(navigation image)
Home American Libraries | Canadian Libraries | Universal Library | Community Texts | Project Gutenberg | Children's Library | Biodiversity Heritage Library | Additional Collections
Search: Advanced Search
Anonymous User (login or join us)
Upload
See other formats

Full text of "History of Arizona"

m 





;R1CAL W 

.EcriQH .. 




^^ J 





'^^ 




^'^-^ 




Jl 



^..^ 



^,^ 



}ft. 



HISTORY 



OF 



ARIZONA 



BY 

THOMAS EDWIN FARISH, 

ARIZONA HISTORIAN 



VOLUME V 



PHOENIX, ARIZONA 
1918 



Copyrighted 1918, 

BY 

THOS. EDWIN FAEISH, 

ARIZONA HISTORIAN 



The Filmer Brothers Electrotype Company 

Typographers and Stereotypees 

San Francisco 



1714348 



LIST OF ILLUSTRATIONS. 



Steak's Pass by Moonlight Frontispiece 

John A. Rush Facing Page 31 

Philip Drachman Facing Page 32 

Apache Pass from Fort Bowie Facing Page 102 

First Granite Gorge, Grand Canyon Facing Page 122 

James White Facing Page 144 

Maj. J. W. Powell Facing Page 169 

Chas. a. Shibell Facing Page 318 

(iii) 



CONTENTS. 



VOLUME V. 

CHAPTER I. 

THE FOURTH LEGISLiATTIRE. P^ 

Members of— Message of Governor McCormick— Report of 
Territorial Auditor — Memorials to Congress — Laws Passed 
by Legislature — Capital Located at Tucson — McCormick 
Elected Delegate to Congress— Boards of Supervisors Au- 
thorized to Create School District— Edward J. Cook, Biog- 
raphy—John A. Rush, Biography— Philip Drachman, Biog- 
raphy 

CHAPTER II. 

THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 

Convening of — Governor's Message — Memorials — Resolutions — 
Death of Henry Jenkins— Murder of A. M. Erwin by In- 
(lians — Treasurer's Estimate of Expenses — Contention Be- 
tween Arizona and California as to Boundary Line — Appoint- 
ments by Governor— Report of Territorial Auditor— R-eport 
of Territorial Treasurer — Indebtedness of Territory 

CHAPTER III. 

THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE (Continued). 

Acts Passed by— Dancing Licensed— Act to Establish Public 

Schools— Text of— Act Locating Territorial Prison at or 

Near Phoenix 

CHAPTER IV. 

WHAT CONGRESS DID FOR ARIZONA. 

Collection District Proposed— Improvements on Colorado River 
Indian Reservation— Speech of Delegate Bashford Upon— 
Debate Upon— Amendment to Postal Bill— Delegate Bash- 
ford's Speech Upon— Acts of Third, Fourth and Fifth 
Legislatures Legalized— Sixth Legislature Held at Tucson 

(V) 



33 



Vi CONTENTS. 

CHAPTEE V. 

EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. P 

Kansas Pacific Eailway's Expedition for Southern Railway to 
Pacific Coast— Story of by William A. Bell— Fort Bowie- 
Murders by and Adventures with the Indians 



100 



CHAPTER VI. 
EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS (Continued). 
Passage Through Grand Canyon of James White, Prospector- 
Personnel of Prospecting Party— Attacked by Indians- 
Part of Party Killed— Making of Raft by White and One 
Companion— Voyage Through Canyon— White's Companion 
Drowned— White Continues Alone— Experience With In- 
dians—Arrival at Callville 122 

CHAPTER VII. 

EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS (Continued), 
story of White's Trip Made Official U. S. Senate Document- 
Article by Thomas F. Dawson — Statement in Rocky 
Mountain Herald— White's Own Statement— Corroborative 
Evidence— White's After Life 144 

CHAPTER VIII. 

EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS (Continued). 
Major Powell's First Exploration of the Grand Canyon — 
Cataract Canyon— Description of Walls of Canyon— Three 
of Party Leave and Go Overland — End of First Explora- 
tion — Mormons — Approximate Distance by River — Major 
Powell's Second Exploration of the Grand Canyon— White's 
Story Branded Fabrication by Dellenbaugh 



169 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE MILITARY. 

General Mason's Report— Different Indian Tribes— Forts in 
Arizona — General McDowell's Report — Praise for Arizona 
Volunteers — Expeditions Against Indians — Conditions in 
Arizona by Major-General Halleck 183 

CHAPTER X. 

THE MILITARY (Continued). 
Report of Colonel .Tones, Inspector — Remoteness of Arizona 
Bar to Frequent Inspections — Recommends Separate Mili- 
tary District for Arizona and Concentration of Troops — 
Also Recommends More and Better Buildings — General 
McDowell's Remarks on Colonel Jones' Report — Statement 
of Conditions 206 



CONTENTS. Vll 

CHAPTER XI. 

THE MILITARY (Continued). page 

General Orders as to Location of Troops in Arizona— Remarks 
of General McDowell— Easy Times for Government Con- 
tractors—General Gregg Orders That All Indians Off 
Reservations be Treated as Hostiles— Interference With 
Order by Indian Agent Dent— General Gregg's Order 
Countermanded by General McDowell— General McDowell 
Criticised by Governor McCormick— General McDowell's 
Second Annual Report — Reports Expeditions Against 
the Indians 236 

CHAPTER XII. 

THE MILITARY (Continued). 
Major-General Halleck's Report for 1867-68— Describes Con- 
ditions in Arizona— Urges That More Troops be Sent to 
Arizona— Expeditions Against Hostile Indians— Frequent 
Desertions of Soldiers— Report of Brigadier-General 
Thomas E. Dcvin of Expedition Against the Hostiles 261 

CHAPTER XIII. 

INDIAN TROUBLES. 

Attack on T. Lambertson — Killing of Henry Twaddle — Kill- 
ing of Gonzales— Attack on LeRoy Jay and William Tre- 
han — Fight With Frenchmen on HassaVampa — Attacks in 
and Around Wickenburg— Jackass Smith— Expedition of 
Lieut. Cradlebaugh Against Indians— Jackson McCracken's 
Plight— Killing of George Bowers— Experience of "Jeff" 
Davis — Orick Jackson Describes Conditions — Thomas Thomp- 
son Hunter's Description of Conditions — Hostilities at Fort 
Bowie— Killing of Commander of Post— Murder of Col. Stone 
and Escort — Duel Between Keeper of Station and One of 
Cochise's Band— Murder of Mail Carrier Fisher— Attack 
on W. A. Smith and Companions — Depredations Around 
Tucson— Camp Grant Massacre— Mrs. Stephen's Fight With 
Indians — "Miner" Editorial on Situation — W. M Saxton 
Killed 279 

CHAPTER XIV. 
INDIAN TROUBLES (Continued). 
Indian Question not Solved — General Mason Succeeded by 
Colonel Wallen and Colonel Lovell— General Gregg and 
General Crittenden Succeed Colonels Wallen and Lovell — 
Arizona Declared Military District by General Halleck— 
General McDowell Makes Visit to Arizona— Raids and 
Massacres Continue — Expedition by General Gregg At- 



Vlll CONTENTS. 



PAGE 

tack on Miller's Ranch — Bravery of Mrs. Miller — A. M. 
Erwin, Member of Legislature, Killed by Indians — General 
Ord Succeeds General McDowell — Charles Spencer and 
Party Attacked by Indians — Expedition by General Alex- 
ander — La Paz Threatened by Indians — Attack Upon 
Joseph Melvin and J. P. Gibson — Josiah Whitcomb 
and Party Attacked by Indians — George D. Bowers 
and Party Attacked, Bowers Killed — Begole and Thompson 
Attacked, Thompson Killed— Fight at Burnt Ranch — Jake 
Miller Kills Indian Chief and Saves Ranch and Stock — 
E. A. Bentley, Editor and Proprietor of "Miner" Ivilled by 
Indians — Murders and Raids in Southern Part of Arizona 
Detailed by Charles A. Shibell — Sol Barth's Experience 
With Cochise 297 

CHAPTER XV. 

PROGRESS OF THE TERRITORY. 

Building Boom in Tucson — Leading Merchants — Indian Raids — 
A. J. Doran's Experience With Pah-Utes — Loyalty of In- 
dians — Biography of J. W. Sullivan — His Early Experiences 
in the Territory — Biography of John H. Marion 327 



HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

VOLUME V. 



HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 



CHAPTER I. 

THE FOURTH LEGISLATURE. 

Members of — Message of Governor McCormick 
— Report of Territorial Auditor — Memo- 
rials to Congress — Laws Passed by Legis- 
lature — Capital Located at Tucson — Mc- 
Cormick Elected Delegate to Congress — 
Boards of Supervisors Authorized to Cre- 
ate School District — Edward J. Cook, 
Biography — John A. Rush, Biography — 
Philip Drachman, Biography. 

The Fourth Territorial Legislative Assembly 
convened at Prescott on the 4th day of Septem- 
ber, and ended on the 7th day of October, 1867. 
The following were the members of the Council 
and the House of Representatives : 





COUNCIL. 




Name, 


Residence 




Occupation. 


Age. Where Born. 


(Yavapai County) 
John W. Simmons, 
Daniel S. Lount, 
Lewis A. Stevens, 


Prescott, 
Agua Caliente, 
Prescott, 


Farmer, 

Miner, 

Farmer, 


56 Tennessee. 
47 Canada West. 
52 Mississippi. 


(Mohave County) 
William H. Hardy, 


Hardyville, 




Merchant, 


45 New York. 


(Pah-TUe County) 
Octavius D. Gass, 


Callville, 




Ranchero,. 


39 Ohio. 


(Yuma County) 
Alexander McKey, 


La Paz, 




Miner, 


40 Kentucky. 


(Pima County) 
Daniel H. Stiekney, 
Mortimer R. Platt, 
Henry Jenkins, 


, Tucson, 
Tucson, 
Tubac, 




Merchant, 

Lawyer, 

Lawyer, 


55 Massachusetts. 
31 New York. 
55 New York. 


V— 1 




(1) 







HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 



HOUSE OF BEPEESENTATIVES. 



Name. 


Residence. Occupation. Age. 


Where Born 


(Yavapai County) 










James S. Giles, 


Prescott, 


Farmer, 


31 


Delaware. 


John A. Eush, 


Prescott, 


Lawyer, 


48 


Missouri. 


John H. Matthews, 


Kirkland Valley, 


, Farmer, 


47 


Alabama. 


Edward J. Cook, 


Prescott, 


Merchant, 


42 


Alabama. 


Andrew Cullumber, 


Walnut Grove, 


Farmer, 


52 


Ohio. 


John T. Dare, 


Prescott, 


Printer, 


26 New York. 


(Mohave County) 










Nathaniel S. Lewis, 


Hardyville, 


Miner, 


37 


Indiana. 


(Pah-Ute County) 










Royal J. Cutler, 


St. Joseph, 


Farmer, 


39 


New York. 


(Yuma County) 










Oliver Lindsey, 


La Paz, 


Farmer, 


32 


New York. 


G. W. Hanford, 


Eureka, 


Miner, 




New York. 


John Henion, 


Williams Fork, 


Miner, 






(Pima County) 










Charles W. Lewis, 


Tubac, 


Farmer, 


40 


Virginia. 


John B. Allen, 


Tucson, 


Merchant, 


49 


Maine. 


Marvin M. Richardson, 


Tubac, 


Merchant, 


41 


New York. 


Underwood C. Barnett, 


Tucson, 


Farmer, 


35 


Arkansas. 


Francis M. Hodges, 


Tucson, 


Merchant, 


29 


Missouri. 


Solomon W. Chambers, 


Calabazas, 


Farmer, 


45 


Ohio. 


Philip Drachman, 


Tucson, 


Merchant, 


37 


Poland. 



All the members of the Council attended, but 
G. W. Hanford and John Henion, elected from 
Yuma County as Representatives, failed to put 
in an appearance. 

The Legislature organized by the election of 
Octavius D. Gass, of Pah-Ute County, as Presi- 
dent, and Almon Gage, as Secretary of the Coun- 
cil, and Oliver Lindsey, of Yuma County, as 
Speaker, and Follett G. Christie as Chief Clerk 
of the House. 

In his message to the Legislature Governor 
McCormick called attention to the fact that the 
Wallapais, the Pah-Utes, and a portion of the 
Yavapais were on the warpath, and that it was 
necessary that additional forces should be sent to 
the Territory. He also urged a separate mili- 



THE FOURTH LEGISLATURE. O 

tary department for the Territory. In this con- 
nection he said : 

''The system of small, temporary posts, by 
which at least one-half the troops in the Terri- 
tory are now rendered unavailable, will doubt- 
less be set aside ; a few forts will be established 
at points chosen by those familiar with the dis- 
tricts, from actual observation, from which 
troops can be hurled in force against any part 
of the Indian country and kept there until the 
end sought is fully attained ; co-operative move- 
ments will be made from various parts of the 
Territory ; raiding parties will be promptly fol- 
lowed to their retreats however remote, and the 
service instead of being so generally irksome 
and profitless as to provoke even good soldiers 
to desertion, will have the fascination which 
always attends formidable and successful mili- 
tary movements. 

"It has lately been alleged abroad that Ari- 
zona is a vortex into which the greater portion 
of the available military material upon the 
Pacific Coast disappears. Taking into consid- 
eration the vast extent of the country, and the 
agility of the hostile Indians, the number of 
troops now here is comparatively small, amount- 
ing in the district of Prescott, to less than one 
man to one hundred square miles. If the Terri- 
tory is in any sense a vortex it has been made so 
through the unfortunate system to which I have 
referred, and against a continuation of which 
economy and reason most earnestly protest. 
Yet with the greatly increased efficiency of the 
troops already here, which must come should the 
Territory be made a distinct Department, some 



4 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

addition to the force will be required in order 
to secure the early attainment of peace, and, in 
accordance with the popular wish, I have lately 
made a vigorous appeal to the Department com- 
mander for more regulars, and also renewed my 
application to the War Department (based 
upon the memorial of the Second Assembly), 
for authority to raise a regiment of Territorial 
volunteers to serve for the term of two years. 

''An Act of Congress adopted at the late spe- 
cial session (in July) provides a commission to 
select permanent reservations for all the Indian 
tribes now occupying the Territories east of the 
Rocky Mountains, and if said Indians fail to 
remove to the reservations the Secretary of War 
is authorized to accept the services of mounted 
volunteers from the Governors of the several 
States and Territories, not exceeding four thou- 
sand men in number ; and for such term of ser- 
vice as in his judgment may be necessary for the 
suppression of Indian hostilities. 

"I do not understand that this law is appli- 
cable to Arizona, although our necessity is, and 
I venture to say will be much greater than that 
of any of the Territories east of the Rocky 
Mountains; and I think it will not be difficult 
under a proper representation of facts by you 
(through our Delegate in Congress) to have its 
provisions for our benefit. I will not here en- 
ter into an argument to establish the advantage 
of securing a native regiment, but be content 
with the assertion that while highly appreciating 
the efficiency of the regulars in the battles 
named, and giving them all deserved credit, I 
am still of the opinion that no troops can begin 



THE FOURTH LEGISLATURE. 

to cope with the Apaches and other hostile 
Indians of this Territory in their mountain fast- 
nesses so successfully and at so little cost as the 
volunteers. 

"That the General Government will listen to 
our reasonable and necessary appeal for a sepa- 
rate Department, and for more troops, I most 
sincerely hope ; for with affairs as they now exist 
here and have existed since the Territory came 
under the American flag, 'patience has ceased to 
be a virtue.' It will be alike unjust to the 
people who have come here expecting protec- 
tion, to the thousands eager to settle here, to the 
officers sent here to establish civil law and order, 
and highly discreditable to a government more 
able than ever before to give security for life 
and property to all its citizens, if relief is not 
speedily granted. 

''While the war in the East continued it was 
not to be expected that much attention would be 
given to the frontier, but now there would seem 
to be no excuse for neglect to overcome the one 
great barrier to our prosperity, unless, as it is 
sometimes asserted, the Government does not 
deem the country worthy of occupation and de- 
velopment. Those who are familiar with its 
rare mineral resources, its rich fertile valleys, 
its unrivalled pastoral lands, its equable and 
salutary climate, its genial skies, and all its 
capabilities and possibilities, taken as a whole 
(notwithstanding its large extent of desert and 
mountain), consider the assertion absurd. Ari- 
zona will compare favorably in all respects with 
any of the mineral-bearing Territories of the 
Union, while in climate it possesses a decided 



b HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

advantage over all. To those who have here 
found homes and health, who are endeared to 
the country by years of sacrifice and by friend- 
ships here formed, whose beloved dead here 
'sleep the sleep that knows no waking/ the 
hostility of a few thousands of abject wild men, 
but a single remove from the brute creation, who 
should not be allowed to stay the march of civil- 
ization for a day, and who if properly dealt with 
would melt before the strong arm of the Govern- 
ment like snow beneath the noonday sun, is alike 
repulsive and intolerable. 

''Whatever the conclusions of Congressional 
committees, or of special commissioners, after 
hurried and superficial visits to the plains, or the 
theories of well meaning philanthropists, to 
those who have lived among the Indians, who 
have dealt with them, who know their innate 
treachery, who are familiar with their barbarous 
deeds, who comprehend their low nature and in- 
stincts, it is folly to talk of expecting good re- 
sults from a persuasive policy. The Indian of 
to-day, whatever he may have been in the past, 
is not to be bound by treaties, annuities, or by 
favor of any kind unless first made clearly to 
understand that the white man is his master, 
and intends to be such for all time. For this 
reason it is idle, as I have already asserted, 'to 
talk to the Apache (or to any hostile Indian), 
of reservations, while he feels any security for 
life or property outside of them.' Yet at the 
same time, so far from urging extermination 
which is supposed by many to be the war cry of 
all Arizonians, I have favored reservations, pro- 
vided the Indians placed upon them can and will 



THE FOURTH LEGISLATURE. i 

be kept there. To allow them to go and come at 
will is to subsist and equip them for robbery and 
murder. This has been clearly and sadly dem- 
onstrated. A system of reservations is needed 
here quite as much as in the Eastern territories. 
' One Indian, ' as a competent writer upon Indian 
affairs asserts, 'requires for his maintenance, by 
his methods of living, as much territory as will 
support a thousand men who live by civilized 
methods, and when by the natural flow of popu- 
lation, the thousand civilized men require for 
their homes the place roamed over by one 
Indian, it is justice to all men that he should 
give way. ' 

"He must do so, and his only security is upon 
a reservation, where, as his highest motive is to 
get something to eat without labor, he will be 
well accommodated, and in time may be taught 
habits of industry, although the task will be a 
difficult one. Excepting those long since pro- 
vided in this Territory for such really friendly 
tribes as the Pimas and Maricopas, there is but 
one reservation, that at Half Way Bend upon 
the Colorado River above the town of La Paz, 
for the proper preparation of which, for the re- 
ception of such of the river and other Indians 
disposed to peace as now have no fixed homes, 
an appropriation of fifty thousand dollars has 
been made by Congress and is now being ex- 
pended by the Indian Superintendent, who also 
has an appropriation this year of seventy thou- 
sand dollars for the general care of the friendly 
Indians throughout the Territory. While the 
reservation upon the Colorado will probably be 
sufficient for the river Indians and those who 



8 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

may be forced upon it from the country between 
the Colorado and the Verde, there should in my 
judgment, be an extensive reservation provided 
somewhere in the eastern portion of the Terri- 
tory, perhaps upon the upper Gila, for such of 
the Apaches as may sue for peace. At each res- 
ervation there should be a sufficient strength of 
troops to make escape on the part of the Indians 
an utter impossibility, and trade and inter- 
course by the whites, if allowed at all, should be 
guarded by regulations calculated to prevent 
fraud and demoralization. ' ' 

In regard to mines and mining. Governor Mc- 
Cormick said : 

' ' The appearance of sulphurets in many of the 
lodes opened in Central Arizona necessitates the 
provision of new machinery for the reduction 
and separation of the ores, and until this can be 
supplied most of our quartz mills will be idle. 
Parties who have made tests of the sulphurates, 
upon a small scale, pronounce them exceedingly 
rich and have no doubt they can be worked in 
large quantities to great advantage." He also 
said: 

"Operations upon the copper mines at Will- 
iams' Fork, which have been generally sus- 
pended during the summer owing to the remark- 
ably low price of copper and for other reasons, 
will, I am informed, be renewed upon a large 
scale during the present fall and ensuing winter. 

"In Southern Arizona the Indian disturb- 
ances and other causes, as here, have to a great 
degree interrupted operations in the mines, but 
their owners have not lost confidence in their 



THE FOURTH LEGISLATURE. if 

wealth, and are eager to proceed in their de- 
velopment at the earliest practicable moment. 

''The proposed opening of the port of Lib- 
ertad, in Sonora, will, it is believed, render the 
shipping of copper ore from Southern Arizona 
a profitable enterprise, and otherwise prove a 
source of great advantage to the people of that 
part of the Territory who cherish a lively hope 
that the government, having extended its lines 
upon the north, will take measures to acquire a 
portion of Sonora, at least sufficient to bring the 
ports of Libertad and Guaymas under the 
American flag ; an acquisition of territory likely 
to prove far more profitable to the Union than 
that recently secured, and absolutely essential 
to the proper development of a large and impor- 
tant part of Arizona." 

The Governor made the following reference 
to agriculture in the Territory : 

"In the face of all the annoyances from the 
Indians experienced during the present season 
by our ranchmen, they have, with few excep- 
tions, the promise of large and excellent crops. 
It is found that the land improves by cultiva- 
tion, and that the soil in most of the valleys is 
of the richest character. Indian corn grows 
luxuriantly, and it is estimated that more will 
be produced in this military district this year 
than will be required for the use of the troops 
and the citizens. Contracts to supply the Gov- 
ernment have lately been let at prices less than 
those paid but a year since for the transporta- 
tion of grain from California. 

"The fine farming valleys below the Gila are 
more productive than ever before, and it is 



10 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

clearly shown that not only corn and small grain, 
but fruits and vegetables of all kinds, will thrive 
in many parts of the Territory — Avhile in sev- 
eral localities, cotton and tobacco have been 
raised with much success. Although discon- 
nected and generally in small parcels, the agri- 
cultural lands of the Territory, in the aggregate, 
amount to a large area, unusually large and 
fertile for what is commonly called a desert 
country. 

' ' Their general cultivation, and the use of the 
extensive grazing lands, (abounding in grasses, 
nutritious at all seasons,) which is only delayed 
by the insecurity of life and property, must, 
whenever practicable, so reduce the cost of living 
here as to make the Territory one of the most 
attractive upon the Pacific slope, and gTeatly 
facilitate all business pursuits. 

"It has been Avell said, 'He who cultivates the 
land the best is likely to defend it the best,' and 
I look upon the care and enthusiasm with which 
our farmers follow their honorable and useful 
calling, (one of vital importance in connection 
with mining,) in constant risk and exposure, as 
the most hopeful feature in the present state of 
the Territory." 

The Governor stated that there had been a 
very marked and gratifying improvement in the 
mail service in the Territory since the adjourn- 
ment of the last Legislature; that service be- 
tween San Bernardino and Prescott, and be- 
tween Salt Lake and Callville and Arizona City 
had been increased to a semi-weekly service; 
that the Overland, from the Eio Grande to the 
Pacific, via Tucson, had been re-established, and 



THE FOURTH LEGISLATURE. 11 

weekly service given, which was to be increased 
to three services a week in coaches, which, as the 
Governor said, "will afford the people of South- 
ern Arizona a great accommodation, and prove 
advantageous to the whole Territory." He 
recommended also an increase in the mail ser- 
vice to other points. 

In reference to the public schools, he said: 

"In the opinion of many of the people the 
time has come for some definite and liberal pro- 
vision for the establishment and maintenance 
of public schools in the Territory. In the 
larger settlements there are numerous children, 
and the thought of permitting them to grow up 
in ignorance is not to be tolerated, while to sus- 
tain private schools is an expense which in most 
cases the parents cannot afford. Section 11, 
Chapter XXIII, of the Code of the Territory 
provides as follows : 

" 'Sec. 11. As soon as there shall have ac- 
cumulated sufficient funds, and a necessity 
exists therefor, the Legislature shall provide 
for a system of common school education, at the 
public expense, and may at any time authorize 
a tax to be levied by school districts for the sup- 
port of schools, until such system of common 
school education shall be established.' 

"The First Assembly, by Act approved 
November 7th, 1864, appropriated a small sum 
for public schools in the towns of Prescott, Tuc- 
son, La Paz, and Mohave City, to be void and 
of no effect unless said towns, by taxation, 
appropriation or individual enterprise, in each 
case furnished a like sum of money. 



12 HISTOKY OF ARIZONA. 

''If I am correctly informed none of the 
towns have complied with this requirement, and 
the funds of the Territory have not been used. 
The sums, however, are insufficient to be of 
more than temporary benefit and sufficient 
funds have not yet accumulated, as required 
by the section of the Code referred to, to sup- 
port a system of common school education, yet 
I think the popular sentiment will heartily sus- 
tain you in providing such a system and in 
authorizing the counties to levy a reasonable 
special tax for its support, according to the 
judgment of their Supervisors." 

Speaking of the courts, the Governor said : 

"Civil law and order reign throughout the 
Territory to a gratifying degree. The Courts 
are all well organized, and criminals are 
promptly arrested and punished, although here, 
as everywhere upon the frontier there are those 
who forget that 'liberty consists in the power of 
doing that which is permitted by the law,' who 
justify personal redress for wrongs and allow 
sympathy rather than evidence to control their 
judgment. This class is not large, however, 
and will diminish with every year as our popu- 
lation increases, and the importance of main- 
taining the dignity of the law under all circum- 
stances is better understood. 

"In Yavapai County a substantial jail is in 
process of construction, and steps have been 
taken for the erection of similar buildings in 
other counties, but as it will be some time before 
they are fitted for use, it has been suggested 
to me, and I give you the suggestion, that it 
will be wise for your honorable bodies to enact 



THE FOURTH LEGISLATURE. 13 

a law authorizing the Sheriffs of the respective 
counties to employ or cause to be employed, all 
able bodied male prisoners as laborers upon the 
roads, or in such public works as may be most 
required. This is the custom in many States 
and Territories, even where the jail accommo- 
dations are ample, and it has been found to con- 
duce both to the health of the prisoners and to 
the accomplishment of much useful labor. ' ' 

He called the attention of the Legislature to 
an Act of Congress, approved January 22, 1867, 
appropriating the net proceeds of the Internal 
Eevenue for the year 1866, and up to 1868, in- 
clusive, for the purpose of erecting under the 
direction of the Secretary of the Interior, peni- 
tentiary buildings at such places as should be 
designated by the Legislatures of the Terri- 
tories, and approved by the Secretary of the 
Interior. The sum appropriated for use in 
Arizona w^as limited to the sum of forty thou- 
sand dollars. The Governor recommended 
that the site should be selected at this session 
of the Legislature and that work should begin 
on the Territorial Prison. 

The Governor further reported that two of 
the most important federal offices in the Terri- 
tory were unoccupied much of the time because 
of the wholly inadequate compensation allowed 
their incumbents by Congress, the offices being 
those of Marshal 'and District Attorney and 
suggested that the Legislature should petition 
Congress to make the salaries of such offices 
such that their occupants could hold them with- 
out personal sacrifice, and give the proper time 
and attention to the important duties required. 



14 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

In reference to the finances of the Territory, 
he stated that the total Territorial indebtedness 
amounted to twenty-eight thousand, three hun- 
dred and seventy-five dollars ($28,375) in na- 
tional currency; that nine thousand dollars of 
the gold bonds issued under the authority of the 
First Legislature, would become due during the 
ensuing year and that provision should be made 
for their payment. 

The report of the Territorial Auditor was 
submitted to the Legislature, and is as follows : 

"Prescott, September 7th, 1867. 
"To the Honorable the Fourth Legislative 
Assembly : 

"In accordance with the provisions of Chap- 
ter 20, Howell Code, I respectfully submit my 
report of the accounts audited, and of the war- 
rants issued by me, in payment of said accounts, 
since November, 1866, to the present date. 

"I have, since the first day of November, 
1866, audited the claims as per list appended 
hereto, amounting in all, to three thousand and 
ninety- three dollars and one cent, ($3,093.01) 
for which I have issued warrants on the general 
fund. 

"The Territorial Treasurer, on the 2d of 
August, rendered me a statement of the money 
and other Territorial securities received by him 
in payment for taxes, and of the disbursements 
made by him from the date of his last settle- 
ment with the Board of Territorial Commis- 
sioners, a copy of which I hereto append. 

"Sec. V of the Act to provide for the expense 
of Arizona Territory, approved October 30th, 



THE FOURTH LEGISLATITRE. 15 

1'866, authorizes the Sheriff or Collector, to re- 
ceive warrants drawn by the Auditor, in pay- 
ment of taxes, fines, etc., due the Territory at 
par, and that such shall be received by the Treas- 
urer in settlement with the Sheriff or Collector. 

"I respectfully suggest as an act of justice 
to all parties, that Sec. V. of the above act be 
repealed and an act passed that warrants be 
paid by the Territorial Treasurer only, and in 
the order in which they are drawn by the 
Auditor. 

"I am, with much respect, 

"Your Obedient Servant, 

"JAMES GRANT, Auditor." 

Congress was memorialized to allow the Gov- 
ernor of the Territory to raise a regiment of 
volunteer troops; to increase the jurisdiction 
of Justices of the Peace from one hundred to 
three hundred dollars ; to allow duties to be paid 
in currency instead of in gold, alleging that it 
cost from five to ten per cent to bring in gold 
from California according to the distance; pro- 
testing against the annexation of any portion 
of Arizona to the State of Nevada, and also 
memorializing the Secretary of the Treasury as 
follows : 

"To the Hon. Hugh McCuUoch, Secretary of 
the Treasury: 

"Sir: — Your 'memorialists, the Legislative 
Assembly of the Territory of Arizona, respect- 
fully represent that the sums enumerated be- 
low have been assumed by the Territory of 
Arizona as shown by the accounts of the Terri- 
torial Treasurer : 



16 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

*'To William T. Howell for preparing 
a Code of laws for the Terri- 
tory $2,500.00 

''E. A. Bentley for printing said 

Code 2,994.75 

"William T. Howell for reading 

proof of said Code 250.00 

"T. A. Hand for printing Gov- 
ernor's Message, journals, 
rules, &c., of First Legis- 
lature 1,121.00 

"E. A. Bentley for printing Code 
and Acts of the Territory 
in the Arizona Miner news- 
paper $1,747.00 

"R. C. McCormick for amount 
paid for enrolling bills passed 
by the First Legislature 850.62 

"R. C. McCormick for amount 
paid P. H. Dunne for com- 
position, press work, paper 
and binding Governor's mes- 
sage (1864) and compendium 
of laws of the First Legis- 
lative Assembly in Spanish. . 950.00 

"Making a total of: $10,413.37 

"Ten thousand four hundred and thirteen 
37/100 dollars, all of which your memorialists 
believe should, under the provisions of the 
Organic Act, and according to the custom of 
the Government in regard to other Territories, 
be paid out of the United States Treasury. 

"Your memorialists further represent that 
the population of the Territory is so small, that 



THE FOURTH LEGISLATURE. 17 

the Territory is now in debt with increasing 
expenses, that in no year since the organization 
of the Territory has the appropriation allowed 
by Congress been consumed, and that they 
therefore most respectfully and confidently ask 
that the amount of ten thousand four hundred 
and thirteen and 37/100 dollars be allowed the 
Territory of Arizona from the United States 
Treasury for the payment of the accounts 
aforesaid. Therefore : 

"Resolved, that the Secretary of the Terri- 
tory, the Hon. J. P. T. Carter, is hereby re- 
quested to transmit a copy of this memorial to 
the Hon. Hugh McCulloch, Secretary of the 
Treasury, and to use all honorable means in his 
power to have the amount aforesaid, allow^ed 
the Territory of Arizona. 

"Approved October 5, 1867." 

This Legislature also memorialized Congress 
for an increase in pay of the members and offi- 
cers of the Legislative Assembly, asking an in- 
crease from three to six dollars for the per 
diem of the legislators; for an appropriation 
for the construction of military roads, and wells 
upon the same, and that the Quartermasters at 
the several military posts in the Territory, be 
authorized to purchase supplies in the open 
market. 

Among the concurrent resolutions was one as 
follows : 

"Whereas, the people of the United States, 
and particularly those of the frontier terri- 
tories, occupied by hostile Indians, have been 
given an implied, if not an expressed, assur- 

V— 2 



18 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

ance by the Government that the army should 
protect them, and their property, while strug- 
gling against the difficulties and dangers, and 
enduring the privations incident to the settle- 
ment and development of new countries; and 
whenever an officer of any rank in the military 
service fails to carry out whatever is necessary 
to this object, either from inability to compre- 
hend the situation, from mistaken s>Tiipathy 
with the savage, from a disposition to arbi- 
trary use of power, from a lack of definite 
policy, or from any motive or for any cause 
whatever, it is then the right of the people to 
petition for relief, and it is therefore 

"Resolved, by the House of Eepresentatives, 
the Council concurring, that we do earnestly re- 
quest that the Territory of Arizona be removed 
from under the command of the present De- 
partment Commander, Brevet Major General 
Irwin McDowell, and made into a separate De- 
partment, with the commanding officer residing 
within its limits, and reporting directly to 
Major General Halleck, commanding the Divi- 
sion of the Pacific. 

"Resolved, that in our present District Com- 
manders, Generals Gregg and Crittenden, 
Colonels Lovell, Sanford and Price, and their 
subordinates, we recognize officers of ability, 
energy and the right disposition, whose com- 
bined movements against the hostile Indians 
will speedily rid us of the incubus which clogs 
and paralyzes every enterprise here, if they are 
directed by a comjpetent commander upon the 
ground, familiar with the movements of the 
Indians, and prompt to take advantage of the 



THE FOURTH LEGISLATURE. 19 

same, as well as to see that the troops are prop- 
erly supplied, the posts advantageously located, 
and to secure such additional force as may from 
time to time be required. 

"Resolved, that the Secretary of the Terri- 
tory is hereby requested to forward a copy of 
these resolutions, with a copy of the message 
of the Governor, to the Secretary of War, to 
Generals Grant, Halleck and McDowell, to our 
Delegate in Congress, and to each of the Sen- 
ators and Members of Congress from the 
Pacific Coast." 

This resolution was probably the outgrowth 
of a misunderstanding, or, rather, quarrel, be- 
tween the Executive and General McDowell, 
which will be treated of further as this history 
progresses. 

There was some opposition to this resolution, 
coming principally from Yavapai members, 
who, no doubt, had no very kindly feeling 
toward the Governor on account of the part he 
had taken in removing the capital to Tucson, 
for at that time, in Arizona particularly, pros- 
perity followed the flag that waved over the 
capital. Here contracts were made by the Gov- 
ernment, and nice fat contracts handed around 
to the faithful. Along these lines, to show the 
feeling against the Governor, I copy the follow- 
ing report of the select committee concerning 
the financial condition of the Territory, of 
which Mr. Giles of Yavapai was chairman. 
This report is found upon page 101 of the Jour- 
nal of the Fourth Legislative Assembly, and is 
as follows: 



20 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

"Your coinmittee to whom was referred the 
subject matter contained in the resolution 
passed by the House on the 12th inst., appoint- 
ing a select committee of five to examine into 
the financial aifairs of the Territory. To ascer- 
tain the total indebtedness of the Territory — 
what bonds or other evidences of indebtedness 
have been issued from the organization of the 
Territory up to the present time, for what pur- 
pose, and by what authority, etc., beg leave to 
report that they have performed the duty as- 
signed them and find the total indebtedness of 
the Territory to be twenty-eight thousand, three 
hundred and seventy-five dollars in currency. 
Your committee find that gold bonds to the 
amount of fifteen thousand dollars, bearing in- 
terest at the rate of ten per cent per annum, 
payable in three years from date of issuance, 
principal and interest payable in gold coin, have 
been issued by the Territorial Treasurer in liqui- 
dation of warrants drawn upon him by the 
Territorial Auditors, and that there are now 
outstanding warrants covering the balance of 
the Territorial indebtedness. 

"Your committee find on examination that 
Territorial warrants, drawn on the Territorial 
Treasurer to the amount of six thousand four 
hundred and ninety-seven nineteen one-hun- 
dredths ($6,497.19) dollars, have been issued 
to Coles Bashford as Attorney-General of the 
Territory; and that the following Territorial 
gold bonds bearing interest, the interest payable 
annually, has been paid to said Coles Bashford 
as Attorney-General as salary and traveling 



THE FOURTH LEGISLATURE. 21 

expenses in part satisfaction of said warrants, 
to- wit: Bonds number 74, 75, 76, 77, 78, 79, 80, 
81, 82, 83, 84, 85, 86, 87, 88, 89, 90, 91, 92, 93, 94, 
95, 96. The interest on which has been paid to 
August 15, 1867. 

"Also bonds numbers 107, 108, 109, 110, 111, 
112, 113, 114, 115, 116, 117, 118, 119, 120, 121, 
122, 123, 124, 125, 126, 127, 128, 129, 130, 131, 
132, 133, 134. The interest on which has been 
paid to August 15, 1866. Also bonds numbers 
141, 142, 143, 144, 145, 146, 147, 148, 149, 150. 
The interest on which has been paid to August 
15th, 1867. Amounting in the aggregate to 
three thousand one hundred and fifty dollars, 
and the said Coles Bashf ord now holds, if he has 
not transferred the same, warrants numbers 31, 
42, 51, 52, 55, 105, 106, amomiting to three thou- 
sand three hundred and forty seven nineteen 
one-hundredths dollars (3,347.19). Your Com- 
mittee find that Coles Bashford was first ap- 
pointed Attorney-General for the Territory by 
Governor Goodwin on February 1st, 1864, and 
for said appointment your committee are un- 
able to find any law. The Organic Act nowhere 
furnishes the authority, and if done under 
Chapter sixteen of the laws of New Mexico, 
creating the office of Attorney- General, ap- 
proved February 2, 1859, your committee be- 
lieve it was illegal, for that act was amended by 
an act passed by the Legislature of said Terri- 
tory, approved February 28th, 1862, and by an 
act passed by said Legislature approved Janu- 
ary 28th, 1863. Thereby circumscribing the 
duties of Attorney-General for the Territory of 
New Mexico, by making said officer District 



22 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

Attorney for the First Judicial District of said 
Territory, and ex officio Attorney-General for 
the Territory, reducing his salary from fifteen 
hundred to six hundred dollars. Under this 
illegal appointment, as your committee believe, 
Coles Bashf ord acted as Attorney-General until 
Nov. 10th, 1864. And for said services was al- 
lowed and paid in bonds of the Territory, the 
sum of one thousand one hundred and sixty- 
six dollars. On November 10th, 1864, an act 
of the Territorial Legislature creating the offices 
of Attorney-General and fixing his salary, was 
approved, and the said Coles Bashford w^as con- 
tinued or reappointed Attorney- General, which 
appointment was a plain violation of that part 
of the Organic Act w^hich says that 'no member 
of the Legislative Assembly shall hold or be ap- 
pointed to any office which shall have been 
created, or the salary or emoluments of which 
shall have been increased while he was a mem- 
ber during the term for which he w^as elected 
and for one year after the expiration of such 
term. ' 

"The said Coles Bashford being at that time 
a member of the Legislature, elected for two 
years. And your committee find that the said 
Coles Bashford held said office of Attorney- 
General from November 10th, 1864, to Decem- 
ber 31st, 1866; and your committee believe 
illegally. And that from time to time Terri- 
torial warrants on the Territorial Treasurer 
were issued to the said Coles Bashford as 
Attorney-General, from the said 10th day of 
November, 1864, to December 31st, 1866, 
amounting to four thousand eight hundred and 



THE FOURTH LEGISLATURE. 28 

forty-seven nineteen one-himdredtlis ($4,847.- 
19) dollars, which amount, (if not transferred), 
he now holds against the Territory in the shape 
of bonds and Territorial warrants. 

"Your committee also find that the Third 
Legislature by an act, approved Oct. 30th, 1866, 
abolished the office of Attorney-General. And 
that from December 1st, 1866, under an act of 
the Third Legislature, approved October 27th, 
1866, the District Attorney for the county of 
Yavapai has been paid for services as Attorney- 
General. 

"Your committee believe that the appoint- 
ment of Coles Bashford as Attorney-General 
was in violation of law, and that his claims for 
services as such, were illegal, and should not 
have been allowed by the board of Territorial 
Auditors. And we, your committee, recom- 
mend that you take such steps as are necessary 
to stop the payment of said bonds and warrants 
issued to pay said Coles Bashford for services 
as Attorney- General. 

"Your committee also find that under Chap- 
ter twenty-one of the Howell Code, the Governor 
of the Territory is authorized to appoint an 
Adjutant-General, and that his compensation 
shall be whatever amount the Territorial Au- 
ditors shall allow. Under said law we find that 
one W. T. Flower was appointed Adjutant- 
General, and for services which your committee 
could not see, was paid a warrant for the sum 
of three hundred and twelve dollars and fifty 
cents. 

"Flower was removed or resigned, and one 
"W. H. Garvin was appointed, and has held the 



24 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

position of Adjutant-General up to the present 
time, and continues still to hold it, drawing at 
stated times his regular warrants; and to him 
have been issued warrants to the amoimt of one 
thousand three hundred and two dollars and 
thirty-two cents. 

"During a part of the years 1865 and 1866, 
we find that the said Adjutant- General did per- 
form some services, as the Territory had during 
that time some troops in the field, and your com- 
mittee can understand why warrants were issued 
to him during that time. But your committee 
cannot understand why he should be paid when 
no services were rendered. Your connnittee 
find that within the past year, when the Terri- 
tory had no troops, when no militia is organized, 
that warrants to the amount of six hundred and 
fifty-five dollars have been issued to the said 
W. H. Garvin, as Adjutant-General for the Ter- 
ritory, as salary and office expense. But as it 
has been allowed in accordance with law, we 
suppose it must be paid. 

"Your committee, how^ever, recommend that 
a law be passed repealing that section of Chap- 
ter XXI of the Howell Code, authorizing the 
Territorial Auditor to allow such claims in the 
future. 

"Your committee find that a warrant for two 
thousand nine hundred and ninety-four dollars 
and seventy- five cents was issued to E. A. Bentley 
for printing the Howell Code; that a warrant 
for two thousand five hundred dollars was is- 
sued to W. T. Howell, Commissioner, to prepare 
the Howell Code, and that a w^arrant for two 
hundred and fiftv dollars was issued to the same 



THE FOURTH LEGISLATURE. 25 

W. T. Howell for reading proof of the Howell 
Code; that a warrant for one thousand seven 
hundred and forty-seven dollars was issued to 
E. A. Bentley for printing laws of the Territory 
in the Arizona Miner; that a warrant for one 
thousand one hundred and twenty-one dollars 
was issued to T. A. Hand for printing Gov- 
ernor's Message, Journals of the First Legisla- 
ture and the Rules of the House and Council of 
the First Legislature ; that a warrant for eight 
hundred and fifty dollars and sixty-two cents 
was issued to R. C. McCormick for amount paid 
by him for enrolling bills passed by the First 
Legislature — amounting in the aggregate to the 
sum of nine thousand four hundred and sixty- 
three and 37/100 dollars, which your com- 
mittee believe were improperly charged against 
the Territory, and feel assured would be re- 
funded to the Territory if the proper repre- 
sentations were made at Washington. Your 
committee therefore recommend that you take 
such steps as are necessary to get the matter 
before the Treasurer of the United States. 

"Your committee also find that warrants were 
issued to A. M. White, T. Hodges, P. McCannon, 
and R. C. McCormick, amounting to the sum of 
one thousand four hundred and ninety-one 
dollars, for expenses incurred in Col. K. S. 
Woolsey's expedition against the hostile In- 
dians. And your committee believe that if the 
matter was fairly represented to the Congress 
of the United States, an appropriation would be 
made for our relief. 

"Your committee find that the balance of the 
outstanding indebtedness of the Territory is for 



26 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

salaries due the Territorial Auditor and Treas- 
urer, and for printing, interest on bonds and 
other incidental expenses, amounting to the sum 
of nine thousand two hundred and eight dol- 
lars and sixty-two cents. 

"Your committee find that the Governor and 
Secretary, being officers of the government of 
the United States, were, by section ten of the 
Organic Act, which says: 'No person holding a 
commission or appointment under the United 
States, except postmaster, shall be a member of 
the Legislative Assembly, or shall hold any 
office under the govermnent of said Territory,' 
prohibited from holding the office of Auditor; 
and that the Attorney-General w^as also pro- 
hibited from acting as Auditor, under the same 
section, which says that no member of the Legis- 
lative Assembly shall hold or be appointed to 
any office which shall have been created, or the 
salary or emoluments of w%ich shall have been 
increased, w^hile he w^as a member, during the 
term for which he was elected, and for one year 
after the expiration of such term. All of which 
is respectfully submitted. 

"JAMES S. GILES, 
"Chairman, Select Committee." 

There w^as introduced at this session of the 
Legislature for the first time, an act to create 
Maricopa County, which was defeated in the 
House by a vote of eight to six. 

Among the laws passed by this Legislature 
was one to prevent the improper use of deadly 
weapons in the towns and villages of the Terri- 
tory, which would be considered in our day a 
queer piece of legislation. It read as follows : 



THE FOURTH LEGISLATURE. 27 

"Section 1. That any person in this Terri- 
tory, having, carrying, or procuring from an- 
other person, any dirk, dirk-knife, bowie knife, 
pistol, gun, or other deadly weapon, who shall 
in the presence of two or more persons, draw 
or exhibit any of said deadly weapons in a rude, 
angry or threatening manner, not in necessary 
self defence, or who shall in any manner unlaw- 
fully use the same in any fight or quarrel, the 
person or persons so offending upon conviction 
thereof in any criminal court in any county of 
this Territory, shall be fined in any sum not less 
than one hundred nor more than five hundred 
dollars or imprisonment in the county jail not 
less than one nor more than six months, in the 
discretion of the court; or both such fine and 
imprisonment, together with the cost of prose- 
cution. 

"Section 2. That any person or persons hav- 
ing or carrying any pistol or gun who shall in 
the public streets or highways discharge the 
same indiscriminately, thereby disturbing the 
peace and quiet, and endangering the lives of the 
inhabitants of any town or neighborhood in this 
Territory, such person or persons upon con- 
viction thereof before any Justice of the Peace 
in the county where such offence may be com- 
mitted shall be fined in any sum not less than 
ten nor more than fifty dollars and imprison- 
ment in the county jail not less than two nor 
more than ten days, in the discretion of the 
Justice of the Peace, together with the cost of 
prosecution. 

"Sec. 3. It shall be the duty of all sheriffs, 
deputy sheriffs, constables, and all peace officers 



28 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

and private citizens to see that the provisions 
of' section second of this act are enforced, by 
informing on all persons violating its provi- 
sions, by having them arrested and brought be- 
fore the proper officer for trial and punishment. 

"Sec. 4. It is hereby made the duty of all 
civil and peace officers in this Territory to be 
diligent in carrying into eifect the provisions 
of section one of this act, as well also as all grand 
juries, or grand jurors, to enquire into and make 
presentment of each and every offence against 
the provisions of said section one of this act 
which shall come within their knowledge. And 
it is also made the duty of all judges in this Ter- 
ritory to give said section one in charge of the 
grand juries at each term of their respective 
courts. ' ' 

An act was passed permanently locating the 
capital or seat of government of the Territory 
of Arizona in Tucson, which was to take effect 
after the first day of November, 1867. There 
was a great deal of scandal attending the re- 
moval of the capital. The Miner claimed that 
it was done through fraud, saying, in an edi- 
torial under date of November 30th, 1867: 

"We are assured upon good authority that 
improper proceedings to the extent of buying 
three or four members of the Fourth Legisla- 
ture, and pledging to Governor McCormick to 
support him for Congress at that place (Tuc- 
son). If this does not come under the head of 
improper proceedings, we are at loss to know 
what does." 

While, of course, there is no direct evidence 
to show that fraud was used in moving the capi- 



THE FOURTH LEGISLATijRE. 29 

tal, the fact remains that Pima County gave 
Governor McCormick a very large vote the next 
year when he was a candidate for Delegate to 
Congress, he being elected by the following vote : 



County 


Republican, 
R. C. McCormick 


Democrat, 
John A. Rush 


Independent, 
Samuel Adams 


Yavapai 
Mohave 


202 
23 


425 
40 


9 
9 


Yuma 


80 


300 


- 


Pima 


932 


71 


14 



Total: 1,237 836 32. 

The Fourth Legislature also passed an act 
concerning public schools, which gave to the 
Board of Supervisors in the several counties the 
right, whenever there was a village or a settle- 
ment with a resident population of not less than 
one hmidred persons, and covering an expanse 
of country not more than four square miles, to 
set aside such district for a school district: 
"when any number of legal voters residing in 
such district may make application to the 
Board of Supervisors for the establishment of 
public schools in such district." Sections 4 and 
5 of this act are as follows : 

''Sec. 4. The Board of Supervisors shall, 
upon the receipt of such petition, define the 
boundaries and limits embracing such territory 
or tract of land on which such settlement is lo- 
cated, and declare the same a school district, 
numbering such districts in the order in which 
the same are created. 

''Sec. 5. The Board of Supervisors shall, 
immediately upon the creation of such district, 



30 HISTOEY OF ARIZONA. 

levy, in addition to the taxes authorized by law 
to be levied for county and Territorial purposes, 
a tax of not more than one-half of one per cent, 
on the assessed value of all the taxable property 
within the limits of each district, as shown by 
the last assessment roll of the County Assessor." 

This is the first legislation in Arizona creating 
School Districts, which has been followed ever 
since. 

There was also an act passed amendatory of 
Chapter 38, of the Howell Code, "Finances and 
Taxation, ' ' which read as follows : 

"Sec. 19. An annual ad valorem tax of fifty 
cents upon each one hundred dollars value of 
taxable property is hereby levied and directed 
to be collected and paid for Territorial purposes 
upon the assessed value of all property in this 
Territory not by this act exempt from taxation ; 
and upon the same property the Board of 
Supervisors of each county is hereby authorized 
and empowered annually to levy and collect a 
tax for county expenditures not exceeding one 
dollar and fifty cents upon each one hundred 
dollars of the taxable property in such county ; 
and upon the same property the Board of Super- 
visors of each county is hereby authorized and 
empowered annually'to levy and collect such ad- 
ditional or special taxes as the laws of this 
Territory may authorize or require them to levy 
and collect; provided, however, that whenever 
the Board of Supervisors levy any tax they shall 
cause such levy to be entered on the record of 
their proceedings and shall direct their clerk 
to deliver a certified copy thereof to the Sheriff 
and Treasurer of the County, each of whom shall 




JOHN A. RUSH. 



THE FOUKTH LEGISLATURE. 31 

file said copy in his office, and on the first Mon- 
day in July in each year the Board of Super- 
visors shall proceed to estimate and to ascertain 
the amount of taxes necessary to be assessed 
upon the taxable property of the county for the 
year next ensuing not exceeding for all pur- 
poses two dollars upon each one hundred dol- 
lars of the value of the taxable property, in such 
county. In such estimate they shall specify the 
amount to be raised for each particular purpose. 
If for any cause said Board shall not meet on 
the day above specified, they may meet for such 
purpose at any time within ten days there- 
after." 

Edward J. Cook, one of the members of this 
Legislature, was a native of Alabama. He went 
to California in the early days of that State, and 
about the year 1865 came to Arizona, settling 
in Prescott, where he engaged in merchandising. 
He represented Yavapai County in this legisla- 
ture, and afterwards served three or four years 
as Treasurer of Yavapai County. He died in 
Prescott in the early nineties. 

John A. Rush was a member of this Legisla- 
ture, and a Candidate for the office of Delegate 
to Congress, running against Governor McCor- 
mick in 1868. He first settled in the Salt River 
Valley, and thereafter went to Prescott and 
began practicing law, in which profession he 
was associated with Hon. E. W. Wells from 
1875-76 to 1889. 

Philip Drachman, a member of this Legisla- 
ture, was bom in Poland in 1830, and came to 
the United States when only sixteen years of 
age, arriving in Arizona in 1863. He engaged 



32 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

in the general merchandise business at Tucson, 
and became one of the prominent business men 
of that place. During a busy business career, 
however, he found time to serve the territory 
and the town of his adoption, as, in addition to 
being a member of the Fourth Territorial Legis- 
lature, he was a member of the city council of 
Tucson for several terms. A man of strong 
individuality he left his mark upon the town 
of his adoption, and also upon the then Terri- 
tory of Arizona. He died in the year 1889, 
after a long and honorable residence in Arizona, 
leaving behind him children who have continued 
his good work, one of whom, Mose Drachman, 
sei-ved as State Senator from Pima County in 
the Second State Legislature. Another, Sam- 
uel Arizona Drachman, said to be the second 
child born of Caucasian parents in Tucson, is at 
this time, 1918, a leading merchant in that city. 




nilLIL' DKACIIMAX. 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 33 

CHAPTER II. 

THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 

Convening of — Governor's Message — Mem- 
orials — Resolutions — Death of Henry 
Jenkins — Mueder of A. M. Erwin by 
Indians — Treasurer's Estimate of Ex- 
penses — Contention Between Arizona 
and California as to Boundary Line — 
Appointments by Governor — Report of 
Territorial Auditor — Report of Terri- 
torial Treasurer — Indebtedness of Ter- 
ritory. 
The Fifth Legislature convened in Tucson on 
the 10th day of November, and ended on the 
16th day of December, A. D. 1868. In this 
legislature Mohave and Pah-Ute Counties were 
represented in the Council by Octavius D. Gass. 
John T. Alsap, from Yavapai County, a resident 
of the Salt River Valley, was the only member 
of the Council from that County. Pima County 
was represented in the Comicil by Estevan 
Ochoa of Tucson, Henry Jenkins of Tucson, who 
died during the session of the Legislature on 
November 20th, 1868, Daniel H. Stickney, of 
Casa Blanco, and Alexander McKay, of Tubac. 
Joseph K. Hooper, who had been elected to the 
Council from Yuma County did not attend the 
session, so that county was not represented. 

It will be seen that there was only a bare ma- 
jority of the upper house during the greater 
portion of this Legislature, as at that time it 
was composed of nine members. 

V— 3 



34 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

In the House of Representatives Andrew S. 
Gibbins represented Pah-Ute County, and John 
Smith was the only representative from Yava- 
pai County out of six who had been elected. 
This was Jolm Y. T. Smith, whose home at the 
time was at Camp McDowell. Thomas J. Bid- 
well and Oliver Lindsey, both of La Paz repre- 
sented Yuma County. All of the Pima delega- 
tion, consisting of Jesus M. Elias, Francis H. 
Goodwin,, Hiram S. Stevens, John Owen, John 
Anderson, Sol. W. Chambers, and Robert M. 
Crandal were present during the session. The 
lower House was entitled to a membership of 
eighteen, of whom seven failed to appear. 

This Legislature organized by the election of 
John T. Alsap President of the Council, and 
Thomas J. Bidwell Speaker of the House. 
Among the officers of the Council were L. M. 
Jacobs, who was Engrossing Clerk, and B. M. 
Jacobs, Enrolling Clerk. They were afterwards 
prominently identified with the mercantile and 
banking business in Tucson. Another officer of 
the Council was the Chaplain, Bishop A. B. Sal- 
pointe, whose activities in connection with the 
early history of the Catholic Church in Arizona 
have heretofore been recited, and who is, at the 
present time, the presiding Catholic Bishop of 
the State. 

Governor McCormick, in his message, called 
the attention of the Legislature to the activities 
of the hostile Apaches, and criticised the course 
pursued by the Federal Government which had 
produced no results proportionate to the ex- 
pense incurred, leaving the Apache as bold and 



1714348 

THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 35 

successful in that day as ever before. He 
recommended the renewal of the memorials to 
Congress of the Third and Fourth Legislatures ; 
urging the enlistment of volunteers by the Gov- 
ernment for the subjugation of the Apaches. 

In reference to railroads and telegraphs, he 
said: 

' ' The building of a railroad across the Terri- 
tory is one of the most important steps toward 
the subjugation of the Apache that can be taken, 
and for this reason and for many others that 
will occur to you, I suggest that you pray Con- 
gress to render such assistance to the company 
or companies proposing to build such road as 
will insure an early completion of the work. 
Were the Territory not infested with hostile 
Indians the difficulty and expense of getting 
here until such railroad is provided must make 
it slow of settlement and prove a great draw- 
back to its progress. Under existing circum- 
stances its construction were equal to the 
sending here of a dozen regiments of troops, 
and is essential in order to make the country 
available to the public, and to secure to the Gov- 
ernment the revenues which with proper aid it 
will so abundantly return. 

*' Parties who since the meeting of the last 
Assembly have surveyed the routes across the 
Territory declare them to be most practicable, 
and there is a growing belief both in California 
and the East that the popular and profitable 
Pacific railroad will go through Arizona. 

''In this connection I may refer to the fact 
that telegraphic communication is now complete 



36 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

to Santa Fe, New Mexico, and that by connect- 
ing mails we receive news from all parts of the 
world in ten days, I am informed that parties 
stand ready to extend the wires across Arizona 
to California if reasonable encouragement is 
given. If you can in any way assist the enter- 
prise I am sure you will do so." 

The Indian question was treated as follows: 
"The active military movements against the 
Wallapais brought most of them to terms some 
months since, and a number were placed upon a 
temporary reservation near Fort Mohave, but 
I learn they are again upon the warpath, roam- 
ing chiefly upon the Mohave and Prescott road. 
They are a weak tribe and their hostility cannot 
continue long. 

''When work upon the Great Colorado reser- 
vation was suspended, owing to the exhaus- 
tion of the Congressional appropriation, the 
Apache, Mohave, Yavapai and other Indians 
gathered there, took to the mountains, and 
depredations near La Paz and Wickenburg are 
attributed to them. If they have begun hostili- 
ties it is probably in view of the recent killing 
by citizens of a venerable chief and others of 
their tribes at La Paz, a transaction which 
whether partaking of the unjustifiable char- 
acter now reported or not, goes to demonstrate 
the importance of legislation to prevent the 
assumption by irresponsible parties of steps 
which sooner or later must produce disastrous 
results, counteracting the influence of the au- 
thorities and leading Indians to lose all con- 
fidence in the whites. While no treatment can 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 37 

in my judgment be too severe for the hostile 
Indians, those disposed to be friendly should be 
entitled to the same protection from the laws 
as other persons owing allegiance to the Gov- 
ernment enjoy. 

"The Pimas and Maricopas lost a part of 
their crops by the unusual flood of September 
last, but they are generally prosperous, although 
but slightly provided for by the Government. 

"All who comprehend the Indian character 
will rejoice that the Indian commission has 
reached the view long held on the frontier, that 
the Government should cease to recognize the 
Indian tribes as a domestic independent nation, 
except so far as it may be required to recognize 
them as such by existing treaties, and by treaties 
made but not yet ratified; that hereafter all 
Indians should be considered and held to be 
individually subject to the laws of the United 
States except where and while it is otherwise 
provided in such treaties. Such course will be 
commended to Congress by the Commission, 
with another good suggestion, viz.: to clothe, 
protect and assist all Indians, no matter of 
what tribe, who will go upon the reservations 
and stay there." 

The Governor said, in reference to mmes and 
mining : 

"The Wickenburg gold mines are worked 
without interruption, and steadily yield a large 
revenue. The Vultvire lode, the Comstock of 
Arizona, now has a wide and merited fame. It 
is one of the richest, most extensive and remark- 
able deposits of gold quartz upon the continent, 



38 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

and its return to this time is believed to be an 
earnest of what may be expected from it in the 
future. 

' ' Unfortunately the mills erected in the vicin- 
ity of Prescott were put either upon worthless 
lodes or upon those in which ores predominate 
which cannot be made to pay by ordinary treat- 
ment. The chlorination process has lately been 
introduced there, and it is expected that it will 
prove successful as in California and Colorado. 
If such is the case, the hopeful people who have 
clung to that paii: of the Territory, under most 
annoying delays and disappointments, will 
speedily reap the reward due their patience and 
pertinacity. 

"Upon the Colorado river little is doing in 
mining; the low price of copper has not war- 
ranted the continuous working of the lodes at 
Williams Fork and other points, although a re- 
newal of operations at an early date is prom- 
ised. From the Eureka and Castle Dome dis- 
tricts there is a steady and profitable shipment 
of lead ore to San Francisco, and work upon 
several silver lodes in that district is vigorously 
prosecuted as it is upon several gold lodes near 
La Paz and Hardyville. 

"Below the Gila, the Cababi mines continue 
to yield a good return of silver and a fine mill is 
in process of erection at Apache Pass, where the 
gold lodes are attracting much attention and give 
excellent promise. Confidence in the mineral 
resources of the Territory is unshaken, and those 
most familiar with them believe that once secure 
from Indian depredations and made accessible 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 39 

by the iron rail, Arizona mil take front rank 
among gold, silver, and copper producing dis- 
tricts of the world. 

''Late last year, at the request of J. Ross 
Browne, United States Mining Commissioner, 
I prepared as complete a statement of the min- 
eral discoveries and results in the Territory as 
the time and material at my command would 
admit of. It will be found in his elaborate re- 
port upon the 'Mineral Resources of the States 
and Territories West of the Rocky Mountains,' 
published by Congress, and although imperfect 
in some particulars, will, I trust, be serviceable 
to the Territory in giving the public an idea of 
its mineral affluence, and attracting capital and 
population. 

"Arizona, in common with the other mineral 
bearing Territories, is interested in the passage 
of the bill now before Congress looking to the 
endowment of a School of Mines from the pro- 
ceeds of the tax upon gold and silver bullion, a 
most necessary and promising scientific move- 
ment, and it may be well for you to add to the 
appeal in its behalf by a memorial or resolution 
as you deem best." 

In reference to Agriculture, he said : 

"Although the seasons vary with each year, 
it is now well established that most of the val- 
leys and river bottoms throughout the Terri- 
tory may be successfully cultivated. Much 
attention is given to agriculture, and the prod- 
uct of the year is largely in excess of that of 
any previous one. Corn, wheat, and barley 
attain a perfect growth at most points, and the 



40 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

vegetables will compare favorably with those 
of any country. About Prescott the yield of 
potatoes of an excellent quality has this year 
been large. The few fruit trees planted to this 
time are thrifty, and it is thought the favorite 
fruits can be raised at various places in the Ter- 
ritory. The military are supplied with grain 
without drawing upon California as in years 
past, and comparatively little flour is brought 
from abroad. The prospect is that at an early 
day all required will be made in this Territory. 
"The new and prosperous farming settle- 
ments of Phoenix, upon the Salt River, and 
Florence on the Gila river, are demonstrating 
the richness of the soil in the broad valleys of 
those great streams and the facility with w^hich 
it may be irrigated and cultivated. The climate 
is found to be neither oppressive nor unhealthy 
as heretofore popularly supposed, and the belief 
that large communities have subsisted upon the 
produce of the valleys in the far past is strength- 
ened by the accumulating evidence of their rare 
fertility. Tens of thousands of acres as valu- 
able and easy of tillage as those now occupied 
remain unclaimed, and as the region is central, 
near to the reservations of the friendly Pima 
and Maricopa Indians, and seldom molested by 
the Apache, it offers peculiar inducements to 
settlers, and is commended to the numerous par- 
ties crossing the Territory from Texas and 
other states as having advantages equal, if not 
superior, to any held out to them farther west. 
"While the lands that do not need irrigation 
and those that may be irrigated from streams 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 41 

are extensive and all sufficient for a much larger 
population than is here at present, the soil of 
much of what is known as the desert country, 
is exceedingly rich, and if supplied with water 
by a system of artesian wells, as there is every 
reason to believe it may be at a reasonable cost, 
must abundantly repay cultivation. The great 
valleys and plains upon the roads from the 
Colorado to Wickenburg and Prescott, those 
between Sacaton and Tucson, and the plains 
about Tucson, those of the Cababi and Fresnal 
districts, and others not frequented by the 
Apaches, and more accessible than much of the 
land now occupied, may, I believe, with such 
wells, be made to blossom as the rose, and to 
produce crops that will surprise the world. I 
recommend, if the existing laws of the Terri- 
tory regarding wells upon deserts is not liberal 
enough to induce the sinking of artesian wells, 
that it be made so." 

Under the head of "Various Recommenda- 
tions" the Governor recommended that more 
attention be given to educational matters; that 
a new and earnest memorial to Congress re- 
garding the boundaries of the Territory at 
Arizona City, (Yuma), should be presented to 
Congress; that encouragement should be given 
citizens establishing ferries on the Gila and Salt 
rivers ; such ferries being an absolute necessity 
to communication between the lower and upper 
country several months in each year, and the 
travel not being sufficient to support them ; that 
the act of the last Assembly "to prevent and 
punish the sale of liquor to Indians, does not 



42 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

secure the ends desired, and should be made 
more complete and stringent." That although 
the thoroughfares throughout the Territory 
were generally good, in some of the mining dis- 
tricts, particularly in Yavapai county, there 
was need of improvement and certain new roads 
were necessary to ready communication, among 
them being one from Wickenburg to Prescott, 
via Walnut Grove, which would save many 
miles of travel between those points, and one 
from Phoenix to Prescott, via the Agua Fria, 
which would open a direct and comparatively 
short route from Tucson to Prescott; that no 
aid having been given by the Government for 
the building of roads in the Territory, a reason- 
able appropriation for the construction of these 
new roads and for such improvements upon 
existing roads as may be necessary could, with 
propriety, be asked of Congress. 

Continuing, the Governor stated: 

' ' There is a gratifying improvement in social 
life throughout the Territory. In the chief 
towns the houses are of a better character than 
a year or two since, and the ranchmen who have 
prospered have generally improved their struc- 
tures. There is a gromng disposition to live 
rather than stay here, to build homes and make 
them attractive, to cultivate household affec- 
tions and loves, and society is assuming that 
organization which is necessary to pleasing and 
profitable existence." 

The Governor concluded his message by re- 
ferring to his election as a Delegate to the 
Forty-First Congress of the United States, and 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 43 

pledged his support there to all measures which 
might be introduced to upbuild and promote the 
prosperity of the Territory. 

The first memorial passed by this Legislature 
was one to Congress asking for an appropria- 
tion of a hundred thousand dollars for the erec- 
tion of a capital building at Tucson, the seat 
of government. Another w^as to the Secretary 
of War asking that authority be given to the 
commanding officers of the various military 
posts, to furnish arms and ammunition to citi- 
zens known to them, whenever it was believed 
by said commanding officer that such citizens 
could and would render effective service against 
hostile Indians, the arms to be receipted for by 
the parties to whom they w^ere loaned, and to be 
promptly returned upon the completion of the 
service for which they were given. 

Another memorial to Congress asked that the 
time fixed by Congress for the appropriation of 
the net proceeds of the Internal Ee venue to the 
building of a penitentiary, be extended until 
the sum appropriated, forty thousand dollars, 
should have accumulated. Another asked for 
the establishment of a Mail Route from Tucson 
to Sasabi Flat, and still another asked Congress 
for an appropriation of $2,000 to pay for a 
library for the Territory. The Legislature also 
memorialized Congress for an appropriation to 
codify the laws of the Territory, and also asked 
that a Surveyor-General be appointed for the 
Land district" of Arizona Territory, and for an 
appropriation to survey the land in said dis- 
trict. 



44 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

This Legislature passed joint or concurrent 
resolutions as follows : 

One requesting the Territory's Delegate in 
Congress to ask for the establishment of a mail 
route from Tucson to Wickenburg via Camp 
Grant, Florence, Phoenix and Camp McDowell ; 
also that a semi-weekly service be put on from 
Prescott, Arizona, to Albuquerque, New Mexico ; 
one recommending the establishment of a United 
States Depositary at Tucson; also a joint reso- 
lution which is in the nature of an appropria- 
tion bill, which reads as follow^s: 

"Be It Resolved by the Legislative Assembly 
of the Territory of Arizona : 

"That the Territorial Treasurer shall set 
apart from the Territorial funds, from time to 
time, a sufficient amount of money to pay all the 
legal, current and contingent expenses of the 
Territory of Arizona, for the year ending 
December first, A. D. one thousand eight hun- 
dred and sixty nine. 

"Approved, December 15, 1868." 

A concurrent resolution was passed asking 
Arizona's Delegate in Congress to solicit an 
appropriation of five thousand dollars to be 
given as a premium to the person or persons 
who should first sink an artesian well upon the 
desert lands of the Territory, the same to be 
paid by the Secretary of the Interior, upon his 
receiving satisfactory proof that such well was 
a success, said proof to be furnished by the Gov- 
ernor and Secretary of the Territory; also the 
following resolution regarding his Excellency 
Governor Richard C. McCormick: 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 45 

''Eesolved, by the House of Representatives, 
the Council concurring, that the fifth Legis- 
lative Assembly, cordially joins in the sentiment 
expressed by previous Legislatures, that his 
Excellency Governor Richard C. McCormick, 
has both in his official and personal relations, 
shown himself to be the true friend and intel- 
ligent advocate of the best interests of Arizona. 

"Resolved, that his long and zealous public 
service, in the face of many obstacles, and his 
thorough knowledge of the country and its re- 
sources, will entitle him to the confidence shown 
by the people in his election as their Repre- 
sentative in the Congress of the United States, 
and must ever honorably identify his name with 
the organization and history of the Territory." 

One member of the Legislature, Henry Jen- 
kins, of Pima, died during the session. The 
following obituary by one of his colleagues, Mr. 
McKey, of Pima, was delivered in the Council 
on the 20th of November : 

"Mr President — It becomes my sorrowful 
duty this morning to announce to this body the 
demise yesterday at one o'clock P. M. of one of 
the most honored and esteemed members of this 
Council, Hon. Henry Jenkins, from Pima 
County. He was a gentleman of the 'olden 
school, ' so much so, in fact, he never could adapt 
himself fully to the latter day free and easy 
life of the West. Of an excellent education, 
and a careful early training, he never forgot 
those associations. Much in public life and ever 
popular, familiar with all public questions, and 
having a high sense of honor, as a pioneer he 



46 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

was hopeful and patient ; as a legislator he was 
ever careful, judicious and upright; as a citi- 
zen, liberal, courteous and public spirited. 
Having frailties as all have, even they 'leaned 
to virtue's side.' He was a member of the 
Third, Fourth and Fifth Legislatures of Ari- 
zona, and in his earlier years he had been a 
member of the New York Legislature, and was 
there considered the peer of the great states- 
men of the Empire State. 

"He leaves a family in Albany, New York, 
to mourn his loss. We regret him as a brother 
member, and as an esteemed citizen, but not as 
those who have no hope. We have faith to be- 
lieve that we shall all meet again beyond the 
valley and shadow^ of death. May his remains 
rest in peace." 

^Another member of this Legislature was 
killed by the Apaches before the Legislature 
convened, A. M. Erwin, upon whose death a spe- 
cial committee reported the following resolu- 
tions expressive of the sympathy and condo- 
lence of the Legislature : 

''Whereas, it has pleased an all wise Provi- 
dence to call from our midst Mr. A. M. Erwin, 
a member elect of this body, and whereas, in his 
decease our Territory has lost one of its most 
noble and energetic citizens, therefore, be it 

"Resolved, that we fully appreciate the brave 
and valuable services rendered to the people of 
this and adjoining Territories by the deceased 
during his term of service in the California 
Volunteers. 

"Eesolved, that we deeply sympathize with 
the relatives of the deceased, that one so young, 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 47 

SO brave, so noble iii all his traits of character, 
should be thus early taken from them by the 
fatal hand of the so much dreaded Apache. 

"Resolved, that the Clerk of this House fur- 
nish the relatives of the deceased with an ofii- 
cial copy of these resolutions. ' ' 

The committee on Military and Indian 
Affairs made the following report : 

"First. The Territorial Militia have neither 
organization nor ammunition. Therefore, we 
are unable to afford any protection to the people 
of this Territory, and this condition will con- 
tinue unless the General Government furnishes 
the requisite means of defense. 

"Second. The Indians of the Territory are 
arrayed in deadly hostility to the whites, butch- 
ering and robbing on the highways and ranches, 
and every footpath from the Rio Grande to the 
Colorado river. Life and property are unsafe 
even in the immediate vicinity of military posts. 
The time has arrived, in the opinion of your 
committee, when some decided action should be 
taken in the premises, so that white settlers in 
the country can understand whether they have 
the predominating power, or that the Govern- 
ment will protect its citizens against a horde of 
demons in human shape, called 'Lo! the poor 
Indian. ' 

"The Legislature of the Territory has re- 
spectfully memorialized Congress for the four 
past consecutive terms; but up to the present 
time no action has been taken in the premises. 

"Your committee are of the opinion that our 
Delegates have been negligent of their duty, or 



48 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

the Government has been unmindful of the 
wants of the citizens of this Territory. 

"The present military force in the Territory 
is inadequate to the protection of the citizens 
therein ; and it matters not how well the present 
number of troops may be disposed of, or how- 
ever anxious the commanding officer of the dis- 
trict or the officers and soldiers under his com- 
mand may be, to render assistance to the 
settlers, under the present arrangement of mili- 
tary affairs. Every effort would prove an en- 
tire failure, unless a larger number of troops 
can be placed in the command of the district 
commander, in order to give them the opportu- 
nity of making rapid movements, and following 
up the same with success. 

"But so long as certain Indians are permitted 
to draw rations from certain government posts 
or reservations, so called, to sustain their 
families and supply their own wants, and fit 
themselves out for a more successful campaign 
against the whites, it is utterly impossible for 
the military to put an end to these infernal 
devils, called Apaches. 

' ' Your committee fully believes in placing the 
entire management of Indian affairs under the 
control of the military commanders of the dif- 
ferent military districts, until they are subju- 
gated and placed on reservations ; and are made 
to earn their bread by the sweat of their brows, 
instead of murdering and robbing the whites. 
The blood of white men cries revenge from 
every hill, valley and nook. 

' ' The mourning of the fond wife for her hus- 
band is borne on every breeze. The cry of the 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 49 

orphan is heard in every hamlet. Numbers of 
our people have been taken captive, tortured 
cruelly, and burned at the stake. During the 
last seven years over eight hundred persons 
have been murdered in the highways and 
ranches within the limits of this Territory. 
The roads and by^vays throughout this Terri- 
tory are marked by monuments of savage 
ferocity ; fresh victims fall day by day on their 
journey through the country. 

"Your Committee would be unmindful of 
their duty as Eepresentatives of the people, and 
as citizens of the Territory did they fail to 
represent their constituents as a law-abiding, 
industrious and ever hopeful community. 

"Your Committee would urgently request our 
Delegate in Congress to represent the facts set 
forth in this report in unqualified terms. 

"(Signed) D. H. STICKNEY, 
"Chairman of Committee on Military and 
Indian Affairs. ' ' 

An estimate of the expense for running the 
Territory for the year ending November 1st, 
1869, was made by John B. Allen, Territorial 
Treasurer, and was as follows : 

"TERRITORY OF ARIZONA, 

"Office of the Treasurer. 

"Tucson, December 8, 1868. 
"Hon. Thomas J. Bidwell, Speaker of the 
House of Representatives, Fifth Legisla- 
tive Assembly. 
"Sir: — In pursuance to law, I herewith sub- 
mit an estimate of the current expenses of the 

V— 4 



50 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

Territory from November 1st, 1868, to Novem- 
ber, 1st, 1869, viz. : 

Expenses of Supreme Court, as au- 
dited by Judges of the late 

Supreme Court $ 293.52 

Salary of Territorial Auditor 650.00 

Salary of Territorial Treasurer 650.00 

Rent of room for Territorial Library. . 150.00 

Distribution of Acts and Journals .... 50.00 

Territorial Prisoners 500.00 

Incidental Expenses 150.00 

Total $2,443.52 

' ' Other expenses may arise during the year. 
"Very respectfully, 
"Your obedient servant, 
' ' ( Signed) JOHN B. ALLEN, 

"Territorial Treasurer." 

In reference to the contention as to the bound- 
ary line between Arizona and California, the 
Committee on Counties and County Boundaries, 
through its Chairman, Mr. McKey, submitted 
the following: 

"Mr. President: — It devolves upon me to re- 
port, as Chairman of the Committee on Coun- 
ties and County Boundaries from the Council 
and the Committee on Federal Relations from 
the House, who met jointly, and who had under 
consideration the matter of the disputed strip of 
land south of the Gila river and east of the 
Colorado, and in connection therewith, a report 
made by the Hon. Mr. Meagher to the Cali- 
fornia Legislature upon the subject: 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 51 

''He says, speaking of that State, that 'our 
southern boundary has been considered in this 
State as determined and run by the Boundary 
Commissioners of Mexico and the United 
States. ' 

"As to this point none, I presume, are dis- 
posed to disagree with him, but as to what pre- 
cise territory was included in that boundary 
there seems to be a question in the minds of the 
California Legislators. 

"The report before referred to, appears to 
be based upon as much ignorance with regard 
to this question, as was the action of the first 
two Legislatures of Arizona, which committed 
the grave error of memorializing Congress upon 
the subject; when, if they had examined the 
question, they would have f oimd that the State 
of California never claimed the disputed land, 
and that Congress had specifically included it 
in the Territory of New Mexico in the Organic 
Act for that Territory. 

"The Constitution of California in giving the 
boundaries of that State, claims the middle of 
the main channel of the Colorado River below 
the thirty-fifth parallel of north latitude down 
to the line between Mexico and the United 
States, as her line. 

"Arizona claims that the western boundary 
line, consists of the middle of the main channel 
of the Colorado river, running southerly to the 
Sonora line. 

"How it was possible for the first Legislature 
of this Territory to overlook her own acts, as to 
this matter, and the language of the Organic 
Act of New Mexico, so far as to recognize the 



52 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

usurpation by the county of San Diego, as to 
cause it to memorialize Congress upon the sub- 
ject, is a matter of astonishment, to say the least 
of it. 

"Mr. Meagher says 'Recently the Territory 
of Arizona has set up a claim, ' etc. 

''He is mistaken in his statement: we have 
always claimed this Territory and have ever 
maintained that there were no tenable reasons 
why San Diego should hold any authority over 
it. Let us see for what reasons or upon what 
grounds we base these claims. 

"In the first place, in the year 1849, Cali- 
fornia, by the vote of her people ratified the 
Constitution of that State, in which the limits 
are plainly set forth. After fixing the north- 
ern line to where it intersects the 39th degree 
of north latitude, it says : Thence running in a 
straight line in a southerly direction to the river 
Colorado, at a point where it intersects the 35th 
degree of north latitude, thence down the 
middle of the channel of said river to the bound- 
ary line between Mexico and the United States, 
as established by the treaty of May 30th, 1848, 
thence west, etc., to the Pacific Ocean. 

"Now, Sir, it would appear that the above- 
quoted language was sufficient to satisfy any un- 
prejudicial mind that California never claimed 
an inch of land east of the Colorado river, nor 
has she ever done so, until the last session of the 
Legislature of that State, which was induced by 
the wrong action of the Legislature of this Ter- 
ritory in memorializing Congress to give to us 
that which I shall convince any and all who will 
carefully examine the subject, was always ours. 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 53 

But before entering into a description of the 
peculiarities of the junction of the Gila and 
Colorado rivers, I deem it necessary to draw 
your attention to the provisions of the treaty of 
Guadalupe Hidalgo. 

"In that treaty (article 5) after bounding the 
Southern Territory acquired thereby, until com- 
ing to the Gila river, it says : 

" 'Thence down the middle of the Gila until 
it empties into the Rio Colorado; thence across 
the Rio Colorado, following the division line 
between Upper and Lower California to the 
Pacific Ocean.' But, says the treaty, in order 
to preclude all difficulty in tracing upon the 
limit separating Upper from Lower California, 
it is agreed that the said limits shall consist of 
a straight line down to the Rio Gila, where it 
unites with the Colorado to a point on the 
Pacific Ocean, etc. 

''To those who are not conversant with the 
minute points of the geography of the junction 
of these two rivers, it is necessary to say that at 
the junction, and for miles around and above 
this junction, it is one immense mud flat, over 
which the Colorado river (at all times when 
high) overflows; and all the apparent circum- 
stances go to show, and those who were on the 
ground at the time of running the line by the 
Commissioners who fixed the line between the 
Republic of Mexico and the United States, by 
the treaty of Guadalupe Hidalgo, say that all 
of said flat country was inundated at that time. 

"This accounts for fixing the initial point up 
the Rio Gila some hundreds of yards from its 
actual mouth, when both rivers are low, advan- 



54 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

tage being taken of the high condition of the 
Colorado, in connection with the language of 
the treaty, which says : 

'' 'That the boundary line between Upper and 
Lower California shall consist of a straight line 
drawn from the middle of the Rio Gila, where 
the Colorado, etc' 

"The high condition of the Colorado at the 
time, owing to the flatness of the country, left 
the place of unity between the two streams very 
indefinite ; but a point was agreed upon between 
the Commissioners from which to start, for the 
purpose of dividing the two Californias. But 
there is no good reason to doubt but that the in- 
tention of the plenipotentiaries was at the time 
of making the treaty, to cross the Colorado river 
directly from the fact that the general course 
of the Colorado is north and south, and this 
dividing line runs directly west; but owing to 
a short bend from south to west, this line start- 
ing from the agreed initial point, did not cross 
the Colorado until the Commissioners had run 
six and a half miles, cutting off a strip of land 
between the line and the river on the west vary- 
ing from a few hundred yards to three-quarters 
of a mile in width. 

"It must be kept in view, however, that this 
line was to be run for the express purpose of 
dividing Upper from Lower California. 

"Now that it is understood that this line was 
for the sole purpose of dividing the Californias, 
will any one claim that it divided any part of the 
Californias before it crossed the Eio Colorado'? 

"If either of these States ever claimed an 
inch of territory east of the Colorado river. 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 00 

then it were possible, but as neither of them 
ever made any such claim, then it is simply 
ridiculous to suppose that this line divided them 
before reaching their territory ; the initial point 
notwithstanding, which was so fixed by the Com- 
missioners for the reasons before given. And 
when running this line, where they struck the 
bank of the Gila on the south or western side, 
from the middle of the mouth thereof, they 
came to the bank some four hundred yards from 
the Colorado river, and run six and one half 
miles before coming to the Colorado river. But 
bearing in mind that California in her Consti- 
tution claims the middle of the Colorado as her 
boundary, as between her and any other Terri- 
tory of the United States, and this Constitution 
was accepted by Congress, and California was 
admitted as a State, September 9th, 1850. 

"The Organic Act creating the Territory of 
New Mexico by Congress was approved on the 
same day, and in giving the boundary limits of 
said Territory, in this act they commenced the 
boundary in the Colorado river, where the 
boundary line with the Republic of Mexico 
crosses the same; thence easterly with the said 
boundary line to the Eio Grande, with the 
meanderings east, north and then west, until it 
intersects the line of California at the north- 
west corner of Pah-Ute County ; thence back on 
the California line down the Colorado river to 
the place of beginning. I ask, is this conclu- 
sive? 

"California has never claimed this disputed 
territory until the action of her last Legislature. 
And Congress, right at the time of the admis- 



56 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

sion of California as a State, did include this 
strip within the limits of the Territory of New 
Mexico, and has since created all the Territory 
west of a certain line, the Territory of Arizona, 
which had been included with the former limits 
of New Mexico. 

"In the name of common sense and good rea- 
son, if this strip of land belonged to California, 
why did not California protest, or why has she 
not long before this made complaint? Or, if 
we admit for a moment that it did belong to her, 
why did Congress commence the boundary of 
New Mexico by starting six and a half miles 
off the edge or border of the Territory to be pre- 
scribed by said boundary, and follow thence 
easterly, northerly, and westerly to the Cali- 
fornia line, at the northwest corner of Pah-Ute 
County; and thence following said California 
lilies back and down the Colorado river to place 
of beginning? What was the object in com- 
mencing six or seven miles down the Colorado 
river and running to the Gila by the line form- 
erly established by the Commissioners, and then 
afterwards, when they got back to the mouth of 
the Gila river, why did they run do^^m the river 
to the place of beginning? 

"Did the territory included within these lim- 
its below the Gila belong to California? Sir, 
it is presumption to contend for any such thing. 
Now, Mr. President, all of the foregoing may 
be summed up in these few questions : 

"Has California ever claimed this strip of 
land before her last session? She has never 
before claimed it. 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 57 

*'Do her constitutional bounds claim it? 
That instrument does not claim any territory 
west of the Colorado river, nor ever has, nor did 
either of the old Calif ornias under Mexican rule 
claim any such thing. 

"But Congress did claim and include it within 
the bounds of the Territory of New Mexico in 
her Organic Act. And, last, though not least, 
Arizona did claim it from her first organization. 
But from want of a proper understanding in the 
first two Legislatures she did conmiit the grave 
mistake in memorializing Congi^ess to give her 
territory already belonging to her by nature, by 
the Organic Act, and the law of this Territory 
and the laws of Congress." 

The foregoing seems to have been conclusive 
as to that controversy as there was no subse- 
quent action taken in reference thereto by 
California or by Congi-ess. 

The Governor submitted the following to the 
Legislature : 

"TERRITORY OF ARIZONA, 

"Office of the Governor. 

"Tucson, December 12, 1868. 
"Hon. John T. Alsap, President of the Council: 

"Sir: The following appointments have been 
made by me since the adjournment of the last 
legislature, and are respectfully submitted to the 
Council for confirmation: 

"December 31st, 1867, John B. Allen, Terri- 
torial Treasurer. 

"July 1st, 1868, Charles H. Lord, Territorial 
Auditor, vice James Grant, resigned. 



58 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 



a 



'July 20tli, 1868, John S. Thayer, as Probate 
Judge, vice Sidney R. DeLong, resigned. 

''September 7th, 1868, James H. Toole, Ad- 
jutant-General. 

"(Signed) EICHAED C. McCORMICK." 

The Territorial Auditor made the following 
report : 

"Tucson, October 20th, 1868. 
"Hon. R. C. McCormick, Governor of the Ter- 
ritory of Arizona. 
"In accordance with the provisions of sec- 
tion 10 of the Act approved October 5th, 1867, 
I herewith furnish you a full exhibit of the 
claims audited and warrants issued by me from 
the time of my appointment, July 1st, 1868, to 
this date. 

"I am, with respecti, your obedient servant. 
"CHARLES H. LORD, 
' ' Territorial Auditor, ' ' 

LIST OF CLAIMS AUDITED AND WAR- 
RANTS ISSUED, 1868. 

July 1st, 1868. 

Claim No. 116— Lord & Williams, for 
cost and charges on bond books for 
Territory, under act of October 5th, 
1867. Warrant No. 140 $ 75 . 00 

Claim No. 117— Lord & Williams, for 
interest on bonds, gold or equiva- 
lent; Act of October 5th, 1867. 
Warrant No. 141 475.00 

Claim No. 118— Lord & Williams, for 
interest on bonds. Act October 5th, 
1867. Warrant No. 142 475.00 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 59 

Claim No. 119— Lord & Williams, for 
interest on bonds, Act of October 
5tli, 1867, gold or equivalent. 

Warrant No. 143 275.00 

July 3rd, 1868. 

Claim No. 120— G. H. Oury, for six 
months' salary as Attorney Gen- 
eral; Act October 5t\ 1867. War- 
rant No. 145 30. 00 

July 24tb, 1868. 

Claim No. 121— J. B. Allen, for three 
months ' salaiy as Territorial Treas- 
urer; under Act October 5th, 1867. 

Warrant No. 145 162 . 50 

October 19th, 1868. 

Claim No. 122— P. R. Brady, Sheriff of 
Pima County, for care of Terri- 
torial prisoners; Act of October 
5th, 1867. Warrant No. 146 192.00." 

The Territorial Treasurer made the follow- 
ing report : 

''TERRITORY OF ARIZONA, 

''Office of the Treasurer. 

"Tucson, November 1, 1868. 
"To the Honorable the Fifth Legislative As- 
sembly : 
"In compliance with the requirements of sec- 
tion 10, of 'An Act concerning Territorial In- 
debtedness, ' approved October 5th, 1867, I have 
the honor to submit herewith a report of the 
transactions of the office from the 15th of Jan- 
uary, 1868, at which time I assimaed its duties, 
to this date, accompanied by statements rela- 



60 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

tive to the financial condition of the Territory, 
more particularly detailed by statement 'A'; 
showing in tabular form an account of all Bonds 
issued by the Treasurer since the organization 
of the Territory. 

"Statement 'B' giving a detail of all war- 
rants outstanding, with interest thereon, com- 
puted November 1st, 1868. 

"Statement 'C,' an exhibit of all receipts and 
disbursements. 

"Statement 'D,' recapitulating the above, and 
showing the entire indebtedness in currency, 
up to November 1st, 1868. 

"I regret to say that no report, either 
monthly or quarterly has been received at this 
office from the Treasurer of Pah-Ute County 
since my assuming the office ; from the Treas- 
urer of Mohave County since July last ; from the 
Treasurer of Yuma County since August 8th; 
and from the Treasurer of Yavapai County 
since July 6th. 

"I do not know, nor have I had any means of 
ascertaining, what amount of taxes has been 
levied and collected in the above mentioned 
counties during the present year for Territorial 
purposes. 

"The report of the proceedings of the Board 
of Supervisors of Yavapai County, as published 
in Miner, states that twenty-five cents on the one 
hundred dollars was levied for Territorial pur- 
poses, although the law requires that fifty cents 
on the one hundred dollars should be levied. 

"It will be too apparent to you, from a con- 
sideration of this statement, that a careful re- 
vision of the revenue laws is necessary. 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 61 

"Although the people have cheerfully con- 
tributed of their hard earnings a sufficient 
amount to meet all the obligations of the Terri- 
tory, yet through the delinquency of a few 
county officers, who were sworn to perform, and 
are paid to do their duty, we are compelled to 
declare officially that Arizona has failed to make 
good her promises to pay. 

"ESCHEATED ESTATES. 

"During the last five years many of our bold 
pioneers have fallen by the hand of the dread 
Apache, and some by disease, who have left large 
estates to the Territory, and yet not a dollar 
has reached the Treasury from this source, al- 
though some estates have been in the hands of 
administrators for years. It is due to the mem- 
ory of those worthy men that the proceeds of 
their estates be applied toward establishing 
public schools, so that their labor may find some 
reward. 

"In this connection I would respectfully 
recommend the passage of a special act in re- 
spect to escheated estates now in the hands of 
the several administrators, the effect of which 
will be to place within one year, into the Treas- 
ury, the proceeds of all escheated estates. 

"I would furthemiore respectfully recom- 
mend that the County Treasurers be made ex 
officio Public Administrators of their respective 
coimties, and be required to make quarterly re- 
turns to the Territorial Treasurer, the same as 
in other matters. 

"The proceeds of escheated estates once in the 
Treasury, the Legislature could make such dis- 
position thereof as they deem proper. 



62 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

''The act approved October oth, 1868, entitled 
'An Act concerning Territorial Indebtedness,' 
contemplated the funding of the Bonds and 
Warrants therein specified. 

"No bonds have been issued under the j)rovi- 
sions of that Act. A question involving the 
legality of the act having arisen, and being now 
pending before the Courts, parties holding those 
Bonds and Warrants prefer retaining them, 
and the Treasurer is barred from paying them 
princi]3al or interest. The repeal of sections 1, 
2, 3, 4, 7 and 9 of said act is necessary. 

"It may be of interest for you to know that 
the amomit of internal revenue assessed in Pima 
County from January 1st to October 30th, 1868, 
is $7,791, and the amount collected up to Novem- 
ber 1st, 1868, $6,0'50. 

"No statement has been received from the 
Collectors in other counties. 

"All of which is respectfully submitted. 
"JOHN B. ALLEN, 
' ' Territorial Treasurer. ' ' 

The statement "D," referred to in the Treas- 
urer's Eeport, showed that from the 1st day of 
June, 1868, to and including the 31st day of Oc- 
tober, 1868, the Treasurer had received from all 
sources, the sum of $8,479.86, and that dur- 
ing the same period he had disbursed the 
sum of $5,611.80, leaving cash in the Treasury, 
$2,868.06. At the date last mentioned the Ter- 
ritory had a total outstanding indebtedness of 
$62,961.05, evidenced by bonds and warrants. 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 63 



CHAPTER III. 

THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE (Continued). 

Acts Passed by — Dancing Licensed — Act to 
Establish Public Schools — Text of — Act 
Locating Territorial Prison at or Near 
Phoenix. 

The first act of any importance was an act to 
license dance houses, which read as follows : 

"Section 1. It shall be lawful, and the col- 
lectors of licenses of the several counties of this 
Territory are hereby authorized and directed 
to collect a license tax of not more than twenty 
nor less than five dollars, of any and all persons 
who shall keep a dance house within the limits 
of any town or village in this Territory, which 
license shall be collected for each night of danc- 
ing. 

"Sec. 2. All moneys collected under the 
provisions of this act shall be appropriated by 
the Supervisors of the respective counties, to 
grading and repairing of the streets of the town 
or village in which such license shall be collected. 

"Sec. 3. This act shall be governed by the 
license laws of this Territory in all respectsp 
except the manner of the appropriations of the 
moneys. ' ' 

At that time there was no mining camp, vil- 
lage or town in the Territory that was not en- 
livened after dark with the music of the dance, 
where the belles of the lower world held high 
carnival and the boys spent their time and 
money between dances on drinks. 



64 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

An act concerning pnblic highways and streets 
in towns having a population exceeding five 
hundred, provided for a street superintendent 
to be appointed by the Board of Supervisors, at 
such compensation as they might deem advisable 
to see that all the streets were properly laid out 
and graded. Under this act the street superin- 
tendent was empowered to compel any owner of 
any lot or lots to grade the same, or the streets 
in front thereof as he saw fit, and in case any 
owner should fail or refuse to comply with the 
provisions of the act in this respect, the street 
superintendent was empowered to bring suit 
before a justice of the peace of the county in 
which the said town was located, and upon con- 
viction of such person or persons, he or they 
should be fined not less than ten nor more than 
a hundred dollars for each and every violation 
of the act. All fines collected were to be paid 
into the county treasury and all such moneys 
were to be applied by the Board of Supervisors 
to the purpose of repairing the streets or high- 
ways of the towns in which such fines were col- 
lected. Provision was made also for the re- 
demption of the bonds of the Territory issued 
under an act approved November 9th, 1864, 
entitled '*An Act to provide for the contingent 
expenses of the Territorial Government," and 
also for the payment of Territorial Warrants; 
also an act creating the office of Attorney- 
General of the Territory, defining his duties, 
and fixing his salary at $400 per annum. 

This Legislature passed an act to establish 
public schools in the Territory of Arizona, 
which was the first earnest eifort in legislation 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 65 

in that direction, it being a matter of great im- 
portance at the time, and as it became the 
foundation of our school systemi, I give the act 
in its entirety : 

"Section 1. That the Board of Supervisors 
of each of the several organized counties, and 
every county that may be hereafter organized 
within tliis Territory, be and they are hereby 
constituted Boards of Education for each of the 
several coimties of this Territory, in which they 
have been duly elected as Boards of Super- 
visors; and shall perform such duties as such 
Boards of Education, as may be required of 
them, by the provisions of this act. They shall 
hold their offices during the time for which they 
have been elected as said Boards of Supervisors 
for their several Counties. 

"Sec. 2. Said Boards shall hold an annual 
meeting, at the County seat of each of their re- 
spective counties, on the same or subsequent day 
of their first regular meetings as Boards of 
Supervisors; and such other special meetings 
during the year as the Boards may, in their 
judgment, deem proper and necessary. 

"Sec. 3. Said Boards of Education of the 
several counties in this Territory, shall from 
time to time, as they may deem proper, recom- 
mend to the Legislature such alterations, revi- 
sions and amendments of existing laws, relating 
to Common Schools, as in their judgment are 
demanded, in order to the perfecting of a system 
of general education in this Territory ; and they 
shall annually make a report of their official 
doings, and of the state and condition of the 

V— 5 



66 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

schools in their respective counties, to the Legis- 
lature during the first week of its session. 

"Sec. 4. Said Boards may at any time fill a 
vacancy in the office of Superintendent of Pub- 
lic Schools in their respective counties. 

"Sec. 5. The Boards of Education in the 
several counties shall select a list of books for 
the different branches usually taught in Com- 
mon SchoolSj, which list shall constitute the text 
books for district schools, and shall cause such 
list to be published in all the newspapers in said 
county, in the month of January in each year; 
and on and after such publications, no other 
books but those prescribed in the list by said 
Boards, shall be used in any of the district 
schools in their respective counties, except by 
permission of the Superintendent of Public 
Schools or the District Board. 

"Sec. 6. It shall be the duty of the Board 
of Suj)ervisors of the several counties in this 
Territory, to divide their counties into school 
districts when necessary, and subdivide the same 
whenever petitioned by a majority of the citi- 
zens thereof, and to furnish the County Ee- 
corder of such county with a written description 
of the boundaries of each district so formed; 
which description must be filed with said County 
Recorder before said district shall be entitled 
to proceed with its organization by the election 
of School District officers. Whenever it shall 
be deemed necessary to form a School District 
from parts of two or more counties, it shall be 
the duty of the Board of Supervisors of each 
county in which any part of the proposed joint 
district shall be situated, to imite in laying out 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 67 

such joint district; and the Board of Super- 
visors so assisting, shall file a description of said 
joint district with the County Recorder of their 
county; provided, however, that said Boards 
shall not be allowed to form a district, unless the 
area comprising said district shall contain 
within its limits twenty children of the age 
four and under twenty-one. 

"Sec. 7. The several counties in this Terri- 
tory shall, at their annual election, elect a com- 
petent person to be Superintendent of Public 
Schools in and for such county, who shall hold 
his office during the school year commencing on 
the first of November, or until his successor is 
elected and qualified; who shall receive for his 
service four dollars each day actually spent in 
the discharge of his legal duties, and a reason- 
able sum for his annual report to the County 
Board of Education in his county; and every 
Superintendent of Schools shall make out in 
detail his account for official services rendered, 
and make oath or affirmation to the correctness 
of the same before some Justice of the Peace 
in the county in which he resides, which oath 
or affirmation shall be certified by said Justice 
before such Superintendent's account shall be 
presented to the County Recorder for allow- 
ance, who shall audit and allow the same, or so 
much thereof as is just and reasonable, and the 
same shall be paid out of the County Treasury 
upon the order of the County Recorder, who is 
empowered to draw orders for the same ; but no 
order shall be drawn to any such Superinten- 
dent until he shall have filed vnth. the County 
Recorder a receipt from the County Board of 



68 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

Public Schools for the statistical returns of the 
preceding school year, in pursuance of the 
requirements of section seventeen of this act. 

"Sec. 8. The County Superintendent of 
Public Schools shall have charge of the common 
school interests of the county. He shall before 
he enters upon the discharge of the duties of his 
office, take and subscribe an oath or affirmation 
to support the Constitution of the United States 
and the act organizing this Territory, and faith- 
fully to discharge the duties of his office, which 
oath or affirmation shall be filed in the office of 
the County Eecorder. He shall execute a bond 
with approved security, payable to the Board of 
County Supervisors; for the use of common 
schools in said county, in the penal sum of five 
hundred dollars. Said bond must be approved 
by the Board of Supervisors, and filed in the 
office of the County Recorder. 

"Sec. 9. It shall be the duty of the County 
Treasurer, on the first Monday of April in each 
year, to furnish the County Superintendent of 
Public Schools with a statement of the amount 
of money in the County Treasury belonging to 
the School Fund, and he shall pay the same upon 
the order of said Superintendent to the proper 
district officers 

"Sec. 10. It shaU be the duty of the County 
Superintendent of Public Schools, on the sec- 
ond Monday of April in each year, or as soon 
thereafter as he shall receive the statement of 
the County Treasurer!, certifying the amount of 
money in the County Treasury for the use of 
common schools for the current year, to appor- 
tion such amount to the several districts or parts 



THE rrPTH LEGISLATURE. 69 

of districts within the county, in proportion to 
the members of children residing in each, over 
the age of four and under the age of twenty-one 
years, as the same shall appear from the last 
annual reports of the Clerks of their respective 
districts, and he shall draw his order on the 
County Treasurer in favor of the several dis- 
trict Treasurers, for the amount so apportioned 
to each district. 

''Sec. 11. It shall be the duty of the County 
Superintendents to visit all such common schools 
within their respective coimties as shall be or- 
ganized according to law, at least once each year, 
and oftener if they shall deem it necessary. At 
such visitations the Superintendents shall ex- 
amine into the state and condition of such 
schools as respects the progress in learning and 
the order and government of the schools; and 
they may give advice to the teachers of such 
schools as to the government thereof and the 
course of study to be pursued therein, and shall 
adopt all requisite measures for the inspection, 
examination and regiilaton of the schools, and 
for the improvement of the scholars in learning. 
Every superintendent of common schools shall 
take, or cause to be taken, between the first day 
of October and the thirtieth day of November 
in each year, an enumeration of all the children 
resident in his county, between the ages of four 
and twenty-one years. 

"Sec. 12. He shall see that the annual re- 
ports of the Clerks of the several school districts 
in his county are made correctly, and in due 
time. 



70 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

"Sec. 13. He shall hold a public examina- 
tion for all persons offering themselves as 
teachers of common schools, at the comity seat 
of his county, on the last Saturday of April and 
October in each year, notice of which shall be 
given as publicly as possible; at which time he 
shall grant certificates for not less than three 
months nor more than one year, to such persons 
as he may find qualified to teach orthograi3hy, 
reading, writing, arithmetic, geography and 
English grammar. All persons offering them- 
selves as teachers, must produce evidence of 
good moral character, and possess the requisite 
capacity to conduct and govern a common 
school; and any person receiving such certifi- 
cate shall be deemed a qualified teacher within 
the meaning of this act. Persons applying to 
the County Superintendent for a certificate at 
any other time than at the public examination, 
shall pay to the said Superintendent the sum of 
one dollar for his services. 

"Sec. 14. Whenever a school district shall 
be foi-med in any County, Superintendent of 
Public Schools of such County, shall within 
fifteen days thereafter, prepare a notice of the 
formation of such district,^ describing its bound- 
aries and stating the number thereof, and ap- 
pointing a time and place for the district meet- 
ing. He shall cause the notice thus prepared 
to be posted in at least five public places in the 
district, at least ten days before the time 
appointed for such meeting. 

"Sec. 15. The County Superintendent of 
Public Schools shall perform all other duties of 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 71 

his said office that now are, or hereafter may be 
prescribed by law; and he shall deliver to his 
successor, within ten days after the expiration 
of his term of office, all books and papers per- 
taining to his office. 

''Sec. 16. If any vacancy occurs in the office 
of County Superintendent of Public Schools, 
by death, resignation or otherwise, notice 
thereof shall be given by the County Recorder 
to the Board of Supervisors, who shall as soon 
as practicable appoint some suitable person to 
fill the vacancy; and the person receiving such 
appointment, shall, before entering upon the dis- 
charge of the duties of his office, file his oath or 
affirmation in the County Recorder's office as 
hereinbefore provided, and he shall discharge 
all the duties of the office of County Superin- 
tendent of Public Schools until a successor is 
elected and qualified. He shall also give a like 
bond to that required by this act to be given by 
the County Superintendent of Public Schools. 

"Sec. 17. The County Superintendent shall 
make full and complete annual returns to the 
several Boards of Supervisors in their respec- 
tive counties, between the first and thirty-first 
day of October in each year, of the number of 
children between the ages of four and twenty- 
one years, in the school districts within their 
respective counties ; also the number of qualified 
teachers employed, the length of time each dis- 
trict school has been taught during the year, 
the kind of text books used ; and the amounts ex- 
pended in each district, out of moneys raised 
for educational purposes, and for what pui7)ose 
such amount was expended ; the amoimts raised 



72 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

in each district and the county, by taxation or 
otherwise, for educational interests, and any 
other items that may be of service to the Comity 
Boards of Education in preparing their annual 
reports. 

"Sec. 18. The inhabitants qualified to vote 
at a school district meeting^, lawfully assembled, 
shall have power : 

"First: To appoint a chairman to preside at 
said meeting, in the absence of the Director. 

"Second: To adjourn from time to time. 

"Third : To elect a Director, Clerk and Treas- 
urer, w^ho shall possess the qualifications of 
voters, as prescribed in the next section of this 
act, at the first and each annual meeting there- 
after. 

"Foui-th: To designate by vote a site for a 
district school house. 

"Fifth: To vote a tax aimually, not exceed- 
ing one-half per cent on taxable property in the 
district, as the meeting shall deem sufficient, to 
purchase or lease a site, and to build, hire or 
purchase a schoolhouse, and to keep in repair 
and furnish the same with the necessary fuel, 
stoves and benches. 

"Sixth: To vote a district tax annually, not 
exceeding one-half of one per cent, on the tax- 
able property in the district, for the pay of 
teachers' wages in the district. 

"Seventh: To authorize and direct the sale 
of any school house site, or other property be- 
longing to the district, when the same shall no 
longer be needful for the district. 

"Eighth: To vote such tax as may be neces- 
sary to furnish the school house with black- 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 73 

boards, outline maps, and apparatus necessary 
for illustrating the principles of science, or for 
discharge of any debts or liabilities of the dis- 
trict lawfully incurred; provided, the tax shall 
not exceed one-fourth of one per cent per 
annum, and may be applied to any other pur- 
poses by a vote of the district at any regularly 
called meeting. 

"Ninth: To give such directions and make 
such provisions as may be deemed necessary in 
relation to the prosecution or defense of any suit 
or proceeding in which the district may be a 
party. 

"Tenth: To alter or repeal their proceedings 
from time to time, as occasion may require, and 
to do any other business contemplated in this 
act. 

"Sec. 19. The following persons shall be en- 
titled to vote at any district meeting. All 
persons possessing the qualifications of electors, 
as defined by the act organizing this Territory, 
and the laws of this Territory, and who shall be 
actual residents of the district at the time of 
offering to vote at such election. 

"Sec. 20. If any person offering to vote at 
a school district meeting shall be challenged as 
unqualified by any legal voter, the chairman 
presiding shall declare to the person challenged 
the qualifications of a voter, and if such chal- 
lenge be not withdrawn, the chairman, who is 
hereby authorized, shall tender to the person 
offering to vote, the following oath or affirma- 
tion: 'You do solemnly swear (or affirm) that 
you are an actual resident of this district, and 
that vou are qualified by law to vote at this 



74 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

meeting.' Any person taking such oath or af- 
firmation, shall be entitled to vote on all ques- 
tions voted upon at such meeting. 

"Sec. 21. Every school district shall be 
deemed duly organized when the officers con- 
stituting the district board shall be elected ; they 
shall signify their acceptance to the County 
Superintendent in writing, which he shall file 
in his office. Every person duly elected to the 
office of Director, Clerk or Treasurer of any 
school district, and having entered upon the 
duties of his office, shall neglect or refuse to 
perform an}^ duty required of him by the provi- 
sions of this act, shall forfeit the sum of ten 
dollars to the School District Fund. 

"Sec. 22. The officers of each school district 
shall be a Director, Clerk and Treasurer, who 
shall constitute the District Board, and wdio 
shall hold their respective offices until the an- 
nual meeting next following their election or 
appointment, and until their successors are 
elected and qualified. 

"Sec. 23. Every school district, organized in 
pursuance of the provisions of this act, shall be 
a body corporate, in law, and shall possess the 
usual* powers of a corporation for public pur- 
poses, by the name and style of 'School District 
No. (such number as may be designated by the 
County Superintendent), County, (the name of 
the county in which the district is situated) 
Territory" of Arizona,' and in that name may 
sue and be capable of contracting and being con- 
tracted with, and holding such real or personal 
estate as it may come in possession of by will 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 75 

or otherwise, or as is authorized to be purchased 
by the provisions of this act. 

"Sec. 24. An annual meeting of the qual- 
ified directors of each school district shall be 
held on the last Saturday of September of each 
year, at such hour as the District Board shall 
name. Special meetings may be called by any 
member of the District Board, or by any five 
legal voters, but notice of such special meeting, 
stating the purposes for which it is called, shall 
be posted in at least three public places within 
the district, ten days previous to the time of 
meeting. 

"Sec. 25. Whenever the time for holding an 
amiual meeting in au}^ district shall pass with- 
out such meeting being held, the Clerk, or in his 
absence, any other member of the District 
Board, within twenty days after the time for 
holding said annual meeting shall have passed, 
may give notice of a special meeting by putting 
up written notices thereof in three public places 
within the district, at least five days previous 
to the time of meeting ; but if such meeting shall 
not be notified within twenty days, as aforesaid, 
the County Superintendent may give notice of 
such meeting in the manner provided for form- 
ing new districts; and the officers chosen at such 
special meeting shall hold their offices until the 
next annual meeting, and until their successors 
are elected and qualified. 

"Sec. 26. The qualified voters at each an- 
nual meeting, or at any special meeting duly 
called, may determine the length of time a pub- 
lic school shall be taught in their district for the 
ensuing year, and whether such a school shall be 



76 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

taught by a male or female teacher, or both, and 
whether the school money to which the district 
may be entitled shall be applied to the support 
of the Summer, or Winter term of the school, 
or a certain portion to each ; but if such matter 
shall not be determined at the annual or any 
special meeting, it shall be the duty of the Dis- 
trict Board to determine the same. 

''Sec. 27. The Director of each district shall 
preside at all district meetings, and shall sign 
orders drawn by the Clerk, authorized by a dis- 
trict meeting or by the District Board, upon the 
Treasurer of the district, for moneys collected 
or received by him to be disbursed therein. He 
shall appear for and in behalf of the district in 
all suits brought by or against the district, un- 
less other directions shall be given by the voters 
of such district at a district meeting. 

"Sec. 28. The Clerk of each district shall 
record the proceedings of his district in a book 
provided by the district for that purpose, and 
shall enter therein copies of all reports, made 
by him to the County Superintendent; and he 
shall keep and preserve all records, books and 
papers belonging to his office, and deliver the 
same to his successor in office. 

''Sec. 29. The said Clerk shall be Clerk of 
all district meetings, when present ; but if such 
Clerk shall not be present at any district meet- 
ing, the voters present may appoint a Clerk of 
such meeting, who shall certify the proceedings 
thereof, and the same shall be recorded by the 
Clerk of the district. 

"Sec. 30. It shall be the duty of the Clerk 
to give at least ten days' notice previous to any 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 77 

annual or special district meeting, by posting up 
notices thereof at three or more public places 
in the district, one of which notices shall be 
affixed to the outer door of the school house, if 
there be one in the district ; and said Clerk shall 
give the like notice of every adjourned meet- 
ing, when such meeting shall have been ad- 
journed for a longer period than one month. 
Every notice for a special district meeting shall 
specify the objects for which such meeting is 
called, and no business shall be acted upon at 
any special meeting, not specified in said notice. 

''Sec. 31. The Clerk of the district shall 
draw orders upon the Treasurer of the district, 
for moneys in the hands of such Treasurer, 
which have been apportioned to or raised by the 
district to be applied to the payment of teach- 
ers' wages, and apply such money to the pay- 
ment of teachers' wages as shall have been em- 
ployed by the district Board, or by the citizens 
of the district; and the said Clerk shall draw 
orders on the said Treasurer for moneys in the 
hands of such Treasurer, to be disbursed for 
any other purpose ordered by a district meeting, 
or by the district Board, agreeably to the provi- 
sions of this act. 

''Sec. 32. It shall be the duty of the Clerk to 
make out tax lists of all taxes legally authorized 
by the district; and annex to such tax lists a 
warrant under the hand of said Clerk directed 
to the said Treasurer of said district, requir- 
ing said Treasurer to collect the same therein 
named. 

"Sec. 33. The Clerk of each district shall, 
between the first and twentieth days of Septem- 



78 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

ber in each year, make out and transmit a re- 
port in writing to the County Superintendent 
of Public Schools showing : 

"First: The number of children, male and 
female, designated separately, residing in the 
district, or part of district, on the last day of 
August previous to the date of such report, over 
the age of four and under the age of twenty-one 
years. 

"Second: The number of children attend- 
ing school during the year, their sex, and the 
branches taught. 

"Third: The length of time a school has 
been taught in the district by qualified teacher, 
the name of the teacher, the length of time 
taught and the wages paid. 

"Fourth: The amount of money received 
from the County Treasurer within the year, and 
the manner in which the same has been applied. 

' ' Fifth : The amount of money raised by the 
district in such year, and the purposes for which 
it was raised. 

"Sixth: The kind of books used in the 
school, and such other facts and statistics in re- 
gard to the district schools as the County Super- 
intendent may require. 

"Sec. 34. Whenever a school district shall 
lie partly in two or more counties, the Clerk of 
such district, in making his annual report, shall 
carefully designate the number of children resi- 
dent in the parts of the counties composing the 
district, and shall report to the County Super- 
intendent of Common schools of each of the 
counties in which such district may be situated. 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 79 

''Sec. 35. The Treasurer shall execute to the 
district a bond, in double the amount of money, 
as near as can be ascertained, to come into his 
hands as Treasurer of the district during the 
year, with sufficient securities, to be approved 
by the Director and Clerk, conditioned to the 
faithful discharge of the duties of said office. 
Such bond shall be filed with the district Clerk, 
and in case of the breach of any condition 
thereof, the Director shall cause a suit to be 
commenced thereon in the name of the district, 
and the money collected shall be applied by such 
Director to the use of the district as the same 
should have been applied by the Treasurer, and 
if such Director shall neglect or refuse to prose- 
cute, then any householder of the district may 
cause such prosecution to be instituted. 

"Sec. 36. If the Treasurer shall fail to give 
bond as required in this act, or from sickness, 
or any other cause, shall be unable to attend the 
duties of said office, the District Board shall 
appoint a Treasurer, who shall possess all the 
powers of the District Treasurer, and shall, be- 
fore entering upon the duties of said office, give 
a bond as the District Treasurer is required to 
give. 

"Sec. 37. The Treasurer of each district 
shall apply for and receive from the County 
Treasurer all school money apportioned to his 
district, and shall collect all district taxes as- 
sessed in pursuance of the provisions of this 
act, and pay over on the order of the Clerk, 
signed by the Director of such district, all 
money so received or collected by the said 
Treasurer. 



80 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

"Sec. 38. If any District Treasurer shall 
refuse or neglect to pay over any money in the 
hands of such Treasurer belonging to the dis- 
trict, it shall be the duty of his successor in 
office to prosecute without delay, the official 
bond of such treasurer for the recovery of such 
money. 

"Sec. 39. If, by the neglect of any Treas- 
urer, any school money shall be lost to any 
school district, which might have been received 
from the County Treasurer, or collected from 
the district tax assessed, said Treasurer shall 
forfeit to such district the full amount of the 
money so lost. 

"Sec. 40. The Treasurer shall present to 
the district, at each annual meeting, a report in 
writing, containing a statement of all moneys 
collected by him from the County Treasurer 
during the year, from assessments in the dis- 
trict, and the disbursements made, and exhibit 
the vouchers thereof, which report shall be re- 
corded by the Clerk ; and if it shall appear that 
any balance of money is in his hands at the time 
of making such report, he shall immediately 
pay such balance to his successor. 

"Sec. 41. The District Board shall purchase 
or lease such a site for a school house, as shall 
have been designated by the voters at a district 
meeting, in the corporate name thereof, and 
shall build, hire, or purchase such school house, 
as the voters of the district, in a district meet- 
ing, shall have agreed upon, out of the funds 
provided for that purpose, and make sale of any 
school house site or other property in the dis- 
trict, and if necessary, execute a conveyance of 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATUKE. 81 

the same in the name of their office when law- 
fully directed by the voters of such district at 
any regular or special meeting, and shall carry 
into effect all lawful orders of the district. 

"Sec. 42. The District Board shall have the 
care and keeping of the school house and other 
property belonging to the district. They shall 
have power to make such rules and regulations 
relating to the district library as they may deem 
proper, and to appoint some suitable person to 
act as librarian, and to take charge of the school 
apparatus belonging to the district. 

"Sec. 43. The District Board shall have 
power to admit scholars from adjoining dis- 
tricts, and remove scholars for disorderly con- 
duct in attendance at school. 

"gee. 44. The District Board in each dis- 
trict shall have power to contract with and hire 
qualified teachers, for and in the name of the 
district, which contract shall be in writing, and 
shall specify the wages per week, or month, as 
agreed upon by the parties, and such contract 
shall be filed in the district Clerk's office; but 
no District Board shall have power to hire any 
person as a teacher, unless such person pro- 
duce a certificate of qualification signed by the 
County Superintendent. 

"Sec. 45. The District Board shall provide 
the necessary appendages for the school house, 
during the time a school is taught therein, and 
shall keep an account of all expenses thus in- 
curred, and present the same for allowance at 
any regular district meeting. 

"Sec. 46. That all schools established under 
the provisions of this act, shall at all times be 
V— e 



82 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

equally free and accessible to all the children 
resident therein, over four and under twenty- 
one years, subject to such regulations as the Dis- 
trict Board in each district may prescribe. 

"Sec. 47. If a vacancy should occur in any 
District Board by death, resignation, or other- 
wise, the County Superintendent shall appoint 
some suitable person to fill such vacancy. 

"Sec. 48. In every school district there shall 
be taught : orthography, reading, writing, arith- 
metic, geography and English grammar if de- 
sired, during the time school shall be kept, and 
such other branches of education as may be de- 
termined by the District Board. 

"Sec. 49. The amount of district tax shall 
not exceed one and one-half per cent, per an- 
num. It shall be the duty of the Board of 
Supervisors of each county in this Territory, at 
The time of making the annual assessment, to 
levy (in addition to the taxes already author- 
ized by law to be levied) one-fifth of one per 
cent, on all the taxable property in each county 
in this Territory, for the support of public 
schools in each of said counties, to be collected 
at the time and (in) the manner prescribed by 
law for the collection of other taxes; said tax, 
when collected, shall be distributed to the sev- 
eral school districts in each county in propor- 
tion to the number of children over four and 
under twenty-one years of age therein; and shall 
be drawn from the County Treasury upon the 
order of the County Superintendent of Public 
Schools. 

"Sec. 50. Said taxes w^hen collected, to- 
gether with all moneys specially appropriated 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 83 

by the acts of this and all former Legislatures, 
for the use and support of public schools in this 
Territory, shall" be paid into the County Treas- 
ury, and be drawn out as hereinbefore pro- 
vided; said fund, so created, shall be known as 
the Common School Fund, and shall not be paid 
out for any other purpose, except for the hire 
and pay of competent teachers. 

"Sec. 51. All taxes raised and collected in 
any school district, for any of the purposes au- 
thorized in this act, shall be assessed on the 
same kind of property as taxes for county pur- 
poses are assessed. 

"Sec. 52. The Clerk of the school district, 
in making out any tax list, shall enter therein 
the names of all persons liable to pay a school 
tax, the amount of personal property to be taxed 
to each person, and a description of all taxable 
real estate in the district, distinguishing that 
owned by non-residents of the district, and he 
shall set opposite to each description of taxable 
property the valuation of the same, and the 
amount of tax charged upon such property, and 
to each person respectively, or tract of land 
owned by non-residents; and such description 
and valuation of taxable property shall be as- 
certained, as far as possible, from the last as- 
sessment roll of the County. 

"Sec. 53. Whenever any real estate in any 
school district shall not have been separately 
valued in the assessment roll of the county, and 
the value of such estate cannot be definitely as- 
certained from such assessment roll, the Dis- 
trict Board of such district shall estimate the 



84 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

value of the same, and apportion the taxes 
thereon. 

"Sec. 54. The warrant annexed to any tax 
list, shall be under the hand of the Clerk of the 
district, and shall command the Treasurer of 
the district to collect from each of the persons 
and corporations named in said tax list, the sev- 
eral sums set opposite their names, within forty 
days from the date thereof, and within twenty 
days from the time of receiving such warrant 
to personally demand such tax of the persons 
charged therewith and residing within his Dis- 
trict; and that if any tax shall not be paid 
within twenty days thereafter, to collect the 
same by distress and sale of property in the 
same manner as the county taxes are collected; 
and the said Treasurer shall execute the said 
warrant and return the same to the Clerk at the 
expiration of the time limited therein for the 
collection of such tax list; provided, that when 
the owners of property within the district are 
non-residents, they shall be notified, by the 
Treasurer, if their place of residence is known, 
and if within the county they shall make pay- 
ment within thirty days; if not within the 
county, but in the Territory, they shall pay 
within forty days, and if without the Territory 
they shall make payment within sixty days. 
Provided, further, that said Treasurer shall be 
entitled to collect two per cent over and above 
the sums to be collected in the tax list. And 
whenever the said Collector shall be compelled 
to resort to distress and sale of property to ob- 
tain any tax, he shall be entitled to, and may 
take out of the proceeds of such sale, in addition 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 85 

to the above mentioned fees, the same fees as 
the County Collector is entitled to under similar 
circumstances. 

*'Sec. 55. The warrant issued by the Clerk 
of any school district, for the collection of any 
district tax authorized by the provisions of this 
act, may be executed anywhere within the limits 
of the county ; and such warrants shall have the 
like force and effect as a warrant issued for the 
collection of county taxes; and the Treasurer of 
the district, to whom any such warrants may be 
delivered for collection of a tax list, shall pos- 
sess the like powers in the execution of the same 
as provided by law for the collection of county 
taxes. 

"Sec. 56. Whenever any error may be dis- 
covered in any district tax list, the district 
Board may order any money which may have 
been improperly collected on such tax list to be 
refunded, and authorize the Clerk of the district 
to amend and correct such error in said tax list. 

*'Sec. 57. Whenever any district tax, law- 
fully assessed shall be paid by any person on 
account of any real estate whereof he is only 
tenant, such tenant may charge and collect of 
the owner of such estate, the amount of tax so 
paid by him, unless some agreement to the con- 
trary shall have been made by the tenant. 

"Sec. 58. It shall be the duty of the teacher 
of every district school, to make out and file 
with the district Clerk at the expiration of each 
term of school, a full report of the whole num- 
ber of scholars enrolled, distinguishing between 
male and female, the average number in daily 
attendance, the text books used, the branches 



86 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

taught, and the number of pupils engaged in 
the study of said branches. Any teacher who 
shall neglect or refuse to comply with the re- 
quirements of this section, shall forfeit the sum 
of ten dollars to such a school district, at the 
discretion of the District Board. 

''Sec. 59. Every Clerk of a District Board 
who shall wilfully sign a false report to the 
County Superintendent of his county, shall be 
deemed guilty of a misdemeanor, and punished 
by a fine not exceeding one hundred dollars, or 
by imprisonment not exceeding three months. 

''Sec. 60. Every School District Clerk or 
Treasurer, who shall neglect or refuse to de- 
liver to his successor in office, all records and 
books belonging to his office, shall be subject to 
a fine not exceeding fifty dollars. 

"Sec. 61. When any kind of judgment shall 
be obtained against any school district, the Dis- 
trict Board shall levy a tax on the taxable prop- 
erty in the district, for payment thereof; such 
tax shall be collected as other school district 
taxes, but no execution shall issue on judgment 
against a school district. 

"62. No school district officer in this act, 
shall receive any compensation for his services 
out of the County or School District Fund. 

"63. All acts and parts of acts in conflict 
with the provisions of this act are hereby re- 
pealed." 

The word "members" in Sec. 10, is e^adently 
a misprint for "numbers." Other sections of 
the act being crudely expressed, the meaning is 
vague and uncertain, but with all its defects 
this law was the foundation upon which was 



THE FIFTH LEGISLATURE. 87 

reared the unsurpassed common school system 
of Arizona. 

This Legislature also passed an Act locating 
the Territorial Prison at or near the town of 
Phoenix in the county of Yavapai and Terri- 
tory of Arizona, which act was approved De- 
cemher 7th, 1868. This law was never enforced. 



88 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 



CHAPTEK IV. 

WHAT CONGRESS DID FOR ARIZONA. 

Collection District Proposed — Improvements 
ON Colorado Eiver Indian Reservation — 
Delegate Bashford's Speech upon — De- 
bate UPON — Amendment to Postal Bn.L — 
Delegate Bashford's Speech upon — Acts 
OF Third, Fourth and Fifth Legislatures 
Legalized — Sixth Legislature held at 
Tucson. 

At the Congressional Session of 1867-68, Coles 
Bashford, the Arizona Delegate in Congress, 
introduced a bill to create a collection district 
for Arizona, which bill was read the first and 
second time and referred to the Committee on 
Ways and Means, where it remained. 

On May 29, 1868, an amendment to the 
Appropriation Bill was introduced by Mr. 
Windom, reading as follows: 

''For completing construction of irrigating 
canal on the Colorado reservation, breaking and 
fencing lands, purchase of seeds, teams and 
tools, construction of agency buildings, subsist- 
ence, etc., $84,500." 

Upon this amendment Mr. Bashford spoke as 
follows : May 29, 1868. 

"Mr. Chairman, I had not intended to say 
anything upon this amendment proposed by the 
chairman of the Committee on Indian Affairs. 
That committee made, so far as they were able, 
a careful examination into this subject, and 
although there was not a full attendance, the 



WHAT CONGRESS DID FOR ARIZONA. 89 

members present were unanimously in favor of 
the amendment now offered. Now, Mr. Chair- 
man, as the representative on this floor of Ari- 
zona Territory, I wish to state what I know of 
the Indians of that country after a residence 
there of some five years. 

''The amendment proposes to bring together 
some ten thousand Indians who now have no 
local habitation, no home, and put them upon 
the reservation. During the discussion upon 
this bill I have heard a great deal about our 
Indian policy. It has been argued that the 
policy pursued by the Government is unwise. 
But, sir, can any better Indian policy be 
adopted than that contemplated by this amend- 
ment, which is to give the Indians a home, to 
put them upon a reservation where they can be 
self-sustaining ^ 

''The principal difficulty in making treaties 
with the Indians has been that when you have 
made a treaty, the Indians having no home, you 
have not been able to enforce it. You cannot 
punish them when they violate their treaty obli- 
gations. But when you put them upon a res- 
ervation, where they gather about them their 
families, their horses, their cattle, where they 
engage in the cultivation of their fields, they 
always keep their treaties, because they can be 
punished when they violate them. Sir, the true 
Indian policy to be pursued by this Government 
is to place these Indians upon reservations. 

"Now, sir, this canal is some thirty miles 
long, some nine feet deep, and some twenty feet 
wide. It will irrigate land enough for all these 
Indians, and some more — not Indians to be 



90 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

picked, as the gentleman from Massachusetts 
has said — but some Indians known as the River 
Indians, who are friendly when they are prop- 
erly treated; who have always been friendly as 
a general rule. And, sir, they have only been 
hostile as the result of such a policy as is con- 
templated by this bill without the proposed 
amendment. Ever since the acquisition of this 
Indian country by the United States the Gov- 
ernment has, through its representatives and 
agents, held out to these Indians the prospect 
that they should be placed upon reservations 
and cared for, as contemplated by this amend- 
ment. By failing to carry out this policy, you 
render the Indians hostile; and sir, I say, not 
for the purpose of affecting this vote, that the 
safety of the people of the country would be 
endangered if these ten or twelve thousand 
Indians should join hands with the Apaches. 

''Upon this reservation all the Indians of 
that country can be supported and cared for; 
and instead of being our enemies they will be 
our friends. We have heretofore raised com- 
panies of Indians to fight the Apaches, who 
have been our foes, stealing our property and 
murdering our people. I presume that this 
amendment was not properly presented and 
pressed before the Committee upon Appropria- 
tion, otherwise they would have been in favor 
of it. I knoAv that it contemplates the only 
policy which the United States can wisely pur- 
sue in regard to the Indians in that far off 
country. ' ' 

Mr. Windom, in support of the amendment, 
had the clerk read the following: 



WHAT CONGRESS DID TOR ARIZONA. 91 

''Plats of survey for canal are on file in the 
Indian Bureau. Estimated cost about one hun- 
dred and twenty thousand dollars, but by Indian 
labor can be done for much less. The canal, 
now already under course of construction, is 
thirty miles in length, twenty feet wide, with an 
average depth of about nine feet. When com- 
pleted will irrigate seventy-five thousand acres 
of land. The work is being prosecuted by the 
Indians, who work with a will, and it is confi- 
dently expected that the entire work will be 
completed during the present year, alfording 
a home for ten or twelve thousand Indians, and 
rendering them in the future entirely self- 
sustaining. Should this appropriation fail 
fears are entertained that the labor already 
performed may be lost by reason of rains and 
overflow of river. This appropriation is asked 
also for breaking and fencing lands, building 
of houses, purchase of seed, agricultural imple- 
ments, etc. 

"There are but two reservations in Arizona — 
the one on the Colorado river, for which the 
appropriation is asked, and the Maricopa and 
Pima reserve on the Gila river. This latter is 
now self-sustaining, and with an Indian popu- 
lation of six thousand, whose boast is 'that they 
do not know the color of the white man's blood,' 
furnishing statistical returns of products of last 
year amounting to $200,000,, and during the year 
have furnished corn for supply of contracts to 
the Government troops in Arizona (Fort Whip- 
ple) at a rate one-half less than has ever been 
furnished heretofore. ' ' 



92i HISTORY or ARIZONA. 

The following debate then took place in regard 
to this amendment: 

MR. WINDOM (Wm. Windom of Minne- 
sota) : — "These facts were presented to me by 
Superintendent Dent. I laid them before a 
minority of the Committee on Indian Aifairs — 
there were no more present — and they imani- 
mously directed me to offer this amendment. 
I believe it to be good policy, and that the Gov- 
ernment would save money by completing this 
work, because it would furnish employment to 
the Indians in the Territory, tending to civilize 
them, for if they are kept at work, enabled to 
raise corn, etc., they will be able to take care of 
themselves, and we would save the cost of keep- 
ing a military force there. If this amount, or 
a portion of it, is not now appropriated, it is 
said that what has already been appropriated 
will be lost." 

MR. MILLER (George F. Miller of Pennsyl- 
vania) : — "How much has been already appro- 
priated?" 

MR. WINDOM:— "About fifty thousand dol- 
lars. ' ' 

MR. BUTLER (Benjamin F. Butler of 
Massachusetts) : — "I will read to the Com- 
mittee of the Whole all the information upon 
this subject which was sent to us by the Sec- 
retary of the Interior to justify this appro- 
priation. It is from a letter written by 
Superintendent Dent, of Arizona Territory : 

" 'Referring to the estimate of $84,500 for 
completing the irrigating canal of the Colorado 
reservation, I again invite your attention to the 



WHAT CONGRESS DID FOR ARIZONA. 93 

insufficiency of the appropriation of $50,000 
current this year to accomplish the whole work. 

" 'The amount above stated, in addition, I 
think, will complete the ditch, buildings, etc. 
I trust that you will concur in this sum, and 
effect its being appropriated. 

" 'Item No. 7, relating to the sum of $20,000 
for maintaining Indians on the reservation that 
may be turned over by the military, I regard as 
very important. There can be no reasonable 
doubt but that the considerable force now en- 
gaged against the hostiles will conquer bands 
or tribes during the coming year, and it is highly 
proper that they should be immediately brought 
on the reservation, kept there by force, if neces- 
sary, and maintained until they can be made 
self-sustaining. ' 

"The proposition, therefore, is to appropriate 
$84,000, in addition to the $50,000 already appro- 
priated, for the purpose of building an irrigat- 
ing canal for Indians, a large portion of whom 
are yet to be caught, and brought in and set to 
work on the land which is to be thus inigated." 

MR. WINDOM:— "The gentleman is mis- 
taken on that point. There are several tribes of 
Indians there, two of them the largest in the 
Territory, I believe. They are now industrious, 
and have never been at w^ar wdth the whites at 
all. Only a portion of the Indians, one tribe, 
is warlike." 

MR. BUTLER :— "Upon examining the whole 
matter as well as w^e could the committee came 
to the conclusion that this was an expenditure 
that could wait, and hence struck out the appro- 



94 HISTOEY OF ARIZONA. 

priation. The gentleman now proposes to put 
it in. 

"I want to call the attention of the committee 
to the fact that in this bill we appropriate 
$35,000 to take care of the Indians of this Ter- 
ritory. According to the official returns there 
are seven thousand of them. We appropriate 
$15,000 to take care of ninety-three hundred 
and thirty Indians in Idaho. Now, the amend- 
ment asks an appropriation to build a canal. A 
canal nine feet deep, instead of being merely 
for purposes of irrigation, looks to me like a 
manufacturing project. Somebody, I imagine, 
wants to get water power. It is an immense 
work, and must cost quite a large amount. I 
think it had better wait a year. The Indians 
always have been without it, and in my judg- 
ment they can live without it another year. I 
hope the amendment will not prevail." 

The amendment was rejected. 

The canal in question was never built. The 
$50,000 which was said to have been appro- 
priated before for this purpose was used, just 
how no one knows, for according to Genung, 
there was less than one-half a mile of the canal 
built and the River Indians were never collected 
upon this reservation. A part of the Mohaves 
were gathered there, but the most of them were 
on the war-path in 1868, as will be seen further 
on in this history. 

At this session of Congress an amendment 
was passed to the postal bill, which bill was en- 
titled "An Act to provide for carrying the mails 
from the United States to foreign ports, and for 



WHAT CONGRESS DID FOR ARIZONA. 95 

other purposes," approved March 25th, 1864. 
The fourth section of this law was as follows : 

"And be it further enacted. That all mailable 
matter which may be conveyed by mail westward 
beyond the western boundary of Kansas, and 
eastward from the eastern boundary of Cali- 
fornia, shall be subject to prepaid letter postage 
rates; Provided, however. That this section shall 
not be held to extend to the transmission by mail 
of newspapers from a known office of publication 
to bona fide subscribers, not exceeding one copy 
to each subscriber, nor to franked matter to and 
from the intermediate points between the bound- 
aries above named at the usual rates : Provided 
further. That such franked matter shall be sub- 
ject to such regulations as to its transmission 
and delivery as the Postmaster General shall 
prescribe." 

The bill was first considered in the House and 
an amendment striking out this section was 
passed, causing it to take effect immediately. 
In the Senate this amendment was inserted : 

''Strike out all after the enacting clause, and 
in lieu thereof insert the following : 

" 'The operation of the fourth section of an 
act to provide for carrying the mails of the 
United States to foreign ports, and for other 
purposes, approved March 25, 1864, shall cease 
and determine on and after the 30th day of 
September, 1868,' " the Senate fixing the time 
when the amendment should go into effect, as 
will be seen, on the 30th of September, 1868, 
when the contracts for carrying the mails would 
cease. The bill came back, as amended by the 
Senate, for concurrence in the house. A lively 



96 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

fight was had upon the amendment. The Chair- 
man of' the Committee on Post Office and Post 
Roads, Mr. Farnsworth of Illinois, endeavored 
to have it referred to his committee, with the 
intent, as charged by some of the friends of the 
bill, upon the floor of the House, to kill the bill. 
The ensuing debate was participated in by the 
Delegates from Colorado^ Montana and Arizona, 
and Mr. Ashley, Representative from the State 
of Nevada, in which it was shown that news- 
papers only forty and fifty miles from the rail- 
road which was built at that time, had to be sent 
by express, and cost seventy-five cents a pound ; 
that newspapers printed in San Francisco and 
in the East were sold at twenty-five cents a copy 
by the news agents on account of this excessive 
tariff ; that periodicals and magazines were sold 
at a dollar and a half a copy ; that books which 
cost probably at wholesale by the publishers 
fifty cents a copy, were sold at two and three 
dollars. This, it was contended, was a tax upon 
intelligence. The populations of these Terri- 
tories, amounting in the aggregate to between 
two and three hundred thousand people, 
pioneers in these localities, could not afford 
reading matter on account of the excessive 
tariff. 

The debate was a long one, and the represen- 
tative from the State of Nevada, and the Dele- 
gates from the Territories affected, were heard. 
Mr. Bashford, Delegate from Arizona, spoke as 
follows in favor of the amendment and its imme- 
diate passage : 

''Mr. Speaker, this bill has been deliberately 
considered in this House. All the objections 



WHAT CONGRESS DID FOR ARIZONA. 97 

made to it were met at the time when it passed. 
It was deliberately considered in the Senate, and 
they put an amendment upon the bill fixing a 
future day for it to go into operation. No one 
can object to that except the friends of the bill. 
Instead of going into effect immediately it is 
to go into effect at a future day. We make no 
objection to that. If I understand the chair- 
man of the Committee on the Post Office and 
Post Roads he does not go back and renew the 
objections made here at the time the bill was 
passed, but says that since that time there have 
been contracts entered intoi, and this would 
affect those contracts, and those contractors 
would come here and charge the Government 
more than they otherwise would if we should 
take this restriction off of jDrinted mail matter. 
Now, this question has been before Congress 
for the last year and more. This bill was in- 
troduced a long time before; and, sir, if it had 
been desirable, if the Committee on the Post 
Office and Post Roads had wished this bill to 
pass, how easy it would have been for them to 
suspend, by joint resolution, the letting of these 
contracts until the bill was passed, and then 
urged the bill through the House, putting our 
people upon equal footing in all respects with 
other people of the United States. The pio- 
neers who go into our remote Territories have 
hardships enough to endure. They have dan- 
gers and trou])les to meet from the Indians. 
You have collectors and receivers of public 
money among us. You make us help bear the 
burdens of Government, and yet deny us the 



yo HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

right to send newspapers and other printed mat- 
ter through the mails. I think it would be a 
great injustice not to pass this at once. I hope, 
therefore, it will not be referred to the Com- 
mittee on the Post Office and Post Roads." 

As I have said, it was hotly contested by the 
Connnittee on the Post Office and Post Roads, 
but finally the House concurred in the amend- 
ment of the Senate, and the bill was passed. 
Thereafter all printed matter was carried 
through the mails and not by Wells, Fargo & 
Company. 

Wells, Fargo & Company, upon the building 
of the Central Pacific, by some agreement with 
that corporation, took over the exclusive right 
to forward express matter over their lines, and, 
therefore, there was an alliance between this 
corporation and that of the Pacific Railroads 
w^hich made a strong combination in Congress. 
It is the first and for many years the only time 
in Congress w^hen a combination of the Express 
and Railroad Companies was defeated in any 
measure they wished to pass. 

In 1867 a decision was handed down by Judge 
Backus declaring that the Third, Fourth and 
Fifth Legislatures of Arizona w^ere illegal, the 
apportionment for which was made by the Gov- 
ernor instead of by the Legislature, as required 
by the Organic Act. This decision threw every- 
thing into confusion. Laws passed during these 
sessions and criminals convicted, w^ere all de- 
clared illegal, and Congress was called upon and 
did, in the session of 1869-70, pass a bill, legaliz- 
ing the action of these Legislatures. There was 



WHAT CONGRESS DID FOR ARIZONA. 99 

no Territorial Legislature called here in 1869, 
for the reason that Mr. McCormick, the Gov- 
ernor,, was elected to Congress and took his seat 
in 1868, while his successor, Gov. Safford, did 
not arrive in the Territory until after the time 
had elapsed for the calling of the Legislature, 
and the Secretary for some reason or other 
failed to do so. 

The next Legislature of Arizona was held in 
1871 at Tucson, and thereafter sessions were 
held hiennially instead of annually. 



100 HISTOEY OF ARIZONA. 



CHAPTER V. 

EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 

Kansas Pacific Railway's Expedition for 
Southern Railway to Pacific Coast — 
Story of by William A. Bell — Fort 
Bowie — Murders by and Adventures 
With the Indians. 

In the spring of 1867 tlie Kansas Pacific Rail- 
way Company organized a very extensive sur- 
veying expedition to determine upon the best 
route for a southern railway to the Pacific Coast 
through Kansas, Colorado, New Mexico, Aii- 
zona, and the southern part of California. 
Until the Rio Grande del Norte, about equidis- 
tant from the Mississippi and the Pacific, was 
reached, three separate surveying parties were 
employed, but between that river and the Pacific 
coast there were no less than five parties, each 
equipped to make an accurate instrumental sur- 
vey across that part of the continent by different 
routes on different parallels of latitude. For 
this expedition the United States Government 
furnished escorts and transportation and other 
assistance, without which the undertaking, at 
that time, would have been impossible, for most 
of the Indian tribes were at war with the whites. 

These expeditions were under the general 
charge of General W. W. Wrights who con- 
tinued in personal charge of them imtil they 
reached the Rio Grande, when he returned to 
Denver to make reports to his principals, and 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 101 

left the completion of the surveys in the hands 
of General W. J. Palmer. 

At Fort Craig the several parties were re- 
organized, their numbers increased, and their 
escorts doubled preparatory to exploring the 
difficult country lying to the westward. From 
the Eio Grande to the Colorado of the West, 
and thence across the desert, or Great Basin, 
as it was commonly called, into California, the 
parties surveyed and examined two entirely 
different districts, lying parallel to each other 
but separated by lofty mountains and table- 
lands, and distant from each other only about 
two degrees. One party, consisting of three 
bodies of surveyors, passed into California 
through the Moqui country and northern Ari- 
zona, a country famous for its wild and beautiful 
scenery and studded over with the ruins of an 
extinct population. This was along the 35th 
parallel and had been explored by Whipple, in 
1854-5, and afterwards by Lieutenant Beale in 
1858. It is known as the 35th parallel route 
across the continent, and the survey made bj^ 
these parties was afterwards used in the con- 
struction of the Santa Fe and Atlantic & Pacific 
Railroads through Arizona. 

The other part of the expedition, consisting 
of two surveying parties, descended the Rio 
Grande valley for a distance of seventy-two 
miles below Fort Craig before turning west- 
ward. They then explored the barren districts 
lying between the Rio Gila and the boundary of 
Mexico, this route b(>ing known as the 32d 
parallel route. The route laid out by this ex- 
pedition was somewhat changed in the construe- 



102 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

tion of the road later by tlie Southern Pacific 
Company. 

An account of these surveys is contained in a 
book printed in London, England, in 1870, en- 
titled ^'New Tracks in North America," by 
William A. Bell, avIio started out as photog- 
rapher for one of the parties and afterwards 
became physician and surgeon for the party. 

The story of Mr. Bell is one of absorbing 
interest. It gives in detail many camp scenes 
and also tells of the difficulties encountered in 
prosecuting the survey at that time. His ac- 
comit of the arrival of the expedition at Fort 
Bowie, and what happened there is as follows: 

'^Fort Bowie is situated about six miles up 
the pass. It consists of a small collection of 
adobe houses, built on the summit of a hill, which 
rises as a natural lookout station in the centre 
of the defile, and commands the road both ways 
for two or three miles of its length. The only 
officers at the time of our visit were Lieutenant 
Carrol, Lieutenant Hubbard, and the resident 
surgeon ; the only troops, one small company of 
forty men. The officers insisted upon Lawson, 
Colton, and myself sharing their quarters ; they 
had not had a visitor of any kind for months, 
and had almost forgotten that the world was 
inhabited. 

"After luncheon I strolled out upon a higher 
hilltop to choose a good position for taking a 
photograph of the fort and pass. The view was 
a very beautiful one, for we were hemmed in 
on all sides by lofty mountains^, the most con- 
spicuous of which is Helen's Dome. Some two 
miles distant in the pass, the sheep and oxen 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 103 

belonging to the fort were peacefully graz- 
ing, when suddenly I perceived a commotion 
amongst the garrison. All were hurrying to the 
highest part and looking towards the cattle, 
from which direction I heard a few shots fired. 
It appeared on inquiry that the mail carrier, 
going west to Tucson, had only gone on his way 
a short distance past the cattle, just beyond the 
turning in the road which hid him from the fort, 
when he suddenly came ux)on two Indians who 
w^ere stealthily creeping up towards the stock. 
Shots were exchanged, and he immediately 
turned back to give the alarm to the men guard- 
ing the cattle, and to the sentinels at the fort. 
The Indians showed themselves two or three 
times in the open, and then disappeared. It 
was useless for us, with our wearied horses, to 
join in the chase after a couple of naked red 
men, so we remained behind. 

"So poorly supplied was this little fort, if 
such a term may be applied to a collection of 
mud huts, that two horses represented the entire 
stock. It was customary to keep one of them 
with the herd and the other in the stable, and 
the favorite chestnut of the lieutenant's, a high 
mettled, splendid creature, happened this day 
to be at home. It was immediately saddled. 
Carrol was quite young; he had only seen eigh- 
teen summers, and looked even younger, for his 
hair was very fair, and he had not the least tinge 
of whisker on his smooth cheeks. I remember 
watching him spring with one bound from the 
ground into his saddle, wave his hand merrily 
to us, and then dash down the steep winding' 
road which led from the fort to the pass below. 



104 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

Again we saw him racing as fast as the horse 
could gallop along the pass after the mail car- 
rier, who, being previously mounted, had started 
off with the infantry. I went back to my photog- 
raphy, for there w^ere many views I wished to 
obtain ; but my friend. Lieutenant Lawson, could 
not remain long inactive. He was a great char- 
acter. Although very short, quite grey with 
years, and not in the least like a military man, 
he was the gamest little fellow I ever met. So 
fond of soldiering did he become during the war, 
that he could not settle down again to business. 
Though one of the steadiest of men, and a re- 
ligious man also, a great rarity out West, he 
actually left his good wife and family comfort- 
ably settled at Cincinnati, changed his social 
position from wholesale hardware merchant and 
ex-colonel of volunteers to simple lieutenant in 
the regular army, and started to join a Western 
regiment. The merest chance of a brush with 
the Indians was irresistible; so he ordered out 
his six men and their six jaded horses, and off 
they went down the winding road, and then 
away out of sight along the pass. 

"As the afternoon went by most of the in- 
fantry returned by twos and threes, and we 
were just sitting cIowtl to dinner when Lieu- 
tenant Lawson and his men rode into the fort. 
They had hunted about all over the mountain 
and' through the ravines, but had encountered 
no savages, nor even caught a glimpse of a red- 
skin. Carrol, to our surprise, was not with 
them. We made inquiries, and found that all 
had reported themselves except the lieutenant 
and the mail carrier. We questioned those who 



EXPLORATIONS AND SUEVEYS. 105 

had gone the furthest, and a shepherd just back 
from over the hills ; these agreed that they had 
heard the distant report of firearms, coming 
apparently from the western plain. This was 
the direction the two redskins had taken. So 
we saddled our horses without a moment's de- 
lay, and, with sickening forebodings in our 
hearts, started across the mountains to the west- 
ern plain. We scrambled up the base of Helen 's 
Dome, which was so steep as almost to baffle our 
horses, w^ell trained as they were to all sorts of 
bad places ; then, after skirting the side for some 
distance, w^e crossed a ravine to another moim- 
tain slope, down which we plunged, over large 
blocks of limestone and marble, leading our 
horses by the bridles, and clambering through 
them as best we could. Every moment was 
precious, for the sun had almost set before we 
reached the plain. 

''Then we spread out in line, nine in number; 
for there was no enemy in sight, and our only 
hope was to strike the trail; for we knew they 
must have passed somewhere in this direction. 
Every eye was fixed on the ground, every blade 
of grass was closely scanned; our souls w^ere in 
our eyes. At last one marked 'pony tracks'; 
then another called out, 'This way they lead'; 
not two, three or four tracks, but many; per- 
haps a dozen. The white men had evidently 
followed too far in pursuit, and falling into an 
ambuscade, had been cut off from their com- 
rades. Most of the hoofprints were naked, but 
two set were shod. These were certainly those 
of the missing horses. We could not hurry on 
very rapidly without losing the trails^ and yet 



106 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

there was not half an hour's daylight. For 
three miles farther we pressed on, carefully 
tracking our way. We passed a spot much 
tram23led down and blood-stained. Here the 
poor fellows had made a stand; had probably 
tried to cut their way back through their 
enemies, who were driving them from the fort. 
A little further, and all hope of one life was 
gone. The mail carrier lay stretched upon the 
open plain — scalped, naked, and mutilated — in 
the setting sun. This poor man wore whiskers, 
and the savages produced even a more startling 
effect than usual by scalping one of them. Thus 
half of the face was stripped of skin, and the 
bleeding muscles were laid bare. 

' ' We could not stop a moment ; but, dragging 
up two huge maguay plants to mark the spot, we 
followed the pony tracks. The sun sank, and 
it was only by the red glare thrown up from 
behind the horizon, and reflected by the bare 
moimtains of rock to the east of us, that we 
were able to track our way. So difficult was it 
at last that we began to desj)air of ever learn- 
ing the fate of poor Carrol. We longed to see 
his dead body; for the idea of his being taken 
alive to be tortured and roasted over a slow fire, 
whilst the fiends danced around him, and ex- 
ulted over his agony, was the one dread consum- 
mation which made our blood run cold. No one 
spoke, for we all knew that such would be his 
fate if that sun had not shone upon his corpse. 

''As we took a last searching look over the 
dimly lighted plain in front of us, we saw an 
object move slightly on the grass. We quickly 
rode towards it, and in half a mile further we 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 107 

found that it was the faithful dog of the lieu- 
tenant. He was guarding the stiff and lifeless 
body of his master. So we wrapped the naked 
body in a saddle cloth and tied it on a horse. 

"But for the moon we should not have found 
the spot where the mail carrier lay. We placed 
him also on another horse, and then turned our 
faces towards the pass. The wolves were 
already gathering around the spot, and the 
night winds were blowing up cold and chill. 
The night before, that same beautiful moon 
which now shone peacefully down upon us, had 
lighted us through the noble gorge in the Pelon- 
cello Mountains, while we sang choruses and 
enjoyed the grandeur of the scene. This night 
she lighted us through another gorge, in an- 
other range of mountains — Apache Pass — but 
how different were our feelings as slowly we 
marched in mournful silence over the nine miles 
which led up to the fort! Thus ended the 5th of 
November. 

'^Next morning we buried the poor fellows in 
the little graveyard amongst the mountains. 
The doctor read the burial service, and Lieu- 
tenants Hubbard, Colton, Law^son, and myself 
w^ere the chief mourners. When the final volley 
had been fired over our two poor comrades, and 
I turned to glance at the tablets of their com- 
panions, I read on the wooden crosses over 
every grave but one, the same sad story of their 
fate — 

'* 'KILLED BY THE APACHES.' 

"When Cachees' six best warriors were wan- 
tonly hanged five years before, that bold chief- 



108 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

tain vowed that for eveiy-one of his lost com- 
rades, a hundred white men should die by the 
hands of himself and his band. Two more 
scalps were thus added to the long strings of 
those which already hung from the belts of the 
Chiricahui braves." 

On the northern route, also, the parties there 
came into frequent contact with the Apaches, 
one of which. General Palmer's account of his 
own personal experience, I give below: 

"Camp in Signal Canyon. 
Eastern Foot of Mogollon Range, 
Near San Francisco Mountain, 
Arizona, Dec. 8, 1867. 
''After climbing and scrambling among these 
mountains for more than two weeks since leav- 
ing Prescott, endeavoring to find a route east- 
ward to the Colorado Chiquito without passing 
over San Francisco Mountain, I have at last 
reached the valley of that river, and am waiting 
here in camp this pleasant December Sunday 
for the return of Hinchman, whom I have sent 
down the river to get news if possible of Green- 
wood's whereabouts. Hinchman will probably 
find a mound there with a letter buried, con- 
taining an account of Greenwood's movements, 
and stating where we can find him. We have 
two signal fires burning on the highest points 
overlooking our camp to guide Hinchman to us, 
and from this we have called the tributary of 
Canyon Diablo in which we are encamped, 
'Signal Canyon.' I have called it a camp, but 
it is only a 'high toned' bivouac, as we parted 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 109 

with tents and wagons a fortnight ago, and since 
that time have relied on pack mules, and even 
these have been unable to cross the rugged 
country through which this reconnaissance has 
been made without sacrificing some of their 
number to the good of the cause. 

"Last Monday, for instance^ at the close of 
the day, while following an old Indian trail 
across one of the MogoUon ranges, suddenly, 
without the least previous indication, there 
yawned at our feet one of those fearful chasms 
• — the terror of all tired travelers, when they 
think a few more miles of gentle march will 
bring them to a good camping spot — which are 
here one of the great characteristics of the 
country. If 'unexpectedness' be one of the ele- 
ments of romantic grandeur in scenery, this gulf 
of brown and grey rock has high claims for pre- 
eminence in this respect, with its precipitous 
sides, 500 feet deep, and apparently so narrow 
that it is first difficult to appreciate fully the 
hard fact that, before you can continue your 
march, it is absolutely necessary to descend 
to the very bottom, and then, if you can, to 
ascend on the other side. Perhaps days would 
have to be consumed in heading the inexorable 
channel. There is no help for it, and although 
the tall spruce trees in the bed look like saplings, 
and the stream of water rushing along among 
great boulders resembles a thread, and your 
head swims as you gaze down from the brink, 
the course lies east — northeast ; and where none 
but the Apache has ever gone down before, and 
he on foot, you have to lead your horse, jumping 
out of his way when he slips and slides on the 



110 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

bare rock, and dodging the loose boulders which 
are rolled down by the column following you. 

''It is assumed in this country that wherever 
an Indian has made a foot trail a pack mule can 
follow. We expected to come across many such 
paths, and, after our previous experience, would 
have been much surprised had we not met some 
of the trail makers as well as their trails. In 
the ascent of this canyon by which we are 
camped there was considerable difficulty. One 
strong mule, having nearly reached the top, 
slii3ped and rolled over and over till he reached 
the bottom — dead. Another tumbled nearly as 
far, but must have had a very steady and well 
ordered brain, as the moment he struck the 
river bed below, he stood upon his feet, and has 
made a day 's march with us since ; but we had 
to shoot him yesterday. A third tumbled half- 
way down, and is an ugly spectacle, with his 
gashed eye and flank, but is marching along all 
right now, doing regular service. 

' ' But very few days have passed since leaving 
Prescott in which we did not meet recent signs 
of Indians; the rude wigwams of bunch grass 
and branches, which the Arizonians call 'wicky- 
ups'; the moccasin tracks, the mescal heaps, 
where the Indian has been roasting his supply 
of winter subsistence, composed almost entirely, 
of this root; the sweating house or earth oven, 
which he gets into when sick, and which is almost 
his sole remedy for disease ; the fresh trail, and 
the ' ranch eria,' or village of a greater or less 
number of wigwams. 

"We have been surrounded by these con- 
stantly, but all were abandoned; and although 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. Ill 

the stealthy Apache was watching us from every 
rocky lookout, we could nowhere catch sight of 
him. An inexperienced traveler would have 
imagined that there had been a general exodus, 
and that the whole race had disappeared — had 
gone to the Tonto basin, or the Gila, or some 
remote hiding-place. 

"If he wanted to have this mistake corrected, 
he should have done as we did; he should have 
gone down into a canyon and traveled along its 
bed for a few miles, until he had reached a place 
w^here you can look up on either side and not dis- 
cover the remotest chance of getting out — 
where ahead, and in the rear, as far as you can 
see, it looks like a deep grey cof&n. Then sud- 
denly he would hear a war-whoop that would 
make him think that all the savages in the Rocky 
Mountains, from Fort Bridger to Apache Pass, 
were within bow and arrow range. 

"A week or two ago, on an occasion very 
similar to the above, General Gregg was with 
me. We were hunting for a route from the 
Val de Chino, eastward to the Colorado Chi- 
quito, by crossing the headwaters of the streams 
flowing into the Rio Verde close up to where 
they emerged from the high rocky wall at the 
base of the San Francisco Mountains, when we 
came to the canyon of Sycamore Fork. We suc- 
ceeded in descending the gorge; but the ascent 
was so exceedingly steep, that we thought the 
pack train could not climb up out of it ; and con- 
cluded, in spite of its violating the fundamental 
rule of Indian warfare in these mountains, to 
return to the bed of the canyon and follow it to 
its mouth. 



112 HISTORY OF AEIZONA. 

"It was strewn with fragments of red sand- 
stone, from the size of a church to that of a 
pebble, over which we dragged our footsore ani- 
mals very slowly. We had made some eight 
miles when, as it seemed, at the roughest part 
of the whole way, where nature had made a sort 
of waste closet at random for all the shapeless 
blocks and sharp-cornered masses of rock and 
washed out boulders that she had no time to 
work up and wished to hide from sight, we sud- 
denly heard a shot from the brink of the canyon 
at our rear, and the dreaded war-whoop burst 
upon us. Then we looked up to the right and 
left, ahead and to the rear ; but the walls seemed 
everywhere as tall as a church-steeple, with 
scarcely a foot hold from top to base. They 
had looked high before^, and the chasm narrow, 
but now it seemed as though we were looking up 
from the bottom of a deep well or a tin mine, 
and no bucket to draw us up by. Soon the 
shots were repeated, and the yells were followed 
by showers of arrows. We staggered and 
stumbled, about as fast as a very slow ox team, 
along the rocky bed, till we came to some bushes, 
and then stopped. 

"Some of the Indians had got on the edge of 
the canyon ahead of us, whose yells answered 
those from the rear; and the whole concatena- 
tion of sounds echoed among the cliffs till it 
seemed to us that every rancheria in Arizona 
had poured out its dusky warriors to over- 
whelm us. 

"It was a yell of triumph — of confidence. 
It appeared to say, 'Oh, ye wise and boastful 
white men, with vour drilled soldiers and re- 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 113 

peating guns, and wealth and power, who came 
out to hunt the poor Indian from his wigwam, 
look where we have got you! We have only 
been waiting for you to make some blunder; 
now we shall take advantage of it, and not let 
any of you escape. It shall be worse than at 
Fort Kearney, for not even one shall be spared 
to tell the story. It will be a good place to 
bury you; in fact, you are already buried in as 
deep a grave as you could wish. We shall only 
leave you there, that is all. Ha! ha! What 
are your Spencer carbines worth, and your sol- 
diers with their fine uniforms and drill"? It 
is only the old lesson we are teaching you; our 
forefathers taught it to Braddock, and it has 
been repeated many times since; but we shall 
drive it into you deeper than ever it has been 
before, ha! ha! You thought we had all gone, 
but our eyes were never off you ; and now we 
are gathering our warriors from every hiding 
place. This is the way we call them out- 
whoop! whoop! and they are lining the edge of 
the canyon before and behind you. You can 
take your time. It is only ten miles to the 
mouth; and the farther you go the deeper the 
canyons get. Perhaps you wish to retreat ? It 
is only eight miles back, and you know what sort 
of a path it is. From the cedars on the brink we 
will pick you off at our leisure, and you shall 
not see one of us. This country belongs to us^ 
the whole of it ; and we do not want your people 
here, nor your soldiers, nor your railroad. Get 
away to where you belong— if you can, ha! ha!' 
''it was not all this in detail, but the sum and 

V— 8 



114 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

concentration of it, that flashed through my 
mind as I listened to those yells, now rising 
clear and wild on the breeze, and now dying 
away in the distance. 

"We moved close up to the foot of the wall, 
from the top of which the shots came, thinking 
it would be too steep for them to hit us ; but the 
great rocks that came rolling down upon us, re- 
sounding almost like heavy ordnance through 
the canyon, drove us away from the slight shel- 
ter. Here was a new danger, and a very serious 
one^ since there was no hope that this kind of 
anununition would give out, and the Indians 
evidently knew how to use it. 

" 'Now, officers, be quick and sharp in giving 
your orders ! Throw away precedent and drill, 
and come down to native common sense!' 
'Now, soldiers, be prompt, and jump at the word 
of command, and don't get disheartened! And, 
you, muleteers ; scatter out your animals, keep 
them sheltered as much as possible, and avoid all 
disorder. Now, everybody keep cool, for every 
man's life hangs upon a single movement here; 
and if a panic breaks out, all is lost, and the 
latest tragedy in the great Apache war, which 
they say has been waging against the Spaniards 
and Americans for over two hundred years^ will 
have been enacted!' Soon the sharp clear voice 
of the adjutant rang out from behind a huge 
rock in the channel, his carbine at a 'ready,' 
and without moving his eyes from the cliff — 
' Sergeant, send six men to scale that side of the 
canyon!' 

"As they moved out, General Gregg joined 
them and directed their movement. 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 115 

''I gave the next order to the little escort I 
had brought from New Mexico: 'Sergeant 
Miller, station five men on this side of the 
canyon to cover that scaling party with their 
fire. Let them take shelter behind the rocks.' 
This was done, and the devoted little band be- 
gan slowly to ascend what seemed an almost 
vertical wall of sandstone. 

"Until now, although the yells had rmig all 
around us, the firing was confined to the west 
side of the canyon, but at this moment a very 
close shot was fired from the other side, and our 
plans could not be carried out unless this was 
stopped. Another scaling party of six men 
was accordingly detailed, of which I took com- 
mand, and began ascending the eastern cliff, 
covered by the fire of a second small party in the 
canyon. This disposed of all our fighting force, 
the remainder being required to take care of the 
animals. How we got up, God knows; I only 
remember hearing a volley from below, shots 
from above, Indian yells on all sides, the grat- 
ing roar of tumbling boulders as they fell, and 
the confused echoing of calls and shouts from 
the canyon. Exhausted, out of breath, and wet 
with perspiration, boots nearly torn off, and 
hands cut and bleeding, I sat down on the sum- 
mit and looked around. Across the narrow 
chasm I saw the other scaling party. Every- 
thing was as quiet as death, the Indians had dis- 
appeared — melting away as suddenly and mys- 
teriously as they had at first appeared. They 
had gone to their hidden lairs, cowed by our 
determined approach. 



116 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

''It had been hurriedly arranged before we 
ascended, that the scaling parties should move 
on down stream at the brink of the canyon, cov- 
ering the pack train and animals which would 
march along the bed. Accordingly we moved 
on towards the Rio Verde; but, in consequence 
of side canyons, were compelled to keep back 
at least half a mile nearer to the foot of the 
mountain than the course of the canyon. 

"Six miles further, while skirting a ridge 
which projected from the mountain, the Indians 
from the top began yelling again like demons, 
and firing at us, but the range was too long to do 
any harm. They were too cowardly to attack 
even our small party, and now that we were no 
longer engulfed in a canyon, we laughed at their 
whoops. They followed us, however, hoping to 
catch us in a ravine, but we always sent three 
men across first to cover the rest and be covered 
by them in turn. 

"Just as the sun was setting we recognized 
from a high point the mouth of the Sycamore 
and the valley of the Eio Verde. We had not 
been able, from the roughness of the country, 
to approach the side of the canyon in which we 
supposed the rest of the party were moving, and 
could not, therefore, ascertain their where- 
abouts. But at last, toward dark, we descended 
a second time, by a deep side gorge, into the 
canyon, dropping down fully 2,000 feet in the 
space of half an hour. It was just light enough 
when we reached the bed of the main canyon 
to discover that our party had not passed down 
it;, and although fearful lest the Apaches should 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 117 

notice our descent and again pepper us in the 
narrow ravine, we turned up it to meet them. 

*'That night's march up the canyon, over the 
broken rocks and through the tangled thickets, 
was worse, if anything, than the attack. Every 
pebble in the darkness was magnified to a 
boulder, and every boulder seemed as large as 
a house ; fording the rapid stream twenty times, 
we shivered with cold and wet when we halted 
for a brief rest; expecting every moment to 
meet our party encamped, we yet wondered how 
they would dare to stop in such a jDlace. 
Finally, near midnight, we halted under some 
sheltering rocks, and concluded to take some 
sleep; but the guides protested against having 
a fire, saying the Indians would detect and shoot 
into it. To sleep without one, however, was 
impossible. At last I concluded that it was 
better to die from an Indian arrow than to 
freeze to death in the darkness, and ordered a 
small one to be lighted, beside which we sat and 
slept and shivered until a little before daylight, 
when we took another smoke for breakfast and 
pushed out into the darkness to continue our 
march up the stream. 

''During the night a great rock had either 
become dislodged or had been rolled down by 
Indians, but it fell into the canyon with a report 
like thunder. I started up and found I had not 
dreamt it. I would give something to have a 
faithful picture of that little party, with the 
expression of each as they stood or leaned, star- 
ing out into the pitch dark canyon, and wonder- 
ing what would come next. 



118 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

"By daybreak we had got well on our way; 
when we heard shots in the rear, which we pre- 
sumed to be Indians firing into our abandoned 
camp. We commended ourselves for early ris- 
ing and pushed on, wondering what could have 
become of General Gregg's jjarty. Finally, the 
guides insisted on getting out of the canyon and 
striking towards Prescott, but I ordered them 
to keep ahead, feeling confident that we should 
soon meet the party or its trail. 

"At last all hope seemed to be gone, and I 
agreed to climb out up the western cliff. It was 
as much as we could do to reach the top, and 
imagine our feelings on arriving there to find 
that we were merely on a vertical ledge of rock, 
and that immediately on the other side was the 
same canyon we had come along an hour before. 
We scrambled along the narrow ledge, however, 
faint from hunger and fatigue, having come 
nearly twenty miles on foot, up and down can- 
yons and steep ravines, climbing through moun- 
tain passes and stumbling over the rocky bed 
of the streams — equivalent to at least sixty 
miles, as we thought, on a level road. We had 
had nothing to eat for over twenty-four hours, 
and very little sleep ; the night was bitterly cold, 
our overcoats were left behind when we scaled 
the cliif during the Indian attack, and we had 
nothing to comfort us but a 'Tucson blanket' 
each, which scant covering can scarcely be inter- 
preted in genteel society. 

"Such was our condition when one of the 
party cried out, 'What is that smoke?' I gol 
out my fieldglass, and saw two fires, and some 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 119 

animals grazing contentedly on a distant hill. 
'That is camp, boys! Orderly, fire two shots in 
quick succession ! ' The shots were fired. Anx- 
iously we listened for the acknowledgment. 
It came soon — the two welcome answering shots, 
and we strode on with renewed hearts. 

"Now, if we had not seen camp, I could have 
walked as many miles as we had already gone 
without giving up, but when I came within two 
miles of camp, and felt certain of succor, and 
could talk with General Gregg across a deep 
canyon, only half a mile distant, my legs, some- 
how, or other, refused to carry me further, and 
I came to the conclusion that infantry service 
was disagreeable on an empty stomach. So I 
made a fire and laid down to sleepj and sent for 
rations, which my faithful servant, George, 
brought out to me in the rain, with a flask of 
whisky from General Gregg, and strict injunc- 
tions to be sure to drink it all — a command I 
promptly obeyed. I hope the Temperance 
Society will forgive me, as I could have drunk 
a demijohn under the circumstances without 
being affected by it. 

"It was by no means a short walk even from 
where we were to General Gregg's camp, as we 
had to head the deep side canyon, and to cross 
several others near their sources. It was rain- 
ing, and the ground and rocks were slippery; 
but at last we arrived and received the gratula- 
tions of the party, w^ho had heard the Indian 
shots and shouts, and feared we had met too 
many of the 'noble reds.' 

"General Gregg had found a way out of the 
Sycamore Canyon along a horrible trail, by un- 



120 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

loading Ms pack mules and making several trips 
of it. He had signaled to us, but had no means 
of communication^ and supposed we had struck 
for Camp Lincoln, a military post in the valley 
of the Verde fifty miles to the south. 

"My noble gray horse, Signor, is gone. He 
had helped to carry me faithfully from Santa Fe 
through New Mexico, and thus far into Ari- 
zona, but he has fallen a martyr to the topog- 
raphy of the sources of the Rio Verde. While 
George was leading him up a precipitous path 
he lost his footing in jumping over a rock, and 
tumbled to the bottom of the canyon, 100 feet, 
killing himself instantly. My other valuable 
horse, Don, whom I intend to take home if I get 
him safely to the Pacific, had just scrambled 
over the same obstruction without stumbling. 
It was nothing less than a miracle that nobody 
was hurt. These Indians are poor shots, which, 
with the scarcity of guns among them, must 
account for our' escape. They are afraid also 
of our 'heap firing guns' as they call the 
Spencers. 

"A little experience of this sort, occasionally, 
is not without use. It enables you to determine 
a number of nice problems which otherwise 
might never have been solved, to say nothing of 
the new phases in which it exhibits the char- 
acter of your comrades ; the test of their true 
heartedness, their pluck, perseverance, and 
generosity. There are also some important 
minor questions to which it supplies accurate 
solutions. For instance, how would a man ever 
know whether a smooth boulder of lava or a flat 
sandstone slab would make the best pillow, until 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 121 

such occasions had induced him to test the mat- 
ter practically at frequent intervals during the 
same night? And how could he ever ascertain 
the durability of a pair of Santa Fe boots under 
active service, until a trial of this kind had 
placed it forcibly before his observation ? And 
while he might hitherto have had a theoretical 
appreciation of the value and excellence of a 
slice of fat pork with 'hard tack' for dessert, it 
is doubtful whether he would ever comprehend 
the essential sw^eetness and delicacy of these 
dishes until, after twenty-four hours' fasting, 
he had watched with a fieldglass across a canyon 
until they should start out toward him from a 
camp two miles distant." 



122 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 



CHAPTER VI. 
EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS (Continued). 

Passage Through Grand Canyon of James 
White, Prospector — Personnel of Pros- 
pecting Party — Attacked by Indians — 
Part of Party Killed — Making of Raft 
BY White and One Companion — Voyage 
Through Canyon — White's Companion 
Drowned — White Continues Alone — 
Experience With Indians — Arrival at 
Callville. 

One of the most interesting stories contained 
in this book (New Tracks in North America), 
is an account of the passage of James White 
down the Grand Canyon of the Colorado upon 
a raft. It was written up by one of the sur- 
veying party from statements made to him by 
White, and, as he was the first man who ever 
descended the Colorado from its source to Call- 
ville, below the Canyon, it is worthy of reproduc- 
tion here: 

"Twenty years ago the trapper and hunter 
were the romantic characters of the Far West. 
They still figure in fiction, and there is a fascina- 
tion about their daring deeds which, in America, 
makes Boone a household name, and throws an 
air of chivalry, seldom to be felt now-a-days, 
around the exploits of such men as Carson, 
Crockett, and Williams. Nor is our admiration 
for these hardy men undeserved; they have 
trapped on every Western stream, and hunted 








^^ji^<.^-\i,^. 





MM 




Looking into the First Granite Gorge, Grand Canyon, Foot of Bright Angel Trail. 

InoliuliiiK marble Canyon division, this gorge is nearly 300 miles long. 
Total depth between 5000 and 6000 feet. 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 123 

on every mountainside, despite the opposition 
of the Indian and the barrier of winter snows. 
They have been the skirmish line of that great 
army of occupation which is daily pushing west- 
ward, and they have taught the savage to respect 
the white man's courage and to fear the white 
man's power. 

"While the field for the trapper and hunter 
has been gradually growing less, another class 
of adventurers has come into existence — the 
* prospectors' in search of precious metals. 
Within the last nineteen years these men have 
traversed every mountain slope, from the 
rugged peaks of British Columbia to the rich 
plateaux of Old Mexico ; and have searched the 
sands of every stream from the Mississippi to 
the shores of the Pacific, stimulated by the same 
hope of reward that led the early Spaniards to 
explore places, still unsettled, in their search for 
an 'El Dorado.' Could the varied and adven- 
turous experience of these searchers for gold be 
written we should have a record of daring and 
peril that no fiction could approach, and the 
very sight of gold would suggest to our minds 
some scene of startling tragedy, some story of 
hair-breadth escape. Could we but gather and 
set down in proper form the geographical knowl- 
edge possessed by these men, we should know as 
much of the western wilds as we now do of the 
long settled portions of the American continent. 

"It has fallen to the lot of one of these pros- 
pectors to be the hero of an adventure more 
thrilling than any heretofore recorded, while, 
at the same time, he has solved a geographical 
problem which has long attracted the attention 



124 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

of the learned at home and abroad, who could 
but theorize before his voyage as to the stupen- 
dous chasms or canyons through which the 
Colorado cleaves its course. 

"James White, our hero, now lives at Call- 
ville, Arizona Territory, the present head of 
navigation on the Colorado Elver. His home 
is in Kenosha, Wisconsin. He is thirty-two 
years of age, and in person is a good type of the 
Saxon ; being of medium height and heavy build, 
with light hair and blue eyes. He is a man of 
average intelligence, simple and unassuming in 
his manner and address, and without any of the 
swagger or bravado peculiar to the majority of 
frontier men. Like thousands of our own 
young men, well enough oft' at home, he grew 
weary of the slow but certain method of earning 
his bread by regular employment at a stated 
salary. He had heard of men leaping into 
wealth at a single bound in the Western gold- 
field^, and for years he yearned to go to the land 
where fortune was so lavish of her favors. 

"He readily consented then to be one of a 
party from his neighborhood who, in the spring 
of 1807, started for the plains and the goldfields 
beyond. When they left Fort Dodger, on the 
Arkansas River, April 13th, 1867, the party con- 
sisted of four men, of whom Captain Baker, an 
old miner and ex-of&cer in the Confederate 
Army, was the acknowledged leader. The 
destination of this little party was the San 
Juan valley west of the Eocky Mountains, about 
the gold fields of which prospectors spoke in the 
most extravagant terms, stating that they were 
only deterred from working the rich placers of 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 125 

the San Juan by fear of the Indians. Baker 
and his companions reached Colorado 'city,' at 
the foot of Pike's Peak, lat. 38°, in safety. 
This place was, and is still, the depot for sup- 
plying the miners who work the diggings scat- 
tered through South Park, and is the more im- 
portant for being situated at the entrance of 
Ute Pass, through which there is a wagon road 
crossing the Rocky Mountains, and descending 
to the plateau beyond. The people of Colorado 
'city' tried to dissuade Baker from what they 
considered a rash project, but he was deter- 
mined to carry out the original plan. These 
representations, however, affected one of the 
men so much that he left the party, and the 
others, Captain Baker, James White, and 
Henry Strole, completed their outfit for their 
prospecting tour. 

"The journey was undertaken on foot, with 
two pack mules to carry the provisions, mining 
tools, and the blankets they considered neces- 
sary for the expedition. On the 25th of May 
they left Colorado 'city,' and crossing the Rocky 
Mountains, through the Ute Pass, they entered 
South Park, being still on the Atlantic slope of 
the continent. Ninety miles brought them 
across the Park to the Upper Arkansas, near 
the Twin Lakes. They then crossed the Snowy 
Range, or Sierra Madre, and descended towards 
the Pacific. Turning southwest, they passed 
around the head waters of the Rio Grande del 
Norte, and after a journey of 400 miles, they 
reached in safety the Animas, the most northern 
branch of the San Juan river, which flows into 
the Great Colorado from the east. 



126 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

"They were now in the land where their 
hopes centered, and to reach which they had 
crossed plains and mountains, and forded rapid 
streams, leaving the nearest abodes of the white 
man hundreds of miles to the east. Their pros- 
pecting for gold began in the bed of the Animas, 
and though they were partially successful, the 
result did not by any means reach their expec- 
tations; so they followed down the stream into 
the main valley of the San Juan. There was 
gold there, but not in the quantity they ex- 
pected ; so they gradually moved west, along the 
beautiful valley, for 200^ miles, when they found 
that the San Juan entered a deep and gloomy 
canyon. To avoid this they forded the river 
to the right bank, and struck across a rough 
timbered country, directing their course towards 
the Great Colorado. 

''Having traveled through this rough country 
for a distance estimated at fifty miles, they 
reached Grand River, being still above the 
junction of Green river, the united waters of 
which two streams form the Colorado proper. 
At the point where they struck the river it was 
hemmed in by cliffs of perpendicular rock, down 
which they could gaze at the coveted water, 
dashing and foaming two thousand feet below. 
Men and animals were suffering for water, so 
they pushed up the stream along the rocky un- 
even canyon wall, hoping to find a place where 
they could descend to the river. After a day 
spent in clambering over and around the huge 
rocks that blocked their way, they came upon 
a side canyon, which they succeeded in descend- 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 127 

ing with their animals, and where they obtained 
the water of which all stood so much in need. 

*'0n the night of the 23rd of August they en- 
camped at the bottom of the canyon, where they 
found plenty of fuel, and grass in abundance 
for their animals. As they sat around the 
camp fire they lamented their failure in the 
San Juan country, and Strole began to regret 
that they had undertaken the expedition. But 
Baker, who was a brave, sanguine fellow, spoke 
of placeres up the river about which he had 
heard, and promised his companions that all 
their hopes should be realized, and that they 
should return to their homes to enjoy the gains 
and laugh at the trials of their trip. So glow- 
ingly did he picture the future, that his com- 
panions even speculated as to how they should 
spend their princely fortunes when they re- 
turned to the States. Baker sang songs of 
home and hope, and the others lent their voices 
to the chorus till, far into the night, they sank 
to sleep unguarded, to dream of coming opu- 
lence, and to rise refreshed for the morrow's 
journey. 

*' Early next morning they breakfasted, and 
began the ascent of the side canyon up the oppo- 
site bank to that by which they had entered it. 
Baker was in the advance with his rifle slung 
at his back, gaily springing up the rocks 
towards the table lands above. Behind him 
came White; Strole, with the mules, brought 
up the rear. Nothing disturbed the stillness of 
the beautiful summer morning but the tramp- 
ing of the mules and the short heavy breathing 
of the climbers. They had ascended but half 



128 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

the distance to the top, when stopping for a 
moment to rest, suddenly the war-whoop of a 
band of savages rang out, sounding as if every 
rock had a demon's voice. Simultaneously with 
the first w^hoop a shower of arrows and bullets 
was poured into the little party. With the first 
fire Baker fell against a rock, but, rallying for 
a moment, he unslung his carbine and fired at 
the Indians, who now began to show themselves 
in large numbers, and then, with the blood flow- 
ing from his mouth, he fell to the ground. 
White, firing at the Indians as he advanced and 
followed by Strole, hurried to the aid of his 
wounded leader. Baker, with an effort, turned 
to his comrades and said with his last breath, 
' Back boys, back ! save yourselves ; I am dying. ' 
To the credit of White and Strole be it said, 
they faced the savages and fought until the last 
tremor of the powerful frame told them that 
Baker was dead. 

"Then slowly they began to retreat, followed 
by the exultant Indians, who, stopping to strip 
and mutilate the dead body in their path, gave 
the white men a chance to secure their animals, 
and retrace their steps into the side canyon, 
beyond the immediate reach of the Indians' 
arrows. Here they held a hurried consulta- 
tion. To the east, for 300 miles, stretched an 
uninhabited country, over which, if they at- 
tempted to escape in that direction, the Indians, 
like bloodhounds, would follow their track. 
North, south, and west, was the Colorado with 
its tributaries, all flowing through deep chasms 
across which it would be impossible for men or 
animals to travel. Their deliberations were 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 129 

necessarily short, and resulted in a decision to 
abandon the animals — first securing their arms, 
a small stock of provisions, and the ropes or 
lariats of the mules. Through the descending 
side canyon they travelled due west for four 
hours, and emerged at last on a low strip of 
bottom-land on Grand River, above which, for 
2,000 feet on either bank, the cold grey walls 
rose to block their path, leaving to them but one 
avenue for escape — the dashing currents of the 
river. 

"They found considerable quantities of drift 
wood along the banks from which they collected 
enough to enable them to construct a raft 
capable of floating themselves, with their arms 
and provisions. This raft consisted of three 
sticks of Cottonwood, about ten feet in length 
and eight inches in diameter, lashed firmly to- 
gether with their lariats. Procuring two stout 
poles with w^hich to giiide the raft, and fasten- 
ing the bag of provisions to the logs, they waited 
for midnight to come with the waning moon, so 
as to drift off unnoticed by the Indians. They 
did not consider that even the sun looked down 
into that chasm for but one short hour in the 
twenty-four, and then left it to the angry waters 
and blackening shadows; and that the faint 
moonlight reaching the bottom of the canyon 
would hardly serve to reveal the horror of their 
situation. Midnight came, as they thought, by 
the measurement of the dark, dreary hours; 
when seizing the poles, they untied the rope that 
held the raft, and, tossed about by the current, 
they rushed through the yawning canj^on on 

V— 9 



130 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

their adventurous voyage to an unknown land- 
ing. Through the long night they clung to the 
raft as it dashed against half concealed rocks, 
or whirled about like a plaything in some eddy, 
whose white foam was perceptible even in the 
blackness. 

"They prayed for the daylight, which came 
at last, and with it a smoother current and 
less rugged banks, though the canyon walls 
appeared to have increased in height. Early 
in the morning (August 25th) they found a 
spot where they could make a landing, and 
went ashore. After eating a little of their 
water-soaked provisions, they returned and 
strengthened their raft by the addition of some 
light pieces of cedar, which had been lodged in 
clefts of the rocks by recent floods. White esti- 
mates the width of the river where they landed 
at 200 yards, and the current at three miles per 
hour. After a short stay at this place they 
again embarked, and during the rest of the day 
they had no difficulty in avoiding the rocks and 
whirlpools that met them at every bend of the 
river. 

"In the afternoon, and after having floated 
over a distance estimated at thirty miles from 
the point of starting, they reached the mouth of 
Green river, or rather where the Green and the 
Grand unite to form the Colorado proper. 
Here the canyons of both streams form one 
of but little greater width, but far surpass- 
ing either in the height and grandeur of its 
walls. At the junction, the walls were esti- 
mated at 4,000 feet in height. Detached pin- 
nacles appeared to rise, one above the other, for 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 131 

1,000 feet higher, from amidst huge masses of 
rock, confusedly piled, like grand monuments 
to commemorate this 'meeting of the waters.' 
The fugitives felt the sublimity of the scene, 
and in contemplating its stupendous and un- 
earthly grandeur, they forgot for the time their 
own sorrows. 

''The night of the day upon which they en- 
tered the Great Canyon, and indeed on nearly 
all the subsequent nights of the voyage, the raft 
w^as fastened to a loose rock, or hauled up on 
some strip of bottom land, where they rested 
till daylight next morning. 

"As they floated down the canyon the gi'ey 
sandstone walls increased in height; the lower 
portion was smooth from the action of floods, 
but the perpendicular wall rock above became 
more and more rugged, until the far off sky 
appeared to rest upon a fringe of pinnacles on 
either side. Here and there a stunted cedar 
clung to the cliff side 2,000 feet overhead, or a 
prickly cactus tried to suck sustenance from the 
bare rock. No living thing in sight beyond 
the raft, for even the wing of bird which could 
pass the chasms in the upper world never 
fanned the dark air in those subterranean 
depths. Naught to gaze upon but their own 
pale faces and the cold grey walls that hemmed 
them in, and mocked at their escape. Here and 
there the raft shot past side canyons, black and 
forbidding, like cells set in the walls of a mighty 
prison. 

"Baker had informed his comrades as to the 
geography of the country, and while floating 
down they remembered that Callville was at the 



132 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

mouth of tlie canyon, which could not be far off ; 
'such wonderful walls could not last.' Then 
hope came with the promise of escape. A few 
days would take them to Callville ; their provi- 
sions could be made to last for five. So these 
two men, thus shut in from the world, buried, 
as it were, in the very bowels of the earth, in the 
midst of a great unknown desert, began to con- 
sole themselves, and even to jest at their situ- 
ation. 

"Forty miles below their entrance into the 
canyon of the Colorado, they reached the mouth 
of the San Juan Eiver. They attempted to en- 
ter it, but its swift current cast them back. The 
perpendicular walls, high as those of the Colo- 
rado, with the water flowing from bank to bank, 
forbade their abandoning their raft to attempt 
escape in that direction. So they floated away. 
At every bend of the river it seemed as if they 
were descending deeper into the earth, and that 
the walls were coming closer together above 
them, shutting out the narrow belt of sky, thick- 
ening the black shadows, and redoubling the 
echoes that went up from the foaming waters. 

"Four days had elapsed since they embarked 
on the frail raft; it was now August 28th. So 
far they had been constantly wet, but the water 
was comparatively warm, and the current more 
regular than they could have expected. Strole 
had taken it upon himself to steer the raft, and, 
against the advice of White, he often set one 
end of the pole against the bank of some oppo- 
sing rock, and then leaned with the other end 
against his shoulder, to push the raft away. As 
yet they had seen no natural bridge spanning 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 133 

the chasm above them, nor had fall or cataract 
prevented their safe advance. About three 
o'clock on the afternoon of the 28th, they heard 
the deep roar as of a waterfall in front of them. 
They felt the raft agitated, then whirled along 
with frightful rapidity towards a wall that 
seemed to bar all farther progress. As they 
approached the cliff, the river made a sharp 
bend, around which the raft swept, disclosing to 
them, in a long vista, the water lashed into 
foam, as it poured through a narrow precipitous 
gorge, caused by huge masses of rock detached 
from the main wall. There was no time to 
think. The logs strained as if they would break 
their fastenings. The waves dashed around the 
men, and the raft was buried in the seething 
waters. White clung to the logs with the gTip 
of death. His comrade stood up for an instant 
with the pole in his hands, as if to guide the raft 
from the rocks against which it was plunging; 
but he had scarcely straightened, before the raft 
seemed to leap down a chasm, and, amid the 
deafening roar of water. White heard a shriek 
that thrilled him to the heart, and looking 
around he saw, through the mist and spray, the 
form of his comrade tossed for an instant on 
the water, then sinking out of sight in the 
whirlpool. 

"White still clung to the logs, and it was only 
when the raft seemed to be floating smoothly, 
and the sound of the rapids was left behind, 
that he dared to look up ; then it was to find him- 
self alone, the provisions lost, and the lengthen- 
ing shadows warning him of the approaching 
night. A feeling of despair seized him, and 



134 HISTOKY OF ARIZONA. 

clasping his hands he prayed for the death he 
was fleeing from. He was made cognizant of 
more immediate danger by the shaking of his 
raft, the logs were separating; then he worked, 
and succeeded in effecting a landing near some 
flat rocks, where he made his raft fast for the 
night. After this he sat down, to spend the 
long gloomy hours in contemplating the horror 
of his situation, and the small chance for com- 
pleting the adventurous voyage he had under- 
taken. He blamed himself for not having 
fought the Indians till he had fallen with 
Baker. He might have escaped through the 
San Juan valley and the mountains beyond to 
the settlements. Had he done so, he would 
have returned to his home, and rested satisfied 
with his experience as a prospector. And when 
he thought of 'home,' it called up the strongest 
inducements for life, and he resolved, to use his 
own words, 'to die hard, and like a man.' 

"Gradually the dawn, long perceptible in the 
upper world, began to creep down the black 
canyon, and gave him light to strengthen his 
raft, and launch it again into the treacherous 
river. As he floated down he remembered the 
sad fate of Strole, and took the precaution to 
lash himself firmly to the raft so as to preclude 
the possibility of his being separated from it. 
This forethought subsequently saved his life. 
His course through the canyon was now over a 
succession of rapids, blocked up by masses of 
rock, over which his frail raft thumped and 
whirled, at times wholly submerged in the foam- 
ing water. At one of these rapids, in the dis- 
tance of about a hundred vards, he thinks the 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 135 

river must have fallen between thirty and forty 
feet. In going over this place the logs compos- 
ing the raft became separated at the upper end, 
and, spreading out like a fan. White was thrown 
into the water. He struggled to the side by 
means of his rope, and with a desperate strength 
held the logs together till they floated into 
calmer water, when he succeeded in refastening 
them. 

"White's trials were not yet at an end, and 
in relating the following incident, he showed the 
only sign of emotion exhibited during his long 
series of answers. 

"About four miles below where the raft sepa- 
rated he reached the mouth of a large stream 
which he afterwards learned was the Colorado 
Chiquito. The canyon through which it enters 
the main river is very much like that of the San 
Juan, and though it does not discharge so large 
a body of water, the current is much more 
rapid, and sweeps across the Great Colorado, 
causing, in a black chasm on the opposite bank, 
a large and dangerous whirlpool. White saw 
this and tried to avoid it, but he was too weak 
for the task. His raft, borne by the current of 
the Colorado proper, rushed down with such 
force, that aided by his paddle, he hoped to pass 
the waters that appeared to sweep at right 
angles across his course from the Chiquito. 
When he reached the mouth of the latter stream 
the raft suddenly stopped, and swinging round 
for an instant as if balanced on a point, it 
yielded to the current of the Chiquito and was 
sw^ept into the whirlpool. 



136 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

"White felt now that all further exertion was 
useless, and dropping his paddle, he clasped his 
hands and fell upon the raft. He heard the 
gurgling waters around him, and every moment 
he felt that he must be plunged into the boiling 
vortex. He waited with his eyes closed for 
some minutes, when, feeling a strange swinging 
sensation, he opened them and found that he 
was circling around the whirlpool, sometimes 
close to the vortex, and at others thrown back 
by some invisible cause to the outer edge only 
to whirl again towards the centre. Thus borne 
by the circling waters he looked up, up, up, 
through the mighty chasm that seemed bending 
over him as if about to fall and crush him. He 
saw in the blue belt of sky which hung above 
him like an ethereal river the red tinged clouds 
floating, and knew that the sun was setting in 
the upper world. Still around the whirlpool 
the raft swung, like a circular pendulum meas- 
uring the long moments before expected death. 
He felt a dizzy sensation, and thinks he must 
have fainted; he knows he was unconscious for 
a time, for when again he looked up between 
the walls, whose rugged summits towered 5,000 
feet above him, the red clouds had changed to 
black, and the heavy shadows of night had crept 
into the canyon. 

' ' Then, for the first time, he remembered that 
there was a strength greater than that of man, 
a power that holds the ocean in the hollow of 
His hand. 'I fell on my knees,' he said, 'and as 
the raft swept round in the current, I asked God 
to aid me. I spoke as if from my very soul, and 
said, "Oh, God ! if there is a way out of this fear- 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 137 

ful place, show it to me; take me to it." Here 
White's voice became husky, and his some- 
what heavy features quivered as he continued — 
'I was still looking up with my hands clasped 
when I felt a different movement in the raft, 
and turning to look at the whirlpool, it was some 
distance behind, and I was floating down the 
smoothest current I had yet seen in the canyon. ' 

"This statement is the only information 
White volunteered ; all the rest was obtained by 
close questioning. One of his friends who was 
present during the examination smiled when 
White repeated his prayer. He noticed it, and 
said with some feeling: 'It is true. Bob, and I'm 
sure God took me out. ' 

"Below the mouth of the Colorado Chiquito 
the current was very slow, and White felt what 
he subsequently found to be the case — viz., that 
the rapids were past, though he was not equally 
fortunate in guessing his proximity to Callville. 
The course of the river below this he describes 
as exceedingly 'crooked, with short, sharp 
turns,' the view on every side being shut in by 
flat precipitous walls of 'white sand rock.' 
These walls presented white perpendicular sur- 
faces to the high water level, which had a dis- 
tinct mark of about forty feet above the August 
stage. The highest part of the canyon, White 
thinks, is between the San Juan and the Colo- 
rado Chiquito, where the wall appeared to him 
more than one mile (5,280 feet) in perpen- 
dicular height, and at a few points even higher. 
Dr. Newberry states, from barometrical obser- 
vations, that for a long distance the altitude is 
nearly 7,000 feet. But we must not begin to 



138 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

draw conclusions too soon, much of interest re- 
mains to be told of this unparalleled adventure. 
"The current bore White from the Colorado 
Chiquito slowly down the main river. His 
clothing w^as torn to shreds, and the few rags 
which clung to his frame were constantly satu- 
rated with water. Each noon the sun looked 
into the canyon only to pour his almost vertical 
rays on the famishing man, and to burn and 
blister those parts of his body that the scanty 
rags did not cover. One, two, three, four days 
dragged slowly past since he tasted food, and 
still the current bore him through the towering 
walls of the canyon. The hunger maddened 
him. He felt it burning into his vitals. His 
thoughts were of food! food! food! and his 
sleeping moments were filled with Tantalus-like 
dreams. Once he raised his arm to open some 
vein and draw nutriment from his own blood, 
but its shrivelled, blistered length frightened 
him. For hours as he floated down he would sit 
looking into the water, yet lacking courage to 
make the plunge that would rid him of all 
earthly pain. On the morning of the fifth day 
since he had tasted food, he saw a flat bank with 
some mezquite bushes upon it, and by using all 
his strength he succeeded in reaching it with his 
raft. He devoured the few green pods and the 
leaves of the bushes, but they only increased his 
desire for more. The journey was resumed, 
and he remembers that during the last two days 
of unbroken canyon wall, the rocks became very 
black, with shining surfaces — probably where 
igneous took the place of the cretaceous rocks. 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 139 

''Six days without food, save the few green 
leaves, and eleven days since starting, and still 
the uneven current bore on the raft with its 
wretched occupant. He saw occasional breaks 
in the wall, with here and there a bush. Too 
weak to move his raft, he floated past and felt 
no pain, for the overwrought nerves refused to 
convey sensation. 

"On the afternoon of this, the sixth day, he 
was roused by hearing the sound of human 
voices, and raising himself on one arm, he 
looked toward the shore, and saw men beckon- 
ing to him. A momentary strength came to his 
arms, and, grasping the paddle, he urged the 
raft to the bank. On reaching it he found him- 
self surrounded by a band of Yampais Indians 
(Havasupais), who for many years have lived on 
a low strip of alluvial land along the bottom of 
the canyon, the trail to which, from the upper 
world, is only known to themselves. One of the 
Indians made fast the raft, while another seized 
White roughly and dragged him up the bank. 
He could not remonstrate; his tongue refused to 
give a sound, so he pointed to his mouth and 
made signs for food. The fiend that pulled him 
up the bank, tore from his blistered shoulder 
the shreds that had once been a shirt, and was 
proceeding to take off the torn trousers, when, 
to the credit of the savage be it said, one of the 
Indians interfered, and pushed back his com- 
panions. He gave White some meat, and 
roasted mezquite beans to eat, which the fam- 
ished man devoured, aud after a little rest he" 
made signs that he wanted to go to the nearest 
dwellings of the white men. The Indians told 



140 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

him he could reach them in 'two suns' by his 
raft, so he stayed with them all night, and with 
a revolver that remained fastened to the logs, he 
purchased some mezquite beans, and the half of 
a dog. 

"Early the next morning he tottered to the 
bank, and again pushed into the current. The 
first day out he gave way to the yearnings for 
food, and, despite his resolution to the contrary, 
he ate up his entire stock of provisions, which 
did not, by any means, satisfy his craving. 
Three long days of hope and dread passed 
slowly by, and still no signs of friends. Reason 
tottered, and White stretched himself on the 
raft; all his energies exhausted, life and death 
were to him alike indifferent. 

''Late in the evening of the third day after 
leaving the Indians, and fourteen days from the 
time of starting on this perilous voyage. White 
again heard voices, accompanied by the rapid 
dash of oars. He understood the words, but 
could make no reply. He felt a strong arm 
thrown around him, and he was lifted into a 
boat, to see manly bearded faces looking on him 
with pity. The great objective point, Callville, 
w^as reached at last; the battle for a life was 
won, but with the price of unparalleled suffer- 
ing. The people of this Mormon settlement 
had warm, generous hearts, and, like good 
Samaritans, lavishly bestowed every care on the 
unfortunate man, so miraculously thrown into 
their midst from the bowels of the unknown 
canyon. His constitution, naturally strong, 
soon recovered its terrible shock, and he told 
his new found friends his wonderful story, the 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 141 

first recital of which led them to doubt his 
sanity. 

"Charles McAllister, at present an assistant 
in the store of Mr. Todd at Fort Mojave, was 
one of the three men who went in the boat to 
White's assistance. He said that he never saw 
so wretched a looking man as White when he 
first met him ; his feet, legs, and body w^ere liter- 
ally flayed, from exposure to drenching from 
water and the scorching rays of the sun. His 
reason was almost gone, his form stooped, and 
his eyes were so hollow and dreary, that he 
looked like an old and imbecile man. Mr. 
W. H. Hardy, of Hardyville, near Fort Mojave, 
brought White thither, that we might see and 
talk with him. Mr. Hardy corroborates the 
statements of McAllister, and from his knowl- 
edge of the country above Callville, says that it 
would be impossible for White to have come for 
any distance by the river, without travelling 
through the whole length of the Great Canyon 
of the Colorado. Mr. Ballard, a mail contrac- 
tor, in whose employment White is now earn- 
ing money to take him home, says he believes 
him to be a sober, truthful man ; but, apart from 
White's statement, Ballard is confident he must 
have traversed, and in the manner stated, that 
hitherto unexplored chasm which completes the 
missing link between the upper and lower course 
of the Great Colorado. 

"Dr. Parry, our geologist, thinks that the 
subjoined conclusions may be summed up as 
some of the new additions to our previous geo- 
graphical knowledge of the hydrogTaphy of the 



142 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

Colorado of the West, derived from this re- 
markable voyage. 

"1. The actual location of the mouth of the 
San Juan forty miles below the Green Eiver 
junction, and its entrance by a canyon continu- 
ous with that of the Colorado, above and below 
the point of junction. 

''2. From the mouth of the San Juan to the 
Colorado Chiquito, three days' travel in the 
swiftest portion of the current allowing four 
miles per hour for fifteen hours or sixty miles 
per day, would give an estimated distance of 
180 miles, including the most inaccessible por- 
tion of the canyon. 

"3. From the Colorado Chiquito to Callville 
occupied ten days' travel. As this part of the 
route w^as more open, and probably comprised 
long stretches of comparatively still water, it 
would not be safe to allow a distance of over 
thirty miles per day, or 300 miles for this inter- 
val. Thus the whole distance travelled would 
be 550 miles, or something over 500 miles from 
Green Eiver Junction to the head of steamboat 
navigation at Callville. 

"4. The absence of any distinct cataracts, or 
perpendicular falls, would seem to warrant the 
conclusion that in time of high water, by proper 
appliances, in the form of india rubber boats, 
and provisions secured in waterproof bags, with 
good resolute oarsmen, the same passage might 
be safely made, and the actual course of the 
river mapped out, and its peculiar geological 
features properly examined. 

''5. The construction of bridges by a single 
span would be rendered difficult of execution. 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 143 

on account of the usual flaring shape of the 
summits. Possibly, however, points might be 
found where the mesas approach sufficiently 
near each other for such purpose. 

"6. The width of the river, at its narrowest 
point, was estimated at 100 feet, and the line 
of high-water mark at forty feet above the 
average stage in August. 

"7. The long continued uniformity of the 
geological formation (termed 'white sandstone,' 
probably cretaceous) is remarkable; but under 
the term may have been comprised some of 
the later stratified formations. The contrast on 
reaching the dark igneous rock was so marked 
that it could not fail to be noticed, 

"8. Any prospect for useful navigation up or 
down the canyon during the season of high 
water, or the transportation of lumber from the 
upper pine regions, could not be regarded as 
feasible, considering the long distance and the 
inaccessible character of the river banks. 

"9. No other satisfactory method of explora- 
tion, except along the course of the river, could 
be adopted to determine its actual course and 
peculiar natural features ; and James White, as 
the pioneer of this entei^rise, will probably 
long retain the honour of being the only man 
who has traversed, through its whole course, the 
Great Canyon of the Colorado, and lived to re- 
count his observations on so perilous a trip." 



144 HISTORY OF AEIZONA. 



CHAPTER VII. 

EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS (Continued). 

Story of White's Trip Made Officiaij U. S. 
Senate Document — Article by Thomas 
F. Dawson — Statement in Rocky Moun- 
tain Herald — White's Own Statement — 
Corroborative Evidence — White's After 
Life. 

Since the foregoing was written I have re- 
ceived through the kindness of the Hon. Henry 
F. Ashurst, a copy of Senate Document No. 42, 
of the 65th Congress. First Session, which is an 
article written by Thomas F. Dawson on the 
Grand Canyon, in which the story of White's 
adventure is dealt with fully. Here it is shown 
that Dr. Parry, who was connected with the 
railroad expedition at that time, wrote the ac- 
count of White's trip from notes made by 
Major Calhoun, who says that he obtained the 
facts from White himself. 

The story, as written by Major Calhoun, and 
printed soon after, is included in a small book 
entitled "Wonderful Adventures," published 
by W. B. Evans & Co., of Philadelphia, of which 
city Major Calhoun was a resident. It is the 
first of a series of adventures of which the work 
is composed, and bears the title, "Passage of 
the Grand Canyon of the Colorado," by A. R. 
Calhoun. 

In this document the story as it deals with 
White's journey, and as written by Major Cal- 
houn, is published in full, and differs in no 




JAMES WIIITK. 
In his 80tli year. 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 145 

material point from that given in the foregoing 
pages, attributed to Dr. Parry. Here is also 
printed an account of White's voyage published 
in the Rocky Mountain Herald under date of 
January 8th, 1869, about five months before 
Major Powell began his exploration. It w^as 
sent from an obscure place in New Mexico and 
the writer appears to have been under the im- 
pression that Major Powell had already started 
on his work. The name of the author is not 
preserved, but the account differs in some re- 
spects from the others. Referring to the pros- 
pective expedition by Major Powell, the writer 
says: 

"I trust Mr. Powell's expedition is progress- 
ing favorably and that he w411 be able to fur- 
nish a satisfactory report to an expectant pub- 
lic, for I can assure you that should he be 
entirely successful, he will accomplish a work 
the magnitude of which — leaving its danger en- 
tirely out of consideration — will far surpass 
that of any former exploration on the American 
continent. ' ' 

The writer further said that the Canyon had 
never been traversed before, and in this connec- 
tion added: "None of the Indian tribes on the 
river have either remembrance or tradition that 
the voyage had ever previously been made." 

The w^riter further said that AVhite and his 
companion, Strole, had little knowledge of the 
country, and that although they had heard of 
the Grand Canyon, they had no definite idea 
either of its locality or its extent. There was 
but little rough water at first, and for a time all 

V— 10 



146 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

went well. They were able to land at night, but 
having no means of making a fire, went hungry 
to sleep. The second day the water was smooth 
until noon, when they encountered rapids, swift 
and rocky, in descending which they lost then- 
carbines and their little store of flour — their 
only provisions — while their revolvers were left 
too wet for use. Below these rapids they found 
an island on which they spent their second 
night, eating screw beans to assuage their 
hunger. The article proceeds as follows: 

"Having passed the night on the island, our 
voyagers set out in the morning with their raft 
in better condition than before, and with re- 
newed hope of soon getting to the end of their 
journey, or at least of reaching a port. From 
the size and depth of the stream they argued 
that Callville must be near. After they had 
floated for a few hours, however, the somid of 
falling water was borne to their ears, becoming 
more and more distinct as they proceeded until 
they were satisfied that they were approaching 
a cataract. Meanwhile they had gradually and 
almost unconsciously drifted into a canyon with 
high precipitous walls which confined the river 
within a narrower channel than that in which 
it had coursed above. A hasty recomiaissance 
convinced them that they could not escape from 
the gorge by climbing the walls, while the cur- 
rent was now so swift that it was useless to 
think of turning back. White took the precau- 
tion to lash himself to the raft, but Strole re- 
fused to take this precaution. 

" 'I am an old Mississippi boatman and can 
stick to the raft wherever she goes, ' Strole said. 



EXPLOKATIONS AND SURVEYS. 147 

'It isn't much of a fall, and there is no danger 
in running it. We had better tie our revolvers, 
however; they are a little wet now, and a little 
more won't hurt them.' 

"On swept the raft with rapidly increasing 
speed; the voyagers silent, with stern, com- 
pressed lips and tense nerves boldly facing the 
peril which they were now powerless to avoid. 
One moment they were balanced on the brink of 
the cataract, the next they were plunged sheer 
12 feet into the seething waters beneath. 

"Emerging at leng-th, White found himself 
alone upon the raft, which an eddy had caught 
in the rim of its vortex and was whirling 
around. White had been seriously disturbed 
by the shock of the fall, but when he recovered 
his self-possession, he looked around for his 
companion and quickly descried him in mid- 
channel some 20 feet distant, buffeting the cur- 
rent with feeble and uncertain stroke. Shout- 
ing to him some words of encouragement and 
hastily freeing himself from his lashings. White 
prepared to make such efforts as he could to 
assist and save his comrade. But almost imme- 
diately, poor Strole, half strangled, doubtless, 
and bewildered by his frightful plunge over the 
cataract, without a cry or a groan, sank and rose 
no more. 

"The fate of either of his comrades would 
have been a merciful one to White in com- 
parison to what befell him. Poor fellow, his 
troubles had hardly begun, while theirs were 
ended, at least for this world. The death of 
8trole fell upon him with crushing weight. 
Sinking upon the raft, which floated slowly 



148 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

around with the eddy until it stranded upon the 
head of a small island, he abandoned himself 
for a brief period to all the misery of despair. 
But his rugged and energetic nature would not 
long succumb to such a feeling. Eecovering 
himself, he began to survey as best he might his 
situation. 

"White no longer doubted that he was in the 
Grand Canyon. He could neither scale the 
walls nor return. There was nothing left but 
to proceed down the stream, and in that direc- 
tion there seemed not the shadow of a chance 
that he might succeed and live. He only dared 
to hope that by carefully tying himself to the 
raft his body might float through with some por- 
tion of it and be identified by means of a pocket 
memorandum book which he endeavored to se- 
cure to his person, so that his fate might become 
known to his relatives and friends. 

"Having considered these things with the 
desperate calmness of a man who regards him- 
self as doomed to speedy and inevitable death, 
he nevertheless omitted nothing which might 
tend to the preservation of his life. First, he 
overhauled his raft and tightened its lashings. 
Next he stripped the mesquite bushes which 
grew on the bank of their scanty crop, with 
which he partially appeased his hunger. Then, 
with a fervent appeal to the great Father of all, 
he launched his raft and floated away to en- 
counter unknown dangers and terrors. 

"It is hardly necessary to say that White 
kept no 'log' of his voyage, and it would there- 
fore be impossible to give from this point the 
details of his daily progress. Never before did 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 149 

mortal man perform such a journey. For 
nearly 500 miles he floated over a succession of 
cascades and cataracts varying from 4 to 20 
feet, with patches of smooth water between. 
Frequently on plunging over a fall the raft was 
overturned, and it was with much difficulty that 
he saved himself from drowning. Once he was 
so long under water that he became insensible ; 
but on that occasion the raft providentially 
emerged right side up, and when he revived he 
found himself floating along as if nothing had 
happened. 

"Below each fall there was an island formed 
by the land thrown up by the eddying waters, 
affording him an opportunity of hauling up his 
raft for repairs — a very necessary operation, as 
the ropes by which it was bound were frequently 
cut upon the edges of the rocks at the head of 
the falls— and as a place of rest during the 
nights. At first the mesquite growing upon the 
islands supplied him with a scanty allowance of 
food, but after the sixth day he found the 
islands barren. A rawhide knife scabbard then 
afforded him some slight sustenance and a good 
deal of chewing for a couple of days, after 
which he was without food until he passed the 
Rio Virgen. One day he saw some lizards, but 
was too feeble to catch them. To add to his 
misery, he was stripped by the rocks and water 
of his hat, pants, drawers, boots and socks; his 
head, feet, and legs became blistered and raw by 
the sun's rays. 

"Day by" day and hour by hour he grew 
weaker by exposure to the heat and because of 
want of food. And all the time the dark walls 



150 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

of tile can}' on towered above him, nowhere less 
than a thousand feet, and in some places a mile 
and a half in height, to the best of his jndgment. 
Anxiously he watched for some avenue of es- 
cape, some crevice or fissure in the adamantine 
walls which confined him, but there was none. 
The consoling- reflection remained that it was 
perhaps better to be dashed to pieces or perish 
of simple starvation in the canyon than to 
scramble out of it and add the torment of thirst 
to those which he already endured. So he voy- 
aged on, now helplessly broiling in the merciless 
rays of the sun as he floated calmly and yet 
swiftly along the expanse of the comparatively 
smooth water, then tumbling over a casciide or 
rushing through a rapid at the imminent peril 
of shipwreck upon the rocks which bumped and 
thumped his frail craft until its light timbers 
rattled; and now shuddering and with bated 
breath plunging over a fall, for aught he knew, 
into eternity. Day by day, and hour by hour, 
he grew w^eaker for the want of food, while from 
sitting in a cramped position and from expos- 
ure to the sun, his legs were so stiff and sore 
as to be almost entirely disabled. Still, with 
dogged resolution he persevered, improving 
every moment of daylight, and making, as he 
believed, at a moderate estimate, 40 or 50 miles 
every day. 

"At length, on the evening of September 6, 
the raft, with our bruised, battered, and starv- 
ing voyager, more dead than alive, and yet re- 
taining a gi-eat deal of the wonderful vitality 
which thus far had sustained him, still clinging 
to it, emerged from the canyon. Again the 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 151 

broadening river flowed between low, green 
banks. 

"White felt that the worst of the voyage was 
over. If he could but hold out for a day or two 
longer, he would be saved. But though his 
spirit was undaunted, his physical strength was 
nearly gone. 

"Soon after passing the mouth of a consider- 
able stream, the Rio Virgen, he heard voices 
shouting to him. He could hardly convince 
himself that the sounds were real, and he gazed 
in wondering surprise toward the bank. A 
number of Indians leaped into the water, swam 
out to him, and pushed the raft ashore. He 
was roughly treated by the Indians, who tore 
off his coat tails and seized one of his revolvers. 
One of the Indians who spoke English told him 
they were Pah-Utes. They seemed to compre- 
hend the fearful trip White had made and to 
express some astonishment among themselves 
that he should have survived it, but his condi- 
tion excited not the smallest spark of sympathy 
in their dusky bosoms. 

"White asked for food, and the Indians 
agreed to give him a small dog for the remain- 
ing pistol. But on securing the weapon, they 
let the dog escape. He was finally compelled 
to give them his vest for catching and killing 
the animal, and even then the Indians appro- 
priated the fore quarters. White ate a hind 
quarter of the dog I'aw and without salt for his 
supper, and then lay down and slept soundly. 
In the morning he ate the other hind quarter 
and resumed his voyage to Callville. 



152 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

"It chanced that at this time the barge Colo- 
rado, of Fort Mojave, in charge of Capt. Wil- 
burn, with a crew of four or five men, was at 
Callville, receiving a cargo of lime and salt. 
Standing on the bank, the captain saw the 
strange craft passing by on the other side and 
hailed it. 

"'My God! Is this Callville r responded 
White in feeble tones. 

" 'Yes,' replied Capt. Wilburn, 'come ashore.' 

" 'I'll try to,' replied the voyager, 'but I 
don 't know whether I can or not. ' 

"Fastening his raft about 200 feet below. 
White, a strange looking object, made his 
appearance on the crest of a hill near the land- 
ing. 

" 'My God! Capt. Wilburn, that man's a hun- 
dred years old,' exclaimed one of the crew. 

"He looked older, for his long hair and flow- 
ing beard were white. His eyes were sunken, 
his cheeks thin and emaciated, his shrunken 
legs a mass of black and loathsome scabs from 
his loins to his toes. As he crawled slowly and 
painfully toward them, the men, with exclama- 
tions of astonishment and pity, went to meet 
and assist him. They brought him to their 
camp, gave him food, washed and anointed his 
sores, and clothed him. White became deliri- 
ous, but toward evening his wandering senses 
returned, and he was able to give an account of 
himself. 

"James Ferry, United States quartermaster 
at Callville, made the Pah-Utes return White's 
possessions and took care of him until he re- 
covered. 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 153 

"When I last heard of White he was carr}^- 
ing the mail between Callville and Mojave. At 
the latter place Gen. W. J. Palmer saw and 
conversed with him, and from his statements 
was satisfied that the length of the Grand Can- 
yon is not less than 500 miles, and that its 
thorough scientific exploration, while not abso- 
lutely impossible, will present difficulties which 
will not soon be surmounted." 

White is still living, a resident of Trinidad, 
Colorado, and has furnished a statement at first 
hand of his adventure, which is here repro- 
duced. It seems that after remaining a few 
months on the lower Colorado, and after visit- 
ing his old home in Wisconsin, Mr. White re- 
turned to Colorado and ultimately located in 
Trinidad, where he has lived since 1878, and 
there, in 1916, he prepared this account of his 
voyage w^hich, as far as known, is the only 
printed statement made and signed by him, with 
the exception of a brief account which appeared 
in a Wisconsin paper soon after the conclusion 
of his voyage. Mr. White writes : 

"I was born in Eome, N. Y., November 19, 
1837, but was reared in Kenosha, Wis. At the 
age of 23 I left for Denver, Colo., later drifting 
to California, and there enlisted in the Army at 
Camp Union, Sacramento, in Company H, Cali- 
fornia Infantry, Gen. Carleton (some doubt as 
to the correct spelling of his name) being gen- 
eral of the regiment, and the company being 
under Capt. Stratton. I served in the Army 
three and one-half years, being honorably dis- 
charged at Franklin, Tex., on May 31, 1865. 
From there I went to Santa Fe, N. Mex., and 



154 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

then to Denver. In the fall of that year I went 
from Denver to Atchison, Kans., with Capt. 
Turnley (some doubt as to the correct spelling 
of his name) and his family, and from Atchi- 
son I went to Fort Dodge, Kansas, where I 
drove stage for Barlow & Sanderson, and there 
I got acquainted with Capt. Baker, also George 
Strole and Goodfellow. This was in the spring 
of 1867, and the circumstances under which I 
met them were as follows: Capt. Baker was a 
trapper at the time I met liim there, and the 
Indians had stolen his horses, and he asked me 
to go with him to get his horses, and I went with 
him, George Strole, and Goodfellow. We could 
not get his horses, so we took 14 head of horses 
from the Indians. The Indians followed us all 
night and all day, and we crossed the river at 
a place called Cimarron, in Kansas, and we 
travelled across the prairies to Colorado City, 
Colo. 

"Before going further with my story I would 
like to relate here what I know of Capt. Baker 's 
history. He had been in the San Juan country 
in 1860 and was driven out by the Indians. He 
showed me lumber that he had sawed by hand 
to make sluice boxes. I was only with him 
about three months, and he spoke very little of 
his personal affairs. WHen we were together 
in Colorado City he met several of his former 
friends that he had been prospecting with in the 
early sixties. I cannot remember their names. 
The only thing I know is that he mentioned 
coming from St. Louis, but never spoke of him- 
self as being a soldier, and I thought 'Captain' 
was just a nickname for him. He was a man 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 155 

that spoke little of his past or personal affairs, 
but I remember of his keeping a memorandum 
book of his travels from the time we left Colo- 
rado City. 

''After reaching Colorado City, Colo., Baker 
proposed a prospecting trip to the San Juan. 
There we got our outfit, and that spring the 
four of us started on the trip and went over to 
the Rio Grande. At the Eio Grande Good- 
fellow was shot in the foot, and we left him at 
a farm house, and the three of us proceeded on 
our trip. From the Eio Grande we went over 
to the head of it, down on the Animas, up 
the Eureka Gulch. There we prospected one 
month. We dug a ditch 150 feet long and 15 
feet deep. We did not find anything, so we 
went down the Animas 5 miles, crossed over into 
the Mancos. At the head of the Mancos we 
saw a large lookout house about 100 feet high, 
which was built out of cobblestones. Farther 
down the canyon we saw houses built of cobble- 
stones, and also noticed small houses about 2 
feet square that were built up about 50 feet 
on the side of the canyon and seemed to be 
houses of some kind of a bird that was wor- 
shipped. We followed the Mancos down until 
we struck the San Juan. Then we followed the 
San Juan down as far as we could and then 
swam our horses across and started over to the 
Grand Eiver, but before we got to the Grand 
Eiver we struck a canyon; so we went down 
that canyon and camped there three days. We 
could not get out of the canyon on the opposite 
side, so we had to go out of the canyon the same 
wav we went down. There we were attacked 



156 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

by Indians and Baker was killed. We did not 
know there were any Indians about until Baker 
was killed. Baker, falling to the ground, said, 
'I am killed.' The Indians were hiding be- 
hind the rocks overlooking the can3^on. Baker 
expired shortly after the fatal shot, and, much 
to our grief, we had to leave his remains, as the 
Indians were close upon us, and George Strole 
and I had to make our escape as soon as pos- 
sible, going back down in the canyon. We left 
our horses in the brush, and we took our over- 
coats, lariats, guns, ammunition, and 1 quart of 
flour, and I also had a knife scabbard made out 
of rawhide, and I also had a knife, and we 
started afoot down the canyon. 

"We travelled all day until about 5 o'clock, 
when we struck the head of the Grand Canyon 
of the Colorado River. There we picked up 
some logs and built us a raft. We had 200 feet 
of rope when we first built the raft, which was 
about 6 feet wide and 8 feet long, just big 
enough to hold us up. The logs were securely 
tied together with the ropes. We got on our 
raft at night, working it with a pole. We 
travelled all night, and the next day, at 10 
o'clock, we passed the mouth of the San Juan 
river. We had smooth floating for three days. 
The third day, about 5 o'clock, we went over a 
rapid, and George was washed off, but I caught 
hold of him andgot him on the raft again. 

"From the time we started the walls of tlie 
Canyon were from two to three thousand feet 
high, as far as I could estimate at the time, and 
some days we could only see the sun for an hour, 
possibly two hours. Each day we would mix 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 157 

a little of the flour in a cup and drink it. The 
third day the flour got wet, so we scraped it of£ 
the sack and ate it. That was the last of the 
flour and all we had to eat. 

"On the fourth day we rebuilt our raft, find- 
ing cedar logs along the bank from 12 to 14 
feet long and about 8 or 10 inches through. We 
made it larger than the first one. The second 
raft was about 8 feet wide and 12 feet long. 
We started down the river again, and about 8 
o'clock in the morning (as to our time, we were 
going by the sun) we got into a whirlpool and 
George 'was w^ashed off. I hollered to him to 
swim ashore, but he went down and I never saw 
him again, 

"After George was drowned I removed my 
trousers, tying them to the raft, so I would be 
able to swim in case I was washed off. I then 
tied a long rope to my waist, which was fast- 
ened to the raft, and I kept the rope around my 
waist until the twelfth day. 

"About noon I passed the mouth of the Little 
Colorado river, where the water came into the 
canyon as red as could be, and just below that 
I struck a large whirlpool and I was in the 
whirlpool about two hours or more before I got 
out. 

"I floated on all that day, going over several 
rapids, and when night came I tied my raft to 
the rocks and climbed upon the rocks of the 
walls of the canyon to rest. I had nothing to 
eat on the fourth day. 

"On the fifth day I started down the river 
again, going over four or five rapids, and when 



158 HISTOEY OF ARIZONA. 

night came I rested on the walls again, and still 
nothing to eat. 

"On the sixth day I started do\^^l the river 
again, and I came to a little island in the middle 
of the river. There was a bush of mesquite 
beans on this island, and I got a handful of 
these beans and ate them. When night came I 
rested on the walls again. 

"The seventh, eighth, ninth, and tenth days 
were uneventful, but still going continuously 
over rapids, and still nothing to eat. So I cut 
my knife scabbard into small pieces and swal- 
lowed them. During the entire trip I saw no 
fish or game of any kind. 

"On the eleventh day I went over the big 
rapid. I saw it before I came to it, and laid 
down on my stomach and hung to the raft and 
let the raft go over the rapid, and after getting 
about 200 yards below the rapid I stopped and 
looked at a stream of water about as large as 
mj body that was running through the solid 
rocks of the canyon about 75 feet above my 
head, and the clinging moss to the rocks made 
a beautiful sight. The beauty of it cannot be 
described. 

"On the twelfth day my raft got on some 
rocks and I could not get it off ; so I waded on to 
a small island in the middle of the river. On 
this island there was an immense tree that had 
been lodged there. The sun was so hot I could 
not work, so I dug the earth out from under 
the tree and laid under it until the sun dis- 
appeared behind the cliffs. This was about 
noon. After resting there I got up and found 
five sticks about as big as my leg and took them 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 159 

down to the edge of the island below my raft. 
\L then untied the rope from my raft and took 
the loose rope I had around my waist and tied 
these sticks together. I slept on this island all 
night. 

"On the thirteenth day I started out again 
on my newly made raft (leaving the old raft on 
the rocks), thinking it was daylight; but it was 
moonlight, and I continued down the river until 
daylight. While floating in the moonlight I 
saw a pole sticking up between two large rocks, 
which I afterwards learned the Government 
had placed there some years before as the end 
of its journey. 

"When daylight came I heard some one talk- 
ing, and I hollered 'hello,' and they hollered 
'hello' back. I discovered then that they were 
Indians. Some of them came out to the raft 
and pulled me ashore. There were a lot on the 
bank, and I asked them if they were friendly, 
and they said they were, and I then asked them 
to give me something to eat, when they gave 
me a piece of mesquite bread. While I was 
talking to some of the Indians, the others stole 
my half-ax and one of my revolvers, which were 
roped to the raft. They also tore my coat try- 
ing to take it from me. 

"After eating the bread I got on my raft and 
floated until about 3 o'clock in the afternoon, 
w^hen I came upon another band of Indians, and 
I went ashore and went into their camp. They 
did not have anything for me to eat, so I traded 
my other revolver and vest for a dog. They 
skinned the dog and gave me the two hind quar- 
ters and I ate one of them for supper, roasting 



160 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

it on the coals. The Indians, being afraid of 
me, drove me out of their camp, and I rested 
on the bank of the river that night, and the next 
morning, the fourteenth day after I got on my 
raft, I started to eat the other quarter, but I 
dropped it in the water. I floated that day un- 
til 3 o'clock and landed at Callville, and a man 
came out and pulled me ashore. 

"Jim Ferry or Perry (not sure as to the first 
letter of this name) was a mail agent at this 
place. He was also a correspondent for some 
newspaper in San Francisco. He took me in 
and fed me. When I landed all the clothing I 
had on my body was a coat and a shirt, and my 
flesh was all lacerated on my legs from my ter- 
rible experience and of getting on and off the 
raft and climbing on the rocks. My beard and 
hair were long and faded from the sun. I was 
so pale that even the Indians were afraid of me. 
I was nothing but skin and bones and so weak 
that I could hardly w^alk. Jim Ferry (or Perry) 
cared for me for three days, and the soldiers 
around there gave me clothing enough to cover 
my body. 

"I was at Callville about four weeks, and a 
boat was there getting a load of salt, and I got 
on that boat and w^ent to Fort Mojave. There 
I met Gen. Palmer and told him my story. 

"From Fort Mojave I w^ent to Callville again 
and there worked for Jim Ferry (or Perry), 
carrying the mail for three months between 
Callville and Fort Mojave. Then he sold out 
to Jim Hinton, and I carried mail for him for 
a month. He sold out, and we each bought a 
horse and pack animal and we started from Call- 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 161 

ville, going to Salt Lake in the spring of 1868. 
From Salt Lake City we went to Bear River. 
There we took a contract of getting out ties. 
Then I hired out as wagon boss. Then I quit 
and run a saloon. I sold out and then went to 
Omaha, Nebr. From there I went to Chicago, 
and from there to Kenosha, Wis., to visit my 
old home. That was in 1869. From Kenosha 
I went to Chicago, and from there to Leaven- 
worth, Kans., and later to Kansas City, Kans. 
From there I went to Junction City, Kans., and 
then to Goose Creek. I drove stage in and out 
of Goose Creek for Barlow & Sanderson, for 
whom I had worked in Fort Dodge. I was 
transferred from Goose Creek to Fort Lyon or 
Five Mile Point. From there I went to Bent 
Canyon, Colo., and minor places, later drifting 
to Trinidad, where I have lived since 1878. 

"These are the plain facts. There are many 
minor points that could be mentioned, but did 
not think it necessary to mention here. I have 
never been through that country since my ex- 
perience, but have had a great desire to go over 
the same country again, but have never been 
financially able to take the trip. 

■ "(Signed) JAMES WHITE." 

Corroborative evidence of the statement of 
Mr. White, and other statements, concerning his 
trip, is also produced by the writer, from which 
the following is taken: 

"Among tliose who took cognizance of it was 
Bancroft, the historian of the western coast, 
who includes the White story in his history of 
Arizona. Samuel Bowles, the famous editor of 

V— 11 



162 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

the Springfield Republican, and Albert D. Rich- 
ardson, both of them early and frequent visitors 
to the West, accept the record without question, 
and both make mention of White's adventure 
in books written by themselves. It would be 
worth while to quote from all these notable pub- 
licists, but an extract from Mr. Richardson 
must suffice as a sample of the thought and ex- 
pression of all. He w^ent to the extent of giv- 
ing the full story of the Grand Canyon exploit 
in the 1869 edition of his great book, 'Beyond 
the Mississippi, ' regarded everywhere in its day 
as the last word on all things western. The fol- 
lowing excerpt affords a fair idea of his esti- 
mate of White 's story : 

" 'Indians and trappers have always believed 
that no man could tread the stupendous gorge, 
hundreds of miles long, with its unknown cata- 
racts and its frowning rock w^alls a mile high, 
and come out alive. But one has done it and 
lives to tell the tale. * * * What a romance 
his adventures would make. Let Charles Reade 
or Victor Hugo take James White for a hero 
and give us a new novel to hold children from 
play and old men from the chimney corner. ' 

"In another connection in the same article 
Mr. Richardson characterizes White's feat as 
'perhaps without parallel in authentic human 
history.' " 

The writer continues: 

' ' The fact having been established by so many 
witnesses that White actually made his appear- 
ance below^ the canyon, the case would be com- 
plete if it could be shown that he went into the 
canyon at its head ; but obviously such proof is 



EXPLOKATIONS AND SURVEYS. 163 

impossible, as there were no white men's habi- 
tations within hundreds of miles on the day that 
White and Strole pulled out into the stream to 
escape the savages w^ho had so unceremoniously 
deprived them of their leader. 

"All that can be done to substantiate White's 
story regarding the entrance upon his perilous 
enterprise, is to adduce as much testimony as 
possible indicating the probability of truthful- 
ness in that connection. Necessarily, in view 
of the lapse of time and the remoteness of the 
locality, such proof is scarce. Still it is not en- 
tirely lacking. We have at least three wit- 
nesses whose testimony shows that White and 
Baker, with others, were moving toward the 
head of the canyon in the spring of 1867, and 
fortunately one of these still lives. He is no 
other than Hon. T. J. Ehrhart, the present 
highly regarded chairman of the Colorado State 
Highway Commission. The other two are S. B. 
Kellogg and Mrs. Thomas Pollock, both for- 
merly of Lake City,, Colo., whom we find quoted 
in the Rocky Mountain News, of Denver, in its 
issue of November 14, 1877. 

"The statement in the News was a contribu- 
tion from a correspondent, and the reference to 
White was incidental to an effort to clear up the 
fate of Baker, who, as the leader of the first 
expedition into the San Juan region, was a his- 
torical character in Colorado. Kellogg had 
aided in fitting out the original Baker expedi- 
tion when it left California Gulch in 1860, and 
had become a member of the Baker party while 
it was operating in San Juan during the fall of 
that year, while Mrs. Pollock had joined the 



164 HISTOEY OF ARIZONA. 

party as the wife of another of its members. 
When seen by the representative of the Denver 
paper, both resided in Lake City, and Kellogg 
held office as a justice of the peace. 

"The News correspondent bases his whole 
article on information supplied by these two 
former associates of Baker and, after detailing 
the facts regarding the venture of 1860, says : 

'' 'In the summer of 1867 Charles Baker re- 
turned to Colorado and camped for a short time 
on Chalk Creek. With several other men he 
started south from there and wandered through 
the mountains prospecting. Their number 
dwindled down until only Baker, a man named 
White, and another, whose name is forgotten, 
remained together.' 

''The particulars of the futile prospecting 
trip through the San Juan, the journey to the 
mouth of the Grand Eiver, the murder of Baker, 
and White's voyage down the river are then re- 
counted, after which recital the News writer 
adds: 

" 'In May last White w^as in Lake City, and 
it is believed that he is now in the southern part 
of the State. He is about 35 years of age, a 
plain, matter-of-fact, practical, adventurous 
man. There is not a shadow of doubt about his 
wonderful adventures and his marvellous es- 
cape through the Canyon of the Colorado.' 

"The writer does not say in explicit words 
that Kellogg and Mrs. Pollock met Baker while 
engaged in his new prospecting enteiprise, but 
he gives the impression that they were relating 
facts of which they were personally cognizant. 
As a matter of fact, however, Baker's presence 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 165 

in that region would have been the subject of 
common knowledge, as he was known as few 
other men there because of his identification 
with the history of the country; so that there 
can be no doubt that Mr. Kellogg and Mrs. Pol- 
lock knew just what they were talking about. 
Hence their testimony goes far toward corrobo- 
rating White's story of the party's visit to the 
San Juan prior to the adventure on the Rio 
Colorado. Incidentally, it is worth while to 
point out that this publication was made eight 
years after Powell's voyage. More significant 
still is the fact that it appeared in the Rocky 
Mountain News, whose editor was a close per- 
sonal friend of Maj. Powell's." 

The testimony seems abundant that White 
did pass the winter in the San Juan country in 
a futile prospecting tour. x\mong those who 
vouch for the correctness of this story is T. J. 
Ehrhart, Commissioner of State Highways of 
Colorado, and among those who vouch for the 
character of Mr. White, who seems to have 
raised a family and to have always pursued a 
quiet life, not realizing at any time that he had 
done anything extraordinary in passing through 
the Grand Canyon, is Hon. D. L. Taylor, Mayor 
of the City of Trinidad, who has known White 
ever since he located in Trinidad; the Hon. 
S. W. He Busk, State Senator from the Trini- 
dad District ; the Hon. Julius Gunter, Governor 
of Colorado, and Eli Jeffryes, Cashier of the 
First National Bank of Trinidad, besides a 
number of others. Mr. Jeffryes said: 

"I have known Mr. James White, of this city, 
for the past thirty-three years. In all that 



166 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

time I have known him to be a man of first-class 
reputation. He is the father of a very splen- 
did family of children, all of whom are a credit 
to the commmiity. We consider him entirely 
honest, and he is of good credit locally." 

George Wharton James in his work, ''In and 
Around the Grand Canyon," says that White 
subsequently worked for Major Pow^ell. White 
declares that at no time was he in the employ of 
the Major, nor did he laiow him, and that he 
had never seen the man. In a letter dated 
"Trinidad, Colo., April 20, 1917," to Mr. Daw- 
son, Mr. White says : 

"I have come into knowledge of the fact that 
a charge has been made that I did not reach the 
Colorado river above the San Juan, but below 
it. You will notice from the account that I sent 
you of my trip that when our party started on 
our prospecting trip we w^ere headed for the 
Grand River, as Baker said there was gold in 
that part of the country ; but Baker was killed 
before reaching the Grand River in a canyon 
between the San Juan and the Grand. I knew 
nothing of the country, but Baker did, and he 
kept a memorandum ; but we did not think of it 
after the Indians attacked us, as we had to make 
our escape as quickly as possible. Mr. Baker 
also carried a compass and kept us informed as 
to the directions w'e w^ere travelling, and he told 
us that we were going north to the Grand 
River; that the Grand River and the Green 
River formed the Colorado River. 

"Baker w^as killed after w^e crossed the San 
Juan River in a canyon between the San Juan 
and the Grand, beino^ north of the San Juan. 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 167 

We camped in the canyon that night, and the 
next morning we had to gp out the way we went 
in, and that is w^here the Indians attacked us 
and Baker was killed. 

''George Strole and I went down the canyon, 
travelling all that day, reaching the Colorado 
River just below where the Grand River and 
the Green River meet, forming the Colorado 
River, and there we made our raft and began 
our descent down the Colorado. 

"TFe did not travel dotvn any small stream 
before reaching the Colorado River. 

"Mr. Baker was a man who had prospected a 
good deal in the San Juan country, and surely 
he knew where he w^as going and in which direc- 
tion he was going. 

"I guess the story will be attacked w^hen 
printed, but I am willing to talk to anyone and 
convince them that I entered the Colorado River 
above the San Juan and not below it. 

"I do not like to bother you so much, but I 
thought it best to let you know of this charge 
and to try and explain fully to you why I know 
that we entered the Colorado north of the San 
Juan river. 

"Thanking you for your kindness, and hop- 
ing that some day I will have the pleasure of 
meeting you, I am, 

"Very truly vours, 

"eT AMES WHITE." 

In view of this later evidence, as printed in 
a Senate Document, there seems to be no room 
to doubt that White actually made the journey, 
and that he was the first man to traverse the 
Colorado. Dellenbaugh has contributed sev- 



168 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

eral volumes, devoted to Major Powell's explo- 
rations of that gorge, which, of course, form a 
great addition to the history of the Grand Can- 
yon of the Colorado, but it should be remem- 
bered that Dellenbaugh was a partial biog- 
rapher, and his declaration that it would be 
impossible for any man to pass through the 
Colorado on a raft should be taken with many 
grains of allowance, because he was anxious, 
apparently, not only to give Major Powell due 
credit as being the first to explore the Grand 
Canyon, but also to rob White of the credit of 
being the first, by a force of circumstances, to 
pass through it, and it is not surprising that 
others have taken Dellenbaugh 's statements 
that the entire story was a "base fabrication," 
and so proclaimed it to the world. The effects 
of such statements, once given currency, are 
hard to eliminate. It is like the story first 
printed by Bancroft that Jeff Davis introduced 
a bill into Congress to organize the Territory of 
Arizona, when, as a matter of fact, Jeff Davis 
never did anything of the kind, yet, to-day, it 
is circulated and believed by a great many 
of the people who have not the time and the 
patience to hunt up the record. 




JOHN WESLEY POWELL. 
Explorer of the Canyons of the Colorado, Pounder, and, till his death, 
Director of the Bureau of American Ethnology, and long Director of the 
U. S. Geological Survey. As ho looked during the decade following his 
two descents of the Colorado. Taken about 1876, in Washington. Major 
Powell died September 23d, 1902. 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 169 



CHAPTER VIII. 

EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS (Continued). 

Major Powell's First Exploration of the 
Grand Canyon — Cataract Canyon — De- 
scription OF Walls of Canyon — Three 
OF Party Leave and go Overland — End of 
First Exploration — Mormons — Approxi- 
mate Distance by Ri\^r — Major Powell's 
Second Exploration of the Grand Can- 
yon — White's Story Branded Fabrica- 
tion BY DeLLENBAUGH. 

Two years later, in 1869, Major Powell organ- 
ized his first expedition for the exploration of 
the Canyon, a short sketch of which he gave to 
the press in 1869, as follows : 

"For two or three years I have been engaged 
in making some geographical studies in the 
mountains to the east and north of the Colorado 
Basin, and while pursuing them the thought 
grew into my mind that the canyons of this 
region would be a book of revelations in the 
rock-leaved Bible of geology. The thought 
fructified, and I determined to read the book; 
so I sought for all the available information 
with regard to the canyon land. I talked with 
Indians and hunters; 1 went among the Mor- 
mons to learn what they knew of this country 
adjacent to the 'Kingdom of God,' the home of 
the 'Church of Jesus Christ of Latter-day 
Saints'; I read the reports of the United States' 
Surveys, and I explored canyons of the tribu- 
tary streams that I thought would represent 



170 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

somewhat the nature of the Grand Canyon, on 
account of similar geological and physical fea- 
tures. From the fabulous stories, the facts, 
and the reports, and from the knowledge of 
other canyons, I came to the belief that the 
'Grand Canyon of the Colorado' could be ex- 
plored by descending the river in small boats. 
I also arrived at the conclusion that w^hat was 
known as the 'Grand Canyon' was in fact a 
series of canyons, forming the banks or walls 
of the Upper Colorado and the lower portions 
of the Green and Grand, that unite to form it. 
These two streams unite in canyons, and some 
persons held that the vaguely defined 'Grand 
Canyon' was continued up the Green, and others 
that it was continued up the Grand, while others 
still asserted that these streams united in a val- 
ley. One man assured me that he, with several 
others, had laid out a city at the junction, but 
was driven away by Indians. 

"Having made up my mind to explore the 
gorge, I came from the mountains to Chicago 
last spring, to procure outfit and build boats. 
Four of these were made on a model devised for 
the purpose of navigating canyon streams ; and 
taking them out to Green River Station, where 
the Union Pacific Eailroad crosses the Green, 
I w^as ready to embark. There I had a party of 
nine men awaiting my arrival, and anxious to 
enter the 'Great Unknown' with me — men all 
experienced in the wild life of the country, and 
most of them in boating on dangerous streams. 

"On the 24th of May we started. For a few 
days our way was through a river of low canyons 
and small green valleys, until we reached the 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 171 

Uintah Mountains. Through this range the 
river has cut a winding channel, forming the 
Uintah system of canyons. Near the lower end 
of this series Yampa river enters the Green by 
a canyon. Further down, in a valley portion 
the Uintah and White rivers come in. About 
thirty miles below this point we enter another 
series of canyons. I.ow walls of grey, buff, and 
rust colored sandstone shut us in. These walls 
slowly increase in height as we advance ; the grey 
rocks are lost; dark red sandstone appears; 
the walls are broken down by lateral canyons, 
increasing in number until we are in the heart 
of the Canyon of Desolation. Sometimes these 
lateral canyons are so crowded, that the rock 
between them stands as a narrow wall hundreds 
of feet high, the end being, of course, towards 
the main canyon. 

"Some lateral canyons have their own lateral 
canyons, then a fourth series, cutting the wall 
into sections, whose towering summits, though 
large enough to support cathedrals, seem 
scarcely to furnish footing for man. Two thou- 
sand feet — three thousand feet overhead is the 
summit of the walls, while rocks and crags, and 
peaks rise higher, and still higher away back 
from the river, until they reach an altitude of 
nearly five thousand feet. These rusty, grey, 
and dark red sandstones have no beauty of 
colour. A few greenish brown cedars are seen, 
looking not like shoots of evergreen spray, but 
like clumps of knotty war clubs bedecked with 
spines. These, with a little sage, constitute all 
the verdure. We next ran through Coal Can- 
yon, and passed the mouth of Little White 



172 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

River; then came a valley region, where we 
passed the mouth of the San Rafael, and soon 
entered Stillwater Canyon. The river winds 
through this with a quiet current, as if in no 
haste to leave this beautiful canyon, carved out 
of orange sandstone. All along its walls domed 
alcoves and amphitheatres have been cut out of 
the solid rock; grottoes and caves abound, nar- 
row lateral canyons, channels of rivulets, born 
of a shower, and born again of a shower, are 
cut as clefts in the rocks; and at every curve 
on the inner side is a spot of willow bordered 
meadow. Then the walls grow higher, the river 
swifter, and w^e glide down to the junction of 
the Green and Grand. Here the walls are 
nearly 1,300 feet high. But away back from 
the river are lateral canyons, and canyon val- 
leys, the floors of w^hich are at about the same 
altitude as the immediate walls of the main 
canyon, and the walls of this upper set are hun- 
dreds of feet higher, and still further back again 
the country is cut into a labyrinth of canyons. 
The main walls at the junction are not vertical, 
but have the slope of broken rocks tnmbled 
down, while the lateral canyons have mostly 
vertical walls with a sloping talus at the base. 
"We remained at the junction several days, 
and then rowed out into Cataract Canyon. 
Soon we heard the roar of waters, and came 
upon a succession of rocky rapids and cataracts. 
Over some of these we were compelled to make 
portage; usually only the cargoes were carried 
over the rocks and the boats were let down with 
lines ; but now and then boats and all had to be 
carried. When these cataracts and rapids were 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 173 

unobstructed by rocks, or where there was any 
passage, we were able to run them, never fmding 
any fall greater than nineteen feet in this can- 
yon. Sometimes the waves below would I'oll 
over a boat and fill the open part; but they 
could not sink it, as each was decked fore and 
aft, and so had a watertight compartment at 
either end. Now and then a boat would roll 
over; but, clinging to its sides until they could 
right it, the men would swim to shore, towing 
it with them. We found much difficulty in the 
whirlpools below; for at times it was almost 
impossible to get out of them. They would 
carry us back under the falls, they would dash 
us against the rocks, or they would send us 
whirling down the river. For twelve days we 
toiled through this canyon, stopping once to 
measure the altitude of its walls near its highest 
point, and finding it nearly 2,500 feet. This 
was at the axis of a vast fold in the strata, and 
from that point the upper rocks slowly came 
down with a gentle dip to the southwest until 
we reached the foot of the canyon, 45 miles 
from its head. A rocky valley canyon was 
found here on the left, and the river made a 
bend around a sharp point on the right, which 
point was set with ten thousand crags and rocks. 
We called it Mille-crag Bend, and sweeping 
around this in a rapid current, our boats shot 
into Narrow Canyon, down which we glided 
almost at railroad speed, the walls rising verti- 
cally from the water 1,300 feet at its head, and 
coming down to high-water mark at the foot, 
7 miles below, where the Dirty Devil, a river of 
mud, enters from the right. Now we had come 



174 HISTOEY OF ARIZONA. 

again to the red and orange sandstone, and the 
walls were of beautiful bright rock, low at first, 
but as we cut down through the strata, rising 
higher and higher. Now and then, on this and 
that side, the rocks were vertical from the 
water's edge; but usually they were cut into 
moimds and cones and hills of solid sandstone, 
rising one above the other as they stretched back 
in a gentle slope for miles. These mounds have 
been cut out by the showers from the bright 
orange rock, and glitter in resplendent beauty 
under the midday sun. Hour after hour have 
we gazed entranced on them, as they faded in 
the perspective and retreated to the rear; for 
the river was gentle, though swift, and we had 
but to steer our boats, and on we went through 
this land of beauty and glory. 

"On the 31st of July we reached the mouth 
of the San Juan, at the foot of Mound Canyon, 
and went into camp for a day or two's rest. 
Then we started again. We had now run once 
more into dark red and chocolate coloured sand- 
stones, with slate coloured beds below; these 
usually formed vertical walls, occasionally ter- 
raced or broken down, and from the crest of 
these the orange mounds sloped back, bearing 
on the top of each mound some variegated 
monument, now vertical, now terraced, now 
carved by time into grotesque shapes, such as 
towers, pinnacles, etc. These monuments stood 
alone or in groups, and spread over the land- 
scape as far as the eye could reach. The little 
valley of the Paria River terminates this can- 
yon, making it about 100 miles long. We named 
it Monument Canyon. 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 175 

"By this time the river had cut through the 
sandstones and reached the limestones below 
them at this point, and as We advanced the chan- 
nel was cut into this new strata. We entered 
between walls, low but vertical, which gradually 
increased in altitude to the foot, where they 
were 2,900 feet high, terraced and broken down 
into crags above. Halfway down the canyon 
we found the lower strata appearing as marble ; 
the marbles were white, grey, and slate coloured, 
then pink, purple and brown; other strata ap- 
peared which were variegated with these colours 
intermixed, until at last we had 400 feet of 
marble wall, mostly variegated, from the water's 
edge. They were fretted by the water, em- 
bossed with strange devices, and polished into 
beauty. Where there were patches of marble 
floor left bare, large shallow water basins ap- 
peared, hollowed out by the whirlpools of the 
flood season, and filled with clear, sparkling 
water — a beautiful contrast to the red muddy 
river. Springs gushed from these limestone 
strata, forming fountains which plunged into 
marble fonts, and formed a strange contrast, 
after every shower, to the cascades of red mud 
which poured over the walls from the red sand- 
stone above, with a fall of hundreds of feet. 
We called this Marble Canyon ; it terminated at 
the mouth of the Little Colorado (Colorado 
Chiquito), and was about 36 miles long. 

"Here a short rest, and then we pulled out on 
the home stretch— not a very short one either— 
nearly 300 miles by river to the mouth of the 
Virgen. The lower members of this carboni- 
ferous f oimation are of dark rust coloured sand- 



176 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

stones, sometimes almost black. We soon ran 
through these, and through Silurian red sand- 
stone, and about 15 miles below the mouth of the 
Little Colorado, struck the granite. 

' ' From the mouth of that stream to the mouth 
of the Virgen, our objective point, the general 
course of the river is to the west ; but it makes 
three great curves to the south and three cor- 
responding curves to the north. At the ex- 
tremity of the southern curves the walls are 
granite at the base, reaching to an altitude of 
800 feet. This usually rises from the w^ater in 
almost vertical cliffs, set above with ragged 
crags, then a sloping terrace 100 to 500 yards 
wide, then walls of sandstone and marble tower- 
ing 200 or 300 feet towards the heavens. In the 
northern bends the marble comes down to the 
w^ater's edge. In the southern bends the river 
runs raging through a narrow gorge filled with 
rapids and cataracts, often falling at a plunge 
from 5 to 20 feet — the greatest being 22 feet. 
Over these we usually had to run, as the granite 
walls rarely gave foothold, though some port- 
ages w^ere made. The roar of a cataract could 
always be heard for half a mile or more, so that 
we never came upon them unapprised of danger. 

"In the last great bend to the south we came 
upon a series of cataracts and rapids crowded 
together into a distance of three-fourths of a 
mile; a stream came down through a narrow 
canyon on either side, and above their mouths 
we found a foothold to land, so we stopped to 
examine. On the river there seemed to be great 
danger, and no portage could be had. We 
arrived in the morning, and the day was spent 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 177 

in exploring and trying to decide some method 
of getting over the difficulty. I found that we 
could climb to the summit of the granite, 800 
feet high, and passing along the terrace could 
descend to a point helow ; but it would require 
ten days to get our boats and cargoes over, and 
we had scant five days' rations. When I re- 
turned to camp at night I announced to the men 
that we must attempt to run it. After supper 
one of them came to me and asked if I was will- 
ing that he and two others should leave the river 
and walk out over the mountains ; they thought 
that they could climb out of the canyon, up the 
channel of the right hand creek. Of course, I 
objected, but they were determined to go. An 
hour's talk failed to shake their resolutions; so 
I sat up all night, made observations for the 
latitude and longitude of that point, and then 
walked up and down a little sand beach until 
morning. 

"On the morrow the men were still deter- 
mined to go, and I hastily fitted out the little 
party with guns, ammunition, and a small store 
of rations. In the meantime those going down 
the river were ready to start. Not being able 
to man it, I tied up one of the boats and 
abandoned it. When all was ready we shook 
hands, and some tears were started, as each 
party thought the other going to destruction. 
' Goodby, ' and away went our boat over the first 
cataract, then amongst the rocks and over the 
second to the left of a huge rock and whirlpool, 
and then leaping a third, it shot into an eddy 
below. 

V— 12 



178 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

''The boats were half filled with water, but 
that was of common occurrence ; we really found 
it less dangerous than a hundred we had rmi 
above. The men that were left sat on the cliffs 
and watched us go safely over, so we went into 
camp and waited two hours, hoping that they 
would join us with the boat left tied to the rock 
above. But we never saw nor heard of them 
since. 

' ' The same afternoon we passed one more dan- 
gerous rapid, and then had fair sailing to the 
end of the canyon, where the river debouches 
into Mormon Valley, so named by our party. 

"This ended the exploration of the Grand 
Canyon of the Colorado — its head at the con- 
fluence of the Little Colorado, its foot at the 
entrance of Moimon Valley, its length 238 
miles, its altitude from 2,500 to 4,000 feet. A 
number of clear streams flow into it from either 
side, the largest coming down from the Buck- 
skin Mountains on the north, which we named 
Right Angle River. 

"I have mentioned the terraces of the south- 
ern bends; these have been the sites of ancient 
Indian villages, inhabited by a race of diminu- 
tive people now almost extinct. Their little 
clusters of houses, fomid on the south side of 
the river, were 800 or 1,000 feet above the water. 
They were built of stone laid in mortar, and 
seem to have had reservoirs for water. Frag- 
ments of their pottery are found scattered about 
in great profusion, and deeply worn foot paths 
leading from village to village, or down to the 
river, or up to the summit plain, were fre- 
quently seen. On the northern bend their 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 179 

dwellings were near the river. Some of the 
ruins seem to be centuries old, and others to 
have been inhabited by the present generation — 
the latter were found near the mouth of the 
Little Colorado. Other ruins and fragments of 
pottery were found in the canyons above, and 
away up in the valleys of the Uintah. Only a 
few villages of these interesting people now 
remain in the country to the southeast. 

'^ Below the Grand Canyon the river and ad- 
joining country had been explored by Mormon 
parties, and here ended the 'Great Unknown,' 
no longer thus to be designated. One party had 
crossed through Mormon Valley; another had 
brought a skifi down the Grand Wash just be- 
low it, and descended in it to the mouth of the 
Virgen — to Call's Landing, and still other par- 
ties have passed through the country whose re- 
ports I find quite correct, except that they a 
little over estimated the distances. Alternating 
valleys and canyons were passed till we reached 
the mouth of the Virgen, where we came upon 
three white men dragging a seine. They proved 
to be Mormons, who had been sent on to prepare 
for a large settlement of people, which will be 
sent here by the Church, to build up another of 
those wonderful villages seen only in the 'King- 
dom.' 

"The whole region was one of great scenic 
beauty and grandeur; the constant change in 
geological structure made a constant change of 
scenery. The high walls enclosing a tortuous 
river, shut off the view before, and as we ad- 
vanced, it opened out, ever bringing into view 
some new combination of marvel or beauty. 



180 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

The impression of this scenery was the more 
vivified by a little anxiety — the shadow of a 
pang of dread ever present to the mind. 

"Of my party, I should like to say that some 
left me at the start, cutting the number down to 
ten, including myself. One left me at the mouth 
of the Uintah, three left me as mentioned before, 
and five went through. These were Captain 
W. H. Powell, John C. Sumner, George T. 
Bradley, W. Rhodes Hawkins, and Andrew 
Hall." 

I append a table of approximate distances, 
from source to mouth of the Rio Colorado, col- 
lected from the most authentic sources, 925 
miles of which were traversed and measured by 
Major J. W. Powell: 

APPROXIMATE DISTANCES BY RIVER. 
GREEN RIVER. 

Miles Total m 
Intermediate. Miles. 

Prom headwaters of Green River 
to Green River Crossing (on 
the U. P. R. R.) about 130 130 

Through valley to mouth of 

Henry's Fork 60 190 

Through Uintah series of Canyons 70 260 

Through valley past mouths of 

Uintah and White rivers 50 310 

Through Lower Green River sys- 
tem of canyons to junction of 
Green and Grand 190 500 



EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS. 181 

RIO COLORADO. 

Miles Total in 
Intermediate. Miles. 

Through Cataract Canyon 45 545 

Through Mound Canyon 7 552 

Through Narrow Canyon to mouth 

of San Juan River 68 620 

Through Monument Canyon to 

mouth of Paria River 100 720 

Through Marble Canyon to mouth 

of Little Colorado 36 756 

Through Grand Canyon 238 994 

Through valley to mouth of Virgen 43 1,037 

Through Callville 18 1,055 

Fort Mojave 75 1,130 

The Needles 25 1,155 

Mouth of Bill Williams's Fork. ... 60 1,215 

Fort Yuma 190 1,405 

Head of the Gulf of California .... 150 1,555 

This was the first scientific investigation ever 
made of the Grand Canyon. Major Powell 
made a second expedition two years later, full 
accounts of which have been written by F. S. 
Dellenbaugh in two books entitled "The Ro- 
mance of the Colorado River," and "A Canyon 
Voyage." 

Dellenbaugh brands White's story as a fab- 
rication, but the fact remains that White was 
taken up at Callville in an exhausted condition. 
Everyone who knew W. H. Hardy, who is quoted 
as one of the persons who interviewed White, 
knows that the old gentleman was the last man 
on earth to be imposed upon by any fictitious 
story. According to White's story, a few days 



182 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

before arriving at Callville, he was drawn out 
of the water by a band of Indians. These In- 
dians were, unquestionably the Havasupais, 
who had inhabited that portion of the Colorado 
Canyon for many years, how long, no one knows. 
Whipple, in his survey in 1854—55, speaks of 
them, and they are cultivating the same land to 
this day. White was by no means a boaster. 
He was a quiet, industrious, peaceable man, and 
after recovering his health, his only ambition 
was to return to his old home in Wisconsin. I 
would not detract from the laurels Major Powell 
has honestly earned. He was an indefatigable 
explorer and scientist, and as this history pro- 
ceeds it will be shown that he did much for the 
conquest of the arid West. 



THE MILITARY. 183 



CHAPTER IX. 

THE MILITARY. 

General Mason's Report — Different Indlvn 
Tribes — Forts in Arizona — General Mc- 
Dowell's Report — Praise for Arizona 
Volunteers — Expeditions Against In- 
dians — Conditions in Arizona by Major 
General Halleck. 

General John S. Mason's report shows the 
condition of the Territory at the time he as- 
sumed command, and the necessity for vigorous 
operations on the part of the military. His 
recommendations were certainly wise so far as 
the employment of Arizona native troops for 
operation against the hostiles were concerned. 
All subsequent commanders for several years 
afterwards agreed with him that the native 
troops, Papagoes, Pimas, Mexicans, and also 
volunteers of our own race, were more effective 
in the Indian warfare than were two or three 
times the number of regular troops. 

Tucson, at that time, according to General 
Mason's statement, was but little more than a 
village, and, while in the northern part of the 
Territory, and along the Colorado in the neigh- 
borhood of Yuma, there was quite a large popula- 
tion of whites and others, yet in all their enter- 
prises they lacked the protection of the Govern- 
ment. General Mason was superseded before 
he had an opportunity to make effective the 
policy outlined by him in this report, whicli 
follows : 



184 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

^'HEADQUARTERS, DISTRICT OF ARI- 
ZONA. 

"Camp on the Rio Gila, Sacaton, April 29, 1866. 

' ' SIR : In compliance with your letter of the 
30th ultimo, I have the honor to submit the fol- 
lowing report of operations in this district since 
I assumed command of the same in May last. 

"Before leaving San Francisco, neither the 
general commanding the department nor myself 
could learn anything definite as to the actual 
number of troops in the Territory, their status, 
nor the state of their supplies ; but we were as- 
sured there were small garrisons at Fort 
Whipple near Prescott; Fort Goodwin on the 
Upper Gila; Fort Bowie at Apache Pass, and 
at Tubac. 

"The seventh California infantry volunteers, 
four companies of native California cavalry 
volunteers, and one company of the first Cali- 
fornia cavalry volunteers, were assigned to 
duty in the district. They commenced leaving 
San Francisco in April, and the last arrived in 
September. Supplies for six months, for the 
troops destined for service south of the Gila 
and east of Tucson, were sent to Guaymas, to 
be hauled through Sonora to the depot to be es- 
tablished at Tubac. Three months' supplies 
for the post at Fort Yuma, and those north of 
the Gila, were sent direct to Fort Yuma by 
water. It was understood before I left San 
Francisco that the companies of the seventh in- 
fantry would be distributed as follows : one com- 
pany at Fort Mojave, two at Fort Yuma, four 
at Calabasas, or at some point near the site of 



THE MILITARY. 185 

old Fort Buchanan, and three at Fort Mc- 
Dowell, a post to be established north of the 
Gila, and near the country of the Tonto 
Apaches. The four companies of native cavalry 
were to be stationed at the post near Fort Bu- 
chanan, and the company of the First Cali- 
fornia cavalry at my headquarters, which we 
then supposed would be at Prescott. On my ar- 
rival at Drum barracks, learning that the gar- 
rison at Prescott was weak, I sent one of the 
companies intended for Fort Yuma to that 
point. On my arrival at Fort Yuma, on May 

, a deputation of citizens of La Paz, a town 

on the Colorado river, about midway between 
Fort Yuma and Mohave, waited upon me with 
an urgent request for troops at that point, in- 
forming me that the mails, and, in fact, all 
intercourse with the interior was entirely cut 
off; that Prescott and Wickenburg were sur- 
rounded by bands of hostile Indians, out of 
supplies; that all the farmers had left their 
farms, and the whole road was deserted, and the 
garrison was too small to render any assistance. 
I ordered a company of infantry to proceed at 
once by steamer to La Paz, with orders to pro- 
ceed to a point on Date creek, and establish a 
camp. I enclose a copy of instructions given 
to the officer in command, marked ''A." The 
stores shipped via Guaymas were not permitted 
to land at that point. The vessel brought them 
to Fort Yuma, and we w^ere compelled to haul 
them from there to their destination. Much 
difficulty and delay was experienced on account 
of the very limited amount of transportation in 
the Territory. My want of knowledge of the 



186 HISTOKY OF ARIZONA. 

nature and extent of the Territory, of the num- 
ber of hostile Indians and their haunts, and the 
fact that I could find no person who knew much 
more on the subject than I did, determined me 
to visit as much of the district as I possibly 
could before either going to Prescott, the Capi- 
tal, or establishing my headquarters at any 
point. 

"Governor John Goodwin accompanied me 
on this tour. On our arrival at the Pima vil- 
lages, he made arrangements to raise two com- 
panies of Pima and Maricopa Indians for the 
Arizona volunteers; also, for a company of 
Mexicans at Tucson, and one at Tubac for the 
same regiment. The result of observations on 
my tour led me to the following conclusions: 
That the country bordering on the Colorado 
river was inhabited by the Yuma, Chemehua- 
vies, Mohave, and Pinto tribes or nations of In- 
dians, at peace with the whites. Between these 
tribes and Prescott and Wickenburg were the 
Hualapais, on the north, and the Yavapais 
south ; both wild Indians who had seen but little 
of the whites, and who would not hesitate to 
attack small parties, although overtures for 
peace had been made by them. 

"The country east of Prescott, to the eastern 
line of the Territory, and north of the Gila, is 
inhabited by the Tonto, Pinal, Sierra Blanca, 
and Coyotero Apaches ; in fact, most of the hos- 
tile Indians dwell north of the Gila river, or in 
the mountains contiguous to that stream, and 
east of the Rio Verde. One small but very hos- 
tile band, probably the very worst Indians on 



THE MILITARY. 187 

the continent — Cochese's band — dwell in the 
Chiricahua and Huachuca ranges of mountains. 
''At the time of my arrival in the district, I 
believe every ranch had been deserted south of 
the Gila. The town of Tubac was entirely de- 
serted, and the towTi of Tucson had but about 
two hundred souls. North of the Gila, the roads 
were completely blockaded; the ranches, with 
but one or two exceptions, abandoned, and most 
of the settlements were threatened with either 
abandonment or annihilation. The mere es- 
tablishments of posts in the vicinity of the set- 
tlements is of no practical importance. The 
Apaches, differing from almost all other In- 
dians, in consequence of the difficulty of sub- 
sisting large parties, or of finding sufficient 
water, make their forages in small parties, join- 
ing forces at such points as they may have 
agreed on before hand, then separatmg again 
after an attack. The nature of the country is 
such that from the isolated mountains in the 
midst of extended plains they can watch the 
approach of any party, and as, from the great 
scarcity of water, they can always prepare an 
ambuscade, they seldom or never attack parties 
who are prepared or watchful, but depend en- 
tirely upon a surprise. If they fail in this they 
give up the fight. They are the most expert 
thieves in the world, having stolen from the 
people of Sonora for generations. They can 
come in small parties and steal stock almost in 
sight of the posts. To pursue them is useless. 
Soon they reach the rugged mountains, scatter 
into small parties, and can then defy either our 
infantry or cavalry; consequently t concluded 



188 HISTOEY OF ARIZONA. 

that the only true way to obtain a peace was to 
push into the country where they lived, where 
they had their wives and children, and their 
winter 's supply of provisions and by destroying 
their rancherias and provisions in midwinter 
compel them to sue for peace. With this idea 
in view I issued a general order for a united 
and vigorous campaign. 

''Colonel Wright, with eight small companies 
of his regiment arrived in October last. Col- 
onel Wright with five companies, was sent to 
reoccupy old Fort Breckenridge now known as 
Fort Grant; and Colonel Pollock with the re- 
maining companies, was sent to Fort Goodwin. 
Both posts have done a great deal for their sec- 
tions of the Territory, being admirably located 
with reference to hostile Apaches. The post 
at Fort Grant will enable settlers to come in on 
the rich valley of the San Pedro. That at Fort 
Goodwin protects such Indians as may give 
themselves up and come to terms. The troops 
were at their stations, and the increase of ex- 
pense to keep them on the move but trifling. 
Owing to several causes the results have not been 
as great as anticipated; the great trouble in 
bringing up supplies ; the disinclination of some 
of the volunteer troops, who expected hourly to 
be ordered home, to take long scouts in mid- 
winter; the extreme severity of the winter it- 
self, the thermometer ranging as low as 14° 
below zero for days; the snow at a depth of 
twenty inches; and, finally, the withdrawal of 
volunteers and substitution of regulars at a 
time that broke into the campaign, when we 
expected the most success — using that time in 



THE MILITARY. 189 

making the transfer instead of scouting — all 
have tended to prevent great results ; yet some- 
thing has been done. A few days ago I for- 
warded a synopsis of the scouts made, and a 
map of the country showing the stations of the 
troops. 

"1 am satisfied that the only true policy is 
that at present adopted. By pressing the In- 
dians from all points, and giving them a reserva- 
tion where they can be protected and fed, we 
will succeed in the end. Already we have near 
nine hundred Indians on the reservation at Fort 
Goodwin, and they are reported as coming in 
daily. The Yavapais during the year have been 
induced to abandon their country and come in 
with the Mohaves. The Hualapais are de- 
sirous of doing the same thing, unless the late 
report of their murder by whites be considered 
a cause for renewal of hostilities. Numbers of 
the Tonto Apaches are moving down into the 
junction of the Gila and Colorado with the 
Yuma. The different valleys have been reoc- 
cupied, many new settlements have been started, 
and the year promises much for the develop- 
ment of the Territory. The troops now here 
are inadequate for the service. The district is 
immensely large, the distance over which sup- 
plies have to be hauled very great, requiring 
strong escorts to guard the trains, and with the 
very small number of men in the different com- 
panies, and but one officer wath each company, 
most of the posts, for the present, can do but 
little more than hold their posts and escort their 
supply trains. 



190 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

"Efforts are being made to throw in a grass 
supply at once, which will enable us to dispense 
with many escorts. The dilSerent posts now^ 
occupied are mere cantonments, no money hav- 
ing been expended in their erection, so that 
should it be deemed advisable to abandon any 
of them and curtail operations in the district, 
there would be but very little actual loss to the 
government. I would recommend that au- 
thority be given to raise two or three companies 
of mounted scouts from the men who have been 
raised on the Sonora frontier, and have been 
fighting Apaches for years — men who are ac- 
customed to travel for days with a little pinole 
and dried beef, and who can follow a trail with 
the certainty of an Indian. Such companies 
would, in my judgment, do more efficient ser- 
vice than thrice the number of regulars. 
''Your obedient servant, 

''JOHN S. MASON, 
"Brig. Gen. Volunteers, Commanding District 

of Arizona. 
"Brevet Brigadier General R. C. DRUM, 

"A. A. G., Department of California, San 

Francisco. 
"Official: 

"JOHN P. SHERBURNE, A. A. G. 
"Official: 

"JAMES B. FRY, A. A. G." 

As we have seen, a strong effort was made by 
the people of Arizona to continue in the service 
the Arizona volunteers, who had proved the 
most valuable aid to the military in subduing 
the hostile Indians. General McDowell, in his 



THE MILITARY. 191 

annual report to the Secretary of War for the 
year 1866, speaks in high commendation of the 
Arizona volunteers. 

This report on conditions in Arizona was : 
''The regular troops in this district consist of 
the first and third battalions of the fourteenth 
infantry, four companies of the first United 
States cavalry, and one company of the second 
United States artillery. Until very recently 
there were also several companies and frag- 
ments of companies of Arizona volunteers. 
The latter have been ordered to be mustered out 
on the expiration of their year's term of service, 
and most, if not all, have by this time been dis- 
charged. They were the most effective troops 
for the service in that country that we have had, 
and have done more than all the others together. 
In fact, it is not too much to say that they only 
within the last year have inflicted any consider- 
able injury on the hostile Apaches. The regu- 
lar troops, used to a different kind of warfare, 
unused to the kind of life necessary to obtain 
any results against the Indians in Arizona, seem 
to acquire very slowly the experience necessary 
to enable them to be effective for offensive 
operations. 

"There has been a good deal of uneasiness 
within the year at several points along the river, 
particularly at La Paz, the mouth of Bill Will- 
iams's fork, Hardyville, and El Dorado Canyon, 
and it has been impossible to furnish the pro- 
tection asked for, except to a limited extent. 
The hostility existing between the Eiver In- 
dians and certain bands of the Pi-Utes and 
Chemehuevis has caused alarm to the white in- 



192 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

habitants who have been and are, friendly to 
the Mohaves. The killing of the head chief, 
Waba Yuma, of the Hualapais, by some whites 
on the road from Hardy ville to Prescott, has also 
unsettled the good relations heretofore existing 
with those Indians. 

"The hostilities on the road from Camp Cady 
to Fort Mojave with the Pi-Utes seem to have 
extended their effects to the Indians of that or 
kindred tribes further to the north and there 
have been offensive movements against the im- 
portant mining settlements at El Dorado can- 
yon. This has given alarm to those engaged 
in the enterprise of opening a line of trade by 
way of the Colorado river to Utah, and they 
fear their boat with its supplies may be in dan- 
ger. At their repeated and earnest request I 
have ordered a guard of ten men to be detached 
from Fort Mojave to be stationed for sixty days 
in El Dorado canyon. This, I since learn, will 
take every man, not on special duty, away from 
the post, the others being absent escorting cattle 
to Fort Whipple. 

* ' The Indians, who have heretofore been quiet 
on the road from La Paz to Prescott, and have 
confined themselves to limits prescribed by the 
military commander and Indian Superinten- 
dent, were found in large numbers beyond their 
limits in Skull valley. It is claimed they were 
there with hostile intent, and that they attacked 
a private train under escort of some Arizona 
volunteers. The result was an engagement, in 
w^hich a large number of Indians w^ere killed 
and wounded; it remains to be seen whether 
enough to subdue the tribe, or onl}^ to reflame it. 



THE ailLITARY. 193 

"The Arizona volunteers, heretofore sta- 
tioned in Skull valley, having been mustered out 
of service, their j^lace has been supplied by the 
company of the fourteenth infantry, from Date 
Creek, and the stations at the latter place and at 
Wickenburg have been abandoned. 

"The post of Camp Lincoln, on the Upper 
Verde, has proved so favorable for operations 
against the Apaches that it will be maintained 
by a company of the fourteenth infantry, though 
the force, both in quality for this kind of ser- 
vice, and quantity, will not replace the volun- 
teers whose places they take. 

"The post at Fort Whipple, near Prescott, 
will be kept up for the present. 

"The post at Fort McDowell, on the Lower 
Verde, now occupied by three companies of the 
fourteenth infantry and one company of the 
first cavalry, has, together with the post of 
Camp Lincoln, inflicted so severe a chastisement 
in repeated combats with the Apaches, that they 
have compelled them to beg for peace. This, 
heretofore, has been offered them on condition 
they would go to the place reserved for Indian 
prisoners at Fort Goodwin. But they repre- 
sent that they are at enmity with the Fort Good- 
win bands, and cannot live with them. 

"I am not sure they are sincere in their de- 
sire for peace ; but as they may be, and as I have 
now lost the force most competent to further 
chastise them, I have given instructions to grant 
them peace on the terms proposed to them by 
the late excellent commander of Fort McDowell, 
which will provide for their coming in as pris- 

V— 13 



194 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

oners, in the vicinity of that station, and there 
plant and keep the peace with the whites and 
their allies, the Gila Indians, the Pimas and 
Maricopas. 

"The post of Fort Grant, (two companies of 
the fourteenth infantry) at the mouth of the 
San Pedro, has been recently destroyed by the 
floods of the river, and the station has been re- 
moved to the site of old Port Breckenridge. I 
hope soon to change it to the heart of the 
Apache country, where the climate may prove 
healthy, and there is an abundance of wood and 
grass, as well as pure mountain water. 

"The post of Port Goodwin, occupied by 
three companies of the fourteenth infantry, is 
the place I have assigned for such of the 
Apaches as have surrendered themselves, and 
claim to wish to live in peace with the whites. 
At times several hundred have been on the res- 
ervation, but the difficulty of at all times hav- 
ing supplies for them has made it necessary to 
relax the rule for their constant presence, that 
they might lay in a store of mescal, etc., for 
food. This may have been taken advantage of 
in some instances to escape and commit depre- 
dations on the settlements. I do not expect in 
one season to reform a people whose whole life 
has been one of plunder, but I have no doubt 
that a combined system of kindness, when they 
do w^ell, and chastisement when they do ill, will 
have the same effect on Apaches as it has on 
other men, as well as animals. 

"Owing to sickness in the valley, the small 
post on the San Pedro, above Fort Grant, has 
been abandoned. 



THE MILITARY. 195 

"The camp on the upper San Pedro, near 
Barbecoma, is still maintained as a protection 
for the settlements, as are also the stations at 
Fort Bowie and Tucson. The companies sta- 
tioned at Fort Mason, (so called) on the upper 
Santa Cruz near Calabasas, have been tempo- 
rarily removed (by the district commander, on 
account of sickness) to the vicinity of old Fort 
Buchanan, whether to any good purpose re- 
mains to be seen. 

"The cost of transportation is so great into 
Arizona that I have felt it good economy to 
do everything possible to raise, and stimulate 
others to raise, supplies in the country. 

"I am glad to say that the experiment of a 
government farm on a large scale in the valley 
of the Verde, at Fort McDowell, has proved a 
success, and an abundant crop of corn and sorg- 
hum is about to be harvested, to be followed by 
a second crop of small grain. 

"Like results are expected from the farm 
ordered to be opened at Fort Goodwin, so I hope 
that next year will show a reduction in the cost 
of maintaining the troops, to be followed by re- 
ductions in every succeeding year, for there is 
an abundance of good arable land in the country 
to support a large population. 

"A great drawback to the service in the de- 
partment is the lack of officers, both staff and 
regimental. 

"There should be at least four officers of the 
quartermaster's department in Arizona alone. 
There are but two there now, and they belong 
to the volunteer service and will undoubtedly 
soon be mustered out. 



196 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

"The lack of company officers is such that at 
times companies are without a commissioned 
officer. At one time a post of two companies in 
Arizona had only one officer, a subaltern, to 
command the post, the two companies, and do 
the duty of quartermaster and commissary. 

"Under authority given me from division 
headquarters to raise a hundred Indian scouts, 
I have directed the district commander in Ari- 
zona to enlist seventy Pimas and Maricopas and 
twenty tame Apaches." 

The most important military expedition 
against the Apaches during the year 1866 was 
commanded by George B. Sanford, Captain 1st 
U. S. Cavalry, the official report of which fol- 
lows: 

"HEADQUARTERS FORT McDOWELL, 

"Arizona Territory, November 20, 1866. 

"I have the honor to submit the following 
report of the expedition against the hostile 
Apaches, made in compliance with Special 
Orders No. 119, dated Headquarters, Fort Mc- 
Dowell, Arizona Territory, November 10, 1866. 

"The expedition was composed as follows: 

"Captain George B. Sanford, company E. 
first United States cavalry, commanding. 

"First Lieutenant Camillio C. C. Carr, Com- 
pany E, first United States cavalry. 

"Company E, first United States cavalry, 
(47 enlisted men). 

"One enlisted man of company B, fourteenth 
United States infantry accompanied the com- 
mand, as acting hospital steward. 



THE MILITARY. 197 

''Mr. Max Strobel, accompanied the expedi- 
tion as a volunteer. 

''Eight (8) Maricopa and five (5) Pima 
Indians also volunteered for the expedition. 

"Mr. Thomas Ewing acted as guide. Total 
sixty-five (65). 

"The rations consisted of pinole, jerked beef 
and coffee, which were carried by the men on 
their saddles. Four pack-mules were taken, 
but they were so lightly loaded that they were 
able to keep up with the command at a gallop. 
None of them carried one hundred pounds, and 
they might have been dispensed with entirely, 
but I wished to have some extra animals along 
in case any of the soldiers' horses should break 
down or be wounded. 

"Wednesday, November 14. — The expedition 
left Fort McDowell just as the sun was setting. 
Crossed the Rio Verde, and marched on the 
Pima trail to a small valley on Sycamore (or, 
it is sometimes called, Caiion) creek, where we 
camped. The camp was reached at 10 p. m. 
Distance from the fort, twenty-five (25) miles; 
direction, northeast. Wood, water and grass in 
abundance. The valley was so situated that it 
was almost impossible for the Apaches to dis- 
cover us, without coming right into the camp. 

"November 15. — Remained in camp all day, 
grazing the animals. At sunset saddled up and 
marched through Sunflower valley, and over the 
Mazatzal mountains, crossing the ridge by the 
pass at the North Mazatzal. Camped at 11:15 
p. m. in a canon about two (2) miles from Tonto 
creek. Distance from last camp, twenty-one 
(21) miles. Water and grass good. 



198 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

''November 16. — At daylight two of the 
Indians were sent down to the creek to look for 
Apache signs. They returned in a few hours 
with information that, on the day before, two 
horses and one Indian had crossed the creek and 
gone in the direction of the Sierra Ancha moun- 
tains. At 1 p. m. saddled up and started on the 
track of these two horses. 

"The Apache had followed no trail, but kept 
as much as possible in the bushes, evidently 
hoping to conceal his track. About six (6) 
p. m. we followed the track on to an old Apache 
trail, and shortly after came upon the sign of 
a mule and a burro. About seven (7) p. m. we 
commenced to cross the Sierra Ancha range, 
and at ten (10) p. m. had reached the summit. 
The moon was obscured by clouds a good deal 
of the night, which rendered tracking a very 
difficult operation; but the Indians stuck to it 
with the tenacity of bloodhounds, and about 
midnight they reported that they were pretty 
certain we were near a rancheria. After some 
attempts to get into the canon, we were obliged 
to give up all thoughts of getting on to it that 
night. The rocks were so steep that a man could 
not walk at the mouth of the canon on foot. At 
one (1) p. m. we lay down by the horses and 
waited for daylight. Distance, about thirty 
(30) miles. This march was a very hard one, as 
we were continually winding round the moun- 
tains, and over them, down into deep caiions, and 
through rocks and boulders. Although the 
night was very cold, we built no fires, for fear 
of alarming the Apaches. 



THE MILITAKY. 199 

"November 17. — At daylight we started right 
over the mountain, and after traveling up it 
for about half an hour, we discovered the ran- 
cheria at the head of the canon. The men and 
Indians charged immediately down the rocks 
and into the rancheria, and, leaping from their 
horses, pursued the flying Apaches over the hills 
and across the cailons in the most gallant man- 
ner. Many of the men got bad falls among the 
rocks and precipices, but they kept on without 
any regard for anything but the Apaches. Six 
(6) were killed, five (5) w^ere taken prisoners, 
and two (2) horses captured. The mule and 
burro had been killed, and were being roasted 
on the fire. 

"There was a very large amount of winter 
stores in this rancheria, which were all de- 
stroyed and the rancheria burned. Among the 
articles found were two tin canteens, such as are 
issued by government, a portion of an English 
copy of the New Testament, some mail straps 
and pieces of a saddle, a gun lock and brass 
plates belonging to a gun, and baskets such as 
are used for carrying grain, etc., in great num- 
bers. They had a great abundance of seeds, 
nuts, acorns, buckskins, scrapes, and other arti- 
cles used by the Indians, and the destruction of 
these just as winter is setting in wall be a great 
blow to them. 

"This was evidently an old established ran- 
cheria, and one which they considered very safe. 
Words cannot do justice to the place. It was 
as nearly inaccessible as possible. The huts 
were situated just at the head of the canon, and 
back of them the rocks rose almost perpendicu- 



200 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

laiiy for several hundred feet. On each side 
the slope was more gradual, but still it was ter- 
rific. A little stream issued from the rocks, and 
'flowed through the caiion, and some fine oak 
trees grew along the banks. From this circum- 
stance I called the place Oak Caiion. 

"Mr. Thomas Ewing, (the guide) who has 
had much experience in Indian fighting, in- 
forms me that it was the worst place to get into 
that he ever saw. 

"As soon as the fight was over, and the ran- 
cheria destroyed, we started after some cattle 
which one of the prisoners (an Apache squaw) 
informed us were in Greenback valley. Com- 
ing upon some fresh signs of Indians, we took 
the gallop again, and charged across Greenback 
valley, which was about five miles distant. 
Much to our regret, we found nothing of them. 
We crossed another range of mountains, and got 
to within a short distance and in sight of Salt 
river. Here we struck more fresh tracks, and 
made another charge, getting very close on to 
some Indians, who w^ere gathering seeds. They 
managed to escape us, however, by concealing 
themselves in the rocks, and our horses were 
now so badly used up that we could not overtake 
them. On the last charge we were brought to 
a stand-still in another caiion, out of which 
there appeared to be no means of exit whatever 
for any animal without wings. The Maricopas 
and Pimas had never seen the place before, and 
could give no information about it. We accord- 
ingly turned round and came slowly back to 
Greenback valley, where we camped about two 
(2) p. m. 



THE MILITARY. 201 

"The Apaches in the meantime had put up 
signal smokes, and alarmed the country. 

''We grazed the animals all the rest of the 
day and during the night. Distance travelled 
this day, I should think, was about twenty-five 
(25) miles. As most of the time we were on the 
run, and travelling backwards and forwards 
among the rocks, it is rather difficult to esti- 
mate it. 

"November 18. — Saddled up at daylight, and 
marched to Tonto creek, where we grazed the 
animals two (2) hours, and then crossed the 
North Mazatzal on the old trail, and camped in 
Sunflower valley. Distance thirty-two (32) 
miles. 

"No\t:mber 19. — Saddled up at daylight, and 
marched to a grazing place on Sycamore creek, 
where we remained two (2) hours, and then 
moved on, reaching Fort McDowell about five 
(5) p. m. 

"No man or animal was lost in this expedi- 
tion. The weather was quite cold at night, but 
pleasant during the day, and we had no rain. 

"I expected when I started that this expedi- 
tion would be a very hard one, and my expecta- 
tions were fully realized; but success has amply 
repaid us. 

"To Lieutenant Carr and the enlisted men 
concerned in this campaign I am exceedingly 
indebted for the activity and energy they dis- 
played. The conduct of one and all was gallant 
in the extreme. Their success in the previous 
expedition had given them confidence in them- 
selves, and every man exerted himself to the 
utmost to make the campaign a success. The 



202 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

long preserved reputation of the first cavalry 
will never suffer in the hands of these men. 

''I am also very much indebted to Mr. Thomas 
Ewing and Mr. Strobel. Mr. Ewing displayed 
his usual gallantry and energy. His knowledge 
of the country and of the habits of the Apaches 
is very extensive, and his services are exceed- 
ingly valuable. 

"Mr. Max Strobel, who is a topographical en- 
gineer by profession, kindly undertook to make 
a map of this country, and to him I am indebted 
for the map which accompanies this report. 
He exercised the greatest care in taking the dis- 
tance, directions, etc., and I think he has suc- 
ceeded in making the most correct map I have 
seen of that section of the country. 

"I cannot close without acknowledging my 
thanks to the Pimas and Maricopas who accom- 
panied me. These splendid Indians performed 
their part in the most admirable manner and 
were of the greatest service during the whole 
trip. 

"I am sir, very respectfully, 

"Your obedient servant, 
"GEORGE B. SANFOED, 
"Captain 1st. U. S. Cavalry Commanding. 

"By command of Brevet General Mc- 
DOWELL : 

"JOHN P. SHERBURNE, 
"Assistant Adjutant General. 
"Official: "JOHN H. COSTER, A. D. C." 



THE MILITARY. 203 

Major-General Halleck, Commanding the 
Division of the Pacific, in his report, dated Sep- 
tember 18th, 1867, has the following to say con- 
cerning Arizona : 

''As stated in my last annual report, the 
Apaches and cogiiate tribes in Arizona and 
northern Sonora are the natural and hereditary 
enemies of the whites, of whatsoever nation or 
character. They have successfully expelled 
from that territory the Aztecs, the Spaniards, 
and the Mexicans, and they mil yield to our 
people only when compelled to do so by the 
rifle and revolver. They probably resemble the 
African Bedouins more than any other people, 
and murder and robbery constitute almost the 
sole occupation of the Apache. These Indians 
do not fight in masses, like most of the tribes 
east of the Rocky mountains, but move 
stealthily in small bands over the greater por- 
tion of Arizona and the northern parts of 
Sonora and Chihuahua, waylaying and murder- 
ing travellers on the roads, and plundering and 
destroying unprotected agricultural and mming 
settlements. 

"This mode of warfare, combined with the 
rough and desert character of the country, and 
the want of practical roads, renders it very 
difficult to operate successfully against them, or 
to give adequate protection to the small and 
scattered settlements in that extensive but 
sparsely populated Territory. Military opera- 
tions would probably be more effective in re- 
ducing these hostile Indians if the troops could 
be concentrated in larger posts, so as to have 
available a greater number for active cam- 



204 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

paigiiing in the country where they leave their 
families and obtain most of their supplies; but 
for this to be done with the forces at our com- 
mand, it w^ould be necessary to withdraw all 
protection to many small settlements which 
have heretofore been often broken up, but are 
now in a more flourishing condition. It has, 
undoubtedly, been an increased expense to the 
Government, supporting and supplying so many 
separate and distinct military posts; but this 
expense has been more than compensated for in 
the reduced cost of transportation and supplies 
caused by the increased local agricultural prod- 
ucts. Thus most of the military supplies last 
year were transported from San Francisco to 
Fort Yuma, and thence to the several posts at 
from 14 to 21 cents per pound — these high 
j)rices of transportation resulting from the cost 
of forage for teams on the road. This year, 
forage and commissary stores have been con- 
tracted for at the several posts and on the roads 
at greatly reduced rates, and transportation, in 
many instances, has been obtained at less than 
one-third of former charges. And the same or 
a greater reduction in the prices of supplies and 
transportation has been obtained by private 
individuals, who have heretofore drawn most of 
their provisions and other necessaries from the 
Pacific Coast. It has, therefore, been found 
that local military protection to the small agri- 
cultural districts in Arizona has not only re- 
duced the Government expenses in such dis- 
tricts, but has had a most beneficial effect upon 
the Territory generally. 



THE MILITARY. 205 

"Under these circumstances, I have not felt 
myself justified in interfering with General 
McDowell's protective dispositions by ordering 
a greater concentration of troops. With an 
additional force of, say, one regiment of cavalry 
and one or two regiments of infantry in that 
country, which are really required there, we 
would be able to accomplish the double object 
of affording local protection, and, at the same 
time, of penetrating into the mountain homes of 
these savages. In giving local protection to 
settlements, it has not been proposed to guard 
particular ranches, mines, or mills from Indian 
depredations. To attempt this would absorb 
and paralyze our whole force without accom- 
plishing any result, for it is w^ell known that 
these Indians will steal stock, even before the 
eyes of the sentinels who guard it, and pursuit 
in such cases is seldom successful. The only 
plan which has given any valuable results, is 
that of establishing posts in the vicinity of 
settlements, and from these posts sending secret 
expeditions of small parties into known Indian 
haunts. Large parties are not required, and 
are never successful, for the Indians discover 
their approach and hide themselves in the 
mountains. They can be reached only by the 
utmost secrecy and rapidity of movement. 

"On the question of concentrating the troops 
in that country in a few posts only, I respect- 
fully refer to the report of Lieutenant Colonel 
Roger Jones, and the accompanying remarks of 
Brevet Major General McDowell, transmitted 
herewith and marked *B.' " 



206 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 



CHAPTER X. 

THE MILITARY (Continued). 

Report of Colonel Jones, Inspector — Remote- 
ness OF Arizona Bar to Frequent Inspec- 
tions — Recommends Separate Military 
District for Arizona, and Concentration 
OF Troops — Also Recommends More and 
Better Buildings — General McDoweli/s 
Remarks on Colonel Jones ^ Report — 
Statement of Conditions. 

The report of Colonel Jones, in which he 
criticised the military operations in Arizona, 
and made certain recommendations thereto, 
follows : 

"(Confidential.) 

''Wilmington, Cal., July 15, 1867. 

' ' GENERAL : In reporting that I have com- 
pleted the duty of inspecting the posts in Ari- 
zona and Southern California, I respectfully 
submit for consideration some general remarks 
and recommendations which I consider should 
constitute a separate and distinct report. 

"In compliance with the order directing me 
to make this tour, I have from time to time, as 
occasion offered, forwarded reports of each post 
visited, and in them have set forth the state of 
affairs as revealed b.y my inspections. 

"These reports exhibiting an unsatisfactory 
condition of affairs throughout a considerable 
portion of Arizona, my duty would be but par- 
tially discharged if I failed or omitted to show 



THE MILITARY. 207 

liow or in what manner matters may in my 
judgment be improved, which is my sole object 
in addressing you this communication. 

''Leaving here on the 20th of April, the 
journey has occupied me eighty-four (84) days 
from this point, during ^\'hich time I visited 
every post within the country designated, and 
travelled with government transportation over 
twenty-one hundred (2,100) miles. 

''The first and most important change which 
is deemed absolutely essential to any lasting 
improvement in the general condition of affairs 
in Arizona, is the organization of the Territory 
into a separate military department with a com- 
mander residing at some central point. 

"The distance travelled, and the length of 
time it has taken me to make this tour, show 
very clearly that it is not in the power of a com- 
mander residing in San Francisco to make fre- 
quent or even annual visits to Arizona. As 
further evidence on this point, reference is 
made to the fact that General McDowell has 
been able to make but one tour through the 
country in the three years it has been under his 
command. 

"This remoteness of the department com- 
mander affects everything wherein his action is 
necessary, and during the past winter, at some 
of the remote posts, it required three months 
and upwards to communicate with, and receive 
answers from, department headquarters. In 
fact, in point of time, St. Louis is quite as near 
as San Francisco to Prescott and Tucson, if not 
nearer ; papers and letters from St. Louis reach- 
ing those points as a rule in from eighteen to 



208 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

twenty-one days. The rains of next winter may 
produce the like interruptions to the mails as 
was experienced last winter. 

"The following is a case in point illustrating 
the inconvenience and detriment to the service 
arising from the department commander being 
stationed in San Francisco. 

"On the 16th of April he ordered two com- 
panies from camp McDowell to camp Grant, 
and two from the latter camp to the former. 
On receiving the order Colonel Ilges applied 
to his quartermaster for transportation; the 
latter replying that he had none available. 
Colonel Ilges forwarded his application to the 
commanding officer at Fort Yuma, who sent it 
to Colonel Crittenden at Tucson, nearly three 
hundred miles distant. 

"Not having any wagons at hand, and Colonel 
Ilges not being at that time under his command, 
Colonel Crittenden submitted the matter to me ; 
and thus, but for my presence and the authority 
vested in me by General Halleck, this move 
would probably not have been made without re- 
ferring the matter to department headquarters. 

"It is immaterial whether these movements 
required promptness or not; the delay in mak- 
ing them fairly illustrates the inconvenience 
and injury the service in Arizona unavoidably 
sustains in consequence of it not being a mili- 
tary department per se. 

"Another serious injury resulting from this 
remoteness of the department commander is the 
length of time soldiers have been kept in the 
guard house awaiting trial. To remedy this 



THE MILITARY. 209 

General McDowell has ordered the release of 
prisoners who had been confined several months. 

"In San Francisco, without telegraphic com- 
munication, and with unreliable weekly or semi- 
weekly mails, it is impossible for the depart- 
ment commander to know of any particular 
transaction in Arizona until long after it has 
transpired, and matters are constantly arising 
which can neither be foreseen nor provided for, 
concerning which the best interests of the ser- 
vice demand prompt if not immediate action. 

''The division of the Territory and districts 
has not and cannot yield results at all satisfac- 
tory, nor can it atone for the evils which are 
a necessary accompaniment of Arizona being 
attached to the department of California. 

" In a word, there is scarcely a measure taken 
in San Francisco in regard to affairs in Arizona 
that could not be better and more intelligently 
ordered by a commander residing in the Terri- 
tory, where he could from personal observation 
leai-n its wants, resources, geographical feat- 
ures, and the wants and condition of the troops 
and supply departments. 

"This change, under a judicious commander, 
should lead to a reduction of expenses, and to 
increased efficiency in all branches of the 
service. 

"The public interest, the interest of the Ter- 
ritory, the credit of the service, and welfare of 
the soldier, alike require that Arizona be made 
a separate military department. 

"Sacaton, on the Gila, about ninety (90) 
miles this side of Tucson would be, on account 

V— 14 



210 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

of its central position, the most eligible point 
for department headquarters. 

"I come now to the consideration of the policy 
that has been followed in assigning troops to 
stations in Arizona. 

"The effort has evidently been to cover or 
occupy a vast extent of country with compara- 
tively a small number of troops. 

''To accomplish this it became necessary to 
establish a number of posts, garrisoned by one 
and two companies. 

"The evils of these petty commands are too 
well known to require special enumeration, but 
among the most prominent is the large number 
of men rendered non-effective, from the neces- 
sity of employing them in performing ordinary 
routine duties, the proportion being much 
greater in commands of one and two companies 
than in garrisons of five and six companies 
strong. 

"In this way the efficiency of troops is much 
impaired, discipline seriously injured, and the 
non-effective force greatly increased, in conse- 
quence of the necessity of leaving in camp a 
large proportion of a command for the protec- 
tion of public property, etc., whenever it takes 
the field. 

"This policy also multiplies places for incom- 
petent commanders and disbursing officers, be- 
sides greatly increasing the expense of the mili- 
tary establishment. 

"As an offset to the grave objections which 
are incident to, and indeed are part and insepa- 
rable from, the policy itself, it will be asked 



THE MILITARY. 211 

what are the results, and is life and property 
rendered comparatively secure by this scatter- 
ing of the troops into small commands and 
detachments ? 

''Would that I could reply in the affirmative; 
but when it is known that men were killed on 
the road a few miles ahead of and behind me, 
that animals have been killed and driven off 
from a corral, not fifty yards distant from a de- 
tachment of seven men specially designed for 
their protection, and that the safety of the de- 
tachment itself is probably due to the timely and 
accidental arrival of fifteen or twenty soldiers, 
it will be seen that neither life nor property are 
very secure at this time in Arizona. 

"Indeed, it may well be doubted if they have 
ever been less so, and certainly, since travelling 
through the Territory in 1857 and 1859, I have 
never known the roads so dangerous as they are 
now. 

''The remedy for this condition of things I 
conceive to be the adoption of the opposite 
policy from that now in existence in Arizona, 
viz., in the concentration of troops. 

"I do not expect or look for any immediate 
improvement in the state of affairs in the event 
of concentration becoming the policy for the 
future, but its adoption would give at all times 
a large force for operations against Indians, 
and from several points. As matters now are 
and have been this is proved to be impracticable. 

"Certainly many of the grave evils of the 
existing policy, set forth above, which officers 
on the frontier know, feel, and complain of. 



212 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

should and probably would not be found if the 
troops were concentrated at several large posts. 

"In the Prescott district the only change that 
seems to me necessary is to concentrate the six 
companies at one post, within from twenty to 
thirty miles of Prescott, maintaining outposts 
at the settlements, if necessary. 

''South of the Gila, the only point which I 
think it necessary or advisable to occupy are 
Camps Goodwin and Bowie and a point adjoin- 
ing the site of old Fort Buchanan, which is ex- 
ceedingly favorable for a large force, especially 
for cavalry. 

"If supplies are to be sent to the posts south 
of the Gila, through Sonora, Buchanan is the 
point for the depot. 

"At Sacaton, one company would be needed 
if it became the headquarters of the department. 

"The third point demanding attention is the 
want of more mounted men. There seems to 
me to be but one way of bringing about this 
result, and that is to mount infantry. This will 
render them available in the pursuit of Indians, 
and will be a strong addition to the effective 
force in the Territory. As footmen they are of 
but little service in Indian warfare. 

' ' Eight or ten companies of infantry mounted 
and armed with a carbine, preferably with 
Spencer's, would be ample. 

"This done, the troops concentrated, and the 
Territory organized into a military department, 
and it will not be long before a marked improve- 
ment becomes manifest in the general condition 
of military affairs in Arizona. 



THE MILITARY. 213 

"Infantry companies employed mainly on es- 
cort duty need a carbine and pistol. Men of 
the company at Camp Cady, which is thus en- 
gaged, have provided themselves with revolvers 
at their own expense. 

"The introduction of the Spencer carbine 
throughout the service will more than treble our 
effective strength. 

"Having very recently reported in regard to 
abandoning El Dorado Canon, it is unnecessary 
to say more on the subject. 

"The subject of providing storehouses, hos- 
pitals, and quarters for troops in Arizona is one 
also meriting attention. 

"Quarters are promised the recruit when he 
enlists, money is annually appropriated by Con- 
gress for this purpose and, I may add, is con- 
tinually squandered by being placed in the 
hands of unpractical and incompetent officers 
for expenditure. 

"The contentment, comfort, health, welfare, 
and efficiency of the soldier are so intimately 
connected with this subject of quarters when in 
garrison that they cannot be denied them as a 
rule without creating discontent with the ser- 
vice. 

"There are to-day many suffering soldiers m 
Arizona, soldiers who are suffering unneces- 
sarily, who are exposed to the weather, as the 
negro of the south or the peasant of Ireland has 
never been, and this in a climate where the heat 
is greater and more oppressive than I ever ex- 
perienced in Texas, the tropics, or elsewhere, 
where the thermometer ranges every day for 



214 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

several montlis from 95° to 115° and 120° in the 
coolest places. 

''If a large post and depot should be located 
near old Fort Buchanan or elsewhere, the build- 
ing of it should be committed to a regular 
quartermaster, and not to inexperienced young 
officers, as I found to be the case at Camp 
Goodwin. 

"This is one of the duties of the Quarter- 
masters' Department that should, as far as pos- 
sible be discharged by officers of the department. 
Under their superintendency better and cheaper 
buildings will, as a rule be erected. 

"The views set forth, whether sound or not, 
are my convictions, and, as I interpret my duty 
as inspector of the division, I feel bound to ex- 
press them for the consideration of the major 
general commanding. 

"I remain, general, very respectfully, your 
obedient servant, 

"ROGER JONES, 
"Major and Assistant Inspector General, 
"Inspector General Military Division Pacific. 
"Brevet Major General JAMES B. FRY, 

"Adjutant General Middle Division of the 
Pacific. 

"San Francisco, California. 
"Official: 

"JAMES B. FRY, A. A. G." 



THE MILITARY. 215 

Here follow the remarks of General Mc- 
Dowell on the report of Colonel Jones : 

"HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF 
CALIFORNIA. 

''San Francisco, California, 

"August 14, 1867. 

"Respectfully returned with the following 
remarks : 

"The state of affairs which the assistant in- 
spector general noticed in Arizona has been well 
known to me, and has not ceased to engage my 
attention from the first. But it is not, in my 
judgment, due to the causes he supposes, and is 
not to be corrected by the measures be suggests. 

"His remedy consists mainly in, 

"1st. The creation of Arizona into a sepa- 
rate command, with its commander at some 
central station, as at Sacaton, for instance. 

"2nd. In the concentration of the troops in 
large commands, as, for instance, the six com- 
panies in the district of Prescott, into one post, 
within from twenty to thirty miles of Prescott, 
maintaining outposts at the settlements, if nec- 
essary, and south of the Gila, having only 
Camps Goodwin and Bowie, one post near old 
Fort Buchanan, and a company at Sacaton. 

"Had the assistant inspector general been out 
here for the last two and a half years, he might 
have been able to discuss this question more sat- 
isfactorily with reference to the remedies he 
proposes, for they have both been tried, and the 
unsatisfactory condition of affairs he has 
noticed in the course of his inspection, and 



216 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

which existed when his proposed measures were 
in force, would have to be accounted for other- 
wise than he suggests. 

' ' When I came to the command of the depart- 
ment of the Pacific, in July, 1864, Arizona 
formed part of the district of New Mexico, and 
when it was added to my command, its inhabi- 
tants were greatly rejoiced. It was a claim to 
their consideration to have been prominent in 
having had the change effected. At first I had 
been averse to having the Territory, but yielded 
to the desire of others, when I came to see that 
it drew its supplies from this place, and that 
I had, in fact, to care for it, without having the 
authority to control it. 

"On its being placed under me, I made of it a 
district ; appointed a general officer to command 
it; sent him more than a brigade of troops (at 
one time thirty-six companies), more men, and 
better men for the purpose, and, with some 
exception, better officers, than are there now. 

"He had full authority in the matter of dis- 
tributing his troops, in making contracts and 
purchases for their supply; was furnished with 
everything he asked for, that had to come from 
here; had authority to institute courts-martial; 
and in short had all the authority, in every 
particular, that I, as department commander, 
at this moment possess. 

"His posts were larger than the assistant 
inspector-general suggests, for he appreciated, 
as I most fully do, all the evils of small com- 
mands. 

"Near old Fort Buchanan, which is one of the 
23oints the assistant inspector-general recom- 



THE MILITARY. 217 

mends, he had a post of seven companies, four 
companies at Fort Grant, five companies at 
Goodwin, four companies at Fort Whipple, at 
one time six, and six companies at Camp 
McDowell. 

''His headquarters were at Yuma, Prescott, 
and at the very place suggested by the assistant 
inspector general, Sacaton. 

"His men were of the best; they were self- 
reliant, intelligent, hardy, quick to take care 
of themselves wherever sent. He had two suc- 
cessors, w^ho had their headquarters at Sacaton. 

' ' Did this command as thus ordered, and these 
large posts, give that absolute security to the 
people and property all over Arizona, without 
which affairs may be properly said to be un- 
satisfactory? Were men suifered by the In- 
dians to go alone within their reach, unmo- 
lested'? Were cattle always safe even under 
the fire of a sentinel? No. 

"The assistant inspector general, speaking of 
what he calls the results of the present policy, 
says that men were even killed a few miles 
ahead of and behind him, and that animals were 
killed and driven off from a corral not fifty 
yards from a detachment of seven men specially 
designed for their protection. Well, the same 
was done under the state of affairs which he 
thinks would prove a remedy. 

"It is to be well borne in mind, in considering 
matters in Arizona: 

"1st. That the Apache kills and robs as a 
means of livelihood. It is his normal condition. 
He has been at it for forty-seven years, if not, 
indeed, for centuries. 



218 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

''2iid. That there is no confederation or al- 
liance between the several tribes, frequently 
none between the bands of the same tribe (or, 
if there has been, it has been of no practical 
importance). 

"3rd. That the hostile Indians all live in the 
most remote and inaccessible parts of the Ter- 
ritory, to which it is difficult for the whites, 
under the most favorable circumstances, to 
IDenetrate. 

"4th. That the portions of the Territory 
(with few exceptions) inhabited by the whites, 
are seamed with mountain ridges, which, like 
the plains between them, are bare of trees, and 
from which the roads and the settlements are as 
plain to the sight of the stealthy Apache, as is 
the pit of a theatre to a spectator in the gallery. 

"5th. That this physical condition of the 
face of the country enables the Apache to make 
a sure calculation what to do, and what to avoid. 
He can, from his secure lookout in the mountain 
side or top, see for miles off exactly how many 
persons are moving on the road, and how they 
are moving; he knows exactly where they must 
pass, where only they can get a drink of water ; 
he never has occasion to take any risk, and it is 
his law never to take any. 

"6th. That having been at this business for 
years, and having an exact knowledge of every 
ridge, every pass and ravine, and being entirely 
unencumbered with any luggage, camp or gar- 
rison equipage, and being able to go for days 
on an amount of food on which a white man 
would sink from exhaustion, he can strike and 
escape before any one but the one stricken has 



THE MILITARY. 219 

Imowledge of his presence ; and if he is too hard 
pressed to carry off his booty, he has only to 
abandon it and gain one of the inevitable moun- 
tain ridges, and he is safe from any pursuit that 
a white man, either on foot or horseback, can 
make. 

'* Bearing these facts in mind, it is easy to be 
seen that a large post will not prevent an as- 
sassination or a theft. Witness what was done 
last month, near one of the largest posts in Ari- 
zona, where there are five companies, and near 
which two men were killed while fishing; and 
what occurred a few days ago in Nevada, where 
a man, who was fishing near the post, was shot 
in the head by an Indian concealed behind a 
rock. Neither large posts nor small posts Avill 
prevent these things so long as the Indians are 
in a state of hostility, any more than murder 
and robbery will not be committed in the vicinity 
of a large city. This is well illustrated by the 
following slip from to-day's paper, August 14, 
giving an account of a raid in the vicinity of 
Prescott, Arizona Territory. 

'' 'On Thursday, at noon, a band of Indians 
jumped the herd kept by Mr. A. G. Dunn, and 
at the time grazing within half a mile east of 
the centre of the town of Prescott. An alarm 
was immediately given and our citizens turned 
out in force, but being mostly on foot they gave 
up the chase. In an hour Lieutenant Purdy 
and twenty-five cavalrymen from Whipple were 
on the track, with several citizens well mounted ; 
but after an absence of twenty-four hours they 
returned, having been unable to follow the trail. 
In the herd were five horses belonging to 



220 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

O. Allen, one to Sheriff Rourke, one to Ben 
Block, and one to the Governor, making some 
five or six valuable saddle animals the Indians 
have taken from him within three years. This 
is a great country. Yesterday the Indians ran 
off the stock from Bower's ranch, at the Point 
of Rocks, seven miles from Prescott, but they 
were pursued and the stock recovered.' 

"But it may be urged large posts are not for 
defensive purposes; they are to enable large 
bodies (see report on camp Grant) to move into 
the mountain fastnesses and homes of the hos- 
tile. 

"The celerity and, above all, the secrecy of 
movement of a body decreases with its size. 
These large posts, established as indicated by 
the assistant inspector general, would be at a 
long distance from these mountain fastnesses, 
and long before the large body, encumbered by 
its pack train, could gain them, the Indians 
would know of its movement, and would have 
fled onl}^ to be seen making insulting gestures 
from a distant moimtain ridge, or found hang- 
ing on the rear and shooting from some secure 
hiding place, on the pack train as it woimd 
through some gorge or canyon. 

' ' The reports of expeditions carried on in the 
way suggested have almost invariably ended 
with the statement that, after leaving their 
camp and marching for several days over a bar- 
ren country, meeting no one, they finally saw 
smoke from distant hills or mountain ridges 
answered by other smokes, and after pushing 
on with their command over almost inaccessible 
mountains and impassable canyons, they found 



THE MILITARY. 221 

their rations would only last them long enough 
to get back to camp, and so they returned with 
the men and horses shoeless and used up, their 
promenade having no other effect than to 
embolden rather than to subdue the enemy. 

''This is illustrated by the following account, 
taken from to-day's paper (August 14) of a 
scout in the Verde district, Arizona Territory. 

" 'On the ninth day their track got verj^ 
fresh, and w-e ambushed in some willow brush 
until night. We had been obliged to travel in 
the day-time, owing to dark nights and the 
roughness of the country. We were across Salt 
river, in what is known as the Salt River coun- 
try. Just about sunset we started, and we had 
not traveled one hour when we were fired upon 
from the top of a very steep sided mountain. 
In fact, it was almost impossible for a man to 
climb it at all. The first notice we had of them 
was a volley of balls and arrows. They did not 
use their guns after the fire, but kept up a cloud 
of arrows with a perfect looseness, as though 
'twas no trouble to make them. None of our 
men were hit. We returned the fire, but were 
unable to determine how many, if any, were hit, 
as at each volley the Indians w^ould drop to the 
ground. They danced, shouted, and called us 
all the pet names their vocabulary affords, I 
presume. We prospected around the mountain 
and found there was no way to get up to it with- 
out the sacrifice of many valuable lives; and 
then the Indians could run from us, and having 
been discovered, and many signal smokes having 
been sent up, we gave it up as a bad job and 
returned to the post.' 



222 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

''In other words, to place the troops in large 
bodies involves with the limited number at com- 
mand, few posts at a great distance apart, and 
these posts, as proposed, nearer the whites than 
the Indians. 

''This, in a country Like Arizona, would 
neither protect the settlers nor punish their 
enemies. 

"It may be asked if it is not necessary, for 
safety as well as efficiency, that a force going 
after these Indians should be large in order to 
effect anything. Such does not seem to be the 
opinion of two of the best commanders in Ari- 
zona. 

"Brevet Lieutenant Colonel Price, command- 
ing the district of the upper Colorado, reports 
that in his expeditions after the Indians, he has 
ascertained, 'that the Hualapais are a very 
cowardly race, and that ten good cavalry men 
could probably disperse the whole tribe if they 
could be caught on the plain ; but they are very 
fleet runners, and have a large tract of country 
to range over. 

" 'The most hostile band is led by Chief 
Cherum (war chief of the Yavapais), in the 
Cerbat range. They have committed nearly all 
of the murders and depredations. 

" 'They are well acquainted with the ways 
and manners of the white man, and many of 
them are armed v^th superior weapons, which 
they well know how to use from behind rocks 
and safe places. The officers from Prescott say 
they would prefer fighting five Apaches to one 
Hualapai.' 



THE MILITARY. 223 

"In southern Arizona a detachment of forty 
officers and men sent out from Camp Wallen, a 
two-company post, were judged sufficient by one 
of our most celebrated Indian fighters, Colonel 
McGarry, to penetrate the haunts of Cochese, 
which they did successfully, destroying one of 
his rancherias and putting his men to flight. 

' ' That more was not done was due, the colonel 
states, not to the want of numbers, but to the 
broken down condition of the horses when they 
came up with the Indians. 

"With the exception of the troops in the dis- 
trict of the Yerde, when they fell into the hands 
of an officer unsuited to his duty, there has not 
been a party sent out from a post in Arizona 
that has not driven the Indians wherever they 
could come up with them, or find them. One 
company of cavalry from the district of Pres- 
cott, last month dispersed and drove what is 
reported to be a combination of the Hualapais 
tribe and the Piutes. (See recent reports of 
General Gregg and Colonel Price.) 

"Take for instance, the expeditions sent out 
from Camps Wallen, McDowell and Whipple. 

"It is, I think, beyond a question that the de- 
fect is not in the quantity, but in the quality of 
the force. It is not so much a large body, but 
an active one that is wanted— one moving with- 
out any baggage, and led by active, zealous offi- 
cers, who really wish to accomplish something, 
and who are able to endure fatigue, and willing 
to undergo great personal privations. 

"I grant the existence of all the evils named 
by the assistant inspector general, as incident 
to small posts, and were it possible, I would 



224 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

never have tlie garrison of a post less than a 
regiment; and if obliged to make detach- 
ments never have one less than two companies, 
and never suffer these companies to be absent 
for more than a few months at a time. I would 
also never send raw recruits into the field, never 
have artillery act as infantry, or the latter as 
cavalry. The question wdth me, how^ever, has 
been one of necessity, not of choice, or, at least, 
but a choice of evils. 

' ^ The assistant inspector general thinks a bet- 
ter state of affairs would follow if all the six 
companies in the district of Prescott were con- 
centrated at one camp near the town (within 
twenty to thirty miles of it), with outposts at 
the settlements, if necessary. Has he calcu- 
lated the number of these outposts *? If he com- 
menced with sending a few men to this ranch 
or that mill, other ranches and other mills would 
ask and have a claim for as much; and then, 
when all the defensive arrangements were made, 
some succeeding inspector would have the op- 
portunity of repeating his report, 'that animals 
have been driven off from a corral not fifty 
yards distant from a detachment of seven men, 
specially designed for their protection.' And 
then, how would protection be given the road 
from La Paz to Prescott over which the sup- 
plies have to be hauled ? By a detachment from 
the large camp? How^ protect the road from 
Maricopa and Wickenburg, over which the mail 
is carried between southern and northern Ari- 
zona'? By another detachment? Thus much 
for the defensive arrangements. The offensive 
movements against the Apaches w^ould have to 



THE MILITARY. 225 

be carried on as far as beyond the Verde, beyond 
Grief hill. 

''I do not think it well to protect the road 
from the river, and from the Gila to Prescott, 
by troops stationed at the latter place. Sup- 
plies would have to be hauled to Prescott, and 
then hauled back over the road. It is a ques- 
tion if the camp at McPherson had not better 
be at La Paz, where, on the application of the 
superintendent of Indian affairs, another post 
will have to be made ; and there would be no ques- 
tion, if it were not that the road from the Gila, 
coming into the La Paz road near McPherson, 
also needs protection. 

"The offensive force given by the ten com- 
panies of cavalry is, as has been proven, large 
enough to go anywhere into Arizona, and the 
post on the Verde is near enough the haunts of 
the Indians for the infantry there to accomplish 
something if they had a commanding officer 
suited to the service. 

"As the assistant inspector general does not 
mention the district of the Verde, I will not 
now refer to it. 

"As to the arrangement of troops south of the 
Gila, I find the only change that is suggested is 
that the posts of Camps Wallen and Tubac 
should be consolidated into one post at old Fort 
Buchanan ; that the posts at Tucson and Grant 
should be abandoned. As to the first it is with 
General Crittenden and Colonel McGarry to do 
so or not, as they with their experience may 
judge best. The company at Tucson is neces- 
sary for escorting trains, etc., from the depot 

V— 15 



226 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

to the surrounding posts, and this duty can be 
better done by detachments from a company 
there than by drawing one from the more dis- 
tant camps, and can be maintained at a less cost. 
I have tried in vain to do away with Camp 
Grant, and once had issued the order for it to be 
abandoned but was obliged, by the representa- 
tions of the commanders and the inhabitants, 
to re-establish it. 

"I come now to the assertions made by the 
assistant inspector general, 'that, indeed, it may 
well be doubted if life and property have ever 
been less secure in Arizona than at this time.^ 
He adds, 'and certainly, since traveling through 
the Territory in 1857 and 1859, I have never 
known the roads so dangerous as they are now. ' 
In justice to myself and the service in Arizona 
the following facts are to be borne in mind: 

"1st. That when the whites first came to 
Arizona the Apaches were friendly to them. 
The following extracts are from the journals of 
Emory and Johnstone of their march to Cali- 
fornia under General Kearney in 1846 : 

"'October 20 * * * the general sent 
w^ord to the Apaches he would not start until 9 
or 10; this gave them time to come in, headed 
by their chief. Red Sleeve. They swore eternal 
friendship to the whites and everlasting hatred 
to the Mexicans. The order, quickness, and 
quietude of our movements seemed to impress 
them. One of the chiefs (Apache), after eye- 
ing the general with apparent admiration, broke 
out in a vehement manner: 'You have taken 
New Mexico, and will soon take California; go 
then and take Chihuahua, Durango, and Sonora,. 



THE MILITAEY, 227 

we will help you. You fight for land, we care 
nothing for land. We fight for the laws of 
Montezuma and for food. The Mexicans are 
rascals ; we hate and will kill them all. ' * * * 

" 'November 4 * * * Ti^e Apaches gave 
us to understand that a marauding party of 
their people were in Sonora. The broad, fresh 
trail of cattle and horses leading up the Aroya 
induces us to believe that they have returned, 
successful, of course. 

" 'November 5. * * * The bed of this 
creek was deeply cut, and turned at short angles, 
forming a zigzag like the boyaux laid by sap- 
pers in approaching a fortress, each turn of 
which (and they were invulnerable), formed a 
strong defensive position. The Apache, once in 
possession of them, is secure from pursuit or 
invasion from the Mexican. * * * 

" 'Nature has done her utmost to favor a con- 
dition of things which has enabled a savage and 
uncivilized tribe, armed with the bow and lance, 
to hold as tributary powers three fertile and 
once flourishing States : Chihuahua, Sonora and 
Durango, peopled by a Christian race, country- 
men of the immortal Cortez. These States were 
at one time flourishing, but such has been the 
devastation and alarm spread by these children 
of the mountains that they are now losing popu- 
lation, commerce, and manufactures at a rate 
which, if not soon arrested, must leave them 
uninhabited. ' 

"Captain Johnstone says: 

" 'October 28. * * * Around the south- 
east base of this is a broad trail leading towards 
Sonora, where the Apaches go to steal. 



228 HISTORY OF AEIZOIs^A. 

'' 'October 29. * * * About five miles 
from camp we fell upon the great stealing road 
of the Apaches. It is hard beaten and in places, 
many yards wide, filled wdth horse, mule, and 
cattle tracks, the latter all going one way from 
Sonora. 

'"October 31. * * * Captain Moore and 
Carson shook hands with them (Gila Apaches), 
but they would not be induced to come into 
camp. They had been dealt with by Americans 
in the employment of Chihuahua, who had 
hunted them at $50 a scalp, as one would hunt 
wolves, and one American decoyed a large num- 
ber of their brethren in rear of a wagon to trade, 
and fired a field piece among them. 

" 'November 2. * * ^ Some Apaches 
(Pinoleros) showed themselves on a hill top 
early this morning. * * * The high peaks 
afford fine points for lookouts, upon one of 
which is always seated one of their number, like 
a sentinel crow on the highest limb of the ad- 
jacent tree, watching over the safety of his 
thieving fraternity. Their wigwams scarce 
peep above the low brushwood of the country, 
being not more than four feet high, slightly dug 
out in the centre, and the dirt thrown around 
the twigs which are rudely woven into an oven 
shape as a canopy to the house. A tenement of 
a few hours' work is the home of a family for 
years or a day; like wolves they are ever wan- 
dering. 

" 'November 4. * * * Here we fell into 
another Indian trail, larger than that we w^ere 
upon; both were fresh, signs of cattle lately 
driven from Sonora. These Indians have now 



THE MILITARY. 229 

been seventeen years living by the plunder of 
Sonora; when they are required to stop it will 
require either money or powder to make them 
obey. ' 

"2nd. That they so remained as a general 
thing until the breaking out of the rebellion. 

"3rd. That at the time referred to by the as- 
sistant inspector general there were, I think, 
but two posts in the country now known as Ari- 
zona — Forts Buchanan and Breckenridge. 

"4th. That all the country north of the Gila 
was unsettled and almost totally unknown by 
the w^hites. Prescott, and the farms and mines 
near, and the roads leading to it, and all the 
settlements north of the Gila, were established 
since the breaking out of the rebellion. 

"5th. That if life and property were more 
secure in 1857 and 1859, it was not because of 
the existence of a better policy then than is 
now pursued; not because the one post in south- 
em Arizona gave more protection than do many 
posts now established, some of which have been 
much larger than the one referred to. It was 
due, not to better protection against Indian hos- 
tilities, but to the fact that there were fewer 
hostilities to guard against, and fewer, much 
fewer, points to guard. The Indians who used 
to prey on Sonora and Chihuahua now find men 
and property to murder and steal near their 
haunts. Instead of the long, broad trails to 
Sonora mentioned by Johnstone, they now make 
short ones to the roads and property of the 
whites in Arizona. All that mountainous coun- 
try running from northwestern to southeastern 
Arizona is infested by different bands of hostile 
Indians, who now have to be guarded against 



230 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

and who gave no insecurity to the whites in 1857 
and 1859. Even in southern Arizona, Cochese's 
band, which is the only one whose raids we have 
now to guard against, was friendly. 

"The comparison is therefore in every way 
unjust. A fair one would be between the state 
of the country as it was when I first took charge, 
and what it is since 'my policy' has been in 
operation. The condition of the country when 
I received it was fully described in mv report of 
March 23, 1866, as follows : 

" 'Their (the Apaches) murdering and ma- 
rauding forays have been carried on from the 
sixty miles north of Prescott to the Sonora line, 
all along the valley of the Hassayamp, the Verde, 
the Agua Fria, the Gila, the Santa Cruz, San 
Pedro, Sonoita, Arivaipa, and Arrivaca, in Skull 
valley, on all the roads leading to Prescott and to 
Wickenburg, and from the Pimas to Fort Mc- 
Dowell — everywhere, in fact, where there was 
life or property to be taken. The Territory was 
reduced to so low a point for want of troops, at 
the time of its being transferred to my com- 
mand, that it was fast being abandoned. Tubac 
was entirely abandoned. All the farms in the 
upper Santa Cruz and in the vicinity of Tucson, 
on the Sonoita and the San Pedro, were aban- 
doned. Valuable mines were given up, as no 
one could venture to go into the valley to either 
cultivate the land or herd the stock, so that the 
country produced no food. ' 

"It has so far recovered under the measures 
1 have taken that I was justified in saying in 
that same report as follows: 



THE MILITARY. 231 

" 'The valley of the Santa Cruz is again 
peopled and planted. Every house in Tubac 
and every farm in its vicinity is occupied. 
Tucson, I was told by those who w^ere to be 
believed had improved two hundred per cent. 

" 'The establishment of Fort McDowell and 
the raising of two companies of Pimas and 
Maricopas have given heart to central Arizona. ' 

"A most convincing proof of the jDrotection 
given is in the fact that the flour, beans, and 
forage raised in Arizona are now sufficient for 
the citizens and for the troops, and purchased 
by open competition for the latter at prices one- 
third and one-fourth and one-half of what has 
hitherto been paid. 

"Flour is now as cheap in central Arizona as 
in New York. 

"That part of Arizona between the Pimas 
and Fort Yuma, which was once the scene of 
some horrible atrocities committed by the 
Apaches, is now safely traveled without escorts. 

"The assistant inspector general refers to 
my having been able to make but one tour 
through the country in the three years it has 
been under my command. 

"Arizona was placed under my command in 
the spring of 1865, and has been under me a little 
over two years. I visited it as soon as I was 
able, and 1 believe I have seen more of it than 
any department commander ever has; more, I 
venture to say, than the commander of the de- 
partment of Missouri has of New Mexico, or the 
commander of the Gulf has of Texas, or than 
either of them is likely to see of those countries 
in the next five years. 



232 HISTOEY OF ARIZONA. 

**I do not concur in the idea thrown out that 
I am to visit every post in my department, once 
a year, if not of tener ; I think I have done more 
of this than is usual ; I would do more of it than 
I do, if I consulted merely my personal inclina- 
tions; but I find my presence is more needed, 
constantly, at headquarters than at any one post 
of my command. If I am absent my adjutant 
general or aide must do much in my name with- 
out being able to consult me. It should be as 
little expected of me as that the division com- 
mander should visit all the division every two 
years. 

"As an argument for having Arizona under 
one commander, he refers to the time it took him 
to make an inspection of the posts in that coun- 
try, eighty-four days. Of this time but ten to 
fourteen days were necessary to reach Arizona, 
and as many to reach this place from that coim- 
try. It was the very fact he mentions, the time 
it takes to go from one end of Arizona to the 
other, and the bad results that came of having 
a commander, even in a central point like Saca- 
ton, who was to control points, places, and 
frontiers he could not readily communicate 
with, that caused the making of several smaller 
districts, within each of which the commander 
could be free to act at once, without the necessity 
of referring to any one on any matter connected 
with his active field operations. 

"This is entirely practicable in Arizona, 
where no concert of action of any moment exists 
or is likely to arise on the part of the Indians, 
who are dispersed over a large extent of broken 
country^ and there is nothing more required of 



THE MILITAKY. 233 

the commander than activity and energy in his 
movements, and a thorough study of the coun- 
try and the habits of hostile Indians. 

''The district commanders have no restric- 
tion placed on them by me in any matter con- 
cerning their movements against those hostile 
Indians. Their contracts have to come here 
for my approval, as they would have to do in 
any case for that of the division commander. 
Administrative questions connected with the 
care of public property, money and accounts, 
have to come here for the same reason. 

"Courts are not assembled often in Arizona 
for the same reason that they are not in Nevada 
and northern California — the want of officers. 
The remedy for this is not with me, and would 
not be with a commander at Sacaton. 

''So, at one time since I have had command, 
there was no mail communication whatever be- 
tween Arizona and New Mexico, and letters be- 
tween the Territories went by way of Denver 
and Utah. 

"As to the suggestion made, of mounting in- 
fantry, I will not repeat here what I have 
already said on the subject. 

"The assistant inspector general writes with 
much emphasis as to the necessity of providing 
storehouses, hospitals, and quarters for troops 
in Arizona. He has specially referred to this 
subject in each of his reports, and he is sus- 
tained in his general proposition, that increased 
protection in the way of buildings for men and 
property should be given, by the recommenda- 
tion of General Crittenden, and in fact most if 
not all the district commanders in the TeiTitory. 



234 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

General Crittenden says as follows in an en- 
dorsement on estimate of the commander of 
Camp Wallen: 

" 'I am perfectly convinced, since my arrival 
in the district, that the troops at all posts in this 
district should be quartered in adobe buildings, 
for both the health of the troops and as a matter 
of economy to the government. Indeed I think 
it is impossible for the troops to retain their 
health while in tents, especially during the sum- 
mer season.' 

' ' With respect to this I transcribe the follow- 
ing from the instructions to Colonel Lovell, of 
November 8, I8166, in answer to a letter from 
the commanding officer of Camp Wallen, recom- 
mending the erection of buildings at that place, 
the one concerning which General Crittenden 
makes the recommendation I have quoted : 

'' 'By orders of April 23, 1866 (Special Or- 
ders No. 80), the troops ordered to the upper 
San Pedro were directed to go into camp, or 
provide themselves wdth such shelters as can be 
made with the means at hand by the labor of 
men. 

" 'The camp was established May 10, and yet 
up to September nothing seems to have been 
done by any one in Arizona towards providing 
these shelters for the men, such as have been 
made hitherto throughout this country, from 
Washington Territory to the Sonora line. 

" 'The troops, wherever sent, have always 
soon made themselves comfortable by their offi- 
cers' direction, and by their own labor, and 
hutted themselves in the same way prospecting 
miners have done, and are continually doing, 



THE MILITARY. 235 

by the use of stone, wood, adobes, poles placed 

upright and filled in with clay, turf, sods, reeds, 

willows, etc., and this in places more destitute 

than at Camp Wallen. 
******** 

" 'You will order that, in making these shel- 
ters, the commanding officer shall put them up 
in the order of time prescribed in General Or- 
ders No. 39, for the huts to be built at the camp 
to be established northeast from Fort McDowell, 
(Camp Reno) . The same provisions as to extra 
pay to the enlisted men, therein made, will 
apply in the case of the new camp.' 

"I have not authorized more permanent quar- 
ters than those which the men could make by 
their own labor, with the materials at hand, be- 
cause it was not known, nor could it be ascer- 
tained at once where permanent posts would 
be required. 

"The population in this country is so fluctuat- 
ing (on account of the uncertainty of mining 
operations) , that it frequently happens that be- 
fore a permanent post is finished the necessity 
for it has ceased." 

The recommendations of the Inspector-Gen- 
eral that a division commander with headquar- 
ters in Arizona, be appointed, were afterwards 
adopted when General Crook was placed in com- 
mand with full authority to direct the campaign 
according to his judgment without interference 
from a superior officer twelve hundred miles re- 
moved from the theater of conflict. 



236 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 



CHAPTER XI. 

THE MILITARY (Continued). 

General Orders as to Location of Troops in 
Arizona — Remarks of General Mc- 
Dowell — Easy Times for Government 
Contractors — General Gregg Orders 
That All Indians Off Reservations be 
Treated as Hostiles — Interference With 
Order by Indian Agent Dent — General 
Gregg ^s Order Countermanded by General 
McDowell — General McDowell Criti- 
cised BY Governor McCormick — General 
McDowell ^s Second Annual Report — Re- 
ports Expeditions Against the Indians. 

''(General Orders No. 39.) 

''HEADQUARTERS DEPARTMENT OF 
CALIFORNIA. 

"San Francisco, Cal., October 31, 1866. 
"I. The troops heretofore at Fort Grant, 
and, since the flood there, at the site of old Fort 
Breckenridge, will be withdrawn from those 
places, and the stations there abandoned. The 
public property and stores will be sent, under 
the direction of the district commander, to such 
other stations as may be best for the service. 
The troops will be sent to Fort McDowell, and 
thence will proceed to establish themselves, as 
soon as practicable, at the most eligible point 
beyond the Sierra Ancha, in what has been 
called Meadow Valley, about eighty-five miles 



THE MILITARY. 237 

northeast from Fort McDowell. This place is 
reported to have good water, an abundance of 
grass, oak, and pine wood, and some arable 
land. It is in the midst of the hostile Apaches, 
and is at present inaccessible to w^agons. The 
district commander is specially charged with 
the duty of seeing that timely supplies of 
quartermasters' subsistence, and medical stores 
and ordnance are sent to Fort McDowell, and 
afterwards to the new post, for this command. 

"II. Preliminary to establishing themselves 
as above, the companies will proceed to make 
a good trail from Fort McDowell to their new 
station, to be improved as far and as soon as 
possible into a wagon road. 

''III. The huts and shelters at the camp 
will be made by the labor of the enlisted men 
from the materials at hand, and in the following 
order, viz.: 

''First. The shelter huts for the men and 
company laundresses, including the mess-rooms ; 
nothing else in the way of building to be com- 
menced until they are "finished and occupied. 

' ' Second. Shelter hospital. 

"Third. Shelter storehouses. 

"Fourth. Shelter huts for officers. 

"Fifth. Shelters for horses. 

"Dimensions of the huts for officers will be 
furnished the commanding officer by Colonel 
Babbitt, and these dimensions wdll not be 
exceeded. 

"IV. Whilst working more than ten days 
continuously on the trail and wagon road, and 
on the huts and shelters at the standing camp 



238 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

for themselves and. their supplies, the enlisted 
men will be allowed the extra pay provided by 
the act approved July 13, 1866. Care will be 
taken to see that the provisions of that act are 
fully complied with. 

"The assistant inspector general is very de- 
cided in his language as to the insufficiency of 
the shelters provided in Arizona, and I submit 
that, in view of his condemnation of the hos- 
pitals at Tucson, Whipple, McDowell, Mohave, 
etc., which were all found good by the medical 
director, the building used at Whipple is the 
finest one in Arizona — his opinion should be re- 
ceived with some allowance. It depends on the 
standard of comparison whether these shelters 
merit the condemnation with which he visits 
them. I know nothing of the huts in Ireland; 
but have seen plenty of negro cabins that were 
very comfortable as compared with a tent, and 
this is the comparison to make. I lived ten 
years in Mexico, most all the time in a tent, and 
found the Mexican hacal comfortable in com- 
parison. 

"If the officers and men, like at Camp Wall en, 
prefer to suffer rather than exert themselves, 
as those before them have done, and had rather 
live under a shelter tent than to make them- 
selves comfortable, as they have been authorized 
and ordered to do, their discomfort merits re- 
proaches rather than sympathy. It is seen, 
from recent reports, that the commanding offi- 
cer of the camp is now making the shelters 
which he should have made long ago. 



THE MILITARY. 239 

"I sent a saw-mill to southern Arizona, to be 
used in the pinery to get out lumber for quar- 
ters, but it was never set up, and not long since 
a report of a board of survey came to me con- 
demning the mill as old and worn out, or useless. 
No one took the trouble to see about it. It was 
a new mill which never had been used. 

"One of the causes of the unsatisfactory state 
of affairs in Arizona, and which has not been 
touched upon by the assistant inspector general, 
is, that of the few officers whom it has been 
possible to get there with their companies many 
are not yet suited to the particular kind of ser- 
vice required in that country, and of these many 
show but a feeble disposition to adapt them- 
selves to it. Coming out of a war of immense 
proportions, in which many of them have borne 
a prominent and distinguished j^art, having 
passed through all the excitement that it created, 
they want rest, and the service in Arizona is 
peculiarly fatiguing and disagreeable. Many 
look upon the veiy act of being sent there as a 
punishment. Again, many have married since 
the war, or have but rejoined their families since 
peace was made, and they have their families 
with them, under circumstances of great priva- 
tions to those of whom they are naturally most 
solicitous ; many times with young children and 
no servants. They do not want to live the life 
of Indian-trackers, and accommodate them- 
selves to that kind of service which only can in- 
sure success. Of course there are many excep- 
tions, but this will apply to a large number with 
whom the personal comfort of their families 



240 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

and themselves is the most prominent question, 
and to which all else has to yield. 

"I passed an officer, going to his post, carried 
in an ambulance drawn by four mules, with a 
six-mule team carrying his baggage, and that 
of his infantry escort, who were scattered along 
the road, with their muskets in the wagon. 
Though cautioned about the danger of moving 
in this way, he was soon afterwards attacked 
and killed by the Apaches. 

"I met another officer going along with his 
company, encumbered with his family in such 
a way as to destroy his efficiency. This was 
shown when the officer above referred to was 
attacked, and, when the latter was ordered to 
go in pursuit, he pleaded that he could not leave 
his wife alone. He has since resigned. 

"In saying what I have, I do not wish to be 
understood as questioning the gallantry and 
intelligence of the officers in Arizona, but only 
as stating that the life and service there is one 
for which their antecedents have not qualified 
them. 

"iRViN Mcdowell, 

"Brevet Major General Commanding Depart- 
ment. 
"Official: 

"JAMES B. FRY, A. A. G." 

In his remarks General McDowell called at- 
tention to the orders issued by him to those in 
command of certain posts, to provide them- 
selves with shelter for men and officers, using 
such materials as were at hand, and employing 
soldiers to do the work. This would seem to 



THE MILITARY. 241 

have been a very good policy if it could have 
been carried out. The exiDense of building 
houses on any of the reservations was ex- 
cessive, when done by private contract. It 
was said that every adobe made at Camp Grant 
cost the government twenty dollars, gold. 

There is no doubt but what at this time con- 
tractors of all kinds, supplying either food, 
forage or labor for building, had a "picnic." 
Even if, as was charged, they had some times 
to divide with quartermasters, yet it required 
but a few contracts of any kind, made with the 
military, to place the contractor upon easy 
street financially. 

In the paper accompanying these reports it is 
shown in one case where about eleven thousand 
tons of hay disappeared, the inference being 
that it was taken by "trade rats" of the biped 
species who, in exchange therefor, received a 
quartermaster's certificate. 

The ordinary trade-rat is found everywhere 
in the Arizona desert. He surrounds his hole 
with cholla cacti to protect it from rattlesnakes ; 
he robs mines of candles and cabins of food and 
articles useful to him, leaving a rock or some- 
thing useless in place of the thing taken. 

The general calls attention to the reduced cost 
of produce to the army posts, on account of the 
increased production of necessaries of life by the 
farmers of the Territory, which however, was 
attended by great loss of life and property. 

About this time the River Indians were on the 
warpath according to the statement of Charles 
B. Genung, contained in Volume 4 of this his- 



242 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

tory. This was caused by the lack of food 
and employment on the Mohave Reservation. 
George W. Dent, a brother-in-law of President 
Grant was general Indian Agent for the Terri- 
tory. President Grant's loyalty to his friends 
has never been questioned, his one weakness 
being to stick to his friends, right or wrong, pro- 
tecting them at every mark of the road. Dent 
was either lacking in administrative qualities, 
or else he possessed too much of that peculiar 
kind which sometimes enriches the individual 
at the expense of the public. 

General Gregg issued an order instructing his 
subordinates to treat as hostiles all Indians 
found off their reservations. When this order 
was promulgated, Dent immediately interfered, 
and wrote the following letter to the Commis- 
sioner of Indian Aifairs: 

"TERRITORY OF ARIZONA, 
"Office of Superintendent of Indian Affairs. 
"La Paz, March 5, 1867. 

"SIR : I have to report to your office another 
melancholy massacre of American citizens by 
the Apaches of Central Arizona. 

"On the 2nd instant, two teams belonging to 
a resident of La Paz, returning from Prescott 
in charge of two drivers and accompanied by 
five other men, were fired into with guns by a 
party of about forty Apaches, at a place in the 
open country sparsely covered with sage brush, 
and the two drivers and one traveler killed. 
The scene of the casualty was about eight miles 
on the La Paz side of Date Creek. Two of the 



THE MILITARY. 243 

travelers were wounded and escaped, and the 
two remaining escaped unhurt. The Indians 
destroyed part of the harness of the teams, 
rifled the wagons and ran off the stock, consist- 
ing of eighteen mules and four horses. 

"About three hours after the occurrence an- 
other train of wagons came up, and, being pre- 
pared, attempted to recover the stock. They 
followed them to a canyon in the mountains to 
the north of the road, when they were charged 
by the Indians and repulsed and the Indians 
thus made off with the entire booty. After 
burying the dead by the roadside they pro- 
ceeded to town and reported the foregoing. 

"This depredation occurred on a part of the 
road heretofore regarded as safe against the 
hostiles, and is additional proof of the increas- 
ing boldness of the Apaches. By recent order 
of the military commanding officer a military 
patrol will be stationed between here and Date 
Creek, and the efficiency of the troops will be 
tested. 

"It is somewhat believed here, but I cannot 
report it officially, that some of the young men 
of the Yavapais and Mohaves join with the 
Apaches in their depredations. Such is the 
strength of sentiment and belief that should 
a reasonable proof be made of such coalition, 
the whites would retaliate on the friendly river 
Indians and sacrifice them mercilessly. I have 
steadily aimed to keep dowii this spirit, while 
the real proof is pending; but if, as I say, proof 
should be had of such joining with the Apaches, 
no force, either the influence of the Indian de- 
partment, the check of truly friendly chiefs, or 



244 HISTOEY OF ARIZONA. 

the military arm can prevent a general massacre 
of the river bands. It is to be hoped that the 
presence of troops soon to be placed on the road 
where the late depredation was committed, with 
orders adequate to the occasion, will check and 
prevent any coalition of the bands. 

''Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
''GEORGE W. DENT, 
"Superintendent Indian Affairs, A. T. 

"Hon. L. V. BOGY, 

"Commissioner Indian Affairs, Washington, 
D. C." 

He enclosed the following copy of a treaty he 
said he had made with the river Indians : 

"At a convention held at the office of the 
Arizona superintendency at La Paz on the 21st 
day of March, A. D. 1867, in the presidency of 
G. W. Dent, superintendent of Indian Affairs, 
between delegations of the Mohave Tribe of 
Indians and the Chemehuevis tribe of Indians, 
for the purpose of concluding peace between 
these two bands, and restoring and confirming 
amity : 

"The Chemehuevis were personally present 
by Pan Coyer, their head chief, and certain of 
his captains and head men, and the Mohaves 
were personally present by Iretaba, their head 
chief, and certain of his captains and head men,, 
and after full conference the two bands agreed 
upon the following terms, to wit : 

"1st. All hostilities heretofore existing be- 
tween Mohaves and Chemehuevis cease on and 
after this day, and perpetual amity shall exist 
between the two bands. 



THE MILITARY. 245 

''2nd. The Mohaves shall occupy and culti- 
vate the lands on the left bank of the Colorado 
river, and the Chemehuevis the lands on the 
right bank of the Colorado river ; provided that 
Indians of either band may freely visit and 
travel over either country, and shall not be mo- 
lested therein either in their persons or their 
property. 

''3rd. It is also agreed between the parties 
to this agreement that they will use their best 
exertions to prevent the members of either of 
the tribes from committing any depredations 
upon the persons or property of American citi- 
zens in the country occupied by them, and 
should any such depredations be committed that 
they will endeavor to recover property taken 
and bring the offenders and deliver them to the 
superintendent of Indian Affairs at La Paz. 

"In testimony of the above agreement we 
have set our hands and our seals at La Paz, 
Arizona, on the day and year first written. 
"IRETABA, his + mark (Seal), 

"Head Chief of Mohaves. 
"PAN COYER, his + mark (Seal), 

"Head Chief of the Chemehuevis. 
"Signed and sealed in the presence of — 

"G. W. DENT, 
"Special Indian Agent, Colorado River In- 
dians. 

"CHARLES HUTCHINS. 
"Official: 

"JOHN H. COSTER, 

"Aid-de-camp." 



246 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

The order of General Gregg referred to was : 

''(General Orders No. 3.) 

"HEADQUARTERS DISTRICT OF PRES- 
COTT. 

''Camp Whipple, A. T., April 23, 1867. 

"The increasing number of Indian depreda- 
tions committed throughout this district ren- 
ders it necessary, in order to remove doubt, to 
announce what tribes are considered hostile and 
against whom hostilities may be carried on. 

"The following tribes are announced hostile, 
viz. : The Hualapais, the Chemehuevis, the 
Tonto, the Apache Tonto and the Apache Mo- 
have, and all other tribes or parts of tribes 
within the limits of this district, including the 
Mohaves and other Indians, purporting to be 
friendly, except when the latter are found 
wdthin the limits of the reservations on the 
Colorado river, or when acting in conjunction 
with the troops as guides or otherwise. 

"By order of Brevet General GREGG: 
"A. E. HOOKER, 
"First Lieut, and Adjutant 8th Cavalrv, A. A. 
A. G. 

"Official: 

"JOHN H. COSTER, A. D. C." 

On May 18th, 1867, General McDowell, ac- 
knowledged the receipt of General Gregg's 
order, through his Adjutant-General, and made 
the following order countermanding the same: 

"I am instructed by the department com- 
mander to say in reference to those orders that. 



THE MILITARY. 247 

as he is at present informed, and so far as he 
can at this distance judge of them, it seems to 
him you have declared war on many Indians 
with whom it might be possible to continue 
friendly relations. You unquestionably 're- 
move doubt' as you express it, but you have 
given the doubt in favor of hostilities against 
tribes of all kinds whatsoever who may not be 
on the Indian reservation. 

"With respect to that reservation the follow- 
ing is from the last annual report of the Com- 
missioner of Indian Affairs : 

" 'Arizona. * * * Plans to colonize the 
tribes known as the River Indians, the Yava- 
pais, Hualapais, etc., upon a reservation on the 
Colorado river, set apart for them by Congress 
two years ago, have been considered and pre- 
sented to the department, but for want of nec- 
essary fmids nothing of a permanent character 
has been done. Nevertheless, the superinten- 
dent and Agent Feudge, who was more directly 
in charge of the enterprise, succeeded in induc- 
ing a considerable number of the Mohaves and 
of the tribes above named to commence plant- 
ing. By the August report it appeared that the 
tribes, many of the members of which had been 
disposed to hostility, were peacefully at work, 
and that for the first time in months trains were 
moving between the river and Prescott, the capi- 
tal of the Territory, without interruption. The 
first crops planted by the Indians were swept 
away by a flood in the river, and another rise 
had also occurred, the effect being so to saturate 
the ground as to assure the Indians of a success- 
ful crop.' 



248 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

"The foregoing extract (given in full) shows 
that there is but one reservation on the river 
for all the tribes named in your general order. 
This is understood to be below Williams Fork, 
and therefore beyond the limits of either of the 
districts (Upper Colorado and Prescott) now 
under your command. This reservation, though 
set apart by Congress, is not yet established, 
and the Indian department is not in a condition 
at this time to support these Indians on it. Yet, 
by your general order, if the Indians whom the 
agent has succeeded in drawing to the reserva- 
tion are found away from it for the purpose of 
hunting, under a condition of things where they 
must hunt or starve, you order that the permit 
of the agent shall not be regarded, and the 
Indians shall be declared hostile. 

"Many of the Mohaves and the Hualapais 
have hitherto been living quietly in the vicinity 
of Fort Mohave and on the bottom lands along 
the Colorado river, raising food for themselves 
and for sale, and procuring wood for the 
steamers plying on the river, transporting the 
supplies for the government, and the miners and 
other settlers in the Territory. By your Gen- 
eral Order No. 3 these Indians are declared 
hostile, and war is to be waged on them. 

"Thus far the Indians complained of have, 
as is alleged, confined themselves to stealing 
stock, and it must be said that if the government 
has as yet made no provision for them in the one 
reservation set apart for them, and you forbid 
their being allowed to go hunting because some 
of them have abused the privilege, they have 
some excuse to plead also, as the whites have 



THE MILITARY. 249 

done, having acted upon one of the first great 
laws of nature. 

"The general commanding is quite sure you 
cannot have fully considered the effect of your 
two general orders, and he directs you to recon- 
sider and modify them, and make no war on 
Indians not in hostility with the settlers, and 
that you aid the Indian department as far as 
possible in co-operating with its agents. That 
Indians steal when they find property on which 
they can lay their hands is not surprising, under 
the state of affairs now existing in Arizona. 
This, of course, is much to be regretted, but it 
is not a matter for which the military authori- 
ties are responsible, and the general is not dis- 
posed to authorize an indiscriminate warfare on 
whole tribes on a suspicion that some of their 
members, or some of another tribe, perhaps, 
have committed theft. 

*'I have the honor to be, very respectfully, 
your obedient servant, 

"JOHN P. SHERBURNE, 
"Assistant Adjutant General." 
"Brevet Brigadier General J. I. GREGG, 
Colonel 8th U. S. Cavalry, Com'dg Dis- 
tricts of Prescott and Upper Colorado, 
Fort Whipple, A. T. 
"Official: 

"JOHN P. SHERBURNE, A. A. G." 

Under the orders of his superior officer. Gen- 
eral Gregg was compelled to modify his orders 
in reference to hostile Indians, thus leaving the 
settlers of Northern Arizona at the mercy of 
predatory bands, who did not fail to kill, plun- 



250 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

der and destroy whenever and wherever it was 
to their advantage to do so. For his interfer- 
ence with General Gregg, General McDowell 
was severely criticised by Governor McCormick 
who in this controversy supported General 
Gregg. 

In his second annual report, dated September 
14th, 1867, General McDowell gives the follow- 
ing resume of Military and Indian Affairs in 
Arizona : 

''AEIZONA. 

"11. DISTRICT OF TUCSON — Camp 
Goodwin, on the upper Gila; Camp Bowie, 
Apache Pass; Camp Wall, Upper San Pedro; 
Camp Tubac, Tubac; Camp Lowell, Tucson; 
Camp Grant, Lower San Pedro. The camps 
of this district have afforded as fair a measure 
of protection to the settlements as the circum- 
stances have admitted. 

' ' The most active operations have been in the 
southern part against Cochese's band of 
Apaches, who continued to keep up active hos- 
tilities against the southern settlements, and 
have, during the past year, killed many citizens 
and destroyed much property. The expeditions 
sent out from Camp Wallen have been success- 
ful, and have partially and temporarily checked 
the inroads *of the Indians. 

"The southern part of the Territory has been 
at certain seasons of the year subject to inter- 
mittent fevers to such an extent as to prostrate 
a large part of the force, and cause many 
changes to be made in the camps, in the hope of 
getting to a healthy site. 



THE MILITARY. 251 

"Camp Wallen seems, at last, to have been 
made comfortable and healthy, the labor of the 
men on the ruins of an old Mexican house hav- 
ing given them sufficient shelter for themselves 
and their supplies. 

"The remainder of the force in the southern 
part of the Territory has been temporarily 
quartered, free of expense, in houses in Tubac, 
which the owners were glad to offer for the in- 
creased protection they would receive from the 
troops being relieved from having to build 
themselves shelters. 

"General Crittenden has recommended the 
building of the permanent camp near the site 
of old Fort Buchanan, where there are many 
adobes, made before the war, and which can be 
used in new buildings. It is proposed to com- 
mence this in November next, the labor to be 
done chiefly by the men with the materials at 
hand. When built, the post at Tubac will be 
discontinued. 

' ' There has been much complaint as to the in- 
sufficient shelters heretofore provided for the 
troops in Arizona, but the recent order from the 
War Department on the subject of shelters for 
troops has only been anticipated in the orders 
from these and division headquarters. 

' ' The troops have been required to make tem- 
porary shelters for themselves and their sup- 
plies by their own labor with the materials at 
hand. The principal difficulty in southern Ari- 
zona arises from the scarcity of timber and 
lumber. 

"At Camp Grant the commanding officer 
made, without authority, an impracticable 



252 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

treaty with some of the Indians near the sta- 
tion. General Crittenden subsequently saw the 
Indians, and made a new agreement with them, 
which they broke in a few days after making 
it. Some of them have, however, since come in 
and submitted to military control. 

"In order to give a greater force at other 
points, I endeavored to break up this camp, but 
found the need of it so great that it had to be 
continued, and the commanding officer has been 
authorized to make adobe shelters for his com- 
mand to the extent necessary for a post of this 
character. 

"Camp Goodwin is intended as a guard for 
such of the Indians as submit themselves to mili- 
tary control in that part of the Territory. It 
has been found very difficult to retain the In- 
dians on even a reservation of the extent of the 
one at this post. There are frequent charges 
made by persons at a distance, of depredations 
committed by these Indians, who, it is said, steal 
away, and rob or murder, as has been their cus- 
tom. The commanding officer denies this, and 
has shown, at least in one instance, that these 
charges are not true. It will undoubtedly take 
much time to break up the habits of generations, 
and those who expect an immediate cessation of 
all hostilities or molestations from these people 
are most likely to be disappointed. 

"I am still, however, convinced that mere 
force will not so soon accomplish the subjuga- 
tion of these mountain robbers, as force and 
care of those who profess to submit, combined. 

"The transportation of supplies to this sec- 
tion of the Territory has heretofore been a 



THE MILITARY. 253 

heavy item of expense, even under the most 
favorable circumstances. Last year it was 
enormously so; but this has had the effect to 
produce much competition this year, and the 
price is nearly two-thirds less than it was, but 
this has been done by contractors who expect to 
send their trains from the coast of the Gulf of 
California through Sonora. 

^'It is much to be desired that Mexico should 
be induced to make a port of entry at Libertad, 
so that the freighters should have no difficulty 
in using that port to disembark their stores. It 
would then be supplied with lighters, and all 
facilities necessary, and which are now wanting 
at that place, for a port. 

''12. DISTRICT OF THE VERDE— 
Camp McDowell. — The troops at this post were 
employed with good effect by Brevet Lieu- 
tenant-Colonel Sanford in two very important 
and entirely successful combats with the hos- 
tile Apaches, killing and capturing a large 
number, and destroying large quantities of their 
property. 

''Wishing to follow up his successes, and force 
the Apaches in this district to submit, I en- 
deavored to establish a camp in the heart of 
their mountain fastnesses, and gave orders to 
that effect last autumn ; but owing to many cir- 
cumstances I have thus far failed to get accom- 
plished my purpose, and have to postpone it 
till a more favorable opportunity. 

"Besides the important successes of Brevet 
Lieutenant-Colonel Sanford, some others have 
been obtained by other parties from this camp, 
one by the Pima and Maricopa scouts. 



254 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

"Twice, lately, the Indians near this camp 
have sent in word to the commanding officer that 
they wish to be at peace with the whites. But 
they have so little confidence in us, and we so 
little in them, that it is difficult to say whether 
anything positive is likely to come of their ap- 
plication. I have instructed the commanding 
officer that if they will submit to military con- 
trol they will be provided for. 

"Ninety of the one hundred Indian scouts al- 
lowed this department have been allotted to the 
districts of the Verde and Tucson. The com- 
manders of each bear witness to their efficiency 
in hunting, trailing, and fighting the Apaches. 
They have proved most valuable auxiliaries to 
the regular troops. Their peculiar know^ledge 
of the country and habits of the Apaches makes 
them, in some capacity, indispensable. I wish 
that authority could be had for a still greater 
number. They are a cheap and effective force 
for local purposes. There is also in Arizona a 
class of men who are, on some accounts and for 
some purposes, even better than the Indians — 
those who were born there or have been a long 
time in the country. They would not be well 
suited to army life and discipline, particularly 
under the officers who are now in the Territory, 
who are unacquainted with it or its inhabitants ; 
but who, were they employed for a few months 
at a time, or for some particular service, and 
under the lead of some of their own number, 
would be of great use in the peculiar kind of 
warfare which has to be carried on in that 
country. 



THE MILITARY. 255 

"Many of the settlers would, I have reason to 
believe be willing to go out for an expedition, 
could they be furnished with ammunition, food 
and transportation. Many have done so with- 
out any aid, and I think it well worth the while 
to obtain authority to furnish these supplies for 
any parties whose services any district com- 
mander may accept for an expedition against 
the Indians. 

''13. DISTRICT OF PRESCOTT— Camp 
Lincoln^ on the upper Verde ; Camp McPherson, 
La Paz road ; Fort Whipple, Prescott. — The two 
cavalry companies in this district have done 
excellent service against the hostile Indians, 
and killed and captured a large number, and 
destroyed much of their (to them) valuable 
property. 

"In one of the combats Captain J. W. Will- 
iams, eighth cavalry, was badly wounded. I 
regret the loss of the services of this gallant and 
most effective officer, and am glad to learn that 
his wound is not so serious as at first reported. 

"The commander of this district, actuated by 
some motive I have not been able to appreciate, 
issued orders declaring war on all Indians in his 
command, save those employed with the troops, 
or on a reser\^ation on the Colorado river. This 
unnecessary act was as impolitic as it was un- 
just, for we had more enemies than we had 
troops to combat them. He was therefore re- 
quired to reconsider and modify his orders, and 
only war on hostile Indians. 

"As his subsequent conduct was unsoldierly, 
and caused a good deal of correspondence, and 
has affected the public service in his district, I 



256 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

submit herewith a special report in the case, 
in connection with the despatch of Mr. Dent, 
superintendent of Indian affairs for Arizona, 
dated March 5, 1867. 

"14. DISTEICT OF THE UPPER COLO- 
RADO^ — Camp Mohave; Camp El Dorado. — 
The Indians in this district, as mentioned in 
my last report, have been brought into hostility 
with the whites; whether necessarily or un- 
necessarily — as it was not by any act of any one 
in the military service, is no longer a question. 

^ ' They have done much damage, and have kept 
employed a large part of the force I had hoped 
to employ elsewhere. They have also affected 
with a spirit of hostility the Piutes heretofore 
friendly, and there is danger of this hostility 
extending up the Colorado and to the Salt Lake 
and Los Angeles road. 

''I have sent as large a force as possible to 
re-enforce Brevet Lieutenant-Colonel Price, 
commanding the district, and he has now nearly 
five hundred men, and was by the last account 
about to take the field, with good prospect of 
success. The country is, however, very much 
broken, and the Indians very active, and have 
become well armed ; and it is not at all improb- 
able the colonel may have to take much longer 
time than I have allowed him before he succeeds 
in his campaign. 

"That he might have as large a force as pos- 
sible, I have temporarily attached Major Clen- 
denin, with a company of cavalry under orders 
for Camp McDow^ell, to his command; and as 
the mining operations seemed to have been, at 
least for the present, suspended or abandoned 



THE MILITAEY. 257 

at El Dorado, and the trade to Salt Lake, by way 
of the Colorado, seemed to be broken off, and the 
company at El Dorado was suffering where it 
was, and the troops were needed for active field 
operations elsewhere, I authorized him to with- 
draw all the company except a small guard, and 
use it in his approaching campaign. 

^'15. DISTRICT OF THE LOWER 
COLORADO— Fort Yuma.— This district con- 
tains the principal depot for receiving and for- 
warding the supplies to the country north of 
the Gila, and the reserve supply for the whole 
Territory. During the year the depot was ac- 
cidentally burned, and with it a large quantity 
of public property. For fear that the troops 
might be depending on some of the supplies thus 
lost, a steamer was engaged to take to the mouth 
of the river such articles as the place seemed to 
be most likely in need of. They have arrived 
as have other cargoes sent by sailing vessels, 
and no danger is now felt of the troops being in 
want by reason of the accident. The depot is 
being rebuilt. 

''The company of artillery ordered from Fort 
Yuma, to obtain a force to go to Sitka, leaves 
this post with but a single company of infantry, 
from which a detachment is kept up at old Fort 
Gaston, on the Colorado river, a few miles above 
the Gila. 

"16. I am continually receiving complaints 
of the insufficient number of troops provided 
for the defense of the settlements against the 
hostile Indians. The governors of Nevada and 
Arizona have been earnest in their representa- 

V— 17 



258 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

tions that more troops should be sent to their 
State and Territory. As I have sent all I have 
— which I know is a full share of what has been 
sent to the Pacific Coast — the question of in- 
creased military force for this country is one 
for the War Department to determine, with 
reference to the strength of the army and its 
needs elsewhere. I can only say that an addi- 
tional force would be of great benefit to this 
country; is much needed, and that it would be 
good economy to employ it. I am, however, 
constrained to say that, for Arizona, I think it 
far preferable that a temporary irregular force 
be authorized to be retained, in the same w^ay 
as is provided by law for the Indian scouts. 

' ' 17. The hostilities in that country are made 
by Indians who live in the mountainous parts 
of the Territory, where nature has combined 
everything to favor the life of murder and 
rapine they lead. They require a peculiar kind 
of warfare, and a peculiar force to carry it on 
successfully. 

'Mt is not so much a large force as an active 
one that is needed. It is more like hunting wild 
animals than any kind of regular warfare. The 
Indians are seldom in large bodies, and never 
take any risk. They move with great celerity, 
unencumbered with any baggage, and when out 
on their forays can seldom be overtaken. When 
they are, and are pressed, they give way and dis- 
perse among the mountains and ravines, so that 
it is impossible to follow them. The most that 
is done in such cases is to cause them to abandon 
any animals they may be carrying off. They 
can only be successfully fought by troops who 



THE MILITARY. 259 

carry on an offensive warfare against them, 
who do not wait till they have attacked, for in 
such cases but little is ever accomplished, but 
who fight them in their own way; take no bag- 
gage, move by night, and hide during the day ; 
creep upon their camps, and rush upon them by 
surprise. When this is done, no matter by how 
few or how many, they always fly, and then 
seek to do what damage they can by firing from 
some safe cover. In these cases, it is in the first 
few minutes that everything is done. 

"In view of this, and of the great expense it 
requires to obtain these few minutes, it is, I 
think, the highest economy to place in the hands 
of those who have to improve them, the best 
arms we have, some repeating rifle that will give 
them from five to fifteen shots without loading. 

''18. The need of sending off immediately to 
the scene of Indian hostilities all the men that 
were sent to me has made it necessary to send 
companies to the field as soon as they were or- 
ganized, and in all cases with an insufficient 
number of officers, and many times with officers 
of other companies or corps. This, and the 
mistaken notion many men have that California 
is filled with gold, which they will be able to pick 
up in the first stream they come to, or that it ex- 
ists in such quantities and in such conditions that 
a man can soon gather it and become wealthy, 
together with the hard service required of the 
troops in this Indian hunting, have combined to 
cause many desertions. The evil, which has be- 
come serious, is beyond my control, nor can I 
charge it upon any one. 



260 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

''I send herewith the reports of successful 
Indian combats, and copies of the orders an- 
nouncing them to the department. 

"I have the honor to be, very respectfully, 
your obedient servant, 

"iRviN McDowell, 

''Brevet Major General, Commanding Depart- 
ment. 
"Brevet Major General J. B. FRY, 

"Assistant Adjutant General, Headq'trs Mil. 
Div. of the Pacific, San Francisco, Cal." 



THE MILITARY. 261 



CHAPTER XII. 

THE MILITARY (Continued). 

Major General Halleck^s Report for 1867- 
68 — Describes Conditions in Aeizona — 
Urges That More Troops be Sent to Ari- 
zona — Expeditions Against Hostile In- 
dians — Frequent Desertions of Soldiers 
— Report of Brigadier General Thomas 
E. Devin of Expedition Against the Hos- 

TILES. 

Under date of September 22nd, 1868, Major 
General H. W. Halleck, who had succeeded 
General McDowell in command of the Pacific, 
made his report to the Secretary of War, in 
which report he had the following to say in 
regard to conditions in Arizona: 

"This Territory has an area of some 104,000 
square miles. There are no very reliable data 
in regard to its population, but a means of var- 
ious estimates would place it at about 8,000 
whites and 15,000 Indians. The military force 
in the Territory consists of two full regiments 
of infantry, and nine companies of cavalry; 
in all 29 companies that is, nearly one-half of 
all the troops in the division available for ser- 
vice in the field. Nevertheless, considerable 
dissatisfaction has been shown by the inhabi- 
tants because more troops were not sent to that 
Territory. This could not be done by me from 
the small force at my disposal without depriving 
other States and Territories of their propor- 



262 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

tionate share of protection in places where 
Indian hostilities existed or were threatened. 

"These troops in Arizona are distributed as 
follows: At Fort Mojave, two companies for the 
protection of the depot, with outposts on the 
road to San Bernardino; at Camp Willow 
Grove, two companies for the protection of the 
road from Mojave to Fort Whipple, and opera- 
tions against the hostile Hualapais; at Fort 
Whipple, two companies for defending depot 
and operations against the Apaches; at Camp 
McPherson, one company to protect road and 
mail from La Paz to Prescott; at La Paz, one 
company for duty at Indian reservation; at 
Camp Lincoln, two companies to protect set- 
tlers on the Verde, and operate against Apaches 
east of that river; at Camp McDowell and the 
outpost of Camp Eeno, five companies to guard 
depot and operate against Apaches between the 
Verde and Salinas rivers ; at Fort Yuma (in an 
appended footnote General Halleck says: Fort 
Yuma is in the State of California, but is in- 
cluded in the military district of Arizona), one 
company to guard main depot of supplies; at 
Camp Lowell, Tucson, one company to guard 
depot of supplies for southern Arizona ; at Camp 
Grant, three companies to protect roads and 
settlements, and to operate against Apaches ; at 
Camp Goodwin, three companies to protect 
roads and settlements, and to operate against 
Apaches ; at Camp Bowie, one company to guard 
an important pass and check hostile incursions 
by Indians from New Mexico ; at Camp Wallen, 
two companies. This post was established to 
prevent hostile incursions by the Sonora 



THE MILITARY. 263 

Apaches, and especially by the band of Cochise. 
As it had signally failed to accomplish either 
of these objects, it is probable that its location 
was not judicious. At Camp Crittenden, three 
companies. The troops were removed from 
Tubac to this place as being a more healthy 
position. They are intended for general opera- 
tions against Apaches in southern Arizona. 

''The locations of these several posts were 
determined by General McDowell after fre- 
quent personal visits to all parts of that Terri- 
tory, and after consultations with officers fully 
acquainted with the topography of the country, 
and of large experience in operations against 
the Apaches. They should, therefore, be 
changed only after mature deliberation and 
upon the most satisfactory evidence that their 
location is erroneous. I have interfered only 
to prevent what I considered too great a divi- 
sion and scattering of our forces. To properly 
locate a military post in an Indian country, an 
officer should have a knowledge of the topog- 
raphy of the country, the dangers threatened, 
and the means of averting or surmounting them. 
As General McDowell possessed this knowledge 
in a remarkable degree, I have felt the less dis- 
posed to change or overrule any distribution of 
troops in Arizona which he proposed or ordered. 

''In northern Arizona the troops under Gen- 
erals Devin, Price and Alexander have been, 
during the past year, actively engaged in scouts, 
and their operations have been attended with 
very considerable success. Much of the coun- 
try lying between Yerde and Salinas rivers, 
heretofore unknown, has been explored, and 



264 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

Apaches shown that we can now penetrate to 
their secret haunts and homes. As soon as 
proper depots of supplies can be established, 
these explorations will be renewed with everj^ 
prospect of favorable results. 

''The efficiency of the forces south of the Gila 
has not been so manifest, and their operations 
have been less successful. 

"The details of the military operations in 
Arizona during the past year are given in the 
several reports forwarded through department 
headquarters. Arizona has been greatly mis- 
represented, even by its own people. It has been 
described as a wonderfully rich mineral coun- 
try, abounding in lodes and mines of gold and 
silver, of such surpassing wealth, that any man 
who could work them could, in a few months, 
accumulate a fortune of millions. But these 
mines of fabulous wealth, if they really exist, 
are as yet undeveloped, and perhaps undiscov- 
ered. I do not mean to say there are no val- 
uable mines in Arizona, but simply that the 
products of these mines have never equalled the 
sanguine anticipations and representations of 
their owners, and that the failure of expected 
dividends to anxious stocldiolders has not been 
entirely due to the want of military protection, 
as is so commonly alleged. But this Territorj^ 
has interests and resources other than its min- 
erals, and I have little doubt that in a few years 
its agricultural products will far exceed in value 
the yield of its mines of gold, silver, and 
copper, however rich they may prove to be. In 
many parts of the country the soil is exceed- 
ingly rich, and crops of all kinds are most 



THE MILITARY. 265 

abundant. Its climate is favorable for the 
growth of most kinds of grain and fruits, and 
its gi'ass lands are so extensive and rich that the 
traveler is surprised to learn that the beef and 
mutton consumed is mostly obtained from Texas 
and California, and still more that much of the 
bread eaten is made of flour imported from Cali- 
fornia and Sonora. There can be little doubt 
that when the Territory shall receive an immi- 
gration of thrifty farmers, it will become one 
of the most prosperous countries on the Pacific 
slope. But farmers and stockraisers are ever 
more exposed to Indian depredations, and re- 
quire more military protection in a country 
infested by hostile Indians, than miners in the 
development of their mines. The farmer's 
wealth consists in his cattle and crops; and if 
these are destroyed, he is often utterly ruined. 
The miner's principal wealth is in his mines, 
which the Indians camiot destroy, although they 
may cripple his operations for a time by rob- 
bing him of his work animals, tools, and his 
supplies. Notwithstanding the too frequent 
raids of Apaches, and the ruin which they have 
caused to many ranches, the farming interest in 
Arizona has made considerable progress within 
the last two years. Many posts are now mainly 
supplied by the products of the country, and at 
prices nearly fifty per cent less than formerly. 

**It will be seen from this summary that, 
while there is a considerable military force in 
the territory, the number available for scouts 
and field operations is small, and that this field 
force cannot be increased without leaving un- 
protected many necessary depots of supplies 



266 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

and important mining and agricultural dis- 
tricts. I, therefore, respectfully and most 
urgently repeat my recommendation of last 
year, that an additional force of one or two regi- 
ments of infantry be sent to this division for 
service in Arizona. The troops now there will 
be able to hold their present positions and to 
make gradual advances upon the enemy until 
he is finally subdued or destroyed. But this 
process must be a slow one. With the addi- 
tional troops asked for, the operation will be 
greatly facilitated, the desired result attained 
in less time, and the total cost of the war greatly 
diminished. 

"I call attention, also, in this connection, to 
the fact that the health of the troops in southern 
Arizona will soon render it necessary to ex- 
change them for those at more northerly posts, 
say in California and Oregon. But to make 
this exchange will require several months, and, 
in the meantime, many posts would be so re- 
duced as to be misaf e, and all would be too weak 
for any field operations against the hostile In- 
dians. If an additional regiment of infantry 
be sent to the division, these changes can be 
effected gradually and without serious detri- 
ment to the service. 

"The law authorizing the employment of In- 
dian scouts limits the number to 1,000, of which 
only 200 are assigned to this division. If this 
number could be doubled, at least on the coast, 
it would greatly facilitate military operations 
in Arizona. Officers are unanimous as to the 
value and usefulness of these scouts in the 
field. 



THE MILITARY. 267 

"I beg leave to reproduce the following ex- 
tracts from my amiual report of last year: 

*' 'The Apaches and cognate tribes in Arizona 
and northern Sonora are the natural and heredi- 
tary enemies of the whites, of whatsoever nation 
or character. They have successfully expelled 
from that Territory the Aztecs, the Spaniards 
and the Mexicans; and they will yield to our 
people only when compelled to do so by the rifle 
and the revolver. They probably resemble the 
African Bedouins more than any other people; 
and murder and robbery constitute almost the 
sole occupation of the Apaches. These Indians 
do not fight in masses, like most of the tribes of 
the Eocky Mountains, but more stealthily in 
small bands over the greater portions of Ari- 
zona and the northern part of Sonora and 
Chihuahua, waylaying and murdering travelers 
on the roads, and plundering and destroying 
improtected agricultural and mining settle- 
ments. This mode of warfare, combined with 
the rough and desert character of the country, 
and the want of practicable roads, renders it 
very difficult to operate successfully against 
them, or to give adequate protection to the 
small and scattered settlements in that exten- 
sive but sparsely populated Territorj^ 

" 'It is useless to negotiate with these Apache 
Indians. They will observe no treaties, agree- 
ments, or truces. With them there is no alter- 
native but active and vigorous w^ar, till they are 
completely destroyed, or forced to surrender as 
prisoners of war. ' 

"Another year's experience has confirmed the 
correctness of these remarks. But what is to 



268 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

be done with these Indians when captured or 
surrendered as prisoners of war? The agents 
of the Indian bureau, as a general rule, refuse 
to receive them, and the military have no funds 
or authority to establish special military 'reser- 
vations' for them. To keep and to guard them 
at military posts will require the whole force of 
the garrison, and prevent the troops from 
operating in the field. We have no available 
funds with which to purchase seeds and agri- 
cultural implements, so that they can be made 
to contribute to their own support ; and to keep 
them in idleness for any length of time has a 
most injurious effect. If permitted to hunt 
and fish for their own support, they are certain 
to desert and resume hostilities. It is hoped 
that some steps may be taken to modify our 
Indian system, at least in Ai'izona, so as to ob- 
viate these very serious difficulties in the re- 
duction of the Apaches and the pacification 
of the Territory. I respectfully repeat my 
recommendations of March last, that Arizona, 
with the three most southerly counties of Cali- 
fornia, be made a separate military department. 
I believe this change to be essential to the dis- 
cipline of the troops and the proper direction of 
military operations there. The present depart- 
ment of California is of so great a geographical 
extent, with so many posts distant from each 
other, and connected by roads and mountain 
trails difficult to travel, that the department 
commander cannot make the personal inspec- 
tions and give to its affairs that personal super- 
vision which are absolutely required. Making 
Arizona a separate department will not only be 



THE MILITARY. 269 

of advantage to that Territory, but will give a 
better supervision to military affairs in Cali- 
fornia and Nevada. General Ord fully concurs 
with me in this recommendation. 

' ' It gives me pleasure to report that the open- 
ing of new roads and the settlement and cultiva- 
tion of land in the vicinity of the military posts 
have greatly reduced the cost and transporta- 
tion of army supplies in the division generally. 
Still further reductions may be hoped in the 
future. 

' ' The locations of the several military posts in 
the division are designated on the accompanying 
maps. 

"Very respectfullv, your obedient servant, 
■^ "H. W. HALLECK, 
''Major General Commanding." 

During this year several expeditions were car- 
ried out against the hostiles, in which a few 
Indians were killed and rancherias destroyed, 
the particulars of which are not given in Gen- 
eral Halleck's report. General Ord, in his re- 
port dated September 27th, 1868, calls attention 
to the frequent desertions, saying: 

''In Arizona the men have been occupied in 
pursuit of the Indians, scouting, and on escort 
duty. They have been but in few cases able to 
build quarters; at some of the forts the troops 
are yet living in tents, or under earthen roofs 
and mud walls. Timber is so scarce in many 
parts of the State of Nevada, and in Arizona 
Territory, that at some posts it has been at 
times impossible to procure a sufficient number 
of boards to make coffins for the dead. 



270 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

''The consequences of these discomforts, and 
the want of vegetables, is many desertions, es- 
pecially from the posts where commanders were 
careless of the comfort of their men, and failed 
to make use of such means as the country af- 
forded in providing for them such necessaries 
as vegetable gardens, airy rooms, though built 
of adobes, and plenty of good water. Every 
effort has been made by me to remedy these 
wantSj and some additional expense incurred 
which will, by increasing the comfort of the 
troops in quarters, diminish the number of de- 
sertions, and make them more healthy and effi- 
cient in the field. At one post inspected by me 
I found that its garrison of 86 men had lost 54 
men by desertion, and every deserter had car- 
ried off a good horse and repeating rifle, worth 
together from $150 to $300 at the post. These 
horses and arms are generally sold to the citi- 
zens in the vicinity for half or a third of their 
value, so that the citizen finds more profit in 
encouraging desertion by buying the deserter's 
arms, horse and clothing, than in arresting him 
for the small reward of about $20 in gold. 
Commanding officers would prosecute such citi- 
zens in many cases if they were authorized to 
employ counsel, for there is scarcely ever in the 
vicinity of such remote posts a United States 
district attorney, or other person to act as such. 
**I would recommend as some preventive to 
this wholesale purchase of deserters' clothing, 
arms and horses, that whenever a citizen, or sol- 
dier returned a deserter, or his horse, arms or 
clothing, the person making the return should 
be paid the value of such articles as might be 



THE MILITARY. 271 

returned, and the actual cost of apprehension 
in addition to the $30 now paid, all of which 
money should be paid on delivery of the man 
or his property, and upon a certificate to that 
effect from the officer to whom he or it may be 
delivered; at present many officers refuse to 
give the certificates of delivery until the man 
is convicted, which acts as a bar to the zeal of 
persons who might be otherwise disposed to 
arrest deserters." 

The most important progress made by the 
military during this year is contained in the 
following report made by Brigadier General 
Thomas E. Devin who commanded the Sub- 
District of Prescott, which report is dated June 
12tli, 1868: 

'* Headquarters Sub-District of Prescott. 
''Fort Whipple, A. T., June 12, 1868. 

"Colonel: I have the honor to report my re- 
turn from a 45 days' scout into the Apache coun- 
try, to the east of this post, in pursuance of 
instructions from headquarters district of Ari- 
zona, directing me to move with my available 
force in a southeast course from Camp Lincoln 
towards Goodwin, and as far as the headwaters 
of the San Carlos, on which I would find the 
hostile Pinal Apaches, who now appeared 
disposed to fight, and give us a favorable op- 
portunity to punish them. No operative move- 
ments would be made from other points. 

"The above instructions were received at tliis 
post April 25, and at the time my largest 
cavalry company was on a 15 days' scout in the 



272 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

Havemia (probably Harcuvar) mountaius, 100 
miles westward. On the morning of the 26th I 
started my w^agons with 30 days' rations, and 
company B, 8th cavalry, en route to the Rio 
Verde. " On the 28th, company L returned from 
its scout, and I at once follow^ed with that com- 
mand. On the 30th I left Camp Lincohi with 
the troops, and my pack train of 60 mules, carry- 
ing 30 days ' rations and crossing Clear Creek six 
miles from its mouth, ascended the Mogollon 
mountains (erroneously called the 'High Mesa')- 
My force consisted of one hundred (100) cavalry, 
and fifty (50) infantry, and the four guides 
from the district posts. 

"Crossing the divide to the southern crest of 
the mountains I descended into Tonto basin 
near the head of the east fork of the Verde,^at 
a point where the mountain rises about 2,500 
feet above the basin. The first 500 feet being 
nearly a perpendicular cliff, I was obliged to 
cut a zigzag path down the face, after which 
the breaking of a trail was comparatively 
easy. The same night my camp was fired into 
by Indians, killing one horse. At midnight, 
company L, with a guide, was sent out to look 
for 'smokes' seen from the mountain. As the 
column pushed on, detachments were sent out 
from the front and right flank to scour the 
country, many rancherias were found, but all 
had been abandoned — some of them quite lately, 
others for months. 

"On reaching the main fork of Tonto creek, 
a number of small farms w^ere found, just pre- 
pared for planting, ground hoed, etc., but no 
crops yet in. The^Indians had evidently left in 



THE MILITARY. 273 

haste fleeing southward. At this point I found 
that from the appearance of the country and 
probable obstacles in front, I would not be able 
to reach the San Carlos, and return with the 
rations on hand. Before starting I had been 
assured that the pack animals w^ould carry 250 
pounds anywhere the cavalry could go. This I 
found to be an error as they could not average 
200 pounds, and with that could not make over 
10 miles a day in a mountain country. In en- 
deavoring to accomplish even that several gave 
out, others were killed falling over precipices 
and some of the rations were lost. The work was 
also telling on my cavalry horses. I therefore 
selected a camp on the head of Tonto creek, 
and sending my pack train back to Camp Lin- 
coln for 20 days' rations I occupied the interval 
in scouting with mounted and dismounted par- 
ties the country between Salinas and the Mo- 
gollones. On the return of the train, I, for the 
second time, attempted to push my southward 
way, but was again repelled by impassable can- 
yons. I finally succeeded in crossing the 
Salinas at a point where the banks rise nearly 
to the height of 1,000 feet, and are very steep. 
Other crossings were afterwards found, and the 
troops crossed and recrossed the Salinas at four 
different points between its source and the big 
Bend, while operating in the basin. During 
one of the scouts one rancheria was found in- 
habited, and four Indians were killed while 
escaping across the river. On another occa- 
sion a party exploring a trail to the San Carlos 
were ambushed but the Indians were repulsed ; 

V— 18 



274 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

two fell but were carried off by their comrades ; 
one soldier and two animals were womided. 
The pack train, w^hile on its return for the ra- 
tions, was ambushed near the top of the 'jump- 
off' I had constructed down the mountain, and 
the pack master, Mr. Baker, was killed. The 
Indians fled before the troops could reach the 
summit, though they dashed forward with all 
the speed the steep ascent would admit. 

''The section of country north and west of 
the Salinas having been pretty well scouted, I en- 
camped on one of the east forks of the Salinas, 
and taking 60 cavalry, all that I had left that 
were serviceable for a hard march, I pushed on 
to the San Carlos, which stream I reached after 
crossing three of its forks. The character of 
the country here is widely different from that 
west of the Salinas, the mountains easier of 
access, and the divides easier crossed. The 
scenery is very beautiful, land fertile, and river 
bottoms wide and filled with nutritious grasses, 
but no signs of recent occupation by Indians, 
as far as could be seen. A well beaten trail 
from the southwest, on which the tracks of 
women and children were very evident, led 
towards the head of the Little Colorado, or val- 
ley of the Prieta, and showed that their families 
had been moved east, but the shoes of my horses 
were worn out, and many of the men likewise. 
I had but rations enough to carry me back at 
a much faster rate than I had advanced, and 
from the highest peak not an Indian 'smoke' 
could be seen. I had with difficulty, and 
through a country hitherto unknown, and inter- 



THE MILITARY. 275 

sected in every direction by impassable canyons, 
penetrated to the point designated by my orders. 
I had four of the best guides in the Territory, 
though none of them had ever been in this sec- 
tion previously (nor could I find or hear of any 
one who had), but all were excellent mountain 
men, and brave and expert in following Indian 
trails, but I could not get a fight. The Indians 
have (with the exception of a few predatory 
bands), either left the country west of the San 
Carlos, or have sent their families beyond, and 
gone on some grand stealing raid to Sonora. 

"The men were eager for a fight, and I was 
willing, and it had been prophesied that I would 
meet a thousand warriors before I reached San 
Carlos; bnt I can truly say that I can at any 
time find more fresh Indian signs within 50 
miles of this post than I found at 200 miles dis- 
tant. 

''I concluded to return across the mountains 
and try to explore a road by which I might for- 
ward supplies by wagons along the crests of the 
divide between the waters running to the Colo- 
rado, and those running to the Salinas and Gila, 
thus enabling me to establish temporary depots, 
from whence I could make descents either into 
the valley of the Prieta, the Sierra Blancas, or 
the Little Colorado, with detachments supplied 
with five to ten days' rations, and thus obviate 
the necessity of large pack trains. I succeeded 
in finding such routes. 

"Returning from San Carlos to camp near 
the Salinas, I ascended the Mogollones, and, 
following the general course of the divide, 
reached Camp Lincoln in eight days, from a 



276 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

point at the head of Salt River. Grass and 
water in plenty until after crossing the head of 
east fork. From this point to Clear Creek, 
water is scarce from May 14th until the summer 
rains, about July 1. Very little Indian signs 
were found on the mountain, though the game 
was far more plentiful than in the valley. 

"It may be proper here to refer to the ex- 
pedition I was organizing to start about May 15 
by this very route, and turning the head of the 
San Carlos, return by the Salinas to Camp 
Reno. I would thus have taken the Indians 
from the rear, with perhaps greater success; 
but military necessity ordained that the move- 
ment should be made earlier, and there was too 
much melting snow on May 1 to allow my ani- 
mals to travel on the divide, and I had to descend 
into the basin. 

"At the time of the receipt of General Crit- 
tenden's order I had nearly completed a road 
from Clear creek to the summit of the Mo- 
goUones (for wagons). As soon as the summer 
rains set in I will recommence the work, and 
continue it to the southern crests, after which 
the road, though crooked, can be easily worked. 
My impression is that the most effectual mode 
of holding the Indians in check, next to fighting 
them, is to open roads and trails through their 
country, so that the troops can readily track and 
follow them. This policy I have followed since 
my assignment to duty here, and the district has 
been very quiet. 

"Tonto basin is now very well chequered with 
our trails and officers and men are well ac- 
quainted with the country. The basin includes 



THE MILITARY. 277 

the district of country south of the high mesa, 
west and north of the Salinas, and east of the 
Mazatzal mountains, and has heretofore been 
properly supposed to be the home of the 
Apaches, where they had their farms, families 
and stock. It has probably contained a large 
population, as we found rancherias sufficient 
for hundreds of families, but all abandoned. 

^'Two sets of shoes were prepared for the 
animals, and three for the infantry; nearly all 
were worn out before our return, and the feet 
of a number of the horses had to be encased m 
leather in order to enable them to return the 
last 60 miles to Lincoln, the country being cov- 
ered with broken lava. For 40 days they had 
not a grain of forage. None of the large herd 
of cattle stolen by the Indians near Tucson 
could have been brought into Tonto basin, as at 
first supposed. Major Clendenin, who skirted 
the southern edge, could find no trail, and I re- 
peatedly crossed his trail. No stock had passed 
over my route subsequent to the snow melting 
with the exception of two horses. The health 
of the men in general was excellent. 

'*As soon as a map of the country scouted 
can be compiled, it will be forwarded, together 
with journal. 

''Very respectfully, your obedient servant, 
''THOMAS C. DEVIN, 
"Lieutenant Colonel and Brevet Brig. Gen. 
Commanding." 

From this report, it will be seen that the result 
of the scout was the establishment of new trails 
through the Indian country and its mapping, so 



278 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

that the military thereafter might intelligently 
locate their camps where water and feed could 
be obtained. 

It will also be seen that, according to the mili- 
tary reports for the years 1866, 1867 and 1868, 
very little was accomplished in the way of sub- 
duing the hostile Apaches. Had Congress au- 
thorized the raising of a volunteer regiment in 
Arizona, such a body of men,^ under the com- 
mand of an experienced frontiersman like King 
Woolsey, Townsend, or Genung, would have 
done more in one year for the protection of the 
settlers on the frontier and towards the conquer- 
ing of the hostile Apaches, than all the soldiers 
furnished by the Government did up to the time 
Crook assumed command. Such, at least, was 
and is, the consensus of opinion among old time 
residents of this State. As it was, there were 
more Indians killed by settlers than by the 
troops. 



INDIAN TROUBLES. 279 



CHAPTER XIII. 

INDIAN TROUBLES. 

Attack on T. Lambertson — Killing of Henry 
Twaddle — Killing of Gonzales — Attack 
ON Le Roy Jay and William Trehan — 
Fight With Frenchmen on Hassayampa 
— Attacks in and Around Wickenburg — 
Jackass Smith — Expedition of Lieut. 
Cradlebaugh Against Indians — Jackson 
McCracken's Plight — Killing of Gteorge 
Bowers — Experience of "Jeff^^ Davis — 
Orick Jackson Describes Conditions — 
Thomas Thompson Hunter^s Description 
OF Conditions — Hostilities at Fort Bowie 
— Killing of Commander of Post — Murder 
OF Col. Stone and Escort — Duel Between 
Keeper of Station and One of Cochise \s 
Band — Murder of Mail Carrier Fisher — 
Attack on W. A. Smith and Companions 
— Depredations Around Tucson — Camp 
Grant Massacre — Mrs. Stephens' Fight 
With Indians — '^Miner'' Editorial on 
Situation — W. M. Saxton Killed. 

The following are some of the outrages com- 
mitted by the Indians up to and including the 
year 1868: 

In Hamilton's "Resources of Arizona," are 
given the following: 

*'T. Lambertson, of Walnut Grove, was one 
of the first settlers who brought cattle into that 
valley. He had seven or eight cows and watched 



280 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

them continually. He was driving them home 
one evening in 1867, when he w^as ambushed by 
the redskins within half a mile of his house. 
The old man was badly wounded in his side at 
the first fire and fell to the ground. The In- 
dians rushed upon him from the brush, but 
Lambertson had a Henry repeating rifle, and as 
he lay on the ground killed three of them, when 
the rest retreated and he made his way home 
with the cows. He never entirely recovered 
from the effects of the wound, though he lived 
for several years afterwards. 

''Harvey Twaddle, a pioneer prospector, was 
waylaid on a trail in Walnut Grove and shot 
in the heart, but drove off the Indians who at- 
tacked him. Assistance arriving shortly, he 
was carried home and lived eight days. A post- 
mortem examination showed the bullet im- 
bedded in his heart a half an inch from its lower 
point. This is one of the most extraordinary 
instances of vitality on record. 

"In 1866 a marauding band of Tontos sur- 
prised a Mexican named Gonzales between the 
Agua Fria Valley and Prescott, killed and 
stripped him, set the body up with the knees, 
elbows and head resting on the ground, and then 
shot seventeen arrows into it, and left it in that 
position. 

"In 1867 two well known citizens, Le Roy Jay 
and William Trehan, while escorting a wagon- 
load of provisions from Prescott to the Bully 
Bueno mining camp, fell into an ambush and 
were killed between Big Bug and Turkey Creek. 
The driver escaped, the Indians getting away 
with the provisions and animals. The B. B. 



INDIAN TEOUBLES. 281 

Mining Company, from 1866 to 1869, lost by In- 
dians 240 mules and horses, five of their em- 
ployees were killed and four badly wounded 
and their ten stamp quartz mill burned. 

"In 1867, two Frenchmen mining in Hassa- 
yampa Creek owned two burros and lived in a 
stone cabin with a log roof covered with earth. 
One afternoon they observed three Indians on a 
hill near the creek. Immediately they got the 
donkeys, took them into the cabin, and shut the 
heavy plank door. In five minutes there were 
twenty Indians around the house. At first they 
tried to break in the door by throwing heavy 
rocks against it, but as one of the attacking 
party advanced with a heavy boulder in his 
hands he was shot through the heart from a 
crack in the door and fell dead in front of it. 
That was the only shot the Frenchmen fired. 
The reds then went behind the house, which was 
built against a high rocky bank, and tried to 
break it down by throwing great rocks upon it 
from the bluff above and kept that game up well 
into the night, but the roof withstood all assaults. 
The inmates remained in the house until the 
middle of the next forenoon, when a mining 
neighbor named Wallace came along and found 
the dead Indian at the door. Seeing smoke ris- 
ing from the chimney, he hailed the inmates and 
the badly scared Frenchmen opened the door. 
They stated that they had plenty of provisions 
and'thought they would wait and let the Indians 
go away. 

"Wickenburg was a to^vn on the Hassayampa, 
built by those who worked quartz from the Vul- 
ture mine in ISM to 1865. 



282 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

''Many men were killed in those years in that 
neighborhood, and hundreds of animals stolen. 
In 1865 there were thirty-three arrastras in the 
town running on Vulture ore. In the summer, 
on moonlight nights, many of them were run all 
night. Bigelow & Smith were running three 
arrastras day and night, having six animals. 
One night in June, as Smith (known as 'Ore- 
gon Smith') was on duty, he saw a suspicious 
object moving in the tall grass near the arrastra. 
He aroused his partner, saying: 'The Indians 
are here.' Both went out. Smith with a rifle, 
Bigelow with a shotgun. Smith said : ' Lay low. 
Big, and you'll see the cuss raise up his head 
above the grass out there,' pointing where he 
had seen him. In less than two minutes a head 
raised, and Smith fired. A groan followed, 
and all was still. Smith reloaded and both cau- 
tiously approached the supposed dead Indian, 
and found a young donkey lying dead in the 
brush; it w^as shot in the throat and its neck 
broken. The slayer, after that, was known as 
'Jackass Smith.' 

"In 1867 or 1868, Lieut. Cradlebaugh was sent 
out from Camp Verde with a detachment of men 
to the Black Hills, for the purpose of having a 
talk with a band of Indians who signified a will- 
ingness to make peace and come into the post. 
He camped the first night in a small flat below 
a high ledge of rocks, the horses being fas- 
tened to a picket rope in front of the camp. 
Towards morning the slumbering troopers were 
awakened by the most unearthly yells and 
showers of arrows and bullets. Every horse at 
the picket line was soon shot down. The troops 



INDIAN TROUBLES. 283 

huddled closelj^ under the rocky cliff. One man 
was killed, and several wounded, including a 
doctor, who had his arm broken and afterwards 
amputated at the post. Jackson McCracken, 
afterwards the discoverer of the famous mine 
which bears his name, was with the party. 
When the attack began, he was sound asleep 
with his head against a small pine tree about 
eight inches in diameter. He was in full range 
of the fire, and when the leaden hail became fast 
and furious he hugged the protection of that 
small tree with praiseworthy pertinacity. Be- 
ing a large, fat man, the little sapling was in- 
sufficient to cover his whole body, and years 
afterwards, in telling the story, he used to say 
that as he heard the arrows whiz by and the 
bullets strike the tree near his head he thought 
he would give all of Arizona to have that tree 
six inches larger. 

^'In 1868 George Bowers, one of the brightest 
young men of Prescott, was killed on the road 
coming from Camp Verde to Prescott. In 1869, 
a party of thirteen prospectors outfitted in Santa 
Fe, New Mexico, and came into the eastern por- 
tion of Arizona looking for placer diggings. 
They were successful in finding gold, but the 
Indians attacked them while at work, killed four 
or five of the party and got possession of their 
camp, provisions and animals. The remainder 
made their way across the mountains to the 
Verde settlements, and coming down Clear 
Creek approached the camp of a detachment of 
soldiers who took them for Indians, and fired 
more than fifty shots at them before the ragged, 



284 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

half-starved wretches could convince them of 
their mistake. 

"C. Davis, better known as 'Jeff' Davis, of 
Yavapai County, had a lively experience in those 
days. He lived on a lonely ranch near the head 
of the Hassayampa, and was engaged in farm- 
ing and stock raising. The latter pursuit, how- 
ever, was not a success, for whenever he had 
accumulated a few head of stock the Indians 
were sure to steal them. 'Jeff' was a great 
himter, and on one of his expeditions he came 
upon a band of Indians in the heavy pine timber. 
Stepping behind a tree he waited until the fore- 
most savage got within range when his trusty 
rifle rang out and the Indian fell to rise no 
more. The astonished redskins looked around 
to see from whence the attack came, and ere the}^ 
could recover themselves two more bit the dust. 
The remainder fled panic stricken, while 'Jeff' 
pumped the lead after them while one remaine,d 
in sight." 

Orick Jackson in his "White Conquest," 
says: 

"During the carnival of blood that extended 
from 1863 to 1873, over 600' white men were 
killed by the Indians in that zone lying north of 
the Gila and Salt Elvers. These fatalities were 
confined principally to 'picking off' travelers in 
parties of from two to five. Organized bodies 
were very seldom molested, excepting of course 
the military operations in a general fight. 
Many ranchers fell in the field while at work or 
in going from home to a neighbor. Invariably 
the white victim was scalped and horribly muti- 
lated otherwise." 



INDIAN TROUBLES. 285 

The following from the pen of Thomas 
Thompson Hunter, an old timer, shows the atti- 
tude of the Indians at this time : 

''In the fall of 1867 I entered the Territory 
of Arizona with a herd of cattle gathered in 
Central Texas and driven across the plains, 
seeking a market at the Government Posts, the 
only beef supply available at the time for the 
different army posts. The trip was a dreary 
one from the start, accompanied with dangers 
and hardships innumerable. Every inch of 
the distance across was menaced with hostile 
Indians, who never lost an opportunity to attack 
our outfit. For weeks at a time we subsisted 
solely upon our herd, for beef straight w^as our 
only ration. Apache Pass was the first place 
reached in Arizona of any note. A small com- 
pany of U. S. Infantry occupied the military 
post there, known as Fort Bowie. On the day 
of our arrival at Bowie, it looked pretty gloomy 
and lonesome for the few soldiers stationed 
there. The Indians were hooting and guying 
the soldiers from the cliffs and boulders on the 
mountain sides. They spoke mostly in Spanish, 
but several of their number could make them- 
selves understood in our native tongue (Eng- 
lish). 

"A few days before our arrival at Fort Bowie 
happened a sad incident that impressed me 
very much. The Commander, a captain of the 
Post, could not believe that there existed such 
a thing as a hostile Indian. He had never been 
close to one. An alarm was given by some of 
the herders that they had been attacked by In- 
dians. The captain indiscreetly mounted his 



286 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

horse, with only one assistant, and galloped off 
to where the Indians were last seen. The wily 
Apaches concealed themselves, and when the 
captain approached near enough, instead of 
shooting him as they generally did, they roped 
him, jerked him off his horse, and dragged him 
to death. On the day of our arrival, one of the 
Indians rode up on the captain's horse, and 
charged around, yelling and hooting and defy- 
ing the soldiers. I could relate other just such 
performances by the reds. 

''It was near Bowie a few years later that 
Col. Stone and his escort were murdered by 
Apaches. Old Fort Bowie, now abandoned, is a 
dreary, lonesome place, yet the Indian war is 
over, but it gives one the shivers to go through 
that pass and recall the horrible deeds that have 
been committed thereabouts. While there in 
1867 I looked at the little old stone cabin built 
by Butterfield's men, and while I am relating 
dark tales of old Apache Pass, I'll just relate 
an incident that I never heard of in print. A 
friend of mine was stationed there about the 
time that Butterfield 's lines were drawn off. A 
fine looking young man, known to the em- 
ployees as ' Joim, ' I think an Ohio boy, was the 
keeper of the station. The stages brought in 
what little grain was used by the stage com- 
pany's horses from the Pima villages. At this 
time old Cochise's band was friendly with the 
whites, and at the time would camp in and 
around the station. On one occasion, John, the 
keeper, discovered one of the Cochise men steal- 
ing corn out of a little hole in one of the sacks. 
John, acting upon the impulse of the moment, 



INDIAN TROUBLES. 287 

kicked the Indian out of the cabin. In a little 
while afterward, the old chief Cochise came 
and made a bitter complaint to John about his 
abusing one of his best warriors — that it was the 
act of a coward, and he demanded that John 
fight his warrior like a brave man, that he could 
not tolerate such an insult to one of his best 
men, whereupon Cochise staked off the distance. 
His man toed the mark, with an old Colt cap and 
ball six-shooter. John, the boy keeper of the 
station, accepted the challenge readily, and took 
his station in the door of the cabin facing his 
antagonist, with a duplicate of the same arm 
that the warrior had. He looked the true speci- 
men of frontier manhood that he was, with two 
white men his only backers, while the Indian 
had his able chief with his tribe to back him. 
The critical moment had arrived. John, the 
Ohio boy, represented the white race of America, 
while the Indian represented the Indian world. 
Would John weaken ? Could John face such an 
ordeal? The great chief stood for fair play, 
and he gave the signal by dropping something 
from his own hand. The two fired nearly to- 
gether. John's dark, curly locks touched the 
wooden lintel over his head. The Indian's ball 
was a line shot, but too high by about half an 
inch. John's ball centered the Indian's heart, 
and he fell dead in his tracks. The old chief 
stepped forward and grasped John's hand, and 
told him that he was a brave man. This closed 
that particular incident, and the white boys and 
the Chiricahua Indians remained good friends 
until the stage line was taken off — an act of the 
Civil War. About this time there were many 



288 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

terrible crimes coroinitted. Arizona was cer- 
tainly a bloody battle field. 

"As we entered the Territory north of Stein's 
Pass, we crossed through Doubtful Canyon in 
the night time. At the divide where we turn 
down on the slope of the San Simon, we ran 
upon a gruesome scene. A number of dead men 
were scattered around. We passed along as 
rapidly as we could in order to reach the plains 
before daylight. At the very time that we were 
passing through Doubtful Canyon, the signal 
fires were burning on the mountain side 
(Apaches), telling each other of our movements. 
We passed on to Fort Bowie as fast as we could. 
In going up the momitain side entering Apache 
Pass, we saw where a battle royal had been 
fought. Just before we got there, the party 
who had contracted to deliver the U. S. mails 
was at the time very hard pressed. It was so 
discouraging, so many riders had been killed 
and stock lost, that the contractor would hire 
men for the trip to carry the mails from Bowie 
to Las Cruces and return. One himdred and 
fifty dollars would be paid for the trip. The 
boy who made this fight, whose name was Fisher, 
had agreed to make the trip to Las Cruces. He 
left Bowie one afternoon mounted upon an old 
condemned government mule, armed with two 
45 six shooters. When about half way down the 
slope toward San Simon flats^ the enemy at- 
tacked him, and if he had had a decent mount, 
I believe to this day that he would have won out. 
They forced him to zigzag along the side of 
the mountain, their numbers driving him to the 
hills, and preventing him from getting them in 



INDIAN TROUBLES. 289 

the open. All along his trail were dead ponies 
that Fisher had shot. We never knew how 
many Indians he got, as they removed their 
dead. Not a thing did I know about this boy 
except that his name was Fisher. After ex- 
hausting his ammunition, they finished him up, 
after a fight against fearful odds, the equal of 
which never came off in any other fight by a 
single lone boy in all of Arizona's Indian wars. 
Fisher was one of God's own boys, and the splen- 
did leather in his makeup was duly respected 
by the Apache nation. The record left on his 
mutilated body was evidence sufficient that he 
died game, — his heart was taken out and prob- 
ably eaten, — a custom of the Indians practiced 
in those days by them, a belief that it would 
make them brave like their victims. His stir- 
rup foot (the left) was skiimed, — a mark of 
honor and respect to a fallen brave enemy, as 
also his right hand, the bridle hand. The In- 
dians honored the brave boy in his death, and 
nature did the rest by erecting the grand old 
brown mountains for his monument, which will 
last through Eternity. 

"We leave Apache Pass now and travel on 
toward Tucson, the next place of any note, ex- 
cept that I might mention Pantano, the historic 
place where W. A. Smith made one of the best 
fights on record. He and three companions 
were attacked early one morning by the Indians. 
He was the only one of the four men left to tell 
the tale. Is there any one person to-day in all 
of Arizona who can possibly realize or appre- 
ciate the position of this man, fighting for his 

V— 19 



290 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

life with his three dead comrades piled around 
him, he with his big old shotgun carrying death 
and destruction at ever}^ discharge of the ter- 
rible old weapon — justly earning for himself the 
name of 'Shotgun Smith.' Afterwards, the 
Indians in relating the battle, said that the man 
who handled the shotgun killed or wounded 
seven or eight of their number. Old 'Shotgun 
Smith' is an old man now, and lives at the Sol- 
diers' Home at Santa Monica, California, a 
personal friend of thirty years' standing — a 
friendship that has grown with the years. 
Man}^ other horrible deeds were committed in 
and around Pantano, but I got through O. K., 
and arrived in Tucson in time to take my Christ- 
mas dinner in 1867, which I might state con- 
sisted of a can of jelly and a piece or two of 
Mexican sugar panoche. This was a luxury for 
cow boys after our drive, and a fare of prin- 
cipally beef broiled upon a stick, and oftentimes 
not even that much. Oh, how I did love the old 
city then, a place of rest, a place of refuge. I 
could spread my blankets on the ground and 
sleep so good, with my system relaxed — no hor- 
rible dreams, no nightmare. For once I was 
happy and contented, and had not a single desire 
to move on and hunt something better. At that 
early date I felt that Arizona was good enough 
for me. Already I loved her grand old brown 
mountains. I felt at home in the strange un- 
known land of my adoption. Tucson was pe- 
culiarly afflicted with Apache depredations at 
this time. The government at Washington 
could never hear the cries of distress from the 
pioneers — people who were struggling against 



INDIAN TROUBLES. 291 

such fearful odds to maintain themselves. Our 
petitions and prayers were ignored, and at times 
of unusual activity on the part of the enemy, 
we felt like giving up the unequal contest. The 
policy of the Government at this time was cer- 
tainly contemptible. Under the guns at Fort 
Grant, with the strong arm of the Government 
protecting a gang of Apache cutthroats, and 
issuing rations to them, mamtaining their 
families, in order that the bucks could more 
easily raid Tucson, murder her citizens and 
steal the stock, and maintain a reign of terror 
for unfortunate old Tucson. There must be a 
beginning and an ending of all things, and, 
like the old Kentuckian who, summing up the 
political situation, said, 'when politics got bad 
it's mighty hard to mend them, but when they 

got d d bad, they just tear loose and mend 

themselves,' the Apache situation had reached 
this point, and something was going to happen. 
Only one of those old pioneers of Tucson who 
faced that crisis and made himself an outlaw 
in order to save his country, is alive, old and 
feeble Sidney E. DeLong. (Since deceased.) 
W. S. Oury and his friends were the leaders in 
leading a band of Papago Indians to old Fort 
Grant, surprising the Government renegades, 
and exterminating the whole outfit. Tucson 
enjoyed a rest after this, but the Federal 
Grand Jury afterwards arrai.gned Sidney R. 
DeLong and one hundred others, but the only 
thing that did happen was that the Govern- 
ment ordered General Grook to Arizona, and 
my old friend DeLong 's action was the begin- 
ning of the end of the terrible Apache war. 



292 HISTOEY OF ARIZONA. 

The war continued for years, many crimes were 
committed, many pioneers were murdered after 
this, but DeLong's action forced the Washing- 
ton authorities to listen to our prayer and peti- 
tions for the first time. The war is now over, 
peace reigns supreme. Let us cover the past 
with the mantle of charity, forget the past in so 
far as we can, and when the true history of Ari- 
zona is written, may it remind the future genera- 
tion of its obligation to the old pioneer Sidney 
R. DeLong, who is spending the evening of his 
useful life in the old historic town of Tucson 
that he loved so well. 

''As we take the western trail from Tucson, 
we pass on to the Gila Elver, and enter the Pima 
and Maricopa Indian country. These Indians 
were fomid in a pitiful condition, poverty 
stricken in the extreme. They made their boast 
to us that they had never taken white blood. 
It was very easy to see why this was the case. 
They were being hard pressed by the Yumas, 
Apaches and other Indians. They were com- 
pelled to accept the whites as allies, otherwise 
they would have been exterminated root and 
branch in a few years more. We felt safe 
among them from the hostiles. The greatest 
trouble was their stealing propensities, which 
were thoroughly developed. Our stock was get- 
ting so poor and w^orried with travel that we 
camped isome days in this section. Quite a num- 
ber of immigrants fell in with us for protection 
from the Apaches, and while here at Maricopa 
a few pioneers came over from Salt River to 
tell us about the wonderful coimtry over there, 
and induce the immigrants to settle with them. 



INDIAN TROUBLES. 293 

They also held out the inducement to us that 
there was plenty of grass there also, and that 
it would be a fine place for our cattle." 

The "Miner" of September 21st, 1867, says: 
"News w^as brought to town last evening from 
the Point of Rocks, about four miles from Pres- 
cott and three miles from Fort Whipple, that 
about 20 Indians had made an attack upon Hon- 
orable Lewis A. Stephens' home with the evident 
intention of murdering the inmates and stealing 
the stock. At the time of the attack there were 
on the place but two persons, Mrs. Stephens and a 
hired man. The house is situated about a hun- 
dred yards from an immense pile of rocks, 
which contains numerous caves and little valleys. 
As luck would have it, Mrs. Stephens and the 
man saw the murderous villains as they emerged 
from the rocks, and ran for their gmis, opening 
fire upon the thieves, who returned the fire for 
some 'time, trying at every turn to get posses- 
sion of the horses, but the quick eyes and steady 
fire of Mrs. Stephens and the hired man, cowed 
the savages and they were forced to skulk back 
to their hiding places without accomplishing 
the object of their raid. Many a man placed 
in the same position as Mrs. Stephens would 
have taken to his heels and ran for dear life, 
but she stood her ground and fought them like 
the heroine that she is. Shortly after the In- 
dians left, Mr. Johns, who lives on a neighbor- 
ing ranch and heard the firing, started with some 
men for Stephens' and followed the Indians 
into the rocks, but failed to find them. He then 
started to town bringing the news, and a request 
from Mrs. Stephens to her husband, who is a 



294 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

member of the legislature, to send her some 
buck shot, 'A little more shot, Mr. Stephens.' 
Bully for Mrs. Stephens; she is our favorite 
candidate for the ^Commander of the District of 
Arizona." 

In the Fish manuscript another version of 
this story is given. In this version it is stated 
that Mrs. Stephens' message to her husband was 
as follows: 

"Lewis, the Indians are here; send me plenty 
of powder and lead. Don't neglect your duties 
by coming home, for I am master of the situa- 
tion and can hold the house." 

The following is from the "Miner" of Oct. 3, 
1867: 

"Troops on the Colorado, with Col. Price, 
take warpath against Wallapais. ' ' Also, 

"The Legislature petitions Maj. W. R. Pnce to 
sustain a company of cavalry at the Vegas 
Ranch for the protection of the road and the 
settlements in Pah-Ute County." 

The "Miner" of Sept. 30, 1857, copies from 
the "San Francisco Call" the following editorial, 
wliich shows the feeling in the West against the 
hostile Indians: 

' ' Indian raids still continue. ' ' 

"Everything connected with the Indian busi- 
ness of the country seems to be a failure, except 
massacres by Indians. They flourish ' like a green 
bay tree ' and fill the land with their butcheries. 
The shrieks of unfortunate women and children 
while being tomahawked, scalped or disem- 
boweled on the plains, nightly rend the air; 
yet nothing is done to put an end to the out- 



INDIAN TROUBLES. 295 

rages. Sherman, who ' rode from Atlanta to the 
sea,' has proved a big failure as an Indian 
fighter. Several months ago he made a trip 
through the borders of the Indian country, and 
positively announced that there was no danger 
to be apprehended from the Indians; that all 
the stories of Indian outrages are false; that 
there was no cause to fear anything from the 
Indians ; and that, in effect, but few troops were 
needed to protect the routes of travel, etc. Gov- 
ernment, and the people not threatened by In- 
dians, listened to Sherman's oracular sayings, 
and acted accordingly. The result is before us. 
Not only are white travelers and settlers being 
mercilessly slaughtered and their dead bodies 
shockingly outraged every day, but the Indians 
have stopped telegraphic communications al- 
most entirely, intercepted the mails and cap- 
tured railroad trains ; they have also endangered 
the very existence of General Sherman's troops. 
It cannot be denied that Sherman's manage- 
ment of Indian affairs has resulted in the great- 
est failure of the day. His pompous assertions 
at the outset have been falsified by events, and 
the Indians have constantly grown in strength 
in spite of him. These things happened partly 
because he was too wise in his own conceit, and, 
therefore, above listening to those who knew 
more of Indian fighting than he did, and partly 
because he has persisted in fighting the Indians 
on moral suasion principles, rather than ac- 
cording to the only system they can compre- 
hend, that of destructive force. He has shown 
himself to be more of a missionary than a sol- 
dier in the last Indian campaign, and has con- 



296 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

sequently, relied for success more upon talking 
than fighting. The amount of it is Government 
made a mistake in allotting Sherman to the 
Western District. Sheridan should have been 
there and Sherman in Louisiana. The former 
knows how to fight Indians, while Sherman does 
not. But even Sherman's failures in Indian 
fighting do not do away with the fact that our 
whole Indian policy is wrong. We could cease 
to bestow Indian annuities, to make presents; 
to recognize Indian nations and tribes. We 
should give the Indians to understand that they 
should respect life and property everywhere, or 
else suffer the most serious consequences. A 
war of extermination against the Indians would 
be better for all, than the merciless and con- 
tinuous butcheries that have been going on." 
The "Miner" of Sept. 11, 1867, says: 
"W. M. Saxton, Cummings and Manning, 
were attacked by Indians at Round Valley. Sax- 
ton killed, Cummings and Manning wounded. 
Indians defeated." 



INDIAN TROUBLES. 297 

CHAPTEiR XIV. 

INDIAN TROUBLES (Continued). 

Indian Question not Solved — General Mason 
Succeeded by Colonel Wallen and Col- 
onel LovELL — General Gregg and Gen- 
eral Crittenden Succeed Colonels Wal- 
len AND LoVELL — ARIZONA DECLARED MILI- 
TARY District by General Halleck — Gen- 
eral McDowell Makes Visit to Arizona 
— Eaids AND Massacres Continue — Expedi- 
tion BY General Gregg — Attack on Mil- 
ler's Eanch — Bravery of Mrs. Miller — 
A. M. Erwin, Member of Legislature, 
Killed by Indians — General Ord Suc- 
ceeds General McDowell — Charles Spen- 
cer AND Party Attacked by Indians — 
Expedition by General Alexander — La 
Paz Threatened by Indians — Attack 
Upon Joseph Melvin and J. P. Gibson — 
JosiAH Whitcomb and Party Attacked 
BY Indians — George D. Bowers and Party 
Attacked, Bowers Killed — Begole and 
Thompson Attacked, Thompson Khxed — 
Fight at Burnt Ranch — Jake Mnj:.ER 
Kills Indian Chief and Saves Ranch and 
Stock — E. A. Bentley, Editor and Pro- 
prietor OF ''Miner''' Killed by Indians — 
Murders and Raids in Southern Part of 
Arizona Detailed by Charles A. Shibell 
— Sol Barth's Experience With Cochise. 

From the Fish Manuscript: 
"The Indian question in Arizona had not heen 
solved and many plans to arrange the small 



298 HISTORY OF ARIZONA, 

military forces were proposed so that they would 
accomplish the best results. In 1866 Arizona 
was divided into what was called the north and 
south districts, and Mason's successors were 
Colonel H. D. Wallen in the north, and Colonel 
Charles S. Lovell in the south. These two did 
not hold their positions very long, nor does it 
appear that they did much. They were suc- 
ceeded by General J. I. Gregg in the north and 
General T. L. Crittenden in the south, early in 
1867. General Crittenden came from Cali- 
fornia with three hundred men and arrived on 
the lower Gila early in the year. He had a diffi- 
cult time in getting through, encountering some 
very bad sand storms as well as unfavorable 
weather. 

"Regular troops had been sent in to take the 
place of the volunteers and now numbered from 
fifteen hundred to two thousand, and were soon 
increased. In October, Arizona was formally 
declared a military district by order of General 
Halleck. In December, General McDowell 
made a visit to this part of his department which 
did not result in much good. He was not Avell 
liked by the people of Arizona, and while he was 
acknowledged as a gentleman, he was wholh^ 
incapable of comprehending the nature and re- 
quirements of Indian warfare. As a cabinet 
officer he may have had few equals in the ser- 
vice ; but for Indian campaigning it would have 
been difficult to select another so poorly quali- 
fied. 

''Raids and massacres still continued, and 
there was some agitation in the south during the 
winter of 1866-67, in consequence of the Im- 



INDIAN TROUBLES. 299 

perialists leaving Mexico and going to Cali- 
fornia by way of Yiuna. When Maximilian first 
came there was an exodus of the liberals, but 
now Juarez had triumphed and the Imperialists 
emigrated in large numbers. These agitations on 
the border were continually occurring, and the 
Indians never slackened their vigilance, and 
thefts and attacks upon the emigrants were 
constant. During this winter a party came into 
southern Arizona, camping one night at a sta- 
tion on the lower Gila. They secured their ani- 
mals by putting them in an adobe corral, and 
then lay down at the entrance for the night. 
The Apaches got to the back of the corral and 
with strips of rawhide sawed out a section of the 
wall, and when the Americans arose in the morn- 
ing, they found themselves left afoot. 

"In April, 1867, the Apaches made an attack 
on a ranch three miles east of Prescott and 
drove off several head of cattle. A detachment 
of troops was at once sent out from Fort Whip- 
ple, and though they marched seventy-five miles 
in twenty-four hours, they failed to come up 
with the redskins. The officer in command re- 
ported that the hostiles were strong in numbers, 
and had fled in the direction of Hell's Canyon. 
General Gregg, then commanding the northern 
district, immediately started with two fresh 
companies of cavalry, himself at the head, and 
made a forced march by night, in order to sur- 
prise the enemy. Next morning at daybreak 
he was at Hell's Canyon, but no Apaches were 
to be found there nor any trace of them. After 
scouring the country down the Verde, he re- 
turned to Fort AVhipple. However, a day or 



300 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

two afterwards a detachment of cavalry suc- 
ceeded in finding and surprising a rancheria of 
Apaches to the southwest of the Verde, and kill- 
ing five and wounding twice as many more at 
the first fire. The rest fled but soon rallied and 
came on in such numbers that the troops were 
compelled to fall back to the main column. It 
was then thought best to retire to Fort Whipple 
as their rations were about exhausted. Subse- 
quently Gregg sent them out again, and this 
time they succeeded in damaging the Apaches 
considerably. 

"The main roads and trails from Prescott to 
Antelope, Rich Hill, Date Creek, Wickenburg, 
and Ehrenberg, on the Colorado river, went 
through Skull Valley, and at least fifty white 
men were killed on them during the war times. 
A small detachment of soldiers was stationed 
at the lower end of the Valley in 1866 to escort 
the United States mail, and to protect the set- 
tlers along the roads. Lieutenant Hutton was 
in command of this force which was made up of 
Mexican volunteers. 

"In 1867 S. C. Miller's ranch at the edge of 
Prescott was attacked by Indians, who com- 
menced to drive off the stock. Miller was not at 
home but Mrs. Miller, w^ho was alone, took her 
husband's gun and opened fire on them. Miller, 
who was on his way from town, heard the fir- 
ing, and soon came to the rescue, but it was 
through Mrs. Miller's pluck that the stock was 
saved. 

"The year 1868 does not record as many mur- 
ders as usual, but among them w^ere those of 
A. M. Erwin, a member of the Legislature, who 



INDIAN TROUBLES. 301 

was killed by Indians, and George Bowers, one 
of the brightest young men in Prescott, while 
on the road coming from Camp Verde to Pres- 
cott." 

Notwithstanding the statement made by Mr. 
Fish in the paragraph just above quoted, the 
following items taken from the files of the Ari- 
zona "Miner" for the year 1868, speak for them- 
selves * 

''February 29th, 1868. 

' ' Band of Indians stole horses and mules near 
Wickenburg. A band of twenty-four men was 
organized at Wickenburg and followed them 
into Tonto Basin. It was charged that the In- 
dians were some of those who have been fed all 
winter at Camp Reno by the Government, who 
stole the animals. It goes on to say that the 
tracks of all animals stolen from this section of 
the country have been seen going in that direc- 
tion. If this be the case, and from our knowl- 
edge of the Indians and their country, we be- 
lieve it is so, we are sorry that the officers in 
command of the troops en route to Reno do not 
keep their friendlies at home. The Mexicans, 
Pimas and Maricopas say that the Apache cares 
nothing for treaties, and they look upon a treaty 
with an Apache as a farce, and claim they are 
friendly with the military at some government 
post in their country, where they can draw ra- 
tions from the commissary, and upon them 
travel to settlements, steal and kill, and hurry 
back with their booty. We do not blame the 
officers at McDowell and Reno for trading with 



302 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

the Indians, as we suppose they are carrying 
out instructions from their superiors. ' ' 
In the same paper appears the following : 
"General Ord, who succeeds General Mc- 
Dowell, declares that they may talk of Peace 
Commissioners, but the only way to make peace 
with the Apaches is to kill them off, the sooner 
the better." 

Under date of April 4, 1868, the "Miner" 
says: 

"Hualapais attack a mail party, kill the es- 
cort, wound one rider and capture the mail, 
within three miles of a camp of U. S. Volunteers. 
They brutally mutilated the lifeless bodies of 
their victims, cut off their limbs, etc. Under 
this heading is given this description of the 
fight: 

"Camp Willow Grove, Arizona, 

"March 23, 1868. 

"I am extremely sorry to have to inform you 
that Mr. Charles Spencer has been severely 
wounded by Indians, but I am happy to state, 
not mortally. He is now in the hospital at this 
post and is doing as well as could be expected. 

"He and the escorts started from this post 
with the mail for Hardyville and Grant, on the 
morning of the 21st inst., at the usual time, nine 
o'clock. Before they got into the cotton-woods 
four miles from here, they were fired upon by a 
party of Hualapai Indians, and the escorts, con- 
sisting of Corporal Troy and Private Flood, 
were killed at the first fire, as was also the mule 
which the mail carrier was riding. Spencer, as 



INDIAN TROUBLES. 303 

quickly as possible, disengaged himself from the 
saddle, grabbed his seven shooting rifle, and ran 
behind a green wood birch, which was the only 
shelter close at hand. Soon after getting be- 
hind this cover he saw a party of savages go 
up to the dead body of the corporal, strip and 
mutilate it. While they were engaged in this 
bloody work Spencer kept up a steady fire upon 
them, and had the satisfaction of killing two 
of the red devils. The others then ran for shel- 
ter. Spencer did the same, and, on reaching 
a safe retreat, and just as he was about to get 
securely covered, he was fired upon by about a 
dozen Indians who were hidden behind some 
rocks. One of the shots hit him in the thigh, 
passing through the fleshy part, causing him to 
fall. They then rushed towards him, thinking 
they had him sure. In this they were mistaken, 
for Charley had not yet commenced to fight. 
He soon gathered himself up and made the sav- 
ages hunt their holes. He then crawled into a 
cave between some rocks, and took a rest, which 
he needed. During all this time a party of the 
Indians were stripping the bodies of the mur- 
dered soldiers and cutting up the carcasses of 
the horses and mules, which occupied them for 
about twenty minutes. They then surrounded 
Spencer and tried to shoot him out, but he could 
shoot and they found that that was no good. 
Then they tried to scare him out with yells, but 
he yelled back defiance at them and, whenever 
an opportunity offered, sent a bullet after them. 
Changing their tactics, they tried to flatter him 
by telling him to go home; that they did not 
want to kill him. About 4 P. M. they got up 



304 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

and left the place. The cause of their leaving 
was the appearance of a squad of soldiers sent 
out to learn the cause of the firing which had 
been heard at camp. The men came upon the 
dead bodies of the corporal and the escorts. 
Hastening to camp they reported, and a wagon 
and twenty men were sent out under Lieu- 
tenant Robinson to bring in the bodies. Spencer 
heard the rumble of the wagon, but being unable 
to go to it on account of his wounds, he yelled 
and discharged his pistol, by which means he 
attracted the attention of the lieutenant to his 
situation. He was immediately placed in the 
wagon and brought to camp here. All the care 
and attention necessary was and will be ren- 
dered him by the officers and men. He says 
there were all of seventy-five Indians, one-half 
of whom were armed with guns. The officers 
were censured for not sending troops to the 
scene of action sooner as the reports of the fir- 
ing were heard at the military camp several 
hours before they moved." 

Under date of June 6th, 1868, the "Miner" 
had the following: 

"Camp O'Connell. 
"On the 3d of March General Alexander and 
Major Clendenin arrived at Camp O'Connell 
with their force which numbered about 170 men, 
and had a talk with the Indians, some two hun- 
dred in number, under two chiefs, Delchayha 
and Skivitkill. The former is the miraculous 
gentleman I have spoken of before. The lat- 
ter the War Raven Chief, and a Pinal. The 
general wished them to remain in camp until 



INDIAN TROUBLES. 305 

he returned, and if they wished to give him 
a dozen men as scouts or guides, all well; if 
not, to remain in camp and they would be safe ; 
but any caught outside would be shot. To this 
they agreed and sung all night. Next morning 
they received a beef, and as soon as the cavalry 
made its appearance over the hill coming into 
camp, Skivitkill and his tribe took to their heels 
and made for the mountains. The other chief 
took it coolly and remained, but during the 
forenoon most of his men left, and about noon 
he departed in peace. At two o'clock the com- 
mand was under way, and camped in Tonto 
Creek the night of the 3rd. The next morning 
they proceeded direct for the mountains of the 
east. As we reached the canyon, on the left was 
a small hill on w^hich the Indians were standing, 
almost over the trail. The guide being ahead, 
the Indians motioned him to come up, which 
he did, and found Delchayha was there. They 
immediately lit cigars, and were joined by the 
Apache interpreter, the Spanish interpreter be- 
ing about half way up the hill. When the gen- 
eral at the head of the command arrived, he 
wished to know of the chief what he wanted. 
The chief was not alone, an Indian orderly 
standing about twenty paces in the rear, the re- 
mainder being behind rocks. The chief stood 
upon a rock that projected over a hill, with his 
gun in his hand and having on a blouse, shoulder 
straps and a black hat. He said he had come 
there to meet the Capitania to declare war 
against the Americans as he had made up his 
mind to that since the night before. He re- 

V— 20 



306 HISTORY OF ARIZONx\. 

quired blood and wanted the general to leave 
his country. He said that the Capitan Little, 
meaning Lieutenant Dubois, was a good man, 
but the Capitanias Grandes were bad, and he 
would not hear of peace with them. Skivitkill, 
with a thousand of his warriors was coming to 
attack our camp, and we would be wiped out of 
the country in no time. All this was accom- 
panied by formidable gestures, and at last the 
'Gentleman' broke into the most abusive lan- 
guage. The general called to the guide and 
the interpreter to come down, and told some of 
the men to shoot the chief up. The words 
were not finished when about half a dozen 
bullets greeted the chief, leaving nothing to be 
seen of him but his breechclout, the Apache 
national flag, floating for an instant, and then 
disappearing. The infantry and cavalry as- 
cended the hill immediately, but the Indians 
were nowhere to be found ; nothing but a tin pail 
remained. The general, not wishing to lose 
time, moved on, and when the rear guard was 
passing, the Indians came to the front but with- 
out injury to either party. The march was con- 
tinued to Red Rock Canyon, where we camped 
for the night, and started the next morning for 
Meadow Valley, and arrived there about three 
o'clock Sunday, the 5th, and saw no Indians. 

"Monday evening we started back again, but 
the general, Major Clendenin, and the cavalry, 
started southeast in the direction of Fort Grant. 
As the infantry climbed the hill, a sergeant of 
Company L, 8th Cavalry, who was some distance 
in the rear, leading his horse which had given 
out, a shot was fired from the woods, hitting 



INDIAN TROUBLES. 307 

the horse in the flank with a charge of buck shot. 
The sergeant and the Indians had it pretty 
warm for about fifteen minutes, when a squad 
of the rear guard went back, dislodged the 
Apaches, and brought off the horse, which was 
shot soon after. On arriving at the top of the 
hill and looking in the direction that the cavalry 
was taking, the country was covered with slopes 
as far as the eye could reach. From Meadow 
Valley the infantry marched in two days to this 
camp, losing a number on the road. I forgot 
to say that after firing on the chief, the general 
immediately dispatched a corporal and six men 
into camp, with orders to capture all the Indians 
in and around there. Some half dozen were 
still around, but were soon put in confinement. 
The next night one buck bolted, was fired on 
and missed, and on reaching the hill over the 
camp, made quite a speech, cursing all Ameri- 
cans. The day after, four Indians came in 
mider a flag of truce from Skivitkill, saying as 
well as could be understood, that the chief was 
scared on seeing so many Americans and ran 
away, but did not intend to be hostile, and, see- 
ing that the general meant him no harm, he 
wished to come in right away. These four were 
confined also. Two Apache-Mohaves came in a 
day after the scout left, but were hunted out. 
The most of the Apache-Mohaves have soldiers' 
clothes on, and may be from the reservation. 
The other Indians say they are great thieves. 
In a few days a scout will leave for Green 
Valley, which is to be Camp Reno instead of the 
first place located. This valley is ten miles from 
Meadow Valley west, and a little north of it. 



308 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

A splendid place for a post and to hunt Indians. 
With another post between this and Grant, with 
plenty of cavalry, the Apache w411 be kept hop- 
ping. Let the posts be planted in the homes of 
the reptiles at any expense, roads made there, 
and it is the end of the hostile Apache in Ari- 
zona. Hunting them, we can follow them and 
accomplish nothing. Infantry they laugh at, but 
cavalry and Pimas they dread, the latter the 
most. For anything but garrison duties and 
road making, the infantry is useless." 

Also, under date of October 10th, 1868, the 
*' Miner" says: 

' ' La Paz threatened by Indians. The citizens 
and seventy or eighty Chimehuevi Indians pre- 
pared to defend the place against the combined 
hostile force of Apache-Yumas, Apache-Mo- 
haves and Yavapais. Forty families are re- 
moved to Kavena's large store. Pickets w^ere 
placed outside the town, and the Chimehuevis 
were actively scouting the country and advising 
their white friends of the movements of the 
hostile savages." 

Note: These Indians were supposed to have 
been on the Colorado Eeservation in charge of 
Mr. George W. Dent, Indian Agent. 

On October 31st, 1868, in an editorial, the 
"Miner" gives the following in reference to hos- 
tile Indians and attacks upon settlements : 

''The first attack was made upon Mr. Joseph 
Melvin and Mr. J. P. Gibson while they were 
going from the Agua Fria to the Verde, the 
particulars of which are as follows : 

"While riding along the road near Ash Creek 
they were waylaid and fired upon by a large 



INDIAN TROUBLES. 309 

band of Indians, when Mr. Gibson received four 
bullets in his arm, and two in his right breast. 
The bullet passed through Mr. Melvin's boot 
leg, and he having so miraculously escaped un- 
hurt, held his friend Gibson on the saddle while 
they retreated toward the Agua Fria, pursued 
by the murderers. When shot at, Gibson tried 
to take his shot gun out of the gun leather on 
the pommel of his saddle, but a rope by which 
he was leading a pack mule was fastened to the 
pommel, and in order to facilitate matters he 
pulled his knife and cut the rope, when, un- 
fortunately, the gun dropped to the ground, and 
both it and the mule fell into the hands of the 
Indians. 

"Upon reaching Willow Springs, Gibson, 
from loss of blood became too faint to ride 
further, and Melvin w^as forced to leave him and 
ride to the ranches for assistance. He procured 
a wagon and hauled the wounded man to his 
home. 

*' Sunday night Messrs. Brainard, Lount and 
others started from town for Gibson's ranch, 
and brought him to Fort Whipple hospital 
where he now lies. This is the second time 
within the past two years that Gibson has been 
attacked by Indians. 

"Sunday last, about four o'clock in the after- 
noon, Josiah Whitcomb, William King, and 
Boblett were coming to Prescott from their 
ranches at the Toll Gate, and when near the 
Burnt Kanch about four miles from Prescott, 
fire was opened upon them from both sides of 
the road. Whitcomb was shot dead and King, 
while in the act of firing at the savages received 



310 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

a severe bullet wound in the left leg. Boblett, 
who rode on the seat alongside of Whitcomb, 
escaped without a scratch. A discharged sol- 
dier who rode behind the wagon also escaxjed. 
Upon being shot, Whitcomb, who was driving, 
dropped the reins, and would have fallen out 
of the wagon had not Boblett taken hold of him. 
Boblett then got hold of the reins and drove 
out of the trap as fast as possible. When the 
attack was made upon the party, a large body 
of recruits were coming on behind them close 
enough to hear the firing, but not near enough to 
render assistance. Mr. Lee, of the American 
ranch, informed us that the ground in the vicinity 
of the place where the attack w^as made was liter- 
ally covered with arrows. Mr. Lee was with the 
volunteers coming into Prescott. 

''Mr. Whitcomb was buried in this place on 
Monday, resting in the Masonic burial ground. 
He leaves a wife and three small children, and 
an aged father and mother, all of whom reside 
in this vicinity. 

"The next day, Monday, about ten o'clock, 
another party of Indians attacked a party of 
five men, composed of Mr. George D. Bowers, 
Joseph C. Lennon, and three soldiers, as they 
were coming from Camp Lincoln to Prescott. 
The attack was made upon this party at a point 
about one mile east of the Cienega. At the 
time of the attack Bowers was in the lead, fol- 
lowed by a soldier ; next came Lennon, who was 
followed by two soldiers. The first intimation 
the party had of danger was the seeing of a 
blazing fire issuing from the mouths of about 
thirty guns which the Indians had leveled upon 



INDIAN TROUBLES. 311 

them from both sides of the road, accompanied 
by showers of arrows and deafening savage 
yells. Poor brave George Bowers was shot in 
the abdomen and the soldier who rode behind 
him was shot from his mule and wounded in six 
places. Lennon and the two soldiers who rode 
behind him escaped. After managing to get the 
womided soldier upon an animal, the party re- 
treated, Lennon holding Bowers in the saddle, 
and the two soldiers doing the same with their 
wounded comrade. They were followed for 
about a mile and a half by about sixty yelling, 
fiendish red skins. They were met by Lieu- 
tenant Derby and about twenty men, who were 
coming to Fort Whipple with some wagons. 
They put the wounded man in a wagon, and 
returned to Camp Lincoln. 

"Wednesday night Augustus Begole and 
B. F. Thompson were attacked three-quarters 
of a mile from Prescott by a large band of In- 
dians who were hidden in the rocks. Thomp- 
son was killed by the savages, and Begole was 
wounded severely in the shoulder. After firing 
all the shots out of his revolver, Begole ran to 
the house, got his rifle, and prevented the sav- 
ages from taking the team." 

Probably the most desjDerate attack which 
was made by the Indians during this period was 
that which is now^ known as the fight at the 
Burnt Ranch. Judge E. W. Wells, of Prescott, 
gives the following account of this fight : 

"This occurred in 1865 at a small camp north- 
east of Prescott, established by Jake Miller, 
father of Sam Miller, now residing near Pres- 
cott, and the last surviving member of the 



312 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

famous Walker Party. Miller was an old man 
who had pioneered and fought Indians from the 
Ohio river westward. With one companion he 
had built a small log cabin northeast of Pres- 
cott, and was engaged in making shakes out of 
the pine timber abundant in the section, shakes 
at that time being in great demand in Pres- 
cott. 

"The little cabin was in one of the best 
grassed sections of the country, and this fact 
led E. W. Wells, who owned a small band of 
cattle, to arrange with Mr. Miller to care for 
them, keeping more or less herd of them by day, 
and corralling them in a pen of logs at night. 
This corral was perhaps five hundred feet long, 
and the gate to it joined the cabin, so that the 
cattle could not be taken out unobserved. Mr. 
Miller and his friend were both armed with 
muzzle loading rifles, and well supplied with 
ammunition. One afternoon Mr. Miller went to 
drive up the cattle feeding in the valley just 
below him, it being his custom to bring them in 
early, thereby avoiding the danger of an even- 
ing brush with prowling Indians. At this time 
the Apache-Mohaves, or Date Creek Indians 
were very troublesome, and miners were killed 
and stock stolen almost within the limits of the 
town. As Mr. Miller neared the cattle and be- 
gan to round them up, he noticed a raven flit 
from one clump of oak brush near him to an- 
other. A second and a third raven followed — 
flitting from point to point— till an incautious 
movement revealed the head of an Indian in- 
stead of a bird. Mr. Miller had his gim, but he 
continued rounding up the cattle, and hurried 



INDIAN TROUBLES. 313 

them toward the corral. When the Indians saw 
they were discovered, they sprang out in open 
pursuit, but, being armed only with bows and 
arrows, feared to close in at once. Hurrying 
the cattle, Mr. Miller fired and brought down 
the foremost Indian. This stopped the others 
for a moment, and Mr. Miller had with him a big 
brindle bull-dog, which at once leaped on the 
dead Indian and began worrying the body. As 
the other Indians ran up the dog fought with 
them till he was killed, but he had created suffi- 
cient diversion to allow time for the cattle to be 
penned and the gate fastened securely. Inside 
the cabin the two men made ready for a siege, 
for the Indians were approaching in large num- 
bers, so sure and confident of success that they 
did not hurry. Had they rushed the attack it is 
more than likely that they would have met with 
success, for with only two muzzle loading rifles, 
the defenders would have been at serious dis- 
advantage, but with the overwhelming numbers 
the Indians had decided to capture the white 
men alive, and they made their advance in a 
leisurely manner unusual in savage warfare. 
They did not try to kill the cattle — it being 
always their preference to drive off the stock 
for use as desired. Inside the cabin the two 
men watched, with loaded rifles,— passing from 
point to point they would remove a bit of chink- 
ing from between the logs, fire, and then hastily 
replacing the block be away in another part of 
the room as soon as possible, — for whenever a 
puff of smoke came from a chink, that spot was 
immediately made a target for Indian fire. The 
white men wasted very few shots, both were 



314 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

expert with the rifle and Miller particularly so. 
He kept cool and fought calmly ; the young man 
was excited and often during the first half hour 
made some mistakes in loading, by one of which 
mistakes a bullet was caught half way down the 
barrel of his rifle. He could neither draw it out 
nor ram it home, and the rifle was rendered use- 
less. The fight now devolved upon Miller, who 
continued to pick off the Indians as they crawled 
along the log corral in their efforts to get nearer 
the cabin. The unarmed man was stationed 
with the axe to fell any savage who might succeed 
in rushing the door. Slowly the battle pro- 
gressed until Miller had just one shot left in his 
rifle. In those days no man spent his last shot ; 
it was always saved for himself, for the methods 
of torture practiced by the Indians of the plains 
were tame when compared with those of the 
Apache tribes of the southwest. All this time 
the chief of the Indians had lain close against 
the log cabin, just in the place where the corral 
joined it, directing the movements of his men 
while in safety himself. He lay close to the 
ground, hugged against the logs. . There was no 
point within the cabin from which he could be 
reached. Miller and his companion discussed 
the matter, and decided to risk their last bullet 
in an effort to get this man, for once he was 
killed or wounded they knew the fight would be 
over, for the time at least, since the loss of their 
leader always threw these Indians into a panic. 
They did not know the exact location of the 
chief outside, and Miller decided to reconnoitre. 
He crawled under his bunk, built at the back 
of the room, cautiously removed a bit of chink- 



INDIAN TROUBLES. 315 

ing, and poked his rifle through. The end of 
the gun was caught by the Indian, but Miller 
wrenched it away from him and sprang up. As 
he did so, he displaced the bed clothes and ac- 
cidentally put his hand on an old horse pistol 
loaded with buckshot which he had forgotten. 
This gave him one more chance — one more shot. 
He also remembered what in the fight he had 
forgotten, — a small square hole like a window 
near the head of his bed, which was closed with 
a board which could be removed at will. With 
much caution he opened the hole and peeped out 
— the chief lay directly below him, w^atching the 
hole in the chinking through which the rifle had 
just been pulled. His broad breast was ex- 
posed as he cramped his body to see better. 
Silently Miller lifted the pistol and poked it 
through the hole — then he fired, and the Indian 
sprang up and backward twenty feet before he 
fell — his breast torn in a dozen places. 

''The Indians rushed to him wildly, yelling 
and bearing him among them, stampeded up the 
hill. As they ran old man Miller flung open the 
door and, with a yell of triumph, sent his last 
bullet after them and brought down an Indian. 
Late that evening the mail carrier passed the 
place and stopped to water his mules. By him 
Miller sent in word of the fight to the troops at 
Fort Whipple, and a note to Mr. Wells telling 
him to come and get his cattle. 

''Mr. Wells went out the next morning and 
found the two men packing up their belongings 
ready to leave. Miller said that he had fought 
Indians since boyhood, all over the United 
States from Kentucky to Washington, and this 



316 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

was his closest call ; that he was an old man and 
had had enough of fighting. Although the In- 
dians had carried off all their dead, the ground 
all along the outside of the corral was as bloody 
as a slaughter pen, 'exactly like a barnyard in 
hog-killing time.' The cattle were brought into 
Prescott, and the same night the Indians re- 
turned and burned the cabin and corral to the 
ground. 

"This ranch has for many years been occu- 
pied by Robert Blair as a cattle ranch, and is 
still known, to old timers at least, as the 'Burnt 
Ranch.' " 

The date of this fight has been given by some 
writers as 1864, but as Mr. Wells arrived in the 
Territory in that year, and as he also owned the 
cattle which were being herded by old man Mil- 
ler, it is to be presumed that his statement that 
the fight occurred in 1865 is correct. 

In the "Prescott Journal-Miner" of January 
10th, 1911, appears the following: 

"William Bentley, mention of whom was 
made in the 'Journal-Miner' recently, as the 
nephew of the late E. A. Bentley, who was the 
editor and proprietor of the Arizona 'Miner' 
(now the 'Journal-Miner'), in 1865-66, in an 
interesting reminiscent mood, Saturday, re- 
called many thrilling events of that far away 
day in Prescott when life was insecure and it 
was not known at what moment the cruel 
Apache would claim another victim. Although 
he was a mere boy, but sixteen years of age, he 
remembers the danger attendant upon living in 
this little hamlet, not to mention such hazardous 



INDIAN TROUBLES. 317 

undertakings as leaving the settlement, except 
under a strong escort. 

"While his uncle was not classed as a 'fight- 
ing-editor' nevertheless he was a brave man, as 
were all in that day on the frontier, and from 
his intrepidity received a bullet from an Apache, 
which led to his death later. This was in the 
spring of 1868, and in that memorable fight, 
Louis St. James, a resident of Prescott to-day, 
was one of the participants. In recalling this 
thrilling event, Mr. St. James yesterday stated 
that he was with Mr. Bentley, both being en 
route for the old Bowers' ranch, in Skull Valley, 
from Prescott. They traveled on horseback, 
and took the cut off trail route of that day, 
which passes over a portion of the present 
wagon road to Copper Basin. After reaching 
the latter place, and while going through a long 
ravine at a low elevation, the party was fired 
upon. Mr. Bentley, being in front, received the 
first wound. He was struck in the abdomen 
and fell from his horse. With nerves of steel 
and a firm determination to make a brave fight 
to the end he stood erect and poured several vol- 
leys into the redskins. Mr. St. James came up 
at this critical time and began firing a fusilade 
of bullets that astounded the Indians. Tie had 
a Henry rifle, the first repeating weapon that had 
been received in the country. The rapidity of 
the fire, together with the good execution, saved 
Mr. Bentley and himself from a horrible fate. 
The Indians took to the brush, with the excep- 
tion of three killed by Mr. St. James at close 
range, and while they were ready to descend 
upon the two with their knives to begin their 



318 HISTORY OF AEIZOXA. 

frightful work of mutilation. Mr. St. James 
was also wounded in this battle, receiving a 
wound in the leg, which would not permit of him 
advancing except at a slow pace. 

"Mr. Bentley, in his pitiable condition, was 
brought to Prescott that day, a party of trav- 
elers fortunately coming along and assisting the 
wounded men back. Eighteen days later Mr. 
Bentley passed away as a result of his wounds, 
and a short time afterward his nephew left the 
Territory for Oakland, California, and ever 
since has made his home in California." 

Conditions in the southern part of the Terri- 
tory were as bad as in the north, as the follow- 
ing, from a paper read before the Pioneers' 
Historical Society at Tucson, by Charles A. 
Shibell, of whom mention has been made in this 
history, will show: 

"During the year 1867 I was for the first six 
months at Tubac, and in that time murders by 
Apaches were of constant occurrence. On March 
1st, Ed. Marcy was killed, and our brother 
pioneer, Oscar Buckalew, lost his leg and ran a 
narrow chance for his life. The circumstances 
of this case show out in bold relief that bond 
that knit us as a band of brothers, and the feel- 
ing that exists between us, which to those outside 
of us is hardly understood. Mr. Buckalew was 
the mail rider between Tubac and the Patagonia 
mine, and on approaching the buildings at the 
mine, that were then in charge of Thomas 
Yerkes, Richard Dorce, and E. I. Marcy, he 
was waylaid by the Indians, fired on by them, 
his horse mortally wounded, and himself shot. 
The horse had life enough in him to reach the 




1 1 \ s \ s 1 1 1 1 ; K 1 . 1 . 



INDIAN TROUBLES. 319 

gate of the corral, where he fell dead, Bucka- 
lew with a broken leg being under him. The 
Indians kept up a constant fire, in the midst of 
which Thomas Yerkes rushed out from the cor- 
ral, succeeded in extricating Buckalew and carry- 
ing him into the building. His life was saved 
at the expense of a leg. Richard Dorce was 
wounded at the same time, from the effects of 
which he became demented, and wandering off, 
was never found. In the same year about July, 
on the old Camp Grant road, Tomlinson, Israel 
and Irwin were killed. In August, Charles 
Hadsell, known as Tennessee, and two soldiers 
were killed on the road near Bowie. About the 
same time Lieut. C. C. Carrol and John Slater 
were killed near Bowie. 

"During this time murders by the Indians 
were numerous, and among those killed I recall 
the following: E. C. Pennington. His son. 
Green Pennington, on the Sonoita, during the 
month of July, 1868. Narboe's cattle, some 660 
head, were taken near Picacho, one man killed 
and two wounded. Although efforts were made 
to recover these cattle, the Indians succeeded in 
getting away with them all." 

The following is contributed by A. F. Banta, 
who has been mentioned in these pages at dif- 
ferent times: 

''In 1867 the writer had again drifted back 
to the Zuni villages. Some time in June of the 
same year Sol Barth and a few Mexicans from 
the frontier village of Cubero passed Zuni for 
the Apacheria. The party was well supplied 
with saddle animals; also pack animals loaded 
with Indian goods. In due time, and without 



320 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

mishap, the party reached the Rio Carizo, the 
home country of the Coyotero Apache. In the 
olden days, before the subjugation of the 
Apaches and their confinement upon reserva- 
tions, the trail from Zuni to Apacheria followed 
down the valley of the Zuni river until it 
reached the last black mesa, w^hich bordered the 
Zuni river on its northern side. At this point 
the trail left the valley and led across some 
sandy hills and table lands, striking the Little 
Colorado river among some sandstone cliffs 
about twelve miles below the present town of 
St. Johns. Amongst these rocks was the usual 
place of meeting for the purpose of trade be- 
tween the Zuni Indians and the White Mountain 
Apaches. It was the usual custom of these 
Apaches to make signal fires on the summit of 
the mountain by which they indicated the day 
they could be expected at the 'Rock Crossing' 
for the purpose above mentioned. Crossing the 
river at this point, the trail led down the south 
side to Concho Creek ; here the trail forked, the 
one for the Coyotero country taking a westerly 
course, and the trail leading to the White Moun- 
tain country followed up Concho creek in a 
southerly direction. 

"From time immemorial, or within the 
writer's knowledge of the past fifty-four years, 
the Little Colorado river has been the neutral 
ground for the mutual benefit of the various 
Indian tribes, and no hostilities ever occurred 
between them in its immediate vicinity. Never- 
theless, it is no bar to scraps (as the writer 
knows from experience), going to or from the 
river itself. 



INDIAN TROUBLES. 321 

' ' The Barth party remained some days at the 
rancheria of the Coyoteros, by whom they were 
hospitably treated, when they decided to visit 
the White Mountain Apaches, whose country 
lay some distance southeast from the Carizo. 
Unfortunately, for the Barth party, the notor- 
ious Cochise, with a large band of his picked 
warriors had arrived at the rancheria of Pedro, 
the chief of the Sierra Blanca Apaches, a short 
while prior to the Barth party; and, to make 
matters worse, Pedro happened to be tem- 
porarily absent from the rancheria. Cochise 
being of a dominating disposition and notor- 
iously cruel and savage, he simply overawed 
the sub-chief left in charge of the rancheria, 
and before they realized what was taking place, 
the members of the Barth party were disarmed, 
stripped of clothing, and of all their animals 
and plunder. Pandemonium was rampant for 
a time, and the naked bunch of terrified captives 
expected nothing else but instant death. How- 
ever, the savage Cochise, to give his captives 
all the mental distress possible, decided to post- 
pone the execution to the following morning. He 
had decided, after a conference with his warriors, 
to lash the captives to trees, and have another 
old fashioned human barbecue. In the mean- 
time the sub-chief had dispatched a swift mes- 
senger to meet his chief. The White Mountain 
chief made all haste to reach his camp. Pedro 
rushed in, released the captives, and demanded 
in a loud angry voice: 'By whose authority is 
this done in my camp and in my absence ? ' The 
captives stood huddled together, hardly daring 

V— 21 



322 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

to breathe, listening to the angry conversation — 
not understanding a word — between Chief 
Pedro and the bloody-minded Cochise. Pedro 
told Cochise that, 'You have violated ^oay hospi- 
tality ; have violated the hospitality of my camp 
and my people; have committed outrages 
enough, and when I want people killed in my 
camp, I alone will give the order. What I have 
said, I have said.' He then turned to the cap- 
tives and said, 'Go, go quickly.' His motion 
and words were understood, and they hit the 
trail without any ceremonious farewells. As 
they passed by some women, one of them handed 
Sol a pair of cotton drawers. And without 
food, clothing, or even a match to start a fire, 
the fugitives had one hundred and twenty-five 
miles to hoof between the Apache Camp and the 
Zuni villages, the nearest point where assist- 
ance could be obtained. 

"It must be remembered that Chief Pedro 
labored under a great disadvantage; all his 
women and children were in that camp, and 
Cochise only had his band of picked men ; and in 
the event of a fight, Cochise had much the best 
of the situation. Cochise absolutely refused to 
give up as much as a string of the plunder ; but, as 
a compromise, he allowed Pedro the privilege of 
disposing of the captives in any manner suitable 
to him. Cochise suggested that the proper end- 
ing of the affair would be an old-fashioned 'roast 
and big dance.' Most of the foregoing facts 
were obtained from two Mexicans Cautivos, — 
Miguel of the Coyotero Apaches, and Concepcion 
of the White Mountain Apaches. Miguel gave 



INDIAN TEOUBLES. 323 

his version of the affair in 1869, and Coneepcion 
in 1872. 

"The second da}^ of their flight a little Apache 
dog came to them^ which was caught and killed. 
They carried the dead dog until they fortunately 
came to some flints, and with these the dog was 
dressed. The next thing was to make a fire. 
Taking a small piece of the cotton drawers and 
pounding it and rubbing it to a fuzzy pulp, and 
with the flints they struck sparks until one caught 
the cotton and, with patient blowing, a fire was 
made. They made a fairly good meal out of the 
roasted dog without salt, were comparatively 
happy and laughed at their present predicament. 
Sol Barth, being the only 'aristocrat' in the 
bunch, being sumptuously and gaily dressed in a 
pair of cotton drawers, was unanimously dubbed 
'EL REY.' Before leaving this camp fire, they 
charred a chunk of wood, and by waving it occa- 
sionally, kept it afire for the following night. 
The third day's tramp carried the party well up 
the Zuni river, and having the fire and the rem- 
nants of the dog, they were fairly well off, so to 
speak. However, by this time, their feet were 
sore, and their bodies badly blistered by the sun. 

"The fourth day the fugitives reached the 
neighborhood of the Zuni villages, where they 
concealed themselves in a ravine until the ' King ' 
could go to the village for some sort of apparel 
for the party. Mr. Barth came to my place, and 
after he had filled himself with beans, mutton 
and shah-kay-way (an Indian substitute for 
bread), I let him have sheeting enough to dress 
his companions, and late that evening the whole 
party came in and were comfortably housed. 



324 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

The party were exhausted, and la}^ over for a few 
days to recuperate. In the meantime I let Mr. 
Barth have more manta and a full piece of 
gaiyete (a species of red flannel highly prized by 
the Indians, and especially by the Navajo). 
With this he hired animals to ride and bought 
baustimento (grub) to last the party till they 
could reach Cubero, New Mexico. The distance 
from Zuni to Cubero, the nearest town, is about 
one hundred miles. 

"I doubt if Mr. Barth and the Mexicans ever 
knew they were to be burned, although they had 
every reason to expect death at the hands of the 
bloodthirsty Apaches. ' ' 

Another version of this story, which is author- 
ized by Mr. Barth himself, is as follows : 

"One of the most memorable experiences in 
the adventurous life of Sol Barth occurred in 
November, 1868. Barth, Magdalena, Calderon, 
George Clifton, Francisco Tafolla, Jesus and 
Roman Sanches, and a Mexican named Mazon, 
who had been an Apache captive, had been trad- 
ing on the Cibicu with the White Mountain In- 
dians, of which tribe Pedro was the chief. The 
white men were thence called over, possibly en- 
ticed, to trade with a band of Apaches headed by 
Cochise. The band had but lately come from 
the south and were hostile. Barth and his party 
were led about forty miles to a point near the 
present Fort Apache, by a treacherous Mexican, 
who effectively delivered them into the hands of 
their enemies. The Indians had been making 
tizwin and all were drunk. The traders ap- 
proaching by a narrow trail, were seized singly 
by the Indians and stripped of everything includ- 



INDIAN TROUBLES. 325 

ing clothing. Barth was last, and found his 
companions standing naked and waiting for 
death, within a circle of Indians, who were 
threatening them with clubs that had been 
charred and hardened by fire. Earth's arms and 
clothing went the same way as had his compan- 
ions ' belongings. Juana Marta, a Mexican cap- 
tive of the band, then appeared in the role of 
Pocahontas. It appeared that she cited some 
tribal law concerning the taking of captives on 
the lands of a friendly tribe, and so the case had 
to be appealed to Pedro, chief of the White 
Mountains. He was not long in coming, and 
there was only a short confab after he arrived. 
He was a decent sort of Indian and well disposed 
toward the white man, but the best he could do 
was to save their lives, without any reference to 
the loot. The conference concluded, the white 
men were dismissed with a mere wave of the 
hand. 

"It happened that none of them had been 
robbed of their shoes, a fortunate circumstance, 
inasmuch as it took four days of travel to reach 
the nearest point of safety, the Zuni village in 
northwestern New Mexico. During that time 
the men's bare skin was scorched by the sun of 
the days, while they huddled, nearly frozen, 
around fires at night, for winter was coming on. 
Barth tells that he stood the trip rather better 
than the others and kept in the lead. The jour- 
ney was made on a very light diet, consisting 
almost entirely of tuna fruit, and an all too 
scanty share of the carcass of a small dog that 
had followed them from the Indian camp. On 
the last day Barth was well ahead, and, at a point 



326 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

fifteen miles out from Zuni, met an Indian who 
divided with him a few tortillas. Barth hap- 
pened to be well acquainted with the Indian, but 
the recognition was not mutual, for the fugitive, 
by that time, had little resemblance to the well 
fed and cheerful freighter who for years had 
made Zuni a stopping place. Refreshed by the 
tortillas, Barth then made rapid time into the 
village, from which he sent runners out with as- 
sistance and food. All recovered from their 
hardships, though Barth suffered a severe attack 
of 'Chills and fever.'" 



PROGRESS OF THE TERRITORY. 327 



CHAPTER XV. 
PROGRESS OF THE TERRITORY. 

Building Boom in Tucson — Leading Mer- 
chants — Indian Eaids — A. J. Doran's Ex- 
perience With Pah-Utes — Loyalty of 
Indians — Biography of J. W. Sullivan — 
His Early Experiences in the Territory — 
Biography of John H. Marion. 

About this time, 1867-68, S. W. Foreman made 
the first survey of Tucson, and, according to 
Fish, soon after this building took a boom. Sub- 
stantial and convenient houses replaced many 
of the old hovels. Kirtland built the first road 
from Tucson to the Santa Rita mountains, and 
hauled logs into the settlement. 

In 1866, according to Hinton, "Handbook 
of Arizona," p. 266, several mercantile firms 
brought large stocks of goods to the place. 
Among the leading firms of the early days were 
Tully, Oehoa & Company, the senior member of 
which, P. R. Tully, died in Tucson in the year 
of 1903. This firm did a very large business. 
They were followed, after the removal of the cap- 
ital to Tucson, and, with it, the opportunities of 
getting fat contracts and legislation suitable to 
the governed classes, resulting in Tucson having 
quite a revival, by other firms, among them being 
that of Lord & Williams. Dr. Lord, the senior 
member of this firm, was appointed receiver of 
public moneys in Tucson. W. W. Williams, his 
partner, was born in New York, came to Arizona 



328 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

in 1864, and died April 19tli, 1907. L. Zecken- 
dorf & Company were also among the leading 
merchants. 

It required a large capital at that time to do 
business. Supplies came from California and 
from the Missouri river, compelling the mer- 
chants to keep a stock of goods in transit, and a 
stock of goods in the store. Prior to this time, 
and, indeed, including this time, the firm of 
Hooper, Whiting & Company were the leading 
merchants of the Territory. This firm had 
wholesale houses at Yuma, and branches at 
Ehrenberg, Camp McDowell and Maricopa 
Wells, from which the adjoining territory was 
supplied. Merchants were constantly harassed 
by roving bands of Indians, who captured their 
supply trains, often causing losses running into 
tens of thousands of dollars. 

The outlook for 1868 was not very hopeful, for 
the Indians on the Colorado and in the Apache 
strongholds were on the warpath. Fish says 
that in the winter of 1867-68, there were forty- 
eight men, settlers, killed in and around Prescott 
and Walnut Grove. 

The Navahos were quiet as far as Arizona was 
concerned ; they made no raids but, occasionally, 
would steal stock. They, however, made forays 
into Utah, murdering and driving off stock. 
Jacob Hamblin, who was the pioneer diplomat of 
the Mormon Church, and who founded the set- 
tlements around Callville and in what was then 
Pah-Ute County, Arizona, was sent down to ar- 
range a peace with them, which he succeeded in 
doing. 



PROGRESS OF THE TERRITORY. 329 

Major Powell, in his explorations of the 
Colorado river, in speaking of Hamblin, says: 
''This man Hamblin speaks their language well, 
and has a great influence over all the Indians 
in the regions round about. His talk is so low 
that they must listen attentively to hear, and 
they sit around him in deathlike silence. When 
he finishes a measured sentence, the chief repeats 
it, and they all give a solemn grunt. 

"Mr. Hamblin fell into conversation with one 
of the men, and held him until the others had 
left, and then learned more of the particulars of 
the death of the three men. (Three of Powell's 
men lost in the first expedition. 'Kapurats,' as 
Major Powell was called by the Pah-Utes, and 
his men were allowed by the Pah-Utes to travel 
unmolested in their country.) They, the three 
men, came upon the Indian village almost 
starved, and exhausted with fatigue. They were 
supplied with food, and put on their way to the 
settlements. Shortly after they had left, an 
Indian from the east side of the Colorado arrived 
at their village, and told them about a number of 
miners having killed a squaw in a drunken brawl, 
and no doubt, these were the men. No person 
had ever come down the canyon; that w^as im- 
possible; they w^ere trying to hide their guilt. 
In this way he w^orked them into a great rage. 
They followed, surrounded the men in ambush, 
and* filled them full of arrows. 

"That night I slept in peace, although these 
murderers of my men, and their friends, the 
U-in-ka-rets, were sleeping not five hundred 
yards away. While we were gone to the canyon, 
the packtrain and supplies, enough to make an 



330 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

Indian rich be3^ond his wildest dreams, were all 
left in their charge, and were all safe ; not even a 
lump of sugar was pilfered by the children." 

I give other evidences of Indian loyalty: 
Major A. J. Doran, in his memoirs, which will 
be produced later in these pages, recites a story 
of himself and companions entering a Pah-Ute 
camp when they were at war with the whites; 
joining in their festivities, and then returning to 
their own camp about a mile away and sleeping 
in peace all night, and, in the moiiiing, after 
breaking camp and starting on their way, being 
passed by these same Indians and meeting with a 
friendly greeting from them, although, a few 
hours later the Indians attacked and murdered 
another party of white men. 

As heretofore related. Captain Thos. J. Jef- 
fords went into Cochise's camp; took off his 
arms, ammunition, etc., and handed them to 
Cochise, and asked him to take care of them 
while he remained there a few days. Capt. Jef- 
fords received only hospitality at the hands of 
the chief and the friendship thus commenced 
lasted until Cochise's death. 

W. H. Hardy, in one of his trips from Hardy- 
ville to Prescott, one evening, through mistake, 
rode into a camp of Wallapais. Finding him- 
self among them, he requested one of the Indians 
whom he knew, to take care of his horse and give 
him a place to sleep for the night. Although 
these Indians were at war at the time with the 
whites. Hardy only received that courtesy due to 
a brave man who had placed his life in their 
hands. The next morning he was permitted to 



PEOGRESS OF THE TERRITORY. 331 

resume liis journey without molestation from the 
Indians. 

With all the prejudices that a pioneer Ari- 
zonan may have against the Indians, for, after I 
came to this Territory in 1879, many of my 
friends lost their lives in Arizona and Sonora at 
the hands of the Chiricahuas, yet, in stud}i^ng the 
record as I have tried to do, impartially, I find 
that as much, or even more, treachery can be 
charged against the whites as against the In- 
dians. General Crook once said that the Indian 
never violated a treaty, solemnly made ; that the 
white man never kept one. This, perhaps, is 
overdrawing the matter, but still there is much 
truth in the remark. 

Hon. J. W. Sullivan, is known as one of the 
most prosperous and opulent business men in 
the northern part of the State; a man whose 
cattle graze upon a thousand hills, who is inter- 
ested in mining, banldng and other business pur- 
suits sufficient to occupy the mind of any ener- 
getic man, has his headquarters at Prescott and 
served as a member of the House of Represen- 
tatives in the Third Legislature of the State of 
Arizona, the only political position he has ever 
accepted. 

Mr. Sullivan was born in Picton, Prince Ed- 
ward's County, on the shore of Lake Ontario, in 
Canada, in the year 1844. He went to Ohio in 
1864, finding employment in a lumber camp 
where, for a time, he w^as employed in hewing 
railroad timbers and ties, in charge of an outfit 
so employed. 

From there he went South into Kentucky and 
Tennessee, and was employed in bridge building 



332 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

near Nashville, as a carpenter, when the battle of 
Nashville was fought. After the assassination 
of President Lincoln, he went into the oil regions 
of Pennsylvania, taking a contract from the 
Pennsylvania Railroad for furnishing railroad 
ties, etc. After a few months he Avas employed 
by the Phelps, Dodge Company, who had large 
lumber interests, as a log scaler, whose duty it 
was to receive the logs from shippers and scale 
the measurements for the company. After two 
years in their employ, in the spring of 1867, he 
started West, employing his odd time as a car- 
penter and teamster. In May, 1858, he was sent 
in charge of seven teams from Fort Union, New 
Mexico, which was then in process of construc- 
tion, to Fort Craig and Fort Bowie, to deliver 
a lot of cavalry horses and Government mules. 
After his return to Albuquerque, he assisted in 
moving the Navajo Indians to their present 
Reservation. 

About October, 18G8, he met John Clark, who 
gave him glowing accounts of the mining pros- 
pects in Arizona, and organized a party of six- 
teen, which started for Prescott about the 5th of 
November, 1868. His life in Arizona and the 
West, as told by himself, follows : 

"At that time there wasn't a white man be- 
tween Albuquerque and Prescott. We didn't 
come through Fort Wingate, but came through 
the Zimi Villages, through Navajo Springs, and 
struck the old Beale trail, struck this at Navajo 
Springs, and about the first white man we struck 
on our trip was old man Banghart, Ed Wells' 
father-in-law. We finally landed in Prescott; 
had quite a storm on the road coming out; where 



PROGRESS OF THE TERRITORY. 333 

Flagstaff is now, about twelve inches of snow 
fell; it was the latter part of November when 
we got into Prescott. I never kept much track 
of the dates. Old Hance, who has been a guide 
about the Canyon, says we landed there on the 
2nd day of December, 1868, so that is my history 
of the trip to Arizona in the early days. 

"When we organized to come to Arizona there 
were only four of us had enough to buy riding 
animals, so we bought ponies for the rest of the 
fellows as we had to have a large party for pro- 
tection. We had a character called ' Dublin ' ; he 
was an Irishman and claimed to be a first cousin 
of the great pugilist, Tom Sayers, an English 
prizefighter, and this fellow was somewhat on the 
pugilistic order himself. We christened him 
'Dublin Tricks' on the road. He afterwards 
started a saloon. After I got into Prescott pro- 
visions were scarce and high. For instance, I 
had bought a batch of flour in Albuquerque. I 
traded for it myself, and it was in 100' lb. sacks. 
When I got into Prescott I sold all my stock ex- 
cepting a couple of ponies. A pair of mules 
sold for $500; they cost me $40 apiece in Albu- 
querque. I had four big cavalry horses, and 
I sold one team for $400, and the other for $450; 
horses and mules were very scarce on account of 
the Indians raiding the outfits, and getting away 
with most of their stock, and draft stock was 
very high. I had a peculiar experience just a 
few days before I left Fort Union — this reminds 
me of a deal I got into while we were organizing. 
One day at our camp outside the post, we heard 
an auctioneer hollering out, calling for bidders 
for the extra stuff at the commissary yard. I 



334 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

stopped in to see what was going on, and they 
had three great stacks of old rusty bacon, sow 
belly, and it was in i3iles of fifty, fifty-five and 
sixty thousand pounds. It was claimed that in 
1864 they had used this bacon for breastworks at 
Fort Craig. It had been knocked around from 
one post to another, and was now being sold as 
condemned army stores. Some of it looked like 
pretty good bacon, and I thought I knew where 
I could handle it, trade it off for stuff along the 
road, and I thought I might load up with a 
couple of thousand pounds, and trade it off. 
The first pile offered was the fifty-five thousand 
pound pile. I bid on it twenty-five dollars for 
the pile ; others bid and I ran it up to fifty-five 
dollars, and it was knocked down to me for that 
figure. The other two piles went considerably 
higher. A couple of days after I got to thinking 
I had a white elephant on my hands, and a fellow 
Ijy the name of Collier, who had a station, a Gov- 
ernment station to look after the teams, asked 
me what I would take for that bacon. I said to 
him that I wanted to take about fifteen or 
eighteen hundred pounds of it. He looked it 
over, and said he would make me a bid on it; 
that he would let me take whatever I wanted of 
it, fifteen hundred pounds at least, and that he 
would give me $125 for the balance. I told him 
the bacon was his; that I might be able to get 
more for it, but didn't want to bother with it. 
The next day I sorted out my bacon and got a 
pretty good class of bacon. When I got out on 
the road I used to trade the bacon for fresh mut- 
ton, vegetables, and so forth, and I traded some 
of it at Albuquerque for about six hundred 



PROGRESS OF THE TERRITORY. 335 

pounds of flour, flour in 100 lb. sacks, and when 
we got into Prescott and split up, we disbanded 
there, Branneman and the Hance boys were with 
us, I thought of going through to California, 
expected to clean up and go through; didn't ex- 
pect to stop here in Arizona, and a fellow by the 
name of Silverthorn, who was keeping a restau- 
rant where the St. Michaels Hotel now is, came 
over and asked if we had any flour, and I told 
him that we had about tw^o sacks, but that I ex- 
pected to go through to California by way of 
Ehrenberg, and he said that he would give me 
sixty dollars a hundred for it ; there was no flour 
in Prescott, only a little cornmeal. They got a 
little from the soldiers at Whipple, who used to 
steal it and sell it at sixty cents a pound. Old 
John G. Campbell ran a store at that time, and 
he came over to my camp and wanted to know if 
I had any bacon left. I told him I had about two 
hundred and fifty poimds, but that I wanted to 
keep a little of it, twenty to twenty-five pounds, 
and he went and looked it over and said : ' Take 
ninety cents a pound for it — for what you can 
spare?' I had to ask him the second time what 
he said ; it kind of took my breath away. I said 
yes, so he told me to bring it down to the store, 
and I did, and sold my rotten bacon at ninety 
cents a pound; so I cleaned up and sold every- 
thing I had except a little saddle pony ; I figured 
on going to California. An old fellow came to 
me, his name was Johnson; he lived about six 
miles south of Prescott ; he was a blacksmith ; he 
was raised in Baltimore and came to California 
during the excitement in the gold days, and 
drifted to Arizona, and he and a man by the name 



336 HISTORY OF AEIZONA. 

of Zimmerman had a ranch, they raised pota- 
toes, etc.; had quite a place in the hills at that 
time, and they had taken a contract to make 
shingles for the Government, four hundred thou- 
sand shingles for Camp Verde. He wanted to 
know if I and one of the boys who came with us 
knew anything about making shingles. This 
fellow with me had been in the lumber woods, but 
didn't know anything about shingles or shingle 
making, but I had made them in Canada, my 
father used to make them and trade them for 
cattle, etc. I thought the matter over, and 
thought that I might wait over that winter, and 
go to California in the spring, so I asked him 
what wages he was paying. He said he was pa}^- 
ing a hundred dollars a month to good hands. 
I told him that I thought with my knowledge of 
lumber and working shingles I could earn more 
than that ; that I would not mind taking a con- 
tract from him for making shingles, but he said 
for me to come out for a week or two and let 
him see what I could do. He had about ten or 
twelve men burning charcoal for the government 
too. He was hauling timber to the Sterling Mill, 
also; had quite a bunch of men around there. 
So I went down to his camp and took a couple 
of men out with me to hunt shingle timber. I 
knew how to select my trees, and I made such 
headway in three or four days that he had me 
come in. He had built a camp, with a log cabin 
fifty feet in length, and he had three or four men 
working in the camp, working up the timber, and 
he was paying men a hundred dollars a month 
and they were averaging about half a thousand 
shingles a day ; they thought that was pretty big 



PROGRESS OF THE TERRITORY. 337 

work. The first week I worked in camp I aver- 
aged over eight thousand in one week, and the 
old man offered to pay me a hundred and fifty 
dollars a month if I would take charge of the 
camp. We would work until ten o 'clock at night 
by the firelight. So I worked on that shingle 
proposition until about the first of June the next 
summer. The old man was quite thrifty and a 
rustler, and he and his partner had taken a con- 
tract, a subcontract, for the cutting of a thousand 
tons of hay in the Williamson Valley for the 
Government. There was an excellent crop of 
wild hay there, blue stem wire grass, red top, and 
one thing and another of that kind, and they had 
located about four hundi-ed acres of the land, 
taking it up as homesteads, etc., to cut hay on it. 
They were to get eleven dollars a ton, put in 
shock, so it could be loaded on wagons. George 
Bowers and C. C. Bean were in together. They 
were getting thirty-five dollars a ton for that 
hay at Fort Whipple, and they made a contract 
with Zimmerman & Johnson to cut this hay at 
eleven dollars a ton, they to furnish two mowing 
machines, hayricks, etc. They got after me to 
go in with them and take a third interest in the 
cutting of this hay. It was a very dangerous 
proposition. The Indians were very bad those 
days, the Wallapais, Tontos and Mohave- 
Apaches were very bad. They had driven me 
out of the woods a couple of times the winter 
before. I remember once fifteen of them came 
on to where we were one morning just after we 
started work. We had quite a time getting out 
of the way. We got back to camp and armed 

V— 22 



338 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

ourselves. The snow was on the ground and we 
struck their trail, and they went south on the 
Hassayamp. We took after them and killed two 
of them, and the others got away, and once after- 
wards we came very near getting killed. I knew 
this was a dangerous proposition, but I went in 
with them, they were to give me a third interest, 
and I was supposed to take all the chances and 
do all the work, which I did. We got out there 
about the 8th of June that year, and started to 
cut hay. Zimmerman went out for a few days, 
but he used to go on a drunk and didn't amount 
to much. Old man Johnson was kind of feeble 
and he stopped at the camp to look after the boys. 
I had tw^o men, one to rake and one to bunch up 
the hay, and a Frenchman to cook. I ran the 
mowing machines myself. I had two machines ; 
in case one gave out I had the other ready to 
keep right on to work. I would get out at day- 
light in the morning, take one team until ten 
o'clock, and another team until two, and then 
work until dark with the first team. We put up 
about eighteen tons of hay a day. There were 
Indians on the hills all the time. I used to carry 
a gun strapped across my breast and two six 
shooters on me. We were all armed in about 
the same way, we always kept within hailing 
distance of each other, and we had a couple of 
dogs, the best scouts I ever saw. I depended on 
them more than on anything else. We kept 
those dogs scouting around and in that w^ay I 
guess we saved our lives many times that sum- 
mer. There were eight or ten men killed be- 
tween Williamson Valley and Prescott at what 
was called the Divide, that is nine miles from 



PROGRESS OF THE TERRITORY. 339 

Williamson Valley. About a month before we 
got through with our hay contract there were two 
big freight teams driven by a fellow of the name 
of Buchanan, which was one of the best outfits 
that there was there at that time. Buchanan 
came from Nevada, and some parties said that 
he had stolen the teams. There was another 
fellow by the name of Wood, Cap Wood, who 
came through as a sutler with some cavalry out- 
fit to Fort Whipple during the summer, and he 
had a team of ten mules. The government had 
a lot of corn at Camp Wallapai, and was short of 
corn at Fort Whipple, and these two fellows, 
Buchanan and Wood, got a contract to haul that 
corn from Wallapai to Whipple, and they got on 
the north side of the divide, and the Indians 
jumped them and got away with two teamsters. 
Buchanan himself got away and ran to Lee's 
ranch, about four miles from them, and got some 
help and went back. When they got back the 
Indians had got away with all the stock, about 
twenty-four head of stock. Several parties 
going back and forth there were killed there. 

"I had a little experience myself the first ten 
days I was at Williamson Valley. We had our 
headquarters at a little spring at the edge of the 
valley, about two miles from where the crossing 
is at the present time. A fellow by the name of 
vlim Fine had taken up a little ranch at the 
crossing, and he had a fellow working with him, 
cutting hay for a livery outfit in Prescott, 
they were using the old fashioned scythes to cut 
the hay, and the Indians came up on the ridge 
above them and fired on them, and killed this 
fellow who was working for Fine. Fine had 



340 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

a horse three or four hundred yards below where 
he was, and he jumped on it barebacked and 
rushed down to our camp ; our camp was about 
a mile and a half below, and he told us wiiat they 
had done. We turned out, three men besides 
myself, and hitched up with all our stock; 
daren 't leave anything there for fear the Indians 
might get away with it, and went to the place 
where the fellow had been killed. We put 
blankets around him and dug a hole about three 
feet deep and buried him. It was mighty hard 
to dig ; it was in June, hot weather, and after we 
buried him, Jim pulled out at night and went 
into Prescott and was away two days. The In- 
dians were watching us, and as soon as he pulled 
out they knew he would bring a crowd. They 
had taken this fellow's clothes, leaving him 
naked, and between the time that Jim pulled out 
and got back, they had come back, dug up the 
remains and dragged them down to a little well 
near the cabin and diunped them in the well. 
Jim found the trail where they had dragged the 
body and followed it up to find the grave empty. 
He came to our camp and stopped all night with 
us, and told us what had happened, and I sent 
a man up with him the next day and they filled 
up the well, threw in some dirt, and covered it 
up, and dug another well some little distance 
away. There was a government express ran be- 
tween Wallapai and Whipple, and the next day 
after they had dug up this body and thrown it 
into the well, this bunch of Indians met the ex- 
press party, caught them on the divide, and 
killed the soldiers and got away with the mules. 



PROGRESS OF THE TERRITORY. 341 

"I had another experience the next summer. 
I took a contract to make shingles for the Gov- 
ernment and contracted for four hundred thou- 
sand shingles, part for Camp Wallapai, and 
part for Camp Date Creek. I had four men in 
the camp and about once a week I used to go 
down to town to get supplies. We had been 
down there about two months and were getting 
along finely, and one day I started about four 
o'clock in the afternoon,* in March, and had my 
two six shooters strapped on me. The road to 
the Ashley Sawmill passed our camp over on 
Groom Creek, about a quarter of a mile from 
Granite Creek, and I followed on down the road, 
which struck west and then north at Granite 
Creek, and after I struck the old Sterling road 
on Granite Creek, about three miles and a half 
from Prescott, I saw some Indian tracks, across 
the road. In those days we were generally on 
the lookout anyway, and I saw where the Indi- 
ans had travelled fifty or a hundred yards along 
the road and then dodged off, and then crossed 
back. I got along about half a mile further — a 
little further down the main road there is a hill, 
Eed Hill, and right below is a canyon across the 
road, and just as I got to the top of the hill above 
the canyon, I saw something in the brush about 
a hundred and fifty yards below me. There was 
a pine stump there about three feet high, and 
I dodged behind that stump and kept watch, 
and in a few moments an Indian dropped down 
into the road, came off the ridge, and directly 
came another and another until there was five of 
them there. The first one that dropped down 
into the road had on a long buckskin shirt which 



342 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

looked to be about six feet in length; it looked 
like a nightshirt. They had seen me coming and 
got down there to cut me off. They had got on 
a high point and watched me coming. That was 
their game. I thought I was in for it, and they 
blazed away at me. I kept my head very low 
behind the stump, and I would reach up and get 
my gmi on the top of the stump and shoot, but 
they were much lower and they soon discovered 
that I was overshooting them, and they came 
closer and three of them had those old Henry 
rifles, and two of them had bows and arrows, 
and they kept coming closer and closer, and I 
fired eleven shots at them over the top of that 
stump, and I was down to my last cartridge, cap 
and ball cartridge, and I thought I had better 
break for camp. By cutting across through the 
brush I could strike my camp much quicker than 
by going back on the main road to Prescott. 
Just as I jumped from behind the stump the}^ 
shot me with an arrow in the neck. I have the 
scar yet. I grabbed it and broke the wooden 
part of it off and left the point in there. I had 
to run across the road, and when I jumped up 
the pistol, which still had one cartridge in it, fell 
out of the holster, my right holster, which was 
loose on the belt. The pistol fell out and dropped 
in the brush, and if you ever saw a man run, I 
did. I had on an old fashioned white hat, and 
they put a bullet through that. Clothing was 
scarce in those days, and I was wearing a 
soldier's blouse, and they fired at me from be- 
hind, and one of the bullets went right under my 
arm pit, cutting through the blouse, and I 
thought I was bleeding like fury from the bum 



PROGRESS OF THE TERRITORY. 343 

of that bullet. I was bleeding freely from the 
wound in my neck. They followed me about 
three hundred yards and then let up and shouted 
and hollered like fury. How I did run until I 
struck three men working for me, about four or 
five hundred yards from my camp, and I fell 
right over in a heap, loss of blood and exhausted, 
of course. My men picked me up and took me 
to camp ; got the arrow head out of my neck, and 
stopped the bleeding, and while I was not cut 
very deep, it made quite a wound. On Sunday, 
a day or two afterwards, a couple of men from 
the sawmill were going to town, and I went down 
with them, and when we came to the place where 
I had had my fight with the Indians, I looked 
around and found my pistol. The Indians had 
rim right over it and never saw it, and I picked it 
up as we went down to town two days afterwards. 
''That evening that they got me on the run, 
there was a superintendent named Baker in 
charge of the old sawmill, the Sterling Sawmill, 
over on Groom Creek, and he had a magnificent 
riding horse he brought over from California; 
he had been away from there for about three 
months, and after the Indians had given me this 
chase, they went up the road about three quarters 
of a mile, and old man Baker, he came along 
from Prescott, going out to his camp, and they 
jumped him there, shot his horse; the horse 
dropped, and the bullet that killed the horse went 
right through the horse and struck the old man 
on the ankle, kind of a spent bullet, and he got 
off and started to run to Johnson's camp about a 
mile and a half away. Johnson had an old log 
cabin there with a dirt floor. The first log 



344 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

formed a sill across the doorway and you had to 
step over it to get down in the cabin. Baker 
rushed to the door, struck that log, and fell over, 
and didn't come to for three or four hours. 
Johnson's outfit got back next morning. He 
told them what had occurred, and they went to 
the place where the Indians had shot the horse. 
All they found was the tail and the mane of the 
horse ; everything else was gone. 

''In the spring, in February, 1871, I started 
for California, in fact, I started for Puget 
Sound, Washington Territory. I had been rus- 
tling pretty lively for the Government, cleaning 
up eight or nine thousand dollars in a couple of 
years; made thirty-five hundred dollars out of 
the hay ; and the next winter I made four thou- 
sand dollars ont of the shingles, and in March, 
1871, I started for California and for the Sound 
country. At Wickenburg I fell in with a couple 
of men who w^ere going to South America. 
They told a story of a fellow having mines in 
Peril, and they wanted me to go with them. By 
the time we got to San Francisco, we w^ent to Los 
Angeles first and then took a steamer to San 
Francisco, they talked me into going to South 
America with them. So we took passage on a 
sailing vessel to the San Bias country. I made 
the trip into the mines with these fellows, 
stopped there about three months, got disgusted, 
thought it wasn't the place for me as I wasn't 
a miner, and I got so disgusted that I came back 
to the coast. Took a roundabout w^ay to get back 
to the coast; spent about six months travelling 
around to get back to the coast. Finally got to 
the Sound country, I went over to New West- 



PROGRESS OF THE TERRITORY. 345 

miiister, now a suburb of Vancouver, and spent 
about two weeks over there waiting for an ex- 
pedition going about three hundred miles up the 
coast, and while there I met some fellows who 
had been there the year before and they told me 
what hardships they had undergone going in and 
coming out. They told me that there was about 
two hundred and fifty miles of lakes, etc., to 
travel over, and everybody had to pack grub, 
etc., and I gave that up. On my way back I took 
a steamer to Seattle, at that time a town of about 
seven hundred inhabitants, and on the steamer I 
struck an old California miner, and I was in- 
quiring about farming interests and land inter- 
ests there in the Sound country. I got ac- 
quainted with two fellows, and one of them had 
a big claim, and he wanted to sell out. I went 
down to look at his property which was about 
twenty miles from the present town of Belling- 
ham. It was tide country, like Oakland. I 
finally made a deal for it and spent about nine 
months filing on it under the old pre-emption law. 
Lived on it long enough to make final proof. 
The land was surrounded by a slough, and the 
w^ater would back up when it was high tide, on 
the land, and I had to throw up a levee about five 
feet high ; each one of us around there had to do 
his share. I had about a hundred and seventy 
rods of levee to build. I went to work and got 
mine completed, and the others were a little slow, 
and were not ready to join me, so, after I had 
made final proof on the property, I thought I 
would come over to Portland, over into Oregon, 
so I came over there in the fall of the year, and 
the old railroad, now the Southern Pacific, was 



346 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

building at that time, and there was an outfit 
there, they were putting in pile drivers, and I 
came up there and took charge of the crew for 
the winter. 

"After I got through there I decided I would 
go into the cattle business, and I came over to 
Eastern Oregon, had a young fellow with me, 
and we went up there looking for a cattle ranch. 
It was a fine country for that purpose. That 
was the spring of 1873. I spent about four 
months there, then came over to the Grand 
Round, from there to Spokane, and went clean 
up to the British possessions, travelling around 
looking for a cattle ranch. We located about 
twenty-five miles from the Columbia, about sixty 
miles from the Dells, and then we came back and 
I bought a bunch of cattle. I didn't expect to 
stick to them myself very long, but I put this 
young fellow to work. When I left Arizona I 
left about two thousand dollars in money uncol- 
lected. C. C. Bean owed me about $1700, and 
he was to send it to me, but, 'out of sight, out 
of mind,' and the money didn't come, so I left 
this young fellow in charge of about fifty head 
of cows with calves, and about a hundred and 
fifty head of yearling heifers and steers, and I 
came back to Arizona, and found there was but 
little show of collecting this money from Bean 
at this time. Before I left Arizona, however, 
I had sold Bean the possessory right to some land 
in Williamson Valley, and he had just got title 
to it when I got back, so I took a mortgage on 
the proposition. I knocked around for six 
months, took a contract for jobbing for the Gov- 
ernment, putting up buildings, and remained in 



PROGRESS OF THE TERRITORY. 347 

Arizona for about three years before I got things 
straightened out, and then I went back to Ore- 
gon, and drove the cattle I had there over here 
to Arizona. That was in 1877, and I have been 
here ever since in the cattle business. ' ' 

Mr. Sulhvan is an old bachelor, and is passing 
the evening of his days in the State to whose 
prosperity and advancement he has contributed 
the best years of his life. He is among those 
pioneers remaining with us who braved the dan- 
gers incident to the early settlement of Arizona, 
^'in the days that tried men's souls," when he 
carried his rifle on his machine while mowing 
hay, to protect himself from the incursions of 
savage foes. 

John H. Marion was a man of great force of 
character; of bulldog tenacity, exceptional abil- 
ity, and great perseverance. He was born in 
Louisiana in 1835 ; came to California in the 
later fifties, and, being a printer by trade, was 
employed for some time at Oroville, Butte 
County, on a weekly paper there. He came to 
Arizona about the year 1865, being attracted 
here by the reported rich gold discoveries. He 
spent a year or two in prospecting; had several 
Inrushes with the Indians ; finally located in Pres- 
cott and became part owner of the Prescott 
Miner about the year 1866. He continued as its 
editor for about ten years. When party lines 
were drawn in the Territory in 1870, he aligned 
himself with the Democratic party, and was 
always an able exponent of the principles of 
Democracy as held by the party to which he gave 
his allegiance. He was a public spirited man; 



348 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

nothing calculated to build up Prescott or the 
Territory ever failed to find in him an advocate. 
He was a good neighbor; a kind friend, and a 
bitter enemy. Especially was he devoted to the 
old timers of whatever creed or nationality, who 
had shared with him the trials and disappoint- 
ments incidental to the early settlers of the Ter- 
ritory. He was a great admirer of General 
Crook, because Crook had subdued the hostile 
Indians in Arizona, particularly those around 
Prescott. He was an original character; could 
write a very humorous article, full of wit and 
sarcasm, yet had no sense of humor. He was 
never governed in the selection of words by any 
dictionary. When he wanted a word he would 
coin one, and the word itself would explain its 
meaning. 

Personally he was about as homely a man as 
ever stood upon two legs. In speaking, even in 
a public address, which^ on rare occasions he in- 
dulged iu, he spoke in a monotone, and his utter- 
ances seldom failed to bring down the house 
because of his originality. In 1883, at a banquet 
extended to General Crook by the citizens of 
Prescott, at which many ladies were present, 
Marion was called upon for a speech. It ran 
somewhat in this wise: 

"We have had many generals here to fight the 
Injuns, but Cl*ook is the only one who ever suc- 
ceeded. We had Stoneman; Stoneman was a 
good fighter, he built a good many roads, and did 
a good deal of work, but he couldn't fight Injuns. 
Wilcox had a big reputation as a Civil War 
soldier, but he couldn't fight Injuns; he had the 
piles ; and so it was with the balance both before 



PROGRESS OF THE TERRITORY. 349 

and after Crook came. When Crook come lie 
made the Injuns hunt their holes, and we've had 
peace in northern Arizona ever since. ' ' 

When T. L. Bullock undertook to build a road 
from Ash Fork to Prescott, John Marion was his 
ardent friend, and supported him in every way 
possible, not only through the columns of his 
paper, but also by money contributions, and when 
the road was completed, he, of course, was among 
those who had a general jubilation meeting in 
Prescott, welcoming the arrival of the first train. 
Among other things Marion said: "I was here 
when two men right across Granite Creek were 
killed by Injuns, and when we had to sleep every- 
where on our guns, and when it took a lady's 
stocking full of gold dust to buy a sack of flour, 
and everything else in the same proportion. 
They tried to get my scalp, both the Injuns and 
the white men but,' damn 'em, I'm still here." 
He sold his interest in the Miner about the year 
1876, and a few years thereafter started the 
Prescott ' ' Courier. ' ' 

He was loyal to his friends, and particularly 
loyal to his home and his home people. Having 
lived a great part of his life in Prescott, endured 
all the trials and hardships of an early pioneer 
in that locality, he laid aside his party preju- 
dices, being a strict Democrat, and numbered 
among his friends and associates Eepublieans 
who, like himself, were pioneers. It was his 
custom after closing his office, and when going 
to his home, to spend an hour every day with 
Judge Fleury in talking over old times. "Old 
Grizzly" and Col. H. A. Bigelow, both strict 
adherents of the opposite party, were his warm 



350 HISTORY OF ARIZONA. 

personal friends. When Cleveland was elected in 
1884, and Zulick was inaugurated the first Demo- 
cratic Governor of the Territory in 1885, he gave 
the influence of his paper to the cordial support 
of his administration until, in 1889, at the begin- 
ning of the session, Zulick signed the bill to re- 
move the Capital to Phoenix. Thereafter the 
"Courier" could not be numbered as among his 
political friends. He did not fail in his editorials 
to criticise in his rough and homely manner the 
course of the Governor, for with him, in this in- 
stance, the duties of a citizen were paramount 
to party. 

John Marion died July 27th, 1891, the records, 
of the Masonic Lodge at Prescott showing that 
he was, at that time, 56 years of age. His death 
occurred in the morning. He had gone to the 
well for a bucket of water, placed the bucket on 
the porch and feU dead from heart disease. He 
occupies an unmarked grave in the Masonic 
cemetery at Prescott. Peace to his ashes. 



INDEX. 



INDEX. 



ADJUTANT-GENEEAL— Appointment of W. T. Flower as criti- 
cised by Special Legislative Committee, 23; W. H. Garvin 
appointed to office, 23. 

AGRICULTURE— Mentioned by Gov. McCormick, 9; mentioned 
by Gov. McCormick in message to Fifth Legislature, 39. 

ALEXANDER, GENERAL— With Major Clendenin, holds confer- 
ence with Delchayha and Skivitkill, 304 et soq. 

ALLEN, .JOHN B.— Member of Fourth Legislature, 2; Territorial 
Treasurer— his estimate of expenses of Territory for year 
ending Nov. 1, 1869, 49-50; Appointed Territorial Treasurer 
by Gov. McCormick, Dec. 31, 1867, 57. 

ALLEN, O. — Proprietor of horses stolen by Indians, 220. 

ALSAP, JOHN T.— Only member in Council of Fifth Legislature 
from Yavapai County, 33; elected President of Council, 34. 

ANDERSON, JOHN— Member of Fifth Legislature, 34. 

ANNEXATION — Fourth Legislature memorializes Congress pro- 
testing against annexation of part of Arizona to Nevada, 15. 

APACHE-MOHAVES — With Apache-Yumas and Yavapais, 
threaten town of La Paz, 308. 

APACHES — Description of by Lieut. Emory and Capt. Johnstone, 
226 et seq. 

APACHE-YUMAS — With Apache-Mohaves and Yavapais, threaten 
town of La Paz, 308. 

ARTESIAN WELL — Fifth Legislature passes resolution request- 
ing Delegate in Congress to solicit premium for first person to 
sink one on desert, 44. 

ATTORNEY-GENERAL — Special Legislative Committee reports 
Coles Bashford held office of illegally, 19 et seq. 

AUDITOR, TERRITORIAL— Report of, 14, 15; Report of, 58, 59. 

BACKUS, JUDGE— Decides Third, Fourth and Fifth Legislatures 

illegal, 98. 
BAKER, CAPTAIN — Leader of prospecting party of which James 

White was member, 124; killed by Indians, 128. 
BALLARD . — Gives James White employment after latter's 

trip through Grand Canyon, 141. 
BANCROFT, H. H. — Includes James White's story in history of 

western coast, 161. 

BANGHART .—Father-in-law of E. W. Wells, mention of, 332. 

BARLOW & SANDERSON — Employers of James White after lat- 
ter's trip through Grand Canyon, 161. 
BARNETT, UNDERWOOD C. — Member of Fourth Legislature, 2. 
BARTH, SOL — Adventure with Cochise, description by Banta, and 

Barth's own story, 319 et seq. 
BASHFORD, COLES — Special Legislative Committee reports held 

position of Attorney-General illegally, 19 et seq.; as Delegate 
V— 23 (353) 



354 INDEX. 

in Congress introduces bill to make Arizona a collection dis- 
trict, 88; speech on appropriation for improvements on Colo- 
rado Kiver Indian reservation, 88 et seq.j speech on amend- 
ment to postal bill, 96 et seq. 

BEAN, C. C— Mention of by J. W. Sullivan, 337, 

BEGOLE, AUGUSTUS— With B. F. Thompson, attacked by In- 
dians; Thompson killed and Begole severely wounded, 311. 

BELL, WILLIAM A. — Member of surveying expedition of Kansas 
Pacific Railway, 102; publishes book "New Tracks in North 
America," describing experiences oi expedition, 102 et seq. 

BENTLEY, E. A. — Editor and proprietor of "Arizona Miner" 
killed by Indians, 316 et seq. 

BIDWELL, THOMAS J.— Member of Fifth Legislature; elected 
Speaker of House, 34. 

BIGELOW, COL. H. A.— Mention of, 349. 

BLOCK, BEN— Owner of horse stolen by Indians, 220. 

BOBLE'TT .—With Whitcomb and King attacked by Indiansj 

Whitcomb killed and King severely wounded, 309, 310. 

BOUNDARY — Between Arizona and California, mentioned by Gov. 
McCormick in message to Fifth Legislature, 41; Report of 
Committee on Counties and County Boundaries on boundary 
between California and Arizona, 50 et seq. 

BOWERS, GEORGE— Killed by Indians, 283, 301, 310; mention of 
by J. W. Sullivan, 337. 

BOWLES, SAMUEL— Makes mention of James White's trip 
through Grand Canyon in book, 161, 162. 

BRADLEY, GEO. T.— Member of Maj. Powell's first expedition 
through Grand Canyon, 180. 

BUCKALEW, OSCAR— Severely wounded by Indians, 318. 

BUILDING — Cost of on military reservations when performed by 
private contract, 241; booms in Tucson, 327. 

BULLOCK, T. L. — Builds railroad between Prescott and Ash Fork, 
349. 

BURNT RANCH — Indian attack upon and defense of by Jake 
Miller and companion, 311 et seq. 

BUTLER, BENJAMIN F. (of Massachusetts) — Opposes amend- 
ment to Appropriation Bill in Congress, for appropriation for 
Improvements on Colorado River Indian reservation, 92 et seq. 

CABABI MINES— Mentioned by Gov. McCormick in message to 
Fifth Legislature, 38. 

CALABASAS— Mentioned by Genl. John S. Mason in his report, 
184. 

CALHOUN, MAJOR— Member of Kansas Pacific Railway Com- 
pany's surveying expedition, makes notes of and writes ac- 
count of James White's trip through Grand Canyon, 144, 

CALIFORNIA — Boundary between and Arizona, mentioned by 
Gov. McCormick in message to Fifth Legislature, 41; Report 
of Legislative Committee on, 50 et seq. 

CALIFORNIA VOLUNTEERS— Mentioned by Genl. John S. 
Mason in his report, 184. 

CAMPBELL, .JOHN G.— Mention of by J. W. Sullivan, 335. 

CAMP GRANT MASSACRE— Mentioned by Thomas Thompson 
Hunter, 291. 



INDEX. 355 

CAPITAL — Located at Tucson by Fourth Legislature, 28; Congress 
memorialized by Fifth Legislature for appropriation for Cap- 
ital Building, 43. 

CARR, LIEUT. CAMILLIO C. C— Accompanies Capt. George B. 
Sanford on expedition against Apaches, 196. 

CARROL, LIEUT. C. C— Army officer stationed at Fort Bowie, 
102; killed bv Indians, 103 et seq., 319. 

CHAMBERS, SOLOMON W.— Member of Fourth Legislature, 2; 
member of Fifth Legislature, 34. 

CHIMEHUEVIS — ^With Mohaves, makes treaty with Superintend- 
ent Dent, 244. 

CHRISTIE, FOLLETT G.— Elected Chief Clerk of House in Fourth 
Legislature, 2. 

CLENDENIN, MAJOR— Mentioned by General McDowell, 256; 
with General Alexander, holds conference with Delchayha and 
Skivitkill, 304 et seq. 

COCHISE — One of his band has fight with station keeper at Fort 
Bowie and is killed, 286, 287. 

COLLECTION DISTRICT— Bill introduced in Congress to make 
Arizona one, but not passed, 88. 

CONGRESS — Memorialized by Fourth Legislature for regiment of 
volunteers; to increase jurisdiction of Justices of Peace; to 
allow duties to be paid in currency; protesting against an- 
nexation of part of Arizona to Nevada; asking Congress to 
assume certain indebtedness of Territory; to increase pay of 
Legislators and officers of Territory, 15 et seq.; passes resolu- 
tions asking Congress to make Arizona separate military de- 
partment; memorialized by Fifth Legislature for authority to 
military commanders to arm citizens; for extension of time 
for appropriation of net proceeds of Internal Revenue for 
building of penitentiary; for Mail Route from Tucson to 
Sasabi Flat; for appropriation for library; for appropriation 
to codify laws of Territory; asks for appointment of Surveyor- 
General for land district of Arizona, 43; resolutions of Fifth 
Legislature; asking for establishment of mail route from 
Tucson to Wickenburg; for semi-weekly service from Prescott 
to Albuquerque, N. M.; recommending establishment of U. S. 
Depository at Tucson, requesting Delegate in Congress to 
solicit premium for first person to sink artesian well on desert, 
44; Bill to create Collection District for Arizona introduced 
but not passed, 88; Appropriation for improvements on Colo- 
rado River Indian Reservation refused, 88 et seq.; amendment 
to postal bill favoring Arizona and other Territories, passed, 
94 et seq.; passes act legalizing actions of Third, Fourth and 
Fifth Legislatures, 98. 

CONTRACTORS — Have easy times and make big money when 
working for Government, 241. 

COOK, EDWARD J. — Member of Fourth Legislature, 2; biography 
of, 31. 

CEADLEBAUGH, LIEUT.— Attacked by Indians while on peace 
mission, 282, 283. 

GRAND A L, ROBERT M.— Member of Fifth Legislature, 34. 
CRITTENDEN, COL. T. L. afterwards General — Commended by 
Fourth Legislature, 18; mentioned by Assistant Inspector Gen- 



356 INDEX. 

eral Jones in report, 208; recommendations as to housing of 
troops in Arizona, 234; succeeds Colonel Lovell in southern 
Arizona, 298, 

CULLUMBEH, ANDREW— Member of Fourth Legislature, 2. 

CUMMINGS .—Wounded by Indians, 296. 

CUTLER, ROYAL J. — Member of Fourth Legislature, 2. 

DANCING— Licensed by Fifth Legislature, 63. 

DARE, JOHN T.— Member of Fourth Legislature, 2. 

DAVIS, C. (JEFF.) — Makes attack single handed on band of In- 
dians, 284. 

DAWSON, THOMAS F.— Writes U. S. Senate document on Grand 
Canyon, dealing fully with James White's trip, 144. 

DE BUSK, S. W.— State Senator in Colorado, vouches for charac- 
ter of James White, 165. 

DELCHAYHA — With Skivitkill, holds conference with General 
Alexander and Major Clcndenin, 304 et seq. 

DELEGATE TO CONGRESS— Reference to his election as, by 
Gov. McCormick in message to Fifth Legislature, 42. 

DELLENBAUGH, F. S.— Brands James White's story of trip 
through Grand Canyon as "base fabrication," 168, 181. 

DE LONG, SIDNEY R.— Resigns office as Probate Judge, 58; Men- 
tion of by Thomas Thompson Hunter, 291, 292. 

DENT, GEO. W.— General Indian Agent for Territory, mention of, 
242; interferes with General Gregg's order to consider all In- 
dians off of reservations hostile, 242 et seq.; makes treaty with 
Mohaves and Chimehuevis, 244. 

DEPOSITARY, U. S. — Fifth Legislature passes resolution recom- 
mending establishment of, at Tucson, 44. 

DESERTIONS — General Ord in report mentions desertions of sol- 
diers, 269. ..... 

DEVIN, GENERAL THOMAS E.— Report of expeditions against 
hostile Indians, 271 et seq.; makes mention of building roads 
and trails, 276. 

DORAN, MAJ. A. J.— Experience with Pah-Utes, 330. 

DORCE, RICHARD — Severely wounded by Indians, 319. 

DRACHMAN, MOSE— Mention of, 32. 

DRACHM AN, PHILIP— Member of Fourth Legislature, 2; bi- 
ography of, 31. 

DRACHMAN, SAMUEL ARIZONA— Mention of, 32. 

DUNN, A. G. — Has herd of horses stolen by Indians, 219. 

DUTIES — Fourth Legislature memorializes Congress to allow 
duties to be paid in currency, 15. 

EDUCATIONAL MATTERS— Mentioned by Gov. McCormick in 
message to Fifth Legislature, 41. 

EHRHART, T. J.— Chairman of Colorado State Highway Commis- 
sion, furnishes corroboration of James White's trip through 
GraHd Canyon, 163. 

ELIAS, JESUS M.— Member of Fifth Legislature, 34. 

EMORY, LTEUT.- Description of Apaches, 226. 

ERWIN, A. M.— Member elect of Fifth Legislature, killed by In- 
dians, 46, 300. 



INDEX. 357 

EWING, THOMAS— Guide of Capt. Sanford's expedition against 
Apaches, 196. 

EXPLORATIONS AND SURVEYS— Kansas Pacific surveying ex- 
pedition, 100 et seq.; story of James White's trip down the 
Grand Canyon, 122 et seq.; story of Major Powell's first ex- 
pedition through Grand Canyon, 169 et seq. 

FERRIES — Mentioned by Gov. McCormick in message to Fifth 

Legislature, 41. 
FERRY, JAMES — U. S. quartermaster at Callville, takes care of 

James White after latter's trip through Grand Canyon, 152. 
FINANCES, TERRITORIAI^-Meution of by Gov. McCormick, 14; 

Report of special committee on condition of Territorial 

Finances, 19 et seq. 
FINE, JIM— Mention of by J. W. Sullivan, 339. 

FISHER .—Mail carrier killed by Indians, 288, 289. 

FLETJRY, JUDGE— Mention of, 349. 

FLOOD, PRIVATE— One of escort of mail rider Spencer, killed 

and mutilated by Hualapais, 302 et seq. 
FLOWER, W. T. — Special Legislative Committee criticises appoint- 
ment of as Adjutant-General, 23. 
FOREMAN, S. W.— Makes first survey of Tucson, 327. 
FORT BOWIE — Description of by Wm. A. Bell, 102; mentioned by 

General John S. Mason in report, 184; conditions at described 

by Thomas Thompson Hunter, 285; commander of post killed 

by Indians, 285, 286; fight at between station keeper and one 

of Cochise's band, 286 et seq. 
FORT BRECKENRIDGE— Mentioned by Genl. John S. Mason in 

his report, 188; name changed to Fort Grant, 188. 
FORT BUCHANAN— Mentioned by Genl. John S. Mason in his 

report, 185. 
FORT GOODWIN— Mentioned by Genl. John S. Mason in report, 

184. 
FORT GRANT — Formerly Fort Breckenridge; mention of by Genl. 

John S. Mason in his report, 188. 
FORT McDowell — Mentioned by Genl. John S. Mason in his 

report, 185; mentioned by Genl. Irvin McDowell in his report, 

231. 
FORT MOJAVE — Mentioned by Genl. John S. Mason in his report, 

184. 
FORT WHIPPLE — Mentioned by Genl. John S. Mason in report, 

184. 
FORT YUMA — Mentioned by Genl. John S. Mason in his report, 

184. 
FRENCHMEN, TWO — Fight with Indians down on Hassayampa, 

281. 

GAGE, ALMON— Elected Secretary of Council of Fourth Legis- 
lature, 2. 

GARVIN, W. H. — Appointed Adjutant-General, 23. 

GASS, OCTAVIUS D. — Member of Fourth Legislature, 1; elected 
President of Council, 2; represents Mohave and Pah-Ute Coun- 
ties in Fifth Legislature, 33. 



358 INDEX. 

CrIBBINS, ANDKEW S.— Member of Fifth Legislature, 34. 

GIBSON, J. P.— With Joseph Melvin attacked by Indians and 
severely wounded, 308, 309, 

GILES, JAMES S.— Member of Fourth Legislature, 2. 

GONZALES .—Murdered by Indians, 280. 

GOODFELiLOW . — Name of fourth member of prospecting 

party of which James White was a member, 154; shot in foot 
and left behind, 155. 

GOODWIN, FEANCIS H.— Member of Fifth Legislature, 34. 

GOODWIN, GOVERNOR JOHN N.— Accompanies Genl. John S. 
Mason on tour of Territory, 186; makes arrangements to raise 
two companies of Pima and Maricopa Indians; one company 
of Mexicans at Tucson and one at Tubac, 186. 

GOVERNOR— Message of R. C. McCormick to Fourth Legislature, 
2 et seq.; Message of R. C. McCormick to Fifth Legislature, 
34; McCormick takes seat in Congress as Delegate, 09; arrival 
of A. P. K. Safford, 99. 

GRAND CANYON— First known passage of by James White, 122 
et seq.; story of Major Powell's first expedition through Grand 
Canyon, 169 et seq.; distances traversed by Maj. Powell, 180, 
181; mention of second expedition of Maj. Powell, 181. 

GRANT, JAMES— Report of as Territorial Auditor, 14, 15; resigns 
office, 57. 

GREGG, GENERAL — Commended by Fourth Legislature, 18; with 
Genl. Palmer in experience with Apaches, 111 et seq.; issues 
order that all Indians found off reservations be treated as hos- 
tiles, 242; order interfered with by Superintendent of Indian 
Affairs Dent, 242 et seq.; order countermanded by General 
McDowell, 246; succeeds Col. Wallen in northern Arizona, 298; 
commands expedition against hostiles, 299. 

GUNTER, JULIUS— Governor of Colorado, vouches for character 
of James White, 165. 

HADSELL, CHARLES— Murdered by Indians, 319. 

HALL, ANDREW— Member of Maj. Powell's first expedition 
through Grand Canyon, 180. 

HALLECK, MAJOR-GENERAL H. W.— Report, 203 et seq.; re- 
port on Military Conditions in Arizona in 1868, 261 et seq.; 
declares Arizona military district, 298. 

HAMBLIN, JACOB — Diplomat of Mormon Church makes peace 
with Navahoes, 328; description of by Maj. Powell, 329. 

HANCE .—Mention of by J. W. Sullivan, 333. 

HANFORD, G. W.— Member of Fourth Legislature, 2; did not at- 
tend session, 2. 

HARDY, W. H. — Member of Fourth Legislature, 1; corroborates 
statements of Charles McAllister in reference to James White, 
141; his experience with hostile Wallapais, 330. 

HAVASUPAIS.— Treatment of James White in Grand Canyon, 
159, 182. 

HAWKINS, W. RHODES— Member of Maj. Powell's first expedi- 
tion through Grand Cauvon, 180. 

HENION, JOHN— Member of Fourth Legislature, 2; did not at- 
tend session, 2. 



INDEX. 359 

HIGHWAYS AND STREETS— Act passed by Fifth Legislature in 

reference to, 64. 
HINTON, JIM — Employer of James White after latter's trip 

through Grand Canyon, 160. 
HODGES, FRANCIS M.— Member of Fourth Legislature, 2. 
HOOPER, JOSEPH H.— Member of Fifth Legislature from Yuma 

County — did not attend session, 33. 
HOOPEH, WHITING & CO.— Leading merchants of Territory, 328. 
HUALAP'aIS, see Wallapais. 

HUBBARD, LIEUT. — Army officer stationed at Fort Bowie, 102. 
HUNTER, THOMAS THOMPSON — Describes attitude of Indians 

in 1867 and 1868, 285 et seq. 

ILGES, COLONEL— Mentioned by Assistant Inspector General 
Roger Jones in report, 208. 

INDEBTEDNESS— Fourth Legislature memorializes Congress ask- 
ing that certain indebtedness of Territory be assumed by 
Federal Government, 15 et seq. 

INDIAN RESERVATIONS— Need of mentioned by Gov. McCor- 
mick, 7; one only in Arizona, 7; appropriation for improve- 
ments on Colorado River Indian reservation refused by Con- 
gress, 88 et seq. 

INDIANS — Hostile mentioned by Governor MeCormick m his 
message, 2; mentions need of reservations, 7; hostiles again 
referred to by Governor MeCormick in message to Fifth Legis- 
lature 34; mention of in general, 36; sale of liquor to, men- 
tioned by Gov. MeCormick in message to Fifth Legislature, 
41; report of committee of Fifth Legislature, 47 et seq.; kill 
Lieut. Carrol and mail carrier, 103 et seq.; attack Genl. W. J. 
Palmer in command of Kansas Pacific Railway Company's sur- 
veying expedition, 109 et seq.; treatment of James White by 
Havasupais, 159, 182; friendly and hostile tribes mentioned by 
Genl. John S. Mason in his report, 183 et seq.; mentioned in 
report of Assistant Inspector General Jones, 206 et seq.; also 
in reply of General McDowell to report of Assistant Inspector 
General Jones, 215 et seq.; expeditions against described by 
General McDowell, 219 et seq.; steal horses belonging to A. G. 
Dunn, O. Allen, Sheriff Rourke, Ben Block, and Governor Me- 
Cormick, 219, 220; Yavapais mentioned by Lieut.-Col. Price 
as most hostile of Indians, 222; also Wallapais, 222; Descrip- 
tion of Apaches by Lieut. Emory and Capt. Johnstone, 226 
et seq.; River Indians on warpath, 241, 242; General Gregg 
issues order that all Indians found oflE reservations be treated 
as hostiles, 242; order interfered with by Superintendent of 
Indian Affairs Geo. W. Dent, 242 et seq.; Superintendent Dent 
makes treaty with Mohaves and Chimehuevis, 244; General 
McDowell countermands General Gregg's order, 246; report of 
General Thomas E. Devin of expeditions against hostiles, 271 
ct seq.; murders, raids, etc.; names of persons murdered, 
wounded, or robbed by, 279 et seq.; Colonel Price takes war- 
path against Wallapais. 294; article in San Francisco "Call" 
on, 294 et seq.; Indian question still unsolved, 297 et seq.; 
continue raids and massacres, 298 et seq.; attack on S. C. 



360 INDEX. 

Miller's ranch, 300; Apache-Yumas, Apache-Mohaves and Yava- 
pais threaten town of La Paz, 308; murders, raids and attacks 
by, 308 et seq.; attack on Burnt Kanch, 311 et seq.; kill forty- 
eight settlers in and around Prescott and Walnut Grove, 328; 
murder three of Maj. J. W. Powell's men who left him on 
first trip through Grand Canyon, 329; Major Powell sleeps in 
safety among murderers, 329; Major A. J. Doran's experience 
with Pah-Utes, 330; Capt. Thos. J. Jeflford's experience with 
Cochise, 330; W. H. Hardy's experience with Wallapais, 330. 

lERIGATION — Mentioned by Gov. McCormick in message to Fifth 
Legislature, 40, 41. 

IRWIN .—Murdered by Indians, 319. 

ISRAEL .—Murdered by Indians, 319. 

JACKSON, ORICK — In "White Conquest," gives number of whites 
killed by Indians, 284. 

JACOBS, B. M.— Enrolling Clerk of Council, Fifth Legislature, 34. 

JACOBS, L. M. — Engrossing clerk of Council, Fifth Legislature, 34. 

JAMES, GEO. WHARTON— In "In and Around Grand Canyon" 
makes statement that James White worked for Major Powell; 
statement denied by White, 166. 

JAY, LE ROY— Murdered by Indians, 280. 

JEFFORDS, CAPT. THOS. J.— His experience with Cochise, 330. 

JEFFRYES, ELI— Cashier of First Natl. Bank of Trinidad, Colo- 
rado, vouches for character of James White, 165, 166. 

JENKINS, HENRY— Member of Fourth Legislature, 1; member 
of Fifth Legislature, 33; death of, 45. 

JOHNSTONE, CAPT.— Description of Apaches, 227. 

JONES, COL. ROGER — Assistant Inspector General — Makes report 
on Military Operations and Conditions in Arizona in 1866-67; 
makes recommendations as to disposition of troops and loca- 
tion of posts; makes mention of dangers from Indians; men- 
tions inconvenience and discomforts suffered by soldiers, 206 
et seq.; recommendation that department commander for Ari- 
zona be appointed, finally followed out, 235. 

JUSTICES OF PEACE — Fourth Legislature memorializes Congress 
to increase jurisdiction of, 15. 

KANSAS PACIFIC RAILWAY COMPANY— Organizes surveying 
expedition across Arizona for route for southern Railway, 100 
et seq. 

KELLOGG, S. B. — Furnishes corroboration of James White's trip 
through Grand Canyon, 163. 

KING, WILLIAM— With Whitcomb and Boblett attacked by In- 
dians; Whitcomb killed and King severely wounded, 309, 310. 

KIRKLAND . — Builds first road from Tucson to Santa Rita 

Mountains, 327. 

LAMBERTSON, T.— Attacked and wounded by Indians. 279, 280. 

LAND DISTRICT— Fifth Legislature asks Congress for appoint- 
ment of Surveyor-General for, 43, 

LA PAZ — Threatened by Apache-Yumas, Apache-Mohaves and 
Yavapais, 308. 



INDEX. 361 

LAWSON, LIEUT.— Member of Kansas Pacific Railway Com- 
pany's surveying expedition, 102. 

LEGAL — Mention of courts by Gov. McCormick, 12; Congress 
memorialized by Fifth Congress for appropriation to codify 
laws, 43; Judge Backus decides Third, Fourth and Fifth Legis- 
latures illegal, 98; mention of scarcity of courts by Genl. 
McDowell, 233. 

LEGISLATIVE ASSEMBLY— Fourth Session convened at Pres- 
cott, 1; memorializes Congress for regiment of volunteer 
troops; to increase jurisdiction of Justices of Peace; to allow 
duties to be paid in currency; protesting against annexation 
of part of Arizona to Nevada; asking Congress to assume cer- 
tain indebtedness of Territory, and to increase pay of members 
and officers of Legislature, 15 et seq.; passes resolutions that 
request be made that Arizona be made into separate Military 
Department; of commendation for Generals Gregg and Critten- 
den and Colonels Lovell, Sanford and Price, 17 et seq.; report 
of select committee on financial condition of Territory, 19 
et seq.; defeats act to create Maricopa County, 26; conven- 
ing of Fifth, 33; memorializes Congi-ess for appropriation for 
capital building at Tucson, 43; memorializes Congress for au- 
thority to military commanders to arm citizens, 43; memorial- 
izes Congress for extension of time for appropriation of net 
proceeds of Internal Revenue for building of penitentiary, 43; 
memorializes Congress for Mail Route from Tucson to Sasabi 
Flat, 43; memorializes Congress for appropriation for Library, 
43; memorializes Congress for appropriation to codify laws of 
Territory, 43; asks Congress for appointment of Surveyor- 
General for land district of Arizona, 43; Fifth Legislature 
passes resolution requesting Arizona's Delegate in Congress to 
ask for establishment of mail route from Tucson to Wicken- 
burg and for semi-weekly service from Prescott to Albuquer- 
que, N. M., 44; resolution recommending establishment of U. S. 
Depositary at Tucson, 44; joint resolution in nature of appro- 
priation bill, 44; resolution asking Delegate in Congress to 
solicit premium for first person to sink artesian well on desert, 
44; resolution of commendation of Governor McCormick, 45; 
Death of Henry Jenkins, member, 45; A. M. Erwin, member 
elect, killed by Indians, 46; report of committee on Military 
and Indian Affairs, 47 et seq.; estimate of expenses of Terri- 
tory for year ending November 1, 1869, 49, 50; Report of Com- 
mittee on Counties and County Boundaries on boundary be- 
tween California and Arizona, 50 et seq.; Gov. MeCormick's 
appointments submitted to Council, 57; Acts passed by Fifth 
Legislature: Dancing licensed; public highways and streets; 
establishment of public schools; locating Territorial Prison 
at or near town of Phoenix, 63 et seq.; Judge Backus decides 
Third, Fourth and Fifth Legislatures illegal, 98; Congress 
legalizes actions of these Legislatures, 98; in 1871, held m 
Tucson, 99. 

LENNON, JOSEPH C— With Geo. D. Bowers and party attacked 
by Indians, Bowers killed. 310, 311. 

LEWIS, CHARLES W.— Member of Fourth Legislature, 2. 



362 INDEX. 

LEWIS, NATHANIEL S.— Member of Fourth Legislature, 2. 

LIBRARY — Fifth Legislature memorializes Congress for appro- 
priation for Library 43. 

LINDSEY, OLIVER— Member of Fourth Legislature, 2; elected 
Speaker of House, 2; member of Fifth Legislature, 34. 

LIQUOR, SALE OF TO INDIANS — Mentioned by Gov. McCor- 
mick in message to Fifth Legislature, 41. 

LORD, CHARLES H. — Appointed Territorial Auditor July 1, 1868', 
by Gov. McCormick, 57. 

LORD, DR.— Member of firm of Lord & Williams, appointed re- 
ceiver of public moneys in Tucson, 327. 

LORD & WILLIAMS — Leading firm in Tucson, 327. 

LOUNT, DANIEL S. — Member of Fourth Legislature, 1. 

LOVELL, COL. CHAS. S.— Commended by Fourth Legislature, 18; 
succeeds Genl. Mason in southern Arizona, 298; is succeeded 
by Genl. Crittenden, 298. 

McAllister. CHARLES— One of party who rescued James 
White; his description of White's condition, 141. 

McCORMICK, GOV. R. C— Message to Fourth Legislature, 2 et 
seq.; Message to Fifth Legislature, 34 et seq.; makes refer- 
ence to his election as Delegate to Congress in message to 
Fifth Legislature, 42; resolution of commendation of by Fifth 
Legislature, 45; takes seat in Congress as Delegate, 99; owner 
of horse stolen by Indians, 220; severely criticises Genl. Mc- 
Dowell for countermanding General Gregg's order that all In- 
dians found olf reservation be treated as hostiles, 250. 

McCRACKEN, JACKSON— With Lieut. Cradlebaugh, attacked by 
Indians, 283. 

McDowell, genl. IRVIN— Report on conditions m Territory; 
speaks in high commendation of Arizona Volunteers, 190 et 
seq.; criticised bv Assistant Inspector General Jones for mili- 
tary conditions in Arizona, 207 et seq.; replies to report of 
Assistant Inspector General Jones, 215 et seq.; reports on ex- 
peditions against Indians, 219 et seq.; mentions Colonel Mc- 
Garry as celebrated Indian fighter, 223; issues special orders 
No. 39, with reference to location of troops in Arizona, 236 
et seq.; countermands General Gregg's order that all Indians 
found off reservations bo treated as hostiles, 246; severely criti- 
cised by Governor McCormick, 250; second annual report, 250 
et seq."; makes special mention of Lieut. Col. Sanford, 253; 
Capt. J. W. Williams wounded in expedition against hostile 
Indians, 255; makes visit to Arizona; not well liked by people 
of Arizona. 298; succeeded by Genl. Ord, 302. 

McGARRY, COLONEL — Mentioned as celebrated Indian fighter by 
General McDowell, 223. 

McKEY, ALEXANDER— Member of Fourth Legislature, 1; mem- 
ber of Fifth Legislature, 33. 

MAIL CARRIER— Killed by Indians, 103 et seq.; Hualapais 
severely wound mail rider Chas. Spencer, and murder and muti- 
late escorts, 302 et seq. 

MXTL ROUTE — Fifth Legislature memorializes Congress for estab- 
lishment of Mail Route from Tucson to Sasabi Flat, 43; passes 



INDEX. 363 

resolution requesting Delegate in Congress to ask for mail 
route from Tucson to Wickenburg, and for semi-weekly service 
from Prescott to Albuquerque, N. M., 44. 

MAIL SERVICE— Mentioned by Gov. McCormick, 10; poor ser- 
vice mentioned by Genl. McDowell, 233. 

MANNING .—Wounded by Indians, 296. 

MABCY, ED— Killed by Indians, 318. 

MARICOPA COUNTY— Act introduced into Fourth Legislature to 
create, defeated, 26. 

MARION, .lOHN H.— Biography of, 347 et seq.; Death of, 350. 

MASON, GENERAL JOHN S.— Report on Arizona for 1865-66, 
183 et seq.; succeeded by Col. H. D. Wallen and Col. Chas. S. 
Lovcll, 298. 

MATHEWS, JOHN H.— Member of Fourth Legislature, 2. 

MELVIN, JOSEPH— With J. P. Gibson attacked by Indians, 308, 
309, 

MILLER, JAKE — With companion defends Burnt Ranch against 
Indian attack and kills chief, 311 et seq. 

MILLER, S. C. — Indians attack ranch of, brave defense by Mrs. 
Miller, 300. 

MILITARY — Governor McCormick calls attention to insufficient 
forces in Arizona, and urges separate department for Terri- 
tory, 2, 3; Fourth Legislature passes resolution that request 
be made for separate department, 18; Fourth Legislature passes 
resolution of commendation for Generals Gregg and Critten- 
den, and Colonels Sanford and Price, 18, 19; Fifth Legislature 
memorializes Congress to give authority to commanders of posts 
to arm citizens, 43; report of committee of Fifth Legislature, 
47 et seq.; Report of General .lohn S. Mason, makes trip over 
District, accompanied by Governor Goodwin; mentions friendly 
and hostile Indians; mentions arrival of Colonel Wright with 
troops; recommends that two or three companies of native 
Arizona troops be raised, 183 et seq.; Report of General Irvin 
McDowell; speaks in high commendation of Arizona Volun- 
teers, 191 et seq.; report of ex|)edition against Apaches by 
Captain George B. Sanford, 196 et seq.; Report of Major- 
General Halleck, 203 et seq.; Report of Colonel Roger Jones, 
Assistant Inspector General, criticising military operations in 
Arizona, 206 ct seq.; General McDowell's reply to report of 
Assistant Inspector General Jones, 215 et seq.; expeditions 
against Indians described by General McDowell, 219 ct seq.; 
Special Orders No. 39, with 'reference to location of troops in 
Arizona. 236 et seq.; General Gregg issues order that all In- 
dians found off reservations be treated as hostiles, 242; General 
McDowell countermands General Gregg's order, 246; General 
McDowell's second report, 250, et seq.; Major-General H. W. 
Halleck's report, 261 et seq.; General Ord's report, 269 et seq.; 
desertions of soldiers mentioned by General Ord, 269 et seq.; 
report of General Thomas E. Devin of expeditions against hos- 
tile Indians, 271 et seq.; General Mason succeeded by Colonels 
Wallen and Lovell, 298; Colonels Wallen and liovell, succeeded 
by Generals Gregg and Crittenden, 298; Arizona declared mili- 
tary district by Genl. Halleck, 298; General McDowell sue- 



364 INDEX. 

ceeded by General Ord, 302; Genl. Alexander and Major Clen- 
denin hold conference with Delchayha and Skivitkill at Camp 
O'Connell, 304 et seq. 

MINES AND MINING — Mentioned by Gov. McCormick, 8; men- 
tion of by Gov. McCormick in message to Fifth Legislature, 
37 et seq. 

MOHAVE RESERVATION— Indians on, go on warpath, 241, 242. 

MOHAVES — With Chimehuevis, make treaty with Superintendent 
Dent, 244, 

NAVAHOES — Peace made with by Jacob Hamblin, 328. 

OCHOA, ESTEVAN— Member of Council of Fifth Legislature from 
Pima County, 33. 

ORD, GENERAL C. C. — Report on conditions in Arizona in 1868, 
269 et seq.; succeeds General McDowell and announces his 
Indian policy, 302. 

OURY, W. S. — Mention of in connection with Camp Grant mas- 
sacre, 291. 

OWEN, JOHN— Member of Fifth Legislature, 34. 

PAH-UTES — Mentioned by Governor McCormick as hostiles, 2. 

PALMER, GENL. W. J.— Succeeds Genl. W. W. Wright in charge 
of Kansas Pacific Railway Company's surveying expedition, 
101; experiences with Apaches in chasm in MogoUons, 109 
et seq. , 

PARRY, DR. — Geologist of Kansas Pacific Railway Company s 
surveying expedition; his conclusions as to the hydrography 
of the Colorado river, 141 et seq.; wrote account of White's 
trip through Grand Canyon, 144. 

PAY OF LEGISLATORS AND OFFICERS OF TERRITORY— 
Fourth Legislature memorializes Congress for increase in pay 
of, 17. 

PENITENTIARY — Fifth Legislature memorializes Congress for 
extension of time of net proceeds of Internal Revenue for 
building of, 43. 

PENNINGTON, E. C— Murdered by Indians, 319. 

PENNINGTON, GREEN— Murdered by Indians, 319. 

PLATT, MORTIMER R. — Member of Fourth Legislature, 1. 

POLLOCK, MRS. THOMAS — Furnishes corroboration of James 
White's trip through Grand Canyon, 163. 

POSTAL BILL — Amendment to favoring Arizona and other Terri- 
tories passed, 94 et seq. 

POWELL, CAPT. W. H. — Member of Maj. Powell's first expedition 
through Grand Canyon, 180. 

POWELL, MAJOR J. W.— Expedition through Grand Canyon re- 
ferred to by "Rocky Mountain Herald," 145; story of first 
expedition through Grand Canyon, 169 et seq.; distances trav- 
ersed by, 180, 181; mention of second expedition, 181; de- 
scribes Jacob Hamblin, 329; mentions death of three men who 
left him on first trip through Grand Canyon, 329; sleeps in 
safety among murderers, 329. 



INDEX. 365 

PRICE, LIEUTENANT-COLONEL— Commended by Fourth Legis- 
lature, 18; Commands Expedition Against Indians, 222; men- 
tions Yavapais as most hostile tribe, 222; also Wallapais, 222; 
mentioned by Genl. McDowell, 256; takes warpath against 
Wallapais, 294. 

PRISON, TERRITORIAL— Act passed by Fifth Legislature estab- 
lishing same at or near Phoenix, 87. 

PURDY, LIEUTENANT — Commands expedition against Indians, 
219. 

RAILROADS AND TELEGRAPHS— Mentioned in Governor Mc- 
Corniick's message to Fifth Legislature, 35. 

RICHARDSON, ALBERT D.— Makes mention of James White's 
trip through Grand Canyon in "Beyond the Mississippi," 162. 

RICHARDSON, MARVIN M.— Member of Fourth Legislature, 2. 

ROADS AND TRAILS — Mention of by Gov. McCormick in mes- 
sage to Fifth Legislature, 42; General Dcvin mentions building 
of, 276; first road from Tucson to Santa Rita mountains built 
by Kirkland, 327. 

ROCKY MOUNTAIN HERALD— Publishes account of James 
White's trip through Grand Canyon, 145; refers to Major 
Powell's expedition, 145. 

ROURKE, SHERIFF — Owner of horse stolen by Indians, 220. 

RUSH, JOHN A.— Member of Fourth Legislature, 2; biography of, 
31. 

ST. JAMES, LOUIS— With E. A. Bentley when Bentley was mur- 
dered by Indians, 316 et seq. 

SAFFORD, A. P. K. — Governor, arrives in Territory, 99. 

SALPOINTE, BISHOP A. B.— Chaplain of Council, Fifth Legis- 
lature, 34. 

SANFORD, COLONEL GEORGE B.— Commended by Fourth Legis- 
lature, 18; report of expedition against Apaches, mentions 
Lieut. Camillio C. C. Carr, Mr. Max Strobel, Mr. Thomas 
Ewing, 196 et seq.; mentioned by General McDowell in second 
report, 253. 

SAN FRANCISCO "CALL"— Editorial showing feeling towards 
Indians, 294. 

SAXTON, W. M.— Killed by Indians, 296. 

SCHOOLS— Mentioned by Gov. McCormick, 11; Act passed by 
Fourth Legislature empowering Supervisors to establish School 
Districts, 29 et seq.; Act passed by Fifth Legislature estab- 
lishing, 64 et seq. 

SHIBELL, CHAS. A.— In paper read to Pioneers Historical So- 
ciety gives list of murders and outrages by Indians, 318, 319. 

SIMMONS, JOHN W.— Member of Fourth Legislature, 1. 

SKIVITKILL- With Delchayha, holds conference with General 
Alexander and Major Clendcnin, 304 et seq. 

SKULL VALLEY — Many murders by Indians in, 300; Lieut. Hut- 
ton in command of small force in, 300. 



366 INDEX. 

SLATER, JOHN— Murdered by Indians, 319. 

SMITH, JOHN — Member of Fifth Legislature, afterwards known 
as John Y. T. Smith, 34. 

SMITH, W. A.— Known as "Shot Gun Smith"; memorable fight 
against Indians, 289, 290. 

SOCIAL LIFE^ — Mention of by Gov. MeCormiek in message to 
Fifth Legislature, 42. 

SPENCER, CHARLES— Mail carrier attacked by Hualapais, 
severely wounded, and escort murdered and mutilated, 302 
et seq. 

STEVENS, HIRAM S.— Member of Fifth Legislature, 34. 

STEPHENS, LEWIS A.— Member of Fourth Legislature, 1; In- 
dians attack home of during absence attending Legislature; 
brave defense by Mrs. Stephens, 293, 294. 

STICKNEY, DANIEL H.— Member of Fourth Legislature, 1; 
member of Fifth Legislature, 33. 

STONE, COL. — Killed by Indians near Fort Bowie, 286. 

STROBEL, MAX — Civilian who accompanied Capt. George B. San- 
ford on expedition against Apaches, 196 ct seq. 

STROLE, HENRY — Member of prospecting party led by Capt. 
Baker of which James White was also member, 125; drowned 
in waters of Colorado river in Grand Canyon, 133. 

SULLIVAN, HON. J. W.— Biography of, 331 et seq. 

SUMNER, JOHN C. — Member of Maj. Powell's first expedition 
through Grand Canyon, 180. 

SURVEYOR-GENERAL — Fifth Legislature asks Congress for ap- 
pointment of for Arizona, 43. 

TAYLOR, D. L. — Mayor of Trinidad, Colorado, vouches for charac- 
ter of James White, 165. 

TELEGRAPHS — See Railroads. 

TERRITORIAL PRISON— Gov. McCormick mentions Congres- 
sional appropriation for, and recommends selection of site, 13. 

THAYER, JOHN S.— Appointed Probate Judge, July 20, 1868, by 
Gov. McCormick, 58, 

THOMPSON, B. F.— With Augxistus Begole, attacked by Indians, 
Thompson killed and Begole severely wounded, 311. 

TOMLINSON . — Murdered by Indians, 319. 

TOOLE, JAMES H. — Appointed Adjutant-General September 7, 
1868, by Gov. McCormick, 58, 

TRADE RATS— Mention of, 241. 

TRAILS — See Roads and Trails. 

TREASURER, TERRITORIAL— Estimate of expense of running- 
Territory for year ending Nov. 1, 1869, 49, 50; Report of, 59 
et seq. 

TREHAN, WILLIAM — Murdered by Indians, 280. 

TROY, CORPORAL— One of escort of mail rider Spencer, killed 
and mutilated by Hualapais, 302 et seq. 

TUBAC — Mentioned by Genl. John S. Mason in report, 184; de- 
serted on account of hostile Indians, 187. 



INDEX. 367 

TUCSON— Capital located at by Fourth Legislature, 28; men- 
tioned by General John S. Mason as a village, 183; building 
boom in, 327; first survey of by S. W. Foreman, 327; large 
stocks of goods brought into by several firms, 327. 

TULLY, OCHOA & CO.— Leading firm in Tucson, 327. 

TULLY, P. E— Death of, 327. 

TWADDLE, HARVEY— Murdered by Indians, 280. 

U. S. DISTRICT ATTORNEY— Mention by Gov. McCormick of 

office being vacant, 13. 
U. S. MARSHAL— Mention by Gov. McCormick of office being 

vacant, 13, 

VOLUNTEERS — Governor McCormick urges raising of regiment, 
4; General John S. Mason recommends raising of two or three 
companies, 190. 

VULTURE MINE— Mentioned by Governor McCormick in mes- 
sage to Fifth Legislature, 37. 

WALLAPAIS — Mentioned by Governor McCormick as hostiles, 2; 
Mentioned by Licut.-Col. Price as among most dangerous In- 
dians, 222; Colonel Price takes warpath against, 294; severely 
wound mail rider Spencer and kill and mutilate escort, 302 
et seq. 

WALLEN, COL. H. D. — Succeeds Genl. Mason in northern Ari- 
zona, 298; is succeeded by Genl. Gregg, 298. 

WEAPONS, DEADLY — Improper use of forbidden by Act of 
Fourth Legislature, 26 et seq. 

WELLS, JUDGE E. W.— Description of Indian attack on Burnt 
Ranch, 311 et seq. 

WHITCOMB, JOSIAH— With William King and Boblett, attacked 
by Indians; Whitcomb killed and King severely wounded, 
309, 310. 

WHITE, JAMES — First person known to make passage of Grand 
Canyon of Colorado, 122 et seq.; leaves Fort Dodger on Arkan- 
sas River with three companions on prospecting expedition, 
124; attacked by Indians in canyon of Grand River, Captain 
Baker killed, 128; White and one companion. Strole, build raft 
and begin journey, 129; White's companion drowned, 133; 
White's experience with Havasupai Indians, 139; arrives at 
Callville and is rescued by Mormons, 140; story of trip made 
official U. S. Senate document, 144; story of trip written by 
Major Calhoun, member of Kansas Pacific Railway Company's 
surveying expedition, 144; account of trip published in "Rocky 
Mountain Herald," 145; said to have been rescued by Capt. 
Wilburn of barge Colorado, 152; still living at Trinidad, Colo- 
rado; his own story, 153 et seq.; denies statement made by 
Geo. Wharton James that he worked for Maj. Powell, 166. 

WICKENBURG — Vicinity of, scene of many Indian raids and mur- 
ders, 281, 282. 

WILBURN, CAPTAIN— Master of barge Colorado, said to have 
rescued James White, 152. 



368 INDEX. 

WILLIAMS, CAPT. J. W.— Mentioned by Genl. McDowell as hav- 
ing been wounded in Indian fight, 255. 

WILLIAMS, W. W.— Member of firm of Lord & Williams; bi- 
ography of, 327, 328. 

WINDOM, WM. (of Minnesota) — Introduces amendment to Ap- 
propriation Bill in Congress, for appropriation for Improve- 
ments on Colorado Kiver Indian reservation, 88. 

WEIGHT, GENL. W. W. — In charge of surveying expedition of 
Kansas Pacific Eailway, 100. 

YAVAPAIS — Mentioned by Governor McCormick as hostiles, 2; 

With Apache-Yumas and Apache-Mohaves, threaten town of 

La Paz, 308. 
YEEIiES, THOMAS— Mention of, 318. 

ZULICK, HON. C. MEYEE— Mention of, 350. 



=• * 



i m$ 



Wi 



^. 










/^^ Xj 



^MS^ 




mur^