), Boston (1630), and Hartford (1636), 
with no long period of makeshifts. The earliest settlers in- 
cluded carpenters, and, under the conditions of town life 
which prevailed, artisans were numerous throughout the 
colonial period. They brought with them the medieval Eng- 
lish traditions of framing houses with overhanging upper 
stories, and of filling up the frame, where possible, with brick. 
The changeable climate did not favor the exposure of such 
half -timber work to the weather, and from the start, in most 
instances at least, the exteriors were covered with clap- 
boards. The windows were small leaded casements, essen- 
tially medieval, as were the clustered form of the chimneys 
and the ornamental drops at the corners of the overhangs. 
Several different types of plan may be distinguished, each 
characteristic of certain localities. In Massachusetts Bay and 
the Connecticut colony the usual type was one having two 
rooms upstairs and down, with an entry and a great chimney 
between, and often with a lean-to added at the back. Later 
the lean-to was included from the start, as in the Whipple 
house at Ipswich, Massachusetts (Fig. 287), well preserved 
and restored. The typical house in Providence Plantation 
was one of a single room below, with a great chimney at one 
end, creating the " stone-end house." Occasionally, as in the 
Theophilus Eaton house at Hartford, Connecticut, the 
Elizabethan U or H plan, with a central "hall," was pre- 
served. In interiors the cavernous fireplaces, the wainscot 
sheathing, and the occasional paneling were devoid of any 
Renaissance detail. Toward 1700 the framed overhang was 
abandoned, but medieval details and methods lingered well 
into the eighteenth century. The churches or "meeting- 
houses" in New England likewise retained survivals of 
medieval forms, but their disposition was fundamentally 
affected by the extreme Protestantism of the settlers there. 
After the passing of the earliest simple cabins they tended 



AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 



535 



to conform to the prevailing Protestant type of England and 
the Continent a squarish, hall-like room, with galleries 
around three sides arid the pulpit against the fourth, which 
was generally one of the longer sides. There was no tower; 
the belfry was merely placed astride the ridge at one end or 




FIG. 287 IPSWICH. 



Courtesy of the White Pine Bureau 
WHIPPLE HOUSE 



on a deck in the center when the roof was hipped, as in the 
"Old Ship" Meeting House at Hingham, Massachusetts. 

Pennsylvania. Philadelphia was not founded until 1682, so 
that colonial architecture in Pennsylvania has mostly the post- 
Renaissance detail of the eighteenth century. Before leaving 
the medieval survivals, however, one must consider the build- 
ings of the German sects of Pennsylvania, although the earliest 
of any pretensions were not built until well after 1700, and 
others not until about 1750. The monastic halls of religious 
communities like that at Ephrata, with their whitewashed 
walls and small windows, their steep roofs and ranges of little 



536 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

dormers, are unmistakable offshoots of the Middle Ages in 
Germany. 

Eighteenth-century colonial architecture. With the eigh- 
teenth century came greater means and comfort, wider use of 
permanent materials, and the adoption of classical forms of 
detail. The whole seaboard was now under English rule, and 
local diversity was subject to uniform English influence. By 
this time in England the style of Jones and Wren was every- 
where established, and the small provincial towns abounded 
with doorways and interior woodwork in which the favorite 
post-Renaissance motives of broken pediments, consoles, and 
rich carving were conspicuous. Still more important for the 
colonies was the codification of current architecture in books, 
great and small, which reproduced both formulae for the orders 
and other details and designs for whole buildings. These 
were imported very freely and will be found to have had the 
greatest influence on single buildings and on the prevailing 
style. In the early part of the century the colonists merely 
adopted classical details for the individual features of their 
buildings the cornice, the doorway, and perhaps a cupola 
without any general classical treatment beyond a symmetrical 
arrangement. Later the churches and public buildings, and 
finally even the dwellings, began to assume a monumental 
character. During the later years of the colonial regime 
there also appeared some tendency toward the Palladian 
strictness which had carried the day in England, and had 
dominated the later architectural publications. In these 
movements, as was also the case in England, cultivated ama- 
teurs played the leading role, although the builders them- 
selves were quick to master the teaching of the books and to 
assume also the functions of architects. 

Houses. The first signs of the transition at the opening of 
the eighteenth century were the adoption of less steep roofs, 
the substitution of sash windows for the leaded casements, 
and the tendency to employ a uniform cornice with a hip roof, 
or a pedimented gable instead of a gable of medieval type. 
When cornice and door were given rich detail of modillions 
and of pilasters with a pediment one had the scheme ex- 
emplified about 1730 in Westover, Virginia (Fig. 288), and in 
the finest houses of that day throughout the colonies. The 



AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 



537 



ample and symmetrical dependencies seen at Westover were 
characteristic of Virginia and of Maryland and were sometimes 
seen at Philadelphia. Frequent use of the curved and the 
broken pediment and of rusticated enframements shows that 
the baroque element of Wren's work was still current. In a 
few instances, beginning about 1735, tall pilasters were applied 




FIG. 288 WESTOVER, VIRGINIA 



to the corner of the house. As these were only associated 
with an individual pedestal and a fragment of entablature, 
however, they create no general architectonic treatment. The 
earliest important house in which a more academic scheme was 
attempted was Mount Airy in Virginia (1758), where two 
loggias one arched, the other colonnaded were the axial 
features of a group with balanced outbuildings, taken 
apparently from James Gibbs's published designs. It was not 
until 1760 or later that the free-standing portico with a 
pediment was applied to dwellings, and this did not become at 
all common until after the Revolution. In a few instances, 



53 8 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

notably the Miles Brewton house in Charleston, South Caro- 
lina (c. 1765), there were superposed porticoes on the general 
scheme of many of Palladio's villa designs, although with 
much freedom in proportions and detail. Strict following of 
Palladian canons in residence work only began with Thomas 
Jefferson's design for Monticello in 1771, on the very eve of 
the Revolution. The interior of houses, owing partly to 
the prevalence of wooden paneling, was much richer and often 
more coherent in architectural treatment than the exterior. 
The subdivision of walls by pilasters was by no means un- 
common, although more often, as in the Brewton house, each 
essential element, such as a doorway or chimney piece, 'was 
elaborated individually. Baroque features persisted even 
after they had vanished from the exterior. 

Churches. The buildings in which the more advanced 
tendencies were first manifested were the churches. Old 
Saint Philip's, Charleston, consecrated in 1723, had a portico 
of four columns in front of its tower, only a few years after the 
great London churches with a similar general parti. The 
nave of Christ Church, Philadelphia, built 1731-44 under the 
direction of Dr. John Kearsley, has an architectonic treatment 
of the Roman arch order with pilasters in two stories. Both 
of these buildings had the basilican interior treatment of 
Saint Bride's and other London churches, which became the 
favorite system for the more elaborate colonial examples. 
The exterior portico, which in Saint Philip's had only the width 
of the tower, was enlarged in Saint Michael's, Charleston 
(1752-61), and in Saint Paul's Chapel, New York (1764-66, 
Fig. 289), to embrace almost the full width of the church. 
The steeples followed English examples, among which that of 
Saint Martin-in-the-Fields' and other designs reproduced in 
Gibbs's published works attracted the most imitators. 

Public buildings. The earliest public buildings of any pre- 
tensions, such as the older New York City Hall (c. 1700) and 
the old Virginia Capitol at Williamsburg (1702-04), still be- 
trayed a lingering medievalism in their H plans, in spite of the 
round arches or the columns of the connecting loggias. Even 
in buildings where all medieval character has vanished, like 
the old State House (Independence Hall) in Philadelphia 
(1732-52), the architectural character remains fundamentally 



AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 539 

domestic, and the public functions are suggested on the 
exterior only by the greater size of the building and its posses- 
sion of a cupola. In the interior of Independence Hall, indeed, 
there is a monumental treatment by an arch order with 
engaged columns, which was almost unique in the colonial 




FIG. 289 NEW YORK. SAINT PAUL'S CHAPEL 

period. The first attempt at academic design was Faneuil 
Hall in Boston (1742), by the painter Smibert, with the arch 
order in two stories, the lower one forming an open market. 
A series of buildings of unique architectonic character was 
designed by Peter Harrison of Newport, Rhode Island, who, 
whether or not he had professional training in England, 



540 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

deserves the distinction of being the first professional architect 
in North America. His Redwood Library in Newport (1748- 
50) has a Roman Doric portico of four columns, united to the 
body of the building by a single unbroken entablature (Fig. 
290). Originally only the small wings flanking the fagade 
prevented the building from conforming entirely to the temple 




FIG. 290 NEWPORT. REDWOOD LIBRARY 

type, already imitated in the garden temples in England. 
The Market at Newport, 1761, represents a more advanced 
academic phase than Faneuil Hall, in that it involves an 
engaged order running through two stories, over an arched 
basement. This was the characteristic motive of the more 
ambitious buildings on the eve of the Revolution, such as the 
Pennsylvania Hospital, the Exchange in Charleston, and 
others. The greater number even of public buildings, how- 
ever, still retained not only the modest materials, brick and 
wood, but also the simple wall surfaces and isolated details 
of the early part of the century. 

Architecture of the national period. Its origins. During the 
Revolution (1775-83) building was almost completely sus- 
pended. At its close, although some craftsmen continued 



AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 541 

their work in the same style as before, the leaders were inspired 
by very different ideals. They recognized that the colonial 
style, whatever its merits, was provincial, and they sought to 
establish an architecture worthy of the new, sovereign, 
republican States and of the great nation soon welded from 
them. In all types of buildings connected with political and 
social institutions, moreover, the republican and humani- 
tarian ideals of America demanded solutions very different 




FIG. 291 RICHMOND. VIRGINIA CAPITOL. ORIGINAL MODEL 

from those which were traditional in Europe. For govern- 
ment buildings, prisons, asylums, and other types new dis- 
positions had to be found. The pioneer in both these 
movements was Thomas Jefferson, whose political career gave 
him an unexampled opportunity for the realization of his 
architectural conceptions. He felt that even the forms of 
detail should not be borrowed from contemporary European 
styles, although they should command the respect of foreign 
observers. In this situation he turned to what he felt to be 
the unimpeachable authority of the ancients, in whose republics 
the new States were felt to have their closest analogy. In his 
design for the Capitol of Virginia at Richmond (1785, Fig. 



542 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

291), the first of modern republican government buildings, 
he boldly took as his model the Maison Carree at Nimes. The 
Ionic order was substituted to save expense, windows were 
necessarily pierced in the cella walls, and the interior was 
subdivided in conformity with the balance of legislative and 
judicial functions, if not exactly in accordance with the ex- 
pression of the exterior. It is little realized that this design 
considerably antedated anything similar abroad. Classical 
examples had indeed been imitated in garden temples and 
commemorative monuments, but never on such a large scale 
and never in a building intended for practical use. Even 
Gilly's proposed temple to Frederick the Great (1791) and 
Vignon's Napoleonic Temple of Glory (1807) were rrionuments 
simply, and not until the Birmingham Town Hall (1831) was 
there anything in Europe really analogous to this first monu- 
ment of American national architecture. 

Academicism and classicism. Public buildings. The seed 
of a literal classic revival thus implanted required time to bear 
its fruit. Meanwhile many buildings of less advanced 
character evidenced none the less the change from colonial 
ideas. Engineers, builders, and amateurs, both of native and 
of foreign birth, united to infuse them with largeness of scale 
and academic character. James Hoban of Dublin, in his 
South Carolina Capitol at Columbia (178691), and L'Enfant, 
the French military engineer, in his remodeling of Federal 
Hall in New York, the first Capitol of the United States (i 789), 
both employed the favorite academic formula of a columnar 
central pavilion over a high basement. William Thornton's 
Philadelphia Library (1789), and Samuel Blodget's marble 
fagade of the Bank of the United States (Girard's Bank) in 
Philadelphia (1795), had similar frontispieces rising the full 
height of the building. The competitive drawings for the 
Capitol at Washington (1792-93) showed a determined effort 
to secure a monumental result. The design of Thornton, 
which received first prize, was based on the great Palladian 
layouts of England. More advanced still were the competitive 
designs of Stephen Hallet, a French architect of the highest 
professional training, who was placed in charge of the work. 
In his first study he had adopted the scheme, since so popular 
in legislative buildings, of a tall central dome with balancing 




FIG. 292 BOSTON, STATE HOUSE 



544 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE- 

wings, similar in form to the College des Quatre Nations in 
Paris. Various later studies, under Jefferson's influence, were 
based on the peristylar temple, the Pantheon in Paris, and the 
motive of the Pantheon in Rome, which remained the accepted 
central feature. In these studies, also, Hallet anticipated the 
foreign instances of legislative halls of semicircular form. 
Charles Bulfmch showed both the classical and the academic 
influences, in the Beacon column in Boston (1789), based on 




Copyright by the American Architect and Building News Co 
FIG. 293 NEW YORK. CITY HALL 

Roman examples, and in the Massachusetts State House 
( J 795~Q8), with its tall dome and its colonnade above an arched 
basement (Fig. 292). Pure French academism of the mid- 
eighteenth century appears in the New York City Hall 
(1803-12, Fig. 293), designed by the French engineer, Joseph 
Mangin, in partnership with John McComb. Here for the 
first time in America appears an academic facade with angle 
pavilions, with a sophisticated wall treatment of superposed 
orders, of archivolts and rustication. The complete victory 
of classicism, even in its Roman phase, did not ensue until 
after 1815. It was Jefferson, the initiator of the movement, 
who crowned its triumph with the design of the University 



AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 



545 



of Virginia group. Here long colonnades connecting classical 
pavilions of varied design lead up to the central Rotunda or 
library, based on the Roman Pantheon. 

The Greek revival. Latrobe. Long before classicism had 
carried the day the Roman revival had been reinforced by a 
Creek revival. The introduction of Greek forms, already used 
in England and Germany, was due to Benjamin Henry Latrobe, 




FIG. 294 PHILADELPHIA. BANK OF THE UNITED STATES (CUSTOM HOUSE) 



an architect who had the professional training of both these 
countries. He came to America in 1796, and in his first 
monumental work, the Bank of Pennsylvania, 1799, employed 
a Greek Ionic order in, two hexastyle porticoes which gave 
access to the domed banking-room. In the conduct of the 
work on the national Capitol, with which he was charged from 
180317, his principal opportunities lay in the interior, where 
he created the great semicircular Hall of Representatives 
(now Statuary Hall) , with its Corinthian colonnade employing 



546 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Greek capitals of the Lysicrates type. His last design was 
for the second Bank of the United States in Philadelphia 
(1819-24), in which encouraged doubtless by the philhellene 
Nicholas Biddle, later its president he adopted the octastyle 
Doric form of the Parthenon itself (Fig. 294). The need for 
additional space in the interior, indeed, led to the suppression 
of the side colonnades, but even then the building approached 
the ultimate Athenian ideal more nearly than any modern 
building which had so far been erected in Europe. 

The later classicists. Hellenic influence dominated American 
architecture until nearly 1850. A pupil of Latrobe, Robert 
Mills, rivaled his master in advanced classicism by employing 
a Greek Doric column, nearly a hundred feet in height, as the 
motive of his Washington Monument in Baltimore (1815), 
and an obelisk of five hundred feet in the Washington Monu- 
ment in Washington (1836^.)- The temple form was followed 
in a series of State capitols, and notably in the one-time 
Custom House of New York (1834-41), now the Sub-Treasury 
another and more literal version of the Parthenon. The 
latest and richest example was the main building of Girard 
College in Philadelphia (1833-47), for which Nicholas Biddle 
forced the adoption of the temple form, carried out with 
the Corinthian order of the Lysicrates type by Thomas U. 
Walter. For State capitols, however, the type having a 
dome and wings, with the prestige given it by the completion 
of the national Capitol (1829), found thenceforth more 
adherents. Another favorite motive was the long unbroken 
colonnade, as used in the original (Fifteenth Street) facade of 
the Treasury in Washington by Robert Mills (1836-39), and 
in the Merchants' Exchange in New York (now forming the 
lower story of the National City Bank), by Isaiah Rogers 
(1835-41). A novelty was the great semicircular portico of 
the Merchants' Exchange in Philadelphia, by William Strick- 
land. When the Capitol at Washington was enlarged to its 
present form (Fig. 295) by Walter in 18151-65, he had naturally 
to follow the academic-Roman ordonnance of the exterior, 
and thus helped to give the later buildings of the classical 
movement a less Hellenic stamp. By all these designs, the 
States and the nation were endowed with a tradition of 
monumental and dignified government architecture which has 



AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 



547 



been continued with but slight interruptions to the present 
day. 

Domestic architecture. In domestic architecture after the 
Revolution the colonial style was resumed by the craftsmen 
with little change, so that a large group of buildings may well 
be described as " post-colonial." An early example is the 
Fierce-Nichols house in Salem (c. 1790), by Samuel Mclntire. 




Copyright by the American Architect and Building News Co. 
FIG. 295 WASHINGTON. UNITED STATES CAPITOL 



The facade differs little from that of the Royall house in 
Medford, built fifty years earlier, except in the substitution of 
a heavy Doric order in the corner pilasters and in the bolder 
treatment of the doorway (Fig. 296). Classical influence soon 
showed itself in two quite different ways. One, which still 
involved no break with the past, was the employment of Adam 
forms of detail, both in exteriors and interiors. Thus were 
developed the attenuation of proportions and the delicacy of 
ornament so characteristic of the later work of Mclntire in 
Salem, typical of New England in the early nineteenth 
century, and occasionally seen elsewhere. The appropriate- 
ness of these forms to execution in the prevailing material, 
wood, lent them a special attraction. The other classical 



54 8 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

tendency, which dominated the States farther south, was quite 
different in its inspiration and direction. It took its departure 
from Palladianism and from French models, and ultimately 
sought to assimilate the house also to the ideal form of the 
temple. From the start the portico or frontispiece of tall 
columns was common, a prominent example being the White 




FIG. 296 SALEM. FIERCE-NICHOLS HOUSE 



House in Washington (1792 /., Fig. 297). The tall portico 
became especially popular in Virginia and the South through 
Jefferson's numerous designs, in which he sought, where 
possible, to give the effect of a single story, as in the French 
houses of supposedly Roman cast. In remodeling his own 
house, Monticello (1796-1809), he introduced a dome over the 
projecting salon, to secure a still further resemblance to such 
buildings as the H6tel de Salm in Paris. The professors' 
houses of the University of Virginia, which he designed as 
"specimens for the architectural lecturer," included imitations 



AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 549 

of the prostyle temple, and these were widely copied where 
there were no didactic motives. Nicholas Biddle, with his 
customary enthusiasm for things Greek, adopted a model of 
the Theseum, peristyle and all, for his country seat "Anda- 
lusia" on the Delaware. Even in New England the prostyle 
temple with Greek forms finally carried the day, while in the 
South the peristyle, with its manifest suitability to the climate, 
was widely adopted. Such magnificent specimens as Arling- 



fof , tet lllt 

I III" * 




FIG. 297 WASHINGTON. WHITE HOUSE. (HOBAN'S ORIGINAL DESIGN) 

ton in Virginia, where the ponderous columns of the great 
temple of Paestum were imitated, as the Bennett house in 
New Bedford, with its hexastyle Ionic main portico and 
tetrastyle wings, as Berry Hill in Virginia, with two octastyle 
Greek Doric porticoes and balancing outbuildings of the same 
order, or as the Hill House in Athens, Georgia, with a Corin- 
thian peristyle eight columns wide in front, show extremes of 
classicism which have no parallel abroad. City houses in 
blocks showed the same tendencies as houses which stood 
isolated. In 1 793 Bulfinch erected for the first time in America 
a block of unified design, the Franklin Crescent in Boston, 
with pavilions of academic scheme and Adam detail. Some 
coherent treatment of the block remained an ideal, although 
one seldom realized. The most notable later example was 
Colonnade Row in Lafayette Place, New York (1827), which 
had a free-standing Greek Corinthian order carried throughout 
its length. The interiors of the classical houses lost in richness 
through the abandoning of paneling, and through the chaste 



550 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

purism which confined all detail to essential structural ele- 
ments. The tall, cool rooms, with their occasional screens of 
columns, served now as neutral backgrounds to rich furniture 
and hangings. 

Churches. Post-colonial buildings, differing but little from 
the more advanced buildings erected before the Revolution, 
were also common among the churches of the early republic. 
Here also slender proportions came in with Adam detail. 
Nevertheless more monumental effects, parallel to those at- 
tained in public buildings, made their appearance soon after 
the opening of the nineteenth century. The fundamental 
work was Latrobe's Catholic Cathedral in Baltimore (1805- 
21), the first cathedral undertaken in the United States where 
it was as novel in its size and ritualistic arrangement as in its 
classical forms. The plan was a Latin cross, vaulted through- 
out, with a low dome over the crossing, a western portico of 
Greek detail, and twin belfries, Hellenized as best they might 
be. In 1816 Latrobe employed the Greek cross form for 
Saint John's Episcopal Church in Washington. Robert Mills 
developed the auditorium type of octagonal or circular form 
in the Monumental Church in Richmond, Virginia (begun 
1812), and others. The temple form was only adopted later, 
for instance in Saint Paul's Church, Boston (1820), with an 
Ionic prostyle portico of six columns. 

Prisons and asylums. With its new departures in all 
branches of government, America soon took the lead in the 
reform of methods of punishment and of the treatment of the 
insane. The New York State Prison, built by Joseph Mangin 
in 179698, included provision for the separation of the sexes 
and of classes of criminals, and the Virginia Penitentiary, 
built by Latrobe in 1797-1800, was based on the principle of 
solitary confinement. Later these ideas were more fully 
applied, and embodied in radial plans, by the architect John 
Haviland, of English birth. By 1835 the American prisons 
were so favorably known that commissions from England, 
France, and other European countries came to study them 
and to introduce their principles abroad. 

The Gothic revival in America. Although Jefferson, with his 
underlying vein of romanticism, had proposed imitations of 
Gothic models as early as 1771, Latrobe was the first to 



AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 



execute a Gothic design, in Sedgeley, a country house near 
Philadelphia (1800). For the cathedral in Baltimore he 
submitted an alternative scheme which was the first Gothic 
church design in America. In 1807 Godefroi, a French 
engineer and architect, carried out the chapel of Saint Mary's 
Seminary in Baltimore with Gothic forms. Other architects 
soon essayed occasional buildings in Gothic, still inspired less 
by a conscious prin- 
ciple of eclecticism 
than a romantic in- 
terest in the style, of 
which neither the 
structural principles 
nor the decorative 
forms were much un- 
derstood. A new 
period in the Gothic 
revival was opened by 
the building of Trinity 
Church in New York, 
by Richard Upjohn 
(1839-46, Fig. 298). 
Here the design was 
carefully studied from 
English examples. 
These long remained 
the favorite models, 
although James Ren- FIG. 298 NEW YORK. TRINITY CHURCH 
wick in Saint Patrick's 

Cathedral, New York (1850-79), adopted the traditional 
French scheme with twin western towers. In the sixties 
the influence of Ruskin led to the adoption of Italian 
Gothic detail, and to a moral fervor in the advocacy of 
medievalism which had hitherto been absent in America. 
Meanwhile, in the forties, the imitation of temples in 
domestic architecture had been attacked as absurd and 
impractical, and cottages and villas of Gothic, Elizabethan, 
Swiss, or ''Italian" style had taken their places, as more flexible 
and convenient, more domestic, and more in harmony with 

the landscape. Individual Greek forms, however, had con- 
19 




552 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

tinued to be employed for the details of other houses, especially 
in the towns, and thus both romanticism and classicism were 
gradually replaced by an eclecticism which chose for each 
building the style which seemed most appropriate to its use 
and surroundings. 

Eclecticism. In America, where there were so few trained 
architects or accessible models, the supplanting of traditional 
knowledge of forms by unrestrained eclecticism had even more 
disastrous results for the common run of buildings than it had 
in Europe. The Civil War (1861-65), with the materialism of 
the resulting era of economic reconstruction, accentuated the 
difficulty, and subjected government architecture to a mechani- 
cal system. Nevertheless there was no period of years in 
which competent and thoughtful men did not seek to uphold 
the ideals of their art, in buildings which worthily represented 
contemporary movements in Europe. Most notable of the 
earlier men was Richard Morris Hunt (1828-95), the first 
American to study at the Ecole des Beaux-Arts in Paris, who 
brought with him to New York in 1855 the rationalistic train- 
ing of the school and a preference for French Renaissance 
forms, then dominant under the Second Empire. In the 
Lenox Library, New York (1870-77), he followed the tendencies 
of Labrouste ; while in the houses for the Vanderbilts in New 
York and at Biltmore, in the Astor residence, and in "cottages " 
at Newport, he exploited every phase of his favorite style, only 
adopting a more classical tendency in the last years of his 
life, under the influence of younger men. The older archi- 
tects of English training, meanwhile, were attempting to 
establish the supremacy of Victorian Gothic, and in churches, 
at least, medieval forms were employed as a matter of course. 

Richardson and the Romanesque. When Henry Hobson 
Richardson, another American of French academic training, 
chose the Romanesque style for his accepted project for 
Trinity Church in Boston (1872), he was influenced primarily 
by the slight depth of the site, which was unfavorable to a 
Gothic nave. He clothed the broad cruciform naves and 
great central tower with a rugged mantle of polychrome sand- 
stone reminiscent of Auvergne and Salamanca (Fig. 299). By 
the time the building was completed in 1877, however, he saw 
in Romanesque forms a far-reaching adaptability to American 



AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 



553 



needs, which would permit the development of a truly 
national style. Their simplicity and ruggedness seemed suited 
alike to materials readily available, to the general limitation 
of funds, and to the relative lack of skilled carvers. In 
subsequent buildings, like the Allegheny Court House at 




FIG. 299 BOSTON. TRINITY CHURCH, AS ORIGINALLY BUILT. (VAN 

RENSSELAER) 



Pittsburgh (1884), he expressed freely, with a personal vocabu- 
lary of Romanesque elements, the ideal character and prac- 
tical conditions of a great number of contemporary types 
the town library, the country railroad station, even the vast 
warehouse. Richardson's mannerisms, however, such as the 
fondness for towers and for broad low arches, were more 
easily acquired by others than his power of picturesque yet 
logical composition. Thus, after his untimely death in 1886, 
his style was quickly discredited by imitators, while the abler 
architects continued their independent development. 

"Queen Anne" and the beginnings of the colonial revival. 
Simultaneously with the building of Trinity had come the 
founding of the Queen Anne movement in England, with its 



554 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

wide program of frankness and colloquialism, and the revela- 
tion of foreign arts and crafts to America through the Centen- 
nial Exposition in 1876. These inspired many attempts at 
imitation, and some free and original creations, such as the 
Casino at Newport, built in 1881 by the firm of McKim, Mead, 
and White. The attention of these men and some others, 
hitherto attracted by the French Renaissance or the Roman- 




by the American Architect and Building News Co. 
FIG. 3OO BOSTON. PUBLIC LIBRARY 

esque, was naturally drawn to the American buildings of the 
seventeenth and eighteenth centuries which correspond to the 
prototypes of the Queen Anne style abroad. Thus began a 
direct revival of colonial architecture, in many houses of the 
eighties, with a richness of delicate detail on the exterior 
very different, to be sure, from the general simplicity of the 
old examples. 

The adoption of Renaissance forms. It was this adaptation 
of native Renaissance forms which prepared McKim, Mead, 
and White for the adoption of those of the Italian Renaissance. 
These were employed for the first time by one of their 
associates, Holden Wells, in the Villard houses in New York 
(1885), where the arched windows of the Cancelleria furnished 
the motive. The decisive work, however, was the Boston 
Public Library (1888-95, Fig. 300), in which McKim, taking 
his departure from the Bibliotheque Sainte Genevieve, gave the 



AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 



555 



scheme the warmer and more robust character of Albert! 's 
San Francesco at Rimini. In the interior each element of the 
building was sympathetically studied from Italian examples 
which showed the structural use of classical elements, and 
executed with a characteristic treatment of each material and 
a harmony of decoration hitherto unknown in America. 




FIG. 3OI ROCKVILLE. GARDEN OF "MAXWELL COURT" 



McKim's purism of detail in the library was complemented 
by the luxurious elaboration of Renaissance ornament by 
White and Wells in the Century Club and Madison Square 
Garden in New York (1891). The effect on current practice 
was electrical. Almost overnight Romanesque and Queen 
Anne gave way to Renaissance forms, which more nearly 
approached universal acceptance than those of any style since 
the Greek revival. There were variants, to be sure,. Fresh 
.arrivals from the Ecole des Beaux- Arts tended to follow French 
Renaissance and academic architecture rather than Italian. 



556 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

For domestic buildings many preferred more literal imitations 
of the "Georgian" houses of the colonies in the eighteenth 
century. The Italian tendency received a powerful reinforce- 
ment, however, in the work of Charles A. Platt, who intro- 
duced the Italian formal garden into America (Fig. 301), and 
has steadily widened the scope of his architectural activity 
without departing far from his favorite style. It still counts 
many adherents. 

Neo-classicism. The Chicago Exposition. The crucial test 
between the partisans of a free and modern interpretation of 
motives chiefly medieval and the partisans of a strict following 
of some form of classic architecture came in the buildings of 
the Columbian Exposition in Chicago in 1893. The studies of 
John W. Root, the original consulting architect of the exposi- 
tion, were of a free semi-Romanesque character, with some 
recognition of the steel construction and the temporary nature 
of the buildings. These conceptions might well have 
dominated the ensemble had not the death of Root on the eve 
of the undertaking left the group of Eastern architects, headed 
by Hunt, to whom he had confided the buildings of the Court 
of Honor, free to carry out their own ideas. These were that 
the mutual dependence of their buildings, and the formal 
character of the court, demanded a consistent style of generally 
Roman classical character, with a uniform cornice height 
fixed at sixty feet. This did not preclude a treatment of 
merely academic cast, with details tinged by Italian or Spanish 
influence, so that within the classical scheme there was a 
considerable diversity of style. The buildings which attracted 
the most admiration, however, were those in which the main 
cornice was reached by a single order of strictly Roman 
character namely, the Agricultural Building by McKim, 
the Fine Arts group and the " Peristyle" toward the lake, both 
by Charles B. Attwood (Fig. 302). Attwood, in the Fine Arts 
Building, followed Besnard's project for the Grand Prix de 
Rome, with its central portico with an attic and a saucer dome 
behind; McKim was also greatly influenced by the same 
design, although he followed it much less closely. True to the 
hopes of their designers, the classical buildings produced a 
cumulative effect of harmony and magnificence which was 
deeply stamped on the memory of the whole nation. 



558 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Neo-classicism. Later developments. Although the leading 
architects of the exposition had hoped to give a striking object- 
lesson of the value of classical and academic formulae, they 
hardly expected the result which ensued. Whereas, earlier, 
there had been one or two isolated experiments with strictly 
classical forms, such as the Grant Mausoleum in New York 
(1891), the whole public architecture of the country was now 
turned into a monumental and classical channel. The first 
fruit of the movement was McKim's unified classical design 
for Columbia University in New York, with its great domed 
library (1895). A fresh impulse came through the restoration 
of the University of Virginia by White after the fire of 1901 , and 
the activity of McKim with D. H. Burnham, Olmsted, and 
Saint-Gaudens on the commission for the improvement of 
Washington. The character of the early buildings of the 
republic thus gave a nationalistic sanction to the classical 
tendency, and the style of new government buildings was 
henceforth established. Milestones in the progress of the move- 
ment are the Knickerbocker (Columbia) Trust Company 
in New York, with its single rich Corinthian order including 
the whole height of the building, and the Pennsylvania 
Terminal Station, with its long Doric facades, and its great 
hall, literally copied from the Roman thermae, almost devoid 
of practical functions. From the start the orders used 
frequently included Greek forms, and these have been em- 
ployed increasingly. A notable recent instance is the Lincoln 
Memorial in Washington, a peristylar cella in which the old 
revivalist enthusiasm for an abstract architectonic ideal has 
prevailed over any suggestion of individual character. The 
current tendency to employ Adam or Louis XVI. forms in 
residences and hotels shows the extension of the movement to 
fields where more monumental treatment would be out of place. 
This second classical revival in America has little contemporary 
parallel abroad except in England, which has itself been 
influenced in the matter by developments across the ocean. 
While the rest of the world is seeking," in one way or another, 
new forms expressive of the novel elements of modern life, 
this insistence on the traditional authority of the past can be 
adequately explained only by the unparalleled heritage of 
classical monuments from the formative period of the nation. 



AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 



559 



Thus the founders of the republic might seem for the moment 
to have achieved their aim of establishing classical architecture 
as a permanent national style. 

Gothic survivals. In spite of the overwhelming victory of 
classical forms, the Gothic tendency has been kept alive, largely 
through the enthusiasm and artistry of two men, Ralph Adams 




FIG. 303 ASHMONT. CHURCH OF ALL SAINTS 



Cram and Bertram Grosvenor Goodhue, who practised in 
partnership for many years. Their initial success was the 
church of All Saints, Ashmont, Massachusetts (1892, Fig. 
303), which embodied the same free tendencies as the designs 
of Sedding in England. These tendencies have been per- 
petuated in Goodhue's later work, such as the chapel and other 
buildings of the Military Academy at West Point, with their 
picturesque adaptation to the rugged site. Cram has tended 
to follow precedents more strictly, and to range more widely 
among the medieval styles, as in his "Early English " Calvary 



5 6o A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Church at Pittsburgh, and the late Byzantine administration 
building for the Rice Institute at Houston, Texas. Even in its 
last strongholds, ecclesiastical and collegiate architecture, the 
Gothic has had to yield ground, especially to the colonial 
revival. Nevertheless, although both the Protestant sects and 
the Roman Catholic church now prefer the styles unequivo- 
cally associated with their past, the preference of the Anglican 
episcopate for Gothic forms, and the personal prestige and 
ability of the Gothic leaders, have still maintained the Gothic 
tendency. 

Functionalism. The striving for characteristic expression, 
which is the principle of functionalism in architecture, appeared 
subordinately in America as in Europe in all the movements 
of the nineteenth century. Structural purism was a quality 
of Latrobe's designs, as it was, more pronouncedly, of those of 
the Gothicists. The lessons of Ruskin and Viollet-le-Duc were 
not forgotten in the early years of the Renaissance revival 
and of neo-classicism, when it was felt that the column must 
be used only in its original function of an isolated support. 
Even in the later years of these movements, when structural 
purism has yielded to the expression of monumental character, 
this very character itself is felt to be but one of a number of 
ideals which govern the different phases of architecture 
civic, religious, and domestic. Moreover, in spite of eclectic 
inclination so strong in America, especially in McKim's 
work to model the exterior of a building on an individual 
prototype selected in advance, there has been a steady de- 
velopment of logical planning and expression of plan, under 
the leadership of the Beaux-Arts men. McKim and White 
themselves were the pioneers in a characteristic use of materials 
which has produced such interesting results as the ''Harvard" 
and "tapestry" brickwork, the modeled and polychrome terra 
cotta, and the local ledge-stone revival of Philadelphia. 

Expression of structure. A new problem. In the expression 
of structure a new problem has been presented by the steel- 
frame building. The absence of legal restriction permitted 
real estate owners in the crowded districts of New York and 
Chicago, about 1889, to increase the number of stories in new 
office buildings by supporting the floors entirely on iron or 
steel columns, leaving the wall with only its own weight to 



AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 561 

carry. The development of elevators or lifts made the upper 
stories as desirable as the lower ones, and made possible 
"skyscrapers" like the World Building in New York, with a 
height of three hundred and seventy-five feet. Here, however, 
the self-supporting walls reached a thickness of nine feet at the 
base, and injured the value of the lower stories. It soon 




Copyright by the American Architect and Building News Co. 
FIG. 304 BUFFALO. (PRUDENTIAL) GUARANTY BUILDING 

occurred to the designers that the wall itself might be supported 
on the steel frame at intervals, and be reduced to a mere veneer, 
with great resulting economy. Thus buildings of twelve to 
twenty stories have become commonplace in every con- 
siderable city, and such extreme heights as that of the Wool- 
worth Building in New York (779 feet) have been reached. 
The retention of a shell of masonry, which differentiates these 
buildings from the steel and glass shop fronts abroad, was 
originally due to a natural adherence to tradition. It has 
been perpetuated for a far more vital reason the extreme 
necessity of rendering such tall buildings secure against fire, 



5 6 2 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 



before which exposed steel work proved to twist and bend 
with disastrous results. The only adequate protection proved 
to be that furnished by casing all the structural members in 

masonry, preferably 
brick or terra cotta, 
which had already been 
through fire. Aided by 
experience in the great 
conflagrations in Balti- 
more (1904) and San 
Francisco (1906), the 
technique of such- fire- 
proof construction has 
developed so that with 
the aid of metal interior 
trim, wire glass, com- 
posite floors resting on 
steel beams, and other 
devices, a building can 
now be made not only 
non - combustible, but 
absolutely proof against 
fire, whether arising 
within or sweeping the 
surroundings without. 
The manifest practical 
advantages of the sys- 
tem have led to world- 
wide adoption of many 
of its features. Its em- 
ployment in fagades, 
however, involves a new 
and delicate problem of 
expression. 

The solutions. A 
visual indication that 
the masonry was no 
longer self - supporting 
FIG. SOS-NEW YORK. wooLwoRTH but depended on the steel 
BUILDING frame, was achieved 




AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 



S63 



about 1895 by Louis Sullivan, notably in the Guaranty 
(Prudential) Building in Buffalo (Fig. 304). He abandoned 
a wall surface of ashlar in favor of a simple casing of the 
members of the frame, with glass filling the whole of the space 
between. The greater weight carried by the vertical members 
he recognized by emphasizing the vertical lines. To avoid 
any structural suggestion in the casing he used terra cotta 
having a delicate surface pattern. The principle of his 
designs has been widely fol- 
lowed by architects of tall 
buildings, irrespective of the 
style employed, although few 
have carried it through with 
such logical completeness. 
To Cass Gilbert trie emphasis 
on the vertical lines sug- 
gested the employment of 
Gothic forms, which the 
eclat of his employment of 
them in the Woolworth 
Building (Fig. 305) has 
popularized to some extent. 
In many very recent build- 
ings, however, a reactionary 
tendency, based on the over- 
whelming predominance of 
classicism in other depart- 
ments of architecture, has 
resulted in a reversion to 
plain wall surfaces and ap- 
plications of the orders. 

Modernist forms. The 
origins. America, with its 
freedom from the restraint 
of tradition, was also natu- 
rally one of the first coun- 
tries to experiment with 
novel forms, consciously pre- 
ferred to those of the past as expressive of modernity. The 
old desire for an "American style" could not be satisfied 




FIG. 306 CHICAGO EXPOSITION. 

TRANSPORTATION BUILDING. 

DETAIL 



564 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

merely by the general adoption of any group of historic forms, 
even if, as in the case of Richardsonian Romanesque, its 
adoption was purely an American movement. In Richardson's 
work itself there was, as we have noted, a strong tendency to 
modification and originality of detail, and this tendency was 
taken up with special aptitude by Harvey Ellis, Root, and 




FIG. 307 OAK PARK. CHURCH OF THE UNITY 

others in the Middle West. The manifesto of a truly inde- 
pendent progressive tendency was the Transportation Building 
of the Chicago Exposition by Louis Sullivan (1893, Fig. 3 6 ) 
contemporary with the earliest similar attempts abroad. Here, 
side by side with the first monuments of neo-classicism, was 
a building in which there were indeed some reminiscences of 
Romanesque and Saracenic motives, but in which the essential 
effort was to express the modernity and novelty of the type of 
building, its materials, and its structural system. The plain 
stuccoed wall surfaces, with their unbroken, block-like cornices 



AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 565 

enriched by bands of fertile original relief ornament, the arch 
and column with novel yet expressive forms, anticipated by 
many years corresponding treatments in the German " Seces- 
sion." In spite of the overpowering influence of the classical 
ensemble of the exposition on America at large, this building 
made some converts, chiefly in Chicago itself. Through Sulli- 
van's pioneer expression of the veneered steel frame the move- 
ment had an influence far beyond its own circle of devotees. 

Later developments. That participation in the movement did 
not involve mere imitation of its leader was early established 
by one of Sullivan's pupils, Frank Lloyd Wright. In his 
designs for residences he has employed broad ramified plans, 
wide eaves, novel fenestration, and a harmonious use of 
abstract motives of ornament, which have a suggestion of the 
Japanese. The appropriateness of these houses to the land- 
scape of the lakes and the plains has been widely recognized, 
and they have profoundly influenced the architecture of the 
Middle West. More ambitious applications of similar forms 
have not been wanting. In the Midway Gardens in Chicago 
Wright has embodied the spirit of gaiety in forms of exuberant 
yet delicate fantasy. In his Church of the Unity at Oak Park 
(Fig. 307), he has evolved a monumental and characteristic 
house of worship for disciples of modern rationalism. To the 
present time, however, the movement has received more 
appreciation abroad than at home. 

It remains to be seen whether the wide acceptance and 
nationalistic basis of the neo-classical tendency will enable it to 
surmount the elements of weakness which aided the downfall 
of the earlier classical revival, or whether the international 
forces of functionalism will ultimately cause a wider adoption 
of modernist forms. 



PERIODS OF ARCHITECTURE IN THE UNITED STATES 

I. Colonial period, to 1776 (or later in Spanish colonies). 
Spanish colonies. 

Florida (Saint Augustine founded 1565). 

Fort San Marco (Fort Marion) at Saint Augustine, 

completed 1756. 
Cathedral at Saint Augustine, begun 1793 (rebuilt 1887). 



5 66 A HISTORY OP ARCHITECTURE 

New Mexico (Santa Fe founded 1605). 

Cathedral of Saint Francis at Santa Fe, 1713-14. 
California (San Diego founded 1769). 

San Carlos Mission, present church, 1793-97. 

San Juan Capistrano Mission, later church, begun 1797. 

San Gabriel Mission, present church, begun 1812. 

Santa Barbara Mission, present church, 1815-20. 
Louisiana (under Spain 1764-1800). 

Cathedral at New Orleans, 1792-94. 

Cabildo at New Orleans, 1795. 
Dutch colonies, 1624-64. 

"Stadt Huis" at New Amsterdam, 1642 (demolished). 
English colonies. 

Seventeenth century. 
Virginia (Jamestown founded 1607). 

Thoroughgood house, Princess Anne Co., c. 1640. 

Saint Luke's, Smithfield, after 1631. 
Massachusetts (Plymouth founded 1620; Boston, 1630). 

Fairbanks house in Dedham, 1636. 

Whipple house in Ipswich, c. 1650. 

"Old Ship" Meeting House in Hingham, 1681. 
Carolina (Charleston established on its present site 1680). 

Yeoman's Hall, Goose Creek, c. 1693. 
Pennsylvania (Philadelphia founded 1682). 

William Penn (Letitia) house in Philadelphia, 1683 (?). 
Eighteenth century. 
Houses. 

Mulberry Castle, South Carolina, 1714. 

Westover, Virginia, c. 1730. 

Royall house in Medford, Massachusetts, c. 1737. 

Mount Airy, Virginia, 1758. 

Whitehall, Maryland, c. 1760. 

Mount Pleasant in Philadelphia, c. 1761. 

Brewton house in Charleston, c. 1765. 

Monticello, Virginia (Thomas Jefferson), begun 1771. 

The Woodlands, near Philadelphia, c. 1775 (?). 
Churches. 

Old Saint Philip's, Charleston, 1723 (since rebuilt). 

Christ Church, Philadelphia (John Kearsley), 1727-44. 

King's Chapel, Boston (Peter Harrison), 1749-54, 
portico 1790. 

Saint Michael's, Charleston, 1752-61. 

Saint Paul's Chapel, New York (McBean), 1764-66, 
steeple 1794. 



AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 567 

Public buildings. 

Old City Hall in New York, 1700 (demolished). 
Old Virginia Capitol in Williamsburg, 1702-04 

(demolished) . 
Andrew Hamilton (1676-1741). 

Old State House (Independence Hall) in Philadel- 
phia, 1732-52. 
John Smibert (1684-1751). 

Faneuil Hall in Boston, 1742 (since twice rebuilt). 
Peter Harrison (1716-75). 

Redwood Library in Newport, R. I., 1748-50. 
Brick Market in Newport, R. I., 1761. 
II. National period, i776-date. 
Classicism, c. 1785-1850. 
Thomas Jefferson, 1743-1826. 

Virginia Capitol at Richmond, 1785-98 (remodeled). 
Remodeling of Monticello, 1796-1808. 
University of Virginia, 1817-26. 
Pierre Charles L'Enfant, 1754-1825. 

Federal Hall in New York, 1789 (demolished). 
Plan of the city of Washington, 1791. 
Robert Morris house, Philadelphia, 1792-95 (demolished). 
Stephen Hallet. 

Designs for the Capitol at Washington, 1792-94. 
James Hoban, c. 1762-1831. 

South Carolina Capitol at Columbia, 1789 (destroyed). 
White House in Washington, 1792-1829. 
William Thornton, 1761-1828. 

Philadelphia Library, 1789 (demolished). 
Designs for the Capitol at Washington, 1793-1802. 
Charles Bulfinch, 1763-1844. 
Beacon column in Boston, 1789. 
Massachusetts State House in Boston, 1795-98. 
Massachusetts General Hospital in Boston, 1818-21. 
Completion of the Capitol at Washington, 1818-29. 
Samuel Blodget, 1759-1814. 

Bank of the United States (Girard's Bank) in Phila- 
delphia, I795-97- 
Benjamin Henry Latrobe, 1766-1820. 

Bank of Pennsylvania in Philadelphia, 1799 (demolished). 
Works at the Capitol at Washington, 1803-17. 
Cathedral in Baltimore, 1805-21. 

Exchange, Bank, and Custom House at Baltimore (with 
Gpdefroi), 1815-20 (demolished). 



5 68 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

(Second) United States Bank at Philadelphia, 1819-24. 
Joseph Mangin, and John McComb, 1763-1853. 

New York City Hall, 1803-12. 

Saint John's, Varick Street, New York, 1803-07. 
Robert Mills, 1781-1855. 

Washington Monument in Baltimore, 1815-29. 

East colonnade of the Treasury in Washington, 1836-39. 

Washington Monument in Washington, 1836-77. 
William Strickland, 1787-1854. 

Merchants' Exchange in Philadelphia, 1832-34. 

Tennessee Capitol at Nashville, begun c. 1850. 
Ithiel Town. 

Former Connecticut Capitol at New Haven, 1829 (demol- 
ished). 

Custom House (Sub-Treasury) in New York (with A. J. 

Davis), 1834-41. 
Isaiah Rogers. 

Merchants' Exchange (Old Custom House) in New York, 

1835-41 (remodeled). 
Thomas U, Walter, 1804-88. 

Girard College in Philadelphia, 1833-47. 

Wings and dome of Capitol in Washington, 1851-65. 
Romanticism, c. 1800-50. 

Benjamin Henry Latrobe, 1766-1820. 

Sedgeley near Philadelphia, 1800 (demolished). 

Gothic project for cathedral in Baltimore, 1805. 
Maximilian Godefroi. 

Chapel of Saint Mary's Seminary in Baltimore, 1807. 
Richard Upjohn, 1802-78. 

Trinity Church in New York, 1839-46. 
James Renwick. 

Grace Church in New York, 1843-46. 

Saint Patrick's Cathedral in New York, 1850-79. 
Eclecticism, c. i85o-date. 
French Renaissance phase. 
Richard Morris Hunt, 1828-95. 

Residence of W. K. Vanderbilt in New York, 1883. 

Lenox Library in New York, 1870-77 (demolished). 

Biltmore, North Carolina. 
Romanesque phase. 

Henry Hobson Richardson, 1838-86. 

Trinity Church in Boston, 1872-77 (west towers with 
porch, 1896-98). 

Allegheny County buildings in Pittsburgh, 1884. 



AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 569 

Classical phase. 

Charles B. Attwood, 1849-95. 

Fine Arts Building, Chicago Exposition, 1893. 
Charles F. McKim, 1847-1909; William R. Mead, 1846-, 
and Stanford White, 1853-1906. 

Casino at Newport, 1881. 

Residence of Henry Villard in New York, 1885. 

Boston Public Library, 1888-95. 

Agricultural Building, Chicago Exposition, 1893. 

Columbia University Library in New York, 1895. 

Pennsylvania Station in New York, completed 1910. 
John M. Carrere, 1858-1911, and Thomas Hastings, 1860-. 

Ponce de Leon Hotel at Saint Augustine, 1887. 

New York Public Library, 1897-1910. 
Cass Gilbert, 1859-. 

Minnesota State Capitol in Saint Paul, 1898-1906. 

Woolworth Building in New York, 1911-13. 
Charles A. Platt, 1861-. 

Larz Anderson Garden at Brookline. 

Leader Building at Cleveland, 1912. 
Gothic phase. 

Ralph Adams Cram, 1863-; Bertram Grosvenor Good- 
hue, 1869-. 

All Saints', Ashmont, Massachusetts, 1892. 

United States Military Academy at West Point, 1903. 

Saint Thomas's, New York, 1906. 

Calvary Church in Pittsburgh, 1907. 

Rice Institute in Houston, 1909. 
Functionalism, c. i893~date. 
Louis Sullivan, 1856. 

Transportation Building, Chicago Exposition, 1893. 
Prudential (Guaranty) Building in Buffalo, c. 1895. 
Frank Lloyd Wright. 

Larkin Building in Buffalo, 1904. 

Church of the Unity in Oak Park, Illinois, 1908. 



BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

Pre-colonial architecture. A general view of the major part of the 
field is afforded by three handbooks by T. A. Joyce: South American 
Archeology, 1912; Mexican Archeology, 1914; and Archeology of 
Central America and the West Indies, 1916. For North America see 
S. D. Peet's Prehistoric America, 5 vols., 1890-1905. Among im- 



570 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

portant works on special regions are W. H. Holmes's Archaological 
Studies among the Ancient Cities of Mexico , 1895-97, and H. J. 
Spinden's Maya Art, 1913. For others consult the bibliographies in 
Joyce's handbooks and, on Mexico, in W. Lehmann's Methods and 
Results in Mexican Research, 1909. 

Colonial architecture: Spanish colonies. S. Baxter's Spanish- 
Colonial Architecture in Mexico, 10 vols., 1901, is an elaborate work; 
L. LaBeaume and W. B. Papin's The Picturesque Architecture of 
Mexico, 1915, a slighter book, composed primarily of views. For 
California see especially P. Elder's The Old Spanish Missions of 
California, 1913, and R. Newcomb's The Franciscan Mission Architect- 
ure of Alia California, 1916; for New Mexico, L. B. Prince's Spanish 
Mission Churches of New Mexico, 1915. 

English colonies. A popular general survey is afforded by H. D. 
Eberlein's Architecture of Colonial America, 1915. General collec- 
tions of drawings and photographs are The Georgian Period, 3 vols., 
1898-1902; Frank E. Wallis's Old Colonial Architecture and Furniture, 
1887, and American Architecture, Decoration, and Furniture, 1896; 
G. H. Policy's The Architecture, Interiors, and Furniture of the Amer- 
ican Colonies During the XVIII. Century, 1914; and D. Millar's 
Measured Drawings of some Colonial and Georgian Houses, 2 vols., 
1916. Among regional works with important texts are N. M. Isham 
and A. F. Brown's Early Rhode Island Houses, 1895, and their Early 
Connecticut Houses, 1900; H. C. Wise and H. F. Biedleman's Colonial 
Architecture . . . in Pennsylvania, New Jersey, and Delaware, 1913; 
R. A. Lancaster's Historic Virginia Homes and Churches. Regional 
works of large photographs are J. E. Chandler's Colonial Architecture 
of Maryland, Pennsylvania, and Virginia, 1882; J. M. Corner and E. 
Soderholz's Domestic Colonial Architecture in New England, 1891, 
Domestic Colonial Architecture in Maryland and Virginia, 1892; 

E. A. Crane and E. Soderholz's Examples of Colonial Architecture in. 
South Carolina and Georgia, 1898. Regional works of measured 
drawings are W. D. Goforth and W. J. McAuley's Old Colonial 
Architectural Details in and around Philadelphia, 1890; L. L. Howe 
and C. Fuller's Details from Old New England Houses, 1913; R. C. 
Kingman's New England Georgian Architecture, 1913; J. P. Sims and 
C. Willing's Old Philadelphia Colonial Details, 1914; H. F. Cunning- 
ham and others' Measured Drawings of Georgian Architecture in the 
District of Columbia, 1914. Among the works treating generally of 
single classes of buildings are A. Embury's American Churches, 1914; 

F. R. Vogel's Das amerikanische Haus, 1910; and J. E. Chandler's 
The Colonial House, 1916. 

National architecture: United States. No adequate general work 
has hitherto been attempted. Brief sketches which supplement one 



AMERICAN ARCHITECTURE 571 

another are those of H. Van Brunt: Development and Prospects of 
Architecture in the United States (in N. S. Shaler's United States of 
America, 1894, vol. 2, pp. 425-51) and C. F. Bragdon: Architecture 
in the United States, in the Architectural Record, 1909, vol. 25, p. 426, 
and vol. 26, pp. 38, 84. The development of certain types through 
the successive periods may be followed in A History of Public Build- 
ings Under the Control of the Treasury Department, 1901; in F. R. 
Vogel's Das amerikanische Haus, 1910; and in J. W. Dow's American 
Renaissance: a Review of Domestic Architecture, 1904. For the post- 
colonial and classical period see M. Schuyler's The Old Greek Revival, 
in the American Architect, 1910-11, vol. 98, pp. 121, 201; vol. 99, 
pp. 81, 161. This may be supplemented by G. Brown's History of the 
United States Capitol, vol. i, 1900; and the biographies Thomas 
Jefferson, Architect, 1916, by F. Kimball; The Life and Letters of 
Charles Bulfinch, 1896, by E. S. Bulfinch, and the Journal of Latrobe, 
1905. For the later periods there is little besides the individual 
studies of Richardson by M. G. Van Rensselaer, 1888; of McKim 
by A. H. Granger, 1913; and of Wright by C. R. Ashbee, 1911. 



CHAPTER XIV 
EASTERN ARCHITECTURE 

The East is a world which, as we now realize, long surpassed 
Christian Europe in enlightenment, as well as in wealth and 
extent. With its great religions and philosophies, there have 
flourished architectural styles of corresponding duration and 
complexity. In comparison with Western styles generally, 
these have been less concerned with problems of structure and 
more with abstract problems of repetition and combination 
of forms. A notable characteristic is the degree to which 
each Eastern people has held fast to its own artistic traditions 
under the most varied political and religious supremacies. 
Nevertheless artistic influences have not failed to pass back 
and forth between the Eastern peoples, as well as between 
the Orient and the Occident, so that there has been everywhere 
a varied historical development. Two main currents may be 
distinguished, one in the Far East embracing India, China, 
and their dependent countries, the other in the Near East, 
embracing Persia and the other countries which ultimately 
came under the sway of Mohammedanism. 

Development, of architecture in ike Near Easi. Sassanian art. 
In return for its heritage from the preclassical civilization of 
the Levant, Greece endowed the Asiatic empires of Alexander 
and his successors with a Hellenistic art, which extended even 
beyond their borders. When the Parthian rulers (130 B.C. 
226 A.D.) overran Mesopotamia, they adopted the Greek 
columnar system. With the rise of the new Persian empire 
under the Sassanian dynasty (227-641 A.D.), however, the tide 
of art once more began to flow from East to West. The 
subterranean vaults and occasional domes of ancient Mesopo- 
tamia were taken as the basis of a consistently vaulted style. 



EASTERN ARCHITECTURE 



573 



In such instances as the palace at Ctesiphon (Fig. 308), with 
its great elliptically arched hall and facade of blank arcades, 
this achieved new effects both monumental and decorative. 
In other cases the dome, supported over a square room by 
means of diagonal arches or squinches, was a notable feature. 
In its westward expansion this virile art contributed largely, 




FIG. 308 CTESIPHON. ROYAL PALACE. (DIEULAFOY) 



as we have seen, to the formation of the Byzantine systems of 
construction and ornament. 

Mohammedan architecture. General development. The 
Sassanian empire was brought to an end by the sudden expan- 
sion of Mohammedanism. In a few years from the flight of its 
prophet from Mecca (622), his followers, obeying his injunc- 
tion to spread their faith by the sword, conquered Mesopo- 
tamia (637), Egypt (638), Persia (642), northern Africa and 
Spain (711). At first Mohammedan architecture in these 
regions was little else than the art of the different conquered 
peoples adapted to the worship and the customs of the 
conquerors. In Syria, in Egypt, and in Spain the Romano- 
Byzantine column and arch were employed for the construction 



574 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

of buildings such as the mosque of Amru at Cairo (642), or 
the great mosques of Damascus and Cordova (785-848). In 
Mesopotamia and Persia the domed and vaulted halls of the 
Sassanians were adopted as prominent features of the designs. 
Besides the uniformity of the programs, however, a certain 
community of artistic character between different regions soon 
developed a character pronouncedly Oriental. This was due 
in part to the taste and the traditions of the Arabs themselves, 
but more largely to the earlier conquest of the Eastern lands, 
the prestige of these as the seat of the early caliphates of 
Damascus and Bagdad, and the vitality of Eastern art as the 
general source of inspiration in the early Middle Ages. Thus 
the lace-like incised carving of Mschatta in Syria, which had 
earlier contributed to Byzantine development, now appeared 
in the earliest Arab monuments of Africa and Spain. Thus, 
too, the pointed arch, common in Persia from the eighth 
century, appeared in Syria and Egypt from the beginning of 
the ninth. The tall dome of pointed silhouette, and the court 
with vaulted halls abutting it also Persian features pene- 
trated Egypt in the thirteenth and fourteenth centuries. The 
conquest of northern India and its conversion to Mohamme- 
danism opened the way for Persian influence there in the four- 
teenth and fifteenth centuries, while Persia itself then borrowed 
from India the ogee arch and the bulbous dome. With the 
conquest of Constantinople by the Ottoman Turks (1453), 
finally, began a new return influence of Byzantine architecture 
in their Oriental empire, through the imitation of Hagia Sophia, 
which became the chief mosque of the Turkish caliphs. The 
development of the various schools which resulted from the 
mingling of local traditions and distant influences continued 
uninterruptedly until the eighteenth and even the nineteenth 
century, and has been checked only by internal disorganization 
and by the conquests of European powers. 

Mosques. The outward observances of the Mohammedan 
religion are simple prayer, made facing in the direction of 
Mecca, and preceded by purifying ablution. For their formal 
places of worship, the mosques, the early believers naturally 
adopted the peristylar court the universal scheme of the 
Levant the porticoes of which furnished shelter from the 
tropical sun. The mirhab, a small niche in the outer wall, 



EASTERN ARCHITECTURE 



575 



indicated the direction of Mecca, and on this side of the court 
the porticoes were deepened and multiplied. This funda- 
mental scheme is seen in the first great mosque built after the 
conquest of Egypt, the mosque of Amru at Cairo (Fig. 310). 




FIG. 309 CORDOVA. INTERIOR OF MOSQUE 



The tendency was to develop the deeper side of the court into 
an inclosed building often of vast extent, as at Cordova 
(Fig. 309) with aisle after aisle of columns and arcades, 
carrying wooden beams and a terrace roof. In later western 
mosques the aisle leading to the mirhab was widened, and a 
special sanctuary was created in front of it. In Persia a great 
domed sanctuary preceded by a vast open nave or niche was 



576 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

early adopted, and corresponding features were introduced at 
the other cardinal points of the court. The Egyptian mosques 
based on Persian models, such as the mosque of Sultan 
Hassan (1377), have a court so reduced that these features 
occupy the greater part of each side, and the scheme becomes 



M 
)i 



il ii 



. V ,..',, 

k it ft ft tf ii i! ii 



it 



FIG. 310 CAIRO. MOSQUE OF AMRU. PLAN 



cruciform. On the capture of Constantinople, Hagia Sophia 
with its atrium, its main building to the east, its great central 
nave, and its eastern apse was found perfectly adapted to 
Mohammedan worship. It was copied almost literally in the 
Mosque of Suleiman at Constantinople (1550). In other 
Ottoman mosques the possible variants were used, especially 
the scheme of a central dome with four abutting half domes, 
which the Byzantines themselves had not developed. Among 
minor elements of the mosques, which are yet among their 
most striking features, are the minarets, or slender towers, 
with corbeled balconies from which the muezzin gives the 




Copyright by H. C. White Co. 
FIG. 311 GRANADA. THE ALHAMBRA. COURT OF LIONS 



578 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

call to prayers. These were erected at one or more of the 
corners of the buildings, ingeniously incorporated with it. 
Their forms varied much in different regions, the Ottoman 
form, with a very tall cylindrical shaft ending in a slender 
cone, being especially daring. 

Palaces. The enjoyment of worldly goods and pleasures 
was not despised by Mohammedanism, and the absolute power 




FIG. 312 AGRA. THE TAJ MAHAL 



and vast revenue of the caliphs enabled them to gratify their 
taste for splendor and luxury by the construction of magnificent 
palaces. In these the customs of the Orient demanded a 
jealous seclusion from the outer world, and a strict separation 
of the men's quarters and reception-rooms from the private 
apartments of the women and children, the harem. The 
rooms were distributed about one or more courts, the fagades 
made as blind as possible, except for loggias and balconies 
high above the ground and guarded by latticed screens. To 
relieve the heat of the climate, the courts were surrounded by 
shady porticoes and provided with basins and fountains. A 



EASTERN ARCHITECTURE 579 

complex axial system governed the relations of the principal 
rooms and the courts. The luxurious elegance sometimes 
attained is well seen in the Alhambra at Granada, built by the 
last Mohammedan rulers of Spain, chiefly in the fourteenth 
and fifteenth centuries. The Court of Lions (Fig. 311), with 
its slender columns, its delicate stalactite decoration in stucco, 
colored and gilded, shows Mohammedan architecture in the 
final development of one of its local schools, when the elements 
of diverse origin had been fused in a characteristic whole. 

Tombs. In Egypt, in Persia, and especially in India, the 
tombs of great monarchs rival the palaces and mosques. The 
Indian type was a domed mausoleum, set in the midst of a 
garden. The most noted example is the Taj Mahal at Agra 
(Fig. 312), built by Shah Jahan in 1630, in which the central 
dome is flanked by four smaller domes, and the principal, 
minor, and diagonal axes are marked on the exterior by great 
arches expressively and harmoniously proportioned. 

Forms of detail. The Mohammedan builders were con- 
fronted by few structural problems for which solutions had 
not already been found by late Roman, Byzantine, and 
Sassanian architecture. At first, like the early Christian 
builders, they employed borrowed classical columns and 
capitals, supporting impost blocks and stilted arches. Their 
early domes rested on squinches. Later their treatment of 
fundamental structural elements, such as the arch and the 
vault, was governed by decorative conceptions. In Spain 
and Africa arches were given a horseshoe shape or were cusped ; 
in Persia, Egypt, and Spain vaults were treated with a 
multitude of small squinches resembling stalactites. Stalac- 
tite motives were also used in some capitals, although in others 
modified Corinthian motives were used, much as in the most 
expressive Gothic examples. The ornamentation depended 
little on effects of bold relief, but greatly on effects of line, of 
material, and, above all, of color. The prohibition against 
representing man and animals, with the mathematical bent of 
the Arabs, resulted in a geometrical ornament of interlacing 
figures, extraordinarily fertile and intricate. Precious 
materials were freely used; in Persia whole buildings were 
faced with colored and glazed faience in patterns suggested 
by rugs and textiles. 



5 8o A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Development of architecture in the Far East. Long before the 
Christian era, the Chinese and the Aryan population of India 
had each adopted the basic constructive elements and the 
religious symbolism of architectural systems, which persistent 
conservatism, coupled in China with ancestor-worship, has 
preserved to this day. Each employed at the start a structure 
of wood, with posts, beams, and brackets the Indian roofs 
being of thatch, the Chinese roofs of curved tile. In China 
wooden construction has remained typical; in India there 
early developed a stone construction, likewise based on the 
beam and bracket, with the similar devices of the corbeled 
arch and vault. Characteristic of both countries was the 
multiplication of similar decorative elements, graduated in 
size and subtly varied in arrangement, in combinations of 
overwhelming decorative effect. As dynasties rose and fell, 
as foreign conquerors of less developed culture established 
themselves, as religious systems Brahmanist, Jain, and 
Buddhist in India, or Confucianist, Taoist, and Buddhist in 
China succeeded or transformed each other, the native 
architectural systems were steadily adapted to the prevailing 
programs, without fundamental changes of style. Inner 
historical growth there was, indeed, and influence of one 
system or another. Mohammedan India adopted the pointed 
arch with radiating joints from Persia, and China modified the 
pagoda, in some instances, on suggestions from the Indian 
spire or sikhara. In the main, however, these changes and 
influences were not bound by creed or dynasty, so that shrines 
of different sects were built simultaneously and side by side, 
in a style essentially one not Buddhist, Brahmanist, or 
Mohammedan, but Indian or Chinese. The outlying regions 
were dominated by the influence of the great cultural centers. 
Thus Java developed in the eighth to the thirteenth centuries 
a notable art based on Indian models, and had its own influence 
on the art of the Khmers in Cambodia. Japan was inspired 
by China, and, undisturbed by invasion, carried on and 
preserved tendencies which succumbed in China itself. 

India. The basic feature of Indian religious buildings was 
the stupa, a hemispherical tumulus or dome, which was first 
used as a grave monument and thus gained religious associa- 
tions. In the early Buddhist chapter-houses at Ajanta (second 



EASTERN ARCHITECTURE 581 

and first centuries B.C.), the stupa served as an altar or 
reliquary, standing in the apse-like end of a hall, with a 
colonnade following the sides and encircling the apse. The 
domical form of the stupa was also employed as the crowning 
feature of the shrines of Siva, the destructive aspect of the 
Brahmanist trinity, while for those of the complementary 




FIG. 313 KHAJURAHO. TEMPLE OF VISHNU 



preservative aspect, Vishnu, the form adopted was the spire- 
like sikhara. These are the principal elements of the great 
medieval temples of India, of which the shrine of Vishnu at 
Khajuraho (Fig. 313) with its vast bud-like sikhara, its vesti- 
bule and symbolic porches, its wealth of .carved ornament, IP 
a typical example. When the Mohammedans conquered In- 
dia their art had already absorbed Indian elements, and no 
radical change was necessary in methods of construction and 
composition. The Siva dome, stripped of its sculptured 
symbolism, became the dome of the mosque. The temple 
platform was preserved, and the small sikharas which marked 



582 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

its corners became minarets, as in the Taj Mahal. Thus the 
traditions of Indian craftsmanship remained unbroken until 
the importation of European ideals by the English. 

Java. Java felt the influence of Indian movements at later 
dates than India itself, so that its Buddhist monuments date 




FIG. 314 JAVA. THE CHANDI MENDOOT. (SCHELTEMA) 

from the eighth to the twelfth centuries, its Brahmanist 
shrines mostly from the subsequent period. Both were com- 
posed of the typical Indian elements. Sometimes the ensemble 
was also of Indian character, as there was a pyramidal chapel 
with a porch in front, like the Chandi Mendoot (Fig. 314). 
Sometimes, however, the general arrangement was more 
characteristically Javan, depending on the repetition, around 
a central monument, of small shrines all alike, often in great 
numbers. This was the system at the great temple of Boro- 
Budur (ninth century), where the large central stupa, of bell 
shape, was surrounded by smaller bells in three terraces, 
themselves supported on a pyramid of six steps with many 
hundreds of niche-like shrines. 



EASTERN ARCHITECTURE 



583 



Cambodia. In Cambodia there arose, under Indian and 
Javan influence, the civilization of the Khmers, whose empire 
flourished especially from the ninth to the thirteenth centuries. 
Although it borrowed certain forms, such as the Javanese 
system of an assemblage of satellite shrines, its developed 
architecture was markedly different from anything in India 
and Java. As seen in the city and palace of Angkor Thorn or 




FIG. 315 ANGKOR WAT. SOUTHWEST ANGLE OF THE PORTICOES 



in the temple of Angkor Wat (Fig. 315), the style involved vast 
ensembles governed by an elaborate system of rectangular axes, 
with lakes and moats, causeways of approach, tall straight 
stairways leading to elaborate gateways flanked by long 
porticoes, and a multiplication of sikhara-like towers with rich 
pointed silhouettes. The fine limestone freely available was 
laid up with exquisite precision, without mortar, and carved 
with endless sculptures in relief and in the round, in which 
the serpent-head motive was conspicuous. Especially charac- 
teristic was the fine restraint and sense of structural fitness in 
20 



5 8 4 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

the piers and capitals of porticoes and gateways, which accord 
with the classical canons of the West as do few other structures 
of the Orient. 

China. Unlike the West, and even unlike India, China has 
steadily retained wood as a material for monumental struct- 
ures. The single hall of wood has remained the fundamental 

element of even the 
largest temples. As a 
result China has car- 
ried construction in 
wood to a degree of 
elaboration and expres- 
siveness comparable 
with that of the great 
systems of masonry 
construction elsewhere. 
The essential scheme 
consists of columns, 
with arm-like brackets, 
supporting a beam sys- 
tem and widely over- 
hanging hip-roof, which 
by the mode of its con- 
struction acquires nat- 
urally a slight upward 
curve at the angles. 
If the span is great, 
one or more lines of 
interior supports are 

introduced, creating an encircling aisle or series of aisles, 
each with its own roof and section of vertical wall (Fig. 
316). A similar effect was produced by buildings in more 
than one story, for each story was shaded by overhanging 
eaves. When the stories were multiplied there was produced 
the pagoda, often erected as a feature of a temple, but usually 
as a commemorative monument. Pagodas were also built of 
stone, in which case the roofs between the stories were reduced- 
to decorative string-courses, and sometimes the whole struct- 
ure was given more the character of an Indian sikhara. The 
Chinese houses and palaces, of isolated halls grouped in an 




FIG. 316 PEKIN. THE TEMPLE OF HEAVEN 



5 86 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

inclosure, were accompanied by gardens of a naturalistic 
style, with miniature mountains, lakes, and bridges. Note- 
worthy also are the vast works of fortification, the walls and 
gates of the cities, and, above all, the Great Wall of China, 
twelve hundred miles long, first erected as an earthen rampart 
in the third century B.C., and rebuilt in the fifteenth and 
sixteenth centuries with walls and towers of stone. 

Japan. Chinese architecture was brought to Japan by the 
Buddhist missionaries of the seventh century. The hall and 
pagoda of the period at Horiuji are purely Chinese. Soon, 
however, the Japanese were able to make characteristic modifi- 
cations, in the direction of greater discretion and elegance. In 
the Fujiwara period (898-1186), these qualities were at their 
height, as may be seen in the subtle and delicate Phenix-hall 
at Uji with its sanctuary flanked by porticoes and pavilions 
(Fig. 317). Later the system of bracketing became more 
complex, but carving was still almost wholly absent until the 
Tokugawa period (1587-1867), when ostentatious exuberance 
replaced the simplicity and dignity of earlier times. Sculpture, 
lacquered and gilded, disguised the structural members; the 
roofs were given fantastic curvatures and loaded with orna- 
ment. Such was the prevailing style when the opening of the 
ports to European trade (1854) brought the flood of Western 
artistic ideas, which have tended, for the moment at least, 
to submerge the native art of Japan. 



PERIODS OF EASTERN ARCHITECTURE 

The Near East. 

Sassanian architecture, 227-641 A.D. 

Palace at Firouzabad. 

Palace at Sarvistan. 

Palace at Ctesiphon. 

Mohammedan architecture, 622 A.D.-date. 
Syria and Egypt. 

Mosque of Amru at Cairo, 642. 

Mosque at Damascus, begun 707. 

Mosque of Ibn Touloun at Cairo, 878. 

Mosque of Sultan Hassan at Cairo, 1356. 

Tomb of Kait Bey at Cairo, 1472-76. 



EASTERN ARCHITECTURE 587 

Spain. 

Great mosque at Cordova, begun 770. 

Alcazar at Seville, 1199-1200, restored 1353. 

Alhambra at Granada, begun 1230: Gate of Justice, 1337; 

Court of Lions, 1354. 
Mesopotamia and Persia. 

Cathedral mosque at Ispahan, 760-70, remodeled in sixteenth 

century. 

Tomb of Zobeide at Bagdad, 831. 
Imperial Mosque at Ispahan, 1612-28. 
India. 

Qutb Minar at Delhi, c. 1200. 
Buildings at Fathpur-Sikri, 1560-1605. 
Taj Mahal at Agra, 1630. 
Ottoman Empire. 

Mosque of Suleiman at Constantinople, 1550. 
Mosque of Sultan Ahmed I. at Constantinople, 1608-15. 
Mosque of Mehemet Ali at Cairo, 1815. 
The Far East. 

Indian architecture. 

Cave temples at Karle and Ajanta, second and first centuries 

B.C. 

Kailasa temple, Ellora, eighth century after Christ. 
Temples at Khajuraho, tenth and eleventh centuries. 
Javan architecture. 

Temple of Boro-Budur, ninth century. 
Cambodia, Khmer architecture. 

City and palace of Angkor Thorn, ninth century. 
Temple of Angkor Wat, twelfth century. 
Chinese architecture. 

Great Wall, third century B.C., rebuilt in fifteenth and six- 
teenth centuries. 

Rock temples of Lungmen, seventh century. 
Pagoda of Porcelain at Nankin, 1412-31. 
Temple of Heaven, Pekin, eighteenth century, rebuilt in 

nineteenth century. 
Japanese architecture. 

Early temple buildings at Horiuji, beginning of seventh 

century. 

Phenix-hall at Uji, eleventh century. 
Temple of lyeasu, Nikko, seventeenth century. 



5 88 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

BIBLIOGRAPHICAL NOTE 

The most comprehensive general work on Eastern architecture is 
F. Benoit's L y architecture: V orient medieval et moderne, 1912, which 
is provided with very full bibliographical lists. H. Saladin's volume, 
L' architecture, 1907, in the Manuel d'art musulman (vol. i), covers 
Mohammedan architecture in more detail. Works in English cover- 
ing Mohammedan architecture in special regions are S. L. Poole's 
The Art of the Saracens in Egypt, 1886; A. F. Calvert's Moorish 
Remains in Spain, 1906, and The Alhambra, 1904; and E. B. Havell's 
Indian Architecture . . . from the First Mohammedan Invasion to 
the Present Day, 1913. The art of the Far East is dealt with generally 
in J. Fergusson's History of Indian and Eastern Architecture, revised 
by J. Burgess and R. Phene Spiers, 2 vols., 1910. This should be 
supplemented by special works embodying more recent views, such 
as E. B. Havell's The Ancient and Medieval Architecture of India, 
1915; 0. Miinsterberg's Chinesische Kunstgeschichte, 2 vols., 1910-12, 
and Japanische Kunstgesckichte, 3 vols., 1904-07; J. F. Scheltema's 
Monumental Java, 1912; and R. A. Cram's Impressions of Japanese 
Architecture, 1905. 



GLOSSARY 



Abacus. The chief or uppermost member of a capital. 

Absidiole. A small, apse-like structure frequently used as a chapel. 

Acanthus. An ornament derived from the conventionalized leaves 

of the acanthus plant. 

/^, Acroterion. In classic architecture, an ornament placed upon the 
corners and the peak of a pediment. 

Adobe. Unburnt, sun-dried brick. 

Adyton. An inner sanctuary in some Greek temples, housing the 
image. 

Agora. A Greek public square or market-place. 

Aisles. One of the divisions in a building divided longitudinally 
by colonnades or lines of piers, especially one of the side divisions, 
often lower than the central division. 

Allee. A garden path or avenue, usually bordered by trees. 

Alternate system. A term applied to an architectural system wherein 
a simpler pier alternates with a more complex one. 

Ambone. A pulpit, especially that found in basilican churches. 

Ambulatory. A passageway in a building, especially the passageway 
around the apse. 

Amphiprostyle. A term applied to a temple having columns across 
both front and rear, but not along the sides. 

Amphora. A long pot with a narrow neck, usually of terra cotta. 

Annular vault. A ring-shaped vault. 

Anta (pi. antes). The end of a wall which carries a lintel, treated 
with a pilaster-like projection. 

Anthemion. The Greek honeysuckle ornament. 

Apodyterium. The dressing-room of a Roman bathing-establish- 
ment. 

Apse. A recess of semicircular or polygonal plan, covered by a semi- 
dome or other vault; especially the semicircular termination of 
the choir of a church. 

Aqueduct. A conduit or channel for conducting water, especially 
one supported on masonry arches. 

Arabesque. An ornament of a capricious or fanciful character, con- 
sisting of foliage, flowers, figures, etc. 



59 o A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Arcade. A series of arches resting on piers or columns. 

Arch. A structural device to span an opening by means of small 
stones or brick. In the "true" arch these are wedge-shaped 
blocks, or voussoirs. 

" A rch order. ' ' In classic architecture, the system of enframing arches 
by columns and entablatures. 

Archiepiscopal cross. A cross with two transverse arms, the longer 
one nearer the center. 

Architrave. A lintel, usually with horizontal bands or moldings. 

Archil) ol t. A molded band like an architrave, carried around a 
curved opening. 

Ashlar. Squared and finished building-stone. 

Atlas (pi. Atlantes}. A male figure used as a support. 

Atrium. In Roman architecture, the principal room in the -early 
house. In more elaborate buildings, a court partly open to the 
sky. In Christian ecclesiology, the open court before the nar- 
thex of a basilica. 

Attic. A pedestal-like feature or story above the cornice of a building. 

Attic base. A molded column base consisting of two convex moldings, 
or toruses, with a hollow, or scotia, between. 

Axis. The central line of a symmetrical or other balanced com- 
position. 

Baluster. An upright member used to support a railing; usually 
urn-shaped or with some other swelling contour. 

Bar tracery. Tracery composed of thin bars of stone, joined together 
on the principle of the arch. 

Barrel vault. A semi-cylindrical vault, or one approaching this shape. 
(^/Basilica. In Roman architecture, an oblong covered hall, often sub- 
divided by columns or piers, devoted to the transaction of busi- 
ness and the administration of justice. In Christian architect- 
ure, an early Christian church of similar form, composed with 
reference to a longitudinal axis. 

BasUican. Like a basilica in having longitudinal rows of columns, 
or a raised clerestory. 

Battlement. An indented parapet behind which archers could shelter 
themselves. 

Bay. Originally an opening between two columns or piers. By 
extension one compartment or division of a building which con- 
sists of several such divisions. 

Bed-molding. The molding or suite of moldings supporting a cornice. 

Be/roi. In France and Flanders, the civil or communal bell tower 
as opposed to the clocher of the church. In medieval military 
parlance the term is sometimes applied to the movable towers 
used in attacking walled fortifications. 



GLOSSARY 591 

Belt-course. See String-course. 

Bema. The rudimentary transept which gave the T-shaped form to 

the early Christian basilica. 
Billet mold. A. molding consisting of short, broken, cylindrical 

members, arranged with their axes parallel to that of the molding. 

Especially common in Norman Romanesque architecture. 
Blind arcade. An arcade applied to the face of the wall so that no 

actual openings appear. 
Bouleuterion. The Greek council-house. 
Broken pediment. A pediment in which the raking cornice is broken 

through. 
Buttress. A support against lateral thrust; especially, a member 

projecting at right angles to a wall, designed to receive such a 

thrust. 

Caldarium. The hot-room in a Roman bathing-establishment. 
Campanile. A word applied in Italy to a bell tower, engaged or free 

standing. 

Capilla mayor. The great chapel, nearly filling the apse and block- 
ing the view of the ambulatory, commonly found in Spanish 

churches. 
Capital. The topmost member of a column, distinguished from the 

shaft by distinct architectural treatment. 
Cartouche. An ornament of irregular or fantastic form, inclosing a 

field sometimes decorated with armorial bearings, etc. 
Caryatid. A female figure used as a support. 
Casino. A small pleasure-house, especially in an Italian villa. 
Catacombs. Extensive underground burial passages and vaults. 
Cathedra. The bishop's chair in the early Christian church, com~ 

monly placed at the back of the apse on the longitudinal axis 

of the building. 

Catholicon. In Greek, a bishop's cathedral church. 
Cavetto. A molding having the form of a quarter-hollow. 
Cella. The essential or principal chamber of a temple. 
Centering. A timber framework on which the masonry of an arch 

or vault is supported until the key is in place, rendering the whole 

self-supporting. 
Chamfer. The cutting away of the square edge of an ordinary 

architectural member. 
Chancel. The portion of a church in the east end, railed, and set 

apart for the use of the clergy. 
Chapel of the Virgin. A chapel, dedicated to the use of the Virgin, and 

usually extending beyond the apse on the long axis of the church. 
Chevet. A term applied to the complicated east end of the French 

cathedral. 



59 2 A HISTORY OF ARCHITECTURE 

Chevron. A V-shaped, or zigzag ornament. 

Choir. Primarily the part of the church where the singers are ac- 
commodated. The arm of the cross between the transept and 
the apse. 

Ciborium. A canopy, generally of marble and supported on columns, 
over the altar of an early Christian church. The term is often 
applied in Italy, however, to the chiseled receptacle in which 
the consecrated wafers are kept. 

Circus. In Roman architecture, a course for horse and chariot 
races; in England a circular or semicircular open space sur- 
rounded by houses. 

(^Clerestory. A part of a building which rises above the adjacent 
roofs, permitting it to be pierced with window openings. . 

Cloister. A court surrounded by an ambulatory, usually arcaded. 

Cloister vault. A square or polygonal dome. 

Coffer. A sunk panel or compartment in a ceiling, vault, or soffit. 

Collegiate church. A church that has a college or chapter, with a 
dean, but not a bishop's see. 

Colonnade. A series or range of columns, usually connected by 
lintels. 

Colonnette. A diminutive column. 

' ' Colossal order. ' ' An order running through mof e than one story of a 
building. 

Column. A circular supporting member, usually with a base and 
capital. 

Concrete. An artificial stone composed of an aggregate of broken 
stone or other small ma