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Gc M. lJ 


At2i ! 

1227224 I 


, 3 1833 01095 0548 







Lawrence, Kansas 





In the preparation and compilation of this history, no effort has heen 
made to interpret the logic or spirit of events that surmnnded the birth and 
progress of Atchison Cdunty. The work was undertaken with the idea of com- 
piling a narrative plainly told, of the people and the institutions here. I was 
interested in putting in permanent form chronologically the events that have 
transpired in the past- sixty years, that have made for the political, social, 
moral and commercial develo]>ment of the county, but, had 1 realized in 
advance the many hours of laijijr and patient study it required, the work of 
completing the task in six months would not have been attempted. I am 
very deeply conscious of the imperfections of the completed work, l:)ut had 
there been more time for research and study, much nu'ght ha\'e l^een included 
that does not appear. 

It would be ingratitude if no acknowledgment were made at the outset, 
of the obligation I am under to George J. Remsburg for the assistance he 
has rendered me. Without his unfailing courtesy, kindness and help I should 
never have been able to do the work at all. His aliility as a local historian 
is truly marvelous. He wrote- two chapters of the history and contributed 
most of the matter touching upon the founding of cities and to\\n>. It is to 
be regretted that the condition of his health prevented him from undertaking 
the work which I have so imperfectly done. 

Acknowledgment is also due George A. Root of the State Historical 
Societv. wlio rendered me invaluable assistance, and to the .l.'chisoii 
D'.iilv Gliihr. from \\lio-,f iiles I gathered much important data. \'or can I 
fail to give proper credit to Andreas' History of Kansas, from which a wealth 
of information has been secured. D. Anna Speer, county superintendent, 
collected for me most of the historical matter relative to the schools of the 
county and Professor Xathan T. Veatch was more than kind in preparing for 
me a sketch of the Atchison city schools. 

And mv dear mother, a loyal resident of Atchison since July, 1859. 
intimately identified with its history and growth for fifty-seven years, has 
\-isualized to me as n(T other could, the story of the early days. Remarkable 
as a mother, loved and adored bv all her children, she is no less remarkable 

as a woman, stalwart, rugged and iDUoyant. She li\ed her young life with 
the pioneers of Atchison, and now in the fullness of her years she looks over 
the past, so full of pleasures, trihulations and sorrows, with gladness and 
resignation, and faces the future with a detennined spirit and a Ijrave heart. 
To the ministers of the various churches of Atchison and to Professor 
Erasmus Haworth and Charles H. Taylor, the county farm agent, and to 
many other good people of Atchisn, I entertain sentiments of the deepest 
appreciation, and if any of them ever undertakes the work of writing a his- 
toi"y, I shall gladly render them any service in my power. 

Atchison, Kan., March 6, 1916. 


Abell, P. T 295 

Adams, John P 488 

■Adams, Mary A 584 

Adams, William 584 

Adams, S. W 520 

Atcliison County Court House 57 

Atchison County High School, Effing- 
ham 274 

Ballinger and Wife, S. E 648 

Ballinger, Julia H 600 

Ballinger, Thomas E 600 

Barber, Moses 672 

Barber, Mary 672 

Beard and Family, Frank 704 

Blodgett, Thomas L 624 

Boyington, Home of Frank W. and 

Julia 584 

Burbank, E. G 520 

Burrows. C. H 544 

Bush, William H 464 

Buttron, Henry and Family 472 

Carnegie Library, Atchison 289 

Challis, William L 307 

Cheseborough, Ellsworth 193 

Christian Church, Atchison 249 

Cirtwill, Jennie -712 

Cochrane, Dr. W. W 307 

Commercial Street, Atcliison 66 

Conlon, Charles J 488 

Deutsch, Julius 520 

Dorssom, George 464 

Du Bois and Wife, Lewis P 768 

Eagles' Home, Atchison 330 

Effingham Street Scene ill 

Elks' Club House, Atchison 329 

Falk, Charles H 464 

First Church of Christ, Scientist 255 

Forest Park, Atchison 80 

Fox, Jared C 408 

Click, George W , 3Sr 

Graner's Sale 7S5 

Graner, Gottlieb - 7S4 

Graner, H. C - - 7X5 

Graner Homestead 784 

Graner, Martha 784 

Graner, W. H 785 

Griffin, L 680 

Gundy, Charles T 560 

Ham and Wife, i\Lartin W 608 

Hansen, H. C 520 

Hart, C. C 792 

Harvey, Albert B 440 

Harwi, Alfred J 416 

Hazel, Ernest C 744 

Highfill, Thomas 704 

Hines, Michael J 464 

Hooper, Daniel E 616 

Hospital, Atchison 57 

Hughes, Bela i\I 193 

Ingalls, John J 392 

Ingalls Scliool, Atchison 279 

Ingalls, Sheffield — Frontispiece 

Jackson, William A 488 

Jackson Park, Entrance 172 

Jewell, L. M 536 

Johnson, George H. T 456 

Kaaz, Julius 688 

Keirns, Gail Maxine 568 

Keith, U. S 544 

Keithline, Andrew 432 

King, S. S 560 

Kingman. S. C 295 

Kuhn, Julius 592 

Laird, • Britamore 736 

Laird, Marcus J 736 

Lane, Jim 1S9 


Mangelsdorf Building 312 

Martin, Col. J. A 297 

Masonic Temple, Atchison 327 

Million, George 200 

Morrow, James G 384 

Mt. St. Scholastica's Academy, .Atch- 
ison 286 

Muscotah School Building loS 

IVIuscotah Street Scene 107 

Xewcomb, Don C 424 

Kewcomb, D. C., Residence of 426 

Old High School Building, Atchison .... 268 

Orr, James W 360 

Orr, J. W., Residence nf ___ __ 362 

Orphans" Home, General \"ie\v 2^ 

Orphans' Home, Main I'juililing 19 

Overland Freighting 16 

Perdue, Edward 576 

Plumnier and Wife, T. 696 

Pomeroy, S. 189 

Potter Street Scene 124 

Potter School House 126 

Post Office, Atchison 35 

Presbyterian Cliurch, Atchison 250 

Presbyterian Cluirch, Effingham 112 

Remsburg, George 504 

Remsburg, John E 504 

Sanders, B. F s68 

Scarborough, William 200 

Seaton, John 376 

Sharp, Harry L 512 

Sharpless, U. B 560 

Simmons, O. A 800 

Speer, D. Anna 7/6 

Stringfellow, Gen. B. F 297 

St. Benedict's Abbey, Atchison 263 

St. Benedict's College, Atchison 291 

Storch, George 448 

Sutter and Wife, Fred 752 

Sutter. Fred, Residence of 753 

Sutter Homestead 840 

Thompson and Wiie. George W 664 

Tliompson, Matilda 720 

Trimble, Roy C _ 488 

\'oelker, C. M 560 

Waggener, Balie P. 


Walker, Claudius D 


Wards of the State 


Wilson, Charles ... 


Wilson, Marv K. ... 


Wolf, Rt. Rev. Innocent 


Y. M. C. A. Building, Atchison .... 




Fossils — Evidences of Early Animal and Plant Life — Geological Ages 

— Rock Formation — Glacier Period — Minerals Paees 17-20 




Evidences of Paleolithic Alan — .\n Ancient Fortification — Aboriginal 

^^illage and Camp Sites — The Ingalls and Other Mounds — Pages 21-24 



Harahey, an Indian Province of Coronado's Time — The Kansa Nation 
— Bourgmont's Visit in 1724 — Council on Cow Island in 1819 — 
The Kickapoo Indians Pages 25-30 



Coronado in 1541 — The Bourgmont Expedition in 1724 — Perin Du ^.^■■ 
Lac — Lewis and Clark — First Fourth r)f July Celebration — 
Major Stephen H. Long — Cantonment Martin — Isle au Vache 
— Other E.xplorers — Paschal Pensoneau — The Old ^Military Road 
— The Monnons Pages 31-36 




Territory Acquired From France in 1803 — Organization of the Terri- 
tory — Kansas-Nebraska Act — Immigration to Kansas — Territorial 
Government — Free State and Pro-Slavery Conflict — First Elec- 
tion — Secret Political Organizations — Border War xA^ctivities and 
Outrages — Contests Over Adoption of Constitution — Kansas Ad- 
mitted to the Union Pages 37-63 



One of the Thirty-three Original Counties — City of Atchison Located — 
Town Company — Sale of Lots — Incorporation of Town — Early 
Business Enterprises — Organization of County — Commercial 
Growth — Freighting — First Officers — Free State and Pro-Slavery 
Clashes — Horace Greeley Visits Atchison — Abraham Lincoln 
INIakes a Speech Here — Great Drouth of i860 — City Officials. . . . 
Pages 64-83 



Sumner, Its Rise and Fall — Ocena — Lancaster — Fort William — Ar- 
rington — ]\Iuscotah — Effingham — Huron — Old ]\Iartinsburg — 
Bunker Hill — Locust Grove — Helena — Cayuga — Kennekuk — 
Kapioma — Alashenah — St. Nicholas — Concord — Parnell — Shan- 
non — Elmwood — Cummingsville — Eden Postof fice — Potter — 
Mt. Pleasant — Lew^is' Point — Farley's Ferry Pages 84-128 



7'he Issue Between Early Settlers — Influx of Free State and Pro- 
Slavery Partisans — Early Volunteering — Military Organiza- 
tions — Threatened Invasion from Missouri — Political Societies 
— Jayhawkers — Cleveland's Gang — Lynchings — Atchison Coun- 
ty Troops in the War — Price's Attempted Invasion Pages 129-150 




Pioneer Transportation — Early Ferries and Rates — Famous River 
Boats — Steamboat Lines to Atchison — Steamboat Registers. . . 
Pages 1 51-157 



Atchison as an Outfitting Point — Freigliting Companies — Principal 
Routes — Stage Lines — Overland Mail Routes — Ben Holladay — 
"Butterfield's Overland Dispatch" — Time to Denver — Tables of 
Time and Distances on Various Routes — Statistical Pages 158-173 



Early Railroad Agitation — The First Railroad — Celebrating the Ad- 
vent of the Railroad — Other Roads Constructed — The Santa Fe 
— The xA.tchison & Xebraska City — The Kansas City. Leaven- 
worth & Atchison— The Rock Island— The Hannibal & St. 
Joseph — The First Telegraph — ^Modern Transportation. .Pages 




D. R. Atchison — Matt Gerber — J. H. Talbott — William Osborne — 
John W. Cain — W. L. Challiss — George Scarborough — Samuel 
Hollister — John Taylor — John M. Cromwell — Luther Dicker- 
son — Luther C. Challiss — George W. Click — A\'. K. Grimes — 
Joshua Wheeler — William Hetherington — William C. Smith — 
John M. Price— Samuel C. King— Clem Rohr— R. H. Weight- 
man — Case of Major Weightman Pages 





An .Agricultural Community — Scientific Farming — Farmers, the 
Aristocracy of the \\'est — Modern Improvement — Topography 
— Soil — Statistics Pages 213-216 


Influence of Xewspapers — Part Played by the Early Press — Squat- 
ter Soz'crcign — Freedom's Champion — Champion and Press — 
Pioneer Editors — Later Xewspapers and Xewspaper Men.... 
Pages 2 1 7-233 



Early Day Banking — Pioneer Financiers — The Oldest Bank — Pri- 
vate, State and National Banks — Atchison County Bankers 
and the Development of Banking Institutions Pages 234-244 



INIethodist — Christian — Presbyterian — Baptist — Salem Church — 
German Evangelical Zion Church — First Church of Christ, 
Scientist — St. Patrick's, Mt. Pleasant — Trinity Church, Episco- 
pal — St. Mark's, English Lutheran — St. Benedict's Abby— First 
German Evangelican Lutheran Church Pages 245-263 



Establishment of the Public School System — Pioneer Schools and 
Early Teachers — Districts — Statistics — Atchison County High 
School — County Superintendents of Public Instruction — Atchi- 
son City Schools — Private Schools — Mt. St. Scholastica's Acad- 
emy — Parochial Schools — Midland College and Western Theo- 
logical Seminary — St. Benedict's College Pages 266-292 




Early Mecca oi Legal Talent — Organization of Judicial District — 
Early Judges — Prominent Pioneer Lawyers — ^Members of the 
Atchison County Bar Pages 293-301 



First Physicians — Early Practice — Pioneer Remedies — Modern 
Medicine and Surgery — Prominent Physicians and Surgeons — 
Atchison County Medical Society Pages 302-310 



^luch Wealth and Enterprise Aljound — [Manufacturing- — Milling — 
Extensi\e \Miolesale Hardware antl Grocery Establishments — 
Planing Mills — \'arious Jobbing and Retail Interests. . . .Pages 311-317 



Atchison Postoffice — Court House — County Hospital — Young 
Men's Christian Association — State Orphans' Home — Atchi- 
son Public Library — Atchison Hospital — Masonic Temple .... 
Pages 318-327 



Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks — Fraternal Order of 
Eagles — Atchison County Protective Association — Secret Socie- 
ties — Catholic Societies Pages 328-333 




Early-day Conditions — Their Advancement — Prior Dickey — Henry 
C. Buchanan — Eugene L. Bell — Charles Ingram — Charles J- 
Ferguson — Henry Dickey — Dr. Erank Adrian Pearl, I\I. D. — 
Dr. W. W. Caldwell, M. D Pages 334-344 



County, Township and School Officers Pages 345-350 




Abner, John W 534 

Adams, John P 488 

Adams, Stark W 524 

Alkire, Charles L 726 

Allen, Edmond W 755 

Allen, Joseph W 476 

Allison, Ralph A 75i 

Anderson, George V 836 

Arensberg, L. C 611 

Armstrong, James L 733 

Arthur, Joseph N 422 

Atkin, Paul 859 

Babcock, O. M 59i 

Bailey, Willis J 882 

Baldwin, Royal 830 

Ballinger, Thomas E 600 

Ballingcr, Samuel E 648 

Barber, Herbert J 672 

Barker, Charles E 682 

Barker, O. 761 

Barnes, Asa 715 

Barry, John H ■. 481 

Bean, John H 708 

Beard, Frank 704 

Beckman, Carl L 382 

Behen, James E 796 

Belz, John 884 

Best, Aaron S 379 

Beyer, David 822 

Beyer, John 731 

Bilderback, Allen T 738 

Binkley, Fred 852 

Bishop, Frank W 876 

Bishop, Robert F 596 

Blair, Albert H 454 

Blair, John L 586 

Blodgett, Thomas L 624 

Boos. Nicholas 699 

Boyington, Julia E. A 584 

Bradley, Lewis 819 

Brockett, Benton L 637 

Brown, George L 837 

Brown, Thomas 452 

Brown, Walter E 519 

Bullock, Edmund S47 

Burbank, E. G 520 

Burrows, Charles H 547 

Bush, William H 464 

Bushey, Calvin 871 

Buttron, Henry 472 

Buttron, Jacob 72S 

Calvert, Alexander H, . 747 

Calvert, Presley H 848 

Cha«ant, W. D 727 

Chandler, Charles A - 716 

Cirtwill, Jennie 712 

Clapp, Alva 447 

Clem, William J 406 

Cleveland, Richard B 834 

Cline, Thomas L 656 

Cloves, Marshall J 571 

Coliett, W. B 612 

Collins, Davis W 832 

Conlon, Charles J 494 

Conlon, John F 495 

Cortelyou, Luther 757 

Coupe, Joseph 375 

Cummins, Barney 445 

Curtis, Benjamin P 531 

Davis, Cyrus E 470 

Dawdy, Drennan L 808 

Deutsch, Julius 523 

Donnellan, William R 538 

Dooley, James 613 

Dorssom, George 468 

Drimmel, John 854 

Du Bois, Lewis P 768 

Duncan, John E 620 

Dunlap, Rienzi 1\I 767 

Dysinger, Holmes 724 


Evans. Aaron B 749 

Falk, Charles H 46; 

Fankhanel, John 635 

Ferguson, Charles W 581 

Ferris, John 734 

Fie.chter, Samuel E 71' 

Finnegan, Thomas 647 

Fleming, John 604 

Flynn, J. F ■ 743 

Forbriger, Robert 658 

Fox, Jared C 408 

Frable, Thomas - 359 

Fuhrman, Charles H 460 

Fuhrman, Rinhold 50^ 

Garside, James H 880 

Gault, Thomas 495 

Gibson, George W 823 

Gibson, Joseph E 5^9 

Giffstarl. Knu.l G. ._ _ 439 

(M^Mii.i. I >ir (; _ 480 

(.llni.ur. l-:;.,-I \ 415 

Glatttcklcr, Henry 741 

Glick, George W 35i 

Goodwin, George S33 

Gragg, James R 54-2 

Graner, Henry C 78/ 

Graner, William H 784 

Grecnawalt, Joseph C - 778 

Griffm. John _ - 821 

Gnffui, Lawrence 6S0 

Grimes, Robert L 642 

Gundy, Charles T 565 

Guthrie, Warren W 483 

Hackney, Hiram H 660 

Ham, Bishop K 608 

Ham, W. Perry 702 

Hamon, Alferd J 820 

Hansen, H. C 521 

Harvey, Albert B 440 

Harwi, Alfred J 416 

Harwi, Frank E 419 

Hart, Charles C , 792 

Hartman, Fred 797 

Hartman, William 828 

Hastings, Z. S 436 

Hawk, John D 670 

Hawk, Lafayette T 539 

Hawk, Rutherford B 868 

Hazel, Ernest C 744 

Hekelnkaemper Brothers 804 

Hendee, George E 429 

Henderson, William 535 

Hetherington, Wirt 510 

Highfill, Thomas 706 

Higley, Clem P 806 

Hines,. Michael J 465 

Hixon, Charles L 577 

Holmes, James 1 841 

Hooper, Abraham 616 

Hooper, George R 867 

Horan, Michael J 501 

Horner, Thomas E 527 

Howe, Edgar W 844 

Hubbard, Lewis H 815 

Hubbard, William E 807 

Hubbard, William S 759 

Hulings, Mark H 605 

Hunn, Frank J 824 

Hutson, William T 73° 

Ingalls, John J 392 

Ingalls, Sheffield 632 

Intfen, Theo 645 

Jackson, Horace M 353 

Jackson, William ■ A 490 

Jackson, Zaremba E 356 

Jewell, Lumas M 53^ 

Johnson, Charles H 458 

Johnson, George H. T 456 

Jones, Earl V 582 

Kaaz, Julius 688 

Kammer, Karl A 570 

Kanning, Christ 644 

Kaufman. Fred W 781 

Keitli, Uri S 544 

Keithline, Andrew 432 

Keithline, Charles J 630 

Kelly, Edward J 635 

King, Richard E 788 

King, Samuel S 564 

Kistler, William D 430 

Klein, :Martin 442 

Kloepper, Louis 580 


Koester, Frederick W 5SI 

Kramer, John A ■_ 883 

Kuehnhoff, Henry 513 

Kuehnhoff, Louis R 567 

Kiilin, Julius 592 

Laird, Marcus J 7.56 

Lange, Arnold 783 

Lange, Charles 725 

Lilly, C. A 818 

Lincoln, Frederick W 692 

Linley, Charles 461 

Linley, Charles H 610 

Loudenback, Henry H 653 

Low, Hal C 77S 

Lord, Samuel L 686 

Lukens, Charles AI 762 

]\IcAdani, William 399 

McCullough, Edward B 599 

Mclnteer. John 651 

McKclvy, William A 865 

Mangdsdorf, Albert H 852 

Mangelsdorf, August 856 

Mangelsdorf, Frank A 858 

Mangelsdorf, William 850 

Markwalt, Aniel 556 

Martin, Sidney 393 

Mayhew, Albert E 3/2 

Miller, John O. A 791 

Moeck, John 790 

Moore, June E 701 

Morrow, James G 384 

Myers, Charles 552 

Xass, John H 722 

Xewcomb, Don C 424 

Niemann, Henry 780 

Nitz, William M 740 

North, Howard E 698 

Nusbaum, Leo 629 

Oliver, John R 626 

Orr, Louis C .'. 381 

Orr, James W 360 

Parsons, Peter 861 

Peery, Rufus B ". 557 

Pennington, James E 411 

Perdue, Edward 5/6 

Pfouts, Ralph U 479 

Pike, Napoleon B 516 

Finder, Robert 675 

Pitts. E. P 634 

Plummer, Thomas 696 

Potter. Thomas J 677 

Power. Grace E 718 

Price, John M 811 

Raterman, John L 559 

Redmond, George W 689 

Remsburg, George J 508 

Remsburg, John E 504 

Reynolds, John A 838 

Robinson, Charles W 650 

Royer, Boyd 814 

Rudolph, Harrison W 598 

Ryan, William 879 

Sanders, Benjamin F 568 

Schaefer, George H. T 554 

Schapp, William 622 

Schiffbauer, Henry 862 

Scholz, George 526 

Scholz, John A Si7 

Schrader, George 729 

Schurman, Arthur S 816 

Scoville, Orlando C 389 

Seaton, John 376 

Sharp, Harry L 512 

Sharpless, Ulysses B 560 

Shaw, Benjamin F 679 

Shelly, Edwin T 843 

Shortridge, Alfred 589 

Simmons, Oscar A 800 

Smith, Albert J 61S 

Smith, W. H 473 

Smith, Wilson R 4-'7 

Snyder, Mark D 574 

Speck. A. S. 640 

Specr. Andrew 710 

Specr. L). Anna _ 776 

Speer, William F S46 

Stanley, Wilfull A 497 

Stever, Abram 434 

Stoddard, John 748 

Storch, George 448 

Stutz, Christian W 499 

Stutz, Gustave 695 

Stutz, John 639 


Sullivan, John E 684 

Sullivan, John Edward 765 

Sullivan, Roger P 602 

Sutter, Frank 607 

Sutter, Fred 75^ 

Sutter, William 840 

Symns, Andrew B 365 

Thomas, Robert M 397 

Thompson, George W 664 

Thompson, William H 720 

Tomlinson. B. F 668 

Treat, Thomas C 458 

Trimble, James M 764 

Trimble, Roy C 492 

Trompeter, Joseph 421 

Trueblood, Alva C 40S 

Tucker, Thomas W 742 

Valentine, John C 693 

Vansell, Martin C 873 

Veatch, Xathan T 733 

Voelker, Conrad ]\I 562 

Waggener, Balie P 368 

Wagner, Frank J 827 

Walker, Claudius D 400 

Walter, H, B 803 

Warren, William T 849 

Watowa, Frank J 818 

Watowa, Joseph H 732 

Weber, Peter 594 

Wehking, William 828 

Wertz, Frank P 655 

Wheeler, D. N SU 

White, George E 663 

Wilson, James E 549 

Wolf, August J 826 

Woodworth, Edwin S 772 

Woodford, Frank M 723 

Young, William 794 

History of Atchison County 





The oldest citizens of Atchison county are the animals and plants whose 
fossil remains now lie buried in the solid rocks. These denizens of long ago, 
by their lives, made it possible for later and better citizens to live and flour- 
ish in the happy and contented homes of her best citizens of the present 
day. Long before man ever saw Atchison county — long before man lived 
anywhere upon this earth, the seas swarmed with animal life and the dry 
lands supported a fauna and a flora substantially as great as those of the 
present time. 

Tn character the animals and plants of those early days were very dif- 
ferent from those of the present time. Almost all of their kind long ago be- 
came extinct. It is only the few who have living representatives anywhere 
in the world today, and they are degraded in form and size as though they 
had long outlived their usefulness. Some of the animals live in the waters 
of distant oceans, such as the brachiapods and other shell fish ; the crinoids 
or sea. lilies, and others of like character. On the dry land we find a few in- 
sects of the cock-roach type and other creeping things which inhabit dark 
and damp places, animals of gloom on whose forms the sunshine of day 
rarely falls. 

The plants, likewise, are degraded in size and form. The modern bull- 
rushes of our swamps are descendants of ancient giants of their kind which 


grew to ten or twenty times the size of their modern representatives. The 
little creeping vines sometimes found in the shaded forest are lineal descend- 
ants of the mighty trees of the forests in the long ago while miterials were 
gathering for the rock masses constituting Atchison county. 

In order to converse rationally about geological time it has been found 
most convenient to divide time into periods in accordance with great natural 
events, and to give a name to each period that in some way expresses some- 
thing desirable to be known and remembered. Usually geographic names of 
areas where rock masses are exposed to the surface of the ground are chosen, 
or soine favorite geographic term may be used, and in rare instances some 
quality name expressive of the character or composition of the rocks. 

Following the best usage of geologists the rocks exposed at the surface 
all belong to the age known as the Carboniferous which lies at the tO £ of the 
Paleaozoic, or ancient life rocks. The Carboniferous is divided and sulj- 

divided into a number of divisions, the lowermost of which has been named 
the Mississippian on account of their great abundance throughout the Missis- 
sippi valley. Above the Mississippian we find a mass of alternating beds of 
shale and limestone and sandstone aggregating about 2,500 feet in thick- 
ness, called the Pennsylvanians, a term borrowed from the State of Pennsyl- 
vania, where rocks of the same age so abound. Rocks formed during the re- 
mainder of geologic time are not found in Atchison county, except the cover- 
mg of soil and clay so abundant throughout the county. An old-time name 
for the Pennsylvanian rocks is the coal-measures, a term now on the decline 
because the newer names — well, it is newer. 

It appears that from the close of the Pennsylvanian time to the present 
.Atchison county has been dry land. At one time, quite recently, as geologists 
reckon time, climatic conditions changed so that the snow falling during the 
winter could not be melted during the summer, so that to the far north great 
quantities of snow and ice accumulated and gradually spread over the sur- 
face of a large part of North America. One limb of this ice mass moved 
slowlv southward and covered all of Atchison county, and much adjacent 
territory, and brought with it vast quantities of soil and clay and gravel that 
the ice sheet, as a great scraper, picked up from the surface as it came along. 
When the ice finally, melted this debris was left, like a mantle of snow, cov- 
ering the entire surface of Atchison county. 

The rocks of Pennsylvanian age have within them much of value econom- 
ically. Here and there inter-stratified with the sandstone and shale are large 
.-ind valuable beds of coal, as is abundantly shown bv the drilled wells and 


Uiilding State OiplKuis' Home, Atchison, 

coal shafts within the county. It is probahle that ahnost the entire county is 
underlaid with this- same bed of coal, and if so it is worth substantially as 
much to the county as is the surface soil. It lies at so great a depth that it 
may be mined without any danger whatever of disturbing the surface. 

The large amount of good hard limestone in the county guarantees an 
everlasting supply of stone for road making, railroad ballast, crushed rock 
for concrete works and all other uses to which such limestone may be put. 
With the Missouri river on the eastern boundary carrying unlimited amounts 
of sand Atchison county is well supplied with every material needed for un- 
limited amounts of mortar construction of all kinds. Recently, since Port- 
land cement construction has so effectually replaced stone masonry, this be- 
comes a very important matter. 

Should market conditions ever become favorable it is also possible to 
manufacture the best grades of Portland cement by properly combining the 


limestones and shales of the county. Their chemical and physical properties 
are admirably suited for such purposes. 

There is a possibility that somewhere within the county oil and gas may 
be found by proper prospecting. As no search for these materials has yet 
been made it is impossible to say what the results might be. Atchison county, 
however, lies within the oil zone that has been proven to be so much farther 
south, and until proper search has been made no one can say that oil and gas 
cannot be found here also. 





How long the region embraced in Atchison county has been the home 
of man is not known, but the finding of a prehistoric human skeleton, com- 
puted by the highest anthropological and geological authorities to be at least 
10,000 years old, in the adjoining count}' of Leavenworth, favors the pre- 
sumption that what is now Atchison county was occupied by man at an equally 
remote period. Evidences of a very early human existence here have been 
found at various times. Near Potter, in this county, the writer found deep 
in the undisturbed gravel and clay, a rude flint implement that uncjuestionably 
had been fashioned by prehistoric man, evidently, of what is known as the 
^Paleolithic period. In drilling the well at the power house of the Atchison 
Street Railway, Light and Power Company, the late T. J. Ingels, of Atchison, 
encountered at a great depth, several fragments of fossilized bone, inter- 
mingled with charcoal, evidently the remains of a very ancient fireplace. 
About i8So, M. M. Trimmer, an Atchison contractor, in opening a stone 
quarrv at the northeast point of the Branchtown hill, near the confluence of 
\Vhite Clay and Brewery creeks, in Atchison, unexpectedly encountered a pit 
or excavation, eighty feet long, sixty feet wide, and eighteen feet deep, in 
the solid rock formation of the hill. The surface of the hill is composed of 
drift or gravel, and the pit had become filled with this gravel to the original 
surface, thus obliterating all external evidences of its existence. The lower 
layer of stone, about six inches thick, had been left for a floor in the pit, and 
in the northwest comer this lower strata of stone for about four feet square 
had been removed. Water issued from the ground at this point indicating 
that a spring or well, or source of water supply, had been located here. A 



careful examination of the place at the time showed unmistakably that this 
excavation had been made by human hands at a very early period and was 
probably used as a fortification or defensive work. Prehistoric excavations 
of this character, made in the solid rock, are common in Europe, but almost 
unknown in America, except in the cases of ancient flint and steatite quar- 
ries, and the absence of either in the Atchison formation, except an occasional 
flint nodule, precludes the possibility that this was just an aboriginal quarry. 
The Smithsonian authorities at Washington pronounced the work worthy of 
careful study, but unfortunately it was obliterated by the progress of the 
quarrying. Many weapons and implements of the stone age have been found 
in the vicinity of this pit. 

Almost the entire surface of Atchison county, particularly where border- 
ing streams, presents various traces of aboriginal occupancy, from the silent 
sepulchers of the dead and the mouldy rubbish of the wigwam, to the solitary 
arrowhead lost on the happy chase or the sanguinary war path. In many 
places these remains blend into the prehistoric, semi-historic and historic 
periods, showing evidences of a succession of occupancy. For instance we 
find the Neolithic stone celts or hatchets, the Neoeric iron tomahawks ; frag- 
ments of fragile earthenware, mixed and moulded by the prehistoric potter, 
■ and bits of modern decorated porcelain made by some pale-faced patterner 
of Palissy; ornaments of stone^ bone and shell; trinkets of brass and beads 
of glass, intermingled in confusion and profusion. These numerous relics 
of different peoples and periods, showing, as they do, diverse stages of cul- 
ture and advancement, warrant the opinion that Atchison county, with its 
many natural advantages, was a favorite resort of successive peoples from 
time immemorial. Favorably situated at the great western bend of the Mis- 
souri river and at the outskirts of which was one of the richest Indian hunting 
grounds in the great wild West,' embracing and surrounded by every natural 
advantage that would make it the prospective and wonted haunt of a wild- 
race, it was a prehistoric paradise, as it is today, a modern Arcadia. 

The writer has personally examined hundreds of ancient Indian village, 
camp and workshop sites, and opened a number of niounds in Atchison county. 
The first ancient mounds ever opened in tlie county were on a very rugged 
hill known as the "Devil's Backbone," bordering Owl creek, and overlooking 
the Missouri river, in 1891. There were two of them, and they contained 
stone sepulchers in which the Indians had cremated their dead. Other stone 
grave mounds have been opened on the farms of John Myers, on Independ- 
ence creek, in the northeastern part of the county : ^laurice Fiehley, on 


State Orphans' Home, Atchison, Kan. 

Stranger creek, near Potter; George Storch. on Alcorn or Whiskey creek, 
just south of Atchison, and in several other places. The most interesting 
mound ever excavated in the county, however, was what is known as the In- 
oalls Mound, on land belonging to the estate of the late United States Senator 
John j. Ingalls, (?n a bluff of the Missouri river, at the mouth of Walnut 
creek, about five miles below Atchison. This mound was discovered by Sen- 
ator Ingalls at an early day, and opened by the writer in 1907. It was fifteen 
feet in diameter, and was composed of alternate layers of stone and earth 
one on top of the other, the remains of several Indians being imbedded in the 
earth between the layers of stone. These remains were in a bad state of decay, 
most of the bones crumbling while being removed. The bones of each per- 
son had been placed in the mound in compact bundles, which seems to indi- 
cate that they had been removed from some temporary place of interment, 
perhaps from dilapidated scaffold burials, and deposited here in final sepul- 
ture. In some of the layers not only the bones but the rocks and earth were 
considerably burned, indicating incinerary funeral rites, while in others there 
were not the least marks of fire. The undermost laver, about three feet from 


the top, was a veritable cinder pit, being a burned mass or conglomerate of 
charcoal and charred and calcined human remains, showing no regularity or 
outline of skeletons, but all in utter confusion. A solitary pearl bead was 
the only object that withstood the terrible heat to which the lower tier of re- 
mains had been subjected. In one of the upper tiers were the bones of two 
infants. With one of them was a necklace of small shells of a species not 
native here. With another bundle of bones were two small, neatly chipped 
flint knives, a flint scraper, a bone whistle or "call," several deer horn imple- 
ments, and a large flint implement of doubtful usage, known to archeologists 
as a "turtle-back," because of its shape. With another bundle of bones, and 
which they seemed to be clasping, were several mussel shells, badly decom- 
posed. One small ornament of an animal or bird claw, several flint arrow- 
heads, and some fragments of pottery, were also found. In one of the skulls 
was embedded the fhnt blade of a war-club. Thirty-one yards northwest of 
this mound was found another of less prominence. It contained a burned 
mass of human reinains, covered with a layer of about six inches of clay, 
baked almost to the consistency of brick. Lack of space forbids a mention 
of many other interesting archaeological discoveries made in this county from 
time to time. Suffice to say that there is ample evidence that within the bor- 
ders of Atchison county there lived and thrived and passed away a consider- 
able aboriginal population. 






There is nothing definite to show that Coronado ever reached the con- 
fines of what is now Atchison county in 1541, as some historical writers ha\-e 
seen fit to state, but there is a probabihty that the Indian province of Harahey, 
which the natives thereof told him was just beyond Ouivira. embraced our 
present county and most of the region of northeastern Kansas. Alark E. 
Zimmerman, an intelHgent and painstaking student of Kansas archaeology 
and Indian histoi-y, has given this matter much consideration, and is confi- 
dent that the Harahey chieftain, Tatarrax, immortahzed in Coronado's chron- 
icles, ruled over this territory nearly four centuries ago. Until this fact is 
established, however, it remains that the Indian history of what is now Atch- 
ison county begins with the Kansa Indians in the earl}- part of the eighteenth 
century. At the time of the Bourgmont expedition in 1724, and for some 
time before, this nation owned all of what is now northeastern Kansas, and 
maintained several villages along the Missouri ri\er. the principal one being 
near the mouth of Independence creek, or at the present site of Doniphan. 
Here they had a large town. The writer made a careful examination and 
fully identified the site of this old town in 1904. The results of this explora- 
tion are given in a pamphlet entitled "An Old Kansas Indian Town on the 
Missouri," published by the writer in 1914. Another important village of 
the Kansa- was located at the mouth of what is now Salt creek, in Leaven- 
worth, county. Both of these historic villages were situated right near and at 
about the same distance from the present borders of Atchison county. There 
were several old Indian villages within the confines of Atchison county, as 


already stated in the preceding pages, but whether they belonged to the 
Kansa or to the Harahey (Pawnee) is yet a matter of conjecture. 

One of these old Kansa towns, evidently the one at Salt creek, was the 
site of an important' French post. Bougainville on French Posts in 1757, 
says: "Kanses. In ascending this stream (the Missouri river) we meet the 
village of the Kanses. We have there a garrison with a commandant, ap- 
pointed as in the case with Pimiteoui and Fort Chartres, by New Orleans. 
This post produces one hundred bundles of furs." Lewis and Clark, in 1804, 
noted the ruins of this old post and Kansa village. They were just outside 
of the southern borders of Atchison county, near the present site of Kick- 

The Independence creek town, or what is generally referred ti:i by the 
early French as "Grand village des Canzes," seems to have been a Jesuit Mis- 
sionary station as early as 1727, according to Hon. George P. ]\Iorehouse, 
the historian of the Kansa Indians, who recently found in some old French- 
Canadian records of the province of Ontario an interesting fact not before 
recognized in Kansas history, that the name "Kansas" was a well known 
geographical term to designate a place on the Missouri river, within the pres- 
ent borders of our State, where the French government and its official church, 
nearly 200 years ago, had an imporant missionary center. Mr. Morehouse 
says : "It is significant as to the standing of this Mission station of the Jes- 
uits at Kanzas, away out in the heart of the continent, that in this document 
it was classed along with their other important Indian Missions, such as the 
Iroquois, Abenaquis, and Tadoussac, and that the same amount per mission- 
ary was expended. It was 'Kansas,' a mission charge on the rolls of the Jes- 
uit Fathers, for which annual appropriations of money were made as early as 
1727. Here some of the saintly, self-sacrificing missionary pioneers of the 
Cross must have come from distant Quebec and Montreal, or from the far- 
away cloisters of sunny France. What zeal and sacrifice for others! Is it 
any wonder that the Kansa Indians always spoke reverently of the 'black 
robes,' who were the first to labor for their welfare in that long period in 
the wilderness." 

Just when the Kansa Indians established themselves at the "Grand Vil- 
lage" at Doniphan, or at "Fort Village" at Kickapoo, is not known. The 
first recorded mention of a Kansa village along this section of the Missouri 
ri\-er is by Bourgmont in 1724. Onate met the Kansa on a hunting expedi- 
rion on the prairies of Kansas in 1601, but does not state where their villages 
were located. The "Grand Village" was an old one, howe\er, at the time of 


IJourgmont's visit. Bourgmont does not mention the "Fort Village" at Salt 
creek, as he snrelv would had it heen in existence at that time, and it is be- 
lieved that it was established later, as it was in existence in 1757, as stated by 

As is a well known historical fact the Spanish attempted to invade and 
colonize the Missouri valley early in the eighteenth century. The French 
had come into possession of this region in 1682, and M. de Bourgmont was 
commissioned military commander on the Missouri in 1720, the French gov- 
ernment becoming alarmed at the attempted Spanish in\asion. Establish- 
ing friendly relations with the Indians of this region in order to ha\-e 
their assistance in repelling any further Spanish advance was the object of 
the Bourgmont expedition to the Kansa and Padouca Indians in 1724. Bourg- 
mont's party, consisting of himself, M. Bellerive, Sieur Renaudiere, two sol- 
diers and five other Frenchmen, besides 177 Missouri and Osage Indians in 
charge of their own chiefs, marched overland from Fort Orleans, on the lower 
Missouri, and arrived at the "Grand village des Cansez" on July 7, 1724. 
Here they held a celebration of two weeks, consisting of pow-wows, councils, 
trading horses or merchandise, and making presents to the Indians, several 
boat loads of the latter, in charge of Lieutenant Saint Ange, having arrived 
by river route. On July 24 they "put themselves in battle array on the village 
height, the drum began to beat, and they marched away" on their journey 
to the Padoucas. The incidents of their march across what is now Atchison 
countv, and other facts pertaining to diis expedition wdl be found in the 
chapter on early explorations in this volume. 

According to a tradition handed down from prehistoric times the Kansa, 
Osage, Omaha, Ponca and Kwapa were originally one people and lived along 
the Wabash and Ohio rivers. In their migrations they arrived at the mouth 
of the Ohio where there was a separation. Those who went down the Mis- 
sissippi became known as the Kwapa, or "down stream people," while those 
going up were called Omaha, or "up stream people." At the mouth of the 
Missouri another division took place, the Omaha and Ponka proceeding far 
up that stream. The Osage located on the stream which bears their name, 
and the Kansa at the mouth of what is now the Kansas river. Later they 
moved on up the Missouri and established several villages, the most northern 
of which was at Independence Creek. At about the close of the Revolution- 
arv war they were driven away from the Missouri by the Iowa and Sauk 
tribes, and they took up a permanent residence on the Kansas river, where 
]\Iajor Long's expedition visited them in 1819. They continued to make 


predatory visits to the Missouri, however. They committed many depreda- 
tions on traders and explorers passing up the river and even fired on the 
United States troops encamped at Cow Island. It was to prevent the recur- 
rence of such outrages that Major O'Fallon arranged a council with the 
Kansa Nation. This council was held on Cow Island August 24, 18 19, under 
an arbor built for the occasion. ]Major O'Fallon made a speech in which 
he set forth the cause of complaint which the Kansa had given by their re- 
peated insults and depredations, giving them notice of the approach of a mili- 
tary force sufficient to chastise their insolence, and advising them to seize 
the present opportunity of averting the vengeance they deserved, by proper 
concessions, and by their future good behavior to conciliate those whose 
friendship they would have so much occasion to desire. The replies of the 
chiefs were simple and short, expressive of their conviction of the justice of 
the complaints* against them, and of their acquiescence in the terms of the 
reconciliation proposed by the agent. 

There were present at this council 161 Kansa Indians, including chiefs 
and warriors, and thirteen Osages. It was afterwards learned that the dele- 
gation would have been larger but for a quarrel that arose among the chiefs 
after they had started, in regard to precedence in rank, in consequence of 
which ten or twelve returned to the village on the Kansas river. Among 
those at the council were Na-he-da-ba, or Long Neck, one of the principal 
chiefs of the Kansas; Ka-he-ga-wa-to-ning-ga, or Little Chief, second in 
rank; Shen-ga-ne-ga, an ex-principal chief: ^^'a-ha-che-ra, or Big Knife, a 
war chief, and Wam-pa-wa-ra, or White Plume, afterwards a noted chief. 
Major O'Fallon had with him the officers of the garrison of Cow Island, 
or Contonment Martin, and a few of those connected with Major Long's ex- 
ploring party. "The ceremonies," says one account, "were enlivened by a 
military display, such as the firing of cannon, hoisting of flags, and an exhibi- 
tion of rockets and shells, the latter evidently making a deeper impression on 
the Indians than the eloquence of Major O'Fallon." A description of ]\Iajor 
Long's steamboat, built to impress the Indians on this occasion, will be found 
in the following chapter on early explorations. 

From the Kansa Indians our State derived its name. For more than 
300 years they dwelt upon our soil. At their very advent in this 
region what is now Atchison county became a part of their heritage and for 
generations it was a part of their imperial home. ' 

By the treaty of Castor Hill, Mo., October 24, 1832, the Kickapoo 
Indians were assigned to a reservation in northeastern Kansas, which in- 


State Orphans' Home, Atchison, Kan. 

eluded most of what is now Xtchisun c )U it} Thev settled on their new 
lands shortly after the treaty was made. Their principal settlement at that 
time was at the present site of Kickapoo, in Leavenworth, county, where a 
Methodist mission was estahlished among them by Rev. Jerome C. Berry- 
man, in 1833. There is said to have been a mission station among the Kick- 
apoos where Oak Mills, in Atchison county, now stands, at an early day, but 
nothing definite is known regarding its history, except that we have it from 
early settlers that an Indian known as Jim Corn seemed to be the head 
man of the band of Kickapoos that lived there, and that the white pioneers 
frequently attended services in the old mission house which stood in the hol- 
low a short distance southwest of the present site of Oak Mills, 

During the time that the Kickapoos owned and occupied what is now 
Atchison county, they were ruled over by two very distinguished chieftains — 
Keannakuk, the Prophet, and Masheena, or the Elk Horns. Both of these 


Indians were noted in Illinois long before they migrated westward and were 
prominently mentioned by Washington Irving, George Catlin, Charles Augus- 
tus Murray and other distinguished travelers and authors. Catlin painted 
their pictures in 183 1, and these are included in the famous Catlin gallei-y in 
Washington. Keannakuk was both a noted chief and prophet of the tribe. He 
was a professed preacher of an order which he claimed to have originated at 
a veiy early day and his influence was vei-y great among his people. He died 
at Kickapoo in 1852 and was buried there. Masheena was a really noted 
Indian. He led a band of Kickapoos at the battle of Tippecanoe. He died 
and was buried in Atchison county, near the old town of Kennekuk, in 1857. 
He was born in Illinois about 1770. 

Important seats of Kickapoo occupancy in Atchison county in the earh- 
days were Kapioma, Muscotah and Kennekuk. Kapioma was named for a 
chief of that name who lived there. The present township of Kapioma gets 
its name from this source. Father John Baptiste Duerinck, a Jesuit, was a 
missionary among the Kickapoos at Kapioma in 1855-57. Muscntali was for 
a long time the seat of the Kickapoo agency, li 1- a Knki];. 1,, name meaning 
"Beautiful Prairie," or "Prairie of Fire." Kennekuk was named for John 
Kennekuk, a Kickapoo chief, and son of Keannakuk, the Prophet. 

By treaty of 1854 the Kickapoo reservation was diminished and the tribe 
was assigned to lands along the Grasshopper or Delaware river. Still later it 
was again diminished and they were given their present territory within the 
confines of Brown county. 

The Kickapoos are a tribe of the central Algonquian group, forming a 
division with the Sauk and Foxes, with whom they have close ethnic and lin- 
guistic connection. The first definite appearance of this tribe in history was 
about i667^gj_when they were found by Allouez near the portage between 
Fox and Wisconsin rivers, in Wisconsin. About 1 765 they moved down into 
the Illinois country, and later to Missouri and Kansas. 








Some historians (notably General Simpson) in their studies of the 
famous march of Coronado in search of the land of Ouivira, in 1541, have 
brought the great Spanish explorer to the Missouri river, in northeastern 
Kansas. The more recent researches of Hodge, Bandalier and Brower, how- 
ever, have proven beyond question that Coronado's line of march through 
Kansas was north from Clark county to the Great Bend of the Arkansas river, 
and thence to the region northeastward from McPherson to the Kansas river, 
between the junction of its two main forks and Deep creek, in Riley county, 
where the long lost province of Ouivira was located. Hence, it is no longer 
even probable that the great Spaniard on this famous march ever saw the 
Missouri river region in northeastern Kansas, much less to have ever set 
foot upon the soil of what is now Atchison county, as many have heretofore 

The first white men, of whom we have definite record, to visit what is 
now Atchison county, were those who composed the expedition of Capt. 
Etienne Vengard de Bourgmont, military commander of the French colony 
of Louisiana, who, in the summer of 1724, arrived at the Kansa Indian vil- 
lage where Doniphan now stands, crossed what is now Atchison county, and 
made several encampments on our soil. Leaving the Kansa village at Doni- 
phan on the morning of July 24, en route to the province of the Padoucas, 
or what is now known as the Comanche tribe of Indians, in north central 


Kansas, Bourgmont and parly marched a league and a half along what is now 
Deer creek, and went into camp, where they spent the day. The next day 
they passed Stranger creek, or what they designated "a small river," and 
stopped on account of rain, until the 26th, when they proceeded a few miles 
further, and again went into camp. A thunder-storm, lasting all the after- 
noon, compelled them to remain encamped here. On the 27th they reached a 
river, which was doubtless the Grasshopper or Delaware, about four or five 
miles below Muscotah, Avhere they again camped, and, on the 28th marclied 
out of Atchison county somewhere along the southwest border, in Kapioma 
township. This strange procession, besides Bourgmont's force of white men, 
consisted of 300 Indian warriors, with two grand chiefs and fourteen war 
chiefs, 300 Indian squaws, 500 Indian children, and 500 dogs, carrying and 
dragging provisions and equipments. The object of the expedition was to 
promote a general peace among, and effect an alliance between, the different 
tribes inhabitating this region. Shortly after leaving Atchison county, Bourg- 
mont was taken very ill. and was obliged to return to Fort Orleans, on the 
lower Missouri. He was carried back across Atchison county to the Kansa 
village, on a hand-barrow, and then transported down the Missouri in a canoe. 
Upon his recovery he resumed his journey to the Padoucas in the fall of 1724. 
coming back by way of the Kansa village and Atchison county. No doubt 
other French explorers, traders and trappers, visited this county at an earlier 
date than did Bourgmont. but information concerning them is vague and un- 

Perin du Lac, a French explorer, set foot upon the soil of Atchison 
county while on an exploring trip up the ^Missouri in 1802-03. In his jour- 
nal, published soon after his return to France, Du Lac mentions that "three 
miles below the old Kances Indian village they perceived some iron ore." As 
the "old Kances village" was the one already referred to as having been at 
Doniphan, the iron ore discovered by Du Lac must have been in Atchison 
countv, somewhere in the vicinity of Luther Dickerson's old home, where the 
rocks are known to be strongly impregnated with iron. Du Lac gathered 
some specimens of the Atchison county ore, which he must have lost, for he 
savs in his journal: "I intended to have assayed it on my return, but an 
accident unfortunately happening prevented me." 

In the summer of 1804 the famous "Lopisiana Purchase exploring expe- 
dition" of Lewis and Clark passed up the Missouri river, arrixing at the south- 
east corner of Atchison county on July 3. They passed Isle Au Vache, or Cow 
Island, opposite Oak Mills, stopped at a deserted trader's house at or near the 


site of Port William, where they picked up a stray horse (the first recorded 
mention of a horse in what is now Atchison county) and camped that night 
somewhere in the vicinity of \\'blnut creek. The next morning- they an- 
nounced the "glorious Fourth" with a shot from their gun boat, and there 
began the first celebration of our Nation's birthday on Kansas soil. Tliat 
day they took dinner on the bank of White Clay creek, or what they called 
"Fourth of July creek." Here Joe Fields, a member of the party, was bitten 
by a snake, and Sergeant Floyd, in commemoration of the incident, named 
the prairie on which Atchison now stands, "Joe Fields' Snake Prairie." 
Above the creek, they state, "was a high mound, where three Indian paths 
centered, and from which was a very extensive prospect." This, undoubtedly, 
was the commanding elevation where the Soldiers' Orphans' Hnrne now 
stands. On the evening of the Fourth they discovered and named Indepen- 
dence creek in honor of the day, and closed the day's obser\ances with "an 
evening gun and an additional gill of whiskey to the men." 

A detachment of Maj. Stephen H. Long's Yellowstone exploring ex- 
pedition, under coinmahd of Capt. Wyley Martin, spent the winter of 1818- 
19 on Cow Island, which now belongs to Atchison county, and established 
a post known as Cantonment Martin. This was the first United States mili- 
tary post established above Ft. Osage, and west of Missouri Territory. Dur- 
ing that winter Captain ]\Iartin's men killed between 2,000 and 3,000 
deer, besides great numbers of bears, turkeys and other game. The troops 
that established this frontier post were a part of the First Rifle regiment, 
the "crack" organizatfon of the United States amiy at that time. In July, 
1819, Major Long arrived at Cow Island. His steamboats were the first to 
ascend the Missouri river above Ft. Osage. The next day Colonel Chambers 
and a detachment of infantr}' arrived. Thomas Say and his party of natural- 
ists, under command of Major Biddle, at about the same time crossed Atch- 
ison county en route from the Kansa Indian village where ^Manhattan now 
stands, and joined Major Long's party at Cow Island. Messrs. Say and 
Jessup, naturalists of the expedition, were taken very ill and had to remain 
at the island for some time. Col. Henry Atkinson, the founder of Ft. Atkin- 
son, and commander of the western departinent for more than twenty years, 
arrived at Cow Island shortly after Major Long. Maj. John O'Fallon was 
sutler of the post and Indian agent for the upper Missouri. On July 4, 1819, 
the Nation's birthday was celebrated on Cow Island. The flags were raised 
at full mast, guns were fired, and they had "pig with divers tarts to grace 
the table." On August 24 an important council with the Kansa Indians was 



held on the island. An account of this council will be found in the chapter 
on Indian history in this volume. 

One of the captains who was stationed on Cow Island — Bennett Riley — 
afterwards became a distinguished man in the history of this countiy. He 
was the man for whom Ft. Riley was named. He served with gallantr\- in 
the Indian country, the Northwest and Florida. In the Florida war he was 
promoted to colonel. In the war with Mexico he became a major-general, 
and was subsequently military governor of California. Col. John O'Fallon 
entered the army from Kentucky and fought in the Battle of Tippecanoe un- 
der Harrison, where he was severely wounded and carried the scar to his 
grave. He had a brilliant military record, and afterwards became one of 
the wealthiest and most public-spirited citizens of St. Louis. 

Major W'illoughb}' Morgan assumed command of the Cow Island post 
April 13, 1819. He was also a distinguished officer. When Contonment 
IMartin was abandoned in September, 1819, it required a month to transport 
the troops from there to Council Bluffs on the steamboats. 

One of these boats, the "Western Engineer," the first that ever touched 
the shore of Atchison county, was of unique construction, having been ex- 
pressly built for the expedition and calculated to impress the Indians. On her 
bow was the exhaust pipe, made in the form of a huge serpent, with wide 
open mouth and tongue painted a fiery red. The steam, escaping through 
the mouth, made a loud, wheezing noise that could be heard for miles. The 
Indians, recognized in it the power of the great Manitou and were o\ercome 
with fear. 

Cow Island has been a prominent land-mark in the \\'est from a very 
early period. It was discovered by the early French explorers and called by 
them Isle au \"ache, meaning Isle of Cow or Cow Island. It was so named 
because a strav cow was found wandering about on the island. It is sup- 
posed that this cow was stolen by the Indians from one of the early French 
settlements and placed on this island to prevent her escape. There is a co- 
incidence in the fact that the first horse and the first cow in what is now 
Atchison county, of which we have any record, were found in the same 
locality. The stray horse picked up by Lewis and Clark, mention of which 
is made on a preceding page of this chapter, was found almost opposite the 
upper end of Cow Island, on the Kansas shore. There is a tradition that 
the French h;id a trading post on Cow Island at a ven- early day. 

In 18 10. John Bradl^ury. a renowned English botanist, made a trip up 
the [Missouri river, and was the first scientist to make a svstematic studv of 




the plants and geological formations of this region. He touched the shore 
of what is now Atchison count}', and in his book, "Travels in the Interior of 
America," speaks about the great fertihty of our soil. He shipped the speci- 
mens collected on this trip to the botanical gardens of Liverpool, and no 
doubt many Atchison county specimens were included in these shipments. 
The next year H. M. Brackenridge. another explorer, came up the Missouri 
and made some obser\-atii)ns along our shore. 

The first permanent white settler of what is now Atchison county was a 
Frenchman. Paschal Pensoneau, who, about 1839, married a Kickapoo Indian 
woman and about 1844 settled on the bank of Stranger creek, near the pres-- 
ent site of Potter, where he established a trading-house and opened the first 
farm in Atchison county on land which had been allotted him by the Govern- 
ment for seiwices in the Black Hawk and Mexican wars. Pensoneau had 
long lived among the Kickapoo Indians, following them in their migrations 
from Illinois to Missouri and Kansas, generally pursuing the vocation of 
trader and interpreter. As early as 1833 or 1834 he was established on the 
Alissouri river at the old Kickapoo town, later removing to Stranger creek, 
as aforestated. He became a very prominent and influential man among- the 
Kickapoos. He long held the position of Government interpreter for that 


tribe. After the treaty of 1854, diminishing the Kickapoo reserve, Pensoneau 
moved to the new lands assigned the tribe along the Grasshopper river, where 
he lived for many years. About 1875 he settled among a band of Kickapoo 
Indians, near Shawnee, Indian Territor}-, where he died some years later. 
He was born at Cahokia, 111., April 17, 1796, his parents having been among 
the emigrants from Canada to the early French settlements of Illinois. 

In 1850 the military road from Ft. Leavenworth to Ft. Laramie was 
laid out by Colonel Ogden. It crossed Atchison county, and over it passed 
many important expeditions to the Western plains and mountains, and to 
Oregon and California. Before this road was laid out as a Government high- 
way, the same route had long been traveled as a trail. It was a great natural 
highway, being on the "dividing ridge" between the Missouri and Kansas 
rivers. Charles Augustus Murray, Francis Parkman, Captain Stansbury and 
other noted travelers journeyed over this trail during the thirties and forties, 
and in the fascinating volumes they have left, we find much of interest per- 
taining to the region of which Atchison county is now a part. During the 
gold excitement in California this old trail swarmed with emigrants seeking 
a fortune in the West. The Mormons, the soldiers, the overland freighters, 
the stage drivers, the hundred and one other picturesc^ue types of character 
in the early West have helped to make the histoiy of this famous old branch 
of the "Oregon and California Trail" immortalized by Parkman. 

During the days of Momion emigration a Mormon settlement sprang up 
a few miles west of Atchison, and immediately east of the present site of 
Shannon, whi'ch became known as "Momion Grove."' The settlement was 
enclosed by trenches, which ser\-ed as fences to prevent the stock from going 
astray, and traces of these old ditches may be seen to this day. Many of the 
Mormons here died of cholera and were buried near the settlement, but all 
traces of the old burial ground have been obliterated by cultivation of the 







Kansas is as rich in historic lore and resources as any other region of 
the great West. George J. Remsburg. who has contributed two chapters 
of this history, has, with great care and accuracy, put into readable form an 
account of prehistoric times, Indian occupancy and the record of earlier ex- 
plorers in northeastern Kansas. It is a tale of absorbing interest to those who 
would go back to the dawn of civilization here and study the force and char- 
acter of men who paved the way for the developments that came after. To the 
intrepid Spanish conquerors of Mexico of the sixteenth century, and the hardy 
French explorers, two years later, we are indebted for the opening up of the 
Great American Desert, into which American pioneers, the century following, 
found their way. Thousands of years before these came. Atchison county had 
been the abode of hunting tribes and the feastin.g place of wild animals. Then 
came the ceaseless flow of the tide of civilization, which swept these earlier 
denizens from the field, to clear it for the "momentous conflict between the 
two opposing systems of American civilization, then struggling for masteiy 
and supremacy over the Repubhc." It was in Kansas that the war of rebel- 
lion began, and it was in the northeastern corner along the shores of the 
Missouri river — in Atchison county — "that the spark of conflict which had 
irritated a Nation for decades burst into devastating flames." 

It is a deHcate task to convey anything approaching a truthful account of 


the storm and stress of opini(.ins and emotions which accompanied the organiza- 
tion of Kansas as one of the great American commonweaUhs, and the part 
played hy the citizens of Atchison county in that tremendous work, but sixty 
years have served to mellow the animosities and bitternesses of the past, and 
it is easier now to comprehend the strife of that distant day and pass un- 
biased judgment upon it. 

\Mien the United States acquired from France, in 1803, the territoiy of 
which Atchison county is a part, slaven* was a legalized institution, and many 
of the residents held slaves. In the treaty of cession, there was incorporated 
an expressed stipulation that the inhabitants of Louisiana "should be incor- 
porated into the Union of the United States and admitted as soon as possible, 
according to the principles of the Federal Constitution, to the enjoyment of all 
the rights, advantages and immunities of citizens of the United States, and 
in the meantime they should be maintained and protected in the free enjoy- 
ment of their liberty, property and the religion which they professed." Thus 
it came to pass for over fifty years aft^r the time that vast empire was acquired 
from France the bitter contest between the anti-slavery and the pro-slavery ad- 
vocates ebbed and flowed, and amidst a continual clash of ideas and finally 
after the shedding of blood, Kansas, and Atchison county, were born. 

It was in the Thirty-second Congress that petitions were presented for 
the organization of the Territory of the Platte, viz : all that tract lying west 
of Iowa and Missouri and extending west to the Rocky mountains, Imt no 
action on the petitions was taken at that time. December 13, 1852, W'illard 
P. Hall, a congressman from Missouri, submitted to the House of .Representa- 
tives a bill organizing this region. This bill was referred to the committee on 
territories, which reported February 22, 1853, through its chairman, W'illiarii 
A. Richardson, of Illinois. A bill organizing the territory of Nebraska, wiiich 
covered the same territory as the bill of Mr. Hall, was met by unex- 
pected and strong opposition from the southern members of Congress, and was 
rejected in the committee of the whole. The House, however, did not adopt 
the action of the committee, but passed the bill and sent it to the 
Senate, where it was defeated March 3, 1853, t>y six votes. On the fourteenth 
day of December, 1853, Senator Dodge, of Iowa, submitted to that body a new 
bill for the organization of the territory of Nebraska, embracing the same 
region as the bill whicli was defeated in the first session of the Thirty-second 
Congress. It was referred to the committee on territories, of which Stephen 
A. Douglas was chairman, on Januarj- 4, 1854. 

It was during the discussion of this bill that tiie abrogation of the Missouri 


Compromise was foreshadowed. The story of the action of Senator Douglas 
in connection with the slavery question has appeared in every history since the 
Ci\'il war. It is neither necessary nor proper to dwell at length upun his career 
in connectiDU with the history of Atchison comity. However, it was follow- 
ing a bitter discussion of the slaveiy question that the bill was passed, creating 
Kansas a territory. The provisions of the bill, as presented, were known to 
be in accordance with the wishes and designs of all the Southern members to 
have been accepted before being presented by President Pierce by a majority 
of the members of his cabinet, and to have the assured support of a sufficient 
number of Northern administration Democrats, to insure its passage beyond a 
douljt. The contest over the measure ended May 27, 1854, by the passage 
of the bill, which was approved May 30, 1854, by President Pierce. 

The act organizing Nebraska and Kansas contained thirty-seven sections. 
The provisions relating to Kansas were embodied in the last eighteen sec- 
tions, summarized as follow : 

Section 19 defines the boundaries of the territory; gives it the name of 
Kansas, and prescribes that when admitted as a State, or States, the said terri- 
tory, or any partion of the same, shall be received into the Union with or 
without slavery, as their constitution may prescribe at the time of their admis- 
sion. Also provides for holding the rights of all Indian tribes inviolable, until 
such time as they shall be extinguished by treaty. 

Section 20. The executive power and authority is vested in a governor, 
appointed by the President, to hold his office for the term of four years, or 
until his successor is appointed and qualified, unless sooner removed by the 
President of the United States. 

Section 21. The secretary of State is appointed and subject to removal 
by the President of the United States, and to be acting governor with full 
powers and functions of the governor in case of the absence of the gov- 
ernor from the territoiw, or a vacancy occurring. 

Section 22. Legislative power and authority of territory is vested in 
the governor and a legislative body, consisting of two branches, a council and 
a house of representatives. 

Section 23 prescribes qualifications of voters; giving the right to every 
free white male inhabitant, above the age of 21 years, who shall be an actual 
resident of the territory, to vote at the first election. 

Section 24 limits the scope of territorial legislation, and defines the A-eto 
power of the governor. 


Section 25 prescribes the manner of appointing and electing officers, not 
otherwise provided for. 

Section 26 precludes members from holding any office created or the 
emoluments of which are increased during any session of the legislature of 
which they are a member, and prescribes qualifications for members of the 
legislative assembly. 

Section 27 vests the judicial power in the supreme court, district courts, 
probate courts and in justices of the peace. 

Section 28 declares the fugitive slave law of 1850 to be in full force in 
the territory. 

Section 29 provides for the appointment of an attorney and marshal for 
the territory. 

Section 30 treats with the nomination of the President, chief justice, asso- 
ciate justices, attorne}- and marshal, and their confirmation by the Senate, 
and prescribes the duties of these officers and fixes their salaries. 

Section 31 locates the temporary seat of government of the territory at 
Ft. Leavenworth, and authorizes the use of the Gi)\-ernment buildings there 
for public purposes. 

Section 32 provides for the election of a delegate to Congress, and abro- 
gates the Missouri Compromise. 

Section 33 prescribes the manner and the amount of appropriations for 
the erection of public buildings, and other territorial purposes. 

Section 34 reserves for the benefit of schools in the territory and states 
and territories hereafter to be erected out of the same, sections number 16 and 
36 in each township, as they are surveyed. 

Section 35 prescribes the mode of defining the judicial districts of the 
territor}-, and appointing the times and places of holding the various courts. 

Section 36 requires officers to give official bonds, in such manner as 
the secretary of treasury may prescribe. 

Section 37 declares all treaties, laws and other engagements made by 
the United States Government with the Indian tribes inhabiting the territory 
to remain inviolate, notwithstanding anything contained in the provisions of 
the act. 

It was under the provisions of the above act that those coming to Kansas 
to civilize it and to erect their homes were to be guided. 

Edward Everett Hale, in his history of Kansas and Nebraska, published 
in 1854. says, "Up to the summer of 1854. Kanzas and Nebraska have had 
no civilized residents, except the soldiers sent tij keep the Indian tribes in 


order; the missionaries sent to cnn\-ert them; the traders wlio liouglit furs of 
them, and those of the natives wlio may be considered to have attained some 
measure of civilization from their connection with the whites." So it wih 
be seen that at the time of the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska act, Atcliison 
county was very sparsely settled. 

All movements in the territory, or elsewhere, made for its organization, 
were provisional, as they were subject to the rights of the various Indian tribes, 
whose reservations covered, by well defined boundaries, every acre of north- 
eastern Kansas, except such tracts as were reserved by the Government about 
Ft. Leavenworth, and other military stations, but with the move for the 
organization of the territory came an effort to extinguish the Indian's title 
to the lands and thus open them to white settlers. One of the most interesting 
books bearing upon the history of Kansas of that time was "Greeley's Con- 
flict." He makes the following statement with reference to this subject: 

"When the bill organizing Kansas and Nebraska was first submitted to 
Congress in 1853, all that portion of Kansas which adjoins the State of Mis- 
souri, and, in fact, nearly all the accessible portion of both territories, was cov- 
ered by Indian reservations, on which settlement by whites was strictly for- 
bidden. The only exception was in favor of Government agents and reli- 
gious missionaries ; and these, especially the former, were nearly all Democrats 
and violent partisans of slavery. * * * * Within three months immediately 
preceding the passage of the Kansas bill aforesaid, treaties were quietly made 
at Washington with the Delawares, Otoes, Kickapoos, Kaskaskias, Shawnees, 
Sacs, Foxes and other tribes, whereby the greater part of the soil of Kansas, 
lying within one or two hundred miles of the Missouri border, was suddenly 
opened to white appropriation and settlement. These simultaneous purchases 
of the Indian land by the Government, though little was known of them else- 
where, were thoroughly understood and appreciated by the Missourians of the 
western border, who had for some time been organizing 'Blue Lodges,' 'Social 
Bands,' 'Sons of the South," and other societies, with intent to take posses- 
sion of Kansas in behalf of slavery. They were well assured and they fully 
believed that the object contemplated and desired, in lifting, by the terms of 
the Kansas-Nebraska bill, the interdict of slavery from Kansas, was to author- 
ize and facilitate the legal extension of slavery into that region. Within a 
few days after the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska act, hundreds of leading 
Missourians crossed into the adjacent territory, selected each his quarter sec- 
tion, or a larger area of land, put some sort of mark on it, and then united with 
his fellow-adventurers in a meeting, or meetings, intended to establish a sort 
of Missouri preemption upon all this region." 


Immediately following the passage of the territorial act the immigration 
of Missourians to Kansas began, and, indeed, before its final passage the best 
of the lands had been located and marked for preemption by the ^ilissourians. 
This was true, apparently, iii the case of George M. Million, whom the rec- 
ords disclose was the first settler in Atchison county, after Kansas was made 
a territon,-. Mr. Million was of German descent and came to the vicinity 
of Rushville in the hills east of Atchison from Coal county, IMissouri, prior 
to 1841, where he was married to Sarah E. Dixon before she was fifteen 
years old. In 1841 Million occupied the present site of East Atchison as a 
farm. At that time the bottom land just east of Atchison was covered with 
tall rushes and was known as Rush bottom. The town of Rushville was 
originally known as Columbus, but the name was subsequenly changed to 
Rushville because of the character of the country in which it was located. 
During the wititer Million eked out his livelihood by cutting wood and haul- 
ing it to the river bank, selling it in the spring and summer to the steam- 
boats that plied up and down the Missouri river. Sometime subsequent to 
1841, Million built a flat-boat ferrj^ and operated it for seven or eight years 
and did a thriving business during the great gold rush to California. He 
accumulated considerable money and later operated a store, trading with the 
Indians for furs and buying hemp, which he shipped down the river. In 
June, 1854. he "squatted" on the present townsite of Atchison, and built a 
log house at the foot of Atchison street, near his ferry landing, and just op- 
posite his cabin on the Missouri side of the river. Following Million, in June, 
1854. came a colony of emigrants from latan, Mo., and took up claims in 
the neighborhood of Oak ]\Iills. They were F. P. Goddard, G. B. Goddard. 
James Douglass, Allen Hanson and George .\. Wright, but the actual set- 
tlers and founders of Atchison county did not enter the territory of Kan- 
sas until July, 1854. On the twentieth day of that month Dr. J. H. String- 
fellow with Ira Norris, Leonidas Oldham, James B. ]\Iartin and Neil Owens 
left Platte City, Mo., to decide definitely upon a good location for a town. 
^^"ith the exception of Dr. Stringfellow they all took claims about four miles 
southwest of the present city of Atchison. Traveling in a southwesterly 
direction from Platte City the party reached the river opposite Ft. Leaven- 
worth and crossed to the Kansas side. They went north until they reached 
the mouth of Walnut creek, "and John Alcorn's lonely cabin upon its banks." 
They continued their course up the river tmtil they came to the "south edge 
of the rim of the basin which circles around from the south line of the city, 
extending west by gradual incline to the divide between White Cla\- and 


Stranger creek, then north and east around to the northern hmits of the city." 
It was at this point that the Missouri river made the bend from the north- 
east, throwing the point where Atchison is now located, twelve miles west of 
any locality, north, and twenty miles west of Leavenworth, and thirty-five 
miles west of Kansas City. When they descended into the valley, of which 
Commercial street is now the lowest point, Dr. Stringfellow and his com- 
panions found George M. Million and Samuel Dickson. Mr. Dickson fol- 
lowed Million to Kansas from Rushville, and while there is some dispute as 
to who was the second resident in Atchison county after the passage of the 
Kansas-Nebraska bill, the best authorities lead to the conclusion that to Sam- 
uel Dickson belongs that honor. Mr. Dickson erected a small shanty near 
the spring, which bore his name for so many years, on the east side of South 
Sixth street, between Park and Spring streets. His house is described as 
a structure twelve feet square, having one door and one window and a large 
stone chimney running up the outside. As soon as Dr. Stringfellow ar- 
rived he at once commenced negotiations with Mr. Million for the purchase 
of his claim. Mr. Million, apparently, was a shrewd real estate speculator 
and only surrrendered his claim upon the payment of $i,ooo. Dr. String- 
fellow considered this a very fancy figure for the land, but he and his associ- 
ates were firm in their decision of founding a city at this point on- the Mis- 
souri river and they gave Mr. Million his price. The organization of a 
town company which followed will be discussed in a subsequent chapter of 
this territory. 

The first territorial appointment for the purpose of inaugurating a local 
government in Kansas was made in June. 1834. Governor Andrew H. 
Reeder, of Easton, Pa., was appointed on that date. He took the oath of 
office in Washington, D. C. July 7. and arrived in Kansas at Ft. Leaven- 
worth October 7, becoming at once the executive head of the Kansas govern- 
ment. Governor Reeder was a stranger to Kansas. With the exception of 
Senator Atchison he scarcely knew anybody in Kansas. He was a lawyer by 
profession, one of the ablest in the State of Pennsylvania. From early man- 
hood he had been an ardent and loyal Democrat and had defended with vigor 
and great power the principle of squatter sovereignty and the Kansas- 
Nebraska bill. He was not a politician and was an able, honest, clear-think- 
ing Democrat. L^pon his arrival in Kansas he set himself at once to the 
task of inaugurating the government in the territory. According to his own 
testimony before the special congressional committee appointed by Congress 
to investigate the troubles in Kansas in 1856, he made it his first business to 


obtain information of the geography, settlements, population and general 
condition of the territory, with a view to its division into districts; the de- 
fining of their boundary ; the location of suitable and central places for elec- 
tions, and the full names of men in each district for election officers, per- 
sons to take the census, justices of the peace, and constables. He accordingly 
made a tour of the territory, and although he did not come to Atchison 
county his tour included man}' important and remote settlements in the ter- 
ritory. Upon his return he concluded that if the election for a delegate to 
Congress should be postponed until an election could be had for the legis- 
lature, which, in the one case required no previous census, and in the other 
a census was required, the greater part of the session of Congress, which 
would terminate on the fourth of March, would expire before a congressional 
delegate from the territory could reach Washington. He, therefore, ordered 
an election for a delegate to Congress, and postponed the taking of the cen- 
sus until after that election. He prepared, without unnecessary delay, a 
division of the territory into election districts, fixed a place of election in 
each, appointed election officers and ordered that the election should take 
place November 29, 1854. Atchison county was in the fifteenth election 
district, which comprised the following territory : Commencing at the 
mouth of Salt creek on the Missouri river; thence up said creek to the mili- 
tary road and along the middle of said road to the lower crossing of Stranger 
creek ; thence up said creek to the line of the Kickapoo reservation, and 
thence along the southern and western line thereof to the line of the four- 
teenth district; thence between same, and down Independence creek to the 
mouth thereof, and thence down the Missouri river to the place of beginning. 
The place of the election was at the house of Pascal Pensoneau, on the Ft. 
Leavenworth and Oregon road, near what is now the town site of Potter. 
The election which followed was an exciting one. Public meetings were 
held in all of the towns and villages, at which resolutions were passed against 
the eastern abolitionists, the Platte Comity Argus sounding the following 
alarm : 

"We know we speak the sentiments of some of the most distinguished 
statesmen of Missouri when we advise that counter-organizations be made, 
both in Kansas and Missouri, to thwart the wreckless course of the abolition- 
ists. We must meet them at their very threshhold and scourge them back to 
their covers of darkness. They have made the issue, and it is for us to meet 
and repel them." 

The secret organizations, of which Greeley spoke, known as the "Blue 


Lodges," "Social Bands," and "Sons of tlie South." became very active, 
and knowing the condition of affairs along tlie Missouri border, and hav- 
ing learned the needs and wishes of the actual settlers in the territory, Gov- 
ernor Reeder decided that their rights should not be jeopardized. Therefore, 
in ordering an election of a congressional delegate only, with the idea of a 
later proclamation ordering a territorial election of a legislature, he knew 
that much trouble would be spared. In his proclamation for the con- 
gressional election, provision was made for defining the cjualifications of 
legal voters, and providing against fraud, both of which provisions were re- 
ceived with alarm by the leaders of the slavery Democracy, who, up to that 
time had hoped that the administration at Washington had sent them an 
ally. It was not long until they discovered that they were mistaken. 

The actual settlers of the territory did not evince much interest in the 
election. They were all engaged in what appeared to them to be the more 
important business of building their homes and otherwise providing neces- 
sities before the approach of winter. There were no party organizations 
in the territory. The slaveiy question was not generally understood to be 
an issue. The first candidates to announce themselves were James N. Burnes, 
whose name has for sixty years been promi'nently identified with the social, 
political and business history of Atchison county, and J. B. Chapman. These 
two candidates subsequently withdrew from the campaign, and the names 
finally submitted to the voters were : Gen. J(jhn W. Whitfield, Robert P. 
Flenneken, Judge John A. \\"akefield. ^^'hitfield ignored the slavery issue 
during his canvass, but hi's cause was openly espoused by the Missourians. 
Flenneken was a friend of Governor Reeder, with Free Soil proclivities. 
A\"akefield was an out-spoken Free-Soiler. Hon. David R. Atchison, then a 
United States senator, and for whom Atchison county was named, was the 
head and front of the pro-slavei-y movement. He had a national reputation 
and was a power in the United States Senate, and won for himself the high- 
est position in the gift of the Senate, having been chosen president pro- 
tempore of that bodv after the death of Vice-President King. He was loyal 
to the southern views regarding slavery and this made him the unquestioned 
leader of the party which believed, as Senator Atchison himself believed, 
that the passage of the Kansas-Nebraska bill would inevitably result in a 
slave State west of Missouri. It was to Senator Atchison that Dr. J. H. 
Stringfellow, himself one of the strong leaders of the pro-slavery forces, 
looked for inspiration and direction. In a speech Senator Atchison made in 
A\^eston, Mo., November 6. 1854. whicli was just prior to the congressional 
election in Kansas, he said : 


"My mission here today is, if possible, to awaken the people of this 
country to the danger ahead and to suggest the means to avoid it. The peo- 
ple of Kansas in their first elections will decide the question whether or not 
the slave-holder was to be excluded, and it depends upon a majority of the 
votes cast at the polls. Now, if a set of fanatics and demagogues a thousand 
miles off could afford to advance their money and exert every nerve to 
abolitionize the territory and exclude the slave-holder, when they have not 
the least personal interest in the matter, what is your duty? AVhen you re- 
side within one day's journey of the territory, and when your peace, your 
quiet, and your property depend upon this action you can without any exer- 
tion send five hundred of your young men who will vote in favor of your 

On November 28, the day preceding the election, the secret society voters 
in Missouri began to cross over into Kansas. They came organized to carry 
the election and in such overwhelming numbers as to completely over-awe 
and out-number the legal voters of the territory at many of the precincts. 
They took possession of the polls, elected many of the judges, intimidated 
others to resign and refusing to take the oath qualifying themselves as voters 
and prescribe to the regulations of the election, cast their ballots for- General 
John W. Whitfield and hastily beat their retreat to Missouri. The whole 
number of votes cast in that election was 2,233, of which number \\'hitfield 
received 2,258; Wakefield, 248; Flenneken, 305, with twenty-two scattering 
votes. The frauds which were at first denied by both the pro-slaveiy news- 
papers and General Whitfield himself, were not long in being discovered. 

In the Fifteenth district, of which Atchison county was a part, the total 
number of votes cast was 306, of which Wakefield got none ; Flenneken. 39, 
and Whitfield, 267. The total number of votes given by the census was 308, 
and in the majority report of the congressional committee of the following 
year 206 illegal votes were shown to have been cast in that district. How- 
ever, there was little immediate disturbance following the election. The set- 
tlers continued to busy themselves in completing their homes and were more 
interested in securing titles to their lands than in the future destinj' of the 

In the following January and February Governor Reeder caused an 
enumeration of the inhabitants to be taken preparatory to calling an election 
for a legislature. H. B. Jolly was named as enumerator for the Fifteenth 
district and Mr. Jolly found a total of 873 persons in the district, divided as 
follows: Males, 492; females, 381; voters, 308; minors, 448: natives of the 


United States, 846; foreign born, sixteen; negroes, fifteen; slaves, fifteen. 
The date appointed for the legislative election was March 30. 1855. The 
proclamation of the governor defined the election districts; appointed the 
voting precincts ; named the judges of the election, defined the duties of the 
judges, and the qualifications of voters. Thirteen members of the council 
and twenty-six members of the house of representatives were to constitute 
the legislative assembly of the territory. Atchison was in the Ninth coun- 
cil district and in the Thirteenth representative district. Following the prec- 
edent established in the election for congressional delegate the November 
before the blue lodges of Missouri became active and large numbers of 
members of the secret societies of Missouri were sent into every council and 
representative district in the territory for the purpose of controlling the elec- 
tion. They were armed and came with provisions and tents. They over- 
powered and intimidated the resident voters to such an extent that only 
1,410 legal votes were cast in the territory out of 2,905 enumerated in the 

D. A. N. Grover was the pro-slavery candidate for councilman in the 
Ninth Council district with no opposition and he received 411 votes which 
was the total number of votes enumerated for that district. H. B. C. Harris 
and J. ^Yeddell were the pro-slavery candidates for representative in the 
Thirteenth district with no opposition. They each received 412 votes, being 
the total number of votes enumerated in the district. 

It was another victory for the pro-slavery sympathizers and the Free 
State men were indignant, while on the other hand the pro-slavery residents, 
with their Missouri allies, did not conceal their joy, at the same time ad- 
mitting frankly the outrages which were practiced at the polls. The Lcavcn- 
ivortli Herald of April 6 headed its election returns with the following: 

"All Hail. 

Pro-Slavery Party Victorious. 

We have met the enemy, and they are ours. 

Veni Vidi Vici ! 

Free White State Party used up. 

"The triumph of the pro-slavery party is complete and overwhelming. 
Come on. Southern men ; bring your slaves and fill up the territory. Kansas 
is Saved! Abolitionism is rebuked. Her fortress stormed. Her flag is 
dragging in the dust. The tri-colored platform has fallen with a crash. The 
rotten timbers of its structure were not sufficient to sustain the small frag- 
ments of the party." 


The Parkznlle Luminary, which was pubHshed in Platte county, Missouri, 
very mildly protested against the manner of carrying the election and spoke 
in friendly terms of the Free Soil settlers. The following week its office 
and place was destroyed by a mob and forced its editors to flee the country 
for their lives. 

The election of November 29. 1854, so incensed the Anti-Slavery ele- 
ment that the Free State movement was given a great impetus. A conven- 
tion of Free State men at Lawrence June 8, 1855, and the Big Springs con- 
vention September 5, 1855, were the result, and from that date many other 
public meetings of Free State men followed. The Free State sentiment 
fully crystalized itself in the momentous election of October- 9, 1855, follow- 
ing eight days after the date set by the pro-slavery legislature for an elec- 
tion of delegate to Congress to succeed J. W. \\niitfield, who had been elected 
the year before. The first election in 1855 was held October i but was par- 
ticipated in only by pro-slavery men. The abstract of the poll 
books showed that 2,738 votes were cast in the territory and 
Whitfield received 2,721, of which it is only fair to say tliat 
857 were declared illegal. In the Free State election Ex-Governor An- 
drew H. Reeder received 2,849 votes, of which loi were cast in Atchison 
county. On the same day an election for delegates to a constitutional con- 
vention to be held at Topeka took place and R. H. Crosby, a merchant of 
Oceana, Atchison county, and Caleb May, a farmer, near the same place, 
were elected delegates. 

The returns of the pro-slavery election having been made according to 
law. the governor granted the certificate of election to \Miitfield, who re- 
turned to Washington as the duly elected delegate from Kansas. The terri- 
torial executive committee, elected at the Big Springs convention, ga-\^e a cer- 
tificate of election to Reeder. The Topeka constitutional convention subse- 
quently convened October 23, 1855, and was in session until November 11. 
This body of Free State men framed a constitution, and among other things 
memorialized Congress to admit Kansas as a State. It was understood by 
all that the validity of the work of the convention was contingent upon the 
admission of Kansas as a State. Meanwhile the executive committee of Kan- 
sas Territory, appointed at the Topeka primary.-. September 19, 1855, under 
the leadership of James H. Lane, continued to direct and inspire the work 
for a State government. 

As a counter-irritant to the activities of the Free State men, and for the 
purpose of allaying the insane exci'tement of the territorial legislature, the 


pro-slavery followers organized a Law and Order party, which was pledged 
to the establishment of slavery in Kansas. From thenceforth it was open 
warfare between the two great forces contending for supremacy in the terri- 
tory. Atchison was the stronghold of the Law and Order party, as Lawrence 
was the stronghold of the Free State party. The Free State party was looked 
upon bv the Law and Order advocates as made up of revolutionists and the 
Law and Order party was determined to bring them to time as soon as pos- 
sible, but as the members of the Free State party held themselves apart from 
the legal machinery devised for the government of the territory, bringing no 
suits in its courts; attending no elections; paying no attention to its county 
organizations; offering no estates to its probate judges, and paying no tax 
levies made by authority of the legislature, they were careful to commit no 
act which would lay themselves liable to the laws which they abhorred. They 
settled all their disputes by arbitration in order to avoid litigation, but as they 
could build, manufacture, buv and sell and establish schools and churches 
without coming under the domination of the pro-slavery forces, they man- 
aged to do tolerably well. Where the inhabitants were mostly Free State, 
as in Lawrence and Topeka, conditions were reasonably satisfactory, but in 
localities like Atchison and Leavenworth, where the Law and Order party 
dominated affairs, the Free State inhabitants were forced to suffer many 
indignities and insults. 

During the month of August. 1855, a negro woman belonging to Graf- 
ton Thomassen, who ran a sawmill in Atchison, was found drowned in the 
IMissouri river. J. W. B. Kelley. a rabid anti-slavery lawyer, from Cincinnati, 
wjio became a resident of Atchison, expressed the opinion that if Thomas- 
sen's negro woman had been treated better by her master she would not have 
committed suicide by jumping into the river. Thomassen was greatly angered 
at this personal illusion and deluded himself into believing that if he satis- 
fied his own vengeance he would at the same time be rendering the pro- 
slaverv party a service. He therefore picked a quarrel with Kelley and they 
came to blows, after which Thomassen's conduct was sustained liy a large 
meeting of Atchison people. While it is said that Thomassen was a larger 
and more powerful man than Kelle)-, the people did not consider this fact, 
but rather considered the principle involved, and as a result they commended 
the act in the following resolution : 

"i. Resolved, That one J- W. B. Kelley, hailing frorh Cincinnati, hav- 
ing upon sundry occasions denounced our institutions and declared all pro- 
slavery men ruffians, we deem it an act of kindness and hereby command him 



to leave the town of Atchison one hour after being informed of the passage 
of this resolution never more to show himself in this vicinity. 

2. Resolved, That in case he fails to obey this reasonable command, 
we inflict upon him such punishment as the nature of the case may require. 

3. Resolved, That other emissaries of this 'Aid Society' now in our 
midst, tampering with our slaves, are warned to leave, else they too will meet 
the reward which their nefarious designs so justly merit. — Hemp. 

4. Resolved, That we approve and applaud our fellow-townsman, Graf- 
ton Thomassen, for the castigation administered to said J. W. B. Kelley, 
whose presence among us is a libel upon our good standing and a disgrace 
to our community. 

5. Resolved, That we commend the good work of purging our town 
of all resident abolitionists, and after cleaning our town of such nuisances 
shall do the same for the settlers on Walnut and Independence creeks whose 
propensities for cattle stealing are well known to many. 

6. Resolved, That the chairman appoint a committee of three to wait 
upon said Kelley and acquaint him with the actions of this meeting. 

7. Resolved, That the proceedings of this meeting be published, that 
the world may know our determination." 

After the passage of these resolutions they were circulated throughout 
Atchison and all citizens were asked to sign the same and if any person re- 
fused he was deemed and treated as an abolitionist. A few days after this 
incident Rev. Pardee Butler, a minister of the Christian church, who was 
living at that time near the now abandoned townsite of Pardee, west of Atch- 
ison, about twelve miles, came to town to do some trading. Butler was^n 
uncompromising anti-slavery advocate and never overlooked an opportunity 
to make his sentiments known. He had strong convictions backed by cour- 
age, and while he did not seek controversies, he never showed a desire to 
avoid them. He was well known in the community as a Free State man, 
and so when he came into Atchison after these resolutions were passed and 
the town was all excited about them it did not take him long to get into the 
controversy and he condemned in strong terms the outrage upon Kelley and 
also the resolutions which were passed. In the course of a conversation 
which he had at the postoffice with Robert S. Kelley, the postmaster and 
assistant editor of the Squatter Sovereign, he informed Mr. Kelley that he 
long since would have become a subscriber to his paper had he not disliked 
the violent sentiments which appeared in its columns. Mr. Kelley replied : 
"I look upon all Free Soilers as rogues and they ought to be treated as 


such." Mr. Butler responded: "I am a Free Soiler and expect to vote for 
Kansas as a Free State." "I do not expect you will be allowed to vote." was 
Mr. Kelley's reply. On the following- morning Mr. Kelley called at the 
National hotel, corner of Second and Atchison streets, where Mr. Butler had 
spent the night, accompanied by a number of friends and demanded Butler 
to sigTi the resolutions, which of course Mr. Butler refused to do, and walked 
down stairs into the street. A crowd gathered and seized Mr. Butler, drag- 
ging him towards the river, shouting that they intended to drown him. The 
mob increased in size as they proceeded with the victim. A vote was taken as 
to the kind of punishment which ought to be given him and a verdict of death 
by hanging was rendered. It was not discovered until forty years afterwards 
that Mr. Kelley, the teller, saved Mr. Butler's life by making false returns to 
the excited mob. Mr. Kelley subsequently was a resident of Montana and 
gave this information while stopping in St. Joseph with Dr. J. H. String- 
fellow, the foiTner editor of the Squatter Sozrrcign. Instead of returning a 
verdict of death by hanging Mr. Kelley announced that it was the deci'sion 
of tb.e mob to send Mr. Butler down the Missouri river on a raft, and an 
account of what followed is best given by Rev. Pardee Butler himself ; 

"When we arrived at the bank Mr. Kelley painted my face with black 
paint, marked upon it the letter "R." The company had increased to some 
thirty or forty persons. \\'"ithout any trial, witness, judge, counsel or jury, 
for about two hours I was a sort of target at which were hurled impreca- 
tions, curses, arguments, entreaties, accusations and interrogations. They 
constructed a raft of three cottonwood sawlogs, fastened together with inch 
plank nailed to the logs, upon which they put me and sent me down the Mis- 
souri river. The raft was towed out to the middle of the stream with a 
canoe. Robert S. Kelley held the rope that towed the raft. They gave me 
neither rudder, oar nor anything else to manage my raft with. They put 
up a flag on the raft with the following inscription on it : 

'Eastern Emigrant Aid Express. 

The Rev. Pardee Butler again for the underground road; 

The wav they are served in Kansas ; Shipped for Boston : Cargo in- 
sured. Unavoidable danger of the Missourians and Missouri river 

Let future emissaries from the north Beware. 

Our Hemp crop is sufficient to reward all such scoundrels.' 

"They threatened to shoot me if I pulled the flag down. I pulled it 
ilown, cut the flag off the flag staff, made a paddle out of the flag staff 
and ultimately got ashore about six miles below." 


The mob was considerate enough to provide Mr. Butler a loaf of bread 
and permitted him to take his baggage on board, afterwards escorting him 
down the river for some distance. 

When Mr. Butler landed he returned overland to liis home near Pardee. 
On April 30, 1856, he again ventured to make his appearance in Atchison, 
where he says: "I spoke to no one ih town save two merchants of the place 
with whom I had business transactions since my first arrival in the territon,'. 
Having remained only a few minutes I went to my buggy to resume my 
journey when I was assaulted by Robert S. Kelley, junior editor of the 
Squatter Sovereign; was dragged into a grocen.' and there surrounded by a 
company of South Carolinians who are reported to have been sent out by a 
Southern Emigrant Aid Soci'ety. After exposing me to every sort of in- 
dignity they stripped me to the waist, covered my body with tar and then for 
the want of feathers applied cotton wool, having appointed a committee of 
three to certainly hang me the next time I should come to Atchison. They 
tossed my clothes into the buggy, put me therein, accompanying me to the 
suburbs of the town and sent me naked upon the prairie. I adjusted my attire 
about me as best I could and hastened to rejoin my wife and two little sons 
on the banks of Strang-er creek. It was rather a sorrowful meeting after so 
long a parting." 

The above incident gives some idea of the prevailing sentiment in .Atch- 
ison county during the period beginning in 1854 and ending in 1857. 

Thei-e was little chance of Free State settlers to avoid trouble except 
by discreet silence. It would not be just, however, to fail to disclose the 
fact that the Free State men also had their secret organizations. The 
Kansas Legion was a military organization for defensive purposes only. Its 
members ^\'ere organized into companies, battalions and regiments and were 
officered and armed with rifles and pistols sent from the East. These or- 
ganizations were the natural result of the secret pro-slavery organizations 
of Missouri and were known to exist to protect the Free State settlers against 
the attacks of tlie Blue Lodges, Sons of the South, and the Social Bands. 

A man by the name of Pat Laughlin became a member of the Kansas 
Legion and was very active in organizing companies of that organization 
at di|ferent points in the territory. He subsequently became a traitor to his 
associates aftd gave out information to the enemy, thereby creating great in- 
dignation among his former friends whom he had betrayed. Later Laughlin 
and Samuel Collins, of Doniphan county, became engaged in a fierce alterca- 
tion and friends of both parties to tlie dispute were present and armed. 


Lauglilin sliot Collins and killed him on the spot and was slis'htlv wounded 
himself. This affair occurred October 25, 1855. Xo attempt was made by 
the appointed peace officers of the territory to bring the guilty parties par- 
ticipating in the Pardee Butler outrage or the murder of Collins to justice. 
Shortly after Laughlin recovered from his wound he secured a position in a 
store in Atchison and lived there for many years. 

This condition of affairs could not long exist without an open rupture 
between the two opposing forces and' from this time on "there was a succes- 
sion of personal encounters of wide significance, and in addition there was 
the war along the border in which Atchison county played a conspicuous 
but not a glorious part. The activities here at that crucial period were largely 
in the interest of the pro-slavery forces. It was at this juncture that the im- 
mortal Jijhn Brown appeared on the scene to begin his work of driving the 
slavery advocates from Kansas and making it and the Nation free. His first 
appearance among the Free State men was December 7, 1855, but he had 
been in the territory several months before that with his four sons. John 
Brown did not reach Atchison county during his stormy career in Kansas. 
The nearest he ever came was in 1857 when he passed through Jackson 
county with a party of slaves which he was taking from Missouri to Nebraska 
for the purpose of setting them free. In the historical edition of the Atch- 
ison Daily Globe of July 16, 1894, there appears the following short refer- 
ence to this excursion : 

"In 1857 John Brown made a trip from Missouri into Nebraska with a 
party of sla\-e negroes which he intended to set free. His route was through 
Jackson county. Kansas, and up by where the town of Centralia now stands, 
A lot of the pro-sIavei"y enthusiasts in Atchison heard of the affair and 
went out to intercept Brow-n. They came up with him near Centralia, but 
Brown had heard of their coming and captured the entire party. One of the 
men in the pro-slavery party was named George Ringo; afterwards he sol- 
diered with Dwight Merlin in the Thirteenth Kansas and often talked of the 
trip to Merwin around their camp fires. Ringo says that James T. Her- 
ford was another member of the pro-slavery party, and a man named Cook 
was another. John Brown looked at Cook critically after the capture and 
asked his name. Cook said his name w'as Thomas Porter. "I believe you 
are lieing. I believe your name. is Cook and if I was certain of it I would 
kill you," Brown said. Cook was one of the men accused of killing Brown's 
son at Osawatomie, but Brown was not certain of his identity and let him 
go with the others. George Ringo says that Brown held a prayer meeting 
in his camp every evening and asked a blessing at every meal. 


"One night when the Atchison party was in the custody of Brown, Brown 
asked Jim Herford to pray. 'I can't pray,' Herford rephed. 'Didn't your 
mother teach you to pray?' Brown inquired. 'She taught me to say, "Now 
I lay me down to sleep," that was all,' Herford answered. 'All right,' 
Brown said, 'get down on your knees and say, "Now I lay me down to 
sleep.' " Herford did as he was requested, being afraid to refuse and Brown 
soon rolled himself in a blanket and went to sleep." 

As the activities of Brown increased so likewise the activities of the 
pro-slavery forces increased under the leadership of Senator Atchison, of 
Missouri, and Dr. Stringfellow. editor of the Squatter Soz>ereign. The 
Squatter Sovereign, about which more will appear in a subsequent chapter, 
was published in Atchison and was largely supported by government adver- 
tising patronage. It was the leading pro-slavery newspaper organ of the 
territory. Senator Atchison's activities were of the most pronounced sort. 
He not only urged his Missouri constituents to invade the territory in all 
their might and capture the Yaiikees, but he went himself. At Platte City, 
Mo.. February 4, 1856, Senator Atchison made a speech which gives 
some idea of the language he employed in urging the people of western 
Missouri to join in the invading of Kansas. He said : 

"I was a prominent agent in repealing the Missouri Compromise and 
opening the territory for settlement. Tlie abolition traitors drummed up 
their forces and whistled them onto the cars, and whistled them off again at 
Kansas City; some of them had 'Kansas and Liberty' on their hats. T saw 
this with my own eyes. These men came with the avowed purpose of driv- 
ing or expelling you from the territory. What did I advise you to do ? Why, 
to beat them at their own game. When the first election came off I told you 
to go over and vote. You did so and beat them. Well, what next? Why, 
an election of members of the legislature to organize the territory must be 
held. What did I advise you to do then? Why, meet them on their own 
ground and at their own game again; and, cold and inclement as the weather 
was, I went over with a company of men. The abolitionists of the North 
said, and published it abroad, that Atchison was there with bowie-knives, 
and by God, it was true. I never did go into that territory — I never intend 
to go into that territory — without being prepared for all such kinds of cattle. 

"They held an election on the fifteenth of last month and they intend 
to put the machinery of the State in motion on the fourth of March. Now 
you are entitled to my advice, and you sliall have it. I say, prepare your- 
selves. Go over tlierc. Send your young men, and if they attempt to drive 


you out. then, damn them, drive thciii out. Fifty of you wi'th your shotguns 
are worth 250 of them with their Sharpe's rifles. Get ready — arm your- 
selves; fc», if they abolitionize Kansas you lose one inillion dollars of your 
property. I am satisfied that I can justify every act of you before God and a 

All of the pro-slaver)' papers were open in their advocacy of an immedi- 
.ate war of extermination. The Squatter Sovereign in its issue just after the 
election of January 15, commenting on certain disturbances at Easton and a 
murder at Leavenworth, did not condemn what took place at Easton and 
had no word of apology or pity to offer for the murdered man. On the con- 
trary it upheld those who committed the murder and gave them encourage- 
ment in their campaign of killing abolitionists. Dr. Stringfellow employed 
his \-iolent rhetoric to give vent to his feelings and the opening paragraph 
of his leading editorial in the issue of the Squatter Sovereign, he used the 
following language: 

"It seems now to be certain that we will have to give the abolitionists at 
least one good thrashing before political matters are settled in this territory. 
To do so we must have arms ; we have the men. I propose to raise funds to 
furnish Colt's revolvers for those who are without them. We say if the 
alx)litionists are able to whip us and overturn the government that has been 
set up here, the sooner it is known the better, and we want to see it settled." 

During the whole of the follo\\ino- winter preparations for attack and 
defense went quietly on. There was drilling along the border and disquiet- 
ing rumors came from time to time of companies that had been org-anized 
and equipped to move into Kansas as soon as spring opened to uphold the 
rights of the Southerners. 

Atchison county took a prominent part in the border warfare. The bold 
attitude assumed by the Free State forces in and around Lawrence ; the Waka- 
rusa war; the Free State elections, and the determination of the Free State 
party to convene their legislature in March. 1856, kept the partisan pro- 
slavery sentiment in /Vtchison in a constant tumult. In March large numbers 
of South Carolina emigrants, armed and equipped with the avowed purpose 
of enforcing southern rights in Kansas, arrived on all the incoming steam- 
boats. Capt. F. G. Palmer, of Atchison, commanded one of the earliest if 
not the earliest company of these emigrants. Robert De Treville was first 
lieutenant. The home company had been formed prior to the arrival of the 
South Carolinians. Dr. John H. Stringfellow was captain; Robert S. Kel- 
ley, first lieutenant; A. J. G. Westbrook, second lieutenant, and John H. 


Blassingame. third lieutenant. Their arms were suppHed from Ft. Leaven- 
worth and b}- the last of April they were ready and waiting for the assault 
and tlie subsequent "sacking" of Lawrence. The whole countryside was 
aflame with the passion of war. By May i quite a large army of pro-slavery 
sympathizers was organized. The South Carolinian Company, from Atch- 
ison, was among the first to start the assault upon Lawrence and it was not 
long before "its flag was planted upon the rifle pit of the enemy." Dr. String- 
fellow was there and Robert S. Kelle}', his able assistant on the Squatter 
Sovereign, was also there. Li an account of the assault the following ap- 
])eared in the Squatter Sovereigns 

"The flag was carried by its bra\e Ijearer and stationed upon the Her- 
ald of Freedom Printing office, and from thence to the large hotel and for- 
tress of the Yankees, where it proudlv waived until the artillery commenced 
battering down the building. Our company was composed mostly of South 
Carolinians, under command of Capt. Robert De Treville, late of Charleston, 
S. C and we venture the prediction that a braver set of men than are found 
in its ranks never bore arms." 

The Squatter Sovereign continued to be without fear the most hitter 
and uncompromising pro-slavery organ in the tei-ritory. Its watch-word 
was "Death to all Yankees and traitors h\ Kansas." At a large mass meet- 
ing at Atchison, held in June, 1856, Robert S. Kelley, its assistant editor, 
was nominated as the "commander-in-Chief of the forces in town," but for 
some reason now lost to view Kelley declined the honor and it was passed 
on to Capt. F. G. Palmer who accepted it without remorse and without 
apologies. Senator Atchison was present at this mass meeting and made a 
speech, and so was Col. Peter T. Abell, afterwards president of the Atch- 
ison To\\^^ Company, and Captain De Treville, and others not so famous, 
and they all made speeches. 

During that summer, because of the continued activities of old John 
Brown and the agitation which those acti\-ities created in the breasts of the 
pro-slaveryr sympathizers in Atchison, another military company was formed, 
called the Atchison Guards, of which John Robertson was the commander, 
who was so prominent in the Battle of Hickory Point, and Atchison county 
continued to take a prominent part in the border warfare which continued 
for sometime thereafter. During all of this time the Free State settlers of 
Atchison were very quiet and undemonstrative. ~ They were not strong in 
number and aside from a few virile souls like Pardee Butler, they held their 
tongues and kept their own counsel. They were treated with scant courtesy 

(Upper) Atcli: 

Hospital. (Cent.n) AUhi^on C ount^ Comt Hon e (Tower) V. M. C. A. 


and consideration iiy their pro-slavery neighliors, and it can be said to their 
credit that no set of men ever displayed greater self-restraint or suffered more 
for the cause of peace than the Free State settlers of this county. It doubt- 
less unsettled their minds and disturbed their slumbers to read from time to 
time sentiments such as these taken from the Squatter Sovereign of June 
lo, 1856: 

"Hundreds of Free State men who have committed no overt act, but have 
only given countenance to those reckless murderers, assassins and thieves, 
will, of necessity, share the same fate of their brethren. If Civil war is to 
be the result of such a conflict, there cannot be and will nut be, any neutrals 
recognized. 'He that is not for us is against us,' will of necessity be the 
motto, and those who are not willing to take either one side or the other are 
the most unfortunate men in Kansas and had better flee to other regions 
as expeditiously as possible. They are not the men for Kansas." 

In another issue Dr. Stringfellqw said : 

"The abolitionists shoot down our men without provocation wherever 
they meet them. Let us retaliate in the same manner. A free fight is all 
we desire. If murder and assassination is the program of the day we are 
in favor of filling the bill. Let not the knives of the pro-slavery men be 
sheathed while there is one abolitionist in the territory. As they have shown 
no quarters to our men they deserve none from us. Let our motto be writ- 
ten in blood upon our flags, 'Death lo all ]'aiikees and Traitors in Kansas.' 
We have 150 men in Atchison ready to start in an hour's notice. .MI we 
lack is horses and provisions." 

And then follows an exhortation from Dr. Stringfellow to his friends 
in Missouri to contribute something that will enable his constituents to pro- 
tect their lives and their families from the outrages of the assassins of the 
North, and ends by stating that the war will nut cease until Kansas has been 
purged of abolitionists. 

Pro-sla^■e^\• committees from Doniphan, Atchison and Leavenworth 
counties were organized to call on their friends in the South for arms, am- 
munition and provisions, and a circular letter appeared in the Lcavcnxvorth 
Herald, and an urgent invitation was issued to all the pro-slavery papers to 
give the circular wide publicity. It read, in part, as follows : 

"To our friends throughout the United States : 

"The undersigned, having been appointed a committee by our fellow 
citizens of the counties of Leavenworth, Doniphan and Atchisim, in Kansas 
Territory, to consult together and to adopt measures for mutual protection 


and the advancement of the interests of the pro-slavery party in Kansas Ter- 
ritory, this day assembled at the town of Atchison, to undertake the respon- 
sible duty assigned us; and in our present emergency deem it expedient to 
address this circular to our friends throughout the union, but more partic- 
ularly in the slave-holding states. * * * * -pjig ^ime has arrived when 
prompt action is required and the interior of Kansas can easily be supplied 
from various points in the above named counties. The pro-slaverv party is 
the only one in Kansas which pretends to uphold the Government or abide 
by the laws. Our party from the beginning has sought to make Kansas a 
slave state, only by legal means. We have been slandered and vilified almost 
beyond endurance, yet we have not resorted to violence, but steadily pursued 
the law for the accomplishment of our objects; * * * * \Vg j^g^^^ proclaimed 
to the world that we recognize the principle of the Kansas Bill as just and 
right, and although we preferred Kansas being made a negro slave state, yet 
we never dreamed of making it so by the aid of bowie-knives, revolvers and 
Sharpe rifles, until we were threatened to be driven out of the territory by a 
band of hired abolitionists, brought up and sent here to control our elections 
and steal our slaves. We are still ready and intend to continue so, if our 
friends abroad stand by and assist us. Our people are poor and their labor 
is their capital. Deprive them of that, which we are now compelled to do, 
and they must be supported from abroad, or give up the cause of the South. 
The Northern Abolitionists can raise millions of dollars, and station armed 
bands of fanatics throughout the territory and support them, in order to 
deprive Southern men of their constitutional rights. We address this to our 
friends only, for the purpose of letting them know our true condition and 
our wants. We know that our call will meet a ready, willing and liberal 
response. * * * * Heaven and earth is being moved in all the free states 
to induce overwhelming armies to march here to drive us from the land. We 
are able to take care of those already here, but let our brethren in the states 
take care of the outsiders. Watch them, and if our enemies march for Kan- 
sas let our friends come along to take care of them, and if nothing but a fight 
can bring about peace, let us have a fight that will amount to something. 
Send us the money and other articles mentioned as soon as practicable, and 
if the abolitionists find it convenient to bring their supplies, let our friends 
come with ours. Arrangements have been made with Messrs. Majors, Rus- 
sell & Company, Leavenworth, K. T. ; J. W. Foreman & Company, Doni- 
phan, K. T., and C. E. Woolfolk & Company, Atchison, K. T., to receive 
any money or other articles sent for our relief, and will report to the under- 


signed, and we pledge ourselves that all will be distributed for the benefit 
of the cause. Horses, we greatly need — footmen being useless in running 
down midnight assassins and robbers." 

The following residents of Atchison county signed the circular: P. T. 
Abell, chairman; J. A. Headley, A. J. Frederick, J. F. Green, Jr., C. E. 

This circular was signed June 6, 1856, and was published in the Lotc- 
rence Herald of Freedom, June 14, 1856. 

From this time forward the conflagration spread with ever increasing 
fury, and not only did the appeals for aid from the pro-slavery forces find 
immediate response, but likewise the anti-slavery forces throughout the whole 
North came to the rescue of the Free Soilers in Kansas, and during all of 
this great excitement Atchison county was the focal point of pro-slavery 
activities. The news of the "sacking" of Lawrence sen'ed to awaken the 
Nation in the North. It was at this time that Henry Ward Beecher. with 
all of the great eloquence at his command, advocated from his Brooklyn pul- 
pit the sending of Sharpe rifles instead of Bibles to Kansas, and pledged his 
own parish to supply a definite number. And on and on they came to Kan- 
sas out of the North with determination in their hearts and Sharpe rifles in 
their hands, to help the Free Soilers in their battles against the forces of Atch- 
ison and Stringfellow and Abell. Then came Lane's "Army of the North," 
which sounded more terrible than it really was, following in quick succession 
the second battle of Franklin ; the siege and capitulation of Ft. Titus, and the 
famous battle of Osawatomie. At last the mobilization of the forces of Atch- 
ison and Stringfellow not far from the outskirts at Lawrence in September, 
1856, for the purpose of a final assault on that Free State stronghold, marked 
the collapse of the Atchison-Stringfellow military campaign. It was a crit- 
ical hour for Lane. Old John Brov.'n was there, and the citizens were ready 
for whatever might befall them, but further hostilities were averted by the 
action of Governor Geary on the morning of September 15, 1856, when he 
appeared in person in the midst of the Missouri camp several hours after 
issuing a proclamation for the Missourians to disband. He found both Sen- 
ator Atchison and Gen. B. F. Stringfellow (brother of Dr. Stringfellow) 
there, and in the course of his speech severely reprimanded Atchison, who 
"from his high estate as Vice-President of the United States, had fallen so 
low as to be the leader of an army of men with uncontrollable passions, de- 
tennined upon wholesale slaughter and destruction." 

When Governor Geary had concluded his remarks his proclamation and 


order to disband the army were read and the more juchcious obeyed. 

The troops thus disbanded, marched homeward. Those enhsting at 
Atchison returned to Missouri by way of Lecompton. This was the last 
organized mihtary invasion from Missouri and ended the attempts of the 
pro-slavery forces to rule Kansas by martial law. 

It must not be concluded, iiowever, that the Stringfellows and other 
pro-slavery leaders in Atcliison county were not law-abiding citizens. They 
believed in the institution of slavery, as many good men of that day did, and 
they had the same rights to peacefully enter the territory of Kansas and 
endeavor to make it a slave State under the principle of Squatter sovereignty, 
as Dr. Charles Robinson, and Lane, and John Brown did to make the ter- 
ritory a free State. It would not only be unjust to the memory of the String- 
fellows and their compatriots, but unjust to posterity also to leave the im- 
pression that they had no semblance of justification, for many of their acts, 
which the impartial historian will admit, were very frequently in retaliation 
of wrongs and outrages suffered. The terrible stress and strain under which 
good men on both sides labored in those critical days led them to extremes, 
and in the midst of the discordant passions of good men, the bad men — -those 
who a"re the lawless of every age and clime — flourished and their lawlessness 
only served to complicate the dangerous and ever threatening situation. Calm 
judgment may not have been lacking in the territory in and around Atchi- 
son and Lawrence in the days btween 1854 and 1857, but if it existed at all 
it was lost in the ribt.of parti,san feeling and did not evince itself until later. 

Following the di.sbanding of the "Territorial" militia before Lawrence, 
General Atchison seemed to have somewhat recovered his composure and 
in an address to the troops after Governor Geary had retired, he said : 

"As was well known to all present the gentlemen composing this meet- 
ing had just been in conference with Governor Gear)-, who in the strongest 
language had deprecated the inhuman outrages perpetrated by those whom 
he characterized as bandits, now roving through the territory, and pledged 
himself in the most solemn manner to employ actively all of the force at iiis 
command in executing the laws of the territory and giving protection to his 
beloved citizens, and who had also appealed to us to dissolve our present or- 
ganization and stand by and co-operate with him in holding up the hands 
of his power against all evil doers, and who had also retired from the meeting, 
w'ith a request that he would consult and determine what course would he 
taken. Now the object of the meeting was thus to consult and determine 
what should be done." 


General Atchison also impressed the meeting wi'th the solemnity and 
importance of the occasion and said that it was time for men to exercise their 
reason and not yield to their passions and also to keep on the side of the law 
which alone constitutes our strength and protection. These words of Gen- 
eral Atchison breathed a far different message than his strong language of 
a few years before and indicated more plainly than anything else the general 
trend of pro-slavery sentiment. 

After the cessation of military movements in the territory, more or less 
peaceful elections, sessions of the legislature and conventions, at which con- 
stitutions were framed and voted upon, took place, and the work of prepar- 
ing the territory to become a State went forward. 

Four constitutions were framed before Kansas was admitted to the 

The Topeka constitution, which was the first in order, was adopted by 
the convention which framed it November ii, 1S55, and by the people of the 
territory at an election December 15, 1855. 

The Lecompton constitution was adopted by the convention which framed 
it November 7, 1857, and was submitted to a vote of the people December 
21, 1857, and the form of the vote prescribed was: "For the constitution, 
with slavery," and "For the constitution, without slavery." As no oppor- 
tunity was afforded at this election to vote against the constitution the free 
State people did not participate in it. The Territorial legislature was sum- 
moned in extra session and passed it without submitting this constitution to a 
vote of the people, January 4, 1858, and at that election 138 votes were cast 
for it and 10,226 against it. In spite of this ovenvhelming vote against the 
constitution it was sent to Washington and was transmitted by President 
Buchanan to the Senate who urged the admission of Kansas under it, thus 
starting the great contest which divided the Democratic party, the election 
of Abraham Lincoln as President, and the final overthrow of the slave party. 
The bill to admit Kansas under this constitution failed, but a bill finally 
passed Congress, under the provisions of which the constitution was again 
submitted to the people August 4, 1858, with the result that there were 
1,788 votes cast for it and 11,300 votes cast against it. 

The convention which framed the Leavenworth constitution was pro- 
vided for by an act of the Territorial legislature, passed in February,' 1858, 
at which time the Lecompton constitution was pending in Congress. The 
Leavenworth constitution was adopted by the convention April 3, 1858. and 
by the people May 18, 1858. 


The Wyandotte constitution was adopted by the convention which 
framed it July 29, 1859, and adopted by the people October 4, 1859. It was 
under the Wyandotte constitution that the State was admitted into the Union 
January 29, 1861. 

In this last convention Atchison county played a very important part. 
Three members were sent from this county : Caleb May, to whom reference 
has been made before, a fanner, born in Kentucky, and residing near the now 
abandoned townsi.te of Pardee ; John J. Ingalls, a lawyer at Sumner, who ar- 
rived in Kansas from Massachusetts, October 4, 1858, exactly one year pre- 
vious to the adoption of the constitution by the people of the Territory, and 
Robert Graham, a merchant at Atchison, who was born in Ireland. John A. 
Martin, the editor of Freedom's Champion, the successor to the Squatter 
Sovereign, at Atchison, was secretary of the convention. 

Caleb May remained a successful farmer and leading citizen of the 
county for many years after this convention, subsec^uently drifting to the 
Indian Territory, where he died. 

John J. Ingalls became United States senator from Kansas, where he 
remained for eighteen years, part of the time as president protempore of 
that body. 

John A. Martin became one of the leading military heroes of Kansas, 
and served as governor of the State from 1886 to 1888. He played an im- 
portant part as an officer of the convention, as also did Mr. Ingalls, who, 
Samuel A. Stinson says, was the "recognized scholar of the convention, and 
authority on all questions connected with the arrangement and phraseology 
of the instrument." For this reason he was made chairman of the committee 
on phraseology and arrangements. Robert Graham was chairman of the 
committee on corporations and banking, and on the ballot to locate a tem- 
porary capital of the State Atchison received six votes. Topeka received 
twenty-nine and was chosen as the temporary capital and afterwards became 
the permanent capital of Kansas. 






Atchison was one of the thirty-three orig-inal connties created by the first 
territorial legislature, which convened at Pawnee, July 2, 1855, and subse- 
quentlv adjourned to Shawnee Mission, July 6, 1855, and was named for 
Senator David R. Atchison, United States senator from Missouri, concerning 
whom much has been said in previous chapters. The county was surveyed 
in 18 = 5 and divided into three townships. Grasshopper township comprising all 
that section lying west of the old Pottawatomie road ; Mount Pleasant town- 
ship, all east of the old Pottawatomie road, and south of Walnut creek, from 
its confluence with the Missouri river to the source of the creek and a parallel 
line west to the old Pottawatomie road, and Shannon township, all that section 
of the county north of Alount Pleasant township. Subsequently, this sub-di- 
vision was further divided into eight townships, now comprising the county, 
to-wit : Grasshopper, Mount Pleasant. Shannon, Lancaster, Kapioma, Cen- 
ter, Walnut and Benton. The county i's located in the extreme northeastern 
part of Kansas, save one, Doniphan county, by which it is bounded on the 
north, together with Brown county, and on the west by Jackson county, and 
on the south by Jefferson and Leavenworth counties. It has an area of 409 
square miles, or 271,360 acres. 

The site of tlie citv of Atchison, the first town in the countv. was selected 


because of its conspicuous geog'raphical location on the river. Senator Atch- 
ison and his associates attached great importance to the fact that the river bent 
boldly inland at this point. They felt that it would be of great commercial 
advantage to a town to be thus located, so July 4, 1854, after a careful consid- 
eration of the matter, in all of its phases. Senator Atchison and his Platte 
county, Missouri, friends dedicated the new town. They felt that thev had 
located the natural gateway through which all the overland traffic to Utah, 
Oregon and California would pass. After they had settled with George Mil- 
lion, the first known white settler of the territory, and attended to other unim- 
portant preliminaries Dr. J. H. Stringfellow made a clailn just north of the 
Million claim, and with Ira Norris, James T. Darnell, Leonidas Oldham, 
James B. Martin, George Million and Samuel Dickson, agreed to form a town 
company, and they received into their organization David R. Atchison, Elijah 
Green, E. H. Norton, Peter T. Abell, B. F. Stringfellow, Lewis Burnes, Dan- 
iel D. Burnes, James N. Burnes, Calvin F. Burnes and Stephen Johnson. A 
week later these men gathered under a large cottonwood tree, near Atchison 
street, on the river, and organized by electing Peter T. Abell, president ; Dr. J. 
H. Stringfellow, secretary, and Col. James N. Burnes, treasurer. Peter T. 
Abell, president of the town company, was an able lawyer, and a Southern 
man, with pronounced views on the question of slavery. But he was a man of 
judgment, and a natural boomer. He was a very large man, being over six 
feet tall and weighed almost 300 pounds. \¥hen he became president of the 
town company he was a resident of Weston, Mo., and lived there until a year 
after Atchison had been surveyed. Subsequently, Senator Atchison assigned 
his interests in the town company to his nephew, James Headley, who after- 
wards became one of the leading lawyers of the town. Jesse Morris also be- 
came a member. 

The town company, having been regularly organized, the townsite was 
divided into 100 shares. Each of its members retained five shares; 
the balance of thirty being held for general distribution. Abell, B. F. String- 
fellow and all of the Burnes brothers were received as two parties. Henry 
Kuhn. a surveyor, sun^eyed 480 acres, which comprised the original townsite. 
Mr. Kuhn and his son returned to Atchison forty-five years later, and for a 
short time ran the Atchison Champion. On September 21, the first sale of 
town lots was held, amidst great excitement and general interest. It was a 
gathering which had both political and business significance. Senator Atch- 
ison, from Missouri, with a large number of his constituents, was there, and 
Atchison made a speech, in which one reporter quotes him as having said: 




"People of every quarter should be welcome to the Territory, and treated 
with civility as long as they showed themselves peaceable men." 

Someone in the crowd called out, "What shall we do with those who run 
off with our negroes?" "Hang "em," cried a voice in the crowd. To this Mr. 
Atchison replied, "No, I would not hang them, but I would get them out of 
the Territory — g'et rid of them." One version of the speech was to the effect 
that Senator Atchison answered his questioners by saying, "By G — d. sir, 
hang every abolitionist you find in the Territory." But the best account of the 
meeting was printed in a Parkville, Mo., newspaper, and was reported by an 
eye witness, who said : 

Stieet Looking Last, ltchi-.on, Kinsi 

"We arrived at Atchison in the forenoon. Among the company was 
our distinguished senator, in honor of whom the new city was named. There 
w'as a large assemblage on the ground, with plenty of tables set for dinner, 
■where the crowd could be accommodated with bacon and bread, and a drink at 
the branch, at fifty cents a head. The survey of the town had just been 
completed the evening before. Stockholders held a meeting, to arrange par- 
ticulars of .sale, and afterwards, as had been previously announced. General 
Atchison mounted an old wagon and made a speech. He commenced by men- 
tioning the bountiful country that w-as beginning to be settled ; to some of the 
circumstances under which a territorial government was organized, and in the 


course of his remarks, mentioned how Douglass came to introduce the 
Nebraska bill, with a repeal clause in it. He told of how Judge Douglass 
requested twenty-four hours in which to consider the question of introducing a 
bill for Nebraska, like the one he had promised to vote for, and said that if, at 
the expiration of that time, he could not introduce such a bill, which would not 
at the same time accord with his own sense of right and justice to the South, 
he would resign as chairman of the territorial committee, and Democratic 
caucus, and exert his influence to get Atchison appointed. At the expiration 
of the given time. Judge Douglass signified his intention to report such a bill. 

"General Atchison next spoke of those who had supported and those who 
had opposed the bill in the Senate, and ended by saying that the American 
people loved honesty and could appreciate the acts of a man who openly and 
above-board voted according to the will of his constituents, without political 
regard or favor. He expressed his profound contempt for abolitionists, and 
said if he had his way he would hang everyone of them that dared to show 
his face, but he knew that Northern men settling in the Territory were sensi- 
ble and honest, and that the right feeling men among them would be as far 
from stealing a negro as a Southern man would. 

"\Mien Senator Atchison concluded his remarks, the sale of town lots 
began, and thirty-four were sold that afternoon, at an average of $63.00 each. 
Most of those that were sold were some distance back from the river, and 
speculators were not present, so far as it could be determined, and lots that 
were sold were bought mostly by owners of the town. Prices ranged from 
$35.00 to $200.00." 

At this meeting the projects of building a hotel and establishing a news- 
paper were discussed, and as a result, each of the original 100 shares 
was assessed $25.00, and in the following spring the National Hotel, 
corner of Second and Atchison streets, was built. Dr. J. H. Stringfellow and 
Robert S. Kelley received a donation of $400.00 from the town company, to 
buy a printing office and in February, 1855, the Squatter Sovereign, which 
subsequently did so much for the pro-slavery cause, was born. 

The town company required each settler to build a house at least sixteen 
feet square upon his lot, so that when the survey was made in 1855 many 
found themselves upon school lands. Among those who put up homes in 
1854 and 1855 were James T. Darnell, Archibald Elliott, Thomas J. C. Dun- 
can, Andrew W. Pebler, R. S. Kelley, F. B. Wilson, Henry Kline and William 
Hassett. The titles -to the lands owned by these residents remained unsettled 
until 1857, when titles to all lands within the townsite and open to settlement 


were . acquired from the federal government, and subsequently the title to 
school lands was secured by patents from the Territory, and in this way the 
town company secured a clear title to all lands which they had heretofore con- 
veyed, and re-conveyed the same to the settlers and purchasers. Dr. J- H. 
Stringfellow. proprietor of North Atchison, an addition to the city of Atchi- 
son, employed J. J- Pratt to survey that addition in October, 1857. It con- 
sisted of the northeast quarter of the northeast quarter of section 36, township 
5, range 20. Samuel Dickson, who was the proprietor of South Atchison, had 
that addition platted in May, 1858, and John Roberts, who was the proprietor 
of \\'est Atchison, had his addition surveyed in February, 1858, a few months 
before Samuel Dickson surveyed South Atchison. C. L. Challiss' addition 
was surveyed about the same time. Other additions to the corporate limits of 
.Atchison have been made, and are as follows : Branchton, Bird's addition, 
Brandner's addition, Bakewell Heights, Batiste addition, Florence Park, For- 
est Park, Goodhue Place, Garfield Park, Highland Park, Home Place, How- 
?rd Heights, LaGrande addition, Lincoln Park, Llewellyn Heights, Lutheran 
Church addition, Mapleton Place, Merkles addition, Parker's addition, Park 
Place, Price Villa addition. River View addition, Spring Garden, Style's ad- 
dition, Bellvue Heights, and Talbott & Company's addition. 

Atchison was incorporated as a town by act of the Territorial legislature, 
August 30. 1855, but it was not incorporated as a city until Februar\' 12, 1858, 
after which the charter was approved Ijy the people by special election, March 
2, 1858. In the fall of 1856, Atchison had obtained a great many advantages 
over other towns along the river, by a judicious system of advertising. The 
Squatter Sovereign printed a circular November 22, 1856, which was scat- 
tered broadcast. The circular was as follows: 

"To the public, generally, but particularly to those persons living north 
of the Kansas river, in Kansas Territory : 

"It is well known to many, and should be to all interested, that the town 
of Atchison is nearer to most persons living north of the Kansas river, than 
any other point on the Missouri river. The country, too, south of the Kansas 
river above Lecompton, is also as near Atchison as any other Missouri river 
town. The roads to Atchison in every direction are very fine, and always in 
good repair for wagon and other modes of travel. The country opposite 
Atchison is not excelled by an section of Missouri, it being portions of Buch- 
anan and Platte counties, in a high state of cultivation, and at a considerable 
distance from any important town in Missouri, making grain, fruit, provisions 
and all kinds of marketing easily procured at fair prices ; a matter of no small 
consideration to settlers in a new countrv. 


"The great fresh water lake, from which the fish markets of St. Joseph 
and Weston are supphed, is also within three miles of Atchison. 

"Atchison is now well supplied with all kinds of goods ; groceries, flour, 
corn, meal, provisions and marketing of all kinds are abundant, and at fair 
prices. To show the compatibility of Atchison to supply the demands of tlie 
country, we here enumerate some of the business houses, viz : Six large d\y 
goods and grocery stores, wholesale and retail; six family grocery and pro- 
vision stores, wholesale and retail ; one large clothing store ; one extensive fur- 
niture store, with mattresses and bedding of all sorts ; one stove, sheet iron and 
tinware establishment, where articles in that line are sold at St. Louis prices ; 
several large warehouses sufficient to store all the goods of emigrants and trad- 
ers across the plains, and to Kansas Territory ; one weekly newspaper — The 
Squatter Soz'ereign — having the larg-est circulation of any newspaper in 
Kansas, with press, type and materials to execute all kinds of job work ; two 
commodious hotels, and several boarding houses ; one bakery and confection- 
ery ; three blacksmith shops ; two wagon makers, and several carpenter shops ; 
one cabinet maker; two boot and shoe maker shops, and saddle and harness 
maker shops ; one extensive butcher and meat market ; a first rate fern", on 
which is kept a magnificent new steam ferry boat and excellent horse boat, 
propelled by horses ; a good flat boat, and several skiffs ; saw mills, two pro- 
pelled by steam and one by horse-powder ; two brick yards, and two lime kilns. 

"A fine supply of professional gentlemen of all branches constantly on 
hand equal to the demand. 

"A good grist mill is much needed, and would make money for the owner." 

The first business house in Atchison was established by George T. Chal- 
liss, at the corner of the Levee and Commercial streets, in August, 1854. The 
National Hotel was not built at that time, so. Mr. Challiss established a tem- 
porary camp, and his workmen were accommodated under an elm tree near the 
river. The Challiss store building was torn down in 1872. George T. Chal- 
liss and his brother, Luther C. Challiss, were clerking in a dry goods store at 
Booneville, Mo., in the spring of 1854. George T. Challiss returned to his 
old home in New Jersey on a visit, and upon his return, in August, he came 
direct to Atchison. He came by boat to Weston, Mo., where he met P. T. 
Abell, president of the town company, and Abell prevailed upon him to come 
to Atchison in a buggy, crossing the river here on George Million's ferry. 
Mr. Abell donated Mr. Challiss the lot upon which he built his store, and he 
went to Rushville and bought enough cottonwood lumber to build it. A\'hen 
he arrived in Atchison, he had $4.50 in money, but later on borrowed $150.00 


from his brother, Luther C. Challiss, at Boonville. He enjoyed a good busi- 
ness from the beginning, and carried a large stock of both dry goods and 

The town of Atchison was the one big outstanding factor in Atchison 
county when the territory was organized, but at the same time that Abell and 
Stringfellow and others "were shaping up the town," others were busy organ- 
izing the county. As the city was named for General Atchison, so lii^ewise was 
the county at the time of its creation by the first Territorial legislature that 
assembled at Pawnee. The first board of county commissioners was selected 
and appointed by the Territorial legislature, August 31, 1855, and was com- 
posed of William J. Young, James M. Givens and James A. Headley. The 
first meeting of the board was held September 17, 1855, at the home of O. B. 
Dickerson, in the city of Atchison. At this meeting Ira Norris was appointed 
clerk and recorder; Samuel Dickson, treasurer; Samuel Walters, assessor. 
^^'illiam McVay had received an appointment as sheriff of the county prior 
to the meeting of the board, direct from the governor, to fill the office tem- 
porarily until his successor was subsequently appointed and qualified. On 
the i8th of September, 1855, being the second day of the session of the first 
board of county commissioners, Eli C. Mason was appointed as sheriff to 
succeed McVay, and Dudley McVay was appointed coroner. Voting precincts 
were established in three townships preparatory to an election of a delegate 
to Congress, which was to take place the first Monday in October, 1855. At 
the October meeting of the board of county commissioners, block 10, in what 
is now known as Old Atchison, was accepted by tlie board as a location upon 
which to erect a court house. This property was offered to the county by 
the Atchison town company for the purpose of influencing the board to make 
Atchison the county seat. The conditions of the gift were that the court house 
was to be built of brick and to be at least forty feet square. In the following- 
spring ihe town company donated fifty town lots, and the proceeds of these 
lots were to be used in the construction of the court house. In June, 1857, the 
court house was ordered built and it was to be two stories high, the first story 
to be of rock and the second story of wood. It was 24x18 feet square; how- 
ever, the plans were subsequently changed, and, because of the gift of an 
additional fourteen lots by the town company, of a value of $6,000.00, a more 
pretentious building was erected in 1859, with a county jail adjoining it. 
Prior to the erection of the court house, there was a spirited contest between 
Mt. Pleasant, Monrovia, Lancaster and Sumner over the question of the 


county seat. In an election to determine the location, Atchison received a 
majority of 252 votes over all competitors for the county seat. The estimated 
total population of the count}' at the time was 2,745. 

In the next few years Atchison grew rapidly and. the dreams of Senator 
.A.tchison and his associates bade fair to be realized on a large scale. The popu- 
lation of the town was about 500, and yet there were eight hardware stores, 
twelve dry goods stores, eight wholesale grocery stores, nineteen retail grocery 
stores, and twenty-six law firms. The banking business was controlled by 
the contracting firms of A. Majors & Company and Smoot, Russell & Com- 
pany. The Atchison branch of the Kansas Valley Bank was the first in 
the State to be formed under the legislative act, authorized February 19, 1857, 
with a capital stock of $300,000.00. In the act. John H. Stringfellow, Joseph 
Plean and Samuel Dickson were named to open subscription books. An or- 
ganization was effected in the spring of 1858, and the capital stock of the 
local organization was $52,000.00. The board of directors was composed of 
Samuel C. Pomeroy, president ; W. H. Russell, L. R. Smoot, W. B. Waddell, 
F. G. Adams, Samuel Dickson and W. E. Gaylord. There was considerable 
rivalry between Sumner and Doniphan at the time, and shortly after the organ- 
ization of the bank, a rumor, which was supposed to have started in Sumner, 
to the effect that the bank was about to suspend, caused the directors to pub- 
lish a statement of its condition, showing that its assets were $36,638.00 and 
its liabilities $20.1 18.00. S. C. Pomeroy resigned as president before the year 
was out and was succeeded by William H. Russell. The bank subsequently 
had its name changed by the legislature to the Bank of the State of Kansas. 
Mr. Russell, thesecond president of the bank, make his home in Leavenworth 
and was an active pro-slavery man, being treasurer of the executive commit- 
tee in 1856 to raise funds to make Kansas a slave State. This bank continued 
until 1866, when it went into voluntary liquidation and its stockholders wound 
up its affairs. 

One of the most important institutions in Atchison in the early days was 
the Massasoit House, opened for business September i, 1858, in charge of 
Tom Murphy, a genial proprietor, who conducted it for many years. At the 
same time there were three other hotels in operation in the city. Reference 
has heretofore been made to the National Hotel, which was elected in 1855 by 
popular subscription. It was a plain log structure on the north side of Atchi- 
son street, just east of Second, overlooking the river. The Tremont House 
was a two-story frame structure at the southeast corner of Second and Main, 
and the Planters' House was at the southwest corner of Commercial and Sixth 


Streets on the site now occupied by the Exchange Xational Bank, but the Mas- 
sasoit House was the leading hotel of this section and it was a substantial, 
somewhat imposing frame building erected at the northwest corner of Second 
and Main streets on the site now occupied by the Wherrett-Mize Wholesale 
Drug House. It was three stories high with a basement and was handsomely 
furnished. It did a large business and was the headquarters for the overland 
staging crowds. All the lines, which ran in every direction, out of Atchison at 
that time departed from the Massasoit House. It was a favorite place for 
political gatherings, and from its balconies many speeches were made by leaders 
of the political parties of that day. It at one time was the hiding place for a 
number of slaves who had been secreted in the hotel by their master. Horace 
Greeley, the famous editor of the Xcw York Tribune, ate his first dinner in 
Kansas at this hotel, and Abraham Lincoln was a guest on the da}- that John 
Brown w-as executed at Harper's Ferry. 

Some idea of the magnitude of the merchandising that was carried on in 
Atchison in 1858 may be gathered from the fact that during the summer of 
that year twenty-four trains comprising 775 wagons, 1,114 men, 7,963 oxen, 
142 horses, 1,286 mules conveyed 3,730,905 pounds of merchandise across 
the Rocky mountains and California. One single train that was sent out that 
year consisted of 105 wagons, 225 men, 1,000 oxen, 200 mules, fifty horses and 
465,500 pounds of merchandise. During the latter part of 1859 and the early 
months of i860, forty-one regular traders and freighters did business out of 
Atchison. During nine months of one of those years, the trains outfitted 
from Atchison were drawn by mules and cattle and comprised 1,328 
wagons, 1,549 men, 401 mules and 15,263 oxen. The Pike's Peak gold mines, 
which were discovered in 1858, and the prospecting in that region were the 
causes of the larger part of this enormous business. Denver at that time had a 
population of about 2,500, and was the center of the mining region around 
Pike's Peak. In the period just mentioned, thirty-three of the trains that left 
xAtchison were destined for Denver. One of these trains was composed of 
125 wagons, carrying 750,000 pounds of merchandise. It extended from the 
levee on the river far beyond the western outskirts of the city. The outfit 
was managed by fifty-two men, twenty-two mules and 1,542 oxen. Several 
of the trains for Denver had from twenty to fifty wagons. One, sent out by 
Jones & Cartwright, had fifty-eight wagons and carried over 3,000 
pounds of merchandise. Among the trains that left -Atchison during the 
latt'er part of 1859 were, one for Santa Fe, N. ]\I., another for Colorado City, 
Colo., two for Green River, Wyo., and four for Salt Lake City. The big- 


gest overland outfit was owned by Irwin. Jackson & Company, who were 
Government freighters. During one seasnn this firm sent out 520 wagDUs. 
650 men, J^ mules and 6,240 oxen. This firm had a good contract for sup- 
plying the military posts on the plains, including Forts Kearney, Laraiuie, 
Bridger, Douglas, and Camp Floyd, a short distance from Salt Lake City. 
In addition to these larger overland staging concerns there were a number of 
lesser outfits sent out by private parties in Atchison, with one, two or three 
wagons each. Most of the freight conveyed across the plains in wagons was 
brought to Atchison in steamboats, which unloaded at the levee extending 
along two or three blocks, beginning at about Atchison street and running 
south. Very frequently loaded ox trains nearly a mile in length were seen 
on Commercial street, and some of the prairie schooners would be loaded with 
hardware or some other dead weight, drawn by six to eight yoke of cattle : 
and more wagon trains were loaded and departed from Atchison than from any 
other point on the Missouri river. 

The act of the Territorial legislature of Kansas incorporating the city 
of Atchison was approved February 12, 1858, and it provided for the election 
of a mayor and councilmen. The charter was voted upon and accepted by 
the people at a special election held March 2, 1858. and the first mayor and 
council w-ere elected at a special election March 13. 1858. The charter pro- 
vided for an annual city election at that time to be held on the first Monday 
in September, and consequently the first mayor and councilmen of the city, 
elected in March, held their offices only until the following September. Sam- 
uel C. Pomeroy was the first mayor of the city, holding his office from March, 
1858, until May, 1859. Pomeroy was one of the prominent Free State settlers 
and was one of its most popular citizens. His election as mayor was the 
result of the toss of a coin. A temporaiy truce having been effected between 
the Southerners and the Free State men. it was agreed that a compromise in 
local affairs would be beneficial to the community. By the toss of a coin the 
Free State men won the mayor and three councilmen. and the pro-slavery men 
had four councilmen. Pomeroy was named by the Free State men as ma^or. 
Pomeroy subsequently became actively identified with the Massachusetts Emi- 
grant Aid Association, in the distribution of aid to the stricken people of 
Kansas following the great drouth of i860, and it w-as largely because of 
his identification with this organization that he was enabled to place aid where 
it would do the most good, and he subsequently became one oi the first United 
States senators from Kansas. When he was a resident of Atchison he lived at 
the corner of North Terrace and Santa Fe streets, 'but later he moved to a 


tract of land near IMuscotah, and during the twelve )-ears he was senator he 
claimed the latter place as his home. It was when he asked for a third term 
as United States senator that he was exposed on the floor of the State senate 
by Senator York, who arose in his place and, advancing to the secretary's desk, 
placed $7,000.00 in cash thereon, which he alleged Pomeroy had given him to 
influence his vote. Many have always believed that Senator Pomeroy was 
greatly wronged by this act of York. Ex-Governor George W. Click, him- 
self a Democrat and a leading citizen of Atchison in the early days, was a ver)- 
warm friend of Pomeroy and always expressed indignation when he heard 
Pomeroy abused, not only about his conduct in connection with the Emigrant 
Aid Association, but also in connection with his downfall politically. It was 
the contention of Governor Click that Pomeroy's fall was the result of a con- 
spiracy and not because of general bribery. However, Pomeroy never rose to 
political prominence after this incident and ended his days in \\'ashington, 
D. C. where he lived for a number of years prior to his death. 

Associated with Pomeroy as the first mayor of Atchison, were the follow- 
ing citizens : John F. Stein, Jr. register ; E. B. Grimes, treasurer ; IMilton R. 
Benton, marshal; A. E. Mayhew, city attorney; W. O. Gould, city engineer; 
M. R. Benton, by virtue of his office as marshal, was also street commissioner; 
H. L. Davis, assessor; Dr. J. W. Hereford, city physician. Tlie board of 
appraisers was composed of Messrs. Petfish, Roswell and Caylord. The first 
councilmen were William P. Childs, O. F. Short, Luther C. Challiss, Corne- 
lius E. Logan, S. F. Walters, James A. Headley, Charles Holbert. John F. 
Stein, who was register, resigned his office in August, and R. L. Pease was 
appointed to succeed him. In the following August the city was divided into 
three wards, the first ward being entitled to four councilmen, the second ward 
to two, and the third ward to three. At the first meeting of the council, 
which was held March 15, 1858, an ordinance was adopted providing for a 
special election for the purpose of submitting a proposition to take $100,000.00 
of stock in a proposed railroad from St. Joseph, Mo., to some point opposite 
Atchison on the Missouri river. The election was held and the stock was 
subscribed for. Mayor Pomeroy was appointed agent of the proposed road, 
which was to be known as the Atchison & St. Joseph Railroad Company. A 
further account of the development of railroad building from Atchison will 
occur in a subsequent chapter. The council at this session also fixed the sal- 
ary of the mayor, and in spite of the freedom of those days, saloons were 
ordered to be closed on Sunday, and other stringent regulations were passed 
in connection with the liquor traffic. The first financial statement of the 
city, of date September 5, 1859, is as follows: 


General city tax, 1858 $ 5,927.70 

Fines imposed by mayor's court 186.50 

Dray and wagon licenses 192.00 

Dram shop licenses 1,787.76 

Beer house licenses 101.33 

Shows 130.00 

Billiard tables 225.00 

Registry of dogs 50.00 

Assessment on C street from River to Fourth. . 3,381.00 

Total $12,008.29 

Amount of scrip and orders issued on general 

fund to December 15, 1858 $ 6,317.17 

Amount of scrip and orders issued on general 

fund to September 5, 1859 3,140.53 

Scrip issued toward building jail 1,675.00 

Scrip issued for grading streets, curbing, etc.. . 10,105.39 

Total $21,238.09 

General deficit $ 9,229.79 

The fact that Mayor Pomeroy had strongly urged in his inaugural address 
the importance of grading and improving the streets of the city "especially 
Atchison, Second and Fourth streets, and the levee," possibly accounts for 
the indebtedness of the city at so early a date. There was a general inclina- 
tion among the citizens of Atchison to build a modem city in accordance with 
the standards of the times, and therefore they were anxious to follow the 
mayor's advice to put their streets and alleys in order. 

One of the most interesting and at the same time one of the most diffi- 
cult tasks in tracing the settlement of a community, is to correctly catalogue 
the establishment of the first settler, the first house, the first business insti- 
tution, and the first of evers-thing, and it could with safety be said that this 
is not only an interesting and difficult task but it is well nigh an impossible 
one. This is not to be wondered at when we take into account the rush and 
confusion which always attend the settlement of a new community. How- 
ever, it has now become an established fact that George M. Million was the 


first wliite settler in the Territory, with Samuel Dickson a close second. There 
was some dispute about who built the first house in the town of Atchison, but 
we have resolved all doubt in favor of Dickson, just as we have decided that 
George T. Challiss established the first business house. The Challiss brothers, 
George, Luther and \Mlliam all played an important part in the very early 
history of the county. They were in business and in the professions, and 
they were all land owners, selecting the choicest tracts "close in" and holding 
onto them, none too wisely or too well, for their tenacity in this respect 
later resulted in their undoing. The leading lawyers in the county during 
those days were M. J. Ireland, A. G. Otis, Lsaac Hascall, James A. Headley, 
A. E. Mayhew, J. T. Hereford, P. H. Larey, Joseph P. Carr and B. F. String- 
fellow. Horton, Foster, Ingalls, and General Bela M. Hughes came later. 
Hascall carried a card in the Squatter Sovereign, advertising his legal head- 
quarters as the Border Ruffian Law Office. 

In addition to the names of merchants and professional men heretofore 
given, "Andreas' History of Kansas" gives the following list : Grafton Thom- 
assen, the slave owner, ran a sawmill. Thbmassen's name appears in the 
records of Atchison county in connection with land transfers as Grafton 
Thomason; Luther C. Challiss, who occupied a store on the levee, 45 by 100 
feet which he filled with dr\' goods and groceries, and advertised "such an 
assortment as was never before offered for sale in the upper country" ; Samuel 
Dickson, a merchant and politician and also an auctioneer, on the north side of 
C street; Lewis Burnes, M. P. Rively and Stephen Johnson carried stocks of 
assorted merchandise; A. J. G. Westbrook, a grocer, and Patrick Laughlin, 
who fled from Doniphan on account of the murder of Collins, the Free State 
man, was a tinner; William C. Null and Albert G. Schmitt operated a ware- 
house and carried a general stock of merchandise at the corner of Second and 
C streets; Charles E. Woolfolk and Robert H. Cavell had a large store and 
warehouse at the steamboat landing; George M. Million operated the Pioneer 
Saloon; John Robertson conducted a saddlery and harness business; Messrs. 
Jackson & Ireland were a contracting firm with a shop over Samuel Dickson's 
store; Uncle Sam Clothing Store, at the corner of C and Third streets, was 
conducted by Jacob Saqui & Company ; Giles B. Buck sold stoves on C street ; 
O. B. Dickson was proprietor of the Atchison House ; Drs. J. H. Stringfellow 
and D. M. McVay were the leading ph}sicians ; and it is interesting to note 
that Washburn's Great American Colossal Circus, which was the first in 
Kansas, gave two exhibitions in Atchison, July 31, 1856. This aggregation 
carried three clowns, a full brass and string band and an immense pavilion, and 
many other novel and attractive features. 


Fully fifty new buildings were erected during the spring and summer 
of 1856. 

During this period in the history of the county. Free State people began 
to come into their own. They grew bolder, following the compromise with 
the pro-slavery citizens, over the question of the distribution of city officers 
and because of other concessions that were made Ijy the pro-slavery citizens for 
the general good of the community. It was not strange, therefore, that some 
of the less tactful and politic Free State leaders should over-reach themselves 
at such a time. While the "Reign of Terrorism" under the Stringfellow 
regime was on, the Free State men in Atchison county considered discretion 
the better part of valor. They were very quiet, with few exceptions, of whom 
Pardee Butler was a conspicuous example, but the)- were nevertheless quite 
numerous in the county, and particularly was this the case in and around Mon- 
rovia, Eden and Ocena : in fact, there was an organization of Free State men 
in the county as early as 1857, and several quiet meetings were held that year; 
and at Monrovia a society was formed, of which Franklin G. Adams was the 
chief officer and spokesman. 

Early in May, 1857, Senator Pomeroy and the Free State men bought 
the Sqnattei- Sovereign from Dr. Stringfellow, and Mr. Adams and Robert 
McBratney became its editors. Mr. Adams was just as ardent a Free State 
man as Dr. Stringfellow was the other way, so the policy of the paper was 
completely reversed. Judge Adams was a lawyer and partner of John J. 
Ingalls for a while. Hte represented Atchison county in the constitutional 
convention that met in Mineola March 2t,. 1858 and which subsequently ad- 
journed to Leavenworth. Caleb May, G. M. Fuller, C. A. W'loodworth and 
H. E. Baker were the other delegates from Atchison county. Judge Adams 
was later one of the useful men of Kansas, and at the time of his death he 
was secretary of the State Historical Society, which position he filled with 
credit and honor for many years. On August 22, 1858, following the local 
compromise with the pro-slavery leaders. Judge Adams concluded the time 
was ripe to invite James H. Lane, the great Free State leader, to Atchison, to 
make a speech. He consequently served notice in his paper that Lane would 
be in Atchison October ig. As soon as it was generally known that Lane had 
been invited to speak in Atchison a number of the more rabid pro-slavery men 
concluded that the speaking would not take place. On the other hand. Judge 
Adams was just as determined that Lane would have a public meeting in 
Atchison. For the purpose of insuring order on that occasion Adams in- 
vited a number of strong and reliable Free State friends from Leavenworth 


to come up to Atchison and see that fair play was done. The invitation to 
the Leavenworth Free Soilers was accepted with alacrity and they arrived on 
the morning of the day Lane was billed to make hi's speech and brought with 
them their side arms as a matter of precaution. They made the office of 
Adams, Swift & Company their headquarters while here. Shortly after the 
arrival of the Leavenworth contingent and while sitting in his office Judge 
Adams noticed a crowd gathering on Commercial street, near Fifth. Sus- 
pecting that the 'c5-owd had gathered for no good purpose, Judge Adams 
and six of his friends started for the scene of what appeared to him to be 
a disturbance. On their way they met Caleb A. Woodworth, Sr., hatless 
and apparently in trouble. As Judge Adams stopped to make inquiries of Mr. 
Woodworth regarding his trouble somebody from the rear assaulted him 
with a heavy blow on the cheek. Instead of following the Biblical injunc- 
tion he did not turn his other cheek, but swung quickly in his tracks and lev- 
elled a pistol at his assailant, who was accompanied by a crowd of his friends, 
all armed and with blood in their eyes. As Judge Adams was about to pull 
the trigger of his gun a friend of Judge Adams shouted, "Don't shoot yet!" 
Following which admonition all of the crowd displayed cocked revolvers and 
aimed them in the direction of Judge Adams and his crowd. Observing that 
the Free Soilers meant business, the pro-slavery men discreetly withdrew 
without further trouble, and the Free Soil men returned to the office of Judge 
Adam.s. It was then determined that the meeting should be an out-of-door 
one, and as they passed out into the street, again the pro-slavery advocates 
mixed freely with the Free Soilers. A. J. W. Westbrook. of tb.e "Home 
Guards," mounted on a prancing horse, rode among the crowd, flourishing 
a cocked gun, apparently seeking to kill Judge Adams at the first favorable 
opportunity. It has been doubted that Westbrook meant business, but his 
conduct had the effect of stirring up his followers who avowed that Jim 
Lane should not speak in Atchison that night. His threatening attitude ap- 
parently had the desired effect, for the Free Soil men decided that it was not 
necessary for the existence of their cause that Jim Lane should speak and 
therefore postponed the speaking. Judge Adams was not altogether pleased 
but he was finally prevailed upon to return home without attempting further 
trouble. Later in the day a party of Free Soil men met General Lane on the 
outskirts of the city, returning from Doniphan where he had been speaking, 
and prevailed upon him not to come to Atchison. This was not the first 
attempt of Lane to visit Atchison county. He was entertained at dinner in 
1855 at the home of Dr. J. H. Stringfellow, whose house occupied the site 


where the home of Ex-Governor W. J. Bailey now stands. The fact that 
Lane was a guest of Dr. Strhigfellow will appear strange to those who knew 
nothing of the Stringfellow family. While they were belligerent pro-slavery 
advocates, they were always high class men with decent instincts and there- 
fore it would not be unusual for them to open their home to so violent an 
opponent of theirs as Lane was. The eastern papers, in giving an account 
of Lane's entertainment at the Stringfellow home, stated that the dinner was 
a very elaborate one, including- oysters, plum pudding, terrapin and cham- 
pagne. Mrs. Stringfellow told E. W. Howe in 1894 that Lane came to the 
house about 11 o'clock in the morning attended by a body-guard of four 
men and inquired for Dr. Stringfellow. The Doctor was away at the time, 
but was expected about noon. The men said that they would wait, where- 
upon Mrs. Stringfellow knew that she would probably have them for dinner. 
Her girl was just getting ready to go somewhere on an errand and was 
asked to remain at the house. Dr. Stringfellow came in about noon and 
when the two men met in the yard Stringfellow asked Lane if he was not 
afraid to call at his house. 'T am not afraid," Lane replied, "to call on a 
gentleman anywhere." This gallantry captured Mrs. Stringfellow's admira- 
tion and she invited Lane and his body-guard to dinner, which, contrary to 
the report in the eastern papers, was a very simple one. Mrs. Stringfellow. 
in her interview with Mr. Howe, said that it was as follows : Coffee, hot 
biscuits and butter, cold pie, preserves and milk; no terrapin, no oysters, no 
champagne, no plum pudding. Lane called at the house on a matter of busi- 
iness and Mrs. Stringfellow said that Lane and his body-guard were very 
Icindly genteel men. Two or three weeks later, when Mrs. Stringfellow 
was alone in the house, she saw a wagon pass in the road with three or four 
men lying down in it. Presently another wagon, similarly loaded, attracted 
her attention. Then came four men and a woman on horseback and sev- 
eral men on foot. The people came from down town, or from southwest of 
town. The circumstances were peculiar, and Mrs. Stringfellow climbed on 
top of a table and watched the men through the upper sash of a window. They 
stopped in a little glade northeast of the house, when the woman dismounted 
from the horse, took off the skirt and turned out to be Jim Lane. He stood 
beside the horse and talked possibly half an hour. Mrs. Stringfellow is cer- 
tain the speaker was Lane, because she had seen hirn only a few weeks be- 
fore, and he rode the white horse he had ridden when he stopped at her 
house, and the same four men composed the body-guard. Lane had threat- 
ened to make a speech in the town but had been warned not to, as he had been 



warned two years earlier. He made his speech in spite of the warning, lint 
his audience was composed of his friends only. A half hour after Lane dis- 
appeared over the hill toward the farm then owned by John Taylor, some 
distance south of the Orphans" Home, forty mounted southerners appeared 
looking for him. Mrs. Stringfellow knew John Scott, the leader, and told him 
of the incident. The men laughed and then gave three rousing cheers for Jim 
Lane, who had outwitted them. 

While there was a tremendous traffic across the plains from Atchison 
in 1857, 1858 and 1859, and for a number of years later the "town was alive 
with business," it is only fair to record that the town itself was not a thing 
of beauty and a joy forever, in spite of the efforts of ]\Iayor Pomeroy and 
the city fathers who put the city in debt to the extent of 89,000, September 
5, 1859, for public improvements. 

Frank A. Root in his admirable book, "The Overland Stage to Cali- 
fornia," published in 1901, has this to say in part upon his arrival here in 
November, 1858: 

"It was in November, 1S58, that I first set foot on the levee in Atchison. 
I stepped from the steamer, 'Omaha,' which boat was discharging its carg-o 
of freight at the foot of Commercial street. At that time the place was a 


very small town. I took up my residence in Atchison the following- spring, 
having this time come up the river on a steamboat from Weston where I had 
been employed as a compositor in the office of the Platte Argjts. On land- 
ing at Atchison I had a solitary dime in my pocket, and, after using that to 
pay for my lunch, I started out in search of a job. A sign over the office 
which read: 'Freedom's Champion, John A. Martin, Editor and Publisher," 
attracted my attention. It hung above the door of the only newspaper office 
in the city at that time, but preparations were then being made by Gideon O. 
Chase, of Waverly, N. Y., to start the Atchison Union, which was to be a 
Democratic paper. I secured a place in the Champion office, beginning work 
the following morning. As I walked about the town I remember of hav- 
ing seen but four brick buildings on Commercial street. A part of the second 
story of one of them, about half a square west of the river, was occupied by 
the Champion. The Massasoit House was the leading hotel. The Planters, 
a two-story frame house, was a good hotel in those early days, but it 
was too far out to be convenient, located as it was, on the corner of Com- 
mercial and Sixth streets. West of Sixth there were but few scattering 
dwellings and perhaps a dozen business houses and shops. The road along 
Commercial street, west of Sixth, was crooked, for it had not been graded 
and the streets were full of stumps and remnants of a thick growth of under- 
brush that had previously been cut. A narrow, rickety bridge was spanning 
White Clay creek where that stream crosses Commercial street at Seventh 
street. 'Between Sixth and Seventh streets, north of Commercial street there 
was a frog pond occupying most of the block, where the boys pulled dog- 
grass in highwater, and where both boys and girls skated in winter. The 
Exchange hotel on Atchison street, between Second and the Levee, built of 
logs — subsequently changed to the National — was the principal hotel of Atch- 
ison, and for more than a quarter of a century stood as an old familiar land- 
mark, built in early territorial days. 

"Atchison w^s the first Kansas town visited by Horace Greeley. It was 
Sunday morning. May 15. 1859, a few_ days before beginning his overland 
journey across the continent by stage. He came through Missouri by the 
Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad, thence down the Missouri river from St. 
Joseph on the 'Platte Valley,' a steamer then running to Kansas City in 
connection with trains on the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad. It was in 
the old Massasoit House that Greelev wrote on Kansas soil, his first letter to 
the Tribune. During the latter part of the afternoon he was driven over the 


city in a carriage, John A. ]\lartin lieing one of the party. The city was a 
favorite place of Albert D. Richardson, the noted correspondent of five 
eastern newspapers. 

"It was at Atchison that Abraham Lincoln, on his first visit to Kansas, 
spoke to a crowded house on 'The Issues of the Day.' December 2, 1859, 
the date that old John Brown was executed in \"irginia. Lincoln spoke in 
the Methodist church, which then stood on the hill at the corner of Fifth and 
Parallel streets. The little church was a frame building, dedicated in May, 
1859, and overlooked a considerable portion of the city. The house after- 
wards became quite historic, for during the early part of the Civil war, the 
patriotic Rev. Milton Mahin, a stanch Union man, from Indiana, in a 
patriotic speech, soon after the Civil war broke out, had the nerve, and was 
the first minister of the Gospel in Atchison, to raise the Stars and Stripes 
over his house of worship." D. W. Wlilder, in his "Annals of Kansas," one 
of the most wonderful books of its kind ever published, says that Abraham 
Lincoln arrived in Elwood, which is just across from St. Joseph, December 
I, 1859, and made his speech there that evening. He was met at St. Joseph 
by M. W. Delahay and D. W. Wilder. The speech that Lincoln delivered 
at Elwood and at Atchison was the same speech that he subsequently delivered 
at the Cooper Institute, New York City, and was considered as one of the 
ablest and clearest ever delivered b}' an American statesman. 

Atchison county was making forward strides at a rapid pace and the fu- 
ture held out every promise of prosperity, but in 1859 "a great famine fell upon 
the land." It did more to depopulate Kansas than all the troubles of preced- 
ing years. The settlers in the Territorj' w'ere able to fight border ruffians 
Avith more courage than they could endure starvation, and during all of their 
earlier troubles they confidently looked forward to the time when all of their 
political difficulties would be settled and prosperity, peace and contentment 
would be their share in life. During the years of 1855, 1856 and 1857 the cit- 
izens of the Territory were unable to take advantage of the then favorable 
seasons to do more than raise just sufficient for their immediate needs. Dur- 
in the next year immigration to Kansas was large and the new settlers had 
but little time, in addition to building their homes, to raise barely enough 
for home consumption, so in 1859 Kansas had only enough grain on hand to 
last until the following han-est. The drought commenced in June, and from 
the nineteenth of that month until November, i860, not a shower of rain fell 
of anv consequence. By fall the ground was parched and the hot winds that 
blew from the south destroyed vegetation and the wells and springs went 


dry. There were a few localities on bottom lands along the Missouri river 
where sufficient crops were raised to supply the immediate population, but 
over 60,000 people in Kansas faced star^-ation in the fall of i860. Thirty 
thousand settlers left the Territory for their old homes, from which they 
came, abandoning their claims and all hope of success in Kansas. An end- 
less procession crossed the border from day to day. About 70,000 
inhabitants remained, of whom it was estimated 40,000 were able 
to go through the winter. As soon as the news of this situation reached the 
East, movements were inaugurated for the relief of the sufferers in Kansas. 
S. C. Pomeroy was appointed general agent of northern Kansas. He did 
much to raise liberal contributions in New York, Wisconsin, Indiana, Illinois 
and Ohio, and the contributions were all sent to Atchison, from which place 
they were distributed to the different counties of the State. The total re- 
ceipts of provisions for distribution up to Alarch 15, 1861, were 8,090,951 
pounds, and the total distribution at Atchison, exclusive of branch depots, 
was 6,736,424 pounds. In spite of all of this assistance over 30,000 
settlers in Kansas that year suffered privation and almost starvation. 

It was during this frightful travail that Kansas as a State was bom. 
On January 21, 1861, Jefferson Davis and a number of other southern sen- 
ators left the United States Senate and on that day the bill for the admission 
of Kansas under the Wyandotte constitution, which had been laid before the 
House of Representatives in February, i860, was called up by W. H. Seward, 
and passed the Senate by a vote of thirty-six yeas to sixteen nays. One week 
later the bill came up in the House on motion of Galusha A. Grow, of Penn- 
sylvania, who introduced the first bill for the admission of Kansas into the 
Union, and while the motion was out of the regular order, it was passed by 
a vote of 119 yeas to forty-two nays. On January 29 the bill was signed 
by President Buchanan, and free Kansas joined the Union. 

The following are the names of the city officials of Atchison March i, 
1916: Dr. C. C. Finney, mayor; Victor L. King, city clerk; Walter E. Brown, 
city attorney; C. A. Wright, city treasurer; Frank S. Altman, city engineer; 
D. S. Beatty, police judge; William H. Coleman, chief of police; John Comp- 
ton, fire marshal; Jerome Van Dyke, street commissioner; Owen P. Grady, 
meat inspector and license collector; Fred Stutz, sanitan,' sergeant; Frank J. 
Roth, building commissioner; John Compton, purchasing agent; Dr. T. E. 
Horner, city physician. Councilmen : Louis Weinman, president ; first ward, 
Louis Weinman, F. F. Bracke ; second ward. Joseph Schott, C. A. Brown; 
third ward, H. M. Ernst, John R. Schmitt ; fourth ward, W. C. Linville, Fred 
Snyder; fifth ward, Fay Kested, Walter North. ' 






ANT — lewis' POINT — Farley's ferry. 

One of the most interesting- subjects for the local historian is the rise and 
fall of town companies and towns, within the confines of Atchison county. 
Perhaps no county in the State, or for that matter, no county in the United 
States, has been immune from the visitations of town boomers. It is difficult 
in this enterprising age, with all the knowledge that we now have at hand, to 
understand how it was possible for anybody, though he was ever so enthusias- 
tic, to conceive the idea that there was any future for many of the "towns" 
that were born in Atchison county in the early days. Yet. it is found that 
there was in the breasts of many promoters a feeling that Atchison county 
offered unlimited possibilities for the establishment and growth ol towns and 
cities. One need only search the records on file in the office of tlie register of 
deeds in this county to discover numerous certified plats of towns which were 
born to blush unseen and waste their fragrance on the desert air. In some in- 
stances the records are quite complete and authentic, and contain much infor- 
mation with reference to the origin, growth and final decay of these nascent 
municipalities. In other cases nothing has come down to posterity, save the 
merest fragmentary data, of which the plat, containing the name of the town 
and of its organizer, its location and the number of blocks, streets and allevs, 
constitute the major part. 

Reference has heretofore been made to the founding and the organization 


of the city of Atcliison, wliich became and no\\- remains tlie county seat of 
Atchison county. The city played such an important part in the early history 
of the county that its story has been woven into the general fabric of this 
history, and therefore further reference to the city of Atchison will not be made 
in this chapter. 


Perhaps the most important, altliough nut the oldest, town established in 
Atchison county outside of the city of Atchison was Sumner. A peculiar 
aroma of legendary glory still clings to this old town, which was located three 
miles below Atchison, on the Missouri river. 

Its founder was John P. Wheeler, a young man who came to the Terri- 
tory when about twenty-one years of age, and who has been described as "a 
red-headed, blue-eyed, consumptive, slim, freckled enthusiast from Massachu- 

Atchison at this time was a strong pro-slaveiy town, and no abolitionist 
was a welcome settler in her midst. For this reason Sumner sprang into 
existence. It was a dream of its founder to make Sumner an important for- 
w'arding point, one of its claims being the fact that it was the most westerly 
of any of the Missouri river towns in Kansas. 

In 1856 the site was surveyed and platted, and the name "Sumner" given 
the new town, in honor of George Sumner, one of the original stockholders, 
and not for his brother, the Hon. Charles Sumner, United States senator, of 
Massachusetts, as many people suppose. 

To bring Sumner befcn-e the public Mr. Wheeler engaged an artist named 
Albert Conant to come out and make a drawing of it, and this was later taken 
to Cincinnati, and a colored lithograph made from it, which was widely cir- 
culated. From copies of this lithograph still extant it must be admitted that 
the artist did not slight the town in any particular. 

In the fall of 1857 the Sumner Town Company began the erection of a 
large brick hotel. Samuel Hollister had the contract, his bid being $16,000. 
The brick used in the construction were made on the ground, and the lumber 
used in the construction Avork came by steamboat from Pittsburgh, Pa. The 
hotel was completed in the summer of 1858, and at last accounts the town 
company still owed Mr. Hollister $3,000. Some years later the brick used in 
the hotel were gathered and cleaned and hauled to Atchison and used the con- 
struction of a building owned by the late John J. Ingalls, located at 108-110 
South Fourth street. 


In the fall of 1857 Cone Brothers (John P. and D. D.) brought a print- 
ing outfit to Kansas, and were induced to locate in Sumner, where they shortly 
begun the publication of The Sumner Gazette, the first issue of which appeared 
on September 12. During the political canvass that fall they also issued a 
daily. The Gazette was issued until 1861 when it suspended, its publishers 
believing- that it was the only paper in Kansas that outlived the town in which 
it started. 

Among those engaged in business in Sumner on October i, 1857, the 
Daily Gazette shows the following: 

John P. Wheeler, attorney and counsellor at law, commissioner of deeds. 
dealer in real estate, etc. 

Kahn & Fassler, general store, on Front street, between \\'ashington a\-e- 
nue and Chestnut street. 

Mayer & Rohrmann, carpenters and builders. 

Barnard & Wheeler, proprietors of the Sumner Brick Yard. 

Wm. M. Reed, contractor, Atchison and Sumner. 

John Armor, steam saw mill, in the city. 

Butcher & Brothers, general store on Front street, between Washington 
avenue and Olive street. 

Allen Green, painter and glazier. 

S. J. Bennett, boot and shoe store, corner of Washington avenue and 
Fourth street. 

Arthur M. Claflin, general land agent, forwarding and commission agent. 

J. P. Wheeler and A. M. Claflin, lumber, office with the Sumner 

H. S. Baker, proprietor of Baker's Hotel, corner of Front and Olive 
streets, near steamboat landing. 

A. Barber, general merchandise. Front street, between \\'ashington ave- 
nue and Olive street. 

Lietzenburger & Co., blacksmiths, wagon makers, etc.. Cedar street, be- 
tween Third and Fourth streets. 

D. Newcomb, M. D., office in postoffice building, corner of Third street 
and Washington avenue. Mr. Newcomb also dealt in lime, and on September 
24, received a large and select stock of hardware, stoves, etc. 

When the Territorial legislature of 1858 met, a bill was introduced, incor- 
porating the Sumner Company, Cyrus F. Currier, Samuel F. Harsh, J. W. 
Morris, Isaac G. Losse and John P. Wheeler, their associates and successors, 
constitutin gthe company. The act also provided that the corporation should 


have the power to purchase and hold, and enter by preemption and otherwise, 
any quantity of land where the town of Sumner is now located, not to exceed 
one thousand acres, etc. 

A fern' at Sumner was also incorporated by the legislature of 185S, J. W. 
Morris. Cyrus F. Currier and Samuel Harsh being the incorporators. This 
boat plied between Atchison and Sumner and the Missouri side. 

In 1858 Samuel Hollister built a steam sawmill, adding a gristmill later. 

By the end of 1858 Sumner had outstripped its rival, Atchison, in popula- 
tion, and steps were taken looking towards the incorporation of the town. 
Early in the beginning of the legislature of 1859, articles of incorporation were 
passed and received the approval of Governor Samuel Medary on Febiaian? 9. 
These articles of incorporation were later amended by an act passed by the 
first State legislature, which was approved June 3, 1861. 

The decline of Sumner began with the drought which started in the fall 
of 1859 and prevailed through the year i860. In June, i860, a cyclone struck 
the town and either blew down or damaged nearly every building, this calamity 
being followed in September by a visitation of grasshoppers, all of which were 
potent factors in wiping Sumner off the map. Some of the houses which 
ciiuld l>e moved were taken to Atchison, and si_>me to farms in the immediate 

One of the most interesting accounts that appeared about Sumner was 
written by H. Clay Park, an old citizen of Atchison, who for many years was 
editor and part owner of the Atchison Patriot. It would not be just either 
to Mr. Park or to Sumner, were this account not perpetuated in this volume, 
and it, therefore, appears in full as follows : 

"the rise and fall of SUMNER. 

"Three miles south of Atchison, Kansas, is the site of a dead city, whose 
streets once were filled with the clamor of busy traffic and echoed to the tread 
of thousands of oxen and mules that in the pioneer days of the Great West 
transported the products of the East across the Great American Desert to the 
Rocky mountains. It was a city in which for a few years twenty-five hundred 
men and women and children lived and labored and loved, in which many lofty 
aspirations were bom, and in which several young men began careers that 
became historical. 

"This city was located on what the early French voyagers called the 'Grand 
Detour' of the ^Missouri ri\"er. No more rugged and picturescjue site for a 
city or one more inaccessible and with more unpropitious environ- 


ments could have been selected. It was literally built in and on the everlast- 
ing hills, covered with a primeval forest so dense that the shadows chased the 
sunbeams away. It sprang into existence so suddenly and imperceptibly it 
might almost have been considered a creation of the magician's wand. It was 
named Sumner in honor of the great Massachusetts senator. Its official motto 
was 'Pro lege et grege' (For the law and the people). This would, in the 
light of subsequent events, have been more suggestive: 'I shall fall, like a 
bright exhalation in the evening.' 

"Sumner's first citizens came mostly from Massachusetts, and were im- 
bued with the spirit of creed and cant, self-reliance and fanaticism that could 
have been born only on Plymouth Rock. They had come to the frontier to 
make Kansas a free State and to build a city, within whose walls all previous 
conditions of slavery should be disregarded and where all men born should be 
regarded equal. The time — 1856 — was auspicious. Kansas was both a great 
political and military battlefield, upon which the question of the institution of 
slavery was to be settled for all time. 

"The growth of Sumner was phenomenal. A lithograph printed in 1857 
shows streets of stately buildings, imposing seats of learning, church spires that 
pierced the clouds, elegant hotels and theaters, the river full of floating pal- 
aces, its levee lined with bales and barrels of merchandise, and the white smoke 
from numerous factories hanging over the city like a banner of peace and 
prosperity. To one who in that day approached Sumner from the east and 
saw it across the river, which like a burnished mirror, reflected its glories, it 
did indeed present an imposing aspect. 

"One day the steamboat Duncan S. Carter landed at Sumner. On its 
hurricane deck was John J. Ingalls, then only twenty-four years old. As his 
eye swept the horizon his prophetic soul uttered these words : 'Behold the home 
of the future senator from Kansas.' Here the young college graduate, who 
since that day became the senator from Kansas, lived and dreamed until Sum- 
ner's star had set and Atchison's sun had risen, and then he moved to Atchison, 
bringing with him Sumner's official seal and the key to his hotel. 

"Here lived that afterwards brilliant author and journalist, Albert D. 
Richardson, whose tragic death some years ago in the counting room of the 
Neiv York Tribune is well remembered. His 'Beyond the Mississippi' is to 
this day the most fascinating account ever written of the boundless West., 

"Here lived the nine-A^ear-old Minnie Hank, who was one day to become 
a renowned prima donna and charm two continents with her voice, and who 
was to wed the Count Wartegg. Minnie was born in poverty and cradled in 
adversitv. Her mother was a poor washerwoman in Sumner. 


"Here lived John E. Remsburg, the now noted author, lecturer and free- 
thinker. Mr. Remsburg has probably delivered more lectures in the last 
thirty years than any man in America. He is now the leader of the Free- 
Thought Federation of America. 

"Here \\' alter A. Wood, the big manufacturer of agricultural implements, 
lived and made and mended wagons. Here Lovejoy, 'the Yankee preacher,' 
preached and prayed. Here lived 'Brother' and 'Sister' Newcomb, from whom 
has descended a long line of zealous and eminent Methodists. Here was 
born Paul Hull, the well known Chicago journalist. 

"And Sumner was the city that the Rev. Pardee Butler lifted up his hands 
and blessed and prophesied would grow and wax fat when the 'upper landing' 
would sleep in a dishonored and forgotten grave, as he floated by it on his 
raft, clad in tar and feathers. The 'upper landing' was the opprebrious title 
conferred by Sumner upon Atchison. The two towns were bitter enemies. 
Sumner was 'abolitionist;' Atchison was 'border ruffian.' In Atchison the 
'nigger' \\-as a slave : in Sumner he was a fetich. It was in Atchison that the 
'abolition preacher,' Pardee Butler, was tarred and feathered and set adrift on 
a raft in the river. He survived the tortures of his coat of degradation and 
the 'chuck-holes' of the ^lissouri river and lived to become a prohibition fanatic 
and a Democratic Presidential elector. 

"Jonathan Lang, alias 'Shang,' the hero of Senator Ingalls" 'Catfish Aris- 
tocracy,' and the 'last mayor of Sumner,' lived and died in Sumner. When all 
his lovely companions had faded and gone 'Shang' still pined on the stem. 
The senator's description of this type of a vanished race is unique : 

" 'To the most minute observer his age was a cjuestion of the gravest 
doubt. He might have been thirty : he might have been a century, with no 
violation of the probabilities. His hair was a sandy sorrel, something like a 
Rembrandt interior, and strayed around his freckled scalp like the top layer 
of a hayrick in a tornado. His eyes were two ulcers, half filled with pale 
blue starch. A thin, sharp nose projected above a lipless mouth that seemed 
always upon the point of breaking into the most grievous lamentations, and 
never opened save to take whiskey and tobacco in and let oaths and saliva out. 
A long, slender neck, yellow and wrinkled after the manner of a lizard's 
belly, bore this dome of thought upon its summit, itself projecting from a mis- 
cellaneous assortment of gent's furnishing goods, which covered a frame of 
unearthly longitude and unspeakable emaciation. Thorns and thongs supplied 
the place of buttons upon the costume of this Brummel of the bottom, coarsely 
patched beyond recognition of the original fabric. The coat had been con- 


structed for a giant, the pants for a pigmy. They were too long in the waist 
and too short in the leg, and flapped loosely around his shrunk shanks high 
above the point where his fearful feet were partially concealed by mismated 
shoes that permitted his great toes to peer from their gaping integuments, like 
the heads of two snakes of a novel species and uncommon fetor. This princely 
phenomenon was topped with a hat which had neither band nor brim nor 
crown : 

" Tf that could shape be called which shape has none. 

" 'His voice was high, shrill and querulous, and his manner an odd mix- 
ture of fawning servility and apprehensive effrontery at the sight of a "damned 
Yankee abolitionist," whom he hated and feared next to a negro who was 
not a slave.' 

"The only error in the senator's description of 'Shang' is that 'Shang' 
was 'abolitionist' himself, and 'fit to free the nigger.' 

'Shang' continued to live in Sumner until every house, save his miser- 
able hut, had vanished like the baseless fabric of a vision. He claimed and 
was proud of the title, 'the last mayor of Sumner.' He died a few years ago, 
and a little later lightning struck his cabin and it was devoured by flames. 
And thus passed away the last relic of Sumner. 

"In the flood tide of Sumner's prosperity, 1856 to 1859 — for before that 
it was nothing, after that nothing — it had ambition to become the count}- seat 
of the newly organized county of Atchison. J. P. Wheeler, president of the 
Sumner Town Company, was a member of the 'lower house of the Territorial 
legislature, and he 'logrolled' a bill through that body conferring upon Sumner 
the title of county seat, but the Atchison 'gang' finally succeeded in getting 
the bill killed in the senate. Subsequently, October, 1858, there was an 
election to settle the vexed question of a county seat. Atchison won ; Sumner 

"About this time Atchison secured its first railroad. The smoke from 
the locomotive engines drifted to Sumner and enveloped it like a pall. The 
decadence was at hand, and Sumner's race to extinction and oblivion was rapid. 
One day there was an exodus of citizens ; the houses were torn down and the 
timbers thereof cartered away, and foundation stones were dug up and carried 
hence. Successive summers' rains and winters' snows furrowed streets and 
alleys beyond recognition and filled foundation excavations to the level, and 
ere long a tangled mass of briers and brambles hid away the last vestige of the 
once busy, ambitious city. The forest, again unvexed by ax or saw, asserted 
his dominion once more, and today, beneath the shadow cast by mighty oaks 
and sighing cottonwoods, Sumner lies dead and forgotten." 


In the above article, reference is made Ijy Mr. Park to Jonathan Lang, 
and it is important in tliis connection to print herewith an excerpt from the 
Atchison Daily Globe, December, 1915, relating to this interesting character, 
which follows : 

"The rennion of the Thirteenth Kansas infantry at Hiawatha Tuesday 
recalls that the late Jonathan G. Lang, self-styled 'Mayor of Old Sumner,' 
and hero of John J. Ingalls' 'Catfish Aristocracy,' was a soldier in this regi- 
ment, and was the Ijutt of many jokes on the part of his comrades in camp as 
he was in the days of civil life at old- Sumner. Thomas J. Payne, a sergeant 
in the Thirteenth, now living in California, relates an amusing story of 'Old 
Shang,' as Lang was generally called by his comrades : When the regiment was 
mustered into service on September 28, 1862, and the newly assigned officers 
were reviewing their troops at Camp Stanton, in Atchison, the tall, gaunt form 
of Lang (for he was nearly seven feet tall and very angular) towered above the 
rest of the men like the stately Cottonwood above the hazelbmsh. Riding up 
and down the lines, and scanning the troops with critical eye to see that there 
was no breech of ranks or decorum, the gaze of Colonel Bowen could not help 
but fall upon the lofty and lanky fonn of Lang, rising several heads above 
any of his comrades. The colonel paused, and pointing his finger at the 
grenadier form in the ranks, shouted in thunderous tones, 'Get down off that 
stump.' A ripple of suppressed laughter immediately passed along the lines, 
and when Colonel Bowen saw his mistake he promptly revoked his order with 
a hearty chuckle and rode on towards the end of the column. And not until 
twentv years later, when all that was mortal of old Lang — his nearly seven 
feet of skin and bones^was laid way to moulder with the ruins of old Sum- 
ner, did he finally 'get down off of that stump.' He rests at the entrance of 
the Sumner cemetery and his grave is marked with one of those small, regula- 
tion slabs such as are furnished by the Government for the graves of dead 
soldiers and bears this simple inscription: 'J. G. Lang, Co. K. 13th Kansas In- 
fantry.' There are two other members of the Thirteenth Kansas buried at 
Sumner. They are, John Scott, of Company D, and Albred Brown, of Com- 
pany F." 

Another article relating to Old Sumner, which is entertaining and instnic- 
tive, was written by E. W. Howe, and is taken from the Historical Edition of 
the Atchison Daily Globe, issued July 16, 1894: 

"The founder of Sumner was John P. Wheeler, a red-headed, blue-eyed, 
consumptive, slim, freckled enthusiast from Massachusetts. He was a sur- 
veyor by profession, and also founded the town of Hiawatha. He was one 


of the adventurers who came to Kansas as a result of the excitement of 1855- 
'56, and was onl}- twenty-one years old when he came West. Most of the men 
who had much to do with early Kansas history were young. 

"The town was not named for Charles Sumner, as is generally supposed, 
but for his brother, George Sumner, one of the original stockholders. At that 
time Atchison was controlled by Southern sympathizer.s — P. T. Abell, the 
Stringfellows, the McVeys, A. J. Westbrook and others — and abolitionists 
were not welcome in the town. It was believed that a city would be built 
within a few miles of this point, as it was favorable for overland freighting, 
being farther West than any other point on the Missouri river. On the old 
French maps Atchison was known as the 'Grand Detour,' meaning the great 
bend in the river to the westward. 

"Being a violent abolitionist, John P. Wheeler determined to establish 
a town where abolitionists would be welcome, and Sumner was the result. 
The town was laid out in 1856, and the next year Wheeler had a lithograph 
made, which he took East for use in booming his town. 

"Among others captured by means of this lithograph was John J. Ingalls. 
Wheeler and Ingalls were both acquainted with a Boston man of means named 
Samuel A. Walker. Wheeler wanted Walker to invest in Sumner, and as 
Walker knew that Ingalls was anxious to go West, he asked him to stop 
at Sumner and report vipon it as a point for the investment of Boston money. 

"Mr. Ingalls arrived in Sumner on the 4th of October, 1858, on the 
steamer Duncan S. Carter, which left St. Louis four days before. The town 
then contained about two thousand people, five hundred more than Atchison ; 
but Sumner was already declining, and Mr. Ingalls did not advise his friend, 
Walker, to invest. 

"A hotel building costing $16,000.00, had been built by Samuel Hollister. 
A famous steamboat cook had charge of the kitchen in the old days, and the 
stages running between Jefferson City and St. Joe stopped there every day for 
dinner. Jefferson City v\'as then the end of the railroad — the Pacific Railroad 
of Missouri, now the Missouri Pacific — which runs through the deserted site 
of Sumner, and directly over the foundation of the wagon factory built by 
Levi A. Woods. This Avagon factory was one of the results of Wheeler's 
audacious lithograph, and few wagons were actually manufactured. The 
factory was heavily insured, and burned. 

"Albert R. Richardson was a citizen of Sumner, when Mr. Ingalls arrived 
there; also James Hauk, the father of Minnie Hauk, who has since become 
famous as a singer in grand opera. James Hauk was a carpenter, whose wife 


operated a boarding house. Minnie Hauk waited on the talile, and was noted 
among the boarders as a smart Httle girl with a long yellow braid down her 
back, who could play the piano pretty well. The next year Hauk made a 
house boat and floated down the river to New Orleans. 

"When John J. Ingalls went to Sumner, a young man of twenty-four, 
he took great interest in such characters as Archie Boler and Jonathan Grander 
Lang. Lang was a jug fisherman in the river, melon raiser, ti^uck patch 
farmer and town drunkard. Ligalls says that Lang was really a bright fellow. 
He had been a dragoon in the Mexican War, and his stories of experiences 
in the West were intensely interesting. Ingalls used to go out in Lang's 
boat when he was jugging for catfish and spend hours listening to his talk. 
Finally Ingalls wrote his 'Catfish Aristocracy,' and Lang recognized himself 
as the hero. He was very indignant and threatened to sue Ingalls, having been 
advised by some jackleg lawyer that the article was libelous. Lang lived on 
a piece of land belonging to Ingalls at the time, and Ingalls told the writer of 
this the other day that it was actually true that he settled wih Lang for a sack 
of flour and a side of bacon. Lang served in the Civil war, and long after its 
close, when his old friend was president of the United States Senate, he secured 
him a pension and a lot of back pa}-. But this he squandered in marrying. 
His pension money was a curse to him, for it only seiwed to put a lot of 
wolves on his trail. 

"^^'hen the war broke out the Atchison men who objected to abolitionists 
settling in their town were driven out of the country, and this attracted a 
good many of the citizens of Sumner. But its death blow came in June, i860, 
when nearly every house in the place was either blown down or badly dam- 
aged by a tornado. This was the first and onl}- tornado in the history of 
this immediate section." 

Reference is made in both of these articles to John J. Ingalls, who arrived 
in Sumner from Boston, Mass., October 4, 1858. Mr. Ingalls was a graduate 
of W^illiams College a short time before, and at the time he decided to go West 
he was a student in a law office in Boston, where his attention was first called 
to Sumner by an elaborate lithograph of the town displayed by Mr. Wheeler, 
the promoter. The impressions of Mr. Ingalls upon his arrival in Sumner 
are, therefore, pertinent and convey some idea of the shock he received when 
he landed at the Sumner levee. In a letter which he subsequently wrote describ- 
ing the event, he said : 

"That chromatic triumph of lithographed mendacity, supplemented by the 
loquacious embellishments of a lively adventurer who has been laying out town 


sites and staking off corner lots for some years past in Tophet, exhibited a 
scene in which the attractions of art, nature, science, commerce and religion 
were artistically blended. Innumerable drays were transporting from a fleet 
of gorgeous steambooats vast cargoes of foreign and domestic merchandise 
over Russ pavements to colossal warehouses of brick and stone. Dense, wide 
streets of elegant residences rose with gentle ascent from the stores of the 
tranquil stream. Numerous parks, decorated with rare trees, shrubbery and 
fountains were surrounded with the mansions of the great and the temples of 
their devotion. The adjacent eminences were crowned with costly piles which 
wealth, directed by intelligence and controlled by taste, had erected for the edu- 
cation of the rising generation of Sumnerites. The only shadow upon the 
enchanting landscape fell from the clouds of smoke that poured from the tower- 
ing shafts of her acres of manufactories, while the whole circumference of 
the undulating prairie was white with endless, sinuous trains of wagons, slowly 
moving toward the mysterious region of the Farther \^'est." 

Ocena was laid out in Atchison county in 1855. and for a time it gave 
promise of becoming an important place. Ocena was located on the northeast 
bank of Stranger creek, on what is known as the McBride farm, in the south 
half of the northeast quarter of section 22, township 6, range 19, about a mile 
north of the present site of Pardee. The first postoffice in Center township, 
and one of the first in Atchison county, was established at Ocena with Wilham 
Crosby as postmaster in August, 1855. In 1836, T. C. McBride was appointed 
postmaster, and served until the office was removed to Pardee in 1838, when 
S. G. Moore was appointed postmaster. 

T. C. McBride was one of the early settlers of Center township, having 
arrived there in March, 1856, and settled on tlie land on which the town of 
Ocena was built. He was one of the early merchants of the place, liaving a 
small store, in which he kept the postoffice. The mail was caried from Atchi- 
son to Ocena by stage. McBride was a Tennesseean, born in 1826. In the 
fall of 1857, in a grove on the McBride farm, the first church service in that 
section was held. It was of the Methodist Episcopal denomination. 

Ocena was the first important stopping place west of Atchison. The old 
Squatter Sovereign, of Atchison, in its issue of December 3, 1837, contained 
the following advertisement of the town: "The truth plainly told will show 
that Ocena is already a city. The surface of the earth was so moulded bv 


the plastic hand of the Creator that a few ])oints in the wide expanse of Xature 
were tiestined to echpse all others. Ocena is one cjf those points. Located 
as it is, on the northeast bank of Stranger creek, in the county of Atchison, 
where roads leading from Doniphan and St. Joe to Lecompton are intersected 
by roads leading from Atchison to Grasshopper Falls and Osawkee ; and also 
being upon the great thoroughfare running up and down the valley of the 
Stranger, it offers more inducements for a large and prosperous inland town 
than any other place in Kansas Territory. All persons anxious to thrive and 
desirous of obtaining a home on reasonable terms will do well to settle in 
Ocena. For further particulars in reference to the town apply to Isaac S. 
Hascall, president, or M. C. Finney, secretary." 

Freedom's Champion, in its issue of July 3. 1858, says of the town : 
"Ocena, besides having the most musical name, is one of the most beautiful 
places in Kansas. A postoffice has been established there and several new 
buildings are being erected. It is destined to be a thriving little place." 

Ocena w'as killed by Pardee, a town which was started a short distance 
to the south of it, but neither amounted to much from a municipal and busi- 
ness standpoint. Pardee is now only a country village. It was first platted as 
a town by James Brewer, in the string of 1857, and was named in honor of 
Pardee Butler, of border warfare fame. In the winter of 1856 Mr. Butler 
preached his first sermon in Pardee, the services being held in the school 
house, which had been completed during the previous fall, and opened by 
James Brewer in December. Caleb May, the first settler in Center township, 
was the first president of the Pardee Town Company. Pardee Butler was 
afterwards president ; Milo Carleton, secretary ; Wm. J. May, treasurer ; S. G. 
Moore, A. Elliott and W. Wakefield, trustees. Mr. Moore opened the 
first store in Pardee in 1858, and became the first postmaster as aforestated. 
Mr. Carleton put a wind gristmill in operation at Pardee at an early day, 
but it was destroyed by a storm. 


Lancaster is one of the oldest towns in the county. In the issue of 
October 16, 1858, of Freedom's Champion, the following advertisement with 
reference to Lancaster appears : 


"Lancaster City is the name of a new town just springing into existence. 
It is located 10 miles direct west of our city (Atchison) Atchison county, K. T., 
on the east half of Section 32, Township 5, Range 19, the great military road 


to Fts. Kearney, Laramie, Bridge, and to Santa Fe, Utah, Washington Ter- 
ritory, Gadson Purchase, California, New ^Mexico, etc., passes through the 
town site. Also roads leading from Nebraska City, St. Joseph, Doniphan, 
and to Grasshopper Falls, Topeka, Lecompton and Lawrence. 

"A more beautiful situation for a large and prosperous city could not be 
found in the Territory, or the Great West. Its site is rolling and dry, climate 
healthy and salubrious as heart could wish for. The surrounding country 
cannot be surpassed for its magnificent undulating prairies, being one of the 
most fertile agricultural regions in the whole country. 

"Excellent coal, building stone and timber, within two, and two and a 
half miles. This town has been under way but little over two months, and 
notwithstanding the hard times, quite a number of buildings are already 
erected, among which will be found a large and commodious hotel, a good 
store, blacksmith and carpenter shops, post office, etc., etc. Arrangements 
are made for the erection of several more dwelling houses, also for the erection 
during this month, of a Union church, (the first in the county) and with liberty 
heretofore unequalled in Kansas, Mr. J. W. Smith, the President of the Com- 
pany, authorizes us to say that he will give good lots gratis to mechanics, lab- 
orers, and others, who will apply for them soon, or who will erect improve- 
ments on them in six months, worth $200 or more. This, we think, a good 
chance for men who want a comfortable home in the best section if our coun- 
try. The company now offer to sell lots or shares at reasonable rates, and are 
prepared to make warrantee deeds for the same, having purchased the site 
and obtained the title for the same of the Government of the LTnited States 
on the 26th day of June, 1858. Persons wishing to live in an interior town, 
will do well to visit Lancaster before investing elsewhere." 

^^'hile this little town did not prove to be all that its promoters expected 
of it, it continued as a good trading point for many years, and in igi6 remains 
one of the prosperous communities of the county. In addition to the one bank 
which it supports, reference to which has already been made, Lancaster, in 
19 1 5, has seven stores, a two-room public school, three churches, one eleva- 
tor, one lumber yard, a good hotel and a garage. In 1915 its enterprising citi- 
zens built an electric high tensioned line connecting with the Effingham line 
out of Atchison, to supply the town with electric lights, and its citizens are now 
enjoying all the benefits of electricity. 

About 80,000 bushels of grain, and an average of seventy-five cars of 
live stock are shipped out of Lancaster annually. Its merchants are enter- 
prising and prosperous, and many comfortable and commodious homes have 


been built in this little town. It is located in one of the finest agricultural 
sections of the county, and the surrounding country is in a state of high culti- 
vation, and peopled by prosperous and thrifty farmers. 


In the Squatter Sovereign of March ii. 1856, published at Atchison, ap- 
peared the following advertisement of Port William : 

"This new and beautiful town site is situated on the Missouri river, in 
Kansas Territory, three or four miles above the town of latan, in the heart of 
the most densely populated part of Kansas ; surrounded by the finest soil 
and timber in that Territory, with a permanent landing, commanding a view 
of the river for several miles above and below. The principal part of said 
town is located on a bed of stone coal of the best quality. Arrangements are 
being made to have said stone coal bed opened and wrought by a joint stock 
company early in the spring, at which time there will be a sale of lots. There 
is now in course of erection a good steam saw mill, which will be in successful 
operation in a few weeks ; also, a large and commodious tavern is in process of 
erection, which will be opened for the accommodation of the public in a short 
time. Persons wishing to procru'e lots immediately will have opportunity of 
so doing by calling on Henry Bradley or Jonathan Hartman, both of whom are 
authorized agents to sell and dispose of lots, and one or both may at all 
times be found on the premises ready to accommodate purchasers upon the 
most liberal terms. H. B. Wallace, Amos Rees, Henry Debard, H. C. Brad- 
le}', H. B. Herndon, James G. Spratt, W. C. Remington, James W. Bradle}", 
P. J. Collins, trustees." 

Of the above named trustees Judge James G. Spratt, W. C. Remington 
and Henry Debard were prominent citizens of Platte county, Missouri, and 
members of the town company that incorporated Port William in 1855. James 
M. and Henry Bradley and H. B. Herndon were also members of this 
compan}'. Henry Debard was a Kentuckian, born in Clark county, November 
24, 1801, and came to Platte county at an early day, later removing to Kansas. 
He was a prominent Mason, and took an active part in Masonic work in 
Missouri for many years. He w'as a cabinet maker, but did not work much 
at his trade. He died in Platte City, October 5, 1875. 

Amos Rees was born at Winchester, Va., December 2, 1800, and came to 
Missouri at an early age, locating in Platte county, March i, 1845. For many 
years he was a prominent attorney of that county. He moved to Kansas in 



1855. and died, December 29, 1883. Dr. H. B. Wallace, who was interested in 
Port \Mlliam, was a physician at Platte City, and a member of the town 
board in 1838. He invested largely in St. Jose, and the war reduced iiim 
almost to poverty. He died, February 24, 1863. Judge Paxton, in his 
"Annals of Platte County," simph' mentions him as having married the 
"beautiful and accomplished Ann E. Owen." 

J. Butler Chapman arrived in Kansas in the spring of 1854, made a trip 
over the territory, and then published a small volume, entitled "History of 
Kansas and Emigrant's Guide." He refers to Port William as "Williamsport, 
a prospective town a short distance above Kickapoo." "The bluffs," he con- 
tinues, "are high and precipitous, and the land broken until you reach the 
high rolling prairie back some three miles. The whole countr}- is settled on 
with a view of preemption." 

A company known as the Port William Sharp's Rifles, numbering eighty- 
one, rank and file, was formed at Port William, in October, 1856. The com- 
missioned officers elected were James Adkins, captain ; Henry C. Bradley, 
first lieutenant: James M. Bradley, second lieutenant; S. Bowman, third lieu- 
tenant. The company was enrolled, or was intended to be enrolled, in the 
first regiment, first brigade, northern division of the Kansas militia, and 
applied for arms and commissions. The Port William Town Company was 
incorporated by an act of the Territorial legislature in 1855 and the town 
company was composed of William C. Remington, James G. Spratt, Henr\- 
Debard, James AI. Bradley, Henry Bradley, Horace B. Herndon and ^^'illiam 
B. Almond. 

General William B. Almond, one of the incorporators of Pt. William, was 
a noted man in the West in the early days. He was a Virginian, who came 
to Platte county, Missouri, when the Platte Purchase was opened, and settled 
near the Buchanan county line. At a very early period he had been connected 
with the American Fur Company, and as a mountaineer had many adventures. 
During the thirties he was a brigadier genera' of the State militia in Missouri. 
He was one of the foremost "Forty-niners" to California, leading a company 
to the land of gold, among whom was Ben Holladay, afterwards famous as 
the originator of the "pony express" and other Western enterprises. While in 
California General Almond distinguished himself as a Territorial judge in San 
Francisco. Returning to Platte county in 185 1 he was elected circuit judge, 
was a candidate for lieutenant governor, and filled other offices and places of 
distinction and prominence. He was also connected with mercantile, milling 
and other enterprises. He lived for some time in Topeka and Leavenworth, 
and died at the latter place in i860. 




Judge James G. Spratt. another of the promoters of old Port W'ilHam, 
was also a man of some prominence. He came to the West from Smith 
county, Virginia, where he was lx)rn, 1826, and, like General Almond, settled 
in Platte county at a very early day. In 1843 he was appointed a justice of 
the peace in Platte county, and was afterwards deputy county clerk, probate 
judge and held other positions. For some time he was engaged in the prac- 
tice of law, and was in partnership with Hon. Joseph E. Merryman, in Platte 
City. In 1864 he went to Montana where he became a mine speculator. He 
died November 13, 1881, and his remains were brought liack to Platte for 
burial. W. H. Spratt, a brother of Judge Spratt, was at one time sheriff 
of Platte county. 

William C. Remington was another pioneer of Platte, like General AI- 
mand and Judge Spratt, a A'irginian by birth, who came west at a ver\- earlv 
day. He was one of the early assessors of Platte county, and subsequently 
was elected circuit clerk. He was one of the trustees of the Platte City Town 
Company when it was incorporated in 1843. He was also a member of the 
company that laid off the town of St. Mary's at the mouth of Bee creek in 
1857, but no lots were ever sold. Mr. Remington was one of the early mer- 
chants of Platte City, one of the proprietors of the Platte City Weekly Atlas, 
and was interested in various other enterprises. His handsome brick resi- 
dence in Platte City was among those burned by federal orders in Julv, 1864. 
He died December 20, 1864, in Omaha, where he was operating a hotel. 

Of Henry Debard, another member of the Port William Town Company, 
the writer has not yet found any record. The Bradleys lived in Platte county, 
opposite Port William for many years, moved over to the Kansas side early in 
[854, and with Squire Horace B. Herndon started the old town. The Brad- 
leys opened a general store and James M. Bradley was appointed postmaster 
when the postoffice was established in April, 1855. Squire Herndon was one 
of the earliest justices of the peace in Kansas, and had much business in his 
court in the early days, as Port \\'illiam was one of the roughest of the 
I)order towns. 

Port William was located eight miles below Atchison. It is one of the 
most interesting localities from a historical standpoint in Atchison count}- and 
northeastern Kansas. It is one of the oldest settlements in Kansas, and for 
a time in the early days was one of the promising villages of the territory. 
In fact, it was of enough importance, not in size, but as a prospective populace, 
to be mentioned by travelers of that time, as one of the principal towns of 
Kansas. Father Pierre Jean de Smet, the Jesuit missionary, in a letter written 


p-ebruary 26, 1859, says : "A great number of towns and villages have sprung 
up as if by enchantment in the Territories of Kansas and Nebraska. The prin- 
cipal towns of Kansas are \A yandotte, Delaware, Douglas, Marysville, lola, 
Atchison, Ft. Scott, Pawnee, Lecompton, Neosho, Richmond, Tecumseh, 
Lawrence, Port William, Doniphan, Paola, Alexandria, Indianola, Easton, 
Leavenworth and others." The history of old Doniphan, Sumner and Kick- 
apoo has long been well established, but that of Port William has been neglected 
and has remained obscure. Port William never was much of a town, as were 
its rivals, Doniphan, Suiruier and Kickapoo, but it was proposedly in the race 
for municipal supremacy in the pioneer days, and though its star may never 
have attained the ascendency, its story is at least worthy of preservation in the 
archives of Atchison county history. 

Port William was started in 1856 by Henry and James M. Bradley. John 
T. and Albred Bailey, and Jonathan Hartman. The two Bradleys and John 
T. Bailey composed the town company. The Bradleys conducted a general 
store, and a postoffice was established in April, 1855, with Henry Bradley as 
first postmaster. This was the first postoffice in AValnut township. Jona- 
than Hartman owned and operated a sawmill, the first in Atchison county, 
in 1854, and made the first lumber ever sawed in the county. There were 
several saloons, and later a blacksmith shop, a carpenter shop and other small 
industries were started. It has been surmised by someone that Port Williams, 
as it is sometimes called, was named for a Missouri river steamboat captain 
named Williams, as steamboats often tied up at the place in the early days. 
There are others who believe it was so called for the late "Uncle Frank" Wil- 
liams, one of the fathers of the colored settlement which was started in that 
vicinity at a later day. The correct name of the place, however, is Port 
William, instead of Port Williams, and it is known that it was so named more 
than fifty years ago, or nearly twenty years before "Uncle Frank" W^illiams 
settled there. The correct origin of the name is probably given by the late 
W. J. Bailey, of Atchison, who was one of the veiy first settlers of that 
vicinity. He said that in 1854 a man named \\^illiam Johnson came across 
from the settlement about latan, Mo., and took up the claim on which Port 
William was afterwards built. It was a likely claim and Johnson soon had 
trouble on his hands in holding the property. Several men tried to chase him 
off with guns, but Johnson managed to make such a good defense as to repel 
them. He stayed in his cabin a week, not daring to come out for fear of being 
shot. He won out and held the claim. The other fellows tlien referred to 
his cabin as Fort William (that was his first name). Soon after Jake Yunt, 


from Missouri, established a hand ferryboat, and by and by steamboats began 
to land there. Then the name was changed to Port William, and this is the 
proper name of the place, although on the Missouri Pacific station lioard now 
standing there it is marked "Port Williams." 

There are but few men who came to Atchison county earlier than W. J. 
Bailey, of Atchison. He crossed the river from Platte county on June 12, 
1854, and settled at Port William, and, with the exception of a few years' resi- 
dence in Colorado, has lived in this county ever since. Luther Dickerson, 
who was generally known as the "oldest inhabitant," came here the same month 
that Mr. Bailey did. When Mr. Bailey first arrived at Port William he built 
a one room cabin on his claim near that place, and to do so was obliged to drag- 
logs with one horse a distance of a mile and a half. In 1855 he brought his 
cattle over. He said the grass all over this county was ankle deep and afforded 
fine pasturage. There was no town at Atchison then, but Challiss Bros, con- 
ducted a store on the river bank, and George Million operated a hand ferry- 
boat. Mr. Bailey worked for Million three years. 

"Those were happy times," said Mr. Bailey, "we met around among 
neighboring cabins and had parties. When we had a fiddle we danced." For 
several years Mr. Bailey was with afreighting crow between Ft. Leaven- 
worth and Ft. Kearney, most of the time as a wagon-master. They gener- 
ally drove twenty-six wagons with six yoke of oxen to each wagon and hauled 
Government supplies. Once they were surrounded by Indians and were in 
imminent danger of being annihilated, when General Harney with a company 
of troops came to their rescue and chased the red-skins to Ash Hollow, near 
Ft. Kearney, where a bloody skirmish took place and the Indians were routed. 
Speaking of old Port William, Mr. Bailey said : "Although laid out as an 
investment, the town was a failure. The little creek flowed through the center 
of the town, dividing the stores and saloons from the sawmill, blacksmith 
shop and carpenter shop. No city government encased the stream with cement 
tiling, and the best bridge the town ever afforded was built by felling a cotton- 
wood tree across the stream." Port William had its "town bullies" and fights 
were of frequent occurrence. Mr. Bailey said that the "town bullies" were 
Dan McLoud, Bill Pates and Bob Gibson. "It was common," he said, "for 
farmers to go to Port William every Saturday afternoon to witness the fights 
and drunks." On one occasion a man was badly shot up and another jumped 
into the river and swam across. Mr. Bailey said the first election there con- 
tained 250 ballots, although only sixty people voted. There were two ballot 


boxes, one controlled by the pro-slavery and the other by the Free State people. 
Eight or ten men stood around the balloting places with guns, and people voted 
five or six times, though under different names. 

The "village blacksmith" of old Port ^^'iliam, and one of the early 
justices of the peace of Walnut township, was Thomas J. Payne, later living 
at Canyon City, Colo. Mr. Payne settled at Port \\"illiam. March i8, 
1855, and was one of the pioneer blacksmiths of Kansas. He operated black- 
smith shops at three of the old towns of Atchison county, Port William, Sum- 
ner and Mt. Pleasant. He was appointed a justice of the peace by Governor 
Shannon, in 1856. The office of "county squire" was of more importance 
in those stirring times than it is now. Mr. Payne's son, Charles Sumner 
Pavne, was the first child born at old Sumner. His Ijirth occurred September 
25. 1857. He was named by the town company, who made out and pre- 
sented to him a deed for a lot in the once thriving city. Another son was 
born at Sumner on the day that John Brown was hanged, and was named 
for the great abolitionist. A third son was named for Jim Lane. Thomas J. 
Payne enlisted as a private in Company F, Thirteenth Kansas iafantry, al 
Atchison. August 20, 1862, and was later promoted to orderly sergeant. He 
was discharged at Ft. Smith, Ark., October 29, 1864. Then he was imme- 
diatelv appointed by the secretary of war first lieutenant of Company B, First 
Regiment of Kansas infantry, colored. He took part in many engagements, 
and was mustered out in August, 1865. He was born in Georgetown, Ohio, 
the town in which General Grant was born. There are few men in Kansas 
who have served as a justice of the peace longer than Mr. Payne. He held 
the office in Atchison county for a number of years, at Robinson, Kan., for 
eighteen years, and later at Horton, Kan., for several years. 

The old Horace B. Herndon farm at Port William, now owned and occu- 
pied b^- Frank Bluma, Sr., was known as the "Old Indian farm," in tlie earl}- 
da-^-s. According to W. J. Bailey it was socalled Ijecause an Indian known as 
"Kickapoo John" located on it previous to the settlement of Kansas by the 
whites and was still living there with numerous other Indians when Mr. Bailey 
first came to that locality. Mr. Bailey said that the butts of tepee poles could 
be seen sticking in the ground on the site of Port William for some time after- 
wards. In 1854 Horace B. Hemdon preempted the "Old Indian farm," 
built a cabin thereon at the southwest corner of the field near the creek, 
and put an old negro slave in it to hold the claim fm- him. The old darkey 
died and was buried in the family burying ground on the fann about 1855. 
He was probably the first colored man who ever lived and died in what after- 


wards became famous as the "Port \\'illiam colored settlement." This was 
about twenty years before this community liecame generally settled by colored 
people. The old Herndon family residence, one of the landmarks of this 
region, is still standing and is occupied by Frank Bluma and family. There 
is evidence that the "old Indian farm" was occupied by Indians long before 
"Kickapoo John's" time for the old field is strewn with various fragments 
representing the stone age and prehistoric times. Mr. Herndon died a number 
of years ago. He was another of the early justices of the peace of Walnut 
township and was generally known as "Squire" Herndon. He was also a 
public administrator for Atchison county, and was one of the most prominent 
citizens of the southern part of the county for many years. He was the father 
of Mrs. Henry King and James Herndon, residents of Round Prairie. Mrs. 
King, then Miss Virginia Herndon, was the "belle" of the old town of Port 
William, and was a social favorite throughout this section of the county. 

Another early settler of Port William was Henry Luth, the veteran car- 
penter, who moved from Atchison to Leavenworth. Mr. Luth lived in Port 
^^"illiam for several years in the early fifties, removing to Atchison in 1857. 
He built many of the first houses in this section of the country. A large wal- 
nut cupboard and other furniture in Mr. Luth's home he made from walnut 
timber cut at Port \VilIiam and sawed into lumber at the old Hartman saw- 
mill at that place. Mr. Luth had a little shop at Port William in which he 
made furniture. Henry Hausner. Atchison's well known commission mer- 
chant, took a claim at Port William in 1855, but was cheated out of it. Andy 
Brown, for many years an Atchison flagman, was an early settler of Port Wil- 
liam. With Thomas Taylor, now living at Perry, Kan., he crossed the river 
to Kansas on Jake Yunt's ferry just above Port William in 1854. Mr. 
Brown's father had taken a claim at Port William and Taylor one adjoining it. 
The latter helped Samuel Dickson build his caljin shanty on the site of Atchison 
in the fall of 1854. 

Ex-Sheriff Fred Hartman, of this county, now deceased, lived at Port 
William in the early days. His father, Jonathan Hartman, in 1854, put into 
operation at that place one of the very first sawmills in the Territory. It 
furnished lumber for many of the first houses in this section. The lumber was 
sawed from the fine timber which grew along Little Walnut creek. Fred 
Hartman said that in 1856 Bob Gibson brought his famous "Kickapoo Rang- 
ers" to Port William for the purpose of lynching his father, Jonathan Hart- 
man, on account of his most avowed Free Soil principles. They stayed around 
a while, and as Mr. Hartman did not seem to be the least bit intimidated, they 


finally left and never molested him again. It was during this time that Pardee 
Butler was placed on a raft at Atchison and set adrift in the river. He landed 
just above Port William, and went at once to Mr. Hartman's for assistance. 
Not deeming it safe for Mr. Butler to remain in Port William, Mr. Hartman 
took him out to the home of Jasper Oliphant, about two miles west of the vil- 
lage, where he stayed at night and finally reached his home in safety. Jasper 
Oliphint was another of the earliest settlers of this locality. He was assassi- 
nated some years ago by Bob Scruggs, a desperate character, who at die same 
time shot and killed John Groff, another prominent Walnut township citizen, 
and Scruggs was captured and hanged to a tree near Oak Mills. The tragic 
deaths of two such substantial citizens as Mr. Oliphint and Mr. Groff produced 
a profound sensation throughout Walnut township. In the spring of 1857 
Jonathan Hartman sold his sawmill and moved to a farm near the present site 
of Parnell, where he died. Fred Hartman served during the war in the Thir- 
teenth Kansas with Thomas J. Payne, mentioned elsewhere. 

The wagon road leading from Port William westward to the "old military 
road," bears the unique distinction of crossing the same creek fourteen times 
in a distance of less than three miles. It is not believed that there is another 
creek in Atchison county that is crossed an equal inimber of times by one 
road. Little Walnut creek, which empties into the Missouri river at Port 
William, has its source near the Leavenworth county line. It flows northward 
through a heavily timbered country, and is one of the prettiest little streams in 
Atchison county. It was formerly called Bragg's creek, after "Jimmy" 
Braggs, an early-day Missouri Pacific section foreman, who lived on its banks. 
Braggs afterward moved to Holton, where he died and the name of the creek 
was changed to Little A\"alnut, after its neighbor. Walnut creek, wliich empties 
into the river at Dalby, about two miles above. 


Arrington is located on the Union Pacific railroad in the southwest part 
of the county. This town was platted August 20, 1884. and its original pro- 
moters were R. A. Van Winkle, D. S. Henecke, John Ballinger, D. D. High, 
D. A. Benjamin, J. M. Roberson, Michael Baker, J. S. Hopkins, Ira Tabor and 
George W. Drake. Its streets are numbered one to four, and its cross streets 
are called Fountain avenue, Delaware street and Forest avenue. Arrington 
has three general stores, one elevator and a bank. During good crop 
years, as high as 125 cars of grain and live stock are shipped from its station, 
and its stores do a good business, rendering fine service to the surrounding 


At one time prior to 1890 medicinal springs were located at Arrington 
and it was quite a resort during the summer months t\)r people living in north- 
eastern Kansas. The town has a good hotel, and in addition to its merchandise 
establishments it supports a physician and several churches. 

For many years a mill was conducted on the Delaware river upon which 
Arrington is located, operated by water power. This mill was built by John 
Reider in 1867, who also operated it both as a sawmill and as a grain mill. In 
1874 W. H. Stockton joined Mr. Reider, and these two men built a two-story 
frame mill, but they operated it only one day, as it was mysteriously burned 
the following night. Shortly thereafter Mr. Reider, undismayed and undis- 
couraged, associated with himself Albert Ingler, and remembering his previous 
disastrous experience with fire, Mr. Reider built a stone mill. This firm con- 
ducted a successful business for a number of years, drawing patronage for a 
distance of sixty miles, but in 1879, Mr. Ingler met an untimely death, by 
drowning as he was crossing the river, a few feet below where the Arrington 
bridge stands. Mr. Reider sold his interest to D. S. Heneks, who ran the 
mill until 1906, when John W. Young became its owner. He subsequently 
turned it over to George W. Stone, since which time it has been in possession 
of various owners, and in 1916 is owned by Burt McCulley. It has not been 
operated since 1908, and stands in ruins. 

A history of Arrington would be incomplete without the mention of 
the name of Ransom A. Van Winkle, who was the first settler in Kapioma 
township, and the founder of the town. Captai'n Van Winkle was born 
November 25, 1818, in Wayne county, Kentucky. He was a Hollander by 
descent, and at one time bis great-grandfather, Michael Van Winkle, owned 
an interest in 13,000 acres of land within twelve miles of New York Cit)', 
which was sold just prior to the Revolutionary war, for twenty-five cents an 
acre. Van W'inkle received the rudiments of his education in a Kentucky log 
school house, but was for two years a cadet at West Point and received a 
good education. He was married twice and had a varied experience in busi- 
ness, at one time owning a large interest in coal lands in Kentucky. He 
removed to St. Joseph, Mo., in 1849, and in September, 1855, came to Kan- 
sas and built the first claim cabin on the Grasshopper, or what is now the 
Delaware river, above Valley Falls, in Kapioma township. He also built 
the first steam sawmill; sawed the first lumber, and built the first frame 
house, and taught the first school in Kapioma township, and was the first 
postmaster at Arrington. He always took an acti\-e part in politics in the 
county and was a stanch Republican. He was a prominent Free State man 


in the early struggle in Kansas and contributed liberally to the cause and 
worked hard in its behalf. He was a justice of the peace in Papioma 
township for fourteen years; postmaster five years; trustee of Kapioma 
township eight years; a member of the legislature in 1861 and 1862 and 
county commissioner of Atchison county for six years. He was patriarchal 
in appearance and was a conspicuous figure for many years in Republican 
conventions in Atchison county. 


The name of "]\Iuscotah" is of Indian origin. Init when, why and by 
whom it was applied to a town, seems to be a question. "Andreas' History 
of Kansas," in a brief historical mention of the town of Muscotah, says: "The 
name Muscotah. written in Ind'ian style, Musco-tah, signifies 'Beautiful 
Prairie,' or "Prairie on Fire.' " Andreas does not give any authority for 
this statement, but on page 1343 in a biographical sketch of William D. 
Barnett, one of the earliest settlers of Muscotah, he says that Mr. Barnett 
did not name the town, but that it was named by Paschal Pensoneau, the old 
Kickapoo trader and interpreter. ]\Ir. Kessler was a blacksmith among the 
Kickapoos at an early day. 

Maj. C. B. Keith was one of the founders of Muscotah, and an early 
agent for the Kickapoo Indians. In a letter under date of December 8, 1908, 
Mrs. Keith, the widow of Major Keith, wrote that Muscotah was named by 
her husband and her two brothers, William P. and John C. Badger. She 
corroborates Andreas in his statement that the name signifies "Beautiful 
Prairie," or "Prairie on Fire," and says that Muscotah should be accented 
on the last syllable. She further says that Paschal Pensoneau may have 
suggested the name, and inci'dentally adds : "He was interpreter for my 
brother, W'illiam P. Badger, who was Indian agent under President Bucli- 
anan, and later for my husband under Lincoln. He was a good friend for 
both of my brothers and Major Keith, and accompanied mv husband to 
Washington with the head chiefs when they made their treaty. The original 
Muscotah was on a fine site and justified the name." 

There is a town in the old Kickapoo country, in Illinois, named Mas- 
coutah, and believing it to be synonymous with the Atchison county name, 
though slightly different in orthography and pronunciation, Milo Custer, 
of Heyworth. Ill, the well known authority on the Kickapoos, wrote : "As 
to the meaning of the names ^Muscotah and Mascoutah, they are svnonymous 



with the old Algonquin word, Masko-teh, meaning 'prairies.' The Kick- 
apoo word for prairies was one among others that I failed to get when I 
visited the tribe in Kansas in October. 1906. However, I am of the opinion 
that the word \\as originally derived from Ma-shi O-shkoo-teh, meaning 
'Big Fire,' and that it referred to the great prairie fires which swept over 
the country. In fact I have seen the opinion advanced by some other author- 
ity, but cannot now recall the name." When the Kickapoos lived in Illinois 
there was a band called the Mas-cou-tins, which Maj. H. W. Beckwith, the 
highest authority on the Illinois tribes, says was the Indian name for "Indians 
of the Prairie." Hence it is evident that the name Muscotah is at least a 
derivation of the word "prairie," v>-hether a "beautiful prairie" or "prairie 
of fire." 

The jilat of the Muscotah Town Company was filed by W. P. Badger, 

on Main Stieet Muscotah Kansas 

one of its proprietors, June 5, 1837, and the town is located in section 34, 
township 5, range 17, on the Central Branch railroad, near the western edge 
of the county. Its streets run from one to thirteen, and its cross streets are 
named Pawpaw, Kim. Vine, Walnut, Mulben-y, Hickory and Oak. Follow- 
ing the construction of the Central Branch railroad William Osborn filed 
another plat of the town, and several amendments have since been made 
to it. Muscotah has always been an important trading point, and one of the 
prosperous towns of the county. In 1916 there were three general stores. 





-■^^f^ »»nijOii!r^,' 

fe ^ I 








one hardware store, two banks, two elevators, one lumber yard, two cream 
stations, two barber shops, one harness shop, two drug stores, two res- 
taurants, a hotel, private boarding house, two garages and blacksmith shops. 
The town also has four practicing physicians, including an osteopath, and one 
dentist. The first general store was established by Nels Brown in 1868, and 
a year later Watson & Guy put in a general hardware store. Hagerman & 
Roach conducted a grain business in 1865, and the first elevator was built 
in 1874. Several serious fires have destroyed much property in Muscotah, 
the largest being known as the Watson fire, which occurred in 1883, de- 
stroying much property. The first mayor of the town was Dr. William P. 
Badger, who was eelcted in 1882. Albert Harrington was the first post- 
master, in 1866. The first physician to locate in the present limits of Mus- 
cotah was Dr. L. N. Plummer, who came there hi 1869. In 1868 a Dr. 
Heath located a few miles out from Muscotah, but never lived in the town. 
Dr. S. M. Riggs came in 1872 and he and Dr. Plummer are both active 
physicians in the practice in 1916, together with Dr. O. O. Barter and Dr. 
F. A. Bermen. Years before Muscotah was established there was a small 
settlement nearby where there were a few houses and a postoffice located 


about wliere tlie Robert Russell farm is. John Keeley, an enterprising early 
settler, built a flouring mill on the Grasshopper river, now known as the 
Delaware, in 1869. Mr. Keeley did considerable business with the farmers 
in the surrounding territory, but business finally fell off and the mill was 
washed away by high water in 1895. 

Muscotah is an important shipping point, and the annual shipment of 
grain amounts to $150,000 to $200,000. Much live stock is also shipped 
from Muscotah, and during the year 1915 fifty-two cars of cattle, hogs and 
horses were shipped to the Kansas City and St. Joseph markets. 

Muscotah is also a city of churches and schools. The Congregational 
church was established in 1866. The pastor of this church in 1916 is Rev. 
Fred Gray, who preaches to a congregation of about 150. \\'hen this church 
was organized its members worshipd in the home of Robert Russell, which 
was at that time in the depot, and the church edifice which is now occupied 
was built in 1914. 

The Methodist Episcopal church was established about 1876; it now has 
.a membership of 120, and its pastor is Rev. Rollo J. Fisher. 

The Advent Christian church was organized in i88g, and its first pas- 
tor was Rev. Marshall McCollough. 

Mission Hall is maintained by unattached and unorganized Christians. 
It holds meeting several times a week, including two services on Sunday. 

The public school system of ]\[uscotah includes an accredited high school, 
in which two four-year courses are offered, together with a general and col- 
lege preparatory course. R. E. Devor is superintendent of schools, and the 
officers of the school board are : J. F. Thompson, president ; W. D. Roach, 
treasurer; R. A. Allison, secretary. The first school house within the pres- 
ent limits of the town was built in 1870, but was subsequently destroyed by 
fire when another school was built in 1885. A six room school was erected, 
and it was also destroyed by fire in January, 1916. A movement is now 
under way to build a new, handsome, modern school building, to accommo- 
date twelve grades, together with manual training, domestic science and a 

Muscotah is supplied with electricity by high tension line from Atch- 
ison, and in 1916 it has forty-two street lamps and fifty-five pri\-ate con- 

In addition to being a town of churches and schools, Muscotah also has 
several active lodges. The Masonic lodge was organized December 20, 
1871, by E. D. Hillyer, of Grasshopper Falls, on a dispensation issued by 


the grand edge; the charter was issued October 17, 1872. and the officers 
installed November 16, 1872. The first officers were: Ben F. Freeland, 
VVillikm N. Khne. Thomas H. Phillips, B. G. Merrill. D. :M. Stillman. W. 
Bullock and I. C. Archer. 

Purity Council No. 293, Knights and Ladies of Security, was chartered 
July 6, 1895, with John Edward Lewis, president. It had ten charter mem- 
bers and in 1916 there was a membership of seventy, with George \\'. Rork, 
president, and Mrs. Carl Rork, secretary. 

Modern Woodmen was chartered in August. 1898. The present offi- 
cers are W. F. Murray, V. H. Little and G. ^^^ Harris. There are also 
active lodges of the Mystic Workers, Eastern Star and Royal Neighbors. 

Muscotah's new combination grade and high school, which will take 
the place of the one destroyed by fire, will cost approximately .$20,000, and 
will be a fire-proof structure of brick and concrete. When completed it will 
be one of the best school buildings of its kind in any town the size of INIus- 
cotah in the State. The present city officials of Muscotah are : ^^'illiam 
Buckles, mayor; R. A. Hillyer, J. G. Burbank, W. D. Roach, R. H. Trial 
and R. A. Allison, councilmen ; H. M. Turner, city clerk; E. ]\L Hicks, 
police judge, and S. B. Liggatt. marshal. 


Effingham, the seat of Atchison county high school, is an incorporated 
town, located sixteen miles west of Atchison, on the Central Branch rail- 
road, and was first platted by William Osborne April 4, 1868, who built the 
first hundred miles of the Central Branch railroad, and is located on a part 
of the southwest quarter of section 15 and the northwest quarter of section 
22, township 6, range 18. The original plat contained only eight blocks 
and was subsequently cancelled. Febiaiary 6, 1871, ]\Iajor \\". F. Downs, 
land commissioner of the Central Branch railroad, filed another plat in 
which one block was dedicated as a public park and the streets numbered 
from one to ten, with cross streets as follows : Elizabeth, Seabury, Howard, 
George, William, and John. At the opening of the Central Branch railroad 
Effingham enjoyed quite a boom and it has remained one of the finest towns 
in northeastern Kansas ever since. 

There was a settlement around Effingham for a number of years prior 
10 the location of the townsite, and it was quite a trading point. Effingham 
is located on a broad sweep of prairie land, but there is very little of romance 


or legend connected with the town. There is one thing, however, for which 
it lias always been noted, and to this extent Effingham occupies an unique 
place in the tow ns. not only of Atchison county, but of Kansas, namely : It 
has never been without a good hotel. The original hotel was known far and 
wide throughout the country and was conducted by Aunt Betty Benton, a 
famous cook, who not only gave her guests good things to eat, but made 
of her hotel a favorite stopping place for the traveling public on account of 
the hospitable way in which she ran, it. L'ncle Jack ■Martin succeeded Aunt 
Betty and for many years thereafter kept up the high standard set liy her. 
Then came Thomas F. Cook, whose kindlv welcome made friends for him 

Sti-wt, Looking West. Ef 

among the hundreds of visitors that came t'< Effingham from year to year, 
and who never left his hotel without a full meal. Mv. Cook was succeeded 
by Mrs. Frank Pitman, and she in turn was succeeded by Mrs. Davis, who, 
in 191 5, is conducting the hotel at Effingham and maintains the high stan- 
dard of excellence of food and hospitality set by her predecessors. 

Among the early merchants of Effingham was Hon. Milton R. Benton, 
who was born in Madison county, Kentucky May 3, 1815. He immigrated 
to Kansas in 1857: located in Atchison, where be resided until 1867. during 
which year he moved to his farm in .Vtchison county, near Effingham. He 
was the first marshal of the city of Atchison, having been elected in 1858. 
In 1863 he was elected mayor of the cit)-, and in 1864 was elected a member 


of the council. He served as a member of the senate in the Territorial coun- 
cil of 1859; in the State legislature in 1864, and for three years as trustee of 
Center township. Benton township, in which Effingham is located, was 
named for him. He was educated as a Democrat, but before he cast his 
fi'rst vote identified himself with the anti-slavery movement and became a 
Free State man in Kansas, but in after years he supported Horace Greeley 
and became identified with the Democratic party. In addition to farming 
he was in the real estate business in Effingham. 

A. F. Achenbach was one of the early liverymen of Effingham, and also 
was George P. Allen, who was a dealer in hardware and grain ; Ball & Her- 

Presbyterian Churcli, Effingham, Kansas 

ron, dealers in harness: Joel M. Ketch, liardware merchant: J- E. McCor- 
mick. butcher; Alonzo Spencer, gmcer: James Nesbitt. lumber dealer, and 
Simeon Walters, contractor and carpenter. 

P. J. O'Meara was a pioneer merchant of Effingham, and was a native 
of Ireland, having been born in the county of Tipperar\- March 27, 1829. 
He first settled in Miami county, where he received his education, and in 
1865 he moved to Atchison and went into the grocery business on Com- 



mercial street, between Third and Fourth, later moving to Effingham wlien 
the townsite was located, and built one of the first store buildings. He did 
a large and paying business, and his popularity was shown bv the people 
of Effingham in electing him their first mayor. 

Effingham in 19 15 had two hardware stores, one drug store, four gen- 
eral stores, two banks, two garages, two barber shops, one cream station, 
one clothing store, three restaurants, one hotel, one livery, and two elevators. 
Effingham is also a city of churches having one Catholic church, one Pres- 
byterian church, Methodist church, Christian church and Lutheran church. 
Its citizens are enterprising and progressive, and in 19 14 the city council 
secured a twenty-four hour electric light service over high tension line from 
Atchison. The elevators are owned by the Farmers' Mercantile Association, 
and Snyder, Smith & Company. Tom Tucker and Beckman & Thomas are 
big live stock shippers, and they ship from ninety-five to one hundred cars 
of live stock out of Effingham every year, and the elevators ship over one 
hundred cars of grain every year. 

The present city officials who have been so diligent and faithful in their 
services to Effingham are as follows : 

J. W. Wlallach, mayor: A. J. Sells, city clerk; G. M. Snyder, council- 
man ; I. Ebert, councilman ; D. Richter, councilman ; James Farrell, council- 
man; E. J- Kelley, councilman; J- W. Atcheson, marshal; J- A. Harman, 
city treasurer. 


Huron is located on the Omaha branch of the Missouri Pacific railway, 
in Lancaster township, seventeen miles northwest of Atchison. The town- 
site was originally the property of Col. D. R. Anthony, of Leavenworth. 
Mr. Anthony donated the railroad company twenty acres of land and the 
right of way for one mile. The surveys were made and the town named 
and platted on May 18, 1882. Within six weeks after completion of the sur- 
veys five dwellings were erected and the business interests of the town were 
well represented. W. D. Starr was the first postmaster, and by the end of 
the first year there were over fifty dwellings in the town, and among the 
first buildings to be erected were the Presbyterian and Baptist churches. 
Colonel Anthony donated lots upon which to build the churches. J. D. Car- 
penter opened the first hotel in Huron. Mr. Carpenter came to Kansas in 
1874 and located on a farm near Huron, and when the town was organized 
he moved there and opened his hotel. W. G. Rucker was one of the early 


lumber dealers of Huron. He came from Corning, where he was engaged 
in the general merchandise business, and moved to Huron when the town 
was platted. Capt. George W. Stabler, for many years a resident of Huron, 
was one of the prominent politicians and characters of the county. He was 
bom at Stablersville, Baltimore county, Maryland, in 1839, where his ances- 
tors had lived for over 200 years. He moved to Kansas in 1858, set- 
tling in Lancaster township. He enlisted as a private in Company D, Second 
Kansas infantry, in 1861, for 100 days, and at the expiration of that time 
he re-enlisted in the Second Kansas calvary: was made sergeant and was 
mustered out in 1865 and returned to his farm, subsequently moving to 
Huron. In 1866 he was elected to the legislature, and in 187 1 and 1872 
served as deputy United States marshal. He had been justice of the peace, 
at the time of his death, a few years ago, for over twenty years. 

Old Huron was the original settlement near the present townsite of 
Huron, and was an important trading point for many years prior to the 
establishment of the new townsite following the laying of the railroad to 
Omaha. There were many early settlers of importance in and around Huron, 
among whom was Capt. Robert White. Captain White came to Kansas in 
1857 and bought the squatter rights of Charles Morgan and preempted a 
quarter section of land in Lancaster township, near Huron. 

The birth of the first white child in Atchison county, of which there is 
any record, occurreil in Lancaster township. The child was ]\Iiss Frances 
Miller, who was born May 9, 1855. Her father was the late Daniel Miller, 
an Ohioan by birth, and lived near DeKalb, Mo., in 1841. In 1854 he looked 
over northeastern Kansas and settled on Independence creek, twelve miles 
north of Atchison, early in 1855, near the northeastern corner of Lancaster 
township. Mr. Miller sold his quarter section in 1838, after he had proven 
up on it, to Thomas Butcher, a new arrival in Kansas from Brownville, Pa., 
for $3,000. Mr. Btitcher built a flouring mill on thi's land, which was run 
by water from Independence creek. Butclier subsequently sold the plant to 
A. T- Evans, who ran it as a "custom mill" until August, 1865, when it was 
destroyed by high water, caused by heavy rains. 

Samuel Wymore, for whom Wymore, Nebraska was named, was a res- 
ident of Lancaster township, near Huron, in the fifties and early sixties, 
and ran a sawmill by horse power, about three miles north of Lancaster, 
in 1858. Air. Wymore sold his first bill of lumber to Captain Robert White 
for $100 in gold, and at that time it was more money than Wymore had 
ever seen at one time, and he was so nervous during the following night that 


he could not sleep and continually stirred the fire in the stove so that he 
could count the money from the light that it made. \\'ymore was unedu- 
cated. He could neither read nor write, and he was said to have been worth 
over $150,000 before 1875. 

Isaac E. Kelly, a young man from Pennsylvania, taught one of the first 
schools hi Lancaster township, in one of the settlers' preemption cabin, near 
Eden postoffice in i860. He went to war in 1861 and marched with Sher- 
man to the Sea. 

The first mowing machine in Atchison county was brought to I^ancas- 
ter township, two miles west of where Huron now is, by Joel Hiatt, in 1859, 
who sold it to Capt. Roljert White, who cut hay with it several seasons. 
The machine was a Ball, and a crude affair. The first reaper to harvest 
grain in the county was owned liy the late ^I. J. Cloyes. who also li\-ed in 
Lancaster township, not many miles from Huron. Mr. Cloyes bought the 
reaper in the early sixties. The grain was raked off by a man lashed to 
a post on a platfomi four or fi\-e feet to the rear of the cycle. This reaper 
was a Buckeye machine, and was sold by J. E. W'agner, the hardware mer- 
chant of Atchison. 

The forty acre tract of land upon which the home of Edward Perdue 
stands, a few miles east of Huron, was traded for a mowing machine by the 
owner in 1865. 

Bethel church, located southwest of Huron, is supposed to be the oldest 
church in the county, outside of Atchison. It was built by the Methodist 
Episcopal church (South), about 1870, and is still in use in 191 5. 

Thus it will be seen that Huron is located in the midst of a very inter- 
esting part of Atchison county, and while the town did not reach the pro- 
portions that its original promoters had hoped for it, it is one of the good 
towns of the county. The following are the business iiouses in Huron in 

J. ]M. Delany — General merchandise. 

E. P. Perry — General merchandise. 

\\'. E. English — Hardware, implements and furniture. 

H. T. Harrison— Grocer. 

Dr. Wiley Jones — Diaig store. 

John L. Snavh' — Restaurant and postmaster. 

"^Irs. Aha Wilson— Hotel. 

C. E. ]\Iathew — Lumber. 

Loren Horton — Meat market. 


A. F. Allen — Grain, coal, live stock and automobile supplies. 
Baker-Corvvell^ — Grain company. 
A. Morehead — Barber. 
W. Hildman— Blacksmith. 
Riley & Son — Livery bam. 

Over 200,000 bushels of grain are shipped from Huron annually and 
the average shipment of live stock amounts to about forty cars. 


]\lartinsburg was laid out near the present site of Potter in the early 
days. It is not generally known, even among the old settlers, that there 
was such a place. George Remsburg said that thi's was due probably to 
the fact that Martinsburg was born dead. It was conceived in the town 
craze of early territorial times, but it came a still-bom infant and its pro- 
moters succeeded in viewing it only long enough for it to give a feeble gasp 
and fall back dead again. Though this proposed municipal enterprise of 
pioneer days did not materialize, it was, nevertheless, an interesting and im- 
portant fact of local history, hitherto unrecorded, that such a town was 
actuallv staked off and laid out in Atchison county at a very early period. 
The only old-timers who remembered it were James B. Low, of Colorado 
Springs, fomierly of Mount Pleasant, "Uncle Joe" Potter, and W. J. (Jack) 
Bailey. All three settled in the southern part of Atchison county in 1854. 
Mr. Low settled with his parents in Walnut township in the fall of that year, 
and says that Martinsburg was laid out that fall. It was situated in what 
is known as the Mercer bottom, on land belonging to Felix Corpstein and 
Fred Poss, in the west half of section 24, a little northeast of the present 
site of Potter, or immediately adjoinihg it. What is known as the Mercer 
spring, one of the finest in this section, was included in the town site. Mr. 
Lo\^■ and his brother went out to look at the place in the fall of 1854 and 
decided to spend the winter there. It consisted at that time of a few huts 
and a small store, and never amounted to any more than a village, if it could 
be called that, although Mr. Low says the town site originally comprised 
about 100 acres, and a few lots were actually sold. The store was a small 
frame building, erected by one Alex Hayes, who had previously taken a 
claim on Plum creek, near Kickapoo. Mr. Low thinks this was the first 
frame building in Atchison county. Hayes carried a small stock of goods. 


This was long before the town of Mt. Pleasant, in the same vicinity, was 
ever dreamed of. and even before Tom Fortune opened a store there. It 
seems that the chief promoters of Martinsburg were two brothers named 
Martin; hence the name. Not much is known concerning them, or what 
became of them. "Uncle Joe" Potter says that one of them came to his 
house on one occasion wh.en he and his brother, Marion Potter, were mak- 
ing rails. Martin stood around a while and finally insinuated that they 
were foolish for working so hard, and ih a confidential way, "just the same 
as told them," as Mr. Potter expressed it, that they could make lots of money 
and make it easy stealing horses, whereupon Marion Potter promptly or- 
dered him off of the place, and told him never to return. James Low's father 
bought the town site of Martinsburg in the fall of 1855 and moved onto it 
in the spring of 1856, converting it into a farm. Thus perished ]\Iartinsburg. 
Even the name did not sur\-ive in the memory of the settlers, and it was 
only Ijy accident that it was recently recalled after a lapse of fifty-four 
years. At an early day the locality became known as Mercer's Bottom, after 
Joe Mercer, one of the earliest settlers, and it is known by that name today. 
It is not known what became of Mercer. James Low says the last time he 
saw him was in Denver, in 1859. Mercer was a queer character. It is told 
of him that he lived in a little cabin and subsisted principally on mussels, 
which he found in Stranger creek. Alex Hayes, the Martinsburg store- 
keeper, has also been lost trace of, but Dick King says there was an old- 
timer named Alexander Hayes, who died many years ago and was buried 
in the Sapp graveyard at Oak Mills. The town site of Martinsburg was a 
favorite camping place for soldiers and emigrants passing over the old 
Military road in the early days on account of the fine spring, the large 
meadows and the protection of the hills around it. To catch this tide 
of emigration was, in all probability, the object of those pioneer town pro- 
jectors in selecting this site. 


There appears to be no data available which enables the historian to 
determine exactly where this town was located, but a prospectus publica- 
tion March 18, 1858, in Freedom's Champion, states that it was on Inde- 
pendence creek, within ten miles of Atchison and twenty-five miles of St. 
Joseph. Its chief promoter was Dr. Charles F. Kob, of Atchison. Dr. Kob 
was a German physician and surgeon, who located in Atchison at an early 


date. He had been a surgeon in the army, and a member of the Massachu- 
setts and Connecticut medical societies. He Hved and practiced medicine in 
Boston for some time. Alsout tlie only advantage for Bunker Hill, set forth 
in the prospectus, was that coal was found around the place, but Bunker 
Hill never seemed to have any coal in her bunkers. She failed to flourish 
and no Bunker Hill monument perpetuates her memory. 


Locust Grove was never laid out as a town site. It was a stopping 
place on the old stage route to Topeka. and the postoffice from Mount 
Pleasant was moved there in 1862. 

Helena was located and named in this county, and the plat thereof was 
filed ?klarch t8, 1857, by James L. Byers, one of the proprietors of the town 
companv, and was located on the north half of section 28, township 5, range 
18. on the Little Grasshopper river, in Grasshopper township, at the cross- 
ing of the old Military road, five miles north of the present site of Effing- 
ham. The town appears on an old township map of eastern Kansas, pub- 
lished by WhJtman & Searl, of Lawrence, in 1856. It shows it to have 
been on the east branch of Grasshopper river, about fifteen miles west of 
Atchison, and north of the Ft. Laramie and California roads. 

Cavuga was laid out by a New York colony in 1856, and was named 
for Cavuga, N. Y. It was also in Grasshopper township, on the old 
]\Iilitary road, one and one-half miles from Lancaster township line on part 
of the east half of section 18, township 5, range 18. It was surveyed by 
Dr. A. C. Tabor, and the plat was filed October 9, 1857, by George L. Will- 
son. Provision was made in the town site for a public park and a young 
ladies' seminaiy. It was claimed that it had at one time 400 inhabitants. 
Among the members of the town company were Messrs. Smooks, Fuller, 
Higby, Atherton, Ontis, Meeker, ^^'illiam Adams, Chase and Dr. Taylor. 
The land on which the town was located was "junked" as a claim by a Mrs. 
Place, and thereafter the town gradually went out of existence. It i's said to 
have had a good two-story hotel and a number of business houses. 



In the plat which Royal Baldwin, president of the town company, filed 
April 6, 1859, the name of this town is given as Kennekuck. It was located 
on the sontheast cjuarter and the southwest fractional quarter of section 3, 
township 5, range 17. Its streets were sixty feet wide, except Broadway, 
which was 100 feet wide, and Market street, which was eighty feet wide. 
One lalock was donated for a market house, and another block for a park, 
for religious and educational purposes. The streets were numbered from 
I to ID and the cross streets were named as follows: Elm, Linn, Cedar, 
Poplar, Broadway, Market, Walnut, Weld, Perry and Baldwin. The town 
site was \acated by the board of county commissioners December 15, 1871. 
Kennekuk was a station on the Overland stage route, twenty-four miles west 
and north of Atchison. During the overland stage days Thomas Perry ran 
an eating station there, and Mrs. Perry, who was a grand cook, always had 
a smoking hot dJnner ready with the best of coffee, for the occupants of the 
stage coaches. In the early days dances were held in the Perry home, and 
Hon. D. W. Wilder, the author of the celebrated "Annals of Kansas," used 
to trip the light fantastic toe there, and it is said that he courted the girl 
who afterwards became his wife, in the Perry home. 

Frank A. Root, who was an express messenger on the overland stage, 
says, in his book, that Kennekuk was the first "home" station out from Atch- 
ison, and the drivers were changed there. In 1863 it was a little town of 
perhaps a dozen houses with one store and a blacksmith shop. The Kick- 
apoo Indian Agency was one of the most prominent buildings there, and was 
located near the old road in the northwestern part of the town. The town 
was laid out by William H. Wheeler, a surveyor and speculator, and was 
named for the Kickapoo chieftain, John Kennekuk. George Remsburg says 
that the town was platted in June, 1854, but the dedication on the original 
])lat in the court house would indicate that it was platted on the date first 
mentioned in this sketch. 

Hon. A. J. White, the son of Capt. Robert White, and at one time a 
member of the legislature from this county, and one of the leading farmers 
of the county, claims that Royal Baldwin was the first white settler in Ken- 
nekuk, and that he was appointed Indian agent for the Kickapoos there by 
President Pierce before Kansas was opened for settlement. Mr. Remsburg 
also says that many noted travelers stopped at Kennekuk. including Mark 


According to Captain Elberhant, of Golden, Colo., the Kickapoo Indians 
once had a village on the Grasshopper river in Atchison county, called Ka- 
pioma, after the chief of the band, and it is from this source that Kapioma 
township took its name. Captain Berthoud says that Father Duerinck, a 
native of Belgium, who was probably the first Jesuit priest in Atchison 
county, gave the pronunciation of the name of his Atchison county station 
as Kah-pi-oma, accent on the syllable "Kah." 

In an affidavit of H. H. Skiles, volume 69, page 63, in the records of 
the office of the register of deeds of Atchison county, Kansas, the following 
appears : 

"This affiant further states that there was in 1857 and 1858 a com- 
])any formed, called and known as the Kapioma City Company, and the in- 
dividuals composing that company were B. Gray. S. C. Russell, W. W. Wes- 
ton, H. H. Skiles and W. Y. Roberts, who united themselves together for 
the purpose of laying out, locating and establishing a town called Kapioma, 
on what was then known as Grasshopper creek, just north of its confluence 
with Straight creek, in the western borders of Atchison county, Kansas. 
The entire purpose and scheme in laying out and establishing a town fell 
through and was wholly and totally abandoned by all and every person con- 
iiected with it without prejudice to any one, and the title to the land in- 
tended by the company to become town property reverted to the original 
owner. The law^ required to establish a town was never complied with." 


Mashenah. apparently, was to be a rival town of Kennekuk. The cold 
and quiet records now on file in the court house would convey the idea that 
Royal Baldwin must have fallen out with the original promoters of Kenne- 
kuk and decided to establish a town of his own, so, accordingly, he filed a 
plat of this town September 21, 1857, showing it to be located in the north- 
east quarter and the northwest quarter of section 2, township 5, range 17. 
One block was set aside for a college and another for a park. Its streets 
were numbered i to 21, and the cross streets were named as follows: Oak, 
Pine, Plum, Vine, Elm. Linn and Cedar. 


The only record that can be found of this town is that Thomas Poteet 
filed a plat thereof April 20. 1858, showing it to be located in the southwest 
corner of section 6, township 7, range 20. 



This is another town about whicli there is little information available. 
The plat was filed June 20. 1857, by James R. \Vhitehead and shows it to 
have been located in the west half of section i, township 5, range 17. The 
streets were numbered from i to 18, and the cross streets were named Buch- 
anan, Emily, Mary, Carolina, Jefferson, St. Joseph, Ellwood, Able, Alex- 
ander, and there were two public squares, called North and South. 

The plat of Parnell was filed December 24, 1883, by J. C. Hotham, and 
shows the town site to be located in the southwest corner of the southeast 
quarter of section 20, township 6, range 20. It is located on both the Santa 
Fe and the Missouri Pacific railroads. The station was named for a hero 
of the Civil war, James L. Parnell, a private soldier in Company F, Thir- 
teenth Kansas volunteer infantry, wlio was killed during the skiiTnish at 
Haare Head, Ark., August 4, 1864. Parnell was the original settler on the 
site of Parnell and was one of the first citizens of Atchison county to re- 
spond under President Lincoln's call of July, 1862. He enlisted in the 
Thirteenth Kansas. Ex-Sheriff Frank Hartin was a comrade of Parnell in 
Company F and married into the Parnell family. 

Shannon was platted by G. W. Sutliff February 22. 1883, and is located 
in the northwest comer of the northeast quarter of section i, township 6, 
range 19, about eight miles west of Atchison, on the Parallel road. The 
town consists of one store building, in which the postoffice is located, and 
a few residences, together with railroad station and a small elevator. 

Elmwood was platted by Anna Hoke and J. S. Hoke April 12, 1873, ^"^ 
was located on the south half of the northeast quarter of section 2, township 
6, range 20. This was a "paper" town, and the only record now available 
of it is the plat on file in the court house at Atchison. 



Cummingsville was platted by William Cummings December i6. 1872, 
and was located on the north half of the southwest quarter of section i, town- 
ship 7, range 19, on the line of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe railway, 
southwest of Atchison, in Center township, and took its name from the 
founder of the town. The original plat provided for two streets, Market and 
Main, but on September 21, 1883, Samuel C. King filed a plat, creating an 
addition to Cummingsville, composed of four blocks. The first settler on 
the townsite was Robert Kennisli, who located there in November, 1872, and 
was appointed postmaster when the postoffice was established tiie following 
fall. JMr. Kennish opened the first .store in Cummingsville in December, 
1872, and he for many years was station agent there, one of the oldest in the 
service of the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe railway. He was a much be- 
loved character. He died a few years ago at the home of his daughter, Mrs. 
Nelson W. Cox, who lives in Cummingsville with her invalid husband, Nels 
Cox, who for eight years served Atchison county in the capacity of clerk of 
the court. In April, 1873, C. D. Harrison and family located in Cummings- 
ville, and their child, Lorenzo, was the first child born on the townsite, and 
his was also the first death, Lorenzo having died March 2^. 1875. I" "^h^ ^^i"' 
ter of 1880-81, R. C. Ripple taught the first school, and the :\Ietliodist church 
(South) was built in 1880. Cummingsville now is a town of over 100 
residences, and in addition to its bank, it has several good stores, a cream 
station and an elevator. IMuch grain and live stock is shipped out of Cum- 
mingsville annually. 

Eden was located about eight miles northwest of Atchison, and Charles 
Servoss was appointed the first postmaster there in 1858. The postoffice 
was located on a farm adjoining the Johnson AVymore farm on the south. 
Servoss resigned as postmaster in 1863 and removed to Detroit, Mich. He 
was succeeded by H. C. Lee, who kept the office on a farm adjoining the 
Wymore farm on the west. Mr. Lee was a grandfather of Miss Kate Piatt 
and Mrs. S. E. Harburger, formerly of Atchison, and the father of Mrs. 
Flora B. Hiatt. Mr. Lee held the office until 1872, when Francis Schletz- 
baum. Sr., was named as postmaster, and removed the office to his farm, 
which adjoined the old \\'ymore farm on tlie north. The postoffice remained 
there until it was discontinued upon the establishment of free rural delivery 
service in 1900. 


Potter is pleasantly situated on a slight rise or knoll in the Ijeautiful val- 
ley of Stranger creek, and near the southeast corner of Mt. Pleasant town- 
ship. From the first it has been the principal station on the Santa Fe rail- 
road, between Atchison and Leavenworth, being situated about midway be- 
tween the two cities. It is an attractive little town, \\'*ith well graded streets 
and good cement sidewalks, and a number of attractive residences. While it 
is one of the younger towns of the county, it has made strides that make it 
compare favorably with some of its older sisters, in volume of business at 
least, if not in population. 

Potter, as the home of the white man, dates back further than anv com- 
munit}' in the county. Elsewhere in this history will be fouutl an account 
of Paschal Pensoneau, the old French trader, who established himself on 
Stranger creek, near the present tow'nsite, during the early forties. 

The building of Potter is the third and the most successful attempt to 
establish a town in that vicinity. The first attempt was at Mount Pleasant. 
This was one of the first towns started in Kansas, and here was located the 
first postoffice in Atchison county. It prospered for a time and was a can- 
didate for the county seat. It gradually declined, and since the establishment 
of Potter, has been little more than a memory. In the earlv days, some say 
before Mt. Pleasant was started, a town was laid out near the big Mercer 
spring, just northeast of the present site of Potter, and called Martinshurg. 
It was extensively boomed, but outside of a small store and a few huts, it 
never advanced beyond the paper stage. 

Early in 1886 the Leavenworth, Northern & Southern railway, now a 
branch of the Santa Fe, and known as the "Pollywog," was built and a sta- 
tion located where Potter now stands. A town w-as platted and called Ben- 
nett Springs, after James Gordon Bennett, the well known eastern journal- 
ist. The mineral springs on the Masterson farm near the townsite were 
attracting considerable attention at the time, and it was thought that a pop- 
ular resort could be built up there. The medicinal properties of the water 
were discovered by Dr. Rice, a local physician, and subsequently analyzed by 
experts, who confirmed Dr. Rice's conclusions, and a number of people 
claimed to have used the w'aters in liver, kidney and other complaints with 
good results. Henr\' C. Squires, afterwards a Potter banker, conceived the 
idea of establishing a health resort here, and named it in honor of James 
Gordon Bennett, who, it was thought, would use his influence towards get- 



ting eastern capital interested in the project. The expected financial back- 
ing was not forthcoming, however, and the proposed development of the 
springs was never made. 

In the meantime the railroad people had christened the town Potter, in 
honor of Hon. Joseph Potter, owner of the ciuarter section on which the town 
was laid out, and. while the name of the town still appears on the tax rolls 
as Bennett Springs, the original name having never been legally changed, 
the town is now generally known as Potter. Joseph Potter was the original 
settler, having preempted the land on which the town stands, in 1854, and 
the first sales of lots in Potter were deeded to their purchaser thirty-two 
years later direct from the Government preemption owner. Tlie taking up of 



the land, filing, etc., cost Mr. Potter about $220 for 160 acres, and when it 
was divided up into town lots it brought him $200 an acre. Mr. Potter 
entered part of this land with a land warrant given him for services in the 
Mexican war. 

The first lots in the town were sold to the late James Stalons. for many 
years a justice of the peace, preacher of the Gospel and prominent citizen of 
the county. The first house on the townsite was built by Thomas J. Potter 
in 1882. four years before the town was laid out. The house is still stand- 
ing. The first business house in the town was erected by Charles Klein, 
who operated a store there until his death. A. year or two after Potter was 


Started the postoffice was removed from Mt. Pleasant to the place, and James 
B. Weir was the first postmaster. The first hotel was operated by Mrs. 
Elvira Pierce. Dr. Barnes had the first drug store, and was also the first 
physician; Frank Blodgett, the first hardware store, and B. F. Shaw & Com- 
pany, the first furniture store. The first barber was Thomas Seever; the 
first blacksmith, Lou Chilson; the first butcher, John Yost; the first carpen- 
ter, P. H. Fleer; the first painters, George Brown and Grant Cass; the first 
stone masons, S. B. Morrow and Frank Maxwell ; the first shoemaker, Pat- 
rick Murphy; the first stock buyer. Henry Show; the first school teacher. 
Albert Limbaugh; the first railroad agent, C. L. Cherrie; the first lumber 
dealer, David Hudson; the first harness maker, Harry Rickets; the first rural 
mail carrier, Frank White. Frank Mayfield operated the first livery stable ; 
the first elevator was built by James Hawley; the first church building was 
that of the Methodists. The first Methodist preacher was Rev. John \V. 
Faubian, and the first Christian preacher, Rev. T. W. Cottingham. The 
first telephone exchange was operated by Charles and George Sprong. The 
first lodge was Echo Lodge. No. 103, Independent Order of Odd Fellows. The 
first bank was the Potter State Bank. Potter has had three newspapers, the 
first, the Potter Press, was established by E. E. Campbell, in 1898. In 1900 
Mr. and Mrs. Eppie Barber started the Potter Leaf. Three years later 
Charles B. Remsburg bought the Leaf's circulation and launched the Potter 
Kansan, which is now owned and published liy his father, J. E. Remsburg. 

Potter is one of the most flourishing- towns of its size in Kansas. Though 
its population is less than 200, it boasts of two banks, the aggregate resources 
of which amount to nearly a quarter million dollars. There probably is not 
another town of its size in the State that has two banks. The town has 
two good elevators, which during the years 1912, 1913 and 1914 handled on 
an average of 140,000 bushels of grain a year. These elevators are operated 
by Fred Ode & Sons and James Robinson. The railroad station at Potter 
does a business that amounts to something like $40,000 annually. The ship- 
ping of live stock is an important industry here. The principal buyers are 
Tinsley, Potter, and Timple Bros. Much fruit is grown around Potter, and 
as high as $20,000 has been paid out for apples during one shipping season. 

Potter has a rural high school, the first of its kind established in the 
State, and an $8,000 school building. 

The town has two general stores, those of W. A. Hodge and P. P. 
Knoch ; a hardware store, operated by B. F. Shaw ; a grocery store, by 
Thomas J. Potter ; a furniture store, by Frank Beard ; a drug store, by G. E. 



Coulter : a hotel, by Airs. G. F. Pope : two blacksmith shops, by R. E. Brown 
and G. F. Pope ; a li\'ei-y stable, by H. G. Hawley ; two barber shops, by 
George Brown and Frank Blankenship; a cement tile factory, by Grisham & 
Maxwell ; a millinery store, by Mrs. T. J. Maxwell ; a telephone exchange, by 
E. C. Yoakum; a newspaper. The Potter IVeekly Kaiisan, by J- E. Remsburg; 
tw^o physicians. Dr. G. W. Redmon and Dr. S. M. Myers. Dr. A. E. Ricks, 
of Atchison, has a branch dental office here ; the Lambert Lumber Company, 
of Leavenworth, has a commodious and well stocked yard here, with Samuel 
Parker as manager. There are two churches, Methodist and Christian, two 





If * If ^s 

1 1 n 
y u K 

public halls, and une ludge hall. L. AL Jewell cunuucls an insurance, real 
estate and loan business. There is also a garage, and other business enter- 
prises in the town. 


In 1854 Thomas L. Fortune, Jr., a Virginian, settled on the "old Mili- 
tary road" and opened one of the very earliest stores in Atchison county, 
around this store springing up the village of Mount Pleasant. A postoffice 
was established here in 1855, and Mr. Fortune was appointed postmaster. 
Being an inventive genius, he finally gave up his store business and devoted 
his energies towards perfecting and building a road-wagon, to which refer- 
ence has heretofore been made, and which he thought would revolutionize 
the freighting business across the plains. 


The townsite of Mount Pleasant was sun-eyed in 1857 by John P. 
\Mieeler, agent for the Town Company. 

Michael Wilkins and James Laird were the very first settlers in the 
township, being followed shortly afterwards by Levi Bowles, Jacob Grind- 
staff, Andrew J. Feebler, Martin Jones, Chris Horn, P. R. King, \\'. C. 
Findley. A. S. Speck and Amos Hamon. 

The first hotel in the town was opened by Henry Payne, who operated it 
many years. 

T. J. Payne and Philo W'. Hull were the next parties to engage in busi- 
ness, Mr. Payne leaving when the new town of Sumner was started, and 
locating there. 

The next to engage in business was P. R. King, who establislied a gen- 
eral store about 1858. He remained at Mount Pleasant until after the county 
seat question had been settled, when he removed to Atchison. 

In the fall of 1858 a district school was opened. In i860 the Cumber- 
land Presbyterians erected a church building, having held religious services 
at the homes of the members prior to this time. Rev. .\. A. Moore was their 
first pastor. 

On May i, 1862, the Church of Christ was organized by Elder W'. S. 
Jackson, with se\'enteen members, ser\-ices being held in the school house. 

Mount Pleasant Lodge, No. 158, Ancient Free and .Accepted Masons, of 
Mount Pleasant, was organized in the fall of 1868 by the following charter 
members : William J. Young, X. Klein, M. R. Benton, John Hawley, S. K. 
McCreary. Joseph Howell and Albert Hawley. Their first meeting was held 
October 20, 1868, with the followling as first officers : William Young, wor- 
shipful master; X. Klein, senior warden; A. Hawley, junior warden; S. K. 
McCreary. secretary ; M. R. Benton, treasurer. 

In August, 1862, the name of the postoffice was changed to Locust 

lewis' point. 

In pre-territorial times and in the steamboat days', Kansas had many 
geographical names that are not now to be found on the map. Some of them, 
wihere permanent settlements have sprung up, have been perpetuated, but the 
majority of them do not live even in the memory of the oldest inhabitants. 
One of the latter is "Lewis' Point," near the present site of Oak Mills. Old 
"Cap." Lewis is long since dead, his name almost forgotten, and the rapacious 
Missouri river and "Mansell's SHde" are now about to devour the "Point," 


with which his name was coupled in our early geography. \A'hile "Lewis' 
Point" wias never a place of any prominence, and not even the site of a village 
or settlement, yet it was a geographical name that was known to every steam- 
boat man running on this section of the river, and is worthy of preservation in 
our local histoi7. "Lewis' Point" was at the projection of land lying im- 
mediately above Oak Mills, on the Missouri river. It took its name from the 
fact that Calvin Lewis, an old riverman, settled at this point at an early day, 
and it became a frequent stopping place for steamboats to take on wood. In 
those days there was a splendid wood supply in that vicinity. Lewis' house 
stood near the site of the old Champton, or William Moody, house, wlhich was 
destroyed by fire about a year ago. 

It is not generally known that a steamboat was ever built on Atchison 
county soil, much less that Oak Mills was ever the scene of the ship builder's 
craft, outside of the construction of Indian canoes and the modern skiffs built 
by Dick King or some other later-day river man. Yet, it is a fact that Calvin 
Lewis once built and launched at "Lewis' Point" a small stern-wheel steam- 
boat, and operated it on the river for several years. In 1855 the first terri- 
torial legislature of Kansas passed an act authorizing Lewis to operate a 
ferry at "Lewis' Point." 


The same legislature that gave permission to Lewis to operate a feriy at 
"Lewis' Point," granted the same privilege to Nimrod Farley, to maintain a 
ferry across the Missouri river, opposite latan. Mo. Farley was a well 
known character in the Missouri bottoms in the vicinity of latan, Cow Island, 
and Oak Mills, in the early days. He lived near latan, but it seems that he 
owned land on the Kansas side, near Oak Mills, which offered a landing for 
his ferrv. He was a brother of Josiah Farley, who laid out the town of 
Farley, in Platte county, in 1850. George McAdow later became proprietor 
of Farley's Ferry and operated it until it was destroyed by Jayhawkers, 
shortly before the war. 




HAWKERS — Cleveland's gang — lynchings — atchison county 


The six years intervening between 1854 and i860 constitute a momentous 
period in the history of Atchison count}-. Xo new commnnit\- was ever 
organized under more unpromising circumstances. It was not merely land 
hunger and lust for personal gain that were the impelling motives 'which 
brought men to Kansas in that day. Neither gold, nor gas, nor oil, nor 
precious gems lured men here. Kansas was then, as it is now, an agricultural 
paradise, and such an environment has ordinarily but little chann for the dar- 
ing adventurer and the seeker after sudden riches, who toil not and spin 
less. It is true that a large number of peaceful, plodding- home-seekers — the 
tillers of the soil— the hewers of wood and the haulers of water, immigrated 
to Kansas to take up land and build pennanent homes, but they were in the 
minorit}- prior to i860. The tremendous issue of human slavery w'as the 
all absorbing fact, and the long struggle here wrought a complete revolu- 
tion in the ])olitical thought of the whole country. Men came to Kansas for 
the most part for political rather than for business or agricultural reasons. 
The settlement of Kansas was an inspired political movement of partisans. 
There was little room for neutrals, and those who were "too proud to fight" 
went elsewhere. There was little consideration on the part of the early 
settlers of Kansas, of anv questions except slavery and anti-slavery. They 
came in large numbers from the South and from the Xorth. and met here 
upon the frontier in a final test of strength. The Free Soilers won. but only 



after bitter contests in which passion, prejudice and bloody partisanship ran 
riot, and Atciiison county played a most conspicuous part in th;s great 
battle. The Nation and the world looked on as the battle lines surged for- 
ward and backward. And while they fought here in a last desperate strug- 
gle for supremacy, these courageous men and women on both sides founded 
their towns, built their court houses, their primary schools and their churches 
with an abiding faith in the hearts of each of them that victory would finally 
crown their efforts. Atchison county made progress in spite of the fact 
that her leaders were wrong. We gave promise here of being the metropo- 
lis of Kansas, for we had many geographical and commercial advantages 
over other struggling communities of the Territory. But before the well 
laid plans of our citizens matured, before projects for the development of 
steam transportation to bring us nearer the outside world could be concluded 
the mighty conflict which ended in four bloody years of civil war, broke upon 
the Nation, and Kansas within three months after being admitted as a State 
enrolled itself on the side of the Union. Atchison county sprang 
to amis almost a thousand strong, and may it ever be said to its everlasting 
glory that few, if any, counties in the State had a more patriotic record. 
One hundred and thirty-one Atchison county men enlisted in the First Kan- 
sas regiment; twenty-five in the Seventh; eighty-five in the Eighth; eighty- 
six in the Tenth; 260 in the Thirteenth; 100 in the First Kansas (colored); 
twenty-five in the First Nebraska; 105 in the Thirteenth Missouri; thirty 
in the Fifteenth Kansas; forty in the Ninth, and fifty in the Sixteentli, or a 
total of 937 men, w'hich, together with the scattering of men in other regi- 
ments in adjoining States, brought the total number of soldiers engaged 
during the Civil war to 1,000. The population of Atchison county at that 
time was 7.747, and the voting population 1,133, which shows that the total 
number of voters was but slightly larger than the total number of volun- 
teers. At that time Atchison, by reason of its location, was subject to in- 
cursions from Confederate troops and Jayhawkers from Missouri, which 
called for the organization at different periods of the war, of home guard 
companies, which are not included in the foregoing statement. At the out- 
set of the war Atchison had three militia companies. A, B and C, and a 
fourth, known as the All Hazard company, the origin of whose name is thus 
explained. At the city election in the spring of 1861 the issue was vtnion 
or dis-union. The Republicans and Union Democrats united in supporting 
G. H. Fairchild for mayor. He was a Union Democrat who on various 
occasions announced his unwavering friendship of the Union and for the 


maintenance of the constitution and laws "at all hazards," and "when this 
company enlisted for the war Ma3'or Fairchild was its caiitam and it became 
Company K of the First Kansas. It participated in the battle of Wilson's 
Creek, August lo, 1861, which was the first action in which a Kansas regi- 
ment was under fire. 

In 1 86 1 there were constant threats of invasion from Missouri rebel 
organizations m Buchanan and Platte counties, and in that year another 
home guard company was organized with the following officers : Charles 
Holbert, captain; J. G. Bechtold, first lieutenant; Clem Rhor, second lieuten- 
ant; W. Becker, third lieutenant; John Schupp, ensign. During the follow- 
ing year the danger of invasion became still more threatening and 650 men 
in sixteen companies came to Atchison to protect the town from destruction. 
The Atchison county companies were commanded by Captains Holbert, Hays, 
Batsett, Evans .and Vanwinkle. It was due to the thoroughness with which 
the people of Atchison organized themselves against invasicin that they were 
spared from being completely annihilated. On the fifteenth day of Septem- 
ber, 1 86 1, another company for home guard service was mustered in at Ft. 
Leavenworth. J. M. Graham was captain; J. G. Bechtold, first lieutenant; 
R. X. Bryant, second lieutenant. This company subsequently became Com- 
pany E of the First Kansas Regiment Home Guards, numbering fifty men, 
and were ordered back to Atchison for duty, where thev were stationed 
until all danger of invasion had passed, after which the company became a 
part of tlie Eighth Kansas. The victories of the Union forces in 1862 were 
frequent, and as a result many rebel sympathizers came to Atchison for 
safet}', where they became very troublesome. In order to counteract the 
growing evil over the activities of these men, Mayor Fairchild issued a proc- 
lamation in which he warned them tliat they must not expect to be pro- 
tected in any manner by the city laws as long as they held to the 
\-iews which they expounded at every favorable opportunity. "It would 
be absurd to suppose," the proclamation said, "that a patriotic community 
could treat otherwise than its enemies, persons who are in s}-mpathy with 
base men who have brought upon our comitn,' untold misery, almost un- 
limited taxation and almost inconceivable pecuniary suffering. As a repre- 
sentative of a loyal people I will not encourage men to return among us 
who have circulated reports that they were refugees from the loyal States 
on account of their secession doctrines, nor will I give protection to men 
who unmistakably at heart belong to the Confederacy." This proclamation 
met with such favor that a mass meeting of Union men in Atchison county 


was held 'at Pi'ice's Hall Marcli 15, 1862. The whole county was well 
represented and stirring addresses were delivered hy Colonel Edge, of Doni- 
phan county, Tom ]\Iurphy, the genial proprietor of the [Nlassasoit House. 
Rev. W. S. W'enz, Lieutenant Price, E. Chesebrough. Mayor Fairchild. Caleb 
May, and others, after which resolutions denouncing the southern sym- 
pathizers and notifying them not to return were unanimously adopted. Dur- 
ing the latter part of the same year a call for aid to assist the Atchison 
county troops met with immediate response and within a few days, com- 
mencing August 20, 1862, almost $4,000 was subscribed by the citizens of 
Atchison. Seven hundred and forty-five dollars came from Mt. Pleasant 
township. Among the leading contributors were Theodore Bartholow, E. 
Chesebrough. G. W. Fairchild, J. W. Russell. ^^^ L. Challiss. Dr. \Mlliam 
Irwin. G. \\'. Howe, Bela M. Hughes, William Hetherington. Otis &• Glick. 
Henry Deisbach, J. E. Wagner, Rice McCubbin, McCausland & Brown, Tom 
Murphy, W. A. Cochrane, Samuel C. Pomeroy, Stebbins & Company, E. 
Butcher, and \Villiam C. Smith, each of whom subscribed the sum of S50 
or over. Atchison also made a notable contribution when Ouantrell invaded 
Lawrence, sending $4,000 to assist the people of that city. In 1863 depreda- 
tions of the Jayhawkers became very annoying, and a vigilance committee 
was organized and all good, peaceful and loyal citizens were called upon to 
band themselves together for the protection of their lives, homes and prop- 
erty. Those who joined the vigilance committee took an oath to support the 
Government of the United States and Kansas, and to do all in their power 
to put down the rebellion, and also to keep secret all proceedings of the or- 
ganization. This committee did very effective work in bringing to punish- 
ment violators of law and also in keeping the lawless bands of Jayhawkers 
and other thieves out of Atchison county. 

The following "circular" has been unearthed by the author, and while 
it bears no date it apparently contained the constitution, by-laws, ritual and 
oath of these societies. 

"circular to officers. 

"Be extreme!}' careful in the selection of your members. Admit no 
one who is not of good standing in the community, and whom you have not 
good reason to believe to be firm and uncompromising in his devotion to the 
Union, and to be relied upon to assist in any emergency in maintaining the 
laws and good- order in the community. This is of the first and highest im- 
portance to the order, and if any member shows symptoms of defection, watch 
him closelv. 


"In all cases, deal kindly with your opponents, and strive b}' gentle means 
to win them o\'er to a change of sentiment. Many good men mav thus be 
brought within our circle who would otherwise be lost to us. 

"The first club established in your county seat will be called the County 
Club, to which all clubs in the county will report, and by those officers all such 
clubs will be estalilished. It is important that we be frequently advised as to 
our strength in the State ; and for this purpose each subordinate club will re- 
port weekly to the county club the number of members enrolled therein : and 

the County Club will report monthly to the Ex. Com. at the 

number of-clubs and number of members in the county. These reports should 
be carefully sealed and addressed . 

"The officers of County Clubs will be supplied with a printed constitution 
and ritual, and they will furnish officers of subordinate clubs copies of the 
same, with a strict injunction to secrecy. 

"All correspondence must be secret as possible : and in order that this may 
be accomplished the monthly reports may consist only of the place, date, num- 
ber of clubs in the county and number of members. No signature must be 
attached. These reports will be summed up and published by the Ex. Com. 

"Strict secrecy as to the -zi'orkiiig of the organization is enjoined and 
promptness and vigor in its extension is very important. We must work now 
and work rapidly. No time is to be lost; our opponents are working vigor- 
ously and secretl}-, but it is not too late to counteract their machinations and 
utterly overthrow them. JVork! Work! Work! 



"The object shall be to preserve and maintain the Union and the constitu- 
tion of the United States and of the State of Kansas, and to defend Kansas 
against invasion, insurrection, civil commotion and to protect Union men 
against assassination, arson, robbery, prescription and all other wrongs in- 
flicted by the enemies of the Government of the United States and of this 
State upon loyal persons. 


"The officers shall consist of Pr., V. P., R. S.. T., M., and S., who shall 
hold their office for three months. 


"duties of OFFICERS. 

"The duties of officers shall be the same as in similar organizations and 
all business shall be conducted in the usual parliamentary form. 

"admission OF MEMBERS. 

"Persons may become members who are eighteen }-ears of age and up- 
wards, and are citizens of the United States. 


"All initiations shall take place in and with the authority of the officers 
of the club who may delegate suitable persons to initiate members from time 
to time as occasion requires outside of any regular meeting of the club. Branch 
clubs may be formed by proper application to this club when the president may 
appoint suitable persons to establish the same. 


"Any member may withdraw from this club by giving written notice 
of the same to the R. S. at any regular meeting ; but the obligations of such 
member shall remain the same as before. 


"This constitution may be altered or amended by giving one week's notice 
thereof, by a vote of two-thirds of the executive committee of the State. Each 
county club may make by-laws for its own organization, not conflicting with 
this constitution. 


"Eternal God! Supreme Ruler, Governor and Architect of the Universe! 
We humbly beseech Thee to protect the people of the United States in general 
and especially the members of this organization. Wilt thou be pleased to direct 
and prosper all our consultations to the advancement of Thy glory, the good of 
Thy country, the safety, honor and welfare of Thy people, and may all things 
be ordered and settled by the Legislature and Executive branches of our Gov- 
ernment upon the best and surest foundation, so that peace and happiness, truth 
and justice may be established among us for all generations. Wilt Thou be 
pleased to guide and direct us as Thou didst our Fathers in the Revolution. 
With the strength of Thine almighty arm Thou didst uphold and sustain them 
through all their trials, and at last didst crown them with victor}'. May 


charity, and brotherly love cement iis ; may we be united with our principles 
founded upon the teachings of Thy Holy Word and may Thy Good Spirit 
guide, strengthen and comfort us, now and forever. Amen. 

"All candidates for membership to this club will be required to answer the 
following questions to be propounded by the marshal before initiation : 

"i. Are you opposed to secession or disunion ? 

"2. Do you acknowledge that your first and highest allegiance is due 
to the Government of the United States of America? 

"3. Are you willing to take such an oath of allegiance to the United 
States of America? 

"4. Are you willing- to pledge yourself to resist to the extent of your 
power, all attempts to subvert or overthrow the constitution of the United 
States, or the constitution of the State of Kansas? 

"Should the candidates answer affirmatively, the marshal, after repeating 
to the president, will conduct them into the club room and present them to the 
president, who shall then address the candidates as follows : 

"Gentlemen : — We rejoice that you have thus voluntarily come forward 
to unite yourselves with us. The cause we advocate is that of our country : 
banded together for the purpose of perpetuating the liberties for which our 
fathers fought, we have sworn to uphold and protect them. 

"It is a strange and sad necessity which impels American citizens to band 
themselves together to sustain the constitution and the Union ; but the Govern- 
ment under which we live is threatened with destruction. Washington en- 
joined upon us that 'the unity of the Government which constitutes us one peo- 
ple is a main pillar in the edifice of our real independence ; the support oi our 
tranquility at home, our peace abroad — of our safety, of our prosperity, of 
that very liberty which we so highly prize.' He charges that we should 'prop- 
erly estimate the immense value of our national Union to our collective and in- 
dividual happiness ; that we should cherish a cordial, habitual and immovable 
attachment to it ; accustoming ourselves to think and speak of it as the palladium 
of our political safety and prosperity ; watching for its preservation with jealous 
anxiety ; discountenancing whatever may suggest even a suspicion that it can 
in any event be abandoned.' 

"He tells us again that 'to the efficiency and permanency of the Union, a 
Government for the whole is indispensable. No alliances, however strict be- 
tween the parts, is an adequate substitute.' 

"It is to sustain this Government we are banded together, and for this pur- 
pose you are now required to take a solemn obligation. 


"Place your left hand on the National Flag and raise your right hand 
toward Heaven ; repeating after me : 

"We and each of us do solemnly swear in the presence of God and these 
witnesses to support, protect and defend the constitution and Government of 
the United States and of the State of Kansas against all enemies, foreign and 
domestic, and to maintain and defend the Government of the United States and 
the flag thereof, and aid in maintaining the laws of the United States in this 
State and to defend the State of Kansas against invasion from any State or 
States and from any other rebellion, invasion, insurrection to the best of our 
ability without any mental reservation or evasion — So help us God. 

"The members will respond. 

"To this we pledge ourselves. 

"We do severally solemnly swear and affirm that we will protect, aid and 
defend each member of all Union clubs, and will never inake known in any 
way or manner, to any person or persons, not members of Union clubs, any of 
the signs, passwords, proceedings, purposes, debates or plans of this or any 
other club under this organization, except when engaged in admitting new 
members into this organization. 

"The president will then deliver the following address to the candidates : 

" 'The oath which you have now taken of your own free will and accord 
cannot rest lightly upon your conscience, neither can it be violated without 
leaving the stain of perjury upon your soul. Our country is now in "disorder" 
and "confusion;" the fires of commotion and contest are now raging in our 
midst, war has come to us but we cannot, we must not, we dare not omit to 
do that which in our judgment the safety of the Union requires, not regardless 
of consecjuences, we must yet meet consequences ; seeing the hazard that sur- 
rounds the discharge of public duty, it must yet be discharged. Let us then, 
cheerfully shun no responsibility justly devolving upon us here or elsewhere 
in attempting to maintain the Union. Let us cheerfully partake its fortune 
and its fate. Let us be ready to perform our appropriate part, whene\er and 
wherever the occasion may call us, and to take our chances among those upon 
whom the blows may fall first and fall thickest. 

" 'Above all remember the words of our own immortal Cla}- : "If Kentucky 
tomorrow unfurls the banner of resistance, I never will fight under that ban- 
ner. I owe a paramount allegiance to the whole Union. A subordinate one 
to my own State." 

" 'Be faithful, then, to your country, for your interests are indissolubly 
connected with hers ; be faithful to these, your brethren, for your life and theirs 


may be invol\-ed in this contest: be faitliful to posterity for the blessings you 
have enjoyed in this Go\-ernment are but held in trust for thee." 

"Response by all the members — We \\"ill! 

"The president will then present the constitution and nath In the candi- 
dates for their signature." 

Charles Metz, a notorious Jayhawker, whose personal appearance and 
characteristics are best described in an essay entitled, "The Last of the Ja}- 
hawkers," contributed to the old Kansais Magazine, by John J. Ingalls. 
"Conspicuous among the irregular heroes who thus sprang to arms in i86t," 
says Ingalls, "and ostensibly their leader, was an Ohio stage driver h\ the 
name of Charles Metz, who having graduated with honor from the peniten- 
tiary of Missouri, assumed for prudential reasons the more euphonious and 
distinguished appellation of 'Cleveland.' He was a picturesque brigand. 
Had he worn a slashed doublet and trunk hose of black velvet he would have 
been the ideal of an Italian bandit. Young, erect and tall, he was sparely 
built and arrayed himself like a gentleman in the costume of the day. His 
appearance was that of a student. His visage was thin, his complexion 
olive tinted and colorless, as if 'sicklied over with a pale cast of thought.' 
Black piercing eyes, finely cut features, dark hair and beard correctlv trim- 
med, completed a tout ciisciublc that was strangely at variance with the 
aspect of the score of dissolute and dirty desperadoes that formed his com- 
mand. These were generally degraded ruffians of the worst type, whose 
highest idea of elegance in personal appearance was to have their mustaches 
a villainous, metallic black, irrespective of the consideration whether its 
native hue was red or brown. * * * * 

"The vicinity of the fort with its troops rendered Leavenworth undesir- 
able as a base of operations. St. Joseph was also heavilv garrisoned, and 
they accordingly selected Atchison as the point from which to move on the 
enemy's works. Atchison at that time contained about 2,500 inhabitants. 
Its business was transacted upon one street and extended west alx)ut four 
blocks from the river. Its position upon the extreme curve of the 'Grand 
Detour' of the Missouri, affording unrivaled facilities to the interior in the 
event of pursuit. Having been principally settled by Southerners it still 
afforded much legitimate gain for our bird of prey, and its loyal population 
having already largely enlisted, the city was incapable of organized resistance 
to the depredations of the marauders. 

"They established their headquarters at the saloon of a German named 
Ernest Renner, where they held their councils of war and whence they started 


upon their foravs. The winter was favorable to their designs, as the river 
closed early, enabling them to cross upon the ice. Cleveland proclaimed 
himself marshal of Kansas, and announced his determination to run the 
countr)-. He invited the cordial co-operation of all good citizens to assist 
him in sustaining the government and punishing its foes. Ignorant of his 
resources and of his purposes, the people were at first inclined to welcome 
their strange guests as a protection from the dangers to which they were 
exposed, but it soon became apparent that the doctors were worse than the 
disease. They took possession of the town, defied the municipal authorities, 
and committed such intolerable excesses that their expulsion was a matter 
of public safety. Their incursions into Missouri' were so frequent and 
audacious that a company of infantry was sent from Weston and stationed 
at Winthrop to effect their capture, but to no purpose. * * * * If a man had 
an enemy in any part of the country whom he wished to injure, he reported 
him to Cleveland as a rebel, and the next night he was robbed of all he 
possessed and considered fortunate if he escaped without personal violence. 
* * * * A small detachment of cavalry was sent from the fort to take them, 
but iust as they had dismounted in front of the saloon and were hitching 
their horses, Cleveland appeared at the door with a cocked navy in each 
hand and told them that he would shoot the first man who moved a finger. 
Calling two or three of his followers he disarmed the dragoons, took their 
horses and equipments and sent them back on foot to reflect upon the 
vicissitudes of military affairs. Early in 1862 the condition became des- 
perate and the city authorities, in connection with the commander at Win- 
throp, concerted a scheme which brought matters to a crisis. Cleveland and 
about a dozen of his gang were absent in Missouri on a scout. The time of 
their return was known, and Marshal Charles Holbert had his force sta- 
tioned in the shadow of an old ware-house near the bank of the river. It 
was a brilliant moonlight night in mid-winter. The freebooters emerged 
from the forest and crossed upon the ice. They were freshly mounted and 
each one had a spare horse. Accompanying them were two sleighs loaded 
with negroes, harness and miscellaneous plunder. As they ascended the 
steep shore of the levee, unconscious of danger, they were all taken pris- 
oners except Cleveland, who turned suddenly, spurred his horse down the 
embankment and escaped. The captives were taken to Weston, where they 
soon afterward enlisted in the Fede'ral army. The next day Cleveland rode 
into town, captured the city marshal on the street and declared his inten- 
tion to hold him as a hostage for the safety of his men. He compelled the 


marshal to walk by the side of his horse a short distance, when finding a 
crowd gathering- for his capture, he struck him a blow on the head wi'th his 
pistol and fled." 

Cleveland continued his exploits for a number of months after this, but 
was finally captured in one of the southern counties where he was attempting 
to let himself down the side of a ravine. He was shot by a soldier from 
above, and the ball entered his arm and passed through his body. He was 
buried in St. Joseph, Mo., and a marble head stone over his grave bears 
the following inscription, placed there by his widow : "One hero less on 
earth, one angel more in heaven." 

As the direct result of the operations of Cleveland and his gang, the 
spirit of lawlessness grew and the people finally "took the law into their 
own hands." Perhaps the best account of the lynchings that followed was 
given by Hon. Mont. Cochran March 17, 1902, at the time a Congressman 
from Missouri, but formerly a leading citizen and county attorney of Atchi- 
son. Mr. Cochran said : 

"The thieves who fell victims to Judge Lynch, while not known as 
Cleveland's gang, operated extensively throughout the period of lawlessness 
in which no effort whatever was made to bring the outlaws to justice. After 
the Cleveland gang had been effectively broken up, these depredatoi-y scoun- 
drels continued their operations. Their last crime, and the one for which 
they were jibbeted, was the attempted robbery of an old man named Kelsey. 
He had received at Ft. Leavenworth $1,500 on a Government contract, and, 
upon returning home by the way of Atchison, he deposited it in Hethering- 
ton's bank. The thieves went to his house at night and demanded the money. 
Of course, he could not produce it. They tortured the old man and his wife 
alternately for hours, and when after the departure of the thieves, the neigh- 
bors were called in, Kelsey and his wife were nearer dead than alive. The 
next morni'ng hundreds of their neighbors, armed to the teeth, swarmed into 
Atchison. In Third street, north of Commercial, was a little log building, 
which had been the home of an early settler, in which was a gunsmith's shop. 
Three or four of the farmers went there to have their fire arms put in order. 
When they came out one of them had a revolver in his hand. 
Two fellows standing by, seeing the farmers approaching, dived into an 
alley and started westward at lightning speed. The farmers pursued and 
at the house of a notorious character, known as Aunt Betsey, the fugitives 
were run to cover. The house was surrounded and they were captured. One 
of them was sterling, the fiddler and pianist of the bagnio. Other arrests 


followed until five were in durance. Then ensued probably the most extra- 
ordinar}^ proceeding known to the annals of Judge Lynch. The mol) took 
possession of the jail and the court house and for a week held them. The 
prisoners were tried one by one. Sterling was convicted and executed. An 
elm tree, standing on the banks of White Clay creek, in the southwest quar- 
ter of the town, was admirably suited to the purpose. When 'the wagon, 
bearing Sterling to his doom reached the ground the whole town was in 
attendance. A rSnge of hills to the south swarmed with women. Asa 
Barnes, a prominent farmer, a man of iron resolution and unswerving hon- 
esty, was the leader of the mob. With clinched teeth and blanched face he 
ordered Sterling to take hJs place on the seat of the wagon, and, while the 
desperado was as game as a peacock, he promptly obeyed. Standing on the 
wagon seat Sterling took off his hat, banged it down and placing his foot on 
it, shook his clenched hand at the sea of upturned faces, and with a volley of 

imprecations, said : T am the best d d man that ever walked the earth 

and if you will drop me down and give me a gun, I will fight any ten of 
you.' Sandy Corbin, a great bluffer, who bore but little better reputation than 
the man with the noose on his neck, pretended that he wanted to fight Sterl- 
ing single-handed. Nobody else paid any attention to Sterling's ravings, and 
in a twinkling he was swung into eternity. The next day two others, a man 
named Brewer, a soldier at home on a furlough, and a young fellow known 
as Pony, met the same fate. There was much sympathy for Pony. He was 
a drunkard and all his delinquencies were attributed to this weakness. Just 
as they were ready to swing him up. two or three members of the mob told 
him that if he would give information as to others implicated, but who had 
not been arrested, they would save him. His reply was : T went into this 
thing as a man and I will die as a man.' There was a stir among those near- 
est the wagon and it was discovered that an effort was being made to save 
the boy from death. The traces were cut and the horses led away. The 
effort failed. Fifty men seized the wagon and dragged it away. The fourth 
to suffer the vengeance of the mob was an old gray-haired man named 
Moodv. At the trial he strongly protested his innocence, and promised, if 
given a respite of twenty-four hours, he would prove an alibi. This was 
granted, but the witnesses were not forthcoming and the next day the old 
man was put to death. A priest visited him in jail, which was constantly 
surrounded day and night, and when he came out after administering the 
rights of the church to the doomed man, it was remarked by those who saw 
hi'm that the priest was as pale as a ghost. The report gained currency that 


when asked if Moody was innocent, he refused to answer yea or nav, and, 
although it had not then developed that Moody could not produce the wit- 
nesses he promised, the conduct of the priest was taken as proof that Moody 
was guilty. During the week in which these extraordinary proceedings took 
place, the mob was in undisputed control of the court house and jail. Judge 
Lynch was perched upon the wool sack and a jury of twelve men, who had 
qualified under oath, in the usual form, occupied the jury box. Not the 
slightest effort at concealment was made by those who led or those who 
followed. In my judgment no other course was left open to the community. 
"Not less than 500 men were driven out of Kansas on the 
charge of disloyalty in 1861 and 1862, with the approval of men of excel- 
lent character, by thugs and scoundrels, who made no concealment of the 
fact that they lived by horse stealing and house breaking. From the be- 
ginning of the Civil war until peace was declared, the Kansas border from 
the Nebraska State line to the Indian Territory, was a scene of lawlessness 
and disorder. In the earlier years of the war, thieves regularly organized 
into companies, with captains whose authority was recognized by the rank 
and file, with headquarters in the towns and cities of eastern Kansas, mas- 
queraded as saviors of the Union, and upon the pretense that they were 
serving the cause, thrived amazingly by pillaging the farm houses and barns 
of neighboring counties in Missouri. Atchison was the headquarters of the 
Cleveland gang — the most acti\-e and the l)oldest of the Iianditti. The g'ang 
did not hesitate to cross over to Missouri and steal horses, and returning to 
Atchison sell them in broad daylight. ITsuall)- these raids were made at 
night, but there was no concealment of the business they were engaged in, 
nor of the fact that hundreds of the horses sold by them were stolen from 
farmers of Buchanan, Platte and Clinton counties. In the capacity of 
saviors of the Union, they took upon themselves the task of driving all per- 
sons suspected of sympathy for 'the lost cause' out of Kansas. P. T. Abell, 
J. T. Hereford, Headlev & Carr, prominent lawyers, were notified to leave 
or thev would be killed. They departed. Headley, Carr and Hereford 
served i'n the Confederate army. Abell lived in exile until after the war was 
over, and then returned to Atchison. He was one of the founders of the 
town, and before the war was the partner of Gen. B. F. Stringfellow. Tom 
Ray, proprietor of an extensive blacksm.ithing and wagon shop, was ban- ' 
ished. In a month or two he returned, but not until after he had halted at 
\\"inthrop, a village opposite Atchison and opened up negotiations which 
resulted in a grant of permission to remain i'n Atchison long enough to settle 


Up his business and collect considerable sums due from his customers. He 
registered at the old Massasoit House, but did not tarry long. Maj. R. H. 
Weightman, an early settler, who left Atchison in 1861, and accepted a col- 
onel's commission in the Confederate army, had been killed at Wilson's 
Creek. While sitting in the Massasoit House barroom, Ray was approached 
by Sandy Corbin, a somewhat notorious character, who handled most of 
the horses stolen by Cleveland's thieves. Corbin mentioned Weightman's 
death, expressing satisfaction at his untimely end, and applying all the epi- 
thets known to the abandoned, to the dead man. Ray expostulated, and 
finally warned Corbin to desist or expect a thrashing. Corbin rushed to 
his room and returned with two revolvers, so adjusted upon his belt that 
Ray could not help seeing them. Ray, who was a giant in size, seized Cor- 
bin, threw him face downward upon a billiard table, and with a blacksmith's 
hand as large as a ham, spanked him until he was almost insensible. Then 
he hurriedly boarded the ferry boat, crossed the river and made his way to 
Montana, where he lived until his death, twenty years ago. 

"Cleveland's lieutenant, a fellow named Hartman, was the worst of the 
gang, and was guilty of so many and such flagrant outrages upon the prom- 
inent citizens that in sheer desperation, four men, all of whom are now dead, 
met and drew straws to see who would kill Hartman — (i) Jesse C. Crall, 
during his life prominent in politics and business; (2) George T. Challiss, 
for thirty years a deacon in the Baptist church and a prominent wholesale 
merchant and identified prominently with Atchison affairs; (3) James ]\Ic- 
Ewen, a cattle buyer and butcher; (4) The fourth man was a prominent 
physician. Each of these had suffered intolerable outrages at the hands 
of Hartman. He had visited their houses and terrified their wives by 
notifying them that unless their husbands left Atchison within a specified 
period they would be mobbed. Even the children of two of the victims of 
persecution had been abused. They met at the physician's office, and after 
a prolonged conference at which it was agreed that neither would leave un- 
til Hartman had been killed, proceeded to draw straws to see which would 
undertake the work. Crall held the straws, McEwen drew^ the short straw 
and the job fell to his lot. Atchison is bi-sected by two or three brooks, one 
of which traverses the northwest section of the town and runs into White 
Clay creek. This ravine has very precipitous banks, and was crossed by 
several foot bridges. At the east approach of the bridge was a tall elm tree. 
McEwen took his position under this tree, and awaited the appearance of 
Hartman, who necessarily passed that way in going home at night. Wlien 


Hartman was half-way across the bridge, McEwen stepped out, dropped to 
his knee, leveled a double-barreled shotgun and tinned loose. He filled 
Hartman with buckshot from his head to his heels, but strange to say, the 
fellow did not die for months afterward. Had either of the others drawn 
the fatal straw, no doubt Hartman would have been killed in broad daylight, 
on the streets, but JVIcEwen concluded to give the fellow no chance for his 

The First Kansas volunteer cavalry was the first regiment to be raised 
under the call of President Lincoln May 8, 1861. It was mustered into the 
service at Ft. Leavenworth June 3, 1861. George W. Deitzler, of Lawrence, 
was colonel, and the following men from Atchison were officers : George H. 
Faicheled, captain, Company C; Camille Aguiel, first lieutenant; Rinaldo A. 
Barker, second lieutenant ; James W. Martin, second lieutenant of Company 
B. Within ten days of the date this regiment was mustered in, they recei\-ed 
orders for active service. The regiment joined the army of General Lyon 
at Grand River, Mo., and on July 10 arrived at Springfield, where the force 
of General Sigel was gathered. The united forces of the rebels, under Price 
and McCullouch, was concentrated at Wilson's Creek, twelve miles from 
Springfield, and was strongly entrenched there, where the initial engage- 
ment of the First Kansas regiment took place. This regiment went into 
the engagement with 644 men and officers, and lost seventy-seven killed 
and 333 wounded. The rebel forces were estimated to be 5,300 infantry, 
fifteen pieces of artillery, and 6,000 horsemen, with a loss of 265 killed. 721 
wounded, and 292 missing. The Union forces numbered about 5.000. with 
a loss of about 1,000. It was one of the fiercest and most determined bat- 
tles of the Civil war, and both officers and privates in the companies from 
Atchison displayed great bravery. First Lieut. Camille Agniel was among 
the killed, and privates Henry W. Totten and Casper Broggs, together with 
Corporal William F. Parker, of Atchison, also lost their lives in this engage- 

The Seventh regiment Kansas cavaliy was ordered into active service 
immediately following its organization. Colonel Daniel R. Anthony, of 
Leavenworth, was a lieutenant-colonel of this regiment, and among the line 
officers was William S. Morehouse, of Atchison, who was second lieuten- 
ant. This regiment saw a great deal of active service in the Civil war, and 
was first attacked by the rebels November 11, 1861, while encamped in 
western Missouri, on the Little Blue river. Following a furious battle the 
regiment lost nine of its force by death and thirty-two wounded. This reg- 


iment subsequently participated in an engagement at Little Santa Fe and 
at Independence. In Januaiy, 1862. the Seventh regiment went into camp 
at Humboldt, Kan., and remained there until it was ordered to Lawrence in 
the following March, and subsequently was ordered to Corinth, IMiss., and 
from thence to Rienzi, ]Miss., where it was assigned to the First Cavahy 
brigade, of which Phillip H. Sheridan was commander, and subsequently saw 
much service in Tennessee and other points in the South, and participated 
in the various actions that occurred during General Smith's expedition to 
the Tallahatchee, after which the balance of their active service took place in 
Missouri. It was mustered out at Ft. Leavenworth September 4, 1S65. 

The Eighth regiment Kansas infantry was perhaps closer to the hearts 
of the people of Atchison county tlian any other regiment that participated in 
the Civil war, for the i-eason that its lieutenant-colonel was the beloved John A. 
Martin, editor of the Atchison Champion, and subsequently governor of 
Kansas. It was originally recruited and intended for home and frontier 
service. The fear of invasion, both by hostile Indians on the west, and the 
rebels on the south and east, kept fear alive in the hearts of many residents 
of Kansas, and for this purpose it was deemed desirable to have a regiment 
of volunteer soldiers close at hand. As originally organized, this regiment 
consisted of six infantry and two cavalry companies, but various changes 
were made during the three months following its organization. It saw active 
service throughout the South, and participated in many of the important bat- 
tles of the Civil war, but in none did it play a more conspicuous part than 
in the great battle of Mission Ridge. The following is from Colonel Mar- 
tin's official report of the part taken by the Eighth Kansas in this engage- 
ment : 

"Shortly after noon, on the twenty-fifth (November), we were ordered 
to advance on the enemy's position at the foot of Mission Ridge, and moved 
out of our works, forming in the second line of the battle. We at once ad- 
\anced steadily in line through the woods and across the open field in front 
of the enemy's entrenchments to the foot of the hill, subjected during the 
whole time to a heavy artillery fire from the enemy's batteries, and as soon 
as we reached the open field, to a destructive musketry fire. Reaching the 
first line of works we halted to rest our men for a few moments, and then 
advanced through a terrible storm of artillery and musketn,^ to the foot 
of the hill and up it as rapidly as possible. The crest of the ridge at the 
point where we moved up was formed like a horseshoe. We advanced in 
the interior, while the enemy's batteries and infantry on the right and left, 


as well as in the center, poureil upon us a most terrific fire. But the men 
never faltered or wavered, although from the nature of the ground, regi- 
ments were mingled one with an.other, and company organization could not 
possibly be preserved. Each man struggled to be fh-st on top, and the offi- 
cers and men of the regiment, without a single exception, exhibited the high- 
est courage and the most devoted gallantry in this fearful charge. 

"The enemy held their ground until we w^ere less than a dozen yards 
from their breastworks, when they broke in wild confusion and fled in panic 
down the hill on the opposite si'de. A portion of our men pursued them for 
nearly a mile, capturing and hauling back several pieces of artillery and cais- 
sons, which the enemy were trying to run off. 

"We occupied the summit of Mission Ridge until the night of the twentv- 
sixth, when we were ordered to return to camp at Chattanooga. 

"Our loss was one commissioned officer wounded and three enlisted men 
killed and thirty-one wounded. The regiment went into the battle with an 
aggregate force of 217 men and officers. 

"Where all behaved with such conspicuous courage, it is difficult to make 
distinction, but I cannot forebear mentioning my adjutant-lieutenant, Sol. R. 
Washer. Wounded at Chicakamauga. and not )-et recovered from the effects 
of his wound, and suffering from a severe sprain of the ankle, whicli pre- 
vented his walking, he mounted his horse and rode through the whole battle, 
always foremost in danger." 

The Eighth infantry remained in camp at Chattanooga until it removed 
to the relief of Burnside at Knoxville, which city was reached on December 
7. About the same time Sherman's corps arrived. The winter of 1863 was 
spent in east Tennessee, and in the following February arrived home in .Atch- 
ison and Ft. Leavenworth. There was great rejoicing and celebration and 
both officers and soldiers were greeted with waving banners, ringing bells, 
booming cannon, and there was much feasting and speech making. The regi- 
ment was home on a furlough, and early in April the men re-assembled 
at Leavenworth and on the twelfth of that montli was ordered to report 
back to Chattanooga, wdiere it subsequently saw service in the Cumberland 
mountains, and throughout the State of Tennessee. 

Colonel Martin was mustered out at Pulaski November 17, his term of 
enlistment having expired, and the following day he left for the North. Ijut 
the regiment was not mustered out of service until the following January. 

The Tenth regiment, Kansas infantry, was made up of the Third and 
Fourth and a small portion of the Fifth Kansas regiments, and among its 



officers were Mathew Quigg, captain of Company D : Seth M. Tucker, 
first lieutenant, and David Whittaker, second lieutenant, all of Atchison. 
The activities of this regiment were largely confined to operations in Mis- 
souri and Arkansas, and afterwards in Tennessee. In December, 1864. it 
arrived at Clinton, Miss., without tents or blankets, and many of the men 
without shoes or overcoats. During January it made an expedition into 
Mississippi, and the latter part of that month marched to Waterloss, Ala., 
remaining there until February 8. when it embarked for Vicksburg, where 
it remained until February 19, and subsequently operated around Mobile, 
and the men of this regiment were employed as skirmishers in the joint ad- 
vance upon the fortifications around Mobile. It was mustered out at Mont- 
gomery, Ala., September 20, 1865, and finally discharged at Ft. Leaven- 
worth, Kan. The regiment was mostly composed of veterans, who under- 
stood the life of a soldier, and realized the hardships of military campaigns. 
They did their duty, whether it was in guarding their own State from in- 
vasion, or assaulting the rebels at tlie siege of Ft. Blal<ely. 

The Thirteenth regiment, Kansas infantry, had more officers in it from 
Atchison than any of the regiments that participated in the Civil war. It 
was raised under President Lincoln's call of July, 1862, and was recruited 
by Cyrus Leland, Sr., of Troy, Kan., by virtue of autliority from James H. 
Lane, in the counties of Brown, 'Atchison, Doniphan, Marshall and Nemaha. 
The regiment was organized September 10, 1862, at Camp Staunton, Atch- 
ison, and mustered into the service ten days later. Colonel of this regi- 
ment was Thomas M. Bowen, of Marysville, and the major was Caleb A. 
Woodworth, of Atchison. Among the line officers from Atchison were: 
Henry Havenkorst, captain of Company B; August Langehemeken, second 
lieutenant; Henry R. Neal, captain; Robert Manville, second lieutenant; 
Tohn E. Hayes, captain, Company F; Archimedes S. Speck, first lieutenant; 
^^^illiam J. May, second lieutenant; Patrick McNamara, captain. Company 
K; Daniel C. O'Keefe, first lieutenant; Hugh Dougherty, second lieutenant. 

The regiment joined a division of General Blunt soon after the battle 
of Old Ft. Wayne, and participated in various engagements in Arkansas. 
At the battle of Prairie Grove, it was one of the first regiments to be en- 
gaged, and in every attempt to capture the battery of which this regiment 
formed the support at this'battle, was successfully repulsed, with heavy losses 
to the rebels. This battle virtually finished the campaign for the winter. 
It subsequently did garrison and out-post duty in Arkansas, and in the 
Cherokee Nation. The regiment remained on duty at Ft. Smith, Ark., un- 


til March 3. 1865, when it was ordered to Little Rock, Ark., and on June 
26 of that year was mustered out of service. 

Among the privates of this regiment from Atchison, who were killed, 
were : James L. Parnell, of Mount Pleasant, and John Collins and Lorenzo 
Richardson, of Atchison. 

Thomas Roe, a fine, stout young man. son of a widowed mother, of 
Brownsville, Pa., was the only member of Company D, of the Second Kan- 
sas cavalry, that lost his life in battle during its nearly four years of service 
in the Civil war. This company participated in the battles of Cane Hill 
and Prairie Grove, in Arkansas, and other engagements. Roe came to Kan- 
sas with the late Thomas Butcher, for whom he worked until going into 
the war of the rebellion. 

In May, 1861, a company of home gaiards was organized by Free State 
men. of Lancaster and Shannon townships, Atchison county, with a few from 
Brown and Doniphan counties, which gathered every Saturday afternoon 
for drill, alternating at the homes of Johnson Wymore and Robert \A'hite. 
Robert White, who had received military training during the Mexican war, 
having served there in 1846-48, did most of the drilling. A. J. Evans was 
captain; Robert White, first lieutenant: John Bertwell, of Brown county,- 
was second lieutenant. 

The pro-slavery people were also organized and drilling at the same 
time, consisting of South Carolinians, Virginians and Missourians, who were 
for the Confederacy and slavery. 

At a Sunday school meeting on the prairie, held in a ^■acant settler's 
shanty near Eden postoffice, where both sides in the neighborhood wor- 
shiped on Sundays, Robert White found out on a. Sunday in August, 1861, 
that a southern organization was to disarm all Free State men the following 
Tuesday. His nearest neighbor and a good friend, also a southerner, thought 
White had found this out and came and visited him a good part of Sunday 
afternoon and staying in the evening until after 10 o'clock before going 
home. White showing no excitement. Willis went home, seemingly much at 
ease, but he was watched by his friend White until safely resting at his home, 
when White went and called another Free State man from his bed who 
notified half the Free State company and White the other half, causing them 
to meet early the following Monday, when by the middle of the afternoon 
of that day every proslavery man in that part of the country had his fire arms 
taken from him, and before Tuesday evening all of them had departed for 


Most of the members of the Free State company enhsted in 
the following- October as volunteers for three years' service in the Union 
army and became known as Company D of Second Kansas cavalry. Robert 
White, who was commissioned as first lieutenant in Company D, was dis- 
charo^ed and sent home to die with a serious case of inflammatory rheu- 
matism, but he recovered so far that in 1863 he raised and drilled a company 
that became a part of the State militia. He was commissioned captain of 
this company and led it in the Price raid at the battle of Westport in 1864 
as a part of the regiment commanded by Col. L. S. Treat in helping keep 
Capt. White's old brigade, commanded by Gen. Sterling Price, of the Mexi- 
can war, from getting into Kansas. The late M. J. Cloyes and T. B. Piatt, 
of .-\tchison, were members of Captain White's company in the Price raid. 
Piatt was clerk of the company: John English was first lieutenant; W. F, 
Streeter, second lieutenant, and Francis Schletzbaum was first sergeant. 

The Seventeenth regiment, Kansas infantry, was a negro regiment, but 
with white officers. James M. Williams was colonel, and George J. Martin, 
of Atchison, was captain of Company B, and William G. White and Luther 
Dickinson, of Atchison, were first and second lieutenants. This regiment 
played an honorable part during all the Civil war, and its service was largely 
confined to operations in Arkansas and Te.xas. It was mustered out of 
service at Pine Bluff. Ark., October i, 1865. 

The Second regiment, Kansas colored infantry, was organized in June, 
1863, at Ft. Smith., Ark., and among its line officers was First Lieut. John 
M. Cain, of Atchison. It conducted itself with conspicuous bravery with 
the army of the frontier, and during the brief occupation of Camden, .Ark., 
])\ General Steele's forces, this regiment was employed on picket and forage 
duty. It showed conspicuous bravery around Poison Springs and Mark's 
Mills, and under the able command of Col. Samuel J. Crawford, who 
subsequently became go\-ernor of Kansas, it won for itself an enviable name 
among the regiments from Kansas, who participated in the Civil war. This 
regiment was finally discharged from the services at Leavenworth Xovem- 
ber 2j, T865, after having proved to the Nation the fidelity of the colored 

It was in September, 1S64, that General Sterling Price created great 
consternation by an attempted invasion of Kansas, which ended in his defeat 
on the border by the Union forces, aided by the Kansas State militia. At 
the time Price started north in his march through Arkansas and Missouri, 
Msi]. Gen. Samuel R. Curtis commanded the Department of Kansas, which 


included Nebraska, Colorado and Indian Territory, in addition to Kansas. 
General Curtis had about 4.500 men, all of whom bad been employed in pro- 
tecting the frontiers of Kansas and Colorado, and the overland mail route. 
At this time General Curtis was near Ft. Kearney, operating against the 
Indians. On receipt of word announcing the movements of General Price, 
General Curtis was recalled and reached Kansas in Septemljer. A few days 
later he received word that 3,000 rebels were marching on Ft. Scott, and 
advised Governor Carney to call the militia into service. At this time George 
W. Deitzler was major-general of the State militia ; John T. Norton was 
assistant adjutant-general: R. A. Randlett. assistant quarter-master; Samuel 
S. Atwood, assistant quarter-master; Charles Chadwick, George T. Robin- 
son, Lewis T. W'elmorth, John J. Ingalls, Thomas White, Elijah G. Moore. 
H. Stein, and John A. Leffkler were all majors. Constant reports of a con- 
flicting nature were spread from day to day, regarding the movements of 
General Price, but the first point to be attacked was Pilot Knob, the engage- 
ment commencing September 27 and lasting all day. General Ewing put 
up a vigorous defense, with a force of about 1,000 men, while the militia 
commanders in Kansas made preparations for further resistance to the in- 
vasion of Price. Meanwhile General Price continued to make headway, and 
on the fourth of October an order was issued forbidding the transit of boats 
below Kansas Ci'ty. When it was discovered that the rebels under Price 
had not been seriously checked in their movement westward, further efforts 
were made by General Curtis to prevail upon Governor Kearney to call out 
the militia, which the Governor seemed disinclined to do. Finally, on Octo- 
ber 9, 1864, Major General Deitzler issued an order for the State mihtia 
from Doniphan, Brown, Nemaha and Marshall counties to rendezvous at 
Atchison, and the militia from other counties were ordered to other points 
in the State. A few days later Leavenworth was fortified, because of a tele- 
gram which was received from General Rosecrans, stating that it was Price's 
intention to strike that point first. The militia responded promptly, and the 
following regiments reported for service at Atchison : The Twelfth regiment, 
composed of 460 men, under the command of Col. L. S. Treat, and the 
Eighteenth regiment, composed of 400 men, under the command of Colonel 
Mathew Quigg. The total number of militia enrolled under the call of the 
governor was 12,622, of which about 10,000 were south of the Kansas river 
at the point most exposed to danger. From the eleventh until the sixteenth 
of the month there was great excitement, as the forces rapidly gathered, to 


be organized and equipped. On the staff of General Deitzler there were 
two men from Atchison ; A. S. Hughes, an aide, and John J. Ingalls, judge- 
advocate, with the rank of major. 

As a result of this determined move on the part of Gen. Sterling Price 
to invade Kansas, there followed in quick succession the battle of Lexing- 
ton, the battle of Big Blue, and finally the battle of ^\^estport, at which, on 
October 23, 1864, the forces of Price were finally routed and his campaign 
and invasion were stopped, but not until it had caused the citizens of Kan- 
sas, in addition to the labor and loss of life, not less than half a million 





Slight reference has been made in the early narrative of this history 
to pioneer transportation facilities, but the subject is one of so much import- 
ance and of such immense interest, that a chapter devoted to it is the only way 
in which it can be adequately treated. 

At the time Atchison county was settled, railroad transportation by steam 
was not a new thing, although it was in its primitive stages. Navigation of 
the inland waterways had reached rather a high state of development, and 
the matter of transportation then was just as essential to the purposes of civil- 
ization as in this day of the railroad and the automobile, but it was many years 
before the steam railroads made the steamboat traffic of the Mississippi and 
Missouri rivers obsolete. The tremendous subsidies granted by the Govern- 
ment in later years for railroad building, however, and the splendid oppor- 
tunity for piling up wealth in the projection of new railroads and the operation 
of them, without Governmental restrictions, together with the advantage of 
speedier transportation facilities, completely over-shadowed the steamboat bus- 
ness, and as a result, our great inland waterway system has grown into prac- 
tical disuse. Shortly after Atchison county was organized, and the city of 
Atchison laid out, agitation was started for railroad connections with the 
East. One of the first ordinances passed by the city council in 1858 pro- 
vided for an election to submit a proposition to take $100,000.00 of stock 
in railroad. At that time the only means of communication to the out- 
side world Atchison had was by steamboats to St. Louis. It was in 
October, 1855, that George M. Million, Lewis Burnes, D. D. Burnes, James 
N. Burnes and Calvin F. Burnes commenced the operation of a ferry across 


the. Missouri river. Their dock on the Kansas side was at the foot of Atchison 
street. Their charter was secured from the legislature under the terms of 
which a bond of $1,000.00 was required to insure the faithful performance of 
their operations. Although there was no public utilities commission in Kansas 
in 1855, the legislature took upon itself the task of fixing tlie rates to be 
charged by the ferry owners, in order that the public would not be robbed. 
They were as follows : 

Two-horse wagon, or wagon and one yoke of oxen 

(loaded) $1.00 

Two-horse wagon, or wagon and one yoke of oxen 

(unloaded ) 75 ■ 

One additional pair of liorses or oxen 25 

Loose cattle or oxen, per liead 10 

Sheep and hogs, per head 05 

•Man and horse 25 

Foot passengers 10 

One horse and buggy or other \-ehicle 50 

Two horse buggy or carriage 75 

The original promoters operated the feriy but a sliort time, and 
early in the following year, they disposed of their interests to Dr. W'illiam L. 
Challiss, and. his brother, Luther C. Challiss, and A\'illis E. Gaylord, and tlie 
ferry, under Dr. Challiss, and subsequent owners, continued in operation until 
1875, when the present bridge was built. 

About the time the first ferry was established in Atchison, a numlier of 
Salt Lake freighters selected the town as a starting and outfitting point and 
from that time until 1866, Atchison was the eastern tenninus of many of 
the leading overland mail and freighting routes. It was the natural location 
for communication with the West, as it was tweh'e miles further west in 
Kansas than any otlier point on the Missouri river. Freight and passengers 
were brought to the Atchison levee, at the foot of Commercial street, by a 
regular line of Packets plying between St. Louis and St. Joseph. It required 
eight days to make the round trip, and in tlie very early days, as many or four 
to six boats landed here in the busy season. 

During the winter months traffic on tlie ri\-er was practically suspended, 
on account nf tlie ice. These boats carried as many as 400 passengers, the 


fare from St. Louis to St. Joseph ranging from $10.00 to $15.00, wliicli in- 
cluded meals and state rooms. The cooking was said to have been very fine, 
and the passengers always enjoyed the best that money could bu\-. 

In addition to passengers, these boats carried from 500 to ()00 tons of 
freight, and the rates were as high as $2.50 per cut. on merchandise that 
would not cost to exceed fifteen cents per cwt. in these days. The crew con- 
sisted of 80 to 100 men, and the value of these boats was estimated to be 
about $45,000.00 each. The river then, as now, was filled with sandbars and 
it required the greatest experience to pilot a boat safely to its destination, and 
as a result, experienced pilots would command monthly salaries ranging from 
$250.00 to $500.00. Each boat carried two pilots. A. B. Symns, for many 
years a successful wholesale grocery merchant in Atchison. E. K. Blair, the 
miller, and George W. Bowman, who also subsequently engaged in the grocery 
business, were employees on several of the steamboats that landed at Atchison. 
Stories of gambling and revelries, by day and by night, are not uncommon, and 
it is said it was not an unusual sight to see as many as ten games of poker 
going on in the main cabins on every trip, in which real money and not mere 
chips were used. Among the famous boats on the river in the early days were 
the "Hesperian," which burned near Atchison in 1859; the "Converse." "Kate 
Kinney," "Fort Aubrey," "Morning Star," "John D. Peny," "Sioux City," 
"Omaha," "Carrier," and the "James H. Lucas," which made the record run 
from St. Louis to St. Joseph, encompassing the trip in fifty-nine hours and 
twenty-two minutes, were among the well known boats that docked at the 
Atchison levee from time to time. The leading wharfmaster of the steamboat 
days was Mike Finney, who was the father of Atchison's present mayor 
(1915). James H. Garside succeeded him and remained in the position until 
steamboat days had passed. Had the Missouri river been the beneficiary of 
of the bounty of the Government, as the railroads were in that day, it would 
still be a splendid auxiliary of our transportation system. The Missouri 
river, so far as Atchison is concerned, is in the same condition it was in when 
Mark Twain made an early trip on it from St. Louis to St. Joseph. In 
"Roughing It," he said : 

"We were six days going from St. Louis to St. Joseph, a trip that was 
so dull and sleepy and eventless, that it has left no more impression on my 
memory than if its duration had been six minutes instead of that many days. 
No record is left in my mind now concerning it, but a confused jumble of 
savage looking snags, which we deliberately walked over with one wheel or 
the other; and of reefs whicli we butted and butted and then retired from, and 



climbed over in some softer place : and of sand bars which we roosted on occa- 
sionally and rested, and then got our crutches and sparred over. In fact the 
boat might as well have gone to St. Joseph by land, for she was walking most 
of the time anyhow — climbing over reefs and clambering over snags, patiently 
and laboriously all day long. The captain said she was a bully boat, and all 
she wanted was more "shear" and a bigger wheel. I thought she wanted a 
pair of stilts, but I had the sagacity not to say so." 


From Squatter Sovereign. 
March ii, 1856. 

"A. B. Chambers," James Gormley, Master ; D. Jamison. Clerk. 

"F. X. Aubrey," Ambrose Reeder, Captain; Ben V. Glime, Clerk. 

"Polar Star," E. F. Dix, Master ; H. M. Glossom, Clerk. 

"New Lucy," Wm. Conley, Master. 

"James H. Lucas," Andrew Wineland, Commander. 
March 18, 1856. 

"Star of the West," E. F. Dix, Master. 
March 25, 1856. 

"J. M. Convers," Geo. W. Bowman, Captain; G. A. Reicheneker. Clerk. 
April 29, 1856. 

"Martha Jewett," D. H. Silver, Captain; W. McCreight, Clerk. 

"Sultan," John H. McCloy, Master : D. C. Sheble, Clerk. 

"Edinburg," Dan Able, Master. 
May 27, 1856. 

"Morning Star," ^^'m. Brierly, Master. 
June 24, 1856. 

"Emigrant," Hugli L. White, Master; H. R. ^McDonald, Clerk. 


Reported for tlie Champion by '\l. C. Finney, Steamboat Agent. 

E. M. Ryland, Blunt IMonday, 8th. 

Peerless, Bissell Wednesday, loth. 


John H. Dickey, Abel Saturday, 13th. 

H. H. Russell, Kenny Sunday, 14th. 

Hesperian, Kerchival Sunday, 14th. 

F. X. Aubry, dime Wednesday, 17th. 

Platte Valley, Postill Wednesday, 17th. 

Wm. Campbell, Dale Thursday, i8th. 

White Cloud, O'Neil Friday, 19th. 

Spread Eagle, Lagrage Friday, 19th. 

Emma, Friday, 19th. 


E. M. Ryland, Blunt Tuesday, 9th. 

Peerless, Bissell Friday, 12th. 

John H. Dickey, Abel Sunday, 14th. 

W. H. Russell, Kenney Monday, 15th. 

Hesperian, Kerchival Tuesday, i6th. 

F. X. Aubry, dime Wednesday, 17th. 

Wm. Campbell, Dale Friday, 19th. 

White Cloud. O'Neil Saturday, 20th. 

(From Freedom's Champion, Atchison, March 20, 185S.) 

Spread Eagle, Lagrage Friday, 19th. 

Emma, Yore Friday, 19th. 

Silver Heels, Nanson Saturday, 20th. 

Morning Star, Burk Sunday, 21st. 

Polar Star, McMullin Monday, 22d. 

Twilight, Shaw Monday, 22d. 

St. Mary, Devenny Tuesday, 23d. 

Carrier, Postal Wednesday, 24th. 

Sovereign, Hutchinson Wednesday, 24th. 

Omaha, Wineland Thursday, 25th. 

F. X. Aubry, dime Thursday, 25th. 

Minnehaha, Baker Thursday, 25th, 

John H. Dickey, Abel Friday, 26th. 

White Cloud, O'Neil Saturday, 27th. 



Florence, Throckmorton Saturday, 27th. 

Polar Star, jMcMullin Sunday, 28th. 

Hesperian, Lee Sunday, 28th. 

Star of the West, Olhnan Monday, 2901. 

South Western, Dehaven IMonday, 29th. 

John Warner, Pater son Monday, 29th. 

Sioux City, Baker Monday, 29th. 

War Eagle, White Tuesday, 30th. 

Ben Lewis, Brierly Tuesday, 30th. 

Thomas E. Tutt, Dozitr Tuesday. 30th. 

J. D. Perry, Davis Wednesday, 31st. 

Watossa, Richoneker Wednesday, 31st. 

Alonzo Child, Holland \\'ednesday, 31st. 

Wm. Campbell, Dale Wednesday, 31st. 

Kate Howard, Nonson W'ednesday, 31st. 

Sky Lark, Johnson Thursday, April i. 

E. M. Ryland, Blunt Thursday, ist. 

Silver Heels, Nanson Friday, 2d. 

John H. Dickey, Abel Friday. 2d. 

F. A. Ogden Friday, 2d. 

Every boat on the above list except eight have passed down again, mak- 
ing in all. sixty landings at our wharf, in the short space of thirteen days. 
(From Freedom's Champion. Atchison, April 3. 1858.) 


One of the following Splendid Steamers Will leave 


Sunday Boats 
Monday Boats, 
Tuesday Boats, 
Wednesday Boats 
Thursday Boats, 
Fridav Boats, 

Peerless and Silver Heels, Alternately. 

Hesperian and Morning Star, Alternately. 

South Webster and A. B. Chambers, Alternately. 

Ben Lewus and Twilight, Alternately. 


Kate Howard and Minnehaha Alternately 

For Freight or passage apply to 

G. \V. BOw'mAN, Agent. Atchison. 

N. B. Tickets sold through to all the Eastern and Southern Cities. 


OFFICE on the Levee. 

(From Freedom's Cliaiiif'ioii. Atchison. March 27, 1858.) 

Squatter Sovereign, Atchison, Dec. 5, 1857; 

Omaha, Andrew W'ineland, Master ; J. J. Wilcox, clerk. 
Freedom's Champion, Atchison, April 3, 1858: 

Ben Lewis, T. H. Brierly, Master; W. G. Barkley, clerk. 
Freedom's Champion, ^March 12, 1859: 

Alonzo Child, D. DeHaven, Master; Stanley Ryland, clerk; H. P. Short, 







Atchison was chosen as an outfitting point for the SaU Lake freighters, 
in addition to many other reasons, l^ecaiise we had one of the best steamboat 
landings on the river, and had the best wagon road in the country leading 
west. Twenty-four miles west of Atchison this road was intersected by the 
old overland mail trail from St. Joseph. Leavenworth had laid out a new road 
west, over which it was planned to run the Pike's Peak Express stages in the 
spring of 1859, as well as the mule and ox teams, for Denver and the mountain 
mining camps. A branch road was also opened to intersect this route from 
Atchison in the spring of 1859, under the direction of Judge F. G. Adams. 
The expedition started west from Atchison in the spring of that year, over 
what is now known and was then known as the Parallel road, then through 
Muscotah and America City, across into the Big Blue river, near Blue Rapids, 
and westward through Jewell county. The object of this expedition was to 
open a shorter route to the mountains than the one opened by the Leavenworth 
company, and the route proposed did save sixty-five miles distance, and almost 
twelve hours time. E. D. Boyd, an engineer, measured the entire distance 
from Atchison to Denver. He also made an accurate report, showing dis- 
tances and the crossing of streams, and a brief description of the entire route, 
which was published in the Atchison Champion, in June, 1859. According 
to that report, the distance from Atchison to Denver was 620 miles. But not- 
withstanding the advantage of this new road, it was abandoned immediately 
and never traveled by ox or mule trains out of Atchison, for the reason that 


the old military road by Fort Kearney and along the Platte river enjoyed 
Government protection from the Indians, and was settled at intervals almost 
the entire distance. 

During tlie period of overland freighting on the plains, more trains left 
Atchison than any other point on the river. The leading firms engaged in 
the freighting business were, Stevens & Porter ; Dennison & Brown ; Hocka- 
day-Burr & Company: J. S. Galbraith; George W. Howe; Brown Brothers; 
E. K. Blair: I. N. Bringman ; Roper & Nesbitt; Harrison Brothers; Henry 
Reisner; J. C. Peters; P. K. Purcell ; R. E. Wilson; Will Addoms ; George I. 
Stebbins; John C. Bird; William Home; Amos Howell; Owen Degan, and 
a numbers of others. 

The cost of shipping merchandise to Denver was veiy high, as everything 
was carried by the pound, rather tlian by the hundred pounds rate. Flour, 
bacon, molasses, whiskey, furniture and trunks were carried at pound rates. 
The rates per pound on merchandise shipped by ox or mule wagons from Atchi- 
son to Denver prior to i860, were as follows : 

Flour 9 cents 

Tobacco i2>4 cents 

Sugar 1 3 1/2 cents 

Bacon 15 cents 

Dry goods 15 cents 

Crackers 17 cents 

^^'hiskey 18 cents 

Groceries 19^ cents 

Trunks 25 cents 

Furniture 31 cents 

It has been said by those who witnessed the tremendous overland traffic 
of the late fifties and the early sixties, that those of this generation can form 
no conception of the enormous amount of traffic overland there was in those 
days. Trains were being constantly outfitted not only at Atchison, but at 
other points along the river. Twenty-one days was about the time required 
for a span of horses or mules to make the trip to Denver and keep the stock 
in good condition. It required five weeks for ox trains to make the same dis- 
tance, and to Salt Lake, horses and mules were about six weeks making the 
trip, and ox trains were on the road from sixty-five to seventy days. It was 
the ox upon which mankind depended in those days to carry on the commerce 


of the plains. They were the surest and safest for hauling a large part of 
the freight destined for the towns and camps west of the Missouri river. Next 
in importance to the ox, was the mule, because they were tough and reliable, 
and could endure fatigue. 

The year of 1859 was a big year in the history of Atchison, for in that 
year the percentage of the growth of the town was greater than any other 
year in its history. The fact that it was the best point on the Missouri river 
for the overland staging and' freighting outfits, brought it in greater commer- 
cial prominence. At that time, Irwin & McGraw were prominent contrac- 
tors, who were supplying the various military posts on the frontier. The mere 
fact that these Government trains were started from Atchison, ga\-e the town 
wonderful prestige. 

It was nothing unusual to see two or three steamboats lying at the levee, 
discharging freight, and as many more in sight either going up the river from 
St. Louis, or down the river from St. Joe. It was not uncommon for a boat to 
be loaded at Pittsburgh, Pa., or Cincinnati, Ohio, going down the Ohio 
river and up the Mississippi and Missouri to Atchison; it was not an unusual 
sight to see a whole boat load of wagons and ox yokes, mining machinery, 
boilers and other material necessary for the immense trade of the West. 

The greater part of the traffic out of Atchison to the West was over the 
Military road, alqng the south bank of the Platte, and along this road teams 
of six to eight yoke of cattle, hauling heavily loaded wagons, and strings of 
four or six horse or mule teams, formed almost an endless procession. 

The liveliest period of overland trade extended from 1859 to 1866, during 
which time there was on the plains and in the mountains an estimated floating 
population of 250,000. The greater majority of the people on the plains 
produced but few of the necessities of life, and consequent!}- they had to be 
supplied from the Missouri ri\-er. During the closing year of the Civil war, 
the travel was immense, most of the emigration going into the gold mining 
camps of the Northwest. 

While there was considerable freighting out of Atchison to the ^^'est fol- 
lowing the opening of the Territory, overland staging did not reach its heighth 
until 1861. The era of overland staging from the Missouri river to the 
Pacific coast lasted altogether about eight years. The first great o\erland 
staging enterprise started in 1858, on what is known as the Southern or 
Bntterfield route. This route ran from St. Louis and Memphis, Tenn.. inter- 
secting at Ft. Smith, Ark. After being in operation for nearly three vears, 
the route was succeeded bv a daih- line on the Central route, which ran from 


the Missouri river five )-ears, first starting at St. Joseph, Mo., July i, 1861, 
and then from Atchison in September of that year. On the Central route, 
the through staging came to a close after the completion of the Union Pacific 
railroad from Omaha across the continent. Originally the stage enterprise 
was known as the Overland Mail Compan}- — the Southern or Butterfield line. 
After it was transferred north and ran in connection with the stages to Denver^ 
it was known as the Central Overland California and Pike's Peak Express 
Company. After passing into the Iiands of Ben Holladay, it became the 
Overland Stage Line, and finally the name was changed to the Holladay Over- 
land Mail Express Company. In 1866, the line had been consolidated with 
the Butterfield Overland Dispatch, a stage company which was organized in 
1865, with headquarters in Atchison. 

Atchison's importance as an overland staging terminus was fixed by 
reason of an order of the United States Postoffice Department. Before the 
final change, making Atchison headquarters and starting point for the mail, 
the road from Atchison westward intersected the road from St. Joseph at 
Kennekuk. The distance from Atchison to Kennekuk was twenty-four miles, 
while it was about thirty-five miles from St. Joseph, and consequently there 
was a saving of about nine miles in favor of Atchison. This was an import- 
ant item, in carrying the mails, and resulted in the order of the Postoffice De- 
partment making Atchison the starting point. The distance by the overland 
stage line from Atchison to Placerville was 1,913 miles, and following the 
abandonment of the Butterfield or Southern route, it became the longest and 
the most important stage line in America. There were 153 stations between 
Atchison and Placerville, located about twelve and one-half miles apart. The 
local fare was $225.00, or about twelve cents per mile, and as high as $2,000.00 
a day was frequently taken in at the Atchison office for passenger fare alone. 
The fare between Atchispn and Denver was $75.00, or a little over eight cents 
per mile, and to Salt Lake City, $150.00. Local fares ran as high as fifteen 
cents per mile. Each passenger was allowed twenty-five pounds of baggage. 
All in excess of that was charged at the rate of $1.00 per pound. During the 
war, the fare to Denver was increased from seventy-five dollars to $100.00. 
and before the close of the war, it had reached $175.00. or nearly twenty-seven 
cents per mile. 

It required about 2,750 horses and mules to run the stage line between 
Atchison and Placerville. It required, in addition to the regular supply of 
horses to operate the stages, some additional animals for emergencies, and it 
was estimated that the total cost of the horses on this stage line was about one- 


half million dollars. The harness was the finest that could be made, and C(.ist 
about $150.00 for a complete set of four, or about $55,000.00 for the whole 
line. The feeding of the stock was one of the big items of expense, and there 
were annually consumed at each station from forty to eighty tons of hay, 
at a cost of $15 to $40 per ton. Each animal was apportioned an average 
of twelve quarts of corn every day, which cost from two to ten cents a pound. 
In the Salt Lake and California divisions, oats and barley, grown in Utah, 
were substituted for corn, but which cost about the same. 

There were about 100 Concord coaches which, in the early sixties 
cost about $1,000.00 each. The company owned about one-half of the stations, 
in addition to thousands of dollars' worth of miscellaneous property, at differ- 
ent places along the route. There were superintendents, general and local 
attorneys, paymasters and division agents, all of whom drew big salaries. 
Among the stage company's agents in the late fifties and early sixties were 
Hugo Richards and Paul Coburn, at Atchison ; Robert L. Pease, of Atchison, 
was also for a time agent at Denver. 

The mail was carried from Atchison west by Forts Kearney, Laramie 
and Bridges, once a week. The schedule time from the river to Salt Lake City 
was about eighteen days, and the distance was about 1,200 to 1,300 miles. 

In 1 86 1 a daily overland mail was established out of Atchison, and with 
the exception of a few weeks in 1S62, 1864 and 1865, on account of Lidian 
troubles, the overland was in operation and ran stag'es daily out of Atchison 
for about five years. It was the greatest stage line in the world, carrying 
mail, passengers and express. It was also regarded as the safest and the 
fastest way to cross the plains, and the inountain rang-es. It was equipped 
with the latest modern four and six horse and mule Concord coaches, and the 
meals at the eating stations along the route were first-class, and cost from fifty 
cents to $2.GO each. 

\\'hen Atchison was selected as the starting place for the overland mail, 
it was not certain how long it would remain the eastern terminus of the 
mail route. The Civil war was at its height, and the rebels were doing much 
damage to the Hannibal & St. Joseph railroad, which had been constructed in ' 
1859. They tore up the track, burned the bridges, destroyed the culverts, 
fired into the trains, and placed obstructions along the roadbed, frequently 
delaying the mail from two to six days. As a result of this condition of 
affairs, it was feared that Atchison would lose the overland mail, and the Gov- 
ernment would change the starting point to some town further north, but be- 
cause of the advantageous geographical position of Atchison, it was decided 


that it would be disastrous to make a chauge, s(") the Government placed a 
large number of troops along the entire line of the Hannibal & St. Joe, to 
insure the safety of the mails, and Atchison continued to be the point of de- 
parture for the overland mail, until 1866. 

The stage coaches used by the overland line were built in Concord, 
N. H. They carried nine passengers inside, and one or two could ride on the 
box by the driver. Some of the stages were built with an extra seat above and 
in the rear of the driver, so that three additional persons could ride there, 
making fourteen, with the driver. Sometimes an extra man would be crowded 
on the box, making as many as fifteen persons, who could ride on the Con- 
cord coach without very much inconvenience. 

This chapter on overland staging would be unfinished, unless 
some reference was made to Ben HoUaday, who played such an im- 
portant part in the overland staging days of this country. Ben Holladay 
had a remarkable career. In. his early days, when he resided in Weston, Mo., 
he drove a stage himself. He was a genuine westerner, having run a saloon 
and tavern in Weston as early as 1838 and 1839. He went overland to Cali- 
fornia in 1849, and took a train to Salt Lake City with $70,000 worth of 
goods. He spent some time in Utah, where he made considerable money. 

Besides operating the Overland Stage for over five years, Holladay had 
other important interests in the ^^'est. Among his enterprises was a fleet 
of passenger steamers, plying between San Francisco and Portland. Ore. 
At the height of his career he was a millionaire, and few men in the country 
accumulated wealth more rapidly. He spent his money freely, and squandered 
vast sums when he was making it. After he had accumulated a fortune, he 
went to New York to live, and built a most pretentious residence a 
few miles out of New York, on the Hudson river, which he called Ophir 
Farm. After he was awarded some good mail contracts by the Government, 
he built a mansion in Washington, which he furnished superbly, and collected 
a large classical library, with handsomely bound volumes, and also was a 
patron of art, collecting fine oil paintings of celebrated masters in Europe and 
'\merica. He also made a collection of fine bronzes and statuary, and paid 
$6,000.00 each for two bronze lions. 

It was in i860 that he came into possession of the Central Overland Cali- 
fornia Mail Line, but subsequent trouble with the Indians damaged his prop- 
erty to the extent of a half million dollars. His stage stations were burned, 
and his stock stolen, and stage coaches destroyed. Finalh-, in 1888. being 


broken in health and in debt, his Washington home, with its contents, was 
sold under the hammer. 

He came into possession of practically all the big overland routes by pur- 
chase and foreclosure of mortgages, and he made his vast fortune in mail 
contracts from the Government. He remained at the head of the overland 
line for about five years, taking possession of it in December, 1861, and dis- 
posing of it, including the stations, rolling stock and animals, in the latter 
part of 1866, to Wells Fargo & Company. 

Mr. Holladay died in August, 1877, in Portland, Ore., a poor man. 


One of the interesting promoters in overland staging days was D. A. 
Butterfield. He came to Atchison from Denver in 1864, and engaged in the 
commission business in a large stone ware-house near the Massasoit House, 
and, in addition to his commission business, he was agent for a line of packets 
plying between St. Louis and Atchison. Shortly after his arrival in Atchison 
he began the development of an overland stage line, which subsequently 
reached very large proportions. His ambition was to be at the head of an 
overland stage line, and, having selected what was known as the Smoky Hill 
route along the Kansas and Smoky Hill rivers, which was fifty miles shorter 
than any other route to Denver, he proceeded with che further development 
of his plans. He was a smart, capable, ambitious and aggressive fellow, 
with vim, and was in touch with a number of men of large means in New 
York, whom he soon interested in his enterprise. Early in 1865 the following 
advertisement appeared in the Atchison Daily Free Press, announcing Mr. 
Butterfield's project: 


"To all points in Colorado, Utah, Idaho and ^Montana Territory. 
Principal office, Atchison, Kansas. New York Office 
No. I Vesey St. Astor House. 
"Through bills of lading given from New York, Boston, Philadelphia, Pitts- 
burgh, Chicago, St. Louis, and Burlington, Iowa. 

"D. A. Butterfield, Proprietor, Atchison, Kansas. 
"A. W. Spalding, General Agent, New York." 
Butterfield's consuming desire was to control the big end of the trans- 
portation business across the plains. He maintained an expensive office in 
New York City and called his line "The Butterfield Overland Dispatch." 


Conspicuous signs were displayed over the doors of his office in the Astor 
House, showing caravans of great covered wagons drawn by mules and oxen, 
which signs attracted the attention of all. During- his promotion of this new 
stage line Butterfield lived in great style and elegance in Atchison, in a house, 
the remains of which still stand (1915) at the southwest corner of Fifth and 
S streets. He entertained lavishly, and "champagne flowed like water" at 
his home when he gave a party. 

Tlie direct route out of Atchison to Denver, chosen by Butterfield, was 
in a southwesterly direction to Valley Falls, thence across the plains to a point 
on the old Fort Riley military road a few miles northeast of Topeka. The 
Butterfield line was first operated with mules and oxen, but as the road grew 
more prosperous, four horse stages were substituted. "Dave" Butterfield, as 
he was known, w'as determined to make Ben Holladay a pigmy in the overland 
stage business. Although it was known to many that there was more wind 
behind his enterprise than real money, yet in spite of the fact that his efforts 
in the staging world were more or less looked upon as a promotion scheme, 
he interested considerable capital, including the United States, American and 
the Adams Express companies. He was a great believer in publicity and 
spent large sums in newspaper advertising, but it required much monc}- to 
properly equip and operate a stage line, and Butterfield did not have enough. 
In consequence of his lack of capital, his original company failed, but was sub- 
sequently reorganized in June, 1865. Butterfield, undaunted, went east again 
and raised more money, and before his return, he capitalized a new company 
with $3,000,000.00, with one-half paid in. Branch offices were opened in 
New York, Boston, Philadelphia, St. Louis, Cincinnati, Chicago, Atchison, 
Leavenworth, Denver and Salt Lake City. John A. Kinney, a pioneer busi- 
ness man of Atchison, who had been connected with Butterfield from the be- 
ginning, continued in charge of the Atchison office under the reorganization, 
with a salary of $2,500 per year Shortly after the new company was 
organized, Butterfield inserted another advertisement in the Free Press, as 
follows : 


"To all points in Colorado, Utah, New Mexico, Arizona, Idaho, Montana 
and the state of Nevada. 

"Contracts can be made with this Company through their Agents to 
transport freight from all the eastern cities to all localities in the Territories, 
the rate to include railroad and overland carriage and all commissions upon 


the Missouri River. The Company owns its own tronsportation and gives a 
through bill of lading which protects shipper from extreme East to the 
Far M'est. 

"express DEPARTMENT. 

"About August, 1865 the Company will liave a line of express coaches 
running daily between Atchison, Kansas and Denver, Colorado; and about 
September ist, to Santa Fe, New Mexico, and as soon in the Spring as possi- 
ble, a tri-weekly between Denver and Salt Lake City over which merchandise 
will be carried at fair express rates. 


"INSTRUCTIONS: Mark goods for cattle and mule trains: 'But'd 
Ov"d Desp'h.' Mark goods for express: B. O. D. Express, Atchison." 

Some changes were afterwards made in the location of the route, but 
it left as before, in a southwesterly direction to Valley Falls. The business of 
the new company was very large from the start and grew rapidly. Steain- 
boats discharged great quantities of freight at the Atchison levee for shipment 
by Butterfield's line. A large amount also came from St. Joseph by railroad. 
In one day during July, 1865, nineteen car loads of freight consigned to the 
Butterfield line at Atchison were received for transportation across the 
plains. In the following month a train was loaded with 600,000 pounds of 
merchandise for Salt Lake City. One of the early stages that left Atchison 
on this line made the run to Junction City, which was 119 miles, in less than 
twenty-four hours, or at the rate of five and one-half miles an hour, including 
all stops, but the reorganized Butterfield line was not long in operation before 
it met with many obstacles. The fact that the Smoky Hill route selected by 
Butterfield was not guarded by Government troops of soldiers, as the Fort 
Kearney route was, caused the Indians to make many raids upon the overland 
trains. A number of severe encounters with Indians were had from time to 
time, until it became necessary to operate the stages with a mounted guard in 
advance. It finally became so dangerous that it was difficult to secure mes- 
sengers and drivers to operate the line. This condition became so serious that 
the "Overland Dispatch," which in the meanwhile was becoming more finan- 
cially embarrassed from day to day, was finally obliged to retire from the 
field. During the sliort time that it lasted, it was widelv known throughout 


the western country, and in the East it was known in most of the leading 
cities. While this company, to some extent, cut down the receipts of the Holla- 
day line, traffic across the plains had become so dull in the sixties that tliere 
was not much profit in it for anybody. In March, 1866, Holladay took o\'er 
the Butterfield line and the following announcement appeared in the 
newspapers : 


"To the Employees of tlie 0\-erlan(l Distpatch Compau)-. 

"The Overland Stage Line and the Ox'erland Dispatch Company liave 
become one property under the name of the Holladay Overland Mail 
8: Express Company. 

"The new Company guarantees payment to the employees of the 
late 0\-erland Dispatch Company. An agent is now enroute from New 
York to pay them. 

"David Street, Gen'l Agt.. 
"Holladay Mail & Express Co. 
"Atchison, Kansas, March 17, 1866." 

Tlie business that Butterfield had worked up was continued by the new 
company, but Butterfield was hopelessly down and out. While in the midst of 
wliat appeared to be a prosperous freight business with many tons of ponderous 
mining machineiy in transit across the plains to the mining camps of Colorado, 
the mining bubble broke, and great difficulty was experienced in collecting 
freight bills that were accumulating on machinery that was being transported 
across the plains, so it was unloaded upon the plains and there it was left to 
rust out. In less than eighteen months from the first organization of the 
Overland Dispatch, Butterfield was a financial wreck, and the consolidation 
of his company with the Holladay line was the only action that could be taken 
to conserve the property which the Butterfield line had acquired. Butter- 
field subsequently left Atchison and lucated in Mississippi, where he organized 
a railroad, which also proved a failure. He left Mississippi for Arkansas and 
built and operated a horse car line in Hot Springs. He finally got into a 
quarrel with one of his employees, who struck him wjth a neck )'oke, from 
the effects of which he died. 


Atchison was an important point for stage routes as early as 1859. There 
was a line of hacks which ran daily from Atchison to Leavenworth, and an- 
other to Lawrence, and still another by Oskaloosa and \"alley Falls across the 


Kansas river to Lecompton, Big Springs, Tecumseh and Topeka. To reach 
Lawrence from Atchison in those days, passengers were compelled to go by 
Leavenworth, until a line was opened by Mount Pleasant and Oskaloosa, re- 
ducing the distance to forty-five miles, and the fare to $4.50. There was a 
line north to Doniphan, Troy, Highland and Iowa Point. A line was also 
operated by Doniphan to Geary City, Troy and St. Joseph, and still another 
ran by Hiawatha to Falls City, Neb. The most important route, which had 
its headquarters at that time in Atchison, was a four mule line. The Central 
Overland California and Pike's Peak Express, which with its speedy Concord 
stages, crossed the plains twice a week. This was the Holladay line. The 
Kansas Stage Company operated a line to Leavenworth, which made stops 
at Sumner and Kickapoo. A daily line, operated by the Kansas Stage Com- 
pany, ran to Junction City by way of Mount Pleasant, Winchester, Osawkie, 
Mt. Florence, Indianola, Topeka, Silver Like, St. Marys, Louisville, Ogden 
and Ft. Riley. The distance over this route was 120 miles and the fare was 
$10.00. There was also a two-horse stage line carrying the mail from Atchi- 
son to Louisville, Kan. Louisville was one of the most important towns in 
Pottawatomie county, and in 1859 was an important station on the route of 
the Leavenworth & Pike's Peak Express. The mail line as then operated ran 
through Monrovia, Arrington, Holton and other points to its destination in 
the West. J. H. Thompson, who was an old man then, was the contractor 
for carrying the mail and was well knowTi along the whole route, being 
familiarly known as "LTncle Johnny" Thompson. His stage left Atchison 
every Saturday morning at 8 o'clock and arrived from Louisville on Friday 
evening at 6. The fare from Atchison to Louisville was $8.00. 


"Passing through Geary City, Doniphan, Atchison, Winchester, Hickoi-y 
Point, and Oscaloosa, connecting at Lecompton with lines to Topeka, Grass- 
hopper Falls, Fort Riley, Lawrence, Kansas City, and the Railroad at St. 
Joseph for the East. 

"Offices — Massasoit House, Atchison, K. T., and Planter's House, St. 
Joseph, Mo." 

(From Freedom's Champion, Atchison, February 12, 1859.) 


The people of Atchison in the sixties little reaHzed the advantages the 
town gained by being the starting point for the California mail. They became 


used to it, the same as we have this da}- been accustomed to the daily arrival 
and departure of trains, but it was a gloomy day for Atchison when "the 
overland" finally pulled out of the town for good, after having run its stages 
out of the city almost daily for five years. The advance of the Union Pacific 
railroad from Omaha west along the Platte to Ft. Kearney, and the completion 
of the Kansas Pacific railway was the cause of the abandonment of Atchison 
by the "overland" as a point of departure for the mail. The company for many 
weeks before its final departure had been taking both stock and coaches off of 
the eastern division from the Missouri river to Rock creek, and other steps 
in preparation for moving the point of departure further west were taken. It 
was a little after ii o'clock in the morning of December 19, 1866, that the long 
train of Concord stages, express coaches, hacks and other rolling stock started 
from their stables and yards on Second street to leave Atchison forever. The 
procession went west out of Atchison along Commercial street. Alex Benham 
and David Street, both faithful employees of "The Overland," were in charge 
of the procession and they rode out of town in a Concord buggy. Other em- 
ployees followed in buggies and coaches, and then the canvas covered stages, 
followed by over forty teams and loose horses, slowly moved out of town, 
headed for Fort Riley and Junction City. 


via the 


From Atchison to Miles Total Remarks 

Junction of the Great Military Road. 

Provisions, entertainment and grass. 

On the Grasshopper, wood and grass. 

Wood, water and grass. 

\\'ood and grass. 

Wood and grass. 

Wood and grass. 

Water, wood and grass. 

Water, wood and grass. 

Wood, water and grass. 

Grass and buffalo chips. 

Gross and buffalo chips. 

Wood, water and grass. 

Mormon Grove 





Mouth of Bill's 




Ter. Road from Nebraska 



Soldier Creek 



Lost Creek 






.Manhattan City 



Fort Riley 






Pawnee Trail-Smoky Hill 



Pawnee Fork 



Arkansas Crossi 






\\'ood, water and grass. 

Water and grass. 

W'ater and grass. 

Wood, water and grass. 

^\'ood, water and grass. 

Water and grass. 

Wood, water and grass. 

Wood, water and grass. 

From this point to the mines there is 

heavy timber, and srass and water 

in abundance. 

From Freedom's Champion, February 12, 1859. 

The Great Mihtary Road to Salt Lake, and Col. Fremont's Route in 1841. 

Bent's Fort 



.Bent's Old Fort 






Fontaine qui Bouille 



Crossing of same 



Jim's Camp 



Brush Corral 



Head of Cherr_\- Creek 



Crossing of Same 






From Atchison to Miles 


Marmon Grove 





Huron ( Cross. Grasshop- 




Kennekuk. do main do 



Capioma (Walnut Creek) 



Richmond (head of Nema 








Small Creek on Prairie 



do do 



do do 



Wyth Creek 



Big Sandy Creek 



Di-y Sandy Creek 



Little Blue River 



Road leaves Little Blue 



Small Creek 



Platte River 



Ft. Kearney 



Junction of the Great ^Military Road. 
Provisions and grass. 
Provisions and grass. 
First Salt Lake Mail Station. 
Provisions, timber, and grass. 
Provisions, timber, and grass. 
Salt Lake Mail Station and 



\\'ater and Gross. 

Lu.xurient grass. 

\\'ater and grass. 

Wood and grass. 

\\'ood and grass. 

Wood and luxuriant grass. 

Heavy timber. 

\\'ood and grass. 

Wood and grass. 

\\'ood, grass and buffalo. 

Salt Lake Mail Station and 




I J Mile point 



^^"|)od, water and grass. 

Plum Creek 



\\'ood and grass. 

Cottonwood Spring 



Wood and grass. 

Fremont's Springs 



Luxuriant grass. 

O'Fallon's Bluffs 



Wood, water and grass. 

Crossing South Platte 



Wood, water, and grass. 

Ft. St.. Vrain 



Provisions, and from this to the 

Cherry Creek 



mines the route is well timbered and 

From Freedom's Cliainpioii, February 



— From — 


\-ia the 

First Standard Parallel Route to the Republican Fork of the Kansas River, 
thence following the Trail of Colonel Fremont on his Explora- 
tions in 1843, to Cherry Creek and the Mines. 

Compiled from Colonel Fremont's Surveys, and the most reliable information 
derived from the traders across the Great Plains. 

From Atchison to 

Miles ' 




Muscotah, on Grasshopper 1 1 





Ontario, on Elk Creek 



America, on Soldiers Creek 9 


Vermillion City 



Crossing of Big Blue 



Little Blue creek 



Head of Blue creek 



Republican Fork 




Settlement, provisions and grass. 
Settlement, provisions and grass. 
Settlement, provisions and grass. 
Settlement, provisions and grass. 
Settlement, provisions and grass. 
Settlement, entertainment and pro- 

Heavy timber and grass. 
Timber and grass. 
Wood, water and grass. 



Republican Fork crossing 2 
Branch of Solomon's Fork 38 
Leaves Solomon's Fork 75 
Branch of Republican Fork 1 5 

Following up Rep. to its 

head 190 

Beaver Creek 23 

Bijou Creek 22 

Kioway Creek 15 

Cherry Creek and Mines 25 

From Freedom's Cliampion, 

Colonel Fremont describes this sec- 
tion as "affording an excellent road, 
it 1>eing generally over high and 
level prairies, with numerous streams 
which are well timbered with ash, 
elm, and verj' heavy oak, and 
abounding in herds of buffalo, elk 
and antelope." 

Heavy timber and grass on course. 
\\'ood, grass and buffalo. 
Wood, grass and buffalo. 
The route from this point to the 
535 mines runs thro' a country well tim- 
bered and watered, with luxurient 
grass and plenty of wild game. 
February 12, 1859. 




ilain Entrance to .Jack 

, Kansas 




"rt ,^ -C 

J ^ c; 

.t^ c o 

CO S g 

g 3 ^ 

'^ aj J3 

.°oi35oo55og oco3'Sfe5>. S-d^ 

00 cij 

•S Ofi =8 

& Smith 
ic Smith 

ette & Las 
Dyer & 
Supply ' 

idy, Burr 

.- = _ - ;; 


^ ~ ..a .0 

" / . - 

= K(S^^KtH<:ffi 

.^ J3 ^ 

§.§:: r ~^:---z--iii^-.ij 

t Atch 
in tran 

<U r/T "O 

^'' « 

-^ ?3 <U 

00 '^ '•^ .<^ 

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do do- =« - ctj i '^ „■ 

Which hav€ 
Its on the Pla 
wagons enga 

"^-.=V^ . -d ^ ^ ^ ^ 5 


Drd, Cabot & 

M. Hockady 

Mason & Co 

Mason & C^ 
3rd, Cabot & 
M. Hockady , 


Perry & Co, 
. Dyer & Co. 


& Young 
gston, Kinkea 

Guthrie & C 
IS Clayton 
aid & McDoii 
gston, Kinkea 

& Smith 
.ette & Lazin 
rd & Moralle 
. Dyer & Co. 

M. Hockady 
ady, Burr & 

•s V 








Eight years before the last stage pulled out of Atchison the agitation 
for a railroad began. The first charter provided for the construction of a 
railroad from Atchison to St. Joseph. As appeared in an earlier chapter, 
the city council of Atchison at its first meeting called an election March 15, 
1858, to vote on a proposition to subscribe for $100,000 in stock. The 
election was held in the store of the Burnes Brothers, and S. H. Petefish, 
Charles E. Woolfolk and Dr. C. A. Logan were judges of election. The 
proposition carried almost unanimously, and, in addition to the stock sub- 
scribed for by the city, the citizens of the town subscribed for $100,000 in 
stock individually. The following May the contract for the construction 
of the road was awarded to Butcher, Auld & Dean at $3,700 per mile. There 
were fourteen other bidders. The members of the firm which made the 
successful bid were : Ephraim Butcher, David Auld, James Auld and William 
Dean. Work of construction was started May 12, 1858, but was not fin- 
ished until February 22, i860. The completion of this road to Atchison 
was of very far reaching importance. The town was wild with excitement, 
for the new railroad gave the town its first direct rail connection with the 
east. Its terminus at Winthrop (East Atchison) was the first western point 
east of the Rocky mountains reached by a railroad at that time in the United 
States, save one. The first railroad built between the ^lississippi and tlie 


Missouri rivers was the Hannibal & St. Joseph, which was completed to St. 
Joseph February 23. 1859, and the new railroad from Atchison connected 
with the Hannibal & St. Joseph at the latter point. 

Richard B. Morris was the first conductor of the Atchison road, and 
he subsequently became internal revenue collector of Kansas under Cleve- 
land. Following the completion of the road, a great celebration was held at 
Atchison June 13, i860, and the people not only celebrated the completion 
of the St. Joseph line, but also the breaking of ground on the Atchison & 
Pike's Peak railroad, now the Central Branch. Great preparations were 
made for the celebration weeks in ad\-ance and promptly following the hour 
of 12 o'clock on the morning of June 13, i860, the firing of 100 
guns at intervals began, which was kept up with monotonous regular- 
ity until daybreak. Flags and bunting fluttered from poles and windows 
throughout the city, and a special train of invited guests from the East ar- 
rived at Winthrop before noon with flags flying and bands playing\ The 
passenger steamer, "Black Hawk," loaded to the guards with citizens from 
Kansas City, reached Atchison early in the morning, and leading citizens also 
came from Wyandotte, Leavenworth, Lawrence, Topeka and other towns. 
The city had been cleaned up and put in holiday attire by the city author- 
ities. The town had never before presented such a gay appearance. Frank 
A. Root in his interesting book, "The Overland Stage to California." who 
was present at the celebration, has perhaps written the most interesting- ac- 
count of this event that has ever been printed. He says : 

"In the procession that formed along Second street, one of the unique 
and attractive features was a mammoth government wagon trimmed with 
evergreens and loaded with thirty-four girls dressed in white, representing 
every State in the Union and the Territory of Kansas. There were three 
other wagons filled with little girls similarly dressed, representing all the 
forty-one counties of Kansas in its last year of territorial existence. 

"One of the contractors for government freighting had a huge prairie 
schooner, drawn by twenty-nine yoke of oxen, the head of each animal or- 
namented with a small flag, while he himself was mounted upon a mule. The 
contractor was quite an attraction, dressed in the peculiar western prairie 
and plains frontier cow-boy costume with buckskin pants, red flannel shirt, 
boots nearly knee high, with revolver and bowie kni'fe buckled around his 
waist, danghng by his side. The procession in line, marched west along 
Commercial street to near Tenth. It was a long one and it was estimated 
that there were 7.000 people in it and at least 10,000 in the city witnessing 


the festivities. The ceremony of breaking ground for these two roads 
took place about noon, but there was nothing particularly imposing about it. 
The most important part of the ceremonies was the turning over of a few 
spadefuls of dirt by Col. Peter T. Abell, president of the road, and Capt. Eph. 
Butcher, the contractor, who built the Atchison & St. Joseph road. The event 
was witnessed by fully 5.000 people, after which the monster procession 
formed, and, headed by a brass band, and other bands at different places in 
the line, marched across White Clay creek to the grove in the southwest 
part of the city, where the oration was delivered by Benj. F. Stringfellow. 
Following the oration several speeches were made by the most prominent 
of the invited guests, one of them by Col. C. K. Holliday, of Topeka, one 
of the founders of the great Santa Fe system. The barbeque was an im- 
portant feature of the affair. Six beeves, twenty hogs, and over fifty sheep, 
pigs and lambs were roasted. There was also prepared more than one hun- 
dred boiled hams, several thousand loaves of bread, cakes by the hundred, 
besides sundry other deHcacies to tickle the palate and help make the occasion 
one long to be remembered by all present. The exercises were quite elab- 
orate and wound up with a ball in the evening at A. S. Parker's hall on the 
west side of Sixth street, between Commercial and Main and a wine supper 
in Charley Holbert's building on Second street, just north of the Massasoit 
House. Many visitors came from a long distance east, some as far as New 
England. Most of the Northern States were represented, and a few came 
from the South. Free transportation was furnished the invited guests. 
Hundreds came liy rail and steamboat and many poured in from the sur- 
rounding countiy for miles, in wagons and on horseback, from eastern 
Kansas and western Missouri." 

While a strong movement for the construction of railroads was started 
in i860, it was soon discovered that much progress could not be made in 
the face of the unsettled conditions brought on by the Civil war, and, as a 
result a further effort in that direction, was, for the time being, abandoned. 
However, Luther C. Challiss did not give up his idea of projecting a road to 
the West, and to him more than to anybody else belongs the credit of start- 
ing the first road west out of Atchison. He obtained a charter for the 
building of the Atchison & Pike's Peak railroad and this company was organ- 
ized February 11, 1859, but on account of the war was not opened to Water- 
ville until January 20, 1868. Challiss obtained possession of 150,000 acres 
of land from the Kickapoo Indians by a treaty, and, upon the organization 
of the company he was elected president. The land he secured from the 


Indians was, for the most part, located in Atchison county, around Muscotah, 
and adjoining counties. With Mr. Challiss were associated Charles B. Keith, 
who was the agent of the Kickapoo Indians, George W. Glick and Senators 
Pomeroy and Lane. In the charter for this road provision was made for 
its construction lOO miles west of Atchison. Col. William Osborn, who 
had constructed the west half of the Hannibal & St. Joseph railroad, built 
the first section of the Central Branch to Wbterville. He named the town 
after his old home in New York, where he was 1iorn. It was proposed at 
this point to make a connection with a branch running from Kansas City 
to Ft. Kearney, Neb., but the Kansas City r(iad was subsequently changed 
to Den\-er, and for this reason it has been said the Central Branch was not 
completed to Denver, as originally planned. 

The Atchison & Pike's Peak Railroad Company was incorporated by 
special act of the Territorial legislature of the Territory of Kansas, chapter 
48, "Private Laws of Kansas, 1859," and authorized to construct a rail- 
road from Atchison to the western boundary of the Territory in the direc- 
tion of Pike's Peak. Subsequently, the Atchison & Pike's Peak Railroad 
Company became the assignee of all the rights, privileges and franchises of 
the Hannibal & St. Joseph Railroad Company, given and granted under an 
Act of Congress, of July 8, 1862, Twelfth Statute, page 489, entitled: "An 
Act to aid in the constiaiction of a railroad and telegraph line from the Mis- 
souri river to the Pacific ocean, and to secure to the government the use of 
same for postal, military and other purposes," which provided that the Han- 
nibal & St. Joseph Railroad Company might extend its road from St. Joseph 
via Atchison, to connect and unite with a railroad in Kansas, provided for 
in said Act, for one hundred miles in length next to the Missouri river, and 
might, for that purpose, use any railroad charter, which had, or might have 
been granted, by the legislature of Kansas. Accordingly, the work of con- 
struction from Atchison west was inaugurated under the name of the Atch- 
ison & Pike's Peak Railroad Company. On January i, 1867, by virtue of the 
laws of the State of Kansas, the name of Atchison & Pike's Peak Railroad 
Company was changed to the Central Branch Lbiion Pacific Railroad Com- 
pany, and the latter company completed the railroad from Atchison to W^ater- 


The first real move for the construction of a railroad from the iMissouri 
river, west, resulted in a charter granted by the Territorial legislature to the 


St. Joseph & Topeka Railroad Company February 20, 1857. Under tlie 
terms of the charter the road was to start from St. Joseph, Mo. ; thence 
crossing the river through Doniphan, Atchison and Jefferson counties to 
Topeka. The charter was subsequently amended and the road was extended 
in the direction of Santa Fe, N. M., to the southwestern line of Kansas, 
which is practically the same route now traversed by the Atchison, Topeka 
& Santa Fe railroad. The desire on the part of the people for direct rail- 
road connection with the Missouri river and the East gave to this move- 
ment great impetus, and there was considerable rivalry between the towns 
to offer aid and assistance. The people of Atchison were particularly 
anxious to make this town the terminal point and the future railway center 
of the great trans-continental system, and strongly opposed any project 
which would make Atchison simply a way station on the great road to the 
West. With a view to avert such action on the part of those behind the 
movement to construct this road, it was determined to make Atchison the 
eastern terminus of the same. Accordingly, Atchison loaned its credit to the 
amount of $150,000, by aid of which subsid}' a direct road was built on 
the Missouri side of the river from St. Joseph and thence north under an- 
other charter with Atchison, Kan., instead of St. Joseph as the eastern ter- 
minus, the enterprise was carried on and as a result the citizens of Kansas Ter- 
ritory were much elated with the added prestige of the railroad being a Kan- 
sas corporation. The Atchison & Topeka Railroad Company was incor- 
porated by an Act of the legislature Februar}- 11, 1859. Those named as 
the original incorporators were: S. C. Pomeroy, Atchison; C. K. Halliday, 
Topeka ; Luther C. Challiss, Atchison ; Peter T. Abell, Atchison ; Aspah Allen, 
Topeka; Milton C, Dickey, Topeka; Samuel Dickson, Atchison; Wilson L. 
Gordon, Topeka; George S. Hillyer, Grasshopper Falls; Lorenzo D. Bird, 
Atchison; Jeremiah Marshall, Topeka; George H. Fairchild, Atchison; F. 
L. Crane, Topeka. The company was "authorized to survey, locate, con- 
struct, complete, alter, maintain and operate a railroad with one or more 
tracks from or near Atchison in Kansas Territory, to the town of Topeka, 
in Kansas Territory, and to such point on the southern or western boundary 
of said Territory in the direction of Santa Fe as may be convenient and 
suitable for the construction of said road and also to construct a branch to 
•any point on the southern line of said Territory in the direction of the Gulf 
of Mexico." The authorized capital stock was $1,500,000, and the first 
meeting for organization under the charter was held at the office of Luther 
C. Challis in Atchison September 15. 1859, at which meeting $52,000 of the 


first subscription of stock was paid, and the following directors were chosen : 
L. C. Challiss, George H. Fairchild, P. T. Abell, S. C. Pomeroy, L. D. Bird, 
C. K. Halliday, F. L. Crane, E. G. Ross. Joel. H. Huntoon, M. C. Dickey, 
Jacob Safford, R. H. Weightman, and J. H. Stringfellow. The officers 
were: C. K. Holliday, president; P. T. Abell, secretary; M. C. Dickey, treas- 
urer. It will be seen that the majority of the incoi-porators and of the offi- 
cers were citizens of Atchison, and it is an important fact in the history of 
Kansas that Atchison county played such an important part in the organiza- 
tion and construction of the first railroad lines in the State. Had it not 
been for the terrible drought of i860, which totally paral3^zed all classes 
of business, the work of constructing this road immediately following its or- 
ganization would have gone forward, but the famine which followed the 
drought was so complete and so widely distributed throughout the State and 
the western country as to almost destroy the farming interests. During this 
period the directors of the road decided to press the claims of Kansas for a 
national subsidy for the construction of railroads, and President C. K. Holli- 
day, with a number of his associates, spent much time in Washington dur- 
ing 1859 and i860. Their work was not in vain, for on March 3, 1863, Con- 
gress made a grant of land to the State of Kansas, giving alternate sections 
one mile square and ten in width, amounting to 6,400 acres per mile, on con- 
dition that the Atchison-Topeka road should be finished on or before 1873. 
The State accepted the grant and transferred it to this road February 9, 1864. 
It was in October, 1868, almost ten years after the date that the first charter 
was granted to this road that work of construction was begun in Topeka. 
The road was first built in a southerly direction so as to reach the coal region 
in Osage county. It was opened to Carbondale, eighteen miles from Topeka, 
in July, 1869, and reached Wichita, 163 miles from Topeka, in May, 1872, 
and at about the same time in 1872 the road was completed from Topeka 
to Atchison, a distance of fifty-one miles. 


On May 5, 1867, the charter for the Atchison & Nebraska City Railroad 
Company was filed in the office of the secretary of State of the State of Kan- 
sas. The original incorporators of this road were Peter T. Abell, George 
W. Click, Alfred G. Otis, John M. Price. W. W. Cochrane, Albert H. Hor- 
ton, Samuel A. Kingman, J. T. Hereford and Augustus Byram, all of whom 
were citizens of Atchison. The charter provided for the construction of a 


railroad from "some point in the city of Atchison to some point on the north 
hne of the State of Kansas, not farther west than twenty-five miles from 
the jNlissouri river, and the length of the proposed railroad will not exceed 
forty-five miles." Shortly aftef the road was incorporated the name was 
changed to the Atchison & Nebraska Railroad Company, and under this 
name subscriptions in bonds and capital stock were made in Atchison and 
Doniphan counties. Atchison county subscribed for $150,000, and in addi- 
tion to the subscription of the county tliere were individual subscriptions 
amounting to $80,000 in the county. Work was commenced on the road 
in 1869, and it was completed in 1871 to the northern boundary of Doni- 
phan count)-, three miles north of Whitecloud. The stockholders of Atchi- 
son graded the road bed to the State line, constructed bridges and furnished 
the ties, after which the entire property was given to a Boston syndicate in 
consideration of the completion and operation of the road. This railroad 
was afterwards consolidated with the Atchison, Lincoln & Columbus Rail- 
road Company of Nebraska, which road had been authorized to construct 
a railroad from the northern terminal point of the Atchison & Nebraska rail- 
road to Columbus, on the Union Pacific railroad, by way of Lincoln, and 
the road was completed to Lincoln in the fall of 1872. This consolidated 
road was purchased by the Burlington & jNIissouri River Railroad Company 
in 1880. 


This road was organized by articles of association filed in the office 
of the Secretary of the State of Kansas September 21, 1867, and :\Iarch 25, 
1868. and the Missouri River Railroad Company by articles of association 
filed February 20, 1865, and the construction of the Leavenworth, Atchi- 
son & Northwestern railroad was commenced at Leavenworth in ]\Iarch, 
1869,- and completed to Atchison in September, 1869. The stock 
held in the company by Leavenworth county, aggregating $500,000, was do- 
nated to this road to aid in its extension to Atchison, and the first train into 
Atchison arrived in the latter part of 1869. It was not until July. 1882, 
however, that the first train was nm through from Atchison to Omaha over 
the line of the Missouri Pacific railroad, which subsequently absorbed the 
Lea\-enworth, Atchison & Northwestern Railroad Company. 


The Chicago, Rock Island & Pacific Railway Company was one of the 
last of the railroads to make connection with Atchison. This line was 


originally projected to Leavenworth, but reached Atchison short)}- after. Tiie 
construction of the Atchison branch was begun in 1872, and in July of that 
year the first train was run into the city. 

All of these roads having been organized and constructed and in opera- 
tion, the next movement that took place in transportation circles was the 
erection of the bridge across the Missouri ri\er, work upon which was com- 
menced in August, 1874, and completed in July. 1873. This bridge is 1,182 
feet long and the stone for the piers and abutments upon which it rests was 
taken from the quarries at Cottonwood Falls, Chase county. It was originally 
built by the American Bridge Company of Chicago, and was re-built 
entirely new, except for the piers, in 1898. Shortly after the erection of the 
bridge, connecting Missouri with Kansas at Atchison, the first railroad de- 
pot was built upon the site of the present union station, which was com- 
pleted and dedicated September 7, 1880. There was a great deal of dis- 
cussion as to the proper location of a depot before the building was finally 
erected, and it was through the efforts of the Burneses that its location 
on Main street, between Second and Fourth street, was selected. The cap- 
ital stock of the original Depot Company was $100,000,000, of which the 
railroad companies then entering the city subscribed for $70,000. The bal- 
ance of the stock was taken by individuals. The cost of the original depot 
was $120,000. and the architect was William E. Taylor, who planned the 
old imion station in Kansas City. James A. McGonigle. who was the con- 
tractor for the old Kansas City station, also built the Atchison union depot. It 
was built of the finest pressed brick from St. Louis, and trimmed with cut 
stone from the Cottowood Falls quarries. Its length was 235 feet, with an 
"L" ninety-six feet long. It was two stories high with a mansard roof. It 
was an ornamental, and, in those days, an imposing structure. The cere- 
monies accompanying its dedication were witnessed by a great crowd, and 
many great men in the railroad and political life of Kansas participated in 
them. Gen. Benjamin F. Stringfellow delivered the address, and a ban- 
quet was ser\'ed in the evening, followed by a procession and fire-works. 
Two years later, in June, 1882, this depot was partially destroyed by fire, 
suffering a loss of $10,000, but it was immediately rebuilt. On Januaiy 6, 
1888, another fire completely destroyed the building, and the present union 
station was erected a short time later. 


On and after Monday, February 28, this road will be open for business 
throughout its entire length. Passenger trains will leave St. Joseph for Han- 


nibal every morning, making close connection with steam packets to St. Louis 
and Quincy, and affording direct connection with all the railroads east of 
the Mississippi river. Time from St. Joseph to Hannibal, eleven hours, and 
to St. Louis, eighteen hours, saving more than three days over any other 
route. Trains from the east will arrive in St. Joseph every evening, con- 
necting with a daily Hne of packets running between St. Joseph and Kansas 
City; also a line up the Missouri to the Bluffs. Passengers from all parts 
of Kansas will find this the quickest and most agreeable route to St. Louis 
and all points on the Mississippi, giving those going east a choice between the 
routes from St. Louis, Alton and Quincy. Fare will be as low as by any 
other route. Favorable arrangements will be made for taking freight, saving 
most of the heavy insurance on the Missouri river. Express freight will be 
taken through much quicker than by any other line. 

Tickets can be had at the office in St. Joseph for nearly all parts of the 


P. B. GROAT, Gen'l. Ticket Ag't. 
Feb. I St, 1859. no. 48-lm. 

(From Freedom's Champion, Atchison, February 12, 1859.) 


Passengers for St. Louis, northern Missouri. Iowa, Chicago, Cincinnati, 
Detroit, Boston, New York, Philadelphia, Baltimore, New Orleans, Louis- 
ville and Southern States, will find tliis the shortest, quickest and most de- 
sirable route to the above points. On the ist day of February only fifteen 
miles of staging intervenes between St. Joseph and Hannibal, and on the ist 
day of March, 1859, the road will be completed, and open for through travel 
the entire length. A daily line of stages from Atchison, passing through 
Doniphan and Geary City, connects at St. Joseph with the H. & St. Jo. 
railroad. From Hannibal a daily line of packets leave upon arrival of cars 
for St. Louis, upon the opening of navigation, and boats connect at Quincy 
with the C. B. & O. railroad for Chicago, and with the G. W. railroad for 
Toleda via Naples. This is in every respect the best route for eastern and 
southern passengers. Trains leave St. Joseph for the east daily. 


P. B. GROAT, General Ticket Agent. 


(no. 47) 
(From freedom's Champion. Atchison, February 12, 1859.) 


It was a little over six months after the completion of the Atchison & 
St. Joseph railroad that the first telegraph connection was established be- 
tween Atchison and the world. The construction of the Missouri & Western 
telegraph line was begun in Syracuse, Mo., in 1859. Charles M. Stebbins 
built this telegraph line, which extended from Syracuse to Ft. Smith, Ark. 
A branch of this line was extended westward to Kansas City, and reached 
Leavenworth along in the spring of 1859. August 15, 1859, this branch 
was extended to Atchison, and it was a proud day in the history of this city. 
The first office was in a brick building on Commercial street adjoining the 
office of Freedom's Champion. John T. Tracy was the first operator. Gen. 
Samuel C. Pomeroy was mayor, and on this account the honor was given 
him of sending the first message, which was as follows : "Atchison, August 
15, 1859. His Honor, H. B. Denman, Mayor of Leavenworth. Our medium 
of communication is perfect. May our fraternal relations continue — may our 
prosperity and success equal our highest efforts. S. C. Pomeroy, Mayor of 
Atchison." Mayor Denman replied as follows : "Hon. S. C. Pomerov, Mayor 
of Atchison. May each push forward its works of enterprise and the efforts 
of each be crowned with success. H. B. Denman, Mayor of Leavenworth." 
Congratulations were next exchanged between Atchison and St. Louis, as 
follows: "Atchison, August 15. 1859. Hon. O. D. Filley, Mayor of St. 
Louis. For the first time since the world began, a telegraph message is sent 
to St. Louis from this place, the farthest telegraph station in the West. Ac- 
cept our congratulations and aid us in our progress westward. S. C. Pome- 
roy, Mayor of Atchison." It was in October of that same year that the first 
news was flashed over the wire telling of the capture of Harper's Ferrv by 
old John Brown. 

In connection with the question of early day transportation in x^tchison 
county, it would be an oversight to fail to mention the efforts of one Thomas 
L. Fortune to improve the means of locomotion. Mr. Fortune was a citizen 
of Mt. Pleasant, and in the fall of 1859 ^e conceived the scheme which 
he believed would revolutionize the whole transportation problem. He 
planned a steam wagon with which he expected to haul freight across the 
plains. The following year he built at St. Louis, a large vehicle, twenty 


feet long by eight feet wide. The wheels were twenty inches wide and eight 
feet in diameter. This wagon was transported up the Missouri river to 
Atchison from St. Louis on the steamer, "Meteor," and was landed from the 
steamer in front of the White Mice saloon, which was a noted resort on the 
Atchison levee at that time, in the latter part of June, i860. The follow- 
ing account is taken from Frank A. Root's "Overland Stage to California": 

A day or two after its arrival ( referring to Fortune's wagon) 
Mr. Root says that it was arranged that the steam wagon should make a 
trial trip on the Fourth of July. The monster was accordingly fired up on 
the eighty-fourth National anniversary and started by an engineer named 
Callahan. The wagon was ornamented with a number of flags and loaded 
with a crowd of anxious men and boys. When eveiything was in readiness 
the valve was opened and the wagon moved off in a southerly direction from 
the levee. It went all right until it reached the foot of Commercial street, 
about a square away. The pilot failing to turn the machine, it kept on 
straight up to the sidewalk and ran into A. S. Parker's warehouse, wliich 
stood so many years by the old historic cottonwood tree at the southeast cor- 
ner of Commercial street and the levee. The result of this awkard blunder 
was an accident, in which a son of the owner of the wagon had an arm 
broken, as the machine crashed into the side of the building, which was a 
long, one-story frame cottonwood structure that for a number of years was 
a noted landmark in Atchison. The excited engineer was at once let out 
and Lewis Higby, another engineer, and a natural genius, was sent for. 
Higbv mounted the wagon and took his place at the engine, backed the ma- 
chine out into the middle of the road and in a few minutes went sailing 
gracefully along west on Commercial street at about six miles per hour. 
When in front of Jesse Crall's stable at the corner of Sixth street, before that 
part of Commercial street had been graded, it went down a little hill at a 
lively speed, but Higby kept it going and did not stop until it reached L. C. 
Challiss' addition, just south and west from Commercial and Eighth streets, 
near Morgan Willard's old foundry, built in 1859, away from the business 
and residence portion of the city. 

After the wagon crossed Eighth street and was beyond the business 
houses, Higby turned on more steam, and the monster vehicle made about 
eight miles an hour, cavorting around on the bottom, there being only a few 
scattering buildings then west of Eighth street. To test the practicability 
of the machine, it was run into hollows and gullies, and, where the ground 
was soft it was found that the ponderous wheels would sink into the mud 


when standing still in soft ground. The result of the trial, witnessed b}' 
hundreds, was disappointing to most of those present. The inventor, who 
had spent a large amount of money and much time in tr\'ing to perfect his 
steam wagon and solve the overland transportation problem, was the worst 
disappointed. He was thoroughly disgusted. He saw at once that the use 
of the vehicle was impracticable and that it would never answer the purpose. 
That trial trip was the first and only one the "overland steam wagon" ever 
made. It was accordingly abandoned on the bottom where the tracks of the 
Central Branch and Santa Fe roads are now laid, and was never afterwards 
fired up. Those who had crossed the plains with mules and oxen, knew it 
could never be used in overland freighting. There was no use for any such 
vehicle and the anticipated reduction in prices of ox and mule teams did 
not take place. The timbers used in the framework of the machine that were 
not stolen finally went to decay, and the machinery was afterwards taken 
out and disposed of for other purposes. 


The propitious beginning that Atchison had as a commercial and trans- 
portation center should have made the town one of the largest and most 
important railroad terminals in the West. That was the hope and aspiration 
of its original founders, and for many years afterwards it was a cherished 
idea. But Kansas City was subsequently selected as the point of vantage, 
and the builders of this great western empire have since centralized their 
activities at the mouth of the "Kaw," and it is there that the metropolis of 
the ^^''est will be built. However, a marvelous development has taken place 
here since the day of the Holladay and Butterfield stage lines and slow- 
moving ox and mule trains across the plains. We no longer marvel at the 
volume of trade and freight tonnage and the multitude of travelers that pass 
through Atchison every year. We take these things as a matter of course, 
and make no note of the daily arrival and departure of the fifty-six passen- 
ger trains at our union depot every day ; we marvel not at the speed and the 
ease and comfort with which we can make the trip to St. Louis or Chicago, 
over night, or to Denver in less than twenty-four hours, or to New York 
in two and one-half days, and to San Francisco in less than fi\e, surrounded 
by every luxury money can buy. ^Ve have accustomed ourselves to these 
marvels, just as we have learned to make use of the telephone and the tele- 
graph, and a little later on will begin to use the air ship and the wireless. 
Nature has a wav of easilv adiusting mankind to these changed conditions. 









One of the really creditable and most pretentious newspaper enterprises 
ever imdertaken and accomplished in Kansas was E. W. Howe's Historical 
Edition of the Atchison Daily Globe. It contains much interesting and val- 
uable information written in the unique style which has made Mr. Howe 
famous. With the consent of Mr. Howe, which he has very kindly granted 
the author of this histor)% there will appear in this chapter, almost verbatim, 
a number of biographical sketches and other interesting matter, which has 
should be printed in book form so that it could be assured of a permanent place 
in the archives of the State. There are but few copies left, and these are in a 
bad state of disintegration. The sketch of Gen. D. R. Atchison will first be 
i-eproduced herein, and then will follow others, touching upon the lives and 
characters of early settlers, who contributed their part to the upbuilding of 
this community. Much has already appeared in this history touching upon 
the activities of General Atchison, but a sketch of his life is important, inas- 
much as he is perhaps the most conspicuous early-day character in the history 
of Atchison county. 


David Rice Atchison, for whom Atchison was named, was born near 
Lexington, Favette countv, Kentuckv, August ii, 1807. The s<in of William 
' 186 


Atchison, a wealthy fanner of that county, he received all the advantages of 
a liberal education. His mother's maiden name was Catherine Allen, a native 
of the State of Georgia. William Atchison, the father, was a Pennsvlvanian 
by birth. 

David R. Atchison was blessed with six children, four sons and two 
daughters. In 1825 he graduated with high honor from Transylvania Uni- 
versity, then the leading institution of learning in the State, and since incor- 
porated in the new University of Kentucky. 

Upon receiving his degrees in the arts, Mr. Atchison immediately applied 
himself to the study of law. In 1829 Mr. Atchison was admitted to practice 
in his native State, and a few months after, in 1830, removed to the compara- 
tively wild district of Clay county, Missouri. In April of that year he re- 
ceived in St. Louis his license to practice in the supreme court of the State 
and immediately settled in the village of Liberty, now the countv seat of Clay 
county. About this period, Mr. Atchison was appointed major general of 
the northern division of the Missouri State militia. 

General Atchison soon commanded a lucrative practice in his new home, 
where he continued to reside in the discharge of the duties of his profession 
until February, 1841, when his superior legal attainments, which were known 
and recognized throughout the State, won for him the appointment as judge 
of the district court of Platte county on its organization in February of that 
year, when he moved his residence to Platte City. It appears that in that 
day judges were appointed to this position by the Government, with the advice 
and consent of the Senate. The office was not made elective until several 
years after. In 1834 and 1838 he was elected to the Missouri legislature from 
Clay county. 

Upon the death of Dr. Lyon, United States senator, in 1838, Judge Atchi- 
son was appointed by Governor Reynolds to the vacancy in the Senate. It 
was by many considered that this appointment was merited and he had been 
recommended by Colonel Benton and other authorities of the Democratic 
party ; by others it was said that the governor himself was ambitious of the 
senatorship and had selected Judge Atchison as a person who could be easily 
beaten at the next election. The death of Governor Reynolds, however, 
occurred before the meeting of the next legislature and Judge Atchison was 
elected with but slight opposition. He was reelected for two more terms, the 
last of which expired March 4, 1855, during the administration of Franklin 
Pierce. Two years after this he moved his residence from Platte to Clinton 
county. He was elected president of the Senate to succeed Judge Mangun, a 
Whig senator from North Carolina. 


The 4th of March, 1849, occurring on Sunday, Zachary Taylor -was not 
inaugurated until the following Monday. Judge Atchison thus, as presiding 
officer of the Senate, became virtually President of the United States during 
the term of twenty-four hours. In referring to this accidental dignity, on 
being interrogated as to how he enjoyed his exalted position, the venerable 
senator good humoredly replied that he could tell but little about it as, over- 
come with fatigue consequent to several days and nights of official labor, he 
slept through nearly his whole term of ser\-ice. 

Judge Atchison became especially prominent in the legislature for the 
organization of the territories of Kansas and Nebraska, and claims to have 
originated the repeal of the Missouri Compromise bill. On his retirement 
from the Senate, of which he was an honored member for the space of twelve 
years, during the larger part of the time as presiding officer, he continued to 
take a lively interest in the politics of the country, and was regarded as a 
leader and chief adviser of the pro-slaver\' party in Kansas during the troubles 
which preceded the admission as a State. In 1856 we find him in command 
of 1,150 men at a point called Santa Fe. On the 29th of August, the same 
year, a detachment from General Atchison's army attacked Osawatomie, 
which was defended by about fifty men, who made a vigorous resistance but 
were defeated with a loss of five wounded and seven prisoners. Five of the 
assailants were killed and thirty buildings were burned. The next day a body 
of Free State men marched from Lawrence to take Atchison's army. Upon 
their approach the latter retired and withdrew its forces into Missouri. The 
admission of Kansas as a free State soon after tliis occurred put an end to tliis 
inuch ve.xed question and restored tranquility to the country. 

General Atchison lived in retirement on his magnificent estate in 
Clinton county until the breaking out of the Rebellion, when he left for the 
South and was present at the battle of Lexington. Governor Jackson secured 
him a commission as brigadier general at the commencement of the war. This 
General Atchison declined, as his residence was in Clinton county, outside 
the limits of the division. He, however, remained with the army and assisted 
in its organization. He joined temporarily for the purpose of making up the 
company under Fphraim Kelley's command from St. Josepli and remained 
with the army until after the laattle of Elkhorn. 

At the close of the war. General Atchison returned to his home in Clinton 
county, where he continued to reside in almost unbroken retirement on his 
1,700-acre farm in a neat cottage erected on the site of his spacious brick man- 
sion, which was accidentally destroyed by fire February 2, 1870. He never 
married, and died at his home in Clinton county, January 26. 1886. 



Matt. Gerber came to this county originally in 1855. as pastry cook 
on a Government steamer. There was almost no town at Atchison then, and 
he went to Sioux City with the boat and afterwards returned to St. Louis. 
In 1856 he was pastry cook on the "A. B. Chambers," which ran between 
St. Louis and Weston and was commanded by Captain Bowman, the father 
of Mrs. D. C. Newcomb and ]\Irs. G. H. T. Johnson. Mr. Gerber was born 
in Baden in 1833 and came to America in 1853, landing at New Orleans, and 
for a time ran on boats on the lower Mississippi. For many years he was the 
hero of Atchison children, as he operated a bakery, confectionery and toy 
store on the south side of Commercial street, near Fourth. Mr. Gerber first 
located in Sumner in 1858, where he ran a bakery, coming to Atchison in i860, 
and was in business at the same location for over thirty-four j^ears. Mr. 
Gerber died in Atchison, December 14, 1907. 




! J. H. Talbott came west in 1855 and was a passenger on the "A. B. 
Chambers," of which George WL Bowman was captain and E. K. Blair, second 
clerk. The cholera was so bad that year that Mr. Talbott left the boat at 
Jefferson City and came overland to Monrovia, although his passage was 
paid to Leavenworth. Several passengers on the "A. B. Chambers" died of 


cholera and were buried on sand bars. Mr. Talbott preempted a claim at 
Monrovia, and when his family came two years later he kept a boarding house 
at Monrovia for four years. Albert D. Richardson was often a guest at his 
house. He was a clean, neat city man of about thirty, and was engaged in 
writing up the Kansas war for the Nezv York Tribune. Jim Lane also stop- 
ped at J. H. Talbott's occasionally. Mr. Talbott first heard him make a 
speech in a grove at Pardee, and A. J. Westbrook was in the audience. Lane 
made some abusive reference to Westbrook, who made a movement as if to 
pull a pistol, but Lane shook his celebrated boney finger at Westbrook and 
defied him to shoot. At that time Atchison was controlled by the pro-slavery 
element, but the Free State men predominated around Monrovia and Pardee. 
The noted Colonel Caleb lived at Farmington. James Ridpath was often at 
J. H. Talbott's, and D. R. Anthony and Webb Wilder appeared there as young- 
men and took up claims. 

Another famous place in those days was the Seven Mile House, seven 
miles west of Atchison on the road traveled by the freighters, kept "by John 
Bradford. Talbott's boarding house was built of logs and the beds were 
nailed against the wall, one above another. Sometimes the house was so 
crowded that the floor was also occupied with beds. --^ 

Mr. Talbott was bom in Canal Dover, Ohio, where he knew W. C. OuajiT,- 
triU, real well. Quantrill afterwards became the noted guerilla and sacked 
Lawrence. Mrs. Talbott went to school with Quantrill, and the teacher was 
Quantrill's father, a very worthy man. After Mr. Talbott married he re- 
moved to Zanesville, Ind., and kept a store with S. J. H. Snyder, who was 
one of the early settlers of Atchison county and a fierce Free State man. 
In a little while Will Quantrill appeared at Zanesville_and taught school in 
the country. He usually spent his Saturdays and Sundays at J. H. Talbott's 
house, on the strength of their acquaintance at Canal Dover. Mr. Talbott 
says he was well behaved and attracted great attention around the store, 
particularly from the yornig xnen. 

In 1854 Quantrill left Zanesville and settle^ at Lawrence, Kan., as a 
Free State man and taught school, where he became acquainted with Robert 
Bitter Morrow, whose life he afterwards saved during the massacre. Robert 
Morrow kept the Byram in Atchison several years. When Talbott went to 
Monrovia in 1855, the countrj^ was full of Kickapoo Indians. He remem- 
bers seeing an Indian grave there : a rail pen covered with brush. In the 
middle of the pen could be seen the dead Indian in a sitting posture, with 
his gun beside him. 



Colonel Osborne built the first railroad to the Missouri river — the Han- 
nibal & St. Joseph. He built and owned the transfer ferry "Wm. Osborne," 
which was famous in Atchison in the early days. He also built the first 
100 miles of the Central Branch to Waterville, as has been previously 
stated. He lived and died in Waterville, N. Y., but visited Atchison fre- 
quently to see his daughter, Mrs. R. A. Park, who was the wife of the presi- 
dent of the Atchison Savings Bank. 


Amos A. Howell was one of the plains freighters who distinguished 
Atchison in the early days. He ran twenty-seven wagons with six yoke of 
oxen to each wagon. An extra head of oxen was taken along, known as the 
"cavvy" to spell the others and take the places of those that gave out. Alto- 
gether he owned 400 head of work oxen. The oxen were expected to pick 
up their living on the way, but when mules were used in the winter it was 
necessaiy to carry grain for them. Thirty men were necessary in the train 
of twenty-seven wagons pulled by oxen. Mr. Howell was assisted in his 
wagon business by his son, Nat. 

In those days there was a Government regulation that all trains should 
be held at Ft. Kearney until 100 armed men had collected. Then 
a captain was elected, who was commissioned by the Government and had 
absolute charge of the train while it was passing through the Indian country. 
Mr. Howell frequently occupied the position of captain, being well known 
on the plains. On one occasion while he was captain he halted at Cottonwood 
Falls on the Platte, as the Indians were very bad, and soldiers were expected 
to go through with the train, but none came and finally Mr. Howell unloaded 
five wagons, filled them with armed men and started out. Almost in sight 
of Cottonwood a gang of gaily painted Indians attacked the train, supposing 
it was a little outfit. But when the Indians came within range, the "Whis- 
key Bills" and "Poker Petes" in the covered wagons began dropping the 
Indians off their ponies, and there was a pretty fight, in which the Indians 
were badly worsted. 

Mr. Howell says that the Indians never attack wagon trains except very 
early in the morning, or late in the evening. 

The favorite sport of the Indians, however, was to run off the stock 


after the train had gone into camp at night, and they ahvays had one way of 
doing it, which Mr. Howell finally learned. The Indians are no wiser than 
white men, for they say that white men always fail in business the same way 
and act the same way when they have a fire. An Indian would ride up onto 
a high point and look around a while. This would always be in the evening 
when the train was near a camping place. Then the Indian would disappear 
and come back presently with another Indian wrapped in his blanket and rid- 
ing the same pony. One Indian would then drop into the grass, and the 
rider would go back after another one. The Indians were collecting in am- 
bush, thinking the freighters would nc\er think of it. Mr. Howell had in 
his employ a driver, an Atchison man, named "\Mhskey Bill." who was 
particularly clever at hating Indians, and whenever an ambush was pre- 
paring "Whiskey Bill" would select four or five other men equally clever 
and go after the Indians. He often killed and scalped as many as four in 
one ambush, and sold their scalps in Denver to the Jews for a suit of clothes 
each. The Jews bought them as relics and disposed of them in the East. The 
killing of Indians in this manner was according to Government order and 
strictly legitimate. Another driver in Howell's train was an Atchison man 
named Rube Duggan. He was a great roper and used to take a horse, when 
in sight of a buffalo herd and go out after calves, which niade tender meat. 
Riding into the herd he would lasso a calf, fasten the rope to the ground with 
a stake and then go on after another one before the herd got away. He 
caught several calves in this way for Ben HoUaday, who took them east. 
Mr. Howell remembers that once, this side of Fort Kearney, it was necessary 
to stop the train to let a herd of buffalo pass. The men always had fresh 
buffalo meat in addition to their bacon, beans, dried apples, rice and fried 

There was a cook with the train who drove the mess wagon, but he did 
not do any other work. Eveiy driver had to take his turn getting wood and 
water for the cook and herding the cattle at noon, but the night herder did 
nothing else and slept in the wagon during the day. Occasionally he was 
awakened about noon and hunted along the road. The cattle fed at night 
until 10 or 1 1 o'clock when they would lie down until 2 in the morning. 
The night herder would lie down by the side of a reliable old ox and sleep 
too, being awakened when the ox got up to feed. The oxen were driven 
into the wagon corral about daylight and yoked. Every wagon had its speci- 
fied place in the train and kept it during the entire trip. 

Wagons were ahvays left in a circle at night, forming a corral. Into 



this corral the cattle were driven while being yoked. In case of an attack, 
the cattle were inside the corral and the men foug'ht nnder the wagons. The 
teams started at daylight and stopped at lo or ii until 2 or 3. and 
then they would start up and travel until dark. Mr. Howell always rested 
on Sunday, making an average of 100 miles a week with his ox 
teams. When the train started out each man was given ten pounds of sugar 
which was to last him to Denver. On the first Sunday the men would make 
lemonade of sugar and vinegar and do without sugar the rest of the trip. Mr. 
Howell saw the attack on George \\'. Howe's train on the Little Blue when 

George Con was killed and the entire train 1)urned. Con was an 

Aichisan man. Howell's train was corraled and he could not go to Howe's 

Howell came to Atchison county in 1856 by wagon from Fayette countv, 
Pennsylvania, where he was born, December 26, 1824. At seventy he was 
stout and vigorous, getting up every morning at 4 o'clock to go to work. 
His plains experience did him good. He died on the ist day of Augxist, 1907, 
owning a large tract of land in Grasshopper township. 






John W. Cain and his two sons, John S. Cain and William S. Cain, came 
to x\tchison in 1856 from the Isle of Man, and preempted a ciuarter section. 
five miles west of Atchison. A. D. Cain, another son, came to this county in 
1856, accompanying his brother, John M. Cain, who had gone to his old home 



in the Isle of Man on a visit. A. D. Cain attended school longer than either 
of his three brothers and was a graduate of King William's College, a cele- 
brated institution of learning. After leaving school he learned the business 
of a druggist. He was born in 1846. John M. Cain was seven years older. 

John M. Cain enlisted in the Thirteenth Kansas infantry in 1862. His 
brother, William, enlisted in Col. John A. Martin's regiment the year before. 
In less than a year John M. Cain was given the position as captain in the 
Eighty-third U. S. infantry and raised Company C in Atchison. Phillip 
Porter, the celebrated negro politician and orator, of Atchison, was orderly 
sergeant of Company C, which had ten men killed in the battle of Prairie 
Grove. After serving in the army nearly four years, John M. Cain returned 
to his farm in Atchison county in 1866 where he remained until 1872, when 
he removed to Atchison and engaged in the grain business. The Cains started 
the exporting of flour from Kansas and their business was very largely 
export business during their operation of the mill. 

John W. Cain, father of the Cain brothers, was a fierce Free State man 
in the days when it was dangerous to be a Free State man in Atchison county, 
but as he was a powerful man and of undoubted courage, the pro-slavery 
fans thought it wise to forgive him. His memory as well as the memory of 
his sons, John M. Cain and A. D. Cain, are still highly esteemed by the older 
settlers of Atchison county. 


Dr. W. L. ChaUiss came to Atchison June 3, 1866, on the steamboat 
"Meteor" from Moorestown, N. J., where he had been a practicing physician. 
At that time John Alcorn was operating a horse ferry on the river and Dr. 
Challiss, in company with his brother, L. C. Challiss, purchased a three- 
fourths interest in the ferry franchise after operating a little rival ferry for 
a time, which was known as the "Red Rover." The price paid for the fran- 
chise was $1,800.00. 

In the fall of 1856 Dr. Challiss went to Evansville, Ind., and contracted 
for the building of a steam ferry. This was completed in November and 
started for Atchison. In December it was frozen up in the Missouri river 
at Carrollton, Mo., and left in charge of a watchman. The crew was made 
up of old acquaintances of Dr. Challiss in New Jersey, and these he brought 
to Atchison in two stage coaches hired for the purpose. 

On February 7 of the following year Dr. Challiss started down the river 
on horse back after his ferry boat, accompanied by George M. Million, Gran- 


ville Morrow and John Cafferty. There had been a thaw and a rise in tlie 
river, and when the men reached the vicinity of Carrollton they learned that 
the boat had gone adrift. They followed it down the rivet, hearing of it 
occasionally and finally came up with it in sight of Arrow Rock. The boat 
had grounded on a bar and a man was in possession, claiming salvage. Dr. 
Challiss caught the man off the boat, took possession and settled with him 
for $25.00. A stoi-y was circulated that there had been small-pox on the 
boat and it narrowly escaped burning at the hands of the people living in the 
vicinity. Dr. Challiss went on down the river and met his family at St. Louis. 
When the steamer on which they were passengers reached Arrow Rock, the 
captain was induced to pull the ferry off the sand bar, and within four days 
it arrived in Atchison. 

This boat was named the "Ida" for Dr. Challiss' oldest daughter, who 
became the wife of John A. Martin, editor of the Atchison Champion, colonel 
of the Eighth Kansas regiment and governor of the State two terms. The 
"Ida" was brought up the river by George Million and Granville Morrow, 
pilots, and John Cafferty, engineer. George Million was the captain when 
it began making regular trips as a ferry, receiving originally $50.00 per 
month. During the last years of his sei-vice he received $125.00 a month. 
The ferry boat business was veiy profitable and $100.00 per day was no 
unusual income. In i860 Dr. Challiss built a larger ferry at Brownsville, 
Penn., and called it the "]. G. Morrow." When it arrived at Atchison the 
Government pressed it into service and sent it to Yankton with Indian supplies. 
Bill Reed was pilot and Dr. Challiss, captain. A quick trip was made to 
within seventy miles of Yankton where the pilot ran the boat into a snag and 
sank it. The boat cost $25,000.00 and nothing was saved but the machinery. 
This was afterwards placed in the ferry "S. C. Pomeroy," which was operated 
here until the bridge was completed in 1877. After this the "S. C. Pomeroy" 
was taken to Kansas City, where it sank during a storm. S. C. Pomeroy 
owned a one-fourth interest in the "J. G. Morrow" and "S. C. Pomeroy" and 
the wreck of the "Morrow" cost him $5,000.00. 

The "Ida" was taken to Leavenworth on the completion of the bridge 
and was in service there many years. 

In the early days Dr, Challiss was a Free State man and for years he 
had in his possession a letter warning him to leave the country, which was 
written during the exciting period before the war. Dr. Challiss remained 
active in the affairs of the town for many years but practiced his profession . 
only spasmodically. He died in Dayton, Ohio, at the home of his daughter, 
on April 23, 1909. 



George Scarborough was one of the most romantic characters that ever 
lived in Atchison county. Infkienced by his niece's description of Kansas, 
he came to Sumner in 1859 and purchased a tract of land now owned by E. W. 
Howe and known as Potato Hill. The location is probably the finest on the 
Missouri river. The farm lies on top of the bluff, and Scarborough's house 
was built near the river. He was well fitted to enjoy the life of elegant 
leisure and seclusion, which he did. Early in life he went to Kentucky from 
Connecticut and taught school. \Miile there he married the daughter of a 
congressman named Triplett. The wife died a year later, and Scarborough 
came into possession of considerable money. After that he adopted a literary 
and scientific life and spent much of his time abroad, where he collected 
many pictures and other art treasures. These were displayed in his home 
below Sumner. Scarborough was a l>otanist, and made a complete collection 
of the flora of this section, whicli he sent to the Smithsonian Institution, at 
Washington. One of his discoveries was that Atchison county had eleven 
varieties of the oak. Scarborough was one of the original founders of the 
First National Bank of this city, furnishing most of the original capital. 

In 1869 he went to Vineland, N. J., where he married a girl of twenty- 
three, although he was nearly seventy. His wife died within a year, in child 
birth, under precisely the same circumstances as his first wife. Scarborough 
died in 1883, in his old home in Connecticut, in absolute poverty, at the age 
of eighty-four. He is spoken of as one of the most elegant gentlemen who 
distinguished the early days. 


Samuel Hollister was one of the original settlers of Sumner. He landed 
at Leavenwijrth May i, 1857, coming by laoat from Jefferson City. Two 
weeks later he met a number of the members of the Sumner Town Company 
who were looking for somebody to go to Sumner to build a hotel. Having 
been a contractor and builder in liis old home in Xew Jersey. Mr. Hollister 
accompanied the men to Sumner, which then consisted of a claim cabin, used as 
a hotel, and four frame houses in course of construction.. The material for 
the frame houses had been brought from Cincinnati, ready framed, and when 
completed were 16x24, containing two rooms each. Mr. Hollister took 
the contract to build the Baker House, which contained three rooms on the 


ground floor. The lialf story al3ove was all in one room, where the guests 
slept. The frames for the Baker House were hewn out in the timber adjoin- 
ing the town ; the weather boarding- and shingles were shipped up the river. 
The hotel was completed in the summer of 1857, and was operated by Hood 
Baker, a cousin of Capt. David Baker, for many years a prominent citizen 
of Atchison. 

In the fall of the same year Mr. Hollister began work on the Sumner 
House, the contract price being $16,000.00. The lirick used \vere made on 
the ground. The lumber came l:)y boat from Pittsburgh, I'enn. This hotel 
was completed in the summer of the following year. It was built by the 
town compan\', which owed Mr. Hollister $3,000.00 at the time of his death, 
a few years ago. 

Mr. Hollister lived in Simmer twelve years, vigorously fighting- Atchison. 
In the fall of 1858 he built a mill, in company with Al Barber, later adding a 
gristmill, which was the second built in the county, the first having been built 
in Atchison, l>y \Villiam Bowman. Mr. Hollister went down the river in a 
boat in January, 1859, and when he reached his old home in the Catskill moun- 
tains, he crossed the Hu<lson river on the ice. During this trip east he was 
married to Miss Harriet Carroll, a lineal descendant of Charles Carroll, one 
of the signers of the Declai-ation of Independence. His wife returned with 
him to Sumner, and they afterwards moved to Atchison, where they lived for 
many years. Mr. Hollister died March 28, 1910. 


John Taylor, who for many years lived on a farm immediately south of 
the State Orphans' Home, was a resident of Missouri, a mile and a quarter 
above East Atchison in 1844, ten years before Kansas was opened for settle- 
ment. His father, Joseph Taylor, came to the Platte Purchase in 1838, from 
Pennsylvania, settling near Weston. At that time most of the best claims 
were taken. John Taylor's recollection was that the very earliest settler in 
that vicinity was in 1837. Joseph Taylor did not secure a very good claim, 
and afterward removed to Andrew county, finally locating a mile above East 
Atchison, in 1S44. John Taylor said that George Million was living on the 
present site of East Atchison when his father's family settled in the bottom. 
It was Mr. Taylor's opinion that George Million settled in East Atchison in 
1842, and that he did not start his ferry until 1850. In the spring of that 
year John Taylor crossed the river on George Million's flatboat ferr}-, and 


went to California, in company with his brother, Joe. There was no wagon 
road running west from Atchison at that time. John and Joe Taylor mined 
in California for eighteen months, never making over $20.00 per day, and 
usually only $5.00. They returned home by the way of the Isthmus of Pan- 
ama, and John Taylor got the small-pox at Glascow, Mo., which did not break 
out on him until he reached East Atchison. This was supposed to he the 
first case of small-pox in this section of the country. All the other members 
of the family got it, and the wife of Jim Stultz, who came in to help his 
mother, also got it. Their physician was a Doctor Ankrom, who lived in the 
Narrows, near Rushville, and he got it, too. This was in the winter of 185 1 
and 1852. In September, 1854, ten years after settling in East Atchison, Mr. 
Taylor came to this side of the river. When he arrived Ladd Yocum was 
running a hotel in a tent ; there was nothing else on the town site. Late in 
the fall George T. Challiss completed his store, which was the first building 
of any kind in Atchison, according to Mr. Taylor. He says that George Mil- 
lion did not erect his claim shanty until the following year. 

Mr. Taylor first settled in the bluffs, northeast of Atchison, but after- 
wards moved to a tract of land owned by a man named O. B. Dickerson, who 
afterwards built the first livery stable in Atchison. Dickerson sold his claim 
to a man named Adams, B. T. Stringfellow's father-in-law, for $600.00, but 
Adams did not comply with the law and Taylor jumped it. For a while Tay- 
lor and Adams lived on the same quarter, and became acquainted ; then Taylor 
discovered that Adams paid $600.00 for the claim, and gave him his money 
back. Taylor said he never had any short words with Adams about the 
claim, but once. They met on the hill, overlooking- the river, one day, and 
were looking at the wreck of the old "Pontiac," which is now said to have con- 
tained several hundred barrels of whiskey. "Well," said Adams, "when are 
you going?" "Going where?" asked Taylor. "To Nova Scotia," repHed 
Adams. "I am not going at all," was Taylor's rseponse, which Adams under- 
stood to mean that he was not going to leave the claim, but intended to fight. 
A compromise soon followed. 

Taylor says the "Pontiac" was carried off by Atchison people, and put 
into their houses, and that years afterwards, the writing on the wheel house 
could be seen around town. There was no whiskey left in the hold; indeed, 
the hold was carried away. 

The Taylor place was considered a great deal more valuable in 1855 than 
it is now ; people felt sure that within four or five years John Taylor would 
cut it up in town lots and sell them at fabulous prices, and go abroad. 


John Taylor's sympathies were always with the South CaroHnians, who 
made this section so warm in 1856, but said that only one in ten were good 
citizens ; the others were toughs. One of them, a man named Newhall, was 
killed in the fight at Hickory Point. John Robinson, captain of a southern 
party at Hickor}' Point, was an Atchison man, and was shot in the hip. 

Mr. Taylor said that in 1844 and several years later the country was full 
of bee trees, and that cattle turned into the rush in the river bottom in winter, 
came out fat in the spring. In 1844 there was a settlement of fify Kickapoo 
families on the flat just above the island on the Kansas side. They made a 
great deal of maple sugar. In summer these Indians went out to the buffalo 
grounds, sixty to eighty miles west of the river, returning in the fall, to be near 
the Missouri settlers. There never was an Indian village on the site of Atchi- 
son, although Mrs. Joe Wade, who was George Million's daughter, claims to 
have remembered coming to this side of the river when she was a little girl, 
and seeing a dead Indian strapped to a board and leaning against a tree on 
the present site of Commercial street. The body was surrounded with totem 
poles. There was no game at that time on this side of the river. Indians 
themselves hunted deer on the Missouri side in winter, and were very friendly 
with the vi'hites. 

John Taylor died on March 7, 1897. 


John M. Crowell was mayor of Atchison three terms, coming to the city 
in 1858 from Londonderry, N. H., where he was born October 22, 1823. 
For ten years he was a merchant here, afterwards being appointed Government 
storekeeper, and having charge of a distillery below town. From 1870 to 
1885, he was United States postoffice inspector for nineteen States and Terri- 
tories, and in that capacity visited every section of the country. He resigned 
to become a mail contractor, although solicited by a Democratic postmaster 
general to remain. His record in Washington was as good as that of any 
man who ever worked for the Government. Mr. Crowell was a forty-niner, 
crossing the plains during the great rush of that year, and engaging in sluice 
mining. He made four trips to California, but never by railroad. From San 
Francisco he visited China, South America, the Sandwich Islands, and was 
a great traveler in his time. He was the father of Frank G. Crowell, who 
was born in Atchison, and for many years a prominent citizen here, but later 
resigning his position as county attorney of Atchison county and moving to 
Kansas City to engage in the grain business, where he now lives. 


Jolm M. Crowell's daughter became Mrs. F. M. Baker, who accumulated 
a fortune in the grain business in Atchison. Mr. Crowell died on the ele\'enth 
day of October, 1902. 




Luther Dickerson came to Atchison county in June, 1854, immediately 
after Kansas was opened to settlement, from Saline county, Missouri, where he 
had lived ten years. He went to Missouri from Washington count}-, Ohio, 
where he was born in 1825. After looking over the countn- Mr. Dickerson 
returned to Missouri, but came back to Kansas the following October, and 
"squatted" on a tract of land a mile north of the State Orphans' Home. From 
1854 to 1857 were the squatter sovereignty days, during which period a set- 
tled could have no title to land, further than the fact of his settlement on the 
land he seleced as his home. Land offices were not established until in 1857, 
when the squatter filed his claims, and began fighting over them. The first 
land office in this section was at Doniphan. John ^^^ Whitfield, who was 
afterwards in Congress, was the register. About a \ear later the land office 
was removed to Kickapoo, just below Atchison. 

When Mr. Dickerson squatted on his claim in 1854, three-fourths of the 
land around him was taken, ^^'elcome Nance, Peter Cummings, John Taylor 
and Widow Boyle had farms at that time. Andy Colgan did not come until 


1857. The settlers of 1854 were mostly from Missouri. In 1855 came an 
organized band of South Carolinians, whose object was to make Kansas a 
slave State. Then followed the fierce and relentless fight with the Free State 
men, which ended in 1857, as far as this section was concerned. That is. in 

1857 the Free State men won control, and have practically kept it ever since. 
In the fall of that year the Free State men elected their county ticket, and 
Luther Dickerson was chosen as one of the four commissioners and was made 

Luther Dickerson was a Free State man and was fought by all the Alis- 
souri and South Carolinians. His land was contested, and he was beaten in 
the land office, but he finally won before the secretary of the interior, by 
proving that the woman who was contesting him was a foreigner. Hiram 
Latham, a Free State man, who lived across the road from Dickerson, was 
murdered in Doniphan, and because of this murder Frank McVey left the 
country and never came back. The men who killed Latham were ferried 
over Independence creek by Dickerson, and, noticing that they were armed, he 
asked where they were going. They said they were going wolf hunting. In 

1858 Luther Dickerson was elected a member of the house of representatives, 
which met at Lecompton, and then adjourned to Lawrence. In the same year, 
while still a county commissioner, he built the old court house, which occupied 
the site of the present court house. 

Luther Dickerson raised the first company of soldiers ever organized in 
the State of Kansas, in May, 1861. The first militarv order issued in the 
State was directed to him, signed by John A. Martin, assistant adjutant 

But while his company was the first organized, it happened that Dicker- 
son's commission as captain was the second issued, and was signed b}' Gov- 
ernor Charles Robinson, before the State had an official seal. Afterwards. Mr. 
Dickerson served in the regidar volunteer service, as first lieutenant. 

He lived on his land, north of town, for many years, and died in Atchison 
on the thirteenth day of December, 19 10. 


Luther C. Challiss came to Atcliison in 1855 from Boonville, Mo., where 
he was engaged as a merchant. He remained here continuously until 1861 
as merchant, banker, ferry operator and real estate owner. Luther C. Chal- 


liss' addition, the east line of which is at the alley between Seventh and Eighth 
streets, was preempted by Mr. Challiss in 1857, and was originally com- 
posed of 198 acres. 

As a member of the Territorial council, Mr. Challiss secured the first 
charter for a railroad west from Atchison, known as the Atchison Pike's Peak 
railroad, now the Central Branch. He was the first president of the road, 
and originally owned every dollar of the stock. He also managed the Kicka- 
poo treaty, which gave the road 150,000 acres of land, and made it prominent 
in Washington as a specific possibility. The original Government subsidy for 
this road was every other quarter section of land for ten miles on either side, 
in a ddition to $16,000 to $48,000 per mile, in Government bonds. 

At the same time Mr. Challiss secured a charter for the Atchison-Pike's 
Peak railroad, he secured a charter for the Atchison, Topeka & Santa Fe rail- 
road, his original idea being a southern route to the Pacific, and that road 
has fulfilled all of his early expectations. 

Mr. Challiss made a great deal of money in Atchison, and in 1864 drifted 
to New York and Washington, where he became an operator on the stock 
exchange. Mr. Challiss' sympathies were with the South, and was generally 
a bull. As long as the South showed its ability to hold out Mr. Challiss made 
a great deal of money, and at one time he had on deposit in New York 
$960,000, but the tide turned against him when the South began to fail, 
and this fortune was reduced to nothing. 

As an operator on Wall street at that time, Mr. Challiss outranked Jim 
Fisk and Jay Gould, and was the peer of Anthony Morse and the Jeromes. 
Jay Gould was a ver\- common man at that time, compared to Mr. Challiss, 
and a very little thing might have made Mr. Challiss one of the great financial 
leaders in America. An incident in his career in New York was the attempt 
of Woodhull & Claflin to break him. He made a fight that is still remem- 
bered, and sent Woodhull and Claflin, Colonel Blood Stephen, Pearl Andrews 
and George Francis Train to jail, where they remained six months. Finally 
they left the country as a result of a compromise. Mr. Challiss' lawyers were 
Roger A. Pryor and Judge Fullerton. Judge Fullerton received a quarter 
section of land in Atchison county as his fee. Mr. Challiss also brought the 
famous Pacific Mail suit, which was equally famous. 

He returned to Atchison in 1878, looking after the wreck of his former 
possessions. For three years he edited the Atchison Champion, and bitterly 
opposed John J. Ingalls for United States senator in 1890. 

Mr. Challiss, in his latter rears, became a very much abused man, and 


was looked upon as one of the unpopular citizens of the town, but it may be 
said to his credit that he did much for Atchison, and was largely responsible 
for making the town the terminus of the Hannibal & St. Joe railroad. He 
brought Jay Gould, Henry N. Smith and Ben Cai-ver to Atchison, and they 
agreed to extend the road from St. Joseph to Atchison, in consideration of 
$75,000.00 in Atchison bonds, which was agreed to. Mr. Challiss had some 
sort of a deal with Henry N. Smith while they were operating on Wall street, 
and Challiss claimed that Smith owned him $107,000.00. They finally settled 
the matter, by Smith agreeing to bring the Hannibal & St. Joseph road here 
without the $75,000.00 in bonds the people had agreed to give him. The 
Atchison Champion of May 11, 1872, contained a half column scare head, to 
the effect that Luther C. Challiss telegraphed from New York that the bridge 
had been finally secured, and gave the credit of securing the bridge to Chal- 
hss and James N. Burnes. 

Mr. Challiss died a poor man on the si.xth day of July, 1895. 


George W. Glick, the ninth g-overnor of Kansas, for a number of years 
United States pension agent for the district comprising Kansas, Missouri, Col- 
orado, New Mexico, Oklahoma and Indian Territory, came to Atchison in 
June, 1859, from Fremont, Ohio, where he studied law in the office of Ruth- 
erford B. Hayes, who afterwards became President of the United States. Mr. 
Glick came to Atchison on the steamer "Wm. H. Russell," named for and 
largely owned by William H. Russell, senior member of the celebrated freight- 
ing firm of Russell, Majors & Waddell. Mr. Glick was bom in Fairfield 
county, Ohio, July 4, 1829, on a farm, and when four years old removed with 
his father's family to within a mile and a half of Fremont, where he remained 
until he came to Atchison. He first went to school in the country, near Fre- 
mont, where he afterwards taught when he was nineteen. Later he attended 
a Dioclesion school at Fremont, founded by Dr. Dio Lewis, who afterwards 
became famous and whose name then was Dioclesia Lewis. Later he attended 
Central College, Ohio, but did not graduate. In 1849 he began the study of 
law in the office of Bucklin & Hayes, in Fremont, as a result of getting his 
feet in a threshing machine. It was supposed that he would never be fit 
for farm work again, but he afterwards recovered. Two years later he was 
admitted to the bar in Cincinnati, standing an examination with the graduat- 
ing class of the Cincinnati law school. He practiced eight years in Fremont 


before coming to Atchison, building up a good business, in spite of the fact 
that he ahvays went out to the farm in haying time and harvested and helped 
his father. In January, following his arrival in Atchison, he formed a part- 
nership with A. G. Otis, which continued as long as he practiced law. The 
firm of Otis & Glick was the strongest in Atchison, as long as it lasted, and 
B. P. Waggener was a student in their office. In' 1872 Mr. Glick became a 
town farmer, operating a farm of 640 acres four miles west of Atchison, mak- 
ing a specialty of Short Horn cattle, paying as high as $1,000 for several sin- 
gle animals. He served nine terms in the Kansas legislature, and was once 
county commissioner, and once county auditor of Atchison county, ^^'hile 
auditor of Atchison county, in 1882, he was elected go\ernor, by 9,000 plur- 
ality, over Jim P. St. John, who had been elected two years before by about 
55.000. In 1884 he was re-nominated as governor by the Democrats, but was 
defeated by John A. Martin. He first received the nomination for governor 
nine years after coming to Kansas, but was defeated by the Republicans. He 
was appointed pension agent in 1885, and again in 1893. He was a Mason, 
and was one of the original organizers of the Knight Templars and Royal 
Arch Masons, in Atchison. He was the first president of the Atchison-Xe- 
braska road, having built it to the county line, in connection with Brown and 
Bier. Governor Glick sold his farm near Shannon a number of years ago, 
and during the latter part of his life was inacti\'e in business and professional 
affairs. He died on the thirteenth day of April, 191 1. 


One of the oldest citizens of Atchison was Dr. \\'. H. Grimes, who came 
here from Yellow Spring, Ohio, in 1858. His son, E. B. Grimes, came a year 
before, and opened a drug store in the building for many years occupied as 
an office by the Atchison Water Company, across from the Byram Hotel. 
Dr. W. H. Grimes practiced medicine until the war broke out, when he became 
a surgeon in the Thirteenth Kansas. Returning to Atchison at the close of 
the war, he continued the practice of medicine until his death, in 1879. 

E. B. Grimes was a cjuarter-master during the war with a rank of major. 
At the close of the war he entered the regular army, and built many of the 
posts in the Department of the Platte, notably Ft. Laramie, Ft. Fetterman and 
Ft. Douglass. He died at Ft. Leavenworth, in 1882. 

Another son. Dr. R. V. Grimes, was a lieutenant in his father's regiment. 
After the war he became an armv surgeon, and was in manv of the Indian 


campaigns in the Northwest. He was in Merritt's command when it went 
to the rescue of General Custer, and was the- surgeon in Major Thornburg's 
command when it was surrounded at the famous fight on Milk river. The 
command was surrounded five days by the Utes, and was finally rescued 
by General Merritt. While he lived in Atchison he was employed as a printer 
on the Champion. 

Two other sons of Dr. Grimes, John and Howard Grimes,- were mem- 
bers of Colonel Jennison's Seventh Kansas Jayhawkers. 


Joshua Wheeler was one of the best known, as well as one of the most 
successful, farmers Atchison county ever had. His papers on questions per- 
taining to agriculture and the farm, read before the various societies, attracted 
wide-spread attention. In State affairs, he served the public long and honor- 
ably, and for over twenty years was a member of the State board of agricul- 
ture, serving three years as its president. His long connection with the State 
Agriculture College game him an extended acquaintance over the State, and 
he was appointed regent for that institution by Governor Han^ey in 1S71, and 
re-appointed by Governor Martin in 18S8, serving until April, 1894. During 
several years of that time he was treasurer of the board, and gained an exten- 
sive knowledge of the college and its history. He served in the State senate 
during 1863 and 1864 and in the fall of 1885 was elected for another term. 

Joshua W^heeler was born in Buckingham, England, February 12, 1827, 
and came to America in 1844, locating in New Jersey, where he resided four 
years before removing to Illinois. In 1857 a colony of seven or eight families 
of Fulton county, Illinois, farmers, Seventh-Day Baptists, came to Kansas, 
and located in the southwest portion of Atchison county, covering the entire 
distance overland. S. P. Griffin and Dennis Sounders preceded the colony 
in the spring of the same year to look up a location. They went as far to the 
southwest as Emporia, but found no land equal to that of Atchison county. 
After locating the land for the colony they went back to Illinois, but did not 
accompany the colony to Kansas, but came a year or two later. Griffin 
farmed for nearly twenty years, but afterwards became a Nortonville mer- 
chant. He was the father of Charles T. Griffin, at one time an attorney in 

When the colony of Seventh-Day people arri\-ed at the end of their des- 
tination they found the land in possession of colonists, but they bought them 


out, preempted claims and laid out the now famous Seventh-Day Lane. The 
land was then an open prairie, occupied only by an occasional hut. It is at 
this time the admiration of every visitor abounding- in well cultivated fields, 
pastures, groves, orchards, comfortable homes, to which paint is no stranger, 
large barns, uniformly trimmed hedges, and peopled by as thrifty a class as 
can be found in the western country. Later on Seventh-Day people came 
from Iowa, Wisconsin and New York, and joined the Illinois colony on Sev- 
enth-Day Lane, which is two miles in length. The Seventh-Day Baptists ob- 
serve their Sabbath from sundown Friday evening to sundown Saturday eve- 
ning. Their church has a seating capacity of 400, which is always comfort- 
ably filled, and was built in 1884, prior to which time the Seventh-Day Bap- 
tists worshiped in their school house. 

A. A. Randolph was the first pastor of the church on Seventh-Day Lane. 
He came here from Pennsylvania in 1863, and died in 1868. S. R. Wheeler, 
a brother of Joshua Wheeler, was pastor of the church for twelve years. 

When the Seventh-Day Baptists built their homes on the Lane sm.ooth 
wire cost eleven and one-half cents per pound in Atchison, and ordinary 
flooring, $100.00 per thousand feet. Money was loaned at four per cent, per 
month. They did all of their trading in Atchison until Nortonville was built. 

Joshua Wheeler was not only a successful farmer, but a good business 
man. He kept a regular set of books, and could always tell exactly what it 
cost him to produce a bushel of wheat in any of the different years of his 
farm experience. He could tell also what a bushel of com, fed to cattle, 
would produce. In 1877 he sold his wheat for $1.75 per bushel. 

He owned a farm of over 300 acres, just at the west end of the Lane, 
where he died on the fourteenth day of May, 1896. 


William Hetherington, founder of the Exchange National Bank, came 
to Atchison in 1859, from Pottsville, Penn., where he operated a flouring 
mill. His three oldest children, Mrs. B. P. W'aggener, W. W. Hetherington 
and C. S. Hetherington, were born in Pottsville. Mrs. W. A. Otis, the young- 
est daughter, was born in Atchison. William Hetherington himself was 
bom in Milton, Penn., May 10, 1821. He was also married there. When 
he first came west he stopped in St. Louis, then went to Kansas City, and 
later to Leavenworth, where he bought a bankrupt stock of goods and liauled 
them to Atchison in wagons. This was in 1859. The same year he estab- 


lished the Exchange Bank of WilHam Hetherington, absorbing the Kansas 
Valley Bank, owned by Robert L. Pease, which had been established several 
years before. 

Mr. Hetherington's influence in Atchison was very marked. He was a 
cultured gentleman of the old school, and was so generally respected, although 
always a Democrat, he stood very high in the sixties when the sectional bitter- 
ness was at its height, and did much to maintain peace between the contending 
factions. He was a very able public speaker. He was never a bitter partisan, 
and enjoyed the respect of the people to an unusual degree. He was one of 
the early mayors of Atchison, and had a successful career. He died on the 
twenty-first day of January, 1890. 


William C. Smith, one of the early mayors of Atchison, came to Kansas 
in 1858 from Illinois, settling near Valley Falls. Two years later he traded 
his farm to Sam Dickson for a stock 'of goods in Atchison and removed to this 
city. The firm of William C. Smith & Son continued sixteen years. The 
son was Henry T. Smith, who still resides in Atchison (1915). Another son 
is William R. Smith, who is at present the attorney for the Atchison, Topeka 
& Santa Fe Railway Company, at Topeka, for a number of years was a justice 
of the supreme court of Kansas. His oldest daughter married P. L. Hub- 
bard, who afterwards became district judge of Atchison county, and another 
daughter married H. C. Solomon, for many years a leading attorney of Atchi- 
son. Mr. Smith died in 1884. He was mayor two terms; member of the 
legislature, council and the board of education. Although Mr. Smith came 
to Kansas from Illinois, he was born at Columbus, Ohio, in 1817. 


John M. Price arrived in Atchison with his wife on the first of Septem- 
ber, 1858, the day the Massasoit House was formally opened for the public. 
They came here from Platte City, Mo., to visit some old friends from Ken- 
tucky, who had moved to Kansas, and after they arrived concluded to remain. 
The Prices originally came from Irvine, Ky. Mr. Price studied law in Irvine ; 
was admitted and elected county attorney before coming to Atchison. He 
was a Union man, in spite of the fact that he came from Kentucky, and was 
very active in a business and professional way during the early days of his 


residence in this county, and for many years thereafter. He constructed more 
large and substantial buildings in Atchison than any other individual who ever 
lived here. He built the house for a residence, now occupied by Mt. St. 
Scholastica Academy, an opera house and many blocks of business buildings 
and residences. He was a member of the legislature several times ; was prom- 
inently mentioned as a candidate for United States senator. Mv. Price died 
on the twentieth day of October, 1898. 


Samuel C. King came to Atchison ]\Iarch 2/, 1857. His brothers, Ed. 
and John, together with a sister and his widowed mother, arrived here the 
year before, coming here with Dr. W. L. Challiss, in the steam ferry, "Ida." 
• from Brownsville, Penn., where that boat was built. The King family came 
originally from England, within thirty-five miles of Liverpool, where tlie 
children were born, and- where the father died. Ed. King was the first pilot 
of the ferrv boat, "Ida," when it began making trips to Atchison. Tlie three 
sons and the mother took up claims in Mt. Pleasant township. \\'liile living 
there three old neighbors came out and Samuel C. King went out with them 
to look for claims. They were told that there was plenty of vacant land near 
Monrovia, but Mr. King advised them that it was too far out in the wilderness, 
and they went elsewhere. (Monrovia is fourteen miles from Atchison). While 
the other members of the family were getting their start Samuel C. King 
clerked in George T. Challiss' store, receiving $25.00 per month, and boarded 
himself. He afterwards went to work for Mike Finney, steamboat wharf 
master, and was practically the first express agent in Atchison. Later he went 
out to his farm and split rails to fence it, and afterwards clerked for Bowman 
& Blair for $25.00 per month and board. He enlisted in the navy in June. 
1861, enlisting as a landsman on the man of war, "Augusta." He served on 
this ship through all the exciting scenes of the navy during the war, and was 
at the battle of Point Royal. He assisted in capturing eight British sliips, 
which tried to nui the blockade, and his part of the prize money auKiunted to 
over $7,000.00. He was at the bombardment of Ft. Sumpter, and at the tak- 
ing of Tyble Island, off Savannah, Ga. He spent eleven months at sea, work- 
ing for the "Alabama," and rounded Cape Hatteras. He saw the burning of 
Charleston, and finally learning that his mother was fatally ill. he came home. 
He was elected covmty treasurer of Atchison county. ]\Ir. King remained a 
prosperous capitalist and real estate operator, until his death on the twenty- 
third day of January, 1910. 



Clem Rohr came originally from Buffalo, N. Y., where he was born in 
1835. He learned the trade of harness maker there, and afterwards worked 
at his trade at Chicago, Detroit and Moline, 111. In Davenport, Iowa, he 
heard Jim Lane make a speech about Kansas. This speech caused Rohr to 
go to Leavenworth in 1856, and while living in that town and employed as 
mail carrier he ran into the famous battle of Hickory Point. He slept in 
Hickory Point the night after the fight and helped fix up the wounded. He 
walked to Atchison in 1857 from Leavenworth, with Nick Greiner, for many 
years a prosperous German farmer, south of Atchison, and started a harness 
shop, which he conducted in the same place on the south side of Commercial 
street, between Fourth and Fifth streets, for over forty years. 

The first telegram that came to Atchison announcing that Kansas had 
been admitted was sent to Clem Rohr, and was signed by S. C. Pomeroy. 
He served as mayor of Atchison. Early in the sixties when the home guard 
was organized in Atchison Clem Rohr was made captain. His father was 
one of Napoleon Bonaparte's body-guard, and was with that great soldier at 
Austerlitz in the Russian campaign, and at the battle of Waterloo. Mr. Rohr 
always claimed that Julius Newman, who had a farm near the Soldiers' Home, 
made the first filing in the Lecompton land office. 

Mr. Rohr died in Atchison on the twenty-third day of May, 1910. 


One of the most interesting and romantic early-day characters in Atchi- 
son county was Maj. R. H. Weightman, an ex-major of the United States 
army, who was associated with a famous frontier tragedy. Major Weight- 
man was a violent pro-slavery man and had lieen reared in the South. Before 
coming to Kickapoo, where he was connected with the land office, and subse- 
quently to Atchison, he was the editor of the Herald at Santa Fe, N. M., and 
also a delegate to Congress from that Territoiy. 

F. X. Aubrey, the other party to the quarrel, was a French Canadian, of 
great pluck and energy, and had made a reputation on a wager in 1852, riding 
from Santa Fe to Independence, Mo., in a few hours over eight days. The 
next year he wagered $1,000 he could go the same distance in less than eight 
days. His bet was accepted and Aubrey covered the distance in less than 
five days. Following these rides he engaged in the freighting business o\'er 


the plains and he and Major Weightman became warm personal friends. 
Aubrey later made a trip to California, taking a herd of sheep, which he sold 
at a fine profit. It was upon his return from this trip that he and Weightman 
had their famous quarrel. The fairest account of this incident appeared in the 
Missouri Republican, September 28, 1834, which was in the form of a com- 
munication from a correspondent of that paper, and was as follows : 

"the case of m.vjor weightman. 

"Mr. Editor : The deplorable event by which F. X. Aubrey lost his life 
and which deprived the West of one of its most energetic and able pioneers, 
will not be passed lightly over. The name of Mr. Aubrey had become too 
closely identified with all that is gallant, preserving, and — in a western sense, 
at least — brave and chivalrous, that his memory and his sudden death should 
not awaken painful emotions among all those to whom his name had become 
a household word; emotions too painful to expect that, under iiis influence, 
full justice would be done to both parties concerned, ^^'hen, therefore, an 
opportunity is afforded by which the facts, as nearly as we can approach them, 
may be investigated, it would seem injustice to withhold these facts from 
the public. 

"Though, perhaps, less historical!}- known (if the expression be per- 
mitted) than Mr. Aubrey, Major Weightman has peculiar claims upon the 
citizens of Missouri, and especially of St. Louis, for demanding full and im- 
partial justice in this behalf. Witliout wishing to anticipate the judgment of 
your readers, or at all commenting upon the evidence which will be found be- 
low, your correspondent, in view of the grave charge in which Major Weight- 
man is involved, and the melancholy importance of the event, deems it his 
duty, notwithstanding, here to state what may be known to most of your 
readers, that Major Weightman, for years, formerly, was a resident of St. 
Louis, beloved and respected, almost without any exception, by all with 
whom he came in contact. 

"Amongst the many of Missouri's citizens who participated in the late 
Mexican war. Major, then Captain ^^'eightman, at the liead of his Light 
Artillery Company, won' laurels which placed his name foremost among the 
bravest and most gallant in that war. His fellow soldiers still in our midst 
will cheerfully bear your correspondent testimony, that Captain Weightman's 
gallantry as a soldier and officer was only surpassed by his urbanity and true 
kindliness of feeling as a gentleman; and if the evidence adduced upon his 


preliminary examination before the examining magistrate should sustain 
Weightman's plan of self-defense in tlie premises, his former friends here 
and abroad, and his fellow soldiers, will be glad to learn that the qualities of 
heart, for which they used most to prize Captain Weightman, in former years, 
remain untainted even now, when his name has become unfortunately coupled 
with a most grave and serious charge. May the public judge, and may not 
the unquestioned enviable renown of Captain Aubrey's name tend to warp 
calm judgment in pronouncing upon the guilt or innocence of the accused. 

"The following evidence, being a synopsis of the process verbatim at the 
preliminary examination before Judge Davenport, at Santa Fe, have been 
transmitted to your correspondent from New Mexico lay a third person, and, 
as your correspondent has every reason to believe, may be fully relied on. 
It is in the main supported by your former notices published in the Republican 
concerning this same transaction. 

"The circumstances are these: Major W'eiglitman, hearing of the 
arrival of Aubrey, and that he was at tlie store of the ]\Iessrs. ^Mercure, mer- 
chants at Santa Fe, crossed the plaza to see him, and was one of the first 
to take him by the hand and greet him as a friend. \Mien Major Weightman 
arried at the store of the Messrs. Mercure, several persons had already arrived 
to pay their respects to Mr. Aubrey. 

"Aubrey and Weightman met kindly, shook hands, and conversed pleas- 
antly for a short time, when something having been said by a third person 
about the route by which Aubrey had arrived from California, Aubrey asked 
the major if he had yet puljHshed his paper in Albuquerque. The major said, 
no; tliat it was dead — had died a natural death from want of subscribers. 
/Vubrey then said it should have died, because of the Hes with which it was 
filled. This was said without excitement, ^^'hen WeiglUman asked 'What 
lies?' Aubrey remarked : 'When I returned from California last year you asked 
me for information in respect to ray route, and afterwards you abused me.' 
This Weightman denied, saying, 'No, Aubrey, I did not abuse you.' Aubrey 
then said, more or less excited, T say you did, and I now repeat, it is a lie,' at 
the same time bringing his hand down with force upon the counter. 

"At this Weightman, who was sitting on the counter, fi\'e or six feet from 
Aubrey, sprang down and approached Aubrey, who had been standing near 
the counter, and taking a glass from which Aubrey had been drinking (a 
toddy), threw the contents in his face. Weightman immediately stepped 
back, when Aubrey drew a pistol (Colt's belt pistol), the first shot from 
which took effect in the ceiling (supposed to ba\-e gone off while cocking). 


Weightman then drew a knife, and before another shot could be fired, closed 
with Aubrey and stabbed him in the abdomen, and soon after seized Aub- 
rey's pistol. 

"The Messrs. Mercure nished on and seized the parties. Aubrey rapidly 
sank, and as soon as he relinquished his pistol Weightman said : 'I did it in my 
own defense, and I will go and surrender myself to the authorities,' which he 
did, accompanied by his friend, Major Cunningham. Aubrey died in a few 
minutes. He received but the one blow. Major Weightman has carried 
a bowie knife for his own protection for a year past, believing it to be necessary 
for him to do so. This was stated as the cause of his being armed. Aubrey 
was of the number of those who were inimical to him. The relations between 
Aubrey and Weightman had been heretofore of the most agreeable character." 

Major Weightman was a resident of Atchison only a few years. At the 
outbreak of the war he joined the southern army, and lost his life in the 
battle of Wilson's Creek. 





Atchison county is distinctively an agricultural community. There have 
been some earnest efforts made in the past to develop its mineral resources, 
and it is not beyond the realm of possibility that future efforts in that direc- 
tion will unlock hidden resources of fabulous value. But in the future, as in 
the past, agriculture will be the big important dividend producer in this 
county. Up to this time it is not unfair to say that only the surface of the 
soil has been scratched. Earming has been the occupation of a vei-y large 
portion of our people from the days when the first settlers took up their 
claims and with crude implements, broke the sod, down to this en- 
lightened age, of the riding plow and the traction engine, but scientific hus- 
bandly has not been followed on a large scale in this county. Crops have 
been so easy to produce, on account of rich soil and a favorable climate, that 
the methods employed in countries not so blessed and of a greater popula- 
tion, have not been followed in the past. This is not an arraignment of the 
former, for Atchison county has been peculiarly blessed in its possession 
of an intelligent lot of thrifty fanners. They have toiled and labored early 
and late; they have built comfortable homes, accumulated fortunes, and are 
the sturdy, dependable citizens of the county, but for over sixty years they 
have lacked organization and the prosperous farmers have succeeded because 
of their own personal initiative, judgment and hard work. As a class they 
have not made the progress to which they are justly entitled. Those that 
came early and remained, have in most instances met with rare success, but 
they worked out their own salvation, unaided by scientific organization. 


One hundred and sixty of them have banded together for mutual lielp and 
have secured a county agricultural agent to assist them in this direction, 
as the rich country' in the States east of us have been forced to do. , The 
soil also has an abundance of potash and a creditable amount of phosphorus, 
so with the proper use of legumes and manure, with the addition of some 
phosphorus, the fertility of the soil may be increased and maintained in- 
definitely. If soil washing is stopped and the organic matter in the soil 
maintained, tliis county has a soil, that agriculturally speaking, is second to 

The real aristocracy in the ^^'est, will, in future generations, trace its 
ancestr\' back to tiie pioneers, who settled on the land and tilled it. Those 
who went into trade and the professions when they came to Atchison county 
prior to i860, and in subsecjuent years, have prospered, in part, by their wits, 
but in the main, on the farmer. The farmers were then, as now, the real 
wealth producers and so it has come to pass, after these many years, that 
the farmer "has arrived," and with the increase in population and the gen- 
eral trend of advancement and improvement in all human activities, farming 
now stands near the top of the big human enterprises. The desire for organ- 
ization and cooperation among the farmers is growing e\-erywhere. and it 
has taken hold of Atchison county in recent years. 

The farmer's life in this county, in the late fifties and early sixties, was a 
hard and lonely one. During those years many homesteads were preempted, 
fifteen to twenty-one miles southwest, west and northwest of Atchison, and 
onto these the young pioneers took their wives and families. There they 
built their log houses, "broke out" their land, and put it to corn and wheat. 
There were few neighbors, fewer creature comforts, and no con\-eniences. 
It was a solitary life. 

This histoiy contains biographical sketches of many of these pioneers, 
and in them will be found the intimate stories of hardships, privations and 
discomforts. They came to conquer the resources of nature, and they ac- 
complished what they came after. There were no highways over which to 
convey their crops when harvested, and the ways to the nearest market were 
long and drean- ones. It was a two days' trip over the prairies to Atchison 
with a load of grain, and there were few ways to economize time, although, 
fortunateh', time was not an object then, as it is in these restless da}'s. 

And yet within the short span of the lives of farmers who are still here, 
there has been a marvelous development. Log houses have given way to 
fine commodious homes, steam heated and electric lighted ; great Ijarns shel- 


ter the stock, and house the grain ; the telephone, the rural delivery and the 
automobile have revolutionized the farmer's life and the farmer's wife. 
Better roads are the order of the day, and it will be along this line that great 
progress will be made in the immediate future. Meanwhile, land values 
are on the increase, and the quarter sections that sold from $500 to $800 
each, fifty years ago, are now bringing $16,000 to $24,000 each. Within 
the year 1915 there has been a general trend of sentiment among the more 
enterprising farmers to put farming upon a more scientific basis. The sei"\'- 
ices of a faiTn adviser have been secured, whose duty it is to assist in this 
direction. Thev are learning more of food values, crop rotation and diversi- 
fication, soil culture and plant life. As the value of these things become 
more apparent, the farming industry will thrive more, and in another gen- 
eration the problem of keeping the young men and young women on the farm 
will Iiave been solved. 

The richest and most valuable fanning land in Atchison count}- is very 
generally distributed. There are parts of each township that are rough and 
broken, but as the population increases land not now regarded as choice will 
be made to produce abundant crops. The river bluffs, which have stood so 
long in timber, are gradually being cleared and the bare hills which are left, 
are admirably adapted to fiaiit, wheat and alfalfa. Much of this land is as 
well adapted to fruit raising as is the already famous Wathena district, some 
of it being exactly the same type of soil. All that is needed is that the fruit 
growers give their plantations care. The orchard that is properly cared for 
produces fruit of a quality far superior to that of the famous Northwest. 
Incidentally, this land returns the grower a greater net profit. 

Atchison, county lies within the glaciated portion of the plains region. 
The underlying rocks are buried by the glacial till, but in turn is covered by 
a deposit of fine silty material, known as loess. Practically all the soil 
throughout this country is derived from the loess covering. The principal 
soil is a brown, almost black, silty loam, well adapted to the production of 
general farm crops. The rainfall is sufficient for the maturing of all crops, 
the normal anual precipitation ranging from fifteen to twenty-five inches. 
Atchison county has a population ranging from 28,000 to 30,000 people. 
There was a slight decrease in the population between the years of 1900 and 
1 9 10, yet, in spite of this apparent unfavorable showing, the value of farm 
land and farm products have increased. About ninety-five per cent, of the 
land in this county is in farms, of an average ^•alue of $69.26 per acre. The 
proportionate land area is 263,680 acres, of which 249,339 acres are in farms, 


with an aggregate land value of $17,270,130, which is more than double 
what it was in 1900, and over two million dollars more than the whole of the 
Louisiana Purchase cost us in 1803. Figures and statistics are proverbially 
dr\.' and uninteresting, but there is no place in Avhich they can be more ap- 
propriately used than in history, and no language that can be employed 
could tell a better story of the agricultural progress of Atchison county, than 
the statistics taken from the thirteenth census of the United States. From 
this source we find that the total value of improvements on the farms in this 
county in 1910 was $2,692,755, and that the value of the implements and 
machinery used by the farmers, not including automobiles, was $499,129. 
While the value of domestic animals and live stock was $2,149,863, and in 
these figures poultry is not included. The chicken, duck, goose and turkey 
census reached 150,127, and these were valued at $77,926. The total value 
of all crops shown by the census of 1910 was as follows: 

Cereals $1,928,065.00 

Other grain and seeds 3.577-oct 

Hay and forage 281,793.00 

Vegetables 94,232.00 

Fruits and nuts 32,297.00 

All other crops 30,883.00 

Grand Total $2,370,847.00 

Making a grand total of $2,370,847.00. 



TER sovereign" "freedom's champion" "CHAMPION AND PRESS/" 


Of all the mighty powers for good and evil, none can excel the news- 
paper. Take all the newspapers out of the world today and there would 
be chaos. Mankind would be groping in the dark, and life itself would be 
a vain and empty thing. Newspapers are the arteries through which the life- 
blood of the world runs. They carry to our firesides the continued story of 

Early in the history of Atchison county, before the schools and the 
churches, the newspaper appeared. It received a bounty of the original town 
company when that association. September 21, 1854, by a resolution, donated 
$400 to Robert Kelley and Dr. J. H. Stringfellow, to start a printing office, 
and it was then that the Squatter Sovereign was conceived, and after a brief 
period of gestation, was born February 3, 1855. By a strange stroke of mis- 
fortune this first newspaper in the county stood for a wrong principle and 
preached bad doctrine, for it advocated human slavery. Yet it was a crea- 
ture of environment, and reflected the prevailing sentiment of its constituency. 
It was fearless in its attitude and rabid in its utterances. It was a violent 
organ of hate and bitterness toward all Free State men, and in it appeared 
a constant flood of inflammatory comment directed against those who op- 
posed slavery, and were determined that Kansas should be the land of the 
brave and the home of the free. But as the pro-slavery cause waned, the 
Squatter Sovereign waned with it, and in the fall of 1857, when saner coun- 
sel and the feeling of brotherhood grew, the town company disposed of its 


interest in the Squatter Sovereign to the New England Aid Society, of which 
S. C. Pomeroy was agent, and the paper then passed into the hands of Rob- 
ert McBratney and Franklin G. Adams. Mr. Adams and ]\Ir. :McBratney 
were both Free Soilers, but they did not run the paper long. It was shortly 
sold to O. F. Short, who ran it until the following Februar}% and on the twen- 
tieth day of that month, 1858. John A. Martin purchased the plant and 
changed the name of the paper to Freedom! s Champion. Under that name 
Colonel Martin made of his paper one of the leading Free State organs of 
the Territory. Always a brilliant editor, of courage and deep convictions, 
Colonel Martin during his whole career never performed a greater service 
than during the time he shouted the battle-cry of freedom through the col- 
umns of Freedom's Champion, from 1858 to 1861. In September of the lat- 
ter year, he laid aside his pen and took up his sword in defense of the prin- 
ciples he so stoutly advocated, and thus translated his words into deeds. When 
he went to the front he left the Champion in charge of George I. Stebbins. 
who continued in charge until the fall of 1863, when it was leased to John J. 
Ingalls and Robert H. Horton. These two men afterwards became political 
rivals. Both were lawyers and both residents of Atchison for many years. 
Horton was a tvpical lawyer, smooth and tactful, who enjoyed a suc- 
cessful career in the practice of his profession and on the bench. Ingalls 
was of a different temperament, being more intellectual, caring little for the 
law, less tactful, but ambitious. They both met in the arena of politics, and 
Horton was the vanquished. Following the senatorial election' of 1879, at 
which they were both candidates, they became bitter enemies, and did not 
speak until they met, by chance, in London, in 1891. While these two men 
were editors of the Champion. Ingalls did most of the writing and kept things 
warm until the retum of Colonel Martin from the war in January, 1865, one 
of the Nation's heroes. Three months after his return, on the twenty-second 
day of March, 1865. Colonel Martin became the publisher of a daily paper, 
and on August 11, 1868, the Freedom's Champion was consolidated with 
the Atchison Free Press, under the name of Champion and Press. The 
Free Press was a Republican daily paper, and first appeared May 5, 1864, 
with Franklin G. Adams as its editor and proprietor. In April, 1865, Frank 
A. Root became a partner, and subsequently, L. R. Elliott, who had been an 
assistant editor, became a proprietor, with Mr. Root retiring later, when the 
paper was consolidated with the Champion. 

The office of the Champion and Press was destroyed by fire May 20. 
1869, but three weeks later the paper was in running order, with John A. 


Martin as sole editor and proprietor, and from that date until the death of 
?tlr. Alartin October 2. 1889, it remained one of the most influential and 
prosperous papers in the State of Kansas. 

Upon the death of Mr. Martin, the newspaper property was turned over 
to his father-in-law, W. L. Challiss, as executor of Mr. Martin's estate, and 
on the day of Mr. Martin's death the name of Phillip Krohn appears as man- 
aging editor. Krohn occupied that important place until March 29, 1890, 
when his name appeared for the last time as editor. Dr. Phillip Krohn was 
a man of brilliant attainments, a fluent writer, and a pleasing public speaker. 
He was a Methodist minister by profession, but, althouh he occupied the 
pulpit upon occasions, his name was seldom taken seriously in connection 
with religious work. From the date of Governor ^Martin's death the paper 
gradually waned in influence. The paper remained the property of the estate 
of Governor Martin, and Luther C. Challiss was editor and manager, until 
October 11, 1894, when A. J. Felt, an ex-lieutenant governor of Kansas, be- 
came its editor and proprietor. The paper did not prosper under the man- 
agement of Mr. Felt, and four years later a company was organized by 
Charles M. Sheldon, a promoter, and Mr. Sheldon became its editor May 
2, 1898. Mr. Sheldon was an enthusiastic and aggressive individual, who 
had very little respect for the value of money, which he spent so lavishlv that 
two months later, July i, 1898, his name appeared for the last time as edi- 
tor of the Chaiiipion. On the twentieth of that the paper was sold 
to satisfy a mortgage and the property was re-purchased by A. J. Felt, who 
immediately transferred it to the Champion Linotype Printing Company, a 
partnership, composed of Edward Skinner, George T. Housen,- Charles O. 
Hovatter, James McNamara and A. J. Felt. Mr. Felt again resumed the 
editorial management of the paper, and remained in charge until January i, 

Februan,' 3, 1899, Henry Kuhn. who surveyed the townsite of Atchi- 
son, returned to the city with his son, James G. Kuhn. The}' made a heroic 
effort to restore the lost prestige of the Champion, but soon became dis- 
couraged, and in the latter part of May or early in the June following, they 
gave up the ghost and silently disappeared. The mortgagees continued 
the publication of the paper, and July 31, 1899. the name of John A. Reynolds 
appears as business manager. It had no editor until August 23, 1899, when 
James G. Day, Jr., a young lawyer, occupying a desk in the office of Wag- 
gener, Horton & Orr, became editor and manager. Mr. Day ran a daily 
until January 9, 1900, when it was discontinued. The following March he 


published a daily for one week, "as the devil would run it," a piece of cyni- 
cism in reply to an effort the Topeka Capital made a short time before, when 
that paper was turned over to Rev. Charles M. Sheldon, the eminent Con- 
gregational preacher, who ran that paper one week, "As Jesus would run it." 

Meanwhile, the Champion had its ups and downs, but did not die. A 
daily again appeared April 22, 1901, with Ewing Herbert, one of the cele- 
brated newspaper men of Kansas, as its editor and owner. Mr. Herbert 
was at that time the owner of the Bro-wn County World, at Hiawatha. He 
conceived the idea that Atchison offered an attractive field for a newspaper 
venture, and he succeeded in interesting- some local capital in his enterprise. 
Capt. John Seaton was a stockholder, among others, and Jay House, the 
present mayor of Topeka (1915) and a brilliant newspaper paragrapher, was 
city editor. Mr. Herbert spent only part of his time in Atchison, and turned 
over the management of the Champion to Mr. House. It looked for a time 
as if Mr. Herbert was going to make a success of his venture, but just at 
the height of his prosperity he was guilty of an editorial indiscretion, which 
turned some powerful influences against the paper, and on August 17, 1901, 
Mr. Herbert gave up his effort as a bad job and turned the plant over to one 
W. A. Robinson, formerly of St. Louis, Mo. Mr. Robinson was a follower 
of Henry George, the great single taxer, and conceived it to be his duty to 
spread the single tax propaganda through the editorial columns of the Cham- 
pion. His efforts in this direction did not prove profitable, and becoming 
disheartened and discouraged he fled from the city shortly thereafter, a much 
poorer but wiser man. 

The Champion next fell into the hands of Gorman H. Young, for many 
years a successful music merchant, of Atchison, who incidentally acquired a 
small job printing plant, which he operated on North Fifth street, and which 
he subsequently merged with the Champion plant, having acquired that by 
paying off the mortgage which Mr. Robinson gave Ewing Herbert at the 
lime he undertook to acquire the property. Mr. Young ran a weekly paper 
for a number of years, imtil May, 1907, when he employed Wlalt Mason, the 
famous prose poet of the United States, to assume the editorial management 
of a daily. Mr. Mason many years before had been a resident of Atchison, 
and ran the Globe during the absence of Mr. Howe in Europe. He was not 
so famous in 1907 as he is in 1915, but he was just as brilliant. He pub- 
lished the daily Champion on pink paper and filled it with columns of edi- 
torial matter and humorous nmning comment on current affairs. Mr. Mason 
had a wonderful capacity for work and could prepare more "copy" in one 


day than all the other writers on the paper could prepare in a week. Dur- 
ing the summer of 1907, Sheffield Ingalls, having returned from the legisla- 
ture, where he was a member of the house of representatives, became an edi- 
torial writer on the Champion. November 20, 1907, Mr. Young prevailed 
upon Mr. Ingalls to give up his other work and become editor of the paper. 
As Mr. Ingalls walked into the office, Mr. Mason walked out, never to re- 
turn. Mr. Ingalls remained editor and manager of the Champion until Oc- 
tober 6, 1909, having been frustrated in plans he had made to acquire the 
property as his own. Mr. Young continued to run the -paper until Julv i, 
1911, when Mr. Ingalls, with the assistance of J. C. Killarney, succeeded in 
organizing a company, which purchased the paper and turned it over to Eu- 
gene C. Pulliam, as editor. Mr. Pulliam was a young man, who had served 
his apprenticeship on the Kansas City Star as a reporter. He was a good 
writer, but lacked experience and business judgment, and while he made a 
vigorous effort to run the paper, and had the benefit of strong financial con- 
nections, he did not succeed, and September i, 1914, he turned the paper over 
to Sheffield Ingalls as trustee, and it was subsequently sold to A. S. Andereck 
and his brother, A. P. Andereck, of Kankakee, 111. A few months later a 
company was organized, composed of the Andereck brothers. O. A. Simmons, 
vice-president of the First National Bank. Wilbur C. Hawk and Sheffield 
Ingalls, who in 191 5 are cpnducting the paper, and it is enjoying its most 
prosperous days since the death of its brilliant editor, John A. Martin. 

In 1877 there came to Atchison a young man who subsequently became 
one of the famous editors of the United States, Edgar Watson Howe. Mr. 
Howe was born in Wabash county, Indiana, May 3, 1854, a son of Henr>' 
and Elizabeth Howe. When he was about three years of age his family re- 
moved to Bethany, Harrison county, Missouri, where the father, a Meth- 
odist preacher, published a newspaper of strong abolition sentiments. The 
younger Mr. Howe served an apprenticeship at the printer's trade in his 
father's office, and in 1868 started out for himself. He visited various cities, 
working at the case to earn money to pay his way from one place to another, 
and at the age of eighteen became the publisher of the weekly Globe, at 
Golden, Colo. From there he went to Falls City, Neb., where he published 
a newspaper, subsequently coming to Atchison, and established the Daily 
Globe. When Mr. Howe reached Atchison, the Champion, under the man- 
agement of John A. Martin, was the most powerful newspaper organ in the 
northern half of Kansas, and the field here was none too promising on this 
account. However, Mr. Howe proceeded to publish a paper of an entirely 


different type than that published by Mr. Martin. It was a small sheet, and 
was devoted to "gab, gossip and paid locals," and for over thirty years this 
policy was successfully maintained by Mr. Howe. It was unique in the 
journalistic world, and under the management of Mr. Howe it acquired a 
National reputation, chiefly because of the quaint, homely philosophy it con- 
tained and the unusual treatment he "gave the ordinary incidents of human 
life. As a reporter of this class of news, Mr. Howe was perhaps without a 
peer in the country. For over thirty years he tramped the streets of Atchi- 
son with note-book and pencil, and to practically every item he turned in he 
gave a peculiar twist, which reflected a remarkable insight of human nature. 
With Mr. Howe were associated Miss Frances L. Garside. Ralph ("Doc") 
Tennal, Miss Nellie Webb and J. E. Rank. To each of them Mr. Howe 
was indebted for much of the success the Globe attained. The death of Col. 
John A. Martin and the collapse of the Champion, that followed, gave Air. 
Howe his opportunity, and for the greater part of his active newspaper 
career in Atchison he had the field to liimself. The Globe was a great 
financial success, and in one year it has been said that Mr. Howe .cleared 
close to $24,000 on his property. "Doc" Tennal was the first one of Mr. 
Howe's faithful associates to break up the Globe family. Mr. Tennal was a 
remarkable reporter of local news, but being ambitious and realizing the lim- 
itations by which he was surrounded, he concluded to acquire a newspaper 
property of his own, and in pursuance of that plan, he bought the Sabctlia 
Herald in 1905, subsequently relinquishing it to become editor of the Kansas 
City Weekly Star. He returned some years later to Sabetha, and re-pur- 
chased the Herald plant, and is now the editor of that prosperous and pro- 
gressive paper (1915). 

J. E. Rank left the Globe a few years later, and went to Bartlesville, 
Okla., where he ran a paper a short time, antl then returned to Atchison, 
and his first newspaper love. 

Miss Garside, who was one of the most brilliant newspaper women in 
the country, went from the Globe to the Nezv York Journal, and in 1909 Mr. 
Howe turned the Globe over to his son, Eugene Howe, who is now ( 1915) 
its editor and principal owner. Associated with him are Mr. Rank and Miss 
Nellie Webb, together with other old Globe employes. 

Miss Webb is the society reporter, and in this capacity she has acquired 
a brilliant reputation among the newspaper women of Kansas. The "policy" 
of the Globe remains unchanged, and, while it may not enjoy the same pres- 
tige it had during the days of the elder Howe, it is still one of the money- 


making newspaper plants of Kansas. Eugene Howe is a young man of much 
promise. He is still young and has spent his life in newspaper work. He 
has carried the new responsibihties thmst upon him by his father both grace- 
fully and tactfully, and there is every reason to- predict a successful future 
for him. 

Among the early newspaper enterprises of Atchison was Tlic Patriot. 
established by Nelson Abbott October 2^. 1867. In September, 1868, 
^Messrs. H. Clay Park, B. P. W'aggener and ^Ir. Abbiott formed a partner- 
ship, under the name of H. Clay Park & Company, and purchased the estab- 
lishment, and in October of the same year, the paper passed into the hands 
of C. F. and C. P. Cochrane, but shortly thereafter reverted to Nelson Ab- 
bott, who remained in control until December, 1875. Dr. H. B. Horn, for 
many years a respected and honored citizen of Atchison, was connected with 
the paper as bookkeeper and business manager, and performed much of the 
editorial work, and when Mr. Abbott finallv relinquished ciintrol of the 
paper, it fell again into the hands of H. Clay Park, who together with F. L. 
Vandergrift and P. H. Peters, assumed control. j\Jr. Peters did not remain 
long in the partnership, and in 1877 he sold his interest to E. \\'. Beall. The 
paper was Democratic, and Mr. Park, who was very actively identified with 
the affairs of Atchison in the early days, was an able editor. He left Atchi- 
son twenty-five years later, to become an editorial writer on the St. Joseph 
News and Press. F. L. \''andergrift is one of the famous newspaper men 
of Kansas, and for many years was the representative in Kansas of the 
Kansas City Star. He is one of the best loved and best known newspaper 
writers of the \\'''est, and is now (1915) editor of the Earth, a publication 
devoted to the interests of the Santa Fe railroad. 

One of the well known newspaper men of the ^\'est connected with 
The Patriot was Tom Stivers, who was connected with the Chainpiou for 
eight years, and in January, 1879, became a partner with ]Mr. Park and Mr. 

The Patriot was an afternoon daily paper, and always stanchly Dem- 
ocratic in politics, and for many years was a successful journalistic enter- 
prise. This paper continued to 1:ie published either as a weekly or a daily 
until about October 12, 1895. It was in a precarious condition many years 
before that date, and had a number of different editors, among them F. M. 
Stambaugh and \Y. J. Montgomeiy. Tlic Atchison Morning Star and Daily 
Patriot was built upon the wreck of the original Patriot, its first issue being 
dated October 13, 1895, and running until February 23, 1896. 

The Atchison Union was a Democratic paper, established by Gideon O. 


Chase, about 1858. It had an office in a frame building at the southwest 
corner of Fifth and Commercial streets, subsequently occupied by the Cham- 
pion. Mr. Chase came from Waverly, N. Y., and his paper, while Dem- 
ocratic, was for the Union and against slavery. Mr. Chase did not remain 
in charge of the paper very long, and turned it over to W. H. Addoms and 
G. I. Stebbins. Shortly thereafter Stebbins retired, and Addoms went to 
Leavenworth, where he started a paper, turning his interest over to A. P. 
Cochrane, who was an employe in the office. Cochrane did not run the paper 
but a short time, when a Mr. Leland, Francis J. Marion and Franklin G. 
Adams assumed control and ran it a short time, when ]\Iarion took the plant 
of Plattsburg, Mo., and junked it, and for many years what was left of the 
paper was piled up in the court house at that place. 

The Atchison Church Visitor was established in 1906, and was published 
by the pastors of the following churches : English Lutheran, Methodist, 
Christian, Congregational, Presbyterian, Baptist. 

On January 14, 1911, Paul Tonsing became its editor and publisher. 
The paper is printed by Mr. Tonsing in the office over 500 Commercial 
street, so long occupied as the editorial room of John A. Martin, of whom 
Mr. Tonsing is a son-in-law. Mr. Tonsing is a Lutheran minister by profes- 
sion, and for a number of years after his graduation from Midland College, 
he did pastoral work in a number of Lutheran churches in Nebraska and 
Kansas. Mr. Tonsing is a reformer, and a man not without courage and 
ability. His views are looked upon as too extreme by the conservative liberal 
element of Atchison, but all give him credit for being conscientious and 
honest. He is a hard-working, industrious citizeh, and, while he has made 
many active enemies in his reform work, he enjoys the personal satisfaction 
of seeing many of the reforms he has advocated come to pass. He is an 
avowed foe of the liquor traffic, and has perhaps done more than any other 
individual in the community to make his views on that question effective. 
In connection with the publication of the Church Visitor, Mr. Tonsing also 
prints and edits the Western Chief, a monthly publication devoted to the 
Improved Order of Redmen. 

E. W. Hozve's Monthly was started by Mr. Howe in March, 191 1. It is 
published monthly and contains practically all of the present literary efforts 
of its editor. Mr. Howe has adopted the use of pink paper for this publica- 
tion, which is composed of four pages. It contains no advertising matter, 
but has a large circulation among friends and admirers of Mr. Howe's 
peculiar literarv type. Mr. Howe has popularized this monthly by making 


the price so low that no subscriber can afford not to take it, and when he has 
reached a circulation large enough, he plans to put it on a profitable basis 
as an advertising medium. 

The Effingham Nezu Leaf was started about April 12, 1894, with M. C. 
Klingman, editor, and his wife, Mrs. Ima L. Klingman, as associate editor. 
The Nezv Leaf was the successor of the Effingham Times, founded in 1887, 
and the Effingham Graphic, founded in 189 1, and the Effingham World, 
founded in 1893. After the death of M. C. Klingman, at the Missouri Bap- 
tist sanitarium, at St. Louis, Mo., May 5, 1899, Mrs. Klingman took charge 
as editor and publisher, and emploj^ed W. W. Gaboon, associate editor. Jan- 
uary 4, 1901, J. W. Coleman became the editor and publisher, and \V. W. 
Gaboon, associate editor. In December, 1903, W. W. Gaboon purchased 
a one-half interest and the firm became Goleman & Gaboon. Mr. Coleman 
repurchased the paper October 16, 1903, and continued its publication until 
September 8, 1905, when Mr. Gaboon and C. E. Sells became the editors 
and publishers. May 4 of the following year Mr. Gaboon sold his interest 
to W. H. Sells, and August 31, IQ06, C. E. and A. J. Sells took charge of 
the paper, and in 191 5 were still its publishers. 

The Effingham Netv Leaf is a successful country newspaper, serving 
its readers faithfully and satisfactorily. 

The Mtiscotah Record was founded about October i, 1884, by F. M. 
Bonham, who ran the paper until about 1886, when on August 18 of that 
year the Miller brothers became its editors and publishers. They sold it 
to Claud Martin and Coleman Martin December 4, 1889, who subsequently 
sold the plan to M. C. Klingman, editor of the Effingham Neiv Leaf, May, 
1890. Mr. Klingman turned the property over to Fred W. Badger July 18. 
1890, who continued the paper until December 8, 1893, when he disposed of 
it to John Ford. Ford published the paper until November i, 1894, when he 
sold it to James S. Martin and Guy L. Stotter, the latter assuming entire 
control March 6, 1896. Mr. Stotter sold the Record to J. W. Campbell 
August 17, 1905, but assumed control of it again November 23, 1905, and 
remained in control until June 6, 1907, when J. A. Shoemaker, who after- 
wards became county superintendent of Atchison county, appeared as its 
editor and publisher. When Mr. Shoemaker was elected county superin- 
tendent, he turned the property over to A. W. Huntis, who on February 3, 
1910, sold it to P. J. Gortelyon, and March 7, 1912, the property was pur- 
chased by R. M. Dunlap, who is now (1915) its editor and publisher. 



The Huron Herald started January 7, 1892, with Frank I. White as 
editor and pubHsher. On May 16, 1895, Messrs. Priest & Priest took 
charge and were in control October 18, 1896, when the office was 
destroyed by fire. The paper was suspended for a few weeks and the next 
issue was dated November 6, 1896, with \\\ E. Johnson, editor and pub- 
lisher. The Herald suspended publication hi February, 1897, and was again 
resurrected by W. A. Huff Ijy the issue of April 9, 1897. Mr. Huff dis- 
continued the paper in 1900, and went to Brown county, where he was active 
in newspaper work in that county. The Huron Herald was revived again 
April 12, 1907, by J. E. Smith, who published it until March 12, 1914, and 
March 19 of that year, J. M. Delaney announced that through no fault of his-, 
he was forced to take control of the paper, and had employed Herman Van- 
On August 19, 19 1 5. T. A. Cur became editor, and on November Ti, 1915. 
August 19, 1915, T. A. Cur became editor, and November 11, 1915, Orvil 
L. Pancake was in charge. 

The Potter Kansan was originally known as the Potter Leaf, which 
started November 22, 1900, by Eppie L. Barber and Norene Barber, his 
wife. Mr. Barber surrendered control of the paper September 17, 1903, 
turning it over to his wife, who became its publisher. Shortly thereafter, 
Charles B. Remsburg, who for many years was a well known new spaper re- 
porter in northeastern Kansas, appeared as its editor and publisher, and re- 
mained in charge until May 11, 1905, when he turned it over to J. W. Thomp- 
son and his wife, Mrs. J. W. Thompson. On August 17, 1905, the Thomp- 
sons leased the paper to R. J. Wilson. Init in the following December ]Mr. 
Thompson resumed control again and placed Howard C. King in charge as 
local editor and business manager. On March 22. 1906, W. A. Remsburg be- 
came proprietor and in the following September, J. E. Remsburg purchased 
the plant, and is now its editor. 

The Potter Kansan is one of the best known country weekly papers in 
Kansas and the contributions from the pen of George J. Remsburg, the noted 
archeologist and newspaper paragrapher and poet, are frequently quoted by 
the newspapers of the State. 

Atchison county, perhaps, has been the graveyard for as many news- 
papers as any other county in the State. The State Historical Society has 
reserved the record, and in many instances, the files, of newspapers, which 
have been born, and after a brief existence, have did in this county. 

The first rival newspaper of the Champion, then the Squatter Sovereign, 
was the Sumner Gazette, published at Sumner in 1857. It survived only a 
short time, as also did the Western Spy, which lived a few months in i860. 


In 1857 The Kansas Zcituv.g was started liy Kab & Sussman, but was 
moved to Leavenworth in 1859. 

Half a dozen papers sprung up in 1862 and 1863, among which were: 
The Plcifer, The Bulletin, The Union-Banner, The Antx-J ayhaivkcr , The 
Standard, and Die Tackle. 

In 1873 the anti John A. Martin crowd, headed by John M. Price, started 
a Repubhcan daily and weekly, called the Globe, with A. W. Wagnhals, J. B. 
Dutton, Rev. E. Cooper, T. F. Smith and Frankhn G. Adams as the prin- 
cipal writers. It lasted but a few months. Wagnhals subsequently changed 
his name to Wagnalls, and moved to New York City, where he became a 
great publisher as a member of the firm of Funk & Wagnalls, which pub- 
lished the Standard Dictionary and a number of other well known publica- 

The following list shows the different publications received by the His- 
torical Society from .\tchison county at the end of the year IQ15: 

Atchison Charnpion, daily and weekly. 

Atchism Globe, daily and weekly. 

The Midland, Atchison. 

The Abbey Student, Atchison. 

Midland College Bulletin, Atchison. 

.5"^ Benedict's Calendar, Atchison. 

The Western Chief, Atchison. 

Atchison Church Visitor. 

E. IV. Howe's Monthly, Atchison. 

Kansas Synod Lutheran, .Atchison. 

The Optimist, Atchison. 

Effingham New Leaf. 

Atchison County High School N'czt's, Effingham. 

Muscotah Record. 

Potter Kansan. 

Huron Herald. 

Among the numerous publications that have enjoyed a brief existence 
in this county, are the following: 

Kansas Chnrchinan, published at Atchison from November, 189 1. to 
December, 1892. Rev. E. K. Brooke was editor. This publication had 
been published at Salina, Kan., previously, and from Atchison was removed 
to Lawrence. 


Arrington Argus, started by T. W. Gardner, and was suspended after 
the tenth number. 

The American Journal of Education, was pubhshed at Atcliison and St. 
Louis, Mo., by Messrs. J- B. Merwin and I. C. Scott, in 1870. 

The Atchisonian, established March 24, 1877, by the Atchison Puljhsh- 
ing Company. This paper was a six column, eight page affair, with a patent 
inside. The last issue appeared May 26, 1877. 

Atchison Daily Times was started February 3, 1887, by John N. Reyn- 
olds, but after the seventh issue the paper was changed to a weekly, and 
called the Atchison Weekly Times, from March 19 to July 2, 1887. The 
next issue was dated July 11, 1887, and was again called The Atchison Daily 
Times, and ran as such until August 6, 1887, when it suspended. John N. 
Reynolds was, in many ways, a unique character. He came to Atchison as 
the organizer and manager of a live stock insurance company. He was at 
one time a preacher, and his career in Atchison was remarkable for its vio- 
lence and his disregard for both the proprieties and the ethics of the news- 
paper profession. He was looked upon by many as an irresponsible dem- 
agogue, and it was supposed that he ran his paper for blackmailing purposes. 
The story goes that during his management of the live stock insurance com- 
pany, he incurred an advertising bill with one of the local papers, and fail- 
ing to pay the bill, the editor of the local paper, instead of having recourse to 
the courts, began to iieap abuse upon Reynolds, and. using this as a pretext. 
Reynolds established the Times, for the purpose of retaliation. As the result 
of this episode, Revnolds 1:iecame very violent in his denunciation of many 
men of established reputations in the community, and during the time that 
he published his paper there was much excitement of an undesirable charac- 
ter in the city. Reynolds finally landed in the Kansas State penitentiary, hav- 
ing served a term previously in the Missouri State penitentiary. He wrote 
a book subsequently, relating largely to his treatment in these two institu- 
tions, which he entitled, "The Twin Hells." For a short period he edited his 
paper from the county jail in Atchison, but in 1888 J. A. Sunderland took 
hold of the Times, and it was published up to January 31, 1891. 

The Sunday Adorning Call was started Ijy the Call Printing Company, 
with Frank Pearce as editor and publisher, and was first issued in magazine 
form February 8, 1880. March 28, 1880, Barton Lowe & Company became 
editors and publishers, enlarging the paper to a five column folio. January 
30, 1 88 1, Luther L. Higby appears as a member of the firm, but with the 
issue of October 9, 1881, Luther L. Higby became sole owner. November 
6, 1881, C. F. Cochrane became one of the editors, and January 18, 1882, 


Chris Rutt became a partner of Mr. Higby, and this firm sold the plant to 
Hennan J. Rodman October 22, 1882, who continued it until Xovemljer 18, 
1883, when the name was changed to The Western Mercury, with E. J. Van 
Deventer and H. J. Rodman as publishers, and it was continued until about 

TJie Missouri Valley Farmer was published by A. J. Felt during the 
time that Mr. Felt was editor of the Champion. The first issue of the Farmer 
was dated January 5, 1893, '^"d it continued until August 18, 1898, at which 
time it was sold to C. M. Sheldon, who also became owner of the Chanipim, 
and the Missouri Valley Farmer was moved to Kansas City. 

Tlie iVczl' West was a monthly journal of immigration, published by 
the Immigrant Union, that was established in Atchison in August, 1878. It 
was issued in magazine form and contained about sixteen pages of reading 
matter. The earlier numbers of the publication were printed at Hannibal, 
Mo., and in 1878 H. H. Allen, who was for many years a real estate opera- 
tor in Atchison, became the editor of this paper. Mr. Allen subsequently 
sold the property to J. G. P. Hilderbrand, who later turned the property over 
to two men by the names of Berry and Henry. The last issue appeared about 
July, 1880. 

Atchison Baptist was a monthly magazine, printed bv the City Alission 
Publication Company, of Pittsburgh, Pa., in the interests of the First Baptist 
church, of Atchison. It lasted about three years, and W. H. Park was the 
local editor. 

Kansas Agriculturist was a weekly publication, which was established 
July 18, 1898, and probably died about March 20, 1899. 

The Atchison Blade Avas established July l6, 1892, and published by the 
Blade Publishing Company, composed of Dr. Grant Brown, Natt G. Langston, 
and Will Harris, three prominent negroes of Atchison. It was a four page, 
six column paper, and was operated, after several changes in the manage- 
ment, until about January 20, 1894. It again resumed publication November 
5, 1897, and was run until September 19, 1898, by H. Lewis Dorsev. 

The Kansas Statesman, Atchison, was established February 15, 1901. by 
G. W. Myers & Sons, office. 315 Commercial street. This paper was ab- 
sorbed by the Atchison Clmmpion, after the issue of October 11, 1901. 

The Trades Union, Atchison, was founded September 5, 1885, by Frank 
Hall, R. Tompkins, and James W. Reilly. This paper was the official paper 
of the Kansas State Assembly of the Knights of Labor, office, 521 Com- 
mercial street. The last issue on file is dated November 6, 1886, and the paper 
moved to Topeka after this date. 


The Atchison Banner was a German paper, and C. F. Ruth was editor 
and publisher. This was a seven column, four page paper, and was founded 
March i, 1878. It was enlarged to an eight column paper the same year. 
It supported the Republican State ticket in 1878. The paper was suspended 
after the issue of July 12, 1879. 

The Bible Investigator was a monthly publication, started about July, 
1 88 1, by William Kirby and A. D. Stevens. It was printed by W. H. Has- 
kell & Son, who for many years conducted a prosperous printing business in 
Atchison. The editor was William Kirby, and a Mr. Stevens was the man- 
ager, both of whom were residents of Doniphan, and a notice in the paper 
asked that communications for either one should be addressed to that place. 
It was in operation about five months. 

Atchison's Monthly was published by W. H. Haskell & Son, and the man- 
aging editor was Herman J. Rodman. It did not last long. 

Sentinel of the Northwest was a monthly publication, of which Dr. A. 
H. Lanphear was editor. The only issue of which there is any record was 
Volume I, No. i, date January i, 1883. 

Sunday Morning Facts was published by E. W. Beal from September 
2, 1883, until about February 3, 1884. 

Der Humorist^ was as the title indicates, a German publication, with L. 
Willstaedt as its publisher. This paper, or magazine, was also short lived, 
lasting less than a year. 

Atchison Sunday Morning Sermon, published by J. \\'. and J. ]M. Tan- 
ner. First issue was June i, 1884, and the last issue about July 27. 18S4. 

Atchison Advance, published by Frank Hall and Dr. H. B. Horn. The 
first issue of this paper was November 5, 1884. and the last issue was Jan- 
uary 3, 1885. 

The Messachorean was started in 1887, and issued about every two 
monlhs. It was devoted to the interest of Midland College, and edited by the 
faculty. It died about June, 1888. 

The Atchison Daily Bee was one of John N. Reynolds' enterprises, 
which started March 25, 1889, and suspended April 4, 1889. 

The Tradesman was a monthly publication, devoted to the trade union- 
ism, and was edited by Robert Tompkins, the veteran editor and publisher. 

Sfebbins & Talbot's Real Estate Record, established in 1869, by C. I. 
Stebbins, W. R. Stebbuis, and J. H. Talbot. This was, as its name implies, 
a publication devoted to booming real estate in Atchison county and \'icinity. 

Kansas Monthly Souvenir was published by Fitch Rice & Company from 
Februai-y, 1873, to sometime in June of the same year. 


Gardne/s Real Estate Bulletin was another real estate journal, pub- 
lished monthly, by C. V. Gardner in 1873. 

The Short Line Advocate was issued by the Atchison & Denver Rail- 
road Company in 1879. 

Der Courier was another German publication, published at Atchison and 
Topeka, by Edward F. Fleischer in 1879. 

The Public Ledger was started August 19, 1880, by W. J. Granger. 
It supported the National Greenback ticket of that year, and October 30, 1888, 
Granger turned the paper over to E, A. Davis & Son, who ran it a short time. 
Mr. Granger returned to Atchison eighteen years later, and became a re- 
porter on the Atchison Champion, and during the interval published papers 
in Effingham and other places. In 191 5 he was the publisher and owner of 
the Nettawaka Talk. 

The Western Farm Home was a continuation of the Nexu J Vest Monthly. 
Its first issue was in January, 1881, with James P. Henry and George H. 
Pardee as editors and publishers. It suspended publication in October, 1881. 

High School Quarterly was published at Effingham for the first time 
January, 1895, with S. J. Hunter, editor, and John W. Wilson, business man- 
ager. This magazine was published in the interests of the Atchison high 
school. It ^\•as subsequently changed to The High School Bidletin, after 
which it was issued regularly once a month during the scliO(il year. It sus- 
pended publication about September, 1902. 

The Oracle was another Effingham publication, started December, igoi, 
which was conducted by Guy Hendrickson and the students of the Atchison 
high school, in the interests of that institution. It suspended publication 
about May, 1902. 

Tlie A. C. H. S. Nezvsletter was a monthly publication, started in Feb- 
ruary, 1901, by John W. Wilson, principal of the Atchison county high school. 
There were only three numbers of this paper, which was a monthly. 

The Atchison County Visitor was still another Effingham publication, 
started by W. J. Granger March 10, 1905. Guy C. Hendrickson became 
business manager June 8, 1906, and the paper suspended during the year 

The Potter Press, started April 8, 189S, with E. Campbell as editor, and 
Jewell & Campbell as publishers. It lasted until September 30, 1898, when 
it was consolidated with the Boston (Leavenworth county) Light. January 
27, 1899, it resumed publication, with M. L. and K. Lockwood as editors, and 


E. E. Campbell as local editor, but again consolidated with the Easton Light 
September i, 1899. 

The Atchison County Recorder was started June i, 1900. and published 
by the Lockwood Printing Company, of Atchison. Its last issue was dated 
October 26, 1900. - 

The Muscotah Nezi's was filed April 5, 1880, by Nash & Walkup, and 
lasted about three months. 

The IVeeky Journal was started by G. W. Messigh in Effingham Sep- 
tember 2, 1892, who ran it until February 23, 1893, when it died. 

The Arrington Times was started May 28, 1896, by W. A. Huff. In 
September of the same year its name was changed to The Atcliisnn County 
Times, and it suspended sometime in 1897. 

The Prairie Press was started in Lancaster May 12, 1888, with W. C. 
Adkins as editor and publisher, and it was run until March 7, 1890, when 
it was succeeded by the Huron Graphic. 

The Huron Headlight, started March 13, 1884, and died on the same 

The Huron Messenger was started July 2, 1884, by J. M. Warton, and 
also died on the same day it was born. 

The Weekly Graphic, which succeeded to all the rights and privileges 
of the Prairie Press, of Lancaster, was started by W. C. Adkins April 5, 
r890. Mr. Adkins ran this paper until March 28, 1891, at which time he 
sold it to J. A. Sunderland, of Atchison, who ran it until May 2, 189 1, when 
Mr. Adkins again took control of the paper and ran it until the following fall. 

The Huron Times was a kind of continuation of the Atchison Times, 
and AVilume 4, Xo. i. of this paper, was dated April 4, 1891. There 
were but four issues of the Times, after the plant was moved from 
.\tchison to Huron, the last issue being dated April 25, 1891. J. A. Sunder- 
land was also editor and publisher of this paper, after he moved it from Atch- 
ison to Huron. The Huron Times was a weekly publication, by G. E. Nichols, 
and was started February 22, 1901, and published seventeen times, when it 

The Effingham Enterprise was founded about July i, 1895, by W. H. 
Bright. It was short lived, and little is known of its history after the date 
just mentioned. 

The Peoples' Press was a party organ, started in August, 1883, bv the 
Peoples' Press Association, and suspended September 15 of the same year. 

The A'czc Kansois Magazine was started by Dr. \\'. H. Wynn, for many 


years a much beloved and greatly respected professor of English literature at 
Midland College. Dr. Wynn conceived the idea that there was a place for 
a monthly magazine in Atchison, to be conducted along the lines of the 
original Kansas Magazine, published in 1873, which contained some of the 
best literature that had ever been produced in Kansas. Associated with Dr. 
Wynn were Dr. W. W. Campbell, R. M. Manley, B. P. Waggener, H. M. 
Jackson, H. H. Allen, and A. J. Harwi. The first issue appeared February 
18, 1892, and the last issue appeared September 30, 1893. 

Midivest Moose Reviezv was the official organ of the local lodge of the 
Loyal Order of Moose, published monthly by Frank L. Danforth, editor. It 
was founded in 1912, and ran only a few months. 

The Atchison Tribune was started in 1896, but the name of the editor 
and publisher are unknown. 

The Western Chief is a monthly publication, devoted to the Order of 
Redmen, and was founded about April. 1909. Paul Tonsing is editor and 

Benedictine Parish Monthly, started in Atchison, in March, 1907, and 
published by St. Benedict's College, until January, 1910. 

The College Review was published monthly in Lawrence and Atchison, 
by A. G. Coonrod and G. T. Smith, from 1891 to 1900. Coonrod & Smith 
were the owners of business colleges at Atchison and Lawrence. 

Kansas Telegraph was a German paper, started by H. Von Langen 
December 23, 1880, and was published in Atchison until 1881, when it was 
removed to Topeka, where it was published for many years. 

Atchison Journal was another German publication, started by Jolm 
Hoenscheidt in 1880, but was short lived. 

The Kansas Staats-Anseiger was started in Topeka in 1879, and pvib- 
ished until 1881, when it was moved to Atchison. It was also short lived. 

Plain Facts was a weekly publication, started in Atchison October 4, 
1897, and published by authority of twenty-five Atchison Populists, who were 
opposed to the election of George W. Glick, the so-called Populist candidates 
for State senator. It lasted three issues. 

The Atchison Journal was the official publication of the Trades and 
Labor Council of Atchison. It started early in the year 1905, by \V. J. 
Granger, and discontinued the last of November of the same year. 

The Atchison Alorning Star was a daily paper, published bv J. A. Roul- 
ston, and started June 14, 1905, lasting until August 30, 1905. 

The Atchison Tribune was a weekly publication, started March 27, 1896, 
by W. H. Higgins, and suspended publication July 16, 1896. 






Banking; was a precarious business during tlie Territorial da}s in Kan- 
sas. There were no banks, as we know them, until January 29, 1857, when 
the Territorial legislature passed an act providing that every company or 
association of persons formed for banking purposes within the Territory, and 
without an act of legislature authorizing the same, should be deemed unlawful. 
Upon the passage of this act, the first bank authorized to do business under 
it was The Kansas Valley Bank, of Leavenworth, with an authorized capital 
stock of $800,000.00, with five branches, at Atchison, LeCompton, Doniphan, 
Ft. Scott and Shawnee. The authorized capital stock of each one of the 
branches was $300,000.00, and under the terms of the act, each branch was 
independent of the Leavenworth institution. The great Government Over- 
land Transportation Company of Majors Smoot-Russell & Company was the 
big financial power behind this organization. The Leavenworth bank was 
never formed, and the Atchison branch was the first to start out under this act 
of the legislature, being authorized to begin business February 19, 1857, with 
securities amounting to $100,000. Dr. John H. Stringfellow, Joseph Plean 
and Samuel Dickson were authorizd to open subscription books. The board 
of directors included Samuel C. Pomeroy, who was president ; W. H. Russell. 
L. R. Smoot, W. B. Waddell, Franklin G. Adams, Samuel Dickson and \\". E. 
Gaylord. Shortly after the bank began business there were rumors emanat- 
ing from the rival towns of Sumner and Doniphan that the Atchison institu- 
tion was about to suspend, and for the purpose of allaying any sus]iicion on 
the part of tlie public, created by these rumors, tlie directors published a state- 


meat of its condition, showing that the assets were $36,638.00, with habihties 
of $20,118.00. In July or August, 1857, L. S. Bohng, of LeCompton, was 
appointed to examine and report on the financial condition of the Atchison 
branch of the Kansas Valley Bank, and this is the first record in Kansas of 
a proceeding of this kind. 

Samuel C. Pomeroy resigned as president of the liank in 1838. and was 
succeeded by WilHam H. Russell, of the contracting firm of JMajors-Smoot- 
Russell & Company. G. H. Fairchild was made vice-president, and R. L. 
Pease, cashier. 

In 1861, this bank, then called the Kansas Valley Bank, had its name 
changed by act of the legislature, to the Bank of the State of Kansas, and it 
was conducted under that name until 1S66, when the stockholders wound up 
its affairs. 

The legitimate successor of the Bank of the State of Kansas was Hether- 
ington's Exchange Bank, which was founded in 1859 by William Heth- 

The Exchange National Bank, of Atchison, Kan., is the oldest banking 
institution in the city of Atchison, having been established in 1859, while 
Kansas was a Territory. The bank was then named the Hetherington Ex- 
change Bank. That bank became the successor of the Bank of the State of 
Kansas, which was organized in 1857. The founder of the Hetherington Ex- 
change Bank was William Hetherington, and, except for one year during the 
Civil war, it has been in successful operation since it was established. It 
passed through the period of its existence during Territorial days, and the 
depressing financial conditions as a result of the war, and business reversals 
incident to the re-construction period, and its management was at all times 
conducted upon the theory of its motto adopted by William Hetherington in 
an early day that "Safety First" in all of its business transactions was the 
secret of success. 

The bank's first business home was in the Otis & Click building, opposite 
the Byram Hotel. In 1869 it was moved to the Hetherington building, at the 
northwest corner of Fourth and Commercial streets. Later on, and in 1885, 
the bank was moved to the southwest corner of Sixth and Commercial streets, 
into the building erected by its president, William Hetherington, where it 
has since been located. 

In 1876, William Hetherington admitted into the firm, as a partner, Web- 
ster W. Hetherington, his eldest son, and in 1881, Clifford S. Hetherington, 
his youngest son, became associated with him. In the year 1882 the Heth- 


erington Exchange Bank was incorporated under the laws of Congress, as 
a National bank, under the name of The Exchange National Bank of Atchison, 
with a paid-up capital of ?ioo,ooo, and surplus of $20,000, and at once took 
high rank as one of the strongest and most conservative banks in northeastern 
Kansas, and has ever since maintained that reputation. 

The Exchange National Bank was organized with William Hetherington 
as president, August Byram, vice-president, Webster W. Hetherington, cash- 
ier, and C. S. Hetherington, assistant cashier. In 1890, upon the death of 
its president, William Hetherington, Webster W. Hetherington was elected 
president, B. P. Waggener, vice-president, and C. S. Hetherington, cashier. 
In 1892, upon the death of its then president, Webster W. Hetherington, 
B. P. Waggener was elected president, A. J. Harwi, vice-president, W. P. 
Waggener, vice-president, C. S. Hetherington, cashier, C. W. Ferguson, assist- 
ant cashier, and Webster Wirt Hetherington, teller. In October, 1906. C. S. 
Hetherington, the cashier, died, and C. W. Ferguson was elected cashier, and 
Webster Wirt Hetherington, assistant cashier, and Edgar Mattocks, teller. 
In April. 1907, tlie capital stock of tlie l:iank was increased to $200,000.00 
with a surplus of $50,000, and ex-Governor \\'. J. Bailey was elected vice- 
president and managing officer of the bank, which position he has since held. 
Upon the death of A. J. Harwi, his son, Frank E. Harwi, was elected director, 
and succeeded his father, A. J. Harwi, as vice-president, which position he 
now holds. 

In 1892 the bank adopted a by-law, whicli prohibited any officer or 
director of the bank from borrowing any money from it, or becoming an en- 
dorser or surety on any obligation or note to the bank, since which time no 
officer or director of the bank has been permitted to borrow any of its funds 
on deposit. The wisdom of this by-law adopted in 1892 has repeatedly been 
approved by the comptroller of the currency. The management of the Ex- 
change National Bank has adopted and adhered to this policy, because it be- 
lieves that a bank officer or director should not be permitted, under any cir- 
cumstances or in any emergency, to use any of its deposits in any of liis own 
personal speculations or ventures. 

In February, 1914, Webster Wirt Hetherington was appointed cashier, 
and Edgar Mattocks was elected assistant cashier, and George L. Wolfe, teller. 

While the bank it known far and wide throughout the State of Kansas 
for its conservatism, yet it makes an effort to accommodate all business insti- 
tutions in the city of Atchison entitled to assistance and credit. It aims to 
be a distinctive Atchison institution. 


Luther C. Challiss appeared as a banker in the city directory of 1859 
and 1861, Operating his bank at the corner of Second and Commercial streets, 
but not much is known of this institution. 

First National Bank was organized on the first day of October, 1866, by 
David Auld, with the following as the first board of directors : David Auld, 
Henry Kuhn, H. H. Moulton, George Scarborough, C. G. Foster, D. C. New- 
comb, and J. M. Linley. David Auld was elected president, George Scarbor- 
ough, vice-president, and W. R. Stebbins as cashier. For thirty-eight years 
this bank was under the careful and conservative management of David Auld, 
who died in October, 1904, and was succeeded by his son, David Auld, Jr. 
The bank began business in July. 1867, and since that time has been one of 
the strongest financial institutions in the West. It has always had the benefit 
of the services of experienced men in the banking business, and has followed 
a conservative policy during the whole of its existence. In 1910 the controll- 
ing interest in the First National Bank was purchased by the Commercial 
State Bank, which was organized in Atchison in 1906 by Sheffield Ingalls and 
O. A. Simmons. In the merger that took place the Commercial State Bank 
was absorbed by the First National Bank, and has continued under the latter 
name to maintain its high standard of conservatism, and with the introduction 
of new blood and new methods, it embarked upon a policy of service which 
has redounded to the lasting benefit of the community. The present officials 
of this institution are as follows: Edward Perdue, president; J. H. Barry, 
chairman of the board; O. A. Simmons, first vice-president and manager; J. 
M. Schott, second vice-president; Charles Linley, cashier; George H. Ed- 
wards, assistant cashier ; F. J. Ledoux, assistant cashier. 

The directors represent varied business interests of this city and county, 
and are as follows : Edward Perdue, J. H. Barry, O. A. Simmons, Charles 
Linley, J. M. Schott, C. C. McCarthy, August Manglesdorf, Leo Nusbaum, 
Sheffield Ingalls, A. E. Mize, M. Noll and Wl T. Hutson. 

The Atchison Savings Bank claims the distinction of being "The Old- 
est State Bank in Kansas," having enjoyed a continuous corporate existence 
of over forty-six years. 

R. A. Park was its organizer and first cashier, and in June, 1S69, it 
opened its doors for business in a brick one-story building at the northwest 
corner of Fifth and Commercial streets. At that time most of the business 
was centered close to the river, and this was considered quite an "up town" 
location, but time has vindicated the judgment of its early directors in anticipat- 
ing the westward growth of the town. With the expectation of building 


thereon the Isank early acquired title to the lot at the southwest corner of 
Fifth and Commercial streets, but subsequently disposed of it to the late Ex- 
Governor John A. Martin, who built the Cha/npiou building thereon, and the 
bank moved to its present quarters, which it had acquired, and still owns, at 
the southeast comer of Fifth and Commercial. 

William C. Smith (father of Henry T. Smith) was the first president but 
the late Judge A. G. Otis soon thereafter succeeded him and remained presi- 
dent until 1 89 1. 

Thomas Murphy (father of John Murphy and one of the l)uilders of the 
present Cain Mill Company mill), \V. W. Guthrie, Julius Kuhn, C. J. Drury, 
Col. Wm. Osborn, J. W. Parker, and other men prominent in the business and 
thereon the bank early acquired title to the lot at the southwest corner of 
social life of that period were among its early stockholders and directors, while 
for seventeen years the late T. C. Piatt served as teller, and by his affability 
and faculty of remembering people, made many friends for the institution. A 
baseball bat, kept under the counter, was his weapon for defending- the funds 
in his care. Courtney Challiss, George H. Lawton, "Vode" Kathrens, Lowen- 
holt, O. Orlopp and Will H. Bryning and others also served varying terms as 
early employees and will be remembered for their distinctive personalities. An 
apothecary's scale for weighing gold dust was part of the early equipment, but 
one trial was sufficient to prove the presence of too much dust and too little 
gold in the commodity offered. For almost twenty years the bank ran with 
but few restrictions from the State, the law simply requiring it to file an 
annual statement of its capital, surplus, etc., with list of stockholders and offi- 
cers, and pubhsh a statement of its financial condition as of some one day in the 
year. Needless to say the day selected was usually one on which the deposits. 
loans and resources would make a satisfactory showing, but about 1890 the 
legislature enacted a banking law, which has since been several times per- 
fected by amendments, which brought this and all other State banks under its 
provisions, and the supervision of a State bank commissioner, with cast iron 
restrictions as to the relative amounts of loans, cash reserves, etc., and al- 
though some of the requirements seemed unduly severe to those accustomed 
to the former unrestrained exercise of their own individual judgment, few 
would now deny that it was wise and much needed legislation. 

Following the retirement from the bank in 1891 of Judge Otis, Col. Wil- 
liam Osborn became president, serving until his death, when R. A. Park suc- 
ceeded to the office and served until his death in 1902. C. J. Drury being 
elected his successor and giving the institution his services for about a year, 
seconded by J. T. Hersey as vice-president, but both these gentlemen then re- 


tired upon the acc|uisition of a majnrit}- of the stock by Messrs. T. M. W'alker, 
J. C. Fox and F. M. Baker. Of later years the growth of the bank has been 
marked, the capital and surplus having repeatedly been enlarged, and de- 
posits and loans having shown a corresponding increase. The late Theodore 
Bartholow added his ripe experience as a successful banker to the board of 
directors, while F. G. Crowell, Joseph W. Allen, W^illiam Carlisle, with 
-Vlessrs. Walker, Baker and Fox and others as stockholders and directors gave 
the institution a Statewide prominence. 

R. A. Park, the second, who resigned as vice-president in 191 1 to engage 
in business elsewhere, entered the bank in 188 1 ; became cashier in 1892: 
elected vice-president in 1910, being succeedd as cashir by F. M. Woodford, 
who entered the bank's employ in 1900 as bookkeeper. 

C. W. Ferguson, formerly cashier of the Exchange National Bank, has 
recently been elected a vice-president of the Savings Bank, and the present 
officers and directors are as follows: T. M. Walker, president; Joseph W. 
Allen, vice-president; C. W. Ferguson, vice-president; F. M. Woodford, 
cashier; W. T. Fox, assistant cashier. 

The Gemian-American State Bank of Atchison was chartered May 15, 
1912, and began doing business June 21, 1912. Its original board of direc- 
tors was composed of Louis W. Voit, Henry Klostermeier, William Klos- 
termeier, F. A. Manglesdorf, L. A. Libel, G. T. Bolman, and F. A. 
Manglesdorf. Three months later the charter was amended and Charles 
Haase and W. A. Dilgert were added to the board of directors. 
This bank was organized with a capital stock of $50,000, and a surplus ac- 
count of $10,000. At the first meeting of the board of directors, the follow- 
ing officers were elected: Louis W. Voigt, president; Henry Klostermeier, 
vice-president; William Klosterweier, vice-president; F. A. Manglesdorf, 

At the time the membership of the board was increased, Guy Elwell was 
elected assistant cashier. This bank occupies handsome quarters at the south- 
east corner of Eighth and Commercial streets, and has shown a remarkable 
growth since its organization. The only change in the board of directors 
that has been made since its organization was the substitution of E. F. Man- 
glesdorf for his brother, A. F. Manglersdorf. At the close of the first busi- 
ness day of the bank it had deposits aggregating $25,000, and at the end 
of one year the deposits had increased to $248,000, and at the end of the 
second year it was $323,000, and at the end of the third year it was $425,- 
000, and in 191 5 it boasted of total deposits amounting to $525,000, with a 


surplus and undivided account of $21,000. This bank has had an able set of 
officers, and its directors are among the most influential and substantial cit- 
izens of the community. It started in by making an aggressive campaign 
for business, and it accomplished what it went after. T.he institution is con- 
ducted along broad and conservative lines, and renders not only good service 
to its many patrons, but to the comnumity as well. 

German Savings Bank. — Tiiis institution was organized in 187,^, with 
the following officers : George Storcli, president ; Robert Forbriger, vice- 
president; John Belz, cashier. 

The capital stock of the bank was $10,000 and its deposits were about 
$100,000. It conducted a general banking business, together with a regular 
savings department in connection therev/ith. This bank was located at 406 
Commercial street, and \\ound up its affairs in 1886, when it was merged 
with the United States National Bank and the Dime Savings Bank, both of 
which failed. 

The Atchison National Bank. — This bank was organized April i, 1873, 
by John M. Price as president; M. Barratt as cashier. G. D. Harrison suc- 
ceeded Mr. Price as president, in which capacity he served until 1878, at which 
time he was succeeded by C. J. Drury, with R. H. Ballentine as vice-president. 
When this bank commenced business it had a capital of $100,000, but in 1877 
it was reduced to $50,000. It was located for many years at 503 Commercial 
street, afterwards moving to what is now the Siinpson building, in the corner 
occupied by the Barth Clothing Company, where it failed in 19 — . 

The Atchison State Bank. — This bank was organized prior to 1891, and 
went into voluntaiy liquidation March 24, 1898, at which time John M. Cain 
was president and cashier, and John H. Murray was secretary. It was located 
on West Main street, near the corner of Thirteenth street. 

The Commercial State bank was chartered September 8, 1906, and be- 
gan business October 31 of the same year, and subsequently merged with 
the First National Bank March 24, 1910. 

The Union Trust Company was chartered February 28, 1907, and was 
organized by B. P. Waggener, with a ])aid-up capital stock of $ioo,oco. 
March 24, 1909, his charter was amended and it became the Exchange State 
Bank of Atchison, the officers of which are : F. E. Harwi, president, and Ed- 
ward T\-erson, casiiier. This bank has a paid-up capital of $50,000, with sur- 
plus and undivided profits of $34,776.91, with average deposits of $350,000. 
It is one of the strong State banking institutions of Kansas, and is doing a 
prosperous business. 


Atchison county has a number of strong, flourishing banks, located at 
Effingham, Muscotah, Potter, Huron, Lancaster and Cummings. 

The I-\irmers and Merchants State Bank, at Effingham, was organized in 
1905, with a capital of $12,000 by A. J. Smith, U. B. Sharpless, Fred Sutter, 
R. M. Thomas and J. W. Davis. Since its organization there have been a 
few changes among the officers and the board of directors, and in 191 5 the 
officers were : Fred Sutter, president ; L. T. Hawk, vice-president ; E. J. Kel- 
ley, cashier; D. R. Gerety, assistant cashier. The present board of directors 
is as follows: Fred Sutter, L. T. Hawk, Alex. McKay, U. B. Sharpless. 
E. J. Kelley. 

The capital stock and surplus in 19 15 exceeds $15,000, and the bank's 
average deposits are about $120,000. In 1910 a handsome and commodious 
brick building was erected at the corner of Main and Howard streets for its 
new home, and it was fitted with attractive new fixtures and a burglar-proof 
vault of modern structures, at a cost of $4,000. This institution is purely a 
local concern, financed by local capital ; all of the stockholders reside in Ef- 
fingham and vicinity, and comprise leading merchants and farmers. of the 
Effingham district. 

The State Bank of Effingham was organized in 1889, and occupies its 
own quarters in a substantial and commodious brick building on the Main 
street of Effingham, which was erected in 1897. In 1012 handsome new fix- 
tures and a burglar-proof vault were purchased at large cost. The first presi- 
dent of this bank was Wesley Cummings, and the first cashier was Gilbert 
Campbell, with Harvey Sharp as assistant cashier and bookkeeper. Mr. Cum- 
mings continued as president until his death in 1899, and was succeeded by 
L. A. Murphy, who in turn was succeeded by T. J. Bohannon. who served un- 
til his death, August 29, 191 5. A. M. Ellsworth became cashier in 1892. and 
was succeeded by W. M. Walker, who served in that capacity until 1905, 
when he is turn was succeeded by Clarence L. Cummings. the present cashier 
of this substantial and growing institution. The president officers of the 
bank are as follows : R. G. Bohannon, president : A. E. Mayhew, vice-presi- 
dent; C. L. Cummings, cashier; Carl B. Searls, bookkeeper. The directors 
are : H. A. McLenon, A. E. Mayhew, R. G. Bohannon and C. L. Cummings. 
The capital stock is $20,000, with surplus of $13,500 and deposits average 
$100,000. This institution is one of the most flourishing banks in the county, 
and its officers and directors are substantial business men and farmers, who 
are not only highly regarded in Effingham and vicinity, but throughout all of 
northeastern Kansas. 


The State Bank of Lancaster was organized March, 1896, by W. W. 
Stepp, Mark S. Cloves, C. L. Cummings, T. J. Bohannon, and Dr. A. L. 
Charles. T. J. Bohannon was elected its first president, and C. L. Cummings 
its first cashier. It had a capital stock of $5,000, which subsequently was in- 
creased to $10,000, and in 1915 it had a surplus of $5,000, with deposits ag- 
gregating $80,000. The present directors of this bank are as follows (1915) : 
M. J. Hines, C. E. Smith, A. J. Smith, J. F. Shell and M. E. Smith, and its 
present officers are: M. J. Hines, president; C. E. Smith, vice-president; A. 
J. Smith, cashier, and C. G. Stickler, assistant cashier. 

The State Bank of Cummings was organized by H. J. Barber and E. W. 
Kaufman in 1908, with a capital stock of $10,000. E. \\'. Kaufman was 
elected president; B. F. Chne, vice-president, and H. J- Barber, cashier. Tlie 
capital stock in 1915 was $10,000, with a surplus of $5,000 and deposits ag- 
gregating $60,000. A neat and substantial brick building was erected for 
banking quarters and equipped with handsome fixtures and burglar-proof 
vault, at a cost of $3,500. The officers of the bank in 1916 were as follows; 
President, John Ferris; cashier, fi. J. Barber, and the directors were J''bn 
Ferris, H. J. Barber, C. A. Lewis, William Hegarty and F. W. Kaufman. 
The bank is in a thrifty condition, and has shown a steady increase in growth 
from the date of its organization. 

The Farmei's' State Bank of Potter, Kan., was organized in 1905 by B. 
C. Daum, C. K. Hawley, P. C. Grenier, Arthur Davis, James Grapengieszer, 
Fred Potter, John Niemann, C. L. Cline, J. H. Glancy, who subsequently 
became directors of this enterprising institution. The capital stock was fixed 
at $12,000, and the first president of the bank was B. C. Daum, and the first 
cashier was C. K. Hawley. There are thirty-two stockholders in this insti- 
tution, who are practically all farmers, residing in the immediate neighborhood 
of Potter. In 1916 the officers were as follows: President, P. C. Grenier; 
cashier, A. H. Manglesdorf; vice-president, C. E. Hudson, and the capital 
stock was $12,000, with a surplus of $5,500 and deposits aggregating $80,000. 

It is unusual to find two substantial banking instiutions in a town the 
size of Potter, as it is supposed that one bank in such a community would 
meet all the requirements of its citizens. 

The Potter State Bank preceded the organization of the Farmers' State 
Rank five years. It was organized in 1900 by O. A. Simmons, L. M. Jewell 
and Fred Ode, with a capital stock of $5,000. O. A. Simmons remained the 
active cashier and manager of the bank for two years, being succeeded by 
L. M. Jewell in 1902, who served until 1906. Mr. Jewell was succeeded by 


H. A. Ode. A new brick building was erected for this very enterprising 
financial institution in 1909, and equipped with new modern fixtures and a 
fine burglar-proof vault. The capital stock of this bank in 1916 was $10,000, 
with a surplus of $10,000 and deposits aggregating $125,000. The officers 
for tliat year were as follows : President, L. M. Jewell ; vice-president, Fred 
Ode; cashier, H. A. Ode, and in addition to the officers, the following prom- 
inent farmers of Walnut and Mount Pleasant townships are directors : C. N. 
Faulcomer, C. W. Carson, E. H. Blodgett and Adam Ehart. There are over 
seventeen stockholders, all of whom are prosperous and well to do farmers, 
living in the vicinitv of Potter. This bank has grown rapidly, both in pres- 
tige and strength since its organization, and its average net annual profits 
since its organization have been about $2,000. 

The Muscotah State Bank was organized by George Storch in 1870, as 
a private bank, who remained in charge until about 1890, when J\Ir. Storch 
sold his interest to Harvey and Calvert. This firm conducted the bank as a 
private institution until about January i, 1902, when it was organized into a 
State bank, with A. B. Harvey, president, and J. H. Calvert, cashier. Mr. 
Harvey remained president until about 1910, and in that year C. C. Hart 
became its cashier. The officers of this institution in 1916 were as follows: 
A. D. Wilcox, president ; C. C. Hart, vice-president ; R. A. Allison, cashier. 
The directors are : A. D. Wilcox, C. C. Hart, A. H. Calvert, M. E. Bevens, 
R. A. Allison and Thomas Ryan. The capital stock is $10,000.00, with a 
surplus of $10,000.00, and deposits aggregating $100,000.00. This institu- 
tion is the oldest bank outside of the city of Atchison, and remains today one 
of the most substantial financial institutions in this part of the State. 

The Huron State Bank was organized in 1891, with a capital stock of 
$10,000. The first directors were Edward Perdue, John Swartz. John Dro- 
han, John English, David Rouse, David Rouse, Jr., and T. B. Marshall. Its 
first officers were Edward Perdue, president; John Swartz, vice-president, 
and W. C. McLain, cashier. This is one of the substantial banks of the county, 
and showed by one of its last statements a capital stock of $10,000, with 
surplus fund of $5,000.00 and deposits aggregating $80,000.00. Its officers 
in IQ16 are as follows: Edward Perdue, president; David Rouse, Jr., vice- 
president, C. E. Smith, cashier, and Cloyd Smith, assistant cashier. In addi- 
tion to the officers, T. B. Smith, Jr., is the fifth director. 

Mr. Perdue, who is the president of this bank, is one of the leading citi- 
zens of Atchison county, and in addition to being president of the Huron bank, 
is also president of the First National Bank of Achison. 


C. E. Smith, the cashier, is also one of the well known and most conserva- 
tive bankers of the State, and the officers and directors of this institution have 
reason to be proud of the splendid growth and standing of their institution. 

The Farmers State Bank of Muscotah was organized and opened for 
business February 21, 1910, with a capital stock of $10,000. It now has a 
surplus and undivided account of approximately $5,000, and its deposits 
average $70,000. The first directors were L. Cortelyou, A. T. Cortelyou, 
L. Cortelyou, Jr., and H. M. Turner, who came from Moberly, Mo. \V. M. 
Walker, of Atchison, was one of the organizers of this institution, but he sold 
his interest a few weeks after organization and was succeeded by William 
Buckles on the board of directors. L. Cortelyou was elected president, and 
H. M. Turner, cashier, and they have continued as the active officers of the 
bank. The present board of directors consists of L. Cortelyou, William 
Buckles, M. C. Vansell, John Sullivan, J. W. A. Miller and H. M. Turner. 
As this history is written it is said that there has been a consolidation of the 
two Muscotah banks, under the name of the Farmers State Bank. A charter 
has been granted and the new institution will have a capital of $15,000. L. 
Cortelyou is to be the president, H. M. Turner, cashier, and Ralph Allison, 
assistant cashier. The bank will continue to occupy the present quarters of 
the Farmers State Bank, and the merger, when effected, will give Muscotah 
one of the best banks in the county. 

The Commerce Trust Company of Atchison, with a paid-up capital stock 
of $100,000, received its charter from the State February 11. 1916. The first 
meeting of the board of directors was held in the office of the Commerce 
Investment Company on the evening of Februan- 19, 19 16, at which time 
the following officers were elected : President, Sheffield Ingalls : vice-presi- 
dents, Henrv Diegel, A. J. Schoenecker, M. J. Horan; treasurer. Ellsworth 
Ingalls; secretary, Frank H. Manglesdorf ; trust officer, H. A. Schoenecker; 
general counsel, J. M. Challiss. The following named citizens were the first 
directors of the company : H. A. Schoenecker, Henry Diegel, J. C. Killarney, 
O. A. Simmons, A. J. Schoenecker, Ellsworth Ingalls, T. E. Snowden, Clive 
Hastings, M. J. Horan, F. H. Manglesdorf, H. E. Muchnic and Sheffield 
Ingalls. The company is a development of tlie Commerce Investment Com- 
pany, established in 1910, and does a general trust business, as provided by 
the laws of Kansas. It began business March 2, 1916. 




— ST. Patrick's, mt. pleasant — trinity church, episcopal — st. 



C_Methodism was introduced into Atchison by the Rev. James Shaw, who 
had been a prominent member of the Detroit conference, both as pastor 
and missionary among the Indians along the Lake Superior district, and 
also as presiding elder. Being in poor health and desiring a new location, he 
came to Leavenworth in Marchj^ 1856, , and finding that Leavenworth was 
already provided with a pastor, he proceeded to Atchison. He did not find 
Atchison very friendly toward preachers when he arrived, and the Pardee 
Butler incident was fresh in the minds of the people at that time. So the 
Rev. Mr. Shawi went farther north, to Doniphan and Geary City, which were 
Free State towns. He soon thereafter went to Detroit for his family, and 
soon after his return to Geary City^ he was appointed as pastor at Atchison 
and Monrovia. He preached his first sermon in May, 1857, in the office of 
S. C. Pomeroy, which was located on the corner of Third and Com- 
mercial streets, and this was the first sermon from the lips of a preacher 
of any denomination that was delivered in Atchison. He organized the 
Methodist Episcopal church in January, 1858, with members from various 
denominations. The first services were held in a room in the building on 
the southeast corner of Second and Commercial streets. He later raised 
$2,000 for a new church building, S. C. Pomeroy, O. F. Short and Robert 
McBratney each pledging $500, on condition that the new building should 
be located on the north side of Parallel street, near Fifth street. 


Rev. I. F. Collins succeeded Mr. Shaw, and Rev. C. H. Lovejoy, who 
had been preaching at Lawrence for two years, was sent to Sumner. Upon 
the arrival of Mr. Collins, he at once began the erection of the new church 
building on Parallel street, the two lots on which the building was subse- 
quently erected being donated by the Atchison Town Company. The trus- 
tees of the church at that time were : John T. Dougherty, Edwin O. Collins, 
Archie C. Master, David F. Beagle, William A. Butler, Joseph H. Cilbert, 
Robert Hancock, Cyrus A. Comstock and Calvin W. Phelps. The church 
building was completed in April, 1859, and was fifty-eight feet long and 
thirty-two feet wide. It had a seating capacity of 350 people, and cost 
$3,075. The structure was dedicated May 8, 1859, and Rev. Hugh D. 
Fisher, the famous Fee State Methodist preacher, came up from Leaven- 
w'orth and assisted in the dedication. During the first year in the new 
church, two young men came to Atchison, who afterwards became success- 
ful and honored citizens of the town, Samuel Gard and D. C. Newcomb. They 
subsequently fonned a partnership and conducted a drygoods store under 
the name of Gard & Newcomb, which for many years remained one of th.e 
leading firms of the city. Mr. Gard died many years ago, and in 1915 Mr. 
Newcomb still lives. The Methodist church, perhaps, owes more to D. C. 
Newcomb than any other man who was ever identified with it. His money, 
business sagacity and consecration have made possible the success of Meth- 
odism in Atchison. His motto has always been, "It is safe to do right, and 
unsafe to do wrong." 

Butcher, Auld & Dean, famous contractors of an early day, who built 
the first railroad between Atchison and St. Joseph, with their families, united 
with the Alethodist church and became standi supporters of it. J. C. Reisner, 
who came to Atchison in 1858, and his wife, Rebecca, were also prominent 
early members of the church. They built the Tremont House, which for 
a great many years was the leading hotel, located where the Burlington 
freight house now stands. Rev. Dr. Christian F. Reisner, pastor of Grace 
Church, New York City, was the youngest son of Mr. and Mrs. Reisner. 
The fourth session of the Kansas-Nebraska conference, which met in Omaha 
in May, 1859, returned Rev. Collins to Atchison, and during that year Mr. 
and Mrs. John M. Crowell and the McCulley brothers united with the 
church. In December, 1859, Abraham Lincoln, on his visit to Kansas, spoke 
in the little church edifice on Parallel street, reference to which has already 
been made in this history. In the fifth session of the Kansas-Nebraska con- 
ference. Rev. Milton ]\Iahen was appointed to Atchison. It was a critical 


period in the history of the town, and the Rev. [Mahen was admonished 
to be very cautious on the question of slavery, but he had courage and 
patriotism enough to order the Stars and Stripes hoisted on his church. That 
vear T. B. Davis and his wife, Kathryn, came to Atchison and became use- 
ful members. "Grandma" Davis is hving in 1916, and on February 21, 191 5, 
celebrated her ninetieth birthday. Owing to the great drought that visited 
Atchison in i860, the church did not prosper greatly during the period of 
Mr. Mahen's pastorate, but in the succeeding session of the Kansas confer- 
ence, which met March 21, 1861, Mr. Mahen was returned to Atchison, and 
it was during this year that a severe storm, which destroyed Sumner, wrecked 
the church building so that extensive repairs were necessary. In the seventh 
session of the Kansas conference, March, 1862, the Rev. Mr. James Shaw 
was returned to Atchison. 

\\'. M. Davies was the superintendent of the Sunday school, having 
been elected in 1859. In 1863 Rev. W. Marlatt was appointed for Atchison, 
and March 10, 1864, Mr. Marlatt was succeeded by Dr. W. R. Davis, who 
had been president of Baker University. Rev. Mr. Da.vis was retained in 
March, 1865, by the tenth session of the conference, and was succeeded by 
Re^•. W. K. Marshall. Mr. Marshall was returned to Atchison in 1867, and 
in March, 1868, Rev. Hugh D. Fisher, who was known during the war as 
the "fighting chaplain," was made pastor at Atchison. He found condi- 
tions rather discouraging, but went to work to pay off the debts on the 
church property and repair the building. He created a great deal of interest in 
the town in religious matters, and the little church building on Parallel street 
having become too small, two lots on the corner of Fifth and Kansas avenue 
were purchased in 1870, and the basement of the present building was erected 
and dedicated by Dr. Fisher, who remained pastor of the church for three 
years. Dr. Fisher was one of the strong preachers of Kansas in that day, and 
a strong anti-slaver\' sympathizer. He built the church at Leavenworth in 
1859, which was one of the famous churches of the State, and popularly 
known as the cradle of prohibition. He was in Lawrence when Ouantrell 
sacked the town, and after an eventul life as pastor, chaplain and missionary. 
Dr. Fisher died at Baldwin, Kan., October 23, 1905. 

Rev. T. J- Leak succeeded Mr. Fisher, and it was during ]\Ir. Leak's 
pastorate that the new church was dedicated, October 26, 1873. Three 
years later the Rev. Mr. Leak was succeeded by Dr. George S. Dearborn. 
Rev. William Friend succeeded Dr. Dearborn in March, 1876, who was suc- 
ceeded by E. ^^■. A'an Deventer. Dr. Philipp Krohn became pastor in 1882. 



He was succeeded by Rev. A. H. Tevis. Dr. J. W. Alderman came to Atchi- 
son in 1S87 and remained until March, 1893, and was succeeded by Dr. E. H. 
Brumbaugh, who became pastor in March, 1893. Rev. S. V. Leach followed 
Dr. Brumbaugh in 1897, who in turn was succeeded by Rev. G. W. Grines, 
and since that time Dr. H. E. Wolf, Rev. W. T. Stott, Dr. I. B. Pulliam and 
Dr. John W. Scott filled the pulpit of the- church down to the year 19 14, 
^vhen Rev. Thomas E. Chandler, who for five years previous had been super' 
intendent of the Ottawa district, became pastor of the church. Dr. Chandler 
is one of the best informed, most eloquent and beloved pastors the church 
has ever had. He is not only popular among his own church people, but has 
made numerous friends outside his fold. In September, 191 5, through the 
efforts of Dr. Chandler, assisted by Dr. C. F. Reisner, pastor of Grace 
Church, New York City, together with C. D. Walker and others, $42,000 
was raised for the erection of a new church. When it is completed it will 
be one of the finest church edifices in Kansas. 


The Christian church was organized in Pioneer Hall, corner of Kansas 
avenue and Fourth street, May 20, 1882, with twenty-four charter members. 
At the end of the first year there were fifty-five members, and in April, 1884, 
the church was incorporated under the laws of Kansas. The first church 
edifice was located at the corner of Tenth street and Kansas avenue, and was 
dedicated May 24, 1885, at a cost of $2,604. The building was much en- 
larged during the ministry of W. H. White. In 19 12, the congregation 
having outgrown its old building, agitation for a new building was started, 
and a new site was selected at Seventh and Santa Fe streets, and on August 
19, 1914, a beautiful new church was dedicated, which cost $47,000. The 
church also owns a lot adjoining the church, upon which a parsonage will 
be erected. The present membership is 1,400, and the Bible school is next 
10 the largest in the State. The Sunda)^ school is thoroughly graded, with 
eight departments, sixty-five officers and teachers, with H. P. Armstrong, 
superintendent. The church has thirty deacons and elders. 

The records show that as early as 1869 the Christian church had fol- 
lowers in this community, and among the pastors who served in the early days 
were William C. Rodgers, James E. Gaston and C. C. Band. The early 
congregation went so far as to purchase a lot at the corner of Seventh and 
.Santa Fe streets, opposite the present new edifice, and a foundation was laid 
for a building, but the plan had to be abandoned because of lack of -funds. 


Miss Etta Beason, of Atchison, and T. D. McCleery, of Effingliain, 
are the two surviving charter members. 

The names of the pastors wlio have served the church since 1882 are 
as follows: M. P. Hayden, W. S. Priest, J. S. Myers, Rev. Cox, W. H. 

White Temple C'h 

White, Lowell McPherson, Rev. Ingram, M. E. Harlan, E. L. Ely, W. T. 
I lilton, Z. E. Bates. The present pastor of the church is Rev. Jesse M. 
Bader. one of the most popular, aggressive and conscientious ministers in 


The First -Presbyterian Church was organized October 21. 1858, by a 
committee from the Presbytery of Highland, Rev. Alexander W. Pitzer, of 
Leavenworth, chairman. The number of persons entering into the organiza- 
tion on that day was eight. Their names were as follows : \\"illiam M. 
Davies, Mary Davies, George B. L'win, Rebecca Irwin, Annie Love, Andrew- 
Hamilton. ]Maximilla Ireland and Edward Hair. The following persons 



have served the church as ministers: Rev. JuHus SpenCer, from April, 1858, 
for about eighteen months; Rev. H. H. Dobbins, for seven months, from 
September, 1863; Rev. T. P. Lemis commenced his labors in April, 1865, 
and continued with the church until Februai")'-, 1868; Rev. Edward Cooper 
had charge of the church from December, 1868, until December, 1875; Rev. 
J. H. Clark officiated as pastor from March, 1876, until June, 1878; Rev. 
M. L. Howie began his labors in November, 1878, and continued with the 

Presbyterian Church at Atchison, Kan. 
church until November, 1882; he died in Chicago in August, iqi3; Rev. D. 
C. ^lilner began his work in Decemlier, 1882, and continued with the cluircii 
until September 23, 1887: Rev. M. L. Howie (second term), November 11, 
1887, to 1897; Rev. J. D. Countermine, from 1897 to 1899; Rev. B. F. Boyle 
came February 25, 1900, and continued as pastor until in the fall of 191 1. 
Rev. W. I. Alexander came in November, 191 1, and continued his labors 
until September, 1914. Rev. W. C. Isett was called in September, 1915. 


For some months after its organization the church had no regular min- 
ister and services wtere held in a store room, hall and private residences. For 
a time the church held meetings in Bang's Hall on Commercial street, and 
in Price's Hall, on the corner of Fourth and Main streets. During the pas- 
torate of Rev. Lewis, the building on Fourth street, between Commercial and 
Main streets, known as "the Presbyterian hall," was erected, and the con- 
gregation commenced using it as a place of worship in 1865. The congre- 
gation began the erection of the present church building in 1880. The cor- 
ner stone was laid on September 15 of that year. About the time of begin- 
ning the building, Mrs. S. Donald, Mrs. Judge Berry, Mrs. C. A. Stuart and 
Mrs. A. J. North canvassed the city and secured large subscriptions to the 
building fund. The building committee consisted of A. W. Simpson, A. F. 
Martin and J. M. Covert. The eiders in 1880 were as follows : A. B. Mc- 
Queen, A. J. North, J. M. Covert, J. W. Allen, J. S. Trimble, and Harry 
Harkness. The deacons in the same year were as follows : B. F. Hudson, J. 
Edward Lewis, S. D. D. Smith and D. M. Wynkoop. The trustees were 
as follows : B. F. Hudson, president ; A. F. Martin, secretary ; David Lukens, 
treasurer; E. K. Blair, R. B. Drury, A. W. Simpson, S. D. D. Smith. Offi- 
cers of the Sunday school were as follows : A. F. Martin, superintendent ; 
J. M. Covert, assistant superintendent, and J. E. Lewis, secretary and treas- 
urer. Officers of the Ladies' Aid Societv were as follows : Mrs. A. J- North, 
president ; Mrs. W. C. North, secretary ; Mrs. E. K. Blair, treasurer. Young 
Ladies' Society : Miss May Seaton, president ; Miss Tola Thomas, secretary ; 
Miss Nellie George, treasurer. In the year 1858 the persons active in the 
church at that time were : Mrs. Thomas Seip, Mr. and Mrs. William Davis, 
Mr. and Mrs. A. B. McQueen. The first deaconesses were: Mrs. C. J. Par- 
menter and Miss Anna J. North, ordained in 1888. 

The First Baptist Church of Atchison was organized in 1858, in Allen's 
Hall, on the northwest corner of Second and Commercial streets. At the 
time of the organization there were but nine members, of whom three are 
still living and members of the church, though non-resident: Mrs. L. A. 
Alderson, Mrs. Aaron Stephenson and Mrs. Mary A. Challiss. Dr. W. L. 
Challiss was soon added to the membership. The lots on the corner of Ninth 
street and Kansas avenue were donated by Luther C. Challiss, and a house 


of worship was erected upon it, and this location has been the home of the 
church ever since. 

Rev. L. A. Alderson was the first pastor of the church, and he served 
faithfully three years without salary. Then followed Rev. Dr. Perkins from 
New Jersey, and Rev. Frank Remington. 

Just at this time the troubles of the war came on and very little could 
be accomplished. Rev. J. W. Warder became pastor in 1866 and the church 
grew strong under his ministry. Rev. H. A. Guild successfully sened the 
church for a time in 1868. Rev. J. Sawyer accepted the pastorate, and then 
Rev. E. Gunn. 

Rev. J. W. Luke was pastor directly before Rev. Mulford. He bap- 
tized some of our best workers and did excellent and permanent work for 
the church. 

The twenty-fifth anniversary was fittingly celebrated at the home of 
Mrs. John M. Price, and a silver offering was received toward a new build- 
ing which came soon after, under the pastorate of Rev. J. B. Mulford, who 
was called to his reward from here. 

Rev. D. D. Proper followed and Rev. E. P. Brand and Rev. G. W. 
Rogers, all of whom served the church under great difficulties. There was 
a heavy debt left upon the new building, which was drawing a high rate of 
interest, and the constant calls for money which was paid with apparently no 
returns, discouraged the membership. Still, the pastors resolutely worked 
at the great task. Rev. G. W. Rogers undertook to raise $5,000 of the 
mortgage, and B. P. Waggener, who had always been a generous contribu- 
tor, gave $2,000, and made a liberal loan besides. Not long after Rev. Rog- 
ers was called to another field, and again the church had a pastorless period, 
but greatly enjoyed the ministrations of the late Dr. Murphy. Rev. J. R. 
Comer was called to the pastorate June i, 1895, and faithfully served the 
church twelve years. Much of the money pledged during Dr. Rogers' pas- 
torate was paid in or collected while Rev. J. R. Comer was pastor. Then 
the remaining $1,500 mortgage and all other debts were bravely taken up 
and paid, and the church celebrated its victoiy in burning the mortgage and 
a general rejoicing, and also a firm determination never to g'o deeply in debt 

During the present pastorate of more than eight years the church has 
strictly followed this rule, but this has not prevented some large purchases. 
In 1909 the church purchased and placed a new pipe organ at a cost of $4,500, 
and two years later purchased the property adjoining the church on the 


west for the accommodation of the growing Sunday school. This was done 
at a cost of $5,500 for property and furniture, and the money was raised at 
a Sunday moraing service. It is in the minds of many of the members of 
the church that in the near future there must be a new church building, and 
to that end over $6,000 has lieen accumulated and is being held for the time 
when the membership of the chiuxh shall be ready to erect a structure that 
shall be worthy of the city and an honor to God. 

The work of the church has grown and developed and every depart- 
ment has accepted a larger share in work, local and world-wide. Last year 
the church contributed over $1,200 for missionary and benevolent work, be- 
sides some gifts which did not pass through the church treasury. 

The church stands for a strong and helpful and constructive religious 
work, and a faithful adherence to the teachings of the Bible, and a loyalty 
to the Lordship of Christ. The present pastor is Rev. A. J. Haggett, who 
has served his congregation long and well. 


The Evangelical Association located a mission in Atchison in 1882, with 
Rev. C. Brandt as the first missionary. A number of German families were 
gathered and signified their willingness to effect a church organization. Ac- 
cordingly, a hall was rented at 614 Commercial street and services held. In 
1884 the organization numbered forty-seven members, and the Kansas con- 
ference of the Evangelical Association at its annual session in 1884 decided 
to build a church at this time. Rev. Daniel R. Zellner was appointed pas- 
tor, and Rev. John Wuerth, presiding elder of the Holton district. During 
the pastorate of Rev. D. R. Zellner in 1884 the church was built at 522 Atch- 
ison street, and dedicated by Rev. John Wuerth, presiding elder, as the Salem 
church of the Evangelical Association, and service has continued uninter- 
ruptedly ever since. Following arc the ministers who served consecutively 
as pastors: Rev. C. Brandt, D. R. Zellner, C. Brant, second pastorate; C. F. 
Erffmeyer, Samuel Mueller, Jacob Schmidle, John Wuerth, C. F. Iwig, Peter 
Scheumann, D. R. Zellner, third pastorate; Charles Linge, E. E. Erffmeyer, 
D. R. Zellner, fourth pastorate, L. M. Nanninga, J. M. Fricker, Samuel 
Breithaupt, present pastor (1916). 

The following served as presiding elders during the past thirty-four 
years: John Wuerth, Henry Mattill, J. F. Schreiber, Albert Brunner, C. F. 
Erffmeyer, Wl. F. Wothensen and C. F. Iwig. The Evangelical Association 


was organized as a denomination in 1800, with Jacob Allbright as its founder. 

Originally, the language used was German, but in the past half cen- 
tury the German language was rapidly superseded by the English language. 
At this time there are very few congregations in the denomination that wor- 
ship in the German language exclusively. The ser\-ices in the Evangelical 
church in this city for the past few years are conducted in English. 

This society maintains a well organized Sunday school, with weekly 
sessions every Sunday at 10 o'clock a. m. G. W. Bradley is superintendent; 
a Young People's Alliance, E. B. Breithaupt, president, and a Woman's 
Missionary Society, Mrs. Samuel Breithaupt, president. This organization 
maintains free pews and extends an invitation to strangers when in the city 
to worship with them. 


In the summer of 1893 ^ number of men, among them Rev. Nestel, of 
St. Joseph, Mo., who had received a special invitation, met at the home of 
August Manglesdorf, Sr., and organized a German Evangelical congregation. 
It was decided to have services in Odd Fellows hall. Rev. Nestel came over 
from St. Joe from time to time and conducted the services. In January, 1894, 
Rev. C. Stork, of Concordia, Mo., took charge of the congregation as their 
first own pastor. In 1894 two lots of land, at the northwest corner of Ninth 
and Santa Fe streets, were bought, upon which the church was built. In 
1895 the congregation became a member of the German Evangelical Synod 
of North. America. In the same year the parsonage was erected, and in- 1908 
a school building was added to the church. Besides Rev. Stork, the following 
ministers served the congregation: H. Limper, 1897 to 1901 ; C. Bechtold, 
1901 to 1905: P. Stoerker, from 1905 to 1909, and Emil Vogt, the present 
pastor. Besides the annual donations for their own church, the members 
have spent $2,000 for home and foreign missions. The church has a Sun- 
day school, a teachers' training course, a choir, a Young People's Society, 
and a Ladies' Aid Society. 


Mrs. Henrietta E. Graybill, of Milwaukee, might properly be called the 
founder of the First Church of Christ, Scientist, in Atchison. She was the 
original first reader when she came to Atchison from Kansas City in 1894. 



In March, 1895, she began a class in instruction at the Byram Hotel. This 
was the l^eginning of the local churcii. On September 7, 1895, the followers 
met in temporary quarters in the Ingalls' building, at Seventh and Com- 
mercial streets, seven being present. The church was organized April 9, 
1895, with seven charter members. The first testimonial meeting was held 
January 3, 1896, and January 15, 1896, the first Sunday school was organ- 
ized, with seven children m attendance. Before the end of 1896 the church 
was moved to more commodious quarters, at the southeast corner of Fourth 
and Commercial streets. These charters were soon outgrown, and in March, 

First Church ot Christ Scient 

1897, the German Methodist church at Ninth and Santa Fe streets was pur- 
chased and the first services held there were on July 4, 1897. This church 
was dedicated in April, 1900, by Mrs. G. W. Pennell, who had become first 
reader, and from the start had been a constant and enthusiastic worker. 
Ten years later, March 28, 1910, lots at the northwest corner of Fourth and 
Santa Fe streets were purchased, as a site for the permanent church. Land 
was secured and the foundation started September 11, 1911 ; corner stone 


was laid July 7, 1912, and first services held in the Sunday school room May 
25, 1913. First services were held in the auditorium September 7, IQ13, and 
the church dedicated October 19, 1913. Among the permanent members of 
the church are Mr. and Mrs. G. W. Pennell, Mr. and Mrs. James W. Orr, 
L. H. Munson, Miss N. S. Donald and Miss Emma Maage, the first reader, 
and D. W. Rowe. 

The present church edifice was erected largely through the liberality of 
Mr. Pennell, at a cost of $50,000, and is pronounced an architectural gem. 

ST. Patrick's, mt. pleasant. 

St. Patrick's congregation, near Mt. Pleasant, was founded in the early 
fall of 1857, by the Rev. Father Augustine Wirth, O. S. B. He came from 
Doniphan, Kan., over the prairies and through dense timber on foot, not hav- 
ing the means to buy a horse or secure any kind of a conveyance, in the sum- 
mer of 1857. The Benedictine Fathers had been sent west by an American 
founder, Rt. Rev. Boniface Wimmer, O. S. B., to establish a priory in the 
eastern part of Kansas. They settled in the hills of Doniphan, and from 
this county they founded and attended missions in Atchison, Brown, Nemaha 
and Jefferson counties. Among the first parishes established by these priests 
was one near Mt. Pleasant. Mt. Pleasant at that time was quite a commercial 
center, owing largely to the overland freighting outfits that passed through 
there on their way to Denver and the Pacific coast. Patrick Durkin, who is 
a resident of Walnut township in 1916, and the late John Delaney were 
teamsters on this route, and had many interesting experiences and struggles 
with Indians and Jayhawkers. Following the first visit of Father Augustine, 
after he had told the few Catholic settlers how he had traveled on foot from 
Doniphan, a small congregation collected enough money to pay for a horse, 
saddle and bridle, and presented it to him. 

Father Augustine attended to the spiritual demands of the early Cath- 
olic settlers in the Mt. Pleasant district about once a month during the period 
of his services there. There was no church edifice during that period, and 
divine services were held in the humble log cabins of the Catholic settlers, 
usually at the homes of John Knowles, Owen Grady, Ned Cotter, Bernard 
Lee and James McArdle. Mary Honorah Clare was the first child bap- 
tized at St. Patrick's parish, September 28, 1857. The first marriage was 
that of James Barry to Catherine Hennesy, May 9, 1857, at the home of Ed- 
ward Cotter. The ceremony was conducted by Rev. Augustine Wirth. In 


the fall of 1837 the first church was Ijuilt, which was a small affair, con- 
structed out of native tinilier. It was poorly constructed and was of short 
duration, as it was blown down h}- a strong wind one cold winter day, and 
wrecked beyond repair. Following the destruction of the first church, the 
members concluded to build a more substantial edifice of stone, and in the 
spring of 1866 the walls were built. The stone work was done by the late 
Nicholas Greiner, a German stone mason, who came to Sumner in the late 
fifties, and subsequently died, one of the wealthiest farmers of Walnut town- 
ship. The church was dedicated December 8, 1866. 

In addition to the church proper, the Catholic settlers of Walnut town- 
ship, near Mt. Pleasant, have also erected a commodious parish house for 
their priest, and a hall for public meetings. 

The following is a list of the priests in charge of St. Patrick's Church 
since it was established : 

Irregular pastors. — Rev. Augustine Wirth, O. S. B., September, 1857, to 
November, 1859: died, December 20, 1901. Rev. Edmund Langenfelder, 
O. S. B., November, 1857, to December, i860; died, April 18, 1885. Rev. 
Philip Vogt, O. S. B., February, i860, to January, 1861 ; date of death not 
known. Rev. Emanuel Hartig, O. S. B., December, i860, to June, 1861 ; 
died, September i, 1910. Rev. Thomas Bartel, O. S. B., April. 1862, to 
August, 1867; died, November 30, 1885. 

Regular pastors. — Rev. Timothy Luber, O. S. B., January, 1864, to 
March, 1871. Rev. Placidus McKeever, O. S. B., March, 1871, to August, 
1873; died, September 22, 1896. Rev. Maurice Lynch, O. S. B., August, 
1873, to August, 1875: died, December 13, 1887. Rev. Eugene Bode, O. S. 
B., August. 1875, to April, 1880. Rev. Raymond Danial, O. S. B., April, 
1880, to September, 1880; died, September 25, 1910. Rev. Peter Kassens, 
O. S B,, September, 1880, to April, 1881. Rev. Adolph Wesseling, O. S. B., 
April, 1881, to April, 1883; died, September 24, 1891. Rev. Urban Tracy, 
O. S. B., April, 1883, to April, 1885; died. May 13, 1915. Rev. Timothy 
Luber, O. S. B., April, 1885, to April, 1890; died, March 29, 1901. Rev. 
Augustine Baker. O. S. B., April, 1890, to December, 1893; died, June 23, 
1909. Rev. Thomas Burk, O. S. B., December, 1893, to December, 1897. 
Rev. Columban Meaney, O. S. B., December, 1897, to December, 1910: died. 
January 8, 1911. Rev. Ignatius Stein, O. S. B., January, 191 1, to September, 
1912. Rev. Lawrence Theis, O. S. B.. September, 1912, to September, 1913 
Rev. Robert Salmon, O. S. B., September, 1913, to September. 1914. Rev 
Lawrence Theis, O. S. B., September, 1914; still in charge (1916). 




This church was organized November 3. 1857, as St. Mary Magdalene's 
Church, by Rev. Lewis R. Staudenmayer, John H. Stringfellow, Joseph P. 
Carr, G. W. Bowman, Wilham O. Gould, John M. Maury, James W. String- 
fellow and Daniel Adams. The Rev. L. R. Staudenmayer, a German, of 
middle age, was the first pastor, and the first property owned by the parish 
was at the northeast corner of Kansas avenue and Ninth street, where a 
small rectory was built in 1859. The first vestry was as follows: Richard 
C. Mackall, A. Hanson ^^'eightman, James L. McClure, Philipp Link, John 
M. Maury and Joseph P. Carr, and in October, 1859, a committee from the 
vestry was authorized to procure estimates for building a church on its prop- 
erty upon Kansas avenue at a cost of $1,500. The foundation for this edi- 
fice was laid and some money expended, but the resignation of Mr. Stauden- 
mayer in January, i860, and his removal from the city, brought to a stand- 
still the construction of the edifice. The court house and Price's Hall were 
used as places of worship for ten years. The Rev. Faber Byllsby succeeded 
Mr. Staudenmayer, and in 1863 the Rev. John E. Ryan succeeded Mr. Bylls- 
by. After Mr. Ryan's resignation, in September, 1864, Bishop Thomas H. 
Vail was made rector of the church, and notwithstanding the manifold duties 
which pressed upon him as bishop of the diocese, he gave much of his time 
to his work here, with the assistance of his son-in-law. Rev. John Bakewell. 
who proved to be a very successful rector. It was during his rectorship that 
Tgitation for a new church building was started, and due to the efforts of 
Mr. Bakewell, Col. William Osborne, Richard A. Park, Judge Otis and E. S. 
\Mlls, the present church edifice at the corner of Utah avenue and Fifth 
street was erected, at a cost of $20,000. It is built of stone, in the early Eng- 
lish style of Gothic architecture, slate roof and interior finished in black 
walnut and pine, and stands today one of the ornaments of Atchison. Li 
1871 Mr. Bakewell resigned and was succeeded by Rev. P. Nelson Meade in 
January, 1872, and continued in charge until April, 1874, when he was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. Thomas G. Garver, who resigned in September, 1875. 
Rev. Frank O. Osborne became rector in February. 1876, and was succeeded 
bv Re\-. .-Kbiel Leonard. Rev. M. Leonard found a congregation of 150 com- 
municants, who in May, 1882, erected a two-story brick rectory on T street 
for him. It was during the Rev. Mr. Leonard's rectorship that St. Andrew's 
[Mission, on west Commercial street, was built. Mr. Leonard was succeeded 
by the Rev. Francis K. Brooke, who in turn was succeeded by the Rev. John 


Henry Hopkins, who built a parisli house adjoining the church, which was 
opened for use in 1905. Upon the resignation of Mr. Hopkins, Rev. John 
E. Sulger became rector, but he remained only a short time, and was suc- 
ceeded by the Rev. John Henry Molineux. Rev. William R. Cross suc- 
ceeded Mr. Molineux, and then came the Rev. Francis S. White, who re- 
mained in the parish until 191 1, and was succeeded by the Rev. Otis E. Gray. 
The present vestry of the church is composed as follows: E. .\. Mize, 
senior warden ; Dr. W. G. Beitzel, junior warden and clerk, and W. W. 
Hetherington, T. L. Lawrence, Clyde Hastings, J. W. Barlow, W. J. Brown- 
son, Henry Diegel and Sheffield Ingalls. 


The history of English Lutheranism in Atchison is interesting. The 
work of establishing St. Mark's was fraught with hardship and discourage- 
ment. Several of the early efforts failed. But the battle was renewed and 
success at last achieved. Early in 1867 J. H. Talbott, through the Liitlicraii 
Observer, called attention to Atchison as a point for a Lutheran mission. By 
correspondence he secured the interest of Rev. Morris Officer, then secretary 
of the general synod's home mission board. At the convention of the gen- 
eral synod at Harrisburg-, Pa., in 1868, the Rev. Officer persuaded the Re^■. 
M. G. Boyer, then pastor at Marklesburg, Pa., to become a missionary to 
Atchison. Rev. Boyer and his young wife arrived here June 30. that year. 
Price's Hall, South Fourth street, between Main and Commercial, was rented 
and fitted up as a meeting place. Services were begun and a Sunday school 
organized. On September 20, 1868, the congregation was organized with 
twenty-five members. The first church council consisted of C. Weber and 
H. Gehrett, elders: J. H. Talbott, J. Beamer. H. Snyder and F. Erendt, 

In the spring' of 1869 the board of church extension granted the con- 
gregation a loan of $500, which amount was invested in the purchase of an 
excellent lot on Kansas avenue. There were bright hopes of having a chapel 
soon, but these hopes were scattered when an aged minister advised delay 
on account of the financial stringency of the times, and the numerical weak- 
ness of the church. Among the members at this time was the Rev. A. W. 
Wagnalls, afterward one of the founders of the publishing house of Funk & 
Wagnalls, New York City. While here he was in the real estate business. 
.\t his suggestion the congregation purchased a fifteen acre tract adjoining 


the city of Atchison on the northwest, which section was platted and offered 
for sale with the hope of making enough profit to erect a church building. 
"In this the Lutherans were disappointed," says the historian, "for they sold 
only enough lots to pay for the land." 

After that venture the congregation used the Congregational church 
building. About that time many English Lutherans left the city. Rev. 
Boyer resigned at the end of the year 1869, and for ten years the church was 
without a pastor. The Rev. Wagnalls supplied the pulpit now and then until 
his removal in 1876, but finally the congregation disbanded. The lots belong- 
ing to the church were sold for taxes, but were redeemed at the eleventh 
hour through Mr. Talbott's efforts, and deeded to the board of church 

In 1880 the Re\-. W. I. Cutler, a returned missionary to India, with the 
assistance of Rev. David Earhart and his daughter, Mrs. H. E. Monroe, 
gathered the English Lutherans together again. Mrs. Monroe was then con- 
ducting a private school known as the "Atchison Institute," and she offered 
her school room as a place of worship. On the eighth of August the congre- 
gation was re-organized and the following officers elected : Elders, J. H. 
Berlin, W. H. Kuhns and N. D. Kistler; deacons, J. L. Heisey, E. D. Kistler, 
and John Fusselman ; trustees, J. H. Talbott, W. H. Smith and S. J. Clark. 
Rev. Cutter served as pastor two years. During part of this time aid was 
received from the Home Mission Board. In 1882 this aid was withdrawn 
and Rev. Cutter resigned. 

Xot until 1884 did the second organization flourish. In Novemlier of 
that vear the Rev. George S. Diven was commissioned to come to Atchison 
and revive the mission. New interest was taken and the rejuvenated con- 
gregation held its first service in the home of Henry Snell at 92 1 South Sev- 
enth street. The Odd Fellows' hall was then secured as a place of worship 
and a -Sunday school was organized. Under the leadership of Pastor Diven 
this school is said to have quickly become the largest in the city. That year 
the pastor reported sixty members. 

Atchison's boom season occurred during Rev. Diven's pastorate, and 
even'thing was rushed along at a tremendous pace. The movement for a 
Lutheran college for Atchison started at this time. The location of Midland 
College here was largely due to the efforts of Rev. Diven and his congrega- 
tion, supported by the public spirited citizens of the city. In February, 1885, 
the church was incorporated as St. Mark's English Lutheran Church. Rev. 
Diven resigned in 1887 and was succeeded by the Rev. W. F. Rentz, in April, 


1888. Rev. Rentz set to work at once to secure a lot and erect a church 
building. The present location, corner of Sixth and Park streets, was pur- 
chased for $5,000. The southern end of the lot with the dwelling on it ( now 
the Keith home), was sold to the pastor for $1,750. The chapel (now the 
Sunday school room) was erected in 1888, the cornerstone being laid August 
19, and the church dedicated December 16. The building and equipment cost 
$4,010. Pastor Rentz served nine years, resigning hi May, 1897. 

The Rev. L. S. Iveyser, now professor of dogmatics in Hamnia Divinity 
School, Wittenberg College, became pastor November 7, 1897, and served 
most acceptably until April 7, 1903. During his pastorate the church became 
self-supporting, after receiving aid for fifteen years from the Home Mission 
Board. The Rev; R. W. Hufford, D. D., served as pastor from January 9, 
1904, to November 27, 1904. After a vacancy of nine months the Rev. A. E. 
Renn became pastor August 18, 1905. 

The outstanding achievement of Rev. Renn's pastorate was the erection 
of the present church building. The movement began October 21, 1907. 
Plans were adopted March 17, 1908, and the building committee ordered to 
proceed. The cornerstone was laid during the summer following. The 
building was erected under the supervision of A. B. Zimmerman, contractor, 
and cost, including organ and furnisliings. about $14,000, a marvel of church 
financing. The opening service was held May 23, 1909. and marked an 
epoch in Kansas Lutheranism. During this pastorate the congregation 
adopted the historic Lutheran vestments for pastor and choir, and advanced 
in churchly worship. Rev. Renn resigned September i, 19 11. 

The Rev. Howard C. Garvic was installed pastor the first Sunday in 
March, 1912. No pastor of St. Mark's surpassed him in zeal and energy for 
the upbuilding of the Lord's kingdom. Day and night he labored in per- 
sonal appeal and in teaching classes of adults and children. In a little more 
than two years 175 names were added to the church roll, constituting the 
largest growth of any pastorate. The death of the pastor in the prime of 
manhood in March. 1915, produced a profound impression upon St. Mark's 
and the citv of Atchison. The Rev. Robert L. Patterson, D. D., became 
pastor October 17, 1915. 

ST. benedict's .-vbbey. 

St. Benedict's Abbey, church and college, are conducted by the Bene- 
dictine Fatjiers. The first Benedictine father that came to Kansas was Henry 
Lemke, O. S. B., who arrived in Doniphan in 1855, where he laid the founda- 


tion of a monastery. He was shortly followed to Kansas by a number of 
brother workers, who were sent here by Father Boniface Wimmer. O. S. B., 
who founded the monastery of St. Vincent's, in Westmoreland county, Penn- 
sylvania. They immediately opened a Latin school with a few pupils, but 
Very Rev. Augustine ^Virth, O. S. B., soon discovered that Atchison would 
surpass Doniphan, and on this account the Catholic brothers transferred their 
home to Atchison in about 1859. The Rev. Augustine Wirth, O. S. B., came 
to Atchison from Doniphan once a month to hold rehgious services, which 
were conducted in the home of Charles Burnes, located on the southwest cor- 
ner of Second and L streets. The following year Father Augustine built a 
frame parish church in which services were held for the first time 
on Christmas day. In this rude structure the faithful worshipped until about 
1865. when the parish, having increased to such number, it became necessary 
to build a larger church. Under the aggressive leadership of Father Augus- 
tine, the parishioners concluded to invest in this structure $25,000. Francis 
George Himpler, now living in New York, and for many years a partner of 
the late J. P. Brown, was employed as architect. The work was pushed for- 
ward and instead of the proposed church, a magnificent Basilica was con- 
ceived, and the construction of it was carried forward with great earnestness. 
The foundation was completed in 1866. and the cornerstone was laid in 
October. The Rev. John Hennessy. O. S. B., who later w^as archbishop of 
Dubuque, and one of the most eloquent orators of the church, delivered the 
dedication sermon. To obtain brick for the church walls, Father Augustine 
bought expensive machinery, and. under the supervision of the late Peter 
Bless, started a brickyard in East Atchison, but the undertaking proved a 
failure, as the bricks were not servicable for the church. Instead of using 
them in the construction of the church thev were used to build several cot- 
tages and store buildings in the immediate neighborhood and, later on. when 
suitable bricks were obtained, the work on the church was continued, and by 
the summer of 1868 the walls were finished to the window sills. 

Father Augustine resigned June 18, 1868. and went to Minnesota, and 
subsequently died while pastor at Melrose in that State. December 19, 1901, 
at the age of seventv-three vears. He was succeeded by the \'ery Rev. 
Louis Marv Fink. O. S. B.. July. 1868. and it was during his pastorate that 
t!ie church, was solemnlv dedicated Trinity Sundav, 1869, but it was not 
cnipleted at that time, and, in fact was not completed for many years there- 
after. The church is built in Roman st)le and is 152 feet long and fifty- 
six feet w ide. Father Louis was succeeded by the ^'ery Rev. Giles Christoph. 



St. Benedict's Abbey, Atchison. Ka 

O. S. B.. who was appointed prior in July, 1871. In January, 1875. Very 
Rev. Ouswald Mbosemueller. O. S. B., became prior. Under his direction 
liie church flourished and he is particularl}- remembered for his exertions in 
fc:)tinding and building up a good library for the church and school. The 
members of the church had grown sufficiently large, so that the priory was 
promoted to an abbey April 7. 1877, and on September 29 of that year Rev. 
Innocent Wolf, O. S. B.. was elected abbot, and still retains his place ( 1016), 
loved by all. Rev. Innocent Wolfs election as abbot was celebrated with 
appropriate ceremonies, and the \'ery Re\-. Boniface A'erheyen. O. S. B., was 
appointed pastor, and at that time the status of the house was as follows : 
Rt. Rev. Innocent \\'olf, O. S. B., abbot; Very Rev. Boniface Verheyen, 
O. S. B.. prior: Very Rev. Pirmin Kaumly, O. S. B., prior of St. Benedict's: 
Rev. Augustine W'irth, O. S. B., Emanuel Horlig. O. S. B., Rev. Timothy 
Luber. O. S. B.. Rev. Peter Kassens, O. S. B., Rev. Eugene Bode. O. S. B., 
Rev. .\dolph Wessehng, O, S. B.. Rev. Ferdinand Wolf. O. S. B.. Rev. ^^'in- 
fried Schmidt, O. S. B., Rev. John Stcodcr, O. S. B.. and Rev. IMatthew 



Bradley, O. S. B. Besides these there were four priests from St. Vincent's, 
Pa., who acted as assistants, whose names were Re\'. Aniljrose Hueljner, O. S. 
B., Rev. Casimir Elsesser, O. S. B.. Rev. Theodore Schmitt, O. S. B., and Rev. 
Anslem Soehuler, O. S. B. There were se\en clerics, ten lay l^rothers, five 
candidates and ten scholastics. Rev. Charles Stoekle, O. S. B., succeeded 
Father Adolph as pastor of St. Benedict's Church in 1890, and remained pas- 
tor until 1898, when he was succeeded hy Re\-. Longinus Xew. O. S. B., who 


was one of the most beloved and active pastors of the church. He was a priest 
burning with zeal and he delighted in preaching. He was a powerful speaker, 
and his sermons were always well prepared and written out. He had a strong 
voice ; used plain and simple language, and spoke with such zeal and sincerity 
that he left a lasting impression on all of his hearers. His health failed him. 
however, and he was compelled to seek a southern climate, and died in a hos- 
pital at Birmingham, Ala., March 2, 1899, aged fifty-three years, and in the 
twenty-eighth year of his priesthood. He was succeeded by Rev. Girard 
Heinz, O. S. B., who was appointed to take his place January i, 1899, and 
Father Girard remains the pastor of the church in 1916. 


This church' was organized in 1866 by Rev. C. F. Liebe, home mission- 
ary of the Evangelical Lutheran synod of Missouri, Kansas, Ohio, and other 
states. The first regular minister was Rev. Mr. Menge, who was installed in 
1867. Rev. G. Landgraf succeeded Mr. Menge in December and was in- 
stalled the first day of that month. The church building at the corner of 
Tenth and Commercial streets was dedicated at the same time. In 1S69 a 
parsonage, adjoining the church, was erected, and the following year C. Jan- 
zow, of Weston, Mo., succeeded Mr. Landgraf, "who in turn was followed 
by Rev. C. Hartman, who died in the fall of 1872, and after which the call 
was extended to Rev. W. Zschoche, of Miami county, Kansas. Under the 
pastorate of Rev. Mr. Zschoche the congregation increased to a membership 
of 130, and a day school was conducted in connection with the church by 
Mr. Zschoche until 188 1. 

Rev. C. Vedder succeeded Rev. Zschoche, who in turn was succeeded by 
Rev. Theodore Bundenthal. whose untimely death in the latter part of 1915 
deprived the church and its congregation of one of the best ministers it ever 
had. Mr. Bundenthal was succeeded by Rev. Frederic Niedner, who is in 
charge of the church in 1916. The present church building at the corner of 
Eighth and Laramie streets was built in 1889. There are 500 communi- 
cants and the church is affiliated with the Missouri synod. 

In addition to the churches already enumerated, there are several negro 
churches, of which the Ebenezer Baptist Church, organized in 1867, and the 
African Methodist Episcopal Church, organized in the summer of 1868, are 
the most prominent. There are also several other denominations represented 
in Atchison, mcluding the Latter Day Saints, and the Holy Rollers. 








ST. benedict's COLLEGE. 

During- the turmoil and confusion that accompanied the mo\-ement of 
population into Atchison when the town and county were organized, the 
question of schools appeared to be a secondary one. It was not until the 
bitter days of 1854, 1855 and 1856 had passed that the attention of the people 
was directed to this important question. The first schools in Atchison were 
private institutions, and a number of them flourished until after the beginning 
of the Civil war. Among those which were first in the educational field here 
was the Baptist Seminar}-, at the northeast corner of Eleventh and Santa Fe 
streets. It was a school for young women and was conducted by Mr. Stork. 
Later ]\Irs. Lizzie Abbott, who afterwards became the wife of Judge Cassius 
G. Foster, conducted a young ladies' school at the northeast corner of Sixth 
and Laramie streets, and in the eighties Miss Mary Teasdale conducted a 
private school at the same place. Miss Lizzie Bay, the daughter of Hugh 
Bay, a prosperous farmer living southwest of Atchison, was also active in 
earh- dav educational affairs, and so was Mrs. Amanda Blair, at that time 
Miss Amanda Meeker, who is a resident of Atchison in 1916. Mrs. Blair was 
the first teacher in Atchison county. While there was no activity in educa- 
tional affairs during the period ju.'^t mentioned, the first Territorial legisla- 
ture did. in fact, pass a law in the summer of 1855 providing- for the estahlish- 


ment of common schools, but the history of the Atchison county school system 
(lid not begin until 1858. The city of Atchison, District Number i, was 
organized August 5, 1858. On September 13th of that year a meeting was 
held in. the law office of Franklin B. Adams, and the following school offi- 
cers were elected : James A. Coulter, director ; Dr. William Grimes, treasurer, 
and FrankHn G. Adams, clerk. O. F. Short was the other member. Phillip 

D. Plattenburg. who had previously served as county superintendent of Ful- 
ton county. Illinois, was elected principal of the schools and Mrs. Blair his 
assistant. School was opened the first week in November, in two rooms 
over Bury's Grocery Store, on the comer of Fourth and Commercial streets, 
where the Y, M. C. A. building now stands. The next year the corps of 
teachers had increased to four, and Miss Lizzie Bay and Miss Melissa Kipp, 
who subsequently became the wife of Chief Justice Martin, became the other 
two teachers. The school was moved to the old Masonic building further 
west On Commercial street, where it was conducted for two years. Mr. 
Plattenburg was also appointed county superintendent, and the first teacher's 
certificate issued by him in Atchison county was to D. W. Ripp)', who died in 
Severance, Kan., in 1914, the richest man in Doniphan county. Mr. Ripp\' 
taught the first school in the Second district, organized near the A\'aggener 
farm, southwest of Atchison. Mrs. Blair had her teaching certificate when 
she arrived in Atchison, as one was issued to her by Dr. Plattenburg in Ful- 
ton county, Illinois, before she came to Atchison. Her school opened in 
Atchison the first Monday in November, 1858, and she had charge of the 
primary and intermediate departments. Dr. Plattenburg received a salary 
of $100.00 a month and Mrs. Blair a salary of $45.00, which was increased 
to $50.00 by Dr. Plattenburg giving her $5.00 of his own salary. Mrs. Blair 
had sixty-five pupils. Mrs. Blair says that the first spelling match in Atchi- 
son county took place in W. D. Rippy's school. She participated in the 
spelling match, and was spelled down on the word "Poisonous." 

Mr. Plattenburg served in the capacity of principal and superintendent 
of schools until May, 18G1, when the schools were closed for lack of funds. 
Because of the Civil war very little progress in education was made, and the 
records of the county superintendent's office for that period are not avail- 
able. The earliest record in the office of the county superinendent concern- 
ing the schools of Atchison county is found in an old record book of July 7, 
1863, as follows: 

"Through the kindness of the present board of County Commissioners, 

E. Leighton, B. Wallack and C. G. Foster, this book was furnished for the 



Old High School Building, Atchison, Kan. 

records of the public schools of Atchison county. It is hoped that every 
superintendent, into whose possession this bool^ may fall, will perform every 
duty devolving upon him officially, and make every effort to advance the 
cause of education. 

"Orlando Sawyer, 
"Superintendent of Public Instruction, 
"Atchison County." 

In spite of the fact that the records of County Superintendent Sawyer, 
who held his office from 1863 to 1867, are somewhat incomplete, they contain 
much interesting information. 

The average length of the school term for the first year was three and 
one-half months, and in some districts, owing to the distance and the rigors of 
the winter climate, school was held only during the summer months. Among 
the early teachers in this county were Miss Lizzie Keith, who taught in Dis- 
trict No. 29 in 1863 ; Miss Mary A. Shields, who taught in District No. 16 in 
the same year; Miss Helen E. Bishop, of District No. 26, and Miss Stewart, of 
District No. 31. Miss Bishop was a pioneer in advocating the teaching of 
vocational subjects in the public schools, including domestic science, manual 
training, agriculture and sewing, and for her zeal in this respect she was de- 


rided and laughed at. Women teachers in those days, as now, outnumbered 
the men. The following are the names of those who received teacher's cer- 
tificates in 1863: July 8, Michael Roach: July 27, Mrs. Esther Thayer; July 
30, W. D. Barnett; August 15, Mary A. Shields; August 15, Solomon K. 
McCrary; August 27, Richard Dunn; September 14, Martha Stewart; Sep- 
tember 25, Allen Abbott; September 27, Adelia Guest; October 11, Carlos E. 
Pease; October 14, John C. Butman ; November 23. I. J. Adams; December 
I, R. S. Cook; December 4. L. A. Messenger: December 4, Harriet Hollis- 
ter, and December 4, W. R. DeWitt. 

There were thirty-one districts in the county in that year, and the 
amount of State funds apportioned to Atchison county was $295.30. The 
school population was 1941, with an enrollment of 1,072, and an average 
daily attendance of 500. Twenty-nine teachers were employed, twenty-two 
women and seven men, with an average monthly salary for the men of $25.20 
and $16.75 for the women. The total valuation of school houses was $1,050, 
and the amount of money received from the county was $827.05. The fol- 
lowing is a list of the Atchison county school officers in the year 1863 : 

District No. I : P. H. Woodard, director; M. S. Gaylord, clerk; F. Bier, 
treasurer ; District No. 3 : Peter Boyer, L. A. Messenger and A. Wheeler ; 
District No. 5 : Nathan McClintic, Hosea Norris and James Cravins ; District 
No. 6. W. H. Bowen, J. W. Cain and Jonathan Hartman; District No. 8: 
S. Cummings, Milo Carleton and Lewis Brockman ; District No. 9: George 
Scarborough, Joseph Scarborough and Jacob Poehler; District No. 10: Jacob 
Beck, Frederick Neerman and James A. Smith ; District No. 1 1 : John Graves, 
Henry Shell and Henry Widner; District No. 15 : John W. Best, George Lam- 
berson and Boaz W. Williamson; District No. 17: Hiram Ouiett, Chas. Wil- 
liamson and Wm. Cummings: District No. 18: \\'. J. Young, F. L. Fortune 
and A. J. Reed; District No. 19: Henry Cline, E. Leighton and W. J. May- 
field ; District No. 20 : W. J. Oliphant, D. H. Sprong and Dandridge Holla- 
day; District No. 21 : Dwight Williams, Jacob Reese and John J. Halligan; 
District No. 22 : F. Roach, C. B. Keith and Joseph Speer ; District No. 23 : 
W. A. Adams, W. H. Seever and W. M. Hamm ; District No. 24 : James R. 
May, E. S. Evington and Jefferson Gragg; District No. 26: R. Breedlone, 
C. May and James Fletcher ; District No. 27 : James F. Butcher, C. G. Means 
and W. L. Davis; District No. 28: Andrew C. Pittman, David Earhart and 
George H. McPherson; District No. 29: Anderson Pate, James M. Wylie 
and H. T. Gill ; District No. 30 : P. B. Chadwick, J. W. Roberson and R. A. 
Van Winkle; District No. 31 : Samuel Vanatta, Wilham Hamon and Hamil- 


ton Bailey; District No. 33: Benj. Rivers. Silas A. Hooey and J. Plotner; 
District No. 34 : D. Kettle, John S. Van Winkle and A. King ; District No. 35 : 
A. A. F. Randolph, D. M. Stillman and Joshua Wheeler ; Union District No. 
I : J. A. Anderson, M. C. Willis and George Storch ; Union District No. 2 : 
James Cooley, L. H. Masterson and Wm. H. Cook; Union District No. 3: 
W. J. Brown, Thos. A. Snoddy and J. Lasswell, and Union District No. 4: 
Richmon Dalton, Albert Henson and Frederick Eleman. 

The next record that can be found of the progress of schools in this 
county is of 1868, when Norman Dunshee was county superintendent. In 
that year there were forty-six organized school districts, and a school popula- 
tion of 3,878, with a total enrollment of 2,247, ^''"^ an average daily attend- 
ance of 1281. The term for white children was increased to five and one-half 
months and for colored children to ten months. There was a total of sixty- 
four teachers, of whom thirty-seven were women and twenty-seven men. The 
wages of the men were $42.92 a month, and for the women, $28.76 a month, 
and there was a total of $15,117.87 paid out for wages. The amount received 
from the State was $2,627.09, and an additional source of revenue was from 
the pounding of stray livestock, which brought into the school fund of the 
county that year $589.58. The amount raised by district school tax was $24.- 
373.21, and there were forty-three school houses in the county, of which twelve 
were built of logs, twenty-six of frame construction, and five of stone, with 
a total valuation of $16,750.00. During the interim between 1863 and 1868, 
the Third Kansas Teachers" Association met in Atchison. The meeting was 
held July, 1865, and there were fifty-nine teachers present in Price's Hall. 
John A. Martin. John J. Ingalls and Geo. \\'. Click attended the meeting and 
made addresses. 

In comparison with the figures of those days, the figures of 191 5 are 
interesting, and the}- are here given as follows : 

School population, June 30. 1915 3-530 

Total enrollment, 1914-1915 2.477 

Average daily attendance, 1914-1915 1,915 

Teachers employed, 1915-1916, including county high 

school, males 23, females 81 104 

Teachers employed 1915-1916, including count}- high 

school, holding State certificates 19 

Normal training- ^^, first grade 22, second grade 27,. . . . 
Teachers without previous experience 21 


Teachers serving first year in present positions 56 

Teachers more than two years in present position. ... 16 

Average experience of teacliers : 

One-teacher schools 5 \ears 

Graded schools 6 years 

Average length of term in weeks : 1914-15 1915-16 

One-teacher schools 30.4 30.65 

Graded schools 35.3 35-33 

Average salary of male teachers: 1914-15 1915-16 

One-teacher schools 63.75 67.25 

Graded schools 84.77 8.^-8 1 

Average salary of female teachers: 1914-15 1915-16 

One-teacher schools 58.16 57-45 

Graded schools 5964 60.00 

Average attendance per teacher 1914-15 

One-teacher schools 21 

Graded schools 26 

Average cost per pupil per month in 

attendance: ' 1914-15 

One-teacher schools $ 3.69 

Graded schools 4.38 

Amount expended for school purposes: 19 14- 15 

One-teacher schools $39,756.47 

Graded schools 19.212.88 

County high school 17. 719. 71 

Total $76,689.06 

Common school graduates, 1915: 

Boys 57, girls 71, total 128. 
High school graduates, 191 5: 

Boys 17, girls 19, total 36. 

Total number of libraries in rural schools 63 

Number of volumes in rural libraries 4,314 

Number of schools having- room or basement furnaces 66 
Number of county certificates issued during year: 

First grade 9 

Second grade 24 

Third grade 7 Total 40 


Number of first grade renewed 5 

Number of State certificates registered 7 

Number teachers normal training certificates regis- 
tered 13 

Number of first grades indorsed 3 

Number of second grades indorsed i 

The city of Atchison is not included in any of the above statistics. 

It is interesting to note that the vision of Miss Helen E. Bishop of 1863 
has been realized, for in every school in Atchison county, not only agricul- 
ture is taught, but in about one-third of the schools, plain sewing and various 
kinds of fancy needlework are taught also, and while no rural school as yet is 
equipped to teach cooking, a number of the teachers are directing some work 
along this line and it is done in accordance with the teacher's directions in the 
homes, with the assistance of the mothers. More attention than ever is also 
being given to drawing and music. Earnest efforts are being made by super- 
intendents and teachers to secure the cooperation of parents by means of 
community gatherings. In many districts teachers' associations, literary 
societies and debating clubs have been organized, in which parents as well as 
children are taking a great interest. Many of the districts have availed them- 
selves of the opportunity to use the stereopticon lectures sent out by the Uni- 
versity of Kansas. Lecture courses are being made in some of the schools, 
and provisions have been made for serving hot lunches for children. Medical 
inspection is also provided for, through the efforts of teachers. One of the 
most interesting and valuable features introduced into the rural school work 
of the county in recent years is the community school fair. The plan is to 
have three to five schools unite and meet at a school house, w here the children 
enter exhibits of corn, cereals, seeds of various kinds, vegetables and fruits, 
and in addition to these are also exhibited canned fruits, peaches, jelly and 
loaves of bread, and other samples of the art of cooking, together with arti- 
cles of fancy needlework and plain sewing. Many prizes are awarded for the 
best exhibit, and the result is that much interest is stimulated among the 
children in these accomplishments. The county farm agent is also lending 
great assistance in organizing school gardens, and boys' and girls' clubs of 
various kinds for the purpose of agricultural development. Much attention 
is also paid to the supervision of the children at play, on the theory that all 
work and no play makes Jack a dull boy, and the equipment for the play- 
ground of various kinds has been supplied. Six rural schools of the countv 
have organized basketball teams. 


B.esides the rural and graded schools. Atchison county has four high 
schools. Muscotah maintains an accredited four-}-ear high school, offering 
a college preparatory and g-eneral course, and the school building which was 
destroyed by fire January 13, 1916, will be replaced by a larger and better 
school, reference to which has already been made in this history. 

Under the direction of J. S. Blosser. an excellent two-year high school 
is maintained in Huron. 


In 1888 Atchison county, in accordance with an act of the Kansas legis- 
lature of 1866, established the second county high school in the State, and 
it was due to the efforts of Senator B. F. ^\"allack, and also the efforts of the 
public spirited citizens of Effingham, that this school was located there. The 
first board of trustees of this school were as follows : A. J. Harwi, A. S. Best, 
J. E. Logan, F. E. Cloyes, L. R. Spangler and W. E. Knight. John Klopfen- 
stein, who was at that time county superintendent, became the first president 
of the board. 

The present site, which comprises a spacious campus of eight acres, was 
purchased by the city of Effingham and donated to the county. A handsome 
pressed brick and stone building was erected in compliance with plans and 
specifications designed by Alfred Meier, of Atchison. The building, cost- 
ing more than $22,000.00, was completed in June, 1891. School opened 
September 14, 1891, with F. J. Squires, principal, assisted by J. O. Ward, 
Miss Julia Heath, and Miss X. Grace Murphy. Three courses of study were 
provided for : Normal, general and college preparatory. 

On the night of November 6, 1893, the building was destroyed by fire. 
School was opened the next morning and was continued the remainder of the 
year down town in lodge rooms, churches, and the public school building. 
The present building, erected on the same site, was ready for occupancy by 
the fall of 1894. 

Following are the names of the principals who have served the school : 
J. F. Squires, 1891 to 1893; S. J. Hunter, 1893 and 1896: J. W. Wilson. 
1896 to 1907; W. H. Keller, 1907 to igo8; E. H. McMath, 1908 to 191 1: 
J. R. Thierstein, 191 1 to 1915, and A. J. McAllister and G. W. Salisbury, 
1915 to 1916. 

. The county high school exists mainly to afford free high school educa- 
tion to every boy and girl in the county. Since its students come principallv 



Jii County High Si- 

from the rural districts, it must educate them to become better honiemakers 
and better farmers, and to appreciate more fully the advantages of rural 
life. It must also help prepare better teachers for the rural schools and train 
tliem for business as well as for college. 

It has grown in efficiency and influence until it is recognized as one of 
the best high schools in the State and is on the accredited list of the North 
Central Association of Colleges and Secondary Schools. This means that 
our school is recognized by the colleges of Kansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, Ne- 
braska, Iowa, Minnesota, Wisconsin, Michigan, Ohio, Indiana, Illinois, West 
Virginia, South Dakota, Wyoming and Colorado, whicli admit our graduates 
without examination. 

The faculty has increased in number from four in 1892 to twelve in 1915. 
The number of graduates in 1892 was two, in 191 5, thirty. Since its organ- 
ization the departments of commerce, music, manual training, domestic 
art, domestic science, and agriculture have been added, a farmers' short course 
established, and a demonstration farm in connection with tlie work in agricul- 
ture put into operation. 

Tlie school is well equipped in laboratories, and has a library of 3,000 


volumes, and all the leading magazines and papers. A lively interest is 
taken in athletics, both Young Men's Christian Association and Young Wom- 
en's Christian Association have a large membership. Ever}' year tlie stu- 
dents have the benefit of a splendid lecture course. 

From its halls have been graduated 387 young men and young women, 
who are now filling positions of honor as doctors, lawyers, ministers, teach- 
ers, superintendents, farmers, bankers and missionaries, and are found in 
nearly every State in the Union and in some foreign countries. 

Atchison county further increased its educational advantages in Tune, 
1915, by establishing at Potter, a rural high school, in accordance with a law 
passed by the legislature in 191 5. This district is known as Rural High , 
School, District No. i, and comprises 261^ square miles, including 
portions of nine school districts, five of which lie wholly in Atchison county, 
and the four others jointly in Atchison, Jefferson and Leavenworth counties. 

August 9, 191 5, the first school meeting in this district was held, and 
J. E. Remsburg was elected director, T. F. Hall, treasurer and D. H. Strong, 
Jr., clerk. It was not necessary for tliis district to vote bonds for a building, 
because Union District No. i, which includes Potter, and is a part of the new 
high school district, already had a beautiful modern four-room structure, which 
was leased to the newly organized high school district. A. T. Foster was 
elected first president, and Miss Sarah Armstrqng, assistant. The school 
opened September 6, 191 5, with an enrollment of eighteen pupils. The course 
of study is that prescribed by the State board of education, and covers four 

The year 191 5-16 has been a year of progress for the schools of Atchison 
county. Tht State department of education, by virtue of authority given 
them by the State legislature in 191 5, established a definite standard of effi- 
ciency for the rural schools of the State, and formulated plans for standardiz- 
ing rural schools. As a result, two rural school supervisors were added to 
the State department. J. A. Shoemaker, county superintendent of this county, 
was apopinted as one of those supervisors, and was succeeded in office by 
Miss D. Anna Speer, who is making one of the most earnest and efficient 
county superintendents this county has ever had. It is universally conceded 
that the board of county commissioners made no mistake when they selected 
Miss Speer as a successor to Mr. Shoemaker. Miss Speer is making an earn- 
est effort to bring our schools up to the standard set by the State department 
of education, in which she is receiving the cordial cooperation on the part 
of the school officers, parents and children of the county. The work thai 


is being accomplished here has been highly commended by Miss Julia Stone, 
one of the new State supervisors, and three schools, approved by the super- 
visor, have the honor of the first three "Standard Schools" in northeastern 
Kansas. These are : New Maiden District No. 45, H. S. Mahan and Eugene 
Crawford, teachers; Lancaster District No. 10, O. E. Seeber and Miss lone 
Gibson, teachers, and White Cla\- District No. 6, J. M. Pennington, teacher. 
In 1915 the County Normal Institute was combined with Midland College 
Institute, at Midland College. A si.x weeks" session was held, June 15 to 
July 28. Besides thorouglr reviews of all subjects required for county teach- 
ers" certificates, numerous courses for college credit were offered. The 
corps of instructors consisted of county superintendent. Miss D. Anna Speer : 
professors, W. E. Tilberg, E. M. Stahl, S. L. Soper, D. \\'. Crouse. C. F. 
Malmberg and Brano Meinecke. 

The following is a list of county superintendents of public instruction of 
Atchison county from the beginning of our history to the present time : 

Philip D. Plattenburg, served September, 1858, to May, 1861. 

Orlando Sawyer, served July, 1830, to January, 1867. 

Norman Dunsher, served January, 1867, to January, 1869. 

Thomas F. Cook, served Januaiw, 1869, to January, 1873. 

J. E. Remsburg, served January, 1873, to January, 1877. 

Mr. Martin, served January, 1877, to January, 1879. 

W. H. Tucker, served January, 1879, to January, 1883. 

A. G. Drew, served January, 1883, to January, 1885. 

J. F. Class, served January, 1885, to Januan,-, 1887. 

George A. Ward, served January, 1887, to Januaiy, 1889. 

John Klopfenstein, served January, 1889, to January, 1893. 

Samuel Ernst, served January, 1893, to January, 1895. 

C. E. Reynolds, served January. 1895, to January, 1899. 

John Klopfenstein, served January, 1899, to January, 1901. 

E. E. Campbell, served January, 1901, to May, 1901. 

The Kansas legislature of 1901 changed the date of beginning of super- 
intendent"s term from the second Monday in January to the second Monday 
in May, thus creating a vacancy in the office for four months. Mr. Campbell 
was appointed by the county commissioners to serve during that period. 

John Klopfenstein, served May, 1901, to May, 1903. 
O. O. Hastings, served May, 1903, to May, 1907. 


J. W. Campbell, served May, 1907, to March 18, 1909, when he died. 

J. A. Shoemaker, served March 23, 1909, to July i, 1915. 

D. Anna Speer, served July i, 191 5, and still remains superintendent. 


It was lamentable, but, nevertheless true, that there were many residents 
of the city of Atchison of the early period in its history who doubted the jus- 
tice of supporting free schools. In i860 the school board refused to levy a 
tax for school purposes in the city of Atchison. Following this, however, a 
more progressive spirit prevailed, and free schools were regidarly supported 
by annual tax levies. For ten years the schools occupied rented quarters, ex- 
cepting two frame buildings in South Atchison. The basement of the Con- 
gregational church, the lower floor of the old Masonic building that stood 
near the corner of Eighth and Commercial streets, the upper floor of the 
Auld building on Commercial street, near Sixth, Price's Hall and probably 
other buildings were used during those years. 

There was little or no general supervision of the work of the schools up 
to 1866, little or no system, and little tlistinction between public and ]irivate 

During this unorganized period the business affairs of the scIkjoIs were 
administered by a district board of three members. 

Under a law approved ]\Iarch i. 1867, the Atchison city scIkjoIs were 
organized June 3, 1867, at which time the first board of education of Atchi- 
son was elected, as follows : First ward, \Ym. Scoville, ^^'m. C. Smith ; Second 
ward, M. L. Ga^lord, L. R. Elliott: Third ward, John A. Martin. Julius 
Holthaus; Fourth wartl, Geo. W. Gillespie, Jacob Poehler. In the organiza- 
tion of the first board, Wm. Scoville was elected president, John A. Martin, 
vice-president, and M. L. Gay lord, clerk. 

The board consisted of eight members until Atchison became a city of 
the first class in 1881, at wdiich time the ward representation was increased to 
three members each, giving a board of twelve members. At the organization 
of the first enlarged board, J. C. Fox was elected president; J. B. Kurth, vice- 
president. The time of organization was the first regular meeting in August, 
a change from the former time, the first regular meeting in May, which was 
the law till 1881. During this year the time of organization was extended 
three months, giving fifteen months' service under the organization of May, 
1880. Another change made at this time was the election of a clerk not a 


member of the board. At the organization, August i, 1881, M. Noll was 
elected clerk. He was succeeded in October, b}' C. N. Seip, who was fol- 
lowed in May, 1882, by James H. Garside. 

By the addition of the Fifth ward, 1884, the board organized in August, 
that year had fifteen members. The board organized in August, 1885, had ten 
members. This representation continued till the law of 1911 provided for the 
reduction to six members, and for a term of four years instead of two years. 
The reduction was completed in 1913. and since August of that year the board 
has had six members, elected without regard to city wards. 

The presidents of the board from 1871 have been as follows: For the 
year ending in May, 1872, H. S. Baker; J. T. Coplan, to May, 1873; ]. K. 
Fisher, to May, 1874; A. J. North,' three >-ears, to May_, 1877; John Seaton, 
two years, to May, 1879; A. F. Martin, two and one-fourth years, to August, 
1881; J. C. Fox, to August, 1882; John B. Kurth, to August, 1883; J. C. 
Fox, to August, 1884; Seneca Heath, two years, to August, 1886; E. A. Mize, 
five years, to August, 1891 ; R. C. Meade, to August, 1892 ; J. T. Hersey, two 
years, to August, 1894: J. F. ^^'oodhouse, to August. 1895 ; J. T. Allertsworth, 
to August, 1896; W. L. Bailey, to August, 1897; Chas. S. Osborn, ten years, 
to August, 1907; H. H. Hackney, eight years, to August, 1915; Alva Clapp, 
now serving his first year. 

While the records of the early days are not available, there are indications 
that the chaos of the early schools was reduced to order in the middle sixties, 
the graded system unifying the free schools being established at that time by 
D. T. Bradford, who served as superintendent and principal of the high school 
for four years. In those early days the superintendent taught during the 
greater part of his time. 

Mr. Bradford was followed by a Mr. Owens, who served one year and 
was followed by R. H. Jackson. Available records show that Mr. Jackson 
was superintendent in August, 1871, and served till June, 1876. How long 
he sensed prior to the election of May, 187 1, is not indicated by records at hand. 

The superintendents following Mr. Jackson are as follows: I. C. Scott, 
to 1878; C. S. Sheffield, to 1880; R. C. Meade, to December, 1886: F. M. 
Draper, to 1889; Buel T. Davis, to 1891 ; John H. Glorfelter, to 1901 ; Nathan 
T. Veatch, serving at present (January, 1916). 

The principals of the high school serving prior to the union of the 
duties of superintendent and principal of the high school were, P. D. Platten- 
burg, Orlando Sawyer and David Negley. 

The course of study in the high school tiien was Latin, followed later 


"The Ingalls School." Atchison, Kan. 

by the Latin-Scientific. Little change was made for years, except the intro- 
duction of German in the fall of 1871. For more than thirty years there 
was little change in the subject matter of the work. The most important 
change during those thirty years or more was the complete organization of 
the high school by Superintendent R. C. Meade, in 1880. at which time a dis- 
tinct principal was placed in charge of the re-organized high school. The 
first principal under the new plan was F. W. Bartlett. Definite classes were 
started and the first class graduated June 7, 1881, in Corinthian Hall, as fol- 
lows : Jane Boone, Arthur Challiss, Blanche Challiss, Daisy, L. Denton, Delia 
Estes, Mary E. Fox, Frances L. Garside, Lilly G. Hathaway, IMaggie R. 
Hedges, May Hosier, Victor Linley, Nellie G. Reid, Mary E. Scott, Annie 
Underwood, 14. Total graduates to date (January. 1916), 568. 

F. \\'. Bartlett was principal of the high school until 1883. The follow- 
ing is the list of principals since 1883 : J. B. Cash, to 1885 ; Geo. D. Ostrom, 
to 1887: J. T. Dobell, to 1895; C. A. Shively, to 1900: \\'. C. Jamieson, to 
1902; A. H. Speer, to 1909; W. H. Livers, to 1910: J. T. Rosson, to 191 1 : 
H. P. Shepherd, now serving his fifth year. 


The superintendent and principal aided by one assistant taught the high 
school subjects till 1882. With the opening of school in September, of that 
year, the high school course of study was changed from two years to a full 
three-years course. Miss Sarah E. Steele and Aliss Anna AI. Niklaus were 
assistants during those early years. 

The addition to the teaching force, the lengthened course and the tendency 
toward greater latitude in the choice of subjects soon doubled the high school 
enrollment. The start toward vocational studies began in September, 1881, 
when, at the suggestion of J. H. Garside, bookkeeping was made an optional 

The growth of the high school was gradual. During the late eighties, an- 
other year was added to the course and an additional assistant was employed. 
Manual training was added in December, 1903; sewing, 1907: commercial 
subjects were added from time to time till the introduction of a full business 
course, including shorthand and typewriting, in 1910; normal training, 1909; 
cooking, 1910; physical training, 1910; elementary agriculture, 1913 ; school 
nurse, January, 1914; special music director, 1915. The addition of courses 
and optional subjects has so increased the high scliool work as to require eight- 
een teachers, in addition to the principal, and the enrollment has grown to 393. 
The school is on the accredited list of the University of Kansas and of the 
North Central Association of Colleges. A school paper, the Optimist, is now 
in its sixth year. A Glee Club and orchestra have been organized. A Young 
Men's Christian Association and a Young Women's Christian Association are 
doing good work. The athletic association is giving an outlet for the surplus 
energy in football, basketball, etc. 

Grades and teachers were added in the different building-s until there 
are now (January, 1916) five buildings having full eight grades of work, 
one building with three grades, and the Branchton school having two grades. 
The Branchton building belongs to district 65. Manual training for the 
boys and sewing for the girls are given in si.xth, seventh and eighth grades and 
liigh school. All the grades have the benefit of inspection b}- the school 
nurse, and instruction in music by the special director. 

In 1882 the teaching force was thirty beside the superintendent. This 
grew to forty-one by 1901, and to sixty-five in 1915. 

During March, 1881, it was resolved that a "kindergarten" be opened 
during the next term. No record is found incHcating the opening of such 
school. The kindergarten was not made a part of the system till 1910. 
Such work was offered earlier in rooms granted Ijy the board. This was, how- 
ever, the result of private enterprise. 


At the opening of the new higli school building in 1910. the first public 
kindergarten was established. In the spring of 1914, another kindergarten 
was opened in the new Washington school. 

The corner stone of the Central building was laid in August, 1868. This 
building was destroyed by fire in October, i86g. The construction of a new 
building on the old foundation began as soon as plans were completed. This 
was the three-story brick building, costing $35,000, torn down in 1908, to 
make room for the magnificent high school building completed in 1910, and 
occupied for all school purposes in September of that year. On October 5, 
1892, the name was changed to "The Ingalls School." 

The building begun in 1869 and, when completed, said to be "one of 
the finest in the State," was opened in 1870 and served without change till 
1903, when a three-story addition, costing $5,264.00 was built to provide for 
the office, manual training, one high school room and sanitary fixtures. It 
was finally outgrown after serving thirty-eight years. While the present 
building was being constructed, the high school was housed in the old three- 
story Douglas building. Fifth and R streets, and in two rooms of the old 
Washing-ton building, Sixth and O streets. 

During the two years' waiting for the new Ingalls building the colored 
pupils from Douglas school were housed in a vacant store at Sixth and Spring 
streets for one year, and in Lincoln school for part of the second year, and the 
grades of Ingalls school were housed as follows : Seventh and eighth, banquet 
room of Odd Fellows Hall; sixth, Martin school; fifth, Pioneer Hall; second, 
third and fourth, basement of Congregational church; first, basement of 
Presbyterian church; manual training, in old fire department for the first 
year, and in a vacant store room till the latter part of December of the second 
year, when it was moved to the new building. 

The present high school building-, the Ingalls school, cost about $103,500. 
The equipment and added kits at the southwest corner of the block, impro\'e- 
ment of grounds, etc., will bring the present value of the property at least to 

Governor Georg-e W. Click was largely instrumental in the work of 
securing the lots for the Ingalls school. The ten lots purchased prior to the 
erection of the first building cost, approximately, $3,500. Lots 8 and 9 in the 
same block secured by condemnation in 191 1, cost $2,250. 

The three-story brick building at the corner of Fifth and R streets, built 
in 1873 at a cost of $15,000, was originally called Washington school. A 
three-room, one-story frame building, erected on this site in the middle sixties. 


was the first building own^d by district No. i, and served till 1873. The 
lots cost $1,200 and the building $2,423. At that time a frame building at 
the corner of Sixth and streets was used by the colored . pupils and was 
called Douglas school. This was built in the middle sixties. It was at first 
a two-room, one-story building. Later, a third room was added. The lots 
cost $820. ■ This was the second building owned by district No. i. Earlv 
maps of Atchison show the locations of Washington and Douglas here given. 
The names "Central," "Washington," "Franklin," "Lincoln" and 
"Douglas" were authorized February 2, 1880. 

In 1884 work began on two new buildings, one a ten-room brick building 
to take the place of the frame building called "Douglas," and the other an 
eight-room brick building at Sixth and Division streets, named North Atchi- 
son school. The one at Sixth and Q streets cost $18,682, and was occupied 
for school purposes January 5, 1885. The white pupils in "Washington" 
school were taken to the new building, and the colored school formerly housed 
in "Douglas" was taken to the "Washington." The names were also trans- 
ferred soon after the new order of things was established. 

The ten-room Washington building was used till the close of school for 
vacation, December, 1913. On January 5, 1914, the school began work in 
the present beautiful building, south of R street, between Fifth and Sixth 
streets. The old property at Sixth and O streets .was sold for $2,300, but 
the name of the school was retained. The new building with grounds and 
equipment cost $63,000. The site was secured by condemnation and cost 

The original "Washington" remained the "Douglas" until the com- 
pletion of the new Douglas on Sixth, between U and V streets. The pupils 
of "Douglas" were housed in "Lincoln" till late in the fall of 1909. The 
site of tliis luiilding, lots 18, 19, 20 and 21, block 35, South Atchison, was 
secured in March, 1909, in exchange for lots 10 and 11, same block, the old 
hospital property, which had previously been donated to the board of educa- 
tion for school purposes, the money involved being the payment of some back 
taxes by the board. 

The North Atchison school, Sixth and Division streets, was occupied 
for school purposes in September, 1885. The lots cost $800 and the building, 
equipment and retaining walls, $5,381.94. On October 5, 1892, the name of 
this school was changed to "The John A. Martin School." This building 
was used till the last of May, 191 5. Immediately after the close of school, 
May 28, 191 5, it was wrecked to make way for the new building now in 


course of construction. The added g'rnund, secured by condemnation, cost 
$6,200 and the building, equipment and improvement of grounds will cost, 
approximately, $56,500. During the year 19 15-16 this school is housed in 
the Ingalls building. 

The West Atchison school building, named Franklin school, February 2, 
1880, was, originally, a three-room, one-story brick, costing $2,617.10. This 
was changed to six rooms by the addition of a second story in 1883, at a cost 
of $2,498, and was remodeled and changed to an eight-room building in 1908, 
at a cost of $12,500, and reoccupied early in 1909. The lots cost $400. Dur- 
ing the change in Franklin, the pupils were housed in the "Green-Tree House" 
aiVd in a vacant store room at 1521 Main street. 

The Lincoln school (colored), Eighth and Atchison streets, was nrigi- 
nally a three-room, one-story brick building erected in 1871 at a cost of 
$2,425. The lots cost $750. In 1883, this was changed to a six-room build- 
ing at a cost of $2,498. This is the only school building in the city not 

The records reveal some interesting things. In 1878 it was decided 
that "the work of the grades should be completed in eight years." In 1884 
an attempt was made to establish a branch high school in South Atchison. 
While this failed, it was voted that "a sub-junior grade be maintained in the 
Washington school." This was discontinued within a few years. 

In March, 1883, it was ordered that the schools close because of lack of 
funds. The city council came to the rescue and appropriated $4,000 for 
school purposes. The schools re-opened March 29. 

The school year was shortened several times in those early days. 

Hie school spirit is in splendid condition. The increased material 
equipment is adding greatly to the educational opportunities. "Continuation 
schools" have been conducted for several years, with good attendance. 

The improvements have been made without bonds, excepting the $100,- 
000 issue for the high school in 1908. The total bonded indebtedness (January, 
1916) is $122,000. Of this amount, $4,000 will be paid July i, 1916. Of the 
issue of 1908, $94,000 remain unpaid, and will fall due in 1923. The $24,- 
000 refunding bonds issued in 1913 will be due in 1933. The board of edu- 
cation is not using the full limit of its taxing power. 

It is only fair to add a tribute at this point to the faithful, enthusiastic 
and efficient work rendered b}- Prof. Nathan T. Veatch to the public school 
system of Atchison. During the period of his service here, Atchison has seen 


its greatest development in its public school system, and this has not only been 
brought about by the fine public spirit that exists here but by tlie splendid co- 
operation which Prof. Veatch has given it. 


In addition to the private schools that existed here in an early day, 
there were a number of private schools which did good work in Atchison 
subsequently to the Teasdale school, which was operated here in the eighties. 
Mrs. Harriet E. Monroe rendered the cause of education in Atchison county 
an invaluable and also an imperishable service. Mrs. Monroe founded the 
Atchison Institute. In 1871 she erected a building at the northwest corner 
of Third and Kansas avenue, to which a wing was added in 1876, and three 
years later the large brick building, all of which are still standing. The prop- 
erty represented an investment of $25,000, and the success of Mrs. Monroe's 
enterprise was phenomenal. She received no bonus or assistance from city, 
county, State, church or individual. She had nine students when she started 
her school, and subsequently increased her enrollment to 300. She had a 
musical department and an art department, and they were admitted to have 
no superior in the Missouri valley at that time. She also conducted a kinder- 
garten, primary, intermediate and academic grades. Also a collegiate de- 
partment, consisting of preparatory, scientific, classical and literary courses. 
together with the normal and commercial courses. She had thirteen teachers. 
Her vocational department covered all the arts of domestic economy and 
domestic science, before which she employed most eminent women in their 
special lines to deliver lectures. Mrs. Monroe was then, and is nciw, a truly 
remarkable woman. Her school was a forerunner of Midland College, 
and when it came to Atchison in 1887, Mrs. Monroe closed her school shortly 
thereafter and has since been a resident of Washington, D. C. She is a highly 
educated ladv of refinement and culture, and has spent much time upon the 
lecture platform. 

Following the Monroe Institute, some years later, Prof. Flint conducted 
a Latin school here, which was largely attended. Mr. Flint was succeeded 
by Prof. Foot, and as an outgrowth of these two schools, Misses Helen and 
Abigail Scofield opened a preparatory school, and successfully conducted it 
for a number of years, when they were succeeded by Miss Mary Walton, who 
ran her school in the building owned by Mrs. J. W. Parker, on Laramie 
street, between Third and Fourth streets, until a few years ago. 


In 19 16 the public school system is augmented in its work by several 
parochial and denominational schools, conducted by the Catholics and the 
German Lutherans. 


One of the first sights to impress the visitor to Atchison is the impos- 
ing collection of buildings which crowns its southern hill, now commonly 
known as Mt. St. Scholastica. 

Mt. St. Scholastica is practically as old as Atchison itself, the first sisters 
having come here in 1863. Few who gaze upon the massive and commodious 
array of buildings, surrounded as they now are by well-kept lawns, spacious 
meadow and woodland, stop to think of its humble beginning anci the many 
trials which beset the early foundation. But the first sisters were in time to 
feel the effects of the Civil war and the hardships attendant upon the same. 

At the request of Rev. Augustine Wirth, O. S. B., then prior of St. 
Benedict's College, and the first pastor of the church in Atchison, Rev. 
Mother Evangelista and six companions were sent from the Benedictine 
convent in St. Cloud, Minn., to establish a school in Atchison. Two more 
sisters were sent the following April. As these latter were on their way, they 
were detained at Hannibal for two days. The funeral cortege of President 
Lincoln ha^•ing reached that city at the same time as the sisters, one of their 
sad privileges was that of attending the obsequies of the martyred President 
before continuing their journej^ Kansasward. 

The little convent, situated at the corner of Second and Division streets. 
near St. Benedict's church, was the cradle of the present institution. Second 
street at that time was not a street at all, but rather a passageway' cut through 
the hazel brush, then so abundant in Atchison. 

The academy organized its classes December i, 1863. It was incor- 
porated in 1873. Its roster bears the names of many of Atchison's best 
families of both town and county. 

In the summer of 1877 the Price villa was purchased. A new building 
was added in 1889. The third building was commenced in 1900. The build- 
ings are surrounded by thirty-eight acres of woodland and meadow. 

Besides the academy in Atchison, the sisters supply teachers for a large 
number of missions or parochial schools in Kansas, Nebraska, Missouri, and 
Iowa, also one large school in Walsenburg, Colo. The institution in Atchison 


is the center or mother house of all these branch houses, and in vacation all 
the sisters from the missions assemble here for the annual retreat, and for 
the summer normal. 

The venerable Mother Evangelista, the first mother and foundress, was 
succeeded in office by Sister Theresa, who governed the community as Rev- 
erend mother for the next twelve years. Since that time Mother Aloysia 
has ably carried on the work of her predecessors. 

The early days of Mt. St. Scholastica, like the early days of Kansas, 
were times of struggle and hardships. Yet, these brave pioneer sisters were 
of the true Kansas type, and tell us that they never for a moment regretted 
their mission to the Sunflower State. They tell us, too, that the sunflower 
itself had a strange power to cheer and encourage their early days. Its sturdy 
stalk and bright disk seem so fit a type of faith, labor and grateful content, 
that even to the present day this rustic flower always finds a place in the 
convent garden. 

The later history of Mt. St. Scholastica is too well known to need repeti- 
tion. Its actual growth began with the purchase of Price villa in 1877, since 
which time progress has been steady and vigorous. 

A most comprehensive plan of study is pursued at Mt. St. Scholastica. 
It includes all branches needful for a thorough, liberal and refined education, 
the outcome of long years of experience and thoughtful consideration. That 
this fact is appreciated, not only by neighboring cities and towns, may be seen 
by consulting the academy rostei', which records a long list of names from 
many and various sections of the country. Besides the academic or classical 
course, Mt. St. Scholastica furnishes a complete commercial course, together 
with special advantages for the study of music and art. 

The home life of Mt. St. Scholastica is ideal. The association of fellow- 
students amid wholesome environments has the tendency to bring out and de- 
velop every noble and womanly quality, while the beneficient and judicious 
guidance of the sisters wisely leads to the attainment of those lofty princi- 
ples so needful to right living. 

Sacred Heart parochial school, in Atchison, is also controlled by the 
Benedictine sisters, and is supported by tuition. Its curriculum extends 
through the grades, and the school is under the direction of Sister Monica, 
O. S. B., and one assistant. Both boys and girls attend, and the enrollment 
in 1916 is seventy-four. 

St. Louis College is another parochial school, offering work through the 


grades, and admitting both boys and girls. It is maintained by St. Benedict's 
parish. Number of teachers employed is six, and the Rev. Gerard Heinz, O. 
S. B., is principal. Enrollment in 1916 is 293. 

St. Patrick's parochial school is located near St. Patrick's church, in 
Union District No. 2, about seven miles south of Atchison. Two teachers 
are employed in the school, and Ven. Sr. Menvina, O. S. B., is directress. 
It is controlled and supported by St. Patrick's parish, and its curriculum ex- 
tends through the grades. Boys and girls attend the school, and the enroll- 
ment in 1916 was sixty-seven. 

St. Ann's school is a Catholic parochial school, at Effingham. It is 
controlled and supported by St. Ann's parish. Both boys and girls enroll in 
the school, which completes the work of the grades. The past year, forty- 
six pupils were in attendance. Two teachers are employed, one of whom is 
Sister Sr. M. Marcellina, O. S. B., the directress. 

The Trinity Lutheran parochial school is controlled and supported by the 
Trinity Lutheran parish, corner of Eighth and Laramie streets. The cur- 
riculum extends to the eighth grade, and work is offered to both boys and 
girls. The enrollment in 1916 is fifty-three, and Rev. Carl W. Greinki is 


The board of education of the general synod of the Evangelical Luth- 
eran church, after considering propositions from a number of cities in the 
Middle West, decided on Atchison as the most suitable location for a Luth- 
eran institution. It is easy of access from the whole territory from which 
students are most likely to come, and the offer of the city to give $50,000 
in money for buildings, twenty acres of land for a campus and professors' 
houses, a half interest in the sale of 500 acres of land, and to furnish 200 stu- 
dents the first year, was a tempting offer. 

Owing to some difficulties that arose, this offer was not entirely ful- 
filled, but the twenty acres of ground was donated, and about $33,000 put 
into buildings. The college was opened on the fifteenth of September, 1887, 
with 1 01 students registered. 

In 1888 the main building, known as Atchison Hall, was begun, and 
turned over to the board of trustees in the spring of 1889, and formally 
dedicated on the 30th day of September of the same year. The institution 
was given over to the care of a self-perpetuating board. From time to time 
the constitution has been changed, so that the trustees would be elected by the 
synods supporting the college. 


At the present time the Ixianl is composed of twenty-nine memljers; four 
are elected by the board from the citizens of Atchison, six from each of the 
Kansas, Enghsh Nebraska and German Nebraska synods; two from the 
Rocky Mountain and Iowa synods each, and three from the Ahunni Associa- 
tion, with the president of the college advisory member, ex-officio. 

Carnegie Library. 
Midland College. 
Atchison. Kans. 

Rev. Jacob A. Clutz, D. D., was elected first president, and ser\ed 
efficiently in that capacity for fourteen and one-half years. In 1Q04 Rev. ]M. 
F. Troxell, D. D., pastor of the English Lutheran church of St. Joseph, Mo. 
was elected president, and was succeeded by Dr. Rufus B. Peer)-. 

In 1891 Oak Hall, a dormitory for girls, was erected, to which, about 
ten years later, the annex was added, giving accommodations for thirty 
young women. In 1893 the gymnasium was erected, the money being 
solicited by the students of the institution. Through the solicitations of Dr. 
Clutz, a splendid six-inch telescope was donated, and an observatory built in 
1899. Through the efforts of Dr. Troxell a proposition was secured from 
Andrew Carnegie to donate $15,000 towards the building of a library, pro- 
vided the same amount could be raised for its upkeep. From the synods on 
the territory, alumni and friends of the college, this amount was secured, and 



the handsome Hbrary building was erected during the winter of 1910-1911, 
and formally dedicated on May 30, 1911. A legacy of $5,000, given several 
years before, was added to the building fund in order to have a public hall, 
and a memorial tablet was placed in the hall to the memory of the generous 
donor, Rev. J. G. Griffith, D. D. On the retirement of Dr. Clutz, his home 
was bought by the college board for the use of the president. 

The \\'festern Theological Seminary was organized in 1895, and the first 
president and professor, Rev. F. D. Altman, D. D., was inaugurated. 

The German department of the seminary was added a few years later, 
with Dr. J. L. Neve as dean of the department. The home owned by ex- 
Senator John J. Ingalls was secured in 1908 for seminary purposes. It is ad- 
mirably adapted to that purpose. At the annual meeting of the college trus- 
tees in 1910 the board of education turned over the management of the 
seminary to this board. 

ST. benedict's college. 

St. Benedict's College is the ji-roduct of Benedictine activity in Kansas, in 
the cause of Christian civilization. Father Boniface Wimmer, O. S. B., the 
founder of the Benedictines in the United States, settled in Pennsylvania in 
1846, and ten years later he sent missionaries in all directions, and where 
they settled, promptly there, too, their schools soon were founded. Father 
Henry Lempe, O. S. B., was the first Benedictine to touch upon Kansas 
soil in 1856, and he inspired Bishop Miege, S. J., of Leavenworth, witli the 
idea of inviting Abbott Wimmer to make a foundation in Kansas, and tliere- 
after Father Augustine Wirth, O. S. B., was sent out to Doniphan, in 1857, 
but in 1858 he moved to Atchison. Father Augustine's management of the 
college continued until 1868, when he was succeeded by Louis M. Fink, O. S. 
B., who remained at the head of the institution until 1871. It was under 
Father Louis that the first printed catalog of St. Benedict's College appears. 
Father Giles Christoph, O. S. B., succeeded Father Louis, and held the posi- 
tion three years, from 1871 to 1874, and was succeeded by Father Oswald 
Moosmueller, O. S. B. The college is situated on the hills north of Atchison 
and commands an extensive view of the Missouri river and surrounding 
country. In 1908 the college planned to erect a new group of buildings to 
crown the brow of the hill, east of the old college, new St. Benedict is to be 
not only first class, but it is to be a monument of beautiful architecture, 
which will be in Tudor Gothic and uniform throughout. The administra- 
tion building, already erected, comprises the first of the group, part of which 


comprises living quarters of the students. It is a fire-proof building of re- 
inforced concrete and vitrified brick, spacious, well ventilated, and conve- 
niently arranged. The buildings in the old group are of substantial structure, 
v^'ell fitted to serve their purposes. They comprise an auditorium, recitation 
room, kitchen and dining rooms, scientific laboratories, museum of natural 
history, music and typewriting departments. The college has two distinct 
libraries, one for the exclusive use of the students, and the other, the college 
library proper. The students' library contains upwards of 5,000 volumes, in 
addition to a number of papers and magazines. The college library 
proper^ maintained for the use of the professors, occupies four rooms and the 
monastery, and it contains more than 27,400 bound volumes and over 5,000 
pamphlets. The scientific laboratories are adequate for present use, and the 
museum is one of the best of its kind in this part of the country. The play- 
grounds of the college are large and well suited to afford all manner of 
healthful exercise for the students. 

The courses available in the college are the academic, tlie collegiate, busi- 
ness and stenographic, which are presided over by twenty-two professors, 
and in which are 300 students. St. Benedict's is one of the finest Catholic 
institutions in the West. 






Atchison county has always been particularly proud of the high order of 
talent that has graced its bench and bar. From the very earliest days of its 
history, the legal profession has been well represented here. Men who have 
reached a high order of distinction in the profession have had their begin- 
ning at the bar of this county. In fact, this county has been somewhat 
unique in this respect, for there is perhaps no other county in Kansas that 
has furnished a greriler number of distinguished representatives of this noble 
profession, who have shed their luster upon the fair name of the State. For 
a long period, indeed, Atchison seemed to be the Mecca towards which the best 
legal talent from all quarters of the country gathered, and it was the Atchison 
bar that furnished three chief justices of the supreme court of Kansas, one 
United States district judge, an attorney-general, a governor, a United 
States senator, and a general counsel for a large railroad system. 

No attempt will be made in this chapter to give a complete roster of 
names of the many lawyers who have successfully practiced their profession 
here. The list is too numerous, but reference will be made to a number of 
conspicuous leaders, whose names stand out prominently in the history of 
the State, and whose careers have enriched the story of success and achieve- 

Atchison county was one of the counties of the second judicial district, 

which composed, in addition to Atchison county, Doniphan, Brown, Nemaha, 

Marshall and Washington counties. The first judge of the district was Hon. 

Albert L. Lee, who lived at Elwood, Doniphan county, and served from Jan- 



uary 29 to October 31. 1861. He died in New York City December 31, 1907. 
The second judge of this district was Hon. Albert H. Horton. Judge Hor- 
ton was born in Orange county, Xew York, ^Nlarch 12, 1837, and was edu- 
cated at Farmers' Hall Academy, in that county, and at Ann Arbor Univer- 
sity. He was admitted to practice in the supreme court of Xew York, at 
Brooklyn, in 1859, and continued the practice of his profession at Goshen 
until i860, when he removed to Kansas, locating at Atchison. His first pub- 
lic office here was city attorney, to which place he was elected in the spring 
of 1861. upon the Republican ticket, and t-he same year was appomted by 
Governor Robinson judge of the second judicial district, and held this office. 
by election, until 1866, when he resigned. He was a Republican presidential 
elector in 1868, and in 1869 was appointed a district attorney of Kansas by 
President Grant, which office he held until 1873, when he was elected a 
member of the house of representatives from this county. Three years later 
he was elected to the State senate, and was also a delegate to the National 
Republican convention in June of that year, and in the same year was ap- 
pointed chief justice of the supreme court of Kansas by Governor Thomas 
A. Osborn, to succeed Hon. S. A. Kingman, who was before that time a 
prominent practitioner in Atchison. In 1877 Judge Horton was nominated 
on the Republican ticket to the office of chief justice of the State, and he 
served in that capacity for seventeen years, at the end of which time he re- 
turned to Atchison and formed a partnership with Hon. B. P. Waggener. 
Judge Horton was an able jurist and lawyer, a strong argumentative and 
fluent speaker. He displayed marked ability as a parliamentarian while in 
the legislature, and was. altogether, a man of strong mental capacity, good 
judgment, coupled with executive aliility, and much practical experience. 
Ater a number of years' practice here, following his resignation as chief jus- 
tice of the State, he subsequently was reelected to the same position. He 
died on the second day of September. 1902. 

Judge Horton was succeeded as judge of the district court of this dis- 
trict by Hon. St. Clair Graham May 11, 1866. Judge Graham served as 
judge until January 11. 1869, and was on the bench at the time that the cele- 
brated Regis Liosel land contest was tried in Nemaha county, in which John 
J. Ingalls, another Atchison lawyer, represented some claimants to 38,111 
acres of land in the counties of Nemaha, Marshall, Jackson and Pottawato- 
mie. It was one of the celebrated cases of that day. The litigation grew out 
of a French land grant, which subsequentlv was confirmed by an act of Con- 
gress in 1858. 



Judge Graham was succeeded by Hon. Nathan Price, of Troy, Doniphan 
county, January ii, 1869. Judge Price served until March i, 1872. He 
practiced law in the district for a number of years thereafter, and died in 
Troy ]\Iarch. 8, 1883. B. P. \\'aggener, who began his wonderful career as 
a lawyer during the administration of Judge Price, and who has been in the 
active practice in Atchison since that time, is authority for the statement that 
Judge Price was one of the most brilliant judges that ever adorned the 
bench. He is described by Mr. U^aggener as being a man of a powerful per- 
sonality, and thoroughly grounded in the principles of the law. 



During this period in the history of the county, Atchison had one of the 
strongest bars in the State of Kansas. Among the able lawyers then in the 
active practice were ; P. T. Abell, about whom much has appeared in this his- 
tory ; Gen. Benjamin F. Stringfellow, Alfred G. Otis, John J. Ingalls, George 
W. Click, Samuel C. Kingman, J. T. Hereford, Gen. W. W. Guthrie, Albert 
H. Horton, Cassius G. Foster, S. H. Glenn, F. D. Mills and David Martin, 
and one of that number, Mr. Waggener, is also authority for the statement 
that Benjamin F. Stringfellow was the most brilliant. General Stringfellow 
was a brother of Dr. John H. Stringfellow, one of the founders of Atchison, 
and, like his Itrother, was a strong pro-slavery leader. He was famous be- 
fore he came to Atchison, because of his widely known views with regard 
to the opening of Kansas as a slave State, and for the depth and force of 


his arguments upon the points then at issue. General Stringfellow was born 
in Fredericksburg, Va., September 3, 1816, and before coming to Kansas he 
was a resident of Missouri. He first located in Louisville, Ky., and then 
went to St. Louis, and from St. Louis to Huntsville, Mo., finally locating at 
Keytesville, where he settled down in his profession, and was recognized as 
being a young lawyer of fine ability. He declined the position of circuit 
attorney, but upon the earnest solicitation of the governor, he finally yielded 
and entered upon the duties of that office, and subsequently was elected without 
opposition, and held that office for a term of four years at a salarv of $250 
a year. He subsequently was elected to the legislature, with the largest 
majority ever received in a county, and immediately became a very active, 
popular and influential member of that body. Shortly thereafter the position 
of attorney-general of the State of Missouri became vacant, and General 
Stringfellow was appointed to that place. He held the office of attorney- 
general for four years. It was then that he formed a partnership with Hon. 
P. T. Abell, which continued until the fall of 185 1, and they removed to 
Weston, Platte county, Missouri, in the fall of 1853. 

At the opening of Kansas to settlement in 1854, General Stringfellow 
found the abolitionists preparing to get control of the country, and, in opposi- 
tion to the formation of the Massachusetts Immigrants' Aid Society, he took 
part in the organization of a pro-slavery organization at Weston, Mo., 
known as the Platte County Self-Defensive Association, of which he was 
secretary, and one of its most active members. General Stringfellow, fore- 
iieeing the conflict, insisted that the onlv means of preventing or deferring it, 
was to make Kansas a slave State, and thus retain sufficient power in the 
United States Senate to defeat aggression by the abolitionists on the rights 
of the South. General Stringfellow, with all the power and enthusiasm of 
his southern temperament, labored ceaselessly for tlie success of his cause. 
He was the active man of what was generally called "Atciiison. Stringfellow 
& Company." 

When the pro-slavery forces finally succeeded, and tlie destiny of Kansas 
was fixed. General Stringfellow went to Memphis, Tenn., in 1858, but not 
liking the climate, and compelled by his financial interests to look after prop- 
erty in Atchison, he brought his family here and became a resident of Atchi- 
son county in the fall of 1859, and remained here during all the bitter con- 
flict that followed, beloved and respected by friends and opponents alike. He 
submitted gracefully to the final decision, and, while never seeking office, 
and influenced in his political action by what he deemed the best interests 



of the people of the State, he cordially cooperated with the Republican party 
in Kansas, but he was preeminently a lawyer, although he had a large out- 
side business interests during his residence here. He was active in the organ- 
ization and construction of the Atchison & St. Joseph railroad, which was 
the first railroad connecting Kansas with the East, and was its first attorney. 
Shorly before his death he made a trip around the world. He died in 
Chicago in the early nineties. 



A few years after General Stringfellow immigrated from Missouri into 
Kansas, there came another famous lawyer, who was also formerly an attor- 
ney-general of Missouri, Gen. Bela M. Hughes. General Hughes was also 
one of the brilliant lawyers of an early day, who remained in Atchison but 
a few years as general counsel for the Overland Stage Line. Before coming 
to Atchison, General Hughes was a resident of St. Joseph, where he was the 
president and general counsel for the Central Overland California & Pike's 
Peak Express Company, ^^'hen this line was sold, under a mortgage fore- 
closure, to Ben Holladay, in 1862, General Hughes came to Atchison. He 
served as general counsel for Mr. Holladay until the line was purchased 
by Wells. Fargo & Company. He was retained by this company as its gen- 


eral counsel, which continued to operate the overland stage line, until a rail- 
road was built across the plains, meanwhile moving to Denver, where he was 
elected the first president and general counsel of the Denver & Pacific rail- 
way, the first railroad to enter Denver, in July, 1870, and he later became 
general counsel for the Denver & South Park railroad, and a member of the 
last territorial legislature of Colorado. General Hughes was born in Ken- 
tucky, educated at Augusta College, and removed with his parents at an early 
date to Liberty. JNIo. He was a member of the Missouri legislature, prose- 
cuting attorney, and receiver of the United States land office at Plattsburg, 
from which place he went to St. Joseph. In his early youth he was a soldier 
in the Black Hawk war, serving with the Missouri volunteers. He took up 
his residence in Denver in the late sixties, when the city had less than 5,000 
inhabitants. He died in Denver in 1904, at the age of eighty-six years. 

Judge Samuel C. Kingman was born in W^orthington, Mass., June 6, 
1 8 18. He attended a common school and academies of his home town, and 
became proficient in higher mathematics and Latin, but his regular attendance 
at school ended when he was seventeen years old. He was always a sickly 
man, and at times during his life was compelled to lay aside all study and 
attention to acti\-e affairs. At the age of twenty he drifted to Kentucky, 
Avhere he remained eighteen years, teaching school, reading law and practic- 
ing as an attorney. He held offices as county clerk and county attorney in 
Kentucky, and was a member of the legislature of that State in 1850. In 
1856 he came to Iowa, and in the following year moved to Brown county, 
Kansas, where he lived on a farm for a year, and then opened a law office 
in Hiawatha. Judge Kingman was a member of the Wyandotte Constitu- 
tional convention, whicli framed the constitution of the State, and tlie same 
year was elected a judge of the supreme court, taking his seat upon the ad- 
mission of the State into the L^nion in 1861, holding his office for four years. 
In 1866 he was elected chief justice, and reelected in 1872, but because of ill 
health he resigned in 1877, and retired from active professional life. Judge 
Kingman was for a time a resident of Atchison and a law partner of John 
J. Ingalls. He died in Topeka September 9, 1904. 

Cassius G. Foster, another one of the brilliant galaxy of lawyers, who 
practiced in Atchison during the term of Judge Price on the bencli, was born 
at \\'ebster, ]\Ionroe county. New York. June 22, 1837. He was brought up 
on a farm until he was fourteen years of age, and having only the advantages 
of a common district school, he attended high school at Palmyra, N. V., after 
which he went to Michigan, where he lived on a farm near Adrian, where he 


worked for his uncle. JN'Ieanwhile. he attended school at the academy in Adrian. 
He studied law with Fernando C. Beaman, of Adrian, and afterwards re- 
moved to Rochester, N. Y. In June, 1859, he came to Kansas, having- pre- 
viousty been greatly interested in the Free State struggle, and upon arriving 
in Atchison, he formed a partnership with Judge S. H. Glenn, and immedi- 
ately won for himself a high position at the bar of the State and Federal 
courts. He was elected State senator from Atchison county in 1862, and was 
mayor of Atchison in 1867. ^^ practiced law here until 1874, when he was 
appointed United States district judge of Kansas. 

Hon. P. L. Hubbard, of Atchison, succeeded Judge Price on the bench 
March 2, 1872, and served until January 8, 1877, and following Judge Hub- 
bard, Hon. Alfred G. Otis was elected judge of the second judicial district 
January 8. 1877, and sensed until January, 1881. Judge. Otis was born in 
Cortland county, New York, December 13, 1828, and came to Kansas in 
October, 1853, and immediately became engaged in land litigation, which at 
that time was very active here. During the early career of Judge Otis in 
Atchison county, and for many years thereafter, land litigation was the chief 
source of revenue for lawyers. There were no great corporations then as 
now; no railroads for clients, and aside from land litigation and a general 
practice of the law, including criminal cases, there was but little business for 
lawyers. At that time the criminal practice was not looked upon with the 
same disapprobation on the part of the profession as it is in these days. A 
good criminal lawyer then was an ornament to the profession, and a good 
criminal advocate was in constant demand and his services brought him large 
remuneration. Judge Otis was a Democrat, but a Union man, and in addi- 
tion to his activities in his profession, he was also prominent in the business 
affairs of the town, and for a long time took an active part in the manage- 
ment of the Atphison Savings Bank, of which he was for many years presi- 
dent. Judge Otis died in Atchison May 7, 19 12. 

Judge Otis was succeeded by Hon. David Martin in January, 188 1. 
Judge Martin served until April, 1887, and was one of the eminent members 
of the Atchison countv bar. In personal appearance he was unique among 
his fellows, and in physical appearance was the counterpart of Dickens' 
famous Mr. Pickwick. He was a partner of B. P. Waggener for a number of 
years, and was subsequently elected to the position of chief justice of the 
supreme court of Kansas, where he served with great distinction. He was 
a thorough lawyer and a scholar. He died at Atchison March 2, 1901. 

It was between the terms of Judge Price and Judge David Martin that 


the bar of Atchison county reached its greatest eminence, and, while there 
have been good lawyers here since that time, there never has been a period 
in the history of the county when there were so many brilhant practitioners at 
the bar. During several years following Judge Martin, the second judicial 
district, which constituted Atchison county alone, was torn by internal dis- 
sension, and upon the resignation of Judge Martin, Hon. H. M. Jackson was 
elected to the bench. April i, 1887, and served until January, 1888. There 
never was a more conscientious or painstaking lawyer a resident of Atchi- 
son than Judge Jackson. He was not only a fine lawyer, but he was a good 
citizen, useful to clients and the public alike. At his death. May 7, 19 12, he 
left a large practice, which has since been conducted by his son, Z. E. Jackson. 
Following a bitter contest, Hon. W. D. Gilbert succeeded Judge Jackson in 
Januar}% 1888, and served until 1889, and then came Hon. Robert N. Eaton, 
whose term began in January, 1889, and ended in January, 1893. Judge 
Eaton was succeeded by Hon. W. D. Webb, who in turn was succeeded by 
Hon. W. T. Bland, who served from January, 1897, to January, 1902, and 
resigned to go into the wholesale drug business. Hon. Benjamin F. Hudson, 
one of the oldest practitioners at the bar, succeeded Judge Bland and served 
until October 11, 1909, and was succeeded by Hon. William A. Jackson, the 
present judge, a sketch of whose career appears in another part of this history. 

During the turbulent years that followed the organization of the second 
judicial district, down to 1916, there was no greater lawyer at the Atchison 
county bar than B. P. Waggener, about whom there appears an historical 
sketch in another part of this history. Mr. Waggener. in addition to being 
a native genius, inherited or acquired a faculty for unremitting toil. These 
quaHfications make him stand out in 1916 as a brilliant leader of his pro- 
fession in Atchison county. He has been associated as a partner with many 
men who have been preeminent in their profession at different periods in his 
career, Horton, Martin and Doster, all of whom served as chief justices of 
the State, were his partners, and in addition to these, Aaron S. Everest was 
at one time a partner under the finn name of Everest & Waggener. In 
January, 1876, this firm was appointed general attorneys for northern Kan- 
sas of the Missouri Pacific and the Central Branch railroads, and from that 
date to 1916 Mr. Waggener has been in the constant service of this road, 
first as general attorney and later as general counsel for the states of Kan- 
sas, Nebraska and Colorado. 

Col. Aaron S. Everest was an interesting member of this bar. He was a 
native of Plattsburg, N. Y., and located in Kansas in 1871. His first partner 


was A. G. Otis, and when he and Mr. Waggener were associated, they were 
not onl}' attorneys for tlie Missouri Pacific Railway Company, but for the 
Pacific Express Company, the Western Union Telegraph Company, three 
Atchison banks, the Atchison Bridge Company, and the firm was also con- 
nected with the Union Pacific Railroad Company. Mr. Everest retired from 
active practice a number of years before his death, having acquired a com- 
fortable fortune in the practice of law and in business operations. He died in 
St. Louis a number of years ago. 

The present membership of the Atchison county bar is composed of law- 
yers of fine abilities, and the active members are as follows : James W. Orr, 
for many years a partner of Mr. Waggener, and now special counsel for the 
Government in important litigation against the Central Pacific railroad; W. 
P. Waggener, general attorney for the Missouri Pacific Railway Company in 
Kansas; J. M. Challiss, former county attorney, and a member of the firm 
of Waggener, Challiss & Crane, of which A. E. Crane is the other member; 
W. A. Jackson, district judge; Charles J. Conlon, county attorney, C. D. 
Walker and T. A. Moxcey, both of whom were former county attorneys ; W. 
E. Brown, city attorney; Z. E. Jackson, of the firm of Jackson & Jackson; 
Judge J. L. Berry, P. Hayes, Hugo Orlopp, E. W. Clausen, Ralph U. Pfouts, 
Charles T. Gundy, judge of the city court, George L. Brown, William O. 
Cain, and Andrew Deduall. 






Any history of this county would be incomplete did it not dwell at some 
length upon the activities of the splendid sei-vice rendered the community hy 
the physicians and surgeons who were among the earliest arrivals upon the 
frontier, and have presided at the births and administered to the sick and dying 
for the past sixty years. 

It was peculiarly fitting and appropriate when Atchison was born, that a 
prominent physician of those days was on hand to assist in the delivery. In 
truth, Dr. J. H. Stringfellow was not only the physician in charge, but he also 
was one of the parents also, and from that time to the present the medical 
profession has been active in the affairs of the county. There have teen many 
splendid representatives of the profession here since the days of Dr. String;- 
fellow, and the vicissitudes and trials and hardships they went through 
make up a romantic chapter in our history. The oldest physician in the city 
of Atchison in 1916 in point of service is Dr. E. T. Shelly, and it might be 
said, without disparagement to others, he is not only the oldest, but he is per- 
haps held in as high esteem and respect as any other physician who ever 
practiced here. Dr. Shelly combines the qualities that make for good citizen- 
ship. He treats his profession as a good Christian treats his religion. He is 
a man of ideals, of vision, of integrity, and his life rings true. Yet, withal, 
Dr. Shelly is not a professional hermit. While his profession comes first, he 
does not allow it to exclude him from an active interest and participation in 
the affairs of life. He is a student of political and economic questions, an 
essayist, and a vigorous advocate of a liberal democracy. His views on these 


questions are wholesome and instructi\e, Ixit it is tn the profession of medi- 
cine that Dr. Shelly addressed himself in a recent interview the author of this 
history had with him, and his views were expressed as follows : 

"What changes have (jccurred in the practice of medicine since the days 
of the first physicians here ! He did his work on horseback with his medicines 
in saddle-bags thrown over the horse, and often had to go many miles to 
\isit a patient over a sparsely settled prairie with roads that were little more 
than trails. The streams he had to cross were bridgeless, and the larger ones 
could be crossed only at fords, which, after heavy rains or during freezing 
weather, were very dangerous. 

"Today, in this section of the State, these priniiti\'e conditions can hardly 
be imagined. Nearly every country doctor now has an automobile, and 
crosses gullies and streams on concrete bridges and travels over 'dragged' 
roads. Instead of passing through a sparsely settled country, he finds a fine 
large farm house on nearly every 'quarter' or 'eighty' supplemented by a sub- 
stantial barn and spacious granaries. He passes a school house every few 
miles and occasionally a rural church, and lives in a comfortable, modern 
home in a flourishing, well kept country town. 

"In the science and art of 'medicine the change has been no less marked 
than in its general practice. 

"Until forty years ago, doctors possessed a few great remedies which 
they often used very skillfully, but the knowledge of the nature of disease 
was very slight. Treatment was largely symptomatic: that is, remedies were 
expected chiefly to combat certain symptoms, rather than to treat underlying 

"A notion very prevalent until then, and which has not yet disappeared 
entirely, was that there is a remedy for every disease, and that whenever a 
patient is not cured of his illness it is due, not to the limitations of the healing 
art, but to the fact that treatment was not begun early enough, or his doctor 
didn't know enough, or didn't care enough to give him the right medicine. 
About that time it began to dawn on the most thoughtful and capable med- 
ical men that the course of disease can usually not be quickly checked: that 
most diseases run a definite course ; that most patients recover spontaneously, 
or the disease persists to the end and is not much influenced by any of the 
remedies used. About that time medical men began to appreciate also an- 
other fact : that underlying most diseases, there is a natural tendency toward 
recovery, which means that most diseases will cure themselves if given time 


"While medical men insist that the practice of medicine is both a science 
and an art, they are also perfectly willing to admit that it is neither an exact 
science nor a perfect art. In other words, modern medicine admits that it 
has not yet scaled the heights or fathomed the depths of scientific knowledge 
in regard to the nature of disease or of its cure. It is still willing to learn. 
Indeed, it realizes the fact that there is still infinitely more to learn than has 
yet been found out. And there is no avenue of human knowledge which it 
is not willing to explore in order to find out things that will get the sick 
well and keep the well from getting sick. 

"A stunning blow to the old notions of the nature of disease and to the 
old methods of treatment, was administered about thirty years ago by the dis- 
covery that most diseases are due to infinitely small, living organisms, called 
germs or bacteria, which prey upon, or poison the tissues of the body, and 
thereby disturb, more or less seriously, some, or all, of the noi-mal functions 
of the body. The scientific labora.tor)? thereupon became the shrine of mod- 
ern medicine ; a new epoch in medicine had arrived. 

"This new epoch meant not only that medical and surgical disorders 
were henceforth to be treated in a much more scientific and rational way than 
they had been in the past, but that one of the greatest scientific conquests of 
the ages was underway — the intelligent prevention of disease. Preventive 
medicine had been bom. Soon thereafter a new and unprecedented popular 
interest in medical matters became prevalent. Newspapers, magazines and the 
public forum took a hand in popularizing this new knowledge of the nature 
of disease and the methods of preventing disease, which was founded on the 
new knowledge. Disease began to be looked on no longer as only a mys- 
terious dispensation of Providence, but as a thing which, as scientific medi- 
cine advanced, was more and more to come under the knowledge and con- 
trol of science. 

"In no domain of modern medicine have greater advances been made 
than in surgery, due chiefly to the discovery of the role which germs play 
in the causation of surgical troubles. Because of the discovery of the neces- 
sity of asepsis (the absence of germs) in surgical operations and its practical 
application, operations, which, if done thirty years ago, would have been 
almost invariably fatal, can now be done nearly with impunity. Then, surgi- 
cal operations in large surgical clinics were done by men in Prince Albert 
coats. Today, the surgeon and his assistants are arrayed in sterilized white 
gowns and rubber gloves with caps for their heads and special coverings for 
mouth and nose, which are worn in order to prevent any unfiltered, con- 


taminated vapor from these orifices coming in contact with the freshly made 
wound. Where proper precautions are taken, and no pus or other filth has 
come in contact with the wound, some of the most extensive operations are 
followed by immediate repair, without the formation of pus in the wound. To 
enumerate even a small part of the triumphs of modern surgery would 
occupy too much space and is uncalled for here, and these triumphs would 
have been impossible before the advent of surgical cleanliness. 

"But modern medicine does not stop at treating or curing people. It 
does something even bigger and better — it tries to keep them well. Indeed, 
the medical profession is the only immolating- profession there is — tire only 
profession that is all the time trving, by its efforts in the direction of pre- 
ventive medicine, to destroy its only source of income — the treatment of 
disease — by doing all within its power to make disease less and less prev- 
alent. It is continually urging better personal and public hygiene and san- 
itation. Because medical men understand the stunting effects of ill healtli 
on the growing mind and body of the child, they are urging careful med- 
ical inspection of schools and school children, and they call for better health 
conditions in the family, the factory, and the mine, and they denounce with- 
out measure unhealthy child labor. Modern medicine tries to banish from 
the home and school, as nearly as may be, that brutal precept — "He that 
spareth the rod, hateth his son" — because it knows that the irritable, petulent. 
stubborn child may be a sick child, or has fools for parents, while the incor- 
rigible boy or girl needs the attention of an expert in nervous and mental 
diseases rather than the brutality of an impatient, ignorant parent or 

"Modern medicine enters the jungle and by proper sanitarv rules and 
regulations makes a deadly, miasmatic swamp a model of cleanliness and 
healthfulness, as was done in the Panama canal zone, and without which the 
building of the canal would have been impossible. 

"Modern medicine seeks to help and to save mankind, not only from 
physical ills, but from moral ills as well. By the careful study of the in- 
fluence of inheritance and environment on the development and the conduct 
of the child, it tries to make his physical inheritance as favorable as possible, 
and his economic and social environment as helpful as may be, realizing that 
much of our moral delinquency is due to unjust civic and economic 

It would require a volume to tell the story of the lives of all the early- 
day physicians of this county. Investigation discloses the fact that they were 
numerous, and that in addition to Dr. Stringfellow, who gave more of his time 



to political matters than to his profession, there was a Dr. D. McVay here 
prior to i860. He was a southern gentleman, but apparently had more dis- 
cretion than valor, for he fled from Atchison at the beginning of the Civil 
war. Dr. WilHam Grimes, concerning whose life brief mention has Ijeen 
heretofore made in this history, was a physician at Atchison in 1858. Dr. W. W. 
Cochrane was another physician of the old school, a courtly, amiable gentle- 
man, and a good physician. He was for a number of years treasurer of the 
Kansas Medical Society, and was a pioneer among physicians in administer- 
ing chloroform in childbirth cases. Dr. Arnold was here in 1859, and later, 
on a trip to Denver, he was scalped by the Indians. Dr. Joseph J\Ialin. of 
Weston, Mo., A\ho married one of the McAdows, was a physician in Atch- 
ison in 1861, and Dr. J. V. Brining practiced in Atchison in 1862, and re- 
mained a practitioner here until 1914. 

Dr. ^Villiam Gough, who had been a Confederate army surgeon, located 
in Atchison shortly after the war. He practiced in St. Joseph before coming 
to Atchison, and also at DeKalb, where he married Mrs. Annie Dunning. 
From DeKalb he moved to Rushville, and then came to Atchison, where he 
formed a partnership with the late Dr. J. M. Linley. Together they enjoyed 
an extensive medical and surgical practice, until 1887, when Dr. Gough moved 
to Los Angeles, Cal., for the benefit of his health. He died there in 1908. 
Dr. Gough is described by his friends as being a man of large physique, the 
soul of honor, and displayed the utmost care and gentleness in the care of his 

Dr. W. L. Challiss came to Atchison in 1857. and while standing 
high in his profession, gave most of his time to business affairs, and prac- 
ticed 'only spasmodically. There was also a Dr. Buddington in Atchison in 
1864, who ran a drug store at Fourth and Commercial streets. 

One of the most interesting members of the medical profession in an 
early day was Dr. Charles F. Kob, a German physician, who lived here about 
1858. Dr. Kob had been a surgeon in the army and a member of the Mas- 
sachusetts and Connecticut Medical Society. He founded the town of Bunker 
Hill, on Independence creek, ten miles north of Atchison, to which reference 
has already been made in this history. He lived and practiced in Boston be- 
fore coming to i\tchison. Dr. Amaziah Moore was another very early day 
physician, who located on a farm three or four miles west of Lancaster, in 
1857. He came from Ohio. In 186 1 he helped organize a company for the 
Civil war, which became Company D of the Second Kansas cavalry, of which 
he was captain. 




Dr. John C. Batsell lived about two and one-half miles northwest of 
Monrovia. He was a native of Kentucky, and was born in Marion county 
March i6, 1818. He was reared and educated in his native county, where he 
'ook up the study of medicine, and became proficient in the science. He com- 
menced the practice of his profession in Valeene, Orange county, Indiana, 
where he continued successfully for over seven j-ears. In the autumn of 1855 
lie came to Atchison county, along with John Graves and others, and after 
looking around, went to DeKalb. Mo., where he remained until tlie spring 
of 1866, when he returned to Atchison county, and preempted a ([uarter sec- 
tion, upon which he lived, northwest of Monrovia. He engaged in the prac- 
tice of medicine in connection v.'ith farming, being frequently called into 
Doniphan and Brown counties. Malarial diseases prevailed to a great ex- 
tent in those early days, and the people were in straitened circumstances. 
He furnished medicine and attended to their wants, losing largely in a 
financial way, as the greater portion of the first dwellers moved away. In 
1863 Dr. Batsell organized one-half of Company D, Thirteenth Kansas, of 
which he was tendered the captaincy, but declined and accepted the position of 
first lieutenant. On account of serious illness he only served three months 
in the army. He was major of the Thirteenth Kansas during the Price raid, 
and at the close of the war was elected to the legislature by the Republican 
party. He was originally an old-line \\'hig, but upon the organization of the 


Republican party he joined it, as he was in favor of the abolition of slavery. 
During his latter years he discontinued his practice and devoted his time to 
his farm. He died about ten years ago. 

Dr. David Wait came from Missouri to Kansas in 1S59 and settled on 
a farm near Eden postoffice, now known as the Vollmer farm. He was a 
striking-looking man and was looked upon as very proficient in his pro- 
fession. He was an ardent Union man. In fact, Dr. Moore, Dr. Batsell and 
Dr. Wait were all of great help to the Union cause in the days before the war. 

Among other leading physicians of the county, outside of Atchison, of 
the early days, were Dr. J. F. Martin, Dr. S. G. Page, Dr. C. C. Stivers, and 
Dr. Desmond, concerning whom the following information is available : 

Dr. J. F. IMartin was one of the first practitioners in Atchison county. 
He was a native of Bourbon county, Kentucky, and was born September 29, 
1828. He graduated at the Transylvania Medical University, in 1854, and 
afterwards took a course of lectures in St. Louis Medical University. Sub- 
sequently he removed to DeKalb, Mo., where he practiced until 1856, coming 
to Kansas about the same time that Dr. Batsell came. He had a large prac- 
tice in Doniphan and Brown counties. He practiced ten years, and returned 
to Decatur, 111., in 1866, where he remained seven years, and returned to 
Kansas, locating in Effingham. He died in Effingham in 1877. 

Dr. S. G. Page, a native of Juniata county, Pennsylvania, was bom 
July 16, 1845. He attended Bellevue Hospital Medical College in New York 
in 1867; came to Kansas in 1868, and located in Center township, five miles 
south of Effingham, where he located on a farm which he operated a few 
years, and then located in Effingham. 

Dr. C. C. Stivers, a native of Brown county, Ohio, was born January 
6, 1842. He enlisted in Company A, Sixtieth Ohio Volunteer infantry; par- 
ticipated in the battles of Bull Run, Cross Keys and Port Royal. Returning 
from the war, he took a course of lectures at Miami University in Oxford 
Ohio; located in Eden in 1877 and practiced until 1881, when he became a 
resident of Effingham. In 1880 he attended Keokuk Medical College, grad- 
uating from that institution. He had the reputation of being a brilliant con- 
versationalist and a very interesting gentleman. 

The first doctor to locate at Lancaster was Dr. Desmond, who went there 
in the latter seventies. While there he married a Miss Streeper, of Good 
Intent, and about 1885 moved to Stewartsville, Mo. Dr. Desmond was suc- 
ceeded at Lancaster by Dr. A. L. Charles, who came there from Bunker Hill, 
Russell county, Kansas, where he had gone four years previously, after grad- 


uating from the Kansas City Medical College. Soon after locating at Lan- 
caster, Dr. Charles married Miss Alice Keeney, who lived near Lancaster. 
Dr. and Mrs. Charles raised a family of seven children, the eldest of whom 
is the Atchison surgeon, Dr. Hugh L. Charles. Mrs. Charles died of pneu- 
monia in the Atchison hospital in January, 191 5. Dr. Charles has been a very 
successful physician. He enjoys the profoundest respect of his colleagues 
throughout the county, who regard him as an ideal physician. It is need- 
less to add that he also enjoys the the utmost confidence and esteem of a 
clientele whose numbers are limited only by his ability to serve. 

The first physician at Mt. Pleasant was Dr. Eagle, who located there 
during territorial days and practiced for a number of years. Dr. Jacob Larry 
also located at Mt. Pleasant about 1856. He was a South Carolinian, and 
a graduate of Charleston Medical College. During the war he was a surgeon 
in the army. He located in latan, Mo., and was building up a large practice 
when he committed suicide by taking strychnine and then blowing his brai'lis 
out with a pistol. Before moving to latan Dr. Lany induced Dr. John Par- 
sons, of King's Bridge, N. Y., who also had lieen an army surgeon, to come 
to Mt. Pleasant. Dr. Parsons practiced there several years, and his prac- 
tice became so large that he finally induced Dr. George W. Redmon to locate 
at Mt. Pleasant and assist him. Dr. Redmon located there in the fall of 1872, 
and remained a number of years, later locating at Oak Mills. There was also 
a Dr. W. W. Crook at Mt. Pleasant, in the seventies. Dr. Crook also prac- 
ticed in Doniphan, and later moved to Wyoming. Dr. P. R. Moore was 
another physician who located in Mt. Pleasant township during the seventies, 
as was also Dr. Johnson. Dr. Charles H. Linley, now a resident physician 
of Atchison, practiced in Mt. Pleasant for a number of years, and following 
Dr. Linley came Dr. Miller and Dr. Rice. Dr. Roberts had a small drug store 
and practiced medicine at Oak Mills in the early days. He was addicted to 
the liquor habit, and was found dead in his office one morning. He had been 
preceded in practice at Oak Mills by Dr. Earle, who lived about half way be- 
tween Oak Mills and Kickapoo, and who settled there during the fifties. 

Dr. J. M. Linley came to Atchison March 14, 1865. He was born in 
Concord, Ky., October 28, 1837. He attended college at Princeton, Ky., and 
was graduated from Miami Medical College at Cincinnati, Ohio, in March, 
1858, and subsequently attended lectures in Bellevue College, New York. He 
was post surgeon at New Madrid. Mo., in 1864. Dr. Linley was one of the 
most successful practitioners of Atchison and was held in high esteem. In 
1 89 1 he went abroad and attended clinics in hospitals of Berlin and London. 
He died in Phoenix, Ariz., November 28, 1900. 


The following are the members of the Atchison County Medical 
Society as reported in 1915: Dr. C. H. Johnson, Dr. H. L. Charles. 
Dr. M. T. Dingess, Dr. E. J. Bribach, Dr. Robert Dickey, Dr. E. P. Pitts, 
Dr. C. A. Lilly, Dr. Charles Robinson, Dr. C. H. Linley, Dr. T. E. Homer, 
Dr. F. A. Pearl, Dr. P. R. Moore, Emmingham, Dr. S. M. Myers, Potter, 
Dr. G. E. White, Effmgham, Dr. G. W. Allaman, Dr. W''. F. Smith. Dr. 
Virgil Morrison, Dr. E. T. Shelly. 






Industrial enterprises nf Atchison county, so far as manufacturing- and 
jobbing- interests are concerned, are confined exclusively to the city of Atchi- 
son. There are no mills or factories or large manufacturing- institutions in 
any of the smaller towns of the county. (3utside of Atchison the labor and 
industry of the citizens are directed in agricultural pursuits : the tilling of the 
soil, the breeding of live stock and the development of all the other arts of 
husbandry, but in the city of Atchison there are a number of establishments 
which give employment to labor, and which in a number of instances ship 
their finished products to all parts of the L'nited States and into the ports of 
foreign countries. 

Atchison, however, strictly speaking, is not a factory town, nor a great 
manufacturing center. There have been times in its histon,- when it was more 
important, commercially, than now, but that was in the days before the great 
onrush to Kansas City. Yet the town today is a substantial, solid community, 
where much wealth and enterprise abound, and where there has been a 
steady, healthy commercial growth. 

The largest manufacturing plant is the John Seaton Foundry Company, 
and the Locomotive Finished Material Company, an associated enterprise, es- 
tablished by the late John Seaton, who moved to Atchison from Alton, 111., in 
1871, having been induced to come to Atchison by a handsome donation from 
the citizens of the town. Mr. Seaton originally manufactured much architec- 
tural work ; iron and brass casting, boilers, jail and sheet iron work. For a 
while it was conducted under the firm name of Seaton & Lea, but shortly be- 



fore the death of Captain Seaton, a few years ago, the Locomotive Finished 
Material Company was organized to put the finishing touches on castings and 
at the death of Mr. Seaton, H. E. Muchnic became president and general 
manager of the company, with John C. Seaton, Clive Hastings. W. S. Fer- 
guson and G. L. Seaton as associate directors. The average number of em- 
ployees is about 226, when the total horse power is 500. They have a payroll 
of over $14,000 a month, and are doing a large business with railroads and 
other big industrial plants throughout the countr}-. 

The Manglesdorf Brothers Company is one of the oldest establishments 
in the city. It began in 1875 as a side line in connection with the retail gro- 
cery business, by August and William IManglesdorf. and is now conducted by 
the sons of the founders. It is one of the largest seed houses in the West. 
The business was incorporated in 1887, and the officers in 1916 are as fol- 
lows : August Manglesdorf, president ; A. F. IManglesdorf, vice-president ; Ed. 
F. Manglesdorf, vice-president; F. H. ]\Ianglesdorf, treasurer, and F. W. 
Manglesdorf, secretary. 

The business has grown to such an extent that it was thought advisable 
to close out the retail end of it and it is now conducted as an exclusively whole- 
sale seed house. The new warehouse, which the firm now occupies, was 
erected last year and gives it one of the largest and most complete plants in 
the West. The new building is modern in every way, strictly fire-proof and 


provides an enormous space for storing and handling the stocks, which are 
accumulated for the spring trade. The seed line, perhaps more than any other, 
is a seasonable one, and by far the greater proportion of the year's business 
must be crowded into a few spring months. It is necessaiy, therefore, to 
move goods quickly and in large quantities, when the season is on. For this 
purpose, the warehouses are equipped with suitable machinery and devices, 
which are kept up to the highest possible efficiency for handling and cleaning 
the seed. The stocks are obtained in all parts of the world. When crops 
fail in one part of the country, it is the business of the seed dealers to supply 
the deficiency from some other sections, where conditions have been more fav- 
orable. Thus, the source of supply and the outlet for it are constantly shift- 
ing and it requires keeping in touch with the progress of the crops and market 
conditions in many different producing districts. 

The firm does a considerable export business also, particularly in blue 
grass and timothy, which are produced here, cheaper and in better quality 
than they are in Europe. During each year the firm's travelers cover the 
States of Kansas, Oklahoma, Missouri, parts of Nebraska, Colorado and 
Texas., Its line of garden seeds may be obtained from the local merchants 
in nearly every town in this territory. 

The Bailor Plow Company, of Atchison, organized in 1910 with an 
authorized capital of $50,000. J. M. Schott, president ; Charles Linley, vice- 
president ; W. P. Byram, secretary ; E. V. Jones, treasurer and manager. 
Manufacturers of a two-row cultivator. S. E. Bailor, then of Beatrice, Neb., 
some twenty years since built and began experimenting with a two-row cul- 
tivator. About 1905, the late David Rankin, of Tarkio, Mo., placed fifty 
Bailor cultivators in use on his 25,000-acre farm near Tarkio, giving them a 
thorough test for efficiency. The result was such that he induced Bailor to 
builda plant for their manufacture'at Tarkio. In 1910 the Atchison Commer- 
cial Club, which had previously investigated the possibilities of Bailor's factory 
as a valuable addition to this city's industrial institutions, induced him to locate 
his business in Atchison. The Bailor Plow Company was promoted and in- 
corporated by the following successful business men : Balie P. Waggener, 
Henry Klostermeier, T. R. Clendinen, at that time president of the Commer- 
cial Club; O. A. Simmons, vice-president of the First National Bank; E. V. 
Jones, J. M. Schott, W. P. Byram, Charles Linley, at that time treasurer of 
Atchison county, and S. E. Bailor, inventor of the cultivator. During the 
year 1910, the first year of operation in Atchison, one hundred cultivators 
were sold. The year 1915 shows an output of product valued at about $250,- 


ooo. The company's plant has a floor space of 25,000 square feet; forty men 
are on its payroll and it disburses in wages over $50,000 per annum. 

The National Poulti-y and Egg Company. This institution is one of the 
largest of its kind in the West, and is located on the corner of Fourteenth and 
Main streets. Under the able management of G. E. Hanna, it has steadily 
increased its capacity and enlarged its business operations until at the present 
time it employs an average of fifty-four men and women a month and pays 
out in wages almost $30,000 each year. The plant and machinery represent 
an investment of about $70,000 and its sales are over a half million dollars a 
year. It is engaged in bu^nng and selling poultr}-, eggs and butter, and ships 
fancy dressed poultry to eastern markets. 

Deer Creek Creamery Company. This company has a capital stock of 
$10,000; employs eight men and four girls, with an annual payroll of $8,000. 
In addition to the employees in the local office, it also employs twenty men in 
the country to operate its numerous cream stations. The company manufac- 
tures over a half million pounds of butter a year, and it puts up and sells in 
Atchison from 80,000 to 100,000 gallons of milk every year, in addition to 
6,000 or 8,000 gallons of ice cream. Over $125,000 annually is paid out to 
Kansas farmers for cream; about $25,000 of this amount going to farmers in 
the immediate vicinity of Atchison. It is one of the growing institutions of 
the city, and the excellence of the products it turns out is the cause for its 
constant increase of business. 

Atchison is also the home of two large manufacturers of saddlery. The 
Atchison Saddlery Company is the successor to Louis Kiper & Sons and occu- 
pies a large building on Kansas avenue between Fourth and Fifth streets. Its 
officers are George Diegel, president ; George T. Lindsey, vice-president, and 
Henry Diegel, secretary-treasurer. It has a capital stock of $150,000; em- 
ploys seventy-nine people. It ships its products into many States' of the \Vest 
and has been doing an exceedingly large business in the past few years. 

Kessler-Barkow Saddlery Company was incorporated several years ago, 
with G. T. Bolman, president; F. A. Barkow, vice-president, and H. B. Kes- 
sler, secretary and treasurer. This company has a capital and surplus of 
$85,000, and employs sixty-five people, and has an average annual payroll of 
about $40,000.00. It manufactures harness and saddles for the jobbing trade 
exclusively and has large accounts with the Blish, Mize & Silliman Hardware 
Company, Montgomer}', \Vard & Company and Sears, Roebuck & Company. 

The Atchison Leather Products Company is another growing institu- 
tion of Atchison, the officers of which are the same as that of the Kessler- 


Barkow Saddlerj' Company. This company are producers of cut leather parts 
of all kinds, and are large buyers of scrap leather. It has a capital stock of 
$7,000.00 and employs fifteen people. Its sales for 191 5 amounted to over 
$65,000.00, and it also handles various leather specialties and automobile 

Atchison is also the home of three large mills. The Blair Milling Com- 
pany, the Cain Milling Company and the Lukens Milling Company, and 
these mills handle an average of'20,000 to 25,000 cars of grain annually, and 
ship out finished wheat and corn products of 4,000 to 5,000 cars every year. The 
Lukens Milling Company has recently erected cement storage tanks for stor- 
age' of grain, of the capacity of 125,000 bushels, and the Blair Elevator Com- 
pany, which is operated by J. W. and \\'. A. Blair, in 191 5, also erected cement 
storage tanks to the capacity of 200,000 bushels. The growth of the mills 
of Atchison is logical, for they are located in a rich agricultural section, and 
consequentl)^ the mills are among the most important enterprises in the city. 
In each case the mills of Atchison are being operated by the sons of its 
founders. The Blair mill was established by E. K. Blair, in an early day of 
the history of Atchison, and is now managed by his sons, J. W. and W. A. 
Blair. The Lukens mill was founded by David Lukens, who came to Atchi- 
son in 1857. He operated a sawmill and raised corn in Missouri bottoms un- 
til 1877, when he built the Diamond Mills, now conducted by his sons, Arthur 
Lukens, Edwin Lukens and David Lukens. The original Cain Mill Company 
was established by John M. Cain and Alfred Cain, and its successor, the Cain 
Milling Company, is operated by Douglas M. Cain, the son of Alfred Cain. 

Atchison is also the home of two of the largest wholesale hardware 
stores on the Missouri river, both of which began operations here at approxi- 
mately the same time. The operations of the Blish, Mize & Silliman Hardware 
Company are the largest of the two companies. This company travels thirty 
men and has an office and store force of eighty-eight men and women. It has 
an annual payroll of $115,000.00. It was founded by D. P. Blish, E. A. 
Mize and J. B. Silliman, who were all related by marriage. The company be- 
gan in a small way as a successor to J. E. Wagner & Company, and has 
branched out in its business until it covers several States and territories. It 
occupies a magnificent re-inforced concrete fire-proof structure at the corner 
of Fifth and Utah avenue, and its business has been increasing from year 
to year. 

The A. J. Harwi Hardware Company is owned and controlled largely 
by F. E. Harwi, the son of its founder, and a full account of its operations 
appears in a sketch of the life and career of A. J. Harwi in this history. 


Atchison is particularly proud of the fact that it is one of the best job- 
bing centers in this part of the country, and in this connection the wholesale 
grocery business is well represented in the two splendid firms of the Dolan 
Mercantile Company and the Symns Grocery Company. The Dolan Mercan- 
tile Company was established by W. F. Dolan, one of the pioneers of Atchison, 
who started in a small way as a retail grocer merchant, and died leaving a 
splendidly established wholesale grocery business, which is now conducted 
by M. J. Horan and Leo Nusbaum. This house, under the able management 
of these two young men is rapidly making for itself a big reputation among 
wholesale dealers and grocers. In addition to jobbing regular lines of mer- 
chandise this company has recently installed its own plant for the manufacture 
of fluid extracts, baking powder and pancake flour, and also roasts its own 
coffees. It has a large traveling force, visiting the States of Nebraska, Mis- 
souri, Kansas and Oklahoma, and the Dolan brands are well known through- 
out this whole territory. 

The Symns Grocery Company was established by A. B. Symns, wlio came 
to Kansas from West Virginia, with his three brothers, in 1858, where he set- 
tled in the town of Doniphan and engaged in mercantile pursuits, until he 
removed to Atchison in 1872. He opened a wholesale and retail grocery here 
in that year, and continued in business without a partner until March, 1878, 
when the firm became Symns & Turner, under which name it was I'un until 
1880, when it was changed to A. B. Symns & Company. It was subsequently 
incorporated into the Symns Groceiy Company, and at the death of A. B. 
Symns, the business was run by J. W. Allen, J. E. Moore, C. A. Lockwood 
and Tom Gray. It operates in about the same territory that the Dolan ^ler- 
cantile Company operates in, and its present enterprising management is 
keeping up the splendid reputation established by its founder. 

The Odell Cider & Vinegar Company is a new institution in Atchison. 
A. Leo is manager, and $30,000.00 is invested in the plant and equipment 
here. This company pressed out over 200,00 bushels of apples in 191 5, and 
made 650,000 gallons of vinegar. Forty men are employed during the press- 
ing season, and over $30,000.00 a year is paid out for apples, which are 
converted into 150,000 gallons of vinegar, which is shipped to various points 
in the United States during 191 5. 

The Stevenson planing mill employs twelve men, with a payroll of about 
$10,000.00 a year and annual sales aggregating $27,000.00. S. R. Steven- 
son, who for many years was employed by the old Atchison Furniture Com- 
pany, is at the head of this business. He settled in Atchison in 1865, and 
learned cabinet making with Dickinson & Company, of this city. 


It would require a volume to properl)' elaborate upon the operations of 
the various commercial enterprises of Atchison. What has been given is the 
merest outline of the industrial activities here. The brief reference to the 
several business houses and manufacturing plants is made merely for the pur- 
pose of showing the character of tlie industrial life of the county. 

In addition to those enumerated there are other jobbing and manufac- 
turing interests operating, in some instances on as large a scale, and in other 
instances on a smaller scale, but which in themselves are just as important. 
Reference has not been made to the Klostermeier Hardware Company, one 
of tlie largest jobbers in hardware in northeastern Kansas, or to L. W. Voigt 
& Company, large shippers of fruit, vegetables and produce, or to Kean & 
Tucker, operating along the same line; neither has the James Poultry Com- 
pany been mentioned, which is one of Atchison's growing concerns. There 
are also manufacturers of cigars, brooms and barrels; large distributors of 
automobiles and automobile accessories, and candy manufacturers. The Rail- 
way Specialty Company, manufacturers of gasoline propelled railway track 
cars is making substantial progress. From a small beginning it has forged 
ahead, under the able management of Clive Hastings, until it has reached a 
point where it will soon take its place among the leading- track car manu- 
facturers of this country. Already the company has shipped its cars to for- 
eign parts, and it has also supplied many of the large railroads of the United 
States with its cars. The Weiss Cornice Company is the latest arrival in 
Atchison. This company makes metal cornices, window frames and other 
builders' fire-proof specialties. It recently moved here from Kansas City and 
is already a large employer of labor. The Washer Grain Company, estab- 
lished by Maj. S. H. Washer, does a large grain business, and is still managed 
by Major Washer, who recently passed his eightieth birthday. He is ably 
assisted by his son, W. R. Washer, who is also otherwise prominently identi- 
fied with the commercial and shipping interests of the county. 

Atchison also is a fine retail center, and draws trade from the surrounding 
territory for a distance of from fifty to seventy- five miles. It has fine dry goods 
stores, which carry the latest merchandise ; good shoe stores, millinery shops, 
grocery and hardware stores and shops of all kinds, all of which are run by 
enterprising merchants. Atchison is a good town in which to live ; a city of 
beautiful homes; fine paved and well lighted streets; a good water system and 
adequate street car service, and a fine, prosperous set of people. The future 
of Atchison, as a commercial center, is particularly bright, and it may look 
back with a justifiable pride to what has already been accomplished, and 
forward to a better day that is yet to come. 






The postoffice in Atchison opened in a small, one-story, ston^e 
building, on the south side of Coinmercial street, between Second and Third. 
The room was about 20x26 feet in dimensions, but large enough for the 
purpose for which it was intended at that time. The location of the post- 
office was removed in 1856 to the store of Messrs. Woolfolk & Cabell, on the 
levee. During the war in Kansas, in August, the headquarters of the United 
States mail service were removed to the law office of P. P. Wilcox. From 
there the office was removed to a building on the north side of Commercial 
street, between Third and Fourth, and it was there that in July. 1882. the 
free delivery system was inaugurated in Atchison, which, with her money 
order department fully equipped the postoffice. A number of years later 
agitation was started for the erection of a new postoffice, and through the 
efforts of Senator Ingalls a site at the northeast corner of Seventh and Kan- 
sas avenue was purchased from Dr. Cochrane by the Government, and the 
contract was awarded for the erection of the postoffice June 24, 1892, at a 
cost of $61,703.17. 

The names and terms of the postmasters of Atchison since the founding 
of the office are as follows: Robert S. Kelly, March 15, 1855; John H. Blas- 
ingham, December 20, 1855 : Henry Addoms, July 28, 1857 ; John A. Martin, 
April 26, 1861; Benjamin B. Gale, March 5, 1874; John M. Price, February 
6, 1879; Melleville C. Winegar, March 10, 1882: H. Clay Park, INIarch 30, 
1886; Solomon R. Washer, March 20. 1890: Edgar C. Post, June 7, 1894-, 
James M. Chisham, June 3, 1898: William D. Casey, December 14, 1910; 
Louis C. Orr December 29, 1914, who is postmaster in 191 6. 



The present court house of this county occupies lots i, 2 and 3, in block 
65, Old Atchison, and the contract for the building was entered into on the 
twenty-first day of May, 1896, and accepted by the board of county com- 
missioners September 13, 1897. The total cost of building and fixtures was 


The present county hospital for the poor is located on the southeast 
quarter of section 14, township 6, range 20. The farm was purchased from 
R. A. Park October 7, 1903, for $9,540, and the hospital was erected Jan- 
uary 3, 1905, at a cost of $27,501. The average cost of operating the hos- 
pital and farm of 160 acres is approximately $2,109.16 per year, and the 
average number of inmates is thirty. The present superintendent is J. S. 


On December 2, 191 1, there met in the office of C. S. Hull a small group 
of men interested in securing' a modern Young Men's Christian Association 
building for the city of Atchison. Although this is the first formal meeting 
of which there are any minutes recorded it is known that the idea of an 
organization and building had long existed in the mind of William Carlisle, 
and that encouragement was given him by many others. At the meeting held 
on December 2 the Atchison Y. M. C. A. Promotion Club was formally 
launched with Claude B. Fisk as president. 

At the next meeting, held January i, 1912, an executive committee, com- 
posed of R. W. Ramsay, W. B. Collett, Fred Oliver, and C. S. Hull was 
elected and the secretai7 was authorized to invite John E. Manley, State 
secretary of the Young Men's Christian Association, to be present at the next 
meeting of the club. 

On March 6, 1912, the club met at the Byram Hotel for luncheon. Mr. 
Manlev was present at this meeting and outlined a plan for a campaign to 
raise the necessary funds to erect a modern building. The luncheon meeting 
adjourned to meet at the office of H. H. Hackney at 4 p. m., at which time 
a business committee of twenty-five men was appointed. The following com- 
posed this committee : H. B. Mize, Fred Oliver, Eugene Howe, W. B. Col- 
lett, C. S. Hull, George Guerrier, R. W. Ramsay, Sheffield Ingalls, D, M. 


Cain, F. W. \\'oodford, A. F. Heck, Augnst Manglesdorf, Jr., T. A. Moxcey, 
Eugene Pulliam, £. W. Clausen, Clive Hastings, H. H. Hackney, N. T. 
Veatch, W. P. Waggener, W. J. Bailey, Charles Linley, Roy Seaton, Claude 
Fisk, J. A. Shoemaker, Holmes Dysinger. This committee was later in- 
creased to twenty-seven, and the names of W. A. Carlisle and \Y. A. Jackson 
were added. 

The first regular meeting of the provisional committee, as it was now 
called, was held at the Blish, Mize & Silliman offices March 13 and a perma- 
nent organization effected. State Secretary Manley was present. R. W. 
Ramsay, the present incumbent, was made president at this meeting; Charles 
Linley, vice-president ; C. S. Hull, recording secretary, and George Guerrier, 
treasurer. T. C. Treat at this time tendered the use of a room in the Simp- 
son building for an office for the organization, which was gratefully accepted. 

At a meeting of the executive committee, held March 18, 1912. L. V. 
Starkey was employed as general secretary and took active charge of the 
building campaign April 15. 

At the meeting held April 22 it was decided to raise $100,000 by pubHc 
subscription, and the following team captains were elected : S. R. Beebe, O. 
A. Siinmons, H. B. Mize, John R. Taylor, F. M. Woodford, L. M. Baker, 
Charles A. Brown, W. D. Casey, W. W. Hetherington, and W. A. Jackson. 

The charter for the organization bears the date of April 6 and was duly 
acted upon and signed by the committee of twenty-seven at a meeting held 
April 22. 

In a ten days' campaign conducted May 15-25. 1912, an amount approxi- 
mating $85,000 was raised by popular subscription. The headquarters of the 
campaign were in a room furnished by J. C. Killarney at 105-T07 North 
Fifth street. 

The latter part of June, IQ12, the site at the northeast corner of Fourth 
and Commercial streets was contracted for and work begun at once on the 
building. On December 4, 1913, the splendid building which now occupies 
that corner was fonnally opened for the regular work of the association. 
The membership- soon reached 450, and has been maintained at about that 
point ever since. 

The entire cost of building, including site and furnishings, amounted to 

The Y. M. C. A. building contains thirty-four living rooms with a 
capacity for fifty men. These rooms are now kept filled practically all the 
time. A restaurant is operated on the ground floor and there are excellent 


facilities for handling banquets and committee meetings. The building is 
always at the disposal of church societies and other organizations for gather- 
ings of any kind. 

There is a gymnasium, -14x72 feet, thoroughly equipped with all neces- 
sary apparatus and a white tile-lined swimming pool, 20x50 feet. With a 
separate entrance on Fourth street, there is a special game room for boys ten 
to fifteen years of age. 

The present board of directors is composed of R. W. Ramsay as presi- 
dent; B. L. Brockett, vice-president; H. H. Hackney, recording secretary; 
Charles Lmley, treasurer; Messrs. W. B. CoUett, M. T. Dingess, Claud B. 
Fisk, J. A. Fletcher, C. C. Ham, W. W. Hetherington, Martin Jensen, J. F. 
Krueger, H. P. Shepherd, and F. M. Woodford. 

The present general secretary, Ira J. Beard, came to the association in 
April, 1914. Emmett T. Ireland is the present physical director, and George 
Kassabaum is the assistant secretary. 

On the fourth of December, 19 14, an anniversar)' banquet was held in 
the gymnasium, celebrating the first year of the association in its new build- 
ing, and the reports of the work accomplished at that time dispelled any feel- 
ing there may have been on the part of some that such an institution could 
not be successfully maintained in Atchison. This banquet was attended by 
200 enthusiastic friends and members of the asociation, and Governor Arthur 
Capper was a guest of honor. 

Membership in the Young Men's Christian Association is open to any 
boy or man of good character who is over ten years of age. Membership in 
the Atchison association is accepted and honored in all other Young Men's 
Christian associations throughout the country. The dominant purpose of the 
association is the building up of Christian character. 

STATE orphans' HOME. 

The legislature of the State of Kansas at the session of 1885 enacted the 
first law for the establishing of a Soldiers' Orphans' Home at Atchison, Kan. 
For the purpose of erecting the first building the legislature appropriated the 
sum of $24,300 on condition that the land should be donated to the State. 

The act of the legislature provided that said Soldiers' Orphans' Home 
"shall be an institution for the nurture, education and maintenance, without 
charge, for all indigent children of soldiers who served in the army and navy 
of the Union during the late rebellion, and who have been disabled from 



wounds or disease, or who have since died in indigent circumstances, and 
Other indigent orphan children of the State." The institution was located at 
Atchison, Kan., on the present site which was purchased from the late J. P. 
Brown and donated to the State. In pursuance of the act of the legislature a 
portion of what is now the main building was erected and by a subsequent 
appropriation was finished, and the first children were admitted on July 
I, 1887. 

The original building was a four-story brick building with a basement. 
The fourth story was made into a dormitory, with five rooms for employes. 
The third story consisted of a smaller dormitory, lavatories, rooms for em- 
ployes and sleeping room for the superintendent. The second story had 
school rooms, superintendent's office, parlor, lavatories and rooms for em- 
ployes. The first floor rooms were dining room, kitchen, store room, school 
rooms. The basement was used for boilers, store rooms, laundry and boys' 

The laws regulating the home were amended and enlarged by the legis- 
lature at its session of 1889, so that all children sound in mind and body and 
over two years of age and under fourteen years, belonging to any one of the 
following named classes shall be eligible for admission to the home : "First, 
any child dependent upon the public for support; any dependent, neglected 
and ill-treated child who is an object of public concern, and whom the State 
may have power to exercise and extend its protection and control." 

This act of the legislature so increased the number of eligible for admis- 
sion to the home that it soon became necessary to enlarge the building. In 
1891 the legislature again appropriated the sum of $7,000 for the erection of 
the west Aving. to be the same width and heighth as the main building, and 
to increase the length bv thirty feet and this gave play room, sitting room, 
school room and sleeping room for the kindergarden children, also a room in 
which the John A. Martin Memorial Library was placed, and a reading room 
in the upper story for the larger boys. 

Connected with this appropriation was $1,000 for a hospital building 
which is detached from the main building by about 100 feet. 

The growth of the institution and the number desiring admission made 
it necessarv to again ask for an appropriation for more buildings. At the 
session of the legislature of 1895 the legislature appropriated $91,800 for the 
erection of the east wing and for three cottages, 50x42 feet, and a building 
for domestic purposes. 40x110 feet, which contains the chapel, children's 
dining room, one large school room, kitchen, store room, one employes' din- 
ing room and eight rooms for employes. 


At the legislative session of 1907 an appropriation of_$25,ooo was made 
for the purpose of erecting a new cottage on the Orphans' Home grounds, to 
be used for the purpose of caring for destitute crippled children who were 
otherwise unprovided for under the various acts of the legislature providing 
for the Orphans' Home. The foundation for this building was commenced 
on the seventeenth day of October, 1909, and the building was completed, 
and ready for the occupancy of children July i, 1910. The law providing for 
the admission of children has never been changed and very few crippled chil- 
and ready for the occupancy by children July i. igio. The law providing for 
only children sound in mind and body between the ages of two and fourteen 
years shall be admitted. This cottage at the present time is used for the older 
girls of the institution and it seems very well adapted for that purpose. 

The legislature of 1903 veiy generously appropriated $20,000 to Imild a 
brick pavement form the city to the home. This road was completed to the 
city limits in 1904. Since that time the city has extended its pavement so 
that now there is a pavement road all the way from the home to the lousi- 
ness district of Atchison. 

The two latest improvements of great value to the home are, first 
the connecting up of the home with the Atchison Water Company, so that 
now we receive a supply of water adequate for all purposes. This was done 
in 19 1 3 and 19 14. Previous to that time water had been obtained from 
various sources and the supply was always poor in quality and very inadequate 
in quantity. This apparently settles the question of water, so far as this 
institution is concerned, and we now have a plentiful supply of the purest of 
water. Second : From the very first beginning of the home the question 
of sewage disposal has been one of great difficulty and a source of much 
annoyance and discomfort to those around about, particularly the neighbor- 
ing farmers. For years the sewage of the institution flowed out through 
the pasture land and fields of our neighbors, and various attempts to build 
sewage disposal plants were made Ij}- the board of control and others who 
had charge of the State institutions, hut with little or no success. At the 
present time we are engaged in connecting up the institution with the city 
sewer system at a cost of approximately $6,000. 

The original cost of the land occupied by the State Orphans' Home, and 
purchased from J. P. Brown, as hereinbefore mentioned, was $16,000. 

No institution in this State occupies a more beautiful and sightly loca- 
tion. It is situated at an elevation of 275 feet above the Missouri river, and 
overlooking the winding course of that stream for miles, with the city of 


Atchison at its feet and with the view north and west unobstructed for miles, 
it is the wonder and admiration of all who Ijehold it. It is impossible for me 
to state exactly or to ascertain exactly the cost of the institution, properly 
known as the State Orphans' Home, but it is approximately in the neighbor- 
hood of $300,000. 

The first superintendent was John Pierson ; his wife, Mrs. M. A. Pierson, 
was his matron, and the celebrated Dr. Eva Harding, now a physician, located 
in Topeka, and running for the Democratic nomination for Congress in the 
First district, was his physician. Mr. Pierson was not ver\- long in this office. 
The records do not show just how long, but he was succeeded by Charles 
E. Faulkner, who is now serving as superintendent of the Washburn Memorial 
Orphans' Asylum, at Minneapolis, Minn. It was during Faulkner's admin- 
istration that most of the improvements heretofore noted were made. Faulk- 
ner was succeeded by C. A. Woodworth in 1898 and served but two years, 
when H. H. Young was appointed. He served but a short time and was suc- 
ceeded by E. L. Hillis, who held the office until the time of his resignation, 
April I, 1907, because of ill health. Mr. Hillis was succeeded by E. C. Willis, 
of Newton, Kan., on April 10, 1907, who remained superintendent until he 
was succeeded by Mrs. E. K. Burnes on the first day of September, 1913. 
Mrs. Bumes held the place for two years, being succeeded by E. C. Willis on 
the first of September, 191 5, who is still the superintendent at the present 

More than 6,000 have been inmates of the home at sometime or another, 
and of the 6,000 only 200 are here at the present time. All of the oth- 
ers who are still living are out in the world and doing for themselves like 
other people with various degrees of success. Some of them are doing well ; 
others exceedingly well, and are occupying good positions, or are in business 
for themselves. 

Very sincerely, 

Edward C. \\'illis, 



Major W. W. Downs was the promoter of the association. He was at 
Kansas in the spring of 1879 and opened its doors to the public November 
17 of that year. 

Major W. W. Downs was the propoter of the association. He was at 


that time superintendent of the Central Branch railroad and realized the need 
of reading and amusement rooms for the young men in this city. He suc- 
ceeded in interesting a number of influential Atchison women in the work and 
promised a generous personal donation and the cooperation of the various 
railroads centering here. 

It was unfortunate that before the doors of the library swung open the 
Central Branch changed officials. In spite of this discouragement the Atchi- 
son ladies continued to work, and since its organization it has always been 
managed by a board of fifteen women. 

Funds are raised by the sale of membership and donations and a small 
monthy stipend from the city. J. P. Pomeroy subsequently made a splendid 
donation, amounting to $10,000, and later on, A. J. Harwi contributed a like 
amount for the support of this institution. It now has almost 11,000 books 
on its shelves besides hundreds of magazines and pamphlets. 

Airs. Leontine Scofield was appointed librarian in JanuaiT, 1883, and 
has held tliat position from that time until 1916 uninterruptedly. She has en- 
deared herself to the thousands of patrons who have visited this institution, 
and her familiarity with the place and her fidelity to the work especially fits 
her for this important place. 

The following Atchison ladies are the officers of the association in 1916: 
Mrs. W. \\'. Guthrie, president; Mrs. I'". E. Harwi. vice-president: Airs. W. 
S. Beitzel. recording secretary; Miss Effie E. Symns, corresponding secre- 
tary; Mrs. Fannie W. Linley, treasurer. In addition to these ladies the fol- 
lowing are directresses : Miss Nellie Allen, Mrs. R. F. Clark, Mrs. L. R. Sea- 
ton, Mrs. G. W. Click, Mrs. E. S. Wills, Mrs. W. H. Schulze. Mrs. J. M. 
Challiss, Mrs. D. C. Newcomb, and Miss Mary Lukens. I^.Irs. J. J. Ingalls is 
an honorary directress of the association. 


The first attempt to found a hospital in the city of Atchison originated 
in 1884, and after a general meeting for organization a board was appointed 
which purchased and re-constructed a building situated on South Seventh 
street between U and V, and the institution was open to the public May 2Q 
of that year. 

The following named Atchison ladies were prominently identified with 
the movement that was responsible for the building of the first hospital in 
Atchison : Mrs. A. A. Carev, who was the first president of the association ; 


Mrs. J. J. Berry, Mrs. W. W. Campbell, Mrs. E. A. Mize. Mrs. D. P. Blish. 
Mrs. C. B. Singleton, Mrs. J. J. Ingalls, and Mrs. C. S. Osborn. 

.\fter five years of activity this building as a hospital was closed through 
lack of support and the misapprehension of the purpose of a hospital on the 
part of the community. 

From about 1889 until 191 2 the hospital necessities of Atchison were 
provided by private institutions and cases were sent otttside of the city, but in 
the fall of 191 2 the need for a hospital within the city had become very appar- 
ent, and as a result the following public spirited citizens of the city associated 
themselves together for the purpose of building a modem hospital : \\". P. 
Waggener, president: R. W. Ramsay, vice-president; Otis E. Gray, secre- 
tary; Joseph M. Schott. treasurer. The directors with the above officers 
were : Frank Harwi, T. M. Walker and L. R. Seaton. They instituted a cam- 
paign for the purpose of raising $50,000 to purchase a site and construct and 
equi]) a building for a general hospital. 

The campaign was to a very large degree successful, sufficient money 
being raised in this initial effort to warrant the directors in purchasing a site, 
the square block situated on North Second street between N and O streets, 
where a fire -]iroof building was constructed to accommodate thirty-five 
patients with a maximum capacity of fifty. The building is equipped with 
the most modern appliances for ho.«pital activities. The operating room was 
modeled and equipped after the suggestion of the most celebrated surgeons in 
the country, and since the opening of the hospital to receive patients in July, 
1914. its succes has been assured and its need demonstrated. It possesses 
appliances and equipment conserv-atively valued at $65,000. 

The present board of directors are : \\\ P. \\'aggener, president : Frank 
E. Harwi, vice-president; O. E. Gray, secretary; Joseph M. Schott, treasurer. 
Directors: R. W. Ramsay, H. E. Muchnic, Eugene Howe and Leo Xusbaum. 

The purpose of this institution is to take care of the sick and injured 
of the community without distinction of race, color or creed. Those who can 
afford to pay are expected to pay the fees of the institution. No one is re- 
fused attendance by reason of his or her inability to pay for sucli service. The 
biological and X-Ray laboratories are among the best equipped in the State 
and these laboratories with their equipment, like most of the furnishings 
and equipment of the hospital, are memorials of the former residents of 
Atchison county. 


This magnificent new home for the Masonic orders of Atchison is a 
three-stor}- structure of re-inforced concrete fire-proof construction with 


Masonic Temple, Ate 

basement. It is built of gray Brazil. Indiana, vitrified brick and trimmed witb 
ocean colored terra cotta. Tbe first floor is a store room and on the second 
floor there are a number of offices and the banciuet hall with kitchen facilities. 
The third floor is used exclusively for Masonic purposes, and in the rear por- 
tion of the third floor is a mezzanine floor with fire-proof lockers. The 
lodge room is embellished with an ornamental plaster cornice and with Seagli- 
ola columns and pilasters. The ceiling is circular with a large dome, and 
the memorial room is finished with ornamental plastering in elaborate Egyp- 
tian design. The total cost of this building with furniture and equipment was 
close to $60,000. 






One of the strongest county organizations among the farmers is the 
Atchison County Protective Association. It had its origin in a vigilance 
committee which was organized at Good Intent and Shannon, in 1883. For 
three years this committee operated as a vigilance committee and was organ- 
ized under the Central Protective Association, August 31, 1886, by William 
Conners, of Winthrop, Mo. L. P. Dubois, concerning whom a biographical 
sketch appears in another part of this liistor)-, was the first president of the 
Good Intent lodge, and W. H. Smith was the first secretary. Hon. T. J. 
Emlen, county treasurer of this county, was the first treasurer of Shannon 
Hill lodge, and J. I. Holmes was the first secretary. 

The first work that was done by the consolidated lodges was in running 
down a thief who stole a team of horses from the late RoUa Streeper. Mem- 
bers of both lodges were taxed $10 each to defray the expense of the chase. 
J. H. Barn- was sheriff of the county at that time and captured the thief 
in Nebraska. 

■Following this capture the lodges decided that the expense was too great 
to be borne by them alone and so the Atchison County Protective Association 
was formed in the spring of 1889. The first president was C. S. Prim, and 
the second president was Hon. W. T. Bland, third president was Elias Graves. 
W. H. Bush was the fourth president, and he held office for ten years and 
was one of tlie most popular, tactful and conscientious officials the associa- 
tion ever had. Will Doolev, of the Good Intent lodge, was president of the 



association in 1916, and no better man ever filled the position. The Hon- 
Edward Iverson, ex-county clerk, and now cashier of the Exchange State 
Bank, at Atchison, has been secretary of the association since 1901. The 
association has now a membership of 1,500 and with twenty-five lodges, and 
is affiliated with the Central Protective Association. 


This lodge was organized January 17, 1901, with 150 charter members. 
\V. T. Bland, for many years district judge of this county, was elected the. first 
exalted ruler. The lodge occupied temporary charters for a number of years, 
and erected its present building ai a cost of $20,000 and dedicated it in 1907. 
The prcfent membership of the Elk's lodge is 326, and the names of the past 

exalted rulers, in addition to W. T. Bland, are as follows : Charles Linley, 
T. S. Young. J. M. Challiss, James W. Orr, \\'. S. Washer, Fred Giddings. 
W. r. Waggener. B. \\'. \'ickery, W. 1). Harburger, Charles A. Brown. G. 
W. Myers. H. B. Bilimek, and Walter E. Brown, whose term ex])ires 
March 31, 19 16. 




The Atchison Aerie. No. 173, of the Fraternal Order of Eagles, was 
instituted on October 3. 1901. The officers in 1916 are as follows: Past 
worthy president, Owen Grady ; worthy president, John V. .Smith ; worthy 
vice-president, Fred Rambke ; worthy chaplain, I''. V.. Ivaaz; treasurer, L. M. 
Baker: secretary, W. H. Smith: trustees, S. S. King. Carl Schmitt, E. N. 
Underwood : aerie physician. Dr. C. F. Finney. 

Eagles' Home. Atcliison, Kan. 

The aerie meets e\-ery Wednesday evening. The cost of the present 
building was aliout $35,000. The bu'lding belongs to the Eagles' Benevo- 
lent AssociatioiL The jjresent meml^ership is 550. 


Ancient Order of United Workmen — Atchison Lodge, No. 4, first and 
third Thursda\s at Od Fellows" Hall. L. M. Baker, recorder. 


Ancient Order of United Workmen — A'hilford Lodge, No. 137. Sec- 
ond and fourth Thursdays at Odd Fellows' Hall. W. A. Wilson, recorder. 

Ancient Order of United Workmen — Degree of Honor — Columbia 
Lodge, No. 85. Second and fourth Thursdays. 

Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks — Atchison Lodge, No. 647. 
First and third Tuesdays at 611 Kansas avenue. George R. Hooper, secre- 

Central Protecti\'e Association — Atchison Lodge, No. 32. Meets at 
call of president. W. H. Smith, secretary. 

Court of Honor — (See Ancient Order of United Workmen.). 

Eagles — -(See Fraternal Order of Eagles). 

Elks Club House — (See Benevolent and Protective Order of Elks). 

Fraternal Aid Association — Atchison Council, No. 7. First and third 
Wednesdays at Security Hall. Rosa S. Voorhees, secretan.'. 

Fraternal Order of Eagles — Atchison Aerie, No. 173. Every Wednes- 
day at Eagles' Hall. W. H. Smith, secretary. 

Grand Army of the Republic — A. S. Everest Post, No. 493. First and 
third Mondays at court house. 

Grand Army of the Republic — A. S. Everest Woman's Relief Corps, 
No. i48.First and third Thursdays at court house. Mrs. John Noron, 

Grand Army of the Republic — John A. Martin Post, No. 93. Fourth 
Sundays at court house. \\'illful A. Stanley, adjutant. C. H. Burrows, com- 

Lidependent Order of Odd Fellows — (See Odd Fellows). 

Improved Order of Red Men — Miami Tribe, No. 15. Every Monday 
at Red Men's Wigwam. J. M. Tarman, sachem. 

Independent Order of Foresters — Court Atchison, No. 1741. Meets 
at call of Chief Ranger. George R. Hooper, secretary. 

Kansas Fraternal Citizens — Atchison Assembly, No. 15. First and 
third Thursdays at Odd Fellows' Hall. Walter North, secretary. 

Knights and Ladies of Security — Atchison Council, No. 267. Meets 
every Thursday at Security Hall. Courtney Turner, secretary. 

Knights and Ladies of Security — Harmony Council, No. 1375. Second 
and fourth Thursdays. C. H. Burrows, secretary. 

Knights of the Maccabees — Atchison Tent, No. 2. First and third Tues- 
days. F. M. Woodford, record keeper. 

Knights of Pythias — Golden Cross Lodge, No. 7. Every Thursday at 
Security Hall. \\'. M. Thistle, keeper of records and seal. 


Masonic — Active Lodge, No. 158. Ancient Free and Accepted Masons. 
Second and fourth Mondays at Knights of Pythias Hall. A. W. Nicholson, 

Masonic — Washington Chapter, No. i. Royal Arch Masons. Second 
and fourth Thursdays at Asylum, 724^^ Commercial street. J. E. Hender- 
son, secretary. 

Masonic — Washington Commandery, No. 2, Knights Templar. First 
and third Thursdays at Asylum, 724I/J Commercial street. J. E. Henderson, 

Eagle's Benevolent Association — Meets at call of president. W. H. 
Smith, secretary. 

Masonic — Washington Council, No. 2, Royal and Select Masters. Third 
Saturdays at Asylum, Masonic Temple. J. E. Henderson, recorder. 

Ancient Free and Accepted Masons — Washington Lodge, No. 5, Ancient 
Free and Accepted Masons. First and third Mondays at Masonic Temple. 
J. E. Henderson, secretary. 

Ancient Free and Accepted Masons — Order of Eastern Star — Martha 
Washington Chapter, No. 215. First and third Fridays at Masonic Temple. 
Miss Alice Noron, secretary. 

Modem Brotherhood of America — Atchison Lodge, No. 427. Second 
Tuesdays at Red Men's Wigwam. Charles Pantle, secretary. 

Modern Woodmen of America — Unity Camp, No. 356. Second and 
fourth Fridays at Odd Fellows' Hall. T. J. Ritner, clerk. 

Mystic Workers of the World — First and third Tuesdays at Security 
Hall. Herman Haase, secretary. 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows' Hall — Southwest corner Fifth and 
Kansas avenue, second and third floors. 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows — Friendship Lodge, No. 5. Every 
Tuesday at Odd Fellows' Hall. W. H. Smith, secretary. 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows — Hesperian Encampment, No. 6. 
First and third Fridays at Odd Fellows' Hall. A. W. Heisey, secretary. 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows — Rebekahs — Friendship Lodge, No. 
288. Second and fourth Mondays at Odd Fellows' Hall. Mrs. Bessie Jost, 

Independent Order of Odd Fellows — Schillers Lodge, No. 33. Every 
Wednesday at Odd Fellows' Hall. Charles Feierabend, secretary. 

Order of Eastern Star — (See Ancient Free and Accepted Masons). 


P. E. O. Society — Chapter J, Kansas. Every second Friday at homes 
of members. Mrs. Anna Lungwitz, secretary. Public rest room, 109 South 
Fifth avenue. 

Daughters of Rebekah — (See Independent Order of Odd Fellows). 

Red Men's Wigwam — Third floor, 500 Commercial street. 

Royal Arcanum — Atchison Commandery, No. 1035. Scott Jones, sec- 
retary. Meets at call of regent. 

Royal Neighbors — Atchison Camp, No. 1044. First and third Fridays 
at Odd Fellows' Hall. Mrs. Emma M. Christian, recorder. 

United Commercial Travelers of America — Atchison Council, No. 99. 
Fourth Saturdays at Masonic Temple. George R. Hooper, secretary. 

Woodmen Circle — Atchison GroVe, No. 13. First and third Mondays 
at Odd Fellows' Hall. A. \\\ Heisey, secretary. 

Woodmen of the World — Atchison Camp, No. 9. First and second 
Mondays at Odd Fellows' Hall. Judge J. P. Adams, clerk. 

Security Hall — 524-526 Commercial street, third floor. 


Carroll Club — First and third Tuesdays at St. Louis College Hall. Le- 
Roy Ostertag, secretary. 

Catholic Mutual Benevolent Association — No. 20. First Thursdays at 
St. Louis College Hall. \\'erner Nass, secretary. 

Knights of Columbus — Sacred Heart Council, No. 723. Second and 
Fourth Thursdays at Hall, 511 J/4 Commercial street. William T. Jochems, 
financial secretary ; Charles Smith, recording secretary. 

Ladies' Catholic Benevolent Association — No. 602. First and third 
Tuesdays at St. Louis College Hall. Agnes Langan, secretary. 

St. Joseph's Benevolent Society — Second Sundays at St. Louis College 
Hall. Joseph Tinschert, secretary. 

Odd Fellows — Abdallah Shrine Club — Meets at call of president. J. E. 
Henderson, secretary. 

Masonic Charity Association — Meets at call of president. A. W. Nich- 
olson, secretary-treasurer. 

Ladies' Catholic Benevolent Association — No. 942. Second and fourth 






The story of the African race in Atcliison count}- makes an appeal to 
the thoughtful and intelligent student of history. It is not a mere platitude 
to say that the negro has made marvelous progress in many lines, and not 
the least striking illustration of this assertion is to point to wdiat he has 
accomplished in this county under circumstances that have not lieen alto- 
gether propitious. The record of African bondage here is not \-oluminous, 
but it is sufficient upon v^rhich to base a story of his development. As early 
as 1856 a reference to slavery in Atchison county is found in the Squatter 
Sovereign, which on September 16 of that year contained the following 
advertisement : 

$500 REWARD. 

Ran away from the subscribers on the night of September 9. two negro 
boys, Ned and Harrison. 

Ned is about eighteen years old, stout and well built, about fi\-e feet, 
eight inches high, and weighs about 170 pounds. At theMime of his leav- 
ing was dressed in a brown velvet coat. 

Harrison is a bright mulatto, about five feet, four inches high, weighs 
about 120 pounds, is about sixteen years old, and was rather shabbilv dressed. 

Said negroes took with them two horses. 

One black, six years old, branded H on left hip, quite thin, about fifteen 
and one-half hands high. 

One claybank, dark mane and tail, rather bonv, six vears old, about 
fifteen and one-half hands high, paces. 


Fi\e hundred dollars reward will lie given for the apprehension and 
safe return of the negroes, or $250 for the recovery of either of the negroes 
and horses. 

A. J. Frederick, 
R. H. Cabell. 
Atchison, Iv. T. 

A search of the files of the Sqiiatfcr S(n'creigii fails to disclose the 
sequel to this advertisement. Whether or not "Ned and Harrison" were 
subsequently apprehended and the reward paid must be left to the imagina- 
tion, but doubtless they were among the four million black men from whose 
limbs, a few years later, Abraham Lincoln struck the shackles, and whose 
descendants this day are breathing the pure air of freedom. There is no defi- 
nite record of the number of slaves in Atchison county at the time the adver- 
tisement in the Squatter Sovereign appeared. When the first census was taken 
m 1855 no counties had been established and the territorv in Atchison county 
v,-as included in the fifteenth election district. This census provided for the 
enumeration of the slaves in the territory, and as far as can be determined, 
the following men in and around Atchison were slave owners: D. A. N. 
rdover, three ; ^^^ J\I. Size, fi\-e ; John Samuel, one ; R. A. ^Valker, one ; 
Charles Echer, three; S. F. Raz, three: and Grafton Thomasson, the saw- 
mill man, of Atchison, owned three, one of whom drowned herself in the 
Missouri river, which fatality was the direct cause of the famous Pardee 
Butler incident. It is a far cry from "Xed and Harrison" to Prior Dickey and 
Henry Buchanan, successful farmers of Walnut township, and it will be the 
object of this chapter to show how far that cry is, by tracing somewhat inti- 
mately the lives and careers of Dickey and Buchanan, and other leading- 
negroes of the Mills neighborhood. 

Prior Dickey was born in Barren county, Iventucky, March 9, 1861, a 
son of Jackson and Edith Dickey, the father a native of West Virginia, and 
the mother of Kentucky. The first eighteen years of his life were spent in 
Kentucky, and in 1879 he came to Ivansas, and his first employment was in 
a rock quarry at Millbrook, Graham county. He possessed $3.75 when he 
landed in this town. He helped build sod houses, and in fact turned his 
hand at anything that offered for his board and lodging. During the spring 
of 1880 he walked from Millbrook to Concordia, a distance of 200 miles, in 
search of work. He was accompanied by a friend, Calvin Trotter, and their 
joint capital was $1.25. After reaching Concordia, and also having gone 


without food for two days, he secured work with a railroad construction 
crew, and was sent from Concordia to Atchison, and thence to Rich Hill, 
Mo., and later to Texas, where he worked on the extension of the Missouri, 
Kansas & Texas railway. When this work was finished he started for Kan- 
sas, and wishing to save his money stowed himself in a box car. While the 
train was at a standstill in a Texas town, a white man knocked on the door, 
demanding admittance. Prior was scared, and stealing out of the opposite 
door, started to run. The white man called out, "Stop, neighbor,"' and Prior 
stopped. They became friends, and came north together in the box car. 
On arriving at Ft. Scott, Prior gave his white friend $1, fed him at a res- 
taurant, and sent him on his way. From Ft. Scott he came to Atchison, 
and later was employed in railroad construction work of various kinds in 
Nebraska, on the Central Branch railroad in Kansas, the Wabash in Missouri, 
and elsewhere. In 1833 he secured his first employment on a farm, a field 
of endeavor in which he has since made a signal success. From ten dollars a 
month to twenty-one dollars, with board and lodging, was his wage. Prior 
possessed a spirit of thrift and saved his wages. In 1885, while working for 
Medad Harvey, in Grasshopper township, Atchison county, he bought his 
first forty acres. On this place he put his father and mother, bringing them 
from Kentucky. They lived here until their deaths, that of the father, in 
1895, and the mother in 1911. Prior's example in caring for his aged par- 
ents, even refusing to marry on account of attendance on his mother, is 
worthy of emulation. Three years after his first purchase of land he bought 
liis second forty, a year later a third forty, then an eighty, and later from 
John J. Ingalls, he bought a 160 acre tract. He is also the owner of a 160 
acre farm in Oklahoma, and his various holdings total over 500 acres. He 
is a capable and industrious agriculturist, employs modern methods, is in 
close touch with the advancement in scientific farming, and is a successful 
breeder of high grade cattle and hogs. His herd of grade Herefords is the 
equal of any in the county and numbers over fifty head. His property is 
well improved and well kept. He is a stockholder in the State Bank of 
Potter and conceded to be no mean financier. He is a stanch Republican 
and states "not a black man in the United States can conscientiously be any- 
thing but a Republican." He cast his first vote in Graham county in the 
first election held in that county after its organization. He is a Mason and 
a Baptist. A sister and her children comprise his household. Possessed of 
ambition to succeed and gain an assured position in his adopted State, of 
untiring energy, intelligence and the quality of thrift. Prior Dickey has de- 
veloped into a citizen who is worth while. 


Henry C. Buchanan was born in Lincoln county, Kentucky, on April 8, 
1844. His father was a slave, owned by Dr. Thomas Montgomery, and 
named Martin Montgomery, and his mother was Violet Shanks, a slave 
girl, owned by Archie Shanks. Their son was born an the Shanks planta- 
tion. Following the death of Archie Shanks, his daughter, Sarah, inherited 
the boy, Henry, along with thirty other slaves. She afterward married a 
man by the name of Buchanan, and this family name was given the boy. He 
grew to young manhood on the Buchanan plantation, and was given fair 
treatment, but not any schooling. In 1864 he left the plantation and en- 
listed in the Fifth United States cavalry, at Camp Wilson, on the Kentucky 
river. He served about twenty-two months and was mustered out at Little 
Rock, Ark. He then returned to the old plantation in Kentucky, and found 
it had been made a Government post. He was fairly well posted on farm- 
mg, as he had been one of the best field hands on the Buchanan plantation, 
and this fact being known to the land owners of the neighborhood, he had 
no difficulty in leasing a portion of the old plantation. A brother-in-law was 
associated with him in this venture, but Henry was the manager. He later 
leased land in the adjoining county. His farming was profitable, and he 
saved his money, eventually accumulating enough capital to engage in the 
general merchandise business in Lancaster, Ky., on a small scale. In 188 1 
he concluded to go west, and chose Atchison Kan., as his place of location. 
He arrived here at the time of the great flood, and shortly afterward opened 
a grocery^ and produce store on Fifth street. He continued in this business 
until 1 89 1, when he sold out, and with the proceeds bought 100 acres of land ' 
in Walnut township. This property he improved, and as the years have 
passed he has added to the acreage, until now he owns 400 acres. The 
property is well improved, well kept and well farmed. He was married in 
1878 to Belle Hogans, of Garritt count}-. Kentucky, who died in 1899. 
Handicapped by the lack of education, he has spared no reasonable expense 
in the matter of educating his children, and his sons are now carn-ing for- 
ward their father's farm enterprise along modern lines, and are well edu- 
cated, intelligent members of the community. A deceased daughter, Luella 
B.. graduated from the Atchison county high school, at Effingham. Henry 
Buchanan has always been a Republican, He has served as precinct com- 
mitteeman, and as a member of the election board at several elections, and 
also as judge of election. He is a member of the Baptist church, and has been 
a member of the board of trustees of his local church for many years. Meas- 
ured from the standpoint of a man who has done the things which have 
come to his hand from time to time, he has done those things well. He has 



assisted in the development of the county's agricultural resources, has been 
thrifty, and has gained the respect and esteem of the residents of his town- 
ship and county. 

Eugene L. Bell, prosperous farmer. Walnut township, was born at Oak 
Mills, Kan., July 28, 1875, a son of Joseph and Sydney (King) Bell, natives 
of Missouri and Kentucky, respectively. Joseph Bell, the father, was born 
in October, 1844, in Platte county, Missouri, of slave parentage. ?Ie lived 
in Missouri until 1863, and then located in Leavenworth, Kan., where he 
joined the United States army, becoming a member of Company G, Seventy- 
ninth regiment, United States Colorado infanti^. He served until the close 
of the Civil war, taking part in fourteen battles. After the war he, married 
Miss Sydney King at Leavenworth, Kan. In 1872 he removed to Oak Mills, 
Atchison county, and settled on a farm in Walnut township. He was one 
of the pioneers of this settlement and developed a fine farm. Mr. Bell took 
an active part in matters pertaining to the betterment of his community and 
was an exemplary citizen. Many of the noted men of his day in Kansas were 
his warm and steadfast friends. Mr. and Mrs. Bell were the parents of nine 
children, six of whom were reared to maturity : Eugene L., the subject of 
this review ; Mrs. Birdie Norman, of Omaha, Neb. ; Mrs. T. C. Brown, and 
Miss Pearlie Bell, of Chicago, 111. ; Humphrey Bell, of Pittsburgh, Pa. ; and 
Mead Bell, of Cleveland, Ohio. Joseph Bell died May 30, 1914. Mrs. Bell 
died April 18, 1903. Like her husband, she ran away from slavery to Kansas. 

Eugene L. spent his boyhood days assisting his father in cultivating the 
home farm, and managed to attend school about two and one-half months 
out of the year until he attained the age of nineteen years. He then began 
to hustle for himself and completed a three years' course in the Atchison 
county high school at Effingham. Ambition and a desire to educate himself 
led him to make sacrifices in order to prepare himself to better cope with the 
struggle for a livelihood. The priceless boon of an education was his after 
considerable effort, and he graduated from the county high school in 1896. 
He then returned to the avocation of farmer and rented land in Walnut town- 
ship, which he cultivated for some years. Mr. Bell is the owner of a fine 
farm in Walnut township. 

He was married December 26, 1901, to Miss Mamie Churchhill, of Mon- 
rovia, Kan., a native of Hardin county, Kentucky. They settled in Atchison, 
Kan., and lived there three years after this marriage. Mr. Bell then moved 
to Walnut township and taught school for two terms in District No. 20. He 
then bought forty acres of land, on which he has since made liis home. Seven 


children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. Bell : Inez, Orville, Eugene. Leslie, 
Jr., Justin, Irene, Pearlie, Ruthanna. Mrs. Bell died December 7, 1912. 

Mr. Bell has been the local newspaper correspondent of his neighbor- 
hood for several years and has a decided literary talent. For the past eighteen 
years he has been connected with school district No. 20 in the capacity of 
teacher and school trustee. He is a progressive Republican in his political 
affiliations, and has been honored by his party. On May 27, 191 5, he was 
appointed by Governor Capper as a member of the board of trustees of Quin- 
daro University, Kansas, and also received a complimentary appointment to 
attend the Farmers' Congress as a negro delegate, held at the Panama Exposi- 
tion at San Francisco. He is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church 
of Atchison, and has been a member of the IMasonic fraternity for the past 
fifteen years. Mr. Bell has taken a prominent part in the educational and 
civic life of Atchison county. He has served as a delegate to county and State 
conventions of his party, and filled the position of doorkeeper and sergeant- 
at-arms in the house of representatives at Topeka. His newspaper experience 
includes a term of employment in the printing department of the Omaha Bee 
when nineteen years old, where he learned typesetting, going from there to 
Chicago and attending the World's Fair. After this experience he returned 
liome with the intention of securing an education and succeeded. Mr. Bell 
iS one of the well respected citizens of his community, and is one of the 
recognized leaders of his race in Kansas. His father, Joseph Bell, was a 
member of the Grand Army of the Republic, Scott Post, of Hydro, Okla., 
whither he removed in 1900. 

Charles Ingram, a well known farmer, of Walnut township, whose agri- 
cultural plant is located four miles distant from the town of Potter, Kan., 
consisting of x6o acres of good land, is a native of the Southland. He was 
born in 1855, a son of Hart and Vinia Ingram, both of whom were born and 
reared in Tennessee. Just previous, or some years before the opening of the 
Civil war, his parents left Tennessee and came to Buchanan county, Missouri, 
as chattels of Jesse Ingram. The Ingram farm was located about four miles 
distant from St. Joseph, Mo. Here they toiled in the fields of the master 
and owner until given their freedom by Mr. Ingram near the end of the 
Civil war. The owner, on setting his slaves free, told them to go out and 
hustle for themselves. Hart Ingram and his family came to Kansas and 
lived during their first winter here in Atchison. He then located on a farm 
in Mt. Pleasant township, and worked for Mr. Speck for five years. He 


then rented land of John King for one year, after which he invested his sav- 
ings in forty acres of land in Walnut township, upon which he resided until 
his demise. 

As a youth Charles had no opportunity to acquire an education, and after 
his marriage in 1880 he rented land for several years, and eventually saved 
enough money to make a payment on forty acres of farni lands. He im- 
mediately made his home on his purchase and has added to his possessions 
until he is now the owner of 160 acres of excellent farm land, with good, 
comfortable dwelling and improvements. Charles Ingram was married in 
1880 to Margarette Farner, of Atchison county. Five children have blessed 
this marriage, who are all receiving the benefits of a good school education 
by their ambitious parents. 

Mr. Ingram is a Republican in politics, and is a member of the Baptist 
church. He is a man of high and strong character, which has been developed 
in the stern and exacting school of adversity. Mr. Ingram has seen the time 
when lie was unable to borrow even twenty-five dollars, and his credit is now 
good for as much as $2,500, should he desire it. One of his daughters, Grace, 
is a graduate of the Atchison countv high school at Effingham, and the others 
have been given similar opportunity. Grace Ingram taught school in Atchi- 
son county before her marriage. Mr. Ingram is a striking example of the 
progress which his race has made since the negroes have been freed from 

Charles J. Ferguson, farmer, of Oak ]\Iills, Kan., was born in Platte 
county, Missouri, in April, 188 1, a son of Daniel and Sarah (Williams) 
Ferguson, the former a native of Kentucky, and the latter a native of Mis- 
souri. The parents of Charles came to Kansas from Missouri in 1881, and 
settled on a small farm of twenty acres, which Daniel bought with his sav- 
ings, and still owns. Charles attended school in District No. 20, and was 
reared on the parental farm. After his marriage in 1900 he began doing- 
things for himself and has become the owner of 100 acres of fine farm lands, 
overlooking Bean Lake, and located in Walnut township. Mr. Ferguson 
has attained to his comfortable position of affluence by industry, economy, 
and good financial management, and began his career with practically noth- 
ing. He was the first man in Walnut township to ship a carload of wheat, 
and others have since followed his example. He shipped his first carload 
of wheat in 1910 and has become noted as a grower of small grain, having 
raised 1,690 bushels of wheat in 1914, and raises on an average over 1,200 
bushels animallw He was married March 7, 1900, to Eliza, a daughter of 


H. C. Buchanan, and is the fatlier of the following children : Granville F., 
bom December 19. 1900: Sarah, horn March i, 1902: Sheffield, born January 
12, 1905; Rothschild, born Septembers, 1908: Luella, born June 17, 1910; 
Decina, born May 31, 1912. 

Mr. Ferguson is a Republican in politics and has taken an active and in- 
fluential part in the affairs of his party in Atchison count}'. He was elected 
a member of the county central committee in 1908, and has held this position 
since that time. He is treasurer of the school board of District No. 20 of 
his township. He is a member of the Knights of Tabor, of Atchison, and is 
well thought of and highly respected by all who know him. 

Henry Dickey, farmer, of Walnut township, was bom February 24. 1850, 
in Barron county, Kentucky. He was a son of Jackson and Edith Dickey, 
who were slaves until freed liy the Emancipation Proclamation. After the 
Civil war, which resulted in the Dickeys becoming freemen, the parents re- 
mained in Kentuck}' until 1884. Henry was at that tune working on a farm 
in Kentucky for fifty cents a day, and he wished to better his condition and 
that of his parents. Accordingly, he came to Kansas in search of a location, 
and found it in Atchison county. After his brother. Prior Dickey, joined 
him in this county, he and Prior pooled their interests and invested in fami 
lands until they now own over 500 acres of land in partnership. Thev also 
own forty head of fine Hereford cattle, seven-eighths pure bred stock. 

Mr. Dickey was married Febmary 2t,, 1903. to Celia Kerford, a daugh- 
ter of Abraham Kerford, a well known colored family of Atchison county. 
The Kerfords came from the home county of Abraham Lincoln, in Kentucky. 
One child has been born to Mr. and Mis. Henry Dickey, Sarah E.. born 
September 24, 1906. 

Politically, Mr. Dickey is allied with the Republican party, and has served 
as a member of the school board of his district. He and his wife are mem- 
bers of the Baptist church. Mrs. Dickey is affiliated with the True Eleven 
lodge of Atchison. Mr. Dickey is one of the most influential and successful 
members of the negro race in Kansas, and is considered as one of the indus- 
trious and highly successful agriculturists and live stock men of Atchison 

Dr. Frank Adrian Pearl, M. D., Atchison, Kan., is one of the self-made 
men of the present generation. He was born September 2, 1886, in the city 
of Atchison, a son of Ryes and Sarah J. Pearl, the former of whom was a 
native of Missouri, and removed to Atchison, Kan., shortly after the close 
of the Civil war. He lived in Atchison until 1888, and then moved to Butte, 


JNIont.. where he hved until his demise. After his demise the widow mar- 
ried a man named Davis. 

Frank A. was reared to young manhood in Butte, and attended the pub- 
he and high school of his home city, afterwards pursuing a course in business 
college. When yet a boy he began to work for himself and early became 
self-reliant in doing any and all kinds of honest labor. In 1905 and 1906 
he studied in the Topeka Educational Institute, and supported himself by 
hard work while studying in this institution. He then entered Howard Medi- 
cal College, of Washington, D. C, and graduated from this school in 1912. 
After his graduation Dr. Pearl located in Kansas City, and for one and one- 
half years served as interne in the General Hospital of Kansas City. He 
located in Atchison in August of 1914, and has built up an excellent practice 
among the people of his race, and has made a nam.e for himself as a skilled 
and well educated physician. Dr. Pearl is a member of of the County Medical 
Society, the Tri-State Medical Association, embracing Missouri, Kansas, and 
Oklahoma, and the Kansas Medical Society. He is an independent in poli- 
tics, and is a member of the Methodist Episcopal church. Dr. Pearl is fra- 
ternally allied with the Odd Fellows, the United Brotherhood of Freemen, 
and the Knights of Tabor. He is well educated, courteous, a great student, 
and is fast making a place for himself in his chosen profession. 

Dr. W. W. Caldwell, M. D., of Atchison. Kan., was born in Nashville. 
Tenn,, in 1877, a son of Jefferson and Elizabeth (Bell) Caldwell. His mother 
was a native of Louisiana and had the entire support of ten children thrown 
upon her after the removal of the family to Topeka, Kan., in 1880. Mrs. Cald- 
well was a capable woman of more than ordinary' ability, thoroughly un- 
tutored, but possessed of a strong character, she determined that her children 
should be fitted to cope with the battle of life with well trained minds. She 
early installed into the minds of her children those qualities of character 
which have produced great men. She possessed an iron constitution and an 
unconquerable will which enabled her to put in long hours each day at the 
wash-tub in order to gain the means of feeding the hungry mouths of her 
children. She also taught each of her offspring to become self-supporting as 
soon as they were able and encouraged them to strike out for themselves. 
An instance of her nature is shown in an occurrence in the life of Dr. Cald- 
well : "When the boy was fourteen years of age he made his way to St. Louis, 
via 'the side-door Pullman' route. He did not like the appearance of things 
in St. Louis, and returned to the safer haven of his home in Topeka, only 
to be chided bv his mother for his inabilitv to stav awav from home and 


make his own way in the world as she desired him to do." The night follow- 
ing his return he again left home and did not return until time for school 
to re-open in the fall, with money in his pocket which would suffice to carry 
him through the winter. The mother was an expert laundress and kept all of 
her children in school as long- as they desired to go. Two of her daughters 
nearly finished the high school course in Topeka, but Dr. Caldwell was the 
only child of the family to acquire a collegiate education and a professional 

He attended both the public and high schools of Topeka and afterwards 
studied for three years in the State Normal school at Topeka, and was 
granted a life teacher's certificate. While at college Dr. Caldwell made a 
great reputation as a runner and football player, serving as halfback on the 
State Nomial football team. He acquired his education pi'acticallv bv his 
own efforts, encouraged by his ambitious mother. In 1892, when he was 
fourteen years of age, he made his first trip away from home, to St. Louis, 
but returned home after one month's stay in that city. His mother having 
ridiculed him for coming home, he caught the Rock Island flyer out of To- 
peka that night and rode part of the way to Denver. After a thrilling experi- 
ence covering a period of two weeks, he finally arrived at the western city, 
just as he started, without funds, but with the desire to obtain employment. 
He worked in Denver at any honest employment he could obtain, such as 
shining shoes, laying concrete, hotel porter, and similar jobs. His hard- 
ships were many, but he was eventually well repaid for his early struggles. 
One place which he held as porter in a barber shop enabled him to lay by 
a considerable sum of money each week. He was paid ten cents per shine 
and allowed to keep the money thus earned, and saved eight dollars during 
his first week. He worked for this shop for three successive summers, and 
made it a rule to lay by eight dollars each week. When it came time for 
school to open he would "beat" his way back to Topeka via the overland 
trains and study during the wiinter and spring months, and would then again 
make his way to Denver in time for employment. Thirty-five dollars saved 
usually sufficed to pay his expenses during the winter months while in school. 
and he would sometimes make his way home with $300 in his pocket. He 
kept up this plan of working and studying until he had completed his medical 
course, entering medical college in 1902, and graduating therefrom in 1906. 
After practicing in Topeka for one and one-half years he went to Indepen- 
dence, Kan., but remained there only seven months. In 1908 Dr. Caldwell 


came to Atchison and opened an office for general medical practice. He has 
made a great success in his noble profession, and has attained to a high posi- 
tion of leadership among the members of the Afro-American race. 

Dr. Caldwell was married in 1906 to Araminta Beck, a native of Wa- 
megoa county, Kansas, and to this union have been born children, as follows : 
Georgia, born in 1909; Elizabeth, born in 191 1; Elnora, born in 1908. The 
mother of these children was bom in Kansas City August 20, 1880, a daugh- 
ter of Leonardo Beck, a stone cutter by trade. Her mother, Mrs. Georgia 
Beck, was one of the original Fisk Jubilee Singers, who sang in public recitals 
in many cities of the United States and in England. They sang in the cause 
of education, the money earned by the recitals going to defray the expenses 
of erecting the $100,000 Jubilee Hall at Fisk University, Nashville, Tenn. 
An uncle of Mrs. Caldwell, Col. James L. Beck, commanded the Twenty- 
third regiment of colored Kansas volunteers which served in Cuba during 
the Spanish-American war. Mrs. Caldwell is a well educated lady and is 
a graduate of the Wamego, Kansas, high school, and graduated from Kansas 
University before she attained the age of twenty years. She is a member of 
the Eastern Star lodge of Topeka, in which city she taught school for seven 
years, later teaching one year in Springfield, Mo. 

Dr. Caldwell is a member of the Masonic fraternity of Topeka. and is 
a physician for the Knights of Tabor lodge of Atchison. He is a member of 
Ebenezer Baptist Church, and is a Republican in politics. In 1912 he re- 
ceived the degree of Bachelor of Arts from the State Normal at Emporia, 
Kan. On July 30, 1915, Governor Cappef appointed the Doctor a delegate to 
the National Negro Educational Congress, held at Chicago, from August 16 
to August 21, inclusive. In 1914 he was presented with a walnut gavel by 
the Inter-State Literary Association. 




County Clerk — C. M. X^jelker. 

County Treasurer — U. B. Sharpless. 

Sheriff — Roy C. Trimble. 

Register of Deeds — L. M. Baker. 

County Attorney — Charles J. Conlon. 

County Surveyor — Charles Woodworth. 

County Superintendent — D. Anna Speer. 

Clerk of District Court — W. H. Smith. 

Probate Judge — J. P. Adams. 

County Commissioner; First district — S. S. King. 

County Commissioner; Second district — J. H. Glancy. 

County Commissioner; Third district — Andrew Speer. 

Member of Legislature ; Second district — T. A. Aloxcey. 

Member of Legislature; Third district — A. E. Mayhew. 

State Senator; Second district — B. P. \\"aggener. 


Trustee — Joseph Taylor. Clerk — Richard Handke. 

Treasurer — Edward Undei'wood. 


Trustee — C. R. Perdue. Treasurer — J. R. Gragg. 

Clerk — F. H. Kloepper. Justice — C. D. Parrot. 


Trustee — William Stirton. Treasurer — Charles McCurdy, 

Clerk — L. N. Plummer. Constable — G. R. Shannon. 


Trustee — F. M. Pratt. Treasurer — James Robertson. 

Clerk — Walter Ferris. Justice — C. F. Katherins. 





Trustee — ^W. S. Hef felfinger. Justice — W. P. Hef felf inger. 

Clerk — J. G. Niblo. Constable — J. VV. Acheson. 

Treasurer— W. R. Smith. Constable — James Farrell. 


Treasurer — George Schroeder 
Justice — S. E. Langworthy. 


Treasurer — Robert Volk. 
1 ustice — William Hartman. 


Treasurer — C. N. Faulconer. 
Justice — B. Brown. 

Trustee — J. E. Gibson. 
Clerk — Edward Higley. 

Trustee — B. Cummins. 
Clerk— J. W. Ashcraft. 

Trustee — S. M. Young. 
Clerk — ^J. R. Adams. 


Names of officers in the followin; 
District No. 2 — • 
Charles Cummings, Atchison. 
James Neilson, Atchison, Route 6. 
George A'anderweide, Atchison. 
District No. 3 — 
H. J. Kuhnhoff, Lancaster. 
J. W. Louthian. Huron. 
Herman Fuhrman, Lancaster. 
District No. 4 — 

J. W. Lewman, Atchison, Route 3. 
Robert Limerick, Atchison. 
R. L. Stevens, Atchison, Route 3. 
District No. 5 — 

J. B. Davenport, Atchison, Route 2 
H. W. Sachse, Atchison, Route i. 
John M. Price, Atchison, Route i. 
District No. 6 — 
William Hartman, Cummiiigs. 
C. R. Miller, Atchison, Route 3. 
William Krall, Cummings. 

:j (irder : Director, Treasurer, Clerk: 
District No. 7 — 

Nicholas Boos, Atchison, Route 5. 
Conrad Handke, Atchison, Route 5. 
John Vandeloo, Atchison, Route 5. 
District No. 8 — 
S. G. Moore, Cummings. 
C. P. Higley, Cummings. 
E. Scarlett, Nortonville. 
District No. 9 — 

James Servaes, Atchison, Route i. 
A. B. Howe, Atchison, Route i. 
L. E. Lister, Atchison, Route i. 
District No. 10 — 
Guy P. Chain, Lancaster. 
L. J. Woodhouse, Lancaster. 
A. J. Smith, Lancaster. 
District No. 11 — 
John Cowley, Nortonville. 
W. A. Meador, Monrovia. 
Ed. Neill, Nortonville. 



District No. 12 — 

W. D. Chalfant, Atchison, Route 4. 

J. A. Kramer, Atchison, Route 5. 

P. Wolters, Atchison, Route 5. 

District No. 13 — 

N. W. Enzbrenner, Atchison. 

George A. Thurn, Atchison. 

John Schletzljaum, Atchison. 

District No. 15 — 

Hany Strine, Monrovia. 

S. Swendson, Monrovia. 

C. W. Stutz, Monrovia. 

District No. 16 — 

Roy Grandstaff, Atchison, Route 2. 

J. B. Findley, Atchison, Route 2. 

J. H. Glancy, Atchison, Route 2. 

District No. 17 — 

M. Amend, Cummings. 

M. Jones, Cummings. 

T. J. Ferris, Cummings. 

District No. 19 — 

C. Chne, Cummings. 

Wilham Donnelly, Cummings. 

L. B. Allen, Cummings. 

District No. 20 — 

E. L. Bell, Oak Mills. 

C. J. Ferguson, Oak Mills. 
J. D. Richardson, Oak Mills. 
District No. 21 — 

F. H. Hawk, Effingham. 
William Critchfield, Effingham. 
Mrs. C. M. Madden, Effingham. 
District No. 22 — 

W. F. Speer, Muscotah. 

E. A. Barley, Muscotah. 
James R. Fassnacht, Muscotah. 
District No. 23 — 

F. W. Weber, Horton, Route i. 

L. N. Plummer, Horton, Route i. 

John Shoebrook, Horton, Route i. 

District No. 24 — 

J. E. Wilson, Huron. 

W. H. Grimes, Everest, Route 2. 

W. F. Harden, Everest, Route 2. 

District No. 25^ 

T. P. Armstrong, Atchison, Route 3. 

J. I. Holmes, Atchison, Route 4. 

A. L. Keithline, Shannon. 

District No. 26 — 

F. M. Linscott, Farmington. 

Edwin Thorne, Farmington. 

William Higley, Monrovia. 

District No. 27 — 

W. A. Dilgert, Atchison, Route 2. 

William Christian. Atchison, Route 2. 

L. H. Davenport, Atchison, Route 2. 

District No. 28 — 

John Myer, Cummings. 

George Schrader, Cummings. 

Willard Pike, Farmington. 

District, No. 29 — 

H. L. McLenon, Effingham. 

Anton Candreia, Effingham. 

William E. Steward, Muscotah. 

District No. 30 — 

Frank Plummer, Arrington. 

W. J. Schiffbauer, Arrington. 

D. L. Dawdy, Arrington. 

District No. 31 — 

J. E. Hamon, Arrington. 

Frank Reichart, Arrington. 

John Nevins, Valley Falls. 

District No. 32 — 

D. L. Richards, Effingham. 

D. Richter, Effingham. 

Frank A. Stever, Effingham. 

District No. 33 — 

John A. Sacks, Oak Mills. 



H. Pohl, Oak Mills. 

J. R. Adams, Oak Mills. 

District No. 34 — 

John Davitz, Oak Mills. 

Frank Zacharias, Oak Mills. 

R. E. King, Oak Mills. 

District No. 35 — 

F. B. Maris, Nortonville. 

E. M. Glaspy, Nortonville. 
Dennis Stillman, Nortonville. 
District No. 36 — 

A. T. Bilderback, Nortonville. 

Harry H. Nieman, Nortonville. 

John Moeck, Nortonville. 

District No. 37 — 

Henry Fankhanel, Monrovia. 

H. A. McLenon, Everest, Route 2. 

Stewart McLenon, Monrovia. 

District No. 38 — 

S. E. Langworthy, Nortonville. 

J. R. Snyder, Farmington. 

H. Bertels, Nortonville. 

District No. 39 — 

F. W. Weit, Effingham. 
Bon Hargrove, Effingham. 
C. N. Snyder, Effingham. 
District No. 40— 

J. P. Holmes, Cummings. 
Mrs. Cora B. Fergaison. Atchison. 
J. M. Martin, Atchison, Route 3. 
District No. 41 — 
Mrs. W. H. Ryherd. Horton. 
Gates Saxton, Horton, Route 3. 
O. E. Rigdon, Everest. 
District No. 42 — 
John Burns, Effingham. 
John Huffman. Nortonville. 
J. P. Davidson, Nortonville. 
District No. 43 — 

J. F. Thompson, Muscotah. 

W. D. Roach, Muscotah. 

Ralph A. Allison, Muscotah. 

District No. 44 — 

R. E. Brooks, Huron. 

C. E. Smith, Huron. 

A. F. Allen, Huron. 

District No. 45 — 

W. H. Wicker, Horton, Route i. 

Gilbert Pendlebury, Horton, Route i. 

Robert P. Waller, Horton, Route i. 

District No. 46 — 

Abe Gerard, Atchison, Route 6. 

Sam Gelwick, Atchison, Route 6. 

M. J. Baker, Atchison, Route 6. 

District No. 47 — 

H. H. Rork, Horton, Route i. 

O. G. Wilson, Horton, Route i. 

W. M. Loser, Horton, Route i. 

District No. 48 — 

E. C. Evans, Shannon. 
George Anderson, Lancaster. 
A. Fannen, Shannon. 

John Miller, Muscotah. 
W. E. Hubbard, Muscotah. 

F. M. Pratt, Muscotah. 
District No. 50 — 

E. Whittier, Muscotah. 

Walter Stewart, Muscotah. 

H. M. Foster, Muscotah. 

District No. 51 — 

H. A. Watowa, Atchison, Route 4. 

Everett Shufflebarger, Lancaster. 

Mrs. Anna Kumfrf, Lancaster. 

District No. 52 — 

R. L. Finnegan, Atchison, Route 5. 

Julius Handke, Atchison, Route 5. 

Thomas Kilkeny, Atchison, Route 5. 



District No. 53 — 

Frank Fassnacht, Effingham. 

W. J. Lauffer, Effingham. 

F. R. Schurman, Effingham. 

District No. 54 — 

W. R. Freeland, Effingham. 

Ed. High, Effingham. 

W'. H. Williams, Effingham. 

District No. 55 — 

F. W. Kaufman, Cummings. 
W. K. Stillings, Cummings. 
E. B. Nieman, Cummings. 
District No. 56 — 

J. E. Behen, Farmington. 

J. G. Cormode, Farmington. 

S. Congrove, Farmington. 

District No. 57 — 

Samuel Plotner, Horton, Route i. 

N. E. Jacobs, Horton, Route i. 

C. S. Fairbairn, Muscotah. 

District No. 58 — 

Lawrence Kipp, Horton. 

J. H. Claunch, Horton. 

G. E. Rork, Horton, Route i. 
District No. 59 — 

Howard North, Lancaster. 

Jacob Buttron, Lancaster. 

H. A. Dorssom, Lancaster. 

District No. 60 — 

James Mummert, Effingham. 

David Morgan, Effingham. 

E. L. Henning, Effingham. 

District No. 61 — 

Charles Gilliland, Atchison, Route i. 

John Downey, Atchison, Route i. 

J. D. Hundley, Atchison, Route i. 

District No. 62 — 

David Rouse, Everest, Route 2. 

James W. Freeland, Horton, Route 3. 

Wallace E. Harden, Everest, Route 2. 

District No. 63 — 

Frank Hunn, Arrington. 

Thomas F. Cawley, Arrington. 

M. McGrath, Arrington. 

District No. 65 — 

Robert C. Sparks, Atchison. 

T. C. Treat, Atchison. 

August Haegelin, Atchison. 

District No. 66 — 

William Walz, Atchison, Route 4. 

Louis J. Drimmel, Atchison, Route 4. 

R. D. Holder, Atchison, Route 4. 

District No. 67 — 

Thomas Mullins, Atchison, Route 5. 

Antox Brox, Atchison, Route 5. 

C. E. Wood, Atchison, Route 5. 

District No. 68 — 

Sam Beyer, Arrington. 

David Beyer, Arrington. 

William Lovelace, Muscotah. 

District No. 69 — 

J. H. Durst, Atchison, Route 4. 

Chester Yaple, Atchison, Route 4. 

H. S. McGaughey, Atchison, Route 4. 

District No. 70 — 

J. D. Nevins, Arrington. 

Henry Reichart, Arrington. 

W. P. Yazel, Arrington. 

District No. 71 — 

W. J. Hunter, Atchison, Route i. 

Charles Pantle, Atchison, Route i. 

C. E. Jaquish, Atchison. Route i. 

District No. 72 — 

William H. McLenon, Monrovia. 

Gus. Stutz, Lancaster. 

Gustav Gigstad, Lancaster. 



District No. 73 — 

A. G. Higley, Nortonville. 

John W. Heniy, Nortonville. 

W. T. Henry, Nortonville. 

District No. 74 — 

J. P. Cummings, Atchison, Route 3. 

A. C. May field, Atchison, Route 3. 

J. W. Barber, Atchison, Route 3. 

Union No. i — 

John Henninger, Potter. 

Frank Beard, Potter. 

S. A. EUerman, Potter. 

Union No. 2 — 

Albert Hanf, Atchison, Route i. 

D. T. Greiner, Atchison, Route i. 

Law^rence Wagner, Potter. 

Joint No. 3-50 — 

Charles Handke, Atchison, Route 6. 

Paul Kuhnert, Atchison, Route 6. ■ 

Henry Handke, Atchison, Route 6. 

Joint No. 6 — 

H. E. Montgomery, Larkinburg. 

E. A. Smith, Larkinburg. 

J. J. Mooney, Larkinburg. 

Joint No. 70-98 — 

W. L. Heineken, Effingham, Route i. 

Calvin H. Feerer, Nortonville. 

G. B. Van Horn, Nortonville. 

Rural High School No. i— 

J. E. Remsberg, Potter. 

T. F. Hall, Potter. 

D. H. Sprong, Jr., Oak Mills. 

Atchison County High School — 

D. Anna Speer, President, Atchison. 

C. E. Belden, Vice-president, Horton. 
Fred Sutter, Treasurer, Effingham. 
S. W. Adams, Secretary, Atchison. 
H. A. McLenon, Everest, Route 2. 

J. A. Kinney, Atchison. 

D. H. Sprong, Jr., Oak Mills. 

Hall. Waslunutoii, D. C. 




George W. Glick, ninth governor of Kansas, was born at Greencastle, 
Fairfield county, Ohio, July 4, 1827. His great-grandfather, Philip vGlick, 
a Revolutionary soldier, was one of five brothers who came to Pennsylvania 
from Germany. His grandfather, George Glick, served in the War of 1812, as 
did also his mother's father, Capt. George Sanders. Governor Click's father, 
Isaac Glick, was a man of influence in the community in which he lived, took 
an active interest in State and local politics, and held many positions of public 
trust. His mother, Mary Sanders, was of Scotch parentage. Both parents 
lived to a good old age. 

George W^. Glick was reared on his father's farm near Fremont, Ohio, 
and there acquired the habits of industry, economy and self-reliance that made 
his later life so successful. At the age of twenty-one he entered the office of 
Bucklin & Hayes as a law student, and was admitted to the bar two years 
later at Cincinnati by the supreme court. He began practice at Fremont, and 
soon won an enviable reputation as a hardworking and successful lawyer. He 
fully sustained this reputation after coming to Kansas. 

Locating at Atchison in the spring of 1859, he fonned a partnership with 
Hon. Alfred G. Otis, which lasted until 1874, when an affection of the throat 
compelled him to abandon the practice of law. Mr. Glick soon took a leading 
place at the Kansas bar. His practice extended to all the courts. He was a 
salaried attorney for two railroads and a number of corporations. 

Mr. Glick was a natural leader and began early in life to take an acti\-e 
part in politics. When but thirty-one yeats of age he was nominated for 
Congress by the Democracy of his district in Ohio. Imt declined the nomina- 
tion. The same year he was nominated for State senator and made the race 
against Gen. R. P. Bucklin, his former law preceptor. He was elected to the 


Kansas legislature in 1862 witliout opposition, and reelected in 1863, "64, 
'65, '66, '68, '76 and '82. 

During his service as a legislator, he secured the passage of many needed 
and important laws which have settled and fixed the policy of the State on mat- 
ters of vast interest, that have stood the test of time and experience. In 1876 
Mr. Ghck was made speaker pro tern, of the house of representatives, although 
that body was strongly Republican. He was a delegate to Democratic Na- 
tional conventions in 1856, 1868, 1884 and 1892. The Kansas delegation in 
the Democratic National convention at Chicago in 1892 presented his name 
to that convention as its candidate for vice-president, after the nomination of 
Grover Cleveland for President, and, although not the nominee of the con- 
vention for that office, he received many votes. He was nominated for gov- 
ernor in 1868 and made the race in obedience to his party's call, though his 
defeat was inevitable. In 1882 he was again the unanimous choice of his 
partv for governor and made a memoralile campaign, speaking in nearly 
every county in the State; and, though fighting against great odds, among 
them being a Republican majority of over 52,000, he defeated that distin- 
guished Republican and Prohibitionist, John P. St. John, by 8,079 votes. 
Governor Glick was inaugurated January 8, 1883, and his administration was 
marked by dignity, intelligence, and a careful and discreet management of 
the material and financial interests of the State. His long experience as a 
legislator gave him an intimate knowledge of its needs, and many valuable re- 
form measures recommended in his message to the legislature were accom- 
plished. He entered an earnest protest against the burdens imposed upon 
the agricultural classes by the railroads and asked that legislation be enacted 
to prevent these exactions. A law creating a railroad commission, and em- 
bodying substantially all the improvements asked by him, was passed, and 
proved of great benefit to the people of the State. 

In 1885 he was appointed by President Cleveland pension agent at Topeka 
and reappointed when Mr. Cleveland again came into office. During Mr. 
Click's two terms as pension agent at the Topeka agenc\-, he received and dis- 
bursed over $85,000.00. 

In 1857 he married Elizabeth Ryder, of Massillon, Ohio, a lady de- 
scended from a distinguished colonial ancestry. Her ancestors were among 
the first settlers of Concord, Mass., and she derived her name from forbears 
who were well known among the early colonists of New York City. For fifty 
years and more this noble matron, having with her the best traditions of Amer- 
ican life, presided over the hospitable home of George W. Glick, with the grace 


and dignity inherited from a fine ancestr_y. She added to the success of his 
pubhc hfe the greater blessings of domestic happiness. Two children were 
born to this union : Frederick H. Cdick and Mrs. James W. Orr, of Atchison, 
Kan. He died at Atchison, Kan., April 13, 191 1, aged eighty-four years; his 
wife and children survive him. 

Each State is entitled to place in Statuary Hall at the capitol in Washing- 
ton, statues of two of its citizens renowned in literature, art, war or civil life, 
and several years ago one of such places was filled by the State of Kansas with 
a statue of John James Ingalls, of Atchison, Kan. The regxilar session of the 
1913 legislature of Kansas adopted a concurrent resolution and made an a])- 
propriation for the purchase of a suitable statue as a tribute to the memory of 
George Washington Glick, to be placed in Statuary Hall, where the Nation 
has granted to its people the privilege of placing it. The statue was designed 
and executed by Charles H. Niehaus and accepted by Congress as a gift from 
Kansas, with suitable ceremonies, and is now in Statuary Hall. A cut repre- 
senting it precedes this sketch. Sixteen thousand five hundred copies of ? vol- 
ume containing the proceedings in Congress, and a plate of the statue, were, 
by authority of Congress, printed and distributed. 


He who leaves behind him, when he passes l^eyond the goal from which 
no mortal man has ever returned, a pleasant and abiding memory of his 
existence on this earth, and has bequeathed to his progeny and posterity a 
heritage of right living and right thinking, has accomplished much. His 
memory will be revered long after that of the individual who has done noth- 
ing but accumulate wealth and has made no effort to leave this earthly abiding 
place a better place to live than when he came upon it. Judge Horace Morti- 
mer Jackson, deceased, was a man who lived an upright life, and was accorded 
the universal respect of his fellow men and was a legal practitioner of high 
rank, whose honorable methods of practice and manner of living were such 
as to commend him for most favorable mention in the archives of his adopted 
county of Atchison. 

Judge Horace M. Jackson was born near Albion, Penn., July 11, 1839. a 
son of Lyman Jackson, who was the s<.)n of Michael Jackson, whose father 
was also named Michael, and was a native of Ireland. Michael Jackson, 



the founder of the family in America, came from Ireland and settled near 
Hartford, Conn. He went to the coast to trade and was not thereafter heard 
from and was supposed to have been killed by Indians. He had three sons, 
one of whom, Ebenezer, died in service as a soldier during the French and 
Indian war. Another son went south, and the third was Michael Jackson, 
the direct ancestor of Horace M. Jackson. Michael was born March 28, 1735 
and on June 4. 1755, was married to Susanna Willcocks, who was born April 
19, 1732. Tliey settled in Windham county, Connecticut, later removing to 
Pownal, near Bennington, Vt. Michael Jackson was a soldier in the colonial 
army during the French and Indian war, and was a member of Company Ten, 
First regiment. He was discharged December 12, 1759. He also enlisted 
in the Seventh Company of the Third regiment of volunteers. Army of In- 
dependence, May 5, 1775, and was discharged December 15, 1775. He later 
volunteered for service in Col. Samuel Herrick's regiment of "Alarm Men." 
Lyman, the son of Michael, also, served in the Revolution on the American 
side. He was born February 29, 1755, at Simsbury, Hartford county, Con- 
necticut. He enlisted eight different times in the American army. Lyman 
married Deidama Dunham on January 3, 1782. This couple lived at Albany, 
Otsego and Wyoming, N. Y., at different times. To them were bom thirteen 
children. About 1805. L}-nian Jackson settled in Erie county, Pennsylvania, 
and obtained a dense tract of timber land in the Holland Purchase from which 
he cleared a farm. Seven sons and a son-in-law of this redoubtable patriot 
fought in the War of 1812. 

Lyman Jackson died March 20, 1835. David Bardsley Jackson, a son 
of Lvman, bom May 29, 1797, at Richfield, Otsego county, New York, mar- 
ried Lucy Hendryx, on April 11, 1822, near Albion, Penn. He was the ninth 
child of Lyman Jackson and cleared a farm of forty acres in the Holland 
Purchase on which he resided until the year 1830. He then sold his land, 
loaded his effects in a farm wagon, drove to Pittsburgh, and took passage 
down the Ohio river and thence up the Mississippi to Warsaw, 111., from 
which landing place on December 15, 1839 he drove to Knoxville, 111., and 
bought a farm ten miles west of the village. He returned to Pennsylvania 
in 1 84 1, driving overland with his team 1,060 miles each way accom- 
panied bv his wife and two youngest children. In the year 1846 he removed 
to a residence in Knoxville and engaged in the grocery business. In 1854 
he settled on a farm one-half mile west of Cambridge, Henry county, Illinois. 
He lived here until 1876, then sold out and made his home at Gilson, for the 
remainder of his days. This sturdy pioneer died January 18, 1879. His 
children were: Mrs. Elizabeth Ruth Pierce, Zaremba, Obadiah H., Gershom, 


David. Francis Marion, Charles Wilmer De Loss, Horace Mortimer, and 
Mrs. Annie Lucelia Wing. 

Horace Mortimer Jackson was reared on the farm, attended the schools 
of Knoxville, III. clerked in his father's grocery store, sawed wood for forty 
cents per cord, and did the hardest kind of farm work while yet a boy. During 
1 860-6 1, he taught school for $28 per month. On August 7, 1861, he started 
for De Soto, Neb., by way of Hannibal and St. Joseph. On April 12, 1861. he 
boarded a steamer at St. Joseph en route for Omaha. Arriving there he joined 
his brother Zaremba on his farm in Nebraska. He worked here for some 
time and assisted his brother in tilling the farm with oxen in the most primi- 
tive way. He saved his money and in 1862 returned to Cambridge, 111., 
taught school during the winter and read law at night. He followed farming, 
served as deputy sheriff of the county and finally located at Versailles. Mo., 
in the practice of law. He was 'a member of the board of education whicl- 
gave the first public schog] to the town of Versailles. He married Lavanchia 
isabelle Valentine, December 12, 1865. She was the eldest daughter of 
John O. Valentine. For a time the newly wedded couple were in very poor 

Tlieir furniture was of crude workmanship, made from store boxes. It 
was here that the future judge made the friendship of Anderson ^^^ Anthony, 
a good lawyer whom he esteemed highly, who became his first law partner. 
He made a journey to Wichita, Kan., in August, 1870, but located at Marys- 
ville, Mo., in September of the same year. He became a partner of D. L. 
Palmer, who later went to Jewell City, Kan. He then formed a partnership 
with Judge Thomas J. Johnston, and sen-ed as prosecuting attorney of the 
county. In December of 1878 he started for Beloit, Kan., with the intention 
of locating in that city, but stopped at Atchison where he met W. S. Green- 
leaf and Gen. W. ^^'. Guthrie. He remained in their law offices during the 
ensuing winter. General Guthrie at that time was a member of the State 
senate. He fonned a partnership with Mr. Greenlea on March 17, 1879, 
which continued until Mr. Greenlea's death in September, 1880. His wife 
died March 26, 1883, and he later, on February 11, 1886, married Matilda 
(Adams) Rook, who had one daughter by a former marriage, Effie, now the 
wife of C. A. Chandler, of Atchison . Matilda Adams Rook was a daughter 
of Peter and Martha Adams, of England, and sister of J. P. Adams, of Atchi- 
son. Horace M. Jackson was appointed judge of the district court on March 
I, 1887. and continued as judge until his successor was elected. He and his 
son, William A., conducted the law business and served as the local attorneys 
for the Santa Fe and the Burlington railroads until his death, which occurred 


December ii, 1910. Judge Jackson left two sons, William Anthony and 
Zaremba Edward. He was a member of the Masonic fraternity, the Elks, 
Modern Woodmen and the Ancient Order of United Workmen. He be- 
queathed to his children and posterity a heritage of an honorable, upright life 
without stain or blemish and will long be remembered as one of the honored 
citizens of Atchison. 


The measure of a living citizen is iiis genuine worth to his community. 
If he unselfishly strives to make his home city a better place in which to live, 
and does something by which he will long be remembered, as of lasting good, 
he has accomplished a task well worth while. While every town and city can 
boast of such individuals who are striving to do things in behalf of the public 
welfare, there are not a great number who can act without any ulterior motive 
and without desire to bring pecuniary reward to themselves. Of the class 
of better citizens mentioned as doing things for the betterment of the con- 
dition of the citizenry, Z. E. Jackson, attorney of Atchison, occupies a promi- 
nent place in the city. Gifted as an attorney, upright in all of his dealings 
with his fellow men, interested to a high degree in the welfare of his fellow- 
citizens, he has striven imselfishly to do good. Jackson Park, named after 
this gentleman, represents the culmination of one of his dreams and years 
of endeavor to create a breathing place of woodland beauty and a public 
playground of which the city may well be proud. 

Z. E. Jackson was born in Maryville, Mo., September 23, 1872, and 
is a son of Judge Horace Mortimer Jackson, late of Atchison, and a review 
of whom appears in this work. He came to Atchison with his parents when 
six years of age. He received his primary education in the public schools of 
Atchison and afterward studied for two years in Midland College. He then 
matriculated in the Universit)- of Illinois, with the intention of preparing 
himself to become an electrical engineer. After studying for two years in 
the Illinois university, he abandoned his original intention and returning to 
Atchison, entered his father's law office in 1893. He studied stenography 
without a regular instructor and prepared himself to take dictation, filling 
the post of stenographer in his father's office while reading law. He studied 
law under his gifted father's tutelage and was admitted to the bar in 1899. 
being later admitted to practice in the higher State and federal courts. At 
first he practiced alone and was then made a member of the law finn of 


Jackson & Jackson. This firm was at first composed of Judge Horace M. 
Jackson, and his son, Wilham A., and when WiUiam A., was elected 
to the position of judge of the district court, it was cc^mposed 
of Horace M. and his son, Z. E. Jackson. Mr. Jackson is local attorney 
for the Home Building and Loan Association, and a director of the same con- 
cern. He is the local attorney for the Santa Fe Railroad System and the 
Burlington Railroad Company. He is also the legal adviser for several of 
Atchison's corporations. Mr. Jackson has the reputation of being one of 
the ablest and cleanest practitioners of the Atchison county bar who has 
followed in the footsteps of Iiis illustrious father in never refusing counsel 
or advice to a public official, religious denomination or to a charitable organ- 
ization, whether or not any fee was forthcoming — in fact, his office has al- 
ways been ready to give advice to applicants of the character of the foregoing 
without charge or recompense of any kind. Mr. Jackson has never turned 
away a client who had a meritorious cause, because of lack of funds, and in 
this respect resembles his father in his manner of conducting his legal practice. 
While Mr. Jackson is not a member of any particular religious denomination, 
he has always been a liberal contributor to all movements winch ha\e had 
for their intent the betterment of the community. He is owner of Atchison 
real estate and farm lands in Jackson county, Kansas, to which he gives his 
personal attention. 

Mr. Jackson's career as a public official began in 1901, when he was 
elected police judge of the city and again elected in 1903, after which he 
declined to again become a candidate for the office. His career as police 
judge was marked by uniform fairness and impartiality, tempered with kind- 
ness in dealing with the city's minor malefactors who were brought before 
him for judgment in his official capacity. From 1905 to 1909 he was assist- 
ant city attorney, and in 1912 was elected to the office of city attorney to 
fill the unexpired term of Daniel S. Hooper, deceased. He served out the 
unexpired term and declined to become a candidate in 1913, because of the 
growing demands of his large law practice. While sei-ving as city attor- 
ney many important problems came up before the city for solution, such as 
the telephone merger, and the renewal of the city's contract with the Atchison 
Light and Power Company. His wise advice and counsel steered the city 
government safely over the shoals, incidental to the settlement of these cjues- 
tions. Mr. Jackson found the city finances in bad shape, as related to the 
renewal of the lighting contract, a condition of affairs brought about b)- his 
predecessor's long illness preventing him from attending to business, and he 
immediately set to work to unravel the tangle and brought order out of 


chaos to the advantage of the city. Another matter to which lie gave con- 
siderable attention while city attorney was the intercepting sewer problem 
which he handled satisfactorily. 

]\Ir. Jackson is a prononnced Republican in his political views, having 
become a convert to Republican principles when he became of age. a decision- 
which he was influenced to make by the panic of 1893. He is affiliated with 
the Knights of Pythias. 

He was united in marriage with Miss Maud K. Smith, April 30, 1903. 
Mrs. Jackson was born in Burlington, Iowa, a daughter of Lewis T. and 
Theresa June fChadwick) Smith, the former a native of Pennsylvania, and 
the latter a native of Canada. Lewis T. Smith was born in 1846 in West 
Lebanon, Pa., and is one of the old-time railroad men of the early days. 

Mr. Jackson's creed of living is best expressed in his own- words, "I be- 
lieve that ever\' man should do something for the community in which he lives, 
besides getting a living out of it." It was the practice of his creed which led 
to the beautiful park in the southeast part of the city being named in his 
honor, over his personal objections. The Atchison Globe says of his connec- 
tion with the building and equipping of the park in the issue of August 18, 
1913, in part, after quoting Mr. Jackson's creed, as above given: 

"That explains the principal reason why he (Z. E. Jackson) has taken 
such an interest in the park which now bears his name. Another reason is he 
likes to dig in the ground, and investigate things as he finds them in the woods 
and wild places. He is also handy at improving on Nature here and there 
without spoiling the general effect. 

"Seven or eight years ago. after spending many of his boyhood and young 
manhood days in Jackson Park, he saw the possibilities of it for a beautiful 
playground for young and old. He invited several of his South Atchison 
neighbors to meet in his law office one night and a park improvement asso- 
ciation was formed. In order to start a fund for improvements in the park 
each member present put up five dollars. Other citizens were invited to con- 
tribute and thus a small fund was raised. 

"That proved to be the redemption of City Park, a tract of fifty-six acres 
of woodland which cost the city $7,500 about thirty years ago. 

"With the few hundred dollars raised by private subscription it was shown 
what might be accomplished if the necessary funds were forthcoming. From 
the sale of a park bond, issued when the city was trying to put the coal mine 
on its feet, the committee secured $500 which was used in replacing the dam 
which makes the lake and other improvements. 


"If effective ser\-ice is to be rewarded, then the city council made no 
mistake when it acted on the petition presented to it, asking that the name of 
City Park be changed to Jackson Park in lionor of Z. E. Jackson, a young 
man who decided that tlie making' of a park was the debt he owed the commu- 
nity where he makes his Hving." 

The action referred to in the foregoing was taken August i, 1913, when 
the official name of Jackson Park was given to the tract in honor of Mr. Jack- 
son. Besides his work of superintending the park and bringing about its re- 
demption with the assistance of other public spirited men, Mr. Jackson and 
others secured a ten-acre tract of land lying between the original fifty-six 
acres and the Missouri river, which has been added to and is now a part of 
the park. 


Thomas Frable, retired farmer, of Benton township, is one of the oldest 
living pioneer citizens of Atchison county, both in age and number of years 
of residence in the county. He was one of the old-time freighters who con- 
ducted his own freighting outfit across the plains in the days of the Civil war, 
and before the advent of the transcontinental railroads. Mr. h'rable was 
born in March, 1832, and has spent fifty-six of his four score and four years 
of life in .\tchison county and Kansas. He was born on a farm in Pennsyl- 
vania, a son of Thomas Frable, who died when the subject was three years 
of age, leaving his widow in such poor circumstances that she was unable to 
rear her children in comfort. Thomas was given a home by a man named 
Queen, who owned a large farm, and he lived with Queen until attaining his 
majority. Queen owned a farm of 300 acres, and Thomas was started to 
work when still a small boy, learning to guide a plow across the fields when 
he was but eleven years of age. When he became of age and was free to do 
as he liked, the germ of adventure and ambition seized him and he decided 
to try his fortunes in the great West. In line with this resolve, he crossed 
the country to Kansas in 1859, in company witli another young fellow named 
Reuben Ferguson, with whom he finally bought a tract of land which they 
farmed in common for a time, and then made a division. Mr. Frable still 
owns eighty acres of the original tract which he and Ferguson purchased. 
Mr. Frable engaged in the freighting business and made considerable money 
in the old days. He became the owner of two teams which he drove with 
the great trains which were constantly leaving Atchison in the early sixties, 


en route to the far Wtest, and transported blasting powder to Denver and 
mining points in Colorado for the use of the gold and silver miners. He also 
carried corn for the United States Government. During the Civil vi^ar Mr. 
Frable was enrolled as a member of the Kansas State militia, and served at 
the battle of Westport in the expedition against the rebel. General Price. 
After the war he settled down to farming in Benton township, and has pros- 
pered exceedingly, he and his son, Harry, now owning over 560 acres 
of fine land. The Frable home is one of the most imposing and best built 
farm residences in the county, and Harry Frable recently erected a large barn 
in which the live stock of this extensive farm is housed. Mr. Frable and 
Harry have been life-long Republicans. 

Thomas Frable was married in 1862 to Rebecca Graham, a daughter of 
Richard Graham, who came from Pennsylvania with his family to Atchison 
county in the early days, and was one of the well known pioneers of this 
county. Mrs. Frable was born October 5, 1835, and died in November, 1908. 
Five children were born to Mr. and Mrs. Thomas Frable, namely : Clara, de- 
ceased ; ]\Iargaret, dying in infancy; two died in infancy: and Harry 
was lx)rn January 22, 1865. 


The reviewer, in attempting to write a comprehensive and truthful 
biography of an individual, must take into consideration the related facts as 
to birth and subsequent career, the success attained, the underlying principles 
which have combined to assist him in achieving his desires and ambitions, and 
to lav particular stress upon the special talent which has been developed in 
the life of the subject under review. In reviewing the life career of James 
W. Orr, a leading member of the Atchison county bar, the fact is determined 
that he is truly an able and distinguished lawyer, whose reputation for suc- 
cess at the bar, for having a profound knowledge of the law, and his ability 
to successfully practice in the courts of the land, arrayed against the brightest 
minds of the legal profession of the country, is recognized, not only by the 
people of the State of Kansas and his profession generally, but by the United 
States Government, in whose employ he now is as special assistant to the 
attorney general of the United States. 

James W. Orr was born September 14, 1855, in the town of Reading, 
Hillsdale county, Michigan. In his boyhood days, and during the struggle 

i(/i i r yjR 


to educate himself for the practice of his chosen profession, he knew what 
adversity meant and has the satisfaction of knowing that his education was 
obtained through his own unaided efforts. He is a son of James and Mary 
Elizabeth (Underbill) Orr, both of whom were natives of New York City. 
His father was of Scotch-Irish descent, his forebears emigrating from Scot- 
land to the north of Ireland in the days of old to escape religious persecution. 
His paternal grandfather left Ireland in an early day and made his home in 
New York. The Underbill family is of English origin and a very old one 
in America, several generations of whom have been born and reai'ed in this 
country. His maternal grandfather was Daniel Underbill, a g-oldsmitb in 
New York City. James Orr, the father, was a merchant in New York till about 
1848, when he left his native city and engaged in merchandising in Rome, 
Syracuse and Utica, N. Y., (three stores), following which he engaged in 
wholesale business in Toledo, Ohio. While a resident of Toledo he became 
identified with some of the enterprises of that day and was a stockholder, 
director and one of the builders of the Erie & Dunkirk railroad. In 1861 
he removed to Coldwater, Mich., and conducted a merchandise lousiness there 
until 1868, when, in broken health, he settled in Niles, Mich., where he died. 
When James W. Orr was fourteen years of age he began earning his own 
living and educating himself. He and his brother, Louis C; Orr, the present 
postmaster of Atchison, worked together for several years, sharing their work 
v/ith each other and pooling their earnings. The boys were fortunate in hav- 
ing a wise and ambitious mother who was well educated and who taught 
them at home, thus giving them the education they were financiallv unable 
to obtain at school. At the age of seventeen years while employed in a drug 
store he was reading law at nights and at odd times when his work was not 
pressing. By persistent endeavor he managed to secure two years of study 
at Michigan University, at Ann Arbor. He then took his examination for 
admission to t]:e bar in open court, and was admitted to practice wlnen but 
hventy }'ears of ag'e. His first employment in his new profession was with 
the INlcCormick Harvester Company, settling claims, etc., in behalf of that 
company. He remained in this position until 1880, and in January, 1881, 
came to Atchison where he has since continuously resided. It was necessary 
for him to begin the upward climb of the ladder to fame and success without 
assistance from any individual or friend. How well Mr. Orr has succeeded 
during the past thirty-four years is attested by his present high position in the 
ranks of the legal profession and the competence he has accumulated. He 
was first employed in Atchison by the New England Loan & Trust Com- 
pany as attorney to examine abstracts of titles, etc., at a salary of forty 



dollars per month. It was not long until he was receiving a salary of $150 
per month and a share of the profits in the employ of the same concern. 
WTien the concern moved to Kansas City and became known as the Equitable 
Loan & Trust Company, Mr. Orr remained in Atchison. In 1883 he was 
married to Miss Jennie Click, the only daughter of Governor George W. 
Click, of Atchison. He took up the practice of law, purchasing the interest 
of Judge W. D. \Vebb in the fimi of Webb & Martin, and entered into part- 
nership with A. F. Martin, which partnership existed from 1882 until April, 
1887. During the five years he had been in Atchison he had been extending 
his acquaintance over the county, and in November, 1866, was a successful 
candidate for county attorney on the Democratic ticket, being elected over 
W. D. Gilbert by a substantial majority, despite the fact that the county 
was then normally Republican by over 800 majority. In April. 1887, he 
formed a law partnership with B. P. ^^'aggener and Judge David IMartin. the 

firm having previously been known as Everest & Waggoner, Judge Martin 
resigning the position of judge of the Atchison district court to join the firm, 
which was known as Waggener, Martin & Orr. In the year 1895 Judge Mar- 
tin retired from the firm, and Judge A. H. Horton, then chief justice of the 
supreme court of Kansas, resigned his office of chief justice, a position he had 
held continuously for nineteen years, to become a member of the firm. Judge 
David Martin was appointed to the vacancy so made on the supreme bench. 
Judge Horton remained a member of the firm until his death. wl:en ex-Chief 
Justice Frank Doster became a member of the firm known as \\'aggener, 
Doster & Orr. During Mr. Orr's association witli B. P. \\'aggener in the 


practice of law they had charge of the legal business for the Gould svstem of 
railroads in Kansas and Nebraska : the Western Union Telegraph Company ; 
express companies, and the Pullman Palace Car Company. They were 
associated in partnership with three ex-chief justices of the supreme court of 
Kansas during this period. In June, 1910, Mr. Orr resigned his position 
as attorney for the Missouri Pacific Railway Company, and his' connection 
with B. P. Waggener, which had then continued for twenty-three years, was 
also terminated. The position of special assistant to the attorney-general 
of the United States was proffered him by Attorney-General McReynolds in 
October, 19 13, while Mr. Orr was engaged in the trial of a case in St Louis. 
He accepted and was given charge of the suit of the Government against the 
Southern Pacific Company and others, including the Central Pacific Railway, 
to dissolve the relations between those companies. Mr. Orr conducts his cases 
for the Government in addition to his private practice. His rise has been 
steady and consistent during the years he has been practicing his profession 
in Atchison, and it is true that the youth who began his career in the city of 
Atchison for the modest salary of forty dollars per month now enjoys a lucra- 
tive private law practice, in addition to his income from the Government and 
not supplemented by corporation salaries. Mr. Orr has accumulated a com- 
fortable fortune during the years of his practice and has what is considered 
the most beautiful home in Atchison. In his home he has his private library 
of several hundred volumes, including the standard works of literature. His 
law library lines the walls of his down-town offices and exceeds 2,000 vol- 
umes in number. 

Mr. and Mrs. Orr had but one child, a son, George Click Orr. who was 
drowned while bathing in the Pacific ocean, near San Diego, Cal., on July 
21, 1909, at the age of twenty-five years. The loss of this talented young 
man saddened the lives of his parents for years. At the age when most 
young men are just beginning to gain a higher education, George Click Orr 
could read, write and speak six different languages. For seventeen years of 
his life he was a student, graduated at the University of Kansas, and had 
been admitted to the bar, showing great promise in his chosen profession and 
being frequently entrusted with important legal matters. 

'Mr. Orr has received all the Masonic degrees except the thirty-third, 
and is a member of several fraternal societies. He attends and contributes to 
the support of the Christian Science Church, of which Mrs. Orr is a member. 

In politics and as a public official and law-maker, Mr. Orr has a record 
of which any man may well be proud. He became a member of the Kansas 
Democratic State central committee in 1884 and remained such continuously 


until 1908, and in point of service was its oldest member. He has attended, 
as a delegate, six National Democratic conventions, and on three occasions 
was a member of the notification committee appointed to officially notify the 
presidential candidate of his nomination by the convention, including Cleve- 
land in 1892; Parker in 1904, and Woodrow Wilson in 1912. His excep- 
tional career in politics began as early as 1880, when he served as assistant 
secretary of the committee chosen to notify General Hancock at Governor's 
Island, N. Y., of his nomination for the Presidency. Mr. Orr was an original 
Wilson man and one of the committee of five having the floor management 
of the Wilson forces at the Baltimore convention in 1912 which nominated 
Mr. Wilson for the Presidency. From 1901 to 1907 Mr. Orr served three 
terms successively as mayor of the city of Atchison and gave the city one of 
the best administrations in its history. He served two terms in the State 
legislature as representative from the Atchison city district, the sessions of 
191 1 and 1913. During the 191 1 session he was one of the three legislators 
selected by the house to draft and did prepare the present public utilities low, 
under which all railroads and public utilities in this State are now managed 
and controlled; he was the author of the present comprehensive drainage 
laws ; the law requiring the attorney-general to pay into the State treasury all 
fees received by him in the prosecution of State cases; the so-called "Orr 
viaduct law," which requires railroads to construct and maintain at their ex- 
pense all necessar}^ viaducts over or tunnels under their tracks in cities, and 
under which the Fourteenth street viaduct in this city and viaducts in many 
other cities have been built and the maintained by the railroads, also many 
other laws of public interest and importance. In the session of 1913 he was 
chairman of the judiciary committee and was elected majority leader of the 
house. At the close of the legislative session of 1913 Mr. Orr was presented 
with a resolution, unanimously adopted by the members of the house, beauti- 
fully engraved in India ink, artistically framed and containing a reproduction 
of the great seal of Kansas. This resolution thanks Mr. Orr for the assistance 
he had given individual members of the house and for his service to the State, 
both as chairman of the judiciar\- committee and as majority house leader, 
and is signed by every member. It follows : 

"house resolution, no. 31 BY MR. RIDDLE. 

"Resolved. That the members of the house extend to the Hon. James 
W. Orr their sincere thanks for the splendid service he has given to them and 
to the State during the present session. In addition to his work as floor leader 


of the majority party, and his work as chairman of the judiciary committee, 
he has been tireless, patient, and industrious in giving to individual members 
the benefit of his learning and ability by helping them in their work. His help 
has been extended alike to members of all political parties, and has been 
especially beneficial to members who have had little experience in legislative 
work. He has the confidence, esteem and love of all the members. 

"Done in the city of Topeka, this eighth day of March, 1913." 


^^'hen the late A. B. Symns passed beyond mortal ken on April 9, 1905, 
Atchison suffered a loss from its business circles which could never be re- 
placed. He left behind him a monument in tlie A. B. Symns Grocer Company, 
one of the largest of the wholesale establishments of the city and State, which 
was the product of his firain and ability. He was one of the noted pioneer 
figures of a decade which produced great and strong men. From a modest 
beginning he rose to become a national character in the business world of the 
great West and realized his amljition (hn-ing a long and useful life. He not 
only succeeded in accumulating a comfortable fortune but left a reputation 
for integrity and upright citizenship which has never been surpassed by any 
of his compeers of the building age in Atchison and Kansas. From boyhood 
to the time he had passed the age of three score years and ten, Mr. Symns 
was an indefatigable worker and never relaxed except for much needed 
recreation and rest, occasionally. Early in his career he had great faith in 
the future of Atchison and that faith was fully justified by his own success 
in the jobbing field. 

A. B. Symns was born in Tvlonroe cijunty, \\'est Virginia, March 27, 1831, 
and was a son of John and Elizabeth ( Peters) Symns, natives of old Virginia, 
of Scotch-Irish descent. 

As a boy he worked on his father's farm, attending school three months 
each winter. At the age of eighteen he clerked in a store at Petertown and 
later on attended Lewisburg Seminary one year. He also worked at White 
Sulphur Springs before coming west in 1853. He listened to the call of the 
great unpeopled western country for young and ambitious men to develop 
her dormant resources, and in 1853 crossed the country to St. Joseph, Mo., 
where he clerked in a store for two years and then went to St. Louis. After 
clerking in St. Louis for one vear he became an eighth owner of the steam- 


boat "Hesperian" and served as clerk aboard the steamer. This boat made 
its first trip on the Missouri trade in 1856 and it was while passing up and 
down the Missouri river that he was attracted to the then flourishing town of 
Doniphan. It far overshadowed Atchison at that time and lie determined 
to locate in Doniphan. During the time he was connected with the steamboat 
service he had many interesting experiences. He opened a grocen- store in 
1858, but during the same year the land office was removed to Atchison and 
Doniphan lost ground, but the Symns store grew in size and importance and 
was the nucleus around which his great business was subsequently builded. 
He removed the store to Atchison in 1872, and began wholesaling in a small 
way in connection with his retail business. In 1877 he was doing business in 
the comer store room at Sixth and Commercial streets, on the southeast corner. 
While located in this building he closed out his retail business and engaged in 
jobbing exclusively. With the impetus given by his splendid business mind 
and his remarkable energy the business grew rapidly, and he soon found 
himself at the head of one of the largest wholesale grocery houses in the 
western' country. Thirty men are employed as traveling' salesmen by the 
Symns Grocer Company alone, and the Symns Utah Grocer Company, which 
he established, has its own force. Customers of- Mr. Symns over Kansas, 
Nebraska, Oklahoma, IMissouri, Texas, Colorado and Utah have always agreed 
that A., B. Symns was the fairest man with whom they ever did business. He 
had faith in Atchison as a great jobbing center, and the success of his business 
fully justified that belief. The immense jobbing house of the Symns Grocer 
Company on Main street of Atchison was built from plans prepared by Mr. 
Symns himself and is one of the most complete establishments of the kind to 
be found anywhere. So extensive did the business become, however, that it 
was necessan,' to erect an addition in 1903. The capitalization of the Symns 
Grocer Company at the time of the demise of Mr. Symns was $300,000 and 
that of the Utah concern at Salt Lake City was $80,000. Mr. Symns was 
president of both companies and had a controlling interest in each. He left 
an estate valued at over $300,000. 

One of the interesting episodes of Mr. Symns' mercantile career was the 
looting of his Doniphan store by Cleveland's band of outlaws, who made 
Atchison their headquarters in the winter of 1861-62. At the time Mr. 
Symns was absent in St. Joseph, but his brothers, Sam and William Symns, 
were in charge when it was surrounded one evening by Cleveland and his 
gang. They forced William Symns to open the safe and took what money 
there was on hand in addition to clothing, saddles, etc. \M:ile the robbery was 


in progress, Mrs. Symns ran out to arouse the neighbors, but no help was 
forthcoming because of tlie fact tliat ever)-body was afraid of Cleveland and 
his gang', and the thieves got away with their Ijooty unmolested. 

A. B. Symns was married in 1858, returning to Old Virginia for his 
bride. Miss Elizabeth Tiffany, who was his boyhood sweetheart. Mrs. Symns 
was a member of an excellent Virginia family and bore him the following 
children: Mrs. A. S. Rowan, who died December 31, 1903; Miss Effie 
Symns, of Atchison; Charles, Atchison, and Guy. The mother of these chil- 
dren departed this life September 12, 1900, at the age of sixty-four 3ears, hav- 
ing been born in 1836. Six children were born and died in infancy at Doni- 
phan: John, Joseph, Lee, Hugh, Edna and Louis. Mr. Symns died Aiiril 
9, 1905, at Hot Springs, Ark. He was sincerely mourned and Atchison busi- 
ness circles suffered a loss which could hardly be estimated. 

While Mr. and Mrs. Symns were on their wedding trip on the steamer 
"Carrier" en route up the Missouri river from St. Louis to Doniphan, the 
boat sank near Hermann, Mo. They easily escaped drowning because the 
"Carrier" sank slowh', but they lost their newly purchased household goods 
and a large auKJunt of supplies with which Mr. Symns intended to stock the 
Doniphan store. Mrs. Symns continued to Doniphan on another boat, while 
Mr. Symns returned to St. Louis to lay in another stock of household goods 
and provisions for his store. 

The Symns family came of old Scotch Presbyterian stock. Although a 
southerner by birth, he was a Union man in Kansas. He was an independent 
Democrat in politics. 

Mr. Symns was in active pursuits even after attaining the age of three 
score years and ten, and was always found early at his desk. He was not 
only the active head of the business but closely watched the details. He was 
always hurrying and was ever busy, and it was his custom to walk daily to 
the postoffice for his mail so as to have the benefit of the exercise. Having 
always been a man of correct habits he belied his years and his demise came 
unexpectedly at Hot Springs. He was accidentally killed by a locomotive on 
a railroad crossing at Hot Springs, where it had been his custom to go for 
his health during the latter ten years of his life. He was fond of his family 
and dearly loved his home life. He was quiet, unassuming, and was one of 
the kindest and gentlest of men, probably no man being more universally 
admired and beloved in Atchison during his day. His life story furnishes a 
decided inspiration for any one who may read of his success in Atchison. 



It is not difficult to classify Balie P. Waggener so as to determine his 
position in the civic body of Atchison, but it is not easy to write a review com- 
prehensive enough to give a proper estimate of this distinguished citizen who 
has been honored in his home city and in the State of Kansas. When one 
thinks of Atchison it is only natural to refer to the city as the home of Balie 
Waggener, wiio is indisputably grouped among tlie prominent and widely 
known figures who have shed fame and luster upon their home city. A lead- 
ing attorney, statesman, progressive citizen, builder, farmer and stncknvui, 
friend of all children, capitalist, and public benefactor are some of the terms 
which might be applied to him without fear of contradiction from the mass 
of the people who know him best. 

He was born in Platte county, Missouri, July 18, 1847, ^ son of Peyton 
R. and Sophronia Briseis (Willis) Waggener, who were American born and 
descended from old American families. The great-grandfather of Mr. \\'ag- 
gener served in the Continental army as a lieutenant-colonel during the Ameri- 
can war of independence, and his grandfather was a major in the United 
States army during the War of 181 2. Balie Waggener attended the public 
schools until he attained the age of fourteen years and then obtained a situa- 
tion as toll-gate keeper on the old Platte City & Western turnpike. He was 
ambitious to become a lawyer and during the interims of his duties in attend- 
ing the toll-gate, and after his day's work was done, he read his law books. 
The next step in his preparation to become a member of the legal profession 
was to enter the law office of Otis & Click, in Atchison. This was in 1866, 
and so assiduously did the young man apply himself to his studies that he was 
admitted to the bar June 10, 1867. Three years later he formed a partnership 
with Albert H. Norton, then United States district attorney, under the firm 
name of Horton & Waggener, which lasted until the election of Judge Horton 
to the office of chief justice of the Kansas supreme court in 1876. In 1887 
Mr. Waggener formed a partnership under the finn name of Waggener, Mar- 
tin & Orr, which continued until April 30, 1895, when the firm was dissolved 
and the firm became Waggener, Horton & Orr. Chief Justice Horton having 
resigned his position and again entered the firm. David Martin, Mr. Wag- 
gener's former partner, became chief justice of the supreme court of Kansas 
to succeed Chief Justice Horton. In 1902 Judge Horton died, and later his 
place in the firm was taken bv Ex-Chief Justice Frank Doster. under the firm 
name of Waggener, Doster & Orr. It will thus be seen that Mr. Waggener 
has been associated in the practice of law with three chief justices of the 



supreme court of Kansas. In 1913 Mr. Orr withdrew from the firm to become 
special assistant to the attorney-general of the United States, and the firm is 
now known as W'aggener, Chalhss & Crane, being composed of W. P. \\ ag- 
gener, James Chalhss and Albert Crane. Mr. Waggener now devotes his 
time and legal talents almost exclusively to his duties as general solicitor for 
the Missouri Pacific railway. 

The ability of a lawyer having the calibre of Mr. Waggener was bound 
to attract attention, and on January 4, 1876, he was appointed general attor- 
ney of the Missouri Pacific railway for the State of Kansas, and on May i, 
1910, he was made general solicitor for that company for the States of Kan- 
sas, Nebraska, and Colorado, his son, W. P. Waggener. succeeding him as 
general attorney for Kansas. During the forty-four years Mr. Waggener has 
been engaged in the practice of law he has won an enviable position at the 
bar through his own personal efforts. He has never ceased to be a student 
of all subjects pertaining to that most jealous of professions, and it is worthy 
of note that he is the possessor of one of the most complete law libraries in 
the United States, containing upward of 10,000 volumes on every conceivable 
legal subject. He keeps his library at his residence, which is one of the hand- 
somest and best appointed in the city of Atchison, and he prepares most of his 
cases in the study of his home where privacy is possible. 

Naturally, a man of Mr. Waggener's vigor and broad-mindedness would 
engage in enterprises outside of the practice of his profession, and he has done 
so in such a manner as to profit himself and the community. In 1892 he was 
elected president of the Exchange National Bank of Atchison, which position 
he has since held. He perfected and put into operation the Atchison Railway, 
Light and Power Company in the city, and is the owner of the famous "Green 
View Stock Farm," comprising 500 acres, beautifully located a short distance 
west of Atchison, and which is one of the best equipped and most modern 
farms in Kansas. Through experimentation and adapting modern methods 
of agriculture to the cultivation of his land and the breeding of fine live 
stock, Mr. Waggener has become a recognized authority on agriculture and 
animal husbandry. The annual sales of fine live stock which are pro- 
duced on his farm have become an annual event in this section of Kansas and 
the West, and are largely attended by buyers from all parts of the country. 

In addition to his professional and business interests, Mr. Waggener has 
manifested a public spirit in matters pertaining to the political conditions of 
his city and State. Firmly grounded in Democratic principles, he has become 
one of the foremost leaders of his party and occupies a high place in its coun- 
cils. In 1869 he was elected to the Atchison city council when he had barely 



attained his majority. In the year 1872 he was the nominee of his party 
for the office of attorney-general of the State of Kansas, and in 1873 was 
made city attorney. From 1889 to 1891 and again in 1895-97 he was mayor 
of the city. In 1902 he was elected a member of the lower branch of the 
State legislature, which had a large Republican majority, and during the term 
held the important position of chairman of the judiciary committee. It is 
generally conceded that he influenced much of the legislation at that session, 
and his record so commended him to his constituents that in 1904 he was 
elected to the State senate from a strong Republican district, carrying the 
district by a majority of 1,500 votes, although at the same election Theodore 
Roosevelt, the Republican candidate for President, carried the same district 
by over 3,600, an indisputable testimonial to Mr. Waggener's personal pop- 
ularity and his ability. Mr. Waggener served in the senate of the Kansas 
State legislature in the sessions of 1905 and 1907, and was reelected by a hand- 
some majority of over 2,000 in November of 1912, He is now holding the 
position of State senator from this district. 

Mr. Waggener is a member of many secret orders, and is prominent in 
Masonic circles, being a Knights Templar and a Thirty-second degree mem- 
ber of the Scottish Rite, and a member of the Mystic Shrine. 

On May 27, 1869, Mr. Waggener married Miss Emma L., daughter 
of William W. Hetherington, one of Atchison's prominent citizens, now de- 
ceased, a review of whose life and career is given elsewhere in this volume. 
Two children were bom to this union : William Peyton Waggener, a "chip 
off the old block," and present general attorney of the IMissouri Pacific rail- 
way for the State of Kansas, and president of the Exchange State Bank of 
Atchison; Mabel L., wife of R. K. Smith, vice-president and general man- 
ager of the Mississippi Central railway. 

Perhaps the trait of character that most endears Mr. Waggener to the 
people of Atchison county is that liberality which led him in 1897 to inaug- 
urate the system of giving an annual picnic to the children. Every year, at 
his own personal expense, he furnishes free transportation, free entertainment, 
and free refreshments to all the children of Atchison county who can attend 
his picnic, and the larger the crowd the greater is his delight. These picnics 
are not given for the purpose of increasing his popularity or for any self- 
aggrandizement whatever, but solely that he may steal at least one day from 
his business cares and derive a wholesome recreation in contributing to the 
amusement of the young people. This innovation has occasioned at various 
times favorable and commendatory comment in the press of the State, and a 
record of these picnics has been placed in the annals of the Kansas State His- 


torical Society. Tlie report iif the secretary of the historical society for the 
year 1911 has considerahle to say concerning the visit of President Taft to 
Kansas in that year and his attendance upon Balie Peyton Waggener's picnic 
to the children of the neighborhood. The President left Topeka on September 
■27, about one hour after laying the cornerstone of the Memorial Hall build- 
ing and reached Atchison in time for Mr. Waggener's twelfth annual picnic. 
The President spoke words of high praise of Mr. Waggener and presented 
him with a silver loving cup in behalf of the people of Atchison count}-. Mr. 
Taft's words in making the presentation were : "'A token is this. Mr. Wag- 
gener, that carries real sincerity of friendship. I present this beautiful vase 
of silver in the name of the people here assembled as a sign of love and esteem. 
I congratulate you on the eminence you have attained." Mr. Waggener re- 
sponded : "This is a distinction unmerited. I have no words to express my 
grateful acknowledgment." Balie Waggener"s picnic has become a feature 
of Kansas history of a most pleasant nature. He is a life member of the State 
Historical Society, and has always been an ardent and most liberal friend of 
the society. 

When Mr. \A'aggener was forced by illness to go to Rochester, Minn., 
for the purpose of having a surgical operation performed, his safe return to 
his home was made the occasion of a tiine of great rejoicing by the children 
of the city, and a reception was given him, such as has never been given an 
Atchison citizen before nor since, and which occasioned State-wide coinment 
on the part of the press as a fitting testimonial of tiie great love and esteem 
in which he was held by the children and people of his home city. During 
the time he was at Rochester undergoing a surgical operation and his subse- 
quent recovery, the children of the city had been praying for his restoration 
to health and his safe return to their midst. It was their great friend who 
was ill, and, when the word came that he would arrive home on a certain 
evening the children prepared to receive him in an appropriate manner. All 
the children of Atchison turned out to give him welcome, and hundreds 
formed in line, through which Mr. Waggener passed on his way to his home. 
He and his automobile were pelted with flowers and tears filled his 
eyes, and he was unable to express his heart-felt appreciation of the reception 
which his people had given him. It has been described as the most beautiful 
and touching thing that has ever happened in the life of Mr. Waggener. To 
quote briefly from the Kansas City Journal, which described the incident : 
"Few men in this world were so fortunate as to enjoy such an ovation. ]\Ien 
who have done important things have been received by town bands and by 
citizens covered with fluttering badges. Men have come back to their home 


people to be received in the opera house, and cheers have echoed in their re- 
ceptive ears. But it must be understood that no such home-coming as Mr. 
Waggener's could come to an ordinary man. It vi^as the tribute of sincere 
devotion and genuine friendship. It couldn't be bought with money or earned 
by material success. These Atchison children didn't care a rap for Waggener, 
the railroad attorney, nor Waggener, the politician, nor even for Waggener, 
the exemplary citizen. It was Mr. Waggener, the good, kind friend they 
loved, to whom the welcome was given, and it sprung from sheer joy that he 
had recovered his health and was with them once more. And who can say 
that the earth holds a more splendid triumph as the crowning glory of a life 
tlian this? All other laudations and exclamations are tame compared with 
the flushed enthusiasm of hundreds of happy children shouting from their 
hearts : 

'■'Waggener, Waggener sis boom ah! 

Our friend, our friend, rah! rah! rah!' " 


Personal achievement on the part of the individual who accomplishes 
thing-? worth while for himself and in behalf of his fellow men, is always 
worth recording. The inherent qualities possessed by an able man will de- 
velop and become pronounced in decided results if he be given the proper op- 
portunity. Albert E. Mayhew, legislative representative from the Atchison 
county district, and a successful merchant, belongs to that type of men who 
by force of intellect and sheer ability to do things have placed themselves in 
the forefront of affairs and taken their proper places as leaders in their re- 
spective communities. Forty-five years of his life have been spent in Kansas, 
and he can properly be classed as one of the pioneers of the State. Mr. May- 
hew established himself in business in Effingham January i, 1899, and his 
success since his advent into Atchison county has been marked and rapid. 
He began at first with a capital of $3,000 invested in a hardware and imple- 
ment business. With characteristic energy and enterprise he developed his 
business to the extent that his extensive stock of goods now requires a cap- 
ital of $10,000. In 19 12 he purchased a lot at the corner of the two prin- 
cipal streets of Effingham and erected a handsome two-story brick building 
and a warehouse at the same time. This building measures 84x60 feet, includ- 
ing the wareliouse and two splendid show rooms, filled with high class goods. 


The stock of goods in the Mayhew estabhshment embraces hardware, farm- 
ing implements and wagons, paints, furniture, and he also conducts an under- 
taking establishment. Tliree men are employed to attend to the extensive 
trade of this store, which is the most important institution of its kind in this 
section of the county. 

Albert E. :\Iayliew was born March 17, 1866, at St. Mary's. Ontario, 
Canada, a son of William, born in 1833, died in March, 1906, and ]\lary ( Lan- 
caster), born in 1833, died December 25, 1878, Mayhew, both of whom were 
Ijorn in England and immigrated to Canada when in their youth. William 
Mayhew ran away from home and made his way to Canada where he became 
a farmer and married. William Mayhew and his wife resided in Canada until 
I\Iay, 1870, when thev immigrated to Kansas, settling in Nemaha county. 
They purchased a farm near the town of Centralia, developed it and Mr. May- 
hew made a success of farming and stock raising. He began with a large 
tract of land at first, but soon ascertained that it were better to hive a smaller 
farm, and accordingly reduced his acreage to 160 acres, upon which he pros- 
pered. Mrs. Mayhew, the- mother of Albert E., died on the home place in 
Nemaha county. William, as old age crept upon him, removed to San Diego, 
Cal, where his demise occurred. He is buried in the cemetery of the Cali- 
fornia city. Five sons and a daughter were born to William Mayhew and 
wife, namely : John, a merchant, of Denver, Colo. ; Robert, a retired farmer 
and merchant, living in Topeka, Kan. ; George, a merchant, of Denver, Colo. ; 
Eliza, wife of A. B. Clippinger, Kansas City, Mo.: Albert E., the subject of 
this review, and Leonard, of Los Angeles, Cal. 

Albert E. was reared to young manhood on the home farm in Nemaha 
county, and received his education in the public schools of Centralia, Kan., and 
the Seneca, Kan., high school, completing his education in the normal school 
at Emporia, Kan. He taught school for a number of years in his home 
county, saved his earnings and in 1887 embarked in the hardware and imple- 
ment business at Vermilion, Kan.. He conducted this business with fair suc- 
cess until 1897, and then sold out, coming to Effingham soon afterward and 
engaging in the same line of business in this city. In addition to his exten- 
sive business Mr. Ma)fhew is the owner of two excellent farms in Marshall 
county, Kansas, aggregating 640 acres in all, which has his attention. He 
has a beautiful, modern residence in the south part of Effingham. 

Mr. INLayhew was married in September, 1887, to Anna J- Tinker, of 
\'ermilion. Kan., born in Humboldt county, Kansas, a daughter of Avery 
and Ellen Tinker, natives of New York State, born at Hastings Center, that 
State. Two children have blessed this union of Albert E. and Anna Mav- 


hew: Avery, born in 1889, and died June 2, 1901 ; Carl H., born January, 
1891, and associated with his father in business. Carl M. married Miss Vera 
Snvder, and has one daughter, Lucille, aged two years. 

Mr. Mavhew is a stanch Republican in his political affiliations and has 
taken an active and influential part in the affairs of his party since coming 
to Atchison county. In November. 1914, he was the candidate of his party . 
for the high office of State representative from this district and was elected, 
subsequently serving in the 19 15 session of the Kansas legislature with such 
marked ability as a legislator that his course and activities conferred distinc- 
tion upon himself and his constituents. During this session he was a mem- 
ber of the committees on insurance, education, legislative appointments, mines 
and mining, and judicial apportionments. Having always taken a keen in- 
terest in educational affairs, his position as a member of the committee on 
education gave him an opportunity to support and advocate legislation which 
would enhance the cause of education throughout the State. He succeeded 
in having passed through the house an act requiring the school moneys of the 
State to be loaned to farmers. There was plenty of precedence behind an 
act of this character, and the fairness of its provisions is very e\'ident, al- 
though it was opposed by the banking interests of the State. The act. how- 
ever, failed to take its regular course through the senate, because of the ad- 
journment of the legislative body. It is probable that the act will be finally 
passed at the next session and it is morally certain to have strong support, if 
Mr. Mayhew is again representative from Atchison county. He also intro- 
duced and successfully fathered an act, allowing districts to levy higher taxes 
to provide more amply for bridge building and road improvements, two pro- 
visions, which were of direct benefit to the farming interests of the State, 
inasmuch as the movement for better highways is fast gaining ground in 
Kansas. Mr. Mayhew also assisted in the passing of better automobile laws, 
and took an active part in all the deliberations of the legislative body, special- 
izing, however, in legisation which had for its utlimate object the betterment 
of the school system of the State. He is a member and trustee of the Pres- 
byterian church, of Effingham, and is fraternally associated with the Odd 
Fellows and the Modern Woodmen. It is probable that no citizen is more 
widelv or more favorably known throughout Atchison county than A. E. 
Ma}-hew, and his course as a successful merchant and public official has been 
such as to favorably commend him to the masses of the people, who are al- 
wa\"S found ajipreciative of honesty and square dealing on the part of men 


in [lulilic life, whom they lienor with their political preference. He is well 
wcirthy of the confidence and trnst which have been bestowed upon liini by 
the people. 


Joseph Coupe, late of Benton township, was born December 6, 1852, in 
Utica. X. v.. and was a son of James and Jane ( Latus)' Coupe, both of whom 
were born in England. James emigrated from his native land when a young 
man and located in New "S'ork, where he married and reared a family, cul- 
tivating a farm located one mile from the limits of Utica. He died on his 
farm. Joseph was reared on tlie family farm and attended the Utica public 
schools, receiving an excellent education, after which he took up the study 
of law and was admitted to practice in his home city. He practiced his pro- 
fession in Utica until 1881 and then came west and located at Falls City, Neb., 
where he continued his practice with considerable success until iqo6, when 
he removed with his famih- to his farm, west of Effingham. Eailing health 
induced him to make the change, and it was thought by his physicians that 
the open air life would lie beneficial to him. He died February 10, 1008. 

Judge Coupe was married in 1890 to Miss Anna Mooney, and to this 
union were born six children : Margaret, a graduate of the county high school, 
and a teacher in the Effingham public schools ; James, who is managing the 
home farm with his mother ; Richard, a graduate of the county high school ; 
Anna, likewise a high school graduate; Mary, a junior in the high school; and 
Joseph, a pupil in the Sisters' school at Effingham. The mother of these 
children was born in Atchison, Kan., confirmed and baptized in St. Bene- 
dict's church, and was a daughter of James, born in 1833, and Julia ( Ryan) 
Mooney, born in 1837, both of whom were natives of Ireland. James Mooney 
emigrated from Ireland when a youth, was first a resident of Buffalo, N. Y.. 
and in 1857 moved to Xeliraska, and was later enipliwed at the nursery in 
Atchison, Kan. From Atchison he removed to Rulo, Neb., where he still 
lives. He was married in i860, and the family lived in Atchison during the 
Civil war. James and Julia Mooney were the parents of five children, 
namely: Thomas, deceased in March, 1908; John and James, farmers; Mar- 
garet, at home in Rulo with her parents ; Mrs. Joseph Coupe. 

Previous to locating in Kansas, Mr. Coupe had resided on a farm near 
Falls City, but was induced to remove to Effingham and here purchased a 
farm of 194 acres west of the city in Benton township, this farm consisting 


of i6o acres of excellent tillable land and thirty-four acres of pasture. He 
was prominently identified with civic and political affairs in Falls Citv and 
Richardson county, Nebraska, and had built up a large and lucrative law prac- 
tice. He was a Democrat in politics and was one of the leaders of his party 
in Nebraska, serving four years as county judge and was successful in re- 
election to a third term, but resigned on account of poor health. He was 
popular with the masses of the people and well liked by all who knew him, 
being universally admired for his many excellent qualities of mind and heart. 


The name and accomplishments of the late John Seaton appear promi- 
mently in tlie history of the constructive period of the development of Kansas 
and tlie city of Atchison. Destin}- and natural endowments designed Mr. 
Seaton to become a creator and builder ; inherent ability also made him a 
statesman and leader of men ; design and inducement led him to locate his 
enterprise, which was the work of his own hands and brain, in the city of 
Atchison. In the course of time he was the g'ainer, becoming one of the 
first citizens of Kansas, and Kansas and Atchison were doubly gainers, be- 
cause of him and his great work. What John Seaton wrought, in an indus- 
trial sense, will live long as a monument to his energy and enterprise; the 
record of right doing, honesty, plain living and his work in behalf of his 
fellow-men in the halls of the State legislature will live in the minds and 
hearts of his fellow citizens in the long years to come. 

John Seaton was a builder whose vision of a great industrial enterprise 
in the city of the great bend of the Missouri came true in a material sense, 
inasmuch as Atchison will continue to benefit through the continued whirring 
of the industrial wheels which his genius set going. \\'hile the evidence of 
his handiwork is visible, and the smoke of the factory which he Iiuilt will 
continue to be seen day after day as time goes on, the greatest reminder of 
Mr. Seaton's life on this earth will be the lesson which his manner of living 
and his strict attention to the highest duties of citizenship have left to poster- 
ity. Atchison suffered a sincere loss when his demise occurred and his de- 
parture from the realms of mortal ken created a, void which could never be 
filled, although Mr. Seaton's work continues to exist after him. 

John Seaton was born in Cincinnati, Ohio, June ii, 1834, a son of John 
M., and Elizabeth (Jones) Seaton, the former a native of Virginia and the 
latter having been born in Vermont. John M. Seaton, the father, was a 


soldier in the Mexican War and was killed in battle at the storming of the 
heights of Cerro Gordo, Old Mexico. When John was three weeks old his 
parents removed from Cincinnati to Louisville, Ky., where his boyhood days 
were spent. He was eleven years of age when his father was killed on the 
field of battle. He attended school until he was fifteen years of age, and 
then began learning the trade of a machinist. A few years later finds him 
working as a journeyman machinist in St. Louis, Mo. In 1856 with a cash 
capital of two dollars and fifty cents, John Seaton started a foundry at Alton, 
111. A natural aptitude for mechanics and machinery appliances, combined 
with pluck, energy and perseverance, enabled him to make a success of his 
first undertaking and the enterprise prospered. 

At the outbreak of the Civil war Mr. Seaton offered his services in de- 
fense of the Union, and was commissioned a captain of Company B, Twenty- 
second regiment, Illinois infantry. His first engagement was the battle of 
Belmont under General Grant, and Captain Seaton was in command of the 
skirmish line that opened this engagement. One of the precious possessions 
of his family at this day is the personal letter he received from the famous 
commander, commending him for the efficient manner in which he' per- 
formed the task allotted to his command. He served for one year and then 
resigned his commission and returned to Alton to take charge of his business. 
After the war Mr. Seaton remained in Alton in charge of his foundry until 
1872, when he removed to Atchison with his entire force of fifty employees. 
He was induced to remove westward by the fact that six months previous to 
the time of his removal to Atchison, the city had voted $10,000 in bonds to 
any man who would establish a foundry. He accepted the offer and the 
result was one of the most beneficial industries ever located in Atchison. The 
Seaton foundry gave employment to over 200 men. and he built up an 
industry which today stands without a peer in its line in the West. The 
secret of 'Sir. Seaton"s success lay in the fact that every detail of his business 
received his direct supervision, and he insisted that only first class work be 
turned out by his factories. For over eighteen years this captain of in- 
dustry carried his dinner pail with him to the foundry and worked side by 
side with his men. He continued doing this after he had attained to a position 
of weahh and affluence which enabled him to own a home at the seashore at 
Orient, L. I., and could have retired from active work at any time he chose. 
None but the finest finished products were allowed to leave his establishment, 
and the name of Seaton and the output of his plant are noted over the West 
for the excellence of the finished manufactured materials and for their abso- 
lute reliabilitv. In addition to general architectural work, he filled orders 


for the Santa Fe, Missouri Pacific and Ft. Scott and Gulf railroads, such as 
casting locomotive wheels, smoke stacks, steam cylinders, etc., all known as 
locomotive finished material products. The business of his large establish- 
ment in Atchison was built up until it amounted to over $250,000 annually, 
and the plant covered an area of 700x400 feet. Mr. Seaton was in busi- 
ness continually from 1856 until the time of his demise, January 12, 1912. 

The activities of this noted citizen of Atchison were not confined en- 
tirely to his business, but he took an active and influential part in civic and 
political affairs after his advent in Atchison. His career showed that he 
possessed statesmanship ability of a high order. For a period of eighteen 
years Mr. Seaton was a member of the Kansas State legislature, and so great 
was his influence in the house, and so long and distinguished was his service 
that he became known throughout the State as the "Father of the House." 
His name is associated with many of the important measures enacted into law 
by the State legislature, among them being the binding twine factory law, 
which act is responsible for the establishment of a plant for the manufacture 
of binder twine at the State penitentiary. He probably did more for the suc- 
cess of the "Douglass House," during the legislative trouble of 1893 than any 
other member of the Republican body. As a citizen and a legislator he en- 
joyed the respect and esteem of the people of Kansas without regard to 
political affiliations. He was opposed to the dominance of "trusts and mo- 
nopoly," and it was his firm conviction that the great corporations were devoid 
of feeling of a personal nature. 

Aprd 9. 1857, Mr. Seaton was married to Miss Charlotte E. Tuthill, of 
Alton. Ill, and this marriage was blessed with five children: Mrs. Lillie M. 
Hendrickscm. c^f Atchison: John C, in California: Man-, wife of Or. \\'. H. 
Condit, of Ivansas City: Mrs. Nellie Taber (Seaton) Byram, deceased, and 
George L., married .\mv Cox, of \\'eston, Mo., and resides on South Fi>ui"th 
street, Atchison: John C. Seaton married Gertrude Hickman, of Coffey- 
ville, Kan. and resides in Kansas City and Los Angeles. Cal. : Mrs. Charlotte 
E. (Tuthill) Seaton was boro in Alton, 111., November 10, 1840. a daughter 
of Pardon Taber Tuthill, who was born and reared on Long Island, N. Y., 
and was a scion of one of the oldest American families. The great-great- 
grandfather of Mrs. Seaton, John Tuthill, known as Pilgrim John Tuthill, 
came from England with early settlers to Long Island. The home built by 
Pilgrim John on Long Island in the early j)art of the eighteenth centur\- is 
still standing in a good state of preservatitjn. The ancestral home of the 
Tuthills is located in the village of Orient, Long Island. On the maternal 
side an ancestor of Mrs. Seaton, named Capt. Andrew Englis, commanded a 


company in tlie Revolution and was a great patriot. Pardon Talier Tuvhill 
was a pioneer in Alton, 111. He was a contractor and builder and in his later 
years devoterl his time and talents to horticulture. He was continually experi- 
menting and developed se^•eral new varieties of fruit. He was blessed with 
a scientific mind and became famous as a horticulturist. 

John Seaton was a inember of John A. Martin Post, No. 93, Grand Army 
of the Republic, the Loyal Legion and the Knights of Pythias lodges. Through 
him the Enterprise theater was rebuilt and remodeled in Atchison, and he was 
always found in the forefront of public movements to advance the interests 
of his home city. Socially Mr. Seaton was a genial, approachable, unassum- 
ing gentleman, whose pride was manifest concerning his Civil war record and 
the fact that he had amassed wealth and attained a leading position in the 
civic life of his adopted State through his own efforts, and built up his for- 
tunes from the ground. He was a man of undoubted integrity and was a 
noble character whose demise was sincerely mourned by the whole city of 
Atchison. He was a kind and indulgent husband and father. Li his pass- 
ing Kansas lost one of her best and most widely known statesmen and Atchi- 
son one of her most useful citizens. His was a life well spent in behalf of 
the city and State where his name will long be reiuembered and revered as 
one of the honored pioneers of a widely known city and great State which 
he helped to create. 


It is meet that considerable space in this history of Atchison county be 
devoted to the stories of the lives of real pioneers of the county. The old 
pioneers were the salt of the earth, and a stronger or more vigorous race of 
men. never conquered a wilderness. In the class of the real, old pioneer set- 
tlers, comes Aaron S. Best, retired fanner, of Effingham, Kan. Captain 
Best has lived in Atchison county for nearly fifty-five years, and has seen 
the country transfomied from a vast tract of pasture and grazing land to a 
region of fertile and productive farms, and well built towns and cities. Dur- 
ing all these years he has taken an active and prominent part in county af- 
fairs, and in his younger days was a political leader in his own neighborhood. 

Aaron S. Best was bom June 27, 1839, in Clinton county, Pa., a son of 
John W. and Catharine (Schaefer) Best, of German descent, and native 
born and reared in Pennsylvania. John ^^^ Best was born in 1809 and died 
in 1 88 1. He was the son of Peter Best, a native of Pennsylvania, of German 
parentage. In the year i860, John W. Best, accompanied by his wife and 


seven children, crossed the country to find a new home in Kansas. He had 
made a trip to Atchison county in the previous year, and, after carefully look- 
ing over the ground, made up his mind that the country had a great future, 
and he decided to move his family so as to make a permanent home in Kan- 
sas. The Best family arrived in Atchison in March of 1861, and at once 
moved to a farm in old Monrovia. In June of the same year, the wife and 
mother died, at the age of forty-five years. The following children were 
bom to John W. Best and wife : Mary and Elvina, deceased, in Pennsylvania ; 
Henry, living at Parr, Tex. ; Louis, Luther and Reuben, deceased ; Mrs. Hen- 
rietta Lamberson, of Argentry, Ark. ; and Michael, deceased. 

Aaron Best was twenty-one years of age when the family removed to 
Atchison county. Being a Free State advocate, it was only natural that he 
take some part in the struggle which finally made Ivansas a free State. When 
General Price's threatened invasion of Kansas seemed imminent, he assisted 
in raising a company of militia among his neighbors and was chosen cap- 
tain. This company marched to Westport, and took part in the famous en- 
gagement which resulted in Price's retreat to the southward. Captain Best 
was in command of Company F, Twelfth regiment, Kansas cavalry. Only 
two companies of the Twelfth regiment were under fire, and Company F was 
one of these, Capt. Asa Barnes' company being the other actively engaged. 
Captain Best's horse was shot from under him and badly crippled. 

After coming to Kansas, he spent one year assisting his father on the 
home farm, and then moved to a farm of his own, south of Monrovia, which 
he developed from raw prairie land to a very productive farm, residing on 
until 1907, when he rented his land holdings and retired to a comfort- 
able home in Effingham. Tlie first land which Mr. Best owned was bought 
by his father for $750, and he farmed this on the share plan for six years, 
after which he paid his father $2,000 for 140 acres. His next purchase was 
eighty acres of land nearby, and he continued to add to his land possessions 
until he was the owner of 275 acres in all. Li the spring of 1914 Mr. Best 
sold his farm land for $21,000. His fann was one of the best improved 
in Atchison county, and naturally brought a good, round price, because of the 
good condition of the buildings and of the fertility of the soil. 

Mr. Best was married in February, i860, to Malinda Bricker, and to 
this union have been born one son and three daughters, as follows : Mrs. Ella 
Rebecca Sharp, living at Helena, Mo., and mother of two children, Albert 
and Twila; Mrs. Mary C, Bonnell, living on a farm southeast of Effingham, 
and who has eight children, Nellie, Edith, Grace, Ruth, Catharine, Lea, 
Claude, Malinda; Mrs. Emma Wood, of Council Grove. Kan., and mother 


of four children. Clara, Beulah Morris, Ralph, Esther; John a merchant, of 
Monrovia, Kan., father of three children. Leota, Hazel, and Blanche. The 
mother of these children was born in Hanover township, Daulphin county, 
Pennsylvania, December 15, 1837, and was a daughter of Joseph and Rebecca 
(Lohs) Bricker. both of whom were of Pennsylvania German ancestry, 
and died in their Pennsylvania home. 

Mr. Best has always been allied with the Republican party, and has been 
a stanch advocate of Republican principles for a long period of years. He 
and his wife are members of the Methodist Episcopal church and contribute 
generously to the support of that denomination. He is fraternally affiliated 
with the Odd Fellows Lodge and Encampment. No. 5, and the Modern 
Woodmen. Phvsicalh' and mentally, Mr. Best is a remarkably well pre- 
served man. when one considers his age and the fact that he endured so 
many hardships in his first struggles to attain to the position of affluence and 
comfort which he enjoys at present. 


Faithfulness to duty on the jiart of public officials is always appreciated 
by the people, and an official whii regards his office as other than a sinecure, 
is recognized as honest, capable and well meaning. In Louis C. Orr, post- 
master of the city of Atchison, Kan., the patrons and citizens of Atchison have 
a capable and conscientious public servant, whose sole interest is to see that 
the affairs of this important Government office are conducted smoothly, and 
for the convenience of the patrons of the postoffice. Although, in times past, 
the Atchison postoffice has been looked upon as a sinecure, operated as a well 
oiled piece of Government machinery with an efficient and well trained force. 
Mr. Orr, since taking over the duties of his position, has demonstrated that 
he can work as hard and efficiently as any of the many employees making up 
the postoffice force. Probably no postoffice in the State of Kansas is better 
conducted, or the welfare of the patrons more carefully looked after than the 
Atchison postoffice, and credit is due Mr. Orr for his diligent application to 
the duties of his office since his appointment. 

Louis C. Orr. postmaster of Atchison, was born August 3, 1857, in Mc- 
Gregor, Iowa, a son of James and ]\Iary Elizabeth ( Underbill) Orr, concern- 
ing whom further mention will be found in the biography of James W. Orr, 
brother of Louis C, in this volume. When Louis C. was eight years of age 


the family removed from Iowa to Niles, Mich. Louis C. and his brother 
James W. knew what poverty was in their youthful days, and shared their 
hardships in common. Louis C. was ambitious to obtain an education, and 
at an early age was compelled, by force of circumstances over whicli he had 
no control, to practically earn his own living and the wherewithal to obtain an 
education. For some years he and James W. pooled their earnings and 
worked together for their mutual lienefit, and to this day this trait of brotherly 
devotion is present. Louis C. attended school until he had attained the age of 
eighteen years, and he then entered a drug store at Niles, Mich., in the capa- 
city of clerk. He remained in Michigan until 1885, when he came to Atchi- 
son, Kan., where his brother, James W., had preceded him in 1881. Mr. 
Orr entered the Government railroad mail service, and was employed in this 
capacity on the Santa Fe Railway System, on the run from Atchison to 
Topeka, during Grover Cleveland's first administration. He then left the 
railway mail service and was employed as clerk in the drug store of A. \\'. 
Stevens for the following period of eight years. For the six years following 
he was in charge of the paint department of the McPike Drug Company, a 
wholesale drug firm then operating in Atchison, and since removed to Kansas 
City, Mo. For four years, from 1907 to 191 1, he served as city collector 
of Atchison. He was engaged in the real estate and fire insurance business 
until January, 191 5. Mr. Orr was appointed postmaster of Atchison Decem- 
ber 29, 1914, by President Wilson, to take effect January 4, 191 5. although 
Mr. Orr did not begin his duties until January 15, 191 5. 

Mr. Orr was married in 1886 to Mary Isabelle Smith, of Richmond, Ind., 
a daughter of John P. and Mary (Sedgwick) Smith, residents of Richmond. 
Ind. One son has been born to this marriage. Richard Sedgwick Orr. Ixirn 
in 1888, and at present employed as manager for the Standard Oil Company 
in Atchison. 

Louis C. Orr is a Democrat and is affiliated with the Christian Scientist 
church. For the past twenty-five years he has been a member of Lodge Xo. 
127, Ancient Order of United Workmen. It can be said of him that he is 
courteous, efficient and obliging to all with whom he is brought in contact. 


Successful as an agriculturist, and again achieving success as a live stock 
buyer and shipper, is a summary of the life and accomplishments of Carl 
Ludwig Beckman, one of the best known and progressive citizens of Effing- 


ham, Kan. Mr. Beckman's live stock operations in\-olve the Ijuving and 
shipping of over fifty carloads of live stock yearly. In addition to his busi- 
ness dealings, he also looks after his fine farm of 200 acres in Benton 

Mr. Beckman was born April 2, 1861, in Ouinc\, 111. .A.s the name in- 
dicates, he is the son of German parents, his father, William Beckman, hav- 
ing been born in Germany, in 1830, and was unfortunately killed by a stroke 
of lightning in Burlington. Iowa, in 1863. When a young man, William 
Beckman left his native land to seek his fortune in this country. He located 
at Ouinc}', III., where he married Elizabeth Kipp, who bore him four clu'l- 
dren, and was also born in Germany in 1824. William Beckman removed 
his family to Burlington, Iowa, in about 1862. The four children born to 
this couple were: William, a resident of Parnell, Atchison county, Kansas; 
Mrs. Hannah Buhrmaster, living on a farm in Benton township; Minnie, 
and Carl Ludwig, with whom this review is directly concerned. The mother 
of these children later married Henry \'ollmer, a farmer, in Iowa, who gave 
her and the children a good home and left his widow well provided for. ]Mrs. 
Vollmer, mother of C. L., resides at Mediapolis, Iowa. 

When Carl was twenty years of age he left the farm in Iowa, and 
came to Kansas in 188 1, and in partnership with his brother, William, 
rented a farm near Effingham for thirteen years, dissolving partnership in 
1894. Through purchase and by inheritance, on his wife's part, Mr. Beck- 
man and his wife came into possession of 200 acres of land in 1894, upon 
which they resided until 1908. In that year they bought a small farm of 
thirty-five acres, one mile west of Effingham, upon which they resided for 
three years, and then made a permanent home in Effingham. Since 1908 
Mr. Beckman has been engaged in the buying and shipping of live stock, 
with Robert M. Thomas as a partner in the enterprise, and has been very 
successful in this business, being an accurate judge of live stock and keeping 
abreast of market conditions. 

He was married in 1894 to Miss Lebeldine Gersl:)ach, born in Atchison 
county in 1863, a daughter of Samuel and Catharine Gersbach, both of 
whom were natives of Germany, and, after emigrating from their native 
country to America, settled in Atchison county as early as 1854, and were 
among the earliest pioneers of Kansas. Mr. Gersbach preempted land and 
built up a fine farm which is now owned by Mr. and Mrs. Beckman. Two 
children were born of this marriage: Rosa, aged twenty years, and a stu- 
dent in the Atchison county high school, class of 1916; and Pearl, aged 
seventeen, also a student in the high school, class of 1916. 


Mr. Beckman is a Republican in politics, and takes an interest in the 
civic and political affairs of his home town and county. He is a member 
of the Odd Fellows and the Modern Woodmen. Mrs. Beckman and daughters 
are members of the Methodist Episcopal church. Mr. Beckman is a stock- 
holder of the Farmers' Mercantile Association of Effingham, and is gen- 
erally found in the forefront of all undertakings which are intended for the 
betterment and progress of conditions in his home city. 


We are taught that hfe is eternal ; that when the course of man has been 
run upon this earth and his work is done, his spirit returns to his Maker and 
he is judged according to his deeds while a mortal among his fellow creatures. 
This thought and belief is comforting alike to the dying and the bereaved 
ones left behind to mourn their earthly loss for the time being. Longfellow 
has written: "Life is real, life is earnest, and the grave is not its goal; dust 
thou art, to dust returneth, was not written of the soul." So thought and so 
hved the late Capt. James Granville Morrow, who at the time of his demise 
was the oldest living pioneer resident of Atchison, and a man famed for his 
upright life and beloved for his good and kindly deeds. Life was very "real 
and earnest" to Captain Morrow and he enjoyed his earthly existence to the 
fullest extent, the latter years of his residence in Atchison being the fullest 
and best of all. in the sense that he indulged his taste and talents to doing 
things which he loved, all the while being surrounded by a loving wife and 
children whose respect and love he had to comfort him through the greater 
part of his long and useful life. Captain Morrow lived in such a manner as 
to endear him to all of his associates and he will long be remembered as one of 
the noted figures of the pioneer and the present era of Kansas development. 
It is meet that the life story of this truly noble citizen be recorded in these 
annals of his county and city for the inspiration and encouragement of the 
present and coming posterity for all time to come. 

Tames Granville Morrow was born on a farm in Wayne county, Ken- 
tucky, June 27, 1827, a son of Jeremiah and Lydia (Holder) Morrow, both 
of whom were born and reared in Kentucky. Jeremiah Morrow was the son 
of Matthew Morrow, a native of Virginia, who was one of the early pioneers 
of Kentucky, and of Scotch descent, his ancestors having emigrated from 

Sfi^ ^j-a^ff^^^^'^sr ^^,-i- 




Scotland to America in the early colonial period of American history. Jere- 
miah Morrow, father of James G., was bom in 1802, and after his removal to 
Kentucky married Lydia Holder. Six sons and two daughters were born to 
Jeremiah Morrow and wife, only one of whom survives, Mrs. W. H. Crisp, 
residing in Kentucky. Their children were as follows : Mahala, wife of 
Rev. W. H. Crisp, of Kentucky; Floyd, deceased; James Granville, the sub- 
ject of this i-eview; Nimrod, deceased; Riley, Wilham, Nancy, deceased wife 
of John Pennington ; Percy, deceased. Granville Morrow spent his boyhood 
days on the family fann in Wayne county, Kentucky, and at the age of six- 
teen years was sent to a select school. He made his home with his parents 
until he attained his majority and then set out to make his own way in the 
world. He dealt quite extensively in horses which he drove from Kentucky 
to Georgia. He was also associated with his brothers in raising, purchasing 
and selling hogs, which they drove 400 miles into Georgia, where they were 
sold to the Georgia planters. Sometimes a single planter would buy 500 
head and the price ranged from eight to nine dollars per 100 pounds, live 
weight. The Morrow brothers frequently drove as high as 13,000 head, trav- 
eling only seven miles a day. There were no railroads in those days, l.)ut the 
country was dotted with stations. Hog cholera did not bother swine in those 
days and it was Captain Morrow's frequent expression that hog cholera was 
a product of civilization and high breeding, and, although the hogs were 
driven as far as 400 miles they did not lose weight on the trip. The business 
of the Morrow brothers was not always profitable, however, and they lost 
money on some of the trips. Mr. Morrow abandoned the business in 1850, 
and in 1854 arrived in Atchison en route to California, but he did not go 
any farther. On April 5, 1854, he arrived at Rushville Landing, now East 
Atchison. This was shortly before Kansas was opened for settlement, and 
the only man living at that time on the townsite of Atchison was George 
Million, who operated a rope ferry acress the Missouri river. Mr. Morrow 
found on landing at Atchison that the overland train which he expected to 
join en route to the far West had left, and, as he was ill he decided to wait 
for the next train. Captain Morrow ate his first dinner in Kansas with 
Samuel Dixon at Dixon Spring, now included in the city of Atchison. Tb.e 
food was ladled out of a common kettle to which all the diners had access 
without style or invitation other than "help yourself." A tree trunk sawed 
off smooth answered the purpose of a table on which the meal was ser\-ed. 
While waiting he found a job with Million and decided to remain in Kansas. 
In the fall of 1854, he, with John Alcorn, bought out Portumous Lamb's 
ferry boat which was operated by horse power and a tread-mill, and from 


that time on for seventeen consecutive years Mr. Morrowr plied his ferry be- 
tween Atchison and Winthrop. In the fall of 1855 he began operating a 
side-wheel steam ferry which had been brought here from Brownsville, Pa. 
In 1857 he became captain of the steam ferry, "Ida," later running the steam 
ferry, "Pomeroy," after which he went to Brownsville, Pa., where he built the 
transfer boat, "William Osborne," remaining there eight months while the 
work was in progress. When he brought the "William Osborne" to Atchi- 
son it was loaded with 300 tons of rails for the Central Branch of the Missouri 
Pacific railroad, now the Northern Kansas Division. This boat also con- 
veyed across the Missouri river the first locomotives used on the road after 
its construction. 

Xot long after his arrival in Atchison Captain Morrow began to 
accumulate land, and in 1869 turned his attention to farming, retiring from 
the steamboat business entirely in 1871. He accumulated 1,240 acres of rich 
bottom lands in the Missouri river bottoms near East Atchison which has 
never failed to produce a crop and is very valuable. He formerly owned a 
section of land in Osage county, Kansas, near Lebo. He also was the owner 
of two valuable farms on the Atchison side of the river, 320 acres near Jacks- 
boro, Texas, and owned considerable real estate in the city, all of which has 
been left to his widow in trust for his children and heirs. He was very suc- 
cessful as a wheat grower, and in this way gained the greater part of his work- 
ing capital. He erected a beautiful home called "Enidan Heights" at Eighth 
and U streets, on the south side of Atchison, where he spent his declining 
years in peace and comfort. About 1875 he opened a general store in East 
Atchison which he conducted until 1883. Those were still pioneer days, and 
the settlers in the vicinity were poor and sometimes were unable to pay for 
the goods they needed. The captain's big heart and generous impulses fre- 
quently led him to extend credit to patrons whom he knew would not be able 
to pay for their purchases, and it was a favorite expression of his when his 
clerk would report to him that a poor man wished credit, "Gracious to good- 
ness, if we don't let him have the stuff he'll starve to death." The captain 
sold hundreds of dollars' worth of goods which were probably never paid for, 
but his good heart would not permit him to see a fellow creature in want for 
the necessities of life. This trait of kindness was the predominating char- 
acteristic of his life and endeared him to hundreds of people. After quitting 
the mercantile business Captain Morrow devoted himself entirely to his farm- 
ing interests and his transfer business which he established in 1888 with his 
partners, later becoming the sole owner of the business. He retired entirely 
from active business pursuits and his farming in 1910 and spent the most 


of his time working around the gardens of his fine home in Atchison. For 
years it was his custom to drive back and forth to his big farm on the Mis- 
souri side and he was gradually persuaded to abandon this activity. His demise 
occurred December 2, 1915, after a brief illness, beginning with an attack of 
la grippe, his great age and depleted vitality militating against his recovery. 
James Granville iVIorrow was married November 26, 1874, to Miss Sarah 
J. George, and this happy marriage was blessed with the following children: 
Delia, born November 11, 1875, and died in 1904; Mary Etta, born in Mis- 
souri March 17, 1880, dying October 2, 1880, and who is buried in Orearville 
cemetery. Saline county, Missouri ; James Granville George, born September 
16, 1878, married Ethel Worrell, and is the father of four children; James 
Granville, Jr., John Worrell, Frances and Robert George; Nadine, wife of 
John Raymond Woodhouse, who lives with Mrs. Morrow, of Atchison, and 
mother of John Granville, born December 16, 1914; James G. Morrow re- 
sides in Buchanan county, Missouri, and has charge of the immense Morrow 
farm in the Missouri bottoms. The children of Captain and Mrs. Morrow 
have all been well educated and afforded every facility for mind cultivation. 
Mrs. Nadine Woodhouse was educated in Mount St. Scholastica Academy 
and the College Preparatory School of Atchison, after which she comi^leted 
her studies at Central College of Missouri. Miss Delia Morrow studied in 
Mount St. Scholastica Academy, Midland and Central colleges, and Washing- 
ton University, at St. Louis, and was a bright and talented young lady prior 
to her demise. James Morrow, the son, studied in the Atchison public schools 
and Midland College. The mother of these children, Mrs. Sarah J. (George) 
Morrow, was born March 30, 1853, near Orearville, Saline county, Missouri, 
a daughter of Dr. James Jameson George, a native of Prince William county, 
Virginia. Dr. George was bom in Virginia November 25, 1810, a son of 
William Henry George, a soldier in the War of 181 2, who moved from Vir- 
ginia to Hardin county, Kentucky, in 1816 with his brothers, Moses and 
Lindsey George, who settled at Shelbyville, Ky. The mother of Dr. George 
was a member of the Jameson family, an old Virginia family. The ancestrv' 
of both the George and Jameson families goes back to the pre-Revolutionary 
days of the Virginia colony. Dr. J. J. George was a graduate of the Transyl- 
vania College at Bairdstown, Ky., and also studied at Lexington, Ky. He 
was married in 1841 at Mt. Sterling, Ky., to Mary (Catlett) Orear, a daugh- 
ter of Robert Catlett Orear, who was born in Mt. Sterling, Ky., January 30, 
1814, and departed this hfe March 2^, 1876, in Johnson county. Missouri. 
Dr. J. J. and Mary George were the parents of the following children : Rob- 
ert died in June, 1905, on his ranch in Coffey county, Kansas; Joel S.. who 


resides at Peace River Crossing, Alberta, Canada; Mary E., wife of J. H. 
RUssell, died June 28, 191 1; Mrs. Malinda Morrison, of Tecumseh, Okla. ; 
Benjamin Franklin, born in Saline county, settled in Coffey county, Kansas, 
and now resides in Denver, Colo. ; Mrs. James Granville Morrow ; two who 
died in infancy; James Nelson contracted fever at Central College, and died 
October 26, 1875, aged twenty-one years and twent)-nine days; Lee Davis, 
a ranchman, of Coffey cnur.ty. Kansas. Four of these children were bom 
in Kentuckv, and the last four were born in Missouri, where the family re- 
moved in 1850. 

Dr. George was a minister of the Gospel and a member of the Methodist 
Episcopal conference in Kentucky from 1838. to 1839. He came to Missouri 
to farm and preach the Gospel, but was impressed ver\- early in his western 
career with the woeful dearth of skilled medical care for the sick and ailing 
of the backwoods country, and was frequently called to the bedside of people 
who were supposed to be dying, and whom he realized could be easily saved 
with some medical attention. Fired with zeal to assist an unfortunate and 
suffering people, he conceived the worthy idea of studying medicine, so that 
he could be of material assistance to his people other than in a reli,gious sense, 
He returned to Kentucky and entered the Medican College at Lexington. After 
completing his course he returned to Saline county, Missouri, and engaged 
in the practice of his profession until old age came upon hirrt. He then re- 
moved to Cass county, Missouri, and became a local minister. His was a 
long and useful life, every matured year of which was given in behalf of his 
fellowmen. unselfishly and devotedly. He was one of the noted missionaries 
of the earlv days in Missouri and extended the word of the Gospel to the 
remotest settlements. He organized churches and Sunday schools where they 
seemed needed most and his work called him to preach the Word in log houses 
and the most primitive habitations of man. Dr. George was deeply in love 
with his great work, and loved the people, and worked tirelessly for their 
well being in a religious and practical way. He departed this life August 4, 
1875. The last public utterance which he made was when he spoke to a 
Sunday school assemblage in Coffey county, Kansas, in the village of Key 
West. His end was peaceful and tranquil, and the departure of this good 
man's soul to the realms beyond mortal kin marked the passing of one of 
the truly great men of the western country whose work will go on and on 
forever. Dr. George and Captain Morrow became great friends in the early 

On Thanksgiving day of 191 5, just the day before Mr. and Mrs. Mor- 
row's forty-first wedding anniversary, the captain's last illness began which 


resulted in his passing awa}'. His burial occurred on December 4 from Trin- 
ity Episcopal Church, Rev. Otis E. Gray officiating, with the Masonic lodge 
of Atchison conducting burial service at the grave. He was for inany years 
a Mason and was greatly interested in the Masonic fraternity, rarely being- 
absent from the lodge meetings, his last spoken regret having been that he 
would be unable to attend the ceremonies held at the laying of the corner- 
stone of the new Masonic Temple in Atchison. The last five years of Captain 
Morrow's life were perhaps the most satisfactory and the happiest of his ex- 
istence. His years of retirement, although few as compared with that of most 
men, were spent almost entirely at his beautiful home, with occasional visits 
to his farm lands. He was loath to retire, and did so only at the urgent 
insistence of his devoted wife, and for quite a long time after he was eighty 
years of age he would insist on driving across the river to his farm. He 
took the greatest pleasure with his grandchildren, and especially with his 
namesake. In his later years he became a specialist in gardening and fruit 
growing merely for his own satisfaction and would frequently surprise his 
familv with some verv ciioice and rare fruits grown in his gardens and 
orchards. From his orchard of peach trees he gathered over 400 bushels of 
peaches in one season, and also set out an apple orchard which he attended 
assiduously. He became a disciple of the famous Luther Burbank and was 
a member of the Luther Burbank corporation. Through the exercise of his 
skill as a fruit grower he produced several kinds of rare berries and was 
continually experimenting in small fruits and vegetable growing. It was 
fitting that the life of Captain Morrow should close in such a manner and that 
during his last years he was permitted to indulge himself in his favorite pur- 
suits, surrounded with the loving and watchful career of his devoted wife, who 
was always his confidant and adviser, and to whom he went in time of stress 
or trouble for comfort and advice. His was a life well spent and his memory 
will live long in the hearts and minds of those who knew him best. 


In the northeast part of Benton township, in a comfortable farm home on 
section 11, range 18, there resides the oldest pioneer settler of that section of 
of the count}-, the review of whose career takes one back to the daxs of the 
Civil war when he shouldered a musket in defense of the L'nion, and to the 
earlv da>-s of Kansas historv when the long freight trains hauled b\- oxen and 


mules were leaving Atchison for the far W'est. \\'e are reminded of the 
Indian troubles which beset the hardy freighters as they convoyed their treas- 
ures across the wide reaches of prairie and mountain. In all these things Or- 
lando C. Scoville, Union veteran, old-time freighter, and pioneer farmer, par- 
ticipated, and it is meet that the story of his life and adventurous career he 
recorded for the entertainment of succeeding generations of men and wmnen 
in order that they might i<now how a wilderness was redeemed and what 
manner of men their forefathers were and whence they came. 

Orlando C. Scoville was born February 4, 1846, in Cook county, Illinois, 
on a farm located just twenty-two miles from the city of Chicago. His father 
was William Scoville, born in 1820, at Watertown, N. Y., a son of Abijah 
Scoville, a native of Connecticut, and a scion of an old New England family. 
Abijah Scoville was a carpenter by trade and his art was transmitted to his 
descendants. William Scoville received a good education in his native State, 
and taught school in New York when a young man seventeen years old. . As 
early as 1842 he came west, to Cook county, Illinois, and owned a farm in that 
county which he cultivated until 1865 when he came to Atchison, Kan., where 
he first engaged in the handling of live stock. Later he was in the lumber 
business with a Mr. McCoy, who later sold out to Henry T. Smith, and he and 
Smith conducted a wagon and lumber business on Utah avenue, just east of 
the old Episcopal church, between Fourth and Fifth streets. William eventu- 
ally sold out his business and moved to a farm in Benton township, south of 
where his son, O. C, lives, and there died in December, 1891. Previous to 
removing to his farm he was foreman of the Hixon Lumber Company's inter- 
ests in Atchison. The mother of Orlando C. was Lucinda Lasher, whom 
William Scoville married in New York, and who removed to Arrington after 
her husband's death, and there died in N(i\ember, 1893, at the age of sev- 
enty-five years. William and Lucinda Scoville were the parents of seven 
children, two of whom died in infancy ; Imogene, wife of A. W. Mulligan, of 
Blue Rapids, Kan.: Orlando C. ; Eulalie. died in Atchison in 1866, and is 
buried in Oak Hill cemetery ; Freeman, a railroad engineer for many years, 
and who died at Arrington, in 191 1 : Giles, a successful law. practitioner, lo- 
cated in Chicago, and who studied law under the late Senator John J- Ingalls. 

O. C. Scoville was reared to young manhood on the farm in Cook county, 
Illinois, and when eighteen years of age enlisted (1864) in Company B, One 
Hundred and Thirty-second regiment, Illinois infantry. He served for six 
months in the Army of the Tennessee, under General Thomas, and took part 
in the several hard-fought battles, among them being the battle and siege of 
Atlanta. His command started on the march with Shennan, to the sea, but 


were turned back by department orders. After his war service expired he 
came to Atchison and joined the family. His first occupation in Atchison was 
the operating of a wagon shop, just across the street from the Blair Mill, and 
it is a matter of history that his shop was used as the first depot of the Central 
Branch railroad, then building. He ran the wagon shop for two years and 
then made two trips across the continent in the capacity of freighter and con- 
voying a herd of cattle. In 1867 he was one of the freighters in charge of 
the first train sent over the Smoky Hill nnite for Butterfield to Denver. The 
live stock was run off by the Indians during this trip, and Butterfield came 
out and found them after four weeks' search ; his next trip was to Salt Lake 
City. In 1868, he with others, drove a herd of fnilch cows which had been 
sold b}- McCoy to a man named Murray, and consigned to him in California. 
This trip required eighteen months to ccmsummate, and they were forced to 
winter in the Antelope valley on Walker river. After taking the cattle to 
their destination he returned across the mountains to Reno, Nev., and there 
boarded the train for the rest of the journey home, Reno at that time being 
the western terminus of the railway. During 1869. he worked for one year 
in the engineering corps of the Santa Fe railroad, and in that winter his father 
bought his present farm in Benton township. In the fall of 1872 he moved to 
the farm where he has resided continuously for the past forty-three years. In 
1893 he bought the farm formerly owned by the family and has increased 
his acreage until he and his son are the owners of 400 acres of land, the latter 
owning 180 acres, upon which formerly stood three sets of farm buildings, 
one of which was destroyed by fire in April. 191 5. His present I'esidence was 
erected in 1893. 

]Mr. Scoville was married in Atchison May 8, 1873, to Virginia Williams, 
born in Greenbrier county, \'irginia, in 1854, and a daughter of Alexander 
Williams. Her father died when she was very 3'oung and she came with her 
mother and stepfather to Missouri in the early pioneer days when her mother 
died and she was adopted by Mrs. Miller, a music teacher, of Atcliison, Kan. 
Three children were born to this union, namely: Katie died in infancy; Will- 
iam C. born August 10, 1875, niarried Myrtle LoUar. and has two children. 
Earl, liiirn December 13, 1911. and Alice, born May 16, 1914. \A'illiam C. is 
the only living son of Orlando C. Scoville. Mrs, Scoville died in October, 

This sturdy pioneer has been a Republican ever since he cast his first 
vote, and is one of the true blue variety who prides himself on being a "stand- 
patter." who believes thoroughly in the principles of his party and will never 
desert the standard of Republicanism. He has never held office and has 


never been a seeker after political preferment ; has never been a party to a law 
suit, never served on a jury, and has been called only once in his lifetime to 
the witness stand. He has endeavored at all times to live at peace with all 
mankind and has succeeded to such an extent that at a ripe old age, this pioneer 
settler of Atchison county is living in peace and comfort in the home which he 
created out of a wilderness. 

Mr. Scoville cast his first vote for Abraham Lincoln in St. Louis, in 1864. 


John James Ingalls, author, lawyer, and United States Senator, was born 
in Aliddleton, Mass., December 29, 1833. a son of Elias T. and Eliza (Chase) 
Ingalls. He was descended from Edmond Ingalls, who, with his brother, 
Francis, founded the town of Lynn, Mass., in 1628. His father was a first 
cousin of Alehitable Ingalls, the grandmother of the late President Garfield. 
His mother was a descendant of Aquilla Chase, who settled in New Hamp- 
shire in 1630. Chief Justice Chase was of this family. After going through 
the public schools Ingalls attended Williams College, at Williamstown, Mass., 
graduating in 1855. He then studied law and was admitted to the bar in 
1857. The next year he came to Kansas and in 1859 was a member of the 
^Vyandotte constitutional convention. In i860 he was secretary of the ter- 
ritorial council and was also secretary of the first State senate, in 186 1. The 
next year he was elected State senator from Atchison county. In that year, 
and again in 1864. he was nominated for lieutenant-governor on the anti- 
Lane ticket. During the Civil war he served as judge advocate on tlie staff 
of Gen. George W. Deitzler with the rank of lieutenant-colonel. In 1865 Mr. 
Ingalls married Miss Anna Louisa Chesebrough, a descendant of William 
Chesebrough, who came to this country with Gov. Winthrop in 1630. Her 
father. Ellsworth Chesebrough, was a New York importer who came to 
Atchison, Kan., in 1859, and at the time of his death, in i860, was an elector 
on the Lincoln ticket. Of this union e!e\en children were l;orn, six of wlmm 
were living at the time of Mr. Ingalls' death, viz : Ellsworth, Ethel, Ralph, 
Sheffield. ^Marion and Aluriel. 

In 1873, "Opportunity.'" of which Mr. Ingalls wrote in his declining years, 
knocked at his door. He was made a candidate for United States senator at 
a private caucus one night and was elected by the legislature the next day. 
His career at Wlashington, co\-ering a period of eighteen years, was one of 




great brilliancy. He quickl)- acquired dislinclion. and Speaker Reed remarked 
before he had learned the name of the new senator: "Any man who can si:ive 
a proposition as that senator does is a great man." As a parliament.-iri;in lie 
was unsurpassed. Senator Harris, a Democrat from Tennessee, said: "Air. 
Ingalls will go down upon the records as the greatest presiding officer in 
the history of the senate." His speeches made him famous. He was the 
master of sarcasm and satire, as well as of eulogistic oratory. His address 
on John Brown, a speech of blistering satire; the one delivered in Atchison 
after his vindication in the senate ; and his eulogies of Senator Hill and Sen- 
ator Wilson are classic masterpieces, seldom if ever excelled in oratory. Sen- 
ator Ingalls was a strict partisan, an invincible champion of any cause, and 
a bitter and persevering opponent. During his three terms in the senate his 
greatest efforts were in the advocacy of the constitutional rights of tlie free- 
dom of the South and the rights of the ^-eterans of the Civil war. When a 
wave of Populism came over Kansas it found him practically unprepared. 
He had given little attention to the money question and the tariff, and it was 
these things wdiich were clamoring for solution. He was defeated by the 
Populists for senator in i8gi. Mr. Ingalls said many times that he valued 
a seat in the senate above an_y other honor in the gift of the American people. 
.\s an author Mr. Ingalls won his reputation first by a iiumber of articles 
ajiptaring in the old Kansas Magaciiie, among which were "Cat-Fish Aris- 
tocracy" and "Blue Grass." His poem, "Opportunity," is worthy to be 
classed with the greatest in the English language, and it may yet outlive his 
reputation as an orator and statesman and be his lasting monument. After 
leaving the senate Mr. Ingalls retired from active life, traveled for his health, 
and died in Xew Mexico, August i6, igoo. In January, 1905, a statue of him 
was installed in Statuary Hall at \\'ashhigton with fitting ceremonies, Ijeing 
the first statue to be contributed by Kansas, although Mr. Ingalls during his 
lifetime bad urged upon the State to place one of John Brown in this ball. 


A publication of this nature exercises its most important function when 
it takes cognizance of the life and labors of those citizens who attained prom- 
inence and prosperity through their own w'ell directed efforts and 
who were of material value in furthering the advancement and development 
of the commonwealth. Sidney INIartin came to Atchison county in 1856 


when a boy of eleven. He endured the hardships common to the resident 
of Kansas previous to and during the Ci\'il war period. He made several 
trips between Atchison and Denver as a freighter; drove over some 400 
miles of country infested with Indians and narrowly escaped death 
at their hands. He bought the first section of land that was sold in the Kick- 
apoo reservation and became one of the most successful farmers and stock 
breeders in northeastern Kansas. He was actively identified with the develop- 
ment of tliis section of the State and attained prominence and influence as 
a citizen. 

Sidney Martin was a native of Kentucky, born in Estill county on Novem- 
ber I, 1846. a son of Jackson H. and Polly (Wlalters) Martin. His ancestors, 
paternal and maternal, were among the first to settle in the Virginia colony, 
coming from England in 1607. His father, Jackson H. Martin, best known 
to the residents of Atchison county as "Uncle Jack" Martin, was also a 
Kentuckian, born in Estill county on January 15, 1812, a son of Robert and 
Mary (Harris) Martin, both of whom were natives of Virginia. Robert 
Martin served in the War of 1812 and was a commissioned officer. The 
epaulets from his uniform were in the possession of the family until a few 
years ago. Subsequent to this service he removed to Kentucky and was one 
of Daniel Boone's companions and was with him during many Indian fights. 
He was one of the pioneer settlers of Estill county. 

Jackson H. Martin, or "Uncle Jack," as he was commonly called, was 
reared in Estill county, married there, and in 1855 brought his family to 
Buchanan county, Missouri, where he lived one year. In the spring of 1856 
he came to Kansas and settled at Mormon's Grove. The place derived its 
name through being a former Mormon emigrant settlement. It was about 
five miles from Atchison. "Uncle Jack" and his family occupied the Mormon 
cabin until he could build one of his own. He preempted a quarter section 
of land at this point and engaged in farming. A native of Kentucky, a Dem- 
ocrat as well, he naturally became involved in the turmoil of events preceding 
the Civil war. For the protection of himself and family, he built a double 
wall of stone and earth around his dwelling. This caused it to be called Ft. 
Martin. The place was attacked one night by Jayhawkers who were after 
horses. The attacking party were driven off without booty and several of 
their number were wounded. "Uncle Jack" continued to reside at Ft. Martin 
until 1878, when he became a resident of Effingham. He built the Martin 
Hotel and conducted it for a number of years. He was a success as a host, 
his hotel was famous for its cookery and hospitalitv and Effingham the 
gainer bv his coming. His death occurred in April, 1902, at the age of 


ninety years. He had lived an eventful life, had watched Kansas grow from 
a sparsely settled, faction-torn border State to one of the most prosperous 
agricultural commonwealths of the Union. He had met many of the most 
famous men of her formative period, and was a personal friend of John A. 
Martin, Paddy Brown, Governor Glick and Charles Robinson. His wife, 
Pollv Walters, whom he married in Estill Springs, Ky., died in April, 
1895. They were the parents of four children: Ann Elizabeth, the wife of 
William Hight, of Fremont county, Colorado; Sidney, the subject of this 
review: Mary \\'., widow of Gilbert Keithline, of Atchison county, and Sally, 
widow of Henry Woodard. Twins died in infancy. Martha died at the age 
of sixteen years. Sally (Martin) Woodard was born in Estill county, Ken- 
tuckv. in 1852, and came with her parents to Kansas in 1856. She was 
reared on the old Martin farm in Atchison county, and in 1869 married Henry 
Woodard. who was bom in Evansville, Ind.. in 1844. He was a son of 
Philander Henry Woodard, who came to Atchison in the early sixties and 
engaged in the milling business. After his marriage Henry Woodard settled 
on a farm in Jackson county, where he remained until 1874, when he located 
in Effingham and engaged in the mercantile business. He followed this line 
of occupation until a few years before his death which occurred May 30, 
1914. He is survived by his widow and the following children: Philander 
Henry, Jack Martin, Gilbert Campbell, Dorothy, wife of Elmer Percival, of 
Sheridan county, Kansas : Helen Lee, wife of Rolla Taliaferro ; and Sally 
Bernice, a student in the Atchison Business College. 

Sidney Martin acquired his education in the schools of Atchison, and 
later completed a course in the Platte City (Missouri) Academy. He was 
reared on his father's farm, near Atchison, and assisted in its carrying on 
until about sixteen years of age. He then secured employment with Mr. 
Teuschau, a pioneer French trader and freighter, who liad an Indian wife. 
He was also with the Scotch freighter, Kisskadden, on several trips. The 
latter recommended him as a capable guide and driver to G. T. Smith, who 
wislied to secure the services of some one who could take his wife and baby, 
and the aged wife of his partner, from Atchison to Denver in 1864, where 
Smith owned a hardware store. Although but sixteen years of age. young 
Martin secured the job. This was in 1864, a time when the Indians were 
on the war path and Smith's wagon with young Martin as driver, started 
alone, but joined a freighting outfit numbering some forty wagons and 
dri\-ers. Just before they reached Ft. Kearney at Big Sandy, they met flee- 
ing Blue River ranchmen, who were hurrying to the nearest settlement, and 
who told them the Indians were on the war path. They stayed all night at 


the home of a settler and heard the following day that Indians had mur- 
dered the settler's family and burned their house. The wife of Smith's part- 
ner was insistent on a proper observ^ance of the Sabbath day, and while 
in the Indian country caused Mrs. Smith to order that their wagon remain 
in camp over Sunday. The wagon train left them behind and the Lord's 
day was properly kept by the women, although they were warned by Martin 
that it was dangerous to leave the protection of the train. As related by 
Martin "that was the longest day I ever spent." About midnight he fed 
and harnessed the team and started on with the uitention of joining the train 
of eleven men and wagons which had preceded them. At sunrise they 
reached a lone ranch and its owner, who was postmaster, told ^lartin the 
wagons were just ahead, over the first hill. Here he mailed a letter to his 
mother. On arriving at the hill top Martin was able to see the valley where 
the train had camped. The wagons were in flames, had been robbed of their 
contents, a large part of which was whiskey. Two women were taken cap- 
tives and the eleven freighters had been killed and scalped by Indians. The 
savages had indulged in the captured whiskey and were so thoroughly stupe- 
fied that they were incapable of riding a horse and also failed to follow the 
wagon which Martin drove. He wheeled his team and drove them at full 
speed to the nearest ranch and found the buildings burned. They drove on to 
the next ranch where they secured protection, a company of soldiers arriving 
there the- same day. The officer in command was drunk and refused to at- 
tack the red-skins that night when victory would have been easy. When 
the company reached the scene of the massacre the following day, the Indians 
were not to be seen. Martin's next stop was at another ranch and here Mr. 
Smith joined the wagon, having rushed forward in the belief that Alartin 
had been killed and the women captured by the savages. On parting from 
his charges Martin was given a plain band gold ring by Mrs. Smith with 
her blessing. He made several other trips across the plains, the last one with 
his father, "Uncle Jack" Martin, which took them to Montana, ^\■hen the 
Kickapoo Indian reservation was thrown open to purchase, Sidney Martin 
bought the first section that was sold and several years later he bought the 
last, becoming the owner of 560 acres in one body. He entered actively into 
the developing of his raw land and brought it up to a highly productive state. 
He became widely and favorably known as a breeder of Shorthorn cattle, 
and from time to time purchased additional acreage until his holdings in 
land were extensive, owning at one time 747 acres, at the time of his demise. 
He took an active part in political affairs of his section, and, while disin- 
clined to accept office, was called upon frequently for counsel and advice. He 


was a man of keen perceptions, knew men and the motives which actuated 
them, and was a student thoroughly famiHar with the questions of the day. He 
numbered among his close personal friends, Governor Giick. His death 
occurred on January 3, 1904. 

Mr. Martin married on February 20, 1868, Miss Mary Elizabeth White, 
a daughter of George B., born May 10, 1815, and Mary Elizabeth (Lindsay) 
White, bom December 14. 1820, the former a native of Woodford county, 
Kentucky, and the latter of Carroll county. They were married January 25, 
1839. She died September 25. i860, while the family was residing in Mis- 
souri. After the death of his wife. Islr. White came to Atchison and engaged 
in the grain business, ^^'ith S. R. Washer he built the first elevator in the 
city of Atchison. He died in November, 1900. Mrs. Martin was born on 
May 15, 1848, while her parents were living in Missouri. On the maternal 
side she is descended from the Blackburn family, members of which fought 
with the Continental troops in the war for independence. After the death of 
her husband, Mrs. Martin became a resident of the city of Atchison, where 
she has since resided. 


In e\'ery communit}' we find that tliere are some indi\'iduals who seem 
naturally endowed with the ability to go ahead and do things and take a place 
of leadership among their associates. Robert M. Thomas is one of those who 
possess the natural endowments, peculiar to leadership and the ability to make 
things go WMth which he is connected. A successful farmer, a good citizen and 
business man, makes an excellent combination, and Mr. Thomas has made his 
mark in his community as a progressive and enterprising citizen. 

Robert M. Thomas was born in Buchanan county, Missouri, February 2, 
1868, a son of Moses and Katie 1 Critchfield ) Thomas, who were born and 
partly reared in old Kentucky. The parents of both were early settlers of 
Buchanan county. Moses was the son of Robert Thomas, and the father of 
his wife was Martin Critchfield. They were Southern born, and were de- 
scendants of old Southern families. Moses Thomas was born in 1843, and 
still resides in Buchanan county; his wife, Katie, was born in 1850, and is still 
living. The Thomas family has a farm- of 140 acres in Buchanan county, 
upon which was reared a large family of eleven children, nine of whom are 
living: Robert M. ; John, deceased; Walter, living in California; Forrest, re- 


siding in St. Joseph, Mo. ; Harriet and Cecil, at home; Ollie, deceased : Louise, 
Margaret, Cora and Ellen, at home with their parents. 

R. M. Thomas received his education in the public schools of his native 
State and assisted his father in the operating of the home farm until 1892, 
when he married and farmed for three years in Buchanan county, Missouri, 
and then worked his farm in Platte county, Missouri, for four years. His 
first purchase of land was in 1899 when he invested in a farm of 120 acres 
in Buchanan county, which he sold three years later at a profit over the original 
purchase price. In 1902 he bought another farm, and in 1903 located two and 
one-half miles northwest of Effingham in Benton township. This farni com- 
prises 160 acres and is now one of the best improved places in the neighbor- 
hood. Mr. Thomas did so well in Atchison county that he was enal^led to 
buy another farm of 160 acres in 1912. This farm is located in Grasshopper 
township, about three miles north of Muscotah. Upon the organization of the 
Farmers' Mercantile Company in June, 191 3, in which Mr. Thomas took an 
active part, he assumed the managership of the same and attends to his 
business during the day, while still making his home at the farm. This plan 
gives him an excellent opportunity to oversee his farming operations at all 

Mr. Thomas was married in 1892 to Katie Stanton, of Platte county, 
Missouri, a daughter of William and Cynthia (Hall) Stanton, natives of 
Platte county, and of Eastern origin. To this union the following children 
have been born : William, married Pearl, daughter of Thomas O. Gault, and 
is managing his father's farm, two miles north of Muscotah ; Clara, a graduate 
of the Atchison County High School, and a teacher in the public schools; 
Margaret, Ollie and Jessie, students in the county high school; Elva, Emma, 
Robert M., and Daisy, attending the district school near their home. 

Mr. Thomas is a Democrat in politics and has filled the office of trustee 
of Benton township one term. He and his family are members of the Chris- 
tian church. He is fraternally connected with the Odd Fellows lodge. 

The Farmers' Mercantile Association, of which Mr. Thomas is the man- 
ager, was organized in June of 1913 for the purpose of handling grain, coal, 
feed and seeds. The capital stock of the concei-n is $10,000, of which $6,800 
is fully paid up. The officers of the association were : President, C. .\. Talia- 
ferro; vice-president, Stewart Hef flefinger ; secretary and manager, R. M. 
Thomas ; treasurer, C. M. Snyder. The directors are : C. A. Taliaferro. S. 
Hefflefinger, Charles M, Snyder, John E. Sullivan, R. M. Thomas, E. H. 
Cawley, W. M. Sutter, R. B. Hawk, Reuben Hargrove. The present offi- 
cers are the same with the exception that Reuben Hargrove is now serving 


as the vice-president, and Fred Wyatt was elected to fill the vacancy in the 
board of directors, caused bv the demise of C. A. Taliaferro and Edward 
High succeeded W. M. Sutter. The concern has a grain elevator with a 
capacity of 8,000 bushels. The largest shipment of grain made in any one 
year has exceeded 115,000 bushels. 


William ^McAdam, retired farmer, of Effingham, Kan., was born Feb- 
ruray 6, 1861, in Sterlingshire, Scotland, and is a son of James and Helen 
( Alacnee) McAdam, who, with their children emigrated from their native 
country in 1882 and settled on a farm near Effingham in Atchison county, 
Kansas. They reared a family of five children, of whom William is the old- 
est, the others being as follows : Mrs. Jane Drummond, of Ellenville, Kan. ; 
George, of Holton, Kan. ; Mrs. Nellie Drummond, residing in Cottonwood 
Falls, Kan. ; and James, living at Holton, Kan. The father of these chil- 
dren was born in 1820, and died in 1885, just three years after coming to 
America. He was a hard-working, industrious farmer. The mother was 
born in 1839 and departed this life in May, 1899. 

William McAdam was twenty-one years of age when the family came 
to Atchison county and for three years after his arrival here he assisted his 
parents in the operation of the home farm. He then worked out for one 
year and began renting land on his own account, renting twelve years in 
all, five of which were in Jackson county, Kansas. His first purchase of 
land was a tract of ninety-six acres in Jackson county, which he improved 
and resided upon until 1907, when he moved to Effingham, where he and 
his family reside in one of the most attractive homes in the city, located on 
a tract of ten acres. Mr. McAdam is now the owner of 160 acres of good 
land south of Effingham, over which he has supervision. 

He was married in 1888 to Miss Augusta Sutter, a daughter of Fred- 
erick Sutter, now deceased, who was one of the earliest settlers in Atch- 
ison county, and who became one of the wealthy land owners of the county. 
(See sketch of Fred Sutter.)' Two children have been born to Mr. and Mrs. 
McAdam, Fannie and Mabel, both of whom are at home with their parents. 
The mother of these children was born in Atchison county in 1861. 

Mr. McAdam is an independent Democrat, who votes as his conscience 


dictates, and prefers to support the man rather, than any one poHtical party 
or creed, believing in this manner that better government will result. He is a 
member of the Presbyterian church, and is fraternally connected with the 
Ancient Free and Accepted Masons. 

CLAUDIUS demont w'alker; 

The citizen who loves his city to the extent that he is willing to devote his 
encgies toward making it a better abiding place for his fellow men, and does 
his duty in a public capacity, regardless of criticism or adverse comnie^.ts, is 
a man worth while. He whose name heads this review is such an individual. 
As mayor of Atchison, C. D. W'alker made a record which will outlive the 
present generation; as an attorne}" lie has achieved a signal success and ranks 
high in the legal fraternity of the State of Kansas ; as a religious worker he 
has accomplished much good of a lasting and enduring quality for the com- 
munity in which he lives. Born of Kansas pioneer parents, his training and 
education were such as to prepare him for the career which has made him dis- 
tinguished- among his fellow men ; and he has proven that a wholesome example 
set by noble parents is the best incentive that a man can have to guide him 
through life. 

C. D. Walker was born IMarch 29. 1851, at Greenville. Pa., a son of Har- 
vey and Anna M. Walker, the former a native of Pennsylvania and the latter 
a native of Ireland. Harvey Walker, the father, was born in 1820 and was 
a son of Harvey Walker, a native of the Keystone State, who married at 
Pittsburgh, Pa., Miss Mary Ann Carr, who was born at Mile End, England. 
The grandfather of C. D. Walker was a wagon and carriage maker by trade 
and operated a shop in Greenville for many years. The history of the Walkers 
in America begins with three brothers who emigrated from the north of Ire- 
land in colonial days. One of whom, Samuel Walker, located near Rochester, 
N. Y., one, Andrew Walker, settled in Virginia, and one, the great-grandfather 
of C. D. Walker, settled in Pennsylvania. Being north Ireland people it is 
practically certain that the Walker family is of Scotch descent, their ancestors" 
having emigrated from the ancestral home of the family to the north of Ire- 
land a few centuries ago when the migration of the protestant people from the 
Isle of Britain to escape religious persecution occurred. Harvey Walker 
learned his father's trade of wagon and carriage making, but worked but little 
at the business. Imbued with the desire to better his fortunes in the great 


West, he left the old home of tlie family in about 1854 and migrated to Oneida, 
III, near which town he purcliased a homestead. After farming for a few 
years he sold out and started overland to the new State of Kansas, which at 
that time was attracting adventurers from all parts of the country. The family 
possessions were loaded upon wagons drawn by horses, and in due time the 
Walkers arrived at Ft. Scott in Bourbon county, Kansas, their destination. 
During the years ' S7'' r^^-' 59- the senior \\\'dker traded with the Indians, and 
eventually located on a homestead, twelve miles northwest of Ft. Scott. Har- 
\-ey Walker was a standi Methodist of the uncompromising type and was un- 
alterably opposed to the institution of slavery. He fearlessly and freely voiced 
his convictions at every opportunity, and his out-spoken tendencies frequently 
brought trouble upon him from the slavery advocates, who had settled in the 
neighborhood in considerable numbers. He was always introducing new in- 
novations in farming methods and machinery. It is a matter of history that 
he owned and used the first rake harvester brought to that part of the country. 
The slavery advocates and border ruffians annoyed him considerably. They 
stole his horses, broke up his wagons and farming implements and so pro- 
nounced were the threats of the slavery men that Air. Walker was forced to 
spend most of his time in Ft. Scott away from his family. He was greatly in- 
terested in the success of the anti-slavery propagandists and used great in- 
fluence in determining the ultimate destiny in Kansas becoming a free State. 
When the war broke out he decided to move north. In the spring of 1861 he 
arrived in the city of Atchison, which at tiiat time was a small village, and was 
induced b}- Capt. Asa Barnes to locate in Atchison county, where he remained 
about a year. He afterwards purchased and settled on a tract of land adjoin- 
ing the town of Winchester, Jefferson county. Kansas. Here he located his 
permanent Kansas home, and developed a fine farm. Here he raised a large 
family, and gave his children the best education the school facilities at that 
time afforded. Harvey Walker was married December 24, 1848, to Anna 
Mariah Nelson, who bore him the following children, namely: Crandall C, 
an importer of thoroughbred horses, Sioux City, Iowa; Claudius D., with 
whose career this review is directly concerned; Marion D., a farmer and fruit 
grower, living near Midland College, Atchison county; Marvin L., a banker 
of Oklahoma City, Okla. ; Ellis Lytle, living in Washington State : Schuyler 
R.. a farmer of Stillwater Okla. ; Harvey Mitchell, an importer of thoroughbred 
horses of Oklahoma City ; William Nelson, a farmer of Stillwater, Okla. ; Ro- 
land Ferris, who. died in infancy; Orlina L., widow of ^^'illiam McKenney, de- 
ceased, a hardware merchant of W^inchester. Kan., and Anna M., wife of 
William B. Stevenson, a Methodist minister. The mother of tlie foregoing 


children was bom in north Ireland, September 24, 1824, a daughter of James 
and Elizabeth ( Farris) Nelson. James Nelson was agent for an English 
estate in Ireland, and was the son of William Nelson and Catherine (Stewart) 
Nelson. His wife, Elizabeth Farris, was the daughter of Robert and Jane 
Farris, all of English descent. Anna Mariah Nelson came to America when 
eight years old with a brother, and went to live with an aunt in Greenville, Pa., 
while her family settled in Bayfield, Canada. She was educated in the schools 
at Greenville and afterwards became a teacher in the public school where she 
was wooed and married by Harvey Walker. Harvey Walker and his noble 
wife were sturdy God-fearing Christians, and the family prayers were a part 
of the regular regime of the religious creed followed by them through life. 
They were ardent Methodists who believed in living faithfully according to the 
precepts of their religion, and the examples set by their upright and consistent 
conduct throughout their long lives left an indelible imprint upon the lives 
of their children, who have endeavored to follow in the footsteps of their par- 
ents. Claudius DeMont attended the district school at Winchester, and when 
eighteen years of age left home to enter Baker University at Baldwin, Kan. 
After two years of hard' work in Baker University he entered the agricultural 
college at Manhattan, which at that time was a college controlled by the Meth- 
odists and had the best facilities of any college of the State of Kansas. Here 
he spent four years and should have graduated in the class of 1873, but on 
account of ill health was compelled to leave school before the end of the term. 
In the fall of 1876 Mr. Walker matriculated in the law department of the 
University of Michigan at Ann Arbor. During the year previous to this, he 
had studied law in the office of Boyce & Bo_vd in Cincinnati, Ohio, ar.d upon 
his matriculation at Ann Arbor entered the junior class of the university. He 
graduated from the law department at Ann Arbor in the class of 1878, and 
immediately located in Atchison, where he began the practice of his profession. 
From the very beginning his professional career was a success. In February, 
1882, he formed a partnership with Judge Gilbert, which continued until Gil- 
bert's election to the district bench in the fall of 1887. Since that time Mr. 
Walker has practiced his profession alone for thirty-four consecutive years, 
which has been filled with gratifying success. The district records of Atchi- 
son county show that for many years Mr. Walker was interested in virtually 
all of the important cases pending. For many 3'ears he was attorney for the 
First National Bank of Atchison, Kan., together with many other large insti- 
tutions of the city. 

During his long successful legal career, Mr. Walker has not neglected the 
material side of his affairs and early invested his money in loans and real 


estate. His investments were so judiciously made that he has become one of 
the largest land owners of Kansas, and is rated as one of Atchison's wealthiest 
citizens. His total holdings in Atchison county will exceed 1,700 acres of 
farin lands, and he also owns other lands in Texas and western Kansas. 

The political and civic career of Mr. Walker has been a noteworthy one 
and piM'trays the rug'ged honesty and public spirited feeling which have actu- 
ated him during his whole life. He was first appointed to the office of c<junty 
auditor by Judge Gilbert in 1888, and served for two years; and was elected 
to the office of county attorney in 1891, and served in this capacity until 1894. 
His service as county attorney included the most strenuous years of his life, 
inasmuch as the court docket was continually crowded during his entire in- 
cumbency. This was the time that Coxey's army of unemployed was making 
its journey from this part of the country toward Washington and on its way 
committed all kinds of small crimes, and many arrests were made daily. It 
was Mr. Walker's duty to prosecute these numberless cases as they came up 
for trial which ovenvhelmed him. He has served as a member of the city 
council of Atchison several terms, and was mayor for two j-ears, 191 1 to 1913. 
Mr. Walker's administration of tlie city's affairs during his incumhenc\- ns tlie 
chief executive is considered to have been the best that Atchison ever had 
in a constructive and law-abiding sense. Several miles of street paving was 
accomplished and many bad streets were repaved thoroughly and well. The 
first concrete paving in the city was laid on Division street and done in the best 
manner possible. The city purchased the finest fire apparatus ever brought 
to a northeast Kansas cit}'. The ^^'est Atchison fire station was built. Three 
large sewer districts were created and the sewers installed. One of these was 
the intercepting sewer in \A'hite Clay creek. For many years the city of Atchi- 
•^on suffered from the filth and stench of AMiite Clay creek uulil 
the same became intolerable. The remedy had been thought impossible, but 
on Mr. Walker's election he conceived the plan of installing an intercepting 
sewer which has proved a great success, and a benefit to the city. 

The electric light rate was reduced from 15 to 10 cents per kilowatt, thus 
saving to the consumer thousands of dollars annually. The street lighting 
was changed from the half night to the all night moon light schedule, with 
many new lights added and without a dollar's increase in expenses. The city 
was freed from joints and gambling places and houses of ill repute within the 
first few months after Mr. Walker went into office and remained so during 
his entire term. As mayor he first raised the question of requiring the mills 
and other large institutions located along railroads, and the railroads enter- 
ing the city to light their own premises and }-ards. 

Mr. Walker was the promoter and organizer of the first independent 


telephone company in the city, which company succeeded in putting the Bell 
Telephone Company out of business for the time being, and until the Home 
company was sold to the Bell company in 1911, and a consolidation effected. 

Mr. Walker is a Republican and has always taken a more or less active 
part in his party's affairs. He was at one time a candidate for Congress from 
the First Congressional district of the State of Kansas, at the time the three- 
cornered fight for the nomination between Ex-Governor Baile}-, Charles Cur- 
tis and C. D. \\'alker was waged, and a deadlnck ensued which lasted for more 
than one week. 

His family life has been an ideal one, and in keeping with the career of 
the man himself. The marriage of Mr. ^\'alker and Miss Lizzie E. Auld took 
place June 7, 1881, at Atchison, Kan. One daughter has blessed this union, 
Isabelle, wife of Louis D. Brockett, a son of B. L. Brockett, a leading lumber 
merchant of Atchison. Mr. Brockett has charge of the loan business estab- 
lished by Mr. Walker. Mrs. Lizzie Auld Walker was born in Brownsville, 
Pa., a daughter of William \\'. and Isabelle Mullen Auld, natives of Pennsyl- 
vania, of Scotch-Irish ancestry. The Auld family is one of the oldest of 
American families. Its members are related closely with the Carrolls of Car- 
rollton. Va., whose ancestors came from north of Ireland and were originally 
of Scotch ancestrv. William \\\ Auld migrated from Pennsylvania to Atchi- 
son, Kan., in 1872, and was a member of the milling firm of Blair & Auld, 
from that time until his death in 1895. Mr. Walker has been a member of 
the Masonic fraternity for over thirty years, and has taken a regular course of 
Masonry, being a Knight Templar. He is fraternally affihated with the 
Benevolent and Pnjtectne Order uf Elks, the Knights of Pythias, the Modern 
Woodmen, Knights and Ladies of Security, the Ancient Order of L'nited 
Workmen, and the Royal Arcanum. It is only natural that a man reared in 
a religious atmosphere, as he has been, should take an active and influential 
part in church and religious work. Mr. Walker has been a member of the 
official board of the First Methodist Episcopal Church of Atchison, since t88o, 
and has been a liberal and cheerful supporter of this denomination. At pres- 
ent he is chairman of the l^uilding committee which has charge of the erection 
of the new building planned by the church for the ensuing year. Since 1889 
he has served as a member of the board of trustees of Baker University, of 
Baldwin. Kan. In K)o8 he was a delegate ti> the National conference of the 
Methodist denomination at Baltimore. Successful as a lawyer, having 
achieved substantial competence in his behalf, made history as a public official, 
followed the teachings of his Christian parents as regards an up-right life 
and doing his duty in a religious sense, sums up the life career of this useful 
Atchison citizen. 



.\lva Curtis Trueblood, a former Atchison merchant and cit}- official 
and Union \eteran, now deceased, was born in Salem, Washington county, 
Indiana, in 1838, a son of Dr. Joshua and Zelpha (Arnold) Trueblood, natives 
of South Carolina, who emigrated from their native State to Indiana in the 
early pioneer days when the Indians were still camping on the streams and 
roaming the forests of the Hoosier State. The parents of A. C. Trueblood 
settled m Salem and he was there reared to manhood, receiving his educa- 
tion in the district schools and the Seminary at Battle Creek, Mich., where he 
was graduated. After his graduation in the classical course at Battle Creek, 
he returned to his home town of Salem and embarked in the newspaper busi- 
ness, purchasing the Salem Times, whicli he edited until the outbreak of the 
Civil war. He enlisted at the first call for troops issued by President Lin- 
coln and was mustered in as a member of Company H, Thirteen regiment, 
Indiana infantry, under Captain Sales, who was later promoted to the rank 
of colonel, private Trueblood being successively promoted to a second lieuten- 
ancy and then to first lieutenant of his company. Later, he was commis- 
sioned a captain and remained Captain Trueblood until the close of the war. 
He saw much active service during- the great rebellion and was under fire 
with his regiment at the \ery first battle in which it was engaged, at Green 
Brier ^Mountain, \\'. Va. Captain Trueblood fought in thirty-six terrific 
battles during his term of service, and was engaged in the nine days' battle 
at Cold Harbor under General Grant. Captain Trueblood often gave a vivid 
and heart-rending description of the terrific slaughter of human lives which 
took place at this great battle, and told of how a person could walk for miles 
on the dead bodies with which the field was strewn. His time of enlistment 
expired while the battle of Cold Harbor was in progress, and he then re- 
turned to his home, where he was married December 29, 1864, to Hattie 

]\Ir. and Mrs. Truelilood resided in Salem, Ind., until after the close of 
the war when he entered the mercantile business in Salem and was very suc- 
cessful. His health failing him it was deemed advisable that they seek a 
new home in the West. During his business career he had invested in Atch- 
ison county land, and they came to this county in 1880, settling on their farm 
in the spring of that year. They remained on the fann but a short time, 
however, until Mr. Trueblood regained his health, in a measure, and then 
removed to Atchison, where he embarked in the queensware business, which 
he conducted for about three vears. He was then elected citv clerk and held 


this office for about ten years. Captain Trueblood died April i6. 1904. 
Mr. and Mrs. Trueblood have reared the following children: Albert, now en- 
gaged in the newspaper business at Sacramento, Cal. ; Victor T., manager of 
the Van Noys News Company, of Kansas City, Mo. ; Paul T., a traveling 
salesman, residing in Grand Island, Neb.; Owen T., of Kansas City, an ex- 
press messenger of the Missouri Pacific railroad; Nellie, a graduate of Mid- 
land College, and a teacher in the Ingalls school; Non/el died in 1867, at the 
age of four years. The mother of these children was born in March, 1840, 
a daughter of Thomas and Annis (Brinkley) Allen, both natives of West 
Virginia, and pioneer settlers of Washington county, Indiana. She was 
educated in the common schools of her native county and attended the Salem 
Female College. Thomas Allen, father of Mrs. Trueblood, was proprietor 
of a cotton and woolen manufactory at Salem, and was forced to pay Gen. 
John Morgan and his raiders the sum of $1,000 to prevent the burning of his 
mill, when Morgan and his troops made their memorable raid and burned the 
depot at Salem and raided the stores. Thomas Allen and wife were the par- 
ents of eight children, six sons and two daughters. Three of the sons were 
Union soldiers, William Allen, the twin brother of Mrs. Trueblood, serving 
in the same regiment with Captain Trueblood. 

]\Ir. Truel^lood was an efficient and capable city official during his 
many years of service in the city clerk's office and had many warm friends 
in .\tchison. He was allied with the Republican party and was prominent 
in the affairs of his party. He was well known in Masonic circles and was 
high in the councils of the Masonic lodge, being master of Washington Lodge, 
No. 3, of Atchison, Kan., for several years, and was a leading member of 
the Grand Army of the Republic, both of which bodies officiated at the cere- 
monies held when his body was laid away for the long rest. 


William J. Clem, deceased farmer and hnrticulturist, of Shannon town- 
ship, was liorn June 9, 185 1, in Randolph cnnnt}-, X'irginia, a son of Aaron 
Clem, who immigrated to Kansas in 1863 and settled on Independence creek, 
near the Doniphan-Atchison county line. On the farm, which his father 
owned in this pioneer settlement of Kansas. William was reared to young 
manhood, and married, after wliich he lived on a farm in the southern part 
of Doniphan countv for four years, then mo\'ed to the Myers farm, which 


he and his wife purchased some years later and cuUivated until March of 
1898. In this year he purchased the fine farm which is now owned hy his 
widow and immediately hegan improving it. This farm consists of sixty 
acres and lays within a few miles of Atchison in a northwesterly direction. 
Its acreage is divided as follows : Twenty acres of apples and small fruits, 
and forty acres of farm land and pasture. Realizing that it was necessary 
to follow intensive farming on a sixty-acre farm, Mr. Clem set out an 
orchard of 350 trees, which have been bearing prolifically for several 
years. An attractive farm residence, set in a fine lawn in which shrub- 
bery and flower beds please the eye, together with a good barn and silo, 
greets the eye as the}- stand out on a rise of land. Mr. Clem was a verv in- 
dustrious farmer, a good citizen, and a kind father and husband, and will 
long be remembered by those who knew him best and were aware of his many 
excellent qualities. He departed this life on May 26, 1906. He was a mem- 
ber of the Baptist church and a Democrat in politics. 

^^^ J. Clem, and Laura E. Myers, his widow, were married June 16, 
1879, and to this union were born children, as follows : Mrs. Effie Randolph, 
of Atchison, who is the mother of two children, Elizabeth and Bernice; Mrs. 
Clara Waltz, of Shannon township, and mother of one child, Virginia 
Frances ; Mrs. Addie Underwood, residing on a farm in Shannon township, 
who has one child, Spencer Eugene; Mrs. Laura Demmel, living near Rush- 
ville. Mo., and mother of one son, Raymond; Albert, married Ella Turner, 
and Edgar,-at home; Mrs. Lissa Marie Altauf, of south Tenth street, Atch- 
ison; Frances and Jessie, at home. Mrs. Laura E. (Myers) Clem was born 
June 9, 1859, in Buchanan county, Missouri, a daughter of Augustus and 
Hulda (Snyder) Myers, natives of Germany and Indiana, respectively. 
Augustus Myers was born in 1825 and died October 6. 1909. His parents 
with their family immigrated to this country froin Germany in 183 1. 
Augustus was reared on a farm, south of St. Joseph, and was there mar- 
ried. His wife, Hulda, was born in 183 1 and died October 8, 1907. She 
came with her parents to Buchanan county, Missouri, in 1841. There were 
nine children in the Myers family, namely: Hiram K., deceased; Edward 
S., deceased; William H., living in Doniphan county: Mrs. Laura E. Clem, 
with whom this review is directly concerned; Winslow', of Gower, Mo.; 
Charles W., of Lancaster township, this county; Mrs. Dora Augusta Saeger, 
of Ouincy, 111.; Mrs. Malinda Frances Underwood, of Shannon township; 
and Ray Evans, of Seattle, Wash. The Myers family came to Atchison 
county in August of 1875, living in Atchison until February, 1876. and set- 
tled on a farm in Shannon township, which he purchased from Andrew 


Evans, living on their place near Good Intent, until March of iSgi, when 
the old couple sold their farm to Mr. and Mrs. Clem, and retired to a home 
in Atchison, where they died. Augustus Myers was a soldier in the Union 
army and served for a few months under Captain Snyder, an uncle of 
Mrs. Clem. 

Mrs. Clem and her children are all members of the Cliristian church and 
take an active part in the social and religious affairs carried on by the large 
membership of this flourishing denomination. Slie and her sturdv sons 
carry on the farming operations in a creditable and profitable manner and 
are happy and contented. The boys are greatly interested in athletics and 
were an important part of the winning church baseball team during the 
season of 1915. A happier nor more contented family can not be found in 
Atchison county. Mrs. Clem is a capable and intelligent woman who did 
not hesitate to take over the management of the farm upon her husband's 
demise and has made a success of the undertaking. 


The late Jared Copeland Fox was one of Atchison's ablest citizens, pub- 
lic spirited, a successful financier and a familiar figure in the leading circles 
of the city for many years. Merchant, banker, scholar, a kind husband and 
father, his demise left a void which can never be filled. Coming of a dis- 
tinguished family, born October 30, 1841, in Chili, N. Y.. his life bears out 
the oft repeated assertion that lineage and birth have something to dii with 
shaping a man's destiny, and influencing his career. His parents were Jared 
Ware and Mercy Chapman (Copeland) Fo.x. Jared \\'are Fox was a son 
of Alanson and Elizabeth (Ware) Fox. His maternal grandfather was Jona- 
than Copeland, who married a Miss Wells at Charlton, Mass., who was a di- 
rect descendant of Ruth, a daughter of John and Priscilla Alden. On April 
2, 1816, Jonathan Copeland was commissioned a captain in the militia and 
adjutant on the governor's staff of Massachusetts in 1816. In 1819 he was 
appointed a brigadier commander of the State militia. After his marriage he 
removed to New York and was there a colonel in the State militia of Xew 
York. He held five different commissions in "Massachusetts and Xew York. 
The Fox family is of English descent and originally settled in Connecticut. 
The maiden name of the wife of Col. Jonathan Copeland was Rebecca Ed- 
wards and she was a connection of the familv of which Rev. Jonathan Ed- 


wards was a member. Colonel Copeland had three children ; Mercy, Eliza- 
beth and the Rev. Jonathan Copeland, a Congregational minister of New 
York, who condncted an academy in that city and one of whose pupils was 
Philip Armour of beef packing fame. Jonathan was born October i6, 1786, 
died in 1858 in Xew York: Rebecca was born m 1790, died February 6. 1863. 
in Kansas. 

Alanson Fox, grandfather of Jared C, removed from Connecticut to a 
farm near Sherburne, X. Y., and here Jared \^'are was born December 5. 1810. 
Rev. Jared 'V\'are Fox was educated for the ministry, stud^'ing four years in 
Oneida Institute and one year in a seminary in New York City, and for 
fifty years preached the Gospel according to the Congregational faith. In 
the early days he was sent to Kansas by his church to estalilisb and organize 
churches in the new towns and cities building up on the Isroad prairies. He 
formed a church at Burlingame and Ridgeway, Kan., making his home at 
the latter place and preaching throughout the country serving churches at 
Kunwaka, Waveland, Valley Brook and one year at Lawrence. He spent 
one year in Topeka in charge of a church in the capital city. He was a strong 
abolitionist and was in his natural element when he first came to Kansas in 
i860, the year of the "great drought." He took an active part in tlie relief 
work in Kansas at that time and sent his son, Jared C, then but eighteen 
years of age, back to Galesburg, III, where an old friend of the family re- 
sided, to gather potatoes and produce for the sustenance of the drought suf- 
fers. He died March 2, 1898, leaving the following children: Charles G., on 
the old homestead at Ridgeway, Kan.; Jared C. : Irving Dwight, deceased; 
Herbert Everett, of California : Herman Elliot, Davenport, Iowa. The mother 
of these children. Mercy C. (Copeland) Fox, was born February 16, 1S16. and 
died April 11, 1893. 

Jared C. Fox received an academic education in Xew Yiirk and accom- 
panied his parents to Kansas. At the age of nineteen years he was first 
employed in a general store conducted by Crosby Brothers at Valley Falls. 
Kan., at a salary of J 150 per year and his board. He yeamed for a larger field 
and came to Atchison in 1862, entering the employ of William Smith, who 
owned a dry goods store. During a part of the Civil war he served as clerk 
in the commissary department at Rolla. Mo., under Major Grimes for two 
years. After the close of the war he was deputy county treasurer under Sam 
C. King, and upon Mr. King's resignation from the county treasurership. he 
was appointed to sen'e for six months finishing out Mr. King's unexpired 
term. He then served as deputy United States marshal under Charles Whit- 
ing. For some }ears previous to embarking in the drug business he was 


associated in tlie real estate business with H. Clay Park, former postmaster 
of Atchison and editor of Tlic Patriot, and now one of the editors of the St. 
Joseph Neivs. In 1869 Mr. Fox made the business venture which was the 
turning point of his fortunes and launched him on the high road to financial 
success. He entered into partnership with W. C. McPike, S. C. King and 
Frank Allen in the wholesale drug business. Later Mr. Fox and Mr. McPike 
became the sole owners of the business, Mr. Fox disposing of his interest to 
T. M. Walker and the firm removed to Kansas City, where it is still doing 
business under the name of the McPike Drug Co. Mr. Fox became interested 
in banking and at the time of his death was vice-president of the Atchison 
Savings Bank, the oldest State bank in Kansas. He conducted a loan busi- 
ness as his financial resources increased in strength and he became one of 
Atchison's wealthy citizens. 

On December 22, 1868, Mr. Fox was married to a charming .southern 
lady. Miss Virginia Alexina Tortat. This union was blessed by the birth 
of five children as follows: Jared Copeland, Jr., manager of the Howard 
Manufacturing Co., of Atchison, and father of eight children, Virginia Par- 
ker, Marjorie Parker, Jared Copeland, Jr., Parker, Amelia Joanna, Lawton, 
Edith and William Horan; Edith Fox Jackson, wife of Judge W. A.' Jackson, 
and mother of two children, Jared Fox and Edmund Valentine ; Henry Irving, 
wholesale druggist at Wichita, Kan., and father of Everett Cranson, Florence, 
Mary Anne and Sarah Virginia Fox ; William Tortat, assistant cashier in the 
Atchison Savings Bank, and father of one daughter, Mary ; Florence, at home 
with her mother. The mother of these children, Mrs. Virginia Fox, was born 
at Eufaula, Ala., December 20, 1847, a daughter of Henri Sylvest and Nancy 
(Decker) Tortat. Henri S. Tortat was born in October, 181 1, in France. 
He was destined to be a clergyman by his parents, but, having no intention to 
enter the priesthood, took part in the three days' revolution against Charles 
X. He left home and joined an uncle who was an officer in the French army 
of occupation in Algiers in 1833. He came to America in 1836 when_ a 
young man and was married at Wiscassett, Me., to Nancy Decker, whom he 
met at Boston, Mass. After his marriage he took his bride to Charleston, 
S. C, and thence to Eufaula, Ala., and conducted a merchandise store there 
until he was induced to join a colony of southern people who were going to 
Kansas in May, 1857. When he came to Kansas he first took up a home- 
stead claim and then purchased a bakery at Tecumseh, Shawnee county, but 
died July 6, 1858, before he could get fairly settled in the new country. Seven 
children were born to and reared by Henri and Nancy Tortat: Henri Alexis, 
deceased ; Mrs. Amelia Caroline Barry, deceased ; Mrs. J. C. Fox ; Jean Paul, 


deceased: Aug-iista makes her home with Mrs. F'ox; Wihiam ^larshall. Pea- 
body, Mass. ; Mary died at the home of Mrs. Fox. Six years after Mr. 
Tortat's demise, the mother and children removed to Atchison, where she 
died December 20, 1864. 

In his younger days Mr. Fox was a Repubhcan, but later became a Demo- 
crat and was a strong Cleveland adherent. He was a supporter of President 
Theodore Roosevelt during his first administration. He was a stanch sup- 
porter of Woodrow Wilson when Wilson was a candidate for the Presidency, 
but was generally broad minded in his political views. He was a member of 
Washington lodge. Ancient Free and Accepted Masons, Knights Templar, 
a Mystic Shriner and an Odd Fellow; he was reared in the Congregational 
church atmosphere but after marriage chose to attend the Episcopalian church 
with his wife. His death occurred August 23, 1914, when a strong and noble 
character passed to the great beyond. Mr. Fox was blessed with a singularly 
happy temperament which manifested itself even on his bed of illness ; he was 
always good humored and had a strong sense of humor which, combined 
with a kindly disposition, made him a prime favorite with his friends and 
acquaintances. He was a great reader, an expert accountant, possessed a 
strong memory and was a S Shakespearean scholar, quoting from Shakespeare 
while lying on his couch awaiting the last summons, and also quoting the 
Twenty-first Psalm on his last day on earth. He served the city as a mem- 
ber of the city council and was president of the school board for a term, being 
of material assistance in handling their financial affairs, because of his genius 
in this direction. 


The Western Advocate, Mankato, Kan., in an issue of July, 1899, has 
this to say in part regarding one of the most remarkable family reunions ever 
held in Kansas or anywhere in the country: "Without doubt the most re- 
markable family reunion ever held in Jewell county has been for the past week 
at Burr Oak and among the various members of the family in that vicinity. 
It is the reunion of the eleven children, together with many of the sixty-four 
grand children of the late James Pennington and Susan Wisdom Pennington. 
The Pennington family is a Southern family, the elder Pennington being a 
native of Tennessee, and his wife of North Carolina. All of the_eleven chil- 
dren, however, with the exception of the oldest son, were born and raised in 
Missouri. The Pennington family is remarkable in that there were just 


eleven children and they are all living and enjoying good health, although the 
youngest is now fifty years of age, the eldest being a little past seventy. These 
family reunions, which are an annual event, prove that the family tree, nour- 
ished by the good old warm Southern blood, is still bearing the fruits of hos- 
pitality and good cheer. Once a year they get together, parents, children and 
grand children, and the ties of family, of kinship, and affection are drawn a 
little closer. Hearts are cheered, lives are brightened and days are length- 
ened." Speaking of the gathering on Saturday of the reunion week, the 
Western Advocate goes on to say : "On this day a company of one hundred 
gathered around the banquet board, and the eleven brothers and sisters were 
weighed and their combined weight found to be 1,832 pounds, an average of 
166 pounds each." 

The father of this remarkable family was James Pennington, a native of 
Tennessee, born in that State in 1822, and was there married to Susan Wi.s- 
dom. They migrated to Missouri in the early thirties and settled in Nodaway 
county, developing a fine farm until the discovery of gold in California. James 
then set out across the plains and mountains to the gold fields of the New El- 
dorado in quest of fortune. \Miile in California he became a freighter and 
transported flour and provisions to tlie mining camps afoot. He would carry 
a fift}' pound sack of flour a distance of sixteen miles and was paid at the rate 
of $50 per sack for transportation, the flour costing $50 per sack at the point 
of purchase and being valued at $100 when it was taken to its destination by 
the carrier. James, Sr., remained in California until 1851 and then returned 
to his home and family in Missouri, where he lived the remainder of his days, 
dying in 1878, in Platte county. James and Susan Pennington were the 
parents of eleven children as follows: William W., born in 1837, died Feb- 
ruary, 191 3, at Lebanon, Kan.; John Thomas, California, born in 1839; Mrs. 
Telitlia Thorp, Marysvihe, Mo., born in 1841 : Mrs. Julia Denney, Benedict, 
Kan., born in 1842; Mrs. Clementine Conner, Santa Ana, Cal., born in 
1844, a widow; Mrs. Nancy Miller, California, born in 1845, a widow; James 
Emer}-, with whom this review is dii^ectly concerned: iNIrs. Sarah Robertson, 
Elk City, Okla., born in 1849; Mrs. Mary Robertson, Burr Oak. Kan., born 
in 1853; Mrs. Cynthia Jane Judy, Burr Oak, born in 1855; Airs. Rocksinah 
Graves, Burr Oak, Kan., born in 1857. 

James Emery Pennington, retired farmer of Potter, Kan., was born on a 
farm in Nodaway county, Missouri, October 30, 1847. He was reared on 
the farm in Missouri until seventeen years of age, and he then left home and 
crossed the plains. The occasion of his going was because of the fact that 
two brothers and three brothers-in-law had alreadv enlisted in the Union armv 


for service in the Civil war, and the father felt that he could not spare his 
son, James E., so it was agreed between father and son that the boy should go 
west for a time. He made his way across the Missouri to Ft. Leavenworth 
and there joined an overland freight train which was bound for Salt Lake 
City, Utah. At that time all the freight and merchandise west of the Mis- 
souri river was transported in wagons, drawn Ijy horses, mules or oxen. 
These wagons were loaded with from six to twelve thousand pounds of mer- 
chandise and were drawn ijy teams ranging in numbers from twelve to twenty- 
four animals. From twenty to forty men, wagons and teams constituted 
what was then known as a "freight train." The train to which young Pen- 
nington attached himself consisted of forty wagons, forty teamsters, two 
wagon masters, four assistants, two night herders, and two extras, in all, fifty 
men, four hundred and ninety oxen and a few horses for herding purposes. 
Being a farmer boy and having a working- knowledge of animals, young 
Pennington soon made himself indispensable to the outfit and received the 
name of "Our Boy" from the other men in charge of the train. The train 
proceeded its long way over the plains of Kansas and followed the valle}- of 
the South Platte to the Rockies without mishap, other than a few Indian skirm- 
ishes. Li October of 1864, "Our Boy" stood on the crest of the Rockies with 
one foot on the Atlantic and one foot on the Pacific slope. Winter soon came 
on and stock perished and they arrived at their destination in the dead of 
severe winter. Young Pennington spent the winter in the home of a Mor- 
mon family, consisting of a Mormcin and his seven wives. From Utah he 
went north into Idaho and ^Montana, and in that region took up his favorite 
pursuit of freighting, which he follnwed for four years. His operations were 
mainly from Ft. Benton, the head of navigation on the Missouri river, to 
which point the river steamers carried the freight destined for the mining 
camps of the mountain regions. He, with others, transported the fii'St quartz 
mill to the mining camp, later widely known as Butte City, Mont. He re- 
turned home in 1869 and lived there for three years, coming to Kansas in 
1872. He had saved some capital which he brought witli him to Atchison 
county, and invested this money in a herd of cattle which he grazed upon the 
free ranges, in this manner getting his first real start in life, and which was 
the beginning of his later prosperity. After his marriage in 1872 to Elizabeth 
Snoddy, he and his wife settled on the home farm of the Snoddy's, and at the 
end of one year the father of Mrs. Pennington deeded the joung couple eighty 
acres of land which became the nucleus of their present acreage. This land 
is four miles east and one-half mile south of Potter. Leavenworth county, 
and the farm has been increased to 320 acres of well- improved land. Mr. 


Pennington removed to Potter in the spring of 1916. from the farm in Leav- 
enworth county, and has recently completed a fine, modern, ten-room residence 
which will serve as his future domicile during the remainder of his days. 

James E. Pennington was married February i, 1872, to Elizabeth, daugh- 
ter of Thomas and Margaret (Brown) Snoddy, the former a native of Tennes- 
see, and the latter a native of Missouri. Thomas Snoddy first came to Kan- 
sas in 1854, and preempted the farm which he improved and where his children 
were reared. He was a Mexican war veteran and the Government gave him 
for his services a grant of land in northwestern Missouri, which he sold for 
$1,600, and with the proceeds of the sale built his home on his preemption in 
Kansas. The upper part of the house was used as headquarters for the 
Kickapoo Masonic lodge for many years. Thomas Shoddy was born August 
27, 1825, and died October 8, 1909. His remains were interred in the 
Round Prairie cemetery. A remarkable fact about the Snoddy house is, that 
the roof existed without repairs for over fifty-five years and at the time of its 
repair by Mr. Pennington, the excellence of the material which went into the 
building of the house excited newspaper comment. Mrs. Pennington was 
born on September 25, 1856, and lived iier \vhtile life on the farm which her 
father preempted. 

The following children were born to Mr. and Mrs. James Emery Penning- 
ton : Rebecca, wife of William Ehart, of Atchison county, Kansas ; Bessena, 
wife of Joseph James, of Atchison county, a farmer and horse and mule 
dealer; Roxie, wife of John Goff, of Potter, Kan., a thresher and farmer; 
Thomas W., living on the home farm; Frank P., a lumber merchant, of Burr 
Oak, Kan., who was associated with his father in the grain bushiess in Potter, 
in 1906; George, a farmer living in Leavenworth county; Mamie, a student 
in the Potter High School. 

Mr. Pennington, with others in his neighborhood, organized and placed 
in operation the Farmers' Elevator Company, of which he was president. 
This concern built the Potter grain elevator and later sold it to H. A. Ode. 
He has long been identified with the Democratic part}', but has never sought 
political preferment of any kind. At the time of the organization of the Pot- 
ter High School district, Mr. Pennington was one of the prime movers in the 
building of the new high school building. Perhaps the best known trait of 
this grand old pioneer is his inherent hospitality, which has made him famous 
and one of the best loved men in his section of the State. Concerning a great 
Christmas celebration held at the Pennington home in 191 1, the Atchison 
Globe, of December 27, 191 1, says: 

"J. E. Pennington, a well known farmer of the Round Prairie neighbor- 


hood, south of town, always provides a big entertainment for his immediate 
friends and relatives ever}- Christmas, and spares no pains or expense to make 
these annual affairs highly enjoyable. The late holiday was no exception to 
the rule. On Monday quite a crowd gathered at Mr. Pennington's home, as 
usual, and spent a day of merriment. A big Christmas tree loaded with al- 
most everything conceivable in the way of holiday gifts, was provided b\- Mr. 
Pennington; a big dinner was also served, and in the afternoon the men in- 
dulged in a hunt. A long wire was stretched across a field, with a horse 
hitched to each end of it. Tiie wire was thus dragged across the field and in 
this manner all of the rabbits were scared up. The men followed behind the 
wire and shot the rabbits as they jumped out. Four jack rabbits were scared 
up and one of them killed ; also many cottontails. It is said that Mr. Penning- 
ton expended nearly $200 on this affair. He is a very prosperous farmer and 
is noted for his hospitality." 


Dr. Earl A. Gilmore, veterinary surgeon, of Effmgham, Kan., was born 
September 27, 1887, at Ames, Iowa, a son of William J. and Jerusha (Nor- 
ton) Gilmore. His father was born in 1850, in New York State, and when 
an infant accompanied his father, George Gilmore. to Iowa. His mother 
was born at Zearing, Iowa, November 10, 1855, and died March 7, 1898. 
William J. was reared on the pioneer fann in Iowa, and was able when a 
young man to take advantage of the opportunity to amass wealth in the new 
and rich State, which was being developed during his day and lifetime. He 
was married September 5, 1869. He became one of Iowa's most prosperous 
farmers, and in his later days, when he retired from active farm work, he 
traveled extensively throughout the country, visiting many points in the West, 
and the Philippine Islands. On February i, 1915, while aboard a Missouri 
Pacific train en route to Kansas City, the train was wrecked, and he was 
injured to such an extent that he was laid up in the hospital at Kansas City 
for several weeks, and then returned to his home at Ames, Iowa. There 
were ten children in the Gilmore family: Mrs. Uretta Stevens, of Star City, 
Mich. ; Mrs. Maria Pellersells, of Grand Rapids, Wis. ; Maines Gilmore, now 
in Alaska; Charles, of Greeley, Colo.; George, living in Iowa; William, a 
college professor at Winnipeg, Canada; Earl A., the subject of this review; 
Mrs. Eva Burton, of Ames, Iowa; Ella, deceased; one child died in infancy. 
The mother of these children was a daughter of Isaac Gilmore, a native of 


Ireland. The Gilmore family is also of Irish descent, all four of Dr. Gil- 
more's grandparents having emigrated from the Emerald isle. 

Eai-1 A. Gilmore was educated in the Nevada (Iowa) High School, and 
studied at Drake University for one year; the Iowa State College at Ames 
for two and one-half years ; then studied for two years in the Kansas Git}' 
Veterinary College, graduating April i6, 1912. His funds being exhausted, 
when he decided to become a veterinary surgeon, he found it necessary to 
work his way through his final college course, by doing reportorial work 
on the staff of the Kansas City Star. Upon his graduation he immediately 
located in Effingham and lias built up an extensive practice in his profession, 
covering a territory nf tweh'e miles, north and south, and nme miles, east 
and west. 

Dr. Gilmore is a member of the Missouri Valley A^cterinary Association, 
and the National veterinary fraternit}', the Kansas City chapter of the Delta 
Alpha Psi. He is a Republican in politics and is fraternally affiliated with 
the Independent Order of Odd Fellows lodge and the Knights and Ladies of 
Security. Dr. Gilmore takes a keen and active interest in the civic welfare of 
Effingham and is usually found m the forefront of undertakuigs which are 
intended to promote the best interests of the city. 


In writing the history of a city and county such as .\tchis(in, the reviewer 
verj^ naturally finds that among the large number of men who have had much 
to do with the up-building of the community, and who can be counted among 
the really successful men of the period covered, there are few who stand out 
preeminently among their fellows, and whose individuality looms far above 
the average, and who are noted not only for their individual accomplishments 
on their own behalf, but who have performed deeds which have endeared 
their memory to posterity for generations to come. In this respect we must 
consider the late Alfred Jonathan Harwi, founder of the great A. J. Harwi 
Hardware Company, millionaire, statesman, and philanthropist, of Atchison. 
Mr. Harwi will long be remembered as one of the leading figures in the busi- 
ness world of Atchison. He was a pioneer in the establishment of the great 
wholesale houses which have made Atchison famous over the western country. 
Beginning his career a poor man, endowed with financial and business ability 
of a high order, blessed with a keen foresight into the future, having con- 


fidence in the ultimate development of the country, tireless and industrious in 
all his undertakings, he achieved a truly remarkable success, and through it 
all he was a man among men, who never lost the respect and regard of his 
fellow men because of his great success in the realms of business and finance. 

Alfred Jonathan Harwi was born at Ritterville, Lehigh county, Pennsyl- 
vania, January 21, 1847, the eldest of four sons, born to ^Michael and Lucretia 
Harwi. One of the children died in infancy, and the others, Edwin C. and 
W. H., followed Alfred J. to Atchison and became associated with him in the 
hardware business which he had established. Edwin C. died September 4, 
1903, and Wilson H. Harwi died May 30, 191 1. A sister died in Pennsyl- 
vania when ])ut a child. Michael Harwi followed the trade of carpenter in 
heavy constnKimn work during his life, and was engaged in the building of 
canal locks in the days when the constraction of internal waterways was in 
vooaie. He was also a farmer, and at the time of his death was engaged in 
quarying and contracting for slate. His sons having all come to the West, he 
made preparations to join them here in Atchison, but on the point of his de- 
parture on October 8, 1882, he was taken ill and died. His widow, Lucretia 
Harwi. then came to Atchison and resided here with her children until her 
demise, in November, 1904. 

A. J. Harwi received his education in the schools of his native State, 
attending the district school of his neighborhood until ten years of age, then 
becoming a student at a Moravian school in Bethlehem, which was located 
four miles from his home and required him to walk the distance across a 
mountain both morning and evening. After spending two years in diligent 
study in this institution he entered a general store at Bethlehem for the pur- 
pose of acquiring business experience. However, while learning the art of 
barter and trade over the counters of the general store he did not neglect the 
cultivation of his mind. He read, listened and learned, and in his spare time 
continued his studies until his mind was broadened and he became a man of 
advanced thought, learned to read and judge his fellow men, and acquire 
a refinement and polish which in later years assisted him in his undertakings 
and enabled him to command the respect of his fellows. His ambition was to 
eventually engage in business for himself, and he saved his money to this end, 
and in 1868, when he was twenty-one years of age, he became a partner in the 
furniture business with J. B. Zimmele, but sold out two years later and heark- 
ened to the advice of Horace Greeley, who said : "Go west, young man, go 
west, and grow up with the country." While at Bethlehem Mr. Harwi mar- 
ried Cora Wheeler, with whose father he became associated in the hardware 
and implement business at Butler, Mo. When this partnership was dissolved 



a few years later, Mr. Harwi went to Cedar Rapids, Iowa, and for a few 
months was a clerk in a hardware store. In the year 1875 he came to Atchi- 
son equipped with considerable commercial experience, but having little cap- 
ital. He and C. H. Dearborn began a retail hardware business in a <mall 
way in the building at 408 Commercial street. The concern prospered 
from the start and its success was undoubtedly due to Mr. Harwi's intelligence 
and common-sense Ijusiness methods and his wonderful capacity for hard and 
unremitting work. This hardware business soon became one of the leading 
local business enterprises of the rapidly growing city of Atchison. Like 
other men who have been successful in Hfe, Mr. Harwi was visionary, but his 
vision did not take on the dream-like character. It was practical and foresaw 
the inevitable development of the western country and an increased demand 
for all kinds of products as the countiy became more and more settled. He 
believed in common with others of the period that Atchison was destined to 
become the gateway and the distributing point for a large-section of territory. 
Acting upon this sound, practical belief in the early eighties when the retail 
luisiness had assumed large proportions and necessitated expansion in other 
ways, he conceived the idea of engaging in the jobbing business. He did so, 
and again his wonderful business acumen and ability came into play, with the 
result that the A. J. Harwi Hardware Company is known throughout the 
West and middle West, and has done a noteworthy part in making Atchison 
famous as a wholesale center. The result of its founder's vision and industn- 
is one of the great wholesale houses of the West, represented by about twenty 
traveling salesmen covering four States, while over fifty local employes are 
engaged to handle the vast amount of office work and the great warehouse 
and shipping details incident to such an important commercial institution as 
the A. J. Hanvi Hardware Company has developed into within thirty-five 
years. Their commodious four-story office and warehouse building, located 
on the corner of Commercial and Ninth streets, is one of the handsome modern 
business houses of Atchison. One can begin to realize the scope and extent 
of this business when he stops to think that it requires 75,000 feet of floor 
space to afford ample warehouse facilities. In 1889 the A. J. Harwi Hard- 
ware Company was incorporated with a capital stock of $100,000. 

Mr. Harwi was three times married. His first wife, Cora Wheeler, 
whom he married in Bethlehem, left one daughter, Mrs. E. P. Ripley, of 
Boston. His second marriage was with Elizabeth Whitehead, of Atchison, 
in 1873, to which union two children were born : Mrs. H. P. Shedd, of Ben- 
sonhurst, Long Island, and Frank E., president of the A. T. Harwi Hardware 
Company. The mother of these children died October 14, 1907. Mr. Harwi's 


third marriage occurred June 3, 1909, to Mrs. Mary E. Holland, who sur- 
vives him. Mr. Hanvi passed away September 5, 1910. During his later 
years the stress of business and the ceaseless activity which had been his lot 
during life began to tell upon him, and for over twenty-five years prior to his 
demise he was a sufferer from locomotor ataxia. The things which he 
accomplished necessarily demanded that he be a hard and tireless worker, 
but he never spared himself, and at a time when he should have begun to con- 
serve his bodily strength he worked the hardest, with the result that his span 
of life was shortened under what it might have been. 

It is not alone through the magnificent mercantile concern which Mr 
Harwi conceived and built up that he is known, but he was a public spirited 
gentleman who contributed generously to charity and philanthropic work. 
Although he accumulated wealth outside of his business to exceed a half mil- 
lion dollars and loaned out considerable money on mortgages, he was never 
known to have taken advantage of a debtor and to foreclose a mortgage. 
Although he was a member of the Congregational church, he was a trustee of 
Midland College, Atchison, and estab